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Sample records for anatomy ii analysis

  1. Higher-order phylogeny of modern birds (Theropoda, Aves: Neornithes) based on comparative anatomy. II. Analysis and discussion

    Science.gov (United States)

    LIVEZEY, BRADLEY C; ZUSI, RICHARD L

    2007-01-01

    . Bootstrapping (based on 10 000 replicates) percentages and ratchet-minimized support (Bremer) indices indicated most nodes to be robust. Several fossil Neornithes (e.g. Dinornithiformes, Aepyornithiformes) were placed within the ingroup a posteriori either through unconstrained, heursitic searches based on the complete matrix augmented by these taxa separately or using backbone-constraints. Analysis confirmed the topology among outgroup Theropoda and achieved robust resolution at virtually all levels of the Neornithes. Findings included monophyly of the palaeognathous birds, comprising the sister taxa Tinamiformes and ratites, respectively, and the Anseriformes and Galliformes as monophyletic sister-groups, together forming the sister-group to other Neornithes exclusive of the Palaeognathae (Neoaves). Noteworthy inferences include: (i) the sister-group to remaining Neoaves comprises a diversity of marine and wading birds; (ii) Podicipedidae are the sister-group of Gaviidae, and not closely related to the Phoenicopteridae, as recently suggested; (iii) the traditional Pelecaniformes, including the shoebill (Balaeniceps rex) as sister-taxon to other members, are monophyletic; (iv) traditional Ciconiiformes are monophyletic; (v) Strigiformes and Falconiformes are sister-groups; (vi) Cathartidae is the sister-group of the remaining Falconiformes; (vii) Ralliformes (Rallidae and Heliornithidae) are the sister-group to the monophyletic Charadriiformes, with the traditionally composed Gruiformes and Turniciformes (Turnicidae and Mesitornithidae) sequentially paraphyletic to the entire foregoing clade; (viii) Opisthocomus hoazin is the sister-taxon to the Cuculiformes (including the Musophagidae); (ix) traditional Caprimulgiformes are monophyletic and the sister-group of the Apodiformes; (x) Trogoniformes are the sister-group of Coliiformes; (xi) Coraciiformes, Piciformes and Passeriformes are mutually monophyletic and closely related; and (xii) the Galbulae are retained within the

  2. Regularized Statistical Analysis of Anatomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sjöstrand, Karl

    2007-01-01

    This thesis presents the application and development of regularized methods for the statistical analysis of anatomical structures. Focus is on structure-function relationships in the human brain, such as the connection between early onset of Alzheimer’s disease and shape changes of the corpus...... and mind. Statistics represents a quintessential part of such investigations as they are preluded by a clinical hypothesis that must be verified based on observed data. The massive amounts of image data produced in each examination pose an important and interesting statistical challenge...... efficient algorithms which make the analysis of large data sets feasible, and gives examples of applications....

  3. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in obstetrics. II. Fetal anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, M C; Worthington, B S; Buckley, J M; Symonds, E M

    1988-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed in 36 patients at between 10 and 38 weeks gestation to determine the fetal anatomy that could be identified at different gestations. Fetal motion significantly degraded the image quality in the first and second trimesters, but in the final trimester fetal anatomy was clearly demonstrated. T2 weighted sequences showed the fetal brain and lungs to have a high signal intensity. Shorter TR leading to a T1 weighting gave better resolution of the overall anatomy. MRI has revealed the potential for assessment of lung maturity and the growth-retarded fetus.

  4. The Anatomy Lecture Then and Now: A Foucauldian Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friesen, Norm; Roth, Wolff-Michael

    2014-01-01

    Although there are many points of continuity, there are also a number of changes in the pedagogical form of the anatomy lecture over the longue durée, over centuries of epistemic change, rather than over years or decades. The article begins with an analysis of the physical and technical arrangements of the early modern anatomy lecture, showing how…

  5. Analysis II

    CERN Document Server

    Tao, Terence

    2016-01-01

    This is part two of a two-volume book on real analysis and is intended for senior undergraduate students of mathematics who have already been exposed to calculus. The emphasis is on rigour and foundations of analysis. Beginning with the construction of the number systems and set theory, the book discusses the basics of analysis (limits, series, continuity, differentiation, Riemann integration), through to power series, several variable calculus and Fourier analysis, and then finally the Lebesgue integral. These are almost entirely set in the concrete setting of the real line and Euclidean spaces, although there is some material on abstract metric and topological spaces. The book also has appendices on mathematical logic and the decimal system. The entire text (omitting some less central topics) can be taught in two quarters of 25–30 lectures each. The course material is deeply intertwined with the exercises, as it is intended that the student actively learn the material (and practice thinking and writing ri...

  6. Redefining Zone II: Anatomy of the Flexor Digitorum Superficialis Insertion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, Luke T; Hill, Jeffrey R; McKnight, Braden; Heckmann, Nathanael; Stevanovic, Milan; Ghiassi, Alidad

    2017-10-01

    Flexor zone II is defined as the region spanning the proximal aspect of the A1 pulley to the insertion of the flexor digitorum superficialis (FDS) tendon. Descriptions of the FDS insertion are inconsistent in the literature, but zones of injury are frequently determined with reference to superficial landmarks. The purpose of this study was to describe the footprint of the FDS insertion and define its relationship to the proximal interphalangeal (PIP) skin crease. The FDS insertion on the index, middle, ring, and small fingers was dissected in 6 matched pairs of fresh-frozen cadaveric hands. A Kirschner wire was used to mark the level of the PIP skin crease on bone before measurements of the FDS footprint and its position relative to the PIP skin crease were made using digital calipers. The radial and ulnar FDS slips inserted a mean distance of 3.22 mm from the distal aspect of the PIP skin crease and varied by digit. The mean distal extent of the FDS insertion was 8.29 mm. The mean length of the insertion of each FDS slip was 5.15 mm and the mean width was 1.9 mm. The radial and ulnar FDS slips insert on average 3.22 mm distal to the PIP skin crease and vary by digit. Knowledge of the FDS insertion is clinically relevant when differentiating between flexor zone I and zone II injuries, planning surgical approaches to the finger, and in guiding patient expectations for surgery given the variability in outcome based on zone of injury.

  7. A visual analysis of gender bias in contemporary anatomy textbooks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Rhiannon; Larkin, Theresa; Cockburn, Jon

    2017-05-01

    Empirical research has linked gender bias in medical education with negative attitudes and behaviors in healthcare providers. Yet it has been more than 20 years since research has considered the degree to which women and men are equally represented in anatomy textbooks. Furthermore, previous research has not explored beyond quantity of representation to also examine visual gender stereotypes and, in light of theoretical advancements in the area of intersectional research, the relationship between representations of gender and representations of ethnicity, body type, health, and age. This study aimed to determine the existence and representation of gender bias in the major anatomy textbooks used at Australian Medical Schools. A systematic visual content analysis was conducted on 6044 images in which sex/gender could be identified, sourced from 17 major anatomy textbooks published from 2008 to 2013. Further content analysis was performed on the 521 narrative images, which represent an unfolding story, found within the same textbooks. Results indicate that the representation of gender in images from anatomy textbooks remain predominantly male except within sex-specific sections. Further, other forms of bias were found to exist in: the visualization of stereotypical gendered emotions, roles and settings; the lack of ethnic, age, and body type diversity; and in the almost complete adherence to a sex/gender binary. Despite increased attention to gender issues in medicine, the visual representation of gender in medical curricula continues to be biased. The biased construction of gender in anatomy textbooks designed for medical education provides future healthcare providers with inadequate and unrealistic information about patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Numerical analysis II essentials

    CERN Document Server

    REA, The Editors of; Staff of Research Education Association

    1989-01-01

    REA's Essentials provide quick and easy access to critical information in a variety of different fields, ranging from the most basic to the most advanced. As its name implies, these concise, comprehensive study guides summarize the essentials of the field covered. Essentials are helpful when preparing for exams, doing homework and will remain a lasting reference source for students, teachers, and professionals. Numerical Analysis II covers simultaneous linear systems and matrix methods, differential equations, Fourier transformations, partial differential equations, and Monte Carlo methods.

  9. Anatomy and Physiology. Module Set II: Major Body Systems. Teacher Edition [and] Student Edition. Surgical Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilley, Robert

    This document, which is the second part of a two-part set of modules on anatomy and physiology for future surgical technicians, contains the teacher and student editions of an introduction to anatomy and physiology that consists of modules on the following body systems: integumentary system; skeletal system; muscular system; nervous system;…

  10. Integrating anatomy and function for zebrafish circuit analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrenberg, Aristides B; Driever, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    Due to its transparency, virtually every brain structure of the larval zebrafish is accessible to light-based interrogation of circuit function. Advanced stimulation techniques allow the activation of optogenetic actuators at different resolution levels, and genetically encoded calcium indicators report the activity of a large proportion of neurons in the CNS. Large datasets result and need to be analyzed to identify cells that have specific properties-e.g., activity correlation to sensory stimulation or behavior. Advances in three-dimensional (3D) functional mapping in zebrafish are promising; however, the mere coordinates of implicated neurons are not sufficient. To comprehensively understand circuit function, these functional maps need to be placed into the proper context of morphological features and projection patterns, neurotransmitter phenotypes, and key anatomical landmarks. We discuss the prospect of merging functional and anatomical data in an integrated atlas from the perspective of our work on long-range dopaminergic neuromodulation and the oculomotor system. We propose that such a resource would help researchers to surpass current hurdles in circuit analysis to achieve an integrated understanding of anatomy and function.

  11. Concepts in Navel Aesthetic: A Comprehensive Surface Anatomy Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visconti, Giuseppe; Visconti, Emiliano; Bonomo, Lorenzo; Salgarello, Marzia

    2015-02-01

    The navel contributes to abdominal surface identity and beauty. In Western societies, the display of the navel in women's fashion has grown and, nowadays, women are much more concerned about its shape and position. Despite this, few studies are available on navel surface anatomy and there is no standardization regarding its proper placement in cosmetic abdominoplasty. In this observational study, we analyzed navel shape and position on 81 high quality pictures, having been chosen as top 2013 bikini models by editors of mass media. An on-line survey on navel shape and position has been made via facebook.com, involving 1,682 people. The analysis revealed that navel position is quite variable based on the proportions analyzed with an acceptable narrow data spread of the xiphoid-umbilicus:umbilicus-abdominal mean crease ratio of 1.62 ± 0.16. The data dispersion for the other three ratios was wider, making them less reliable as references. The most appreciated navel shape was the vertical oval with superior hooding (82 %), and the less appreciated ones were the horizontal oval (29 %) and the protruding shape (47 %). When comparing navel position on the same body, the majority of participants choose the one with the navel relocated according to the golden ratio (i.e., 1.618) CONCLUSION: The most attractive navel position is located at the xiphoid-umbilicus:umbilicus-abdominal crease golden ratio. Bony landmarks seem to be not reliable as references for proper navel positioning. The use of the Fibonacci (golden mean) caliper intraoperatively might aid in proper positioning of the navel in abdominoplasty.

  12. Brow/Upper lid anatomy, aging and aesthetic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branham, Gregory; Holds, John B

    2015-05-01

    The upper eyelid serves the important anatomic function of protecting the eye and rewetting the cornea to maintain vision. The complex dynamic action of the upper eyelid explains its relatively complex anatomy. The brow has an important supportive role. Studies have revealed facial characteristics perceived as youthful and aged, and the anatomic basis of these changes is defined at many levels. Characteristic aging changes in the upper eyelid and brow create an appearance of aging and opportunities for functional and aesthetic improvement. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Mathematical analysis II

    CERN Document Server

    Canuto, Claudio

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the volume is to provide a support textbook for a second lecture course on Mathematical Analysis. The contents are organised to suit, in particular, students of Engineering, Computer Science and Physics, all areas in which mathematical tools play a crucial role. The basic notions and methods concerning integral and differential calculus for multivariable functions, series of functions and ordinary differential equations are presented in a manner that elicits critical reading and prompts a hands-on approach to concrete applications. The pedagogical layout echoes the one used in the companion text Mathematical Analysis I. The book’s structure has a specifically-designed modular nature, which allows for great flexibility in the preparation of a lecture course on Mathematical Analysis. The style privileges clarity in the exposition and a linear progression through the theory. The material is organised on two levels. The first, reflected in this book, allows students to grasp the essential ideas, ...

  14. Mathematical analysis II

    CERN Document Server

    Zorich, Vladimir A

    2016-01-01

    This second English edition of a very popular two-volume work presents a thorough first course in analysis, leading from real numbers to such advanced topics as differential forms on manifolds; asymptotic methods; Fourier, Laplace, and Legendre transforms; elliptic functions; and distributions. Especially notable in this course are the clearly expressed orientation toward the natural sciences and the informal exploration of the essence and the roots of the basic concepts and theorems of calculus. Clarity of exposition is matched by a wealth of instructive exercises, problems, and fresh applications to areas seldom touched on in textbooks on real analysis. The main difference between the second and first English editions is the addition of a series of appendices to each volume. There are six of them in the first volume and five in the second. The subjects of these appendices are diverse. They are meant to be useful to both students (in mathematics and physics) and teachers, who may be motivated by different go...

  15. Pharynx Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... e.g. -historical Searches are case-insensitive Pharynx Anatomy Add to My Pictures View /Download : Small: 720x576 ... View Download Large: 3000x2400 View Download Title: Pharynx Anatomy Description: Anatomy of the pharynx; drawing shows the ...

  16. Larynx Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... e.g. -historical Searches are case-insensitive Larynx Anatomy Add to My Pictures View /Download : Small: 648x576 ... View Download Large: 2700x2400 View Download Title: Larynx Anatomy Description: Anatomy of the larynx; drawing shows the ...

  17. Vulva Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... e.g. -historical Searches are case-insensitive Vulva Anatomy Add to My Pictures View /Download : Small: 720x634 ... View Download Large: 3000x2640 View Download Title: Vulva Anatomy Description: Anatomy of the vulva; drawing shows the ...

  18. The anatomy of anatomy

    OpenAIRE

    John Paul Judson

    2012-01-01

    The relationship between anatomy and surgeryhas been historic and epic, spanning many centuries,complementing each other in medical education andbeing independent as well as interdependent in manyways. However, curricular changes that have happenedglobally in recent years with the introduction of severalcontemporary styles of medical teaching have subtlydownplayed the importance of anatomy in medicine,allowing young doctors with poor knowledge of anatomyto become surgeons. With a whimsical in...

  19. Using generalizability analysis to estimate parameters for anatomy assessments: A multi-institutional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byram, Jessica N; Seifert, Mark F; Brooks, William S; Fraser-Cotlin, Laura; Thorp, Laura E; Williams, James M; Wilson, Adam B

    2017-03-01

    With integrated curricula and multidisciplinary assessments becoming more prevalent in medical education, there is a continued need for educational research to explore the advantages, consequences, and challenges of integration practices. This retrospective analysis investigated the number of items needed to reliably assess anatomical knowledge in the context of gross anatomy and histology. A generalizability analysis was conducted on gross anatomy and histology written and practical examination items that were administered in a discipline-based format at Indiana University School of Medicine and in an integrated fashion at the University of Alabama School of Medicine and Rush University Medical College. Examination items were analyzed using a partially nested design s×(i:o) in which items were nested within occasions (i:o) and crossed with students (s). A reliability standard of 0.80 was used to determine the minimum number of items needed across examinations (occasions) to make reliable and informed decisions about students' competence in anatomical knowledge. Decision study plots are presented to demonstrate how the number of items per examination influences the reliability of each administered assessment. Using the example of a curriculum that assesses gross anatomy knowledge over five summative written and practical examinations, the results of the decision study estimated that 30 and 25 items would be needed on each written and practical examination to reach a reliability of 0.80, respectively. This study is particularly relevant to educators who may question whether the amount of anatomy content assessed in multidisciplinary evaluations is sufficient for making judgments about the anatomical aptitude of students. Anat Sci Educ 10: 109-119. © 2016 American Association of Anatomists. © 2016 American Association of Anatomists.

  20. Type II successful supernovae, the anatomy of shocks: neutrino emission and the adiabatic index

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kahana, S.; Baron, E.; Cooperstein, J.

    1983-01-01

    Hydrodynamic calculations of stellar collapse in Type II Supernova are described using a variable stiffness and compressibility for the nuclear equation of state at high density. Initial models employing a relatively small mass core with low central entropy are necessary to achieve viable shocks; near success the models are sensitive to both neutrino emission and the high density equation of state. The treatment of neutrino production and transport is sketched and recent results reported

  1. Pertinent anatomy and analysis for midface volumizing procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surek, Christopher C; Beut, Javier; Stephens, Robert; Jelks, Glenn; Lamb, Jerome

    2015-05-01

    The study was conducted to construct an anatomically inspired midfacial analysis facilitating safe, accurate, and dynamic nonsurgical rejuvenation. Emphasis is placed on determining injection target areas and adverse event zones. Twelve hemifacial fresh cadavers were dissected in a layered fashion. Dimensional measurements between the midfacial fat compartments, prezygomatic space, mimetic muscles, and neurovascular bundles were used to develop a topographic analysis for clinical injections. A longitudinal line from the base of the alar crease to the medial edge of the levator anguli oris muscle (1.9 cm), lateral edge of the levator anguli oris muscle (2.6 cm), and zygomaticus major muscle (4.6 cm) partitions the cheek into two aesthetic regions. A six-step facial analysis outlines three target zones and two adverse event zones and triangulates the point of maximum cheek projection. The lower adverse event zone yields an anatomical explanation to inadvertent jowling during anterior cheek injection. The upper adverse event zone localizes the palpebral branch of the infraorbital artery. The medial malar target area isolates quadrants for anterior cheek projection and tear trough effacement. The middle malar target area addresses lid-cheek blending and superficial compartment turgor. The lateral malar target area highlights lateral cheek projection and locates the prezygomatic space. This stepwise analysis illustrates target areas and adverse event zones to achieve midfacial support, contour, and profile in the repose position and simultaneous molding of a natural shape during animation. This reproducible method can be used both procedurally and in record-keeping for midface volumizing procedures.

  2. Spectral analysis, death and coronary anatomy following cardiac catheterisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Roger K G; Newall, Nick; Groves, David G; Barlow, Pauline E; Stables, Rodney H; Jackson, Mark; Ramsdale, David R

    2007-05-16

    To establish the associations and prognostic utility of angiographic, clinical and HRV parameters in a large cohort of patients undergoing diagnostic cardiac catheterisation (CC). Patients undergoing CC as elective day cases were enrolled at a single tertiary center from September 2001 to January 2003. Patient data, serum biochemistry, current drug therapy, catheter reports and five minute high resolution electrocardiograph (ECG) recordings were prospectively recorded and validated in an electronic archive. ECG recordings were used to generate time domain (SDNN (standard deviation of NN intervals)) and spectral HRV parameters (low frequency (LF) and high frequency (HF) power). Significant associations between dichotomized HRV variables and covariates were investigated using binary logistic regression. The independent prognostic ability of clinical markers was evaluated using the Cox proportional hazard model. 841 consecutive consenting patients of mean age 61+/-10 years were recruited into the study with a mean follow-up period of 690+/-436 days. In multivariate analysis decreasing LF spectral power was independently associated with proximal right coronary stenosis OR (odds ratio)=1.65 (95% CI=1.16-2.36), P=0.006 and to all cause mortality OR=5.01 (95% CI=1.47-17.01), P=0.010. Increasing LF power was also independently associated with normal coronary angiograms in patients investigated suspected coronary disease without a confirmed prior history of a coronary ischaemic event OR=2.16 (95% CI=1.26-3.73), P=0.002. Reduced LF power independently predicts all cause mortality in a large cohort of patients receiving medical therapy after elective CC. LF power was also independently associated with >75% proximal RCA stenosis.

  3. An Allometric Analysis of Sex and Sex Chromosome Dosage Effects on Subcortical Anatomy in Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clasen, Liv; Giedd, Jay N.; Blumenthal, Jonathan; Lerch, Jason P.; Chakravarty, M. Mallar; Raznahan, Armin

    2016-01-01

    Structural neuroimaging of humans with typical and atypical sex-chromosome complements has established the marked influence of both Yand X-/Y-chromosome dosage on total brain volume (TBV) and identified potential cortical substrates for the psychiatric phenotypes associated with sex-chromosome aneuploidy (SCA). Here, in a cohort of 354 humans with varying karyotypes (XX, XY, XXX, XXY, XYY, XXYY, XXXXY), we investigate sex and SCA effects on subcortical size and shape; focusing on the striatum, pallidum and thalamus. We find large effect-size differences in the volume and shape of all three structures as a function of sex and SCA. We correct for TBV effects with a novel allometric method harnessing normative scaling rules for subcortical size and shape in humans, which we derive here for the first time. We show that all three subcortical volumes scale sublinearly with TBV among healthy humans, mirroring known relationships between subcortical volume and TBV among species. Traditional TBV correction methods assume linear scaling and can therefore invert or exaggerate sex and SCA effects on subcortical anatomy. Allometric analysis restricts sex-differences to: (1) greater pallidal volume (PV) in males, and (2) relative caudate head expansion and ventral striatum contraction in females. Allometric analysis of SCA reveals that supernumerary X- and Y-chromosomes both cause disproportionate reductions in PV, and coordinated deformations of striatopallidal shape. Our study provides a novel understanding of sex and sex-chromosome dosage effects on subcortical organization, using an allometric approach that can be generalized to other basic and clinical structural neuroimaging settings. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Sex and sex-chromosome dosage (SCD) are known to modulate human brain size and cortical anatomy, but very little is known regarding their impact on subcortical structures that work with the cortex to subserve a range of behaviors in health and disease. Moreover

  4. The anatomy of the NGC5044 group - II. Stellar populations and star formation histories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendel, J. Trevor; Proctor, Robert N.; Rasmussen, Jesper; Brough, Sarah; Forbes, Duncan A.

    2009-07-01

    The distribution of galaxy properties in groups and clusters holds important information on galaxy evolution and growth of structure in the Universe. While clusters have received appreciable attention in this regard, the role of groups as fundamental to formation of the present-day galaxy population has remained relatively unaddressed. Here, we present stellar ages, metallicities and α-element abundances derived using Lick indices for 67 spectroscopically confirmed members of the NGC5044 galaxy group with the aim of shedding light on galaxy evolution in the context of the group environment. We find that galaxies in the NGC5044 group show evidence for a strong relationship between stellar mass and metallicity, consistent with their counterparts in both higher and lower mass groups and clusters. Galaxies show no clear trend of age or α-element abundance with mass, but these data form a tight sequence when fitted simultaneously in age, metallicity and stellar mass. In the context of the group environment, our data support the tidal disruption of low-mass galaxies at small group-centric radii, as evident from an apparent lack of galaxies below ~109Msolar within ~100kpc of the brightest group galaxy. Using a joint analysis of absorption- and emission-line metallicities, we are able to show that the star-forming galaxy population in the NGC5044 group appears to require gas removal to explain the ~1.5dex offset between absorption- and emission-line metallicities observed in some cases. A comparison with other stellar population properties suggests that this gas removal is dominated by galaxy interactions with the hot intragroup medium.

  5. 3D visualization and finite element mesh formation from wood anatomy samples, Part II – Algorithm approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Koňas

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Paper presents new original application WOOD3D in form of program code assembling. The work extends the previous article “Part I – Theoretical approach” in detail description of implemented C++ classes of utilized projects Visualization Toolkit (VTK, Insight Toolkit (ITK and MIMX. Code is written in CMake style and it is available as multiplatform application. Currently GNU Linux (32/64b and MS Windows (32/64b platforms were released. Article discusses various filter classes for image filtering. Mainly Otsu and Binary threshold filters are classified for anatomy wood samples thresholding. Registration of images series is emphasized for difference of colour spaces compensation is included. Resulted work flow of image analysis is new methodological approach for images processing through the composition, visualization, filtering, registration and finite element mesh formation. Application generates script in ANSYS parametric design language (APDL which is fully compatible with ANSYS finite element solver and designer environment. The script includes the whole definition of unstructured finite element mesh formed by individual elements and nodes. Due to simple notation, the same script can be used for generation of geometrical entities in element positions. Such formed volumetric entities are prepared for further geometry approximation (e.g. by boolean or more advanced methods. Hexahedral and tetrahedral types of mesh elements are formed on user request with specified mesh options. Hexahedral meshes are formed both with uniform element size and with anisotropic character. Modified octree method for hexahedral mesh with anisotropic character was declared in application. Multicore CPUs in the application are supported for fast image analysis realization. Visualization of image series and consequent 3D image are realized in VTK format sufficiently known and public format, visualized in GPL application Paraview. Future work based on mesh

  6. Hand Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Anatomy Bones Joints Muscles Nerves Vessels Tendons Anatomy The upper extremity is a term used to define the upper limb. This includes the shoulder, arm, forearm, wrist and hand. The hand is a very ...

  7. Tooth anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002214.htm Tooth anatomy To use the sharing features on this page, ... upper jawbone is called the maxilla. Images Tooth anatomy References Chan S, Alessandrini EA. Dental injuries. In: Selbst ...

  8. Paraganglioma Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... e.g. -historical Searches are case-insensitive Paraganglioma Anatomy Add to My Pictures View /Download : Small: 648x576 ... View Download Large: 2700x2400 View Download Title: Paraganglioma Anatomy Description: Paraganglioma of the head and neck; drawing ...

  9. SURGICAL ANATOMY

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SURGICAL ANATOMY. Rare high origin of the radial artery: a bilateral, symmetrical ease. I. O. ()koro and B. C. J iburum. Department of Anatomy, College of Medicine, lrno State University, Owerri, Nigeria. Reprint requests to: Dr I. O. 0k0r0, Department of Anatomy, [mo State University, P. M. B. 2000. Owerri, Nigeria.

  10. An Analysis of the Educational Value of Low-Fidelity Anatomy Models as External Representations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Lap Ki; Cheng, Maurice M. W.

    2011-01-01

    Although high-fidelity digital models of human anatomy based on actual cross-sectional images of the human body have been developed, reports on the use of physical models in anatomy teaching continue to appear. This article aims to examine the common features shared by these physical models and analyze their educational value based on the…

  11. Anatomy-Correlated Breast Imaging and Visual Grading Analysis Using Quantitative Transmission Ultrasound™

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John C. Klock

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. This study presents correlations between cross-sectional anatomy of human female breasts and Quantitative Transmission (QT Ultrasound, does discriminate classifier analysis to validate the speed of sound correlations, and does a visual grading analysis comparing QT Ultrasound with mammography. Materials and Methods. Human cadaver breasts were imaged using QT Ultrasound, sectioned, and photographed. Biopsies confirmed microanatomy and areas were correlated with QT Ultrasound images. Measurements were taken in live subjects from QT Ultrasound images and values of speed of sound for each identified anatomical structure were plotted. Finally, a visual grading analysis was performed on images to determine whether radiologists’ confidence in identifying breast structures with mammography (XRM is comparable to QT Ultrasound. Results. QT Ultrasound identified all major anatomical features of the breast, and speed of sound calculations showed specific values for different breast tissues. Using linear discriminant analysis overall accuracy is 91.4%. Using visual grading analysis readers scored the image quality on QT Ultrasound as better than on XRM in 69%–90% of breasts for specific tissues. Conclusions. QT Ultrasound provides accurate anatomic information and high tissue specificity using speed of sound information. Quantitative Transmission Ultrasound can distinguish different types of breast tissue with high resolution and accuracy.

  12. Integer anatomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doolittle, R. [ONR, Arlington, VA (United States)

    1994-11-15

    The title integer anatomy is intended to convey the idea of a systematic method for displaying the prime decomposition of the integers. Just as the biological study of anatomy does not teach us all things about behavior of species neither would we expect to learn everything about the number theory from a study of its anatomy. But, some number-theoretic theorems are illustrated by inspection of integer anatomy, which tend to validate the underlying structure and the form as developed and displayed in this treatise. The first statement to be made in this development is: the way structure of the natural numbers is displayed depends upon the allowed operations.

  13. Analysis of the PISC II trials results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haines, N.

    1988-01-01

    The paper presents the analysis scheme of the Programme for the Inspection of Steel Components PISC II trial results. The objective of the PISC II exercise is to evaluate the effectiveness of current and advanced NDT techniques for inspection of reactor pressure vessel components. The analysis scheme takes data from the Round Robin Trial (RRT) and Destructive Examination, then reduces it to a manageable form in order to present useful conclusions on the effectiveness of NDT. A description is given of the data provided by RRT, the data analysis scheme, the definition of analysis parameters, and the main methods of data presentation. (U.K.)

  14. Soft-tissue anatomy of the extant hominoids: a review and phylogenetic analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, S; Collard, M; Wood, B

    2002-01-01

    This paper reports the results of a literature search for information about the soft-tissue anatomy of the extant non-human hominoid genera, Pan, Gorilla, Pongo and Hylobates, together with the results of a phylogenetic analysis of these data plus comparable data for Homo. Information on the four extant non-human hominoid genera was located for 240 out of the 1783 soft-tissue structures listed in the Nomina Anatomica. Numerically these data are biased so that information about some systems (e.g. muscles) and some regions (e.g. the forelimb) are over-represented, whereas other systems and regions (e.g. the veins and the lymphatics of the vascular system, the head region) are either under-represented or not represented at all. Screening to ensure that the data were suitable for use in a phylogenetic analysis reduced the number of eligible soft-tissue structures to 171. These data, together with comparable data for modern humans, were converted into discontinuous character states suitable for phylogenetic analysis and then used to construct a taxon-by-character matrix. This matrix was used in two tests of the hypothesis that soft-tissue characters can be relied upon to reconstruct hominoid phylogenetic relationships. In the first, parsimony analysis was used to identify cladograms requiring the smallest number of character state changes. In the second, the phylogenetic bootstrap was used to determine the confidence intervals of the most parsimonious clades. The parsimony analysis yielded a single most parsimonious cladogram that matched the molecular cladogram. Similarly the bootstrap analysis yielded clades that were compatible with the molecular cladogram; a (Homo, Pan) clade was supported by 95% of the replicates, and a (Gorilla, Pan, Homo) clade by 96%. These are the first hominoid morphological data to provide statistically significant support for the clades favoured by the molecular evidence. PMID:11833653

  15. Normal and sonographic anatomy of selected peripheral nerves. Part II: Peripheral nerves of the upper limb

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berta Kowalska

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The ultrasonographic examination is frequently used for imaging peripheral nerves. It serves to supplement the physical examination, electromyography, and magnetic resonance imaging. As in the case of other USG imaging studies, the examination of peripheral nerves is non-invasive, well-tolerated by patients, and relatively inexpensive. Part I of this article series described in detail the characteristic USG picture of peripheral nerves and the proper examination technique, following the example of the median nerve. This nerve is among the most often examined peripheral nerves of the upper limb. This part presents describes the normal anatomy and ultrasound picture of the remaining large nerve branches in the upper extremity and neck – the spinal accessory nerve, the brachial plexus, the suprascapular, axillary, musculocutaneous, radial and ulnar nerves. Their normal anatomy and ultrasonographic appearance have been described, including the division into individual branches. For each of them, specific reference points have been presented, to facilitate the location of the set trunk and its further monitoring. Sites for the application of the ultrasonographic probe at each reference point have been indicated. In the case of the ulnar nerve, the dynamic component of the examination was emphasized. The text is illustrated with images of probe positioning, diagrams of the normal course of the nerves as well as a series of ultrasonographic pictures of normal nerves of the upper limb. This article aims to serve as a guide in the ultrasound examination of the peripheral nerves of the upper extremity. It should be remembered that a thorough knowledge of the area’s topographic anatomy is required for this type of examination.

  16. Corrections Analysis Report: Phase II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Applied Management Sciences, Inc., Silver Spring, MD.

    The validity of data provided through rejection edits of students applying for Basic Educational Opportunity Grants (BEOGs) was assessed. The question of whether some edits were associated with applicants' failure to reapply was also considered. The analysis used the 1978-1979 BEOG applicant population. A total of 3,823,008 applicants had applied…

  17. Molecular anatomy of CCR5 engagement by physiologic and viral chemokines and HIV-1 envelope glycoproteins: differences in primary structural requirements for RANTES, MIP-1 alpha, and vMIP-II Binding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navenot, J M; Wang, Z X; Trent, J O; Murray, J L; Hu, Q X; DeLeeuw, L; Moore, P S; Chang, Y; Peiper, S C

    2001-11-09

    Molecular analysis of CCR5, the cardinal coreceptor for HIV-1 infection, has implicated the N-terminal extracellular domain (N-ter) and regions vicinal to the second extracellular loop (ECL2) in this activity. It was shown that residues in the N-ter are necessary for binding of the physiologic ligands, RANTES (CCL5) and MIP-1 alpha (CCL3). vMIP-II, encoded by the Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus, is a high affinity CCR5 antagonist, but lacks efficacy as a coreceptor inhibitor. Therefore, we compared the mechanism for engagement by vMIP-II of CCR5 to its interaction with physiologic ligands. RANTES, MIP-1 alpha, and vMIP-II bound CCR5 at high affinity, but demonstrated partial cross-competition. Characterization of 15 CCR5 alanine scanning mutants of charged extracellular amino acids revealed that alteration of acidic residues in the distal N-ter abrogated binding of RANTES, MIP-1 alpha, and vMIP-II. Whereas mutation of residues in ECL2 of CCR5 dramatically reduced the binding of RANTES and MIP-1 alpha and their ability to induce signaling, interaction with vMIP-II was not altered by any mutation in the exoloops of the receptor. Paradoxically, monoclonal antibodies to N-ter epitopes did not block chemokine binding, but those mapped to ECL2 were effective inhibitors. A CCR5 chimera with the distal N-ter residues of CXCR2 bound MIP-1 alpha and vMIP-II with an affinity similar to that of the wild-type receptor. Engagement of CCR5 by vMIP-II, but not RANTES or MIP-1 alpha blocked the binding of monoclonal antibodies to the receptor, providing additional evidence for a distinct mechanism for viral chemokine binding. Analysis of the coreceptor activity of randomly generated mouse-human CCR5 chimeras implicated residues in ECL2 between H173 and V197 in this function. RANTES, but not vMIP-II blocked CCR5 M-tropic coreceptor activity in the fusion assay. The insensitivity of vMIP-II binding to mutations in ECL2 provides a potential rationale to its inefficiency as an

  18. Puzzle-based versus traditional lecture: comparing the effects of pedagogy on academic performance in an undergraduate human anatomy and physiology II lab.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stetzik, Lucas; Deeter, Anthony; Parker, Jamie; Yukech, Christine

    2015-06-23

    A traditional lecture-based pedagogy conveys information and content while lacking sufficient development of critical thinking skills and problem solving. A puzzle-based pedagogy creates a broader contextual framework, and fosters critical thinking as well as logical reasoning skills that can then be used to improve a student's performance on content specific assessments. This paper describes a pedagogical comparison of traditional lecture-based teaching and puzzle-based teaching in a Human Anatomy and Physiology II Lab. Using a single subject/cross-over design half of the students from seven sections of the course were taught using one type of pedagogy for the first half of the semester, and then taught with a different pedagogy for the second half of the semester. The other half of the students were taught the same material but with the order of the pedagogies reversed. Students' performance on quizzes and exams specific to the course, and in-class assignments specific to this study were assessed for: learning outcomes (the ability to form the correct conclusion or recall specific information), and authentic academic performance as described by (Am J Educ 104:280-312, 1996). Our findings suggest a significant improvement in students' performance on standard course specific assessments using a puzzle-based pedagogy versus a traditional lecture-based teaching style. Quiz and test scores for students improved by 2.1 and 0.4% respectively in the puzzle-based pedagogy, versus the traditional lecture-based teaching. Additionally, the assessments of authentic academic performance may only effectively measure a broader conceptual understanding in a limited set of contexts, and not in the context of a Human Anatomy and Physiology II Lab. In conclusion, a puzzle-based pedagogy, when compared to traditional lecture-based teaching, can effectively enhance the performance of students on standard course specific assessments, even when the assessments only test a limited

  19. Wood identification of Dalbergia nigra (CITES Appendix I) using quantitative wood anatomy, principal components analysis and naive Bayes classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasson, Peter; Miller, Regis; Stekel, Dov J; Whinder, Frances; Zieminska, Kasia

    2010-01-01

    Dalbergia nigra is one of the most valuable timber species of its genus, having been traded for over 300 years. Due to over-exploitation it is facing extinction and trade has been banned under CITES Appendix I since 1992. Current methods, primarily comparative wood anatomy, are inadequate for conclusive species identification. This study aims to find a set of anatomical characters that distinguish the wood of D. nigra from other commercially important species of Dalbergia from Latin America. Qualitative and quantitative wood anatomy, principal components analysis and naïve Bayes classification were conducted on 43 specimens of Dalbergia, eight D. nigra and 35 from six other Latin American species. Dalbergia cearensis and D. miscolobium can be distinguished from D. nigra on the basis of vessel frequency for the former, and ray frequency for the latter. Principal components analysis was unable to provide any further basis for separating the species. Naïve Bayes classification using the four characters: minimum vessel diameter; frequency of solitary vessels; mean ray width; and frequency of axially fused rays, classified all eight D. nigra correctly with no false negatives, but there was a false positive rate of 36.36 %. Wood anatomy alone cannot distinguish D. nigra from all other commercially important Dalbergia species likely to be encountered by customs officials, but can be used to reduce the number of specimens that would need further study.

  20. Wavelet Transforms: Application to Data Analysis - II

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    GENERAL I ARTICLE. Wavelet Transforms: Application to Data Analysis - II. Jatan K Modi, Sachin P Nanavati, Amit S Phadke and Prasanta K Panigrahi. Jatan K Modi (top left) is currently a visiting faculty at DDIT, Gujarat. His areas of interest are artificial intelligence, compilers and image processing. Sachin P Nanavati (top ...

  1. Accident analysis for PRC-II reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei Yongren; Tang Gang; Wu Qing; Lu Yili; Liu Zhifeng

    1997-12-01

    The computer codes, calculation models, transient results, sensitivity research, design improvement, and safety evaluation used in accident analysis for PRC-II Reactor (The Second Pulsed Reactor in China) are introduced. PRC-II Reactor is built in big populous city, so the public pay close attention to reactor safety. Consequently, Some hypothetical accidents are analyzed. They include an uncontrolled control rod withdrawal at rated power, a pulse rod ejection at rated power, and loss of coolant accident. Calculation model which completely depict the principle and process for each accident is established and the relevant analysis code is developed. This work also includes comprehensive computing and analyzing transients for each accident of PRC-II Reactor; the influences in the reactor safety of all kind of sensitive parameters; evaluating the function of engineered safety feature. The measures to alleviate the consequence of accident are suggested and taken in the construction design of PRC-II Reactor. The properties of reactor safety are comprehensively evaluated. A new advanced calculation model (True Core Uncovered Model) of LOCA of PRC-II Reactor and the relevant code (MCRLOCA) are first put forward

  2. Classifying xylophone bar materials by perceptual, signal processing and wood anatomy analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Brancheriau, Loïc; Baillères, Henri; Détienne, Pierre; Kronland, Richard; Metzger, Bloen

    2006-01-01

    International audience; Several different areas of expertise are required to analyse the acoustic qualities of wood. The practical experience of musical instrument makers is extremely valuable, especially with respect to selecting the most suitable wood species for different applications. Knowledge on the mechanics and anatomy of wood is also essential to determine the factors underlying the acoustic qualities of woods. In addition, music synthesis research on psychoacoustic issues can highli...

  3. Regulatory Anatomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoeyer, Klaus

    2015-01-01

    , legal documents, technological devices, organizational structures, and work practices aimed at minimizing risk. I use this term to reorient the analytical attention with respect to safety regulation. Instead of evaluating whether safety is achieved, the point is to explore the types of “safety” produced...... they arise. In short, I expose the regulatory anatomy of the policy landscape....

  4. The Anatomy of Learning Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhelmsson, Niklas; Dahlgren, Lars Owe; Hult, Hakan; Scheja, Max; Lonka, Kirsti; Josephson, Anna

    2010-01-01

    The experience of clinical teachers as well as research results about senior medical students' understanding of basic science concepts has much been debated. To gain a better understanding about how this knowledge-transformation is managed by medical students, this work aims at investigating their ways of setting about learning anatomy.…

  5. Anatomy Transfer

    OpenAIRE

    Dicko, Ali Hamadi; Liu, Tiantian; Gilles, Benjamin; Kavan, Ladislav; Faure, François; Palombi, Olivier; Cani, Marie-Paule

    2013-01-01

    International audience; Characters with precise internal anatomy are important in film and visual effects, as well as in medical applications. We propose the first semi-automatic method for creating anatomical structures, such as bones, muscles, viscera and fat tissues. This is done by transferring a reference anatomical model from an input template to an arbitrary target character, only defined by its boundary representation (skin). The fat distribution of the target character needs to be sp...

  6. Surgical Anatomy of the Superior Mesenteric Vessels Related to Colon and Pancreatic Surgery: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negoi, Ionut; Beuran, Mircea; Hostiuc, Sorin; Negoi, Ruxandra Irina; Inoue, Yosuke

    2018-03-08

    The surgeon dissecting the base of the mesenterium, around the superior mesenteric vein (SMV) and artery, is facing a complex tridimensional vascular anatomy and should be aware of the anatomical variants in this area. The aim of this systematic review is to propose a standardized terminology of the superior mesenteric vessels, with impact in colon and pancreatic resections. We conducted a systematic search in PubMed/MEDLINE and Google Scholar databases up to March 2017. Forty-five studies, involving a total of 6090 specimens were included in the present meta-analysis. The pooled prevalence of the ileocolic, right colic and middle colic arteries was 99.8%, 60.1%, and 94.6%, respectively. The superior right colic vein and Henle trunk were present in 73.9%, and 89.7% of specimens, respectively. In conclusion, the infra-pancreatic anatomy of the superior mesenteric vessels is widely variable. We propose the term Henle trunk to be used for any venous confluence between gastric, pancreatic and colic veins, which drains between the inferior border of the pancreas and up to 20 mm downward on the right-anterior aspect of the SMV. The term gastrocolic trunk should not be synonymous, but a subgroup of the Henle trunk, together with to gastropancreatocolic, gastropancreatic, or colopancreatic trunk.

  7. 5D Task Analysis Visualization Tool Phase II, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The creation of a five-dimensional task analysis visualization (5D-TAV) software tool for Task Analysis and Workload Planning using multi-dimensional visualization...

  8. Thymus Gland Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... hyphen, e.g. -historical Searches are case-insensitive Thymus Gland, Adult, Anatomy Add to My Pictures View / ... 1500x1200 View Download Large: 3000x2400 View Download Title: Thymus Gland, Adult, Anatomy Description: Anatomy of the thymus ...

  9. Normal Pancreas Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... e.g. -historical Searches are case-insensitive Pancreas Anatomy Add to My Pictures View /Download : Small: 761x736 ... View Download Large: 3172x3068 View Download Title: Pancreas Anatomy Description: Anatomy of the pancreas; drawing shows the ...

  10. Kidney lower pole pelvicaliceal anatomy: comparative analysis between intravenous urogram and three-dimensional helical computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachid Filho, Daibes; Favorito, Luciano A; Costa, Waldemar S; Sampaio, Francisco J B

    2009-12-01

    The aim of our study was to evaluate if there is any advantage of three-dimensional helical computed tomography (3D-HCT) over intravenous urogram (IVU) in the morphometric and morphological analysis of lower pole spatial anatomy of the kidney. We analyzed 52 renal collecting systems in 30 patients, ranging in age from 23 to 80 years. The study compared the following features: (1) the angle formed between the lower infundibulum and the renal pelvis (i.e., lower infundibulum-pelvic angle [IPA]), (2) the lower infundibulum diameter (ID), and (3) the spatial distribution and number of lower pole calices (i.e., caliceal distribution [CD]). The study started with the 3D-HCT images obtained for posterior reconstruction and analysis. Afterward, we obtained anteroposterior and oblique IVU images. For IPA (in degrees) we found a mean +/- standard deviation (SD) value of 75.79 +/- 15.3 with 3D-HCT and 77.4 +/- 17.17 with IVU, which were not statistically significant. For ID (in mm) we found a mean +/- SD value of 7.5 +/- 2.92 with 3D-HCT and 8.15 +/- 3.27 with IVU. For CD we found a mean +/- SD value of 2.37 +/- 0.75 calices with 3D-HCT and 2.43 +/- 0.67 calices with IVU. On analyzing the difference between 3D-HCT and IVU, we found a mean +/- SD value of 0.06 +/- 0.51, and we verified that 74.5% of the examinations compared did not present statistically significant difference, with a Wilcoxon p-value of 0.405. Although 3D-HCT is more precise to study calculus location, tumors, and vessels, IVU was also demonstrated to be as precise as 3D-HCT for studying the lower pole spatial anatomy. We did not observe any statistically significant difference in the measurements of IPA, ID, and CD obtained using 3D-HCT when compared with those obtained using IVU. Therefore, 3D-HCT does not present any advantage over IVU in the evaluation of lower pole caliceal anatomy.

  11. [Analysis of anatomy features for patients with narrow anterior chamber angle and primary iridociliary body cysts].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Gui-gang; Ji, Cai-ni; Li, Xin-yu; Hu, Wei-kun; Hu, Jun; Wang, Jun-ming; Li, Tao; Li, Bin; Zhang, Hong

    2012-08-01

    To investigate the prevalence and anatomy features of iridociliary body cysts in patients with narrow anterior chamber angle. Retrospective case series study. The prevalence and anatomy features of iridociliary body cysts in 223 patients (402 eyes) were analyzed retrospectively with ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM). All of the patients were examined for susceptive narrow anterior chamber angle without complaint. The age of the patients, the site, diameter and number of cysts, the anterior chamber angle and the central anterior chamber depth were measured. Iridociliary body cysts were found in 19 patients (23 eyes) out of 223 patients (402 eyes), the prevalence is 5.7%. Fifteen patients were unilateral and four patients bilateral. Two cases originated from the ciliary process, eighteen cases from the iris root, and three from both the root and posterior surface of the iris. Twenty one cases were single cysts while two cases were multiple cysts. The diameter of the cysts ranged from 0.5 to 3.1 mm, averaged (0.71 ± 0.53) mm. The average age and the central anterior chamber depth of the eyes with iridociliary body cysts were (55.32 ± 10.74) years and (2.25 ± 0.39) mm, with no significant difference (t = 0.534, 0.783; P > 0.05) as compared to that of patients without cysts, which were (57.46 ± 10.52) years and (2.14 ± 0.34) mm. The anterior chamber angle in iridociliary body cysts group was 8.2° (21.0°, 0.0°), with no significant difference (Z = -0.062, P > 0.05) as compared to that of patients without cysts, which was 8.9° (21.4°, 0.0°). The prevalence rate of iridociliary body cysts in this study is 5.7%, central anterior chamber depth and anterior chamber angle in patients with cysts do not differ form patients without cysts.

  12. Anatomy of the anterior root attachments of the medial and lateral menisci: a quantitative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaPrade, Christopher M; Ellman, Michael B; Rasmussen, Matthew T; James, Evan W; Wijdicks, Coen A; Engebretsen, Lars; LaPrade, Robert F

    2014-10-01

    While the biomechanical importance of the meniscal roots has been demonstrated, the anatomy of the anterior meniscal roots remains largely unknown. Defining the quantitative anatomy of the anterior meniscal root attachments is essential for developing improved diagnostic and surgical techniques. The anterior medial (AM) and anterior lateral (AL) meniscal roots could be quantitatively defined relative to open and arthroscopic surgical landmarks. Descriptive laboratory study. Twelve nonpaired human cadaveric knees were used (average age, 51.3 years). A coordinate measuring device quantified the anatomic relationships of the AM and AL root attachments to open and arthroscopic surgical landmarks. The tibial attachments of both anterior roots were defined and quantified by categorizing the fibers of the root as either central, dense attachments or peripheral, supplemental attachments. The center of the tibial tuberosity and the medial tibial eminence apex were 27.0 mm lateral and distal and 27.5 mm posterior to the center of the AM root, respectively. The center of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) and the lateral tibial eminence apex were 5.0 mm posteromedial and 14.4 mm posterolateral to the center of the AL root, respectively. The AM root attachment had a mean area of 110.4 mm(2) (95% CI, 92.2-128.5) with a central attachment of 56.3 mm(2) (95% CI, 46.9-65.8). The AL root attachment had a mean area of 140.7 mm(2) (95% CI, 121.6-159.8) and inserted deeply beneath the ACL in all specimens. The overlap of the ACL on the AL root averaged 88.9 mm(2) (95% CI, 63.3-114.6), comprising 63.2% of the AL root attachment. The anterior meniscal roots were identified in relation to pertinent open and arthroscopic landmarks. The extended overlap between the AL root and ACL attachment revealed a more intimate tibial attachment relationship than previously recognized. Quantitative descriptions of the anterior meniscal roots elucidate the relationship between the root attachments

  13. Dancers' Perceived and Actual Knowledge of Anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotler, Dana H; Lynch, Meaghan; Cushman, Daniel; Hu, Jason; Garner, Jocelyn

    2017-06-15

    Dancers are highly susceptible to musculoskeletal injuries and frequently require interaction with medical professionals. While many dancers have a finely tuned awareness of their bodies, their knowledge of the fundamentals of human anatomy is not uniform. There is a paucity of literature on the benefits of human anatomy education in dancers, though it seems intuitive that there should be a relationship. The purpose of this study was to assess dancers' perceived and actual knowledge of basic musculoskeletal anatomy and its relationship to function. Adult dancers at the undergraduate, pre-professional, and professional levels were surveyed through an anonymous online questionnaire. Questions included demographic information, dance techniques studied, anatomy training, and injury history. Subjects rated their perceived knowledge of anatomy and were tested with 15 multiple-choice questions on basic musculoskeletal anatomy. Four hundred seventy-five surveys were completed. Ordinal regression showed a correlation of perceived to actual knowledge of anatomy (p < 0.001). Factors that correlated with increases in both perceived and actual knowledge of anatomy included having taken an anatomy course of any type (p < 0.001) and increased age (p ≤ 0.001). Years of dance training and professional dancer status both significantly correlated with increased knowledge of anatomy (p < 0.001) but not perceived knowledge. Chi-square analysis showed that dancers with training in either modern or jazz dance had a significantly higher perceived, but not actual, knowledge when compared to those without training in those styles of dance (p < 0.001 and p = 0.011, respectively). In conclusion, dancers generally scored well on questions pertaining to basic musculoskeletal anatomy, and their perception correlated with their actual knowledge of anatomy. Factors that contribute to dancers' knowledge of anatomy include age, years of experience, professional dancer status, and anatomy training.

  14. The anatomy of bank performance during transition: A separate efficient frontier analysis of Ukrainian banks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ihsan Isik

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available By drawing on Ukrainian experience, this paper analyzes the anatomy of bank efficiency in a transitional economy. Acknowledging the vast disparities in the business technology of different size banks, in this comprehensive study, we innovatively estimate group-specific (distinct frontiers for small, medium, and large size banks. The results from separate frontiers reveal that Ukrainian banks record 38% technical inefficiency, 26% pure technical inefficiency, and 17% scale inefficiency on average. Apparently, banks in transition waste about the two fifths of their factor inputs during the production of financial services. The cardinal source of sub-performance in transitional banks seems to be managerial inefficiencies. We also found that banks operating in areas with more political influence and more developed infrastructure outperform the banks operating in politically and economically weaker regions. The results also indicate that larger banks, enjoying public trust in a risky business climate, dominate smaller banks in all forms of efficiency. However, such bias for size causes large banks to suffer from decreasing returns to scale and small banks from idle capacity. Consequently, the policies promoting consolidation between small and large banks may alleviate the excess (idle capacity for large (small banks in a transitional economy.

  15. Three-dimensional analysis of elbow soft tissue footprints and anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capo, John T; Collins, Christopher; Beutel, Bryan G; Danna, Natalie R; Manigrasso, Michaele; Uko, Linda A; Chen, Linda Y

    2014-11-01

    Tendinous and ligamentous injuries commonly occur in the elbow. This study characterized the location, surface areas, and origin and insertional footprints of major elbow capsuloligamentous and tendinous structures in relation to bony landmarks with the use of a precision 3-dimensional modeling system. Nine unpaired cadaveric elbow specimens were dissected and mounted on a custom jig. Mapping of the medial collateral ligament (MCL), lateral ulnar collateral ligament (LUCL), triceps, biceps, brachialis, and capsular reflections was then performed with 3-dimensional digitizing technology. The location, surface areas, and footprints of the soft tissues were calculated. The MCL had a mean origin (humeral) footprint of 216 mm(2), insertional footprint of 154 mm(2), and surface area of 421 mm(2). The LUCL had a mean origin footprint of 136 mm(2), an insertional footprint of 142 mm(2), and a surface area of 532 mm(2). Of the tendons, the triceps maintained the largest insertional footprint, followed by the brachialis and the biceps (P < .001-.03). The MCL, LUCL, and biceps footprint locations were consistent, with little variability. The surface areas of the anterior (1251 mm(2)) and posterior (1147 mm(2)) capsular reflections were similar (P = .82), and the anterior capsule extended farther proximally. Restoring the normal anatomy of key elbow capsuloligamentous and tendinous structures is crucial for effective reconstruction after bony or soft tissue trauma. This study provides the upper extremity surgeon with information that may aid in restoring elbow biomechanics and preserving range of motion in these patients. Copyright © 2014 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Silver Biocide Analysis & Control Device, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Rapid, accurate measurement and process control of silver ion biocide concentrations in future space missions is needed. The purpose of the Phase II program is to...

  17. Anatomy of a reindeer dissected in Copenhagen in 1672 by Niels Stensen as reported by Thomas Bartholin. I. Introduction by Troels Kardel. II. Translation by Paul Maquet

    OpenAIRE

    Kardel, Troels; Maquet, Paul

    2013-01-01

    A report by Professor Thomas Bartholin on the dissection of a reindeer performed in 1672 by his former student Niels Stensen as Royal Anatomist in Copenhagen is presented in English translation with biographical introduction and bibliographical notes. The report is most likely the first of its kind being an early contribution to comparative anatomy.

  18. Anatomy of a reindeer dissected in Copenhagen in 1672 by Niels Stensen as reported by Thomas Bartholin. I. Introduction by Troels Kardel. II. Translation by Paul Maquet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Troels Kardel

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available A report by Professor Thomas Bartholin on the dissection of a reindeer performed in 1672 by his former student Niels Stensen as Royal Anatomist in Copenhagen is presented in English translation with biographical introduction and bibliographical notes. The report is most likely the first of its kind being an early contribution to comparative anatomy.

  19. Mutation and biochemical analysis in carnitine palmitoyltransferase type II (CPT II) deficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olpin, S E; Afifi, A; Clark, S

    2003-01-01

    Carnitine palmitoyltransferase type II (CPT II) deficiency has three basic phenotypes, late-onset muscular (mild), infantile/juvenile hepatic (intermediate) and severe neonatal. We have measured fatty acid oxidation and CPT II activity and performed mutation studies in 24 symptomatic patients...... representing the full clinical spectrum of disease. Severe and intermediate phenotypes show a clear correlation with biochemical indices and genetic analysis revealed causative mutations in most patients. Studies of mild phenotypes suggest a more complex interaction, with higher residual fatty acid oxidation...... of symptomatic patients appear to have significant residual CPT II activity (42-60%) The synergistic interaction of partial deficiencies of CPT II, muscle adenosine monophosphate deaminase and possibly other enzymes of muscle energy metabolism in the aetiology of episodic myopathy deserves wider consideration....

  20. Normal Female Reproductive Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... an inner lining called the endometrium. Normal female reproductive system anatomy. Topics/Categories: Anatomy -- Gynecologic Type: Color, Medical Illustration Source: National Cancer Institute Creator: Terese Winslow (Illustrator) AV Number: CDR609921 Date Created: November 17, 2014 Date Added: ...

  1. Wood identification of Dalbergia nigra (CITES Appendix I) using quantitative wood anatomy, principal components analysis and naïve Bayes classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasson, Peter; Miller, Regis; Stekel, Dov J.; Whinder, Frances; Ziemińska, Kasia

    2010-01-01

    Background and Aims Dalbergia nigra is one of the most valuable timber species of its genus, having been traded for over 300 years. Due to over-exploitation it is facing extinction and trade has been banned under CITES Appendix I since 1992. Current methods, primarily comparative wood anatomy, are inadequate for conclusive species identification. This study aims to find a set of anatomical characters that distinguish the wood of D. nigra from other commercially important species of Dalbergia from Latin America. Methods Qualitative and quantitative wood anatomy, principal components analysis and naïve Bayes classification were conducted on 43 specimens of Dalbergia, eight D. nigra and 35 from six other Latin American species. Key Results Dalbergia cearensis and D. miscolobium can be distinguished from D. nigra on the basis of vessel frequency for the former, and ray frequency for the latter. Principal components analysis was unable to provide any further basis for separating the species. Naïve Bayes classification using the four characters: minimum vessel diameter; frequency of solitary vessels; mean ray width; and frequency of axially fused rays, classified all eight D. nigra correctly with no false negatives, but there was a false positive rate of 36·36 %. Conclusions Wood anatomy alone cannot distinguish D. nigra from all other commercially important Dalbergia species likely to be encountered by customs officials, but can be used to reduce the number of specimens that would need further study. PMID:19884155

  2. Differential analysis of matrix convex functions II

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Frank; Tomiyama, Jun

    2009-01-01

    We continue the analysis in [F. Hansen, and J. Tomiyama, Differential analysis of matrix convex functions. Linear Algebra Appl., 420:102--116, 2007] of matrix convex functions of a fixed order defined in a real interval by differential methods as opposed to the characterization in terms of divided...

  3. Quick Spacecraft Thermal Analysis Tool, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — For spacecraft design and development teams concerned with cost and schedule, the Quick Spacecraft Thermal Analysis Tool (QuickSTAT) is an innovative software suite...

  4. Unified communications forensics anatomy of common UC attacks

    CERN Document Server

    Grant, Nicholas Mr

    2013-01-01

    Unified Communications Forensics: Anatomy of Common UC Attacks is the first book to explain the issues and vulnerabilities and demonstrate the attacks, forensic artifacts, and countermeasures required to establish a secure (UC) environment. This book is written by leading UC experts Nicholas Grant and Joseph W. Shaw II and provides material never before found on the market, including: analysis of forensic artifacts in common UC attacks an in-depth look at established UC technologies and attack exploits hands-on understanding of UC attack vectors and associated countermeasures

  5. Clinical anatomy research in a research-driven anatomy department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, D Gareth; Dias, G J; Mercer, S; Zhang, M; Nicholson, H D

    2002-05-01

    Clinical anatomy is too often viewed as a discipline that reiterates the wisdom of the past, characterized more by description of what is known than by active investigation and critical analysis of hypotheses and ideas. Various misconceptions follow from an acceptance of this premise: the teaching of clinical anatomists is textbook based, there is no clinical anatomy research worthy of the name, and any research that does exist fails to utilize modern technology and does not stand comparison with serious biomedical research as found in cell and molecular biology. The aim of this paper is to challenge each of these contentions by reference to ongoing clinical research studies within this department. It is argued that all teaching (including that of clinical anatomy) should be research-informed and that the discipline of clinical anatomy should have at its base a vigorous research ethos driven by clinically related problems. In interacting with physicians, the role of the clinical anatomist should be to promulgate a questioning scientific spirit, with its willingness to test and challenge accepted anatomic dicta. Copyright 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  6. Automated analysis of slitless spectra. II. Quasars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edwards, G.; Beauchemin, M.; Borra, F.

    1988-01-01

    Automated software have been developed to process slitless spectra. The software, described in a previous paper, automatically separates stars from extended objects and quasars from stars. This paper describes the quasar search techniques and discusses the results. The performance of the software is compared and calibrated with a plate taken in a region of SA 57 that has been extensively surveyed by others using a variety of techniques: the proposed automated software performs very well. It is found that an eye search of the same plate is less complete than the automated search: surveys that rely on eye searches suffer from incompleteness at least from a magnitude brighter than the plate limit. It is shown how the complete automated analysis of a plate and computer simulations are used to calibrate and understand the characteristics of the present data. 20 references

  7. Anatomy of a Security Operations Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, John

    2010-01-01

    Many agencies and corporations are either contemplating or in the process of building a cyber Security Operations Center (SOC). Those Agencies that have established SOCs are most likely working on major revisions or enhancements to existing capabilities. As principle developers of the NASA SOC; this Presenters' goals are to provide the GFIRST community with examples of some of the key building blocks of an Agency scale cyber Security Operations Center. This presentation viII include the inputs and outputs, the facilities or shell, as well as the internal components and the processes necessary to maintain the SOC's subsistence - in other words, the anatomy of a SOC. Details to be presented include the SOC architecture and its key components: Tier 1 Call Center, data entry, and incident triage; Tier 2 monitoring, incident handling and tracking; Tier 3 computer forensics, malware analysis, and reverse engineering; Incident Management System; Threat Management System; SOC Portal; Log Aggregation and Security Incident Management (SIM) systems; flow monitoring; IDS; etc. Specific processes and methodologies discussed include Incident States and associated Work Elements; the Incident Management Workflow Process; Cyber Threat Risk Assessment methodology; and Incident Taxonomy. The Evolution of the Cyber Security Operations Center viII be discussed; starting from reactive, to proactive, and finally to proactive. Finally, the resources necessary to establish an Agency scale SOC as well as the lessons learned in the process of standing up a SOC viII be presented.

  8. Nuclear Fuel Cycle System Analysis (II)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ko, Won Il; Kwon, Eun Ha; Yoon, Ji Sup; Park, Seong Won

    2007-04-15

    As a nation develops strategies that provide nuclear energy while meeting its various objectives, it must begin with identification of a fuel cycle option that can be best suitable for the country. For such a purpose, this paper takes four different fuel cycle options that are likely adopted by the Korean government, considering the current status of nuclear power generation and the 2nd Comprehensive Nuclear Energy Promotion Plan (CNEPP) - Once-through Cycle, DUPIC Recycle, Thermal Reactor Recycle and GEN-IV Recycle. The paper then evaluates each option in terms of sustainability, environment-friendliness, proliferation-resistance, economics and technologies. Like all the policy decision, however, a nuclear fuel cycle option can not be superior in all aspects of sustainability, environment-friendliness, proliferation-resistance, economics, technologies and so on, which makes the comparison of the options extremely complicated. Taking this into consideration, the paper analyzes all the four fuel cycle options using the Multi-Attribute Utility Theory (MAUT) and the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP), methods of Multi-Attribute Decision Making (MADM), that support systematical evaluation of the cases with multi- goals or criteria and that such goals are incompatible with each other. The analysis shows that the GEN-IV Recycle appears to be most competitive.

  9. Synthesis, characterization and anti-microbial evaluation of Cu(II), Ni(II), Pt(II) and Pd(II) sulfonylhydrazone complexes; 2D-QSAR analysis of Ni(II) complexes of sulfonylhydrazone derivatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özbek, Neslihan; Alyar, Saliha; Alyar, Hamit; Şahin, Ertan; Karacan, Nurcan

    2013-05-01

    Copper(II), nickel(II), platinum(II) and palladium(II) complexes with 2-hydroxy-1-naphthaldehyde-N-methylpropanesulfonylhydrazone (nafpsmh) derived from propanesulfonic acid-1-methylhydrazide (psmh) were synthesized, their structure were identified, and antimicrobial activity of the compounds was screened against three Gram-positive and three Gram-negative bacteria. The results of antimicrobial studies indicate that Pt(II) and Pd(II) complexes showed the most activity against all bacteria. The crystal structure of 2-hydroxy-1-naphthaldehyde-N-methylpropanesulfonylhydrazone (nafpsmh) was also investigated by X-ray analysis. A series of Ni(II) sulfonyl hydrazone complexes (1-33) was synthesized and tested in vitro against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. Their antimicrobial activities were used in the QSAR analysis. Four-parameter QSAR models revealed that nucleophilic reaction index for Ni and O atoms, and HOMO-LUMO energy gap play key roles in the antimicrobial activity.

  10. Abundance analysis of giant H II regions in nearby spirals

    OpenAIRE

    Díaz, Angeles I.; Terlevich, E.; Pagel, B.E.J.; Vílchez, J.M; Edmunds, M.G.

    1990-01-01

    This is an electronic version of an article published in Revista Mexicana de Astronomía y Astrofísica. Díaz, Angeles I. et al. Abundance analysis of giant H II regions in nearby spirals. Revista Mexicana de Astronomía y Astrofísica 21 (1990): 223-227

  11. Molecular analysis of genetic diversity in elite II synthetic hexaploid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present study was conducted to assess the genetic diversity of Elite-II synthetic hexaploid (SH) wheat by genome DNA fingerprinting as revealed by random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis. Ten decamer RAPD primers (OPG-1, OPG-2, OPG-3, OPG-4, OPG-5, OPA-3, OPA-4, OPA-5, OPA-8, and OPA-15) ...

  12. Molecular analysis of genetic diversity in elite II synthetic hexaploid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-07-20

    Jul 20, 2009 ... Full Length Research Paper. Molecular analysis of genetic diversity in elite II synthetic hexaploid wheat screened against Barley yellow dwarf virus. Huma Saffdar1 ... The history of cultiva- ted wheat and human .... and viewed under the UV light chamber using the computer pro- gram UVIPhotoMW.

  13. The Anatomy of Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Onofrio, Mauro; Rampazzo, Roberto; Zaggia, Simone; Longair, Malcolm S.; Ferrarese, Laura; Marziani, Paola; Sulentic, Jack W.; van der Kruit, Pieter C.; Laurikainen, Eija; Elmegreen, Debra M.; Combes, Françoise; Bertin, Giuseppe; Fabbiano, Giuseppina; Giovanelli, Riccardo; Calzetti, Daniela; Moss, David L.; Matteucci, Francesca; Djorgovski, Stanislav George; Fraix-Burnet, Didier; Graham, Alister W. McK.; Tully, Brent R.

    Just after WWII Astronomy started to live its "Golden Age", not differently to many other sciences and human activities, especially in the west side countries. The improved resolution of telescopes and the appearance of new efficient light detectors (e.g. CCDs in the middle eighty) greatly impacted the extragalactic researches. The first morphological analysis of galaxies were rapidly substituted by "anatomic" studies of their structural components, star and gas content, and in general by detailed investigations of their properties. As for the human anatomy, where the final goal was that of understanding the functionality of the organs that are essential for the life of the body, galaxies were dissected to discover their basic structural components and ultimately the mystery of their existence.

  14. Morphometric analysis of prostate zonal anatomy using magnetic resonance imaging: impact on age-related changes in patients in Japan and the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsugasumi, Toru; Fujihara, Atsuko; Ushijima, So; Kanazawa, Motohiro; Yamada, Yasuhiro; Shiraishi, Takumi; Hongo, Fumiya; Kamoi, Kazumi; Okihara, Koji; de Castro Abreu, Andre Luis; Oishi, Masakatsu; Shin, Toshitaka; Palmer, Suzanne; Gill, Inderbir S; Ukimura, Osamu

    2017-10-01

    To evaluate the impact of morphometric magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) analysis of the prostate zonal anatomy on aging, prostatic hypertrophy and lower urinary tract symptoms in patients from Japan and the USA. A retrospective analysis of 307 men, including 156 men from Japan and 151 from the USA, who consecutively underwent 3-Tesla MRI and International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS) assessment because of elevated PSA levels. Using Synapse-Vincent (Fujifilm), the prostatic zones were segmented in each axial step-section of the T2-weighted MRI to reconstruct a three-dimensional model of the prostate, which was used to calculate: zonal volumes (whole-gland prostate, transition zone and peripheral zone volumes); the presumed circle area ratio (PCAR); and PZ thickness. Bivariate associations were quantified using Spearman's rank correlation coefficients. The USA subgroup had a greater prostate volume (49 vs 42 mL; P = 0.003) and TZ volume (26 vs 20 mL; P prostate zonal anatomy enhanced our understanding of age-related changes in morphology and urinary symptoms. © 2017 The Authors BJU International © 2017 BJU International Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Anatomy of Mandibular Vital Structures. Part II: Mandibular Incisive Canal, Mental Foramen and Associated Neurovascular Bundles in Relation with Dental Implantology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gintautas Sabalys

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The purpose of the present study was to review the literature of how to identify the mental foramen, mandibular incisive canal and associated neurovascular bundles during implant surgery and how to detect and avoid the damage of these vital structures during implant therapy.Material and Methods: Literature was selected through a search of PubMed, Embase and Cochrane electronic databases. The keywords used for search were mandibular incisive canal, mental foramen, mental nerve, anterior mental loop. The search was restricted to English language articles, published from 1979 to November 2009. Additionally, a manual search in the major anatomy, dental implant, and periodontal journals and books was performed.Results: In total, 47 literature sources were obtained and reviewed. The morphology and variations of the mandibular incisive canal, mental foramen and associated neurovascular bundles were presented as two entities. It suggested that clinicians should carefully assess these vital structures to avoid nerve/artery damage.Conclusions: The mandibular incisive canal, mental foramen and associated neurovascular bundles exist in different locations and possess many variations. Individual, gender, age, race, assessing technique used and degree of edentulous alveolar bone atrophy largely influence these variations. It suggests that the clinicians should carefully identify these anatomical landmarks, by analyzing all influencing factors, prior to their implant surgical operation.

  16. Anatomy of Mandibular Vital Structures. Part II: Mandibular Incisive Canal, Mental Foramen and Associated Neurovascular Bundles in Relation with Dental Implantology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juodzbalys, Gintaras; Wang, Hom-Lay; Sabalys, Gintautas

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to review the literature of how to identify the mental foramen, mandibular incisive canal and associated neurovascular bundles during implant surgery and how to detect and avoid the damage of these vital structures during implant therapy. Literature was selected through a search of PubMed, Embase and Cochrane electronic databases. The keywords used for search were mandibular incisive canal, mental foramen, mental nerve, anterior mental loop. The search was restricted to English language articles, published from 1979 to November 2009. Additionally, a manual search in the major anatomy, dental implant, and periodontal journals and books was performed. In total, 47 literature sources were obtained and reviewed. The morphology and variations of the mandibular incisive canal, mental foramen and associated neurovascular bundles were presented as two entities. It suggested that clinicians should carefully assess these vital structures to avoid nerve/artery damage. The mandibular incisive canal, mental foramen and associated neurovascular bundles exist in different locations and possess many variations. Individual, gender, age, race, assessing technique used and degree of edentulous alveolar bone atrophy largely influence these variations. It suggests that the clinicians should carefully identify these anatomical landmarks, by analyzing all influencing factors, prior to their implant surgical operation.

  17. DYNAMIC HYBRIDS UNDER SOLVENCY II: RISK ANALYSIS AND MODIFICATION POSSIBILITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Maier

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we investigate the new and standardized European system of supervisory called Solvency II. In essence, asymmetric distribution of information between policyholder and insurer triggered this new regulation which aims at better protecting policyholders. Its three-pillar model is about to challenge both, insurers as well as policyholders. The first pillar includes quantitative aspects, the second pillar contains qualitative aspects and the third pillar comprises market transparency and reporting obligations. Underwriting risks, the default risk of a bank and market risks can be identified for the dynamic hybrid. Solvency II covers all these risks in the first pillar and insurers shall deposit sufficient risk-bearing capital. In our analysis, we first identify the dynamic hybrid specific risks under the Solvency II regime und then develop product modifications to reduce this risk.

  18. Anatomy Comic Strips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jin Seo; Kim, Dae Hyun; Chung, Min Suk

    2011-01-01

    Comics are powerful visual messages that convey immediate visceral meaning in ways that conventional texts often cannot. This article's authors created comic strips to teach anatomy more interestingly and effectively. Four-frame comic strips were conceptualized from a set of anatomy-related humorous stories gathered from the authors' collective…

  19. Controlling the vocabulary for anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baud, R H; Lovis, C; Rassinoux, A M; Ruch, P; Geissbuhler, A

    2002-01-01

    When confronted with the representation of human anatomy, natural language processing (NLP) system designers are facing an unsolved and frequent problem: the lack of a suitable global reference. The available sources in electronic format are numerous, but none fits adequately all the constraints and needs of language analysis. These sources are usually incomplete, difficult to use or tailored to specific needs. The anatomist's or ontologist's view does not necessarily match that of the linguist. The purpose of this paper is to review most recognized sources of knowledge in anatomy usable for linguistic analysis. Their potential and limits are emphasized according to this point of view. Focus is given on the role of the consensus work of the International Federation of Associations of Anatomists (IFAA) giving the Terminologia Anatomica.

  20. Analysis of pipe stress using CAESAR II code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sitandung, Y.B.; Bandriyana, B.

    2002-01-01

    Analysis of this piping stress with the purpose of knowing stress distribution piping system in order to determine pipe supports configuration. As an example of analysis, Gas Exchanger to Warm Separator Line was chosen with, input data was firstly prepared in a document, i.e. piping analysis specification that its content named as pipe characteristics, material properties, operation conditions, guide equipment's and so on. Analysis result such as stress, load, displacement and the use support type were verified based on requirements in the code, standard, and regularities were suitable with piping system condition analyzed. As the proof that piping system is in safety condition, it can be indicated from analysis results (actual loads) which still under allowable load. From the analysis steps that have been done CAESAR II code fulfill requirements to be used as a tool of piping stress analysis as well as nuclear and non nuclear installation piping system

  1. The sequence and analysis of Trypanosoma brucei chromosome II

    OpenAIRE

    El-Sayed, Najib M. A.; Ghedin, Elodie; Song, Jinming; MacLeod, Annette; Bringaud, Frederic; Larkin, Christopher; Wanless, David; Peterson, Jeremy; Hou, Lihua; Taylor, Sonya; Tweedie, Alison; Biteau, Nicolas; Khalak, Hanif G.; Lin, Xiaoying; Mason, Tanya

    2003-01-01

    We report here the sequence of chromosome II from Trypanosoma brucei, the causative agent of African sleeping sickness. The 1.2-Mb pairs encode about 470 predicted genes organised in 17 directional clusters on either strand, the largest cluster of which has 92 genes lined up over a 284-kb region. An analysis of the GC skew reveals strand compositional asymmetries that coincide with the distribution of protein-coding genes, suggesting these asymmetries may be the result of transcription-couple...

  2. Hydrodynamic Analysis of the Spherical Underwater Robot SUR-II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunfeng Yue

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper describes the development of the second-generation Spherical Underwater Robot (SUR-II. The new SUR-II has an improved propulsion system structure, resulting in better performance compared with the original design. This paper focuses on the characteristics of the water-jet thruster and the spherical hull of the SUR-II. To analyse its hydrodynamic characteristics, the main hydrodynamic parameters of the SUR-II were estimated based on two reasonable assumptions and a reasonable dynamic equation was proposed to describe the relationship between force and velocity. Drag coefficients were calculated separately for vertical and horizontal motions due to the fin on the robot's equator and the holes in the robot's hull. The holes had a particularly adverse effect on the horizontal drag coefficient. A hydrodynamic analysis using computational fluid dynamics was then carried out to verify the estimated parameters. The velocity vectors, pressure contours and drag coefficient for each state of motion were obtained. Finally, the propulsive force was determined experimentally to verify the theoretical calculations and simulation results.

  3. Anatomy of Sarcocaulon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. L. Verhoeven

    1983-11-01

    Full Text Available The anatomy of the leaf blade, petiole, stem and root of the genus Sarcocaulon (DC. Sweet is discussed. On the basis of the leaf anatomy, the four sections recognized by Moffett (1979 can be identified: section Denticulati (dorsiventral leaves, section Multifidi (isobilateral leaves and adaxial and abaxial palisade continuous at midvein, section Crenati (isobilateral leaves, short curved trichomes and glandular hairs, section Sarcocaulon (isobilateral leaves and glandular hairs only. The anatomy of the stem is typically that of a herbaceous dicotyledon with a thick periderm. The root structure shows that the function of the root is not food storage.

  4. Analysis of factors influencing Cu(II sorption by clinoptiolite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šljivić-Ivanović Marija Z.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Experimental design methodology represents a powerful tool for the analysis and optimization of various processes. Immobilization of toxic substances by sorption onto low-cost materials gained a lot of attention in the last decade. Fundamental knowledge about sorption processes and their practical use can be improved by experimental planning and statistical analysis. In this study, the effects of initial metal concentration and pH, as well as the sorbent mass and particle size, on Cu(II sorption by natural clinoptilolite were evaluated and compared. Full factorial experimental design at two levels was applied. Statistically significant factors were determined considering residual Cu(II concentrations as a system response. The Pareto graphs of standardized effects, Main effect plots and Interaction plots were created using statistical software. Initial sorbate concentration, sorbent mass and their interaction were recognized as statistically significant, at 95 % confidence level. Main effect plot approved that sorbent mass increase and initial Cu(II concentration decrease caused reduction of residual Cu(II concentration in solution. On the other hand, the change of initial solution pH and sorbent particle size didn’t provoke significant response changes. Bearing in mind that pH is the factor with large effect on heavy metal sorption, insignificant influence of initial pH detected in this study can be explained by buffering properties of the applied clinoptilolite and relatively narrow pH range chosen in order to prevent sorbent dissolution on one side and sorbate precipitation on the other. By regression analysis, the mathematical model for process description was derived. The correlation between predicted and experimental values was high (R2>0.99. In the investigated ranges of parameters, the obtained empirical equation can be applied for the prediction of system response.

  5. Comparison of a Gross Anatomy Laboratory to Online Anatomy Software for Teaching Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathiowetz, Virgil; Yu, Chih-Huang; Quake-Rapp, Cindee

    2016-01-01

    This study was designed to assess the grades, self-perceived learning, and satisfaction between occupational therapy students who used a gross anatomy laboratory versus online anatomy software (AnatomyTV) as tools to learn anatomy at a large public university and a satellite campus in the mid-western United States. The goal was to determine if…

  6. Urban Integrated Industrial Cogeneration Systems Analysis. Phase II final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-01-01

    Through the Urban Integrated Industrial Cogeneration Systems Analysis (UIICSA), the City of Chicago embarked upon an ambitious effort to identify the measure the overall industrial cogeneration market in the city and to evaluate in detail the most promising market opportunities. This report discusses the background of the work completed during Phase II of the UIICSA and presents the results of economic feasibility studies conducted for three potential cogeneration sites in Chicago. Phase II focused on the feasibility of cogeneration at the three most promising sites: the Stockyards and Calumet industrial areas, and the Ford City commercial/industrial complex. Each feasibility case study considered the energy load requirements of the existing facilities at the site and the potential for attracting and serving new growth in the area. Alternative fuels and technologies, and ownership and financing options were also incorporated into the case studies. Finally, site specific considerations such as development incentives, zoning and building code restrictions and environmental requirements were investigated.

  7. ALIGNING MICROTOMOGRAPHY ANALYSIS WITH TRADITIONAL ANATOMY FOR A 3D UNDERSTANDING OF THE HOST-PARASITE INTERFACE – PHORADENDRON SPP. CASE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiza Teixeira-Costa

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The complex endophytic structure formed by parasitic plant species often represents a challenge in the study of the host-parasite interface. Even with the large amounts of anatomical slides, a three-dimensional comprehension of the structure may still be difficult to obtain. In the present study we applied the High Resolution X-ray Computed Tomography (HRXCT analysis along with usual plant anatomy techniques in order to compare the infestation pattern of two mistletoe species of the genus Phoradendron. Additionally, we tested the use of contrasting solutions in order to improve the detection of the parasite’s endophytic tissue. To our knowledge, this is the first study to show the 3-dimensional structure of host-mistletoe interface by using HRXCT technique. Results showed that Phoradendron perrottetii growing on the host Tapirira guianensis forms small woody galls with a restricted endophytic system. The sinkers were short and eventually grouped creating a continuous interface with the host wood. On the other hand, the long sinkers of Phoradendron bathyoryctum penetrate deeply into the wood of Cedrela fissilis branching in all directions throughout the woody gall area, forming a spread-out infestation pattern. The results indicate that the HRXCT is indeed a powerful approach to understand the endophytic system of parasitic plants. The combination of 3-dimensional models of the infestation with anatomical analysis provided a broader understanding of the host-parasite connection. Unique anatomic features are reported for the sinkes of Phoradendron perrottetii, while the endophytic tissue of Phoradendron bathyoryctum conformed to general anatomy observed for other species of this genus. These differences are hypothesised to be related to the 3-dimensional structure of each endophytic system and the communication stablished with the host.

  8. Outcomes of Endovascular Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Repair in Patients with Hostile Neck Anatomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choke, Edward; Munneke, Graham; Morgan, Robert; Belli, Anna-Maria; Loftus, Ian; McFarland, Robert; Loosemore, Thomas; Thompson, Matthew M.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose. The principal anatomic contraindication to endovascular aneurysm repair (EVR) is an unfavorable proximal aortic neck. With increasing experience, a greater proportion of patients with unfavorable neck anatomy are being offered EVR. This study aimed to evaluate outcomes in patients with challenging proximal aortic neck anatomy. Methods. Prospectively collected data from 147 consecutive patients who underwent EVR between December 1997 and April 2005 were supplemented with a retrospective review of medical records and radiological images. Unfavorable anatomic features were defined as neck diameter >28 mm, angulation >60 deg., circumferential thrombus >50%, and length 30 days) (p = 0.57), distal type I endoleak (p = 0.40), type III endoleak (p 0.51), secondary interventions (p = 1.0), aneurysm sac expansion (p = 0.44), or 30 day mortality (p = 0.70). The good neck group had a significantly increased incidence of type II endoleak (p = 0.023). By multivariate analysis, the incidence of intraoperative adjunctive procedures was significantly increased in the presence of severe angulation (p = 0.041, OR 3.08, 95% CI 1.05-9.04). Conclusion. Patients with severely hostile proximal aortic neck anatomy may be treated with EVR, although severely angulated necks require additional intraoperative procedures. Early outcomes are encouraging and suggest that indications for EVR may be expanded to include patients with hostile neck anatomy

  9. Mutation and biochemical analysis in carnitine palmitoyltransferase type II (CPT II) deficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olpin, S E; Afifi, A; Clark, S

    2003-01-01

    Carnitine palmitoyltransferase type II (CPT II) deficiency has three basic phenotypes, late-onset muscular (mild), infantile/juvenile hepatic (intermediate) and severe neonatal. We have measured fatty acid oxidation and CPT II activity and performed mutation studies in 24 symptomatic patients rep...

  10. Time series analysis of nuclear instrumentation in EBR-II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Imel, G.R.

    1996-05-01

    Results of a time series analysis of the scaler count data from the 3 wide range nuclear detectors in the Experimental Breeder Reactor-II are presented. One of the channels was replaced, and it was desired to determine if there was any statistically significant change (ie, improvement) in the channel`s response after the replacement. Data were collected from all 3 channels for 16-day periods before and after detector replacement. Time series analysis and statistical tests showed that there was no significant change after the detector replacement. Also, there were no statistically significant differences among the 3 channels, either before or after the replacement. Finally, it was determined that errors in the reactivity change inferred from subcritical count monitoring during fuel handling would be on the other of 20-30 cents for single count intervals.

  11. Time series analysis of nuclear instrumentation in EBR-II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imel, G.R.

    1996-01-01

    Results of a time series analysis of the scaler count data from the 3 wide range nuclear detectors in the Experimental Breeder Reactor-II are presented. One of the channels was replaced, and it was desired to determine if there was any statistically significant change (ie, improvement) in the channel's response after the replacement. Data were collected from all 3 channels for 16-day periods before and after detector replacement. Time series analysis and statistical tests showed that there was no significant change after the detector replacement. Also, there were no statistically significant differences among the 3 channels, either before or after the replacement. Finally, it was determined that errors in the reactivity change inferred from subcritical count monitoring during fuel handling would be on the other of 20-30 cents for single count intervals

  12. Premedical anatomy experience and student performance in medical gross anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondrashov, Peter; McDaniel, Dalton J; Jordan, Rebecca M

    2017-04-01

    Gross anatomy is considered one of the most important basic science courses in medical education, yet few medical schools require its completion prior to matriculation. The effect of taking anatomy courses before entering medical school on performance in medical gross anatomy has been previously studied with inconsistent results. The effect of premedical anatomy coursework on performance in medical gross anatomy, overall medical school grade point average (GPA), and Comprehensive Osteopathic Medical Licensing Examination Level 1 (COMLEX 1) score was evaluated in 456 first-year osteopathic medical students along with a survey on its perceived benefits on success in medical gross anatomy course. No significant differences were found in gross anatomy grade, GPA, or COMLEX 1 score between students with premedical anatomy coursework and those without. However, significant differences and higher scores were observed in students who had taken three or more undergraduate anatomy courses including at least one with cadaveric laboratory. There was significantly lower perceived benefit for academic success in the medical gross anatomy course (Pstudents who had taken premedical anatomy courses (5.9 of 10) compared with those who had not (8.2 of 10). Results suggest that requiring any anatomy course as a prerequisite for medical school would not have significant effect on student performance in the medical gross anatomy course. However, requiring more specific anatomy coursework including taking three or more undergraduate anatomy courses, one with cadaveric laboratory component, may result in higher medical gross anatomy grades, medical school GPA, and COMLEX 1 scores. Clin. Anat. 30:303-311, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Skull Base Anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Chirag R; Fernandez-Miranda, Juan C; Wang, Wei-Hsin; Wang, Eric W

    2016-02-01

    The anatomy of the skull base is complex with multiple neurovascular structures in a small space. Understanding all of the intricate relationships begins with understanding the anatomy of the sphenoid bone. The cavernous sinus contains the carotid artery and some of its branches; cranial nerves III, IV, VI, and V1; and transmits venous blood from multiple sources. The anterior skull base extends to the frontal sinus and is important to understand for sinus surgery and sinonasal malignancies. The clivus protects the brainstem and posterior cranial fossa. A thorough appreciation of the anatomy of these various areas allows for endoscopic endonasal approaches to the skull base. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Variation in root wood anatomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cutler, D.F.

    1976-01-01

    Variability in the anatomy of root wood of selected specimens particularly Fraxinus excelsior L. and Acer pseudoplatanus L. in the Kew reference microscope slide collection is discussed in relation to generalised statements in the literature on root wood anatomy.

  15. An interactive anatomy dissection DVD

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Sabah, Fadel YS

    2013-01-01

    Anatomy remains the cornerstone of medical education. Human anatomy has not changed, yet our understanding of the topic and the methods by which we teach anatomy continue to evolve. At present lectures, tutorials and human cadaveric dissection in the anatomy room remain central to anatomical education in the Republic of Ireland and throughout many parts of the world. With the emergence of new technologies, new teaching methods can be explored. In-house and on-line teaching of Radiology and...

  16. Safety analysis report for the TRUPACT-II shipping package (condensed version). Volume 1, Rev. 14

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-10-01

    The condensed version of the TRUPACT-II Contact Handled Transuranic Waste Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP) contains essential material required by TRUPACT-II users, plus additional contents (payload) information previously submitted to the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. All or part of the following sections, which are not required by users of the TRUPACT-II, are deleted from the condensed version: (i) structural analysis, (ii) thermal analysis, (iii) containment analysis, (iv) criticality analysis, (v) shielding analysis, and (vi) hypothetical accident test results

  17. Safety analysis report for the TRUPACT-II shipping package (condensed version). Volume 1, Rev. 14

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-10-01

    The condensed version of the TRUPACT-II Contact Handled Transuranic Waste Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP) contains essential material required by TRUPACT-II users, plus additional contents (payload) information previously submitted to the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. All or part of the following sections, which are not required by users of the TRUPACT-II, are deleted from the condensed version: (i) structural analysis, (ii) thermal analysis, (iii) containment analysis, (iv) criticality analysis, (v) shielding analysis, and (vi) hypothetical accident test results.

  18. Synopsis of radiologic anatomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meschan, I.

    1987-01-01

    The book is a compact version of earlier publications that appeared in 1975 as a one- and a two-volume issue under the title 'Atlas of Radiologic Anatomy'. A chapter on computed tomography has been added as this novel technique requires a new approach to radiologic anatomy. The radiologist will find all the information on the anatomic conditions he needs for analysing radiographs and CT pictures. More than 600 radiographs and CT pictures are given that illustrate typical and rare findings. The book also is useful as a source of reference for making good radiographs and evaluating the quality of radiographs or CT pictures. With 1413 figs., 18 tabs [de

  19. Learning Anatomy Enhances Spatial Ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorstenbosch, Marc A. T. M.; Klaassen, Tim P. F. M.; Donders, A. R. T.; Kooloos, Jan G. M.; Bolhuis, Sanneke M.; Laan, Roland F. J. M.

    2013-01-01

    Spatial ability is an important factor in learning anatomy. Students with high scores on a mental rotation test (MRT) systematically score higher on anatomy examinations. This study aims to investigate if learning anatomy also oppositely improves the MRT-score. Five hundred first year students of medicine ("n" = 242, intervention) and…

  20. Learning anatomy enhances spatial ability.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vorstenbosch, M.A.T.M.; Klaassen, T.P.; Donders, A.R.T.; Kooloos, J.G.M.; Bolhuis, S.M.; Laan, R.F.J.M.

    2013-01-01

    Spatial ability is an important factor in learning anatomy. Students with high scores on a mental rotation test (MRT) systematically score higher on anatomy examinations. This study aims to investigate if learning anatomy also oppositely improves the MRT-score. Five hundred first year students of

  1. TIBER II/ETR: Nuclear Performance Analysis Group Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-09-01

    A Nuclear Performance Analysis Group was formed to develop the nuclear technology mission of TIBER-II under the leadership of Argonne National Laboratory reporting to LLNL with major participation by the University of California - Los Angeles (test requirements, R and D needs, water-cooled test modules, neutronic tests). Additional key support was provided by GA Technologies (helium-cooled test modules), Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory (material-irradiation tests), Sandia National Laboratory - Albuquerque (high-heat-flux component tests), and the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (safety tests). Support also was provided by Rennselaer Polytechnic Institute, Grumman Aerospace Corporation, and the Canadian Fusion Fuels Technology Program. This report discusses these areas and provides a schedule for their completion

  2. Analysis of normal anatomy of oral cavity in open-mouth view with CT and MRI; comparison with closed-mouth view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Chan Ho; Kim, Seong Min; Cheon, Bont Jin; Huh, Jin Do; Joh, Young Duk

    2001-01-01

    When MRI and CT of the oral cavity utilize the traditional closed-mouth approach, direct contact between the tongue and surrounding structures may give rise to difficulty in recognizing the anatomy involved and demonstrating the possible presence of pathologic features. We describe a more appropriate scan technique, involving open-mouthed imaging, which may be used to demonstrate the anatomy of the oral cavity in detail. Axial and coronal MR imaging and axial CT scanning were performed in 14 healthy volunteers, using both the closed and open-mouth approach. For the latter, a mouth-piece was put in place prior to examination. In all volunteers, open-mouth MR and CT examinations involved the same parameters as the corresponding closed-mouth procedures. The CT and MR images obtained by each method were compared, particular attention being paid to the presence and symmetry of motion artifact of the tongue and the extent of air space in the oral cavity. Comparative imaging analysis was based on the recognition of 13 structures around the boundaries of the mouth. For statistical analysis, student's test was used and a p value<0.05 was considered significant. Due to symmetry of the tongue, a less severe motion artifact, and increased air space in the oral cavity, the open-mouth method produced excellent images. The axial and coronal MR images thus obtained were superior in terms of demarcation of the inferior surface and dortsum of the tongue, gingiva, buccal surface and buccal vestivule to those obtained with the mouth closed (p<0.05). In addition, axial MR images obtained with the mouth open showed better demarcation of structures at the lingual margin and anterior belly of the digastric muscle (p<0.05), while coronal MR images of the base of the tongue, surface of the hard palate, soft palate, and uvula, were also superior (p<0.05). Open-mouth CT provided better images at the lingual margin, dorsum of the tongue and buccal surface than the closed-mouth approach (p<0

  3. Analysis of normal anatomy of oral cavity in open-mouth view with CT and MRI; comparison with closed-mouth view

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Chan Ho; Kim, Seong Min; Cheon, Bont Jin; Huh, Jin Do; Joh, Young Duk [Kosin Univ. College of Medicine, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-02-01

    When MRI and CT of the oral cavity utilize the traditional closed-mouth approach, direct contact between the tongue and surrounding structures may give rise to difficulty in recognizing the anatomy involved and demonstrating the possible presence of pathologic features. We describe a more appropriate scan technique, involving open-mouthed imaging, which may be used to demonstrate the anatomy of the oral cavity in detail. Axial and coronal MR imaging and axial CT scanning were performed in 14 healthy volunteers, using both the closed and open-mouth approach. For the latter, a mouth-piece was put in place prior to examination. In all volunteers, open-mouth MR and CT examinations involved the same parameters as the corresponding closed-mouth procedures. The CT and MR images obtained by each method were compared, particular attention being paid to the presence and symmetry of motion artifact of the tongue and the extent of air space in the oral cavity. Comparative imaging analysis was based on the recognition of 13 structures around the boundaries of the mouth. For statistical analysis, student's test was used and a p value<0.05 was considered significant. Due to symmetry of the tongue, a less severe motion artifact, and increased air space in the oral cavity, the open-mouth method produced excellent images. The axial and coronal MR images thus obtained were superior in terms of demarcation of the inferior surface and dortsum of the tongue, gingiva, buccal surface and buccal vestivule to those obtained with the mouth closed (p<0.05). In addition, axial MR images obtained with the mouth open showed better demarcation of structures at the lingual margin and anterior belly of the digastric muscle (p<0.05), while coronal MR images of the base of the tongue, surface of the hard palate, soft palate, and uvula, were also superior (p<0.05). Open-mouth CT provided better images at the lingual margin, dorsum of the tongue and buccal surface than the closed-mouth approach (p

  4. Ontology-enriched Visualization of Human Anatomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pouchard, LC

    2005-12-20

    The project focuses on the problem of presenting a human anatomical 3D model associated with other types of human systemic information ranging from physiological to anatomical information while navigating the 3D model. We propose a solution that integrates a visual 3D interface and navigation features with the display of structured information contained in an ontology of anatomy where the structures of the human body are formally and semantically linked. The displayed and annotated anatomy serves as a visual entry point into a patient's anatomy, medical indicators and other information. The ontology of medical information provides labeling to the highlighted anatomical parts in the 3D display. Because of the logical organization and links between anatomical objects found in the ontology and associated 3D model, the analysis of a structure by a physician is greatly enhanced. Navigation within the 3D visualization and between this visualization and objects representing anatomical concepts within the model is also featured.

  5. Anatomy of lead poisoning

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ABEOLUGBENGAS

    Abstract. Objective: Lead poisoning and lead toxicity is usually often interchangeably used by different Scientists. The Anatomy of lead poisoning encompasses its effects on different organ-systems of different species of organisms. It also includes environmental, functional and biochemical components associated with most.

  6. The Anatomy Puzzle Book.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Willis H.; Carter, Robert, III

    This document features review questions, crossword puzzles, and word search puzzles on human anatomy. Topics include: (1) Anatomical Terminology; (2) The Skeletal System and Joints; (3) The Muscular System; (4) The Nervous System; (5) The Eye and Ear; (6) The Circulatory System and Blood; (7) The Respiratory System; (8) The Urinary System; (9) The…

  7. Illustrated Speech Anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shearer, William M.

    Written for students in the fields of speech correction and audiology, the text deals with the following: structures involved in respiration; the skeleton and the processes of inhalation and exhalation; phonation and pitch, the larynx, and esophageal speech; muscles involved in articulation; muscles involved in resonance; and the anatomy of the…

  8. Anatomy for Biomedical Engineers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmichael, Stephen W.; Robb, Richard A.

    2008-01-01

    There is a perceived need for anatomy instruction for graduate students enrolled in a biomedical engineering program. This appeared especially important for students interested in and using medical images. These students typically did not have a strong background in biology. The authors arranged for students to dissect regions of the body that…

  9. Anatomy of the Spine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Osteoporosis Back Pain Basics Book RESOURCES Patient Information Feature Articles Patient Q&A Success Stories Definitions Anatomy of the Spine Definitions A-Z Spine Specialists Videos 9 for Spine Epidural Steroid Injections Exercise: The Backbone of Spine Treatment ... Bones Vertebrae Each individual vertebra has unique features depending on the region in which it is ...

  10. 4D analysis of influence of patient movement and anatomy alteration on the quality of 3D U/S-based prostate HDR brachytherapy treatment delivery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milickovic, Natasa; Mavroidis, Panayiotis; Tselis, Nikolaos; Nikolova, Iliyana; Katsilieri, Zaira; Kefala, Vasiliki; Zamboglou, Nikolaos; Baltas, Dimos

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Modern HDR brachytherapy treatment for prostate cancer based on the 3D ultrasound (U/S) plays increasingly important role. The purpose of this study is to investigate possible patient movement and anatomy alteration between the clinical image set acquisition, made after the needle implantation, and the patient irradiation and their influence on the quality of treatment. Methods: The authors used 3D U/S image sets and the corresponding treatment plans based on a 4D-treatment planning procedure: plans of 25 patients are obtained right after the needle implantation (clinical plan is based on this 3D image set) and just before and after the treatment delivery. The authors notice the slight decrease of treatment quality with increase of time gap between the clinical image set acquisition and the patient irradiation. 4D analysis of dose-volume-histograms (DVHs) for prostate: CTV1 = PTV, and urethra, rectum, and bladder as organs at risk (OARs) and conformity index (COIN) is presented, demonstrating the effect of prostate, OARs, and needles displacement. Results: The authors show that in the case that the patient body movement/anatomy alteration takes place, this results in modification of DVHs and radiobiological parameters, hence the plan quality. The observed average displacement of needles (1 mm) and of prostate (0.57 mm) is quite small as compared with the average displacement noted in several other reports [A. A. Martinez et al., Int. J. Radiat. Oncol., Biol., Phys. 49(1), 61-69 (2001); S. J. Damore et al., Int. J. Radiat. Oncol., Biol., Phys. 46(5), 1205-1211 (2000); P. J. Hoskin et al., Radiotherm. Oncol. 68(3), 285-288 (2003); E. Mullokandov et al., Int. J. Radiat. Oncol., Biol., Phys. 58(4), 1063-1071 (2004)] in the literature. Conclusions: Although the decrease of quality of dosimetric and radiobiological parameters occurs, this does not cause clinically unacceptable changes to the 3D dose distribution, according to our clinical protocol.

  11. ANATI QUANTI: software de análises quantitativas para estudos em anatomia vegetal ANATI QUANTI: quantitative analysis software for plant anatomy studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.V. Aguiar

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Em diversos estudos interdisciplinares em que a Anatomia Vegetal é utilizada, análises quantitativas complementares são necessárias. Geralmente, a avaliação micromorfométrica é feita manualmente e/ou utilizando programas computacionais de análise de imagens não específicos. Este trabalho teve como objetivo desenvolver um programa específico para Anatomia Vegetal quantitativa e testar sua eficiência e aceitação por usuários. A solução foi elaborada na linguagem Java, visando maior mobilidade em relação ao sistema operacional a ser usado. O software desenvolvido foi denominado ANATI QUANTI e testado pelos alunos, pesquisadores e professores do Laboratório de Anatomia Vegetal da Universidade Federal de Viçosa (UFV. Todos os entrevistados receberam fotos para efetuarem medições no ANATI QUANTI e comparar com os resultados obtidos utilizando o software disponível. Os voluntários, através de questionários previamente formulados, destacaram as principais vantagens e desvantagens do programa desenvolvido em relação ao software disponível. Além de ser mais específico, simples e ágil do que o software disponível, o ANATI QUANTI é confiável, atendendo à expectativa dos entrevistados. Entretanto, há necessidade de acrescentar recursos adicionais, como a inserção de novas escalas, o que aumentaria a gama de usuários. O ANATI QUANTI já está em uso nas pesquisas desenvolvidas por usuários na UFV. Por ser um software livre e de código aberto, será disponibilizado na internet gratuitamente.Complementary quantitative analyses are necessary for several interdisciplinary studies using Plant Anatomy. Generally, micromorphometric evaluation is performed manually and/or using non-specific software for image analyses. This work aimed to develop specific quantitative analysis software for Plant Anatomy and test its efficiency and acceptance by users. The solution was elaborated in the JAVA language, which has a greater

  12. OGLE II Eclipsing Binaries In The LMC: Analysis With Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devinney, Edward J.; Prsa, A.; Guinan, E. F.; DeGeorge, M.

    2011-01-01

    The Eclipsing Binaries (EBs) via Artificial Intelligence (EBAI) Project is applying machine learning techniques to elucidate the nature of EBs. Previously, Prsa, et al. applied artificial neural networks (ANNs) trained on physically-realistic Wilson-Devinney models to solve the light curves of the 1882 detached EBs in the LMC discovered by the OGLE II Project (Wyrzykowski, et al.) fully automatically, bypassing the need for manually-derived starting solutions. A curious result is the non-monotonic distribution of the temperature ratio parameter T2/T1, featuring a subsidiary peak noted previously by Mazeh, et al. in an independent analysis using the EBOP EB solution code (Tamuz, et al.). To explore this and to gain a fuller understanding of the multivariate EBAI LMC observational plus solutions data, we have employed automatic clustering and advanced visualization (CAV) techniques. Clustering the OGLE II data aggregates objects that are similar with respect to many parameter dimensions. Measures of similarity for example, could include the multidimensional Euclidean Distance between data objects, although other measures may be appropriate. Applying clustering, we find good evidence that the T2/T1 subsidiary peak is due to evolved binaries, in support of Mazeh et al.'s speculation. Further, clustering suggests that the LMC detached EBs occupying the main sequence region belong to two distinct classes. Also identified as a separate cluster in the multivariate data are stars having a Period-I band relation. Derekas et al. had previously found a Period-K band relation for LMC EBs discovered by the MACHO Project (Alcock, et al.). We suggest such CAV techniques will prove increasingly useful for understanding the large, multivariate datasets increasingly being produced in astronomy. We are grateful for the support of this research from NSF/RUI Grant AST-05-75042 f.

  13. cobalt (ii), nickel (ii)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    ABSTRACT. The manganese (II), cobalt (II), nickel (II) and copper (II) complexes of N, N' – bis(benzoin)ethylenediiminato have been prepared and characterized by infrared, elemental analysis, conductivity measurements and solubility. The potentiometric, and elemental analyses studies of the complexes revealed 1:1 ...

  14. Synthesis, spectral analysis, stability constants, antioxidant and biological activities of Co (II), Ni (II) and Cu (II) mixed ligand complexes of nicotinamide, theophylline and thiocyanate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altun, Özlen; Şuözer, Mehtap

    2017-12-01

    In the present study, transition metal complexes or coordination entities with metal precursors such as Co (II), Ni (II) and Cu (II) of mixed ligands namely, nicotinamide (NA), theophylline (TP) and KSCN in water were synthesized under refluxing conditions. The optimization of the reactions to obtain the composition of complexes was performed. The structural elucidation of the complexes was undertaken by using physico-chemical and spectroscopic methods (UV/Vis, FT-IR, Mass and XRD) and thermal analysis. The spectral measurements of mixed ligands with the Co (II), Ni (II) and Cu (II) complexes are compared with each other in determining which atoms of the ligand are coordinated to the metal ion. Based on spectral and magnetic moment measurements, all the coordination entities were identified as in distorted octahedral structure and have the form [M(NA)2 (TP)2(SCN)2]·xH2O. In addition, K (stability constant) and ΔG (Gibbs free energy) values were calculated by using the Babko and Stanley & Turner's methods. Antioxidant, antibacterial and antifungal activities of the complexes were studied.

  15. Authenticity in Anatomy Art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adkins, Jessica

    2017-01-12

    The aim of this paper is to observe the evolution and evaluate the 'realness' and authenticity in Anatomy Art, an art form I define as one which incorporates accurate anatomical representations of the human body with artistic expression. I examine the art of 17th century wax anatomical models, the preservations of Frederik Ruysch, and Gunther von Hagens' Body Worlds plastinates, giving consideration to authenticity of both body and art. I give extra consideration to the works of Body Worlds since the exhibit creator believes he has created anatomical specimens with more educational value and bodily authenticity than ever before. Ultimately, I argue that von Hagens fails to offer Anatomy Art 'real human bodies,' and that the lack of bodily authenticity of his plastinates results in his creations being less pedagogic than he claims.

  16. Breast development and anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandya, Sonali; Moore, Richard G

    2011-03-01

    In this article, the development of the female breast, as well as the functional anatomy, blood supply, innervation and lymphatic drainage are described. A thorough understanding of the breast anatomy is an important adjunct to a meticulous clinical breast examination. Breast examination is a complex skill involving key maneuvers, including careful inspection and palpation. Clinical breast examination can provide an opportunity for the clinician to educate patients about their breast and about breast cancer, its symptoms, risk factors, early detection, and normal breast composition, and specifically variability. Clinical breast examination can help to detect some cancers not found by mammography, and clinicians should not override their examination findings if imaging is not supportive of the physical findings.

  17. NEEDLE ANATOMY CHANGES WITH INCREASING TREE AGE IN DOUGLAS FIR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morphological differences between old growth and sapling (Pseudotsuga menziesii, (Mirb.) Franco) Douglas fir trees may extend to differences in needle anatomy. We used microscopy with image analysis to compare and quantify anatomical parameters in cross-sections of previous year...

  18. Intelligent control of HVAC systems. Part II: perceptron performance analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioan URSU

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This is the second part of a paper on intelligent type control of Heating, Ventilating, and Air-Conditioning (HVAC systems. The whole study proposes a unified approach in the design of intelligent control for such systems, to ensure high energy efficiency and air quality improving. In the first part of the study it is considered as benchmark system a single thermal space HVAC system, for which it is assigned a mathematical model of the controlled system and a mathematical model(algorithm of intelligent control synthesis. The conception of the intelligent control is of switching type, between a simple neural network, a perceptron, which aims to decrease (optimize a cost index,and a fuzzy logic component, having supervisory antisaturating role for neuro-control. Based on numerical simulations, this Part II focuses on the analysis of system operation in the presence only ofthe neural control component. Working of the entire neuro-fuzzy system will be reported in a third part of the study.

  19. Neutronics analysis of TRIGA Mark II research reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haseebur Rehman

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This article presents clean core criticality calculations and control rod worth calculations for TRIGA (Training, Research, Isotope production-General Atomics Mark II research reactor benchmark cores using Winfrith Improved Multi-group Scheme-D/4 (WIMS-D/4 and Program for Reactor In-core Analysis using Diffusion Equation (PRIDE codes. Cores 133 and 134 were analyzed in 2-D (r, θ and 3-D (r, θ, z, using WIMS-D/4 and PRIDE codes. Moreover, the influence of cross-section data was also studied using various libraries based on Evaluated Nuclear Data File (ENDF/B-VI.8 and VII.0, Joint Evaluated Fission and Fusion File (JEFF-3.1, Japanese Evaluated Nuclear Data Library (JENDL-3.2, and Joint Evaluated File (JEF-2.2 nuclear data. The simulation results showed that the multiplication factor calculated for all these data libraries is within 1% of the experimental results. The reactivity worth of the control rods of core 134 was also calculated with different homogenization approaches. A comparison was made with experimental and reported Monte Carlo results, and it was found that, using proper homogenization of absorber regions and surrounding fuel regions, the results obtained with PRIDE code are significantly improved.

  20. Solar Electric Generating System II finite element analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dohner, J.L.; Anderson, J.R.

    1994-04-01

    On June 2, 1992, Landers` earthquake struck the Solar Electric Generating System II, located in Daggett, California. The 30 megawatt power station, operated by the Daggett Leasing Corporation (DLC), suffered substantial damage due to structural failures in the solar farm. These failures consisted of the separation of sliding joints supporting a distribution of parabolic glass mirrors. At separation, the mirrors fell to the ground and broke. It was the desire of the DLC and the Solar Thermal Design Assistance Center (STDAC) of Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and to redesign these joints so that, in the event of future quakes, costly breakage will be avoided. To accomplish this task, drawings of collector components were developed by the STDAC, from which a detailed finite element computer model of a solar collector was produced. This nonlinear dynamic model, which consisted of over 8,560 degrees of freedom, underwent model reduction to form a low order nonlinear dynamic model containing only 40 degrees of freedom. This model was then used as a design tool to estimate joint dynamics. Using this design tool, joint configurations were modified, and an acceptable joint redesign determined. The results of this analysis showed that the implementation of metal stops welded to support shafts for the purpose of preventing joint separation is a suitable joint redesign. Moreover, it was found that, for quakes of Landers` magnitude, mirror breakage due to enhanced vibration in the trough assembly is unlikely.

  1. The sequence and analysis of Trypanosoma brucei chromosome II

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sayed, Najib M. A.; Ghedin, Elodie; Song, Jinming; MacLeod, Annette; Bringaud, Frederic; Larkin, Christopher; Wanless, David; Peterson, Jeremy; Hou, Lihua; Taylor, Sonya; Tweedie, Alison; Biteau, Nicolas; Khalak, Hanif G.; Lin, Xiaoying; Mason, Tanya; Hannick, Linda; Caler, Elisabet; Blandin, Gaëlle; Bartholomeu, Daniella; Simpson, Anjana J.; Kaul, Samir; Zhao, Hong; Pai, Grace; Aken, Susan Van; Utterback, Teresa; Haas, Brian; Koo, Hean L.; Umayam, Lowell; Suh, Bernard; Gerrard, Caroline; Leech, Vanessa; Qi, Rong; Zhou, Shiguo; Schwartz, David; Feldblyum, Tamara; Salzberg, Steven; Tait, Andrew; Turner, C. Michael R.; Ullu, Elisabetta; White, Owen; Melville, Sara; Adams, Mark D.; Fraser, Claire M.; Donelson, John E.

    2003-01-01

    We report here the sequence of chromosome II from Trypanosoma brucei, the causative agent of African sleeping sickness. The 1.2-Mb pairs encode about 470 predicted genes organised in 17 directional clusters on either strand, the largest cluster of which has 92 genes lined up over a 284-kb region. An analysis of the GC skew reveals strand compositional asymmetries that coincide with the distribution of protein-coding genes, suggesting these asymmetries may be the result of transcription-coupled repair on coding versus non-coding strand. A 5-cM genetic map of the chromosome reveals recombinational ‘hot’ and ‘cold’ regions, the latter of which is predicted to include the putative centromere. One end of the chromosome consists of a 250-kb region almost exclusively composed of RHS (pseudo)genes that belong to a newly characterised multigene family containing a hot spot of insertion for retroelements. Interspersed with the RHS genes are a few copies of truncated RNA polymerase pseudogenes as well as expression site associated (pseudo)genes (ESAGs) 3 and 4, and 76 bp repeats. These features are reminiscent of a vestigial variant surface glycoprotein (VSG) gene expression site. The other end of the chromosome contains a 30-kb array of VSG genes, the majority of which are pseudogenes, suggesting that this region may be a site for modular de novo construction of VSG gene diversity during transposition/gene conversion events. PMID:12907728

  2. Surgical assessment of the insula. Part 1: surgical anatomy and morphometric analysis of the transsylvian and transcortical approaches to the insula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benet, Arnau; Hervey-Jumper, Shawn L; Sánchez, Jose Juan González; Lawton, Michael T; Berger, Mitchel S

    2016-02-01

    Transcortical and transsylvian corridors have been previously described as the main surgical approaches to the insula, but there is insufficient evidence to support one approach versus the other. The authors performed a cadaveric comparative study regarding insular exposure, surgical window and freedom, between the transcortical and transsylvian approaches (with and without cutting superficial sylvian bridging veins). Surgical anatomy and skull surface reference points to the different insular regions are also described. Sixteen cadaveric specimens were embalmed with a customized formula to enhance neurosurgical simulation. Two different blocks were defined in the study: first, transsylvian without (TS) and with the superficial sylvian bridging veins cut (TSVC) and transcortical (TC) approaches to the insula were simulated in all (16) specimens. Insular surface exposure, surgical window and surgical freedom were calculated for each procedure and related to the Berger-Sanai insular glioma classification (Zones I-IV) in 10 specimens. Second, the venous drainage pattern and anatomical landmarks considered critical for surgical planning were studied in all specimens. In the insular Zone I (anterior-superior), the TC approach provided the best insular exposure compared with both TS and TSVC. The surgical window obtained with the TC approach was also larger than that obtained with the TS. The TC approach provided 137% more surgical freedom than the TS approach. Only the TC corridor provided complete insular exposure. In Zone II (posterior-superior), results depended on the degree of opercular resection. Without resection of the precentral gyrus in the operculum, insula exposure, surgical windows and surgical freedom were equivalent. If the opercular cortex was resected, the insula exposure and surgical freedom obtained through the TC approach was greater to that of the other groups. In Zone III (posterior-inferior), the TC approach provided better surgical exposure than

  3. Comparison of a gross anatomy laboratory to online anatomy software for teaching anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathiowetz, Virgil; Yu, Chih-Huang; Quake-Rapp, Cindee

    2016-01-01

    This study was designed to assess the grades, self-perceived learning, and satisfaction between occupational therapy students who used a gross anatomy laboratory versus online anatomy software (AnatomyTV) as tools to learn anatomy at a large public university and a satellite campus in the mid-western United States. The goal was to determine if equivalent learning outcomes could be achieved regardless of learning tool used. In addition, it was important to determine why students chose the gross anatomy laboratory over online AnatomyTV. A two group, post-test only design was used with data gathered at the end of the course. Primary outcomes were students' grades, self-perceived learning, and satisfaction. In addition, a survey was used to collect descriptive data. One cadaver prosection was available for every four students in the gross anatomy laboratory. AnatomyTV was available online through the university library. At the conclusion of the course, the gross anatomy laboratory group had significantly higher grade percentage, self-perceived learning, and satisfaction than the AnatomyTV group. However, the practical significance of the difference is debatable. The significantly greater time spent in gross anatomy laboratory during the laboratory portion of the course may have affected the study outcomes. In addition, some students may find the difference in (B+) versus (A-) grade as not practically significant. Further research needs to be conducted to identify what specific anatomy teaching resources are most effective beyond prosection for students without access to a gross anatomy laboratory. © 2015 American Association of Anatomists.

  4. Introduction to anatomy on Wikipedia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledger, Thomas Stephen

    2017-09-01

    Wikipedia (www.wikipedia.com) is the largest encyclopaedia in existence. Of over five million English-language articles, about 6000 relate to Anatomy, which are viewed roughly 30 million times monthly. No work parallels the amount of attention, scope or interdisciplinary layout of Wikipedia, and it offers a unique opportunity to improve the anatomical literacy of the masses. Anatomy on Wikipedia is introduced from an editor's perspective. Article contributors, content, layout and accuracy are discussed, with a view to demystifying editing for anatomy professionals. A final request for edits or on-site feedback from anatomy professionals is made. © 2017 Anatomical Society.

  5. SIMMER-II analysis of transition-phase experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wehner, T.R.; Bell, C.R.

    1985-01-01

    Analyses of Los Alamos transition-phase experiments with the SIMMER-II computer code are reported. These transient boilup experiments simulated the recriticality-induced transient motion of a boiling pool of molten fuel, molten steel and steel vapor, within a subassembly duct in a liquid-metal fast breeder reactor during the transition phase of a core-disruptive accident. The two purposes of these experiments were to explore and reach a better understanding of fast reactor safety issues, and to provide data for SIMMER-II verification. Experimental data, consisting of four pressure traces and a high-speed movie, were recorded for four sets of initial conditions. For three of the four cases, SIMMER-II-calculated pressures compared reasonably well with the experimental pressures. After a modification to SIMMER-II's liquid-vapor drag correlation, the comparison for the fourth case was reasonable also. 12 refs., 4 figs

  6. Macroscopic and microscopic analysis of the thumb carpometacarpal ligaments: a cadaveric study of ligament anatomy and histology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladd, Amy L; Lee, Julia; Hagert, Elisabet

    2012-08-15

    Stability and mobility represent the paradoxical demands of the human thumb carpometacarpal joint, yet the structural origin of each functional demand is poorly defined. As many as sixteen and as few as four ligaments have been described as primary stabilizers, but controversy exists as to which ligaments are most important. We hypothesized that a comparative macroscopic and microscopic analysis of the ligaments of the thumb carpometacarpal joint would further define their role in joint stability. Thirty cadaveric hands (ten fresh-frozen and twenty embalmed) from nineteen cadavers (eight female and eleven male; average age at the time of death, seventy-six years) were dissected, and the supporting ligaments of the thumb carpometacarpal joint were identified. Ligament width, length, and thickness were recorded for morphometric analysis and were compared with use of the Student t test. The dorsal and volar ligaments were excised from the fresh-frozen specimens and were stained with use of a triple-staining immunofluorescent technique and underwent semiquantitative analysis of sensory innervation; half of these specimens were additionally analyzed for histomorphometric data. Mixed-effects linear regression was used to estimate differences between ligaments. Seven principal ligaments of the thumb carpometacarpal joint were identified: three dorsal deltoid-shaped ligaments (dorsal radial, dorsal central, posterior oblique), two volar ligaments (anterior oblique and ulnar collateral), and two ulnar ligaments (dorsal trapeziometacarpal and intermetacarpal). The dorsal ligaments were significantly thicker (p anterior oblique ligament (p anterior oblique ligament was consistently a thin structure with a histologic appearance of capsular tissue with low cellularity. The dorsal deltoid ligament complex is uniformly stout and robust; this ligament complex is the thickest morphometrically, has the highest cellularity histologically, and shows the greatest degree of sensory

  7. A radiographic study of pediatric ulnar anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cravino, Mattia; Oni, Julius K; Sala, Debra A; Chu, Alice

    2014-01-01

    The adult ulna has a unique bony architecture that has been described in the literature, but, to the best of our knowledge, the ulnar anatomy in children has not been described. We examined 75 anteroposterior (AP) and 64 lateral radiographs (29 were bilateral) of 50, 0.5- to 11-year-old, healthy children's forearms. On AP radiographs, the total ulnar length, the ulnar proximal angle, the ulnar distal angle, and the distance between each angle from the tip of the triceps insertion; and, on lateral radiographs, the ulnar length and bow deviation were measured. The correlation between age and radiographic measurements, differences based on sex, differences compared with adults' measurements, and interobserver/intraobserver reliability were assessed. Age had a very strong/strong positive correlation with length/distance measurements on both AP and lateral radiographs. Only AP ulnar distal angle was significantly different between sexes (females > males). Compared with the adult ulnar studies, the AP proximal angle in children is significantly smaller and the location of this angle is significantly more distal. Interobserver and intraobserver reliability were very good for length/distance measurements on AP and lateral radiographs. The knowledge of pediatric ulnar anatomy could be helpful in the treatment of forearm deformities due to multiple hereditary exostosis and osteogenesis imperfecta, and in the treatment of ulnar fractures, particularly in Monteggia variants, where restoration of the correct forearm anatomy is essential to obtain good clinical and functional results. Study of diagnostic test, Level II.

  8. LEARNING ANATOMY WITH AUGMENTED REALITY

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Cita; Dyhrberg O'Neill, Lotte; Nielsen, Kurt Gammelgaard

    An Augmented Reality (AR) app for Hololens glasses was developed to help students learn the anatomy of the human body mediastinum. In this research project, we wanted to evaluate whether AR: strengthened the students’ self-efficacy and motivation, helped students to improve learning, and provided...... students with a good learning experience. During class students circulated between different learning stations of 35 minutes duration each. The students at the mediastinum station were randomly divided into three groups. One group received traditional teaching with PowerPoint presentation of CT scans......’ scores on the mediastinum questions in the exam 2 month later were collected to examine the long-term memory of content. Internal consistency was estimated for all measures. Correlations between measures were examined with a correlation matrix, and group differences were examined with one-way analysis...

  9. Helios: History and Anatomy of a Successful In-House Enterprise High-Throughput Screening and Profiling Data Analysis System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gubler, Hanspeter; Clare, Nicholas; Galafassi, Laurent; Geissler, Uwe; Girod, Michel; Herr, Guy

    2018-01-01

    We describe the main characteristics of the Novartis Helios data analysis software system (Novartis, Basel, Switzerland) for plate-based screening and profiling assays, which was designed and built about 11 years ago. It has been in productive use for more than 10 years and is one of the important standard software applications running for a large user community at all Novartis Institutes for BioMedical Research sites globally. A high degree of automation is reached by embedding the data analysis capabilities into a software ecosystem that deals with the management of samples, plates, and result data files, including automated data loading. The application provides a series of analytical procedures, ranging from very simple to advanced, which can easily be assembled by users in very flexible ways. This also includes the automatic derivation of a large set of quality control (QC) characteristics at every step. Any of the raw, intermediate, and final results and QC-relevant quantities can be easily explored through linked visualizations. Links to global assay metadata management, data warehouses, and an electronic lab notebook system are in place. Automated transfer of relevant data to data warehouses and electronic lab notebook systems are also implemented.

  10. Who Is Repeating Anatomy? Trends in an Undergraduate Anatomy Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schutte, Audra F.

    2016-01-01

    Anatomy courses frequently serve as prerequisites or requirements for health sciences programs. Due to the challenging nature of anatomy, each semester there are students remediating the course (enrolled in the course for a second time), attempting to earn a grade competitive for admissions into a program of study. In this retrospective study,…

  11. Surgical anatomy of the profunda brachii artery | Pulei | Anatomy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Knowledge of this unusual anatomy is important during brachial artery catheterization and harvesting of lateral arm flaps. One hundred and forty four arms from 72 cadavers of black Kenyans were dissected and examined for the origin and termination of PBA at the Department of Human Anatomy, University of Nairobi, ...

  12. Health Instruction Packages: Cardiac Anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Gwen; And Others

    Text, illustrations, and exercises are utilized in these five learning modules to instruct nurses, students, and other health care professionals in cardiac anatomy and functions and in fundamental electrocardiographic techniques. The first module, "Cardiac Anatomy and Physiology: A Review" by Gwen Phillips, teaches the learner to draw…

  13. Archives: Anatomy Journal of Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 13 of 13 ... Archives: Anatomy Journal of Africa. Journal Home > Archives: Anatomy Journal of Africa. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives. 1 - 13 of 13 Items. 2017 ...

  14. CONTRIBUTIONS OF SUSHRUTA TO ANATOMY

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2005-08-08

    Aug 8, 2005 ... Probably, the exhaustive knowledge of basic sciences he had would have made him a versatile surgeon. This article has compiled the contributions of this great stalwart to anatomy and interprets his perspective towards teaching this subject. Keywords: Sushruta, Dissection, Cadaver, Anatomy, Preservation.

  15. Virtual reality anatomy: is it comparable with traditional methods in the teaching of human forearm musculoskeletal anatomy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Codd, Anthony M; Choudhury, Bipasha

    2011-01-01

    The use of cadavers to teach anatomy is well established, but limitations with this approach have led to the introduction of alternative teaching methods. One such method is the use of three-dimensional virtual reality computer models. An interactive, three-dimensional computer model of human forearm anterior compartment musculoskeletal anatomy was produced using the open source 3D imaging program "Blender." The aim was to evaluate the use of 3D virtual reality when compared with traditional anatomy teaching methods. Three groups were identified from the University of Manchester second year Human Anatomy Research Skills Module class: a "control" group (no prior knowledge of forearm anatomy), a "traditional methods" group (taught using dissection and textbooks), and a "model" group (taught solely using e-resource). The groups were assessed on anatomy of the forearm by a ten question practical examination. ANOVA analysis showed the model group mean test score to be significantly higher than the control group (mean 7.25 vs. 1.46, P traditional methods group (mean 6.87, P > 0.5). Feedback from all users of the e-resource was positive. Virtual reality anatomy learning can be used to compliment traditional teaching methods effectively. Copyright © 2011 American Association of Anatomists.

  16. Perception of medical students towards the clinical relevance of anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moxham, B J; Plaisant, O

    2007-07-01

    Recent developments worldwide in medical curricula have often led to major cuts in the teaching of human anatomy. Indeed, it is perceived by some that gross (topographical) anatomy has an exaggerated importance in the initial training of doctors. The value of anatomy consequently has frequently been considerably diminished within medical curricula that have reduced factual content. To date, however, there have been no objective studies into the perceived relevance of anatomy to clinical medicine that have aimed to quantify the attitudes of medical students. On the basis of responses to an attitude analysis questionnaire devised according to the precepts of Thurstone and Chave (The Measurement of Attitude: A Psychophysical Method and Some Experiments with a Scale for Measuring Attitude Toward the Church. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press, 1951), we investigated the perception of medical students at Cardiff and Paris towards the importance of gross anatomy to clinical medicine. This was undertaken during the early stages of their studies (when they were newly-admitted to university and were about to commence anatomy courses), immediately after finishing their anatomy courses, and later in the final year of medical studies. The results suggest that, even where there might be geopolitical and cultural backgrounds, students at all stages of their medical course share with professional anatomists the view that anatomy is a very important subject for their clinical studies. Thus, contrary to the unquantified beliefs of those who are sceptical about the purpose and value of anatomy in an undergraduate medical curriculum, the students themselves do not appear to share such beliefs. Copyright 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  17. The quail anatomy portal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruparelia, Avnika A; Simkin, Johanna E; Salgado, David; Newgreen, Donald F; Martins, Gabriel G; Bryson-Richardson, Robert J

    2014-01-01

    The Japanese quail is a widely used model organism for the study of embryonic development; however, anatomical resources are lacking. The Quail Anatomy Portal (QAP) provides 22 detailed three-dimensional (3D) models of quail embryos during development from embryonic day (E)1 to E15 generated using optical projection tomography. The 3D models provided can be virtually sectioned to investigate anatomy. Furthermore, using the 3D nature of the models, we have generated a tool to assist in the staging of quail samples. Volume renderings of each stage are provided and can be rotated to allow visualization from multiple angles allowing easy comparison of features both between stages in the database and between images or samples in the laboratory. The use of JavaScript, PHP and HTML ensure the database is accessible to users across different operating systems, including mobile devices, facilitating its use in the laboratory.The QAP provides a unique resource for researchers using the quail model. The ability to virtually section anatomical models throughout development provides the opportunity for researchers to virtually dissect the quail and also provides a valuable tool for the education of students and researchers new to the field. DATABASE URL: http://quail.anatomyportal.org (For review username: demo, password: quail123).

  18. Quantificational analysis of NPT-II protein from genetically modified ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Widely distributed inhibitors in grapevine extracts make it difficult to improve analytical procedures for protein detection. In this study, acidity in grapevine extracts was one of the major factors inhibiting the detection of neomycin phosphotransferase II via enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Leaf and berry extracts with low ...

  19. Quantificational analysis of NPT-II protein from genetically modified ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2010-06-07

    Jun 7, 2010 ... contents in transgenic grapevine tissues possessing a NPT-II gene were successfully measured. The results here may be useful to ... Key words: pH adjustment, polyphenol, protein detection, protein inhibitor, transgenic. INTRODUCTION ... the food industry (Mouщcoucou et al., 2003; Weinbreck et al., 2004 ...

  20. Analysis of Technical efficiency of National Fadama II Facility on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study measured the level of technical efficiency and its determinants in Fadama II Arable Crops farmers in Imo State, Nigeria using a stochastic Frontier Production Function. Multi-stage random sampling technique was used to select 120 arable crop farmers from which input-output data were collected. Instrument of ...

  1. Shape analysis of pulsed second sound in He II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Worthington, T.; Yan, J.; Trefny, J.U.

    1976-01-01

    Second sound in He II has been observed using a heat pulse method. At temperatures where well-developed second sound is observed, the entire pulse shape can be understood if heat sources and geometrical effects are properly taken into account. 4 figures

  2. An ICF-CY-Based Content Analysis of the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales-II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleason, Kara; Coster, Wendy

    2012-01-01

    Background: The International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF), and its version for children and youth (ICF-CY), has been increasingly adopted as a system to describe function and disability. A content analysis of the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales-II (VABS-II) was conducted to examine congruence with the functioning…

  3. An investigation of the relationship between having recent knowledge in basic biology and student success in Anatomy and Physiology I

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Edward T.

    Allied Health Programs generally require that students complete coursework in Human Anatomy and Physiology I and II as part of their Pre-Allied Health curriculum. Human Anatomy and Physiology I generally has as a prerequisite some coursework in basic biology. Basic biology as a prerequisite should provide students with the foundation of knowledge in the basic biological principles and processes that will prepare them for the material presented in a Human Anatomy and Physiology I course and the Allied Health Program. The principle question that prompted this study was, Do students need coursework in basic biology to be successful in Anatomy and Physiology I? The purpose of this study was to determine if there was a difference in the exam average obtained in Biology 202, Human Anatomy and Physiology I, for those students who have had, within the previous three years, a foundation course in basic biology as compared to those students who have not, within the previous three years, had a foundation course in basic biology. The current study analyzed data obtained on 642 students who were enrolled in Biology 202, Anatomy and Physiology I, during the Fall semester of 2000 to the Spring semester of 2003 at Wor-Wic Community College. Statistical techniques including an ANOVA, Pearson Product Moment Correlation, and a Multiple Regression Analysis were conducted to reveal any relationships in the data. The dependent variable was the exam average obtained in the independent variables included the time period since the student had taken a basic biology course, sex, age, and college GPA. The results of the ANOVA indicated that there was no relationship between the exam average between current and non-current students, where alpha = 0.05 and p = 0.783. There was statistically significance for GPA, where p = 0 .000. There was also statistically significant interactions between last biology course and GPA, p = 0.05, last biology course, sex, and GPA, p = 0.002. The Pearson Product

  4. Can image-based virtual reality help teach anatomy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seixas-Mikelus, Stéfanie A; Adal, Adaffaras; Kesavadas, Thenkurussi; Baheti, Ankur; Srimathveeravalli, Govindarajan; Hussain, Abid; Chandrasekhar, Rameela; Wilding, Gregory E; Guru, Khurshid A

    2010-04-01

    To assess the utilization of a novel virtual reality robotic surgical simulator (RoSS) in surgical anatomy training and pattern recognition. Ten surgical trainees (medical students and residents) were recruited to participate in a study that evaluated the efficacy of a robotic simulator in anatomy training. The subjects were divided into two groups of five individuals each. Each participant received a syllabus consisting of line diagrams and color pictures of the human anatomy. All participants were later tested on identifying the same five anatomical landmarks from photographs from actual laparoscopic procedures. Group I studied the syllabus and took the test. Group II similarly studied the syllabus, but were trained on the RoSS system using cognitive skill sets and then took the same test. Group II were asked to complete a posttest survey. Mean time to complete the test was 142.8 seconds for group I and 118.4 seconds for group II. Mean number of errors committed by the group trained on RoSS was 0.4 out of 5, whereas the group that did not undergo training on RoSS committed 1.7 out of 5. The mean number of correct answers given by group I was 2.9 out of 5, whereas group II answered 4.2 out 5 correctly. All results were statistically significant. The subjects rated the anatomy module helpful, with a mean rating of 3.6 out of 5. RoSS is an effective tool in anatomy training. Further testing is underway to illustrate its important role in medical education and robotic surgical training.

  5. Analysis of data collected by the Tatyana II satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lilianaa, Rivera; Oscar, Martínez; Eduardo, Mendoza-Torres; Humberto, Salazar

    2011-04-01

    The Tatyana II satellite is the second one of the University Satellite Program, which is led by the Moscow State University with the participation of the Benemerita Universidad Autonoma de Puebla. This satellite has ultraviolet, red-infrared and charged particles detectors. In this work preliminary results based on the data collected by these detectors on board the satellite over a period of ~3.5 months are presented.

  6. Analysis of data collected by the Tatyana II satellite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rivera, Lilianaa; Mendoza-Torres, Eduardo; Martinez, Oscar; Salazar, Humberto

    2011-01-01

    The Tatyana II satellite is the second one of the University Satellite Program, which is led by the Moscow State University with the participation of the Benemerita Universidad Autonoma de Puebla. This satellite has ultraviolet, red-infrared and charged particles detectors. In this work preliminary results based on the data collected by these detectors on board the satellite over a period of ∼3.5 months are presented.

  7. Gold nanorods for surface Plasmon resonance detection of mercury (II) in flow injection analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trieu, Khang; Heider, Emily C; Brooks, Scott C; Barbosa, Fernando; Campiglia, Andres D

    2014-10-01

    This article investigates the flow injection analysis of mercury (II) ions in tap water samples via surface Plasmon resonance detection. Quantitative analysis of mercury (II) is based on the chemical interaction of metallic mercury with gold nanorods immobilized on a glass substrate. A new flow cell design is presented with the ability to accommodate the detecting substrate in the sample compartment of commercial spectrometers. Two alternatives are here considered for mercury (II) detection, namely stop-flow and continuous flow injection analysis modes. The best limit of detection (2.4 ng mL(-1)) was obtained with the continuous flow injection analysis approach. The accurate determination of mercury (II) ions in samples of unknown composition is demonstrated with a fortified tap water sample. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. High Sensitivity, High Frequency Sensors for Hypervelocity Testing and Analysis, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This NASA Phase II SBIR program would develop high sensitivity, high frequency nanomembrane based surface sensors for hypervelocity testing and analysis on wind...

  9. Anatomy Journal of Africa: Editorial Policies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This journal has its editorial office based at the department of Human Anatomy, University of Nairobi, and has biannual issues (January and July issues). We accept and publish a wide variety of papers including: - Applied anatomy - Clinical anatomy - Morphology, - Embryology - Anatomical techniques and Variant anatomy.

  10. Blended learning in anatomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Gert Værge; Brogner, Heidi Marie

    behind DBR is that new knowledge is generated through processes that simultaneously develop, test and improve a design, in this case, an educational design (1) The main principles used in the project is blended learning and flipped learning (2). …"I definitely learn best in practice, but the theory...... in working with the assignments in the classroom."... External assesor, observer and interviewer Based on the different evaluations, the conclusion are that the blended learning approach combined with the ‘flipped classroom’ is a very good way to learn and apply the anatomy, both for the students......The aim of the project was to bridge the gap between theory and practice by working more collaboratively, both peer-to-peer and between student and lecturer. Furthermore the aim was to create active learning environments. The methodology of the project is Design-Based Research (DBR). The idea...

  11. VISUALIZATION OF REGISTERED SUBSURFACE ANATOMY

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2010-01-01

    A system and method for visualization of subsurface anatomy includes obtaining a first image from a first camera and a second image from a second camera or a second channel of the first camera, where the first and second images contain shared anatomical structures. The second camera and the second...... channel of the first camera are capable of imaging anatomy beneath the surface in ultra-violet, visual, or infra-red spectrum. A data processor is configured for computing registration of the first image to the second image to provide visualization of subsurface anatomy during surgical procedures...

  12. Editorial: Anatomy Journal Of Africa | Kramer | Anatomy Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Anatomy Journal of Africa. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 2, No 2 (2013) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  13. Anatomy education in occupational therapy curricula: Perspectives of practitioners in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schofield, Katherine A

    2017-08-30

    The study of human anatomy is an integral component in the education of future occupational therapists, yet there is a paucity of research that explores the anatomy needs of students and new practitioners. As a follow up from a pilot study that surveyed a small cohort of practicing therapists, this article aimed to determine occupational therapy (OT) practitioners' views on anatomy course structure and content deemed important to include in OT curricula, entry level practitioners' anatomy knowledge, and application of anatomy in current practice. A Likert scale and free text questionnaire was distributed to practicing occupational therapists across the United States. Fifty-four percent of the participants in this cohort favored a standalone course, as compared to 94% in the pilot study group. Anatomy course content areas were comparable across groups. Systems identified as essential to cover in an OT anatomy course included skeletal, muscular, and nervous. Regions included the upper limb, thorax/trunk, head and neck, and lower limb. Seventy percent of participants in both groups felt that entry-level practitioners had adequate anatomy knowledge; 30% did not. Practice areas requiring anatomy knowledge included assessment of joint movement, muscle strength, pain, and functional mobility. Qualitative analysis of free text response data revealed the importance of anatomy knowledge in OT assessment and intervention strategies, determining the impact of injury or disease on occupational performance, client safety, and communication with other health care professionals and families. Anat Sci Educ. © 2017 American Association of Anatomists. © 2017 American Association of Anatomists.

  14. Analysis of medicine consumption in peacekeeping level II hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Lan; Liu, Huiling; Li, Chunfeng; Gao, Guangkai

    2014-01-01

    The peacekeeping military units of contributing countries are unfamiliar with the conditions prevailing in foreign mission areas and therefore have difficulties with medical supplies storage. The aim of this study is to provide reasonable and practical guidance on the maintenance of medical supplies in the peacekeeping military units of contributing countries. A total of 1,972 prescriptions were received by the pharmacy in the peacekeeping level II hospital in the Republic of Sudan from February to July of 2009 including a total of 186 drug categories and 17,713 minimum packing units. Pairwise comparison was performed using the c2 test. When the total number of samples was smaller than 40, the Fisher's exact test was adopted for pairwise comparison. The majority of the consumed medicines mainly belonged to 6 categories, including specialty drugs, anti-microbial drugs, Chinese patent medicines, gastrointestinal drugs, central nervous system drugs, and drugs regulating fluids, electrolytes, and acid-base balance. Altogether, the drugs in the 6 categories accounted for 74% of all consumed medicines that were divided into a total of 20 categories. Medicine consumption in peacekeeping level II hospitals is unique, therefore the drugs used in military medical facilities should be prepared according to their actual needs in the area of peacekeeping operations.

  15. Generative Anatomy Modeling Language (GAML).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirel, Doga; Yu, Alexander; Baer-Cooper, Seth; Halic, Tansel; Bayrak, Coskun

    2017-12-01

    This paper presents the Generative Anatomy Modeling Language (GAML) for generating variation of 3D virtual human anatomy in real-time. This framework provides a set of operators for modification of a reference base 3D anatomy. The perturbation of the 3D models is satisfied with nonlinear geometry constraints to create an authentic human anatomy. GAML was used to create 3D difficult anatomical scenarios for virtual simulation of airway management techniques such as Endotracheal Intubation (ETI) and Cricothyroidotomy (CCT). Difficult scenarios for each technique were defined and the model variations procedurally created with GAML. This study presents details of the GAML design, set of operators, types of constraints. Cases of CCT and ETI difficulty were generated and confirmed by expert surgeons. Execution performance pertaining to an increasing complexity of constraints using nonlinear programming was in real-time execution. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Olfaction: anatomy, physiology and behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Benignus, Vernon A.; Prah, James D.

    1982-01-01

    The anatomy, physiology and function of the olfactory system are reviewed, as are the normal effects of olfactory stimulation. It is speculated that olfaction may have important but unobtrusive effects on human behavior.

  17. Effectiveness of a radiology-anatomy instructional module in a clinical course on oral radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imanaka, Masahiro; Tamaki, Yoh; Nomura, Yoshiaki

    2007-01-01

    An insufficient knowledge of anatomy often complicates the interpretation of radiological findings by students learning clinical medicine. During a 3-week clinical course in oral radiology, students attended lectures on anatomy for half of each day. Our objectives were to evaluate this program and determine why some students remained unmotivated to learn anatomy. Surveys were carried out using two questionnaires, one for evaluating the students' beliefs regarding the necessity of knowing anatomy and their understanding of radiology and anatomy, and the other for determining the value of the educational program. In total, 126 questionnaires were analyzed. Structural equation modeling and decision analysis were used to analyze the data obtained. Beliefs regarding the necessity of knowing anatomy were explained by three variables: the necessity of knowing imaging anatomy, the necessity of knowing gross anatomy, and understanding of anatomy. Awareness of the necessity of knowing anatomy and understanding of graphical images were not strongly correlated. The educational program was characterized by two factors: 'value' and 'appropriateness' These were strongly correlated. Student interest in the content of the course was found to be the most important factor in student evaluations of the educational program. Students who answered 'agree', 'disagree' or 'strongly disagree' to three items, interested in the content of the course', 'obtained knowledge through the course' and 'expected the course to be useful in the near future were likely to have insufficient understanding of and awareness of the necessity of radiology and anatomy. The inclusion of lectures on anatomy is beneficial for improving student understanding of oral radiology. Student interest in the content is important in evaluations of radiology-anatomy programs. (author)

  18. Skeletal anatomy of the hand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panchal-Kildare, Surbhi; Malone, Kevin

    2013-11-01

    The skeletal anatomy of the hand is composed of phalanges, metacarpal bones, and carpal bones. Its function is a product of the complex interactions between the power provided by the intrinsic and extrinsic musculature, the stability provided by the ligaments, and the structure provided by the bones, which serve as insertion and attachment sites for the muscles and ligaments. This article provides a detailed description of the skeletal anatomy of the human hand. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Analysis of NASA communications (Nascom) II network protocols and performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omidyar, Guy C.; Butler, Thomas E.

    1991-01-01

    The NASA Communications (Nascom) Division of the Mission Operations and Data Systems Directorate is to undertake a major initiative to develop the Nascom II (NII) network to achieve its long-range service objectives for operational data transport to support the Space Station Freedom Program, the Earth Observing System, and other projects. NII is the Nascom ground communications network being developed to accommodate the operational traffic of the mid-1990s and beyond. The authors describe various baseline protocol architectures based on current and evolving technologies. They address the internetworking issues suggested for reliable transfer of data over heterogeneous segments. They also describe the NII architecture, topology, system components, and services. A comparative evaluation of the current and evolving technologies was made, and suggestions for further study are described. It is shown that the direction of the NII configuration and the subsystem component design will clearly depend on the advances made in the area of broadband integrated services.

  20. Impedance analysis of the PEP-II vacuum chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ng, C.K.; Weiland, T.

    1995-05-01

    The PEP-II high energy ring (HER) vacuum chamber consists of a copper tube with periodically spaced pumping slots. The impedance of the vacuum chamber due to the slots is analyzed. Both narrow-band and broadband impedances are considered as well as longitudinal and transverse components thereof. It is found that although the broad-band impedance is tolerable, the narrow-band impedance may exceed the instability limit given by the natural damping with no feedback system on. Traveling wave modes in the chamber are the major source of this high value narrow-band impedance. We also study the dependences of the impedance on the slot length and the geometrical cross section

  1. Microchip Capillary Electrophoresis for In Situ Water Analysis, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In this Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) project, Leiden Measurement Technology, LLC (LMT) will develop a portable microfludic analysis instrument for...

  2. A computer aided tolerancing tool, II: tolerance analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salomons, O.W.; Haalboom, F.J.; Jonge poerink, H.J.; van Slooten, F.; van Slooten, F.; van Houten, Frederikus J.A.M.; Kals, H.J.J.

    1996-01-01

    A computer aided tolerance analysis tool is presented that assists the designer in evaluating worst case quality of assembly after tolerances have been specified. In tolerance analysis calculations, sets of equations are generated. The number of equations can be restricted by using a minimum number

  3. Melanie II--a third-generation software package for analysis of two-dimensional electrophoresis images: II. Algorithms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appel, R D; Vargas, J R; Palagi, P M; Walther, D; Hochstrasser, D F

    1997-12-01

    After two generations of software systems for the analysis of two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) images, a third generation of such software packages has recently emerged that combines state-of-the-art graphical user interfaces with comprehensive spot data analysis capabilities. A key characteristic common to most of these software packages is that many of their tools are implementations of algorithms that resulted from research areas such as image processing, vision, artificial intelligence or machine learning. This article presents the main algorithms implemented in the Melanie II 2-D PAGE software package. The applications of these algorithms, embodied as the feature of the program, are explained in an accompanying article (R. D. Appel et al.; Electrophoresis 1997, 18, 2724-2734).

  4. Guidelines for uncertainty analysis developed for the participants in the BIOMOVS II study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baeverstam, U.; Davis, P.; Garcia-Olivares, A.; Henrich, E.; Koch, J.

    1993-07-01

    This report has been produced to provide guidelines for uncertainty analysis for use by participants in the BIOMOVS II study. It is hoped that others with an interest in modelling contamination in the biosphere will also find it useful. The report has been prepared by members of the Uncertainty and Validation Working Group and has been reviewed by other BIOMOVS II participants. The opinions expressed are those of the authors and should not be taken to represent the views of the BIOMOVS II sponsors or other BIOMOVS Il participating organisations

  5. Penile Embryology and Anatomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny H. Yiee

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge of penile embryology and anatomy is essential to any pediatric urologist in order to fully understand and treat congenital anomalies. Sex differentiation of the external genitalia occurs between the 7thand 17th weeks of gestation. The Y chromosome initiates male differentiation through the SRY gene, which triggers testicular development. Under the influence of androgens produced by the testes, external genitalia then develop into the penis and scrotum. Dorsal nerves supply penile skin sensation and lie within Buck's fascia. These nerves are notably absent at the 12 o'clock position. Perineal nerves supply skin sensation to the ventral shaft skin and frenulum. Cavernosal nerves lie within the corpora cavernosa and are responsible for sexual function. Paired cavernosal, dorsal, and bulbourethral arteries have extensive anastomotic connections. During erection, the cavernosal artery causes engorgement of the cavernosa, while the deep dorsal artery leads to glans enlargement. The majority of venous drainage occurs through a single, deep dorsal vein into which multiple emissary veins from the corpora and circumflex veins from the spongiosum drain. The corpora cavernosa and spongiosum are all made of spongy erectile tissue. Buck's fascia circumferentially envelops all three structures, splitting into two leaves ventrally at the spongiosum. The male urethra is composed of six parts: bladder neck, prostatic, membranous, bulbous, penile, and fossa navicularis. The urethra receives its blood supply from both proximal and distal directions.

  6. Microfluidic Cytometer for Complete Blood Count Analysis, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We will fabricate and test microfluidic designs for a micro-electromechanical system based complete blood count (CBC) analysis in separate modules and integrate them...

  7. Compact Sensor for Isotope and Trace Gas Analysis, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to develop and demonstrate a new sensor platform for isotope and trace-gas analysis that is appropriate for future planetary missions. Among other...

  8. Microscopic Analysis and Modeling of Airport Surface Sequencing, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Although a number of airportal surface models exist and have been successfully used for analysis of airportal operations, only recently has it become possible to...

  9. ATC Operations Analysis via Automatic Recognition of Clearances, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Recent advances in airport surface surveillance have motivated the creation of new tools for analysis of Air Traffic Control (ATC) operations, such as the Surface...

  10. Compact Laser for In-Situ Compositional Analysis, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In response to NASA's solicitation for light-weight and power efficient instruments that enable in situ compositional analysis, Q-Peak in partnership with the...

  11. Surface Operations Data Analysis and Adaptation Tool, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This effort undertook the creation of a Surface Operations Data Analysis and Adaptation (SODAA) tool to store data relevant to airport surface research and...

  12. Transient Particle Transport Analysis on TJ-II Stellarator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eguilior, S.; Castejon, F.; Guasp, J.; Estrada, T.; Medina, F.; Tabares, F.L.; Branas, B.

    2006-12-18

    Particle diffusivity and convective velocity have been determined in ECRH plasmas confined in the stellarator TJ-II by analysing the evolving density profile. This is obtained from an amplitude modulation reflectometry system in addition to an X-ray tomographic reconstruction. The source term, which is needed as an input for transport equations, is obtained using EIRENE code. In order to discriminate between the diffusive and convective contributions, the dynamics of the density evolution has been analysed in several perturbative experiments. This evolution has been considered in discharges with injection of a single pulse of H2 as well as in those that present a spontaneous transition to an enhanced confinement mode and whose confinement properties are modified by inducing an ohmic current. The pinch velocity and diffusivity are parameterized by different expressions in order to fit the experimental time evolution of density profile. The profile evolution is very different from one case to another due to the different values of convective velocities and diffusivities, besides the different source terms. (Author) 19 refs.

  13. Coronary sinus anatomy: Ajmer Working Group Classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gokhroo, R K; Bisht, Devendra Singh; Padmanabhan, Deepak; Gupta, Sajal

    2014-02-01

    Coronary sinus (CS) anatomy is a major predictor of successful implantation of left ventricular (LV) lead and procedural outcome. We therefore made an attempt to look at the CS anatomy and possible feasibility to classify them into categories depending upon their size, branching pattern, location of posterolateral vein (PLV), and other parameters in order to guide the cardiologist for successful cannulation of the CS and LV lead implantation. We analyzed the levophase angiograms of patients (n = 100) undergoing routine coronary angiography in the right anterior oblique view. We have made an attempt to classify these observations on the basis of predetermined parameters and a working classification was brought out for the ease of the operator and to predict the bottlenecks of the procedure. On the basis of predetermined parameters, venograms obtained from 100 patients were analyzed and findings were divided into three groups depending upon the ease of cannulation of posterolateral vein for LV lead placement. These 3 groups were further classified as type I, type II, and type III coronary sinuses. This observational study proposes a new anatomical working classification for CS for purposes of successful LV lead placement and optimal operative success.

  14. Enhancement of peroxyoxalate chemiluminescence by copper (II) in flow-injection analysis: optimization by factorial design analysis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steijger, O.M.; den Nieuwenboer, H.C.M.; Lingeman, H.; Brinkman, U.A.T.; Holthuis, J.J.M.; Smilde, A.K.

    1996-01-01

    A flow injection analysis (FIA) system with peroxyoxalate chemiluminescence (CL) detection was optimized by factorial design analysis in the absence and presence of Cu(II) ions. The carrier stream was a mixture of acetonitrile and an aqueous imidazole solution of pH 7.0. The effect of the metal ions

  15. Photovoltaic venture analysis. Final report. Volume II. Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costello, D.; Posner, D.; Schiffel, D.; Doane, J.; Bishop, C.

    1978-07-01

    A description of the integrating model for photovoltaic venture analysis is given; input assumptions for the model are described; and the integrating model program listing is given. The integrating model is an explicit representation of the interactions between photovoltaic markets and supply under alternative sets of assumptions. It provides a consistent way of assembling and integrating the various assumptions, data, and information that have been obtained on photovoltaic systems supply and demand factors. Secondly, it provides a mechanism for understanding the implications of all the interacting assumptions. By representing the assumptions in a common, explicit framework, much more complex interactions can be considered than are possible intuitively. The integrating model therefore provides a way of examining the relative importance of different assumptions, parameters, and inputs through sensitivity analysis. Also, detailed results of model sensitivity analysis and detailed market and systems information are presented. (WHK)

  16. Molecular characterization and interactome analysis of Trypanosoma cruzi tryparedoxin II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias, Diego G; Piñeyro, María Dolores; Iglesias, Alberto A; Guerrero, Sergio A; Robello, Carlos

    2015-04-29

    antioxidant mechanisms constitute an active field of investigation, since they could provide the basis for a rational drug development. Peroxide detoxification in this parasite is achieved by ascorbate peroxidase and different thiol-dependent peroxidases. Among them, both mitochondrial and cytosolic tryparedoxin peroxidases, typical two-cysteine peroxiredoxins, were found to be important for hydrogen peroxide and peroxynitrite detoxification and their expression levels correlated with parasite infectivity and virulence. In trypanosomes tryparedoxins and not thioredoxins act as peroxiredoxin reductases, suggesting that these enzymes substitute thioredoxins in these parasites. T. cruzi possesses two tryparedoxin genes, TcTXNI and TcTXN II. Since thioredoxins are proteins with several targets actively participating of complex redox networks, we have previously investigated if this is the case also for TcTXNI, for which we described relevant partners (J Proteomics. 2011;74(9):1683-92). In this manuscript we investigated the interactions of TcTXNII. We have designed an active site mutant tryparedoxin II lacking the resolving cysteine and, through the expression of this mutant protein and its incubation with T. cruzi proteins, hetero disulfide complexes were isolated by affinity chromatography purification and identified by electrophoresis separation and MS identification. This allowed us to identify sixteen TcTXNII interacting proteins which are involved in different and relevant cellular processes. Moreover, we demonstrate that TcTXNII is a transmembrane protein anchored to the surface of the mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Can "YouTube" help students in learning surface anatomy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azer, Samy A

    2012-07-01

    In a problem-based learning curriculum, most medical students research the Internet for information for their "learning issues." Internet sites such as "YouTube" have become a useful resource for information. This study aimed at assessing YouTube videos covering surface anatomy. A search of YouTube was conducted from November 8 to 30, 2010 using research terms "surface anatomy," "anatomy body painting," "living anatomy," "bone landmarks," and "dermatomes" for surface anatomy-related videos. Only relevant video clips in the English language were identified and related URL recorded. For each videotape the following information were collected: title, authors, duration, number of viewers, posted comments, and total number of days on YouTube. The data were statistically analyzed and videos were grouped into educationally useful and non-useful videos on the basis of major and minor criteria covering technical, content, authority, and pedagogy parameters. A total of 235 YouTube videos were screened and 57 were found to have relevant information to surface anatomy. Analysis revealed that 15 (27%) of the videos provided useful information on surface anatomy. These videos scored (mean ± SD, 14.0 ± 0.7) and mainly covered surface anatomy of the shoulder, knee, muscles of the back, leg, and ankle, carotid artery, dermatomes, and anatomical positions. The other 42 (73%) videos were not useful educationally, scoring (mean ± SD, 7.4 ± 1.8). The total viewers of all videos were 1,058,634. Useful videos were viewed by 497,925 (47% of total viewers). The total viewership per day was 750 for useful videos and 652 for non-useful videos. No video clips covering surface anatomy of the head and neck, blood vessels and nerves of upper and lower limbs, chest and abdominal organs/structures were found. Currently, YouTube is an inadequate source of information for learning surface anatomy. More work is needed from medical schools and educators to add useful videos on You

  18. Topics in Finance: Part II--Financial Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laux, Judy

    2010-01-01

    The second article in a series designed to supplement the introductory financial management course, this essay addresses financial statement analysis, including its impact on stock valuation, disclosure, and managerial behavior. [For "Topics in Finance Part I--Introduction and Stockholder Wealth Maximization," see EJ1060345.

  19. Spinoza II: Conceptual Case-Based Natural Language Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schank, Roger C.; And Others

    This paper presents the theoretical changes that have developed in Conceptual Dependency Theory and their ramifications in computer analysis of natural language. The major items of concern are: the elimination of reliance on "grammar rules" for parsing with the emphasis given to conceptual rule based parsing; the development of a…

  20. Simultaneous spatial and temporal analysis of SAGE II version 7.0 ozone data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damadeo, R. P.; Zawodny, J. M.; Thomason, L. W.

    2013-12-01

    SAGE II used the solar occultation technique to measure atmospheric ozone for 20 years between 1984 and 2005 and has continued to play a key role in numerous international assessments. Traditionally, the determination of trends in ozone using SAGE II data has been done via time series analysis of monthly mean data within specific latitude bands. However, given the sparse sampling of SAGE II data, this can potentially introduce temporal and/or spatial biases, particularly in the period after late 2000 when the instrument operated at half-duty cycle. Herein we present a new method for performing time series analysis of unevenly sampled data (in particular SAGE II); namely, we utilize the daily mean data and perform a simultaneous temporal and spatial analysis, making use of a Fourier series to constrain latitudinal variation. Each methodology is applied to both the previous (v6.2) and current (v7.0) versions of the SAGE II data. Results are discussed that show the improvements to the data between versions 6.2 and 7.0 that make time series analysis produce reduced residuals as well as the changes in resulting trends between the traditional and new methods.

  1. Papilian's anatomy - celebrating six decades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumitraşcu, Dinu Iuliu; Crivii, Carmen Bianca; Opincariu, Iulian

    2017-01-01

    Victor Papilian was born an artist, during high school he studied music in order to become a violinist in two professional orchestras in Bucharest. Later on he enrolled in the school of medicine, being immediately attracted by anatomy. After graduating, with a briliant dissertation, he became a member of the faculty and continued to teach in his preferred field. His masters, Gh. Marinescu and Victor Babes, proposed him for the position of professor at the newly established Faculty of Medicine of Cluj. Here he reorganized the department radically, created an anatomy museum and edited the first dissection handbook and the first Romanian anatomy (descriptive and topographic) treatise, both books received with great appreciation. He received the Romanian Academy Prize. His knowledge and skills gained him a well deserved reputation and he created a prestigious school of anatomy. He published over 250 scientific papers in national and international journals, ranging from morphology to functional, pathological and anthropological topics. He founded the Society of Anthropology, with its own newsletter; he was elected as a member of the French Society of Anatomy. In parallel he had a rich artistic and cultural activity as writer and playwright: he was president of the Transylvanian Writers' Society, editor of a literary review, director of the Cluj theater and opera, leader of a book club and founder of a symphony orchestra.

  2. Directed case study method for teaching human anatomy and physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cliff, W H; Wright, A W

    1996-06-01

    A mastery of human anatomy and physiology requires a familiarity with a vast number of details about the human body. A directed method of case analysis is described that helps students deepen and solidify their understanding of anatomical and physiological facts, concepts, and principles. The successful case had four distinctive features as follows: clear learning objectives, a concise and informative scenario, straightforward and didactic questions, and an emphasis on information readily available to the student. A directed case study is presented, and its salient features are described. A procedure for integrating case analyses into an undergraduate anatomy and physiology course is outlined. Student response to this type of case study suggests that this method improves the ease of learning, the depth of learning, and an appreciation of the relevance of and a curiosity about anatomy and physiology. The addition of case analyses to a two-semester integrated course in anatomy and physiology was also associated with an improvement in exam performance. The regular use of directed case analysis is a valuable addition to the traditional methods of lecture, textbook reading, and laboratory for the teaching of human anatomy and physiology.

  3. Single-shot T1 mapping of the corpus callosum: A rapid characterization of fiber bundle anatomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabine eHofer

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Using diffusion-tensor MRI and fiber tractography the topographic organization of the corpus callosum (CC has been described to comprise 5 segments with fibers projecting into prefrontal (I, premotor and supplementary motor (II, primary motor (III, and primary sensory areas (IV, as well as into parietal, temporal, and occipital cortical areas (V. In order to more rapidly characterize the underlying anatomy of these segments, this study used a novel single-shot T1 mapping method to quantitatively determine T1 relaxation times in the human CC. A region-of-interest analysis revealed a tendency for the lowest T1 relaxation times in the genu and the highest T1 relaxation times in the somatomotor region of the CC. This observation separates regions dominated by myelinated fibers with large diameters (somatomotor area from densely packed smaller axonal bundles (genu with less myelin. The results indicate that characteristic T1 relaxation times in callosal profiles provide an additional means to monitor differences in fiber anatomy, fiber density, and gray matter in respective neocortical areas. In conclusion, rapid T1 mapping allows for a characterization of the axonal architecture in an individual CC in less than 10 s. The approach emerges as a valuable means for studying neocortical brain anatomy with possible implications for the diagnosis of neurodegenerative processes.

  4. FEBEX II Project Post-mortem analysis EDZ assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bazargan Sabet, B.; Shao, H.; Autio, J.; Elorza, F. J.

    2004-07-01

    Within the framework of the FEBEX II project a multidisciplinary team studied the mechanisms of creation of the potential damaged zone around the test drift. The research program includes laboratory and in situ investigations as well as the numerical modelling of the observed phenomena. Where laboratory investigations are concerned, the 14C-PMMA technique was applied to study the spatial distribution of porosity in the samples taken from the test drift wall. In addition complementary microscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) studies were performed to make qualitative investigations on the pore apertures and minerals in porous regions. The results obtained with the PMMA method have not shown any clear increased porosity zone adjacent to the tunnel wall. The total porosity of the samples varied between 0.6-1.2%. The samples of unplugged region did not differ from the samples of plugged region. A clear increase in porosity to depths of 10-15 mm from the tunnel wall was detected in lamprophyre samples. According to the SEM/EDX analyses the excavation-disturbed zone in the granite matrix extended to depths of 1-3 mm from the wall surface. A few quartz grains were crushed and some micro fractures were found. Gas permeability tests were carried out on two hollow cylinder samples of about 1m long each taken on the granite wall perpendicular to the drift axis. The first sample was cored in the service area far from the heated zone and the second one at the level of the heater. The tests were performed at constant gas pressure by setting a steady state radial flow through a section of 1cm wide isolated by means of four mini-packers. The profile of the gas permeability according to the core length has been established. The results obtained for both considered samples have shown permeability ranging between 3.5 10-18 and 8.4 10-19m2, pointing out the absence of a marked damage. Acoustic investigations have been carried out with the objective of quantifying the

  5. Dimensional analysis and qualitative methods in problem solving: II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pescetti, D

    2009-01-01

    We show that the underlying mathematical structure of dimensional analysis (DA), in the qualitative methods in problem-solving context, is the algebra of the affine spaces. In particular, we show that the qualitative problem-solving procedure based on the parallel decomposition of a problem into simple special cases yields the new original mathematical concepts of special points and special representations of affine spaces. A qualitative problem-solving algorithm piloted by the mathematics of DA is illustrated by a set of examples.

  6. Neurovascular anatomy: a practical guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Randy; Severson, Meryl A; Armonda, Rocco A

    2009-07-01

    Students of cerebrovascular anatomy and physiology tend to model their learning based on normal patterns of blood flow. As such, the focus tends toward arterial physiology and pathology with less than adequate understanding of the significance of the venous system. This article presents a different approach to neurovascular anatomy, starting with the venous system and demonstrating both normal and pathologic states. It reviews the cerebral circulation with attention to the microsurgical relationships, angiographic patterns, and fusion of dual-volume imaging. The importance of bony, sulcal, and ventricular anatomy is presented as it relates to the angiographic representation of pathologic lesions. Examples are given of anatomic variants seen with the operating microscope, biplanar angiography, and three-dimensional rotational angiography." Note that in the synopsis and throughout the article, first person usage has been changed to third person per journal style.

  7. Anatomy of a Cancer Treatment Scam

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for Comment Report An Antitrust Violation File Documents in Adjudicative Proceedings You are here Home » News & Events » Audio/Video » Anatomy of a Cancer Treatment Scam Anatomy of a Cancer Treatment Scam ...

  8. Vascular anatomy of strictured small bowel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansard, Magnus Jayaraj; Rao, Upender; Pradeep, R; Sekaran, Anuradha; Rao, G V; Reddy, D N

    2011-01-01

    To investigate the role of ischemia in the pathogenesis of small bowel strictures. Vascular anatomy of 39 small bowel strictures was studied using modified Spalteholtz method. Ten normal small bowel segments were studied as controls. 71.8% of small bowel strictures showed block in the mesenteric vessels (p=0.008). Subset analysis of tuberculous strictures showed block in the mesenteric vessels in 70.8% of strictures (p=0.0098). Ischemia plays a significant role in the pathogenesis of small bowel strictures. Mesenteric vasculopathy has a significant association with tuberculous strictures of the intestine.

  9. Cost-effectiveness analysis of confocal scan laser ophthalmoscope (HRT II) versus GDX for diagnosing glaucoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokhtari-Payam, Mahdi; Moradi-Lakeh, Maziar; Yaghoubi, Mohsen; Moradijou, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the cost-effectiveness of confocal scan laser ophthalmoscopy (HRT II) and compare it with scanning laser polarimetry (GDx) for diagnosing glaucoma. A cost-effectiveness analysis was performed at two eye hospitals in Iran. The outcome was measured as the proportion of correctly diagnosed patients based on systematic review and Meta analysis. Costs were estimated at two hospitals that used the HRT II (Noor Hospital) and current diagnostic testing technology GDx (Farabi Hospital) from the perspective of the healthcare provider. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) was estimated on the base scenario. Annual average costs were estimated as 12.70 USD and 13.59 USD per HRT II and GDx test in 2012, respectively. It was assumed that 80% of the maximum feasible annual tests in a work shift would be performed using HRT II and GDx and that the glaucoma-positive (Gl+) proportion would be 56% in the referred eyes; the estimated diagnostic accuracies were 0.753 and 0.737 for GDx and HRT II, respectively. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) was estimated at USD44.18 per additional test accuracy. In a base sensitivity sampling analysis, we considered different proportions of Gl+ patients (30%-85%), one or two work shifts, and efficiency rate (60%-100%), and found that the ICER ranged from USD29.45to USD480.26, the lower and upper values in all scenarios. Based on ICER, HRT II as newer diagnostic technology is cost-effective according to the World Health Organization threshold of <1 Gross Domestic Product (GDP) per capita in Iran in 2012 (USD7228). Although GDx is more accurate and costly, the average cost-effectiveness ratio shows that HRT II provided diagnostic accuracy at a lower cost than GDx.

  10. Pocket atlas of radiographic anatomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moeller, T.B.; Reif, E.; Stark, P.

    1993-01-01

    The 'Pocket Atlas of Radiographic Anatomy' presents 170 radiographs of the various body regions of adults, showing only the normal radiographic anatomy. Each radiograph is supplemented on the opposite page by a drawing of the particular body region. There is no commenting text, but the drawings are provided with captions in English. The atlas is a useful guide for interpreting radiographs. The pictures are arranged in chapters entitled as follows: Skeletal Imaging (skull, spine, upper extremity), lower extremity; Miscellaneous Plain Films (chest, mammogram, trachea, lung tomograms); Contrast Examinations (gastrointestinal tract, intravenous contrast examinations, arthrography, angiography); Special Examinations (myelograms, lymphangiograms, bronchograms, sialograms). (UWA). 348 figs [de

  11. 3D virtual table in anatomy education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Mads Ronald; Simonsen, Eivind Ortind

    The ‘Anatomage’ is a 3D virtual human anatomy table, with touchscreen functionality, where it is possible to upload CT-scans and digital. Learning the human anatomy terminology requires time, a very good memory, anatomy atlas, books and lectures. Learning the 3 dimensional structure, connections...... and intersections can be supported by technology like the Anatomage....

  12. THE CARNEGIE-IRVINE GALAXY SURVEY. II. ISOPHOTAL ANALYSIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Zhaoyu [Department of Astronomy, School of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Ho, Luis C. [The Observatories of the Carnegie Institution for Science, 813 Santa Barbara Street, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Barth, Aaron J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, 4129 Frederick Reines Hall, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697-4575 (United States); Peng, Chien Y. [NRC Herzberg Institute of Astrophysics, 5071 West Saanich Road, Victoria, BC V9E 2E7 (Canada)

    2011-12-01

    The Carnegie-Irvine Galaxy Survey (CGS) is a comprehensive investigation of the physical properties of a complete, representative sample of 605 bright (B{sub T} {<=} 12.9 mag) galaxies in the southern hemisphere. This contribution describes the isophotal analysis of the broadband (BVRI) optical imaging component of the project. We pay close attention to sky subtraction, which is particularly challenging for some of the large galaxies in our sample. Extensive crosschecks with internal and external data confirm that our calibration and sky subtraction techniques are robust with respect to the quoted measurement uncertainties. We present a uniform catalog of one-dimensional radial profiles of surface brightness and geometric parameters, as well as integrated colors and color gradients. Composite profiles highlight the tremendous diversity of brightness distributions found in disk galaxies and their dependence on Hubble type. A significant fraction of S0 and spiral galaxies exhibit non-exponential profiles in their outer regions. We perform Fourier decomposition of the isophotes to quantify non-axisymmetric deviations in the light distribution. We use the geometric parameters, in conjunction with the amplitude and phase of the m = 2 Fourier mode, to identify bars and quantify their size and strength. Spiral arm strengths are characterized using the m = 2 Fourier profiles and structure maps. Finally, we utilize the information encoded in the m = 1 Fourier profiles to measure disk lopsidedness. The databases assembled here and in Paper I lay the foundation for forthcoming scientific applications of CGS.

  13. Mars Hybrid Propulsion System Trajectory Analysis. Part II; Cargo Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Patrick R.; Merrill, Raymond G.; Qu, Min

    2015-01-01

    NASA's Human Spaceflight Architecture Team is developing a reusable hybrid transportation architecture in which both chemical and electric propulsion systems are used to send crew and cargo to Mars destinations such as Phobos, Deimos, the surface of Mars, and other orbits around Mars. By combining chemical and electrical propulsion into a single spaceship and applying each where it is more effective, the hybrid architecture enables a series of Mars trajectories that are more fuel-efficient than an all chemical architecture without significant increases in flight times. This paper shows the feasibility of the hybrid transportation architecture to pre-deploy cargo to Mars and Phobos in support of the Evolvable Mars Campaign crew missions. The analysis shows that the hybrid propulsion stage is able to deliver all of the current manifested payload to Phobos and Mars through the first three crew missions. The conjunction class trajectory also allows the hybrid propulsion stage to return to Earth in a timely fashion so it can be reused for additional cargo deployment. The 1,100 days total trip time allows the hybrid propulsion stage to deliver cargo to Mars every other Earth-Mars transit opportunity. For the first two Mars surface mission in the Evolvable Mars Campaign, the short trip time allows the hybrid propulsion stage to be reused for three round-trip journeys to Mars, which matches the hybrid propulsion stage's designed lifetime for three round-trip crew missions to the Martian sphere of influence.

  14. Parametric cost analysis of a HYLIFE-II power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bieri, R.L.

    1991-01-01

    The SAFIRE (Systems Analysis for ICF Reactor Economics) code was adapted to model a power plant using a HYLIFE-2 reactor chamber. The code was then used to examine the dependence of the plant capital costs and the busbar cost of electricity (COE) on a variety of design parameters (type of driver, chamber repetition rate, and net electric power). The results show the most attractive operating space for each set of driver/target assumptions and quantify the benefits of improvements in key design parameters. The base-case plant was a 1000-MW(e) plant containing a reactor vessel driven by an induction linac heavy-ion accelerator, run at 8 Hz with a driver energy of 6.73 MJ and a target yield of 350 MJ. The total direct cost for this plant was $2.6 billion. (All costs in this paper are given in equivalent 1988 dollars.) The COE was 8.5 cents/(kWh). The COE and total capital costs for a 1000-MW(e) base plant are nearly independent of the chosen combination of repetition rate and driver energy for a driver operating between 4 and 10 Hz. For comparison, the COE for a coal or future fission plant would be 4.5--5.5 cents/(kWh). The COE for a 1000-MW(e) plant could be reduced to 7.5 cents/(kWh) by using advanced targets and could be cut to 6.5 cents/(kWh) with conventional targets, if the driver cost could be cut in half. There is a large economy of scale with heavy-ion-driven inertial confinement fusion (ICF) plants. A 2000-MW(e) plant with a heavy-ion driver and a HYLIFE-2 chamber would have a COE of only 5.8 cents/(kWh)

  15. Molecular genetic analysis of Type II diabetes associated m.3243A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Saidul Abrar

    Molecular genetic analysis of Type II diabetes associated m.3243A>G mitochondrial DNA mutation in a Pakistani family. Saidul Abrar a, Khushi Muhammad b, Hasnain Zaman c, Suleman Khan b, Faisal Nouroz a,d, Nousheen Bibi a,* a Department of Bioinformatics, Hazara University Mansehra, Pakistan b Department of ...

  16. Movement Analysis Applied to the Basketball Jump Shot--Part II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Thomas P.

    1981-01-01

    The jump shot is one of the most important shots in the game of basketball. The movement analysis of the jump shot designates four phases: (1) preparatory position; (2) movement phase I (crouch); (3) movement phase II (jump); and (4) follow-through. (JN)

  17. The Vineland-II in Preschool Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: An Item Content Category Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balboni, Giulia; Tasso, Alessandra; Muratori, Filippo; Cubelli, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    We investigated which item subsets of the Vineland-II can discriminate low-functioning preschoolers with ASD from matched peers with other neurodevelopmental disorders, using a regression analysis derived from a normative sample to account for cognitive and linguistic competencies. At variance with the typical profile, a pattern with Communication…

  18. LED street lighting evaluation -- phase II : LED specification and life-cycle cost analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Phase II of this study focused on developing a draft specification for LED luminaires to be used by IDOT : and a life-cycle cost analysis (LCCA) tool for solid state lighting technologies. The team also researched the : latest developments related to...

  19. Life cycle and economic efficiency analysis phase II : durable pavement markings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-01

    This report details the Phase II analysis of the life cycle and economic efficiency of inlaid tape : and thermoplastic. Waterborne paint was included as a non-durable for comparison purposes : only. In order to find the most economical product for sp...

  20. Treatment strategies for women with WHO group II anovulation: systematic review and network meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, Rui; Kim, Bobae V.; van Wely, Madelon; Johnson, Neil P.; Costello, Michael F.; Zhang, Hanwang; Ng, Ernest Hung Yu; Legro, Richard S.; Bhattacharya, Siladitya; Norman, Robert J.; Mol, Ben Willem J.

    2017-01-01

    To compare the effectiveness of alternative first line treatment options for women with WHO group II anovulation wishing to conceive. Systematic review and network meta-analysis. Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Medline, and Embase, up to 11 April 2016. Randomised controlled trials

  1. Anatomy of the thymus gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safieddine, Najib; Keshavjee, Shaf

    2011-05-01

    In the case of the thymus gland, the most common indications for resection are myasthenia gravis or thymoma. The consistency and appearance of the thymus gland make it difficult at times to discern from mediastinal fatty tissues. Having a clear understanding of the anatomy and the relationship of the gland to adjacent structures is important. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. DAGAL: Detailed Anatomy of Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapen, Johan H.

    2017-03-01

    The current IAU Symposium is closely connected to the EU-funded network DAGAL (Detailed Anatomy of Galaxies), with the final annual network meeting of DAGAL being at the core of this international symposium. In this short paper, we give an overview of DAGAL, its training activities, and some of the scientific advances that have been made under its umbrella.

  3. Curriculum Guidelines for Microscopic Anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journal of Dental Education, 1993

    1993-01-01

    The American Association of Dental Schools' guidelines for curricula in microscopic anatomy offer an overview of the histology curriculum, note primary educational goals, outline specific content for general and oral histology, suggest prerequisites, and make recommendations for sequencing. Appropriate faculty and facilities are also suggested.…

  4. Soul Anatomy: A virtual cadaver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moaz Bambi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the traditional science of medicine and medical education, teaching human anatomy in the class has always been done using human cadavers. Not only does this violate human sanctity, but according to our research, it is not adequate to provide students with the alleged educational value that it is supposed to deliver. It is very cumbersome to organise all the aspects of cadaver care. Cadavers are also very limited when it comes to controlling their structures and any benefit is almost completely altered the first time the cadaver is used (dissected, and ironically, it is very weak at delivering actual real-life scenarios of a human body to students. Virtual anatomy has been a promising solution that many are counting on. But even today, we have not found a complete solution that combines all the benefits of using human cadavers and those introduced by its technical counterparts. "Soul Anatomy" aims to do just that. It brings the best of all worlds, from a natural intuitive control system, life-like feel of organs, precise accuracy in moving and controlling bodily structures, to the smallest details of being able to show medical information overlays from various medical databases connected to the internet; thus making use of technology in teaching human anatomy by providing a modern learning experience.

  5. Stem anatomy variation in cottonwood

    Science.gov (United States)

    A.N. Foulger; J. Hacskaylo

    1968-01-01

    Investigations of mineral nutrient-tree growth relationships have dealt mainly with associations involving foliage composition, root formation, or volume production of wood. Few studies have been concerned with changes in wood anatomy associated with element deficiency. In 1949 Davis reported that calcium deficiency was accompanied by a reduction of primary tissue and...

  6. Anatomy of the trigeminal nerve

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Eijden, T.M.G.J.; Langenbach, G.E.J.; Baart, J.A.; Brand, H.S.

    2017-01-01

    The trigeminal nerve is the fifth cranial nerve (n. V), which plays an important role in the innervation of the head and neck area, together with other cranial and spinal nerves. Knowledge of the nerve’s anatomy is very important for the correct application of local anaesthetics.

  7. Gregorc Learning Styles and Achievement in Anatomy and Physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harasym, P. H.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Results from the Gregorc Style Delineator (GSD), administered to 260 undergraduate nursing students, were compared with achievement scores in a human anatomy and physiology course. Factor analysis and VARIMAX rotation demonstrate that there is no relationship between any of the four learning styles allegedly identified by the GSD and achievement…

  8. Professional storytelling in clinical dental anatomy teaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kieser, Jules; Livingstone, Vicki; Meldrum, Alison

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the present work was to see if storytelling in a clinical dental anatomy course would increase student satisfaction. We enhanced teaching by spontaneous storytelling in problem-based learning, in half of the third-year dentistry class. At the end of the course, we administered an anonymous questionnaire to the students in the class, consisting of 12 questions that students had to answer on a Likert scale of 1-5. An overall satisfaction score was obtained and we used a linear mixed model to compare differences in satisfaction between the two groups, with "group" as the fixed effect. We also conducted an exploratory factor analysis of the responses to investigate whether there were distinct constructs within the data. Overall satisfaction is high, with students "with stories" having higher satisfaction than those "without stories." The former group consistently gives higher satisfaction scores, regardless of which question is being asked. Factor analysis provides evidence that storytelling nurtures reflective learning, while students work on their clinical anatomy problems.

  9. Anatomy of Teaching Anatomy: Do Prosected Cross Sections Improve Students Understanding of Spatial and Radiological Anatomy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. B. Samarakoon

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Cadaveric dissections and prosections have traditionally been part of undergraduate medical teaching. Materials and Methods. Hundred and fifty-nine first-year students in the Faculty of Medicine, University of Colombo, were invited to participate in the above study. Students were randomly allocated to two age and gender matched groups. Both groups were exposed to identical series of lectures regarding anatomy of the abdomen and conventional cadaveric prosections of the abdomen. The test group (n=77, 48.4% was also exposed to cadaveric cross-sectional slices of the abdomen to which the control group (n=82, 51.6% was blinded. At the end of the teaching session both groups were assessed by using their performance in a timed multiple choice question paper as well as ability to identify structures in abdominal CT films. Results. Scores for spatial and radiological anatomy were significantly higher among the test group when compared with the control group (P<0.05, CI 95%. Majority of the students in both control and test groups agreed that cadaveric cross section may be useful for them to understand spatial and radiological anatomy. Conclusion. Introduction of cadaveric cross-sectional prosections may help students to understand spatial and radiological anatomy better.

  10. Classic versus millennial medical lab anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benninger, Brion; Matsler, Nik; Delamarter, Taylor

    2014-10-01

    This study investigated the integration, implementation, and use of cadaver dissection, hospital radiology modalities, surgical tools, and AV technology during a 12-week contemporary anatomy course suggesting a millennial laboratory. The teaching of anatomy has undergone the greatest fluctuation of any of the basic sciences during the past 100 years in order to make room for the meteoric rise in molecular sciences. Classically, anatomy consisted of a 2-year methodical, horizontal, anatomy course; anatomy has now morphed into a 12-week accelerated course in a vertical curriculum, at most institutions. Surface and radiological anatomy is the language for all clinicians regardless of specialty. The objective of this study was to investigate whether integration of full-body dissection anatomy and modern hospital technology, during the anatomy laboratory, could be accomplished in a 12-week anatomy course. Literature search was conducted on anatomy text, journals, and websites regarding contemporary hospital technology integrating multiple image mediums of 37 embalmed cadavers, surgical suite tools and technology, and audio/visual technology. Surgical and radiology professionals were contracted to teach during the anatomy laboratory. Literature search revealed no contemporary studies integrating full-body dissection with hospital technology and behavior. About 37 cadavers were successfully imaged with roentograms, CT, and MRI scans. Students were in favor of the dynamic laboratory consisting of multiple activity sessions occurring simultaneously. Objectively, examination scores proved to be a positive outcome and, subjectively, feedback from students was overwhelmingly positive. Despite the surging molecular based sciences consuming much of the curricula, full-body dissection anatomy is irreplaceable regarding both surface and architectural, radiological anatomy. Radiology should not be a small adjunct to understand full-body dissection, but rather, full-body dissection

  11. New nano-complexes of Zn(II), Cu(II), Ni(II) and Co(II) ions; spectroscopy, thermal, structural analysis, DFT calculations and antimicrobial activity application

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Shafiy, Hoda F.; Saif, M.; Mashaly, Mahmoud M.; Halim, Shimaa Abdel; Eid, Mohamed F.; Nabeel, A. I.; Fouad, R.

    2017-11-01

    This work presents synthesis, characterization, and application of several metal (II) complexes with (E)-2-hydroxy-N/-((thiophen-2-yl)methylene)benzohydrazide (H2L). Prepared complexes were identified by elemental, thermal, FT-IR, UV-Vis, 1H NMR, and XRD analysis, as well as molar conductivity and magnetic moment measurements. Changes in FT-IR and 1H NMR spectra of hydrazone ligand upon coordination indicated that the ligand behaves the same way as a monoanonic ligand with ONS donor sites. Kinetic parameters were determined for each thermal degradation stage of the ligand and its complexes using 'Coats-Redfern' method. All results confirm that all prepared compounds have 1:2 metal-to-ligand stoichiometry except Zn(II) complex, which has 1:1 metal-to-ligand stoichiometry. The antimicrobial activity for complexes was investigated. The antimicrobial activity results revealed that Zn(II) complex (1) has a good potency against gram positive bacteria (E. coli) and gram negative bacteria (P. vulgaris) in comparision with doxymycin standard, AT B3LYP/6-311G (d,p) level, Density Functional Theory (DFT) calculations were carried out to investigate the optimized structure of both, the ligand and the complexes. Total energy, energy of HOMO, and LUMO as well as Mullikan atomic charges were calculated. Dipole moment, orientation, and structure activity relationship were performed and discussed.DFT calculations, moreover, confirmed practical antimicrobial results.

  12. Analysis of predisposing factors in elderly people with type II odontoid fracture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Masahiko; Sakai, Daisuke; Yamamoto, Yukihiro; Nagai, Toshihiro; Sato, Masato; Mochida, Joji

    2014-06-01

    analysis. The disproportionate degenerative change between the atlantoodontoid and lateral atlantoaxial joint remained significant, even after adjusting for osteoporosis. Older patients with the dens fixed to the atlas because of degeneration of the atlantoodontoid joint and a smooth lateral atlantoaxial joint seem to sustain Type II odontoid fractures because, during a simple fall, the rotation of the head produces torque force on the osteoporotic dens-body junction, which acts as the rotatory center. The presence of the disproportionate osteoarthritic degeneration between the atlantoodontoid and lateral atlantoaxial joints predisposes older people to a Type II odontoid fracture. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Anatomy of Lamina in the Subaxial Cervical Spine With the Special Reference to Translaminar Screws: CT and Cadaveric Analysis With Screw Trajectory Simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Woojin; Le, Jason T; Shimer, Adam L; Werner, Brian C; Glaser, John A; Shen, Francis H

    2017-06-01

    A cadaveric study. Translaminar screws were initially developed for C2 fixation. Since then, their usage has expanded to include the subaxial cervical spine, and thoracic and lumbar spine. To the best of our knowledge, special anatomy for inserting translaminar screws in the subaxial cervical spine has not been studied. To report the special anatomy for inserting translaminar screws in the subaxial cervical spine. A total of 18 cadaveric spines were harvested from C3 to C7 and 1 mm computed tomography (CT) scans and 3D reconstructions were obtained. Bilateral translaminar screw entry points and trajectories were simulated at each level from C3 to C7 utilizing Kodak Carestream/Pacs Ver 10.2. Constructs were selected to achieve maximal bony purchase with 1 screw, designated the "primary screw." The contralateral screw, designated the "secondary screw," was selected to achieve the optimal allowable diameter possible while avoiding a simulated cortical breach, which was not always necessarily the "best purchase" diameter. Initial screw diameters selected were 3.5 mm; however, in the event that a narrower portion was encountered, then a 3.0 mm diameter screw was utilized instead. The crossing area of both screws were calculated geometrically. Maximal thickness of the lamina was considered in determining the diameter of screws. Whenever possible, 3.5 mm screws were selected in both lamina (3.5/3.5 mm); however, if a 3.5 mm screw was utilized as the primary screw, but the permissible range (P) for the secondary screw was <3.5 mm, then a hybrid construct was utilized (3.5/3.0 mm). In cases where P was <3 mm, then both screws were studied at 3 mm (3.0/3.0 mm). Screw diameters that optimized trajectory and bony purchase, while remaining within the permissible range, were analyzed, tabulated, and recorded. On CT, along the trajectory of the screws, the image was cut and measured in terms of screw length, the narrowest portion of the lamina, vertical angle, and horizontal

  14. Cinematographic analysis of the gait of lame horses. II. Chronic sesamoiditis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clayton, H.M.

    1986-01-01

    The gait characteristics of a horse with chronic sesamoiditis of the left forelimb are described. On physical examination the affected metacarpophalangeal joint was found to be enlarged. Extensive fibrosis on the palmar surface of the proximal sesamoid bones and in the suspensory ligament resulted in a reduced range of movement in the joint At rest the horsepointed the left toe and was reluctant to bear weight on that limb. Observation at the trot revealed an obvious head nod on the sound right diagonal. During the left diagonal stance phase the head and neck were raised, the LF fetlock was held in a rigid upright position, and hyperextension of the joint was restricted. Cinematographic analysis showed that the LF had a longer stance phase than the RF, due to anincreased anterior phase combined with a slower breakover (p<0.01). At the end of its stance phase the LF overlapped with both the RF and LH, so there was no left suspension. The right diagonal stance phase was followed by a short suspension before impact of the LF. With regard to linear measurements the horse took a longer step from the RF to LF and from the RH to LH than for the contralateral pairs (p<0.01). As a result the distance between the RF and LH in the right diagonal stance phase was significantly less than that between the LF and RH in the left diagonal stance phase (p<0.01). Kinematic analysis showed that the sound RF made flat foot impact with the ground, whereas, at the end of the swing phase, the LF toe flipped up and impact was heel first The neck was elevated during the early part of the LF stance phase, until the limb had passed the mid stance position when the poll fell, reaching its lowest level at the RF mid stance position. Author's address: Department of Veterinary Anatomy, Western College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan

  15. Analysis of the Wakefield Effects in the PEP-II SLAC B-FACTORY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Novokhatski, A; Seeman, J.; Sullivan, M.; Wienands, U.; /SLAC

    2009-07-06

    We present the history and analysis of different wake field effects throughout the operational life of the PEP-II SLAC B-factory. Although the impedance of the high and low energy rings is small, the intense high current beams generated a lot of power. The effects from these wake fields are: heating and damage of vacuum beam chamber elements like RF seals, vacuum valves , shielded bellows, BPM buttons and ceramic tiles; vacuum spikes, vacuum instabilities and high detector background; beam longitudinal and transverse instabilities. We also discuss the methods used to eliminate these effects. Results of this analysis and the PEP-II experience may be very useful in the design of new storage rings and light sources.

  16. Anatomy and physiology of cisternostomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherian, Iype; Grasso, Giovanni; Bernardo, Antonio; Munakomi, Sunil

    2016-01-01

    Cisternostomy is defined as opening the basal cisterns to atmospheric pressure. This technique helps to reduce the intracranial pressure in severe head trauma as well as other conditions when the so-called sudden "brain swelling" troubles the surgeon. We elaborated the surgical anatomy of this procedure as well as the proposed physiology of how cisternostomy works. This novel technique may change the current trends in neurosurgery.

  17. Ecological anatomy of ferns fronds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina M. Derzhavina

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Structural types of frond anatomy are distinguished on the basis of investigation of 30 species of homosporous ferns and with regard for literature: hydromorphic, hygromorphic, mesomorphic, subxeromorphic, and subsucculent (cryptic succulent. Following frond traits are of highest adaptive value: their area and thickness, type of mesophyll, dry weight of an area unit – specific superficial density, cellular volume, and number of cells per unit of frond area.

  18. Postpartum Coccydynia: an Anatomy Overview

    OpenAIRE

    Maulana, Reza; Wahyuniati, Nur; Indra, Imai

    2015-01-01

    Coccydynia is a term that refers to a painful condition in and around the coccyx. This symptom is typically a discomfort or pain which is felt when sitting for long time and when rising from sitting position. Many physiologic and psychological factors contribute to its etiology, but the majority of cases were found to be aggravated by pregnancy and childbirth (postpartum). Luxation and fracture of the coccyx are the two most common lesion of postpartum coccydynia. This poster shows an anatomy...

  19. Magkänslans anatomi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahlström, Kristoffer

    Varför dog 1500 personer i onödan i biltrafiken efter den 11 september 2001? Vad har FBI-agenter gemensamt med barn till alkoholister? Och vad fick författaren George Orwell att börja utöva svart magi? Magkänslans anatomi är en fascinerande kartläggning av de psykologiska mekanismer som ligger ba...

  20. FROM BASEL I TO BASEL II: AN ANALYSIS OF THE THREE PILLARS

    OpenAIRE

    Abel Elizalde

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a dynamic model of banking supervision to analyze the impact of each of Basell II three pillars on banks’ risk taking. We extend previous literature providing an analysis of ratings-based supervisory policies. In Pillar 2 (supervisory review) the supervisor audits more frequently low rated banks and restricts their dividend payments in order to build capital. In Pillar 3 (market discipline) the supervisor reduces the level of deposit insurance coverage compelling not-fully...

  1. Design and Analysis of Piping System with Supports Using CAESAR-II

    OpenAIRE

    M. Jamuna Rani; K. Ramanathan

    2016-01-01

    A steam power plant is housed with various types of equipments like boiler, turbine, heat exchanger etc. These equipments are mainly connected with piping systems. Such a piping layout design depends mainly on stress analysis and flexibility. It will vary with respect to pipe geometrical properties, pressure, temperature, and supports. The present paper is to analyze the presence and effect of hangers and expansion joints in the piping layout/routing using CAESAR-II software. Main aim of pipi...

  2. Microstructural analysis of the type-II boundary region in Alloy 152 weld

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoo, Seung Chang; Choi, Kyoung Joon; Kim, Ji Hyun

    2014-01-01

    The weld metals are more susceptible to SCC growth and that most cracks are blunted by the fusion boundary. However, they also found that some cracking occurs along the fusion boundary, often in an area with high hardness. Nelson et al. investigated a DMW of Monel 409 stainless steel and American Iron and Steel Institute (AISI) 1080 alloy and found a type-II boundary, which exists parallel to the fusion boundary in the dilution zone. They conclude that the type-II boundary is a potential path for crack growth. While there are several theories for the mechanisms of the type-II boundary formation, they conclude that the type-II boundary forms from the allotropic δ-γ transformation at the base metal in the elevated austenitic temperature range. As the operation time of nuclear power plants using DMWs of Alloy 152 and A533 Gr. B increases, these DMWs must be evaluated for their resistance to SCC for long-term operations. However, only few studies have investigated the thermal aging effects induced by long-term operations at high temperature. Type-II boundary is known as a potential crack path from the results of crack growth test at DMW without any heat treatment. So the analysis about type-II boundary with applying heat treatment could be helpful to evaluate the susceptibility to SCC of structural materials. The objective of this study is to analyze the detailed microstructure of the type-II boundary region in the DMW of Alloy 152 and A533 Gr. B, after applying heat treatment simulating thermal aging effect of a nuclear power plant operation condition to evaluate the susceptibility of this region to SCC. The microstructure of the type-II boundary region in the DMW of Alloy 152 and A533 Gr. B were analyzed with an energy dispersive x-ray spectroscope attached to a scanning electron microscope (SEM-EDS), electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD), and a nanoindentation test. Microstructural, grain boundary orientation, nanohardness analysis were conducted in the type-II

  3. Anatomy of Biometric Passports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominik Malčík

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Travelling is becoming available for more and more people. Millions of people are on a way every day. That is why a better control over global human transfer and a more reliable identity check is desired. A recent trend in a field of personal identification documents is to use RFID (Radio Frequency Identification technology and biometrics, especially (but not only in passports. This paper provides an insight into the electronic passports (also called e-passport or ePassport implementation chosen in the Czech Republic. Such a summary is needed for further studies of biometric passports implementation security and biometric passports analysis. A separate description of the Czech solution is a prerequisite for a planned analysis, because of the uniqueness of each implementation. (Each country can choose the implementation details within a range specified by the ICAO (International Civil Aviation Organisation; moreover, specific security mechanisms are optional and can be omitted.

  4. Anatomy of biometric passports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malčík, Dominik; Drahanský, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Travelling is becoming available for more and more people. Millions of people are on a way every day. That is why a better control over global human transfer and a more reliable identity check is desired. A recent trend in a field of personal identification documents is to use RFID (Radio Frequency Identification) technology and biometrics, especially (but not only) in passports. This paper provides an insight into the electronic passports (also called e-passport or ePassport) implementation chosen in the Czech Republic. Such a summary is needed for further studies of biometric passports implementation security and biometric passports analysis. A separate description of the Czech solution is a prerequisite for a planned analysis, because of the uniqueness of each implementation. (Each country can choose the implementation details within a range specified by the ICAO (International Civil Aviation Organisation); moreover, specific security mechanisms are optional and can be omitted).

  5. Model-based Vestibular Afferent Stimulation: Modular Workflow for Analyzing Stimulation Scenarios in Patient Specific and Statistical Vestibular Anatomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Handler

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Our sense of balance and spatial orientation strongly depends on the correct functionality of our vestibular system. Vestibular dysfunction can lead to blurred vision and impaired balance and spatial orientation, causing a significant decrease in quality of life. Recent studies have shown that vestibular implants offer a possible treatment for patients with vestibular dysfunction. The close proximity of the vestibular nerve bundles, the facial nerve and the cochlear nerve poses a major challenge to targeted stimulation of the vestibular system. Modeling the electrical stimulation of the vestibular system allows for an efficient analysis of stimulation scenarios previous to time and cost intensive in vivo experiments. Current models are based on animal data or CAD models of human anatomy. In this work, a (semi-automatic modular workflow is presented for the stepwise transformation of segmented vestibular anatomy data of human vestibular specimens to an electrical model and subsequently analyzed. The steps of this workflow include (i the transformation of labeled datasets to a tetrahedra mesh, (ii nerve fiber anisotropy and fiber computation as a basis for neuron models, (iii inclusion of arbitrary electrode designs, (iv simulation of quasistationary potential distributions, and (v analysis of stimulus waveforms on the stimulation outcome. Results obtained by the workflow based on human datasets and the average shape of a statistical model revealed a high qualitative agreement and a quantitatively comparable range compared to data from literature, respectively. Based on our workflow, a detailed analysis of intra- and extra-labyrinthine electrode configurations with various stimulation waveforms and electrode designs can be performed on patient specific anatomy, making this framework a valuable tool for current optimization questions concerning vestibular implants in humans.

  6. Mechanical Design and Analysis of LCLS II 2 K Cold Box

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, S.; Dixon, K.; Laverdure, N.; Rath, D.; Bevins, M.; Bai, H.; Kaminski, S.; Ravindranath, V.

    2017-12-01

    The mechanical design and analysis of the LCLS II 2 K cold box are presented. Its feature and functionality are discussed. ASME B31.3 was used to design its internal piping, and compliance of the piping code was ensured through flexibility analysis. The 2 K cold box was analyzed using ANSYS 17.2; the requirements of the applicable codes—ASME Section VIII Division 2 and ASCE 7-10—were satisfied. Seismic load was explicitly considered in both analyses.

  7. Proceedings of the first analysis meeting on JUPITER-II Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shiradata, Keisho; Yamamoto, Masaaki [comps.

    1984-12-31

    The JUPITER-II Program is the Joint Physics Large Heterogeneous Core Critical Experiments Program between the U.S. Department of Energy (US DOE) and PNC, Japan. The experiments began in May 1982 and ended in April 1984, as a part of the ZPPR-13 program. The ZPPR-13 is a series of critical assemblies designed to study the fundamental neutronic behavior of large, radially-heterogeneous LMFBR cores. This report describes the results of analysis of ZPPR-13A and preliminary analysis of ZPPR-13B, and some topics of recent activities in fast reactor physics.

  8. Analysis of carbon transport in the EBR-II and FFTF primary sodium systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snyder, R.B.; Natesan, K.; Kassner, T.F.

    1976-01-01

    An analysis of the carburization-decarburization behavior of austenitic stainless steels in the primary heat-transport systems of the EBR-II and FFTF has been made that is based upon a kinetic model for the diffusion process and the surface area of steel in contact with flowing sodium at various temperatures in the two systems. The analysis was performed for operating conditions that result in sodium outlet temperatures of 474 and 566 0 C in the FFTF and 470 0 C in the EBR-II. If there was no external source of carbon to the system, i.e., other than the carbon initially present in the steel and the sodium, the dynamic-equilibrium carbon concentrations calculated for the FFTF primary sodium were approximately 0.025 and approximately 0.065 ppm for the 474 and 566 0 C outlet temperatures, respectively, and approximately 0.018 ppm for the EBR-II primary system. The analysis indicated that a carbon-source rate of approximately 250 g/y would be required to increase the carbon concentration of the EBR-II sodium to the measured range of approximately 0.16--0.19 ppm. An evaluation of possible carbon sources and the amount of carbonaceous material introduced into the reactor cover gas and sodium suggests that the magnitude of the calculated contamination rate is reasonable. For a 566 0 C outlet temperature, carbonaceous material would have to be introduced into the FFTF primary system at a rate approximately 4--6 times higher than in EBR-II to achieve the same carbon concentration in the sodium in the two systems. Since contamination rates of approximately 1500 g/y are unlikely, high-temperature fuel cladding in the FFTF should exhibit decarburization similar to that observed in laboratory loop systems, in contrast to the minimal compositional changes that result after exposure of Type 316 stainless steel to EBR-II sodium at temperatures between approximately 625 and 650 0 C

  9. Brachial Plexus Anatomy: Normal and Variant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven L. Orebaugh

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Effective brachial plexus blockade requires a thorough understanding of the anatomy of the plexus, as well as an appreciation of anatomic variations that may occur. This review summarizes relevant anatomy of the plexus, along with variations and anomalies that may affect nerve blocks conducted at these levels. The Medline, Cochrane Library, and PubMed electronic databases were searched in order to compile reports related to the anatomy of the brachial plexus using the following free terms: "brachial plexus", "median nerve", "ulnar nerve", "radial nerve", "axillary nerve", and "musculocutanous nerve". Each of these was then paired with the MESH terms "anatomy", "nerve block", "anomaly", "variation", and "ultrasound". Resulting articles were hand searched for additional relevant literature. A total of 68 searches were conducted, with a total of 377 possible articles for inclusion. Of these, 57 were found to provide substantive information for this review. The normal anatomy of the brachial plexus is briefly reviewed, with an emphasis on those features revealed by use of imaging technologies. Anomalies of the anatomy that might affect the conduct of the various brachial plexus blocks are noted. Brachial plexus blockade has been effectively utilized as a component of anesthesia for upper extremity surgery for a century. Over that period, our understanding of anatomy and its variations has improved significantly. The ability to explore anatomy at the bedside, with real-time ultrasonography, has improved our appreciation of brachial plexus anatomy as well.

  10. MR Imaging of Prostate Zonal Anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yacoub, Joseph H; Oto, Aytekin

    2018-03-01

    McNeal first described the zonal anatomy of the prostate about 40 years ago, outlining 4 zones of the prostate and defining their relation to the urethra and the ejaculatory ducts. The zonal anatomy remains the accepted model for describing the prostate and the zones are well-depicted on MR imaging, including the central zone, which until recently was grouped with the transition zone in the radiology literature. An accurate understanding of the zonal anatomy and periprostatic anatomy is key for accurate interpretation of the prostate MR imaging. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Level II scour analysis for Bridge 23 (CRAFTH00390023) on Town Highway 39, crossing the Black River, Craftsbury, Vermont

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehmler, Erick M.

    1997-01-01

    This report provides the results of a detailed Level II analysis of scour potential at structure CRAFTH00390023 on town highway 39 crossing the Black River, Craftsbury, Vermont (figures 1–8). A Level II study is a basic engineering analysis of the site, including a quantitative analysis of stream stability and scour (U.S. Department of Transportation, 1993). A Level I assessment is included in Appendix E of this report. A Level I assessment provides a qualitative geomorphic characterization of the study site. Information on the bridge, gleaned from VTAOT files, was compiled prior to conducting Level I and Level II analyses and is provided in Appendix D.

  12. Level II scour analysis for Bridge 8 (HANCTH00020008) on Town Highway 2, crossing Hancock Branch White River, Hancock, Vermont

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehmler, Erick M.

    1996-01-01

    This report provides the results of a detailed Level II analysis of scour potential at structure HANCTH00020008 on town highway 2 crossing the Hancock Branch White River, Hancock, Vermont (figures 1–8). A Level II study is a basic engineering analysis of the site, including a quantitative analysis of stream stability and scour (U.S. Department of Transportation, 1993). A Level I study is included in Appendix E of this report. A Level I study provides a qualitative geomorphic characterization of the study site. Information on the bridge, gleaned from VTAOT files, was compiled prior to conducting Level I and Level II analyses and can be found in Appendix D.

  13. Level II scour analysis for Bridge 24 (WODSTH00190024) on Town Highway 19, crossing North Bridgewater Brook, Woodstock, Vermont

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Scott A.; Song, Donald L.

    1996-01-01

    This report provides the results of a detailed Level II analysis of scour potential at structure WODSTH00190024 on Town Highway 19 crossing North Bridgewater Brook, Woodstock, Vermont (figures 1–8). A Level II study is a basic engineering analysis of the site, including a quantitative analysis of stream stability and scour (U.S. Department of Transportation, 1993). A Level I study is included in Appendix E of this report. A Level I study provides a qualitative geomorphic characterization of the study site. Information on the bridge available from VTAOT files was compiled prior to conducting Level I and Level II analyses and can be found in Appendix D.

  14. A Survey of Anatomy and Physiology Pedagogy and Lifestyle Factors in Undergraduate Medical Students in Zimbabwe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, R. G.; Chifamba, J.

    2011-01-01

    Studies on health pedagogy in medical students in African universities are lacking. The aim of the current investigation was to assess the following pedagogy influences on second year Zimbabwean medical students' well-being. A group of 100 students studying Physiology and Anatomy in MBChB. II program at the University of Zimbabwe College of Health…

  15. Radiological anatomy - evaluation of integrative education in radiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dettmer, S; Schmiedl, A; Meyer, S; Giesemann, A; Pabst, R; Weidemann, J; Wacker, F K; Kirchhoff, T

    2013-09-01

    Evaluation and analysis of the integrative course "Radiological Anatomy" established since 2007 at the Medical School Hannover (MHH) in comparison with conventional education. Anatomy and radiology are usually taught separately with a considerable time lag. Interdisciplinary teaching of these associated subjects seems logical for several reasons. Therefore, the integrative course "Radiological Anatomy" was established in the second year of medical education, combining these two closely related subjects. This interdisciplinary course was retrospectively evaluated by consideration of a student questionnaire and staff observations. The advantages and disadvantages of integrative teaching in medical education are discussed. The course ratings were excellent (median 1; mean 1.3 on a scale of 1 to 6). This is significantly (p radiology increased during the course (88 %). According to the students' suggestions the course was enhanced by a visitation in the Department of Radiology and the additional topic central nervous system. Integrative teaching of anatomy and radiology was well received by the students. Both, anatomical and radiological comprehension and the motivation to learn were improved. However, it should be considered, that the amount of work and time required by the teaching staff is considerably increased compared to traditional teaching. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  16. Study skills in anatomy and physiology: Is there a difference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husmann, Polly R; Barger, J Bradley; Schutte, Audra F

    2016-01-01

    Many factors influence the way individual students study, including but not limited to: previous coursework, attitudes toward the class (motivation, intimidation, risk, etc.), metacognition, and work schedules. However, little of this research has involved medical students. The present article asks the question, "Do individual medical students study differently for different classes?" Study skills surveys were given to United States medical students at an allopathic medical school and an osteopathic medical school. Students were surveyed near the end of their first year gross anatomy course and again near the end of their first year physiology course. Survey items included Likert scale and open-ended questions about study habits and basic demographic information. The survey responses were correlated with each student's final grade percentages in the courses. Analysis revealed that the four most common study habits were reviewing lecture notes, taking practice examinations, completing learning exercises, and making drawings and diagrams. The two surveys (anatomy and physiology) from each individual were also compared to see if students reported different study habits in anatomy versus physiology. A negative correlation was found between changing study habits between courses and final anatomy grade percentages. Additional analyses suggest that those students who do change their study habits between courses are increasing the number of study strategies that they attempt. This increase in the number of study strategies attempted may not allow the student to reach the same depth of understanding as their colleagues who utilize fewer strategies. © 2015 American Association of Anatomists.

  17. Introductory anatomy and physiology in an undergraduate nursing curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, S J; White, S; Power, N

    2017-03-01

    Using an educational data mining approach, first-year academic achievement of undergraduate nursing students, which included two compulsory courses in introductory human anatomy and physiology, was compared with achievement in a final semester course that transitioned students into the workplace. We hypothesized that students could be grouped according to their first-year academic achievement using a two-step cluster analysis method and that grades achieved in the human anatomy and physiology courses would be strong predictors of overall achievement. One cohort that graduated in 2014 (n = 105) and one that graduated in 2015 (n = 94) were analyzed separately, and for both cohorts, two groups were identified, these being "high achievers" (HIGH) and "low achievers" (LOW). Consistently, the anatomy and physiology courses were the strongest predictors of group assignment, such that a good grade in these was much more likely to put a student into a high-achieving group. Students in the HIGH groups also scored higher in the Transition to Nursing course when compared with students in the LOW groups. The higher predictor importance of the anatomy and physiology courses suggested that if a first-year grade-point average was calculated for students, an increased weighting should be attributed to these courses. Identifying high-achieving students based on first-year academic scores may be a useful method to predict future academic performance. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  18. The 12-item World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule II (WHO-DAS II): a nonparametric item response analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luciano, Juan V; Ayuso-Mateos, José L; Aguado, Jaume; Fernandez, Ana; Serrano-Blanco, Antoni; Roca, Miquel; Haro, Josep M

    2010-05-20

    Previous studies have analyzed the psychometric properties of the World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule II (WHO-DAS II) using classical omnibus measures of scale quality. These analyses are sample dependent and do not model item responses as a function of the underlying trait level. The main objective of this study was to examine the effectiveness of the WHO-DAS II items and their options in discriminating between changes in the underlying disability level by means of item response analyses. We also explored differential item functioning (DIF) in men and women. The participants were 3615 adult general practice patients from 17 regions of Spain, with a first diagnosed major depressive episode. The 12-item WHO-DAS II was administered by the general practitioners during the consultation. We used a non-parametric item response method (Kernel-Smoothing) implemented with the TestGraf software to examine the effectiveness of each item (item characteristic curves) and their options (option characteristic curves) in discriminating between changes in the underliying disability level. We examined composite DIF to know whether women had a higher probability than men of endorsing each item. Item response analyses indicated that the twelve items forming the WHO-DAS II perform very well. All items were determined to provide good discrimination across varying standardized levels of the trait. The items also had option characteristic curves that showed good discrimination, given that each increasing option became more likely than the previous as a function of increasing trait level. No gender-related DIF was found on any of the items. All WHO-DAS II items were very good at assessing overall disability. Our results supported the appropriateness of the weights assigned to response option categories and showed an absence of gender differences in item functioning.

  19. The 12-item World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule II (WHO-DAS II: a nonparametric item response analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernandez Ana

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous studies have analyzed the psychometric properties of the World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule II (WHO-DAS II using classical omnibus measures of scale quality. These analyses are sample dependent and do not model item responses as a function of the underlying trait level. The main objective of this study was to examine the effectiveness of the WHO-DAS II items and their options in discriminating between changes in the underlying disability level by means of item response analyses. We also explored differential item functioning (DIF in men and women. Methods The participants were 3615 adult general practice patients from 17 regions of Spain, with a first diagnosed major depressive episode. The 12-item WHO-DAS II was administered by the general practitioners during the consultation. We used a non-parametric item response method (Kernel-Smoothing implemented with the TestGraf software to examine the effectiveness of each item (item characteristic curves and their options (option characteristic curves in discriminating between changes in the underliying disability level. We examined composite DIF to know whether women had a higher probability than men of endorsing each item. Results Item response analyses indicated that the twelve items forming the WHO-DAS II perform very well. All items were determined to provide good discrimination across varying standardized levels of the trait. The items also had option characteristic curves that showed good discrimination, given that each increasing option became more likely than the previous as a function of increasing trait level. No gender-related DIF was found on any of the items. Conclusions All WHO-DAS II items were very good at assessing overall disability. Our results supported the appropriateness of the weights assigned to response option categories and showed an absence of gender differences in item functioning.

  20. Reevaluation of Stratospheric Ozone Trends From SAGE II Data Using a Simultaneous Temporal and Spatial Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damadeo, R. P.; Zawodny, J. M.; Thomason, L. W.

    2014-01-01

    This paper details a new method of regression for sparsely sampled data sets for use with time-series analysis, in particular the Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAGE) II ozone data set. Non-uniform spatial, temporal, and diurnal sampling present in the data set result in biased values for the long-term trend if not accounted for. This new method is performed close to the native resolution of measurements and is a simultaneous temporal and spatial analysis that accounts for potential diurnal ozone variation. Results show biases, introduced by the way data is prepared for use with traditional methods, can be as high as 10%. Derived long-term changes show declines in ozone similar to other studies but very different trends in the presumed recovery period, with differences up to 2% per decade. The regression model allows for a variable turnaround time and reveals a hemispheric asymmetry in derived trends in the middle to upper stratosphere. Similar methodology is also applied to SAGE II aerosol optical depth data to create a new volcanic proxy that covers the SAGE II mission period. Ultimately this technique may be extensible towards the inclusion of multiple data sets without the need for homogenization.

  1. [Beginning of modern anatomy in Japan from the perspective of anatomical bibliographies of the Meiji era].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimada, Kazuyuki

    2007-03-01

    In contrast to the days of the Shogunate during the Edo period when knowledge and information from abroad were derived solely from The Netherlands (so-called Western learning), the establishment of the new Meiji government marked the arrival of a wealth of new knowledge from English and German speaking countries to Japan. As with other academic fields, the field of medicine, particularly anatomy, experienced an influx of many foreign books during this period. In the early to middle Meiji period (1868-1887), anatomy books from English-speaking countries became mainstream, and translations of these books were subsequently published. However, following Japan's decision in the third year of the Meiji era (1870) to model itself after German medicine, and the subsequent introduction of German teachers in Japanese medical education, medicine from English-speaking countries was gradually replaced by German medicine. Consequently, a multitude of German anatomy textbooks began to be imported into Japan during the middle Meiji period. In the later half of Meiji period (1888-1912), sequential publication of books written by Japanese anatomists based on German anatomy books became more common, along with the development of medical personnel who had been taught by foreign teachers. Most of the anatomy textbooks written by Japanese anatomists followed a format based on that of German anatomy textbooks of the time. This format style became well established by the late the end of Meiji period, and continued to be used in subsequently published anatomy textbooks until around the end of World War II. Here we introduce books, such as the translated anatomy books and textbooks, that were published during the turbulent Meiji era, and describe these within a bibliographical context.

  2. Subclassification of Recursive Partitioning Analysis Class II Patients With Brain Metastases Treated Radiosurgically

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamamoto, Masaaki, E-mail: BCD06275@nifty.com [Katsuta Hospital Mito GammaHouse, Hitachi-naka (Japan); Department of Neurosurgery, Tokyo Women' s Medical University Medical Center East, Tokyo (Japan); Sato, Yasunori [Clinical Research Center, Chiba University Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba (Japan); Serizawa, Toru [Tokyo Gamma Unit Center, Tsukiji Neurologic Clinic, Tokyo (Japan); Kawabe, Takuya [Katsuta Hospital Mito GammaHouse, Hitachi-naka (Japan); Department of Neurosurgery, Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyoto (Japan); Higuchi, Yoshinori [Department of Neurosurgery, Chiba University Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba (Japan); Nagano, Osamu [Gamma Knife House, Chiba Cardiovascular Center, Ichihara (Japan); Barfod, Bierta E. [Katsuta Hospital Mito GammaHouse, Hitachi-naka (Japan); Ono, Junichi [Gamma Knife House, Chiba Cardiovascular Center, Ichihara (Japan); Kasuya, Hidetoshi [Department of Neurosurgery, Tokyo Women' s Medical University Medical Center East, Tokyo (Japan); Urakawa, Yoichi [Katsuta Hospital Mito GammaHouse, Hitachi-naka (Japan)

    2012-08-01

    Purpose: Although the recursive partitioning analysis (RPA) class is generally used for predicting survival periods of patients with brain metastases (METs), the majority of such patients are Class II and clinical factors vary quite widely within this category. This prompted us to divide RPA Class II patients into three subclasses. Methods and Materials: This was a two-institution, institutional review board-approved, retrospective cohort study using two databases: the Mito series (2,000 consecutive patients, comprising 787 women and 1,213 men; mean age, 65 years [range, 19-96 years]) and the Chiba series (1,753 patients, comprising 673 female and 1,080 male patients; mean age, 65 years [range, 7-94 years]). Both patient series underwent Gamma Knife radiosurgery alone, without whole-brain radiotherapy, for brain METs during the same 10-year period, July 1998 through June 2008. The Cox proportional hazard model with a step-wise selection procedure was used for multivariate analysis. Results: In the Mito series, four factors were identified as favoring longer survival: Karnofsky Performance Status (90% to 100% vs. 70% to 80%), tumor numbers (solitary vs. multiple), primary tumor status (controlled vs. not controlled), and non-brain METs (no vs. yes). This new index is the sum of scores (0 and 1) of these four factors: RPA Class II-a, score of 0 or 1; RPA Class II-b, score of 2; and RPA Class II-c, score of 3 or 4. Next, using the Chiba series, we tested whether our index is valid for a different patient group. This new system showed highly statistically significant differences among subclasses in both the Mito series and the Chiba series (p < 0.001 for all subclasses). In addition, this new index was confirmed to be applicable to Class II patients with four major primary tumor sites, that is, lung, breast, alimentary tract, and urogenital organs. Conclusions: Our new grading system should be considered when designing future clinical trials involving brain MET

  3. Anatomy of nuclear dissent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosmer, C.

    1976-01-01

    According to former Congressman Hosmer, anxiety over safety and proliferation underlie some nuclear apprehension, but nuclear dissent in America today also embraces a quite separate category of opponents consisting of people disillusioned with some aspects of society, possibly distrustful of its institutions, and seeking for the country a quite different life style. The strategies of Ralph Nader are cited: he won his fight against Detroit's corporate giants by alarming the public of the shortcomings of the Corvair automobile. An interview with Nader, as head of the anti-nuclear movement, is reviewed. The purpose here was not to make a cost-benefit analysis of the no-growth, low-energy philosophy, or to evaluate the ethical considerations underlying strategies to forward it. The purpose was, rather, to: (a) postulate that a movement may exist to effect material changes in American life styles, using the nuclear issue as a diversionary stalking horse; and (b) to suggest that public discussion of the no-growth future, and the indirect strategy for imposing it, could move the United States nuclear industry off its defensive posture

  4. Company Value Anatomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Nelson Guedes de Carvalho

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The seminal propositions by Modigliani and Miller started a new study area in modern finance theory. Over time, their basic assumptions were relaxed, to the extent that, nowadays, situations in which they can be fully applied, with consistent and satisfactory results, are rare. On the other hand, as this simple set of propositions became known worldwide and was easily applicable, it was adopted as a rule of thumb for general enterprise valuation. However, in situations without methodological bias, the resulting enterprise values obtained by traditional methodologies are abstruse and do not allow for the analysis and management of the individual values that make up the firm and own capital values. In order to avoid this kind of abstruseness in company valuation, this study theoretically deducts an alternative valuation methodology, which permits the identification of assets’ value independently of their financing; moreover, we identify the gain on debt value that the debt provides to the shareholders, the debt tax shield and the value loss of assets and tax shield due to the increase in shareholder risk because of the leverage capital structure.

  5. Anatomy of the story: Narratives of mortuary science learners and graduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Jose Luis

    Using the anatomy of the story as a framework (Guajardo & Guajardo, 2010), this qualitative study reports the narratives of nine Mortuary Science learners and graduates from an accredited two-year Mortuary Science program in Texas. The research questions are: (1) What can we learn from the narratives of Mortuary Science learners and graduates? (2) What are the learning journeys of nine individuals currently enrolled or graduated from an accredited two-year Mortuary Science program? (3) What challenges and successes have they experienced during their residence in the program, their internship, and the process of obtaining a license? Data collected for the study include platicas (conversational interviews), artifacts, documents, and the researcher's analytic journal. Data analysis was multilayered and included several phases. First, MAXQDA software served to code the data using a priory codes (navel, heart, mind, hands, and legs) as the study framework. Next, the coded data were retrieved into a separate Word document to code it again for triangulation purposes. Narrative analysis techniques (story as data collection and data analysis) were at the center of reporting study findings to be faithful to storytelling and the anatomy of the story framework. This dissertation is divided into four main parts plus Appendix. Part I, Anatomy of the story, presents the research questions and the guidelines for the anatomy of the story to guide the reader on what to expect in this dissertation. Part II, Visualizing the main characters of the story, provides a rich description of the study participants---the navel. Part III, The main elements of the story, presents the heart, mind, hands, and legs of the story in separate sections. Part IV, Stories harvested for new beginnings, discusses the main learning product of analyzing the collective story of learners and graduates. The Appendix section of the dissertation includes important pieces explaining the elements that are expected

  6. Campylobacter jejuni fatty acid synthase II: Structural and functional analysis of [beta]-hydroxyacyl-ACP dehydratase (FabZ)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirkpatrick, Andrew S.; Yokoyama, Takeshi; Choi, Kyoung-Jae; Yeo, Hye-Jeong; (Houston)

    2009-08-14

    Fatty acid biosynthesis is crucial for all living cells. In contrast to higher organisms, bacteria use a type II fatty acid synthase (FAS II) composed of a series of individual proteins, making FAS II enzymes excellent targets for antibiotics discovery. The {beta}-hydroxyacyl-ACP dehydratase (FabZ) catalyzes an essential step in the FAS II pathway. Here, we report the structure of Campylobacter jejuni FabZ (CjFabZ), showing a hexamer both in crystals and solution, with each protomer adopting the characteristic hot dog fold. Together with biochemical analysis of CjFabZ, we define the first functional FAS II enzyme from this pathogen, and provide a framework for investigation on roles of FAS II in C. jejuni virulence

  7. Analysis of a collagen II degradation protein C2C and a collagen II formation protein CP II in serum of Asian elephants (Elephas maximus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilgallon, Conor P; Larsen, Scott; Wong, Alice; Yellowley, Clare

    2015-03-01

    Osteoarthritis is a major cause of chronic lameness in Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) in captivity worldwide. Radiology and other imaging technologies are of limited use in the early diagnosis of this condition in elephants. Collagen II is a major component of articular cartilage. The degradation and formation of collagen II can be monitored by the measurement of specific biomarkers in biologic fluids such as serum. It is possible that these biomarkers could also prove useful in identifying disease in elephants. In this study two commercially available immunoassays which measure a marker of collagen II degradation (C2C) and a marker of collagen II formation (CPII) were evaluated in Asian elephants. The ability of the assays to detect and measure C2C and CPII in the serum of Asian elephants was confirmed. Median serum concentration of C2C was 148 ng/L in nonlame elephants (n=33) and 91.2 ng/L in lame elephants (n=7). The difference was statistically significant (P=0.0002). Median serum concentration of CPII was 519.3 ng/L in nonlame elephants and 318.7 ng/L in lame elephants. The difference was also statistically significant (P=0.039). Whereas CPII concentrations in lame elephants mirrored findings from human and animal osteoarthritis studies, C2C concentrations did not. Further studies which evaluate these and other similar biomarkers are necessary to elucidate their usefulness in the diagnosis of osteoarthritis in proboscidae.

  8. Anatomy of the Corrugator Muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Kun; Lee, Jung Hun; Lim, Hee Joong

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this article is to systematically review the anatomy and action of the corrugator muscle. PubMed and Scopus were searched using the terms "corrugator" AND "anatomy." Among the 60 full texts from the 145 relevant abstracts, 34 articles without sufficient content were excluded and 4 articles drawn from the reference lists were added. Among the 30 articles analyzed (721 hemifaces), 28% classified by oblique head and transverse head, and 72% did not. Corrugator originated mostly from the medial supraorbital rim (45%), followed by the medial frontal bone (31%), the medial infraorbital rim (17%), and the upper nasal process (7%). Corrugator extended through the frontalis and orbicularis oculi (41%), only the frontalis (41%), or only the orbicularis oculi (18%). Corrugator ran superolaterally (59%), or laterally (41%). Corrugators inserted mostly to the middle of the eyebrow (57%), or the medial half of the eyebrow (36%), but also to the glabella region (7%). The length of the corrugator ranged 38 to 53 mm. The transverse head (23.38 mm) was longer than the oblique head (19.75 mm). Corrugator was thicker at the medial canthus than at the midpupillary line. Corrugator was innervated by the temporal branch of the facial nerve (66%), the zygomatic branch (17%), or the angular nerve (zygomatic branch and buccal branch, 17%). Supraorbital nerve (60%) or supratrochlear nerve (40%) penetrated the corrugator. The action was depressing, pulling the eyebrow medially (91%), or with medial eyebrow elevation and lateral eyebrow depression (9%). Surgeons must keep this anatomy in mind during surgical procedures.

  9. Venous chest anatomy: clinical implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chasen, M.H.; Charnsangavej, C.

    1998-01-01

    This article provides a practical approach to the clinical implications and importance of understanding the collateral venous anatomy of the thorax. Routine radiography, conventional venography, computed tomography (CT), and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging studies provide correlative anatomic models for the demonstration of how interconnecting collateral vascular networks within the thorax maintain venous stability at all times. Five major systems comprise the collateral venous network of the thorax ( Fig. 1 ). These include the paravertebral, azygos-hemiazygos, internal mammary, lateral thoracic, and anterior jugular venous systems (AJVS). The five systems are presented in the following sequence: (a) a brief introduction to the importance of catheter position and malposition in understanding access to the thoracic venous system, (b) the anatomy of the azygos-hemiazygos systems and their relationship with the paravertebral plexus, (c) the importance of the AJVS, (d) 'loop' concepts interconnecting the internal mammary and azygos-hemiazygos systems by means of the lateral thoracic and intercostal veins, and (e) the interconnecting venous networks on the thoracic side of the thoracoabdominal junction. Certain aspects of the venous anatomy of the thorax will not be discussed in this chapter and include (a) the intra-abdominal anastomoses between the superior and inferior vena cavae (IVC) via the internal mammary, lateral thoracic, and azygos-hemiazygos systems (beyond the scope of this article), (b) potential collateral vessels involving vertebral, parascapular, thyroidal, thymic, and other smaller veins that might anastomose with the major systems, and (c) anatomic variants and pitfalls that may mimic pathologic conditions (space limitations). (Copyright (c) 1998 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  10. An ecological analysis of food outlet density and prevalence of type II diabetes in South Carolina counties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    AlHasan, Dana M; Eberth, Jan Marie

    2016-01-05

    Studies suggest that the built environment with high numbers of fast food restaurants and convenience stores and low numbers of super stores and grocery stores are related to obesity, type II diabetes mellitus, and other chronic diseases. Since few studies assess these relationships at the county level, we aim to examine fast food restaurant density, convenience store density, super store density, and grocery store density and prevalence of type II diabetes among counties in South Carolina. Pearson's correlation between four types of food outlet densities- fast food restaurants, convenience stores, super stores, and grocery stores- and prevalence of type II diabetes were computed. The relationship between each of these food outlet densities were mapped with prevalence of type II diabetes, and OLS regression analysis was completed adjusting for county-level rates of obesity, physical inactivity, density of recreation facilities, unemployment, households with no car and limited access to stores, education, and race. We showed a significant, negative relationship between fast food restaurant density and prevalence of type II diabetes, and a significant, positive relationship between convenience store density and prevalence of type II diabetes. In adjusted analysis, the food outlet densities (of any type) was not associated with prevalence of type II diabetes. This ecological analysis showed no associations between fast food restaurants, convenience stores, super stores, or grocery stores densities and the prevalence of type II diabetes. Consideration of environmental, social, and cultural determinants, as well as individual behaviors is needed in future research.

  11. Gross anatomy of network security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siu, Thomas J.

    2002-01-01

    Information security involves many branches of effort, including information assurance, host level security, physical security, and network security. Computer network security methods and implementations are given a top-down description to permit a medically focused audience to anchor this information to their daily practice. The depth of detail of network functionality and security measures, like that of the study of human anatomy, can be highly involved. Presented at the level of major gross anatomical systems, this paper will focus on network backbone implementation and perimeter defenses, then diagnostic tools, and finally the user practices (the human element). Physical security measures, though significant, have been defined as beyond the scope of this presentation.

  12. A new chapter in Anatomy

    OpenAIRE

    Şengül, Gülgün

    2015-01-01

    Gülgün Şengül (MD) is a Professor of Anatomy in Ege University, School of Medicine, Izmir, Turkey. Her research field is neuroanatomy. She is one of the authors of the comprehensive spinal cord text book The Spinal Cord: A Christopher and Dana Reeve Foundation Text and Atlas (Elsevier, 2009). Her recent work Atlas of the Spinal Cord of the Rat, Mouse, Marmoset, Rhesus, and Human (Elsevier, 2013) comprises the first marmoset and rhesus monkey and human spinal cord atlases published. These prov...

  13. ZBrush Digital Sculpting Human Anatomy

    CERN Document Server

    Spencer, Scott

    2010-01-01

    Taking into account that many of today?s digital artists?particularly 3D character animators?lack foundational artistic instruction, this book teaches anatomy in a coherent and succinct style. A clear writing style explains how to sculpt an accurate human figure, starting with the skeleton and working out to muscle, fat, and skin. Insightful explanations enable you to quickly and easily create and design characters that can be used in film, game, or print, and allows you to gain a strong understanding of the foundational artistic concepts.

  14. Cu(II), Zn(II)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    stereochemistry has been suggested to Zn(II), Cd(II) and Hg(II) complexes. The thermal analysis data provided the kinetic parameters as order of decomposition reaction, activation energy and frequency factor. All theoretical calculations of the ligand and the Cu(II) and Zn(II) complexes were made using Gaussian 03 rev.

  15. Design Projects in Human Anatomy & Physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polizzotto, Kristin; Ortiz, Mary T.

    2008-01-01

    Very often, some type of writing assignment is required in college entry-level Human Anatomy and Physiology courses. This assignment can be anything from an essay to a research paper on the literature, focusing on a faculty-approved topic of interest to the student. As educators who teach Human Anatomy and Physiology at an urban community college,…

  16. Frontal anatomy and reaction time in Autism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmitz, Nicole; Daly, Eileen; Murphy, Declan

    2007-01-01

    Widespread frontal lobe abnormalities, encompassing anatomy and function, are known to be implicated in Autistic Spectrum Disorders (ASD). The correlation between neurobiology and behaviour, however, is poorly understood in ASD. The aim of this study was to investigate frontal lobe anatomy and

  17. Anatomy of a Cancer Treatment Scam

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... All Events Weekly Calendar Weekly Calendar Archive Speeches Audio/Video Featured Videos FTC Events For Consumers For ... Adjudicative Proceedings You are here Home » News & Events » Audio/Video » Anatomy of a Cancer Treatment Scam Anatomy ...

  18. Gender Bias in Human Anatomy Textbook Illustrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giacomini, M.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Surveyed anatomy texts currently in use in a major western medical school. In text sections dealing with standard (nongender-specific) anatomy, male subjects were shown in 64 percent of the illustrations in which gender was discernible, females in ll percent, and gender-neutral representations, 25 percent. Females and males were represented…

  19. An introduction to human brain anatomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Forstmann, B.U.; Keuken, M.C.; Alkemade, A.; Forstmann, B.U.; Wagenmakers, E.-J.

    2015-01-01

    This tutorial chapter provides an overview of the human brain anatomy. Knowledge of brain anatomy is fundamental to our understanding of cognitive processes in health and disease; moreover, anatomical constraints are vital for neurocomputational models and can be important for psychological

  20. Shark Attack! Sinking Your Teeth into Anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    House, Herbert

    2002-01-01

    Presents a real life shark attack story and studies arm reattachment surgery to teach human anatomy. Discusses how knowledge of anatomy can be put to use in the real world and how the arm functions. Includes teaching notes and suggestions for classroom management. (YDS)

  1. Anatomy of a Cancer Treatment Scam

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Anatomy of a Cancer Treatment Scam Anatomy of a Cancer Treatment Scam January 19, 2012 Curious about a product that claims to treat or cure cancer? ... Center Competition Guidance I Would Like To... Submit a Consumer Complaint to the FTC Apply for a ...

  2. Mapping selection within Drosophila melanogaster embryo's anatomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salvador-Martínez, Irepan; Coronado-Zamora, Marta; Castellano, David

    2018-01-01

    We present a survey of selection across Drosophila melanogaster embryonic anatomy. Our approach integrates genomic variation, spatial gene expression patterns and development, with the aim of mapping adaptation over the entire embryo's anatomy. Our adaptation map is based on analyzing spatial gen...

  3. Journal of Experimental and Clinical Anatomy

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Journal of Experimental and Clinical Anatomy accepts for publication manuscripts of high standard containing reports of original scientific research in the morphology, mechanical functioning and development of man and animals. The scope the journal embraces articles of human and comparative anatomy, embryology ...

  4. Motion analysis and trials of the deep sea hybrid underwater glider Petrel-II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fang; Wang, Yan-hui; Wu, Zhi-liang; Wang, Shu-xin

    2017-03-01

    A hybrid underwater glider Petrel-II has been developed and field tested. It is equipped with an active buoyancy unit and a compact propeller unit. Its working modes have been expanded to buoyancy driven gliding and propeller driven level-flight, which can make the glider work in strong currents, as well as many other complicated ocean environments. Its maximal gliding speed reaches 1 knot and the propelling speed is up to 3 knots. In this paper, a 3D dynamic model of Petrel-II is derived using linear momentum and angular momentum equations. According to the dynamic model, the spiral motion in the underwater space is simulated for the gliding mode. Similarly the cycle motion on water surface and the depth-keeping motion underwater are simulated for the level-flight mode. These simulations are important to the performance analysis and parameter optimization for the Petrel-II underwater glider. The simulation results show a good agreement with field trials.

  5. Analysis of Solar Neutrino Data from Super-Kamiokande I and II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans J. Haubold

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available We are going back to the roots of the original solar neutrino problem: the analysis of data from solar neutrino experiments. The application of standard deviation analysis (SDA and diffusion entropy analysis (DEA to the Super-Kamiokande I and II data reveals that they represent a non-Gaussian signal. The Hurst exponent is different from the scaling exponent of the probability density function, and both the Hurst exponent and scaling exponent of the probability density function of the Super-Kamiokande data deviate considerably from the value of 0.5, which indicates that the statistics of the underlying phenomenon is anomalous. To develop a road to the possible interpretation of this finding, we utilize Mathai’s pathway model and consider fractional reaction and fractional diffusion as possible explanations of the non-Gaussian content of the Super-Kamiokande data.

  6. Development and characterisation of disposable gold electrodes, and their use for lead(II) analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noh, Mohd F. M. [Cranfield University, Cranfield Health, Silsoe (United Kingdom); Institute for Medical Research, Toxicology and Pharmacology Unit, Herbal Medicine Research Centre, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Tothill, Ibtisam E. [Cranfield University, Cranfield Health, Silsoe (United Kingdom)

    2006-12-15

    There is an increasing need to assess the harmful effects of heavy-metal-ion pollution on the environment. The ability to detect and measure toxic contaminants on site using simple, cost effective, and field-portable sensors is an important aspect of environmental protection and facilitating rapid decision making. A screen-printed gold sensor in a three-electrode configuration has been developed for analysis of lead(II) by square-wave stripping voltammetry (SWSV). The working electrode was fabricated with gold ink deposited by use of thick-film technology. Conditions affecting the lead stripping response were characterised and optimized. Experimental data indicated that chloride ions are important in lead deposition and subsequent analysis with this type of sensor. A linear concentration range of 10-50 {mu}g L{sup -1} and 25-300 {mu}g L{sup -1} with detection limits of 2 {mu}g L{sup -1} and 5.8 {mu}g L{sup -1} were obtained for lead(II) for measurement times of four and two minutes, respectively. The electrodes can be reused up to 20 times after cleaning with 0.5 mol L{sup -1} sulfuric acid. Interference of other metals with the response to lead were also examined to optimize the sensor response for analysis of environmental samples. The analytical utility of the sensor was demonstrated by applying the system to a variety of wastewater and soil sample extracts from polluted sites. The results are sufficient evidence of the feasibility of using these screen-printed gold electrodes for the determination of lead(II) in wastewater and soil extracts. For comparison purposes a mercury-film electrode and ICP-MS were used for validation. (orig.)

  7. Proceedings of the fifth international workshop on Mathematical Foundations of Computational Anatomy (MFCA 2015)

    OpenAIRE

    Pennec , Xavier; Joshi , Sarang; Nielsen , Mads; Fletcher , Thomas P.; Durrleman , Stanley; Sommer , Stefan

    2015-01-01

    International audience; Computational anatomy is an emerging discipline at the interface of geometry, statistics and image analysis which aims at modeling and analyzing the biological shape of tissues and organs. The goal is to estimate representative organ anatomies across diseases, populations, species or ages, to model the organ development across time (growth or aging), to establish their variability, and to correlate this variability information with other functional, genetic or structur...

  8. The public display of plastinates as a challenge to the integrity of anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, David Gareth

    2016-01-01

    Anatomy has been thrust into the public domain by the highly successful public displays of dissected and plastinated human bodies. This is anatomy in modern guise, anatomy as perceived by the general public. If this is the case, the message it is giving the public about the nature of anatomy is that it is an impersonal analysis of the human body of value within a medical and health care environment. While this is in part true, and while it reflects important aspects of anatomy's history, it fails to reflect the humanistic strands within an increasing swathe of contemporary anatomy. These are manifested in growing recognition of the centrality of informed consent in the practice of anatomy, awareness of the personal dimensions and relationships of those whose bodies are being dissected, and manifested in thanksgiving ceremonies involving staff and students. The notion that the bodies undergoing dissection can be students' first teachers and/or patients is gaining ground, another indication of the human dimensions of the anatomical enterprise. Exhibitions such as Body Worlds ignore these dimensions within anatomy by dislocating it from its clinical and relational base. The significance of this is that loss of these dimensions leads to a loss of the human face of anatomy by isolating it from the people whose body bequests made this knowledge possible. What is required is greater transparency and openness in the practices of all who deal with the dead human body, trends that owe much to the writings of scholars from within a range of humanities disciplines as they have responded to the public displays of dissected plastinated bodies. Anatomists have much to learn from these debates. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Statistical issues for design and analysis of single-arm multi-stage phase II cancer clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Sin-Ho

    2015-05-01

    Phase II trials have been very widely conducted and published every year for cancer clinical research. In spite of the fast progress in design and analysis methods, single-arm two-stage design is still the most popular for phase II cancer clinical trials. Because of their small sample sizes, statistical methods based on large sample approximation are not appropriate for design and analysis of phase II trials. As a prospective clinical research, the analysis method of a phase II trial is predetermined at the design stage and it is analyzed during and at the end of the trial as planned by the design. The analysis method of a trial should be matched with the design method. For two-stage single arm phase II trials, Simon's method has been the standards for choosing an optimal design, but the resulting data have been analyzed and published ignoring the two-stage design aspect with small sample sizes. In this article, we review analysis methods that exactly get along with the exact two-stage design method. We also discuss some statistical methods to improve the existing design and analysis methods for single-arm two-stage phase II trials. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Photometrical analysis of the Neck-Line structure of Comet Bennet 1970II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fulle, M.; Sedmak, G.

    1988-01-01

    The Kimura and Liu (1977) analysis of the motion in space of cometary dust tail grains, which furnished information on the size-dependence of the dust ejection velocity from the inner coma and the size distribution on a millimetric scale, is presently applied to the Neck-Line Structure (NLS) displayed by Comet Bennett 1970II at the begining of May, 1970. Attention is given to two photographs of the comet which have been analyzed by digital image processing in order to extract reliable photometric data; the strong excess of millimetric grains noted is in agreement with the Fulle (1987) results for preperihelion times. 24 references

  11. The effectiveness of the Herbst appliance for patients with Class II malocclusion: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xin; Zhu, Yafen; Long, Hu; Zhou, Yang; Jian, Fan; Ye, Niansong; Gao, Meiya; Lai, Wenli

    2016-06-01

    To systematically investigate review in literature the effects of the Herbst appliance for patients with Class II malocclusion patients. We performed a comprehensive literature survey on PubMed, Web of Science, Embase, CENTRAL, SIGLE, and ClinicalTrial.gov up to December 2014. The selection criteria: randomized controlled trials or clinical controlled trials; using any kind of Herbst appliances to correct Class II division 1 malocclusions; skeletal and/or dental changes evaluated through lateral cephalograms. And the exclusion criteria: syndromic patients; individual case reports and series of cases; surgical interventions. Article screening, data extraction, assessment of risk of bias, and evaluation of evidence quality through GRADE were conducted independently by two well-trained orthodontic doctors. Consensus was made via group discussion of all authors when there is inconsistent information from the two. After that, sensitivity analysis and subgroup analysis were performed to evaluate the robustness of the meta-analysis. Twelve clinical controlled trials meet the above-mentioned criteria, and were included in this analysis. All included studies have eleven measures taken during both active treatment effect and long term effect periods, including four angular ones (i.e., SNA, SNB, ANB, mandibular plane angle) and seven linear ones (i.e. Co-Go, Co-Gn, overjet, overbite, molar relationship, A point-OLp, Pg-OLp) during active treatment effect period were statistically pooled. Meta-analysis and sensitivity analysis demonstrated that all these measures showed consistent results except for SNA, ANB, and overbite. Subgroup analysis showed significant changes in SNA, overbite, and Pg-OLp. Publication bias was detected in SNB, mandibular plane angle, and A point-OLp. The Herbst appliance is effective for patients with Class II malocclusion in active treatment period. Especially, there are obvious changes on dental discrepancy and skeletal changes on Co-Gn. As to its

  12. Stability of Class II fixed functional appliance therapy—a systematic review and meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Bremen, Julia; Ruf, Sabine

    2016-01-01

    Summary Objectives: To systematically search for scientific evidence concerning the stability of treatment (Tx) results achieved by means of Class II fixed functional appliance therapy and to assess possible differences between appliances. Search Methods: An electronic search of databases and orthodontic journals was carried out (until December 2013), with supplemental hand searching. In addition to the names of all identified appliances, the term fixed functional was used in combination with each of the following search terms: long-term, post-Tx, relapse, retention, stability. Selection Criteria: To be included in the review, the articles had to contain clear data on: Class II Tx with a fixed functional appliance (>5 patients), post-Tx period ≥ 1 year, assessment of ANB angle, Wits appraisal, molar relationship, soft-tissue profile convexity excluding the nose, overjet and/or overbite. Data Collection and Analysis: The literature search revealed 20 scientific investigations which corresponded to only two of the 76 identified appliances (Herbst and Twin Force Bite Corrector). As only one publication was found for the Twin Force Bite Corrector, a meta-analysis could only be performed for Herbst Tx. The data were extracted, pooled and weighted according to the number of patients in each study. Results: The mean values for post-Tx relapse (percentages relative to the Tx changes) were: ANB angle 0.2 degrees (12.4 per cent), Wits appraisal 0.5mm (19.5 per cent), sagittal molar relationship 1.2mm/0.1 cusp widths (21.8 per cent /6.5 per cent); soft-tissue profile convexity excluding nose less than 0.1 degrees (1.0 per cent), overjet 1.8mm (26.2 per cent), overbite Class II:1 1.4mm (44.7 per cent), overbite Class II:2 1.0mm (22.2 per cent). Conclusions: The scientific evidence concerning the stability of Tx results is inexistent for most fixed functional appliances for Class II correction except for Herbst appliance Tx. Even if the evidence level of most included studies

  13. HYDRA-II: A hydrothermal analysis computer code: Volume 1, Equations and numerics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCann, R.A.

    1987-04-01

    HYDRA-II is a hydrothermal computer code capable of three-dimensional analysis of coupled conduction, convection, and thermal radiation problems. This code is especially appropriate for simulating the steady-state performance of spent fuel storage systems. The code has been evaluated for this application for the US Department of Energy's Commercial Spent Fuel Management Program. HYDRA-II provides a finite difference solution in Cartesian coordinates to the equations governing the conservation of mass, momentum, and energy. A cylindrical coordinate system may also be used to enclose the Cartesian coordinate system. This exterior coordinate system is useful for modeling cylindrical cask bodies. The difference equations for conservation of momentum are enhanced by the incorporation of directional porosities and permeabilities that aid in modeling solid structures whose dimensions may be smaller than the computational mesh. The equation for conservation of energy permits of modeling of orthotropic physical properties and film resistances. Several automated procedures are available to model radiation transfer within enclosures and from fuel rod to fuel rod. The documentation of HYDRA-II is presented in three separate volumes. This volume, Volume I - Equations and Numerics, describes the basic differential equations, illustrates how the difference equations are formulated, and gives the solution procedures employed. Volume II - User's Manual contains code flow charts, discusses the code structure, provides detailed instructions for preparing an input file, and illustrates the operation of the code by means of a model problem. The final volume, Volume III - Verification/Validation Assessments, presents results of numerical simulations of single- and multiassembly storage systems and comparisons with experimental data. 4 refs

  14. HYDRA-II: A hydrothermal analysis computer code: Volume 3, Verification/validation assessments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCann, R.A.; Lowery, P.S.

    1987-10-01

    HYDRA-II is a hydrothermal computer code capable of three-dimensional analysis of coupled conduction, convection, and thermal radiation problems. This code is especially appropriate for simulating the steady-state performance of spent fuel storage systems. The code has been evaluated for this application for the US Department of Energy's Commercial Spent Fuel Management Program. HYDRA-II provides a finite difference solution in cartesian coordinates to the equations governing the conservation of mass, momentum, and energy. A cylindrical coordinate system may also be used to enclose the cartesian coordinate system. This exterior coordinate system is useful for modeling cylindrical cask bodies. The difference equations for conservation of momentum are enhanced by the incorporation of directional porosities and permeabilities that aid in modeling solid structures whose dimensions may be smaller than the computational mesh. The equation for conservation of energy permits modeling of orthotropic physical properties and film resistances. Several automated procedures are available to model radiation transfer within enclosures and from fuel rod to fuel rod. The documentation of HYDRA-II is presented in three separate volumes. Volume I - Equations and Numerics describes the basic differential equations, illustrates how the difference equations are formulated, and gives the solution procedures employed. Volume II - User's Manual contains code flow charts, discusses the code structure, provides detailed instructions for preparing an input file, and illustrates the operation of the code by means of a model problem. This volume, Volume III - Verification/Validation Assessments, provides a comparison between the analytical solution and the numerical simulation for problems with a known solution. This volume also documents comparisons between the results of simulations of single- and multiassembly storage systems and actual experimental data. 11 refs., 55 figs., 13 tabs.

  15. Human fetal anatomy: MR imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinreb, J C; Lowe, T; Cohen, J M; Kutler, M

    1985-12-01

    Twenty-four pregnant women carrying 26 fetuses (two sets of twins) were imaged with magnetic resonance (MR) imaging at 0.35 T following sonographic evaluation. Each study was retrospectively evaluated to determine which of 33 normal fetal structures were visible on the images and which imaging parameters were most useful for depicting fetal anatomy. Fetal motion degraded fetal images in all but two cases, both with oligohydramnios and in the third trimester of gestation. Nevertheless, many fetal structures were identifiable, particularly in the third trimester. Visualization of fetal anatomy improved with intravenous maternal sedation in five cases. Relatively T1-weighted images occasionally offered the advantage of less image degradation owing to fetal motion and improved contrast between different fetal structures. More T2 weighting was believed to be advantageous in one case for outlining the fetal head and in one case for delineation of the brain. In many cases, structures were similarly identifiable (though with different signal intensities) regardless of the parameters selected. The authors conclude that MR imaging of many fetal structures is currently unsatisfactory and is probably of limited value, particularly in the first and second trimesters. However, the relative frequency and detail with which the fetal head and liver can be depicted indicate that these may be areas for further investigation, and the potential utility of imaging fetal fat warrants further investigation.

  16. Anatomy of the Spinal Meninges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakka, Laurent; Gabrillargues, Jean; Coll, Guillaume

    2016-06-01

    The spinal meninges have received less attention than the cranial meninges in the literature, although several points remain debatable and poorly understood, like their phylogenesis, their development, and their interactions with the spinal cord. Their constancy among the chordates shows their crucial importance in central nervous system homeostasis and suggests a role far beyond mechanical protection of the neuraxis. This work provides an extensive study of the spinal meninges, from an overview of their phylogenesis and embryology to a descriptive and topographic anatomy with clinical implications. It examines their involvement in spinal cord development, functioning, and repair. This work is a review of the literature using PubMed as a search engine on Medline. The stages followed by the meninges along the phylogenesis could not be easily compared with their development in vertebrates for methodological aspects and convergence processes throughout evolution. The distinction between arachnoid and pia mater appeared controversial. Several points of descriptive anatomy remain debatable: the functional organization of the arterial network, and the venous and lymphatic drainages, considered differently by classical anatomic and neuroradiological approaches. Spinal meninges are involved in neurodevelopment and neurorepair producing neural stem cells and morphogens, in cerebrospinal fluid dynamics and neuraxis functioning by the synthesis of active molecules, and the elimination of waste products of central nervous system metabolism. The spinal meninges should be considered as dynamic functional formations evolving over a lifetime, with ultrastructural features and functional interactions with the neuraxis remaining not fully understood.

  17. Retinopathy risk factors in type II diabetic patients using factor analysis and discriminant analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tazhibi, Mahdi; Sarrafzade, Sheida; Amini, Masoud

    2014-01-01

    Diabetes is one of the most common chronic diseases in the world. Incidence and prevalence of diabetes are increasing in developing countries as well as in Iran. Retinopathy is the most common chronic disorder in diabetic patients. In this study, we used the information of diabetic patients' reports that refer to endocrine and metabolism research center of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences to determine diabetic retinopathy risk factors. We used factor analysis to extract retinopathy's factors. Factor analysis is using to analyze multivariate data, in which a large number of dependent variables summarize into the fewer independent factors. Factor analysis is applied, in both diabetic and nondiabetic patients, separately. To investigate the efficacy of factor analysis, we used discriminant analysis. We investigated 3535 diabetic patients whose prevalence of retinopathy was 53.4%. Six factors were extracted in each group (i.e. diabetic and nondiabetic groups). These six factors were explained 69.5% and 69.6% of total variance in diabetic and nondiabetic groups, respectively. Using original variables such as sex, weight, blood sugar control method, and some laboratory variables, the correct classification rate of discriminant analysis was identified as 67.4%. However, it decreased to 49.5% by using extracted factors. Retinopathy is one of the important disorders in diabetic patients that involves a large number of variables and can affect its incidence. By the method of factor analysis, we summarize diabetic retinopathy risk factors. Factor analysis is applied separately, in two diabetic and nondiabetic group. In this way, 10 variables were summarized into the six factors. Discriminant analysis was used to investigate the efficacy of factor analysis. Although factor analysis is a powerful way to reduce the number of variables, in this study did not worked very well.

  18. An Analysis of Loss of Offsite Power Sequence for the Severe Accident Analysis Database (II)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Soo Yong; Kim, Dong Ha

    2006-12-15

    This report contains analysis methodologies and calculation results of loss of offsite sequences for the severe accident analysis database system. The Korean standard nuclear power plant has been selected as a reference plant. Based on the probabilistic safety analysis of the corresponding plant, Twelve accident scenarios, which was predicted to have more than 10-10 /ry occurrence frequency, have been analyzed as base cases for the loss of offsite sequence database. The functions of the severe accident analysis database system will be to make a diagnosis of the accident by some input information from the plant symptoms, to search a corresponding scenario, and finally to provide the user phenomenological information based on the pre-analyzed results. The MAAP 4.06 calculation results of loss of offsite sequence in this report will be utilized as input data of the severe accident analysis database system. This report updates and complements a previously published Technical Report.

  19. Poisson regression analysis of the mortality among a cohort of World War II nuclear industry workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frome, E.L.; Cragle, D.L.; McLain, R.W.

    1990-01-01

    A historical cohort mortality study was conducted among 28,008 white male employees who had worked for at least 1 month in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, during World War II. The workers were employed at two plants that were producing enriched uranium and a research and development laboratory. Vital status was ascertained through 1980 for 98.1% of the cohort members and death certificates were obtained for 96.8% of the 11,671 decedents. A modified version of the traditional standardized mortality ratio (SMR) analysis was used to compare the cause-specific mortality experience of the World War II workers with the U.S. white male population. An SMR and a trend statistic were computed for each cause-of-death category for the 30-year interval from 1950 to 1980. The SMR for all causes was 1.11, and there was a significant upward trend of 0.74% per year. The excess mortality was primarily due to lung cancer and diseases of the respiratory system. Poisson regression methods were used to evaluate the influence of duration of employment, facility of employment, socioeconomic status, birth year, period of follow-up, and radiation exposure on cause-specific mortality. Maximum likelihood estimates of the parameters in a main-effects model were obtained to describe the joint effects of these six factors on cause-specific mortality of the World War II workers. We show that these multivariate regression techniques provide a useful extension of conventional SMR analysis and illustrate their effective use in a large occupational cohort study

  20. KELAINAN BANGUN ANATOMIS KUKU KUDA KOLEKSI LABORATORIUM ANATOMI FKH IPB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kemaz A Dewangga

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to observe the anatomical structure of horse hooves collected from the Laboratory of Anatomy FKH IPB. Twenty five hoof specimens, consisting of ten fore hooves and fifteen hind hooves were used as research materials. The external morphology such as color, angle, structure and condition of the hoof wall were described. The observation on external morphology showed that the hooves have two basic colors, black and white. Generally, all of the hoof specimens showed abnormalities in such aspect as angle, structure and condition of the wall. The structures of fore hoof and hind hoof from this study are classified into 8 categories, they are: flat foot, flared foot, knol hoef, fever rings, sand crack, club foot, contracted foot and bull nosed foot.

  1. Cloning and molecular analysis of L-asparaginase II gene (ansB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZEINAT K. MOHAMED

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The deamination of L-asparagine to L-aspartic acid and ammonia is catalyzed by L-asparaginases (L-asparagine amino hydrolase. The enzyme L-asparaginase is widely distributed in nature from different living organisms, starting from bacteria till mammals and plants. It has been recently thought to be a therapeutic agent in treatment of various lymphoblastic leukemia diseases. There have been many attempts to isolate microorganisms that produce L-asparaginase. L-ASNase producing bacteria, Escherichia coli MG27, was previously isolated from the River Nile and identified. In this study, ansB gene, encoding L-ASNase II from E. coli MG27, was amplified by PCR, cloned and characterized by DNA sequencing. The DNA sequence was then analyzed using bioinformatics analysis and translated into amino acid sequence. Identification of highly conserved amino acid sequence motifs was conducted by comparison against the InterPro database. Analysis revealed that the protein sequence had a catalytic domain of L-asparaginase type II (IPR004550 that belong to asparaginase/glutaminase family (IPR006034 and has asparaginase/glutaminase conserved site (IPR020827. According to results predicted using PSIpred tool, ansB consists of eight α-helices and 13 β-strands.

  2. [The human body and the computer as pedagogic tools for anatomy: review of the literature].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Captier, G; Canovas, F; Bonnel, F

    2005-09-01

    Since the first dissections, the human body has been the main tool for the teaching of anatomy in medical courses. For the last 30 years, university anatomy laboratory dissection has been brought into question and the total hours of anatomy teaching have decreased. In parallel, new technologies have progressed and become more competitive and more attractive than dissection. The aim of this review of the literature was to evaluate the use of the human body as a pedagogic tool compared to today's computer tools. Twenty comparative studies were reviewed. Their analysis showed that the human body remains the main tool in anatomy teaching even if anatomic demonstration (prosection) can replace dissection, and that the computer tools were complementary but not a substitute to dissection.

  3. Stability of Class II fixed functional appliance therapy--a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bock, Niko C; von Bremen, Julia; Ruf, Sabine

    2016-04-01

    To systematically search for scientific evidence concerning the stability of treatment (Tx) results achieved by means of Class II fixed functional appliance therapy and to assess possible differences between appliances. An electronic search of databases and orthodontic journals was carried out (until December 2013), with supplemental hand searching. In addition to the names of all identified appliances, the term fixed functional was used in combination with each of the following search terms: long-term, post-Tx, relapse, retention, stability. To be included in the review, the articles had to contain clear data on: Class II Tx with a fixed functional appliance (>5 patients), post-Tx period ≥ 1 year, assessment of ANB angle, Wits appraisal, molar relationship, soft-tissue profile convexity excluding the nose, overjet and/or overbite. The literature search revealed 20 scientific investigations which corresponded to only two of the 76 identified appliances (Herbst and Twin Force Bite Corrector). As only one publication was found for the Twin Force Bite Corrector, a meta-analysis could only be performed for Herbst Tx. The data were extracted, pooled and weighted according to the number of patients in each study. The mean values for post-Tx relapse (percentages relative to the Tx changes) were: ANB angle 0.2 degrees (12.4 per cent), Wits appraisal 0.5mm (19.5 per cent), sagittal molar relationship 1.2mm/0.1 cusp widths (21.8 per cent /6.5 per cent); soft-tissue profile convexity excluding nose less than 0.1 degrees (1.0 per cent), overjet 1.8mm (26.2 per cent), overbite Class II:1 1.4mm (44.7 per cent), overbite Class II:2 1.0mm (22.2 per cent). The scientific evidence concerning the stability of Tx results is inexistent for most fixed functional appliances for Class II correction except for Herbst appliance Tx. Even if the evidence level of most included studies is rather low, good dentoskeletal stability without clinically relevant changes was found for most

  4. Genome-wide analysis of KAP1, the 7SK snRNP complex, and RNA polymerase II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, Ryan P; Guzman, Carlos; Reeder, Jonathan E; D'Orso, Iván

    2016-03-01

    The transition of RNA polymerase II (Pol II) from transcription initiation into productive elongation in eukaryotic cells is regulated by the P-TEFb kinase, which phosphorylates the C-terminal domain of paused Pol II at promoter-proximal regions. Our recent study found that P-TEFb (in an inhibited state bound to the 7SK snRNP complex) interacts with the KAP1/TRIM28 transcriptional regulator, and that KAP1 and the 7SK snRNP co-occupy most gene promoters containing paused Pol II. Here we provide a detailed experimental description and analysis of the ChIP-seq datasets that have been deposited into Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO): GS72622, so that independent groups can replicate and expand upon these findings. We propose these datasets would provide valuable information for researchers studying mechanisms of transcriptional regulation including Pol II pausing and pause release.

  5. Advances in explosives analysis--part II: photon and neutron methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Kathryn E; Greenfield, Margo T; McGrane, Shawn D; Moore, David S

    2016-01-01

    The number and capability of explosives detection and analysis methods have increased dramatically since publication of the Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry special issue devoted to Explosives Analysis [Moore DS, Goodpaster JV, Anal Bioanal Chem 395:245-246, 2009]. Here we review and critically evaluate the latest (the past five years) important advances in explosives detection, with details of the improvements over previous methods, and suggest possible avenues towards further advances in, e.g., stand-off distance, detection limit, selectivity, and penetration through camouflage or packaging. The review consists of two parts. Part I discussed methods based on animals, chemicals (including colorimetry, molecularly imprinted polymers, electrochemistry, and immunochemistry), ions (both ion-mobility spectrometry and mass spectrometry), and mechanical devices. This part, Part II, will review methods based on photons, from very energetic photons including X-rays and gamma rays down to the terahertz range, and neutrons.

  6. Time-of-flight analysis of charge-exchange neutral particles from the TORTUR II plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brocken, H.J.B.M.

    1981-10-01

    A disc chopper for time-of-flight analysis of fast neutral particles was constructed for the determination of the ion energy spectrum at lower energies than can be obtained by conventional electro-magnetic analyzers. The method has been applied to the TORTUR II tokamak. The chopper and detection system are described and the measurements are presented. For the interpretation of the results of the measurements a data analysis procedure was developed. The influence of reflections of neutrals at the liner wall showed to be important in the calculations of the neutral density profile at the plasma edge. The neutral energy spectrum in the lower energy range is strongly pronounced by this effect

  7. PART II - HUMAN BODIES TO TEACH ANATOMY: IMPORTANCE AND PROCUREMENT – EXPERIENCE WITH CADAVER DONATION. Parte II - Cuerpos humanos para la enseñanza de la Anatomía: Importancia y procuración – Experiencia con la donación de cadáveres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana N Biasutto

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available La publicación del Debate sobre “Cuerpos Humanos para la Enseñanza de la Anatomía: Importancia y Procuración – Experiencia con la Donación de Cadáveres” en el último número llamó la atención de la comunidad anatómica internacional por la amplitud del enfoque y la diversidad de las situaciones mencionadas. Aunque es posible encontrar muchos otros artículos sobre el tema, generalmente se enfocan a una experiencia particular, un país o, eventualmente, a un continente. Este Debate dio una breve visión sobre diferentes continentes y provesó un rápido punto de vista sobre los acuerdos y diversidad de problemas que afrontan los profesores de Anatomía en una amplia variedad de culturas. Tal como se especificó en la primera parte, los comentarios, consultas y respuestas de los participantes iniciales y los lectores en general serían considerados para una segunda parte del Debate. Todas las contribuciones  significativas han sido organizadas e incluidas en esta instancia. Los lectores podrán encontrar información importante relativa a Australia, República Checa, Rusia, Turquía y Venezuela y comentarios adicionales a los conceptos previamente publicados sobre India, Malasia, Sudáfrica y Estados Unidos. Publication of the Debate on “Human Bodies to Teach Anatomy: Importance and Procurement – Experience with Cadaver Donation” in the immediate past issue called the attention of the international anatomic community because of the broad approach and the diversity of the mentioned situations. Instead it is possible to find many other articles on this topic they are usually focused on a particular experience, country or, eventually, a continent. This Debate gave a brief mapping on different continents and provided a quick point of view on agreements and diversity of problems afforded by the professors of Anatomy under a wide variety of cultures.  As it was specified in the first part, comments, queries and answers from the

  8. Scoliosis convexity and organ anatomy are related.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlösser, Tom P C; Semple, Tom; Carr, Siobhán B; Padley, Simon; Loebinger, Michael R; Hogg, Claire; Castelein, René M

    2017-06-01

    Primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) is a respiratory syndrome in which 'random' organ orientation can occur; with approximately 46% of patients developing situs inversus totalis at organogenesis. The aim of this study was to explore the relationship between organ anatomy and curve convexity by studying the prevalence and convexity of idiopathic scoliosis in PCD patients with and without situs inversus. Chest radiographs of PCD patients were systematically screened for existence of significant lateral spinal deviation using the Cobb angle. Positive values represented right-sided convexity. Curve convexity and Cobb angles were compared between PCD patients with situs inversus and normal anatomy. A total of 198 PCD patients were screened. The prevalence of scoliosis (Cobb >10°) and significant spinal asymmetry (Cobb 5-10°) was 8 and 23%, respectively. Curve convexity and Cobb angle were significantly different within both groups between situs inversus patients and patients with normal anatomy (P ≤ 0.009). Moreover, curve convexity correlated significantly with organ orientation (P scoliosis (8 situs inversus and 8 normal anatomy), except for one case, matching of curve convexity and orientation of organ anatomy was observed: convexity of the curve was opposite to organ orientation. This study supports our hypothesis on the correlation between organ anatomy and curve convexity in scoliosis: the convexity of the thoracic curve is predominantly to the right in PCD patients that were 'randomized' to normal organ anatomy and to the left in patients with situs inversus totalis.

  9. The value of supplementary anatomy workshops for improving ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of anatomy workshops on undergraduate anatomy grade performance. Methods: From 2012 to 2014, mean anatomy and physiology scores of medical students who attended anatomy workshops were compared to those who did not attend. Furthermore, mean scores in ...

  10. Arterial anatomy of the thumb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ames, E L; Bissonnette, M; Acland, R; Lister, G; Firrell, J

    1993-08-01

    The anatomical literature has indicated that the arterial supply to the thumb comes from the princeps pollicis artery. However, this simplified description does not often correlate with intraoperative findings. The purpose of this study was to investigate and clarify this important area of anatomy by dissection of fresh cadaver hands. 40 dissections were completed on 35 intravascularly injected and five non-injected hands. Five patterns were identified. The most common pattern showed both a superficial and deep vessel to the first web space in 54% of specimens. Dominant vessels included the superficial palmar branch of the radial artery in 8%, first palmar metacarpal artery in 18% and dorsal metacarpal artery in 8%. Only three specimens correlated with the textbook description. We conclude that the term "princeps pollicis" is actually a misnomer.

  11. Anterior ethmoid anatomy facilitates dacryocystorhinostomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaylock, W K; Moore, C A; Linberg, J V

    1990-12-01

    The ethmoid air cell labyrinth lies adjacent to the medial orbital wall, extending even beyond the sutures of the ethmoid bone. Its anatomic relationship to the lacrimal sac fossa is important in lacrimal surgery. We evaluated computed tomographic scans of 190 orbits with normal ethmoid anatomy to define the anatomic relationship of anterior ethmoid air cells to the lacrimal sac fossa. In 93% of the orbits, the cells extended anterior to the posterior lacrimal crest, with 40% entering the frontal process of the maxilla. This anatomic relationship may be used to facilitate the osteotomy during dacryocystorhinostomy. During a 10-year period (310 cases), one of us routinely entered the anterior ethmoid air cells to initiate the osteotomy during dacryocystorhinostomy. This technique has helped to avoid lacerations of the nasal mucosa.

  12. Anatomy of the Platysma Muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Kun; Kim, Ji Yeon; Lim, Jae Hyun

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this paper was to review the anatomy the platysma systematically.The term "platysma AND anatomy" was used to search PubMed and Scopus, producing 394 and 214 papers, respectively. After excluding 95 duplicate titles, 513 abstracts and 98 full papers were reviewed. Among these 98 papers, 83 were excluded and 5 were added. Ultimately, 20 papers were analyzed.The most common aging-related change of the platysma was shortening (70.7%), followed by thinning (25.2%). The platysma most commonly originated from the upper portion of thorax anterior to clavicle (67.7%), followed by the subcutaneous tissue of the subclavicular and acromial regions (22.6%) and pectoralis (9.7%). The platysma ascended upward and medially (68.5%) or ascended from the clavicle to the face (31.5%). The platysma most commonly inserted on the cheek skin (57.5%), followed by the cutaneous muscles around the mouth (18.6%), the mandibulocutaneous ligament or zygoma (18.6%), and the parotid fascia or periosteum of the mandible (5.3%). The platysma was most commonly innervated by the cervical branch of the facial nerve (38.2%) or the cervical branch and mandibular branch of the facial nerve (60.5%), followed by the cervical plexus (0.6%), the cervical motor nucleus (0.6%), and the glossopharyngeal nerve (0.1%). The most common action of the platysma was drawing the lips inferiorly (83.3%) or posteriorly (12.9%). Four papers classified the platysma into subtypes; however, these classification strategies used arbitrary standards.Further studies will be necessary to establish the thickness of the platysma and to characterize age-related changes of the platysma.

  13. High precision anatomy for MEG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troebinger, Luzia; López, José David; Lutti, Antoine; Bradbury, David; Bestmann, Sven; Barnes, Gareth

    2014-02-01

    Precise MEG estimates of neuronal current flow are undermined by uncertain knowledge of the head location with respect to the MEG sensors. This is either due to head movements within the scanning session or systematic errors in co-registration to anatomy. Here we show how such errors can be minimized using subject-specific head-casts produced using 3D printing technology. The casts fit the scalp of the subject internally and the inside of the MEG dewar externally, reducing within session and between session head movements. Systematic errors in matching to MRI coordinate system are also reduced through the use of MRI-visible fiducial markers placed on the same cast. Bootstrap estimates of absolute co-registration error were of the order of 1mm. Estimates of relative co-registration error were <1.5mm between sessions. We corroborated these scalp based estimates by looking at the MEG data recorded over a 6month period. We found that the between session sensor variability of the subject's evoked response was of the order of the within session noise, showing no appreciable noise due to between-session movement. Simulations suggest that the between-session sensor level amplitude SNR improved by a factor of 5 over conventional strategies. We show that at this level of coregistration accuracy there is strong evidence for anatomical models based on the individual rather than canonical anatomy; but that this advantage disappears for errors of greater than 5mm. This work paves the way for source reconstruction methods which can exploit very high SNR signals and accurate anatomical models; and also significantly increases the sensitivity of longitudinal studies with MEG. © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. High precision anatomy for MEG☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troebinger, Luzia; López, José David; Lutti, Antoine; Bradbury, David; Bestmann, Sven; Barnes, Gareth

    2014-01-01

    Precise MEG estimates of neuronal current flow are undermined by uncertain knowledge of the head location with respect to the MEG sensors. This is either due to head movements within the scanning session or systematic errors in co-registration to anatomy. Here we show how such errors can be minimized using subject-specific head-casts produced using 3D printing technology. The casts fit the scalp of the subject internally and the inside of the MEG dewar externally, reducing within session and between session head movements. Systematic errors in matching to MRI coordinate system are also reduced through the use of MRI-visible fiducial markers placed on the same cast. Bootstrap estimates of absolute co-registration error were of the order of 1 mm. Estimates of relative co-registration error were < 1.5 mm between sessions. We corroborated these scalp based estimates by looking at the MEG data recorded over a 6 month period. We found that the between session sensor variability of the subject's evoked response was of the order of the within session noise, showing no appreciable noise due to between-session movement. Simulations suggest that the between-session sensor level amplitude SNR improved by a factor of 5 over conventional strategies. We show that at this level of coregistration accuracy there is strong evidence for anatomical models based on the individual rather than canonical anatomy; but that this advantage disappears for errors of greater than 5 mm. This work paves the way for source reconstruction methods which can exploit very high SNR signals and accurate anatomical models; and also significantly increases the sensitivity of longitudinal studies with MEG. PMID:23911673

  15. Physics Metacognition Inventory Part Ii: Confirmatory Factor Analysis and Rasch Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taasoobshirazi, Gita; Bailey, MarLynn; Farley, John

    2015-01-01

    The Physics Metacognition Inventory was developed to measure physics students' metacognition for problem solving. In one of our earlier studies, an exploratory factor analysis provided evidence of preliminary construct validity, revealing six components of students' metacognition when solving physics problems including knowledge of cognition,…

  16. Spectral energy distribution analysis of class I and class II FU Orionis stars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gramajo, Luciana V.; Gómez, Mercedes [Observatorio Astronómico, Universidad Nacional de Córdoba, Argentina, Laprida 854, 5000 Córdoba (Argentina); Rodón, Javier A., E-mail: luciana@oac.uncor.edu, E-mail: mercedes@oac.uncor.edu, E-mail: jrodon@eso.org [European Southern Observatory, Alonso de Córdova 3107, Vitacura, Casilla 19001, Santiago 19 (Chile)

    2014-06-01

    FU Orionis stars (FUors) are eruptive pre-main sequence objects thought to represent quasi-periodic or recurring stages of enhanced accretion during the low-mass star-forming process. We characterize the sample of known and candidate FUors in a homogeneous and consistent way, deriving stellar and circumstellar parameters for each object. We emphasize the analysis in those parameters that are supposed to vary during the FUor stage. We modeled the spectral energy distributions of 24 of the 26 currently known FUors, using the radiative transfer code of Whitney et al. We compare our models with those obtained by Robitaille et al. for Taurus class II and I sources in quiescence periods by calculating the cumulative distribution of the different parameters. FUors have more massive disks: we find that ∼80% of the disks in FUors are more massive than any Taurus class II and I sources in the sample. Median values for the disk mass accretion rates are ∼10{sup –7} M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1} versus ∼10{sup –5} M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1} for standard young stellar objects (YSOs) and FUors, respectively. While the distributions of envelope mass accretion rates for class I FUors and standard class I objects are similar, FUors, on average, have higher envelope mass accretion rates than standard class II and class I sources. Most FUors (∼70%) have envelope mass accretion rates above 10{sup –7} M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1}. In contrast, 60% of the classical YSO sample has an accretion rate below this value. Our results support the current scenario in which changes experimented by the circumstellar disk explain the observed properties of these stars. However, the increase in the disk mass accretion rate is smaller than theoretically predicted, although in good agreement with previous determinations.

  17. Quasar 2175 Å dust absorbers - II. Correlation analysis and relationship with other absorption line systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jingzhe; Ge, Jian; Prochaska, J. Xavier; Zhang, Shaohua; Ji, Tuo; Zhao, Yinan; Zhou, Hongyan; Lu, Honglin; Schneider, Donald P.

    2018-03-01

    We present the cold neutral content (H I and C I gas) of 13 quasar 2175 Å dust absorbers (2DAs) at z = 1.6-2.5 to investigate the correlation between the presence of the UV extinction bump with other physical characteristics. These 2DAs were initially selected from the Sloan Digital Sky Surveys I-III and followed up with the Keck-II telescope and the Multiple Mirror Telescope as detailed in our Paper I. We perform a correlation analysis between metallicity, redshift, depletion level, velocity width, and explore relationships between 2DAs and other absorption line systems. The 2DAs on average have higher metallicity, higher depletion levels, and larger velocity widths than Damped Lyman α absorbers (DLAs) or subDLAs. The correlation between [Zn/H] and [Fe/Zn] or [Zn/H] and logΔV90 can be used as alternative stellar mass estimators based on the well-established mass-metallicity relation. The estimated stellar masses of the 2DAs in this sample are in the range of ˜109 to ˜2 × 1011 M⊙ with a median value of ˜2 × 1010 M⊙. The relationship with other quasar absorption line systems can be described as (1) 2DAs are a subset of Mg II and Fe II absorbers, (2) 2DAs are preferentially metal-strong DLAs/subDLAs, (3) More importantly, all of the 2DAs show C I detections with logN(C I) > 14.0 cm-2, and (4) 2DAs can be used as molecular gas tracers. Their host galaxies are likely to be chemically enriched, evolved, massive (more massive than typical DLA/subDLA galaxies), and presumably star-forming galaxies.

  18. HYDRA-II: A hydrothermal analysis computer code: Volume 2, User's manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCann, R.A.; Lowery, P.S.; Lessor, D.L.

    1987-09-01

    HYDRA-II is a hydrothermal computer code capable of three-dimensional analysis of coupled conduction, convection, and thermal radiation problems. This code is especially appropriate for simulating the steady-state performance of spent fuel storage systems. The code has been evaluated for this application for the US Department of Energy's Commercial Spent Fuel Management Program. HYDRA-II provides a finite-difference solution in cartesian coordinates to the equations governing the conservation of mass, momentum, and energy. A cylindrical coordinate system may also be used to enclose the cartesian coordinate system. This exterior coordinate system is useful for modeling cylindrical cask bodies. The difference equations for conservation of momentum incorporate directional porosities and permeabilities that are available to model solid structures whose dimensions may be smaller than the computational mesh. The equation for conservation of energy permits modeling of orthotropic physical properties and film resistances. Several automated methods are available to model radiation transfer within enclosures and from fuel rod to fuel rod. The documentation of HYDRA-II is presented in three separate volumes. Volume 1 - Equations and Numerics describes the basic differential equations, illustrates how the difference equations are formulated, and gives the solution procedures employed. This volume, Volume 2 - User's Manual, contains code flow charts, discusses the code structure, provides detailed instructions for preparing an input file, and illustrates the operation of the code by means of a sample problem. The final volume, Volume 3 - Verification/Validation Assessments, provides a comparison between the analytical solution and the numerical simulation for problems with a known solution. 6 refs.

  19. HYDRA-II: A hydrothermal analysis computer code: Volume 2, User's manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCann, R.A.; Lowery, P.S.; Lessor, D.L.

    1987-09-01

    HYDRA-II is a hydrothermal computer code capable of three-dimensional analysis of coupled conduction, convection, and thermal radiation problems. This code is especially appropriate for simulating the steady-state performance of spent fuel storage systems. The code has been evaluated for this application for the US Department of Energy's Commercial Spent Fuel Management Program. HYDRA-II provides a finite-difference solution in cartesian coordinates to the equations governing the conservation of mass, momentum, and energy. A cylindrical coordinate system may also be used to enclose the cartesian coordinate system. This exterior coordinate system is useful for modeling cylindrical cask bodies. The difference equations for conservation of momentum incorporate directional porosities and permeabilities that are available to model solid structures whose dimensions may be smaller than the computational mesh. The equation for conservation of energy permits modeling of orthotropic physical properties and film resistances. Several automated methods are available to model radiation transfer within enclosures and from fuel rod to fuel rod. The documentation of HYDRA-II is presented in three separate volumes. Volume 1 - Equations and Numerics describes the basic differential equations, illustrates how the difference equations are formulated, and gives the solution procedures employed. This volume, Volume 2 - User's Manual, contains code flow charts, discusses the code structure, provides detailed instructions for preparing an input file, and illustrates the operation of the code by means of a sample problem. The final volume, Volume 3 - Verification/Validation Assessments, provides a comparison between the analytical solution and the numerical simulation for problems with a known solution. 6 refs

  20. Anatomy and Surgical Approaches to the Rabbit Nasal Septum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badran, Karam W; Chang, John C; Kuan, Edward C; Wong, Brian J F

    2017-09-01

    The rabbit is the primary animal model used to investigate aspects of nasal surgery. Although several studies have used this model, none has provided a comprehensive analysis of the surgical anatomy and techniques used to gain access to the rabbit nasal fossae and septum. To describe and optimize the surgical anatomy and approach to the rabbit nasal vault and septal cartilage. In an ex vivo animal study conducted at an academic medical center, preliminary cadaveric dissections were performed on rabbit head specimens to establish familiarity with relevant anatomy and rehearse various approaches. Live Pasteurella-free New Zealand white rabbits (3.5-4.0 kg) were used to further develop this surgical technique developed here. Access of the nasal vault was gained through a midline nasal dorsum incision and creation of an osteoplastic flap with a drill. Submucosal resection was performed with preservation of the mucoperichondrium. All rabbits were monitored daily for 4 weeks in the postoperative period for signs of infection, pain, and complications. The study was conducted from June 1, 2014, to December 1, 2014. Surgical anatomy and techniques used to gain access to the rabbit nasal vault and harvest septal cartilage. Four Pasteurella-free New Zealand white rabbits (Western Organ Rabbit Co), ranging in age from 9 to 12 months and weighing between 3.5 and 4.0 kg, were used in this study. Initial dissections demonstrated the feasibility of harvesting septal cartilage while preserving the mucoperichondrial envelope. Access to the nasal vault through this 3-osteotomy approach allowed for maximal exposure to the nasal cavity bilaterally while maintaining the integrity of the mucoperichondrium following septal cartilage harvest. The maximum amount of bulk, en bloc, cartilage harvested was 1.0 × 2.5 cm. Following surgical dissection, all animals maintained adequate airway patency and support to midface structures. Furthermore, all specimens preserved the integrity of the

  1. Evolution of leaf anatomy and photosynthetic pathways in Portulacaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocampo, Gilberto; Koteyeva, Nuria K; Voznesenskaya, Elena V; Edwards, Gerald E; Sage, Tammy L; Sage, Rowan F; Columbus, J Travis

    2013-12-01

    Portulacaceae is a family with a remarkable diversity in photosynthetic pathways. This lineage not only has species with different C4 biochemistry (NADP-ME and NAD-ME types) and C3-C4 intermediacy, but also displays different leaf anatomical configurations. Here we addressed the evolutionary history of leaf anatomy and photosynthetic pathways in Portulacaceae. Photosynthetic pathways were assessed based on leaf anatomy and carbon isotope ratios. Information on the NADP-ME and NAD-ME C4 variants was obtained from the literature. The evolutionary relationships and trait evolution were estimated under a Bayesian framework, and divergence times were calibrated using the ages obtained in a previous study. C4 photosynthesis is the main pathway in Portulacaceae. One clade (Cryptopetala), however, includes species that have non-Kranz anatomy and C3 type isotope values, two of which are C3-C4 intermediates. The ancestral leaf anatomy for the family is uncertain. The analysis showed one origin of the C4 pathway, which was lost in the Cryptopetala clade. Nevertheless, when a second analysis was performed taking into account the limited number of species with NAD-ME and NADP-ME data, a secondary gain of the C4 pathway from a C3-C4 intermediate was inferred. The C4 pathway evolved ca. 23 Myr in the Portulacaceae. The number of times that the pathway evolved in the family is uncertain. The diversity of leaf anatomical types and C4 biochemical variants suggest multiple independent origins of C4 photosynthesis. Evidence for a switch from C4 to C3-C4 intermediacy supports the hypothesis that intermediates represent a distinct successful strategy.

  2. How useful is YouTube in learning heart anatomy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raikos, Athanasios; Waidyasekara, Pasan

    2014-01-01

    Nowadays more and more modern medical degree programs focus on self-directed and problem-based learning. That requires students to search for high quality and easy to retrieve online resources. YouTube is an emerging platform for learning human anatomy due to easy access and being a free service. The purpose of this study is to make a quantitative and qualitative analysis of the available human heart anatomy videos on YouTube. Using the search engine of the platform we searched for relevant videos using various keywords. Videos with irrelevant content, animal tissue, non-English language, no sound, duplicates, and physiology focused were excluded from further elaboration. The initial search retrieved 55,525 videos, whereas only 294 qualified for further analysis. A unique scoring system was used to assess the anatomical quality and details, general quality, and the general data for each video. Our results indicate that the human heart anatomy videos available on YouTube conveyed our anatomical criteria poorly, whereas the general quality scoring found borderline. Students should be selective when looking up on public video databases as it can prove challenging, time consuming, and the anatomical information may be misleading due to absence of content review. Anatomists and institutions are encouraged to prepare and endorse good quality material and make them available online for the students. The scoring rubric used in the study comprises a valuable tool to faculty members for quality evaluation of heart anatomy videos available on social media platforms. Copyright © 2013 American Association of Anatomists.

  3. Outcomes of Endovascular Aneurysm Repair using the Ovation Stent Graft System in Adverse Anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greaves, Nicholas S; Moore, Aiden; Seriki, Dare; Ghosh, Jonathan

    2018-04-01

    The aim was the evaluation of mid-term efficacy and safety outcome measures for the Ovation (Endologix, Santa Rosa, CA, USA) stent graft system in the management of infrarenal abdominal aortic aneurysms (iAAA) with adverse anatomy. A retrospective observational study of all patients undergoing elective iAAA repair was carried out from 2012 to 2017 using Ovation Prime or iX stent grafts with a minimum of 3 months follow-up at a single UK vascular centre. Post-operative surveillance involved computed tomography scans at 3 months and 1 year, with duplex ultrasound yearly thereafter. Outcome measures were established with retrospective analysis of pre- and post-operative imaging, and included peri-operative mortality, major adverse events, limb complications, aneurysm diameter change, and endoleak rates. All patients were within Ovation instructions for use (IFU), and assessment was made to determine whether aneurysms had anatomical features considered adverse for other commonly used stent graft platforms. Ovation stent grafts were implanted in 52 patients (79% male, mean age 75.7 years) with a mean aneurysm diameter of 62.5 mm (range 55-107 mm). There was 100% technical deployment success. The 30 day mortality was 0% and there was no aneurysm related mortality during follow-up (median 24 months, range 3-48 months). There were no type I or III endoleaks, but 19% developed type II endoleaks with one patient requiring re-intervention. No iliac limb occlusions were identified but one case required relining for limb kinking. All 52 cases were within the IFU for Ovation but only 12% met the IFU criteria for the Cook and Medtronic devices. The mid-term experience with Ovation demonstrates safe, durable treatment of iAAAs, including those with unfavourable anatomy, frequently off IFU for other commonly used devices. Copyright © 2017 European Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. The Tracking Meteogram, an AWIPS II Tool for Time-Series Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burks, Jason Eric; Sperow, Ken

    2015-01-01

    A new tool has been developed for the National Weather Service (NWS) Advanced Weather Interactive Processing System (AWIPS) II through collaboration between NASA's Short-term Prediction Research and Transition (SPoRT) and the NWS Meteorological Development Laboratory (MDL). Referred to as the "Tracking Meteogram", the tool aids NWS forecasters in assessing meteorological parameters associated with moving phenomena. The tool aids forecasters in severe weather situations by providing valuable satellite and radar derived trends such as cloud top cooling rates, radial velocity couplets, reflectivity, and information from ground-based lightning networks. The Tracking Meteogram tool also aids in synoptic and mesoscale analysis by tracking parameters such as the deepening of surface low pressure systems, changes in surface or upper air temperature, and other properties. The tool provides a valuable new functionality and demonstrates the flexibility and extensibility of the NWS AWIPS II architecture. In 2014, the operational impact of the tool was formally evaluated through participation in the NOAA/NWS Operations Proving Ground (OPG), a risk reduction activity to assess performance and operational impact of new forecasting concepts, tools, and applications. Performance of the Tracking Meteogram Tool during the OPG assessment confirmed that it will be a valuable asset to the operational forecasters. This presentation reviews development of the Tracking Meteogram tool, performance and feedback acquired during the OPG activity, and future goals for continued support and extension to other application areas.

  5. Anion vacancies in II-VI chalcogenides: Review and critical analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babentsov, V.; James, R. B.

    2013-09-01

    We performed critical analysis and comparison of all EPR, photo-EPR, photosensitive optical absorption, photoluminescence, and photoconductivity data taken on various Zn- and Cd-related II-VI chalcogenides compounds, such as ZnO, ZnS, ZnSe, and ZnTe, and CdS, CdSe, and CdTe. We developed a scheme for the electronic transitions and recombination associated with anion vacancies that is common for all these materials. This scheme explains all known facts obtained to date on quenching and excitation of the EPR signal, optical absorption, photoluminescence and photoconductivity. Based on these data we determined that the location of the energy level of the singly charged anion vacancy, VA+, is nearly equal for Zn-related II-VI materials (EC-1.0 eV) and EC+0.8 eV for Cd-related materials. For Cd-related chalcogenides most of the data were derived only from photoluminescence- and photoconductivity-spectra, so based on the available data, the position of the energy level of a singly charged anion vacancy in these materials was determined not so convincingly. Nonetheless, these materials have attracted much interest for decades because of their industrial applications as luminescent devices, laser filters and other optical elements, infrared, visible- and (X) γ-ray-detectors, solar cells, and the like.

  6. Analysis of the interaction of deuterium plasmas with tungsten in the Fuego-Nuevo II device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Gonzalo; Castillo, Fermín; Nieto, Martín; Martínez, Marco; Rangel, José; Herrera-Velázquez, Julio

    2012-10-01

    Tungsten is one of the main candidate materials for plasma-facing components in future fusion power plants. The Fuego-Nuevo II, a plasma focus device, which can produce dense magnetized helium and deuterium plasmas, has been adapted to address plasma-facing materials questions. In this paper we present results of tungsten targets exposed to deuterium plasmas in the Fuego Nuevo II device, using different experimental conditions. The plasma generated and accelerated in the coaxial gun is expected to have, before the pinch, energies of the order of hundreds eV and velocities of the order of 40,000 m s-1. At the pinch, the ions are reported to have energies of the order of 1.5 keV at most. The samples, analysed with a scanning electron microscope (SEM) in cross section show a damage profile to depths of the order of 580 nm, which are larger than those expected for ions with 1.5 keV, and may be evidence of ion acceleration. An analysis with the SRIM (Stopping Range of Ions in Matter) package calculations is shown.

  7. Synthesis, Characterization and Thermal Analysis of a New Acetic Acid (2-Hydroxy-benzylidene-hydrazide and its Complexes with Hg(II and Pd(II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hajar Sahebalzamani

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The new complexes have been synthesized by the reaction of Hg(II and Pd(II with acetic acid(2-hydroxy-benzylidene- hydrazide (L. These new complexes were characterized by elemental analysis, IR, H NMR spectroscopy and UV spectral techniques. The changes observed between the FT-IR, H NMR and UV-Vis spectra of the ligands and of the complexes allowed us to establish the coordination mode of the metal in complexes. Thermal properties, TG-DTA of these complexes were studied. TG- DTA and other analytical methods have been applied to the investigation of the thermal behavior and structure of the compounds [M(L2]Cl2 M= Hg, Pd. Thermal decomposition of these compounds is multi-stage processes.

  8. Synthesis, Spectroscopy, Thermal Analysis, Magnetic Properties and Biological Activity Studies of Cu(II and Co(II Complexes with Schiff Base Dye Ligands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeid Amani

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Three azo group-containing Schiff base ligands, namely 1-{3-[(3-hydroxy-propyliminomethyl]-4-hydroxyphenylazo}-4-nitrobenzene (2a, 1-{3-[(3-hydroxypropyl-iminomethyl]-4-hydroxyphenylazo}-2-chloro-4-nitrobenzene (2b and 1-{3-[(3-hydroxy-propyliminomethyl]-4-hydroxyphenylazo}-4-chloro-3-nitrobenzene (2c were prepared. The ligands were characterized by elemental analysis, FTIR spectroscopy, UV-Vis spectroscopy, 13C- and 1H-NMR spectroscopy and thermogravimetric analysis. Next the corresponding copper(II and cobalt(II metal complexes were synthesized and characterized by the physicochemical and spectroscopic methods of elemental analysis, FTIR spectroscopy, UV-Vis spectroscopy, magnetic moment measurements, and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA and (DSC. The room temperature effective magnetic moments of complexes are 1.45, 1.56, 1.62, 2.16, 2.26 and 2.80 B.M. for complexes 3a, 3b, 3c, 4a 4b, and 4c, respectively, indicating that the complexes are paramagnetic with considerable electronic communication between the two metal centers.

  9. The functional anatomy of suggested limb paralysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deeley, Quinton; Oakley, David A; Toone, Brian; Bell, Vaughan; Walsh, Eamonn; Marquand, Andre F; Giampietro, Vincent; Brammer, Michael J; Williams, Steven C R; Mehta, Mitul A; Halligan, Peter W

    2013-02-01

    Suggestions of limb paralysis in highly hypnotically suggestible subjects have been employed to successfully model conversion disorders, revealing similar patterns of brain activation associated with attempted movement of the affected limb. However, previous studies differ with regard to the executive regions involved during involuntary inhibition of the affected limb. This difference may have arisen as previous studies did not control for differences in hypnosis depth between conditions and/or include subjective measures to explore the experience of suggested paralysis. In the current study we employed functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to examine the functional anatomy of left and right upper limb movements in eight healthy subjects selected for high hypnotic suggestibility during (i) hypnosis (NORMAL) and (ii) attempted movement following additional left upper limb paralysis suggestions (PARALYSIS). Contrast of left upper limb motor function during NORMAL relative to PARALYSIS conditions revealed greater activation of contralateral M1/S1 and ipsilateral cerebellum, consistent with the engagement of these regions in the completion of movements. By contrast, two significant observations were noted in PARALYSIS relative to NORMAL conditions. In conjunction with reports of attempts to move the paralysed limb, greater supplementary motor area (SMA) activation was observed, a finding consistent with the role of SMA in motor intention and planning. The anterior cingulate cortex (ACC, BA 24) was also significantly more active in PARALYSIS relative to NORMAL conditions - suggesting that ACC (BA 24) may be implicated in involuntary, as well as voluntary inhibition of prepotent motor responses. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Anatomy of a Cancer Treatment Scam

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... a Cancer Treatment Scam Anatomy of a Cancer Treatment Scam January 19, 2012 Curious about a product ... and should not stop or delay their conventional treatment. Category: Scam Watch Health Download File Related Videos ...

  11. Anatomy and physiology of chronic scrotal pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Abhishek P

    2017-05-01

    This article reviews the anatomy and physiology of the scrotum and its contents as it pertains to chronic scrotal pain. Physiology of chronic pain is reviewed, as well as the pathophysiology involved in the development of chronic pain.

  12. Anatomy and arthrography of the knee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaye, J.K.

    1987-01-01

    The pertinent anatomy of the knee and the use of double-contrast knee arthrography is presented. Various types of meniscal lesions as well as extrameniscal abnormalities such as ligamentous abnormalities, synovial diseases, and abnormalities of articular cartilage are illustrated

  13. Anatomy of a Cancer Treatment Scam

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of a Cancer Treatment Scam Anatomy of a Cancer Treatment Scam January 19, 2012 Curious about a product that claims to treat or cure cancer? According to the Federal Trade Commission, consumers should ...

  14. CPR Instruction in a Human Anatomy Class.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutton, Lewis M.

    1978-01-01

    Describes how cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) instruction can be included in a college anatomy and physiology course. Equipment and instructors are provided locally by the Red Cross or American Heart Association. (MA)

  15. Cochlear anatomy: CT and MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez, Manuel; Bruno, Claudio; Martin, Eduardo; Canale, Nancy; De Luca, Laura; Spina, Juan C. h

    2002-01-01

    The authors present a brief overview of the normal cochlear anatomy with CT and MR images in order to allow a more complete identification of the pathological findings in patients with perceptive hipoacusia. (author)

  16. Understanding Colds: Anatomy of the Nose

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Complications Special Features References Common Cold Understanding Colds Anatomy of the Nose The nose contains shelf-like ... in the noses of humans and not in animals except chimpanzees and other higher primates. (4) How ...

  17. Bone Conduction: Anatomy, Physiology, and Communication

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Henry, Paula; Letowski, Tomasz R

    2007-01-01

    .... This report combines results of an extensive literature review of the anatomy and physiology of human hearing, theories behind the mechanisms of bone conduction transmission, devices for use in bone...

  18. Integrated safety analysis of rolapitant with coadministered drugs from phase II/III trials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barbour, S; Smit, T.; Wang, X

    2017-01-01

    for treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAEs) and treatment-emergent serious adverse events (TESAEs) during cycle 1 were pooled across the four studies and summarized in the overall population and by concomitant use/non-use of CYP2D6 or BCRP substrate drugs. Results: In the integrated safety population, 828...... cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A4, but it does inhibit CYP2D6 and breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP). To analyze potential drug-drug interactions between rolapitant and concomitant medications, this integrated safety analysis of four double-blind, randomized phase II or III studies of rolapitant examined...... adverse events by use versus non-use of drug substrates of CYP2D6 or BCRP. Patients and methods: Patients were randomized to receive either 180 mg oral rolapitant or placebo approximately 1-2 hours before chemotherapy in combination with a 5-hydroxytryptamine type 3 RA and dexamethasone. Data...

  19. Analysis of radiological consequences in a typical BWR with a mark-II containment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Funayama, Kyoko; Kajimoto, Mitsuhiro

    2003-01-01

    INS/NUPEC in Japan has been carrying out the Level 3 PSA program. In the program, the MACCS2 code has been extensively applied to analyze radiological consequences for typical BWR and PWR plants in Japan. The present study deals with analysis of effects of the AMs, which were implemented by industries, on radiological consequence for a typical BWR with a Mark-II containment. In the present study, source terms and their frequencies of source terms were used based on results of Level 2 PSA taking into account AM countermeasures. Radiological consequences were presented with dose risks (Sv/ry), which were multiplied doses (Sv) by containment damage frequencies (/ry), and timing of radionuclides release to the environment. The results of the present study indicated that the dose risks became negligible in most cases taking AM countermeasures and evacuations. (author)

  20. Transient analysis of the new Cold Source at the FRM-II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutsmiedl, E.; Posselt, H.; Scheuer, A.

    2003-01-01

    The new Cold Source (CNS) at the FRM-II research reactor is completely installed. This paper reports on the results of the transient analysis in the design status for this facility for producing cold neutrons for neutron experiments, the implementation of the results in the design of the mechanical components, the measurements at the cold tests and the comparison with the data of the transient analysis. The important load cases are fixed in the system description and the design data sheet of the CNS. A transient analysis was done with the computer program ESATAN, the nodal configuration was identical with the planned system of the CNS and the boundary conditions were chosen so, that conservative results can be expected. The following transients of the load cases in the piping system behind the inpile part 1) normal storage of D 2 at the hydride storage vessel 2) breakdown of cooling system of the CNS and transfer of D 2 to the buffer tank 3) rapid charge of D 2 to the buffer tank with break of the insulation vacuum and flooding of Neon 4) reloading of the D 2 from the buffer tank to the D 2 hydride storage vessel were calculated. Additionally the temperature distribution for these transients in the connecting flanges of the systems to the inpile part were analysed. The temperature distributions in the flange region were take into account for the strength calculation of the flange construction. The chosen construction shows allowable values and a leak tight flange connection for the load cases. The piping system was designed to the lowest expected temperatures. The load cases in the moderator tank were take into account in the stress analysis and the fatigue analysis of the vacuum vessel and the moderator vessel. The results shows allowable stresses. The results shows that a transient analysis is necessary and helpful for good design of the CNS. (author)

  1. Integrated Data Collection Analysis (IDCA) Program - RDX Type II Class 5 Standard, Data Set 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandstrom, Mary M. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Brown, Geoffrey W. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Preston, Daniel N. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Pollard, Colin J. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Warner, Kirstin F. [Naval Surface Warfare Center (NSWC), Indian Head, MD (United States). Indian Head Division; Sorenson, Daniel N. [Naval Surface Warfare Center (NSWC), Indian Head, MD (United States). Indian Head Division; Remmers, Daniel L. [Naval Surface Warfare Center (NSWC), Indian Head, MD (United States). Indian Head Division; Moran, Jesse S. [Naval Surface Warfare Center (NSWC), Indian Head, MD (United States). Indian Head Division; Shelley, Timothy J. [Air Force Research Lab. (AFRL), Tyndall AFB, FL (United States); Reyes, Jose A. [Applied Research Associates, Inc., Tyndall AFB, FL (United States); Hsu, Peter C. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Whipple, Richard E. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Reynolds, John G. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2011-04-11

    This document describes the results of the first reference sample material—RDX Type II Class 5—examined in the proficiency study for small-scale safety and thermal (SSST) testing of explosive materials for the Integrated Data Collection Analysis (IDCA) Program. The IDCA program is conducting proficiency testing on homemade explosives (HMEs). The reference sample materials are being studied to establish the accuracy of traditional explosives safety testing for each performing laboratory. These results will be used for comparison to results from testing HMEs. This effort, funded by the Department of Homeland Security (DHS), ultimately will put the issues of safe handling of these materials in perspective with standard military explosives. The results of the study will add SSST testing results for a broad suite of different HMEs to the literature, potentially suggest new guidelines and methods for HME testing, and possibly establish what are the needed accuracies in SSST testing to develop safe handling practices. Described here are the results for impact, friction, electrostatic discharge, and scanning calorimetry analysis of a reference sample of RDX Type II Class 5. The results from each participating testing laboratory are compared using identical test material and preparation methods wherever possible. Note, however, the test procedures differ among the laboratories. These results are then compared to historical data from various sources. The performers involved are Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Air Force Research Laboratory/ RXQL (AFRL), Indian Head Division, Naval Surface Warfare Center, (IHD-NSWC), and Sandia National Laboratories (SNL). These tests are conducted as a proficiency study in order to establish some consistency in test protocols, procedures, and experiments and to understand how to compare results when test protocols are not identical.

  2. Computed tomography of the calcaneus: normal anatomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heger, L.; Wulff, K.

    1985-01-01

    The normal sectional anatomy of the calcaneus was studied as the background for interpretation of computed tomography (CT) of fractures. Multiplanar CT examination of the normal calcaneus was obtained, and sections were matched with a simplified anatomic model. Sectional anatomy in the four most important planes is described. This facilitates three-dimensional understanding of the calcaneus from sections and interpretation of CT sections obtained in any atypical plane

  3. DESIGNING A CONTEMPORARY ANATOMY MUSEUM: ANATOMISTS’ PERSPECTIVE

    OpenAIRE

    Venkatesh. G. Kamath; Biswabina. Ray; Shakuntala R. Pai; Ramakrishna Avadhani

    2015-01-01

    Background: A research study was conducted in sixteen anatomy museums across India. Aim: The aim of the study is to have an integrated approach while designing a museum. Objective: The objective is to stress on the need to have a holistic approach while designing a museum so that that the museum is well planned and organised and has a huge sectional diversity that spans all aspects related to anatomy. Materials and Methods: All the museums were studied using a planned proforma that...

  4. Source term derivation and radiological safety analysis for the TRICO II research reactor in Kinshasa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muswema, J.L., E-mail: jeremie.muswem@unikin.ac.cd [Faculty of Science, University of Kinshasa, P.O. Box 190, KIN XI (Congo, The Democratic Republic of the); Ekoko, G.B. [Faculty of Science, University of Kinshasa, P.O. Box 190, KIN XI (Congo, The Democratic Republic of the); Lukanda, V.M. [Faculty of Science, University of Kinshasa, P.O. Box 190, KIN XI (Congo, The Democratic Republic of the); Democratic Republic of the Congo' s General Atomic Energy Commission, P.O. Box AE1 (Congo, The Democratic Republic of the); Lobo, J.K.-K. [Faculty of Science, University of Kinshasa, P.O. Box 190, KIN XI (Congo, The Democratic Republic of the); Darko, E.O. [Radiation Protection Institute, Ghana Atomic Energy Commission, P.O. Box LG 80, Legon, Accra (Ghana); Boafo, E.K. [University of Ontario Institute of Technology, 2000 Simcoe St. North, Oshawa, ONL1 H7K4 (Canada)

    2015-01-15

    Highlights: • Atmospheric dispersion modeling for two credible accidents of the TRIGA Mark II research reactor in Kinshasa (TRICO II) was performed. • Radiological safety analysis after the postulated initiating events (PIE) was also carried out. • The Karlsruhe KORIGEN and the HotSpot Health Physics codes were used to achieve the objectives of this study. • All the values of effective dose obtained following the accident scenarios were below the regulatory limits for reactor staff members and the public, respectively. - Abstract: The source term from the 1 MW TRIGA Mark II research reactor core of the Democratic Republic of the Congo was derived in this study. An atmospheric dispersion modeling followed by radiation dose calculation were performed based on two possible postulated accident scenarios. This derivation was made from an inventory of peak radioisotope activities released in the core by using the Karlsruhe version of isotope generation code KORIGEN. The atmospheric dispersion modeling was performed with HotSpot code, and its application yielded to radiation dose profile around the site using meteorological parameters specific to the area under study. The two accident scenarios were picked from possible accident analyses for TRIGA and TRIGA-fueled reactors, involving the case of destruction of the fuel element with highest activity release and a plane crash on the reactor building as the worst case scenario. Deterministic effects of these scenarios are used to update the Safety Analysis Report (SAR) of the reactor, and for its current version, these scenarios are not yet incorporated. Site-specific meteorological conditions were collected from two meteorological stations: one installed within the Atomic Energy Commission and another at the National Meteorological Agency (METTELSAT), which is not far from the site. Results show that in both accident scenarios, radiation doses remain within the limits, far below the recommended maximum effective

  5. Source term derivation and radiological safety analysis for the TRICO II research reactor in Kinshasa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muswema, J.L.; Ekoko, G.B.; Lukanda, V.M.; Lobo, J.K.-K.; Darko, E.O.; Boafo, E.K.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Atmospheric dispersion modeling for two credible accidents of the TRIGA Mark II research reactor in Kinshasa (TRICO II) was performed. • Radiological safety analysis after the postulated initiating events (PIE) was also carried out. • The Karlsruhe KORIGEN and the HotSpot Health Physics codes were used to achieve the objectives of this study. • All the values of effective dose obtained following the accident scenarios were below the regulatory limits for reactor staff members and the public, respectively. - Abstract: The source term from the 1 MW TRIGA Mark II research reactor core of the Democratic Republic of the Congo was derived in this study. An atmospheric dispersion modeling followed by radiation dose calculation were performed based on two possible postulated accident scenarios. This derivation was made from an inventory of peak radioisotope activities released in the core by using the Karlsruhe version of isotope generation code KORIGEN. The atmospheric dispersion modeling was performed with HotSpot code, and its application yielded to radiation dose profile around the site using meteorological parameters specific to the area under study. The two accident scenarios were picked from possible accident analyses for TRIGA and TRIGA-fueled reactors, involving the case of destruction of the fuel element with highest activity release and a plane crash on the reactor building as the worst case scenario. Deterministic effects of these scenarios are used to update the Safety Analysis Report (SAR) of the reactor, and for its current version, these scenarios are not yet incorporated. Site-specific meteorological conditions were collected from two meteorological stations: one installed within the Atomic Energy Commission and another at the National Meteorological Agency (METTELSAT), which is not far from the site. Results show that in both accident scenarios, radiation doses remain within the limits, far below the recommended maximum effective

  6. Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the Beck Depression Inventory-II in Bariatric Surgery Candidates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Brian J.; Hood, Megan M.; Nackers, Lisa M.; Azarbad, Leila; Ivan, Iulia; Corsica, Joyce

    2013-01-01

    Screening for depression is an integral part of psychological evaluations conducted prior to bariatric surgery. The Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II) is the most commonly used measure of depression in these treatment evaluations. The reliability and validity of the BDI-II has not yet been evaluated within bariatric surgery-seeking samples,…

  7. Preliminary design analysis of the ALT-II limiter for TEXTOR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koski, J.A.; Boyd, R.D.; Kempka, S.M.; Romig, A.D. Jr.; Smith, M.F.; Watson, R.D.; Whitley, J.B.; Conn, R.W.; Grotz, S.P.

    1983-01-01

    Installation of a large toroidal belt pump limiter, Advanced Limiter Test II (ALT-II), on the TEXTOR tokamak at Juelich, FRG is anticipated for early 1986. This paper discusses the preliminary mechanical design and materials considerations undertaken as part of the feasibility study phase for ALT-II

  8. Microscopic anatomy of pycnogonida: II. Digestive system. III. Excretory system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahrenbach, W H; Arango, Claudia P

    2007-11-01

    The digestive system of several species of sea spiders (Pycnogonida, Arthropoda) was studied by electron microscopy. It is composed of the foregut inside a long proboscis, a midgut and a hindgut. Lips near the three jaws at the tip of the proboscis receive several hundred ductules originating from salivary glands. These previously undetected glands open on the lips, a fluted, projecting ridge at the external hinge line of the jaws, i.e., to the outside of the mouth. This disposition suggests affinities to the chelicerate line. The trigonal esophagus within the proboscis contains a complex, setose filter device, operated by dedicated muscles, that serves to reduce ingested food to subcellular dimensions. The midgut has diverticula into the bases of all legs. Its cells differentiate from the basal layer and contain a bewildering array of secretion droplets, lysosomes and phagosomes. In the absence of a hepatopancreas, the midgut serves both digestive and absorptive functions. The cuticle-lined hindgut lies in the highly reduced, peg-like abdomen. Traditionally, pycnogonids have been claimed to have no excretory organ at all. Such a structure, however, has been located in at least one ammotheid, Nymphopsis spinosissima, in which a simple, but standard, excretory gland has been found in the scape of the chelifore. It consists of an end sac, a straight proximal tubule, a short distal tubule, and a raised nephropore. The end sac is a thin-walled and polygonal chamber, about 150 microm in cross section, suspended in the hemocoel of the appendage, its edges radially tethered to the cuticle at more than half a dozen locations. This wall consists of a filtration basement membrane, 1-4 microm thick, facing the hemocoel, and internally of a continuous carpet of podocytes and their pedicels. The podocytes, measuring maximally 10 by 15 microm, have complex contents, of which a labyrinthine system of connected intracellular channels stands out. These coated cisternae open into a central vacuole that often rivals the nucleus in size. The design of the organ closely approximates that of the primitive crustacean Hutchinsoniella macracantha.

  9. Utilization of rice husk waste for Cd(II) adsorbent and its analysis using solid-phase spectrophotometry (sps)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saputro, S.; Masykuri, M.; Mahardiani, L.; Arini, S.; Ramelan, A. H.

    2017-04-01

    This research aims to know the use of rice husk waste for metal ion adsorbent of Cd(II), the optimum mass which are needed, the sensitivity of SPS as a method to determine the reduction level of Cd(II) metal ions in the level of μg/L. This research was conducted by using an experimental method in the laboratory. The used adsorbent in this research is rice husk charcoal which activated using ZnCl2 10% solution. Determination of the optimum adsorbent mass was done with reacted 0.5; 1.0; 1.5; 2.0; and 2.5 g of adsorbent and 20 mL Cd(II) which have concentration 75.27 μg/L during 30 minutes. Analysis the levels of Cd(II) used SPS method and characterization of adsorbent used FTIR. The result showed that activated rice husk charcoal can be used as adsorbent for Cd(II) metal ions in the simulated liquid waste with the adsorption capacity of 0.58 μg/g, the optimum mass was 2.0 gram with percentage of the adsorbed Cd(II) of 77.87%, SPS is a sensitive method to determine the reduction levels of Cd(II) metal ions in the level of μg/L with the limit of detection (LOD) was 0.06 μg/L.

  10. Level II scour analysis for Bridge 8, (MANCTH00060008) on Town Highway 6, crossing Bourn Brook, Manchester, Vermont

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Ronda L.; Hammond, Robert E.

    1997-01-01

    This report provides the results of a detailed Level II analysis of scour potential at structure MANCTH00060008 on Town Highway 6 crossing Bourn Brook, Manchester, Vermont (figures 1–8). A Level II study is a basic engineering analysis of the site, including a quantitative analysis of stream stability and scour (U.S. Department of Transportation, 1993). Results of a Level I scour investigation also are included in Appendix E of this report. A Level I investigation provides a qualitative geomorphic characterization of the study site. Information on the bridge, gleaned from Vermont Agency of Transportation (VTAOT) files, was compiled prior to conducting Level I and Level II analyses and is found in Appendix D.

  11. Level II scour analysis for Bridge 39 (TOPSTH00510039) on Town Highway 51, crossing Tabor Branch Waits River, Topsham, Vermont

    Science.gov (United States)

    Striker, Lora K.; Severance, Tim

    1997-01-01

    This report provides the results of a detailed Level II analysis of scour potential at structure TOPSTH00510039 on Town Highway 51 crossing the Tabor Branch Waits River, Topsham, Vermont (figures 1–8). A Level II study is a basic engineering analysis of the site, including a quantitative analysis of stream stability and scour (U.S. Department of Transportation, 1993). Results of a Level I scour investigation also are included in Appendix E of this report. A Level I investigation provides a qualitative geomorphic characterization of the study site. Information on the bridge, gleaned from Vermont Agency of Transportation (VTAOT) files, was compiled prior to conducting Level I and Level II analyses and is found in Appendix D.

  12. Level II scour analysis for Bridge 45 (NFIETH00250045) on Town Highway 25, crossing Union Brook, Northfield, Vermont

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Ronda L.; Ivanoff, Michael A.

    1997-01-01

    This report provides the results of a detailed Level II analysis of scour potential at structure NFIETH00250045 on Town Highway 25 crossing Union Brook, Northfield, Vermont (figures 1–8). A Level II study is a basic engineering analysis of the site, including a quantitative analysis of stream stability and scour (U.S. Department of Transportation, 1993). Results of a Level I scour investigation also are included in Appendix E of this report. A Level I investigation provides a qualitative geomorphic characterization of the study site. Information on the bridge, gleaned from Vermont Agency of Transportation (VTAOT) files, was compiled prior to conducting Level I and Level II analyses and is found in Appendix D.

  13. Level II scour analysis for Bridge 71 (WODSTH00050071) on Town Highway 5, crossing Kedron Brook, Woodstock, Vermont

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, S.A.; Ayotte, J.D.

    1997-01-01

    This report provides the results of a detailed Level II analysis of scour potential at structure WODSTH00050071 on Town Highway 5 crossing Kedron Brook, Woodstock, Vermont (figures 1–8). A Level II study is a basic engineering analysis of the site, including a quantitative analysis of stream stability and scour (U.S. Department of Transportation, 1993). Results of a Level I scour investigation also are included in Appendix E of this report. A Level I investigation provides a qualitative geomorphic characterization of the study site. Information on the bridge, gleaned from Vermont Agency of Transportation (VTAOT) files, was compiled prior to conducting Level I and Level II analyses and is found in Appendix D.

  14. Level II scour analysis for Bridge 25 (ROYATH00550025) on Town Highway 55, crossing Broad Brook, Royalton, Vermont

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Ronda L.; Weber, Matthew A.

    1997-01-01

    This report provides the results of a detailed Level II analysis of scour potential at structure ROYATH00550025 on Town Highway 55 crossing Broad Brook, Royalton, Vermont (figures 1–8). A Level II study is a basic engineering analysis of the site, including a quantitative analysis of stream stability and scour (U.S. Department of Transportation, 1993). Results of a Level I scour investigation also are included in Appendix E of this report. A Level I investigation provides a qualitative geomorphic characterization of the study site. Information on the bridge, gleaned from Vermont Agency of Transportation (VTAOT) files, was compiled prior to conducting Level I and Level II analyses and is found in Appendix D.

  15. Level II scour analysis for Bridge 7 (WARRTH00010007) onTown Highway 1, crossing Freemans Brook, Warren, Vermont

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, Robert H.; Burns, Ronda L.

    1997-01-01

    This report provides the results of a detailed Level II analysis of scour potential at structure WARRTH00010007 on Town Highway 1 crossing Freeman Brook, Warren, Vermont (figures 1–8). A Level II study is a basic engineering analysis of the site, including a quantitative analysis of stream stability and scour (U.S. Department of Transportation, 1993). Results of a Level I scour investigation also are included in Appendix E of this report. A Level I investigation provides a qualitative geomorphic characterization of the study site. Information on the bridge, gleaned from Vermont Agency of Transportation (VTAOT) files, was compiled prior to conducting Level I and Level II analyses and is found in Appendix D.

  16. Level II scour analysis for Bridge 46 (BRNETH00610046) on Town Highway 61, crossing East Peacham Brook, Barnet, Vermont

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanoff, Michael A.

    1997-01-01

    This report provides the results of a detailed Level II analysis of scour potential at structure BRNETH00610046 on Town Highway 61 crossing East Peacham Brook, Barnet, Vermont (figures 1–8). A Level II study is a basic engineering analysis of the site, including a quantitative analysis of stream stability and scour (U.S. Department of Transportation, 1993). Results of a Level I scour investigation also are included in Appendix E of this report. A Level I investigation provides a qualitative geomorphic characterization of the study site. Information on the bridge, gleaned from Vermont Agency of Transportation (VTAOT) files, was compiled prior to conducting Level I and Level II analyses and is found in Appendix D.

  17. Level II scour analysis for Bridge 29 (LONDTH00410029) on Town Highway 41, crossing Cook Brook, Londonderry, Vermont

    Science.gov (United States)

    Striker, Lora K.; Wild, Emily C.

    1997-01-01

    This report provides the results of a detailed Level II analysis of scour potential at structure LONDTH00410029 on Town Highway 41 crossing Cook Brook, Londonderry, Vermont (figures 1–8). A Level II study is a basic engineering analysis of the site, including a quantitative analysis of stream stability and scour (U.S. Department of Transportation, 1993). Results of a Level I scour investigation also are included in Appendix E of this report. A Level I investigation provides a qualitative geomorphic characterization of the study site. Information on the bridge, gleaned from Vermont Agency of Transportation (VTAOT) files, was compiled prior to conducting Level I and Level II analyses and is found in Appendix D.

  18. Level II scour analysis for Bridge 12 (HUNTTH00010012) on Town Highway 001, crossing Brush Brook, Huntington, Vermont

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Ronda L.; Wild, Emily C.

    1997-01-01

    This report provides the results of a detailed Level II analysis of scour potential at structure HUNTTH00010012 on Town Highway 1 crossing Brush Brook, Huntington, Vermont (figures 1–9). A Level II study is a basic engineering analysis of the site, including a quantitative analysis of stream stability and scour (U.S. Department of Transportation, 1993). Results of a Level I scour investigation also are included in Appendix E of this report. A Level I investigation provides a qualitative geomorphic characterization of the study site. Information on the bridge, gleaned from Vermont Agency of Transportation (VTAOT) files, was compiled prior to conducting Level I and Level II analyses and is found in Appendix D. In August 1976, Hurricane Belle caused flooding at this site which resulted in road and bridge damage (figures 7-8). This was approximately a 25-year flood event based on flood-

  19. Level II scour analysis for Bridge 36 (ANDOVT00110036) on VT 11, crossing Middle Branch Williams River, Andover, Vermont

    Science.gov (United States)

    Striker, Lora K.; Burns, Rhonda L.

    1997-01-01

    This report provides the results of a detailed Level II analysis of scour potential at structure ANDOVT00110036 on State Route 11 crossing the Middle Branch Williams River, Andover, Vermont (figures 1–8). A Level II study is a basic engineering analysis of the site, including a quantitative analysis of stream stability and scour (U.S. Department of Transportation, 1993). Results of a Level I scour investigation also are included in Appendix E of this report. A Level I investigation provides a qualitative geomorphic characterization of the study site. Information on the bridge, gleaned from Vermont Agency of Transportation (VTAOT) files, was compiled prior to conducting Level I and Level II analyses and is found in Appendix D.

  20. Level II scour analysis for Bridge 17 (POMFTH00010017) on Town Highway 1 (FAS 166) crossing Mill Brook, Pomfret, Vermont

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehmler, Erick M.; Hammond, Robert E.

    1997-01-01

    This report provides the results of a detailed Level II analysis of scour potential at structure POMFTH00010017 on Town Highway 1 crossing Mill Brook, Pomfret, Vermont (figures 1–8). A Level II study is a basic engineering analysis of the site, including a quantitative analysis of stream stability and scour (U.S. Department of Transportation, 1993). Results of a Level I scour investigation also are included in Appendix E of this report. A Level I investigation provides a qualitative geomorphic characterization of the study site. Information on the bridge, gleaned from Vermont Agency of Transportation (VTAOT) files, was compiled prior to conducting Level I and Level II analyses and is found in Appendix D.

  1. Level II scour analysis for Bridge 21 (WALDTH00450021) on Town Highway 45, crossing Joes Brook, Walden, Vermont

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanoff, Michael A.; Medalie, Laura

    1997-01-01

    This report provides the results of a detailed Level II analysis of scour potential at structure WALDTH00450021 on Town Highway 45 crossing Joes Brook, Walden, Vermont (figures 1–8). A Level II study is a basic engineering analysis of the site, including a quantitative analysis of stream stability and scour (U.S. Department of Transportation, 1993). Results of a Level I scour investigation also are included in Appendix E of this report. A Level I investigation provides a qualitative geomorphic characterization of the study site. Information on the bridge, gleaned from Vermont Agency of Transportation (VTAOT) files, was compiled prior to conducting Level I and Level II analyses and is found in Appendix D. The VTAOT files state that the stream is Coles Brook, both the USGS and the VTAOT maps state that it is Joes Brook.

  2. Level II scour analysis for Bridge 92 (WSTOVT01000092) on State Highway 100, crossing the West River, Weston, Vermont

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, Robert H.; Burns, Ronda L.

    1997-01-01

    This report provides the results of a detailed Level II analysis of scour potential at structure WSTOVT01000092 on Vermont Highway 100 crossing the West River, Weston, Vermont (figures 1–8). A Level II study is a basic engineering analysis of the site, including a quantitative analysis of stream stability and scour (U.S. Department of Transportation, 1993). Results of a Level I scour investigation also are included in Appendix E of this report. A Level I investigation provides a qualitative geomorphic characterization of the study site. Information on the bridge, gleaned from Vermont Agency of Transportation (VTAOT) files, was compiled prior to conducting Level I and Level II analyses and is found in Appendix D.

  3. Level II scour analysis for Bridge 50 (STARTH00250050) on Town Highway 25, crossing Lewis Creek, Starksboro, Vermont

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Ronda L.; Boehmler, Erick M.

    1997-01-01

    This report provides the results of a detailed Level II analysis of scour potential at structure STARTH00250050 on Town Highway 25 crossing Lewis Creek, Starksboro, Vermont (figures 1–8). A Level II study is a basic engineering analysis of the site, including a quantitative analysis of stream stability and scour (U.S. Department of Transportation, 1993). Results of a Level I scour investigation also are included in Appendix E of this report. A Level I investigation provides a qualitative geomorphic characterization of the study site. Information on the bridge, gleaned from Vermont Agency of Transportation (VTAOT) files, was compiled prior to conducting Level I and Level II analyses and is found in Appendix D.

  4. Level II scour analysis for Bridge 30 (BRNATH00470030) on Town Highway 47, crossing Locust Creek, Barnard, Vermont

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehmler, Erick M.; Song, Donald L.

    1997-01-01

    This report provides the results of a detailed Level II analysis of scour potential at structure BRNATH00470030 on Town Highway 47 crossing Locust Creek, Barnard, Vermont (figures 1–8). A Level II study is a basic engineering analysis of the site, including a quantitative analysis of stream stability and scour (U.S. Department of Transportation, 1993). Results of a Level I scour investigation also are included in Appendix E of this report. A Level I investigation provides a qualitative geomorphic characterization of the study site. Information on the bridge, gleaned from Vermont Agency of Transportation (VTAOT) files, was compiled prior to conducting Level I and Level II analyses and is found in Appendix D.

  5. Level II scour analysis for Bridge 81 (NFIETH00PL0081) on Pleasant Street, crossing Union Brook, Northfield, Vermont

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Ronda L.; Medalie, Laura

    1997-01-01

    This report provides the results of a detailed Level II analysis of scour potential at structure NFIETH00PL0081 on Pleasant Street crossing Union Brook, Northfield, Vermont (figures 1–8). A Level II study is a basic engineering analysis of the site, including a quantitative analysis of stream stability and scour (U.S. Department of Transportation, 1993). Results of a Level I scour investigation also are included in Appendix E of this report. A Level I investigation provides a qualitative geomorphic characterization of the study site. Information on the bridge, gleaned from Vermont Agency of Transportation (VTAOT) files, was compiled prior to conducting Level I and Level II analyses and is found in Appendix D.

  6. Level II scour analysis for Bridge 5 (MORRTH00060005) on Town Highway 6, crossing Bedell Brook, Morristown, Vermont

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehmler, Erick M.; Degnan, James R.

    1997-01-01

    This report provides the results of a detailed Level II analysis of scour potential at structure MORRTH00060005 on Town Highway 6 crossing Bedell Brook, Morristown, Vermont (figures 1–8). A Level II study is a basic engineering analysis of the site, including a quantitative analysis of stream stability and scour (U.S. Department of Transportation, 1993). Results of a Level I scour investigation also are included in Appendix E of this report. A Level I investigation provides a qualitative geomorphic characterization of the study site. Information on the bridge, gleaned from Vermont Agency of Transportation (VTAOT) files, was compiled prior to conducting Level I and Level II analyses and is found in Appendix D.

  7. Level II scour analysis for Bridge 16 (TROYTH00290016) on Town Highway 29, crossing Beetle Brook, Troy, Vermont

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanoff, Michael A.

    1997-01-01

    This report provides the results of a detailed Level II analysis of scour potential at structure TROYTH00290016 on Town Highway 29 crossing Beetle Brook, Troy, Vermont (figures 1–8). A Level II study is a basic engineering analysis of the site, including a quantitative analysis of stream stability and scour (U.S. Department of Transportation, 1993). Results of a Level I scour investigation also are included in Appendix E of this report. A Level I investigation provides a qualitative geomorphic characterization of the study site. Information on the bridge, gleaned from Vermont Agency of Transportation (VTAOT) files, was compiled prior to conducting Level I and Level II analyses and is found in Appendix D.

  8. Level II scour analysis for Bridge 7 (CHARTH00010007) on Town Highway 1, crossing Mad Brook, Charleston, Vermont

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehmler, Erick M.; Weber, Matthew A.

    1997-01-01

    This report provides the results of a detailed Level II analysis of scour potential at structure CHARTH00010007 on town highway 1 crossing Mad Brook, Charleston, Vermont (figures 1–8). A Level II study is a basic engineering analysis of the site, including a quantitative analysis of stream stability and scour (U.S. Department of Transportation, 1993). Results of a Level I scour investigation also are included in Appendix E of this report. A Level I investigation provides a qualitative geomorphic characterization of the study site. Information on the bridge, gleaned from Vermont Agency of Transportation (VTAOT) files, was compiled prior to conducting Level I and Level II analyses and is found in Appendix D.

  9. Level II scour analysis for Bridge 16, (NEWBTH00500016) on Town Highway 50, crossing Halls Brook, Newbury, Vermont

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Ronda L.; Degnan, James R.

    1997-01-01

    This report provides the results of a detailed Level II analysis of scour potential at structure NEWBTH00500016 on Town Highway 50 crossing Halls Brook, Newbury, Vermont (figures 1–8). A Level II study is a basic engineering analysis of the site, including a quantitative analysis of stream stability and scour (U.S. Department of Transportation, 1993). Results of a Level I scour investigation also are included in Appendix E of this report. A Level I investigation provides a qualitative geomorphic characterization of the study site. Information on the bridge, gleaned from Vermont Agency of Transportation (VTAOT) files, was compiled prior to conducting Level I and Level II analyses and is found in Appendix D.

  10. Level II scour analysis for Bridge 39 (STOWTH00160039) on Town Highway 16, crossing Moss Glen Brook, Stowe, Vermont

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanoff, Michael A.; Hammond, Robert E.

    1997-01-01

    This report provides the results of a detailed Level II analysis of scour potential at structure STOWTH00160039 on Town Highway 16 crossing Moss Glen Brook, Stowe, Vermont (figures 1–8). A Level II study is a basic engineering analysis of the site, including a quantitative analysis of stream stability and scour (U.S. Department of Transportation, 1993). Results of a Level I scour investigation also are included in Appendix E of this report. A Level I investigation provides a qualitative geomorphic characterization of the study site. Information on the bridge, gleaned from Vermont Agency of Transportation (VTAOT) files, was compiled prior to conducting Level I and Level II analyses and is found in Appendix D.

  11. Level II scour analysis for Bridge 6 (BRISVT01160006) on State Highway 116, crossing Little Notch Brook, Bristol, Vermont

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehmler, Erick M.; Burns, Ronda L.

    1997-01-01

    This report provides the results of a detailed Level II analysis of scour potential at structure BRISVT01160006 on State Route 116 crossing the Little Notch Brook, Bristol, Vermont (figures 1–8). A Level II study is a basic engineering analysis of the site, including a quantitative analysis of stream stability and scour (U.S. Department of Transportation, 1993). Results of a Level I scour investigation also are included in Appendix E of this report. A Level I investigation provides a qualitative geomorphic characterization of the study site. Information on the bridge, gleaned from Vermont Agency of Transportation (VTAOT) files, was compiled prior to conducting Level I and Level II analyses and is found in Appendix D.

  12. Level II scour analysis for Bridge 65 (NEWBTH00500065) on Town Highway 50, crossing Peach Brook, Newbury, Vermont

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, R.L.; Severance, Timothy

    1997-01-01

    This report provides the results of a detailed Level II analysis of scour potential at structure NEWBTH00500065 on Town Highway 50 crossing Peach Brook, Newbury, Vermont (figures 1–8). A Level II study is a basic engineering analysis of the site, including a quantitative analysis of stream stability and scour (U.S. Department of Transportation, 1993). Results of a Level I scour investigation also are included in Appendix E of this report. A Level I investigation provides a qualitative geomorphic characterization of the study site. Information on the bridge, gleaned from Vermont Agency of Transportation (VTAOT) files, was compiled prior to conducting Level I and Level II analyses and is found in Appendix D.

  13. Level II scour analysis for Bridge 15 (TROYTH00290015) on Town Highway 29, crossing Beetle Brook, Troy, Vermont

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanoff, Michael A.; Medalie, Laura

    1997-01-01

    This report provides the results of a detailed Level II analysis of scour potential at structure TROYTH00290015 on Town Highway 29 crossing Beetle Brook, Troy, Vermont (figures 1–8). A Level II study is a basic engineering analysis of the site, including a quantitative analysis of stream stability and scour (U.S. Department of Transportation, 1993). Results of a Level I scour investigation also are included in Appendix E of this report. A Level I investigation provides a qualitative geomorphic characterization of the study site. Information on the bridge, gleaned from Vermont Agency of Transportation (VTAOT) files, was compiled prior to conducting Level I and Level II analyses and is found in Appendix D.

  14. Level II scour analysis for brigde 5 (STOCTH00360005) on Town Highway 36, crossing Stony Brook, Stockridge, Vermont

    Science.gov (United States)

    Striker, Lora K.; Weber, Matthew A.

    1998-01-01

    This report provides the results of a detailed Level II analysis of scour potential at structure STOCTH00360005 on Town Highway 36 crossing Stony Brook, Stockbridge, Vermont (figures 1–8). A Level II study is a basic engineering analysis of the site, including a quantitative analysis of stream stability and scour (U.S. Department of Transportation, 1993). Results of a Level I scour investigation also are included in appendix E of this report. A Level I investigation provides a qualitative geomorphic characterization of the study site. Information on the bridge, gleaned from Vermont Agency of Transportation (VTAOT) files, was compiled prior to conducting Level I and Level II analyses and is found in appendix D.

  15. Level II scour analysis for Bridge 42 (BENNCYSCHL0042) on School Street, crossing Walloomsac River, Bennington, Vermont

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Scott A.; Degnan, James R.

    1997-01-01

    This report provides the results of a detailed Level II analysis of scour potential at structure BENNCYSCHL0042 on the School Street crossing of the Walloomsac River, Bennington, Vermont (figures 1–8). A Level II study is a basic engineering analysis of the site, including a quantitative analysis of stream stability and scour (U.S. Department of Transportation, 1993). Results of a Level I scour investigation also are included in Appendix E of this report. A Level I investigation provides a qualitative geomorphic characterization of the study site. Information on the bridge, gleaned from Vermont Agency of Transportation (VTAOT) files, was compiled prior to conducting Level I and Level II analyses and is found in Appendix D.

  16. Level II scour analysis for Bridge 37 (CABOTH00410037) on Town Highway 41, crossing the Winooski River, Cabot, Vermont

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, Robert H.; Medalie, Laura

    1997-01-01

    This report provides the results of a detailed Level II analysis of scour potential at structure CABOTH00410037 on Town Highway 41 crossing the Winooski River (also referred to as Coit’s Pond Brook), Cabot, Vermont (figures 1–8). A Level II study is a basic engineering analysis of the site, including a quantitative analysis of stream stability and scour (U.S. Department of Transportation, 1993). Results of a Level I scour investigation also are included in Appendix E of this report. A Level I investigation provides a qualitative geomorphic characterization of the study site. Information on the bridge, gleaned from Vermont Agency of Transportation (VTAOT) files, was compiled prior to conducting Level I and Level II analyses and is found in Appendix D.

  17. Level II scour analysis for Bridge 81 (JAMAVT01000081) on State Route 100, crossing the Winhall River, Jamaica, Vermont

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanoff, Michael A.; Hammond, Robert E.

    1997-01-01

    This report provides the results of a detailed Level II analysis of scour potential at structure JAMAVT01000081 on State Route 100 crossing the Winhall River, Jamaica, Vermont (figures 1–8). A Level II study is a basic engineering analysis of the site, including a quantitative analysis of stream stability and scour (U.S. Department of Transportation, 1993). Results of a Level I scour investigation also are included in Appendix E of this report. A Level I investigation provides a qualitative geomorphic characterization of the study site. Information on the bridge, gleaned from Vermont Agency of Transportation (VTAOT) files, was compiled prior to conducting Level I and Level II analyses and is found in Appendix D.

  18. Level II scour analysis for Bridge 6 (ALBUTH00150006) on Town Highway 15, crossing Mud Creek, Alburg, Vermont

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Scott A.

    1997-01-01

    This report provides the results of a detailed Level II analysis of scour potential at structure ALBUTH00150006 on Town Highway 15 crossing Mud Creek, Alburg, Vermont (figures 1–8). A Level II study is a basic engineering analysis of the site, including a quantitative analysis of stream stability and scour (U.S. Department of Transportation, 1993). Results of a Level I scour investigation also are included in Appendix E of this report. A Level I investigation provides a qualitative geomorphic characterization of the study site. Information on the bridge, gleaned from Vermont Agency of Transportation (VTAOT) files, was compiled prior to conducting Level I and Level II analyses and is found in Appendix D.

  19. Level II scour analysis for Bridge 30, (HUNTTH00220030), on Town Highway 22, crossing Brush Brook, Huntington, Vermont

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Ronda L.

    1997-01-01

    This report provides the results of a detailed Level II analysis of scour potential at structure HUNTTH00220030 on Town Highway 22 crossing Brush Brook, Huntington, Vermont (figures 1–8). A Level II study is a basic engineering analysis of the site, including a quantitative analysis of stream stability and scour (U.S. Department of Transportation, 1993). Results of a Level I scour investigation also are included in Appendix E of this report. A Level I investigation provides a qualitative geomorphic characterization of the study site. Information on the bridge, gleaned from Vermont Agency of Transportation (VTAOT) files, was compiled prior to conducting Level I and Level II analyses and is found in Appendix D.

  20. Stability Analysis of the EBR-I Mark-II Core Meltdown Accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Jae-Yong; Kang, Chang Mu [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    The purpose of this paper is to analyze the stability of the EBR-I core meltdown accident using the NuSTAB code. The result of NuSTAB analysis is compared with previous stability analysis by Sandmeier using the root locus method. The Experimental Breeder Reactor I (EBR-1) at Argonne National Laboratory was designed to demonstrate fast reactor breeding and to prove the use of liquid-metal coolant for power production and reached criticality in August 1951. The EBR-I reactor was undergoing a series of physics experiments and the Mark-II core was melted accidentally on Nov. 29, 1955. The experiment was going to increase core temperature to 500C to see if the reactor loses reactivity, and scram when the power reached 1500 kW or doubling of fission rate per second. However the operator scrammed with a slow moving control and missed the shutdown by two seconds and caused the core meltdown. The NuSTAB code has an advantage of analyzing space-dependent fast reactors and predicting regional oscillations compared to the point kinetics. Also, NuSTAB can be useful when the coupled neutronic-thermal-hydraulic codes cannot be used for stability analysis. Future work includes analyses of the PGSFR for various operating conditions as well as further validation of the NuSTAB calculations against SFR stability experiments when such experiments become available.

  1. Medical student participation in surface anatomy classes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, R; Brough, H; Ellis, H

    2006-10-01

    Surface anatomy is an integral part of medical education and enables medical students to learn skills for future medical practice. In the past decade, there has been a decline in the teaching of anatomy in the medical curriculum, and this study seeks to assess the attitudes of medical students to participation in surface anatomy classes. Consequently, all first year medical students at the Guy's, King's and St Thomas's Medical School, London, were asked to fill in an anonymous questionnaire at the end of their last surface anatomy session of the year. A total of 290 medical students completed the questionnaires, resulting in an 81.6% response rate. The students had a mean age of 19.6 years (range 18-32) and 104 (35.9%) of them were male. Seventy-six students (26.2%) were subjects in surface anatomy tutorials (60.5% male). Students generally volunteered because no one else did. Of the volunteers, 38.2% would rather not have been subjects, because of embarrassment, inability to make notes, or to see clearly the material being taught. Female medical students from ethnic minority groups were especially reluctant to volunteer to be subjects. Single-sex classes improved the volunteer rate to some extent, but not dramatically. Students appreciate the importance of surface anatomy to cadaveric study and to future clinical practice. Computer models, lectures, and videos are complementary but cannot be a substitute for peer group models, artists' models being the only alternative. Copyright 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  2. Dissection videos do not improve anatomy examination scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmud, Waqas; Hyder, Omar; Butt, Jamaal; Aftab, Arsalan

    2011-01-01

    In this quasi-experimental study, we describe the effect of showing dissection videos on first-year medical students' performance in terms of test scores during a gross anatomy course. We also surveyed students' perception regarding the showing of dissection videos. Two hundred eighty-seven first-year medical students at Rawalpindi Medical College in Pakistan, divided into two groups, dissected one limb in first term and switched over to the other limb in the second term. During the second term, instruction was supplemented by dissection videos. Second-term anatomy examination marks were compared with first-term scores and with results from first-year medical students in previous years. Multiple linear regression analysis was performed, with term scores (continuous, 0-200) as the dependent variable. Students shown dissection videos scored 1.26 marks higher than those not shown. The relationship was not statistically significant (95% CI: -1.11, 3.70; P = 0.314). Ninety-three percent of students favored regular inclusion of dissection videos in curriculum, and 50% termed it the best source for learning gross anatomy. Seventy-six percent of students did not perform regular cadaver dissection. The most frequent reason cited for not performing regular dissection was high student-cadaver ratio. Dissection videos did not improve performance on final examination scores; however, students favored their use. Copyright © 2011 American Association of Anatomists.

  3. Impact of renal anatomy on shock wave lithotripsy outcomes for lower pole kidney stones: results of a prospective multifactorial analysis controlled by computerized tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torricelli, Fabio C M; Marchini, Giovanni S; Yamauchi, Fernando I; Danilovic, Alexandre; Vicentini, Fabio C; Srougi, Miguel; Monga, Manoj; Mazzucchi, Eduardo

    2015-06-01

    We evaluated which variables impact fragmentation and clearance of lower pole calculi after shock wave lithotripsy. We prospectively evaluated patients undergoing shock wave lithotripsy for a solitary 5 to 20 mm lower pole kidney stone between June 2012 and August 2014. Patient body mass index and abdominal waist circumference were recorded. One radiologist blinded to shock wave lithotripsy outcomes measured stone size, area and density, stone-to-skin distance, infundibular length, width and height, and infundibulopelvic angle based on baseline noncontrast computerized tomography. Fragmentation, success (defined as residual fragments less than 4 mm in asymptomatic patients) and the stone-free rate were evaluated by noncontrast computerized tomography 12 weeks postoperatively. Univariate and multivariate analysis was performed. A total of 100 patients were enrolled in the study. Mean stone size was 9.1 mm. Overall fragmentation, success and stone-free rates were 76%, 54% and 37%, respectively. On logistic regression body mass index (OR 1.27, 95% CI 1.11-1.49, p = 0.004) and stone density (OR 1.0026, 95% CI 1.0008-1.0046, p = 0.005) significantly impacted fragmentation. Stone size (OR 1.24, 95% CI 1.07-1.48, p = 0.039) and stone density (OR 1.0021, 95% CI 1.0007-1.0037, p = 0.012) impacted the success rate while stone size (OR 1.24, 95% CI 1.04-1.50, p = 0.029), stone density (OR 1.0015, 95% CI 1.0001-1.0032, p = 0.046) and infundibular length (OR 1.1035, 95% CI 1.015-1.217, p = 0.015) impacted the stone-free rate. The best outcomes were found in patients with a body mass index of 30 kg/m(2) or less, stones 10 mm or less and 900 HU or less, and an infundibular length of 25 mm or less. The coexistence of significant unfavorable variables led to a stone-free rate of less than 20%. Obese patients with higher than 10 mm density stones (greater than 900 HU) in the lower pole of the kidney with an infundibular length of greater than 25 mm should be discouraged from

  4. SU-F-R-47: Quantitative Shape Relationship Analysis of PTV Modification for Critical Anatomy Sparing and Its Impact On Pathologic Response for Neoadjuvant Stereotactic Radiotherapy for Pancreatic Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, Z; Rosati, L; Chen, L; Robertson, S; Moore, J; Peng, L; Mian, O; Narang, A; Hacker-Prietz, A; Herman, J; McNutt, T

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) may be used to increase surgery candidacy in borderline resectable (BRPC) and locally advanced (LAPC) pancreatic cancer. However, the planning target volume (PTV) may need to be limited to avoid toxicity when the gross tumor volume (GTV) is anatomically involved with surrounding critical structures. Our study aims to characterize the coverage of GTV and investigate the association between modified PTV and pathologic (pCR) or near pathologic (npCR) complete response rates determined from the surgical specimen. Methods: Patients treated with neoadjuvant pancreas SBRT followed by surgery from 2010–2015 were selected from Oncospace. Overlap volume histogram (OVH) analysis was performed to determine the extent of compromise of the PTV from both the GTV and a standard target (GTV+3mm). Subsequently, normalized overlap volume (%) was calculated for: (1) GTV-PTV, and (2) GTV+3mm expansion-PTV. A logistic regression model was used to identify the association between the overlap ratios and ≥ npCR(pCR/npCR) stratified by active breathing control (ABC) versus free-breathing status. Results: Eighty-one (BRPC: n=42, LAPC: n=39) patients were available for analysis. Nearly 40% (31/81) had ≥npCR and 75% (61/81) were able to complete ABC. Mean coverage of the GTV-PTV was 92.6% (range, 59.9%–100%, SD = 8.68) and coverage of the GTV+3mm expansion-PTV was 85. 2% (range, 59.9% −100.0%, SD= 8.67). Among the patients with ABC, every 10% increase in GTV coverage doubled the odds to have ≥npCR (OR = 1.82, p=0.06). Coverage of GTV+3mm expansion was not associated with ≥npCR regardless of ABC status. Conclusion: Preferential sparing of critical anatomy over GTV-PTV coverage with ABC management suggests worse ≥npCR rates for neoadjuvant SBRT in BRPC and LAPC. Limiting the GTV and GTV+3mm expansion in free-breathing patients was not associated with pathologic response perhaps due to larger GTV definitions as a result of motion

  5. SU-F-R-47: Quantitative Shape Relationship Analysis of PTV Modification for Critical Anatomy Sparing and Its Impact On Pathologic Response for Neoadjuvant Stereotactic Radiotherapy for Pancreatic Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Z; Rosati, L; Chen, L; Robertson, S; Moore, J; Peng, L; Mian, O; Narang, A; Hacker-Prietz, A; Herman, J; McNutt, T [Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: Stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) may be used to increase surgery candidacy in borderline resectable (BRPC) and locally advanced (LAPC) pancreatic cancer. However, the planning target volume (PTV) may need to be limited to avoid toxicity when the gross tumor volume (GTV) is anatomically involved with surrounding critical structures. Our study aims to characterize the coverage of GTV and investigate the association between modified PTV and pathologic (pCR) or near pathologic (npCR) complete response rates determined from the surgical specimen. Methods: Patients treated with neoadjuvant pancreas SBRT followed by surgery from 2010–2015 were selected from Oncospace. Overlap volume histogram (OVH) analysis was performed to determine the extent of compromise of the PTV from both the GTV and a standard target (GTV+3mm). Subsequently, normalized overlap volume (%) was calculated for: (1) GTV-PTV, and (2) GTV+3mm expansion-PTV. A logistic regression model was used to identify the association between the overlap ratios and ≥ npCR(pCR/npCR) stratified by active breathing control (ABC) versus free-breathing status. Results: Eighty-one (BRPC: n=42, LAPC: n=39) patients were available for analysis. Nearly 40% (31/81) had ≥npCR and 75% (61/81) were able to complete ABC. Mean coverage of the GTV-PTV was 92.6% (range, 59.9%–100%, SD = 8.68) and coverage of the GTV+3mm expansion-PTV was 85. 2% (range, 59.9% −100.0%, SD= 8.67). Among the patients with ABC, every 10% increase in GTV coverage doubled the odds to have ≥npCR (OR = 1.82, p=0.06). Coverage of GTV+3mm expansion was not associated with ≥npCR regardless of ABC status. Conclusion: Preferential sparing of critical anatomy over GTV-PTV coverage with ABC management suggests worse ≥npCR rates for neoadjuvant SBRT in BRPC and LAPC. Limiting the GTV and GTV+3mm expansion in free-breathing patients was not associated with pathologic response perhaps due to larger GTV definitions as a result of motion

  6. Vascular Anatomy in Laparoscopic Colectomy for Right Colon Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang Jae; Park, Sung Chan; Kim, Min Jung; Sohn, Dae Kyung; Oh, Jae Hwan

    2016-08-01

    The vascular anatomy in the right colon varies; however, related studies are rare, especially on the laparoscopic vascular anatomy of living patients. The purpose of this study was to describe vascular variations around the gastrocolic trunk, middle colic vein, and ileocolic vessels in laparoscopic surgery for right-sided colon cancer. This is a retrospective descriptive study of patients undergoing laparoscopic colectomy for right colon cancer. The study was conducted at a single tertiary institution in Korea. Consecutive patients with right colon cancer who underwent laparoscopic right colectomy using the cranial-to-caudal approach (N = 116) between January 2014 and April 2015 were included. Three colorectal surgeons took photographs and videos of the vascular anatomy during each laparoscopic right colectomy, and these were analyzed for vascular variations. We classified venous variations around the gastrocolic trunk into 2 types (3 subtypes), type 1 (n = 92 (79.3%)), defined as 1 or 2 colic veins draining into the gastrocolic trunk, and type II (n = 24 (20.7%)), defined as having no gastrocolic trunk. We also investigated the tributaries of the superior mesenteric vein. One, 2, and 3 middle colic veins were found in 86 (74.1%), 26 (22.4%), and 4 patients (3.5%). The right colic vein drained directly into the superior mesenteric vein in 22 patients (19.0%). All of the patients had a single ileocolic vein draining into the superior mesenteric vein and a single ileocolic artery from the superior mesenteric artery. The right colic artery from the superior mesenteric artery was present in 38 patients (32.7%). The ileocolic artery passed the superior mesenteric vein anteriorly or posteriorly in 58 patients (50%) each. Unlike cadaver or radiological studies, we could not clarify the complete vessel paths. We classified vascular anatomic variations in laparoscopic colectomy for right colon cancer, which could be helpful for colorectal surgeons.

  7. [Cloning and analysis of three genes encoding type II CHH family neuropeptides from Fennropenaeus chinensis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zai-Zhao; Xiang, Jian-Hai

    2003-10-01

    On the basis of sequence similarity, the crustean hyperglycemic hormone (CHH) family peptides have been classified into two types of hormones: type I and type II. Molt-inhibiting hormone (MIH) is a neuropeptide member of type II CHH family. Molting in shrimp is controlled by MIH and ecdysone. By inhibiting the synthesis of ecdysone in the Y-organ, MIH indirectly suppresses the molting activity of shrimp. In this study, we reported the cloning and characterization of 3 gene fragments encoding type II CHH family neuropeptides of the shrimp Fennropenaeus chinensis. According to the complementary DNA sequence of the mult-inhibiting hormone of Fennropenaeus chinensis, 3 primers were designed and synthesized. MP1 and MP2 are sense primers, and MP3 is anti-sense primer. Polymerase chain reaction was performed using genomic DNA of Fennropenaeus chinensis as template. Three PCR products were obtained using primers MP1 and MP3. Their sizes are about 600 bp, 850 bp, 1050 bp, respectively. A 580 bp PCR product was obtained using primers MP2 and MP3. All the 4 PCR products were cloned into pMD18-T vector. The recombinant clones were sequenced using ABI 310 Genetic Analyzer. After sequencing, all the DNA sequences were searched in the GenBank by Blast program to find similar gene sequences. The searching results revealed 3 DNA fragment sequences were of high similarity with CHH family neuropeptide genes from various crustean species. The 3 DNA fragments were named as NP1, NP2, and NP3. Their sizes were 540 bp, 601 bp, and 826 bp, respectively. Using the mRNA sequences with the most similarity to the 3 sequence fragments as reference, the gene structure of the 3 DNA fragment sequences was analyzed. The exons of 3 sequence fragments were aligned with their similar sequences by Clustal W program. Both NP1 and NP2 consisted of 1 intron and 2 exons. NP3 consisted of 2 introns and 3 exons. Sequence analysis suggested that these 3 products belonged to sequence fragments of neuropeptide

  8. Early reperfusion and clinical outcomes in patients with M2 occlusion: pooled analysis of the PROACT II, IMS, and IMS II studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahme, Ralph; Yeatts, Sharon D; Abruzzo, Todd A; Jimenez, Lincoln; Fan, Liqiong; Tomsick, Thomas A; Ringer, Andrew J; Furlan, Anthony J; Broderick, Joseph P; Khatri, Pooja

    2014-12-01

    The role of endovascular therapy in patients with acute ischemic stroke and a solitary M2 occlusion remains unclear. Through a pooled analysis of 3 interventional stroke trials, the authors sought to analyze the impact of successful early reperfusion of M2 occlusions on patient outcome. Patients with a solitary M2 occlusion were identified from the Prolyse in Acute Cerebral Thromboembolism (PROACT) II, Interventional Management of Stroke (IMS), and IMS II trial databases and were divided into 2 groups: successful reperfusion (thrombolysis in cerebral infarction [TICI] 2-3) at 2 hours and failed reperfusion (TICI 0-1) at 2 hours. Baseline characteristics and clinical outcomes were compared. Sixty-three patients, 40 from PROACT II and 23 from IMS and IMS II, were identified. Successful early angiographic reperfusion (TICI 2-3) was observed in 31 patients (49.2%). No statistically significant difference in the rates of intracerebral hemorrhage (60.9% vs 47.6%, p = 0.55) or mortality (19.4% vs 15.6%, p = 0.75) was observed. However, there was a trend toward higher incidence of symptomatic hemorrhage in the TICI 2-3 group (17.4% vs 0%, p = 0.11). There was also a trend toward higher baseline glucose levels in this group (151.5 mg/dl vs 129.6 mg/ dl, p = 0.09). Despite these differences, the rate of functional independence (modified Rankin Scale Score 0-2) at 3 months was similar (TICI 2-3, 58.1% vs TICI 0-1, 53.1%; p = 0.80). A positive correlation between successful early reperfusion and clinical outcome could not be demonstrated for patients with M2 occlusion. Irrespective of reperfusion status, such patients have better outcomes than those with more proximal occlusions, with more than 50% achieving functional independence at 3 months.

  9. Notes on the history of the Dr. Senckenbergische Anatomie in Frankfurt/Main. Part I. Development of student numbers, body procurement, and gross anatomy courses from 1914 to 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brehm, Thomas Theo; Korf, Horst-Werner; Benzenhöfer, Udo; Schomerus, Christof; Wicht, Helmut

    2015-09-01

    Until recently, it was believed that all internal documentation regarding student affairs and body procurement of the Dr. Senckenbergische Anatomie concerning the time before March 1944 - when the building was destroyed during an Allied air raid - was lost. A few years ago, however, we discovered stacks of old documents in the current anatomy building. These documents permitted a reconstruction (1) of the history of body procurement, student numbers and course management from 1914 to 1944, as well as (2) some aspects of the building's history in the time immediately after its destruction that have hitherto not been documented. In this paper (Part I), we will deal with the organizational history of the Dr. Senckenbergische Anatomie from 1914 to 2013, placing special emphasis on the development of the student population and body procurement, as well as on the major changes that occurred in the gross anatomy labs of the last century. More than 30,000 students were trained in the Dr. Senckenbergische Anatomie over the last 100 years, and more than 3000 bodies have been received. The number of incoming bodies has remained quite stable in all these years and is, on average, approximately 32 per year. The number of students entering the gross anatomy lab during that period, however, rose from less than 100 to more than 600. A companion paper (Part II) deals with the years of the Third Reich (1933-1945) in more detail. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  10. Molecular Anatomy of Palate Development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew S Potter

    Full Text Available The NIH FACEBASE consortium was established in part to create a central resource for craniofacial researchers. One purpose is to provide a molecular anatomy of craniofacial development. To this end we have used a combination of laser capture microdissection and RNA-Seq to define the gene expression programs driving development of the murine palate. We focused on the E14.5 palate, soon after medial fusion of the two palatal shelves. The palate was divided into multiple compartments, including both medial and lateral, as well as oral and nasal, for both the anterior and posterior domains. A total of 25 RNA-Seq datasets were generated. The results provide a comprehensive view of the region specific expression of all transcription factors, growth factors and receptors. Paracrine interactions can be inferred from flanking compartment growth factor/receptor expression patterns. The results are validated primarily through very high concordance with extensive previously published gene expression data for the developing palate. In addition selected immunostain validations were carried out. In conclusion, this report provides an RNA-Seq based atlas of gene expression patterns driving palate development at microanatomic resolution. This FACEBASE resource is designed to promote discovery by the craniofacial research community.

  11. Anatomy Education Environment Measurement Inventory: A Valid Tool to Measure the Anatomy Learning Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadie, Siti Nurma Hanim; Hassan, Asma'; Ismail, Zul Izhar Mohd; Asari, Mohd Asnizam; Khan, Aaijaz Ahmed; Kasim, Fazlina; Yusof, Nurul Aiman Mohd; Manan@Sulong, Husnaida Abdul; Tg Muda, Tg Fatimah Murniwati; Arifin, Wan Nor; Yusoff, Muhamad Saiful Bahri

    2017-01-01

    Students' perceptions of the education environment influence their learning. Ever since the major medical curriculum reform, anatomy education has undergone several changes in terms of its curriculum, teaching modalities, learning resources, and assessment methods. By measuring students' perceptions concerning anatomy education environment,…

  12. Analysis of the binary mixtures using the reaction between iron(II) and cerium(IV) sulphate in phosphoric acid medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krishna Murty, N.; Satyanarayana, V.; Rukmini, N.

    1978-01-01

    The reaction between iron(II) and cerium(IV) sulphate in phosphoric acid medium (6-12M) is studied potentiometrically and visually using methylene blue, thionine, azure A, azure B, azure C, toluidine blue, new methylene blue, variamine blue, ferroin, p-ethoxychrysoidine, N-phenylanthranilic acid and barium diphenylamine sulphonate as indicators. This reaction is made use for the analysis of binary mixtures of Fe(II)-Sn(II), Fe(II)-Ti(III), Fe(II)-U(IV), Fe(II)-Mo(V), Fe(II)-Fe(III) with Ce(IV) sulphate and Ce(IV)-U(VI), Ce(IV)-Mo(VI), Ce(IV)-V(V) and Ce(IV)-Cu(II) with iron (II). (author)

  13. Functional anatomy and biomechanics of the carpus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmitt, R.

    2006-01-01

    The wrist is an exceedingly complex structure composed of several joints and a dedicated ligamentous system. Its functional principles allow a wide range of carpal motion and make the wrist remarkably resistant to external stress forces: The proximal carpal row serves as an intercalated link interposed between the static elements of both the forearm and the distal carpal row. Like a flexible placeholder, the proximal row synchronously adapts to the spatial and temporal requirements of the wrist. There are synergistic movement patterns including simultaneous flexion of the proximal row as the wrist is deviated radially and simultaneous extension during ulnar deviation. Together with pronosupination of the radioulnar joints, the combined radial/ulnar inclination and flexion/extension enable spherical, out-of-plane movements of the hand. Carpal function is best explained by the ''model of a ring under tension.'' This review addresses the anatomy and the biomechanics of the wrist and illustrates systematic image analysis by using carpal lines and angles as well as indices of carpal height. (orig.) [de

  14. [Anatomy and pathogenesis of diverticular disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wedel, T; Böttner, M

    2014-04-01

    Although diverticular disease is one of the most frequent gastrointestinal disorders the pathogenesis is not yet sufficiently clarified. The aim is to define the anatomy and pathogenesis of diverticular disease considering the risk factors and description of structural and functional alterations of the bowel wall. This article gives an appraisal of the literature, presentation and evaluation of classical etiological factors, analysis and discussion of novel pathogenetic concepts. Colonic diverticulosis is defined as an acquired out-pouching of multiple and initially asymptomatic pseudodiverticula through muscular gaps in the colon wall. Diverticular disease is characterized by diverticular bleeding and/or inflammatory processes (diverticulitis) with corresponding complications (e.g. abscess formation, fistula, covered and open perforation, peritonitis and stenosis). Risk factors for diverticular disease include increasing age, genetic predisposition, congenital connective tissue diseases, low fiber diet, high meat consumption and pronounced overweight. Alterations of connective tissue cause a weakening of preformed exit sites of diverticula and rigidity of the bowel wall with reduced flexibility. It is assumed that intestinal innervation disorders and structural alterations of the musculature induce abnormal contractile patterns with increased intraluminal pressure, thereby promoting the development of diverticula. Moreover, an increased release of pain-mediating neurotransmitters is considered to be responsible for persistent pain in chronic diverticular disease. According to the present data the pathogenesis of diverticular disease cannot be attributed to a single factor but should be considered as a multifactorial event.

  15. Contribution to growth and increment analysis on the Italian CONECOFOR Level II Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilio AMORINI

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the "Estimation of growth and yield" included in the National Programme on Intensive Monitoring of Forest Ecosystems CONECOFOR Aims of the paper are: i to outline the composition and design of Level II PMPs network, also examining the structural characteristics of forest stands; ii to describe the contents of mensurational surveys carried out in winter 1996/97 and 1999/00; iii to analyse the growth rates in progress at each PMP using selected descriptors. Stand origin (11 high forests and 13 stored coppices and transitory crops and the number of forest types tested are focused as the main discriminants of the PMPs network. This composition, together with irregular forestry practice, results in a number of consequences (prevailing age classes, tree densities and related stand structures, growth patterns which cause a high in-and-between variability of all growth parameters. For the purposes of this analysis, the network of the plots was divided into three main sets: broadleaved high forest (i.e. beech stands, 6 PMPs; coniferous forest (i.e. Norway spruce stands, 5 PMPs; coppice forest (i.e. deciduous and evergreen oaks, beech and hardbeam stands, 13 PMPs. The measurement of basic growth variables (dbh and tree height was used to describe the tree populations in each PMP; the calculation of basal area, mean and top dbh, mean and top height, provided the reference dataset at each inventory. The assessment of social class according to Kraft gave information on vertical stand structure and made it possible to analyse growth according to tree layers. Data comparison provided increments in the interval 1997-2000. The occurrence of natural mortality and ingrowth was also assessed to take into account their combined effect on tree population dynamics. No trend was found, due to limited data availability, but it was possible to have a detailed overview of the stand situation and growth rates in PMPs.

  16. Radiation treatment of glottic squamous cell carcinoma, Stage I and II: analysis of factors affecting prognosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franchin, Giovanni; Minatel, Emilio; Gobitti, Carlo; Talamini, Renato; Sartor, Giovanna; Caruso, Giuseppe; Grando, Giuseppe; Politi, Doriano; Gigante, Marco; Toffoli, Giuseppe; Trovo, Mauro G.; Barzan, Luigi

    1998-01-01

    Purpose: At least in some European Countries, there is still considerable controversy regarding the choice between surgery and radiotherapy for the treatment of patients with early laryngeal-glottic carcinoma. Methods and Materials: Two hundred and forty-six patients with laryngeal-glottic neoplasms, Stage I-II, were treated with radical radiotherapy. Before radiotherapy the patients were evaluated to determine the surgical procedure of choice. Either 66-68.4 Gy (33-38 fractions) or 63-65 Gy (28-29 fractions) of radiation therapy (RT) were administered. The overall disease free survival was determined for each subgroup of patients. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to determine significant prognostic variables. Results: Five- and 10-year overall survival rates were 83 and 72%, respectively. At a median follow-up of 6 years 204 patients are alive and disease free. No patient developed distant metastases. One patient died of a large local recurrence, 38 patients died of causes unrelated to their tumor, and 3 patients were lost to follow-up. The multivariate analysis confirmed that performance status (PS), macroscopic presentation of the lesion, and persistence of dysphonia after radiotherapy are significant prognostic factors. Conclusions: According to the multivariate analysis, the patients with PS >80 and with exophytic lesions are eligible for radical RT. The surgical procedure proposed for each patient was not found to be an independent prognostic factor

  17. Analysis of lip print and fingerprint patterns in patients with type II diabetes mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manjusha, P; Sudha, S; Shameena, PM; Chandni, R; Varma, Sujatha; Pandiar, Deepak

    2017-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Globally, the prevalence of diabetes is soaring high in the recent times. There is an ardent search in the scientific community for a reliable and cheap early predictor which can serve the purpose of mass screening of a genetically vulnerable population. Hence, the present study was conducted to assess the predictive role of cheiloscopy on type II diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Several studies have established the association of dermatoglyphics with diabetes. However, results are still far from satisfaction. Thus, we also evaluated fingerprint analysis along with cheiloscopy. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted on 100 uncontrolled T2DM patients and 50 healthy controls. Lip prints were obtained using lipstick and cellophane paper analyzed and classified using Suzuki and Tsuchihashi's classification. Fingerprints were obtained using kajal stick, analyzed and classified using Henry's system of classification. Results: Type IV pattern of lip prints was found significantly more in the diabetic patients. Howbeit, fingerprint analysis did not reveal any significant association with diabetes. Conclusion: The present study showed a ray of hope for application of cheiloscopy as a potential biomarker in the early diagnosis of T2DM which can be used in mass screening. Further studies are warranted to confirm the findings. PMID:28932046

  18. Testing and Analysis of a Composite Non-Cylindrical Aircraft Fuselage Structure . Part II; Severe Damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Przekop, Adam; Jegley, Dawn C.; Lovejoy, Andrew E.; Rouse, Marshall; Wu, Hsi-Yung T.

    2016-01-01

    The Environmentally Responsible Aviation Project aimed to develop aircraft technologies enabling significant fuel burn and community noise reductions. Small incremental changes to the conventional metallic alloy-based 'tube and wing' configuration were not sufficient to achieve the desired metrics. One airframe concept identified by the project as having the potential to dramatically improve aircraft performance was a composite-based hybrid wing body configuration. Such a concept, however, presented inherent challenges stemming from, among other factors, the necessity to transfer wing loads through the entire center fuselage section which accommodates a pressurized cabin confined by flat or nearly flat panels. This paper discusses a finite element analysis and the testing of a large-scale hybrid wing body center section structure developed and constructed to demonstrate that the Pultruded Rod Stitched Efficient Unitized Structure concept can meet these challenging demands of the next generation airframes. Part II of the paper considers the final test to failure of the test article in the presence of an intentionally inflicted severe discrete source damage under the wing up-bending loading condition. Finite element analysis results are compared with measurements acquired during the test and demonstrate that the hybrid wing body test article was able to redistribute and support the required design loads in a severely damaged condition.

  19. The Open Anatomy Browser: A Collaborative Web-Based Viewer for Interoperable Anatomy Atlases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halle, Michael; Demeusy, Valentin; Kikinis, Ron

    2017-01-01

    The Open Anatomy Browser (OABrowser) is an open source, web-based, zero-installation anatomy atlas viewer based on current web browser technologies and evolving anatomy atlas interoperability standards. OABrowser displays three-dimensional anatomical models, image cross-sections of labeled structures and source radiological imaging, and a text-based hierarchy of structures. The viewer includes novel collaborative tools: users can save bookmarks of atlas views for later access and exchange those bookmarks with other users, and dynamic shared views allow groups of users can participate in a collaborative interactive atlas viewing session. We have published several anatomy atlases (an MRI-derived brain atlas and atlases of other parts of the anatomy) to demonstrate OABrowser's functionality. The atlas source data, processing tools, and the source for OABrowser are freely available through GitHub and are distributed under a liberal open source license.

  20. The integration of an anatomy massive open online course (MOOC) into a medical anatomy curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swinnerton, Bronwen J; Morris, Neil P; Hotchkiss, Stephanie; Pickering, James D

    2017-01-01

    Massive open online courses (MOOCs) are designed as stand-alone courses which can be accessed by any learner around the globe with only an internet-enabled electronic device required. Although much research has focused on the enrolment and demographics of MOOCs, their impact on undergraduate campus-based students is still unclear. This article explores the impact of integrating an anatomy MOOC in to the anatomy curriculum of a year 1 medical degree program at the University of Leeds, United Kingdom. The course did not replace any teaching that was already being delivered, and was used to supplement this teaching to support the students' consolidation and revision. Analysis of student feedback indicates a high level of usage, with evidence to suggest that female learners may have approached the course in a more personalized manner. Although the video based resources and quizzes were greatly appreciated as learning tools, significant evidence suggests the students did not engage, or were inclined to engage, with the discussion fora. Furthermore, a significant majority of students did not want the MOOC to replace the existing teaching they received. Given the feedback provided, this research suggests that although the student population believe there to be value in having access to MOOC material, their role as replacements to campus-based teaching is not supported. Details regarding the enrolment and engagement of the general public with the MOOC during the two runs are also documented, with the suggestion that graduates employed in the healthcare sector were the primary users of the course. Anat Sci Educ 10: 53-67. © 2016 American Association of Anatomists. © 2016 American Association of Anatomists.

  1. Genome-wide analysis of KAP1, the 7SK snRNP complex, and RNA polymerase II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan P. McNamara

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The transition of RNA polymerase II (Pol II from transcription initiation into productive elongation in eukaryotic cells is regulated by the P-TEFb kinase, which phosphorylates the C-terminal domain of paused Pol II at promoter-proximal regions. Our recent study found that P-TEFb (in an inhibited state bound to the 7SK snRNP complex interacts with the KAP1/TRIM28 transcriptional regulator, and that KAP1 and the 7SK snRNP co-occupy most gene promoters containing paused Pol II. Here we provide a detailed experimental description and analysis of the ChIP-seq datasets that have been deposited into Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO: GS72622, so that independent groups can replicate and expand upon these findings. We propose these datasets would provide valuable information for researchers studying mechanisms of transcriptional regulation including Pol II pausing and pause release. Keywords: P-TEFb/7SK snRNP, KAP1, RNA polymerase II, ChIP-seq, Transcription elongation

  2. Reference manual for generation and analysis of Habitat Time Series: version II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milhous, Robert T.; Bartholow, John M.; Updike, Marlys A.; Moos, Alan R.

    1990-01-01

    by the Aquatic Systems Branch of the National Ecology Research Center. For more information about the TSLIB software, refer to the Memorandum of Understanding. Chapter 1 provides a brief introduction to the Instream Flow Incremental Methodology and TSLIB. Other chapters in this manual provide information on the different aspects of using the models. The information contained in the other chapters includes (2) acquisition, entry, manipulation, and listing of streamflow data; (3) entry, manipulation, and listing of the habitat-versus-streamflow function; (4) transferring streamflow data; (5) water resources systems analysis; (6) generation and analysis of daily streamflow and habitat values; (7) generation of the time series of monthly habitats; (8) manipulation, analysis, and display of month time series data; and (9) generation, analysis, and display of annual time series data. Each section includes documentation for the programs therein with at least one page of information for each program, including a program description, instructions for running the program, and sample output. The Appendixes contain the following: (A) sample file formats; (B) descriptions of default filenames; (C) alphabetical summary of batch-procedure files; (D) installing and running TSLIB on a microcomputer; (E) running TSLIB on a CDC Cyber computer; (F) using the TSLIB user interface program (RTSM); and (G) running WATSTORE on the USGS Amdahl mainframe computer. The number for this version of TSLIB--Version II-- is somewhat arbitrary, as the TSLIB programs were collected into a library some time ago; but operators tended to use and manage them as individual programs. Therefore, we will consider the group of programs from the past that were only on the CDC Cyber computer as Version 0; the programs from the past that were on both the Cyber and the IBM-compatible microcomputer as Version I; and the programs contained in this reference manual as Version II.

  3. Analysis of the utilization history and the planning and the participation profiles of the shaft plant Asse II. Final report; Analyse der Nutzungsgeschichte und der Planungs- und Beteiligungsformen der Schachtanlage Asse II. Endbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ipsen, Detlev; Kost, Susanne; Weichler, Holger

    2010-03-08

    The report on the utilization history of Asse II covers the following issues: Historical facts of the purchase of the shaft plant Asse II, decision sequences and line of arguments, research mine or final repository? Emplacement of radioactive materials (inventory), stability of the mine layout and water ingress, risk assessment - accident analysis, communication and public information, conclusions and recommendations.

  4. Constructive, collaborative, contextual, and self-directed learning in surface anatomy education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergman-de Bres, E.M.; Sieben, J.M.; Smailbegovic, I.; Bruin, A. de; Scherpbier, A.J.J.A.; Vleuten, C.P.M. van der

    2013-01-01

    Anatomy education often consists of a combination of lectures and laboratory sessions, the latter frequently including surface anatomy. Studying surface anatomy enables students to elaborate on their knowledge of the cadaver's static anatomy by enabling the visualization of structures, especially

  5. Anatomy of the ward round.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Hare, James A

    2008-07-01

    The ward round has been a central activity of hospital life for hundreds of years. It is hardly mentioned in textbooks. The ward round is a parade through the hospital of professionals where most decision making concerning patient care is made. However the traditional format may be intimidating for patients and inadequate for communication. The round provides an opportunity for the multi-disciplinary team to listen to the patient\\'s narrative and jointly interpret his concerns. From this unfolds diagnosis, management plans, prognosis formation and the opportunity to explore social, psychological, rehabilitation and placement issues. Physical examination of the patient at the bedside still remains important. It has been a tradition to discuss the patient at the bedside but sensitive matters especially of uncertainty may better be discussed elsewhere. The senior doctor as round leader must seek the input of nursing whose observations may be under-appreciated due to traditional professional hierarchy. Reductions in the working hours of junior doctors and shortened length of stay have reduced continuity of patient care. This increases the importance of senior staff in ensuring continuity of care and the need for the joint round as the focus of optimal decision making. The traditional round incorporates teaching but patient\\'s right to privacy and their preferences must be respected. The quality and form of the clinical note is underreported but the electronic record is slow to being accepted. The traditional multi-disciplinary round is disappearing in some centres. This may be regrettable. The anatomy and optimal functioning of the ward round deserves scientific scrutiny and experimentation.

  6. Exploring relationships between personality and anatomy performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finn, Gabrielle M; Walker, Simon J; Carter, Madeline; Cox, David R; Hewitson, Ruth; Smith, Claire F

    2015-01-01

    There is increasing recognition in medicine of the importance of noncognitive factors, including personality, for performance, and for good medical practice. The personality domain of conscientiousness is a well-established predictor of performance in workplace and academic settings. This study investigates the relationships between the "Big Five" personality domains, the facets of conscientiousness and performance in a practical anatomy examination. First- and second-year undergraduate medical students (n = 85) completed a paper-based questionnaire, which included a 50-item measure of the Big Five personality domains (neuroticism, extraversion, openness to experience, agreeableness, and conscientiousness) and a 60-item measure of the six conscientiousness facets (orderliness, dutifulness, achievement-striving, self-discipline, self-efficacy, and cautiousness) from the International Personality Item Pool (IPIP). In addition, routinely-collected academic performance scores from the end of semester anatomy practical examinations (spotters) were obtained. Anatomy examination performance correlated moderately with conscientiousness (r = 0.24, P = 0.03). Of the six facets of conscientiousness, a positive relationship was observed between anatomy examination performance and achievement striving (r = 0.22, P = 0.05). In conclusion, this study found that performance in an anatomy examination was related to higher levels of conscientiousness and, more specifically, to higher levels of achievement striving. The results have implications for selection and assessment in medicine. © 2015 American Association of Anatomists.

  7. Anatomy in a modern medical curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turney, B W

    2007-03-01

    Anatomy in undergraduate education has been in decline for many years. Some suggest that it has fallen below a safe level. Balances between detail and safety, and assimilation and application of anatomy have yet to be established as the methods of teaching undergo another metamorphosis. For doctors, the human body is the focus of investigation and intervention on a daily basis; for this reason, the study of anatomy in some form will continue to be essential to safe medical practice. It is necessary for core knowledge of anatomy to be assimilated by all doctors in order to practice and communicate safely. It may be true that most doctors do not need to dissect a cadaver or study a prosection in order to practice, but if it can improve their understanding of what they do and why they do it, this surely has to be of benefit both for the safety of the patient and satisfaction of the doctor as a professional. Integration of newer teaching modalities and modern technology will encourage interest and retention of anatomical knowledge and its clinical relevance. Anatomy has a promising future in postgraduate specialist and surgical training. Detailed knowledge should be integrated into specialist training when it is clinically relevant allowing specialists of the future to practice safely and accurately and also to provide a strong base for future clinical developments.

  8. Approach to the study of human anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridola, Carlo

    2004-01-01

    The first thing to do to describe the human body is to define the anatomical position and the bilateral symmetry which characterise every Metazoi (man included) and permit us to study the body in its two symmetric halves; the left and right sides are the result of a virtual cut on a vertical and median plan. This is followed by a resume of the general structures and the vocabulary of the outer shapes of the human body; its direction (it will be helpful to use the virtual geometric parallelepiped made by three couples of planes one orthogonal to the other); levels of structural organization (chemical, cellular, tissue, organ and the system level; the highest is the organism level). After that, rules and principles are enunciated in the four fundamental laws of anatomy regarding the organ structures and their systems studied by the surface, gross (macroscopic), systemic, regional and constitutional type anatomy. There is also some information concerning education and research, the competence of the Human Anatomy as recommended by art. 1 of D.M. 23. XI. 1999 of the Italian law. Later what Richard Snell written in the preface to "Clinical Anatomy for Medical Students" about the importance of the knowledge of human anatomy for medical and surgical applications will be reported.

  9. From cadavers to clinical practice: the anatomy of lifelong learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Alison; Khan, Khurram; Madurska, Marta; Riddell, Alexis; Saldanha, James

    2015-11-01

    Much has been postulated about the perceived deterioration of anatomy knowledge amongst graduates. Little is known about levels of confidence in, and educational needs concerning, clinical anatomy knowledge amongst foundation year doctors. To establish foundation year doctors' perceptions of anatomy related to: importance to career, confidence in anatomy knowledge and its application, preferred methods of teaching. Secondarily, to determine impact of an integrated clinical approach to anatomy teaching on foundation year doctors' level of knowledge and confidence in its clinical application of anatomy. A course teaching anatomy through common surgeries and related radiology was delivered to foundation year doctors. A pre- and post-course assessment based on anatomy competence score assessed holistic knowledge acquisition. Foundation year doctors' perceptions of anatomy and course satisfaction were measured through questionnaire. Confidence in applying anatomy knowledge was low. The average pre- and post-course assessment score increased from 55% to 81%; 92.86% felt an integrated clinical approach to anatomy teaching improved their confidence on the subject and 58.62% felt it improved their clinical skills. This study identified a need for ongoing educational support for foundation year doctors regarding anatomy teaching. An integrated clinical approach to teaching anatomy proved both highly relevant and popular, as well as an effective teaching approach. © The Author(s) 2015.

  10. Atlas of regional anatomy of the brain using MRI. With functional correlations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamraz, J.C.

    2006-01-01

    The volume provides a unique review of the essential topographical anatomy of the brain from an MRI perspective, correlating high-quality anatomical plates with the corresponding high-resolution MRI images. The book includes a historical review of brain mapping and an analysis of the essential reference planes used for the study of the human brain. Subsequent chapters provide a detailed review of the sulcal and the gyral anatomy of the human cortex, guiding the reader through an interpretation of the individual brain atlas provided by high-resolution MRI. The relationship between brain structure and function is approached in a topographical fashion with analysis of the necessary imaging methodology and displayed anatomy. The central, perisylvian, mesial temporal and occipital areas receive special attention. Imaging of the core brain structures is included. An extensive coronal atlas concludes the book. (orig.)

  11. An Angiotensin II type 1 receptor activation switch patch revealed through Evolutionary Trace analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonde, Marie Mi; Yao, Rong; Ma, Jian-Nong

    2010-01-01

    in the cytoplasmic parts of TM2, TM3, and TM6 to form an activation switch that is common to all family A 7TM receptors. We tested this hypothesis in the rat Angiotensin II (Ang II) type 1a (AT1a) receptor. The receptor has important roles in the cardiovascular system, but has also frequently been applied as a model...

  12. Functional and structural analysis of photosystem II core complexes from spinach with high oxygen evolution capacity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haag, Elisabeth; Irrgang, Klaus-D.; Boekema, Egbert J.; Renger, Gernot

    1990-01-01

    Oxygen-evolving photo system II core complexes were prepared from spinach by solubilizing photosystem II membrane fragments with dodecyl-β-D-maltoside. The core complexes consist of the intrinsic 47-kDa, 43-kDa, D1 and D2 polypeptides, the two subunits of cytochrome b559 and the extrinsic 33-kDa

  13. Safety analysis report for the TRUPACT-II shipping package (condensed version). Volume 2, Rev. 14

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-10-01

    This appendix determines the effective G values for payload shipping categories of contact handled transuranic (CH-TRU) waste materials, based on the radiolytic G values for waste materials that are discussed in detail in Appendix 3.6.8 of the Safety Analysis Report for the TRUPACT-II Shipping Package. The effective G values take into account self-absorption of alpha decay energy inside particulate contamination and the fraction of energy absorbed by nongas-generating materials. As described in Appendix 3.6.8, an effective G value, G{sub eff}, is defined by: G{sub eff} - {Sigma}{sub M} (F{sub M} x G{sub M}) F{sub M}-fraction of energy absorbed by material maximum G value for a material where the sum is over all materials present inside a waste container. The G value itself is determined primarily by the chemical properties of the material and its temperature. The value of F is determined primarily by the size of the particles containing the radionuclides, the distribution of radioactivity on the various materials present inside the waste container, and the stopping distance of alpha particles in air, in the waste materials, or in the waste packaging materials.

  14. Non-destructive assay of EBR-II blanket elements using resonance transmission analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klann, R.T.; Poenitz, W.P.

    1998-01-01

    Resonance transmission analysis utilizing a faltered reactor beam was examined as a means of determining the 239 Pu content in Experimental Breeder Reactor-II depleted uranium blanket elements. The technique uses cadmium and gadolinium falters along with a 239 Pu fission chamber to isolate the 0.3 eV resonance in 239 Pu. In the energy range of this resonance (0.1 eV to 0.5 ev), the total microscopic cross-section of 239 Pu is significantly greater than the cross-sections of 238 U and 235 U. This large difference allows small changes in the 239 Pu content of a sample to result in large changes in the mass signal response. Tests with small stacks of depleted uranium and 239 Pu foils indicate a significant change in response based on the 239 Pu content of the foil stack. In addition, the tests indicate good agreement between the measured and predicted values of 239 Pu up to approximately two weight percent

  15. Identification of Type II Interferon Receptors in Geese: Gene Structure, Phylogenetic Analysis, and Expression Patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Zhou

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Interferon γ receptor 1 (IFNGR1 and IFNGR2 are two cell membrane molecules belonging to class II cytokines, which play important roles in the IFN-mediated antiviral signaling pathway. Here, goose IFNGR1 and IFNGR2 were cloned and identified for the first time. Tissue distribution analysis revealed that relatively high levels of goose IFNγ mRNA transcripts were detected in immune tissues, including the harderian gland, cecal tonsil, cecum, and thymus. Relatively high expression levels of both IFNGR1 and IFNGR2 were detected in the cecal tonsil, which implicated an important role of IFNγ in the secondary immune system of geese. No specific correlation between IFNγ, IFNGR1, and IFNGR2 expression levels was observed in the same tissues of healthy geese. IFNγ and its cognate receptors showed different expression profiles, although they appeared to maintain a relatively balanced state. Furthermore, the agonist R848 led to the upregulation of goose IFNγ but did not affect the expression of goose IFNGR1 or IFNGR2. In summary, trends in expression of goose IFNγ and its cognate receptors showed tissue specificity, as well as an age-related dependency. These findings may help us to better understand the age-related susceptibility to pathogens in birds.

  16. Analysis of Pro-inflammatory Cytokine and Type II Interferon Induction by Nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, Timothy M; Neun, Barry W; Rodriguez, Jamie C; Ilinskaya, Anna N; Dobrovolskaia, Marina A

    2018-01-01

    Cytokines, chemokines, and interferons are released by the immune cells in response to cellular stress, damage and/or pathogens, and are widely used as biomarkers of inflammation. Certain levels of cytokines are needed to stimulate an immune response in applications such as vaccines or immunotherapy where immune stimulation is desired. However, undesirable elevation of cytokine levels, as may occur in response to a drug or a device, may lead to severe side effects such as systemic inflammatory response syndrome or cytokine storm. Therefore, preclinical evaluation of a test material's propensity to cause cytokine secretion by healthy immune cells is an important parameter for establishing its safety profile. Herein, we describe in vitro methods for analysis of cytokines, chemokines, and type II interferon in whole blood cultures derived from healthy donor volunteers. First, whole blood is incubated with controls and tested nanomaterials for 24 h. Then, culture supernatants are analyzed by ELISA to detect IL-1β, TNFα, IL-8, and IFNγ. The culture supernatants can also be analyzed for the presence of other biomarkers secreted by the immune cells. Such testing would require additional assays not covered in this chapter and/or optimization of the test procedure to include relevant positive controls and/or cell types.

  17. Multimodal image analysis of the retina in Hunter syndrome (mucopolysaccharidosis type II): Case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvucci, Isadora Darriba Macedo; Finzi, Simone; Oyamada, Maria Kiyoko; Kim, Chong Ae; Pimentel, Sérgio Luis Gianotti

    2018-01-01

    We report a case of retinal and posterior ocular findings in a 33-year-old man diagnosed with Hunter syndrome (Mucopolysaccharidosis type II) in a multimodal imaging way. Our patient was complaining of blurred night vision for the past 3 years. He had not received any systemic treatment for Hunter syndrome. Vision acuity was 20/20 in both eyes and corneas were clear. Fundus examination revealed bilateral crowded and hyperemic optic nerve heads (elevated in the ocular ultrasound) and areas of subretinal hypopigmentation. There was hyperautofluorescence at the central fovea and perifovea, and a diffuse bilateral choroidal fluorescence in angiography. Macular SD-OCT showed a thinning of the external retina at the perifovea in both eyes. Visual field testing showed a bilateral ring scotoma. The full field ERG was subnormal, with a negative response in the scotopic phase. Visual Evoked Potencial test and cranial MRI were normal. Our multimodal analysis reported here attempted to contribute to the knowledge of the natural history of GAG deposition in the eye, focusing on the retina and retinal pigment epithelium. Defining this natural history is essential for a proper comparison with Hunter patients receiving systemic treatment, thus determining if it can or cannot improve retinal function in humans with this disorder.

  18. Flora of IGCAR campus and PFBR site: II plant diversity analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gajendiran, N.; Ragupathy, S.

    2003-09-01

    This report highlights the level of plant diversity that prevails in IGCAR and PFBR sites. The stress tolerant sandy-shore flora of natural vegetation adorns the Campus. It is bewitchingly blended with horticultural design and sets the backdrop of the nuclear industries- MAPS I and II and the incumbent PFBR. The floristic analysis points out the genetic richness of the campus (over 650 plant species in a narrow strip of ∼2500 acres), which can also serve as genetic reserve for coastal flora. Based on the study, a digitized inventory of plant resources of Kalpakkam is now made available. Taxonomy, distribution, vernacular name, uses, produces, bio-chemical component, ethnobotany, photograph are featured in the database. The survey highlights the potential of mangroves as bio-fence protecting against cyclone and sand and salt laden wind erosion. Such information may also be useful to understand the flora of east coast, in general. Biodiversity information gains importance for its use in caring the ecosystem and for its wise management at every micro-level down to the back yard of individual institution, which is the need of the hour. The sustainable use and preserving the biological resources maximize the net long-term benefits to mankind. (author)

  19. Safety analysis report for the TRUPACT-II shipping package (condensed version). Volume 2, Rev. 14

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-10-01

    This appendix determines the effective G values for payload shipping categories of contact handled transuranic (CH-TRU) waste materials, based on the radiolytic G values for waste materials that are discussed in detail in Appendix 3.6.8 of the Safety Analysis Report for the TRUPACT-II Shipping Package. The effective G values take into account self-absorption of alpha decay energy inside particulate contamination and the fraction of energy absorbed by nongas-generating materials. As described in Appendix 3.6.8, an effective G value, G eff , is defined by: G eff - Σ M (F M x G M ) F M -fraction of energy absorbed by material maximum G value for a material where the sum is over all materials present inside a waste container. The G value itself is determined primarily by the chemical properties of the material and its temperature. The value of F is determined primarily by the size of the particles containing the radionuclides, the distribution of radioactivity on the various materials present inside the waste container, and the stopping distance of alpha particles in air, in the waste materials, or in the waste packaging materials

  20. Application of flipped classroom pedagogy to the human gross anatomy laboratory: Student preferences and learning outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleagle, Timothy R; Borcherding, Nicholas C; Harris, Jennie; Hoffmann, Darren S

    2017-12-28

    To improve student preparedness for anatomy laboratory dissection, the dental gross anatomy laboratory was transformed using flipped classroom pedagogy. Instead of spending class time explaining the procedures and anatomical structures for each laboratory, students were provided online materials to prepare for laboratory on their own. Eliminating in-class preparation provided the opportunity to end each period with integrative group activities that connected laboratory and lecture material and explored clinical correlations. Materials provided for prelaboratory preparation included: custom-made, three-dimensional (3D) anatomy videos, abbreviated dissection instructions, key atlas figures, and dissection videos. Data from three years of the course (n = 241 students) allowed for analysis of students' preferences for these materials and detailed tracking of usage of 3D anatomy videos. Students reported spending an average of 27:22 (±17:56) minutes preparing for laboratory, similar to the 30 minutes previously allocated for in-class dissection preparation. The 3D anatomy videos and key atlas figures were rated the most helpful resources. Scores on laboratory examinations were compared for the three years before the curriculum change (2011-2013; n = 242) and three years after (2014-2016; n = 241). There was no change in average grades on the first and second laboratory examinations. However, on the final semi-cumulative laboratory examination, scores were significantly higher in the post-flip classes (P = 0.04). These results demonstrate an effective model for applying flipped classroom pedagogy to the gross anatomy laboratory and illustrate a meaningful role for 3D anatomy visualizations in a dissection-based course. Anat Sci Educ. © 2017 American Association of Anatomists. © 2017 American Association of Anatomists.

  1. Anatomy and histology of the sacroiliac joints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egund, Niels; Jurik, Anne Grethe

    2014-07-01

    The anatomy of joints provides an important basis for understanding the nature and imaging of pathologic lesions and their imaging appearance. This applies especially to the sacroiliac (SI) joints, which play a major role in the diagnosis of spondyloarthritis. They are composed of two different joint portions, a cartilage-covered portion ventrally and a ligamentous portion dorsally, and thus rather complex anatomically. Knowledge of anatomy and the corresponding normal imaging findings are important in the imaging diagnosis of sacroiliitis, especially by MR imaging. A certain distinction between the two joint portions by MR imaging is only obtainable by axial slice orientation. Together with a perpendicular coronal slice orientation, it provides adequate anatomical information and thereby a possibility for detecting the anatomical site of disease-specific characteristics and normal variants simulating disease. This overview describes current knowledge about the normal macroscopic and microscopic anatomy of the SI joints. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  2. Surgical anatomy of the thyroid and parathyroid glands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fancy, Tanya; Gallagher, Daniel; Hornig, Joshua D

    2010-04-01

    This article describes the anatomy and embryology of the thyroid and parathyroid glands and the recurrent laryngeal nerve, discussing how the anatomy affects function and dysfunction of the glands. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. A virtual reality atlas of craniofacial anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Darren M; Oliker, Aaron; Carter, Christina R; Kirov, Miro; McCarthy, Joseph G; Cutting, Court B

    2007-11-01

    Head and neck anatomy is complex and represents an educational challenge to the student. Conventional two-dimensional illustrations inherently fall short in conveying intricate anatomical relationships that exist in three dimensions. A gratis three-dimensional virtual reality atlas of craniofacial anatomy is presented in an effort to address the paucity of readily accessible and customizable three-dimensional educational material available to the student of head and neck anatomy. Three-dimensional model construction was performed in Alias Maya 4.5 and 6.0. A basic three-dimensional skull model was altered to include surgical landmarks and proportions. Some of the soft tissues were adapted from previous work, whereas others were constructed de novo. Texturing was completed with Adobe Photoshop 7.0 and Maya. The Internet application was designed in Viewpoint Enliven 1.0. A three-dimensional computer model of craniofacial anatomy (bone and soft tissue) was completed. The model is compatible with many software packages and can be accessed by means of the Internet or downloaded to a personal computer. As the three-dimensional meshes are publicly available, they can be extensively manipulated by the user, even at the polygonal level. Three-dimensional computer graphics has yet to be fully exploited for head and neck anatomy education. In this context, the authors present a publicly available computer model of craniofacial anatomy. This model may also find applications beyond clinical medicine. The model can be accessed gratis at the Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery Web site or obtained as a three-dimensional mesh, also gratis, by contacting the authors.

  4. Current issues with standards in the measurement and documentation of human skeletal anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magee, Justin; McClelland, Brian; Winder, John

    2012-09-01

    Digital modeling of human anatomy has become increasingly important and relies on well-documented quantitative anatomy literature. This type of documentation is common for the spine and pelvis; however, significant issues exist due to the lack of standardization in measurement and technique. Existing literature on quantitative anatomy for the spine and pelvis of white adults (aged 18-65 years, separated into decadal categories) was reviewed from the disciplines of anatomy, manipulative therapy, anthropometrics, occupational ergonomics, biomechanics and forensic science. The data were unified into a single normative model of the sub-axial spine. Two-dimensional orthographic drawings were produced from the 590 individual measurements identified, which informed the development of a 3D digital model. A similar review of full range of motion data was conducted as a meta-analysis and the results were applied to the existing model, providing an inter-connected, articulated digital spine. During these data analysis processes several inconsistencies were observed accompanied by an evidential lack of standardization with measurement and recording of data. These have been categorized as: anatomical terminology; scaling of measurements; measurement methodology, dimension and anatomical reference positions; global coordinate systems. There is inconsistency in anatomical terminology where independent researchers use the same terms to describe different aspects of anatomy or different terms for the same anatomy. Published standards exist for measurement methods of the human body regarding spatial interaction, anthropometric databases, automotive applications, clothing industries and for computer manikins, but none exists for skeletal anatomy. Presentation of measurements often lacks formal structure in clinical publications, seldom providing geometric reference points, therefore making digital reconstruction difficult. Published quantitative data does not follow existing

  5. Constructionist Learning in Anatomy Education: What Anatomy Students Can Learn through Serious Games Development

    OpenAIRE

    Ma, Minhua; Bale, Kim; Rea, Paul

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we describe the use of 3D games technology in human\\ud anatomy education based on our MSc in Medical Visualisation and Human\\ud Anatomy teaching practice, i.e. students design and develop serious games for anatomy education using the Unity 3D game engine. Students are engaged in this process not only as consumers of serious games, but as authors and creators. The benefits of this constructionist learning approach are discussed. Five domains of learning are identified, in terms o...

  6. Beyond the traditional approach to teaching anatomy for yoga.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardiner-Shires, Alison Marie

    2015-01-01

    The traditional approach to teaching anatomy for yoga, while systematic, is often ineffective. A unique approach to teaching anatomy for a Yoga Teacher Training seminar is presented, founded on the principles of Thomas Myers' Anatomy Trains. Lab activities are detailed and Bloom's Taxonomy is applied to ensure students are engaged in higher level thinking and application. Going beyond the traditional approach to teaching anatomy for yoga can be extremely rewarding for students and teachers alike.

  7. Beyond the traditional approach to teaching anatomy for yoga

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison Marie Gardiner-Shires

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: The traditional approach to teaching anatomy for yoga, while systematic, is often ineffective. Methods: A unique approach to teaching anatomy for a Yoga Teacher Training seminar is presented, founded on the principles of Thomas Myers′ Anatomy Trains. Lab activities are detailed and Bloom′s Taxonomy is applied to ensure students are engaged in higher level thinking and application. Conclusion: Going beyond the traditional approach to teaching anatomy for yoga can be extremely rewarding for students and teachers alike.

  8. Porcine Tricuspid Valve Anatomy and Human Compatibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waziri, Farhad; Lyager Nielsen, Sten; Hasenkam, J. Michael

    2016-01-01

    before clinical use. The study aim was to evaluate and compare the tricuspid valve anatomy of porcine and human hearts. METHODS: The anatomy of the tricuspid valve and the surrounding structures that affect the valve during a cardiac cycle were examined in detail in 100 fresh and 19 formalin...... varied greatly (range: 5.2-40.3 mm) and was significantly different in pigs and in humans (12.2 ± 3.2 mm versus 19.2 mm; p animal studies, despite various anatomic differences being noted between porcine...

  9. Conformational Analysis of the DFG-Out Kinase Motif and Biochemical Profiling of Structurally Validated Type II Inhibitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Structural coverage of the human kinome has been steadily increasing over time. The structures provide valuable insights into the molecular basis of kinase function and also provide a foundation for understanding the mechanisms of kinase inhibitors. There are a large number of kinase structures in the PDB for which the Asp and Phe of the DFG motif on the activation loop swap positions, resulting in the formation of a new allosteric pocket. We refer to these structures as “classical DFG-out” conformations in order to distinguish them from conformations that have also been referred to as DFG-out in the literature but that do not have a fully formed allosteric pocket. We have completed a structural analysis of almost 200 small molecule inhibitors bound to classical DFG-out conformations; we find that they are recognized by both type I and type II inhibitors. In contrast, we find that nonclassical DFG-out conformations strongly select against type II inhibitors because these structures have not formed a large enough allosteric pocket to accommodate this type of binding mode. In the course of this study we discovered that the number of structurally validated type II inhibitors that can be found in the PDB and that are also represented in publicly available biochemical profiling studies of kinase inhibitors is very small. We have obtained new profiling results for several additional structurally validated type II inhibitors identified through our conformational analysis. Although the available profiling data for type II inhibitors is still much smaller than for type I inhibitors, a comparison of the two data sets supports the conclusion that type II inhibitors are more selective than type I. We comment on the possible contribution of the DFG-in to DFG-out conformational reorganization to the selectivity. PMID:25478866

  10. Comparative chemical analysis of commercial creosotes and solvent refined coal-II materials by high resolution gas chromatography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, C.W.; Later, D.W.; Wilson, B.W.

    1985-06-01

    The chemical composition of a commercially available creosote was compared to a direct coal liquefaction product, i.e., solvent refined coal-II fuel oil blend (SRC-II FOB) using high resolution gas chromatography (HRGC). In addition, hydrogenated products of these materials were studied. Samples were fractionated by chemical class on neutral alumina. Those fractions previously shown to be the most mutagenic and tumorigenic in laboratory bioassays of coal-derived materials were analyzed and compared by HRGC and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Individual components were tentatively identified and quantitated. Although similar chemical components were present in the creosote and SRC-II FOB fractions studied, the creosotes had higher concentrations of heavy molecular weight materials and a lower ratio of alkylated to parent polycyclic aromatic compounds than the coal liquefaction products. The creosote samples also had a significantly higher concentration of components which eluted in the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) chemical class fraction. Amino-substituted PAH were present in both nonhydrogenated coal liquid and creosote materials. The creosote and SRC-II FOB crudes and nitrogen-containing polycyclic aromatic compound (NPAC) chemical class fractions expressed similar microbial mutagenicity. Based on chemical analysis data, the predicted tumorigenic potency of the creosote in laboratory bioassay systems would be equivalent to or greater than the SRC-II FOB. 16 references, 2 figures, 4 tables.

  11. Guidelines for Standard Photography in Gross and Clinical Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barut, Cagatay; Ertilav, Hakan

    2011-01-01

    Photography has a widespread usage in medicine and anatomy. In this review, authors focused on the usage of photography in gross and clinical anatomy. Photography in gross and clinical anatomy is not only essential for accurate documentation of morphological findings but also important in sharing knowledge and experience. Photographs of cadavers…

  12. Vegetative anatomy and taxonomy of Berberidopsis and Streptpthamnus (Flacourtiaceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baas, P.

    1984-01-01

    The leaf and twig anatomy of Berberidopsis and Streptothamnus are described in detail. The two genera are very similar in most aspects of their vegetative anatomy and together take a very isolated position in the Flacourtiaceae on account of their xylem anatomy and stomatal type. Differences in

  13. Spatial Abilities and Anatomy Knowledge Assessment: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langlois, Jean; Bellemare, Christian; Toulouse, Josée; Wells, George A.

    2017-01-01

    Anatomy knowledge has been found to include both spatial and non-spatial components. However, no systematic evaluation of studies relating spatial abilities and anatomy knowledge has been undertaken. The objective of this study was to conduct a systematic review of the relationship between spatial abilities test and anatomy knowledge assessment. A…

  14. Learning of Cross-Sectional Anatomy Using Clay Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Chang-Seok; Kim, Ji-Young; Choe, Yeon Hyeon

    2009-01-01

    We incorporated clay modeling into gross anatomy and neuro-anatomy courses to help students understand cross-sectional anatomy. By making clay models, cutting them and comparing cut surfaces to CT and MR images, students learned how cross-sectional two-dimensional images were created from three-dimensional structure of human organs. Most students…

  15. Root diameter variations explained by anatomy and phylogeny of 50 tropical and temperate tree species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Jiacun; Xu, Yang; Dong, Xueyun; Wang, Hongfeng; Wang, Zhengquan

    2014-04-01

    Root diameter, a critical indicator of root physiological function, varies greatly among tree species, but the underlying mechanism of this high variability is unclear. Here, we sampled 50 tree species across tropical and temperate zones in China, and measured root morphological and anatomical traits along the first five branch orders in each species. Our objectives were (i) to reveal the relationships between root diameter, cortical thickness and stele diameter among tree species in tropical and temperate forests, and (ii) to investigate the relationship of both root morphological and anatomical traits with divergence time during species radiation. The results showed that root diameter was strongly affected by cortical thickness but less by stele diameter in both tropical and temperate species. Changes in cortical thickness explained over 90% of variation in root diameter for the first order, and ∼74-87% for the second and third orders. Thicker roots displayed greater cortical thickness and more cortical cell layers than thinner roots. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that root diameter, cortical thickness and number of cortical cell layers significantly correlated with divergence time at the family level, showing similar variation trends in geological time. The results also suggested that trees tend to decrease their root cortical thickness rather than stele diameter during species radiation. The close linkage of variations in root morphology and anatomy to phylogeny as demonstrated by the data from the 50 tree species should provide some insights into the mechanism of root diameter variability among tree species.

  16. Interprofessional anatomy education in the United Kingdom and Ireland: Perspectives from students and teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Claire F; Hall, Samuel; Border, Scott; Adds, Philip J; Finn, Gabrielle M

    2015-01-01

    There is increasing recognition of multiprofessional learning in anatomy and its role in medical and healthcare professions. This study utilized two components to investigate anatomy interprofessional education (AIPE) in the United Kingdom and Ireland. First, a survey involving qualitative and quantitative components asked Heads of Anatomy to report on their institutions' uptake of AIPE. Second, a series of case studies explored the experiences of students by using evaluation forms and an in-depth analysis of thematic concepts to understand the learners' perspectives on designing and delivering AIPE. Out of the 13 institutions that took part in the survey, eight did not offer an AIPE program. Between the remaining five institutions that deliver AIPE programs, 10 different modules are offered with the majority involving healthcare professions. The AIPE component is rated highly by students. The themes from the case studies highlight how valuable AIPE is from the student perspective both in terms of engaging them in anatomy as well as in the broader skills of teamwork and communication. The case studies also revealed how AIPE can be engaging for groups of students who might not have previously had access to cadaveric anatomy, for example, engineers and archeologists. The results of this study have implications for curriculum design in medicine and healthcare but also for further engagement of professional groups from non-healthcare backgrounds. © 2015 American Association of Anatomists.

  17. EDELWEISS-II, direct Dark Matter search experiment: first data analysis and results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scorza, Silvia

    2009-01-01

    relies in the measurement of nuclear recoils that produce measurable effects in the crystal such ionization and heat. My PhD thesis is organized as follows. The first chapter aims to provide an introduction to the theoretical framework and the scientific motivation for the following work. The nature of DM has been one of the most challenging topics in contemporary physics since the first evidences of its existence had been found in the 1930's. Cosmologists and astrophysicists on one side, together with particle theorists on the other have put a lot of effort into this field: I will briefly account for their achievements and for the experimental strategies which can be set in this scenario. Since this thesis work was carried out within the EDELWEISS-II direct dark matter experiment, I will focus the next chapter on this topic, describing the main features. The second chapter is related to the set-up of the EDELWEISS-II, the current stage of the EDELWEISS experiment necessary after a first phase that achieved the best upper limit on the WIMP elastic scattering on nucleon as a function of WIMP mass in 2004. The set-up was conceived to reduce radioactive background observed in the first experiment phase. Thus, describing the starting point for this second stage, I will present detectors involved in, with a peculiar regard to the Ge-NTD type, the same implied in EDELWEISS-I, on which I have focused my thesis work. In the third chapter the performed Ge-NTD analysis chain is presented. Starting with the signal processing of the recorded data, I will enter in the essential analysis steps from calibration signals passing through measurements of thresholds and resolutions in order to predict nuclear and electronic recoil band and definition of fiducial zone to conclude determining a selection for likely WIMP candidate. These suggestions are applied in the fourth chapter, which presents the analysis and the results of the 8. cool down that takes places from November 2007 to March

  18. Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of the glyoxalase II from Leishmania infantum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trincão, José [REQUIMTE-CQFB, Departamento Química, Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Caparica (Portugal); Sousa Silva, Marta [Centro de Química e Bioquímica, Departamento Química e Bioquímica, Faculdade de Ciências da Universidade de Lisboa, Edifício C8, Lisboa (Portugal); Barata, Lídia [REQUIMTE-CQFB, Departamento Química, Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Caparica (Portugal); Centro de Química e Bioquímica, Departamento Química e Bioquímica, Faculdade de Ciências da Universidade de Lisboa, Edifício C8, Lisboa (Portugal); Bonifácio, Cecília [REQUIMTE-CQFB, Departamento Química, Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Caparica (Portugal); Carvalho, Sandra; Tomás, Ana Maria [IBMC - Instituto de Biologia Molecular e Celular, Universidade do Porto, Porto (Portugal); ICBAS - Instituto de Ciências Biomédicas Abel Salazar, Universidade do Porto, Porto (Portugal); Ferreira, António E. N.; Cordeiro, Carlos; Ponces Freire, Ana [Centro de Química e Bioquímica, Departamento Química e Bioquímica, Faculdade de Ciências da Universidade de Lisboa, Edifício C8, Lisboa (Portugal); Romão, Maria João, E-mail: mromao@dq.fct.unl.pt [REQUIMTE-CQFB, Departamento Química, Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Caparica (Portugal)

    2006-08-01

    A glyoxalase II from L. infantum was cloned, purified and crystallized and its structure was solved by X-ray crystallography. In trypanosomatids, trypanothione replaces glutathione in all glutathione-dependent processes. Of the two enzymes involved in the glyoxalase pathway, glyoxalase I and glyoxalase II, the latter shows absolute specificity towards trypanothione thioester, making this enzyme an excellent model to understand the molecular basis of trypanothione binding. Cloned glyoxalase II from Leishmania infantum was overexpressed in Escherichia coli, purified and crystallized. Crystals belong to space group C222{sub 1} (unit-cell parameters a = 65.6, b = 88.3, c = 85.2 Å) and diffract beyond 2.15 Å using synchrotron radiation. The structure was solved by molecular replacement using the human glyoxalase II structure as a search model. These results, together with future detailed kinetic characterization using lactoyltrypanothione, should shed light on the evolutionary selection of trypanothione instead of glutathione by trypano-somatids.

  19. Cost Benefit Analysis of Providing Level II Trauma Care at William Beaumont Army Medical Center (WBAMC)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gerepka, Peter

    2002-01-01

    .... During the period from 1 October 2000 to 30 September 2001, WBAMC, a designated Level II trauma center by the American College of Surgeons, provided care for 410 patients of which 181 were civilian emergencies...

  20. Man Machine Interface Analysis For The Equipment And Instrumentation In MCR Of The TRIGA Mark II Modified Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itjeu K; Piping S; Suharyo W; Kussigit S; Darlis; Bambang S; Sasongko Y

    2000-01-01

    Procedure and function of installation devices have been reviewed for the equipment and instrumentation in Main Control Room of TRIGA MARK II Modified Reactor. Analysis reviews carried out from the operation data/performances of the equipment and instrumentation of TRIGA II modified reactor and then evaluated. Instrumentation system and reactor control of TRIGA II is the reactor control system controlled by microprocessor installed at TM-II reactor to change analog system. These system consists of 4 parts that in such are control system console (CSC), data acquisition control unit (DAC), power monitor channel and temperature monitor. Beside that the system provided by supporting devices, for instances screen monitor, relay panel, analog and recorder includes analog input terminals and relay. Based on analysis reviewed from the procedures and function of installation devices at the obtaining system have been found that the display equipment enable to analyze reactor safety, enable to show operation condition directly and to perform information target to the each functions. Control equipment are consistent to the role of colour codes, shape and size, and also control classification fit to the reactor safety requirements priority. Alarm devices enable to transfer information promptly from the abnormal accidents and includes its anticipation. The early warning system (alarm, screen features) will show texts warning or warning signs if the reactor system is in the abnormal condition and then the operators will do proper needed immediately

  1. Analysis of the phospholipid profile of metaphase II mouse oocytes undergoing vitrification.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaehun Jung

    Full Text Available Oocyte freezing confers thermal and chemical stress upon the oolemma and various other intracellular structures due to the formation of ice crystals. The lipid profiles of oocytes and embryos are closely associated with both, the degrees of their membrane fluidity, as well as the degree of chilling and freezing injuries that may occur during cryopreservation. In spite of the importance of lipids in the process of cryopreservation, the phospholipid status in oocytes and embryos before and after freezing has not been investigated. In this study, we employed mass spectrometric analysis to examine if vitrification has an effect on the phospholipid profiles of mouse oocytes. Freshly prepared metaphase II mouse oocytes were vitrified using copper grids and stored in liquid nitrogen for 2 weeks. Fresh and vitrified-warmed oocytes were subjected to phospholipid extraction procedure. Mass spectrometric analyses revealed that multiple species of phospholipids are reduced in vitrified-warmed oocytes. LIFT analyses identified 31 underexpressed and 5 overexpressed phospholipids in vitrified mouse oocytes. The intensities of phosphatidylinositol (PI {18∶2/16∶0} [M-H]- and phosphatidylglycerol (PG {14∶0/18∶2} [M-H]- were decreased the most with fold changes of 30.5 and 19.1 in negative ion mode, respectively. Several sphingomyelins (SM including SM {d38∶3} [M+H]+ and SM {d34∶0} [M+K]+ were decreased significantly in positive ion mode. Overall, the declining trend of multiple phospholipids demonstrates that vitrification has a marked effect on phospholipid profiles of oocytes. These results show that the identified phospholipids can be used as potential biomarkers of oocyte undergoing vitrification and will allow for the development of strategies to preserve phospholipids during oocyte cryopreservation.

  2. Shared HLA Class II in Six Autoimmune Diseases in Latin America: A Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Cruz-Tapias

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence and genetic susceptibility of autoimmune diseases (ADs may vary depending on latitudinal gradient and ethnicity. The aims of this study were to identify common human leukocyte antigen (HLA class II alleles that contribute to susceptibility to six ADs in Latin Americans through a meta-analysis and to review additional clinical, immunological, and genetic characteristics of those ADs sharing HLA alleles. DRB1∗03:01 (OR: 4.04; 95%CI: 1.41–11.53 was found to be a risk factor for systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE, Sjögren's syndrome (SS, and type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1D. DRB1∗04:05 (OR: 4.64; 95%CI: 2.14–10.05 influences autoimmune hepatitis (AIH, rheumatoid arthritis (RA, and T1D; DRB1∗04:01 (OR: 3.86; 95%CI: 2.32–6.42 is a susceptibility factor for RA and T1D. Opposite associations were found between multiple sclerosis (MS and T1D. DQB1∗06:02 and DRB1∗15 alleles were risk factors for MS but protective factors for T1D. Likewise, DQB1∗06:03 allele was a risk factor for AIH but a protective one for T1D. Several common autoantibodies and clinical associations as well as additional shared genes have been reported in these ADs, which are reviewed herein. These results indicate that in Latin Americans ADs share major loci and immune characteristics.

  3. Genomic Analysis and Isolation of RNA Polymerase II Dependent Promoters from Spodoptera frugiperda.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maren Bleckmann

    Full Text Available The Baculoviral Expression Vector System (BEVS is the most commonly used method for high expression of recombinant protein in insect cells. Nevertheless, expression of some target proteins--especially those entering the secretory pathway--provides a severe challenge for the baculovirus infected insect cells, due to the reorganisation of intracellular compounds upon viral infection. Therefore, alternative strategies for recombinant protein production in insect cells like transient plasmid-based expression or stable expression cell lines are becoming more popular. However, the major bottleneck of these systems is the lack of strong endogenous polymerase II dependent promoters, as the strong baculoviral p10 and polH promoters used in BEVS are only functional in presence of the viral transcription machinery during the late phase of infection. In this work we present a draft genome and a transcriptome analysis of Sf21 cells for the identification of the first known endogenous Spodoptera frugiperda promoters. Therefore, putative promoter sequences were identified and selected because of high mRNA level or in analogy to other strong promoters in other eukaryotic organism. The chosen endogenous Sf21 promoters were compared to early viral promoters for their efficiency to trigger eGFP expression using transient plasmid based transfection in a BioLector Microfermentation system. Furthermore, promoter activity was not only shown in Sf21 cells but also in Hi5 cells. The novel endogenous Sf21 promoters were ranked according to their activity and expand the small pool of available promoters for stable insect cell line development and transient plasmid expression in insect cells. The best promoter was used to improve plasmid based transient transfection in insect cells substantially.

  4. GPS-MBA: computational analysis of MHC class II epitopes in type 1 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Ruikun; Liu, Zexian; Ren, Jian; Ma, Chuang; Gao, Tianshun; Zhou, Yanhong; Yang, Qing; Xue, Yu

    2012-01-01

    As a severe chronic metabolic disease and autoimmune disorder, type 1 diabetes (T1D) affects millions of people world-wide. Recent advances in antigen-based immunotherapy have provided a great opportunity for further treating T1D with a high degree of selectivity. It is reported that MHC class II I-A(g7) in the non-obese diabetic (NOD) mouse and human HLA-DQ8 are strongly linked to susceptibility to T1D. Thus, the identification of new I-A(g7) and HLA-DQ8 epitopes would be of great help to further experimental and biomedical manipulation efforts. In this study, a novel GPS-MBA (MHC Binding Analyzer) software package was developed for the prediction of I-A(g7) and HLA-DQ8 epitopes. Using experimentally identified epitopes as the training data sets, a previously developed GPS (Group-based Prediction System) algorithm was adopted and improved. By extensive evaluation and comparison, the GPS-MBA performance was found to be much better than other tools of this type. With this powerful tool, we predicted a number of potentially new I-A(g7) and HLA-DQ8 epitopes. Furthermore, we designed a T1D epitope database (TEDB) for all of the experimentally identified and predicted T1D-associated epitopes. Taken together, this computational prediction result and analysis provides a starting point for further experimental considerations, and GPS-MBA is demonstrated to be a useful tool for generating starting information for experimentalists. The GPS-MBA is freely accessible for academic researchers at: http://mba.biocuckoo.org.

  5. Survival Impact of Adjuvant Radiation Therapy in Masaoka Stage II to IV Thymomas: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Yu Jin; Kim, Eunji; Kim, Hak Jae; Wu, Hong-Gyun; Yan, Jinchun; Liu, Qin; Patel, Shilpen

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the survival impact of postoperative radiation therapy (PORT) in stage II to IV thymomas, using systematic review and meta-analysis. Methods and Materials: A database search was conducted with EMBASE, PubMed, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, and Ovid from inception to August 2015. Thymic carcinomas were excluded, and studies comparing overall survival (OS) with and without PORT in thymomas were included. The hazard ratios (HRs) of OS were extracted, and a random-effects model was used in the pooled analysis. Results: Seven retrospective series with a total of 1724 patients were included and analyzed. Almost all of the patients underwent macroscopically complete resection, and thymoma histology was confirmed by the World Health Organization criteria. In the overall analysis of stage II to IV thymomas, OS was not altered with the receipt of PORT (HR 0.79, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.58-1.08). Although PORT was not associated with survival difference in Masaoka stage II disease (HR 1.45, 95% CI 0.83-2.55), improved OS was observed with the addition of PORT in the discrete pooled analysis of stage III to IV (HR 0.63, 95% CI 0.40-0.99). Significant heterogeneity and publication bias were not found in the analyses. Conclusions: From the present meta-analysis of sole primary thymomas, we suggest the potential OS benefit of PORT in locally advanced tumors with macroscopically complete resection, but not in stage II disease. Further investigations with sufficient survival data are needed to establish detailed treatment indications.

  6. Survival Impact of Adjuvant Radiation Therapy in Masaoka Stage II to IV Thymomas: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Yu Jin; Kim, Eunji [Department of Radiation Oncology, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hak Jae, E-mail: khjae@snu.ac.kr [Department of Radiation Oncology, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Wu, Hong-Gyun [Department of Radiation Oncology, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Cancer Research Institute, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Institute of Radiation Medicine, Medical Research Center, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Yan, Jinchun [Department of Radiation Oncology, Dalian Medical University, Liaoning (China); Department of Radiation Oncology, Fudan University Cancer Hospital, Shanghai (China); Liu, Qin [The Wistar Institute, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Patel, Shilpen [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Washington Medical Center, Seattle, Washington (United States)

    2016-04-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the survival impact of postoperative radiation therapy (PORT) in stage II to IV thymomas, using systematic review and meta-analysis. Methods and Materials: A database search was conducted with EMBASE, PubMed, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, and Ovid from inception to August 2015. Thymic carcinomas were excluded, and studies comparing overall survival (OS) with and without PORT in thymomas were included. The hazard ratios (HRs) of OS were extracted, and a random-effects model was used in the pooled analysis. Results: Seven retrospective series with a total of 1724 patients were included and analyzed. Almost all of the patients underwent macroscopically complete resection, and thymoma histology was confirmed by the World Health Organization criteria. In the overall analysis of stage II to IV thymomas, OS was not altered with the receipt of PORT (HR 0.79, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.58-1.08). Although PORT was not associated with survival difference in Masaoka stage II disease (HR 1.45, 95% CI 0.83-2.55), improved OS was observed with the addition of PORT in the discrete pooled analysis of stage III to IV (HR 0.63, 95% CI 0.40-0.99). Significant heterogeneity and publication bias were not found in the analyses. Conclusions: From the present meta-analysis of sole primary thymomas, we suggest the potential OS benefit of PORT in locally advanced tumors with macroscopically complete resection, but not in stage II disease. Further investigations with sufficient survival data are needed to establish detailed treatment indications.

  7. Changing undergraduate human anatomy and physiology laboratories: perspectives from a large-enrollment course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griff, Edwin R

    2016-09-01

    In the present article, a veteran lecturer of human anatomy and physiology taught several sections of the laboratory component for the first time and shares his observations and analysis from this unique perspective. The article discusses a large-enrollment, content-heavy anatomy and physiology course in relationship to published studies on learning and student self-efficacy. Changes in the laboratory component that could increase student learning are proposed. The author also points out the need for research to assess whether selective curricular changes could increase the depth of understanding and retention of learned material. Copyright © 2016 The American Physiological Society.

  8. [ANATOMY AND BODIES: DEAD BODIES IN MUSEUMS FROM VAN RUYSCHA VON HAGENS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinozzi, Silvia

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the conference of which we are here publishing the proceedings, held in Rome at Sapienza-University in 2013, was to valorise the specific museological heritage of Italian Universities, in relation to analogous European and non-European Museums of Anatomy and Pathological Anatomy. A particular attention has been devoted to highlight the history of the origins and evolution of specific museological collections in order to focus reasons and circumstances of their foundation through the analysis of the signifcances, finctions and uses of anatomical parts or artifacts in different cultural contexts.

  9. Comparative Root and Stem Anatomy of Four Rare Onobrychis Mill. (Fabaceae Taxa Endemic in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet TEKİN

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Four endemic taxa of Onobrychis Mill. genus, some of them being classified in the endangered threat category, were investigated for root and stem anatomy. Onobrychis quadrijuga, O. argyrea subsp. argyrea, O. tournefortii and O. albiflora were studied in regard to specific anatomy for the first time within the hereby study. Anatomical characters as the size and shape of the periderm, cortex, cambium cells in root and epidermis, collenchyma, cortex, cambium and pith cells in stem belonging to these four Onobrychis taxa were determined in detail. Based on the roots and stems measurements and analysis, specific anatomical differences between species were revealed.

  10. Proceedings of the Third International Workshop on Mathematical Foundations of Computational Anatomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Computational anatomy is an emerging discipline at the interface of geometry, statistics and image analysis which aims at modeling and analyzing the biological shape of tissues and organs. The goal is to estimate representative organ anatomies across diseases, populations, species or ages, to model...... of the workshop: statistics on manifolds and diff eomorphisms for surface or longitudinal registration. One session gathers papers exploring new mathematical structures beyond Riemannian geometry while the last oral session deals with the emerging theme of statistics on graphs and trees. Finally, a poster session...... for the exchange of the theoretical ideas and aims at being a source of inspiration for new methodological developments in computational anatomy. A special emphasis is put on theoretical developments, applications and results being welcomed as illustrations. Following the successful rst edition of this workshop...

  11. Computer assisted surgical anatomy mapping : applications in surgical anatomy research, tailor-made surgery and presonalized teaching

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.L.A. Kerver (Anton)

    2017-01-01

    markdownabstractThis thesis presents a novel anatomy mapping tool named Computer Assisted Surgical Anatomy Mapping (CASAM). It allows researchers to map complex anatomy of multiple specimens and compare their location and course. Renditions such as safe zones or danger zones can be visualized,

  12. An Anatomy Pre-Course Predicts Student Performance in a Professional Veterinary Anatomy Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNulty, Margaret A; Lazarus, Michelle D

    2018-01-18

    Little to no correlation has been identified between previous related undergraduate coursework or outcomes on standardized tests and performance in a veterinary curriculum, including anatomy coursework. Therefore, a relatively simplistic method to predict student performance before entrance would be advantageous to many. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether there is a correlation between performance in a veterinary anatomy pre-course and subsequent performance within a professional anatomy curriculum. Incoming first-year veterinary students at the Louisiana State University School of Veterinary Medicine were asked to participate in a free weeklong pre-course, before the start of the semester. The pre-course covered the musculoskeletal anatomy of the canine thoracic limb using dissection-based methods. Student performance, as evaluated by test grades in the pre-course, did indeed correlate with test grades in professional veterinary anatomy courses. A significant and positive correlation was identified between pre-course final exam performance and performance on examinations in each of 3 professional anatomy courses. Qualitative analyses of student comments pertaining to their experience within the pre-course indicated differences in the perceived benefits of the pre-course between high-, middle-, and low-performing students. These varied perceptions may provide predictive feedback as well as guidance for supporting lower performing students. Together, these results indicate that performance in a weeklong pre-course covering only a small portion of canine anatomy is a strong predictor of performance within a professional anatomy curriculum. In addition, the pre-course differentially affected student perceptions of their learning experience.

  13. Modelling vocal anatomy's significant effect on speech

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, B.

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates the effect of larynx position on the articulatory abilities of a humanlike vocal tract. Previous work has investigated models that were built to resemble the anatomy of existing species or fossil ancestors. This has led to conflicting conclusions about the relation between

  14. Children's Fantasy Literature: Toward an Anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gooderham, David

    1995-01-01

    States that finding a critical language in which to speak about children's fantasy texts is not as straightforward as might first appear. Discusses ideas held by T. Todorov and J.R.R. Tolkien. Argues that fantasy is a metaphorical mode, and details an anatomy of children's fantasy. Concludes that children's fantasy can be described as a body of…

  15. Anatomy of a Cancer Treatment Scam

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Competition Matters Tech@FTC Comment Policy Contests IoT Home Inspector Challenge Robocalls: Humanity Strikes Back DetectaRobo Zapping ... File Documents in Adjudicative Proceedings You are here Home » News & Events » Audio/Video » Anatomy of a Cancer ...

  16. Anatomy and Physiology. Revised Teacher Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, Danene; And Others

    This curriculum guide contains 14 units of instruction for a course in anatomy and physiology for surgical technology students. The units cover the following topics: (1) organization of the body; (2) cells, tissues, and membranes; (3) integumentary system; (4) skeletal system; (5) muscular system; (6) nervous system; (7) special sense organs; (8)…

  17. Comparative leaf anatomy of Heisteria (Olacaceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baas, P.; Kool, R.

    1983-01-01

    The leaf anatomy of all 33 species of Heisteria is described, based on a study of 143 specimens. There is a considerable amount of diversity in stomatal type (anisocytic, anomocytic, cyclocytic, laterocytic or paracytic), in occurrence and type of mesophyll sclereids, and of fibre bundles along the

  18. Comparative leaf anatomy of the Asiatic Myristicaceae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koster, J.; Baas, P.

    1981-01-01

    The leaf anatomy of c. 60 species of the four Asiatic genera of the Myristicaceae (Gymnacranthera, Horsfieldia, Knema and Myristica) is described in detail. Myristicaceae have characteristic, uniseriate hairs, the cells of which have arms. The number of arms per cell and the relative length of the

  19. Anatomy teaching: Flexnerian model to contextualized vertical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abraham Flexner in 1910 established the fundamental model where the subjects of anatomy, physiology, pharmacology, pathology and bacteriology are mastered before the clinical phase of medical training (1). He was clear that this mastery was best achieved by active student learning in the laboratory guided by clinical.

  20. Fostering Improved Anatomy and Physiology Instructor Pedagogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattheis, Allison; Jensen, Murray

    2014-01-01

    Despite widespread calls for reform in undergraduate science, technology, engineering, and mathematics education, effecting lasting change in instructor practice is challenging to achieve. This article describes the results of a 2-yr research study that involved efforts to develop the pedagogical expertise of a group of anatomy and physiology…

  1. A Syllabus for Biol 242--Human Anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Willis H.

    This document is the fall and spring semester course syllabus of Biology 242--Human Anatomy at Southern University (Louisiana). Sections include: (1) Descriptive Information; (2) Specification of Course Goals and Objectives; (3) Readings; (4) Description of Instructional Procedures; (5) Course Requirements; (6) Course Schedule; (7) Evaluation of…

  2. Anatomy, Medical Education, and Human Ancestral Variation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strkalj, Goran; Spocter, Muhammad A.; Wilkinson, A. Tracey

    2011-01-01

    It is argued in this article that the human body both in health and disease cannot be fully understood without adequately accounting for the different levels of human variation. The article focuses on variation due to ancestry, arguing that the inclusion of information pertaining to ancestry in human anatomy teaching materials and courses should…

  3. Testing to Enhance Retention in Human Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, Jessica M.; Thompson, Andrew J.; Marshak, David W.

    2011-01-01

    Recent work in cognitive psychology has shown that repeatedly testing one's knowledge is a powerful learning aid and provides substantial benefits for retention of the material. To apply this in a human anatomy course for medical students, 39 fill-in-the-blank quizzes of about 50 questions each, one for each region of the body, and four about the…

  4. Wood anatomy of the Blakeeae (Melastomataceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koek-Noorman, J.; Hogeweg, P.; Maanen, van W.H.M.; Welle, ter B.J.H.

    1979-01-01

    The present paper deals with the wood anatomy of the Blakeeae (Melastomataceae). Generic descriptions of the secondary xylem of Blakea, Topobea, and Huilaea are given and compared with data on 16 genera of the Miconieae. Numerical pattern detection was undertaken. The results confirm our preliminary

  5. Systematic wood anatomy of the Rosaceae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Shu-Yin

    1992-01-01

    The wood anatomy of the Rosaceae is surveyed and analysed, based on the study of 280 species (c. 500 specimens) belonging to 62 genera from different parts of the world. Eighteen wood anatomical characters have been used for a phenetic and phylogenetic classification. In the phenetic classification,

  6. Ecological anatomy of some hydrophytes in Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-07-20

    Jul 20, 2009 ... Ecological anatomy of some hydrophytes in Nigeria. Adeniyi A. Jayeola1* and Ezekiel A. Folorunso2. 1Department of Botany and Microbiology, University of Ibadan, Nigeria. 2Department of Botany, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile Ife, Nigeria. Accepted 23 January, 2009. Structural features were studied in ...

  7. Journal of Experimental and Clinical Anatomy: Submissions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect Of Variations In The Material Dietary Fatty Acid Composition On The Neurodevelopment Of Rat Pups. Journal of Applied Sciences 2: 1002 _1010. Textbooks: More L (1992). Clinical Oriented Anatomy. Third Edition. Williams and Wilkins, Baltimore. 917pp. Chapter in Books: Bank M (1999). Stroke And Subarachnoid ...

  8. Anatomy of a Cancer Treatment Scam

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... at the FTC Apply to the FTC Testimonials News & Events Press Releases Commission Actions Media Resources Consumer ... Documents in Adjudicative Proceedings You are here Home » News & Events » Audio/Video » Anatomy of a Cancer Treatment ...

  9. Anatomy and physiology of genital organs - women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graziottin, Alessandra; Gambini, Dania

    2015-01-01

    "Anatomy is destiny": Sigmund Freud viewed human anatomy as a necessary, although not a sufficient, condition for understanding the complexity of human sexual function with a solid biologic basis. The aim of the chapter is to describe women's genital anatomy and physiology, focusing on women's sexual function with a clinically oriented vision. Key points include: embryology, stressing that the "female" is the anatomic "default" program, differentiated into "male" only in the presence of androgens at physiologic levels for the gestational age; sex determination and sex differentiation, describing the interplay between anatomic and endocrine factors; the "clitoral-urethral-vaginal" complex, the most recent anatomy reading of the corpora cavernosa pattern in women; the controversial G spot; the role of the pelvic floor muscles in modulating vaginal receptivity and intercourse feelings, with hyperactivity leading to introital dyspareunia and contributing to provoked vestibulodynia and recurrent postcoital cystitis, whilst lesions during delivery reduce vaginal sensations, genital arousability, and orgasm; innervation, vessels, bones, ligaments; and the physiology of women's sexual response. Attention to physiologic aging focuses on "low-grade inflammation," genital and systemic, with its impact on women sexual function, especially after the menopause, if the woman does not or cannot use hormone replacement therapy. © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Mandatory anatomy dissection, effect on examination performance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Regular class attendance is evidence of professionalism. This has led to mandatory class attendance in many disciplines including anatomy. However, there is paucity of data on the effect of mandatory class attendance on student performance in resource-limited settings. The objective of this study was to determine the ...

  11. Surgical anatomy of the nail apparatus.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haneke, E.

    2006-01-01

    Nail surgery is an integral part of dermatologic surgery. An in-depth knowledge of the anatomy, biology, physiology, and gross pathology of the entire nail unit is essential. In particular, knowledge of nail histopathology is necessary to perform diagnostic nail biopsies and other nail procedures

  12. Neuromodulators: available agents, physiology, and anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nettar, Kartik; Maas, Corey

    2011-12-01

    Neuromodulators have risen to the forefront of aesthetic medicine. By reversibly relaxing target muscles, neuromodulators exhibit their effect by softening hyperfunctional lines. An understanding of their physiology, relevant facial anatomy, and current agents is imperative for a successful aesthetic practice. © Thieme Medical Publishers.

  13. Anatomy and Physiology of the Small Bowel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volk, Neil; Lacy, Brian

    2017-01-01

    Comprehension of small intestine physiology and function provides a framework for the understanding of several important disease pathways of the gastrointestinal system. This article reviews the development, anatomy and histology of the small bowel in addition to physiology and digestion of key nutrients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Thoracic radiographic anatomy in goats | Makungu | Tanzania ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    . The aorta was not clearly visible on lateral views. The mean ratio of the CVC diameter to the height of the fourth thoracic vertebral body (T4) was 1.08 ± 0.07. Speciesspecific differences exist in the normal radiographic anatomy of the thorax.

  15. Sensitivity Analysis of Uncertainty Parameter based on MARS-LMR Code on SHRT-45R of EBR II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Seok-Ju; Kang, Doo-Hyuk; Seo, Jae-Seung [System Engineering and Technology Co., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Bae, Sung-Won [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Jeong, Hae-Yong [Sejong University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    In order to assess the uncertainty quantification of the MARS-LMR code, the code has been improved by modifying the source code to accommodate calculation process required for uncertainty quantification. In the present study, a transient of Unprotected Loss of Flow(ULOF) is selected as typical cases of as Anticipated Transient without Scram(ATWS) which belongs to DEC category. The MARS-LMR input generation for EBR II SHRT-45R and execution works are performed by using the PAPIRUS program. The sensitivity analysis is carried out with Uncertainty Parameter of the MARS-LMR code for EBR-II SHRT-45R. Based on the results of sensitivity analysis, dominant parameters with large sensitivity to FoM are picked out. Dominant parameters selected are closely related to the development process of ULOF event.

  16. The anatomy and phylogeny of the African land snail Limicena Connolly, 1925 (Pulmonata: Cerastidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mordan, P.

    1998-01-01

    An investigation of the anatomy of Limicena confirms its position as a monotypic genus in the Cerastidae. Phylogenetic analysis places Limicena as the most plesiomorphic member of a clade characterised by a pseudosigmurethrous excretory system, the more advanced members of which are Rhachistia,

  17. Detection and prevalence of variant sciatic nerve anatomy in relation to the piriformis muscle on MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varenika, Vanja; Bucknor, Matthew D. [University of California, San Francisco, Department of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging, San Francisco, CA (United States); Lutz, Amelie M.; Beaulieu, Christopher F. [Stanford University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Stanford, CA (United States)

    2017-06-15

    To determine whether known variant anatomical relationships between the sciatic nerve and piriformis muscle can be identified on routine MRI studies of the hip and to establish their imaging prevalence. Hip MRI studies acquired over a period of 4 years at two medical centers underwent retrospective interpretation. Anatomical relationship between the sciatic nerve and the piriformis muscle was categorized according to the Beaton and Anson classification system. The presence of a split sciatic nerve at the level of the ischial tuberosity was also recorded. A total of 755 consecutive scans were reviewed. Conventional anatomy (type I), in which an undivided sciatic nerve passes below the piriformis muscle, was identified in 87% of cases. The remaining 13% of cases demonstrated a type II pattern in which one division of the sciatic nerve passes through the piriformis whereas the second passes below. Only two other instances of variant anatomy were identified (both type III). Most variant cases were associated with a split sciatic nerve at the level of the ischial tuberosity (73 out of 111, 65.8%). By contrast, only 6% of cases demonstrated a split sciatic nerve at this level in the context of otherwise conventional anatomy. Anatomical variations of the sciatic nerve course in relation to the piriformis muscle are frequently identified on routine MRI of the hips, occurring in 12-20% of scans reviewed. Almost all variants identified were type II. The ability to recognize variant sciatic nerve courses on MRI may prove useful in optimal treatment planning. (orig.)

  18. Detection and prevalence of variant sciatic nerve anatomy in relation to the piriformis muscle on MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varenika, Vanja; Lutz, Amelie M; Beaulieu, Christopher F; Bucknor, Matthew D

    2017-06-01

    To determine whether known variant anatomical relationships between the sciatic nerve and piriformis muscle can be identified on routine MRI studies of the hip and to establish their imaging prevalence. Hip MRI studies acquired over a period of 4 years at two medical centers underwent retrospective interpretation. Anatomical relationship between the sciatic nerve and the piriformis muscle was categorized according to the Beaton and Anson classification system. The presence of a split sciatic nerve at the level of the ischial tuberosity was also recorded. A total of 755 consecutive scans were reviewed. Conventional anatomy (type I), in which an undivided sciatic nerve passes below the piriformis muscle, was identified in 87% of cases. The remaining 13% of cases demonstrated a type II pattern in which one division of the sciatic nerve passes through the piriformis whereas the second passes below. Only two other instances of variant anatomy were identified (both type III). Most variant cases were associated with a split sciatic nerve at the level of the ischial tuberosity (73 out of 111, 65.8%). By contrast, only 6% of cases demonstrated a split sciatic nerve at this level in the context of otherwise conventional anatomy. Anatomical variations of the sciatic nerve course in relation to the piriformis muscle are frequently identified on routine MRI of the hips, occurring in 12-20% of scans reviewed. Almost all variants identified were type II. The ability to recognize variant sciatic nerve courses on MRI may prove useful in optimal treatment planning.

  19. Effectiveness of the Flipped Classroom Model in Anatomy and Physiology Laboratory Courses at a Hispanic Serving Institution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Gerardo

    A flipped laboratory model involves significant preparation by the students on lab material prior to entry to the laboratory. This allows laboratory time to be focused on active learning through experiments. The aim of this study was to observe changes in student performance through the transition from a traditional laboratory format, to a flipped format. The data showed that for both Anatomy and Physiology (I and II) laboratories a more normal distribution of grades was observed once labs were flipped and lecture grade averages increased. Chi square and analysis of variance tests showed grade changes to a statistically significant degree, with a p value of less than 0.05 on both analyses. Regression analyses gave decreasing numbers after the flipped labs were introduced with an r. 2 value of .485 for A&P I, and .564 for A&P II. Results indicate improved scores for the lecture part of the A&P course, decreased outlying scores above 100, and all score distributions approached a more normal distribution.

  20. Functional anatomy and biomechanics of the carpus; Funktionelle Anatomie und Biomechanik des Karpus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmitt, R. [Herz- und Gefaessklinik GmbH, Institut fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie, Bad Neustadt an der Saale (Germany)

    2006-08-15

    The wrist is an exceedingly complex structure composed of several joints and a dedicated ligamentous system. Its functional principles allow a wide range of carpal motion and make the wrist remarkably resistant to external stress forces: The proximal carpal row serves as an intercalated link interposed between the static elements of both the forearm and the distal carpal row. Like a flexible placeholder, the proximal row synchronously adapts to the spatial and temporal requirements of the wrist. There are synergistic movement patterns including simultaneous flexion of the proximal row as the wrist is deviated radially and simultaneous extension during ulnar deviation. Together with pronosupination of the radioulnar joints, the combined radial/ulnar inclination and flexion/extension enable spherical, out-of-plane movements of the hand. Carpal function is best explained by the ''model of a ring under tension.'' This review addresses the anatomy and the biomechanics of the wrist and illustrates systematic image analysis by using carpal lines and angles as well as indices of carpal height. (orig.) [German] Die Handwurzel ist ein komplexes Mosaik von Skelettelementen mit einer Vielzahl von Gelenken und einem differenzierten Ligamentsystem. Die gegensaetzlichen Anforderungen aus hoher Belastungsstabilitaet und hoher Bewegungsfreiheit werden durch folgende Funktionsprinzipien realisiert: Die proximale Handwurzelreihe ist ein mobiles Glied, das zwischen die fixen Elemente des Unterarms und der distalen Reihe interponiert ist. Mit ''variabler Geometrie'' passt die proximale Reihe ihre Form entsprechend den aktuellen Raum- und Krafterfordernissen an. Am Handgelenk kommt es zu kombinierten Bewegungen in 2 Raumebenen, wobei die Radialduktion mit einer Flexion und die Ulnarduktion mit einer Extension kombiniert sind. In der Kombination mit den Umwendbewegungen im distalen Radioulnargelenk sowie den karpalen Abduktions- und Flexions

  1. Modified Monte Carlo program for SAND-II with solution weighting and error analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oster, C.A.; McElroy, W.N.; Simons, R.L.; Lippincott, E.P.; Odette, G.R.

    1976-08-01

    In previous versions of the SAND-II and Monte Carlo codes, uncertainty data for both measured activities and cross sections were used only in a statistical sense for error propagation studies. These versions used an equal uncertainty procedure for weighting each foil. An in-depth study is presented of different weighting procedures utilizing available uncertainty data to obtain a ''most appropriate'' SAND-II solution flux spectrum. Based on this study, an improved and modified SAND-II Monte Carlo code has been developed. Development of the new code was based on extensive computer runs involving data from 21 foils irradiated in CFRMF as a part of the Interlaboratory LMFBR Reaction Rate (ILRR) program

  2. VizieR Online Data Catalog: MgII line vs 3000Å continuum analysis in 68 QSOs (Zhu+, 2017)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, D.; Sun, M.; Wang, T.

    2018-02-01

    We investigate the relationship between the MgIIλ2798 emission line and the 3000Å continuum variations using a sample of 68 intermediate-redshift (z~0.65-1.50) broad-line quasars spanning a bolometric luminosity range of 44.49erg/s=10; and (b) for narrow lines, S/N>=5. All our quasar spectra are recalibrated based on the assumption of constant narrow emission- line fluxes. In an analysis of spectrum-to-spectrum variations, we find a fairly close correlation (Spearman {rho}=0.593) between the variations in broad MgII and in the continuum. This is consistent with the idea that MgII is varying in response to the continuum emission variations. Adopting the modified weighted least squares regression method, we statistically constrain the slopes (i.e., the responsivity α of the broad MgII) between the variations in both components for the sources in different luminosity bins after eliminating intrinsic biases introduced by the rescaling process itself. It is shown that the responsivity is quite small (average {bar}α~0.464) and anti- correlates with the quasar luminosity. Our results indicate that high signal- to-noise flux measurements are required to robustly detect the intrinsic variability and the time lag of the MgII line. (2 data files).

  3. Analysis of Software Development Methodologies to Build Safety Software Applications for the SATEX-II: A Mexican Experimental Satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar Cisneros, Jorge; Vargas Martinez, Hector; Pedroza Melendez, Alejandro; Alonso Arevalo, Miguel

    2013-09-01

    Mexico is a country where the experience to build software for satellite applications is beginning. This is a delicate situation because in the near future we will need to develop software for the SATEX-II (Mexican Experimental Satellite). SATEX- II is a SOMECyTA's project (the Mexican Society of Aerospace Science and Technology). We have experienced applying software development methodologies, like TSP (Team Software Process) and SCRUM in other areas. Then, we analyzed these methodologies and we concluded: these can be applied to develop software for the SATEX-II, also, we supported these methodologies with SSP-05-0 Standard in particular with ESA PSS-05-11. Our analysis was focusing on main characteristics of each methodology and how these methodologies could be used with the ESA PSS 05-0 Standards. Our outcomes, in general, may be used by teams who need to build small satellites, but, in particular, these are going to be used when we will build the on board software applications for the SATEX-II.

  4. Getting back to the dissecting room: An evaluation of an innovative course in musculoskeletal anatomy for UK-based rheumatology training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, Tim; Marais, Debbi; Hassell, Andrew B; Stevenson, Kay; Paskins, Zoe

    2017-12-01

    The rheumatologist relies heavily on clinical skills to diagnose diverse conditions, something that is correlated with one's knowledge of clinical anatomy. More recently, rheumatology has offered further career flexibility with opportunities to develop skills such as joint injection and musculoskeletal (MSK) ultrasound, both of which require a sound understanding of anatomy. Currently, there are no formal strategies to support competency-based anatomy learning in rheumatology in the UK. This study aimed to evaluate an innovative applied anatomy course utilizing cadaveric material, targeted at clinicians practising in rheumatology and MSK medicine. A new course was developed for rheumatologists, rheumatology trainees and allied health professionals practising rheumatology and MSK medicine, with the principal focus being on applied MSK anatomy. A questionnaire was given to course attendees and a mixed methods approach of evaluation used. Descriptive statistical data analysis was performed. The course received overall positive feedback and statistically significant improvements in levels of confidence in anatomy (mean 52.35-83.53, p Course attendees also favoured a peer-assisted and multidisciplinary learning approach. This study lends support for the use of cadaveric material in the teaching of postgraduate anatomy to rheumatologists. It has demonstrated a continual need for hands-on and interactive anatomy training in an ever-advancing digital world. To be successful, cadaveric learning should not be viewed in a purely 'pre-clinical' setting, but instead integrated with postgraduate learning. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Level II scour analysis for Bridge 27 (ANDOTH00290027) on Town Highway 29, crossing Middle Branch Williams River, Andover, Vermont

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Ronda L.; Wild, Emily C.

    1997-01-01

    This report provides the results of a detailed Level II analysis of scour potential at structure ANDOTH00290027 on Town Highway 29 crossing the Middle Branch Williams River, Andover, Vermont (figures 1–8). A Level II study is a basic engineering analysis of the site, including a quantitative analysis of stream stability and scour (U.S. Department of Transportation, 1993). Results of a Level I scour investigation also are included in Appendix E of this report. A Level I investigation provides a qualitative geomorphic characterization of the study site. Information on the bridge, gleaned from Vermont Agency of Transportation (VTAOT) files, was compiled prior to conducting Level I and Level II analyses and is found in Appendix D. The site is in the Green Mountain section of the New England physiographic province in central Vermont. The 12.7-mi2 drainage area is in a predominantly rural and forested basin. In the vicinity of the study site, the surface cover is pasture on the left bank upstream of the bridge while the immediate bank has woody vegetation. The surface cover on the upstream right bank is forest. Downstream of the bridge the left bank is pasture and the right bank has woody vegetation. In the study area, the Middle Branch Williams River has an incised, straight channel with a slope of approximately 0.009 ft/ft, an average channel top width of 63 ft and an average bank height of 5 ft. The channel bed material ranges from sand to cobble with a median grain size (D50) of 64.7 mm (0.212 ft). The geomorphic assessment at the time of the Level I and Level II site visit on September 10, 1996, indicated that the reach was stable. The Town Highway 29 crossing of the Middle Branch Williams River is a 34-ft-long, two-

  6. Level II scour analysis for Bridge 35 (BETHTH00190035) on Town Highway 19, crossing Gilead Brook, Bethel, Vermont

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Scott A.; Song, Donald L.

    1996-01-01

    This report provides the results of a detailed Level II analysis of scour potential at structure BETHTH00190035 on town highway 19 crossing Gilead Brook, Bethel, Vermont (figures 1–8). A Level II study is a basic engineering analysis of the site, including a quantitative analysis of stream stability and scour (U.S. Department of Transportation, 1993). A Level I study is included in Appendix E of this report. A Level I study provides a qualitative geomorphic characterization of the study site. Information on the bridge available from VTAOT files was compiled prior to conducting Level I and Level II analyses and can be found in Appendix D. The site is in the Green Mountain physiographic province of central Vermont in the town of Bethel. The 6.40-mi2 drainage area is predominantly rural and forested. In the vicinity of the study site, the immediate banks have woody vegetation coverage with pasture beyond. In the study area, Gilead Brook is an incised, sinuous channel with a slope of approximately 0.015 ft/ft, an average channel top width of 31 ft and an average channel depth of 2.5 ft. The predominant channel bed material is gravel and cobble (D50 is 62.5 mm or 0.205 ft). The geomorphic assessment at the time of the Level I and Level II site visit on October 20, 1994, indicated that the reach was stable. The town highway 19 crossing of Gilead Brook is a 30-ft-long, one-lane bridge consisting of one 24-foot steel-beam span with timber deck (Vermont Agency of Transportation, written commun., August 24, 1994). The bridge is supported by vertical, concrete

  7. Non-invasive determination of port wine stain anatomy and physiology for optimal laser treatment strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Gemert, Martin J. C.; Nelson, J. Stuart; Milner, Thomas E.; Smithies, Derek J.; Verkruysse, Wim; de Boer, Johannes F.; Lucassen, Gerald W.; Goodman, Dennis M.; Tanenbaum, B. Samuel; Norvang, Lill T.; Svaasand, Lars O.

    1997-05-01

    The treatment of port wine stains (PWSs) using a flashlamp-pumped pulsed dye laser is often performed using virtually identical irradiation parameters. Although encouraging clinical results have been reported, we propose that lasers will only reach their full potential provided treatment parameters match individual PWS anatomy and physiology. The purpose of this paper is to review the progress made on the technical development and clinical implementation of (i) infrared tomography (IRT), optical reflectance spectroscopy (ORS) and optical low-coherence reflectometry (OLCR) to obtain in vivo diagnostic data on individual PWS anatomy and physiology and (ii) models of light and heat propagation, predicting irreversible vascular injury in human skin, to select optimal laser wavelength, pulse duration, spot size and radiant exposure for complete PWS blanching in the fewest possible treatment sessions. Although non-invasive optical sensing techniques may provide significant diagnostic data, development of a realistic model will require a better understanding of relevant mechanisms for irreversible vascular injury.

  8. Análise de peças anatômicas preservadas com resina de poliester para estudo em anatomia humana Analysis of anatomical pieces preservation with polyester resin for human anatomy study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ítalo Martins de Oliveira

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: avaliar o uso da resina de poliéster na preservação de peças anatômicas para estudo da anatomia humana. MÉTODOS: foram utilizadas 150 peças anatômicas, sendo as mesmas não fixadas (frescas, fixadas em formol a 10% e moldes vasculares de órgãos injetados com acetato de vinil e a resina de poliéster. A solução utilizada foi composta de resina de poliéster com seu diluente monômero de estireno e catalisador (peroxol. Foram obtidos, após a inclusão nesta solução, modelos em resina transparente, que permitiam a plena observação das estruturas e conservação da peça utilizada. RESULTADOS: na avaliação das peças, foi observado grau de extrema transparência, promovendo uma completa visualização das estruturas com a perfeita preservação da anatomia. A duração média para a completa finalização da inclusão foi 48 horas. Apenas 14 peças (9,3% foram inutilizadas durante o preparo. CONCLUSÃO: a resina de poliéster pode ser utilizada para a preservação de peças anatômicas para o ensino da anatomia humana, de maneira prática, estética e duradoura.OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the use of polyester resin in preserving anatomical specimens for the study of human anatomy. METHODS: We used 150 anatomical specimens, comprised of unfixed (fresh, fixed in 10% formalin and vascular casts of organs injected with vinyl acetate and polyester resin. The solution used consisted of polyester resin with the diluent styrene monomer and catalyst (peroxol. After embedding in this solution, models in transparent resin were obtained, allowing full observation of structures and conservation of the specimens used. RESULTS: upon evaluation of the specimens, we observed a high degree of transparency, which promoted a complete visualization of structures with perfect preservation of the anatomy. The average time for the completion of the embedding was 48 hours. Only 14 specimens (9.3% were lost during the preparation. CONCLUSION

  9. Genetic analysis of NPT II x HBC 19 (basmati variety) RIL's and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HAU Vikram

    Traditional basmati rice varieties are very low yielding due to their tendency to lodging and increasing susceptibility to .... RILs in F5 generation were evaluated for agronomic traits namely, .... Direct (diagonal) and indirect effects of component traits on grain yield/plant in F5 population derived from cross NPT II x HBC 19.

  10. Winning the War: A Historical Analysis of the FFA during World War II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Kattlyn J.; Connors, James J.

    2009-01-01

    The United States' participation in World War II affected millions of men, women, and children, both at home and around the world. The war effort also affected the Future Farmers of America (FFA). FFA members, agriculture teachers, and national FFA officers all volunteered to serve their country during the war. Local FFA chapters and individual…

  11. Molecular genetic analysis of Type II diabetes associated m.3243A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Type II diabetes is the most often considered as maternally inherited disease and A>G transition at position 3243 of mitochondrial DNA (m.3243A>G) in the encoding tRNALeu(UUR) gene is thought to be strongly responsible for the pathogenesis of the disease in number of cases. Aim: Current study was ...

  12. Implementation of a Proficiency-Based Diploma System in Maine: Phase II--District Level Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvernail, David L.; Stump, Erika K.; McCafferty, Anita Stewart; Hawes, Kathryn M.

    2014-01-01

    This report describes the findings from Phase II of a study of Maine's implementation of a proficiency-based diploma system. At the request of the Joint Standing Committee on Education and Cultural Affairs of the Maine Legislature, the Maine Policy Research Institute (MEPRI) has conducted a two-phased study of the implementation of Maine law…

  13. Cloning and sequence analysis of putative type II fatty acid synthase ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Prakash

    High-Tech Research Center, Shandong Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Key Laboratory for Genetic Improvement of. Crop, Animal and ... The cultivated peanut is a valuable source of dietary oil and ranks fifth among the world oil crops. Plant fatty .... the protocol of Stratagene s pBluescript II cDNA library construction kit.

  14. Meta-Analysis of the Factor Structures of the Beck Depression Inventory-II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chiungjung; Chen, Jyun-Hong

    2015-08-01

    Two meta-analyses examined the factor structure of the Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II). Study 1, which meta-analyzed 51 studies comprising 62 samples (N = 20,475) providing pattern matrices, determined that the two-factor solution comprising Cognitive and Somatic-Affective factors was supported for the full sample. The two-factor solution was also supported for subgroups of studies. As the factor structure varied somewhat between subgroups of studies, the strength of relationships between scale items and their underlying depressive symptoms varied. Hence, comparisons of mean BDI-II scores across subgroups can be misleading. Study 2 meta-analyzed 13 studies consisting of 16 samples (N = 5,128) providing covariance matrices among the 21 BDI-II items. The two-factor solution was again supported in Study 2. Nevertheless, the existence of a general depression factor was supported by the good fit of the one-factor model. © The Author(s) 2014.

  15. Adjoint sensitivity analysis of dynamic reliability models based on Markov chains - II: Application to IFMIF reliability assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cacuci, D. G.; Cacuci, D. G.; Balan, I.; Ionescu-Bujor, M.

    2008-01-01

    In Part II of this work, the adjoint sensitivity analysis procedure developed in Part I is applied to perform sensitivity analysis of several dynamic reliability models of systems of increasing complexity, culminating with the consideration of the International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility (IFMIF) accelerator system. Section II presents the main steps of a procedure for the automated generation of Markov chains for reliability analysis, including the abstraction of the physical system, construction of the Markov chain, and the generation and solution of the ensuing set of differential equations; all of these steps have been implemented in a stand-alone computer code system called QUEFT/MARKOMAG-S/MCADJSEN. This code system has been applied to sensitivity analysis of dynamic reliability measures for a paradigm '2-out-of-3' system comprising five components and also to a comprehensive dynamic reliability analysis of the IFMIF accelerator system facilities for the average availability and, respectively, the system's availability at the final mission time. The QUEFT/MARKOMAG-S/MCADJSEN has been used to efficiently compute sensitivities to 186 failure and repair rates characterizing components and subsystems of the first-level fault tree of the IFMIF accelerator system. (authors)

  16. The history of anatomy in Persia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoja, Mohammadali M; Tubbs, R Shane

    2007-01-01

    The study of human anatomy can be found throughout the rich history of Persia. For thousands of years, morphological descriptions derived from this part of the world have contributed to and have helped form our current anatomical knowledge base. In this article we review the major influential Persian periods and the individuals who have contributed to the development of anatomy. We have divided the history of Persia into five eras: (1) the period of the Elamites, Medes, early Persians and Babylonians (10th millennium to 6th century BC); (2) following the establishment of the Persian Empire (6th century BC) to the 7th century AD; (3) after the Islamic conquest of Persia to the ascendency of Baghdad (7th to 13th century AD); (4) from the Mongol invasion of Persia to the foundations of modern anatomy (13th to 18th century AD); and (5) modern Persia/Iran (18th century AD to present). Evidence indicates that human dissection was commonplace in the first era, which led to a disciplined practice of surgery in the centuries leading to the foundation of the Persian Empire. By the emergence of Zoroastrianism in the Persian Empire, the microcosm theory was widely used to understand internal anatomy in relation to the external universe. The world's first cosmopolitan university and hospital were built in Gondishapur, south-western Persia, in the third century AD. Greek and Syriac knowledge influenced the second era. With the gradual ruin of Gondishapur and the foundation of Baghdad following the Islamic conquest of Persia (637–651 AD), a great movement took place, which led to the flourishing of the so-called Middle Age or Islamic Golden Age. Of the influential anatomists of this period, Mesue (777–857 AD), Tabbari (838–870 AD), Rhazes (865–925 AD), Joveini (?−983 AD), Ali ibn Abbas (930–994 AD), Avicenna (980–1037 AD) and Jorjani (1042–1137 AD) all hailed from Persia. There is evidence in the Persian literature as to the direct involvement of these scholars in

  17. The history of anatomy in Persia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoja, Mohammadali M; Tubbs, R Shane

    2007-04-01

    The study of human anatomy can be found throughout the rich history of Persia. For thousands of years, morphological descriptions derived from this part of the world have contributed to and have helped form our current anatomical knowledge base. In this article we review the major influential Persian periods and the individuals who have contributed to the development of anatomy. We have divided the history of Persia into five eras: (1) the period of the Elamites, Medes, early Persians and Babylonians (10th millennium to 6th century BC); (2) following the establishment of the Persian Empire (6th century BC) to the 7th century AD; (3) after the Islamic conquest of Persia to the ascendency of Baghdad (7th to 13th century AD); (4) from the Mongol invasion of Persia to the foundations of modern anatomy (13th to 18th century AD); and (5) modern Persia/Iran (18th century AD to present). Evidence indicates that human dissection was commonplace in the first era, which led to a disciplined practice of surgery in the centuries leading to the foundation of the Persian Empire. By the emergence of Zoroastrianism in the Persian Empire, the microcosm theory was widely used to understand internal anatomy in relation to the external universe. The world's first cosmopolitan university and hospital were built in Gondishapur, south-western Persia, in the third century AD. Greek and Syriac knowledge influenced the second era. With the gradual ruin of Gondishapur and the foundation of Baghdad following the Islamic conquest of Persia (637-651 AD), a great movement took place, which led to the flourishing of the so-called Middle Age or Islamic Golden Age. Of the influential anatomists of this period, Mesue (777-857 AD), Tabbari (838-870 AD), Rhazes (865-925 AD), Joveini (?-983 AD), Ali ibn Abbas (930-994 AD), Avicenna (980-1037 AD) and Jorjani (1042-1137 AD) all hailed from Persia. There is evidence in the Persian literature as to the direct involvement of these scholars in human

  18. [Analysis of prognostic factors after radical resection in 628 patients with stage II or III colon cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Qiong; Yang, Lin; Zhou, Ai-ping; Sun, Yong-kun; Song, Yan; DU, Feng; Wang, Jin-wan

    2013-03-01

    To analyze the clinicopathologic factors related to recurrence and metastasis of stage II or III colon cancer after radical resection. The clinical and pathological data of 628 patients with stage II or III colon cancer after radical resection from Jan. 2005 to Dec. 2008 in our hospital were retrospectively reviewed and analyzed. The overall recurrence and metastasis rate was 28.5% (179/628). The 5-year disease-free survival (DFS) rate was 70.3% and 5-year overall survival (OS) rate was 78.5%. Univariate analysis showed that age, smoking intensity, depth of tumor invasion, lymph node metastasis, TNM stage, gross classification, histological differentiation, blood vessel tumor embolus, tumor gross pathology, multiple primary tumors, preoperative and postoperative serum concentration of CEA and CA19-9, and the regimen of adjuvant chemotherapy were correlated to recurrence and metastasis of colon cancer after radical resection. Multivariate analysis showed that regional lymph node metastasis, TNM stage, the regimen of postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy, and preoperative serum concentration of CEA and CA19-9 were independent factors affecting the prognosis of colon cancer patients. Regional lymph node metastasis, TNM stage, elevated preoperative serum concentration of CEA and CA19-9, the regimen of postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy with single fluorouracil type drug are independent risk factors of recurrence and metastasis in patients with stage II-III colon cancer after radical resection.

  19. Landscape Potential Analysis for Ecotourism Destination in the Resort Ii Salak Mountain, Halimun-Salak National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusumoarto, A.; Gunawan, A.; Nurazizah, G. R.

    2017-10-01

    The Resort II Salak Mountain has variety of landscape potential for created as ecotourism destination, especially the potential of the waterfall (curug) and sulphur crater (Kawah Ratu). The aim of this study was to identify and analyze the potential resources of the landscape to be created as ecotourism destination, Resort II Salak Mountain. This research was conducted through two phases: 1) identification of the attractions location that have potential resources for ecotourism destination, and 2) analysis of the level of potential resource of the landscape in each location using Analysis of Tourist Attraction Operational Destination (ATAOD). The study showed Resort II Salak Mountain has many ecotourism objects which have been used for ecotourism activities, such as hot spring baths, Curug Cigamea, Curug Ngumpet, Curug Seribu, Curug Pangeran, Curug Muara, Curug Cihurang, Kawah Ratu, camping ground, Curug Kondang and Curug Alami. The location of all waterfalls -curug, spread widely in the core zone for ecotourism. In the other hand, camping ground is located in the business zone, while Kawah Ratu is located in the natural forest, which is included in the buffer zone of Halimun-Salak National Park (HSNP). The result showed that the ecotourism objects with the highest potential value are Kawah Ratu, Curug Seribu, Curug Muara, Curug Kondang and Curug Ngumpet.

  20. Analysis of type II diabetes mellitus adipose-derived stem cells for tissue engineering applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minteer, Danielle Marie; Young, Matthew T; Lin, Yen-Chih; Over, Patrick J; Rubin, J Peter; Gerlach, Jorg C; Marra, Kacey G

    2015-01-01

    To address the functionality of diabetic adipose-derived stem cells in tissue engineering applications, adipose-derived stem cells isolated from patients with and without type II diabetes mellitus were cultured in bioreactor culture systems. The adipose-derived stem cells were differentiated into adipocytes and maintained as functional adipocytes. The bioreactor system utilizes a hollow fiber-based technology for three-dimensional perfusion of tissues in vitro, creating a model in which long-term culture of adipocytes is feasible, and providing a potential tool useful for drug discovery. Daily metabolic activity of the adipose-derived stem cells was analyzed within the medium recirculating throughout the bioreactor system. At experiment termination, tissues were extracted from bioreactors for immunohistological analyses in addition to gene and protein expression. Type II diabetic adipose-derived stem cells did not exhibit significantly different glucose consumption compared to adipose-derived stem cells from patients without type II diabetes (p > 0.05, N = 3). Expression of mature adipocyte genes was not significantly different between diabetic/non-diabetic groups (p > 0.05, N = 3). Protein expression of adipose tissue grown within all bioreactors was verified by Western blotting.The results from this small-scale study reveal adipose-derived stem cells from patients with type II diabetes when removed from diabetic environments behave metabolically similar to the same cells of non-diabetic patients when cultured in a three-dimensional perfusion bioreactor, suggesting that glucose transport across the adipocyte cell membrane, the hindrance of which being characteristic of type II diabetes, is dependent on environment. The presented observation describes a tissue-engineered tool for long-term cell culture and, following future adjustments to the culture environment and increased sample sizes, potentially for anti-diabetic drug testing.

  1. Anatomy studies for an artificial heart. Final summary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiraly, R.J.; Nose, Y.

    1977-12-01

    In the interval from February of 1972 through December of 1977, studies were conducted relating to the anatomical feasibility of implanting a total artificial heart system. These studies included both the calf as an experimental animal as well as the ultimate human recipient of the artificial heart system. Studies with the calf included definition of the thoracic anatomy relative to the size, shape, and vascular connections for implanting the blood pump. To test the animal's tolerance to an implanted engine system, mockups of the thermal converter were implanted chronically in various locations within the calf. No problems developed in retroperitoneal or intraperitoneal implants ranging from 8 to 15 months. A study to determine accelerations experienced by an abdominally implanted thermal converter was performed in calves. Under the most severe conditions, accelerations of a maximum of 34 Gs were experienced. The largest effort was devoted to defining the human anatomy relative to implanting an artificial heart in the thorax. From a number of data sources, including cadavers as well as living patients, a quantitative, statistical analysis of the size and shape of the male thorax was obtained. Finally, an in vivo study of a functional intrathoracic compliance bag in a calf demonstrated the feasibility of this method.

  2. Optical coherence tomography anatomy of the corneal endothelial transplantation wound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferré, Luis Alvarez; Nada, Ossama; Sherknies, Denis; Boisjoly, Hélène; Brunette, Isabelle

    2010-07-01

    The goal of this study was to prospectively assess the deep lamellar endothelial keratoplasty (DLEK) wound anatomy and its evolution during the 12 months after surgery, using optical coherence tomography (OCT). The eyes of 8 patients (1 eye per patient) who consecutively underwent DLEK for Fuchs dystrophy or pseudophakic bullous keratopathy were prospectively studied before and 1, 3, 6, and 12 months after surgery. The Stratus OCT apparatus (Carl Zeiss Meditec, Dublin, CA) was used to acquire central and radial scans perpendicular to the wound at 3-, 6-, 9-, and 12-o'clock positions. The following parameters were analyzed: central total thickness, posterior donor-recipient edges gap, donor-recipient height mismatch, tissue compression, and graft detachment. A posterior gap was observed in 4 of the 8 DLEK eyes. At 12 months, the mean gap contour, depth, and width were 242 +/- 67, 101 +/- 45, and 87 +/- 29 microm, respectively. A step was documented in all DLEK eyes (average step height 108 +/- 24 microm). A micrograft detachment was observed in one case and tissue compression in another. In all corneas, the mean central corneal thickness returned to normal range and almost normal anatomy with time after surgery. OCT was found to be a very useful tool for DLEK corneal wound architecture analysis. It revealed microscopic wound irregularities and allowed their quantitative follow-up with time.

  3. Anatomy studies for an artificial heart. Final summary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiraly, R.J.; Nose, Y.

    1977-12-01

    In the interval from February of 1972 through December of 1977, studies were conducted relating to the anatomical feasibility of implanting a total artificial heart system. These studies included both the calf as an experimental animal as well as the ultimate human recipient of the artificial heart system. Studies with the calf included definition of the thoracic anatomy relative to the size, shape, and vascular connections for implanting the blood pump. To test the animal's tolerance to an implanted engine system, mockups of the thermal converter were implanted chronically in various locations within the calf. No problems developed in retroperitoneal or intraperitoneal implants ranging from 8 to 15 months. A study to determine accelerations experienced by an abdominally implanted thermal converter was performed in calves. Under the most severe conditions, accelerations of a maximum of 34 Gs were experienced. The largest effort was devoted to defining the human anatomy relative to implanting an artificial heart in the thorax. From a number of data sources, including cadavers as well as living patients, a quantitative, statistical analysis of the size and shape of the male thorax was obtained. Finally, an in vivo study of a functional intrathoracic compliance bag in a calf demonstrated the feasibility of this method

  4. Quantitative Analysis of Proteome Modulations in Alveolar Epithelial Type II Cells in Response to PulmonaryAspergillus fumigatusInfection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seddigh, Pegah; Bracht, Thilo; Molinier-Frenkel, Válerie; Castellano, Flavia; Kniemeyer, Olaf; Schuster, Marc; Weski, Juliane; Hasenberg, Anja; Kraus, Andreas; Poschet, Gernot; Hager, Thomas; Theegarten, Dirk; Opitz, Christiane A; Brakhage, Axel A; Sitek, Barbara; Hasenberg, Mike; Gunzer, Matthias

    2017-12-01

    The ubiquitous mold Aspergillus fumigatus threatens immunosuppressed patients as inducer of lethal invasive aspergillosis. A. fumigatus conidia are airborne and reach the alveoli, where they encounter alveolar epithelial cells (AEC). Previous studies reported the importance of the surfactant-producing AEC II during A. fumigatus infection via in vitro experiments using cell lines. We established a negative isolation protocol yielding untouched primary murine AEC II with a purity >90%, allowing ex vivo analyses of the cells, which encountered the mold in vivo By label-free proteome analysis of AEC II isolated from mice 24h after A. fumigatus or mock infection we quantified 2256 proteins and found 154 proteins to be significantly differentially abundant between both groups (ANOVA p value ≤ 0.01, ratio of means ≥1.5 or ≤0.67, quantified with ≥2 peptides). Most of these proteins were higher abundant in the infected condition and reflected a comprehensive activation of AEC II on interaction with A. fumigatus This was especially represented by proteins related to oxidative phosphorylation, hence energy production. However, the most strongly induced protein was the l-amino acid oxidase (LAAO) Interleukin 4 induced 1 (IL4I1) with a 42.9 fold higher abundance (ANOVA p value 2.91 -10 ). IL4I1 has previously been found in B cells, macrophages, dendritic cells and rare neurons. Increased IL4I1 abundance in AEC II was confirmed by qPCR, Western blot and immunohistology. Furthermore, A. fumigatus infected lungs showed high levels of IL4I1 metabolic products. Importantly, higher IL4I1 abundance was also confirmed in lung tissue from human aspergilloma. Because LAAO are key enzymes for bactericidal product generation, AEC II might actively participate in pathogen defense. We provide insights into proteome changes of primary AEC II thereby opening new avenues to analyze the molecular changes of this central lung cell on infectious threats. Data are available via Proteome

  5. “Experience World War II like never before!” : A systematic content analysis of promotional materials surrounding World War II-themed digital games.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van den Heede, Pieter; Ribbens, Kees; Jeroen, Jansz

    2016-01-01

    Especially since the 1990s, World War II has been one of the most popular historical conflicts to be represented and simulated in digital games (Mobygames, 2016). Yet, in the current body of research about these games, mainly aspects of individual games or game types, such as the World War II-themed

  6. Use of emanation thermal analysis and evolved gas analysis in thermal study of zinc(II) benzoate complex compounds

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Findoráková, L.; Györyová, K.; Večerníková, Eva; Balek, V.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 98, č. 3 (2009), s. 765-769 ISSN 1388-6150 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40320502 Keywords : zinc(II) benzoate * caffeine * urea * thermogravimetry Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry Impact factor: 1.587, year: 2009

  7. High-Risk Prehospital Mechanisms in Tier II Trauma Codes: An Analysis of Under-Triage at a Level II Trauma Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozyr, Sergey; Ponce, Santa; Feramisco, Hope; Pakula, Andrea; Skinner, Ruby

    2017-10-01

    Under-triage is used as a surrogate for trauma quality. We sought to analyze factors that may impact under-triage at our institution by a detailed analysis of prehospital mechanisms and patient factors that were associated with the need for invasive intervention, intensive care unit monitoring, or death. Patients admitted to our Level II trauma center who met the criteria for under-triage using the Cribari method were studied, n = 160, and prominent mechanisms were motor vehicle collisions (MVCs). Patient demographics, detailed mechanism characteristics, ED vital signs, operative intervention, and outcomes were studied. The age of the study group and injury severity score were 42 ± 20 and 22 ± 6, respectively. Alcohol or drug use was common as were high-speed frontal collisions. Overall, 38 per cent of patients required surgery, and a monitored bed was required in 60 per cent of patients. Logistic regression identified drug use as predictive of mortality and MVC speeds ≥40 mph as predictive of intensive care unit admission. Patients requiring surgery had a high incidence of frontal collisions, 40 per cent. MVCs were predominant in under-triaged trauma patients. Operative intervention, intensive care unit monitoring, and deaths were associated with frontal impacts, high speeds, and drug use. Further study is warranted to assess the incorporation of high-risk injury patterns in triage algorithms aimed at enhancing trauma quality.

  8. Mercury bioaccumulation and bioaccumulation factors for Everglades mosquitofish as related to sulfate: a re-analysis of Julian II (2013).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollman, Curtis D; Axelrad, Donald M

    2014-11-01

    The Everglades, an ecosystem of international significance, has elevated biota mercury levels representing risk to human and wildlife consumers of fish. Given the critical role of sulfate in the methylation of mercury, and because there is a significant agricultural contribution, one potential means of reducing these mercury levels is reducing Everglades sulfate inputs. Julian II (Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 90:329-332, 2013) conducted regression modeling of the relationship between surface water sulfate concentrations and Gambusia spp. mercury bioconcentration factors across the major hydrologic subunits of the Everglades, and used those results to draw conclusions about the role of sulfate in the cycling of mercury in the Everglades. We however demonstrate a number of fundamental problems with the analysis, interpretation and conclusions. As a result, we strongly caution against using the results of Julian II (Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 90:329-332, 2013) to formulate management decisions regarding mitigation of the Everglades mercury problem.

  9. [New pedagogic methods in anatomy: experience at Cambridge University].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kluchova, D

    2000-01-01

    The expansion of knowledge in basic medical sciences is not linked to the time assigned for the teaching of anatomy to medical undergraduates. The question of "basic knowledge" in teaching anatomy during medical training arises as a need for education of future clinical doctors. Nowadays, two extreme views in teaching anatomy can be recognized: one adopted some pure anatomists who feel their existence threatened even by the idea of any reduction in their field, and one by some morphologists exclusively interested in cellular biology, who consider that classical anatomy is of no interest, since it has been exhausted as a field for research. An intermediate position is taken by some clinicians, who maintain that anatomy is indispensable but seek a severe reduction in the content to what they consider to be necessary. The above mentioned need for clinicians was reflected in recommendations of Education Committee of the General Medical Council (GMC) which in short, could be characterized by: the substantial reduction of factual information, the increase of student learning and the emphasis of clinically applied anatomy with its integration to the general medical education. GMC delegated the Department of Anatomy at the University of Cambridge by the developing of the new anatomy course. This new course was for the first time introduced in school year 1998-1999. In this study are presented ways and methods of undergraduate anatomy teaching at the University of Cambridge. These educational principles could serve as a model for teaching anatomy during its transformation in other medical faculties.

  10. Designing anatomy program in modern medical curriculum: matter of balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grković, Ivica; Marinović Guić, Maja; Kosta, Vana; Poljicanin, Ana; Carić, Ana; Vilović, Katarina

    2009-02-01

    To evaluate the structure of the anatomy program in the first year medical curriculum of University of Split School of Medicine by comparing it with the recommendations by the Educational Affairs Committee of the American Association of Clinical Anatomists (AACA) and the Terminologia Anatomica (TA); we also quantitatively evaluated the organization of teaching material in contemporary topographical anatomy textbooks and matched them with the AACA recommendations, TA, and the curriculum of the anatomy course taught at Medical School in Split, Croatia. TA, official recommendations of the AACA, 6 contemporary anatomy textbooks, and the structure of the anatomy course were analyzed for the proportion of the terms or text devoted to standard topographical regions of the body. The findings were correlated using Spearman rho test. The curriculum outline correlated both with the AACA recommendations (Spearman rho=0.83, P=0.015) and TA (Spearman rho=0.73, P=0.046). Textbooks contained 8 distinct sections, 7 allocated to topographic anatomy regions and 1 to general anatomy concepts and principles. The structure of all textbooks correlated significantly with the course curriculum. However, 4 out of 6 textbooks did not correlate with TA and only a single textbook showed significant correlation with the AACA recommendations. Anatomy textbooks vary in the amount of text dedicated to different parts of topographical anatomy and are not quite concordant with curriculum recommendations and standard anatomical terminology. Planning the structure of an anatomy course should not be based on a single book or recommendation but on evidence.

  11. Pocket atlas of MRI body anatomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berquist, T.H.; Ehman, R.L.; May, G.R.

    1987-01-01

    This book is a guide to the anatomy of extracranial organs as seen in magnetic resonance images. This collection of 96 magnetic resonance images, accompanied by explanatory line drawings, covers all the major organs of the body- shoulder and humerus; elbow and forearm; hand and wrist; chest; abdomen; pelvis; thigh; knee; calf; and ankle. The images are displayed in the axial, coronal, and sagittal planes, enabling radiologists to quickly review coronal and sagittal anatomy as it applies to routine MRI practice. Special emphasis is placed on the extremities, where spatial resolution, coronal and sagittal planes, and soft tissue contrast provide important anatomic detail. Each MRI image is carefully labeled - using numbers with legends at the top of the page - to highlight key anatomic features. Where applicable, special parameters and positioning are noted below the images. Accompanying each image is a line drawing demonstrating the level and plane of the image.

  12. Leaf anatomy of a late Palaeozoic cycad

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Yong; Guo, Yun; Wei, Hai-Bo

    2017-01-01

    Today, cycads are a small group of gymnospermous plants with a limited distribution in the (sub)tropics, but they were major constituents of Mesozoic floras. Fossil leaves sporadically found in latest Carboniferous and Permian floras have putatively been ascribed to cycads. However, their true affinity remains unclear due to the lack of anatomical evidence. Virtually all modern cycads have pinnate leaves, but this type of leaf morphology is by no means unique for cycads. Pinnate leaves of Plagiozamites oblongifolius Halle 1927 with well-preserved cuticles showing the epidermal anatomy are here described from the upper Permian Xuanwei Formation of Yunnan Province, Southwest China. The cuticles show a clear differentiation into costal and intercostal zones; stomata are confined to the intercostal zones on both the upper and lower leaf surfaces. The external morphology and the epidermal anatomy of these fossil leaves are closely comparable with those of extant cycads, particularly members of the family Zamiaceae. PMID:29093177

  13. [Surgery and anatomy in the Renaissance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero-y Huesca, Andrés; Ramírez-Bollas, Julio; Ponce-Landín, Francisco Javier; Moreno-Rojas, Juan Carlos; Soto-Miranda, Miguel Angel

    2005-01-01

    The interest in the physical perfection and the corporal forms brings as a result the creation of new anatomical studies. The anatomical knowledge progressed in the second half of the XV century, conceiving the knowledge of the human body as a basic reality of Medicine. One of the greater contributions of the Italian Universities to medicine was the teaching of anatomy. The Universities of Padua, Bologna, and Pisa educated in their classrooms great physicians like Andres Vesalio, Gabriel Fallopio, Realdo Colombo, Mondino de Luzzi, Julio Ceasar Aranzio, and Gaspare Tagliacozzi, among others. The teaching of anatomy during the Renaissance was characterized by the development of dissection techniques and autopsy practice, which was recognized as an extremely valuable skill for anatomical study. The dissections were made in circular amphitheatres in the following way: a Medicine professor read the text book, another one made the dissection, and a third one indicated the structures referred.

  14. Leaf anatomy of a late Palaeozoic cycad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Zhuo; Lv, Yong; Guo, Yun; Wei, Hai-Bo; Kerp, Hans

    2017-11-01

    Today, cycads are a small group of gymnospermous plants with a limited distribution in the (sub)tropics, but they were major constituents of Mesozoic floras. Fossil leaves sporadically found in latest Carboniferous and Permian floras have putatively been ascribed to cycads. However, their true affinity remains unclear due to the lack of anatomical evidence. Virtually all modern cycads have pinnate leaves, but this type of leaf morphology is by no means unique for cycads. Pinnate leaves of Plagiozamites oblongifolius Halle 1927 with well-preserved cuticles showing the epidermal anatomy are here described from the upper Permian Xuanwei Formation of Yunnan Province, Southwest China. The cuticles show a clear differentiation into costal and intercostal zones; stomata are confined to the intercostal zones on both the upper and lower leaf surfaces. The external morphology and the epidermal anatomy of these fossil leaves are closely comparable with those of extant cycads, particularly members of the family Zamiaceae. © 2017 The Authors.

  15. Fetal anatomy revealed with fast MR sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, D; Hatabu, H; Gaa, J; Atkinson, M W; Edelman, R R

    1996-10-01

    Although all the imaging studies in this pictorial essay were done for maternal rather than fetal indications, fetal anatomy was well visualized. However, when scans are undertaken for fetal indications, fetal motion in between scout views and imaging sequences may make specific image planes difficult to obtain. Of the different techniques described in this review, we preferred the HASTE technique and use it almost exclusively for scanning pregnant patients. The T2-weighting is ideal for delineating fetal organs. Also, the HASTE technique allows images to be obtained in 430 msec, limiting artifacts arising from maternal and fetal motion. MR imaging should play a more important role in evaluating equivocal sonographic cases as fast scanning techniques are more widely used. Obstetric MR imaging no longer will be limited by fetal motion artifacts. When complex anatomy requires definition in a complicated pregnant patient, MR imaging should be considered as a useful adjunct to sonography.

  16. Alterations in physiology and anatomy during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Eng Kien; Tan, Eng Loy

    2013-12-01

    Pregnant women undergo profound anatomical and physiological changes so that they can cope with the increased physical and metabolic demands of their pregnancies. The cardiovascular, respiratory, haematological, renal, gastrointestinal and endocrine systems all undergo important physiological alterations and adaptations needed to allow development of the fetus and to allow the mother and fetus to survive the demands of childbirth. Such alterations in anatomy and physiology may cause difficulties in interpreting signs, symptoms, and biochemical investigations, making the clinical assessment of a pregnant woman inevitably confusing but challenging. Understanding these changes is important for every practicing obstetrician, as the pathological deviations from the normal physiological alterations may not be clear-cut until an adverse outcome has resulted. Only with a sound knowledge of the physiology and anatomy changes can the care of an obstetric parturient be safely optimized for a better maternal and fetal outcome. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Aerial organ anatomy of Smilax syphilitica (Smilacaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Marcelo Silva

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Smilax L. in Brazil is represented by 32 taxa and it is a taxonomically difficult genus because the plants are dioecious and show wide phenotypic variation. The analysis and use of leaf anatomy characters is recognized as a frequently successful taxonomic method to distinguish between individual taxon, when floral material is absent or minute differences in flowers and foliage exist such as in Smilax. The aim of this study was to characterize the anatomical features of the aerial organs in Smilax syphilitica collected from the Atlantic Rainforest, in Santa Teresa-ES and the Smilax aff. syphilitica from the Amazon Rainforest, in Manaus, Brazil. For this, a total of three samples of Smilax were collected per site. Sample leaves and stems were fixed with FAA 50, embedded in historesin, sectioned on a rotary microtome, stained and mounted in synthetic resin. Additionally, histochemical tests were performed and cuticle ornamentation was analyzed with standard scanning electron microscopy. S. syphilitica and S. aff. syphilitica differed in cuticle ornamentation, epidermal cell arrangement and wall thickness, stomata type and orientation, calcium oxalate crystal type, and position of stem thorns. Leaf blades of S. syphilitica from the Amazon Rainforest have a network of rounded ridges on both sides, while in S. aff. syphilitica, these ridges are parallel and the spaces between them are filled with numerous membranous platelets. Viewed from the front, the epidermal cells of S. syphilitica have sinuous walls (even more pronounced in samples from the Amazon; while in S. aff. syphilitica, these cells are also sinuous but elongated in the cross-section of the blade and arranged in parallel. Stomata of S. syphilitica are paracytic, whereas in S. aff. syphilitica, are both paracytic and anisocytic, and their polar axes are directed towards the mid-vein. Calcium oxalate crystals in S. syphilitica are prisms, whereas in S. aff. syphilitica, crystal sand. Thorns

  18. Synthesis, structure and photoluminescence of (PLAGH)2[ZnCl4] and comparative analysis of photoluminescence properties with tris(2,2′-bipyridine)ruthenium(II)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radanović, Mirjana M.; Jelić, Miodrag G.; Romčević, Nebojša Ž.; Boukos, Nikos; Vojinović-Ješić, Ljiljana S.; Leovac, Vukadin M.; Hadžić, Branka B.; Bajac, Branimir M.; Nađ, Laslo F.; Chandrinou, Chrysoula; Baloš, Sebastian S.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • New zinc(II) complex with pyridoxalaminoguanidine was synthesized. • The enhancement of the photoluminescence due to the compound formation was achieved. • Very high photoluminescence of Zn(II) compound was noticed. • Comparative analysis of photoluminescence with tris(2,2′-bipyridine) ruthenium(II) was provided. - Abstract: The first compound of zinc(II) containing pyridoxalaminoguanidine has been synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, infrared spectra, conductometric measurements and X-ray crystallography. Single crystals of the compound were obtained in the reaction of methanolic solution of zinc(II) chloride and pyridoxalaminoguanidine hydrochloride. In this compound the coordination of chelate ligand is absent and tetrachlorido complex of zinc(II) with pyridoxalaminuguanidinium cation as contraion is obtained. Photoluminescence spectra were measured. Lorentzian multipeak technique was used to determine peak wavelengths and their intensities. Photoluminescence spectroscopy upon 325, 488 and 514 nm laser excitation light was used to obtain results. This novel compound of zinc(II) was compared to the well-known organic light emitting diode material—ruthenium(II) complex with bypiridine i.e., tris(2,2′-bipyridine)ruthenium(II), under the same circumstances and the identical experimental setup. A scheme of energy levels and transitions is proposed to explain the obtained experimental results

  19. Clinical anatomy of the subserous layer: An amalgamation of gross and clinical anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yabuki, Yoshihiko

    2016-05-01

    The 1998 edition of Terminologia Anatomica introduced some currently used clinical anatomical terms for the pelvic connective tissue or subserous layer. These innovations persuaded the present author to consider a format in which the clinical anatomical terms could be reconciled with those of gross anatomy and incorporated into a single anatomical glossary without contradiction or ambiguity. Specific studies on the subserous layer were undertaken on 79 Japanese women who had undergone surgery for uterine cervical cancer, and on 26 female cadavers that were dissected, 17 being formalin-fixed and 9 fresh. The results were as follows: (a) the subserous layer could be segmentalized by surgical dissection in the perpendicular, horizontal and sagittal planes; (b) the segmentalized subserous layer corresponded to 12 cubes, or ligaments, of minimal dimension that enabled the pelvic organs to be extirpated; (c) each ligament had a three-dimensional (3D) structure comprising craniocaudal, mediolateral, and dorsoventral directions vis-á-vis the pelvic axis; (d) these 3D-structured ligaments were encoded morphologically in order of decreasing length; and (e) using these codes, all the surgical procedures for 19th century to present-day radical hysterectomy could be expressed symbolically. The establishment of clinical anatomical terms, represented symbolically through coding as demonstrated in this article, could provide common ground for amalgamating clinical anatomy with gross anatomy. Consequently, terms in clinical anatomy and gross anatomy could be reconciled and compiled into a single anatomical glossary. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Complementing anatomy education using three-dimensional anatomy mobile software applications on tablet computers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, T L; Burnett, B; Tunstall, R G; Abrahams, P H

    2014-04-01

    Anatomy has traditionally been a cornerstone of medical education, which has been taught via dissection and didactic lectures. The rising prevalence of mobile tablet technology means medical software applications ("apps") play an increasingly important role in medical education. The applications highlighted in this article will aid anatomical educators to identify which are the most useful in clinical, academic, and educational environments. These have been systematically identified by downloading all applications with keywords related to anatomy and then carrying out qualitative assessment. Novel anatomy applications from developers such as Visible Body, 3D4Medical, and Pocket Anatomy allow students to visualize and manipulate complex anatomical structures using detailed 3D models. They often contain additional content including clinical correlations and a range of media from instructional videos to interactive quiz functions. The strength of tablet technology lies in its ability to consolidate and present anatomical information to the user in the most appropriate manner for their learning style. The only question mark remains over the level of detail and accuracy of these applications. Innovative medical educators who embrace tablet technology will find that anatomy applications serve as a useful learning tool when used in conjunction with existing teaching setups. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.