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Sample records for anatomy human

  1. ZBrush Digital Sculpting Human Anatomy

    CERN Document Server

    Spencer, Scott

    2010-01-01

    Taking into account that many of today?s digital artists?particularly 3D character animators?lack foundational artistic instruction, this book teaches anatomy in a coherent and succinct style. A clear writing style explains how to sculpt an accurate human figure, starting with the skeleton and working out to muscle, fat, and skin. Insightful explanations enable you to quickly and easily create and design characters that can be used in film, game, or print, and allows you to gain a strong understanding of the foundational artistic concepts.

  2. Design Projects in Human Anatomy & Physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polizzotto, Kristin; Ortiz, Mary T.

    2008-01-01

    Very often, some type of writing assignment is required in college entry-level Human Anatomy and Physiology courses. This assignment can be anything from an essay to a research paper on the literature, focusing on a faculty-approved topic of interest to the student. As educators who teach Human Anatomy and Physiology at an urban community college,…

  3. Anatomy, Medical Education, and Human Ancestral Variation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strkalj, Goran; Spocter, Muhammad A.; Wilkinson, A. Tracey

    2011-01-01

    It is argued in this article that the human body both in health and disease cannot be fully understood without adequately accounting for the different levels of human variation. The article focuses on variation due to ancestry, arguing that the inclusion of information pertaining to ancestry in human anatomy teaching materials and courses should…

  4. Ontology-enriched Visualization of Human Anatomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pouchard, LC

    2005-12-20

    The project focuses on the problem of presenting a human anatomical 3D model associated with other types of human systemic information ranging from physiological to anatomical information while navigating the 3D model. We propose a solution that integrates a visual 3D interface and navigation features with the display of structured information contained in an ontology of anatomy where the structures of the human body are formally and semantically linked. The displayed and annotated anatomy serves as a visual entry point into a patient's anatomy, medical indicators and other information. The ontology of medical information provides labeling to the highlighted anatomical parts in the 3D display. Because of the logical organization and links between anatomical objects found in the ontology and associated 3D model, the analysis of a structure by a physician is greatly enhanced. Navigation within the 3D visualization and between this visualization and objects representing anatomical concepts within the model is also featured.

  5. A Syllabus for Biol 242--Human Anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Willis H.

    This document is the fall and spring semester course syllabus of Biology 242--Human Anatomy at Southern University (Louisiana). Sections include: (1) Descriptive Information; (2) Specification of Course Goals and Objectives; (3) Readings; (4) Description of Instructional Procedures; (5) Course Requirements; (6) Course Schedule; (7) Evaluation of…

  6. Two-Year Community: Human Anatomy Software Use in Traditional and Online Anatomy Laboratory Classes: Student-Perceived Learning Benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuyatt, Brian L.; Baker, Jason D.

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluates the effectiveness of human anatomy software in face-to-face and online anatomy laboratory classes. Cognitive, affective, and psychomotor perceived learning was measured for students using Pearson Education's Practice Anatomy Laboratory 2.0 software. This study determined that student-perceived learning was significantly…

  7. CPR Instruction in a Human Anatomy Class.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutton, Lewis M.

    1978-01-01

    Describes how cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) instruction can be included in a college anatomy and physiology course. Equipment and instructors are provided locally by the Red Cross or American Heart Association. (MA)

  8. An imaging atlas of human anatomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The atlas presents pictures obtained by the various imaging techniques, showing the normal anatomy of the various body regions in healthy adults. The pictures are the major information given, accompanying texts are reduced to captions giving the Latin names of important anatomic details or a brief introduction each to the fundamental characteristics of the imaging methods used, as e.g. angiography, computerized tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and ultrasonography. The atlas is a key source of reference and a guide in interpreting radiographs. The material is arranged in chapters according to the body regions of interest: Head, neck, brain; spine and spinal cord; upper extremities; thorax; abdomen; pelvis; lower extremities. (UWA)

  9. Anatomy of the Human Ear/Questions to Ask Your Hearing Professional

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Issue Past Issues Special Section: Focus on Communication Anatomy of the Human Ear/ Questions to Ask your ... Focus on Communication" Articles Living with Hearing Loss / Anatomy of the Human Ear/Questions to Ask your ...

  10. Visualization Cardiac Human Anatomy using Augmented Reality Mobile Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al Hamidy Hazidar

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Augmented Reality (AR is currently widely researched and rapidly evolving. This technology supplements the real world with composite 3D virtual objects that are integrated into the real world. This technology is very interesting and interactive. Augmented reality and Smartphone used as well as the interactive media and rarely used as a medium for the introduction of the human bodies. The aim of Cardiac Learning Detection (CLD assists students in the medical field in understanding the concepts of learning materials presented interactively by the system, especially cardiac anatomy human bodies and is able to provide more information than delivered through conventional teaching methods. For this reason, in this research were made augmented reality on visual technique as a medium to introduce the cardiac anatomy human

  11. Magnetic resonance and the human brain: anatomy, function and metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talos, I-F; Mian, A Z; Zou, K H; Hsu, L; Goldberg-Zimring, D; Haker, S; Bhagwat, J G; Mulkern, R V

    2006-05-01

    The introduction and development, over the last three decades, of magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and MR spectroscopy technology for in vivo studies of the human brain represents a truly remarkable achievement, with enormous scientific and clinical ramifications. These effectively non-invasive techniques allow for studies of the anatomy, the function and the metabolism of the living human brain. They have allowed for new understandings of how the healthy brain works and have provided insights into the mechanisms underlying multiple disease processes which affect the brain. Different MR techniques have been developed for studying anatomy, function and metabolism. The primary focus of this review is to describe these different methodologies and to briefly review how they are being employed to more fully appreciate the intricacies associated with the organ, which most distinctly differentiates the human species from the other animal forms on earth. PMID:16568243

  12. Assessment outcomes: computerized instruction in a human gross anatomy course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukowski, Elaine L

    2002-01-01

    New and traditional educational media were used to study alternative methods of instruction in a human gross anatomy course. Three consecutive entry-level physical therapy (PT) classes (55 students total) participated in this study. No other anatomy course was available to these students during this time. During the first year, all entering PT students (n = 18) completed a traditional cadaver anatomy course. This traditional group attended weekly lectures and dissection laboratories for 15 weeks. During the second year, the next entering class of PT students (n = 17) completed a self-study, computerized noncadaver anatomy course. This self-study group attended an introductory session to receive course objectives and instruction in using the computer package chosen for the study. After the introductory session, this group worked independently for the remainder of their 15-week course. During the third year, the entering class of PT students (n = 20) attended weekly lectures and completed a self-study, computerized non-cadaver laboratory course. This lecture and self-study group attended an introductory session to review course objectives and receive instruction in using the computer package. For the remainder of their 15-week course, this group attended a weekly lecture and worked independently on the computer for the laboratory portion of their course. All groups kept time logs, recording class and study time for each day of the course. The time logs were collected on the last day of each course. Each group's performance in anatomy-based system courses was followed through the remainder of the PT curricula, including clinical rotations, and through the completion of the state board licensure examination. Data were analyzed using a multivariate analysis of variance and a Kruskal-Wallis analysis of variance. There was no significant difference in anatomy course class means, class study times, performance throughout the remainder of the PT curricula, and performance

  13. OntoAna: Domain Ontology for Human Anatomy

    OpenAIRE

    Vashisth, Archana; Mathur, Iti; Joshi, Nisheeth

    2012-01-01

    Today, we can find many search engines which provide us with information which is more operational in nature. None of the search engines provide domain specific information. This becomes very troublesome to a novice user who wishes to have information in a particular domain. In this paper, we have developed an ontology which can be used by a domain specific search engine. We have developed an ontology on human anatomy, which captures information regarding cardiovascular system, digestive syst...

  14. On the anatomy of human hacking

    OpenAIRE

    Okenyi, P O; Owens, T.J.

    2007-01-01

    Human hacking is a nontechnical kind of intrusion that relies heavily on human manipulation. Its impact is continuously giving serious concern in the Information technology arena which has often been undermined due to the ease with which this technique is widely used to infiltrate networks through unsuspecting individuals that are undeniably considered the "weakest link" in the security circle. Security awareness that brings about behavioral change, reduces employees' vulnerability, and prote...

  15. A transcriptome anatomy of human colorectal cancers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Accumulating databases in human genome research have enabled integrated genome-wide study on complicated diseases such as cancers. A practical approach is to mine a global transcriptome profile of disease from public database. New concepts of these diseases might emerge by landscaping this profile. In this study, we clustered human colorectal normal mucosa (N), inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), adenoma (A) and cancer (T) related expression sequence tags (EST) into UniGenes via an in-house GetUni software package and analyzed the transcriptome overview of these libraries by GOTree Machine (GOTM). Additionally, we downloaded UniGene based cDNA libraries of colon and analyzed them by Xprofiler to cross validate the efficiency of GetUni. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR was used to validate the expression of β-catenin and. 7 novel genes in colorectal cancers. The efficiency of GetUni was successfully validated by Xprofiler and RT-PCR. Genes in library N, IBD and A were all found in library T. A total of 14,879 genes were identified with 2,355 of them having at least 2 transcripts. Differences in gene enrichment among these libraries were statistically significant in 50 signal transduction pathways and Pfam protein domains by GOTM analysis P < 0.01 Hypergeometric Test). Genes in two metabolic pathways, ribosome and glycolysis, were more enriched in the expression profiles of A and IBD than in N and T. Seven transmembrane receptor superfamily genes were typically abundant in cancers. Colorectal cancers are genetically heterogeneous. Transcription variants are common in them. Aberrations of ribosome and glycolysis pathway might be early indicators of precursor lesions in colon cancers. The electronic gene expression profile could be used to highlight the integral molecular events in colorectal cancers

  16. Accuracy of stereolithographic models of human anatomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study was undertaken to determine the dimensional accuracy of anatomical replicas derived from X-ray 3D computed tomography (CT) images and produced using the rapid prototyping technique of stereolithography (SLA). A dry bone skull and geometric phantom were scanned, and replicas were produced. Distance measurements were obtained to compare the original objects and the resulting replicas. Repeated measurements between anatomical landmarks were used for comparison of the original skull and replica. Results for the geometric phantom demonstrate a mean difference of +0.47mm, representing an accuracy of 97.7-99.12%. Measurements of the skull produced a range of absolute differences (maximum +4.62mm, minimum +0.1mm, mean +0.85mm). These results support the use of SLA models of human anatomical structures in such areas as pre-operative planning of complex surgical procedures. For applications where higher accuracy is required, improvements can be expected by utilizing smaller pixel resolution in the CT images. Stereolithographic models can now be confidently employed as accurate, three-dimensional replicas of complex, anatomical structures. 14 refs., 2 tabs., 8 figs

  17. Functional Anatomy of the Human Microprocessor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Tuan Anh; Jo, Myung Hyun; Choi, Yeon-Gil; Park, Joha; Kwon, S Chul; Hohng, Sungchul; Kim, V Narry; Woo, Jae-Sung

    2015-06-01

    MicroRNA (miRNA) maturation is initiated by Microprocessor composed of RNase III DROSHA and its cofactor DGCR8, whose fidelity is critical for generation of functional miRNAs. To understand how Microprocessor recognizes pri-miRNAs, we here reconstitute human Microprocessor with purified recombinant proteins. We find that Microprocessor is an ∼364 kDa heterotrimeric complex of one DROSHA and two DGCR8 molecules. Together with a 23-amino acid peptide from DGCR8, DROSHA constitutes a minimal functional core. DROSHA serves as a "ruler" by measuring 11 bp from the basal ssRNA-dsRNA junction. DGCR8 interacts with the stem and apical elements through its dsRNA-binding domains and RNA-binding heme domain, respectively, allowing efficient and accurate processing. DROSHA and DGCR8, respectively, recognize the basal UG and apical UGU motifs, which ensure proper orientation of the complex. These findings clarify controversies over the action mechanism of DROSHA and allow us to build a general model for pri-miRNA processing.

  18. Anatomy and Humanity: Examining the Effects of a Short Documentary Film and First Anatomy Laboratory Experience on Medical Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dosani, Farah; Neuberger, Lindsay

    2016-01-01

    Medical students begin their education inside a laboratory dissecting cadavers to learn human gross anatomy. Many schools use the course experience as a way to instill empathy and some have begun integrating video and recorded interviews with body donors to humanize the experience, but their impact has yet to be measured. This study examines the…

  19. Virtual Reality Anatomy: Is It Comparable with Traditional Methods in the Teaching of Human Forearm Musculoskeletal Anatomy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Codd, Anthony M.; Choudhury, Bipasha

    2011-01-01

    The use of cadavers to teach anatomy is well established, but limitations with this approach have led to the introduction of alternative teaching methods. One such method is the use of three-dimensional virtual reality computer models. An interactive, three-dimensional computer model of human forearm anterior compartment musculoskeletal anatomy…

  20. Heart Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Incredible Machine Bonus poster (PDF) The Human Heart Anatomy Blood The Conduction System The Coronary Arteries The ... of the Leg Vasculature of the Torso Heart anatomy illustrations and animations for grades K-6. Heart ...

  1. Comparison of Cervical Spine Anatomy in Calves, Pigs and Humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun-Ren Sheng

    Full Text Available Animals are commonly used to model the human spine for in vitro and in vivo experiments. Many studies have investigated similarities and differences between animals and humans in the lumbar and thoracic vertebrae. However, a quantitative anatomic comparison of calf, pig, and human cervical spines has not been reported.To compare fundamental structural similarities and differences in vertebral bodies from the cervical spines of commonly used experimental animal models and humans.Anatomical morphometric analysis was performed on cervical vertebra specimens harvested from humans and two common large animals (i.e., calves and pigs.Multiple morphometric parameters were directly measured from cervical spine specimens of twelve pigs, twelve calves and twelve human adult cadavers. The following anatomical parameters were measured: vertebral body width (VBW, vertebral body depth (VBD, vertebral body height (VBH, spinal canal width (SCW, spinal canal depth (SCD, pedicle width (PW, pedicle depth (PD, pedicle inclination (PI, dens width (DW, dens depth (DD, total vertebral width (TVW, and total vertebral depth (TVD.The atlantoaxial (C1-2 joint in pigs is similar to that in humans and could serve as a human substitute. The pig cervical spine is highly similar to the human cervical spine, except for two large transverse processes in the anterior regions ofC4-C6. The width and depth of the calf odontoid process were larger than those in humans. VBW and VBD of calf cervical vertebrae were larger than those in humans, but the spinal canal was smaller. Calf C7 was relatively similar to human C7, thus, it may be a good substitute.Pig cervical vertebrae were more suitable human substitutions than calf cervical vertebrae, especially with respect to C1, C2, and C7. The biomechanical properties of nerve vascular anatomy and various segment functions in pig and calf cervical vertebrae must be considered when selecting an animal model for research on the spine.

  2. PAL(TM) 2.0 Human Anatomy Software Tool Use in Community College Traditional and Online Anatomy Laboratory Classes: Student-Perceived Learning Benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuyatt, Brian Lee

    2012-01-01

    Human anatomy courses, with laboratory, are curricular requirements in graduate medical, undergraduate nursing, and all allied health science programs. Anatomy laboratory courses engage students in hands-on activities, including human cadaver or mammalian dissection, supported by photos from textbooks, detailed plastic models or human anatomical…

  3. Student Perceptions of an Upper-Level, Undergraduate Human Anatomy Laboratory Course without Cadavers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Shirley J.

    2012-01-01

    Several programs in health professional education require or are considering requiring upper-level human anatomy as prerequisite for their applicants. Undergraduate students are confronted with few institutions offering such a course, in part because of the expense and logistical issues associated with a cadaver-based human anatomy course. This…

  4. Human Cadavers vs. Multimedia Simulation: A Study of Student Learning in Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saltarelli, Andrew J.; Roseth, Cary J.; Saltarelli, William A.

    2014-01-01

    Multimedia and simulation programs are increasingly being used for anatomy instruction, yet it remains unclear how learning with these technologies compares with learning with actual human cadavers. Using a multilevel, quasi-experimental-control design, this study compared the effects of "Anatomy and Physiology Revealed" (APR) multimedia…

  5. Human Anatomy: Let the Students Tell Us How to Teach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Christopher R.; Bates, Anthony S.; Ellis, Harold; Roberts, Alice M.

    2014-01-01

    Anatomy teaching methods have evolved as the medical undergraduate curriculum has modernized. Traditional teaching methods of dissection, prosection, tutorials and lectures are now supplemented by anatomical models and e-learning. Despite these changes, the preferences of medical students and anatomy faculty towards both traditional and…

  6. Anatomy of the Human Subthalamic Nucleus: A Combined Morphometric Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioannis Mavridis

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Our purpose was to provide a combined clinically oriented study focused on the detailed anatomy of the human STN, with great respect to its targeting. Methods. For our imaging study, we used cerebral magnetic resonance images (MRIs from 26 neurosurgical patients and for our anatomic study 32 cerebral hemispheres from 18 normal brains from cadaver donors. We measured and analyzed the STN dimensions (based on its stereotactic coordinates. Results. At stereotactic level Z=-4, the STN length was 7.7 mm on MRIs and 8.1 mm in anatomic specimens. Its width was 6 mm on MRIs and 6.3 mm in anatomic specimens. The STN was averagely visible in 3.2 transverse MRI slices and its maximum dimension was 8.5 mm. The intercommissural distance was 26.3 mm on MRIs and 27.3 mm in anatomic specimens. We found statistically significant difference of the STN width and length between individuals <60 and ≥60 years old. Conclusion. The identification of the STN limits was easier in anatomic specimens than on MRIs and easier on T2 compared to T1-weighted MRIs sections. STN dimensions appear slightly smaller on MRIs. Younger people have wider and longer STN.

  7. Human anatomy: let the students tell us how to teach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Christopher R; Bates, Anthony S; Ellis, Harold; Roberts, Alice M

    2014-01-01

    Anatomy teaching methods have evolved as the medical undergraduate curriculum has modernized. Traditional teaching methods of dissection, prosection, tutorials and lectures are now supplemented by anatomical models and e-learning. Despite these changes, the preferences of medical students and anatomy faculty towards both traditional and contemporary teaching methods and tools are largely unknown. This study quantified medical student and anatomy faculty opinion on various aspects of anatomical teaching at the Department of Anatomy, University of Bristol, UK. A questionnaire was used to explore the perceived effectiveness of different anatomical teaching methods and tools among anatomy faculty (AF) and medical students in year one (Y1) and year two (Y2). A total of 370 preclinical medical students entered the study (76% response rate). Responses were quantified and intergroup comparisons were made. All students and AF were strongly in favor of access to cadaveric specimens and supported traditional methods of small-group teaching with medically qualified demonstrators. Other teaching methods, including e-learning, anatomical models and surgical videos, were considered useful educational tools. In several areas there was disharmony between the opinions of AF and medical students. This study emphasizes the importance of collecting student preferences to optimize teaching methods used in the undergraduate anatomy curriculum. PMID:24249485

  8. Practical session assessments in human anatomy: Weightings and performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Aaron C; Chan, Siew-Pang; Schuijers, Johannes A

    2016-07-01

    Assessment weighting within a given module can be a motivating factor for students when deciding on their commitment level and time given to study a specific topic. In this study, an analysis of assessment performances of second year anatomy students was performed over four years to determine if (1) students performed better when a higher weighting was given to a set of practical session assessments and (2) whether an improved performance in the practical session assessments had a carry-over effect on other assessment tasks within that anatomy module and/or other anatomy modules that follow. Results showed that increasing the weighting of practical session assessments improved the average mark in that assessment and also improved the percentage of students passing that assessment. Further, it significantly improved performance in the written end-semester examination within the same module and had a carry-over effect on the anatomy module taught in the next teaching period, as students performed better in subsequent practical session assessments as well as subsequent end-semester examinations. It was concluded that the weighting of assessments had significant influences on a student's performance in that, and subsequent, assessments. It is postulated that practical session assessments, designed to develop deep learning skills in anatomy, improved efficacy in student performance in assessments undertaken in that and subsequent anatomy modules when the weighting of these assessments was greater. These deep learning skills were also transferable to other methods of assessing anatomy. Anat Sci Educ 9: 330-336. © 2015 American Association of Anatomists. PMID:26580309

  9. Idea of integrating fitness concepts and methods into human anatomy teaching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PAN Guojian

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available According to the author′s many years of experience and practice in teaching human anatomy,it is summed up that an idea of integrating fitness concepts and methods into teaching of human anatomy is envisaged.It is beneficial to the cultivation of undergraduates majoring in sports about thoughts of lifelong physical education,enable students to master the basic structure based on human body and learn and master physical fitness related basic theory and practical operation skills in order to be social competitive sports workers with practical skills.

  10. The development, assessment and validation of virtual reality for human anatomy instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Karen Benn

    1996-01-01

    This research project seeks to meet the objective of science training by developing, assessing, validating and utilizing VR as a human anatomy training medium. Current anatomy instruction is primarily in the form of lectures and usage of textbooks. In ideal situations, anatomic models, computer-based instruction, and cadaver dissection are utilized to augment traditional methods of instruction. At many institutions, lack of financial resources limits anatomy instruction to textbooks and lectures. However, human anatomy is three-dimensional, unlike the one-dimensional depiction found in textbooks and the two-dimensional depiction found on the computer. Virtual reality allows one to step through the computer screen into a 3-D artificial world. The primary objective of this project is to produce a virtual reality application of the abdominopelvic region of a human cadaver that can be taken back to the classroom. The hypothesis is that an immersive learning environment affords quicker anatomic recognition and orientation and a greater level of retention in human anatomy instruction. The goal is to augment not replace traditional modes of instruction.

  11. The visible human and digital anatomy learning initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dev, Parvati; Senger, Steven

    2005-01-01

    A collaborative initiative is starting within the Internet2 Health Science community to explore the development of a framework for providing access to digital anatomical teaching resources over Internet2. This is a cross-cutting initiative with broad applicability and will require the involvement of a diverse collection of communities. It will seize an opportunity created by a convergence of needs and technical capabilities to identify the technologies and standards needed to support a sophisticated collection of tools for teaching anatomy.

  12. Audiovisual Material as Educational Innovation Strategy to Reduce Anxiety Response in Students of Human Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casado, Maria Isabel; Castano, Gloria; Arraez-Aybar, Luis Alfonso

    2012-01-01

    This study presents the design, effect and utility of using audiovisual material containing real images of dissected human cadavers as an innovative educational strategy (IES) in the teaching of Human Anatomy. The goal is to familiarize students with the practice of dissection and to transmit the importance and necessity of this discipline, while…

  13. Human tooth pulp anatomy visualization by 3D magnetic resonance microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Precise assessment of dental pulp anatomy is of an extreme importance for a successful endodontic treatment. As standard radiographs of teeth provide very limited information on dental pulp anatomy, more capable methods are highly appreciated. One of these is 3D magnetic resonance (MR) microscopy of which diagnostic capabilities in terms of a better dental pulp anatomy assessment were evaluated in the study. Twenty extracted human teeth were scanned on a 2.35 T MRI system for MR microscopy using the 3D spin-echo method that enabled image acquisition with isotropic resolution of 100 μm. The 3D images were then post processed by ImageJ program (NIH) to obtain advanced volume rendered views of dental pulps. MR microscopy at 2.35 T provided accurate data on dental pulp anatomy in vitro. The data were presented as a sequence of thin 2D slices through the pulp in various orientations or as volume rendered 3D images reconstructed form arbitrary view-points. Sequential 2D images enabled only an approximate assessment of the pulp, while volume rendered 3D images were more precise in visualization of pulp anatomy and clearly showed pulp diverticles, number of pulp canals and root canal anastomosis. This in vitro study demonstrated that MR microscopy could provide very accurate 3D visualization of dental pulp anatomy. A possible future application of the method in vivo may be of a great importance for the endodontic treatment

  14. [Chinese books on human anatomy published in the late Qing dynasty].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Hideshi

    2007-12-01

    Quanti-chanwei (1881) is the first technical book on human anatomy written in Chinese and brought to Modern China. It was compiled and translated on the basis of Anatomy, Descriptive and Surgical (first edition in 1858) by Henry Gray. Quanti-chanwei was published with intent to establish Chinese translations for terms referring to anatomy, and it gained broad support from medical missionaries who mainly served in Guangdong, Shanghai, and Fuzhou at that time. Quanti-tongkao (1886) was also complied and translated on the basis of Gray' Anatomy, Descriptive and Surgical. It was published from Jingshi Tongwen Guan, The Academy of Foreign Languages in the Qing dynasty, and they selected different words for the translation into Chinese from Quanti-chanwei. Thus, although Gray' Anatomy, Descriptive and Surgical played a great role in the introduction of Western Medicine into Modern China, there was no accordance between the national government and the provinces regarding Chinese translations for terms referring to anatomy. PMID:18548873

  15. The effectiveness and user perception of 3-dimensional digital human anatomy in an online undergraduate anatomy laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilbelink, Amy Joanne

    2007-12-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of implementing desktop 3-dimensional (3D) stereo images of human anatomy into an undergraduate human anatomy distance laboratory. User perceptions of 2D and 3D images were gathered via questionnaire in order to determine ease of use and level of satisfaction associated with the 3D software in the online learning environment. Mayer's (2001, p. 184) principles of design were used to develop the study materials that consisted of PowerPoint presentations and AVI files accessed via Blackboard. The research design employed a mixed-methods approach. Volunteers each were administered a demographic survey and were then stratified into groups based upon pre-test scores. A total sample size of 62 pairs was available for combined data analysis. Quantitative research questions regarding the effectiveness of 2D versus the 3D treatment were analyzed using a doubly-multivariate repeated measures (Doubly-MANOVA) design. Paired test scores achieved by undergraduates on a laboratory practical of identification and spatial relationships of the bones and features of a human skull were used in the analysis. The questionnaire designed to gather user perceptions consisted of quantitative and qualitative questions. Response frequencies were analyzed for the two groups and common themes were noted. Results revealed a statistically significant difference in group means for the main effect of the treatment groups 2D and 3D and for the variables of identification and relationship with the 3D group outperforming the 2D group on both dependent variables. Effect sizes were determined to be small, 0.215 for the identification variable and 0.359 for the relationship variable. Overall, all students liked the convenience of using PowerPoint and AVI files online. The 3D group felt their PowerPoint was more realistic than did the 2D group and both groups appreciated the detailed labeling of the online images. One third of the

  16. Learning Outcomes and Student-Perceived Value of Clay Modeling and Cat Dissection in Undergraduate Human Anatomy and Physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeHoff, Mary Ellen; Clark, Krista L.; Meganathan, Karthikeyan

    2011-01-01

    Alternatives and/or supplements to animal dissection are being explored by educators of human anatomy at different academic levels. Clay modeling is one such alternative that provides a kinesthetic, three-dimensional, constructive, and sensory approach to learning human anatomy. The present study compared two laboratory techniques, clay modeling…

  17. Cat dissection and human cadaver prosection versus sculpting human structures from clay: A comparison of alternate approaches to human anatomy laboratory education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waters, John R.

    Dissection and vivisection are traditional approaches to biology laboratory education. In the case of human anatomy teaching laboratories, there is a long tradition of using human and animal cadaver specimens in the classroom. In a review of the literature comparing traditional dissection and vivisection lessons to alternative lessons designed to reduce the time spent dissecting or the numbers of animals used, we conclude that it is difficult to come to any conclusion regarding the efficacy of different approaches. An analysis of the literature is confounded because many studies have very low statistical power or other methodological weaknesses, and investigators rely on a wide variety of testing instruments to measure an equally varied number of course objectives. Additional well designed studies are necessary before educators can reach any informed conclusions about the efficacy of traditional versus alternative approaches to laboratory education. In our experiments, we compared a traditional cat dissection based undergraduate human anatomy lesson to an alternative where students sculpted human muscles onto plastic human skeletons. Students in the alternative treatment performed significantly better than their peers in the traditional treatment when answering both lower and higher order human anatomy questions. In a subsequent experiment with a similar design, we concluded that the superior performance of the students in the alternative treatment on anatomy exams was likely due to the similarity between the human anatomy representation studied in lab, and the human anatomy questions asked on the exams. When the anatomy questions were presented in the context of a cat specimen, students in the traditional cat dissection treatment outperformed their peers in the alternative treatment. In a final experiment where student performance on a human anatomy exam was compared between a traditional prosected human cadaver treatment and the alternative clay sculpting

  18. Understanding Protein Synthesis: A Role-Play Approach in Large Undergraduate Human Anatomy and Physiology Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturges, Diana; Maurer, Trent W.; Cole, Oladipo

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the effectiveness of role play in a large undergraduate science class. The targeted population consisted of 298 students enrolled in 2 sections of an undergraduate Human Anatomy and Physiology course taught by the same instructor. The section engaged in the role-play activity served as the study group, whereas the section…

  19. Tracheobronchial Cast Production and Use in an Undergraduate Human Anatomy Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cope, Lee Anne

    2008-01-01

    Silastic E RTV silicone was used to produce tracheobronchial cast for use in an undergraduate human anatomy course. Following air-drying, the trachea and lungs were injected with E RTV silicone and allowed to cure for 24 hr. The parenchyma was then removed from the tracheobronchial cast by maceration and boiling and then whitened in a 10% solution…

  20. Effectiveness of Three-Dimensional Digital Animation in Teaching Human Anatomy in an Authentic Classroom Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyek, Nady; Collet, Christian; Di Rienzo, Franck; De Almeida, Mickael; Guillot, Aymeric

    2014-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) digital animations were used to teach the human musculoskeletal system to first year kinesiology students. The purpose of this study was to assess the effectiveness of this method by comparing two groups from two different academic years during two of their official required anatomy examinations (trunk and upper limb…

  1. Funeral and human anatomy%殡葬与人体解剖学

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘路; 康小燕; 李志军

    2015-01-01

    从遗体的捐献,清洁,保存等方面,说明殡葬和人体解剖学对遗体(尸体)的处理的异同,联系、沟通、促进殡葬与人体解剖学的共同发展。%the paper describes the similarities and differences between funeral and anatomy in the body donation, cleaning, storage and other aspects. to contact, communicate and achieve common development of funeral and interment of human anatomy.

  2. Changing undergraduate human anatomy and physiology laboratories: perspectives from a large-enrollment course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griff, Edwin R

    2016-09-01

    In the present article, a veteran lecturer of human anatomy and physiology taught several sections of the laboratory component for the first time and shares his observations and analysis from this unique perspective. The article discusses a large-enrollment, content-heavy anatomy and physiology course in relationship to published studies on learning and student self-efficacy. Changes in the laboratory component that could increase student learning are proposed. The author also points out the need for research to assess whether selective curricular changes could increase the depth of understanding and retention of learned material.

  3. The use of brainstorming for teaching human anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geuna, S; Giacobini-Robecchi, M G

    2002-10-15

    Interactive teaching techniques have been used mainly in clinical teaching, with little attention given to their use in basic science teaching. With the aim of partially filling this gap, this study outlines an interactive approach to teaching anatomy based on the use of "brainstorming." The results of the students' critique of the teaching techniques are also included. Seventy-five students from the first-year nursing curriculum were tested by a structured questionnaire after three brainstorming sessions. The overall response to these sessions was very positive, indicating that students perceived this interactive technique as both interesting and useful. Furthermore, this approach may provide a useful strategy when learning the clinical courses of the upcoming academic years.

  4. Atypical situations in root canals anatomy of human mandibular premolars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrício SCAINI

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available The knowledge of the teeth internal anatomy that will receive endodontic treatment is very important for the success of the treatment and prognosis of those teeth. In this study, the morphological variations that may occur in relation to the number of root canals present in the premolar mandibular teeth group were discussed, as well as the most efficient methods to diagnose the existence of these variations, in order to have a clearer diagnosis of the number of root canals to be treated.A case of an endodontic treatment of a mandibular premolar with 4 root canals was reported and some cases of endodontic treatment in mandibular premolars with 1, 2 and 3 root canals were shown.

  5. An Interactive Method for Teaching Anatomy of the Human Eye for Medical Students in Ophthalmology Clinical Rotations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kivell, Tracy L.; Doyle, Sara K.; Madden, Richard H.; Mitchell, Terry L.; Sims, Ershela L.

    2009-01-01

    Much research has shown the benefits of additional anatomical learning and dissection beyond the first year of medical school human gross anatomy, all the way through postgraduate medical training. We have developed an interactive method for teaching eye and orbit anatomy to medical students in their ophthalmology rotation at Duke University…

  6. Current issues with standards in the measurement and documentation of human skeletal anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magee, Justin; McClelland, Brian; Winder, John

    2012-09-01

    Digital modeling of human anatomy has become increasingly important and relies on well-documented quantitative anatomy literature. This type of documentation is common for the spine and pelvis; however, significant issues exist due to the lack of standardization in measurement and technique. Existing literature on quantitative anatomy for the spine and pelvis of white adults (aged 18-65 years, separated into decadal categories) was reviewed from the disciplines of anatomy, manipulative therapy, anthropometrics, occupational ergonomics, biomechanics and forensic science. The data were unified into a single normative model of the sub-axial spine. Two-dimensional orthographic drawings were produced from the 590 individual measurements identified, which informed the development of a 3D digital model. A similar review of full range of motion data was conducted as a meta-analysis and the results were applied to the existing model, providing an inter-connected, articulated digital spine. During these data analysis processes several inconsistencies were observed accompanied by an evidential lack of standardization with measurement and recording of data. These have been categorized as: anatomical terminology; scaling of measurements; measurement methodology, dimension and anatomical reference positions; global coordinate systems. There is inconsistency in anatomical terminology where independent researchers use the same terms to describe different aspects of anatomy or different terms for the same anatomy. Published standards exist for measurement methods of the human body regarding spatial interaction, anthropometric databases, automotive applications, clothing industries and for computer manikins, but none exists for skeletal anatomy. Presentation of measurements often lacks formal structure in clinical publications, seldom providing geometric reference points, therefore making digital reconstruction difficult. Published quantitative data does not follow existing

  7. Comparative quantitative analysis of osseous anatomy of the craniovertebral junction of tiger, horse, deer, and humans

    OpenAIRE

    Atul Goel; Abhidha Shah; Manu Kothari; Santosh Gaikwad; Prakash L Dhande

    2011-01-01

    Aim: To compare the osseous anatomy of the craniovertebral junction of a horse, deer, and tiger with that of a human being. The variation in the structure of bones in these animals is analyzed. Materials and Methods: Various dimensions of the bones of the craniovertebral junction of the horse, deer, and tiger were quantitatively measured, and their differences with those of human bones were compared and analyzed. Results: Apart from the sizes and weights, there are a number of structural vari...

  8. The White Matter Query Language: A Novel Approach for Describing Human White Matter Anatomy

    OpenAIRE

    Wassermann, Demian; Makris, Nikos; Rathi, Yogesh; Shenton, Martha; Kikinis, Ron; Kubicki, Marek; Westin, Carl-Fredrik

    2015-01-01

    International audience We have developed a novel method to describe human white matter anatomy using an approach that is both intuitive and simple to use, and which automatically extracts white matter tracts from diffusion MRI vol¬umes. Further, our method simplifies the quantification and statistical analysis of white matter tracts on large diffusion MRI databases. This work reflects the careful syntactical definition of major white matter fiber tracts in the human brain based on a neuroa...

  9. Testing knowledge of human gross anatomy in medical school: an applied contextual-learning theory method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clough, R W; Lehr, R P

    1996-01-01

    The traditional gross anatomy laboratory experience, with modifications in evaluations that we outline later, meets the criteria of contextual-learning theory, expands the repertoire of core objectives we identify for our students, and may increase the likelihood of cognitive permanence of anatomical data. Our subjects included approximately 54 first-year medical students from each of three sequential class years (1996, 1997, 1998). As an alternative to more typical written and practical exams, examinations in a major portion of our gross anatomy program consist of two approximately 30 minute oral expositions by each student to his or her peers and a faculty member. Students demonstrate specific detail on cadaver, x-ray, cross sections, or a model. Clinical applications, spatial relationships, nomenclature, and functions are strongly emphasized. The results of this teaching approach to the utilization of anatomical knowledge in clinical situations requires further assessment: however, new attributes have been afforded our students with implementation of the present program: First, students learn anatomical detail equally well as the students of the more traditional system (based on board exam results). Second, students who completed the program indicate that this approach provides a useful simulation of what is expected later in their training. Third, students gradually gain confidence in verbal presentation, they demonstrate cognitive synthesis of separate conceptual issues, they retain information, and they are quite visibly more enthusiastic about anatomy and its importance in medicine. Our program demonstrates that the learning of applicable human anatomy is facilitated in a contextual-learning environment. Moreover, by learning anatomy in this way, other equally beneficial attributes are afforded the medical student, including, but not limited to, increases in communication skills, confidence in verbal presentation, synthesis of anatomical concepts

  10. The use of MR B+1 imaging for validation of FDTD electromagnetic simulations of human anatomies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, MR B+1 imaging is employed to experimentally verify the validity of FDTD simulations of electromagnetic field patterns in human anatomies. Measurements and FDTD simulations of the B+1 field induced by a 3 T MR body coil in a human corpse were performed. It was found that MR B+1 imaging is a sensitive method to measure the radiofrequency (RF) magnetic field inside a human anatomy with a precision of approximately 3.5%. A good correlation was found between the B+1 measurements and FDTD simulations. The measured B+1 pattern for a human pelvis consisted of a global, diagonal modulation pattern plus local B+1 heterogeneties. It is believed that these local B+1 field variations are the result of peaks in the induced electric currents, which could not be resolved by the FDTD simulations on a 5 mm3 simulation grid. The findings from this study demonstrate that B+1 imaging is a valuable experimental technique to gain more knowledge about the dielectric interaction of RF fields with the human anatomy

  11. Design and implementation of an online systemic human anatomy course with laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attardi, Stefanie M; Rogers, Kem A

    2015-01-01

    Systemic Human Anatomy is a full credit, upper year undergraduate course with a (prosection) laboratory component at Western University Canada. To meet enrollment demands beyond the physical space of the laboratory facility, a fully online section was developed to run concurrently with the traditional face to face (F2F) course. Lectures given to F2F students are simultaneously broadcasted to online students using collaborative software (Blackboard Collaborate). The same collaborative software is used by a teaching assistant to deliver laboratory demonstrations in which three-dimensional (3D) virtual anatomical models are manipulated. Ten commercial software programs were reviewed to determine their suitability for demonstrating the virtual models, resulting in the selection of Netter's 3D Interactive Anatomy. Supplementary online materials for the central nervous system were developed by creating 360° images of plastinated prosected brain specimens and a website through which they could be accessed. This is the first description of a fully online undergraduate anatomy course with a live, interactive laboratory component. Preliminary data comparing the online and F2F student grades suggest that previous student academic performance, and not course delivery format, predicts performance in anatomy. Future qualitative studies will reveal student perceptions about their learning experiences in both of the course delivery formats.

  12. The Anatomy of Human Trafficking: Learning About the Blues: A Healthcare Provider's Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Meriam; Berishaj, Kelly

    2016-01-01

    Human trafficking is a major global public health concern. It is a grave crime that violates human rights. Contrary to healthcare providers' perceptions, victims of human trafficking come in contact with the healthcare system while being trafficked, with the emergency department being the most frequented setting for medical treatment. In this article, we explore the anatomy of human trafficking, including the scope of the problem, definitions, and types and elements of human trafficking. The roles of clinicians, particularly emergency department nurses and advanced practice nurses, in screening and identifying those at risk are examined. Clinical practice tools and guidelines that may be used by clinicians to guide the treatment of human trafficking victims are reviewed. Finally, current strategies and resources that address human trafficking are presented. For the purpose of this article, the terms "human trafficking" or "trafficking" will be used throughout.

  13. Human thoracic anatomy relevant to implantable artificial hearts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobs, G.B.; Kiraly, R.J.; Nose, Y.

    1976-10-01

    The objective of the study is to define the human thorax in a quantitative statistical manner such that the information will be useful to the designers of cardiac prostheses, both total replacement and assist devices. This report pertains specifically to anatomical parameters relevant to the total cardiac prosthesis. This information will also be clinically useful in that the proposed recipient of a cardiac prosthesis can by simple radiography be assured of an adequate fit with the prosthesis prior to the implantation.

  14. MuscleBuilder:A Modeling Tool for Human Anatomy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Amaury Aubel; Daniel Thalmann

    2004-01-01

    A traditional multi-layered approach is adopted to human body modeling and deformation. The model is split into three general anatomical structures: the skeleton, musculature and skin. It is shown that each of these layers is modeled and deformed by using fast, procedural, ad-hoc methods that can painlessly be reimplemented. The modeling approach is generic enough to handle muscles of varying shape, size and characteristics and does not break in extreme skeleton poses. It is also described that the integrated MuscleBuilder system whose main features are: i) easy and quick creation of muscle deformation models; ii) automatic deformation of an overlying skin. It is shown that visually realistic results can be obtained at interactive frame rates with very little input from the designer.

  15. Implementing a virtual reality paradigm in human anatomy/physiology college curricula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St Aubin, H

    2001-01-01

    Modes of instruction in the college course called Human Anatomy/Physiology are changing. Due to ethical concerns and the ever-increasing source of new physiological data, there is a need for enhancements to assist the instructor and student. The computer science of virtual reality (VR) provides a method to electronically educate, train, prototype, test and evaluate new enhancements to the college curricula. This study detailed the modeling and simulation of a skeletal human hand with degrees of freedom of movement, which provided the students with a physiological representation of some of the movements of the hand. The primary objectives of the study were to assess the use of the VR simulation by college students and to assess the potential learning outcomes of students in their use of the VR simulation. The simulation was implemented into classes of Human Anatomy/Physiology as an adjunct enhancement for the students' use. The expectation centered on the constructivist theory that students develop an analytic outlook to the various articulations of the human skeleton. Positive results were shown based on the answers to the questionnaire, summary and post-test taken by the students, after their use of the VR simulation. The results supported the constructivist theory that critical thinking took place. The results showed that the virtual reality simulation enhanced the learning ability of the students. The recommendations of the study include future experimentation to be done on increasing the number of VR simulations, incorporating the VR simulations into undergraduate courses, testing the outcomes, and following the progression of students into graduate programs that are using VR simulations. Faculty and administration are advised to consider implementing the paradigm of VR simulations in undergraduate courses of Human Anatomy/Physiology.

  16. Regulatory Anatomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoeyer, Klaus

    2015-01-01

    This article proposes the term “safety logics” to understand attempts within the European Union (EU) to harmonize member state legislation to ensure a safe and stable supply of human biological material for transplants and transfusions. With safety logics, I refer to assemblages of discourses, le...... they arise. In short, I expose the regulatory anatomy of the policy landscape....

  17. Hypothesis of human penile anatomy, erection hemodynamics and their clinical applications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Geng-Long Hsu

    2006-01-01

    Aim: To summarize recent advances in human penile anatomy, hemodynamics and their clinical applications. Methods:Using dissecting, light, scanning and transmission electron microscopy the fibroskeleton structure, penile venous vasculature,the relationship of the architecture between the skeletal and smooth muscles, and erection hemodynamics were studied on human cadaveric penises and clinical patients over a period of 10 years. Results: The tunica albuginea of the corpora cavernosa is a bi-layered structure with inner circular and outer longitudinal collagen bundles. Although there is no bone in the human glans, a strong equivalent distal ligament acts as a trunk of the glans penis. A guaranteed method of local anesthesia for penile surgeries and a tunical surgery was developed accordingly. On the venous vasculature it is elucidated that a deep dorsal vein, a couple of cavernosal veins and two pairs of para-arterial veins are located between the Buck's fascia and the tunica albuginea. Furthermore, a hemodynamic study suggests that a fully rigid erection may depend upon the drainage veins as well, rather than just the intracavernosal smooth muscle. It is believed that penile venous surgery deserves another look, and that it may be meaningful if thoroughly and carefully performed. Accordingly, a penile venous surgery was developed. Conclusion: Using this new insight into penile anatomy and physiology, exact penile curvature correction, refined penile implants and promising penile venous surgery, as well as a venous patch, for treating Peyronie's deformity might be performed under pure local anesthesia on an outpatient basis.

  18. Repeated Exposure to Dissection Does Not Influence Students' Attitudes towards Human Body Donation for Anatomy Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwachaka, Philip Maseghe; Mandela, Pamela; Saidi, Hassan

    2016-01-01

    The use of unclaimed bodies for anatomical dissection has been the main method of instruction at our institution. There is however a shortage of cadavers for dissection given the increase in the number of medical schools as well as in the number of students enrolling in these schools. This shortage could be mitigated by having voluntary human body donation programs. This study aimed at assessing the attitudes of medical students and surgical residents towards body donation for anatomy learning. We conducted an online survey involving 72 first-year medical students and 41 surgical residents at University of Nairobi who had completed one year of anatomy dissection. For the medical students, this was their first dissection experience while it was the second exposure for the surgery trainees. Most of the surgical trainees (70.7%) and medical students (68.1%) were opposed to self-body donation. This was mainly due to cultural (37%) and religious (20%) barriers. Surprisingly, of those not willing to donate themselves, 67.9% (82.8% surgical trainees, 59.2% medical students) would recommend the practice to other people. Exposure to repeated dissection does not change the perceptions towards body donation. It is noteworthy that culture and religion rank high as clear barriers amongst this “highly informed” group of potential donors. PMID:27190650

  19. Repeated Exposure to Dissection Does Not Influence Students’ Attitudes towards Human Body Donation for Anatomy Teaching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip Maseghe Mwachaka

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of unclaimed bodies for anatomical dissection has been the main method of instruction at our institution. There is however a shortage of cadavers for dissection given the increase in the number of medical schools as well as in the number of students enrolling in these schools. This shortage could be mitigated by having voluntary human body donation programs. This study aimed at assessing the attitudes of medical students and surgical residents towards body donation for anatomy learning. We conducted an online survey involving 72 first-year medical students and 41 surgical residents at University of Nairobi who had completed one year of anatomy dissection. For the medical students, this was their first dissection experience while it was the second exposure for the surgery trainees. Most of the surgical trainees (70.7% and medical students (68.1% were opposed to self-body donation. This was mainly due to cultural (37% and religious (20% barriers. Surprisingly, of those not willing to donate themselves, 67.9% (82.8% surgical trainees, 59.2% medical students would recommend the practice to other people. Exposure to repeated dissection does not change the perceptions towards body donation. It is noteworthy that culture and religion rank high as clear barriers amongst this “highly informed” group of potential donors.

  20. Quantitative and Qualitative Changes in Teaching Histology by Means of Virtual Microscopy in an Introductory Course in Human Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husmann, Polly R.; O'Loughlin, Valerie Dean; Braun, Mark W.

    2009-01-01

    This study compares overall laboratory averages and individual test scores along with a student survey to determine the effects of using virtual microscopy in place of optical microscopes in a large undergraduate human anatomy course. T-tests revealed that the first two laboratory examinations (of four) and the overall laboratory averages were…

  1. Near-Peer Teaching Strategy in a Large Human Anatomy Course: Perceptions of Near-Peer Instructors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes-Hernández, Cynthia Guadalupe; Carmona Pulido, Juan Manuel; De la Garza Chapa, Roberto Isaac; Serna Vázquez, Ruth Patricia; Alcalá Briones, Ricardo Daniel; Plasencia Banda, Perla Marina; Villarreal Silva, Eliud Enrique; Jacobo Baca, Guillermo; de la Garza Castro, Oscar; Elizondo Omaña, Rodrigo Enrique; Guzmán López, Santos

    2015-01-01

    Near-peer teaching (NPT) is a strategy in which senior students assume the instructor role with junior peers (mentees). Senior students develop unique skills and knowledge through NPT, an experience which extends their learning beyond content mastery. Different teaching modules featuring NPT were utilized in the human anatomy course at the School…

  2. Academic Performance in Human Anatomy and Physiology Classes: A 2-Yr Study of Academic Motivation and Grade Expectation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturges, Diana; Maurer, Trent W.; Allen, Deborah; Gatch, Delena Bell; Shankar, Padmini

    2016-01-01

    This project used a nonexperimental design with a convenience sample and studied the relationship between academic motivation, grade expectation, and academic performance in 1,210 students enrolled in undergraduate human anatomy and physiology (HAP) classes over a 2-yr period. A 42-item survey that included 28 items of the adapted academic…

  3. Pharynx Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... e.g. -historical Searches are case-insensitive Pharynx Anatomy Add to My Pictures View /Download : Small: 720x576 ... View Download Large: 3000x2400 View Download Title: Pharynx Anatomy Description: Anatomy of the pharynx; drawing shows the ...

  4. Vulva Anatomy

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    ... e.g. -historical Searches are case-insensitive Vulva Anatomy Add to My Pictures View /Download : Small: 720x634 ... View Download Large: 3000x2640 View Download Title: Vulva Anatomy Description: Anatomy of the vulva; drawing shows the ...

  5. Larynx Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... e.g. -historical Searches are case-insensitive Larynx Anatomy Add to My Pictures View /Download : Small: 648x576 ... View Download Large: 2700x2400 View Download Title: Larynx Anatomy Description: Anatomy of the larynx; drawing shows the ...

  6. The Human Anatomy Teacher-Scholar: Meeting the Expectations of Educational Outcomes Research, Course Content Innovation, and Textbook Innovation for Educational Scholarship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckel, Christine Marie

    2009-01-01

    A human anatomy teacher-scholar is a scholar whose area of expertise includes content knowledge of the anatomical sciences (gross anatomy, histology, embryology, and/or neuroanatomy) and whose research interests and focus are centered in medical educational outcomes. The projects described in this dissertation represent endeavors I engaged in to…

  7. Femoral morphology and femoropelvic musculoskeletal anatomy of humans and great apes: a comparative virtopsy study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morimoto, Naoki; Ponce de León, Marcia S; Nishimura, Takeshi; Zollikofer, Christoph P E

    2011-09-01

    The proximal femoral morphology of fossil hominins is routinely interpreted in terms of muscular topography and associated locomotor modes. However, the detailed correspondence between hard and soft tissue structures in the proximal femoral region of extant great apes is relatively unknown, because dissection protocols typically do not comprise in-depth osteological descriptions. Here, we use computed tomography and virtopsy (virtual dissection) for non-invasive examination of the femoropelvic musculoskeletal anatomy in Pan troglodytes, P. paniscus, Gorilla gorilla, Pongo pygmaeus, and Homo sapiens. Specifically, we analyze the topographic relationship between muscle attachment sites and surface structures of the proximal femoral shaft such as the lateral spiral pilaster. Our results show that the origin of the vastus lateralis muscle is anterior to the insertion of gluteus maximus in all examined great ape specimens and humans. In gorillas and orangutans, the insertion of gluteus maximus is on the inferior (anterolateral) side of the lateral spiral pilaster. In chimpanzees, however, the maximus insertion is on its superior (posteromedial) side, similar to the situation in modern humans. These findings support the hypothesis that chimpanzees and humans exhibit a shared-derived musculoskeletal topography of the proximal femoral region, irrespective of their different locomotor modes, whereas gorillas and orangutans represent the primitive condition. Caution is thus warranted when inferring locomotor behavior from the surface topography of the proximal femur of fossil hominins, as the morphology of this region may contain a strong phyletic signal that tends to blur locomotor adaptation.

  8. Comparative quantitative analysis of osseous anatomy of the craniovertebral junction of tiger, horse, deer, and humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atul Goel

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To compare the osseous anatomy of the craniovertebral junction of a horse, deer, and tiger with that of a human being. The variation in the structure of bones in these animals is analyzed. Materials and Methods: Various dimensions of the bones of the craniovertebral junction of the horse, deer, and tiger were quantitatively measured, and their differences with those of human bones were compared and analyzed. Results: Apart from the sizes and weights, there are a number of structural variations in the bones of these animals that depend on their functional needs. The more remarkable difference in joint morphology is noticed in the occipitoatlantal joint. The occipitoatlantal articulation is remarkably large and deep, resembling a ′hinge joint′ in all the three animals studied. The odontoid process is ′C shaped′ in the deer and horse and is ′denslike′ in the tiger and humans. The transverse processes of the atlas are in the form of large wings in all the three animals. The arches of the atlas are large and flat, but the traverse of the vertebral artery resembles, to an extent, to that of human vertebral artery. The rotatory movements of the head at the craniovertebral junction are wider ranged in the horse and deer as compared with those of the tiger and humans. The bones of the craniovertebral junction of all the three animals are adapted to the remarkable thickness and strength of the extensor muscles of the nape of the neck. Conclusions: Despite the wide variations in the size of the bones, the basic patterns of structure, vascular and neural relationship, and joint alignments have remarkable similarities and a definite pattern of differences.

  9. The pars interna/media anatomy and histology in the human larynx.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charpied, George L

    2007-01-01

    The pars interna/media (PIM) is a small muscle found in the human larynx that has not been successfully described in contemporary literature on laryngeal structure. The objective of this study was to describe the PIM's anatomy in detail. Thirteen human larynges obtained from postmortem examination were cleaned and preserved. Exposure of the PIM was through a lateral disarticulation of the cricothyroid joint and reflection of the cricothyroid muscle and the thyroid lamina. In the human, the PIM was found to be strap-like in form and to have two bellies with attachments to the medial surface of the thyroid cartilage at the root of the inferior horn and anteriosuperior cricoid arch. It appears to be innervated by a middle division, vestibular branch, of the internal superior laryngeal nerve. The average fiber diameter is 40 mum. Its type 1-to-type 2 fiber ratio places it within the range of other intrinsic laryngeal muscles. A muscle spindle was identified in medial bundle at the PIM's thyroid attachment. Thyroid medial surface attachment is within few millimeters of the muscular process of the arytenoid cartilage. These data show that the PIM is a robust muscle and deserves attention anatomically. Its orientation within the thyroid and nonrecurrent laryngeal nerve innervations of the human PIM may place it in the vocal fold tensor group rather than the laryngeal sphincter group. It is possible the PIM reports on cricothyroid distance and right versus left cricothyroid joint stresses. Electromyographic examination of the PIM in the Rhesus larynx may help elucidate its physiology to elaborate its human physiology.

  10. "No interest in human anatomy as such": Frederic Wood Jones dissects anatomical investigation in the United States in the 1920s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Ross L

    2014-03-01

    In 1926, Frederic Wood Jones, professor of Anatomy at the University of Adelaide and a leading figure in the British anatomical world, took a Rockefeller Foundation funded trip to the United States in order to inspect anatomy programmes and medical museums and to meet leading figures in the anatomical and anthropological world. His later reflections paint a picture of a discipline in transition. Physical anthropology and gross anatomy were coming to a crisis point in the United States, increasingly displaced by research in histology, embryology and radiological anatomy. Meanwhile, in Britain and its colonial outposts, anatomists such as Wood Jones were attempting to re-invigorate the discipline in the field, studying biological specimens as functional and active agents in their particular milieus, but with human dissection at the core. Thus, an examination of this trip allows us to see how the interaction between two traditions in anatomy informed the process of the development of human biology in this critical period.

  11. On describing human white matter anatomy: the white matter query language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wassermann, Demian; Makris, Nikos; Rathi, Yogesh; Shenton, Martha; Kikinis, Ron; Kubicki, Marek; Westin, Carl-Fredrik

    2013-01-01

    The main contribution of this work is the careful syntactical definition of major white matter tracts in the human brain based on a neuroanatomist's expert knowledge. We present a technique to formally describe white matter tracts and to automatically extract them from diffusion MRI data. The framework is based on a novel query language with a near-to-English textual syntax. This query language allows us to construct a dictionary of anatomical definitions describing white matter tracts. The definitions include adjacent gray and white matter regions, and rules for spatial relations. This enables automated coherent labeling of white matter anatomy across subjects. We use our method to encode anatomical knowledge in human white matter describing 10 association and 8 projection tracts per hemisphere and 7 commissural tracts. The technique is shown to be comparable in accuracy to manual labeling. We present results applying this framework to create a white matter atlas from 77 healthy subjects, and we use this atlas in a proof-of-concept study to detect tract changes specific to schizophrenia. PMID:24505722

  12. An Allometric Analysis of Sex and Sex Chromosome Dosage Effects on Subcortical Anatomy in Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reardon, Paul Kirkpatrick; Clasen, Liv; Giedd, Jay N; Blumenthal, Jonathan; Lerch, Jason P; Chakravarty, M Mallar; Raznahan, Armin

    2016-02-24

    Structural neuroimaging of humans with typical and atypical sex-chromosome complements has established the marked influence of both Yand X-/Y-chromosome dosage on total brain volume (TBV) and identified potential cortical substrates for the psychiatric phenotypes associated with sex-chromosome aneuploidy (SCA). Here, in a cohort of 354 humans with varying karyotypes (XX, XY, XXX, XXY, XYY, XXYY, XXXXY), we investigate sex and SCA effects on subcortical size and shape; focusing on the striatum, pallidum and thalamus. We find large effect-size differences in the volume and shape of all three structures as a function of sex and SCA. We correct for TBV effects with a novel allometric method harnessing normative scaling rules for subcortical size and shape in humans, which we derive here for the first time. We show that all three subcortical volumes scale sublinearly with TBV among healthy humans, mirroring known relationships between subcortical volume and TBV among species. Traditional TBV correction methods assume linear scaling and can therefore invert or exaggerate sex and SCA effects on subcortical anatomy. Allometric analysis restricts sex-differences to: (1) greater pallidal volume (PV) in males, and (2) relative caudate head expansion and ventral striatum contraction in females. Allometric analysis of SCA reveals that supernumerary X- and Y-chromosomes both cause disproportionate reductions in PV, and coordinated deformations of striatopallidal shape. Our study provides a novel understanding of sex and sex-chromosome dosage effects on subcortical organization, using an allometric approach that can be generalized to other basic and clinical structural neuroimaging settings.

  13. An Allometric Analysis of Sex and Sex Chromosome Dosage Effects on Subcortical Anatomy in Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reardon, Paul Kirkpatrick; Clasen, Liv; Giedd, Jay N; Blumenthal, Jonathan; Lerch, Jason P; Chakravarty, M Mallar; Raznahan, Armin

    2016-02-24

    Structural neuroimaging of humans with typical and atypical sex-chromosome complements has established the marked influence of both Yand X-/Y-chromosome dosage on total brain volume (TBV) and identified potential cortical substrates for the psychiatric phenotypes associated with sex-chromosome aneuploidy (SCA). Here, in a cohort of 354 humans with varying karyotypes (XX, XY, XXX, XXY, XYY, XXYY, XXXXY), we investigate sex and SCA effects on subcortical size and shape; focusing on the striatum, pallidum and thalamus. We find large effect-size differences in the volume and shape of all three structures as a function of sex and SCA. We correct for TBV effects with a novel allometric method harnessing normative scaling rules for subcortical size and shape in humans, which we derive here for the first time. We show that all three subcortical volumes scale sublinearly with TBV among healthy humans, mirroring known relationships between subcortical volume and TBV among species. Traditional TBV correction methods assume linear scaling and can therefore invert or exaggerate sex and SCA effects on subcortical anatomy. Allometric analysis restricts sex-differences to: (1) greater pallidal volume (PV) in males, and (2) relative caudate head expansion and ventral striatum contraction in females. Allometric analysis of SCA reveals that supernumerary X- and Y-chromosomes both cause disproportionate reductions in PV, and coordinated deformations of striatopallidal shape. Our study provides a novel understanding of sex and sex-chromosome dosage effects on subcortical organization, using an allometric approach that can be generalized to other basic and clinical structural neuroimaging settings. PMID:26911691

  14. Genesis & the Human Ribcage: An Opportunity to Correct a Misconception & Introduce an Evolution Lesson into the Anatomy Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senter, Phil

    2013-01-01

    Many anatomy students begin the course with a misconception that human males and females do not have the same number of ribs. At the root of that misconception is Genesis 2:21-22, in which God removes a rib from Adam to make Eve. Removal of a body part is a surgical procedure, and one does not pass on the results of surgery to one's offspring. The…

  15. Simultaneous anatomical sketching as learning by doing method of teaching human anatomy

    OpenAIRE

    Noorafshan, Ali; Hoseini, Leila; AMINI, MITRA; Dehghani, Mohammad-Reza; Kojuri, Javad; Bazrafkan, Leila

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Learning by lecture is a passive experience. Many innovative techniques have been presented to stimulate students to assume a more active attitude toward learning. In this study, simultaneous sketch drawing, as an interactive learning technique was applied to teach anatomy to the medical students. Materials and Methods: We reconstructed a fun interactive model of teaching anatomy as simultaneous anatomic sketching. To test the model's instruction effectiveness, we conducted a quasi...

  16. MACLimbs: human peripheral anatomy and kinesiology implemented by HyperCard.

    OpenAIRE

    Furman, M. B.

    1991-01-01

    Physicians in various subspecialties routinely perform physical examinations of the back and extremities utilizing their understanding of peripheral anatomy, extremity kinesiology, and neuro- musculo-ligamentous pathologies. We are developing a HyperCard computer application which combines text, graphics, and sound to teach, review, and test functional limb anatomy and kinesiology in an independent, non-confrontational, user-friendly environment. The software incorporates principles which max...

  17. Evolutionary trends and functional anatomy of the human expanded autophagy network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Till, Andreas; Saito, Rintaro; Merkurjev, Daria; Liu, Jing-Jing; Syed, Gulam Hussain; Kolnik, Martin; Siddiqui, Aleem; Glas, Martin; Scheffler, Björn; Ideker, Trey; Subramani, Suresh

    2015-01-01

    All eukaryotic cells utilize autophagy for protein and organelle turnover, thus assuring subcellular quality control, homeostasis, and survival. In order to address recent advances in identification of human autophagy associated genes, and to describe autophagy on a system-wide level, we established an autophagy-centered gene interaction network by merging various primary data sets and by retrieving respective interaction data. The resulting network ('AXAN') was analyzed with respect to subnetworks, e.g. the prime gene subnetwork (including the core machinery, signaling pathways and autophagy receptors) and the transcription subnetwork. To describe aspects of evolution within this network, we assessed the presence of protein orthologs across 99 eukaryotic model organisms. We visualized evolutionary trends for prime gene categories and evolutionary tracks for selected AXAN genes. This analysis confirms the eukaryotic origin of autophagy core genes while it points to a diverse evolutionary history of autophagy receptors. Next, we used module identification to describe the functional anatomy of the network at the level of pathway modules. In addition to obvious pathways (e.g., lysosomal degradation, insulin signaling) our data unveil the existence of context-related modules such as Rho GTPase signaling. Last, we used a tripartite, image-based RNAi - screen to test candidate genes predicted to play a role in regulation of autophagy. We verified the Rho GTPase, CDC42, as a novel regulator of autophagy-related signaling. This study emphasizes the applicability of system-wide approaches to gain novel insights into a complex biological process and to describe the human autophagy pathway at a hitherto unprecedented level of detail.

  18. Paraganglioma Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... e.g. -historical Searches are case-insensitive Paraganglioma Anatomy Add to My Pictures View /Download : Small: 648x576 ... View Download Large: 2700x2400 View Download Title: Paraganglioma Anatomy Description: Paraganglioma of the head and neck; drawing ...

  19. Tooth anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002214.htm Tooth anatomy To use the sharing features on this page, ... upper jawbone is called the maxilla. Images Tooth anatomy References Lingen MW. Head and neck. In: Kumar ...

  20. Eye Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... News About Us Donate In This Section Eye Anatomy en Español email Send this article to a ... You at Risk For Glaucoma? Childhood Glaucoma Eye Anatomy Five Common Glaucoma Tests Glaucoma Facts and Stats ...

  1. Robottens Anatomi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Antabi, Mimo

    Artiklen "Robottens Anatomi - mellem kunst og videnskab". Handler om brugen af robotter i kunstens og videnskabens verden.......Artiklen "Robottens Anatomi - mellem kunst og videnskab". Handler om brugen af robotter i kunstens og videnskabens verden....

  2. Hand Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Topics A-Z Videos Infographics Symptom Picker Hand Anatomy Hand Safety Fireworks Safety Lawnmower Safety Snowblower safety ... Topics A-Z Videos Infographics Symptom Picker Hand Anatomy Hand Safety Fireworks Safety Lawnmower Safety Snowblower safety ...

  3. Dose- and time-dependent benefits of iPad technology in an undergraduate human anatomy course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raney, Marcella A

    2016-07-01

    This study examined the impact of iPad integration on performance in an undergraduate gross anatomy course. Two out of six course sections were assigned to one of the following conditions: control (no iPad, n = 61); limited access (laboratory iPads, n = 58); and unlimited access (personal iPads, n = 47). Student knowledge was assessed over time during the semester with two practical examinations in laboratory and four multiple choice/essay examinations in lecture. The same PowerPoint presentations and examinations were utilized for all conditions. Mixed ANOVA analysis identified an interaction effect between time and condition for both laboratory (F2,153  = 16.12; P learning curve, tablet devices and relevant applications can be useful tools in human anatomy courses. Anat Sci Educ 9: 367-377. © 2015 American Association of Anatomists. PMID:26606529

  4. Evolutionary developmental pathology and anthropology: A new field linking development, comparative anatomy, human evolution, morphological variations and defects, and medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diogo, Rui; Smith, Christopher M; Ziermann, Janine M

    2015-11-01

    We introduce a new subfield of the recently created field of Evolutionary-Developmental-Anthropology (Evo-Devo-Anth): Evolutionary-Developmental-Pathology-and-Anthropology (Evo-Devo-P'Anth). This subfield combines experimental and developmental studies of nonhuman model organisms, biological anthropology, chordate comparative anatomy and evolution, and the study of normal and pathological human development. Instead of focusing on other organisms to try to better understand human development, evolution, anatomy, and pathology, it places humans as the central case study, i.e., as truly model organism themselves. We summarize the results of our recent Evo-Devo-P'Anth studies and discuss long-standing questions in each of the broader biological fields combined in this subfield, paying special attention to the links between: (1) Human anomalies and variations, nonpentadactyly, homeotic transformations, and "nearest neighbor" vs. "find and seek" muscle-skeleton associations in limb+facial muscles vs. other head muscles; (2) Developmental constraints, the notion of "phylotypic stage," internalism vs. externalism, and the "logic of monsters" vs. "lack of homeostasis" views about human birth defects; (3) Human evolution, reversions, atavisms, paedomorphosis, and peromorphosis; (4) Scala naturae, Haeckelian recapitulation, von Baer's laws, and parallelism between phylogeny and development, here formally defined as "Phylo-Devo parallelism"; and (5) Patau, Edwards, and Down syndrome (trisomies 13, 18, 21), atavisms, apoptosis, heart malformations, and medical implications.

  5. Evolutionary developmental pathology and anthropology: A new field linking development, comparative anatomy, human evolution, morphological variations and defects, and medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diogo, Rui; Smith, Christopher M; Ziermann, Janine M

    2015-11-01

    We introduce a new subfield of the recently created field of Evolutionary-Developmental-Anthropology (Evo-Devo-Anth): Evolutionary-Developmental-Pathology-and-Anthropology (Evo-Devo-P'Anth). This subfield combines experimental and developmental studies of nonhuman model organisms, biological anthropology, chordate comparative anatomy and evolution, and the study of normal and pathological human development. Instead of focusing on other organisms to try to better understand human development, evolution, anatomy, and pathology, it places humans as the central case study, i.e., as truly model organism themselves. We summarize the results of our recent Evo-Devo-P'Anth studies and discuss long-standing questions in each of the broader biological fields combined in this subfield, paying special attention to the links between: (1) Human anomalies and variations, nonpentadactyly, homeotic transformations, and "nearest neighbor" vs. "find and seek" muscle-skeleton associations in limb+facial muscles vs. other head muscles; (2) Developmental constraints, the notion of "phylotypic stage," internalism vs. externalism, and the "logic of monsters" vs. "lack of homeostasis" views about human birth defects; (3) Human evolution, reversions, atavisms, paedomorphosis, and peromorphosis; (4) Scala naturae, Haeckelian recapitulation, von Baer's laws, and parallelism between phylogeny and development, here formally defined as "Phylo-Devo parallelism"; and (5) Patau, Edwards, and Down syndrome (trisomies 13, 18, 21), atavisms, apoptosis, heart malformations, and medical implications. PMID:26293597

  6. Mixed methods student evaluation of an online systemic human anatomy course with laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attardi, Stefanie M; Choi, Suwhan; Barnett, John; Rogers, Kem A

    2016-05-01

    A fully online section of an existing face-to-face (F2F) systemic human anatomy course with a prosection laboratory was offered for the first time in 2012-2013. Lectures for F2F students (N = 365) were broadcast in both live and archived format to online students (N = 40) using virtual classroom software. Laboratories were delivered online by a teaching assistant who manipulated 3D computer models in the virtual classroom environment. An exploratory sequential mixed methods approach was undertaken to determine the most important deciding factors that drive students' preferences for a given format and then to generate theory on the strengths and weaknesses of the online format. Students (20 online; 310 F2F) volunteered to participate in a crossover period of one week to expose them to the course section in which they were not originally registered. Open ended interviews (20 online; 20 F2F) and quantitative surveys (270 F2F) were conducted following a crossover. Students valued pace control, schedule, and location flexibility of learning from archived materials and being assessed online. In the online laboratory they had difficulty using the 3D models and preferred the unique and hands-on experiences of cadaveric specimens. The F2F environment was conducive to learning in both lecture and laboratory because students felt more engaged by instructors in person and were less distracted by their surroundings. These results suggest the need to improve the online experience by increasing the quality of student-instructor communication and in turn student-content interaction with the 3D models. Anat Sci Educ 9: 272-285. © 2015 American Association of Anatomists. PMID:26588051

  7. Genome sequencing of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis in conjunction with a medical school human anatomy course.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akash Kumar

    Full Text Available Even in cases where there is no obvious family history of disease, genome sequencing may contribute to clinical diagnosis and management. Clinical application of the genome has not yet become routine, however, in part because physicians are still learning how best to utilize such information. As an educational research exercise performed in conjunction with our medical school human anatomy course, we explored the potential utility of determining the whole genome sequence of a patient who had died following a clinical diagnosis of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF. Medical students performed dissection and whole genome sequencing of the cadaver. Gross and microscopic findings were more consistent with the fibrosing variant of nonspecific interstitial pneumonia (NSIP, as opposed to IPF per se. Variants in genes causing Mendelian disorders predisposing to IPF were not detected. However, whole genome sequencing identified several common variants associated with IPF, including a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP, rs35705950, located in the promoter region of the gene encoding mucin glycoprotein MUC5B. The MUC5B promoter polymorphism was recently found to markedly elevate risk for IPF, though a particular association with NSIP has not been previously reported, nor has its contribution to disease risk previously been evaluated in the genome-wide context of all genetic variants. We did not identify additional predicted functional variants in a region of linkage disequilibrium (LD adjacent to MUC5B, nor did we discover other likely risk-contributing variants elsewhere in the genome. Whole genome sequencing thus corroborates the association of rs35705950 with MUC5B dysregulation and interstitial lung disease. This novel exercise additionally served a unique mission in bridging clinical and basic science education.

  8. Modelling of the Human Inner Ear Anatomy and Variability for Cochlear Implant Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjer, Hans Martin

    This thesis takes the biomedical engineering approach to working with and understanding the anatomy and physiology of the inner ear. The purpose is to apply the acquired knowledge in the development of implantable hearing aids. The so-called Cochlear Implant (CI) is a fascinating technology...

  9. Connecting art and science: An interdisciplinary strategy and its impact on the affective domain of community college human anatomy students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petti, Kevin

    Educational objectives are often described within the framework of a three-domain taxonomy: cognitive, affective and psychomotor. While most of the research on educational objectives has focused on the cognitive domain, the research that has been conducted on the affective domain, which speaks to emotions, attitudes, and values, has identified a number of positive outcomes. One approach to enhancing the affective domain is that of interdisciplinary education. Science education research in the realm of interdisciplinary education and affective outcomes is limited; especially research conducted on community college students of human anatomy. This project investigated the relationship between an interdisciplinary teaching strategy and the affective domain in science education by utilizing an interdisciplinary lecture in a human anatomy class. Subjects were anatomy students in a California community college who listened to a one-hour lecture describing the cultural, historical and scientific significance of selected pieces of art depicting human dissection in European medieval and Renaissance universities. The focus was on how these renderings represent the state of anatomy education during their respective eras. After listening to the lecture, subjects were administered a 35-question survey that was composed of 14 demographic questions and 21 Likert-style statements that asked respondents to rate the extent to which the intervention influenced their affective domain. Descriptive statistics were then used to determine which component of the affective domain was most influenced, and multiple regression analysis was used to examine the extent to which individual differences along the affective continuum were explained by select demographic measures such as gender, race/ethnicity, education level, and previous exposure to science courses. Results indicate that the interdisciplinary intervention had a positive impact on every component of the affective domain hierarchy

  10. Plastination and its importance in teaching anatomy. Critical points for long-term preservation of human tissue*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riederer, Beat M

    2014-01-01

    Most medical curricula rely on human bodies for teaching macroscopic anatomy. Over the past 20 years, plastination has become an important means of preservation of organs, for well dissected specimens or for body slices. Here, several critical points regarding body donation with legal and ethical considerations for long-term preservation, the use of cadavers in teaching and the preparation of plastinates as an additional teaching tool will be discussed. Silicone S10 is the gold standard in the preparation of plastinates. An important point to respect is the preparation of specimens, since only very well dissected body parts or excellent tissue sections should be plastinated to show the extraordinary aspects of the human anatomy. The preparation of thin and transparent sections and preservation with P40 polyester provides an additional technique to prepare resistant body slices. A selection of samples prepared by S10 and P40 are shown and compared. In addition, Prussian or Berlin blue staining of brain slices is shown to discriminate better between gray and white matter and demonstrate neuroanatomical structures. These plastinates have been used for many years in teaching first-and second-year medical students and have not lost their appeal. Students and staff appreciate the use of such plastinates. One of the advantages is that their use is not restricted to the dissection hall; slices and body parts can be used in any lecture room or in small group teaching. Therefore, ethical and legal questions need to be addressed regarding their specific use. Plastinates do not replace the traditional dissection courses, since students learn best the anatomical features of a given region by hands-on dissection and by exploratory anatomy. Furthermore, plastinates are more rigid and do not allow demonstration of hidden structures; they also become more cumbersome for endoscopy or are too rigid for demonstrating mechanical features of joints. However, although not a replacement

  11. Plastination and its importance in teaching anatomy. Critical points for long-term preservation of human tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riederer, Beat M

    2014-03-01

    Most medical curricula rely on human bodies for teaching macroscopic anatomy. Over the past 20 years, plastination has become an important means of preservation of organs, for well dissected specimens or for body slices. Here, several critical points regarding body donation with legal and ethical considerations for long-term preservation, the use of cadavers in teaching and the preparation of plastinates as an additional teaching tool will be discussed. Silicone S10 is the gold standard in the preparation of plastinates. An important point to respect is the preparation of specimens, since only very well dissected body parts or excellent tissue sections should be plastinated to show the extraordinary aspects of the human anatomy. The preparation of thin and transparent sections and preservation with P40 polyester provides an additional technique to prepare resistant body slices. A selection of samples prepared by S10 and P40 are shown and compared. In addition, Prussian or Berlin blue staining of brain slices is shown to discriminate better between gray and white matter and demonstrate neuroanatomical structures. These plastinates have been used for many years in teaching first- and second-year medical students and have not lost their appeal. Students and staff appreciate the use of such plastinates. One of the advantages is that their use is not restricted to the dissection hall; slices and body parts can be used in any lecture room or in small group teaching. Therefore, ethical and legal questions need to be addressed regarding their specific use. Plastinates do not replace the traditional dissection courses, since students learn best the anatomical features of a given region by hands-on dissection and by exploratory anatomy. Furthermore, plastinates are more rigid and do not allow demonstration of hidden structures; they also become more cumbersome for endoscopy or are too rigid for demonstrating mechanical features of joints. However, although not a replacement

  12. Integer anatomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doolittle, R. [ONR, Arlington, VA (United States)

    1994-11-15

    The title integer anatomy is intended to convey the idea of a systematic method for displaying the prime decomposition of the integers. Just as the biological study of anatomy does not teach us all things about behavior of species neither would we expect to learn everything about the number theory from a study of its anatomy. But, some number-theoretic theorems are illustrated by inspection of integer anatomy, which tend to validate the underlying structure and the form as developed and displayed in this treatise. The first statement to be made in this development is: the way structure of the natural numbers is displayed depends upon the allowed operations.

  13. Modelling of the human brain with detailed anatomy for numerical simulation of surgical interventions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the design and simulation process of MEMS medical devices used in neurosurgery, there is a need to build a brain model with detailed anatomy and physical properties incorporated as a platform to conduct numerical analysis. This paper presents a study on constructing a brain model for simulation of medical device interventions during neurosurgery. A brain atlas was utilized to develop a detailed model consisting of multiple structures. Two types of atlas model were generated employing different mesh types and biomechanical properties suited for various applications. The developed model was able to capture the detailed anatomy of the brain and reflect the application-dependant biomechanical behaviour based on material modelling of brain tissue under surgical intervention

  14. 3D virtual table in anatomy education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Mads Ronald; Simonsen, Eivind Ortind

    The ‘Anatomage’ is a 3D virtual human anatomy table, with touchscreen functionality, where it is possible to upload CT-scans and digital. Learning the human anatomy terminology requires time, a very good memory, anatomy atlas, books and lectures. Learning the 3 dimensional structure, connections...

  15. Root Anatomy and Root Canal Configuration of Human Permanent Mandibular Premolars: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jojo Kottoor

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Mandibular premolars have been reported with complex anatomical aberrations, making them one of the most difficult teeth to manage endodontically. Methodology. An exhaustive search was undertaken to identify associated anatomic studies of mandibular premolars through MEDLINE/PubMed database using keywords, and a systematic review of the relevant articles was performed. Chi-square test with Yates correction was performed to assess the statistical significance of any anatomic variations between ethnicities and within populations of the same ethnicity. Documented case reports of variations in mandibular premolar anatomy were also identified and reviewed. Results. Thirty-six anatomic studies were analyzed which included 12,752 first premolars and nineteen studies assessing 6646 second premolars. A significant variation in the number of roots, root canals, and apical foramen was observed between Caucasian, Indian, Mongoloid, and Middle Eastern ethnicities.The most common anatomic variation was C-shaped canals in mandibular first premolars with highest incidence in Mongoloid populations (upto 24% while dens invaginatus was the most common developmental anomaly. Conclusions. A systematic review of mandibular premolars based on ethnicity and geographic clusters offered enhanced analysis of the prevalence of number of roots and canals, their canal configuration, and other related anatomy.

  16. A study of student perceptions of learning transfer from a human anatomy and physiology course in an allied health program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrell, Leigh S.

    The purpose of this study was two-fold. First the study was designed to determine student perceptions regarding the perceived degree of original learning from a human anatomy and physiology course, and the student perception of the use of the knowledge in an allied health program. Second, the intention of the study was to establish student beliefs on the characteristics of the transfer of learning including those factors which enhance learning transfer and those that serve as barriers to learning transfer. The study participants were those students enrolled in any allied health program at a community college in a Midwest state, including: nursing, radiology, surgical technology, health information technology, and paramedic. Both quantitative and qualitative data were collected and analyzed from the responses to the survey. A sub-group of participants were chosen to participate in semi-structured formal interviews. From the interviews, additional qualitative data were gathered. The data collected through the study demonstrated student perception of successful transfer experiences. The students in the study were able to provide specific examples of learning transfer experienced from the human anatomy and physiology course in their allied health program. Findings also suggested students who earned higher grades in the human anatomy and physiology course perceived greater understanding and greater use of the course's learning objectives in their allied health program. The study found the students believed the following learning activities enhances the transfer of learning: (1) Providing application of the information or skills being learned during the instruction of the course content enhances the transfer of learning. (2) Providing resource materials and activities which allow the students to practice the content being taught facilitates the transfer of learning. The students made the following recommendations to remove barriers to the transfer of learning: (1

  17. FASH and MASH: female and male adult human phantoms based on polygon mesh surfaces: I. Development of the anatomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Among computational models, voxel phantoms based on computer tomographic (CT), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) or colour photographic images of patients, volunteers or cadavers have become popular in recent years. Although being true to nature representations of scanned individuals, voxel phantoms have limitations, especially when walled organs have to be segmented or when volumes of organs or body tissues, like adipose, have to be changed. Additionally, the scanning of patients or volunteers is usually made in supine position, which causes a shift of internal organs towards the ribcage, a compression of the lungs and a reduction of the sagittal diameter especially in the abdominal region compared to the regular anatomy of a person in the upright position, which in turn can influence organ and tissue absorbed or equivalent dose estimates. This study applies tools developed recently in the areas of computer graphics and animated films to the creation and modelling of 3D human organs, tissues, skeletons and bodies based on polygon mesh surfaces. Female and male adult human phantoms, called FASH (Female Adult meSH) and MASH (Male Adult meSH), have been designed using software, such as MakeHuman, Blender, Binvox and ImageJ, based on anatomical atlases, observing at the same time organ masses recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection for the male and female reference adult in report no 89. 113 organs, bones and tissues have been modelled in the FASH and the MASH phantoms representing locations for adults in standing posture. Most organ and tissue masses of the voxelized versions agree with corresponding data from ICRP89 within a margin of 2.6%. Comparison with the mesh-based male RPIAM and female RPIAF phantoms shows differences with respect to the material used, to the software and concepts applied, and to the anatomies created.

  18. FASH and MASH: female and male adult human phantoms based on polygon mesh surfaces: I. Development of the anatomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cassola, V F; Kramer, R; Khoury, H J [Department of Nuclear Energy, Federal University of Pernambuco, Avenida Prof. Luiz Freire, 1000, CEP 50740-540, Recife (Brazil); De Melo Lima, V J [Department of Anatomy, Federal University of Pernambuco, Avenida Prof. Moraes Rego, 1235, CEP 50670-901, Recife (Brazil)], E-mail: rkramer@uol.com.br

    2010-01-07

    Among computational models, voxel phantoms based on computer tomographic (CT), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) or colour photographic images of patients, volunteers or cadavers have become popular in recent years. Although being true to nature representations of scanned individuals, voxel phantoms have limitations, especially when walled organs have to be segmented or when volumes of organs or body tissues, like adipose, have to be changed. Additionally, the scanning of patients or volunteers is usually made in supine position, which causes a shift of internal organs towards the ribcage, a compression of the lungs and a reduction of the sagittal diameter especially in the abdominal region compared to the regular anatomy of a person in the upright position, which in turn can influence organ and tissue absorbed or equivalent dose estimates. This study applies tools developed recently in the areas of computer graphics and animated films to the creation and modelling of 3D human organs, tissues, skeletons and bodies based on polygon mesh surfaces. Female and male adult human phantoms, called FASH (Female Adult meSH) and MASH (Male Adult meSH), have been designed using software, such as MakeHuman, Blender, Binvox and ImageJ, based on anatomical atlases, observing at the same time organ masses recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection for the male and female reference adult in report no 89. 113 organs, bones and tissues have been modelled in the FASH and the MASH phantoms representing locations for adults in standing posture. Most organ and tissue masses of the voxelized versions agree with corresponding data from ICRP89 within a margin of 2.6%. Comparison with the mesh-based male RPI{sub A}M and female RPI{sub A}F phantoms shows differences with respect to the material used, to the software and concepts applied, and to the anatomies created.

  19. Modified Team-Based Learning Strategy to Improve Human Anatomy Learning: A Pilot Study at the Universidad Del Norte in Barranquilla, Colombia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, Emilio G.; Tuesca, Rafael

    2014-01-01

    As part of an institutional program sponsored by the Centre for Teaching Excellence at the Universidad del Norte, Barranquilla, Colombia, we developed an educational research study on two sessions of human anatomy in which we combined team-based learning (TBL) and the use of iPads. Study data included the TBL, assessments applied during the…

  20. The Implementation of Clay Modeling and Rat Dissection into the Human Anatomy and Physiology Curriculum of a Large Urban Community College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haspel, Carol; Motoike, Howard K.; Lenchner, Erez

    2014-01-01

    After a considerable amount of research and experimentation, cat dissection was replaced with rat dissection and clay modeling in the human anatomy and physiology laboratory curricula at La Guardia Community College (LAGCC), a large urban community college of the City University of New York (CUNY). This article describes the challenges faculty…

  1. In vitro delineation of human brain-stem anatomy using a small resonator: correlation with macroscopic and histological findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Our purpose was to investigate the potential of an experimental animal coil using a commercial MRI unit to delineate the anatomical structure of the human brain stem. Three formaldehyde-fixed brain-stem specimens were examined by MRI and sectioned perpendicular to their longitudinal axis. The images were compared with gross anatomy and myelin-stained histological sections. Fibre tracts and nuclei which were not evident on examination of the unstained specimen were readily identified by MRI. Due to its inherent grey/white matter contrast, MRI with a high-resolution coil delineates anatomical structures in a way comparable to the myelin-stained histological sections. However, pigmented structures, readily visible on examination of the unstained specimen were discernible on neither MRI nor on myelin-stained sections. The excellent anatomical detail and grey/white matter contrast provided by these images could make MRI a useful adjunct to the pathologist investigating brain disease. (orig.)

  2. Anatomy and metabolism of the normal human brain studied by magnetic resonance at 1.5 Tesla

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proton magnetic resonance (MR) images were obtained of the human head in magnetic fields as high as 1.5 Tesla (T) using slotted resonator high radio-frequency (RF) detection coils. The images showed no RF field penetration problems and exhibited an 11 (+/-1)-fold improvement in signal-to-noise ratio over a .12-T imaging system. The first localized phosphorus 31, carbon 13, and proton MR chemical shift spectra recorded with surface coils from the head and body in the same instrument showed relative concentrations of phosphorus metabolites, triglycerides, and, when correlated with proton images, negligible lipid (-CH2-) signal from brain tissue on the time scale of the imaging experiment. Sugar phosphate and phosphodiester concentrations were significantly elevated in the head compared with muscle. This method should allow the combined assessment of anatomy, metabolism, and biochemistry in both the normal and diseased brain

  3. Robottens Anatomi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Antabi, Mimo

    Rapport der beskriver de samlede erfaringer fra arbejdet med produktionen af teaterforestillingen Robottens Anatomi. Indehoder bl.a. interviews med medvirkende, bidrag fra instruktør, synopsis, beskrivelse af scenografi mv.......Rapport der beskriver de samlede erfaringer fra arbejdet med produktionen af teaterforestillingen Robottens Anatomi. Indehoder bl.a. interviews med medvirkende, bidrag fra instruktør, synopsis, beskrivelse af scenografi mv....

  4. Environmental Waste Management in a School Hospital and in a Laboratory of Human Anatomy of a University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kira Lusa Manfredini

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The scientific and professional activities developed in a Hospital School and a Laboratory of Human Anatomy of a university can generate parallel, chemical residues from various degrees of angerousness, which may require physical treatment and / or suitable chemical, before being sent to final destination. The General Hospital (GH generates monthly 10 L of xylenes and 50 L of glutaraldehyde to provide ass instance to their patients. Already the Laboratory of Human Anatomy of University de Caxias do Sul (AL-UCS uses more than 10,000 liters for preserving corpses in tanks. The present study aims to analyze the chemical waste management of the GH and the AL-UCS and propose techniques for recovery and reuse of chemicals formaldehyde, glutaraldehyde and xylenes, minimizing the impacts generated by the use, often indispensable and sometimes questionable, of such waste. So far two sets of samples were collected (in March and April 2013 of xylene, glutaraldehyde and formaldehyde in the GH and also at the AL-UCS and it is intended to repeat the collections with monthly periodicity, in the next two semesters. Partial results show that, comparing the relationship of area and the medium areas of the chromatographic (in µV.s of patterns with compounds of interest, an increase in the percentage of formaldehyde relative to the samples in standard formalin (121.84% may be due to contamination with organic compounds with a retention time close to the compound of interest, the xylene was little degradation in the samples, indicating that this compound can be reused in the common procedures of healthcare institutions, with respect to glutaraldehyde significant degradation was observed for the compound in samples represents only 61.88% of the chromatographic peak area of the standard, therefore the reuse of these compounds may require the use of purification methods such as simple distillation and fractional distillation

  5. Consideration of humanity qualities education in human anatomy teaching%人体解剖学教学融入人文素质教育的思考

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尚开健; 高胜利

    2012-01-01

    Infiltrated with the humanistic quality education, human anatomy teaching should emphasize and carry out the idea of ''the guiding function of the teacher and the subject position of the student", so as to fuel and bring into full play of the positivity and initiative of both students and teachers. Through the understanding of human anatomy history and the learning of perseverance and dedication from scientists, the devotion spirit of students in seeking the truth will be developed. The combination of anatomy teaching and materialist dialectics can help students grasp the basic viewpoint of materialist dialectics and improve their application capabilities of Marxism. And the combination of knowledge education and ethics education can help students to set up their materialistic ethics viewpoints such as respect for others and the life first. Moreover, this kind of combination can also guide students to know the human aesthetic values, develop correct aesthetic outlooks and enhance aesthetic tastes of students. The improvement of humanistic quality is a lifelong process. For the teachers of anatomy, only through the good combination of inside and outside classroom teaching, double pay can gain.%人体解剖学教学融入人文素质教育需要贯彻"教师为主导,学生为主体"的思想,发挥教师和学生的积极性和主动性.通过了解人体解剖学史,学习科学家坚持不懈的精神和无私奉献的品质,培养学生为追求真理而献身的精神;将解剖学教学和唯物辩证法结合起来,帮助学生把握唯物辩证法的基本观点,提高运用马克思主义的能力;将知识教育和伦理学教育相结合,树立尊重他人、生命至上的唯物主义伦理观;引导学生认识人体的美学价值,树立正确的审美观,提升审美情趣.人文素质的提高是一个终身教化的过程,对解剖学教师而言,只有课堂内外相有机结合,才能起到事半功倍的效果.

  6. The Anatomy Puzzle Book.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Willis H.; Carter, Robert, III

    This document features review questions, crossword puzzles, and word search puzzles on human anatomy. Topics include: (1) Anatomical Terminology; (2) The Skeletal System and Joints; (3) The Muscular System; (4) The Nervous System; (5) The Eye and Ear; (6) The Circulatory System and Blood; (7) The Respiratory System; (8) The Urinary System; (9) The…

  7. The future of gross anatomy teaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malamed, S; Seiden, D

    1995-01-01

    A survey of U.S. departments of anatomy, physiology, and biochemistry shows that 39% of the respondent anatomy departments reported declines in the numbers of graduate students taking the human gross anatomy course. Similarly, 42% of the departments reported decreases in the numbers of graduate students teaching human gross anatomy. These decreases were greater in anatomy than in physiology and in biochemistry. The percentages of departments reporting increases in students taking or teaching their courses was 6% for human gross anatomy and 0% to 19% for physiology and biochemistry courses. To reverse this trend the establishment of specific programs for the training of gross anatomy teachers is advocated. These new teachers will be available as the need for them is increasingly recognized in the future.

  8. OLFACTION: ANATOMY, PHYSIOLOGY AND BEHAVIOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    The anatomy, physiology and function of the olfactory system are reviewed, as are the normal effects of olfactory stimulation. It is speculated that olfaction may have important but unobtrusive effects on human behavior.

  9. Stedets Anatomi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Lasse Juel

    Titlen på denne ph.d.-afhandling, Stedets Anatomi – en teoretisk undersøgelse af stedets og rumlighedens betydning for leg, computerspil og læring, skitserer ikke kun afhandlingens teoretiske dimensionering, men også dens analytiske bliks tematik i forbindelse med undersøgelsen af fænomenerne leg...

  10. Cortex-sparing fiber dissection: an improved method for the study of white matter anatomy in the human brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martino, Juan; De Witt Hamer, Philip C; Vergani, Francesco; Brogna, Christian; de Lucas, Enrique Marco; Vázquez-Barquero, Alfonso; García-Porrero, Juan A; Duffau, Hugues

    2011-01-01

    Classical fiber dissection of post mortem human brains enables us to isolate a fiber tract by removing the cortex and overlying white matter. In the current work, a modification of the dissection methodology is presented that preserves the cortex and the relationships within the brain during all stages of dissection, i.e. ‘cortex-sparing fiber dissection’. Thirty post mortem human hemispheres (15 right side and 15 left side) were dissected using cortex-sparing fiber dissection. Magnetic resonance imaging study of a healthy brain was analyzed using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI)-based tractography software. DTI fiber tract reconstructions were compared with cortex-sparing fiber dissection results. The fibers of the superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF), inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus (IFOF), inferior longitudinal fasciculus (ILF) and uncinate fasciculus (UF) were isolated so as to enable identification of their cortical terminations. Two segments of the SLF were identified: first, an indirect and superficial component composed of a horizontal and vertical segment; and second, a direct and deep component or arcuate fasciculus. The IFOF runs within the insula, temporal stem and sagittal stratum, and connects the frontal operculum with the occipital, parietal and temporo-basal cortex. The UF crosses the limen insulae and connects the orbito-frontal gyri with the anterior temporal lobe. Finally, a portion of the ILF was isolated connecting the fusiform gyrus with the occipital gyri. These results indicate that cortex-sparing fiber dissection facilitates study of the 3D anatomy of human brain tracts, enabling the tracing of fibers to their terminations in the cortex. Consequently, it is an important tool for neurosurgical training and neuroanatomical research. PMID:21767263

  11. The Anatomy of Learning Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhelmsson, Niklas; Dahlgren, Lars Owe; Hult, Hakan; Scheja, Max; Lonka, Kirsti; Josephson, Anna

    2010-01-01

    The experience of clinical teachers as well as research results about senior medical students' understanding of basic science concepts has much been debated. To gain a better understanding about how this knowledge-transformation is managed by medical students, this work aims at investigating their ways of setting about learning anatomy.…

  12. Anatomy of large animal spines and its comparison to the human spine: a systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Sheng, Sun-Ren; Wang, Xiang-Yang; Xu, Hua-zi; Zhu, Guo-Qing; Zhou, Yi-fei

    2009-01-01

    Animal models have been commonly used for in vivo and in vitro spinal research. However, the extent to which animal models resemble the human spine has not been well known. We conducted a systematic review to compare the morphometric features of vertebrae between human and animal species, so as to give some suggestions on how to choose an appropriate animal model in spine research. A literature search of all English language peer-reviewed publications was conducted using PubMed, OVID, Springe...

  13. Academic performance in human anatomy and physiology classes: a 2-yr study of academic motivation and grade expectation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturges, Diana; Maurer, Trent W; Allen, Deborah; Gatch, Delena Bell; Shankar, Padmini

    2016-03-01

    This project used a nonexperimental design with a convenience sample and studied the relationship between academic motivation, grade expectation, and academic performance in 1,210 students enrolled in undergraduate human anatomy and physiology (HAP) classes over a 2-yr period. A 42-item survey that included 28 items of the adapted academic motivation scale for HAP based on self-determination theory was administered in class during the first 3 wk of each semester. Students with higher grade point averages, who studied for longer hours and reported to be more motivated to succeed, did better academically in these classes. There was a significant relationship between students' scores on the adapted academic motivation scale and performance. Students were more extrinsically motivated to succeed in HAP courses than intrinsically motivated to succeed, and the analyses revealed that the most significant predictor of final grade was within the extrinsic scale (introjected and external types). Students' motivations remained stable throughout the course sequence. The data showed a significant relationship between HAP students' expected grade and their final grade in class. Finally, 65.5% of students overestimated their final grade, with 29% of students overestimating by two to four letter grades. PMID:26847254

  14. Students as resurrectionists--A multimodal humanities project in anatomy putting ethics and professionalism in historical context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, Rachel R; Jones, Trahern W; Hussain, Fareeda Taher Nazer; Bringe, Kariline; Harvey, Ronee E; Person-Rennell, Nicole H; Newman, James S

    2010-01-01

    Because medical students have many different learning styles, the authors, medical students at Mayo Clinic, College of Medicine researched the history of anatomical specimen procurement, reviewing topic-related film, academic literature, and novels, to write, direct, and perform a dramatization based on Robert Louis Stevenson's The Body-Snatcher. Into this performance, they incorporated dance, painting, instrumental and vocal performance, and creative writing. In preparation for the performance, each actor researched an aspect of the history of anatomy. These micro-research projects were presented in a lecture before the play. Not intended to be a research study, this descriptive article discusses how student research and ethics discussions became a theatrical production. This addition to classroom and laboratory learning addresses the deep emotional response experienced by some students and provides an avenue to understand and express these feelings. This enhanced multimodal approach to"holistic learning" could be applied to any topic in the medical school curriculum, thoroughly adding to the didactics with history, humanities, and team dynamics. PMID:20827724

  15. Students as resurrectionists--A multimodal humanities project in anatomy putting ethics and professionalism in historical context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, Rachel R; Jones, Trahern W; Hussain, Fareeda Taher Nazer; Bringe, Kariline; Harvey, Ronee E; Person-Rennell, Nicole H; Newman, James S

    2010-01-01

    Because medical students have many different learning styles, the authors, medical students at Mayo Clinic, College of Medicine researched the history of anatomical specimen procurement, reviewing topic-related film, academic literature, and novels, to write, direct, and perform a dramatization based on Robert Louis Stevenson's The Body-Snatcher. Into this performance, they incorporated dance, painting, instrumental and vocal performance, and creative writing. In preparation for the performance, each actor researched an aspect of the history of anatomy. These micro-research projects were presented in a lecture before the play. Not intended to be a research study, this descriptive article discusses how student research and ethics discussions became a theatrical production. This addition to classroom and laboratory learning addresses the deep emotional response experienced by some students and provides an avenue to understand and express these feelings. This enhanced multimodal approach to"holistic learning" could be applied to any topic in the medical school curriculum, thoroughly adding to the didactics with history, humanities, and team dynamics.

  16. Sensitivity field distributions for segmental bioelectrical impedance analysis based on real human anatomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work, an adaptive unstructured tetrahedral mesh generation technology is applied for simulation of segmental bioimpedance measurements using high-resolution whole-body model of the Visible Human Project man. Sensitivity field distributions for a conventional tetrapolar, as well as eight- and ten-electrode measurement configurations are obtained. Based on the ten-electrode configuration, we suggest an algorithm for monitoring changes in the upper lung area.

  17. Sensitivity field distributions for segmental bioelectrical impedance analysis based on real human anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danilov, A. A.; Kramarenko, V. K.; Nikolaev, D. V.; Rudnev, S. G.; Salamatova, V. Yu; Smirnov, A. V.; Vassilevski, Yu V.

    2013-04-01

    In this work, an adaptive unstructured tetrahedral mesh generation technology is applied for simulation of segmental bioimpedance measurements using high-resolution whole-body model of the Visible Human Project man. Sensitivity field distributions for a conventional tetrapolar, as well as eight- and ten-electrode measurement configurations are obtained. Based on the ten-electrode configuration, we suggest an algorithm for monitoring changes in the upper lung area.

  18. Three dimensional anatomy of complete duct systems in human breast: pathological and developmental implications.

    OpenAIRE

    Moffat, D. F.; Going, J J

    1996-01-01

    AIMS: To reconstruct the arrangement in space of all major ducts and their branches from nipple to periphery of a human breast obtained at necropsy. METHODS: Duct tracing through cleared haematoxylin stained 2 mm sub-gross coronal slices of a complete necropsy breast and computer modelling of duct territories. RESULTS: All branches were traced for 10 complete duct systems of a single breast from a 19 year old girl. Their complexity prevented comprehensive modelling of individual ducts and ram...

  19. High-energy x-ray grating-based phase-contrast radiography of human anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn, Florian; Hauke, Christian; Lachner, Sebastian; Ludwig, Veronika; Pelzer, Georg; Rieger, Jens; Schuster, Max; Seifert, Maria; Wandner, Johannes; Wolf, Andreas; Michel, Thilo; Anton, Gisela

    2016-03-01

    X-ray grating-based phase-contrast Talbot-Lau interferometry is a promising imaging technology that has the potential to raise soft tissue contrast in comparison to conventional attenuation-based imaging. Additionally, it is sensitive to attenuation, refraction and scattering of the radiation and thus provides complementary and otherwise inaccessible information due to the dark-field image, which shows the sub-pixel size granularity of the measured object. Until recent progress the method has been mainly limited to photon energies below 40 keV. Scaling the method to photon energies that are sufficient to pass large and spacious objects represents a challenging task. This is caused by increasing demands regarding the fabrication process of the gratings and the broad spectra that come along with the use of polychromatic X-ray sources operated at high acceleration voltages. We designed a setup that is capable to reach high visibilities in the range from 50 to 120 kV. Therefore, spacious and dense parts of the human body with high attenuation can be measured, such as a human knee. The authors will show investigations on the resulting attenuation, differential phase-contrast and dark-field images. The images experimentally show that X-ray grating-based phase-contrast radiography is feasible with highly absorbing parts of the human body containing massive bones.

  20. Molecular anatomy of interendothelial junctions in human blood-brain barrier microvessels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej W Vorbrodt

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Immunogold cytochemical procedure was used to study the localization at the ultrastructural level of interendothelial junction-associated protein molecules in the human brain blood microvessels, representing the anatomic site of the blood-brain barrier (BBB. Ultrathin sections of Lowicryl K4M-embedded biopsy specimens of human cerebral cortex obtained during surgical procedures were exposed to specific antibodies, followed by colloidal gold-labeled secondary antibodies. All tight junction-specific integral membrane (transmembrane proteins--occludin, junctional adhesion molecule (JAM-1, and claudin-5--as well as peripheral zonula occludens protein (ZO-1 were highly expressed. Immunoreactivity of the adherens junction-specific transmembrane protein VE-cadherin was of almost similar intensity. Immunolabeling of the adherens junction-associated peripheral proteins--alpha-catenin, beta-catenin, and p120 catenin--although positive, was evidently less intense. The expression of gamma-catenin (plakoglobin was considered questionable because solitary immunosignals (gold particles appeared in only a few microvascular profiles. Double labeling of some sections made possible to observe strict colocalization of the junctional molecules, such as occludin and ZO-1 or JAM-1 and VE-cadherin, in the interendothelial junctions. We found that in human brain microvessels, the interendothelial junctional complexes contain molecular components specific for both tight and adherens junctions. It is assumed that the data obtained can help us find the immunodetectable junctional molecules that can serve as sensitive markers of normal or abnormal function of the BBB.

  1. Observations on some of the plates used to illustrate the Lymphatics section of Andrew Fyfe's Compendium of the Anatomy of the Human Body, Published in 1800.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, M H

    1999-01-01

    An engraving displaying A General View of the Absorbent System was used as one of many plates illustrating the Lymphatics section of Andrew Fyfe's Compendium of the Anatomy of the Human Body published in 1800. It is a scaled-down version of a life-size engraving displayed in the museum of the Department of Anatomy at the University of Edinburgh, and is based on a cadaver specially dissected and injected with mercury in 1788 by Alexander Monro secundus, probably with the assistance of Fyfe, who was his 'dissector'. Only recently has the relationship between these two engravings been established, and the Figure Legend in Fyfe's Compendium now provides the missing key to the features illustrated in the life-size engraving. The source and very variable quality of some of Fyfe's other plates, both in the Lymphatics section and elsewhere in the book, are discussed. PMID:9890727

  2. Morphometrical study of the human kidney. Radiodiagnosis and patological anatomy applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A morphometrical estimate was made on 100 human kidneys obtained by necropsies. The results of the renal measurements showed the averages of 11.06cm long, 6.24cm wide for the superior pole, 5.42cm wide for the inferior pole, 3.26cm thickness, and 119.48g weight. The left kidney presented a greater lenght, greater width, greater thickness and greater weight than the kidney. The statistical analysis of the correlation between several indices is presented. (author)

  3. 人体断层解剖学教学实践中的几点体会%Practical Experience in the Teaching of Human Sectional Anatomy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李建国; 孟壮志; 刘海英; 王灵战

    2014-01-01

    人体断层解剖学是以断层方法,在不同方位断面上原位研究和表达正常人体器官、结构的形态、位置及其毗邻关系的科学,密切结合影像学诊断和介入放射学治疗是现代断层解剖学研究的主要特征。目前,断层解剖学教学尚缺乏完整的理论体系。在断层解剖学教学实践中,我们通过将培养学生辩证思维能力、互动式教学、小组讨论及学生主讲等教学手段的有效结合,激发学生的学习兴趣,促使学生积极主动地学习,获得了很好的教学效果。%The human sectional anatomy is a discipline to study and describe the appearance, location and mutual rela-tions of normal human organs or structures in situ in the different sections via sectioning. Sectional anatomy is charac-teristic of being closely related to the imaging diagnosis and interventional radiology treatment. But at present, the teaching of sectional anatomy is lack of satisfying theoretical system. In the practice of teaching sectional anatomy, we stimulate students’interest and motivate students through the effective combination of training the ability of students’ dialectical thinking, interactive teaching, group discussion and students’lecturing, and achieved good effects.

  4. Normal Female Reproductive Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... historical Searches are case-insensitive Reproductive System, Female, Anatomy Add to My Pictures View /Download : Small: 720x756 ... Large: 3000x3150 View Download Title: Reproductive System, Female, Anatomy Description: Anatomy of the female reproductive system; drawing ...

  5. Thymus Gland Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... historical Searches are case-insensitive Thymus Gland, Adult, Anatomy Add to My Pictures View /Download : Small: 720x576 ... Large: 3000x2400 View Download Title: Thymus Gland, Adult, Anatomy Description: Anatomy of the thymus gland; drawing shows ...

  6. Normal Pancreas Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... hyphen, e.g. -historical Searches are case-insensitive Pancreas Anatomy Add to My Pictures View /Download : Small: ... 1586x1534 View Download Large: 3172x3068 View Download Title: Pancreas Anatomy Description: Anatomy of the pancreas; drawing shows ...

  7. ["Acute human glanders". Contribution for the scientific history of the Museum of pathological anatomy established in Trieste Hospital].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braulin, F

    2005-12-01

    The Museum of Pathological Anatomy of the Regina Elena City Hospital of Trieste houses various pathological preparations of infective and contagious diseases, dating back to the early 1900's (ileo-typhus, dysentery, tuberculosis, syphillis, pulmonary plague, etc.) together with their relative diagnostic certificates. These bear witness to the key role of the Hospital's Anatomical Institute (in operation operating since 1872) during the height of the Pasteurian age. In fact, the Institute houses several anatomical-pathological preparations from a fatal clinical case of "acute human glanders". These preparations were correlated by laboratory animal experiments using Strauss' method and emblematically recall the eziological determinism of the new bacteriological science. The preparations served in their day not only as indisputable diagnostic evidence, but can now be considered a promotional metaphor of the scientific mission the Triestine Anatomical Institutés Director, Dr. Enrico Ferrarri (a disciple of Richard Paltauf), endeavored to assign to the Triestine Pathological and Anatomical Institute by strenghthening it with new laboratory methodologies. The establishment of a new "predominant and determining vision" in the international diagnostics of infectious disease was also emerging from the Haspurg city's hospital medicine. Indeed, it was here that in 1907, the brief scientific debate focussing on the cadaver of a coachman who had been infected by a glanders-infected horse was apparently taking place only locally. Yet, it can now be seen as referring to what was happening on the international scale, in a setting that after a century of empiricism and morphologism, was characterized by the progressive penetration of laboratory medicine into clinical-anatomical medicine.

  8. Altered human brain anatomy in chronic smokers: a review of magnetic resonance imaging studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chao; Xu, Xiaojun; Qian, Wei; Shen, Zhujing; Zhang, Minming

    2015-04-01

    Cigarette smoking is becoming more prevalent in developing countries, such as China, and is the largest single cause of preventable death worldwide. New emerging reports are highlighting how chronic cigarette smoking plays a role in neural dysfunctions, such as cognitive decline. Basic animal experimental studies have shown that rats undergo persistent pathological brain changes after being given chronic levels of nicotine. What is perhaps less appreciated is the fact that chronic cigarette smoking induces subtle anatomical changes in the human brain. Consequently, this chapter aims to summarize and integrate the existing magnetic resonance imaging studies on both gray- and white-matter marcostructural and microstructural changes. The reviewed studies demonstrate that chronic cigarette smoking results in discrete and localized alterations in brain region tissue (both the gray and white matter of different brain regions), which may, in part, be responsible for different neural dysfunctions. In addition, we further discuss the possible pathological and neurobiological mechanisms of these nicotinic effects on the brain tissue. We will also address the limitations of the current studies on this issue and identify opportunities for future research. PMID:25577510

  9. Human papillomavirus infection in the oromaxillofacial area: Clinical anatomy and histological considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilea, Aranka; Boşca, Bianca; MiclĂuş, Viorel; Rus, Vasile; BĂbţan, Anida Maria; CÂmpian, Radu Septimiu

    2015-11-01

    Clinical manifestations of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in the head and neck can range from benign lesions, which are the most frequent, to malignant lesions. The prevalence of head and neck cancer is increasing, despite currently decreasing trends in known risk factors such as smoking and alcohol use. A new patient profile has appeared in recent practice: most frequently a middle-aged male patient who does not smoke or drink alcohol, is sexually active (possibly having multiple partners), and presents with oral or cervicofacial lesions requiring diagnosis and treatment. Another risk factor that should be considered in these patients is HPV infection. The association of oral potentially malignant disorders (OPMD) with HPV is a challenge for the medical practitioner. The gold standard for diagnosis is histopathological examination, which can also yield evidence suggesting HPV infection. Determination of the viral genotype provides additional data for assessing the oncological risk of an HPV infection. Treatment of these patients is aimed at removing the lesions, in association or not with antiviral treatment and recurrence control. PMID:26331491

  10. The anatomy workbook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is an atlas of human anatomy presented in the form of line drawings, many of which correspond to imaging planes used in ultrasound (US), computed tomography (CT), and magnetic resonance (MR). The book is organized into 17 sections, each covering a specific structure or organ system. Large, uncluttered drawings are labeled for identification of structures of interest. Many illustrations include captions consisting of comments explaining major divisions within organs, specific anatomic relationships and landmarks, and pertinent vascular anatomy. Most organs are first depicted in isolation or in relation to important adjacent organs or blood vessels and are rendered as if viewed from anterior, posterior, inferior, or superior perspectives. The organs are demonstrated again in serial transverse, saggital, and coronal sections, each accompanied by a drawing of a body in anatomic position denoting the plane of the section

  11. A Retrospective Look at Replacing Face-to-Face Embryology Instruction with Online Lectures in a Human Anatomy Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beale, Elmus G.; Tarwater, Patrick M.; Lee, Vaughan H.

    2014-01-01

    Embryology is integrated into the Clinically Oriented Anatomy course at the Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center School of Medicine. Before 2008, the same instructor presented embryology in 13 face-to-face lectures distributed by organ systems throughout the course. For the 2008 and 2009 offerings of the course, a hybrid embryology…

  12. Executions and scientific anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolezal, Antonín; Jelen, Karel; Stajnrtova, Olga

    2015-12-01

    The very word "anatomy" tells us about this branch's connection with dissection. Studies of anatomy have taken place for approximately 2.300 years already. Anatomy's birthplace lies in Greece and Egypt. Knowledge in this specific field of science was necessary during surgical procedures in ophthalmology and obstetrics. Embalming took place without public disapproval just like autopsies and manipulation with relics. Thus, anatomical dissection became part of later forensic sciences. Anatomical studies on humans themselves, which needed to be compared with the knowledge gained through studying procedures performed on animals, elicited public disapprobation and prohibition. When faced with a shortage of cadavers, anatomists resorted to obtaining bodies of the executed and suicide victims - since torture, public display of the mutilated body, (including anatomical autopsy), were perceived as an intensification of the death penalty. Decapitation and hanging were the main execution methods meted out for death sentences. Anatomists preferred intact bodies for dissection; hence, convicts could thus avoid torture. This paper lists examples of how this process was resolved. It concerns the manners of killing, vivisection on people in the antiquity and middle-ages, experiments before the execution and after, vivifying from seeming death, experiments with galvanizing electricity on fresh cadavers, evaluating of sensibility after guillotine execution, and making perfect anatomical preparations and publications during Nazism from fresh bodies of the executed. PMID:26859596

  13. Shark Attack! Sinking Your Teeth into Anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    House, Herbert

    2002-01-01

    Presents a real life shark attack story and studies arm reattachment surgery to teach human anatomy. Discusses how knowledge of anatomy can be put to use in the real world and how the arm functions. Includes teaching notes and suggestions for classroom management. (YDS)

  14. Soul Anatomy: A virtual cadaver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moaz Bambi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the traditional science of medicine and medical education, teaching human anatomy in the class has always been done using human cadavers. Not only does this violate human sanctity, but according to our research, it is not adequate to provide students with the alleged educational value that it is supposed to deliver. It is very cumbersome to organise all the aspects of cadaver care. Cadavers are also very limited when it comes to controlling their structures and any benefit is almost completely altered the first time the cadaver is used (dissected, and ironically, it is very weak at delivering actual real-life scenarios of a human body to students. Virtual anatomy has been a promising solution that many are counting on. But even today, we have not found a complete solution that combines all the benefits of using human cadavers and those introduced by its technical counterparts. "Soul Anatomy" aims to do just that. It brings the best of all worlds, from a natural intuitive control system, life-like feel of organs, precise accuracy in moving and controlling bodily structures, to the smallest details of being able to show medical information overlays from various medical databases connected to the internet; thus making use of technology in teaching human anatomy by providing a modern learning experience.

  15. Learning of Cross-Sectional Anatomy Using Clay Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Chang-Seok; Kim, Ji-Young; Choe, Yeon Hyeon

    2009-01-01

    We incorporated clay modeling into gross anatomy and neuro-anatomy courses to help students understand cross-sectional anatomy. By making clay models, cutting them and comparing cut surfaces to CT and MR images, students learned how cross-sectional two-dimensional images were created from three-dimensional structure of human organs. Most students…

  16. Normal cranial CT anatomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The human brain consists of well-known anatomical components. Some parts of these components have been shown to be concerned with certain functions. A complete cranial CT examination consists of a series of several slices obtained in a sequence usually from the base to the vertex of the cranial vault, in the axial mode. The ultimate goal of this chapter is to pinpoint those slices that depict a given anatomical structure or several structures that deal with a given function. To achieve this goal, the discussion of CT cranial anatomy is presented in three sections

  17. Use of an audience response system during peer teaching among physical therapy students in human gross anatomy: perceptions of peer teachers and students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wait, Kevin R; Cloud, Beth A; Forster, Lindsey A; Jones, Tiffany M; Nokleby, Jessica J; Wolfe, Cortney R; Youdas, James W

    2009-01-01

    An audience response system (ARS) has become popular among educators in medicine and the health professions because of the system's ability to engage listeners during a lecture presentation. No one has described the usefulness of ARS technology during planned nonlecture peer teaching sessions in gross anatomy instruction for health professionals. The unique feature of each peer teaching session was a nongraded 12-15 item ARS quiz assembled by six second-year doctor of physical therapy (DPT) students and purposely placed at the beginning of the review session for those first-year DPT students in attendance. This study used a ten-item questionnaire and a five-point Likert scale in addition to three open ended questions to survey perceptions of both first-year and second-year DPT students about the usefulness of ARS technology implemented during weekly interactive peer teaching sessions during a semester course in Anatomy for Physical Therapists. First-year students overwhelmingly acknowledged the ARS system permitted each student to self-assess his/her preparedness for a quiz or examination and compare his/her performance with that of classmates. Peer teachers recognized an ARS quiz provided them an opportunity to: (1) estimate first-year students' level of understanding of anatomical concepts; and (2) effectively prepare first-year students for their weekly quizzes and future examinations. On the basis of the mutual benefits derived by both students/tutees and teachers/tutors, physical therapist educators may wish to consider using ARS technology to enhance teaching methods for a class in gross human anatomy. PMID:19764082

  18. [Pandora's box of anatomy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinberg, Uri; Reis, Shmuel

    2008-05-01

    Physicians in Nazi Germany were among the first to join the Nazi party and the SS, and were considered passionate and active supporters of the regime. Their actions included development and implementation of the racial theory thus legitimizing the development of the Nazi genocide plan, leadership and execution of the sterilization and euthanasia programs as well as atrocious human experimentation. Nazi law allowed the use of humans and their remains in research institutions. One of the physicians whose involvement in the Nazi regime was particularly significant was Eduard Pernkopf. He was the head of the Anatomy Institute at the University of Vienna, and later became the president of the university. Pernkopf was a member of the Nazi party, promoted the idea of "racial hygiene", and in 1938, "purified" the university from all Jews. In Pernkopfs atlas of anatomy, the illustrators expressed their sympathy to Nazism by adding Nazi symbols to their illustrations. In light of the demand stated by the "Yad Vashem" Institute, the sources of the atlas were investigated. The report, which was published in 1998, determined that Pernkopfs Anatomy Institute received almost 1400 corpses from the Gestapo's execution chambers. Copies of Pernkopfs atlas, accidentally exposed at the Rappaport School of Medicine in the Technion, led to dilemmas concerning similar works with a common background. The books initiated a wide debate in Israel and abroad, regarding ethical aspects of using information originated in Nazi crimes. Moreover, these findings are evidence of the evil to which science and medicine can give rise, when they are captured as an unshakable authority. PMID:18770971

  19. Anatomy of the Eye

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Conditions Frequently Asked Questions Español Condiciones Chinese Conditions Anatomy of the Eye En Español Read in Chinese External (Extraocular) Anatomy Extraocular Muscles: There are six muscles that are ...

  20. 人体解剖学教学内容与方法改革探索%Probing on reform of teaching methods and contents of human anatomy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨耀防

    2007-01-01

    Human anatomy is a hard subject for teachers to teach and a hard course for medical students to learn.For good memorization of the human anatomy knowledge by students,the teacher should learn and master the teaching skills and techniques.Author has probed the instructional reform on the teaching contents and methods and introduced some experiences on them such as making a pithy formula,combining with clinics and human body,drawing,giving an example and pushing self-study.%人体解剖学是一门难教难学的医学基础课程,要使学生学好记牢解剖学知识,教师必须学习和掌握一定的教学方法和技巧.本文介绍了笔者多年教学过程中积累的教学经验,从抓重点一教学内容典型化、编口诀-复杂内容简单化、系临床-理论知识应用化、用人体-讲授内容形象化四方面优化教学内容,从描绘简图-教学直观式、列举实例-授课趣味式、动静结合-手段多样式、倡导自学-学习主动式四方面改革教学方法,取得了较好的教学效果.

  1. Introduction to Construction and Management of Museum of Human Anatomy%浅谈新型人体科学标本馆的建设和管理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡丽霞; 潘荣斌; 侯吉华; 李青

    2016-01-01

    现代新型人体科学标本馆是集教学,科研,对外交流于一体的展馆。标本馆的文化建设和管理团队的建设直接影响标本馆的服务功能和服务质量。制度化管理和数字化管理是实现标本馆多元化利用的有效保障。%The modern museum of human anatomy contains the function of teaching, scientific research and cultural communication. The culture construction and the management team construction directly affect the service function and service quality. According to the system management and digital management is the effective safeguard to the diversified utilization.

  2. Methods to learn human anatomy: perceptions of medical students in paraclinical and clinical phases regarding cadaver dissection and other learning methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maitreyee Mutalik

    2016-07-01

    Conclusions: Perception of knowledge by an individual student is different based on the individual primary mental abilities. Therefore, some individuals may show better learning by particular methods. Hence a blend of different methodologies to teach a subject is helpful for majority of the students. In the teaching of human gross anatomy too, a combination of different methods has been in use. However, in the era of decrease in course duration, high and ldquo;student:cadaver ratio and rdquo;, and easy availability of newer technologies, there is a need to review the priorities and preferences of the methods or to find out different ways to use the existing methods to increase their effectiveness. [Int J Res Med Sci 2016; 4(7.000: 2536-2541

  3. Application of People-Oriented Teaching Conception for Human Anatomy%以人为本的高师“人体解剖学”教学

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱庆丰

    2014-01-01

    Human anatomy is characterized with broad content and a great amount of boring terminologies that strongly hinder students to comprehend and memorize the knowledge. Even worse, the teaching hours and experimental conditions for this subject in normal university are usually insufficient, which remarkably reduce audience's learning interest. This paper is sought to improve the teaching effects for Human Anatomy by adopting people-oriented teaching conception, such as esteeming life value, integrating hu-manistic cultivation, stimulating students' interest and fostering their scientific ideality, based on the course arrangement and the teaching status in our school. Some experience has been summarized that may be universally suitable for other normal universities, and some actual practice has been illustrated that may contribute to push students to combine theory with practice and further promote their application abilities.%人体结构复杂繁多,名词术语枯燥乏味,滞碍学生对人体知识的理解和记忆。高等师范院校该课程的学时偏少,且实验条件不足,不少学生对该课程缺乏学习兴趣。针对我校“人体解剖学”课程设置特点与教学现状,从尊重生命价值、融入人文教育、激发主体兴趣、培养科学素养等方面,构筑“以人为本”的教学观,探索提高“人体解剖学”教学效果的途径及措施,促进学生将理论知识与生活实践相结合,培养学以致用的新型人才。

  4. Human Lumbar Ligamentum Flavum Anatomy for Epidural Anesthesia: Reviewing a 3D MR-Based Interactive Model and Postmortem Samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reina, Miguel A; Lirk, Philipp; Puigdellívol-Sánchez, Anna; Mavar, Marija; Prats-Galino, Alberto

    2016-03-01

    The ligamentum flavum (LF) forms the anatomic basis for the loss-of-resistance technique essential to the performance of epidural anesthesia. However, the LF presents considerable interindividual variability, including the possibility of midline gaps, which may influence the performance of epidural anesthesia. We devise a method to reconstruct the anatomy of the digitally LF based on magnetic resonance images to clarify the exact limits and edges of LF and its different thickness, depending on the area examined, while avoiding destructive methods, as well as the dissection processes. Anatomic cadaveric cross sections enabled us to visually check the definition of the edges along the entire LF and compare them using 3D image reconstruction methods. Reconstruction was performed in images obtained from 7 patients. Images from 1 patient were used as a basis for the 3D spinal anatomy tool. In parallel, axial cuts, 2 to 3 cm thick, were performed in lumbar spines of 4 frozen cadavers. This technique allowed us to identify the entire ligament and its exact limits, while avoiding alterations resulting from cutting processes or from preparation methods. The LF extended between the laminas of adjacent vertebrae at all vertebral levels of the patients examined, but midline gaps are regularly encountered. These anatomical variants were reproduced in a 3D portable document format. The major anatomical features of the LF were reproduced in the 3D model. Details of its structure and variations of thickness in successive sagittal and axial slides could be visualized. Gaps within LF previously studied in cadavers have been identified in our interactive 3D model, which may help to understand their nature, as well as possible implications for epidural techniques.

  5. Neutron anatomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The familiar extremes of crystalline material are single-crystals and random powders. In between these two extremes are polycrystalline aggregates, not randomly arranged but possessing some preferred orientation and this is the form taken by constructional materials, be they steel girders or the bones of a human or animal skeleton. The details of the preferred orientation determine the ability of the material to withstand stress in any direction. In the case of bone the crucial factor is the orientation of the c-axes of the mineral content - the crystals of the hexagonal hydroxyapatite - and this can readily be determined by neutron diffraction. In particular it can be measured over the volume of a piece of bone, utilizing distances ranging from 1mm to 10mm. The major practical problem is to avoid the intense incoherent scattering from the hydrogen in the accompanying collagen; this can best be achieved by heat-treatment and it is demonstrated that this does not affect the underlying apatite. These studies of bone give leading anatomical information on the life and activities of humans and animals - including, for example, the life history of the human femur, the locomotion of sheep, the fracture of the legs of racehorses and the life-styles of Neolithic tribes. We conclude that the material is placed economically in the bone to withstand the expected stresses of life and the environment. The experimental results are presented in terms of the magnitude of the 0002 apatite reflection. It so happens that for a random powder the 0002, 1121 reflections, which are neighboring lines in the powder pattern, are approximately equal in intensity. The latter reflection, being of manifold multiplicity, is scarcely affected by preferred orientation so that the numerical value of the 0002/1121 ratio serves quite accurately as a quantitative measure of the degree of orientation of the c-axes in any chosen direction for a sample of bone

  6. Neutron anatomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bacon, G.E. [Univ. of Sheffield (United Kingdom)

    1994-12-31

    The familiar extremes of crystalline material are single-crystals and random powders. In between these two extremes are polycrystalline aggregates, not randomly arranged but possessing some preferred orientation and this is the form taken by constructional materials, be they steel girders or the bones of a human or animal skeleton. The details of the preferred orientation determine the ability of the material to withstand stress in any direction. In the case of bone the crucial factor is the orientation of the c-axes of the mineral content - the crystals of the hexagonal hydroxyapatite - and this can readily be determined by neutron diffraction. In particular it can be measured over the volume of a piece of bone, utilizing distances ranging from 1mm to 10mm. The major practical problem is to avoid the intense incoherent scattering from the hydrogen in the accompanying collagen; this can best be achieved by heat-treatment and it is demonstrated that this does not affect the underlying apatite. These studies of bone give leading anatomical information on the life and activities of humans and animals - including, for example, the life history of the human femur, the locomotion of sheep, the fracture of the legs of racehorses and the life-styles of Neolithic tribes. We conclude that the material is placed economically in the bone to withstand the expected stresses of life and the environment. The experimental results are presented in terms of the magnitude of the 0002 apatite reflection. It so happens that for a random powder the 0002, 1121 reflections, which are neighboring lines in the powder pattern, are approximately equal in intensity. The latter reflection, being of manifold multiplicity, is scarcely affected by preferred orientation so that the numerical value of the 0002/1121 ratio serves quite accurately as a quantitative measure of the degree of orientation of the c-axes in any chosen direction for a sample of bone.

  7. Evaluation of anatomy and morphology of human mandibular premolar teeth by cone-beam computed tomography in Iranian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amin Sobhani Mohhsen

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available   Background and Aims: Successful root canal therapy requires knowledge of tooth anatomy and root canal morphology. For permanent mandibular premolars, great variety in size, shape and number of roots and root fusion expression has been reported in the literature. There is a wide variety of methods used in studies for evaluating the root canal morphology. One of these methods is Cone-beam Computed tomography (CBCT that reduces the limitations of two-dimensional X-ray imaging, with less exposure in comparison with other 3D radiographies. Thus, this study was designed to evaluate the differences in the root and canal morphology of permanent mandibular premolars in an Iranian population by means of CBCT images.   Materials and Methods: We searched a database of CBCT scans and evaluated 400 (20-60 years old patients who met the inclusion criteria and teeth in this images (CBCT were evaluated in three dimensions (Axial, Coronal and Sagital. Tooth length, number of roots, number of canals, canal type, root curvature and the effect of gender on any of the items mentioned were evaluated. Data were analyzed using T-test.   Results: The average length of the first premolar of mandibular was 22.27 mm and second premolar was 22.28 mm. 98.4% of the first premolar and 98.2% of the second premolar were single root., and 87.3% and 93.1% were single channel. The incidence of number of canals based on vertochy divisions were:type 1: 90.7% and 90.8%, type 0: 2.2% and 2.8%, type 4: 3.3% and 3.1%, type 6: 1.4% and 2.1% and type 3: 2.5% and 1.5% respectively. In any case, there was no significant difference between males and females (P<0.001.   Conclusion: Results indicate that dentists can obtain valuable information about the anatomy and morphology of the root canals using CBCT.

  8. Cerebral Anatomy of the Spider Monkey Ateles Geoffroyi Studied Using Magnetic Resonance Imaging. First Report: a Comparative Study with the Human Brain Homo Sapiens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Chico-Ponce de León

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present qualitative studywas to analyze the morphological aspects of theinner cerebral anatomy of two species of primates,using magnetic resonance images (MRI:spider monkey (A. geoffroyi and human (H.sapiens, on the basis of a comparative study ofthe cerebral structures of the two species, focusingupon the brain of the spider monkey and,primarily, its limbic system. In spite of beingan endemic Western hemisphere species, a factwhich is by its own right interesting for researchdue to this animal’s social organization and motorfunctions, the spider monkey (A. geoffroyihas hardly been studied in regard to its neuroanatomy.MRI was carried out, in one spidermonkey, employing a General Electric Signa1.5 T scanner. This investigation was carried inaccordance to international regulations for theprotection of animals in captivity, taking intoaccount all protective means utilized in experimentalhandling, and not leaving behind any residualeffects, either physiological or behavioral.From a qualitative point of view, the brains ofthe spider monkey and the human were found to have similar structures. In reference to shape,the most similar structures were found in thelimbic system; proportionally, however, cervical curvature, amygdala, hippocampus, anteriorcommissure and the colliculi, were larger in thespider monkey than in the human.

  9. AnatomiQuiz

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brent, Mikkel Bo; Kristoffersen, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    AnatomiQuiz er en quiz-app udviklet til bevægeapparatets anatomi. Den består af mere end 2300 spørgsmål og over 1000 anatomiske billeder. Alle spørgsmål tager udgangspunkt i lærebogen Bevægeapparatets anatomi af Finn Bojsen-Møller m.fl.......AnatomiQuiz er en quiz-app udviklet til bevægeapparatets anatomi. Den består af mere end 2300 spørgsmål og over 1000 anatomiske billeder. Alle spørgsmål tager udgangspunkt i lærebogen Bevægeapparatets anatomi af Finn Bojsen-Møller m.fl....

  10. Anatomy of the lymphatics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skandalakis, John E; Skandalakis, Lee J; Skandalakis, Panagiotis N

    2007-01-01

    The lymphatic system is perhaps the most complicated system of Homo sapiens. An introduction to the anatomy, embryology, and anomalies of the lymphatics is presented. The overall anatomy and drainage of the lymphatic vessels in outlined. The topographic anatomy, relations, and variations of the principle vessels of the lymphatic system (the right lymphatic duct, the thoracic duct, and the cisterna chyli) are presented in detail.

  11. High-resolution anatomy of the human brain stem using 7-T MRI: improved detection of inner structures and nerves?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this paper is to assess the value of 7 Tesla (7 T) MRI for the depiction of brain stem and cranial nerve (CN) anatomy. Six volunteers were examined at 7 T using high-resolution SWI, MPRAGE, MP2RAGE, 3D SPACE T2, T2, and PD images to establish scanning parameters targeted at optimizing spatial resolution. Direct comparisons between 3 and 7 T were performed in two additional subjects using the finalized sequences (3 T: T2, PD, MPRAGE, SWAN; 7 T: 3D T2, MPRAGE, SWI, MP2RAGE). Artifacts and the depiction of structures were evaluated by two neuroradiologists using a standardized score sheet. Sequences could be established for high-resolution 7 T imaging even in caudal cranial areas. High in-plane resolution T2, PD, and SWI images provided depiction of inner brain stem structures such as pons fibers, raphe, reticular formation, nerve roots, and periaqueductal gray. MPRAGE and MP2RAGE provided clear depiction of the CNs. 3D T2 images improved depiction of inner brain structure in comparison to T2 images at 3 T. Although the 7-T SWI sequence provided improved contrast to some inner structures, extended areas were influenced by artifacts due to image disturbances from susceptibility differences. Seven-tesla imaging of basal brain areas is feasible and might have significant impact on detection and diagnosis in patients with specific diseases, e.g., trigeminal pain related to affection of the nerve root. Some inner brain stem structures can be depicted at 3 T, but certain sequences at 7 T, in particular 3D SPACE T2, are superior in producing anatomical in vivo images of deep brain stem structures. (orig.)

  12. High-resolution anatomy of the human brain stem using 7-T MRI: improved detection of inner structures and nerves?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gizewski, Elke R. [Medical University Innsbruck, Department of Neuroradiology, Innsbruck (Austria); Maderwald, Stefan [University Duisburg-Essen, Erwin L. Hahn Institute for Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Essen (Germany); Linn, Jennifer; Bochmann, Katja [LMU Munich, Department of Neuroradiology, Munich (Germany); Dassinger, Benjamin [Medical University Innsbruck, Department of Neuroradiology, Innsbruck (Austria); Justus-Liebig-University Giessen, Department of Neuroradiology, Giessen (Germany); Forsting, Michael [University Hospital, University Duisburg-Essen, Departments of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology and Neuroradiology, Essen (Germany); Ladd, Mark E. [University Duisburg-Essen, Erwin L. Hahn Institute for Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Essen (Germany); University Hospital, University Duisburg-Essen, Departments of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology and Neuroradiology, Essen (Germany)

    2014-03-15

    The purpose of this paper is to assess the value of 7 Tesla (7 T) MRI for the depiction of brain stem and cranial nerve (CN) anatomy. Six volunteers were examined at 7 T using high-resolution SWI, MPRAGE, MP2RAGE, 3D SPACE T2, T2, and PD images to establish scanning parameters targeted at optimizing spatial resolution. Direct comparisons between 3 and 7 T were performed in two additional subjects using the finalized sequences (3 T: T2, PD, MPRAGE, SWAN; 7 T: 3D T2, MPRAGE, SWI, MP2RAGE). Artifacts and the depiction of structures were evaluated by two neuroradiologists using a standardized score sheet. Sequences could be established for high-resolution 7 T imaging even in caudal cranial areas. High in-plane resolution T2, PD, and SWI images provided depiction of inner brain stem structures such as pons fibers, raphe, reticular formation, nerve roots, and periaqueductal gray. MPRAGE and MP2RAGE provided clear depiction of the CNs. 3D T2 images improved depiction of inner brain structure in comparison to T2 images at 3 T. Although the 7-T SWI sequence provided improved contrast to some inner structures, extended areas were influenced by artifacts due to image disturbances from susceptibility differences. Seven-tesla imaging of basal brain areas is feasible and might have significant impact on detection and diagnosis in patients with specific diseases, e.g., trigeminal pain related to affection of the nerve root. Some inner brain stem structures can be depicted at 3 T, but certain sequences at 7 T, in particular 3D SPACE T2, are superior in producing anatomical in vivo images of deep brain stem structures. (orig.)

  13. [Surgery without anatomy?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stelzner, F

    2016-08-01

    Anatomy is the basis of all operative medicine. While this branch of scientific medicine is frequently not explicitly mentioned in surgical publications, it is nonetheless quintessential to medical education. In the era of video sequences and digitized images, surgical methods are frequently communicated in the form of cinematic documentation of surgical procedures; however, this occurs without the help of explanatory drawings or subtexts that would illustrate the underlying anatomical nomenclature, comment on fine functionally important details or even without making any mention of the surgeon. In scientific manuscripts color illustrations frequently appear in such overwhelming quantities that they resemble long arrays of trophies but fail to give detailed explanations that would aid the therapeutic translation of the novel datasets. In a similar fashion, many anatomy textbooks prefer to place emphasis on illustrations and photographs while supplying only a paucity of explanations that would foster the understanding of functional contexts and thus confuse students and practitioners alike. There is great temptation to repeat existing data and facts over and over again, while it is proportionally rare to make reference to truly original scientific discoveries. A number of examples are given in this article to illustrate how discoveries that were made even a long time ago can still contribute to scientific progress in current times. This includes the NO signaling molecules, which were first described in 1775 but were only discovered to have a pivotal role as neurotransmitters in the function of human paradoxical sphincter muscles in 2012 and 2015. Readers of scientific manuscripts often long for explanations by the numerous silent coauthors of a publication who could contribute to the main topic by adding in-depth illustrations (e. g. malignograms, evolution and involution of lymph node structures). PMID:27251482

  14. Anatomy Ontology Matching Using Markov Logic Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunhua Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The anatomy of model species is described in ontologies, which are used to standardize the annotations of experimental data, such as gene expression patterns. To compare such data between species, we need to establish relationships between ontologies describing different species. Ontology matching is a kind of solutions to find semantic correspondences between entities of different ontologies. Markov logic networks which unify probabilistic graphical model and first-order logic provide an excellent framework for ontology matching. We combine several different matching strategies through first-order logic formulas according to the structure of anatomy ontologies. Experiments on the adult mouse anatomy and the human anatomy have demonstrated the effectiveness of proposed approach in terms of the quality of result alignment.

  15. How useful is plastination in learning anatomy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latorre, Rafael M; García-Sanz, Mari P; Moreno, Matilde; Hernández, Fuensanta; Gil, Francisco; López, Octavio; Ayala, Maria D; Ramírez, Gregorio; Vázquez, Jose M; Arencibia, Alberto; Henry, Robert W

    2007-01-01

    In recent years plastination has begun to revolutionize the way in which human and veterinary gross anatomy can be presented to students. The study reported here assessed the efficacy of plastinated organs as teaching resources in an innovative anatomy teaching/learning system. The main objective was to evaluate whether the use of plastinated organs improves the quality of teaching and learning of anatomy. For this purpose, we used an interdepartmental approach involving the departments of Veterinary Anatomy, Human Anatomy, Veterinary Surgery, and Education Development and Research Methods. The knowledge base of control and experimental student groups was examined before and after use of the fixed or plastinated resources, respectively, to gather information evaluating the effectiveness of these teaching resources. Significant differences (p plastinated specimens. Using these data, we were able to quantitatively characterize the use of plastinated specimens as anatomy teaching resources. This analysis showed that all the plastinated resources available were heavily used and deemed useful by students. Although the properties of plastinated specimens accommodate student needs at various levels, traditional material should be used in conjunction with plastinated resources. PMID:17446645

  16. Contemporary art and the ethics of anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barilan, Y Michael

    2007-01-01

    The ethics of anatomy bears on the ways in which we present and behold human bodies and human remains, as well as on the duties we have with regard to the persons whose bodies or body parts are presented. Anatomy is also a mode of thought and of social organization. Following Merleau-Ponty's assertion that the human body belongs both to the particular and to the metaphysical, I contend that art's ways of rendering of the particular in human anatomy often bring into relief metaphysical and ethical insights relevant to clinical medicine. This paper discusses the art of Gideon Gechtman, Mary Ellen Mark, Shari Zolla, and Christine Borland. It considers the relationship of these artists to earlier artistic traditions and the implications of their work for contemporary medicine and the biopsychosocial paradigm. Andrew Wyeth, the Visible Male Project, the Isenheim Altarpiece by GrA(1/4)newald, and an anonymous Dutch Baroque portrait are also discussed. PMID:17259679

  17. Anatomy: Spotlight on Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Beverley; Pather, Nalini; Ihunwo, Amadi O.

    2008-01-01

    Anatomy departments across Africa were surveyed regarding the type of curriculum and method of delivery of their medical courses. While the response rate was low, African anatomy departments appear to be in line with the rest of the world in that many have introduced problem based learning, have hours that are within the range of western medical…

  18. Anatomy Comic Strips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jin Seo; Kim, Dae Hyun; Chung, Min Suk

    2011-01-01

    Comics are powerful visual messages that convey immediate visceral meaning in ways that conventional texts often cannot. This article's authors created comic strips to teach anatomy more interestingly and effectively. Four-frame comic strips were conceptualized from a set of anatomy-related humorous stories gathered from the authors' collective…

  19. Computer-Assisted Learning in Anatomy at the International Medical School in Debrecen, Hungary: A Preliminary Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kish, Gary; Cook, Samuel A.; Kis, Greta

    2013-01-01

    The University of Debrecen's Faculty of Medicine has an international, multilingual student population with anatomy courses taught in English to all but Hungarian students. An elective computer-assisted gross anatomy course, the Computer Human Anatomy (CHA), has been taught in English at the Anatomy Department since 2008. This course focuses on an…

  20. 高职护理专业人体解剖学创新教育探讨%Discussions on the Innovative Education of Human Anatomy in Higher Nursing Vocational Education

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李亚光

    2015-01-01

    人体解剖学是护理专业的重要基础课程,对临床护理工作具有重要的意义。本文通过对高职院校护理专业人体解剖学教学现状进行分析,结合教学实践,对开展创新教育进行探讨。%Human anatomy is one of the important basic courses for nursing specialty, and with important signiifcance for clinical nursing work. The assay gives an analysis on the teaching situation of human anatomy in higher nursing vocational education, and combines with the teaching practice, to explore the development of innovation education.

  1. Anatomy comic strips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jin Seo; Kim, Dae Hyun; Chung, Min Suk

    2011-01-01

    Comics are powerful visual messages that convey immediate visceral meaning in ways that conventional texts often cannot. This article's authors created comic strips to teach anatomy more interestingly and effectively. Four-frame comic strips were conceptualized from a set of anatomy-related humorous stories gathered from the authors' collective imagination. The comics were drawn on paper and then recreated with digital graphics software. More than 500 comic strips have been drawn and labeled in Korean language, and some of them have been translated into English. All comic strips can be viewed on the Department of Anatomy homepage at the Ajou University School of Medicine, Suwon, Republic of Korea. The comic strips were written and drawn by experienced anatomists, and responses from viewers have generally been favorable. These anatomy comic strips, designed to help students learn the complexities of anatomy in a straightforward and humorous way, are expected to be improved further by the authors and other interested anatomists. PMID:21634024

  2. Comparative Micro-Anatomy of the Orbicularis Oris Muscle between Chimpanzees and Humans: Evolutionary Divergence of Lip Function

    OpenAIRE

    Rogers, Carolyn R.; Mooney, Mark P.; Smith, Timothy D; Weinberg, Seth M.; Bridget M Waller; Parr, Lisa A.; Docherty, Beth A.; Bonar, Christopher J.; Reinholt, Lauren E.; Deleyiannis, Frederic W.-B.; Siegel, Michael I.; Marazita, Mary L.; Burrows, Anne M.

    2009-01-01

    The orbicularis oris muscle (OOM) plays a role in the production of primate facial expressions and vocalizations, nutrient intake, and in some non-human primates it is used as a prehensile, manipulative tool. Since the chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) is the closest living relative of humans, a comparison of the OOM between these species may increase our understanding of the morphological specializations related to differing functional demands of their lips and the factors responsible for their d...

  3. Non-destructive, preclinical evaluation of root canal anatomy of human teeth with flat-panel detector volume CT (FD-VCT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Successful endodontic diagnostics and therapy call for adequate depiction of the root canal anatomy with multimodal diagnostic imaging. The aim of the present study is to evaluate visualization of the endodont with flat-panel detector volume CT (FD-VCT). Materials and methods: 13 human teeth were examined with the prototype of a FD-VCT. After data acquisition and generation of volume data sets in volume rendering technology (VRT), the findings obtained were compared to conventional X-rays and cross-section preparations of the teeth. Results: The anatomical structures of the endodont such as root canals, side canals and communications between different root canals as well as dentricles could be detected precisely with FD-VCT. The length of curved root canals was also determined accurately. The spatial resolution of the system is around 140 μm. Only around 73% of the main root canals detected with FD-VCT and 87% of the roots could be visualized with conventional dental X-rays. None of the side canals, shown with FD-VCT, was detectable on conventional X-rays. In all cases the enamel and dentin of the teeth could be well delineated. No differences in image quality could be discerned between stored and freshly extracted teeth, or between primary and adult teeth. (orig.)

  4. [Dental anatomy of dogs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkisian, E G

    2014-12-01

    The aim of the research was to investigate dog teeth anatomy as animal model for study of etiopathogenesis of caries disease and physiological tooth wear in human. After examining the dog's dental system, following conclusions were drawn: the dog has 42 permanent teeth, which are distributed over the dental arches not equally, and so the upper dentition consists of 20, and the lower of 22 teeth. The largest are considered upper fourth premolar and lower first molars, which are called discordant teeth. Between discordant teeth and fangs a dog has an open bite, which is limited to the top and bottom conical crown premolar teeth. Thus, in the closed position of the jaws, behind this occlusion is limited by discordant teeth, just in contact are smaller in size two molars. Only large dog's molars in a valid comparison can be likened to human molars, which allows us to use them in an analog comparison between them with further study of the morphological features ensure durability short-crown teeth and their predisposition to caries.

  5. A Review of the Comparative Anatomy, Histology, Physiology and Pathology of the Nasal Cavity of Rats, Mice, Dogs and Non-human Primates. Relevance to Inhalation Toxicology and Human Health Risk Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamanza, R; Wright, J A

    2015-11-01

    There are many significant differences in the structural and functional anatomy of the nasal cavity of man and laboratory animals. Some of the differences may be responsible for the species-specific nasal lesions that are often observed in response to inhaled toxicants. This paper reviews the comparative anatomy, physiology and pathology of the nasal cavity of the rat, mouse, dog, monkey and man, highlighting factors that may influence the distribution of nasal lesions. Gross anatomical variations such as turbinate structure, folds or grooves on nasal walls, or presence or absence of accessory structures, may influence nasal airflow and species-specific uptake and deposition of inhaled material. In addition, interspecies variations in the morphological and biochemical composition and distribution of the nasal epithelium may affect the local tissue susceptibility and play a role in the development of species-specific nasal lesions. It is concluded that, while the nasal cavity of the monkey might be more similar to that of man, each laboratory animal species provides a model that responds in a characteristic and species-specific manner. Therefore for human risk assessment, careful consideration must be given to the anatomical differences between a given animal model and man.

  6. Long-Term Human Outcomes of a "Shotgun" Marriage in Higher Education: Anatomy of a Merger, Two Decades Later

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pritchard, Rosalind; Williamson, Arthur

    2007-01-01

    This article addresses a gap in the research literature on mergers in higher education by giving special consideration to the human resource dimension. It focuses on the forced merger of two higher education institutions that was implemented in Northern Ireland over 20 years ago and from which the University of Ulster was established. The authors…

  7. The beauty of anatomy: visual displays and surgical education in early-nineteenth-century London.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkowitz, Carin

    2011-01-01

    The early-nineteenth-century artist, anatomist, and teacher Sir Charles Bell saw anatomy and art as closely related subjects. He taught anatomy to artists and surgeons, illustrated his own anatomical texts, and wrote a treatise on the use of anatomy in art. The author explores the connections among visual displays representing human anatomy, aesthetics, and pedagogical practices for Bell and a particular group of British surgeon-anatomists. Creating anatomical models and drawings was thought to discipline the surgeon's hand, while the study of anatomy and comparative anatomy would discipline the artist's eye. And for Bell, beauty made drawings into better pedagogical tools. PMID:21804185

  8. Skull Base Anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Chirag R; Fernandez-Miranda, Juan C; Wang, Wei-Hsin; Wang, Eric W

    2016-02-01

    The anatomy of the skull base is complex with multiple neurovascular structures in a small space. Understanding all of the intricate relationships begins with understanding the anatomy of the sphenoid bone. The cavernous sinus contains the carotid artery and some of its branches; cranial nerves III, IV, VI, and V1; and transmits venous blood from multiple sources. The anterior skull base extends to the frontal sinus and is important to understand for sinus surgery and sinonasal malignancies. The clivus protects the brainstem and posterior cranial fossa. A thorough appreciation of the anatomy of these various areas allows for endoscopic endonasal approaches to the skull base.

  9. Anatomy of Sarcocaulon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. L. Verhoeven

    1983-12-01

    Full Text Available The anatomy of the leaf blade, petiole, stem and root of the genus Sarcocaulon (DC. Sweet is discussed. On the basis of the leaf anatomy, the four sections recognized by Moffett (1979 can be identified: section Denticulati (dorsiventral leaves, section Multifidi (isobilateral leaves and adaxial and abaxial palisade continuous at midvein, section Crenati (isobilateral leaves, short curved trichomes and glandular hairs, section Sarcocaulon (isobilateral leaves and glandular hairs only. The anatomy of the stem is typically that of a herbaceous dicotyledon with a thick periderm. The root structure shows that the function of the root is not food storage.

  10. Anatomy and histology of rodent and human major salivary glands: -overview of the Japan salivary gland society-sponsored workshop-.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amano, Osamu; Mizobe, Kenichi; Bando, Yasuhiko; Sakiyama, Koji

    2012-10-31

    MAJOR SALIVARY GLANDS OF BOTH HUMANS AND RODENTS CONSIST OF THREE PAIRS OF MACROSCOPIC GLANDS: parotid, submandibular, and sublingual. These glands secrete serous, mucous or mixed saliva via the proper main excretory ducts connecting the glandular bodies with the oral cavity. A series of discoveries about the salivary ducts in the 17th century by Niels Stensen (1638-1686), Thomas Wharton (1614-1673), and Caspar Bartholin (1655-1738) established the concept of exocrine secretion as well as salivary glands. Recent investigations have revealed the endocrine functions of parotin and a variety of cell growth factors produced by salivary glands.The present review aims to describe macroscopic findings on the major salivary glands of rodents and the microscopic differences between those of humans and rodents, which review should be of interest to those researchers studying salivary glands.

  11. Comparative Anatomy of the Subsynovial Connective Tissue in the Carpal Tunnel of the Rat, Rabbit, Dog, Baboon, and Human

    OpenAIRE

    Ettema, Anke M.; Zhao, Chunfeng; An, Kai-Nan; Amadio, Peter C.

    2006-01-01

    The tenosynovium in the human carpal tunnel is connected to the flexor tendons and the median nerve by the subsynovial connective tissue (SSCT). The most common histological finding in carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS), a compression neuropathy of the median nerve, is noninflammatory fibrosis of the SSCT. The relationship, if any, between the fibrosis and nerve pathology is unknown, although some have speculated that a change in the SSCT volume or stiffness might be the source of the compression. ...

  12. Comparison of a Gross Anatomy Laboratory to Online Anatomy Software for Teaching Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathiowetz, Virgil; Yu, Chih-Huang; Quake-Rapp, Cindee

    2016-01-01

    This study was designed to assess the grades, self-perceived learning, and satisfaction between occupational therapy students who used a gross anatomy laboratory versus online anatomy software (AnatomyTV) as tools to learn anatomy at a large public university and a satellite campus in the mid-western United States. The goal was to determine if…

  13. Keratinocytes as depository of ammonium-inducible glutamine synthetase: age- and anatomy-dependent distribution in human and rat skin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lusine Danielyan

    Full Text Available In inner organs, glutamine contributes to proliferation, detoxification and establishment of a mechanical barrier, i.e., functions essential for skin, as well. However, the age-dependent and regional peculiarities of distribution of glutamine synthetase (GS, an enzyme responsible for generation of glutamine, and factors regulating its enzymatic activity in mammalian skin remain undisclosed. To explore this, GS localization was investigated using immunohistochemistry and double-labeling of young and adult human and rat skin sections as well as skin cells in culture. In human and rat skin GS was almost completely co-localized with astrocyte-specific proteins (e.g. GFAP. While GS staining was pronounced in all layers of the epidermis of young human skin, staining was reduced and more differentiated among different layers with age. In stratum basale and in stratum spinosum GS was co-localized with the adherens junction component beta-catenin. Inhibition of, glycogen synthase kinase 3beta in cultured keratinocytes and HaCaT cells, however, did not support a direct role of beta-catenin in regulation of GS. Enzymatic and reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction studies revealed an unusual mode of regulation of this enzyme in keratinocytes, i.e., GS activity, but not expression, was enhanced about 8-10 fold when the cells were exposed to ammonium ions. Prominent posttranscriptional up-regulation of GS activity in keratinocytes by ammonium ions in conjunction with widespread distribution of GS immunoreactivity throughout the epidermis allows considering the skin as a large reservoir of latent GS. Such a depository of glutamine-generating enzyme seems essential for continuous renewal of epidermal permeability barrier and during pathological processes accompanied by hyperammonemia.

  14. Does Spatial Ability Help the Learning of Anatomy in a Biomedical Science Course?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeney, Kevin; Hayes, Jennifer A.; Chiavaroli, Neville

    2014-01-01

    A three-dimensional appreciation of the human body is the cornerstone of clinical anatomy. Spatial ability has previously been found to be associated with students' ability to learn anatomy and their examination performance. The teaching of anatomy has been the subject of major change over the last two decades with the reduction in time spent…

  15. Evolutionary anatomies of positions and types of disease-associated and neutral amino acid mutations in the human genome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subramanian Sankar

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Amino acid mutations in a large number of human proteins are known to be associated with heritable genetic disease. These disease-associated mutations (DAMs are known to occur predominantly in positions essential to the structure and function of the proteins. Here, we examine how the relative perpetuation and conservation of amino acid positions modulate the genome-wide patterns of 8,627 human disease-associated mutations (DAMs reported in 541 genes. We compare these patterns with 5,308 non-synonymous Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (nSNPs in 2,592 genes from primary SNP resources. Results The abundance of DAMs shows a negative relationship with the evolutionary rate of the amino acid positions harboring them. An opposite trend describes the distribution of nSNPs. DAMs are also preferentially found in the amino acid positions that are retained (or present in multiple vertebrate species, whereas the nSNPs are over-abundant in the positions that have been lost (or absent in the non-human vertebrates. These observations are consistent with the effect of purifying selection on natural variation, which also explains the existence of lower minor nSNP allele frequencies at highly-conserved amino acid positions. The biochemical severity of the inter-specific amino acid changes is also modulated by natural selection, with the fast-evolving positions containing more radical amino acid differences among species. Similarly, DAMs associated with early-onset diseases are more radical than those associated with the late-onset diseases. A small fraction of DAMs (10% overlap with the amino acid differences between species within the same position, but are biochemically the most conservative group of amino acid differences in our datasets. Overlapping DAMs are found disproportionately in fast-evolving amino acid positions, which, along with the conservative nature of the amino acid changes, may have allowed some of them to escape natural

  16. 数字化人体图像和三维模型在解剖教学中的应用%Digital images and three-dimensional model of human anatomy teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周启良; 邓雪英; 胡明华

    2015-01-01

    通过在教学过程中,将数字化人体图像和三维模型进行融入其中,能有效提高学生对人体的理解和认识,从而有效提高教学质量。通过应用现代影像学和人体解剖学,实现数字化模型的建立,并将实物断层面图像和影像进行对照,从而加深对图像的理解,并深刻记忆影像之间的联系和区别。总的来说,数字化人体图像和三维模型在解剖学应用中,能有效提高其教学质量,值得在解剖教学中推广应用。%Through the teaching process, the digitized images and three-dimensional model of the human body into which can effectively improve the students' understanding and awareness of the human body, thus effectively improving the quality of teaching. Through the application of modern imaging and human anatomy, to achieve the establishment of digital models and physical fault plane images and video were compared, in order to deepen ties and understanding of the distinction between exercise and deep memory between the images. In general, digital images and three-dimensional models of human anatomy application, can effectively improve the quality of their teaching, is worth promoting in anatomy teaching applications.

  17. Detailed sectional anatomy of the spine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morphologic studies on the human spine constitute a special challenge because of the spine's complex topographic anatomy and the intimate relationship between the supporting skeleton and the contiguous soft tissues (muscles, discs, joint capsules) as well as the neurovascular contents of the spinal canal and intervertebral foramina. The improving resolution and multiplanar image reformatting capabilities of modern CT scanners call for accurate anatomic reference material. Such anatomic images should be available without distortion, in natural colors, and in considerable detail. The images should present the anatomy in the correct axial, sagittal, and coronal planes and should also be sufficiently closely spaced so as to follow the thin cuts of modern CT scanners. This chapter details one of several recent attempts to correlate gross anatomy with the images depicted by high-resolution CT. The methods of specimen preparation, sectioning, and photographing have been documented elsewhere

  18. Pentingnya Pengetahuan Anatomi untuk 3D Artist

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton Sugito Kurniawan

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available No matter how far the current technological advances, anatomical knowledge will still be needed as a basis for making a good character design. Understanding anatomy will help us in the placement of the articulation of muscles and joints, thus more realistic modeling of 3d characters will be achieved in the form and movement. As a 3d character artist, anatomy should be able to inform in every aspect of our work. Each 3D/CG (Computer Graphics-artist needs to know how to use software applications, but what differentiates a 3d artist with a computer operator is an artistic vision and understanding of the basic shape of the human body. Artistic vision could not easily be taught, but a CG-artist may study it on their own from which so many reference sources may help understand and deepen their knowledge of anatomy.

  19. Human Structure in Six and One-Half Weeks: One Approach to Providing Foundational Anatomical Competency in an Era of Compressed Medical School Anatomy Curricula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halliday, Nancy; O'Donoghue, Daniel; Klump, Kathryn E.; Thompson, Britta

    2015-01-01

    The University of Oklahoma College of Medicine reduced gross anatomy from a full semester, 130-hour course to a six and one-half week, 105-hour course as part of a new integrated systems-based pre-clinical curriculum. In addition to the reduction in contact hours, content from embryology, histology, and radiology were added into the course. The…

  20. Delaware Anatomy: With Linguistic, Social, and Medical Aspects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Jay

    1977-01-01

    Presents the comprehensive partonomy of anatomy in Unami Lenape or Delaware as provided by a modern Unami specialist. The primary referent is the human body, but some comparative terms referring to animals and plants are also provided. (CHK)

  1. Variation in root wood anatomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cutler, D.F.

    1976-01-01

    Variability in the anatomy of root wood of selected specimens particularly Fraxinus excelsior L. and Acer pseudoplatanus L. in the Kew reference microscope slide collection is discussed in relation to generalised statements in the literature on root wood anatomy.

  2. Anatomy relevant to conservative mastectomy

    OpenAIRE

    O’Connell, Rachel L.; Rusby, Jennifer E

    2015-01-01

    Knowledge of the anatomy of the nipple and breast skin is fundamental to any surgeon practicing conservative mastectomies. In this paper, the relevant clinical anatomy will be described, mainly focusing on the anatomy of the “oncoplastic plane”, the ducts and the vasculature. We will also cover more briefly the nerve supply and the arrangement of smooth muscle of the nipple. Finally the lymphatic drainage of the nipple and areola will be described. An appreciation of the relevant anatomy, tog...

  3. Investigation on medical students' attitudes towards body donation and human anatomy practicum%医学生对遗体捐献及人体解剖学实习态度的调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵晗洁; 张鹏; 李震中; 樊平

    2012-01-01

    目的 调查当前人体解剖学教学遗体的使用情况及医学生对遗体捐献和解剖实习课的态度,为人体解剖学教学提供建议.方法 对河北医科大学300名在校生进行现场问卷调查,对所得数据进行对比分析.结果 解剖实习课教学用尸体数量严重不足,直接影响解剖教学质量;医学生对解剖实习课态度欠佳,对遗体捐献了解程度较低;影响遗体捐献的主要因素是传统观念、缺乏人文关怀和遗体捐献程序复杂.结论 应对遗体捐献工作加强宣传、做好人文关怀;简化捐献程序、加强立法,以缓解解剖实习课尸源不足;通过教学改革提高学生解剖课实习兴趣及人文素养.%Objective To investigate the current application of teaching cadavers and attitudes of medical students towards body donation and anatomy practicum and to make proposals on teaching and learning of human anatomy.Methods A on the spot questionnaire survey among 300 students studying in Hebei Medical University was conducted and the acquired data were contrasted analyzed.Results The teaching cadavers were insufficient and the quality of anatomy education was directly affected.Medical students took unfavorable attitudes towards anatomy practice and knew little about body donation.The main factors affected body donations were traditional concepts,lack of humanistic concern and complicated procedures of donation.Conclusions The short of teaching cadavers would be relieved by enhancing propaganda and legislation,emphasizing humanistic concern,simplifying procedures of donation.By means of anatomy teaching reformations,the learning interest and humanistic literacy of medical students are supposed to be improved.

  4. Learning Anatomy Enhances Spatial Ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorstenbosch, Marc A. T. M.; Klaassen, Tim P. F. M.; Donders, A. R. T.; Kooloos, Jan G. M.; Bolhuis, Sanneke M.; Laan, Roland F. J. M.

    2013-01-01

    Spatial ability is an important factor in learning anatomy. Students with high scores on a mental rotation test (MRT) systematically score higher on anatomy examinations. This study aims to investigate if learning anatomy also oppositely improves the MRT-score. Five hundred first year students of medicine ("n" = 242, intervention) and…

  5. Teaching Anatomy in the XXI Century: New Aspects and Pitfalls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronica Papa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Anatomy has historically been a cornerstone in medical education regardless of nation, racial background, or medical school system. By learning gross anatomy, medical students get a first “impression” about the structure of the human body which is the basis for understanding pathologic and clinical problems. Although the importance of teaching anatomy to both undergraduate and postgraduate students remains undisputed, there is currently a relevant debate concerning methods of anatomy teaching. In the past century, dissection and lectures were its sole pedagogy worldwide. Recently, the time allocated for anatomy teaching was dramatically reduced to such an extent that some suggest that it has fallen below an adequate standard. Traditional anatomy education based on topographical structural anatomy taught in lectures and gross dissection classes has been replaced by a multiple range of study modules, including problem-based learning, plastic models or computer-assisted learning, and curricula integration. “Does the anatomical theatre still have a place in medical education?” And “what is the problem with anatomic specimens?” We endeavor to answer both of these questions and to contribute to the debate on the current situation in undergraduate and graduate anatomy education.

  6. Greek anatomist herophilus: the father of anatomy

    OpenAIRE

    Bay, Noel Si-Yang; Bay, Boon-Huat

    2010-01-01

    One of the most stirring controversies in the history of Anatomy is that Herophilus, an ancient Greek anatomist and his younger contemporary, Erasistratus, were accused of performing vivisections of living humans. However, this does not detract from the fact that Herophilus has made phenomenal anatomical observations of the human body which have contributed significantly towards the understanding of the brain, eye, liver, reproductive organs and nervous system. It is notable that he was the f...

  7. The history and the art of anatomy: a source of inspiration even nowadays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavrodi, Alexandra; Paraskevas, George; Kitsoulis, Panagiotis

    2013-01-01

    Ever since man started to study systematically medicine for the first time he recognized the value of the knowledge of Anatomy in order to safely cut and treat the human body. However, over the centuries it has been proved that Anatomy is more than just a scientific field of medicine. The fact that Anatomy requires the use of human cadavers as an object to study brought to the surface many moral issues, which adumbrated its turbulent past. Additionally, Anatomy and its inextricable element, illustration, has many times been a source of inspiration for both the anatomists and the artists. This paper aims on the one hand to provide a condensed overview of the history of Anatomy and on the other hand to investigate the way Anatomy penetrates Art and, conversely, Art penetrates Anatomy.

  8. Anatomy for Biomedical Engineers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmichael, Stephen W.; Robb, Richard A.

    2008-01-01

    There is a perceived need for anatomy instruction for graduate students enrolled in a biomedical engineering program. This appeared especially important for students interested in and using medical images. These students typically did not have a strong background in biology. The authors arranged for students to dissect regions of the body that…

  9. Leaf anatomy and photosynthesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berghuijs, H.N.C.

    2016-01-01

    Keywords: CO2 diffusion, C3 photosynthesis, mesophyll conductance, mesophyll resistance, re-assimilation, photorespiration, respiration, tomato Herman Nicolaas Cornelis Berghuijs (2016). Leaf anatomy and photosynthesis; unravelling the CO2 diffusion pathway in C3 leaves. PhD thesis. Wageningen Unive

  10. Evaluation of Concrete Resources Utilized in the Human Anatomy Laboratory Teaching Program Designed by a Medical University%盘点实物资源在医学高等院校人体解剖学实验教学中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    莫飞嵘; 郭灵

    2013-01-01

      在医学高等院校人体解剖学实验教学中,实物资源是必不可少的,对其进行分类与评估,将有助于提高这种资源在实验教学中的使用效率及教学质量。%The concrete resources of human anatomy laboratory course are necessary and indispensable for teaching human anatomy to medical students in a medical university. Classification and assessment of the resources are beneficial both to raising the effectiveness of relative resource exploitations and to improving the qualities of practice outcomes during human anatomy laboratory teaching.

  11. To Cultivate the Students’ Ability of Human Anatomy and Physiology Experiment Teaching%浅谈人体解剖生理学实验教学中学生的能力培养

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋平

    2014-01-01

    Human anatomy and physiology experiment teaching plays an important role in the secondary occupation medical specialty system. The author in this paper will be the human anatomy and physiology experiment teaching ability training as the starting point for research on teaching content,and then,on the practice teaching methods,process, methods and the cultivation of students' comprehensive quality,reform and innovation are elaborated,in order to promote the development of the traditional teaching mode for the cultivation of talents,teaching means and mode plays a certain role in promoting.%人体解剖生理学实验教学在中等职业医学类专业体系中占有十分重要的地位。基于此在研究过程中以中职学生人体解剖生理学实验教学的能力培养作为研究的切入点,而后就实践教学中的教学内容、方法、过程、手段以及学生综合素质培养等方面的改革与创新进行阐述,以期能够推动传统教学模式的发展,为教学手段和人才模式培养起到一定的推动作用。

  12. Hepatic surgical anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skandalakis, John E; Skandalakis, Lee J; Skandalakis, Panajiotis N; Mirilas, Petros

    2004-04-01

    The liver, the largest organ in the body, has been misunderstood at nearly all levels of organization, and there is a tendency to ignore details that do not fit the preconception. A complete presentation of the surgical anatomy of the liver includes the study of hepatic surfaces, margins, and fissures; the various classifications of lobes and segments; and the vasculature and lymphatics. A brief overview of the intrahepatic biliary tract is also presented.

  13. Penile Embryology and Anatomy

    OpenAIRE

    Yiee, Jenny H.; Baskin, Laurence S

    2010-01-01

    Knowledge of penile embryology and anatomy is essential to any pediatric urologist in order to fully understand and treat congenital anomalies. Sex differentiation of the external genitalia occurs between the 7thand 17th weeks of gestation. The Y chromosome initiates male differentiation through the SRY gene, which triggers testicular development. Under the influence of androgens produced by the testes, external genitalia then develop into the penis and scrotum. Dorsal nerves supply penile sk...

  14. What impact does anatomy education have on clinical practice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Claire France; Mathias, Haydn Socrates

    2011-01-01

    There is continuing debate regarding doctors' knowledge of anatomy as an appropriate preparation for professional practice. This exploratory case study examined alumni's experiences of learning anatomy. The aim was to inform curriculum development and to gain a better understanding of how anatomy knowledge is applied in practice. A total of 140 medical student alumni from the University of Southampton participated in this study (49% males, 51% females). Participants completed a Likert scale questionnaire with free comment sections. Descriptive results found that: using cadaveric material was an effective way of learning anatomy; assessment was a major motivator; and around half of students forgot a lot of anatomy but that knowledge came back easily. Statistical analysis revealed associations between certain positive and negative factors in learning. Links were also seen with current job role, revealing that those who responded to positive factors were involved in careers which involved a great deal of anatomy and vice versa. To facilitate learning, anatomy should be taught throughout the curriculum and use human cadavers. Relating knowledge to practice requires transformation of knowledge and is best facilitated by the learning being situated in clinical contexts.

  15. Undergraduate perspectives on the teaching and learning of anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Rob; Batty, Lachlan

    2009-03-01

    The volume of time dedicated to anatomy teaching has steadily decreased in the context of increasingly dense undergraduate curricula. We examine the complex topic of anatomical education from the undergraduate perspective, with a focus on student perceptions, their origins and their potential solutions. A limited dataset suggests students perceive their tuition in anatomy may be suboptimal. Multiple factors (including the intensity of pre-clinical studies, academic criticism of modern courses, surgical culture and misinformation) may account for the unrest. It is difficult to objectively measure the impact of modified anatomy curriculum on clinical performance and patient safety. While there is a case (on the basis of student perception at least) for reinvigorating elements of undergraduate anatomy education, the modern medical educational framework is here to stay, and students and clinicians must learn to adapt. Anatomy must be linked with contemporary approaches to medical education and it should be integrated, continuous and guided. It is critical that clinicians engage in the teaching of anatomy in the clinical environment and they must be adequately resourced to do so. Graduates must emerge with a core understanding of anatomy, but not an encyclopaedic knowledge of the human form. Undergraduate programme should simply strive to equip their graduates with a foundation for lifelong learning and a platform for safe practice as interns.

  16. Sacral arcuate lines: Anatomy and pathologic conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The sacrum is one of the most commonly radiographed bones of the human body as part of abdominal and pelvic radiologic examinations. This paper describes the radiologic anatomy of the sacral arcuate lines and presents a systematic approach to identifying pathologic conditions, for example, primary and metastatic malignancies, traumatic and osteoporotic fractures, vascular erosions from aneurysms, changes from neural tumors, and changes following radiation therapy

  17. The history of anatomy in Persia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoja, Mohammadali M; Tubbs, R Shane

    2007-04-01

    The study of human anatomy can be found throughout the rich history of Persia. For thousands of years, morphological descriptions derived from this part of the world have contributed to and have helped form our current anatomical knowledge base. In this article we review the major influential Persian periods and the individuals who have contributed to the development of anatomy. We have divided the history of Persia into five eras: (1) the period of the Elamites, Medes, early Persians and Babylonians (10th millennium to 6th century BC); (2) following the establishment of the Persian Empire (6th century BC) to the 7th century AD; (3) after the Islamic conquest of Persia to the ascendency of Baghdad (7th to 13th century AD); (4) from the Mongol invasion of Persia to the foundations of modern anatomy (13th to 18th century AD); and (5) modern Persia/Iran (18th century AD to present). Evidence indicates that human dissection was commonplace in the first era, which led to a disciplined practice of surgery in the centuries leading to the foundation of the Persian Empire. By the emergence of Zoroastrianism in the Persian Empire, the microcosm theory was widely used to understand internal anatomy in relation to the external universe. The world's first cosmopolitan university and hospital were built in Gondishapur, south-western Persia, in the third century AD. Greek and Syriac knowledge influenced the second era. With the gradual ruin of Gondishapur and the foundation of Baghdad following the Islamic conquest of Persia (637-651 AD), a great movement took place, which led to the flourishing of the so-called Middle Age or Islamic Golden Age. Of the influential anatomists of this period, Mesue (777-857 AD), Tabbari (838-870 AD), Rhazes (865-925 AD), Joveini (?-983 AD), Ali ibn Abbas (930-994 AD), Avicenna (980-1037 AD) and Jorjani (1042-1137 AD) all hailed from Persia. There is evidence in the Persian literature as to the direct involvement of these scholars in human

  18. The history of anatomy in Persia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoja, Mohammadali M; Tubbs, R Shane

    2007-04-01

    The study of human anatomy can be found throughout the rich history of Persia. For thousands of years, morphological descriptions derived from this part of the world have contributed to and have helped form our current anatomical knowledge base. In this article we review the major influential Persian periods and the individuals who have contributed to the development of anatomy. We have divided the history of Persia into five eras: (1) the period of the Elamites, Medes, early Persians and Babylonians (10th millennium to 6th century BC); (2) following the establishment of the Persian Empire (6th century BC) to the 7th century AD; (3) after the Islamic conquest of Persia to the ascendency of Baghdad (7th to 13th century AD); (4) from the Mongol invasion of Persia to the foundations of modern anatomy (13th to 18th century AD); and (5) modern Persia/Iran (18th century AD to present). Evidence indicates that human dissection was commonplace in the first era, which led to a disciplined practice of surgery in the centuries leading to the foundation of the Persian Empire. By the emergence of Zoroastrianism in the Persian Empire, the microcosm theory was widely used to understand internal anatomy in relation to the external universe. The world's first cosmopolitan university and hospital were built in Gondishapur, south-western Persia, in the third century AD. Greek and Syriac knowledge influenced the second era. With the gradual ruin of Gondishapur and the foundation of Baghdad following the Islamic conquest of Persia (637-651 AD), a great movement took place, which led to the flourishing of the so-called Middle Age or Islamic Golden Age. Of the influential anatomists of this period, Mesue (777-857 AD), Tabbari (838-870 AD), Rhazes (865-925 AD), Joveini (?-983 AD), Ali ibn Abbas (930-994 AD), Avicenna (980-1037 AD) and Jorjani (1042-1137 AD) all hailed from Persia. There is evidence in the Persian literature as to the direct involvement of these scholars in human

  19. Who Is Repeating Anatomy? Trends in an Undergraduate Anatomy Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schutte, Audra F.

    2016-01-01

    Anatomy courses frequently serve as prerequisites or requirements for health sciences programs. Due to the challenging nature of anatomy, each semester there are students remediating the course (enrolled in the course for a second time), attempting to earn a grade competitive for admissions into a program of study. In this retrospective study,…

  20. Análise de peças anatômicas preservadas com resina de poliester para estudo em anatomia humana Analysis of anatomical pieces preservation with polyester resin for human anatomy study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ítalo Martins de Oliveira

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: avaliar o uso da resina de poliéster na preservação de peças anatômicas para estudo da anatomia humana. MÉTODOS: foram utilizadas 150 peças anatômicas, sendo as mesmas não fixadas (frescas, fixadas em formol a 10% e moldes vasculares de órgãos injetados com acetato de vinil e a resina de poliéster. A solução utilizada foi composta de resina de poliéster com seu diluente monômero de estireno e catalisador (peroxol. Foram obtidos, após a inclusão nesta solução, modelos em resina transparente, que permitiam a plena observação das estruturas e conservação da peça utilizada. RESULTADOS: na avaliação das peças, foi observado grau de extrema transparência, promovendo uma completa visualização das estruturas com a perfeita preservação da anatomia. A duração média para a completa finalização da inclusão foi 48 horas. Apenas 14 peças (9,3% foram inutilizadas durante o preparo. CONCLUSÃO: a resina de poliéster pode ser utilizada para a preservação de peças anatômicas para o ensino da anatomia humana, de maneira prática, estética e duradoura.OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the use of polyester resin in preserving anatomical specimens for the study of human anatomy. METHODS: We used 150 anatomical specimens, comprised of unfixed (fresh, fixed in 10% formalin and vascular casts of organs injected with vinyl acetate and polyester resin. The solution used consisted of polyester resin with the diluent styrene monomer and catalyst (peroxol. After embedding in this solution, models in transparent resin were obtained, allowing full observation of structures and conservation of the specimens used. RESULTS: upon evaluation of the specimens, we observed a high degree of transparency, which promoted a complete visualization of structures with perfect preservation of the anatomy. The average time for the completion of the embedding was 48 hours. Only 14 specimens (9.3% were lost during the preparation. CONCLUSION

  1. TEACHING ANATOMY TO UNDERGRADUATE STUDENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharadkumar Pralhad Sawant,

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Anatomy is the base of medical science in India and is taught practically to all disciplines of undergraduate health sciences in the first year. It is an acknowledged fact that a basic knowledge of Anatomy is a prerequisite to learn any other branch of medicine. All medical professionals must have a basic knowledge of Anatomy so as to ensure safe medical practice. Traditionally Anatomy teaching consists of didactic lectures as well as dissections or prosections as per the requirement of the course. Lecture is defined as an oral discourse on a given subject before an audience for purpose of instruction and leaning. In the traditional method lectures were taken via chalk & board, but nowadays power point presentations are increasingly being used. To make Anatomy learning both pleasant and motivating, new methods of teaching gross anatomy are being assessed as medical colleges endeavour to find time in their curricula for new content without fore-going fundamental anatomical knowledge. This paper examines the other teaching methodologies for teaching gross anatomy. Conclusion: Proper utilization of newer technologies along with the traditional teaching methods will certainly lead to enhanced understanding of gross anatomy and will ultimately improve students’ performance.

  2. VISUALIZATION OF REGISTERED SUBSURFACE ANATOMY

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2010-01-01

    A system and method for visualization of subsurface anatomy includes obtaining a first image from a first camera and a second image from a second camera or a second channel of the first camera, where the first and second images contain shared anatomical structures. The second camera and the second...... channel of the first camera are capable of imaging anatomy beneath the surface in ultra-violet, visual, or infra-red spectrum. A data processor is configured for computing registration of the first image to the second image to provide visualization of subsurface anatomy during surgical procedures...

  3. Ontology-driven education: Teaching anatomy with intelligent 3D games on the web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsen, Trond

    Human anatomy is a challenging and intimidating subject whose understanding is essential to good medical practice, taught primarily using a combination of lectures and the dissection of human cadavers. Lectures are cheap and scalable, but do a poor job of teaching spatial understanding, whereas dissection lets students experience the body's interior first-hand, but is expensive, cannot be repeated, and is often imperfect. Educational games and online learning activities have the potential to supplement these teaching methods in a cheap and relatively effective way, but they are difficult for educators to customize for particular curricula and lack the tutoring support that human instructors provide. I present an approach to the creation of learning activities for anatomy called ontology-driven education, in which the Foundational Model of Anatomy, an ontological representation of knowledge about anatomy, is leveraged to generate educational content, model student knowledge, and support learning activities and games in a configurable web-based educational framework for anatomy.

  4. The anatomy of teaching and the teaching of anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peck, David; Skandalakis, John E

    2004-04-01

    Professional education is one of the greatest problems currently confronting the healing professions. The incorporation of basic science departments into colleges of medicine has affected curriculum design, research, admissions criteria, and licensure. Those who are not practicing members of a particular health care profession wield undue influence in medical schools. Ideally, gross anatomy teachers should be health care professionals who use anatomy in their practices. Reorganization of medical education will heal the rift between research and clinical medicine.

  5. 人体解剖实验室甲醛污染及治理%Controling and Govening of Formaldehyde Pollution in Human Anatomy Laboratory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨颖; 王多宁; 贾敏; 杨石照; 石明娟; 弥曼; 陈建云; 曹平

    2013-01-01

    Objective To explore ef ective prevention and control measures of formaldehyde pol ution in the medical col eges anatomy laboratory. Methods According to GB/T18883-2002 "standard of indoor air quality", monitoring formaldehyde content in the laboratory air,using dif erent corpse preservation solution (group A: merchant corpse preservation solution, and group B: 5% formalin; group C : homemade corpse preservation solution) in the laboratory and spraying formaldehydescavenger in each corpse plane before and after dif erent time, Results (1) The formaldehyde content in air of group A laboratory was (0.578 ± 0.196 )mg/m3, the formaldehyde content in air of Group B was (1.020 ± 0.094 )mg/m3, for group C the content was (0.476 ± 0.1270) mg/m3, (2)Spraying homemade formaldehyde scavenger on the specimen surface 40 min and 100 min before performing an experiment can make the formaldehyde content in each laboratory air decreased respectively: group A (0.470 ± 0.347) mg/m3 and(0.218 ± 0.172) mg/m3, group B 0.884 ± 0.343 mg/m3 and 0.832 ± 0.246 mg/m3, group C(0.256 ± 0.135 )mg/m3 and (0.304 ± 0.184) mg/m3. Conclusion the use of environment-friendly corpse preservation solution and formaldehyde scavenger can make the formaldehyde content in air of anatomy laboratory significantly lower.%目的探索医学院校解剖学实验室甲醛污染的有效防治措施。方法按照GB∕T18883-2002《室内空气质量标准》,监测使用不同保存液(A组:市售尸体保存液实验室;B组:5%甲醛水溶液实验室;C组:自制的尸体保存液实验室;)及喷洒甲醛清除剂前后不同时间段,各解刨实验室空气中的甲醛含量。结果(1) A组实验室空气中的甲醛含量为0.578±0.196 mg/m3;B组实验室空气中的甲醛含量为1.020±0.094 mg/m3;C组实验室空气中的甲醛含量为0.476±0.1270 mg/m3,(2)在实验之前尸体标本表面喷洒自制甲醛清除剂40min、100min后,可使各组实验室空气中甲

  6. Anatomie et identification des bois

    OpenAIRE

    Jourez, Benoît

    2010-01-01

    Anatomie des bois Structure anatomique des résineux et des feuillus Structure de la membrane cellulaire structure submicroscopique Anatomie du bois des essences feuillues tropicales Caractères anatomiques servant à l'identification des essences Reconnaissance microscopique du bois des essences résineuses et feuillues Duramen et duraminisation Formations anormales ( bois de compression et bois de tension) Chimie du bois Composition générale Cellulose, hé...

  7. Penile Embryology and Anatomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny H. Yiee

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge of penile embryology and anatomy is essential to any pediatric urologist in order to fully understand and treat congenital anomalies. Sex differentiation of the external genitalia occurs between the 7thand 17th weeks of gestation. The Y chromosome initiates male differentiation through the SRY gene, which triggers testicular development. Under the influence of androgens produced by the testes, external genitalia then develop into the penis and scrotum. Dorsal nerves supply penile skin sensation and lie within Buck's fascia. These nerves are notably absent at the 12 o'clock position. Perineal nerves supply skin sensation to the ventral shaft skin and frenulum. Cavernosal nerves lie within the corpora cavernosa and are responsible for sexual function. Paired cavernosal, dorsal, and bulbourethral arteries have extensive anastomotic connections. During erection, the cavernosal artery causes engorgement of the cavernosa, while the deep dorsal artery leads to glans enlargement. The majority of venous drainage occurs through a single, deep dorsal vein into which multiple emissary veins from the corpora and circumflex veins from the spongiosum drain. The corpora cavernosa and spongiosum are all made of spongy erectile tissue. Buck's fascia circumferentially envelops all three structures, splitting into two leaves ventrally at the spongiosum. The male urethra is composed of six parts: bladder neck, prostatic, membranous, bulbous, penile, and fossa navicularis. The urethra receives its blood supply from both proximal and distal directions.

  8. Penile embryology and anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yiee, Jenny H; Baskin, Laurence S

    2010-01-01

    Knowledge of penile embryology and anatomy is essential to any pediatric urologist in order to fully understand and treat congenital anomalies. Sex differentiation of the external genitalia occurs between the 7th and 17th weeks of gestation. The Y chromosome initiates male differentiation through the SRY gene, which triggers testicular development. Under the influence of androgens produced by the testes, external genitalia then develop into the penis and scrotum. Dorsal nerves supply penile skin sensation and lie within Buck's fascia. These nerves are notably absent at the 12 o'clock position. Perineal nerves supply skin sensation to the ventral shaft skin and frenulum. Cavernosal nerves lie within the corpora cavernosa and are responsible for sexual function. Paired cavernosal, dorsal, and bulbourethral arteries have extensive anastomotic connections. During erection, the cavernosal artery causes engorgement of the cavernosa, while the deep dorsal artery leads to glans enlargement. The majority of venous drainage occurs through a single, deep dorsal vein into which multiple emissary veins from the corpora and circumflex veins from the spongiosum drain. The corpora cavernosa and spongiosum are all made of spongy erectile tissue. Buck's fascia circumferentially envelops all three structures, splitting into two leaves ventrally at the spongiosum. The male urethra is composed of six parts: bladder neck, prostatic, membranous, bulbous, penile, and fossa navicularis. The urethra receives its blood supply from both proximal and distal directions. PMID:20602076

  9. How Useful Is YouTube in Learning Heart Anatomy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raikos, Athanasios; Waidyasekara, Pasan

    2014-01-01

    Nowadays more and more modern medical degree programs focus on self-directed and problem-based learning. That requires students to search for high quality and easy to retrieve online resources. YouTube is an emerging platform for learning human anatomy due to easy access and being a free service. The purpose of this study is to make a quantitative…

  10. 高校本科人体解剖生理学实验教学改革研究%Research on reform in the experiment teaching of human anatomy and physiology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邴杰; 孙颖郁; 孙秀英; 曾少举

    2012-01-01

    从北京师范大学人体解剖生理学实验课程的教学实践出发,总结该实验课程的实验教学内容、教学手段以及考核机制的全新改革和完善。在教学内容上主要从三个方面进行改革和完善,在实验教学手段上积极探索多样化的实验教学平台建设,在考核机制上,建立合理的人体解剖生理学实验考核体系,充分调动学生学习的积极性。%In this paper,according to the human anatomy and physiology experiments of teaching experience in Beijing normal university,it concluded an experimental program of teaching content,teaching methods and assessment mechanism for new reform and improvement.In the teaching content mainly from three aspects of reform and improvement;in the experimental teaching methods,to actively explore a variety of experimental teaching platform,designed to improve the quality of teaching experiments;in the evaluation mechanism,a reasonable course evaluation mechanisms can mobilize the enthusiasm of students.

  11. PBL在人体中枢神经解剖学教学中的应用%Application of problem-based learning in the teaching practice of human central nervous system anatomy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    欧阳长杰; 曲德伟; 王德广

    2012-01-01

    This paper introduced the scheme,form and measures of implementing problem-based learning in the teaching practice of human central nervous system anatomy.This paper discussed on the depth and scope of the issue,how to mobilize the enthusiasm of the students in the process of discussion,how to be conscious of curriculum knowledge system and logic in the teaching process,how to make students expose to clinical at early stage,how to provide corresponding assessment methods and other aspects of the practice in an aim to help peers to improve the teaching practice.%介绍在人体中枢神经解剖学课程教学中实施以问题为基础的学习(problem-based learning,PBL)的具体方案、形式和措施.并探讨拟定讨论问题的深度与范围,在学生讨论过程中如何调动其积极性,教师在教学过程中如何注意课程知识的系统性和逻辑性,如何让学生早期接触临床,如何配套相应的考核方式等.

  12. An anatomy precourse enhances student learning in veterinary anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNulty, Margaret A; Stevens-Sparks, Cathryn; Taboada, Joseph; Daniel, Annie; Lazarus, Michelle D

    2016-07-01

    Veterinary anatomy is often a source of trepidation for many students. Currently professional veterinary programs, similar to medical curricula, within the United States have no admission requirements for anatomy as a prerequisite course. The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the impact of a week-long precourse in veterinary anatomy on both objective student performance and subjective student perceptions of the precourse educational methods. Incoming first year veterinary students in the Louisiana State University School of Veterinary Medicine professional curriculum were asked to participate in a free precourse before the start of the semester, covering the musculoskeletal structures of the canine thoracic limb. Students learned the material either via dissection only, instructor-led demonstrations only, or a combination of both techniques. Outcome measures included student performance on examinations throughout the first anatomy course of the professional curriculum as compared with those who did not participate in the precourse. This study found that those who participated in the precourse did significantly better on examinations within the professional anatomy course compared with those who did not participate. Notably, this significant improvement was also identified on the examination where both groups were exposed to the material for the first time together, indicating that exposure to a small portion of veterinary anatomy can impact learning of anatomical structures beyond the immediate scope of the material previously learned. Subjective data evaluation indicated that the precourse was well received and students preferred guided learning via demonstrations in addition to dissection as opposed to either method alone. Anat Sci Educ 9: 344-356. © 2015 American Association of Anatomists. PMID:26669269

  13. The public display of plastinates as a challenge to the integrity of anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, David Gareth

    2016-01-01

    Anatomy has been thrust into the public domain by the highly successful public displays of dissected and plastinated human bodies. This is anatomy in modern guise, anatomy as perceived by the general public. If this is the case, the message it is giving the public about the nature of anatomy is that it is an impersonal analysis of the human body of value within a medical and health care environment. While this is in part true, and while it reflects important aspects of anatomy's history, it fails to reflect the humanistic strands within an increasing swathe of contemporary anatomy. These are manifested in growing recognition of the centrality of informed consent in the practice of anatomy, awareness of the personal dimensions and relationships of those whose bodies are being dissected, and manifested in thanksgiving ceremonies involving staff and students. The notion that the bodies undergoing dissection can be students' first teachers and/or patients is gaining ground, another indication of the human dimensions of the anatomical enterprise. Exhibitions such as Body Worlds ignore these dimensions within anatomy by dislocating it from its clinical and relational base. The significance of this is that loss of these dimensions leads to a loss of the human face of anatomy by isolating it from the people whose body bequests made this knowledge possible. What is required is greater transparency and openness in the practices of all who deal with the dead human body, trends that owe much to the writings of scholars from within a range of humanities disciplines as they have responded to the public displays of dissected plastinated bodies. Anatomists have much to learn from these debates. PMID:26475081

  14. Comparative anatomy of the human APRT gene and enzyme: nucleotide sequence divergence and conservation of a nonrandom CpG dinucleotide arrangement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The functional human adenine phosphoribosyltransferase (APRT) gene is <2.6 kilobases in length and contains five exons. The amino acid sequences of APRTs have been highly conserved throughout evolution. The human enzyme is 82%, 90%, and 40% identical to the mouse, hamster, and Escherichia coli enzymes, respectively. The promoter region of the human APRT gene, like that of several other housekeeping genes, lacks TATA and CCAAT boxes but contains five GC boxes that are potential binding sites for the Sp1 transcription factor. The distal three, however, are dispensable for gene expression. Comparison between human and mouse APRT gene nucleotide sequences reveals a high degree of homology within protein coding regions but an absence of significant homology in 5' flanking, 3' untranslated, and intron sequences, except for similarly positioned GC boxes in the promoter region and a 26-base-pair region in intron 3. This 26-base-pair sequence is 92% identical with a similarly positioned sequence in the mouse gene and is also found in intron 3 of the hamster gene, suggesting that its retention may be a consequence of stringent selection. The positions of all introns have been precisely retained in the human and both rodent genes. Retention of an elevated CpG dinucleotide content, despite loss of sequence homology, suggests that there may be selection for CpG dinucleotides in these regions and that their maintenance may be important for APRT gene function

  15. Anal anatomy and normal histology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Priti

    2012-12-01

    The focus of this article is the anatomy and histology of the anal canal, and its clinical relevance to anal cancers. The article also highlights the recent histological and anatomical changes to the traditional terminology of the anal canal. The terminology has been adopted by the American Joint Committee on Cancer, separating the anal region into the anal canal, the perianal region and the skin. This paper describes the gross anatomy of the anal canal, along with its associated blood supply, venous and lymphatic drainage, and nerve supply. The new terminology referred to in this article may assist clinicians and health care providers to identify lesions more precisely through naked eye observation and without the need for instrumentation. Knowledge of the regional anatomy of the anus will also assist in management decisions.

  16. Adding Java and CGI Functionality to an On-Line Atlas of Anatomy for Medical Education

    OpenAIRE

    Quaresma, R.P.; Sabbatini, R.M.E.; S.H. Cardoso; Ortale, J R; Rodrigues, E A; Kondo, A.; Ubiali, G.L.P.

    1998-01-01

    The use of Java applications through applets, HTML facilities and CGI scripts provides useful interactivity to an on-line atlas of topographic anatomy via Internet, based on the Visible Human Project.

  17. The Anatomy of Anatomy: A Review for Its Modernization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugand, Kapil; Abrahams, Peter; Khurana, Ashish

    2010-01-01

    Anatomy has historically been a cornerstone in medical education regardless of nation or specialty. Until recently, dissection and didactic lectures were its sole pedagogy. Teaching methodology has been revolutionized with more reliance on models, imaging, simulation, and the Internet to further consolidate and enhance the learning experience.…

  18. Anatomy adventure: a board game for enhancing understanding of anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anyanwu, Emeka G

    2014-01-01

    Certain negative factors such as fear, loss of concentration and interest in the course, lack of confidence, and undue stress have been associated with the study of anatomy. These are factors most often provoked by the unusually large curriculum, nature of the course, and the psychosocial impact of dissection. As a palliative measure, Anatomy Adventure, a board game on anatomy was designed to reduce some of these pressures, emphasize student centered and collaborative learning styles, and add fun to the process of learning while promoting understanding and retention of the subject. To assess these objectives, 95 out of over 150 medical and dental students who expressed willingness to be part of the study were recruited and divided into a Game group and a Non-game group. A pretest written examination was given to both groups, participants in the Game group were allowed to play the game for ten days, after which a post-test examination was also given. A 20-item questionnaire rated on a three-point scale to access student's perception of the game was given to the game group. The post-test scores of the game group were significantly higher (P game counterparts. Also the post-test score of the game based group was significantly better (P game was interesting, highly informative, encouraged team work, improved their attitude, and perception to gross anatomy. PMID:23878076

  19. Surgical anatomy of the innervation of pylorus in human and Suncus murinus, in relation to surgical technique for pylorus- preserving pancreaticoduodenectomy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shuang-Qin Yi; Shigenori Tanaka; Masahiro Itoh; Fei Ru; Tetsuo Ohta; Hayato Terayama; Munekazu Naito; Shogo Hayashi; Sichen Buhe; Nozomi Yi; Takayoshi Miyaki

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To clarify the innervation of the antro-pyloric region in humans from a dinico-anatomical perspective.METHODS: The stomach, duodenum and surrounding structures were dissected in 10 cadavers, and immersed in a 10mg/L solution of alizarin red S in ethanol to stain the peripheral nerves. The distribution details were studied to confirm innervations in the above areas using a binocular microscope. Similarly, innervations in 10Suncus murinus were examined using the method of whole-mount im munohistochemistry.RESULTS: The innervation of the pyloric region in humans involved three routes: One arose from the anterior hepatic plexus via the route of the suprapyloric/supraduodenal branch of the right gastric artery; the second arose from the anterior and posterior gastric divisions, and the third originated from the posteriorlower region of the pyloric region, which passed via the infrapyloric artery or retroduodenal branches and was related to the gastroduodenal artery and right gastroepiploic artery. For Suncus murinus, results similar to those in humans were observed.CONCLUSION: There are three routes of innervation of the pyloric region in humans, wherein the route of the right gastric artery is most important for preserving pyloric region innervation. Function will be preserved by more than 80% by preserving the artery in pyloruspreserving pancreaticoduodenectomy (PPPD). However,the route of the infrapyloric artery should not be disregarded. This route is related to several arteries (the right gastroepiploic and gastroduodenal arteries),and the preserving of these arteries is advantageous for preserving pyloric innervation in PPPD. Concurrently,the nerves of Latarjet also play an important role in maintaining innervation of the antro-pyloric region in PPPD. This is why pyloric function is not damaged in some patients when the right gastric artery is dissected or damaged in PPPD.

  20. DAGAL: Detailed Anatomy of Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Knapen, Johan H

    2016-01-01

    The current IAU Symposium is closely connected to the EU-funded network DAGAL (Detailed Anatomy of Galaxies), with the final annual network meeting of DAGAL being at the core of this international symposium. In this short paper, we give an overview of DAGAL, its training activities, and some of the scientific advances that have been made under its umbrella.

  1. Digital dissection system for medical school anatomy training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augustine, Kurt E.; Pawlina, Wojciech; Carmichael, Stephen W.; Korinek, Mark J.; Schroeder, Kathryn K.; Segovis, Colin M.; Robb, Richard A.

    2003-05-01

    As technology advances, new and innovative ways of viewing and visualizing the human body are developed. Medicine has benefited greatly from imaging modalities that provide ways for us to visualize anatomy that cannot be seen without invasive procedures. As long as medical procedures include invasive operations, students of anatomy will benefit from the cadaveric dissection experience. Teaching proper technique for dissection of human cadavers is a challenging task for anatomy educators. Traditional methods, which have not changed significantly for centuries, include the use of textbooks and pictures to show students what a particular dissection specimen should look like. The ability to properly carry out such highly visual and interactive procedures is significantly constrained by these methods. The student receives a single view and has no idea how the procedure was carried out. The Department of Anatomy at Mayo Medical School recently built a new, state-of-the-art teaching laboratory, including data ports and power sources above each dissection table. This feature allows students to access the Mayo intranet from a computer mounted on each table. The vision of the Department of Anatomy is to replace all paper-based resources in the laboratory (dissection manuals, anatomic atlases, etc.) with a more dynamic medium that will direct students in dissection and in learning human anatomy. Part of that vision includes the use of interactive 3-D visualization technology. The Biomedical Imaging Resource (BIR) at Mayo Clinic has developed, in collaboration with the Department of Anatomy, a system for the control and capture of high resolution digital photographic sequences which can be used to create 3-D interactive visualizations of specimen dissections. The primary components of the system include a Kodak DC290 digital camera, a motorized controller rig from Kaidan, a PC, and custom software to synchronize and control the components. For each dissection procedure, the

  2. The Anatomy of Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cave, Sitara; Schwartzenberg, Susan

    1998-01-01

    Fleeting electrochemical connections made between brain cells help people remember the thoughts, skills, experiences, and knowledge that make them unique. Presents the dissection of the brain of a sheep, an animal in which brain structure and function are similar to that in humans, to demonstrate where these processes take place. (PVD)

  3. Problems of Tantric Anatomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sobisch, Jan-Ulrich

    2015-01-01

    This article brings brings together a section of Janet Gyatso's new book "Being Human in a Buddhist World: An Intellectual History of Medicine in Early Modern Tibet" with a vajra statement of Jigten Sumgön's "Single Intention." I discuss the Drikungpa's view that same aspects of reality concernin...

  4. Anatomy of Teaching Anatomy: Do Prosected Cross Sections Improve Students Understanding of Spatial and Radiological Anatomy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vithoosan, S.; Kokulan, S.; Dissanayake, M. M.; Dissanayake, Vajira; Jayasekara, Rohan

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Cadaveric dissections and prosections have traditionally been part of undergraduate medical teaching. Materials and Methods. Hundred and fifty-nine first-year students in the Faculty of Medicine, University of Colombo, were invited to participate in the above study. Students were randomly allocated to two age and gender matched groups. Both groups were exposed to identical series of lectures regarding anatomy of the abdomen and conventional cadaveric prosections of the abdomen. The test group (n = 77, 48.4%) was also exposed to cadaveric cross-sectional slices of the abdomen to which the control group (n = 82, 51.6%) was blinded. At the end of the teaching session both groups were assessed by using their performance in a timed multiple choice question paper as well as ability to identify structures in abdominal CT films. Results. Scores for spatial and radiological anatomy were significantly higher among the test group when compared with the control group (P < 0.05, CI 95%). Majority of the students in both control and test groups agreed that cadaveric cross section may be useful for them to understand spatial and radiological anatomy. Conclusion. Introduction of cadaveric cross-sectional prosections may help students to understand spatial and radiological anatomy better. PMID:27579181

  5. Anatomy of Teaching Anatomy: Do Prosected Cross Sections Improve Students Understanding of Spatial and Radiological Anatomy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. B. Samarakoon

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Cadaveric dissections and prosections have traditionally been part of undergraduate medical teaching. Materials and Methods. Hundred and fifty-nine first-year students in the Faculty of Medicine, University of Colombo, were invited to participate in the above study. Students were randomly allocated to two age and gender matched groups. Both groups were exposed to identical series of lectures regarding anatomy of the abdomen and conventional cadaveric prosections of the abdomen. The test group (n=77, 48.4% was also exposed to cadaveric cross-sectional slices of the abdomen to which the control group (n=82, 51.6% was blinded. At the end of the teaching session both groups were assessed by using their performance in a timed multiple choice question paper as well as ability to identify structures in abdominal CT films. Results. Scores for spatial and radiological anatomy were significantly higher among the test group when compared with the control group (P<0.05, CI 95%. Majority of the students in both control and test groups agreed that cadaveric cross section may be useful for them to understand spatial and radiological anatomy. Conclusion. Introduction of cadaveric cross-sectional prosections may help students to understand spatial and radiological anatomy better.

  6. Anatomy of a Bird

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-12-01

    Using ESO's Very Large Telescope, an international team of astronomers [1] has discovered a stunning rare case of a triple merger of galaxies. This system, which astronomers have dubbed 'The Bird' - albeit it also bears resemblance with a cosmic Tinker Bell - is composed of two massive spiral galaxies and a third irregular galaxy. ESO PR Photo 55a/07 ESO PR Photo 55a/07 The Tinker Bell Triplet The galaxy ESO 593-IG 008, or IRAS 19115-2124, was previously merely known as an interacting pair of galaxies at a distance of 650 million light-years. But surprises were revealed by observations made with the NACO instrument attached to ESO's VLT, which peered through the all-pervasive dust clouds, using adaptive optics to resolve the finest details [2]. Underneath the chaotic appearance of the optical Hubble images - retrieved from the Hubble Space Telescope archive - the NACO images show two unmistakable galaxies, one a barred spiral while the other is more irregular. The surprise lay in the clear identification of a third, clearly separate component, an irregular, yet fairly massive galaxy that seems to be forming stars at a frantic rate. "Examples of mergers of three galaxies of roughly similar sizes are rare," says Petri Väisänen, lead author of the paper reporting the results. "Only the near-infrared VLT observations made it possible to identify the triple merger nature of the system in this case." Because of the resemblance of the system to a bird, the object was dubbed as such, with the 'head' being the third component, and the 'heart' and 'body' making the two major galaxy nuclei in-between of tidal tails, the 'wings'. The latter extend more than 100,000 light-years, or the size of our own Milky Way. ESO PR Photo 55b/07 ESO PR Photo 55b/07 Anatomy of a Bird Subsequent optical spectroscopy with the new Southern African Large Telescope, and archive mid-infrared data from the NASA Spitzer space observatory, confirmed the separate nature of the 'head', but also added

  7. Design and Validation of a Novel Learning Tool, the "Anato-Rug," for Teaching Equine Topographical Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braid, Francesca; Williams, Sarah B.; Weller, Renate

    2012-01-01

    Recognition of anatomical landmarks in live animals (and humans) is key for clinical practice, but students often find it difficult to translate knowledge from dissection-based anatomy onto the live animal and struggle to acquire this vital skill. The purpose of this study was to create and evaluate the use of an equine anatomy rug "Anato-Rug")…

  8. ANATOMY ON PATTERN RECOGNITION

    OpenAIRE

    MAYANK PARASHER; SHRUTI SHARMA; A .K. SHARMA,; J.P.Gupta

    2011-01-01

    Pattern Recognition is the science of recognizing patterns by machines. This is very wide research area as of today, because every newresearch tries to make machine as intelligent as human for recognizing patterns. Pattern recognition is an active research and an importanttrait of ‘artificial intelligence’. This review paper introduces pattern recognition, its fundamental definitions, and provides understanding of related research work. This paper presents different types of algorithms, their...

  9. The functionality of the anatomy in the physical education career

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel D. Buffone

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Historically, the teaching of anatomy within the area of Physical Education has not focused its content on the practice of the course of studies; it has not been contextualized in its difficulties. This is an attempt to show that the subject that is offered to us could answer the needs of a dynamic Physical Education, and because of this, it is important to highlight the functional contribution which adapts in a more realistic sense to our teaching practice. The functional anatomy that is proposed goes beyond the static description of the different regions of the human body, having a wider and more dynamic vision of the body in motion. From this idea, we try to see the contents of the subject not as something rigid or invariable, but to use them to think and to create spaces of discussion on our practice and to wonder, how a descriptive anatomy reduced to only its descriptive contents may helps us. The anatomy, in this aspect, must begin from its own field and here lies our main concern as regards focusing on its functions, starting from the movement and not from the dead bodies where we observe the lack of dynamics

  10. Ecological anatomy of ferns fronds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina M. Derzhavina

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Structural types of frond anatomy are distinguished on the basis of investigation of 30 species of homosporous ferns and with regard for literature: hydromorphic, hygromorphic, mesomorphic, subxeromorphic, and subsucculent (cryptic succulent. Following frond traits are of highest adaptive value: their area and thickness, type of mesophyll, dry weight of an area unit – specific superficial density, cellular volume, and number of cells per unit of frond area.

  11. [Functional dental anatomy and amalgam].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavernier, B; Colon, P

    1989-01-01

    Very often, the functional dental anatomy are reflected during the rehabilitation of posterior quadrants. However, the placement, the shaping in correct relation of the different dental components are indispensable conditions to respect, in order to achieve an adequate integration of the restoration within the neuro-muscular system. A clinical protocol is proposed in order to reconcile the anatomical and biological prerequisite and the setting time of modern alloys.

  12. Anatomy of the infant head

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This text is mainly an atlas of illustration representing the dissection of the head and upper neck of the infant. It was prepared by the author over a 20-year period. The commentary compares the anatomy of the near-term infant with that of a younger fetus, child, and adult. As the author indicates, the dearth of anatomic information about postnatal anatomic changes represents a considerable handicap to those imaging infants. In part 1 of the book, anatomy is related to physiologic performance involving the pharynx, larynx, and mouth. Sequential topics involve the regional anatomy of the head (excluding the brain), the skeleton of the cranium, the nose, orbit, mouth, larynx, pharynx, and ear. To facilitate use of this text as a reference, the illustrations and text on individual organs are considered separately (i.e., the nose, the orbit, the eye, the mouth, the larynx, the pharynx, and the ear). Each part concerned with a separate organ includes materials from the regional illustrations contained in part 2 and from the skeleton, which is treated in part 3. Also included in a summary of the embryologic and fetal development of the organ

  13. Improved Depiction of Pterygopalatine Fossa Anatomy Using Ultrahigh-Resolution Magnetic Resonance Imaging at 7 Tesla

    OpenAIRE

    Oomen, K. P. Q.; Pameijer, F. A.; Zwanenburg, J. J. M.; Hordijk, G J; De Ru, J. A.; Bleys, R L A W

    2012-01-01

    Purpose. To study the anatomy of the pterygopalatine fossa (PPF) using ultrahigh-resolution magnetic resonance imaging. Methods. A human cadaveric tissue block containing the pterygopalatine fossa was examined on a clinical 7-Tesla magnetic resonance imaging system. Subsequently, cryosections of the tissue block were created in a coronal plane. The cryosections were photographed and collected on adhesive tape. The on-tape sections were stained for Mallory-Cason, in order to detail the anatomi...

  14. Representing Complexity in Part-Whole Relationships within the Foundational Model of Anatomy

    OpenAIRE

    Mejino, José L.V.; Agoncillo, Augusto V.; Rickard, Kurt L.; Rosse, Cornelius

    2003-01-01

    The Foundational Model of Anatomy (FMA) is a frame-based ontology that represents declarative knowledge about the structural organization of the human body. Part-whole relationships play a particularly important role in this representation. In order to assure that knowledge-based applications relying on the FMA as a resource can reason about anatomy, we have modified and enhanced currently available schemes of meronymic relationships. We have introduced and defined distinct partitions for dec...

  15. Anatomy of Biometric Passports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominik Malčík

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Travelling is becoming available for more and more people. Millions of people are on a way every day. That is why a better control over global human transfer and a more reliable identity check is desired. A recent trend in a field of personal identification documents is to use RFID (Radio Frequency Identification technology and biometrics, especially (but not only in passports. This paper provides an insight into the electronic passports (also called e-passport or ePassport implementation chosen in the Czech Republic. Such a summary is needed for further studies of biometric passports implementation security and biometric passports analysis. A separate description of the Czech solution is a prerequisite for a planned analysis, because of the uniqueness of each implementation. (Each country can choose the implementation details within a range specified by the ICAO (International Civil Aviation Organisation; moreover, specific security mechanisms are optional and can be omitted.

  16. Anatomy of Scientific Evolution

    CERN Document Server

    Yun, Jinhyuk; Jeong, Hawoong

    2014-01-01

    The quest for historically impactful science and technology provides invaluable insight into the innovation dynamics of human society, yet many studies are limited to qualitative and small-scale approaches. Here, we investigate scientific evolution through systematic analysis of a massive corpus of digitized English texts between 1800 and 2008. Our analysis reveals remarkable predictability for long-prevailing scientific concepts based on the levels of their prior usage. Interestingly, once a threshold of early adoption rates is passed even slightly, scientific concepts can exhibit sudden leaps in their eventual lifetimes. We developed a mechanistic model to account for such results, indicating that slowly-but-commonly adopted science and technology surprisingly tend to have higher innate strength than fast-and-commonly adopted ones. The model prediction for disciplines other than science was also well verified. Our approach sheds light on unbiased and quantitative analysis of scientific evolution in society,...

  17. Virtual Temporal Bone Anatomy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Background The Visible Human Project(VHP) initiated by the U.S. National Library of Medicine has drawn much attention and interests from around the world. The Visible Chinese Human (VCH) project has started in China. The current study aims at acquiring a feasible virtual methodology for reconstructing the temporal bone of the Chinese population, which may provide an accurate 3-D model of important temporal bone structures that can be used in teaching and patient care for medical scientists and clinicians. Methods A series of sectional images of the temporal bone were generated from section slices of a female cadaver head. On each sectional image, SOIs (structures of interest) were segmented by carefully defining their contours and filling their areas with certain gray scale values. The processed volume data were then inducted into the 3D Slicer software(developed by the Surgical Planning Lab at Brigham and Women's Hospital and the MIT AI Lab) for resegmentation and generation of a set of tagged images of the SOIs. 3D surface models of SOIs were then reconstructed from these images. Results The temporal bone and structures in the temporal bone, including the tympanic cavity, mastoid cells, sigmoid sinus and internal carotid artery, were successfully reconstructed. The orientation of and spatial relationship among these structures were easily visualized in the reconstructed surface models. Conclusion The 3D Slicer software can be used for 3-dimensional visualization of anatomic structures in the temporal bone, which will greatly facilitate the advance of knowledge and techniques critical for studying and treating disorders involving the temporal bone.

  18. Clinical and Radiological Classification of the Jawbone Anatomy in Endosseous Dental Implant Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gintaras Juodzbalys

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The purpose of present article was to review the classifications suggested for assessment of the jawbone anatomy, to evaluate the diagnostic possibilities of mandibular canal identification and risk of inferior alveolar nerve injury, aesthetic considerations in aesthetic zone, as well as to suggest new classification system of the jawbone anatomy in endosseous dental implant treatment. Material and Methods: Literature was selected through a search of PubMed, Embase and Cochrane electronic databases. The keywords used for search were mandible; mandibular canal; alveolar nerve, inferior; anatomy, cross-sectional; dental implants; classification. The search was restricted to English language articles, published from 1972 to March 2013. Additionally, a manual search in the major anatomy and oral surgery books were performed. The publications there selected by including clinical and human anatomy studies.Results: In total 109 literature sources were obtained and reviewed. The classifications suggested for assessment of the jawbone anatomy, diagnostic possibilities of mandibular canal identification and risk of inferior alveolar nerve injury, aesthetic considerations in aesthetic zone were discussed. New classification system of the jawbone anatomy in endosseous dental implant treatment based on anatomical and radiologic findings and literature review results was suggested. Conclusions: The classification system proposed here based on anatomical and radiological jawbone quantity and quality evaluation is a helpful tool for planning of treatment strategy and collaboration among specialists. Further clinical studies should be conducted for new classification validation and reliability evaluation.

  19. Computational anatomy for studying use-dependant brain plasticity

    OpenAIRE

    Draganski, Bogdan; Kherif, Ferath; Lutti, Antoine

    2014-01-01

    In this article we provide a comprehensive literature review on the in vivo assessment of use-dependant brain structure changes in humans using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computational anatomy. We highlight the recent findings in this field that allow the uncovering of the basic principles behind brain plasticity in light of the existing theoretical models at various scales of observation. Given the current lack of in-depth understanding of the neurobiological basis of brain structu...

  20. Computational anatomy for studying use-dependant brain plasticity

    OpenAIRE

    Bogdan eDraganski; Ferath eKherif; Antoine eLutti

    2014-01-01

    In this article we provide a comprehensive literature review on the in vivo assessment of use-dependant brain structure changes in humans using magnetic resonance imaging and computational anatomy. We highlight the recent findings in this field that allow the uncovering of the basic principles behind brain plasticity in light of the existing theoretical models at various scales of observation. Given the current lack of in-depth understanding of the neurobiological basis of brain structure cha...

  1. Zur Legitimation der Verwendung menschlicher Leichen in der heutigen Anatomie

    OpenAIRE

    Winkelmann, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    Anatomists use human bodies for research, teaching and advanced medical training. Despite a long tradition and the more recent legal regulation of 'body donation', this practise is nevertheless burdened with legal and ethical uncertainties. Therefore, modern-day anatomy still needs a well-founded legitimation of cadaver use. The educational research presented here demonstrates that, on methodological grounds, it remains difficult to produce a 'final' judgement on the effectiveness of anato...

  2. Anatomy of Indian heatwaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratnam, J. V.; Behera, Swadhin K.; Ratna, Satyaban B.; Rajeevan, M.; Yamagata, Toshio

    2016-04-01

    India suffers from major heatwaves during March-June. The rising trend of number of intense heatwaves in recent decades has been vaguely attributed to global warming. Since the heat waves have a serious effect on human mortality, root causes of these heatwaves need to be clarified. Based on the observed patterns and statistical analyses of the maximum temperature variability, we identified two types of heatwaves. The first-type of heatwave over the north-central India is found to be associated with blocking over the North Atlantic. The blocking over North Atlantic results in a cyclonic anomaly west of North Africa at upper levels. The stretching of vorticity generates a Rossby wave source of anomalous Rossby waves near the entrance of the African Jet. The resulting quasi-stationary Rossby wave-train along the Jet has a positive phase over Indian subcontinent causing anomalous sinking motion and thereby heatwave conditions over India. On the other hand, the second-type of heatwave over the coastal eastern India is found to be due to the anomalous Matsuno-Gill response to the anomalous cooling in the Pacific. The Matsuno-Gill response is such that it generates northwesterly anomalies over the landmass reducing the land-sea breeze, resulting in heatwaves.

  3. Brachial Plexus Anatomy: Normal and Variant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven L. Orebaugh

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Effective brachial plexus blockade requires a thorough understanding of the anatomy of the plexus, as well as an appreciation of anatomic variations that may occur. This review summarizes relevant anatomy of the plexus, along with variations and anomalies that may affect nerve blocks conducted at these levels. The Medline, Cochrane Library, and PubMed electronic databases were searched in order to compile reports related to the anatomy of the brachial plexus using the following free terms: "brachial plexus", "median nerve", "ulnar nerve", "radial nerve", "axillary nerve", and "musculocutanous nerve". Each of these was then paired with the MESH terms "anatomy", "nerve block", "anomaly", "variation", and "ultrasound". Resulting articles were hand searched for additional relevant literature. A total of 68 searches were conducted, with a total of 377 possible articles for inclusion. Of these, 57 were found to provide substantive information for this review. The normal anatomy of the brachial plexus is briefly reviewed, with an emphasis on those features revealed by use of imaging technologies. Anomalies of the anatomy that might affect the conduct of the various brachial plexus blocks are noted. Brachial plexus blockade has been effectively utilized as a component of anesthesia for upper extremity surgery for a century. Over that period, our understanding of anatomy and its variations has improved significantly. The ability to explore anatomy at the bedside, with real-time ultrasonography, has improved our appreciation of brachial plexus anatomy as well.

  4. [New findings of clinical anatomy in pelvis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muraoka, Kuniyasu; Takenaka, Atsushi

    2016-01-01

    Surgical anatomy involves clarifying the mutual relationships of each structure in the operative field. Knowledge of new surgical anatomy has arisen via new methods or approaches. Associated with the development and spread of laparoscopic surgery in recent years, adaptation to changes in surgical techniques using knowledge of classical pelvic anatomy has been difficult. Better knowledge of the delicate structures surrounding the prostate is essential in order to provide both cancer control and functional preservation with regard to radical prostatectomy. In this report, we review the progress in knowledge of pelvic anatomy, particularly regarding the endopelvic fascia, prostatic fascia and Denonvilliers' fascia.

  5. The anatomy of onomatopoeia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Florencia Assaneo

    Full Text Available Virtually every human faculty engage with imitation. One of the most natural and unexplored objects for the study of the mimetic elements in language is the onomatopoeia, as it implies an imitative-driven transformation of a sound of nature into a word. Notably, simple sounds are transformed into complex strings of vowels and consonants, making difficult to identify what is acoustically preserved in this operation. In this work we propose a definition for vocal imitation by which sounds are transformed into the speech elements that minimize their spectral difference within the constraints of the vocal system. In order to test this definition, we use a computational model that allows recovering anatomical features of the vocal system from experimental sound data. We explore the vocal configurations that best reproduce non-speech sounds, like striking blows on a door or the sharp sounds generated by pressing on light switches or computer mouse buttons. From the anatomical point of view, the configurations obtained are readily associated with co-articulated consonants, and we show perceptual evidence that these consonants are positively associated with the original sounds. Moreover, the pairs vowel-consonant that compose these co-articulations correspond to the most stable syllables found in the knock and click onomatopoeias across languages, suggesting a mechanism by which vocal imitation naturally embeds single sounds into more complex speech structures. Other mimetic forces received extensive attention by the scientific community, such as cross-modal associations between speech and visual categories. The present approach helps building a global view of the mimetic forces acting on language and opens a new venue for a quantitative study of word formation in terms of vocal imitation.

  6. Independent learning modules enhance student performance and understanding of anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrat, Maria A; Dom, Aaron M; Buchanan, James T; Williams, Alison R; Efaw, Morgan L; Richardson, Laura L

    2014-01-01

    Didactic lessons are only one part of the multimodal teaching strategies used in gross anatomy courses today. Increased emphasis is placed on providing more opportunities for students to develop lifelong learning and critical thinking skills during medical training. In a pilot program designed to promote more engaged and independent learning in anatomy, self-study modules were introduced to supplement human gross anatomy instruction at Joan C. Edwards School of Medicine at Marshall University. Modules use three-dimensional constructs to help students understand complex anatomical regions. Resources are self-contained in portable bins and are accessible at any time. Students use modules individually or in groups in a structured self-study format that augments material presented in lecture and laboratory. Pilot outcome data, measured by feedback surveys and examination performance statistics, suggest that the activity may be improving learning in gross anatomy. Positive feedback on both pre- and post-examination surveys showed that students felt the activity helped to increase their understanding of the topic. In concordance with student perception, average examination scores on module-related laboratory and lecture questions were higher in the two years of the pilot program compared with the year before its initiation. Modules can be fabricated on a modest budget using minimal resources, making implementation practical for smaller institutions. Upper level medical students assist in module design and upkeep, enabling continuous opportunities for vertical integration across the curriculum. This resource offers a feasible mechanism for enhancing independent and lifelong learning competencies, which could be a valuable complement to any gross anatomy curriculum. PMID:24616425

  7. History of teaching anatomy in India: from ancient to modern times.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Tony George

    2013-01-01

    Safe clinical practice is based on a sound knowledge of the structure and function of the human body. Thus, knowledge of anatomy has been an essential tool in the practice of healthcare throughout the ages. The history of anatomy in India traces from the Paleolithic Age to the Indus Valley Civilization, the Vedic Times, the Islamic Dynasties, the modern Colonial Period, and finally to Independent India. The course of the study of anatomy, despite accompanying controversies and periods of latencies, has been fascinating. This review takes the reader through various periods of Indian medicine and the role of anatomy in the field of medical practice. It also provides a peek into the modern system of pedagogy in anatomical sciences in India. PMID:23495119

  8. Donkey dental anatomy. Part 2: Histological and scanning electron microscopic examinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du Toit, N; Kempson, S A; Dixon, P M

    2008-06-01

    Ten normal cheek teeth (CT) were extracted at post mortem from donkeys that died or were euthanased for humane reasons. Decalcified histology was performed on three sections (sub-occlusal, mid-tooth and pre-apical) of each tooth, and undecalcified histology undertaken on sub-occlusal sections of the same teeth. The normal histological anatomy of primary, regular and irregular secondary dentine was found to be similar to that of the horse, with no tertiary dentine present. Undecalcified histology demonstrated the normal enamel histology, including the presence of enamel spindles. Scanning electron microscopy was performed on mid-tooth sections of five maxillary CT, five mandibular CT and two incisors. The ultrastructural anatomy of primary and secondary dentine, and equine enamel types-1, -2 and -3 (as described in horses) were identified in donkey teeth. Histological and ultrastructural donkey dental anatomy was found to be very similar to equine dental anatomy with only a few quantitative differences observed.

  9. Evaluation of free i-applications for tertiary level gross anatomy education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew F. Pollard

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundThe use of electronic resources in education, including i-applications used on portable handheld devices, is increasing. Apple® handheld devices are popular, with free applications the most prevalent download form. Many gross anatomy i-applications are available, however no information on the quality of free anatomy products is available. Rating such products could therefore guide product recommendations.AimTo evaluate the quality and range of free iPod® applications that are applicable for tertiary level gross anatomy education.MethodsA search of the iTunes® Application Store with keywords anatomy, free, medical, functional, clinical, gross, and human was performed, with inclusion based on free applications containing human gross anatomy usable for tertiary education purposes. Application specification was noted; each was trialled independently and rated for usability, specification, academic level, and quality (image and programme.ResultsSixty-three applications were identified and eleven met inclusion criteria. Two provided gross anatomy of the entire body, nine examined specific regions or systems. Five were judged introductory in academic level, five intermediate, and one advanced. One application was rated low quality, and four excellent. None were considered difficult to use (six easy, five medium. Application size ranged between 1.2MB and 229MB (mean 27MB.ConclusionsThere are few free i-applications for learning gross anatomy and most concentrate on individual body systems, with the academic level and usability of all products well rated. Results suggest some free I-applications could be suitable adjuncts for gross anatomy education at both an undergraduate and graduate level.

  10. Anatomy Education Faces Challenges in Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Memon, Ismail K.

    2009-01-01

    Anatomy education in Pakistan is facing many of the same challenges as in other parts of the world. Roughly, a decade ago, all medical and dental colleges in Pakistan emphasized anatomy as a core basic discipline within a traditional medical science curriculum. Now institutions are adopting problem based learning (PBL) teaching philosophies, and…

  11. Anatomy of a Cancer Treatment Scam

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... All Events Weekly Calendar Weekly Calendar Archive Speeches Audio/Video Featured Videos FTC Events For Consumers For ... in Adjudicative Proceedings You are here News & Events » Audio/Video » Anatomy of a Cancer Treatment Scam Anatomy ...

  12. DESIGNING A CONTEMPORARY ANATOMY MUSEUM: ANATOMISTS’ PERSPECTIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkatesh. G. Kamath

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: A research study was conducted in sixteen anatomy museums across India. Aim: The aim of the study is to have an integrated approach while designing a museum. Objective: The objective is to stress on the need to have a holistic approach while designing a museum so that that the museum is well planned and organised and has a huge sectional diversity that spans all aspects related to anatomy. Materials and Methods: All the museums were studied using a planned proforma that emphasised on special features of the museum with special emphasis on sectional variety. Observations: The various techniques of specimen preparation, preservation, mounting and display were observed and photographed. The sectional variety was noted. Moreover the various methods of maintaining specimen related information in pictorial and computerised catalogues was observed. Results and Conclusion: A design of a contemporary anatomy museum can now be conceived that incorporates all aspects of anatomy from history, evolution, embryology, cross-sectional anatomy, comparative anatomy, teratology, genetics and clinical anatomy to sections with modern techniques like plastination. Such a museum will certainly have a more holistic approach to anatomy and will be more educative and scientific.

  13. Anatomy of a Cancer Treatment Scam

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Anatomy of a Cancer Treatment Scam Anatomy of a Cancer Treatment Scam January 19, 2012 Curious about a product that claims to treat or cure cancer? ... June 24, 2016 The first-person story of a retired educator’s Medicare scam experience – and the FTC ...

  14. [Anatomy in National Socialism: stages of an ethical transgression].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildebrandt, Sabine

    2013-01-01

    Systematic research on the history of anatomy in National Socialism (NS) has only started in recent years. It has shown that anatomists used the bodies of NS victims for anatomical teaching and research purposes. In this they became complicit with the NS regime. There was a high percentage of Nazi party members among the anatomists, but at the same time there were anatomists whose careers were disrupted for so-called "racial" and political reasons. Decisive aspects of this history are first, the fact that traditional sources of anatomical body procurement included increasing numbers of NS victims and second, the gradual change of the traditional anatomical paradigm of working with the dead to a new paradigm of working with the "future dead" in human experimentation. This history has importance for the development of new ethical guidelines in anatomy.

  15. Medical missionaries to China and the reformation of anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Louis

    2016-05-01

    The earliest record of human anatomy in chapters of the Yellow Emperor's Inner Classic is likely to be based upon proper dissections. The first incident of human dissection for medical purpose documented in the History of Han Dynasty occurred in AD 13. During the Sung dynasty, a physician prepared illustrations of internal organs of executed criminals, published in 1113 as the Images of Truth Successive Chinese medical treatises have plagiarized but preserved the anatomical diagrams without improvements or modifications. China had to wait till the mid-19th century for Anglo-American Protestant medical missionaries to bring about a complete and permanent reformation of anatomical science. PMID:24833543

  16. Anatomy "steeplechase" online: necessity sometimes is the catalyst for innovation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inuwa, Ibrahim Muhammad; Al Rawahy, Maimouna; Taranikanti, Varna; Habbal, Omar

    2011-01-01

    In most medical schools, summative practical examination in Anatomy usually takes the format of a "steeplechase" ("spotters" or "bell ringers") conducted in the gross anatomy laboratory using cadaveric material and prosected specimens. Recently, we have started to administer similar examinations online using the quiz facility in WebCT™ and Moodle™. This article chronicles how we conceived and developed this method within the peculiar nature of our medical school setting. Over a five year period, practical summative examinations were organized as "steeplechase" online. The online examinations were administered using WebCT™ and later Moodle™ learning management software. Assessment "objects" were created from the materials available for anatomy teaching. These were digital images of cadaveric materials, radiological, and prosected specimens. In addition, short video clips of 30 seconds duration demonstrating muscle action were produced. These objects were optimized for online viewing and then uploaded onto the learning management software. A bank of questions (multiple choice or short answer type) was then created and linked to the assessment objects. These were used in place of the steeplechase in the computer laboratory. This method serves a crucial purpose in places like ours where continuous availability of human cadavers is impossible. Although time consuming initially, once questions are setup online, future retrieval, and administration becomes convenient especially where there are large batches of students. In addition, the online environment offers distinct advantages with regards to image quality, psychometric analysis of the examination and reduction of staff preparation time compared to traditional "steeplechase." PMID:21438159

  17. [Functional anatomy of the central nervous system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krainik, A; Feydy, A; Colombani, J M; Hélias, A; Menu, Y

    2003-03-01

    The central nervous system (CNS) has a particular regional functional anatomy. The morphological support of cognitive functions can now be depicted using functional imaging. Lesions of the central nervous system may be responsible of specific symptoms based on their location. Current neuroimaging techniques are able to show and locate precisely macroscopic lesions. Therefore, the knowledge of functional anatomy of the central nervous system is useful to link clinical disorders to symptomatic lesions. Using radio-clinical cases, we present the functional neuro-anatomy related to common cognitive impairments.

  18. Clinical aspects of rodent dental anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crossley, D A

    1995-12-01

    The order Rodentia is vast, encompassing a large number of species with significant anatomical variations developed during natural adaptation to differing habitats. Many veterinarians have little knowledge of the anatomy of species other than the commoner domestic large herbivores and small carnivores. Clinicians require a basic knowledge of the relevant anatomy of species they are likely to be asked to treat. This article provides sufficient working knowledge of the oral and dental anatomy of those rodents commonly kept as pets to enable veterinarians to interpret clinical and radiographic findings when investigating suspected dental disease.

  19. Understanding Colds: Anatomy of the Nose

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... References Common Cold Understanding Colds Anatomy of the Nose The nose contains shelf-like structures called turbinates, ... which cold viruses attach. CAT Scan of the Nose and Sinuses The maxillary sinus (black) is surrounded ...

  20. Anatomy of a Cancer Treatment Scam

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Cancer Treatment Scam Anatomy of a Cancer Treatment Scam January 19, 2012 Curious about a product that ... not stop or delay their conventional treatment. Category: Scam Watch Health Download File Related Videos More Videos ...

  1. Anatomy of a Cancer Treatment Scam

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of a Cancer Treatment Scam Anatomy of a Cancer Treatment Scam January 19, 2012 Curious about a product that claims to treat or cure cancer? According to the Federal Trade Commission, consumers should ...

  2. Obturator hernia. Embryology, anatomy, and surgical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skandalakis, L J; Androulakis, J; Colborn, G L; Skandalakis, J E

    2000-02-01

    Obturator hernia is a rare clinical entity. In most cases, it produces small bowel obstruction with high morbidity and mortality. The embryology, anatomy, clinical picture, diagnosis, and surgery are presented in detail.

  3. Curricular Guidelines for Teaching Dental Anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okeson, Jeffrey; Buckman, James

    1981-01-01

    Guidelines developed by the Section on Dental Anatomy and Occlusion of the American Association of Dental Schools for use by individual educational institutions as curriculum development aids are provided. (MLW)

  4. Anatomy of a Cancer Treatment Scam

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... a Cancer Treatment Scam Anatomy of a Cancer Treatment Scam January 19, 2012 Curious about a product ... and should not stop or delay their conventional treatment. Category: Scam Watch Health Download File Related Videos ...

  5. Anatomy and histology of the lower urinary tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradidarcheep, Wisuit; Wallner, Christian; Dabhoiwala, Noshir F; Lamers, Wouter H

    2011-01-01

    The function of the lower urinary tract is basically storage of urine in the bladder and the at-will periodic evacuation of the stored urine. Urinary incontinence is one of the most common lower urinary tract disorders in adults, but especially in the elderly female. The urethra, its sphincters, and the pelvic floor are key structures in the achievement of continence, but their basic anatomy is little known and, to some extent, still incompletely understood. Because questions with respect to continence arise from human morbidity, but are often investigated in rodent animal models, we present findings in human and rodent anatomy and histology. Differences between males and females in the role that the pelvic floor plays in the maintenance of continence are described. Furthermore, we briefly describe the embryologic origin of ureters, bladder, and urethra, because the developmental origin of structures such as the vesicoureteral junction, the bladder trigone, and the penile urethra are often invoked to explain (clinical) observations. As the human pelvic floor has acquired features in evolution that are typical for a species with bipedal movement, we also compare the pelvic floor of humans with that of rodents to better understand the rodent (or any other quadruped, for that matter) as an experimental model species. The general conclusion is that the "Bauplan" is well conserved, even though its common features are sometimes difficult to discern.

  6. Atlas of regional anatomy of the brain using MRI. With functional correlations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The volume provides a unique review of the essential topographical anatomy of the brain from an MRI perspective, correlating high-quality anatomical plates with the corresponding high-resolution MRI images. The book includes a historical review of brain mapping and an analysis of the essential reference planes used for the study of the human brain. Subsequent chapters provide a detailed review of the sulcal and the gyral anatomy of the human cortex, guiding the reader through an interpretation of the individual brain atlas provided by high-resolution MRI. The relationship between brain structure and function is approached in a topographical fashion with analysis of the necessary imaging methodology and displayed anatomy. The central, perisylvian, mesial temporal and occipital areas receive special attention. Imaging of the core brain structures is included. An extensive coronal atlas concludes the book. (orig.)

  7. DESIGNING A CONTEMPORARY ANATOMY MUSEUM: ANATOMISTS’ PERSPECTIVE

    OpenAIRE

    Venkatesh. G. Kamath; Biswabina. Ray; Shakuntala R. Pai; Ramakrishna Avadhani

    2015-01-01

    Background: A research study was conducted in sixteen anatomy museums across India. Aim: The aim of the study is to have an integrated approach while designing a museum. Objective: The objective is to stress on the need to have a holistic approach while designing a museum so that that the museum is well planned and organised and has a huge sectional diversity that spans all aspects related to anatomy. Materials and Methods: All the museums were studied using a planned proforma that...

  8. Spinal angiography. Anatomy, technique and indications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spinal angiography is a diagnostic modality requiring detailed knowledge of spinal vascular anatomy. The cervical spinal cord is supplied by the vertebral arteries while segmental arteries which are preserved from fetal anatomy, supply the thoracic and lumbar regions. As spinal angiography carries the risk of paraplegia the indications have to be considered very carefully. Nevertheless, spinal angiography should be performed if there is reason to suspect a spinal vascular malformation from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). (orig.)

  9. MIND MAP AS LEARNING TOOL IN ANATOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepali D Deshatty

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the study: A medical student has to read vast portion of anatomy in short time period. Mind maps are multi-sensory tool that may help medical students organize, integrate and retain information. The purpose of this study is first to see how mind mapping as a note-taking strategy facilitates medical students to learn anatomy better. Whether a relationship existed between mind-mapping and recall of information was assessed.Material: First year medical students (2011 batch of VIMS &RC, Bangalore were divided in 2 groups. Each group was having 50 students. One group was standard note-taking (SNT and other was mind map group (MM.Method: Same gross Anatomy topics were assigned for both groups. MM group was given training for mind mapping and asked them to study topic with mind maps. Theory exam was conducted on the given topic for both groups. Marks scored in the exam were compared. After exam a questionnaire was given to MM group to assess their opinion to mind maps.Result: Students belonging to MM group scored better than SNT group. Majority of students of MM group opinion was mind map as a better learning tool in gross Anatomy. Conclusion: Mind maps helped medical students in learning Anatomy. It should be encouraged as a learning tool in gross Anatomy along with standard note-taking method.

  10. Contributions of Johann jacob Huber to the surface anatomy of the spinal cord and meninges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rengachary, Setti S; Pelle, Dominic; Guthikonda, Murali

    2008-06-01

    From prehistoric times, man has been aware that injury to the spine may result in paralysis of the limbs; this is reflected in bas-relief figures found at Nineweh in ancient Mesopotamia, in a hunting scene that depicts a lioness wounded by King Ashurbanipal. The Edwin Smith papyrus gives many case illustrations of spinal cord injury resulting in paralysis, yet early physicians were unaware of the anatomy of the spinal cord. Galen performed prospective studies in animals by sectioning the spinal cord at varying levels and observing the commensurate paralysis and sensory loss. Real advances in the understanding of spinal cord anatomy did not occur until human cadaveric dissections were undertaken; even then, the knowledge of the anatomy of the spinal cord lagged behind that of other body structures. Johann Jacob Huber appears to be the first anatomist to focus on the spinal cord almost exclusively. His descriptions, and especially his illustrations that depict spinal cord surface anatomy, are impressive with regard to their accuracy and their sense of photorealism. Indeed, his illustrations seem to compare well with the anatomic drawings in contemporary anatomic texts. Yet, we were unable to find a single article in the entire English-language literature depicting his illustrations. We conclude that the description and anatomic illustrations by Johann Jacob Huber remain a hidden gem in the history of human spinal anatomy. PMID:18825005

  11. [Juan Valverde de Amusco c. 1525-1588 and his vocation for anatomy in the Hispano-Italian Renaissance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Mansilla, José Miguel

    2015-01-01

    The XVIth century witnessed a glorious period in the progress of some of the basic medical sciences among which anatomy stands out. One of the well-known figures involved in the development of this subject was Juan Valverde de Amusco, a notable Spanish scientist. This research shows the most relevant data currently known on his life, sociocultural environment and his celebrated treaty on anatomy titled: "Historia de la composición del cuerpo humano". (History of the human body). PMID:26999984

  12. Auditory pathways: anatomy and physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickles, James O

    2015-01-01

    This chapter outlines the anatomy and physiology of the auditory pathways. After a brief analysis of the external, middle ears, and cochlea, the responses of auditory nerve fibers are described. The central nervous system is analyzed in more detail. A scheme is provided to help understand the complex and multiple auditory pathways running through the brainstem. The multiple pathways are based on the need to preserve accurate timing while extracting complex spectral patterns in the auditory input. The auditory nerve fibers branch to give two pathways, a ventral sound-localizing stream, and a dorsal mainly pattern recognition stream, which innervate the different divisions of the cochlear nucleus. The outputs of the two streams, with their two types of analysis, are progressively combined in the inferior colliculus and onwards, to produce the representation of what can be called the "auditory objects" in the external world. The progressive extraction of critical features in the auditory stimulus in the different levels of the central auditory system, from cochlear nucleus to auditory cortex, is described. In addition, the auditory centrifugal system, running from cortex in multiple stages to the organ of Corti of the cochlea, is described.

  13. The 2008 anatomy ceremony: essays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elansary, Mei; Goldberg, Ben; Qian, Ting; Rizzolo, Lawrence J

    2009-03-01

    When asked to relate my experience of anatomy to the first-year medical and physician associate students at Yale before the start of their own first dissection, I found no better words to share than those of my classmates. Why speak with only one tongue, I said, when you can draw on 99 others? Anatomical dissection elicits what our course director, Lawrence Rizzolo, has called a "diversity of experience," which, in turn, engenders a diversity of expressions. For Yale medical and physician associate students, this diversity is captured each year in a ceremony dedicated to those who donated their bodies for dissection. The service is an opportunity to offer thanks, but because only students and faculty are in attendance, it is also a place to share and address the complicated tensions that arise while examining, invading, and ultimately disassembling another's body. It is our pleasure to present selected pieces from the ceremony to the Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine readership. PMID:19325944

  14. Importance of the comparative anatomy in Forensic Anthropology – case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rhonan Ferreira da Silva

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In forensic sciences, reconstructive victim profile is a commonly used procedure to provide individual data in cases of complex human identifications. In forensic anthropology, valuable data are obtained from skeletal and dental analysis such as gender, age, ancestry, stature, and differentiation between human and non-human remains. Objective: To highlight the relevance of comparative anatomy analysis to differentiate human and non-human remains. Case report: Four bone fragments and one tooth were found on a potential crime scene, and were submitted to forensic examinations. The examinations revealed non-human anthropological remains. Additionally, the analyzed bones and tooth were classified as animal remains, specifically from a domestic dog (Canis lupus familiares. Conclusion: In this context, it is relevant to be trained and aware of the usefulness of comparative anatomy into the forensic anthropology routine in order to perform complete and accurate examinations.

  15. An Integrated Teaching Method of Gross Anatomy and Computed Tomography Radiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Tohru; Tajika, Yuki; Ueno, Hitoshi; Awata, Sachiko; Hirasawa, Satoshi; Sugimoto, Maki; Kominato, Yoshihiko; Tsushima, Yoshito; Endo, Keigo; Yorifuji, Hiroshi

    2014-01-01

    It is essential for medical students to learn and comprehend human anatomy in three dimensions (3D). With this in mind, a new system was designed in order to integrate anatomical dissections with diagnostic computed tomography (CT) radiology. Cadavers were scanned by CT scanners, and students then consulted the postmortem CT images during cadaver…

  16. An Active Learning Exercise to Facilitate Understanding of Nephron Function: Anatomy and Physiology of Renal Transporters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dirks-Naylor, Amie J.

    2016-01-01

    Renal transport is a central mechanism underlying electrolyte homeostasis, acid base balance and other essential functions of the kidneys in human physiology. Thus, knowledge of the anatomy and physiology of the nephron is essential for the understanding of kidney function in health and disease. However, students find this content difficult to…

  17. Perceptions among Occupational and Physical Therapy Students of a Nontraditional Methodology for Teaching Laboratory Gross Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, K. Jackson; Denham, Bryan E.; Dinolfo, John D.

    2011-01-01

    This pilot study was designed to assess the perceptions of physical therapy (PT) and occupational therapy (OT) students regarding the use of computer-assisted pedagogy and prosection-oriented communications in the laboratory component of a human anatomy course at a comprehensive health sciences university in the southeastern United States. The…

  18. The Diverse Utility of Wet Prosections and Plastinated Specimens in Teaching Gross Anatomy in New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornwall, Jon

    2011-01-01

    Anatomical education has traditionally used cadaveric material to study the human body, with both wet prosections and plastinated (PP) material commonly utilized. However, the frequency of use of these different preparation modes in a tertiary institution has not been previously examined. An audit of PP use in the Department of Anatomy and…

  19. Anatomy of the ward round.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Hare, James A

    2008-07-01

    The ward round has been a central activity of hospital life for hundreds of years. It is hardly mentioned in textbooks. The ward round is a parade through the hospital of professionals where most decision making concerning patient care is made. However the traditional format may be intimidating for patients and inadequate for communication. The round provides an opportunity for the multi-disciplinary team to listen to the patient\\'s narrative and jointly interpret his concerns. From this unfolds diagnosis, management plans, prognosis formation and the opportunity to explore social, psychological, rehabilitation and placement issues. Physical examination of the patient at the bedside still remains important. It has been a tradition to discuss the patient at the bedside but sensitive matters especially of uncertainty may better be discussed elsewhere. The senior doctor as round leader must seek the input of nursing whose observations may be under-appreciated due to traditional professional hierarchy. Reductions in the working hours of junior doctors and shortened length of stay have reduced continuity of patient care. This increases the importance of senior staff in ensuring continuity of care and the need for the joint round as the focus of optimal decision making. The traditional round incorporates teaching but patient\\'s right to privacy and their preferences must be respected. The quality and form of the clinical note is underreported but the electronic record is slow to being accepted. The traditional multi-disciplinary round is disappearing in some centres. This may be regrettable. The anatomy and optimal functioning of the ward round deserves scientific scrutiny and experimentation.

  20. Quantitative wood anatomy - practical guidelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georg evon Arx

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Quantitative wood anatomy analyzes the variability of xylem anatomical features in trees, shrubs and herbaceous species to address research questions related to plant functioning, growth and environment. Among the more frequently considered anatomical features are lumen dimensions and wall thickness of conducting cells, fibers and several ray properties. The structural properties of each xylem anatomical feature are mostly fixed once they are formed, and define to a large extent its functionality, including transport and storage of water, nutrients, sugars and hormones, and providing mechanical support. The anatomical features can often be localized within an annual growth ring, which allows to establish intra-annual past and present structure-function relationships and its sensitivity to environmental variability. However, there are many methodological obstacles to overcome when aiming at producing (large data sets of xylem anatomical data.Here we describe the different steps from wood sample collection to xylem anatomical data, provide guidance and identify pitfalls, and present different image-analysis tools for the quantification of anatomical features, in particular conducting cells. We show that each data production step from sample collection in the field, microslide preparation in the lab, image capturing through an optical microscope and image analysis with specific tools can readily introduce measurement errors between 5 to 30% and more, whereby the magnitude usually increases the smaller the anatomical features. Such measurement errors – if not avoided or corrected – may make it impossible to extract meaningful xylem anatomical data in light of the rather small range of variability in many anatomical features as observed, for example, within time series of individual plants. Following a rigid protocol and quality control as proposed in this paper is thus mandatory to use quantitative data of xylem anatomical features as a powerful

  1. Revisiting the Anatomy of the Living Heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Shumpei; Spicer, Diane E; Anderson, Robert H

    2016-01-01

    An understanding of the complexity of cardiac anatomy is required by all who seek, in the setting of cardiac disease, to interpret the images confronting them. Although the mysteries of cardiac structure have been extensively addressed, significant gaps continue to exist between the descriptions provided by morphologists and by those working in the clinical setting. In part, this reflects the limitations in providing 3D visualization of such a complicated organ. Current 3D imaging technology now permits visualization of the cardiac components using datasets obtained in the living individual. These advances, furthermore, demonstrate the anatomy in the setting of the heart as imaged within the thorax. It has been failure to describe the heart as it lies within the thorax that remains a major deficiency of many morphologists relying on the dissecting room to provide the gold standard. Describing the heart in attitudinally appropriate fashion, a basic rule of clinical anatomy, creates the necessary bridges between anatomists and clinicians. The rapid progression of cardiac interventional techniques, furthermore, emphasizes the need to revisit cardiac anatomy using a multidisciplinary approach. In this review, therefore, we illustrate the advantages of an attitudinally correct approach to cardiac anatomy. We then focus on the morphology of the arterial roots, revealing the accuracy that can now be achieved by clinicians using datasets obtained during life.

  2. FishNet: an online database of zebrafish anatomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gibson Abigail J

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Over the last two decades, zebrafish have been established as a genetically versatile model system for investigating many different aspects of vertebrate developmental biology. With the credentials of zebrafish as a developmental model now well recognized, the emerging new opportunity is the wider application of zebrafish biology to aspects of human disease modelling. This rapidly increasing use of zebrafish as a model for human disease has necessarily generated interest in the anatomy of later developmental phases such as the larval, juvenile, and adult stages, during which many of the key aspects of organ morphogenesis and maturation take place. Anatomical resources and references that encompass these stages are non-existent in zebrafish and there is therefore an urgent need to understand how different organ systems and anatomical structures develop throughout the life of the fish. Results To overcome this deficit we have utilized the technique of optical projection tomography to produce three-dimensional (3D models of larval fish. In order to view and display these models we have created FishNet http://www.fishnet.org.au, an interactive reference of zebrafish anatomy spanning the range of zebrafish development from 24 h until adulthood. Conclusion FishNet contains more than 36 000 images of larval zebrafish, with more than 1 500 of these being annotated. The 3D models can be manipulated on screen or virtually sectioned. This resource represents the first complete embryo to adult atlas for any species in 3D.

  3. The Anatomy of the Aging Face: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotofana, Sebastian; Fratila, Alina A M; Schenck, Thilo L; Redka-Swoboda, Wolfgang; Zilinsky, Isaac; Pavicic, Tatjana

    2016-06-01

    Rejuvenative procedures of the face are increasing in numbers, and a plethora of different therapeutic options are available today. Every procedure should aim for the patient's safety first and then for natural and long-lasting results. The face is one of the most complex regions in the human body and research continuously reveals new insights into the complex interplay of the different participating structures. Bone, ligaments, muscles, fat, and skin are the key players in the layered arrangement of the face.Aging occurs in all involved facial structures but the onset and the speed of age-related changes differ between each specific structure, between each individual, and between different ethnic groups. Therefore, knowledge of age-related anatomy is crucial for a physician's work when trying to restore a youthful face.This review focuses on the current understanding of the anatomy of the human face and tries to elucidate the morphological changes during aging of bone, ligaments, muscles, and fat, and their role in rejuvenative procedures. PMID:27248022

  4. Anatomy studies for an artificial heart. Final summary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the interval from February of 1972 through December of 1977, studies were conducted relating to the anatomical feasibility of implanting a total artificial heart system. These studies included both the calf as an experimental animal as well as the ultimate human recipient of the artificial heart system. Studies with the calf included definition of the thoracic anatomy relative to the size, shape, and vascular connections for implanting the blood pump. To test the animal's tolerance to an implanted engine system, mockups of the thermal converter were implanted chronically in various locations within the calf. No problems developed in retroperitoneal or intraperitoneal implants ranging from 8 to 15 months. A study to determine accelerations experienced by an abdominally implanted thermal converter was performed in calves. Under the most severe conditions, accelerations of a maximum of 34 Gs were experienced. The largest effort was devoted to defining the human anatomy relative to implanting an artificial heart in the thorax. From a number of data sources, including cadavers as well as living patients, a quantitative, statistical analysis of the size and shape of the male thorax was obtained. Finally, an in vivo study of a functional intrathoracic compliance bag in a calf demonstrated the feasibility of this method

  5. An Interactive 3D Virtual Anatomy Puzzle for Learning and Simulation - Initial Demonstration and Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messier, Erik; Wilcox, Jascha; Dawson-Elli, Alexander; Diaz, Gabriel; Linte, Cristian A

    2016-01-01

    To inspire young students (grades 6-12) to become medical practitioners and biomedical engineers, it is necessary to expose them to key concepts of the field in a way that is both exciting and informative. Recent advances in medical image acquisition, manipulation, processing, visualization, and display have revolutionized the approach in which the human body and internal anatomy can be seen and studied. It is now possible to collect 3D, 4D, and 5D medical images of patient specific data, and display that data to the end user using consumer level 3D stereoscopic display technology. Despite such advancements, traditional 2D modes of content presentation such as textbooks and slides are still the standard didactic equipment used to teach young students anatomy. More sophisticated methods of display can help to elucidate the complex 3D relationships between structures that are so often missed when viewing only 2D media, and can instill in students an appreciation for the interconnection between medicine and technology. Here we describe the design, implementation, and preliminary evaluation of a 3D virtual anatomy puzzle dedicated to helping users learn the anatomy of various organs and systems by manipulating 3D virtual data. The puzzle currently comprises several components of the human anatomy and can be easily extended to include additional organs and systems. The 3D virtual anatomy puzzle game was implemented and piloted using three display paradigms - a traditional 2D monitor, a 3D TV with active shutter glass, and the DK2 version Oculus Rift, as well as two different user interaction devices - a space mouse and traditional keyboard controls. PMID:27046584

  6. [Anatomia practica: features from the history of early patho-anatomy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Olaf Myhre

    2002-01-01

    Since the anatomy school of Alexandria during the fourth og third century before Christ dissection of the human body seems not to have been practiced until late Medieval or early Renaissance period, undoubtedly due to ethical and religious aversions. The teaching of anatomy was based on Galen using animal dissection. In the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries, however, anatomical examinations of the human body slowly began, seemingly for the purpose of describing both the normal structure and the abnormal structure caused by diseases, maldevelopment or trauma. This latter branch of anatomy was called practical, medical or correlative anatomy and corresponds to what we today name as patho-anatomy. Antonio Benivieni of Florence (1442-1502) is the first one to collect (and publish) a series of clinical observations some of which could be correlated to post mortem findings. It is unknown, however, whether the autopsies were performed by himself; and there is no mentioning of technique or circumstances for sectioning. Studies of the dead body by incision for the purpose of displaying diseased organs (autopsy) seem to have been an accepted practice for which relatives consented in those days. Other medical doctors in the years to follow, as for instance Fernel (1485-1558) in Paris, Eustachius (1524-1574) in Rome, Felix Plater (1536-1614) in Basle and Th. Bartholin (1616-1680) in Copenhagen have used the anatomical method for the study of diseases. Further, Schenck (1530-1598) in Freiburg and Bonet (1620-1689) in Genéva collected and published large series of clinical symptoms which had been related to post mortem findings dating back to ancient observers. This is the scientific background for anatomists as Morgagni, Lieutaud, Baillie, Bichât and others who founded the morbid anatomy on which the study of disease flourished in the classical patho-anatomical era of the nineteenth century with names as Rokitanski and Virchow.

  7. Anatomy and histology of the sacroiliac joints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egund, Niels; Jurik, Anne Grethe

    2014-07-01

    The anatomy of joints provides an important basis for understanding the nature and imaging of pathologic lesions and their imaging appearance. This applies especially to the sacroiliac (SI) joints, which play a major role in the diagnosis of spondyloarthritis. They are composed of two different joint portions, a cartilage-covered portion ventrally and a ligamentous portion dorsally, and thus rather complex anatomically. Knowledge of anatomy and the corresponding normal imaging findings are important in the imaging diagnosis of sacroiliitis, especially by MR imaging. A certain distinction between the two joint portions by MR imaging is only obtainable by axial slice orientation. Together with a perpendicular coronal slice orientation, it provides adequate anatomical information and thereby a possibility for detecting the anatomical site of disease-specific characteristics and normal variants simulating disease. This overview describes current knowledge about the normal macroscopic and microscopic anatomy of the SI joints.

  8. Retention of anatomy knowledge by student radiographers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Introduction: Anatomy has long been regarded as an integral part of the core curriculum. However, anecdotal evidence suggests that long-term retention of anatomy knowledge may be deficient. This study aims to evidence whether student radiographers demonstrate the same level of knowledge of anatomy after a period of time has elapsed and to correlate to approaches to learning and studying. Methodology: A repeated measures design was utilised to measure retention of anatomy knowledge for both MCQs and short-response answers to a Practical Radiographic Anatomy Examination; alpha value p < 0.05. Fifty-one students from levels 2 and 3 were retested after a time lapse of 10 and 22 months respectively. The students were not aware that their knowledge was being retested. Approaches to learning and studying were measured using the ASSIST inventory. Results: Statistical analysis found no difference in performance on MCQ assessment, in either the combined sample or levels 2 and 3 separately, from baseline to retention occasions; average retention rate being 99%. However, a statistical difference in performance on PRAE assessment was found, with level 2 experiencing a larger reduction in scores; retention rate of 67% compared to level 3 at 77%. The students perceived themselves to be principally strategic in their approach to learning and studying but no strong relationships were found when correlated to test scores. Conclusion: The student radiographers in this study demonstrated varied anatomy retention rates dependent on assessment method employed and time interval that had elapsed. It is recommended that diverse teaching and assessment strategies are adopted to encourage a deeper approach to learning and studying.

  9. Retention of anatomy knowledge by student radiographers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hall, A. Susanne [Division of Radiography, School of Health and Social Care, Glasgow Caledonian University, Cowcaddens Road, Glasgow G4 0BA (United Kingdom)], E-mail: a.s.hall@gcal.ac.uk; Durward, Brian R. [Educational Development, NHS Education for Scotland, Floor 5, Thistle House, 91 Haymarket Terrace, Edinburgh EH12 5HD (United Kingdom)

    2009-08-15

    Introduction: Anatomy has long been regarded as an integral part of the core curriculum. However, anecdotal evidence suggests that long-term retention of anatomy knowledge may be deficient. This study aims to evidence whether student radiographers demonstrate the same level of knowledge of anatomy after a period of time has elapsed and to correlate to approaches to learning and studying. Methodology: A repeated measures design was utilised to measure retention of anatomy knowledge for both MCQs and short-response answers to a Practical Radiographic Anatomy Examination; alpha value p < 0.05. Fifty-one students from levels 2 and 3 were retested after a time lapse of 10 and 22 months respectively. The students were not aware that their knowledge was being retested. Approaches to learning and studying were measured using the ASSIST inventory. Results: Statistical analysis found no difference in performance on MCQ assessment, in either the combined sample or levels 2 and 3 separately, from baseline to retention occasions; average retention rate being 99%. However, a statistical difference in performance on PRAE assessment was found, with level 2 experiencing a larger reduction in scores; retention rate of 67% compared to level 3 at 77%. The students perceived themselves to be principally strategic in their approach to learning and studying but no strong relationships were found when correlated to test scores. Conclusion: The student radiographers in this study demonstrated varied anatomy retention rates dependent on assessment method employed and time interval that had elapsed. It is recommended that diverse teaching and assessment strategies are adopted to encourage a deeper approach to learning and studying.

  10. Restructuring a basic science course for core competencies: an example from anatomy teaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, Jeremy K; Lachman, Nirusha; Camp, Christopher L; Chen, Laura P; Pawlina, Wojciech

    2009-09-01

    Medical schools revise their curricula in order to develop physicians best skilled to serve the public's needs. To ensure a smooth transition to residency programs, undergraduate medical education is often driven by the six core competencies endorsed by the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME): patient care, medical knowledge, practice-based learning, interpersonal skills, professionalism, and systems-based practice. Recent curricular redesign at Mayo Medical School provided an opportunity to restructure anatomy education and integrate radiology with first-year gross and developmental anatomy. The resulting 6-week (120-contact-hour) human structure block provides students with opportunities to learn gross anatomy through dissection, radiologic imaging, and embryologic correlation. We report more than 20 educational interventions from the human structure block that may serve as a model for incorporating the ACGME core competencies into basic science and early medical education. The block emphasizes clinically-oriented anatomy, invites self- and peer-evaluation, provides daily formative feedback through an audience response system, and employs team-based learning. The course includes didactic briefing sessions and roles for students as teachers, leaders, and collaborators. Third-year medical students serve as teaching assistants. With its clinical focus and competency-based design, the human structure block connects basic science with best-practice clinical medicine.

  11. From macro-scale to micro-scale computational anatomy: a perspective on the next 20 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Kensaku

    2016-10-01

    This paper gives our perspective on the next two decades of computational anatomy, which has made great strides in the recognition and understanding of human anatomy from conventional clinical images. The results from this field are now used in a variety of medical applications, including quantitative analysis of organ shapes, interventional assistance, surgical navigation, and population analysis. Several anatomical models have also been used in computational anatomy, and these mainly target millimeter-scale shapes. For example, liver-shape models are almost completely modeled at the millimeter scale, and shape variations are described at such scales. Most clinical 3D scanning devices have had just under 1 or 0.5 mm per voxel resolution for over 25 years, and this resolution has not changed drastically in that time. Although Z-axis (head-to-tail direction) resolution has been drastically improved by the introduction of multi-detector CT scanning devices, in-plane resolutions have not changed very much either. When we look at human anatomy, we can see different anatomical structures at different scales. For example, pulmonary blood vessels and lung lobes can be observed in millimeter-scale images. If we take 10-µm-scale images of a lung specimen, the alveoli and bronchiole regions can be located in them. Most work in millimeter-scale computational anatomy has been done by the medical-image analysis community. In the next two decades, we encourage our community to focus on micro-scale computational anatomy. In this perspective paper, we briefly review the achievements of computational anatomy and its impacts on clinical applications; furthermore, we show several possibilities from the viewpoint of microscopic computational anatomy by discussing experimental results from our recent research activities.

  12. Anatomy of a Busted Comet

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Poster Version (Figure 1) NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope captured the picture on the left of comet Holmes in March 2008, five months after the comet suddenly erupted and brightened a millionfold overnight. The contrast of the picture has been enhanced on the right to show the anatomy of the comet. Every six years, comet 17P/Holmes speeds away from Jupiter and heads inward toward the sun, traveling the same route typically without incident. However, twice in the last 116 years, in November 1892 and October 2007, comet Holmes mysteriously exploded as it approached the asteroid belt. Astronomers still do not know the cause of these eruptions. Spitzer's infrared picture at left hand side of figure 1, reveals fine dust particles that make up the outer shell, or coma, of the comet. The nucleus of the comet is within the bright whitish spot in the center, while the yellow area shows solid particles that were blown from the comet in the explosion. The comet is headed away from the sun, which lies beyond the right-hand side of figure 1. The contrast-enhanced picture on the right shows the comet's outer shell, and strange filaments, or streamers, of dust. The streamers and shell are a yet another mystery surrounding comet Holmes. Scientists had initially suspected that the streamers were small dust particles ejected from fragments of the nucleus, or from hyerpactive jets on the nucleus, during the October 2007 explosion. If so, both the streamers and the shell should have shifted their orientation as the comet followed its orbit around the sun. Radiation pressure from the sun should have swept the material back and away from it. But pictures of comet Holmes taken by Spitzer over time show the streamers and shell in the same configuration, and not pointing away from the sun. The observations have left astronomers stumped. The horizontal line seen in the contrast-enhanced picture is a trail of debris that travels along with the

  13. 基于VRML+JavaScript的交互式《人体解剖学》3D虚拟实验室的构建及应用%Construction and application of interactive 3D virtual laboratory for Human Anatomy based on VRML + JavaScript

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩中保; 韩扣兰; 周羽

    2012-01-01

    《人体解剖学》3D虚拟实验室是以VRML实现虚拟情境呈现,运用ImageModeler、Poser、Maya muscle等快捷建模工具构建人体器官3D模型,通过ASP和JavaScript搭建人机交互操作,整合相关图片和学习卡片构建而成的在线学习平台.该平台极大地激发了学生的学习兴趣,培养了学生的立体思维能力,提高了学习效率,推动了教学改革.%The 3 D virtual laboratory for Human Anatomy is presented with the virtual reality modeling language (VRML) environment and constructed with models of human organs with rapid modeling tools including ImageModeler, Poser and Maya muscle. This online learning platform builds human-computer interactive operations by using ASP and JavaScript and integrates relevant pictures and learning cards. This platform can greatly stimulate students' interest in learning, cultivate their 3D thinking ability, improve their learning efficiency, and promote the teaching reform.

  14. MIND MAP AS LEARNING TOOL IN ANATOMY

    OpenAIRE

    Deepali D Deshatty; Varsha Mokashi

    2013-01-01

    Aim of the study: A medical student has to read vast portion of anatomy in short time period. Mind maps are multi-sensory tool that may help medical students organize, integrate and retain information. The purpose of this study is first to see how mind mapping as a note-taking strategy facilitates medical students to learn anatomy better. Whether a relationship existed between mind-mapping and recall of information was assessed.Material: First year medical students (2011 batch) of VIMS &RC,...

  15. Functional Anatomy of the Outflow Facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizzirani, Stefano; Gong, Haiyan

    2015-11-01

    In order to understand the pathophysiology, select optimal therapeutic options for patients and provide clients with honest expectations for cases of canine glaucoma, clinicians should be familiar with a rational understanding of the functional anatomy of the ocular structures involved in this group of diseases. The topographical extension and the structural and humoral complexity of the regions involved with the production and the outflow of aqueous humor undergo numerous changes with aging and disease. Therefore, the anatomy relative to the fluid dynamics of aqueous has become a pivotal yet flexible concept to interpret the different phenotypes of glaucoma.

  16. Beyond the traditional approach to teaching anatomy for yoga

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison Marie Gardiner-Shires

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: The traditional approach to teaching anatomy for yoga, while systematic, is often ineffective. Methods: A unique approach to teaching anatomy for a Yoga Teacher Training seminar is presented, founded on the principles of Thomas Myers′ Anatomy Trains. Lab activities are detailed and Bloom′s Taxonomy is applied to ensure students are engaged in higher level thinking and application. Conclusion: Going beyond the traditional approach to teaching anatomy for yoga can be extremely rewarding for students and teachers alike.

  17. Guidelines for Standard Photography in Gross and Clinical Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barut, Cagatay; Ertilav, Hakan

    2011-01-01

    Photography has a widespread usage in medicine and anatomy. In this review, authors focused on the usage of photography in gross and clinical anatomy. Photography in gross and clinical anatomy is not only essential for accurate documentation of morphological findings but also important in sharing knowledge and experience. Photographs of cadavers…

  18. Perceptions of Anatomy Education--A Student's View

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joslin, Sarah

    2008-01-01

    Changes in anatomy education over the last two decades have, in large part, led to less emphasis on gross anatomy in the medical curriculum. This has led many to question whether streamlined anatomy courses truly provide adequate preparation for medical practice. Rather than wondering about the effects of these changes, we should be actively…

  19. Properties of Publications on Anatomy in Medical Education Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorstenbosch, Marc; Bolhuis, Sanneke; van Kuppeveld, Sascha; Kooloos, Jan; Laan, Roland

    2011-01-01

    Publications on anatomy in medical education appear to be largely anecdotal. To explore this, we investigated the literature on anatomy in medical education, aiming first to evaluate the contribution of the literature on anatomy in medical education to "best evidence medical education" (BEME) and second to evaluate the development of this…

  20. Teaching dental anatomy with light-activated resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalkley, Y; Denehy, G E; Schulein, T M

    1984-04-01

    A method has been described in which light-activated resins are incorporated into the dental anatomy laboratory. This procedure is a valuable addition to the anatomy course because students (1) work with a restorative material appropriate for anterior teeth, (2) learn the unique properties of the light-activated resins, and (3) apply the principles of dental anatomy to a clinically relevant task.

  1. Junior doctors' knowledge of applied clinical anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Yuri; Morgan, Mia; Singh, Annika; Ellis, Harold

    2008-05-01

    This study examines the level of knowledge of applied clinical anatomy among junior doctors. A multiple-choice questionnaire was designed, which covered 15 areas of anatomical knowledge essential to clinical practice, for example, important surface landmarks and interpretation of radiographs. The questionnaire was completed by 128 individuals. They comprised anatomy demonstrators, preregistration house officers (PRHOs), senior house officers (SHOs) and specialist registrars (SpRs) across the range of medical and surgical specialities. Answers were scored and analyzed by group, allowing comparison not only between newly qualified PRHOs and more senior doctors, but also with anatomy demonstrators who had undergone more traditional anatomical training. The results reveal a wide variation of knowledge among junior doctors, with PRHOs scoring an average of 72.1%, SHOs 77.1%, SpRs 82.4%, and demonstrators 82.9%. This progression in knowledge up the clinical hierarchy may reflect clinical experience building upon the foundations laid in medical school, although with demonstrators topping the league table, it seems that intensive academic training is the most beneficial. With junior doctors' training in the UK currently in flux, these results highlight the need for training in clinical anatomy to hold an important place in the development of tomorrow's clinicians.

  2. Wood anatomy of the Blakeeae (Melastomataceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koek-Noorman, J.; Hogeweg, P.; Maanen, van W.H.M.; Welle, ter B.J.H.

    1979-01-01

    The present paper deals with the wood anatomy of the Blakeeae (Melastomataceae). Generic descriptions of the secondary xylem of Blakea, Topobea, and Huilaea are given and compared with data on 16 genera of the Miconieae. Numerical pattern detection was undertaken. The results confirm our preliminary

  3. Wood and leaf anatomy of Opiliaceae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koek-Noorman, J.; Rijckevorsel, v. P.

    1983-01-01

    The wood and leaf anatomy of representatives of the 9 genera of the Opiliaceae are described in detail. It is possible to separate the genera on the base of both wood- and leaf anatomical characters. Herein the presence of cystoliths of varying shape and size is important. Some comments on the taxon

  4. Fostering Improved Anatomy and Physiology Instructor Pedagogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattheis, Allison; Jensen, Murray

    2014-01-01

    Despite widespread calls for reform in undergraduate science, technology, engineering, and mathematics education, effecting lasting change in instructor practice is challenging to achieve. This article describes the results of a 2-yr research study that involved efforts to develop the pedagogical expertise of a group of anatomy and physiology…

  5. Anatomy for blepharoplasty and brow-lift.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridgway, James M; Larrabee, Wayne F

    2010-08-01

    The eyelids and eyebrows provide communicative, emotional, and protective functions through a complex interplay of muscles, tendons, and other local soft tissues. A surgical intervention involving these regions are renowned for their deceptive simplicity and notable complications. With these challenges in mind, this article provides the reader with a detailed and systematic review of the eyelid and brow anatomy. PMID:20524165

  6. Children's Fantasy Literature: Toward an Anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gooderham, David

    1995-01-01

    States that finding a critical language in which to speak about children's fantasy texts is not as straightforward as might first appear. Discusses ideas held by T. Todorov and J.R.R. Tolkien. Argues that fantasy is a metaphorical mode, and details an anatomy of children's fantasy. Concludes that children's fantasy can be described as a body of…

  7. Professional Storytelling in Clinical Dental Anatomy Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kieser, Jules; Livingstone, Vicki; Meldrum, Alison

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the present work was to see if storytelling in a clinical dental anatomy course would increase student satisfaction. We enhanced teaching by spontaneous storytelling in problem-based learning, in half of the third-year dentistry class. At the end of the course, we administered an anonymous questionnaire to the students in the class,…

  8. Scaphoid fractures: anatomy, diagnosis and treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.A. Buijze

    2012-01-01

    This thesis deals with current issues in anatomy, diagnosis and treatment of scaphoid fractures. Anatomical inconsistencies are elucidated by accurate 3D imaging. Sophisticated diagnostic imaging cannot solve the problem of the suspected scaphoid fracture because there is no gold standard for a true

  9. Multimodal integration of anatomy and physiology classes: How instructors utilize multimodal teaching in their classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGraw, Gerald M., Jr.

    Multimodality is the theory of communication as it applies to social and educational semiotics (making meaning through the use of multiple signs and symbols). The term multimodality describes a communication methodology that includes multiple textual, aural, and visual applications (modes) that are woven together to create what is referred to as an artifact. Multimodal teaching methodology attempts to create a deeper meaning to course content by activating the higher cognitive areas of the student's brain, creating a more sustained retention of the information (Murray, 2009). The introduction of multimodality educational methodologies as a means to more optimally engage students has been documented within educational literature. However, studies analyzing the distribution and penetration into basic sciences, more specifically anatomy and physiology, have not been forthcoming. This study used a quantitative survey design to determine the degree to which instructors integrated multimodality teaching practices into their course curricula. The instrument used for the study was designed by the researcher based on evidence found in the literature and sent to members of three associations/societies for anatomy and physiology instructors: the Human Anatomy and Physiology Society; the iTeach Anatomy & Physiology Collaborate; and the American Physiology Society. Respondents totaled 182 instructor members of two- and four-year, private and public higher learning colleges collected from the three organizations collectively with over 13,500 members in over 925 higher learning institutions nationwide. The study concluded that the expansion of multimodal methodologies into anatomy and physiology classrooms is at the beginning of the process and that there is ample opportunity for expansion. Instructors continue to use lecture as their primary means of interaction with students. Email is still the major form of out-of-class communication for full-time instructors. Instructors with

  10. Medical student preferences for self-directed study resources in gross anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi-Lundberg, Derek L; Low, Tze Feng; Patman, Phillip; Turner, Paul; Sinha, Sankar N

    2016-01-01

    Gross anatomy instruction in medical curricula involve a range of resources and activities including dissection, prosected specimens, anatomical models, radiological images, surface anatomy, textbooks, atlases, and computer-assisted learning (CAL). These resources and activities are underpinned by the expectation that students will actively engage in self-directed study (SDS) to enhance their knowledge and understanding of anatomy. To gain insight into preclinical versus clinical medical students' preferences for SDS resources for learning gross anatomy, and whether these vary on demographic characteristics and attitudes toward anatomy, students were surveyed at two Australian medical schools, one undergraduate-entry and the other graduate-entry. Lecture/tutorial/practical notes were ranked first by 33% of 156 respondents (mean rank ± SD, 2.48 ± 1.38), textbooks by 26% (2.62 ± 1.35), atlases 20% (2.80 ± 1.44), videos 10% (4.34 ± 1.68), software 5% (4.78 ± 1.50), and websites 4% (4.24 ± 1.34). Among CAL resources, Wikipedia was ranked highest. The most important factor in selecting CAL resources was cost (ranked first by 46%), followed by self-assessment, ease of use, alignment with curriculum, and excellent graphics (each 6-9%). Compared with preclinical students, clinical students ranked software and Acland's Video Atlas of Human Anatomy higher and felt radiological images were more important in selecting CAL resources. Along with other studies reporting on the quality, features, and impact on learning of CAL resources, the diversity of students' preferences and opinions on usefulness and ease of use reported here can help guide faculty in selecting and recommending a range of CAL and other resources to their students to support their self-directed study. PMID:26033851

  11. LAPAROSCOPIC ANATOMY OF THE EXTRAHEPATIC BILIARY TRACT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Târcoveanu

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Development of mini-invasive surgery determinates a rapid improvement in laparoscopic regional anatomy. As laparoscopy is becoming common in most surgical departments, basic laparoscopic anatomy is mandatory for all residents in general surgery. Successful general surgery starts in the anatomy laboratory. Successfully minim invasive surgery starts in the operative theatre with laparoscopic exploration. The initial laparoscopic view of the right upper quadrant demonstrates primarily the subphrenic spaces, abdominal surface of the diaphragm and diaphragmatic surface of the liver. The falciform ligament is a prominent dividing point between the left subphrenic space and the right subphrenic space. The ligamentum teres hepatis is seen in the free edge of the falciform. Upward traction on the gallbladder exposes the structures of Calot’s triangle and the hepatoduodenal ligament. The liver is divided into anatomic segments based on internal anatomy that is invisible to the laparoscopist. Surface landmarks include the falciform ligament and the gallbladder fossa. The surgical procedures performed laparoscopically currently include liver biopsy, wedge resection, fenestration of hepatic cysts, laparoscopic approach of the hidatid hepatic cyst, and atypical hepatectomy. We present the laparoscopic anatomy of extrahepatic biliary tract. Once the gallbladder is elevated, inspection reveals Hartmann’s pouch and the cystic duct. The typical angular junction of the cystic duct on the common duct actually occurs in a minority of patients and the length and course of the cystic duct are highly variable. The boundaries of Calot’s triangle are often not well seen. The cystic artery is often visible under the peritoneum as it runs along the surface of the gallbladder. The variations of the structures of the hepatoduodenal ligament may occur to injuries during laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Cholangiography increases the safety of dissection of biliary tract by

  12. Regularized Statistical Analysis of Anatomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sjöstrand, Karl

    2007-01-01

    This thesis presents the application and development of regularized methods for the statistical analysis of anatomical structures. Focus is on structure-function relationships in the human brain, such as the connection between early onset of Alzheimer’s disease and shape changes of the corpus...

  13. Review of Prostate Anatomy and Embryology and the Etiology of Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aaron, LaTayia; Franco, Omar E; Hayward, Simon W

    2016-08-01

    Prostate development follows a common pattern between species and depends on the actions of androgens to induce and support ductal branching morphogenesis of buds emerging from the urogenital sinus. The human prostate has a compact zonal anatomy immediately surrounding the urethra and below the urinary bladder. Rodents have a lobular prostate with lobes radiating away from the urethra. The human prostate is the site of benign hyperplasia, prostate cancer, and prostatitis. The rodent prostate has little naturally occurring disease. Rodents can be used to model aspects of human benign hyperplasia, but care should be taken in data interpretation and extrapolation to the human condition. PMID:27476121

  14. Comparative anatomy of the thigh nerves of Cebus libidinosus (Rylands et al., 2000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.A.G.M.F. Aversi-Ferreira

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Non-human primates have constituted an important group among animals subjected to various studies. Ethological, evolutionary and paleontological studies have revealed changes in anatomical structures linked to the evolution of primates, considered in studies on the comparative anatomy between Cebus libidinosus and other neotropical monkeys or those from the Old World, and the detailed knowledge on their anatomy may represent an important factor for their preservation and protection when the animals are brought to veterinary clinics after accidents or illnesses. In terms of veterinary importance, sometimes these animals arrive in the veterinary medical clinics after accidents, needing surgery or clinical treatment, but the little data available on anatomy has impaired the correct proceedings. The main justification for studies on C. libidinosus, is due to little information about the anatomy related to C. libidinosus in Brazilian and worldwide scientific literature. In this study, the distribution, enervation and path of the femoral and sciatic nerves of the pelvic limb (thigh of C. libidinosus were studied and these results were compared with literature on the anatomy of humans, chimpanzees and baboons. In general, the enervation model of the four primates is identical, but in specific terms, the differences in enervations indicate evolution convergence closer to the branch of baboons in the evolutionary tree, and these data corroborate other comparative studies in relation to the same primates to vessels, muscles and nerves. In conclusion, the nerve organization in the thigh of C. libidinosus is identical to baboon, chimpanzee and homo, but more similar to baboon. The specific differences found indicate an ancient phylogenic origin to C. libidinosus and baboons (data corroborated by other studies.

  15. Computational anatomy for studying use-dependant brain plasticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draganski, Bogdan; Kherif, Ferath; Lutti, Antoine

    2014-01-01

    In this article we provide a comprehensive literature review on the in vivo assessment of use-dependant brain structure changes in humans using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computational anatomy. We highlight the recent findings in this field that allow the uncovering of the basic principles behind brain plasticity in light of the existing theoretical models at various scales of observation. Given the current lack of in-depth understanding of the neurobiological basis of brain structure changes we emphasize the necessity of a paradigm shift in the investigation and interpretation of use-dependent brain plasticity. Novel quantitative MRI acquisition techniques provide access to brain tissue microstructural properties (e.g., myelin, iron, and water content) in-vivo, thereby allowing unprecedented specific insights into the mechanisms underlying brain plasticity. These quantitative MRI techniques require novel methods for image processing and analysis of longitudinal data allowing for straightforward interpretation and causality inferences. PMID:25018716

  16. Computational anatomy for studying use-dependant brain plasticity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan eDraganski

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this article we provide a comprehensive literature review on the in vivo assessment of use-dependant brain structure changes in humans using magnetic resonance imaging and computational anatomy. We highlight the recent findings in this field that allow the uncovering of the basic principles behind brain plasticity in light of the existing theoretical models at various scales of observation. Given the current lack of in-depth understanding of the neurobiological basis of brain structure changes we emphasize the necessity of a paradigm shift in the investigation and interpretation of use-dependent brain plasticity. Novel quantitative MRI acquisition techniques provide access to brain tissue microstructural properties (e.g. myelin, iron and water content in-vivo, thereby allowing unprecedented specific insights into the mechanisms underlying brain plasticity. These quantitative MRI techniques require novel methods for image processing and analysis of longitudinal data allowing for straightforward interpretation and causality inferences.

  17. The Virtual Anatomy Lab: an eDemonstrator pedagogical agent can simulate student-faculty interaction and promote student engagement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Weber

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available As medical curricula evolve, many universities have adopted a clinical case-centered medical curriculum with a strong focus on small group learning and reduction of traditional lectures such that anatomy has become a self-taught subject supported by e-learning modules. One caveat of this approach is decreased student-faculty interaction and reduced student engagement. Thus use of e-learning must be balanced with the need for continued student-faculty interaction to promote healthy student engagement. To both support self-directed learning of anatomy and to simulate student-faculty interaction, we created the Virtual Anatomy Lab (VAL that features a human pedagogical agent, called the eDemonstrator, who guides student navigation through the available learning resources. The VAL was evaluated using a mixed methods approach (usage statistics and focus groups by two medical student populations at the University of Ottawa: first year medical students in a revised curriculum where anatomy lectures were abolished and laboratory sessions were self-taught, and second year medical students in the former curriculum in which anatomy lectures were given in advance of each laboratory session. We conclude that online modules such as the VAL, well designed with a human pedagogical agent, can be used within the curriculum without negatively impacting student engagement. Ethical Approval for this study was obtained from the Ottawa Hospital Research Ethics Board (protocol number #2009055-01H.

  18. The Journal of Anatomy: origin and evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morriss-Kay, Gillian

    2016-07-01

    The Journal of Anatomy was launched 150 years ago as the Journal of Anatomy and Physiology, in an age when anatomy and physiology were not regarded as separate disciplines. European science in general was advancing rapidly at the time (it was 7 years after publication of Darwin's Origin of Species), and the recent demise of the Natural History Review meant that there was no English language publication covering these subjects. The founding editors were George Murray Humphry of Cambridge and William Turner of Edinburgh, together with Alfred Newton of Cambridge and Edward Perceval Wright of Dublin (the last two served only for a year). The pivotal event leading to the Journal's foundation was the 1866 meeting of the British Association, at which Humphry delivered the 'Address in Physiology' (printed in the first issue). Turner, who was also present at the 1866 British Association meeting, remained as a member of the editorial team for 50 years and was a major contributor of Journal articles. The title was changed to Journal of Anatomy in October 1916, when it was taken under the wing, in terms of both management and ownership, by the Anatomical Society. This article reviews the early years of the Journal's publication in more detail than later years because of the historical interest of this less familiar material. The subject matter, which has remained surprisingly consistent over the years, is illustrated by examples from some notable contributions. The evolution of illustration techniques is surveyed from 1866 to the present day; the final section provides brief summaries of all of the chief editors. PMID:27278888

  19. Dental anatomy portrayed with microscopic volume investigations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumann, M A; Schwebel, T; Kriete, A

    1993-01-01

    The clinical treatment of the root canal of teeth--called endodontics--assumes a precise idea of the spatial arrangement of the anatomy of teeth and their inner structure. By using computer-assisted data acquisition from filmed sequences of histologic serial sections and a special kind of magnetic resonance microscope--the Stray Field Imaging (STRAFI)--volume investigations were carried out using special functions of a newly developed 3D software. Possible applications and future perspectives are discussed.

  20. The Journal of Anatomy: origin and evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morriss-Kay, Gillian

    2016-07-01

    The Journal of Anatomy was launched 150 years ago as the Journal of Anatomy and Physiology, in an age when anatomy and physiology were not regarded as separate disciplines. European science in general was advancing rapidly at the time (it was 7 years after publication of Darwin's Origin of Species), and the recent demise of the Natural History Review meant that there was no English language publication covering these subjects. The founding editors were George Murray Humphry of Cambridge and William Turner of Edinburgh, together with Alfred Newton of Cambridge and Edward Perceval Wright of Dublin (the last two served only for a year). The pivotal event leading to the Journal's foundation was the 1866 meeting of the British Association, at which Humphry delivered the 'Address in Physiology' (printed in the first issue). Turner, who was also present at the 1866 British Association meeting, remained as a member of the editorial team for 50 years and was a major contributor of Journal articles. The title was changed to Journal of Anatomy in October 1916, when it was taken under the wing, in terms of both management and ownership, by the Anatomical Society. This article reviews the early years of the Journal's publication in more detail than later years because of the historical interest of this less familiar material. The subject matter, which has remained surprisingly consistent over the years, is illustrated by examples from some notable contributions. The evolution of illustration techniques is surveyed from 1866 to the present day; the final section provides brief summaries of all of the chief editors.

  1. Scaphoid fractures: anatomy, diagnosis and treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Dijk, van, G.; Jupiter, J.B.; Ring, D.C.; Goslings, J. C.; Buijze, G.A.

    2012-01-01

    This thesis deals with current issues in anatomy, diagnosis and treatment of scaphoid fractures. Anatomical inconsistencies are elucidated by accurate 3D imaging. Sophisticated diagnostic imaging cannot solve the problem of the suspected scaphoid fracture because there is no gold standard for a true fracture, and there likely never will be. Acknowledging that we can only deal in probabilities, the development of clinical prediction rules will help to better define and narrow those probabiliti...

  2. Anatomy and bronchoscopy of the porcine lung. A model for translational respiratory medicine.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Judge, Eoin P

    2014-09-01

    The porcine model has contributed significantly to biomedical research over many decades. The similar size and anatomy of pig and human organs make this model particularly beneficial for translational research in areas such as medical device development, therapeutics and xenotransplantation. In recent years, a major limitation with the porcine model was overcome with the successful generation of gene-targeted pigs and the publication of the pig genome. As a result, the role of this model is likely to become even more important. For the respiratory medicine field, the similarities between pig and human lungs give the porcine model particular potential for advancing translational medicine. An increasing number of lung conditions are being studied and modeled in the pig. Genetically modified porcine models of cystic fibrosis have been generated that, unlike mouse models, develop lung disease similar to human cystic fibrosis. However, the scientific literature relating specifically to porcine lung anatomy and airway histology is limited and is largely restricted to veterinary literature and textbooks. Furthermore, methods for in vivo lung procedures in the pig are rarely described. The aims of this review are to collate the disparate literature on porcine lung anatomy, histology, and microbiology; to provide a comparison with the human lung; and to describe appropriate bronchoscopy procedures for the pig lungs to aid clinical researchers working in the area of translational respiratory medicine using the porcine model.

  3. Microsurgical anatomy of the middle cerebral artery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pai S

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The microsurgical anatomy of the middle cerebral artery (MCA is of particular interest to the cerebrovascular surgeon. The purpose of this study was to define the microsurgical anatomy of the MCA and its various branches in the Indian population. Methods: Ten MCAs were studied from five cadaveric brain specimens. The authors studied the outer diameter, length, branches, perforators and site of these on the main trunk (M1, the division of the main trunk, the secondary trunks and their various cortical branches using the operating microscope under 5-20x magnification. Results: The outer diameter of the MCA main trunk ranges from 2.5 to 4 mm with a mean of 3.35 mm. The superolateral branches consisted of polar temporal artery and anterior temporal artery that had a common origin and sometimes the uncal artery or the accessory uncal artery. Perforators or lenticulostriate arteries were seen in the inferomedial surface all along the length of M1. Eight bifurcations and two trifurcations were noted. Cortical branches and their origin are discussed. Conclusion: Although the microsurgical anatomy of the MCA in Indian population correlated with the findings in the western literature, some structural and statistical variations were noted.

  4. Anatomy-aware measurement of segmentation accuracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tizhoosh, H. R.; Othman, A. A.

    2016-03-01

    Quantifying the accuracy of segmentation and manual delineation of organs, tissue types and tumors in medical images is a necessary measurement that suffers from multiple problems. One major shortcoming of all accuracy measures is that they neglect the anatomical significance or relevance of different zones within a given segment. Hence, existing accuracy metrics measure the overlap of a given segment with a ground-truth without any anatomical discrimination inside the segment. For instance, if we understand the rectal wall or urethral sphincter as anatomical zones, then current accuracy measures ignore their significance when they are applied to assess the quality of the prostate gland segments. In this paper, we propose an anatomy-aware measurement scheme for segmentation accuracy of medical images. The idea is to create a "master gold" based on a consensus shape containing not just the outline of the segment but also the outlines of the internal zones if existent or relevant. To apply this new approach to accuracy measurement, we introduce the anatomy-aware extensions of both Dice coefficient and Jaccard index and investigate their effect using 500 synthetic prostate ultrasound images with 20 different segments for each image. We show that through anatomy-sensitive calculation of segmentation accuracy, namely by considering relevant anatomical zones, not only the measurement of individual users can change but also the ranking of users' segmentation skills may require reordering.

  5. Radiological anatomy for FRCR. Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The new FRCR part 1 Anatomy examination comprises 20 cases/images, with five questions about each. The cases are labelled 01 to 20 and the five questions are labelled (a) to (e). The authors have set out to emulate this format by gathering 200 cases which, from their experience, are representative of the cases on which candidates will be tested. The book consists of 10 tests with 20 cases each, and 5 stem questions each. The answers, along with an explanation and tips, accompany each test at the end of the chapter. This will help candidates to identify the level of anatomical knowledge expected by the Royal College of Radiologists. The aim of this book is not to replace the already available literature in radiological anatomy, but to complement it as a revision guide. Whereas radiological anatomy atlases and textbooks provide images with labels for every possible identifiable structure in an investigation, the cases in this book have only 5 labels, simulating the exam. (orig.)

  6. Die anatomie van taal beplanning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans du Plessis

    1989-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper it is argued that there should be a clear distinction between language planning (LP and the emotional approach to the development of language. Within the framework of modern theory of LP three types of LP are distinguished and described: Corpus planning, status planning and resource planning. Although these are interrelated in practice they are discussed separately with reference to the different stages of LP. It is argued that LP is a future-orientated, problem-related process. As main goal it has the solving of language problems and it is therefore aimed at the manipulation of language change. Language is, however, closely related to human behaviour and LP must consider socio-political factors. Language is a form of social behaviour and therefore LP is a form of socio -political planning.

  7. An approach to comparative anatomy of the acetabulum from amphibians to primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canillas, F; Delgado-Martos, M J; Touza, A; Escario, A; Martos-Rodriguez, A; Delgado-Baeza, E

    2011-12-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the anatomy, both macroscopic and microscopic, of the soft tissue internal structures of the hip joint in animal species and in three human hips (an adult and two fetuses). We dissected the hip joints of 16 species and compared the anatomical features of the soft tissue from the respective acetabula. In addition, a histological study was made of the specimens studied. In amphibians, we found a meniscus in the acetabulum, which was not observed in any of the other species studied. The isolated round ligament is observed from birds onwards. In the group of mammals analysed, including the human specimens, we found a meniscoid structure in the acetabular hip joint. Furthermore, we found that the meniscoid structure forms an anatomo-functional unit with the round ligament and the transverse ligament of the coxofemoral joint. These discoveries suggest the participation of the soft tissue anatomy in adaptative changes of species.

  8. Comparative dental anatomy in Disaster Victim Identification: Lessons from the 2009 Victorian Bushfires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lain, Russell; Taylor, Jane; Croker, Sarah; Craig, Pamela; Graham, Jeremy

    2011-02-25

    In the Disaster Victim Identification (DVI) response to the recent bushfire disasters in rural Victoria, Australia, forensic odontology played a significant role in the identification process. Particular features of this disaster were challenging to the odontologists. A characteristic of house fires is the extended time period during which the remains may be subject to heat, and their subsequent disruption as buildings collapse. This can result in dislodgement of teeth from sockets, loss of tooth crowns from roots, disruption of anatomical location of teeth and damage to bony features. Commingling of human remains also is often a feature, as is commingling of animal remains with human. Two cases which illustrate these features are described. A strategy for improving familiarity with comparative dental anatomy and improving skills in dental anatomy is suggested.

  9. [Mortui vivos docent?--experienced burdens of medical students in the gross anatomy course].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limbrecht, Kerstin; Brinkmann, Anke; Lamp, Christoph; Böckers, Anja; Böckers, Tobias; Traue, Harald C; Jerg-Bretzke, Lucia

    2013-08-01

    The dissection course (here abbreviated: PK) is still an obligatory part of medical schools in Germany. In this study we investigated the experiences and burdens of medical students in gross anatomy, especially "distancing from the human body".This study was carried out three times with the self-composed questionnaire BF-PK: before, while and after PK. In total 371 students participated in the PK. 297 students participated at measurement 1. In advance 25-30% of the medical students reported anxiety and emotional inhibition, during the course only 7-10%. The coping strategy "distancing from the human body" was prominent. Anxiety, emotional inhibition and disgust remained for 5-10% of the participants.The gross anatomy course causes emotional stress for a considerable amount of medical students. For those students that were not able to overcome the mental stress themselves service offers should be implemented. PMID:23468367

  10. Kant on anatomy and the status of the life sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Michael J

    2016-08-01

    This paper contributes to recent interest in Kant's engagement with the life sciences by focusing on one corner of those sciences that has received comparatively little attention: physical and comparative anatomy. By attending to remarks spread across Kant's writings, we gain some insight into Kant's understanding of the disciplinary limitations but also the methodological sophistication of the study of anatomy and physiology. Insofar as Kant highlights anatomy as a paradigmatic science guided by the principle of teleology in the Critique of the Power of Judgment, a more careful study of Kant's discussions of anatomy promises to illuminate some of the obscurities of that text and of his understanding of the life sciences more generally. In the end, it is argued, Kant's ambivalence with regard to anatomy gives way to a pessimistic conclusion about the possibility that anatomy, natural history, and, by extension, the life sciences more generally might one day become true natural sciences. PMID:27474188

  11. STUDY ON MULTIMEDIA ANIMATION SYSTEM OF ACUPOINT ANATOMY WITH FLASH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Bin; LUO Zhi-yong; PU Yu-feng; HONG Hong; ZUO Zhi-xiong

    2006-01-01

    Mastering anatomic structures of acupoints is of active significance for avoiding blindly needling and preventing accidents of acupuncture and moxibustion. This multimedia animation system of acupoint anatomy adopts Flash software as developing tool and can dynamically display anatomic layers of needle insertion, with objectivity, convenient operation and English-Chinese control, higher reliability, easy to study and master anatomic knowledge of acupoint anatomy, increase teaching efficiency, and richen teaching ways. This system can be used as a teaching tool of acupuncture and moxibustion, a software of studying anatomy of acupoints and an adjuvant tool of medical workers in studying anatomy.

  12. Use of Interactive Live Digital Imaging to Enhance Histology Learning in Introductory Level Anatomy and Physiology Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higazi, Tarig B.

    2011-01-01

    Histology is one of the main subjects in introductory college-level Human Anatomy and Physiology classes. Institutions are moving toward the replacement of traditional microscope-based histology learning with virtual microscopy learning amid concerns of losing the valuable learning experience of traditional microscopy. This study used live digital…

  13. Dimitrios Mavrokordatos (1811-1839), the eve of the Hellenic School of Anatomy in modern era Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sgantzos, Markos; Tsoucalas, Gregory; Laios, Konstantinos; Androutsos, George; Skandalakis, Panagiotis

    2015-01-01

    Dimitrios Alexandrou Mavrokordatos was the first regular professor of Anatomy and Physiology of the Hellenic "Othonian" University of Athens. He had completed his studies in Germany and thus he had been chosen to stimulate the empirical physicians of Greece to awaken. He died young, but his passion was so great that he had published a masterpiece in the new Greece, "On the anatomy of the human body", and left his fortune for his pupils, even though they had rebelled against him sometime before his death. With his teaching and book he established a kind of Greek "nomina anatomica" which formed the basis for medicine in the newly born country. PMID:27086416

  14. Dimitrios Mavrokordatos (1811-1839), the eve of the Hellenic School of Anatomy in modern era Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sgantzos, Markos; Tsoucalas, Gregory; Laios, Konstantinos; Androutsos, George; Skandalakis, Panagiotis

    2015-01-01

    Dimitrios Alexandrou Mavrokordatos was the first regular professor of Anatomy and Physiology of the Hellenic "Othonian" University of Athens. He had completed his studies in Germany and thus he had been chosen to stimulate the empirical physicians of Greece to awaken. He died young, but his passion was so great that he had published a masterpiece in the new Greece, "On the anatomy of the human body", and left his fortune for his pupils, even though they had rebelled against him sometime before his death. With his teaching and book he established a kind of Greek "nomina anatomica" which formed the basis for medicine in the newly born country.

  15. Functional mapping of thalamic nuclei and their integration into cortico-striatal-thalamo-cortical loops via ultra-high resolution imaging- From animal anatomy to in vivo imaging in humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coraline D. Metzger

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The thalamus, a crucial node in the well-described cortico-striatal-thalamo-cortical circuits, has been the focus of functional and structural imaging studies investigating human emotion, cognition and memory. Invasive work in animals and post-mortem investigations have revealed the rich cytoarchitectonics and functional specificity of the thalamus. Given current restrictions in the spatial resolution of non-invasive imaging modalities, there is, however, a translational gap between functional and structural information on these circuits in humans and animals as well as between histological and cellular evidence and their relationship to psychological functioning.With the advance of higher field strengths for MR approaches, better spatial resolution is now available promising to overcome this conceptual problem.We here review these two levels, which exist for both neuroscientific and clinical investigations, and then focus on current attempts to overcome conceptual boundaries of these observations with the help of high-resolution imaging.

  16. Functional mapping of thalamic nuclei and their integration into cortico-striatal-thalamo-cortical loops via ultra-high resolution imaging—from animal anatomy to in vivo imaging in humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzger, Coraline D.; van der Werf, Ysbrand D.; Walter, Martin

    2013-01-01

    The thalamus, a crucial node in the well-described cortico-striatal-thalamo-cortical circuits, has been the focus of functional and structural imaging studies investigating human emotion, cognition and memory. Invasive work in animals and post-mortem investigations have revealed the rich cytoarchitectonics and functional specificity of the thalamus. Given current restrictions in the spatial resolution of non-invasive imaging modalities, there is, however, a translational gap between functional and structural information on these circuits in humans and animals as well as between histological and cellular evidence and their relationship to psychological functioning. With the advance of higher field strengths for MR approaches, better spatial resolution is now available promising to overcome this conceptual problem. We here review these two levels, which exist for both neuroscientific and clinical investigations, and then focus on current attempts to overcome conceptual boundaries of these observations with the help of ultra-high resolution imaging. PMID:23658535

  17. Atlas of fetal sectional anatomy with ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Here is an atlas of sectional anatomy for the fetus featuring correlated anatomy and imaging, transverse coronal and sagittal views, a guide to development of the brain, cardiac anatomy in standard plans of study and, over 280 illustrations

  18. Microsurgical anatomy of the anterior cerebral artery in Indian cadavers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shweta Kedia

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The microanatomy features of cerebral arteries may be variable and may be different in different ethnic groups. Aim: To study the anterior cerebral artery (ACA anatomy in North-West Indian cadavers. Materials and Methods: Microanatomy features of the ACA were studied in 15 formalin fixed human cadaveric brains under microscope. The outer diameter, length, and number of perforating branches with respective anomalies were measured for each of the following vessels: ACA (proximal A1 segment to distal A2 segment, anterior communicating artery (ACoA, Recurrent artery of Heubner (RAH, and callosomarginal artery and photographed for documentation. Results: The mean length and external diameter of right and left A1 segment was 12.09 mm and 12.0 mm and 2.32 mm and 2.36 mm respectively. Narrowing, duplication, and median ACA were seen in 6.6%, 3.3% and 6.6% of the vessels respectively. Complex ACoA type was seen in 40% cadavers. RAH originated at an average point of 0.2 mm distal to ACoA, but in one cadaver it arose 5 mm proximal to ACoA. Double RAH was found in 26.6%. The course of RAH in relation to A1 was superiorly in 60%, in anteriorly 30% and posteriorly in 10% of cadavers. The orbitofrontal artery (OFA and frontopolar artery (FPA arose from A2 in 83.3% to 40% respectively. The mean distance of OFA and FPA from ACoA was 4.17 mm and 8.5 mm respectively. After giving rise to central, callosal and cortical branches, pericallosal artery terminated near the splenium of the corpus callosum or on the precuneus as the inferomedial parietal artery. Conclusion: Knowledge of the microvascular anatomy is indispensable and it is mandatory to be aware of the possible variations in the anomalies to minimize morbidity.

  19. "Digit Anatomy": A New Technique for Learning Anatomy Using Motor Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Chang-Seok; Won, Hyung-Sun; Kim, Kyong-Jee; Jang, Dong-Su

    2011-01-01

    Gestural motions of the hands and fingers are powerful tools for expressing meanings and concepts, and the nervous system has the capacity to retain multiple long-term motor memories, especially including movements of the hands. We developed many sets of successive movements of both hands, referred to as "digit anatomy," and made students practice…

  20. The subscapularis: anatomy, injury, and imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morag, Yoav; Jamadar, David A.; Dong, Qian; Jacobson, Jon A. [University of Michigan, Department of Radiology, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Miller, Bruce [University of Michigan, Department of Orthopaedics, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    2011-03-15

    The subscapularis is the largest and most powerful of the rotator cuff muscles and fulfills an important role in glenohumeral movement and stability. The spectrum and implications of subscapularis muscle or tendon injury differ from injury to other rotator cuff components because of its unique structure and function. Diagnosing subscapularis injury is clinically difficult and assessment of subscapularis integrity may be limited during arthroscopy or open surgery. Diagnostic imaging plays an important part in diagnosing and evaluating the extent of subscapularis injury. The radiologist should be aware of the anatomy of the subscapularis, the variations in muscle or tendon injury, and the potential implications for treatment and prognosis. (orig.)

  1. The subscapularis: anatomy, injury, and imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The subscapularis is the largest and most powerful of the rotator cuff muscles and fulfills an important role in glenohumeral movement and stability. The spectrum and implications of subscapularis muscle or tendon injury differ from injury to other rotator cuff components because of its unique structure and function. Diagnosing subscapularis injury is clinically difficult and assessment of subscapularis integrity may be limited during arthroscopy or open surgery. Diagnostic imaging plays an important part in diagnosing and evaluating the extent of subscapularis injury. The radiologist should be aware of the anatomy of the subscapularis, the variations in muscle or tendon injury, and the potential implications for treatment and prognosis. (orig.)

  2. A brief history of topographical anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Standring, Susan

    2016-07-01

    This brief history of topographical anatomy begins with Egyptian medical papyri and the works known collectively as the Greco-Arabian canon, the time line then moves on to the excitement of discovery that characterised the Renaissance, the increasing regulatory and legislative frameworks introduced in the 18th and 19th centuries, and ends with a consideration of the impact of technology that epitomises the period from the late 19th century to the present day. This paper is based on a lecture I gave at the Winter Meeting of the Anatomical Society in Cambridge in December 2015, when I was awarded the Anatomical Society Medal. PMID:27278889

  3. The flexible adult flatfoot: anatomy and pathomechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, Jeremy L; Mendicino, Samuel S

    2014-07-01

    Adult acquired flatfoot deformity is generally associated with a collapsing medial longitudinal arch and progressive loss of strength of the tibialis posterior tendon. It is most commonly associated with posterior tibial tendon dysfunction that can have an arthritic or traumatic cause. With an increasing population of obese patients, the often misdiagnosed and overlooked posterior tibial tendon dysfunction will only continue to present more often in the foot and ankle specialist's office. This article focuses on the anatomy, classification, and pathomechanics of the flexible adult flatfoot.

  4. Thomas Batholin, teologisk anatomi i 1600-tallet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mønster-Kjær, Inge

    2009-01-01

    It is commonly accepted that the reformation heavily influenced scientific thinking in Europs. But in many historical accounts this effect is presented as a fundamental break in the beginning of the 16th century with previous ideas and methods. In the view scientists turned their back...... as a theologian. For him anatomy was merely a tool, and so it had been for for scientists all over Europe from its gradual evovlement as a field from Antiquity to the Renaissance. It had been a tool to illustrate the greatness and perfection of God's creation in artistic ways, a tool to prove sactity, a tool...

  5. The flexible adult flatfoot: anatomy and pathomechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, Jeremy L; Mendicino, Samuel S

    2014-07-01

    Adult acquired flatfoot deformity is generally associated with a collapsing medial longitudinal arch and progressive loss of strength of the tibialis posterior tendon. It is most commonly associated with posterior tibial tendon dysfunction that can have an arthritic or traumatic cause. With an increasing population of obese patients, the often misdiagnosed and overlooked posterior tibial tendon dysfunction will only continue to present more often in the foot and ankle specialist's office. This article focuses on the anatomy, classification, and pathomechanics of the flexible adult flatfoot. PMID:24980923

  6. Computer tomographic anatomy of the neck

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koenig, R.

    1984-01-01

    The structures in the neck which can be recognised by computer tomography, and their course, is described. The cartilagenous larynx and trachea, the oesophagus, thyroid, sternocleidomastoid muscle, common carotid arteries and internal jugular veins can be recognised regularly. In addition, one can identify smaller muscles, vessels and nerves, such as the sterno-hyoid, omo-hyoid, anterior and medial scalenus muscles, the superior and inferior thyroid arteries and the suprascapular, internal thoracic and vertebral arteries, the thyro-cervical trunk and the vagus and phrenic nerves. An accurate knowledge of the anatomy is essential for the recognition of enlarged parathyroid glands.

  7. The molecular anatomy of human Hsp60 and its similarity with that of bacterial orthologs and acetylcholine receptor reveal a potential pathogenetic role of anti-chaperonin immunity in myasthenia gravis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gammazza, Antonella Marino; Bucchieri, Fabio; Grimaldi, Luigi M E; Benigno, Arcangelo; de Macario, Everly Conway; Macario, Alberto J L; Zummo, Giovanni; Cappello, Francesco

    2012-08-01

    Heat-shock protein 60 (Hsp60) is ubiquitous and highly conserved being present in eukaryotes and prokaryotes, including pathogens. This chaperonin, although typically a mitochondrial protein, can also be found in other intracellular sites, extracellularly, and in circulation. Thus, it can signal the immune system and participate in the development of inflammation and immune reactions. Both phenomena can be elicited by human and foreign Hsp60 (e.g., bacterial GroEL), when released into the blood by infectious agents. Consequently, all these Hsp60 proteins become part of a complex autoimmune response characterized by multiple cross reactions because of their structural similarities. In this study, we demonstrate that Hsp60 proteins from humans and two common pathogens, Chlamydia trachomatis and Chlamydia pneumoniae, share various sequence segments of potentially highly immunogenic epitopes with acetylcholine receptor α1 subunit (AChRα1). The structural data indicate that AChRα1 antibodies, implicated in the pathogenesis of myasthenia gravis, could very well be elicited and/or maintained by self- and/or bacterial Hsp60.

  8. Medical Student Perceptions of Radiology Use in Anatomy Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Kevin P.; Crush, Lee; O'Malley, Eoin; Daly, Fergus E.; Twomey, Maria; O'Tuathaigh, Colm M. P.; Maher, Michael M.; Cryan, John F.; O'Connor, Owen J.

    2015-01-01

    The use of radiology in the teaching of anatomy to medical students is gaining in popularity; however, there is wide variation in how and when radiology is introduced into the curriculum. The authors sought to investigate students' perceptions regarding methods used to depict and teach anatomy and effects of integrated radiology instruction on…

  9. 3D stereophotogrammetry for the assessment of tracheostoma anatomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Dirven; F.J.M. Hilgers; J.M. Plooij; T.J.J. Maal; S.J. Bergé; G.J. Verkerke; H.A.M. Marres

    2008-01-01

    Conclusion. 3D stereophotogrammetry is a useful tool for quantitative assessment of tracheostoma anatomy, and thus in future could possibly play a role in solving current problems with peristomal and intratracheal fixation of stoma appliances. Objectives. Differences in tracheostoma anatomy between

  10. Øvelse i sammenlignende anatomi og evolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindow, Bent Erik Kramer

    2014-01-01

    I denne øvelse skal der arbejdes med sammenlignende anatomi. Formålet er at undersøge anatomiske ændringer og evolution over tid.......I denne øvelse skal der arbejdes med sammenlignende anatomi. Formålet er at undersøge anatomiske ændringer og evolution over tid....

  11. Systematic wood anatomy of the tribe Guettardeae (Rubiaceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Welle, ter B.J.H.; Loureiro, A.A.; Lisboa, P.L.B.; Koek-Noorman, J.

    1983-01-01

    Systematic wood anatomy of the tribe Guettardeae (Rubiaceae). The wood anatomy of nearly all genera of the Guettardeae (Rubiaceae, Guettardoideae) has been examined, and in this respect the tribe is heterogeneous. Suggestions are made for a delimitation of the tribe. Guettarda, Bobea, Antirhea, Mala

  12. Anatomy Education in Namibia: Balancing Facility Design and Curriculum Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wessels, Quenton; Vorster, Willie; Jacobson, Christian

    2012-01-01

    The anatomy curriculum at Namibia's first, and currently only, medical school is clinically oriented, outcome-based, and includes all of the components of modern anatomical sciences i.e., histology, embryology, neuroanatomy, gross, and clinical anatomy. The design of the facilities and the equipment incorporated into these facilities were directed…

  13. User Acceptance of a Haptic Interface for Learning Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeom, Soonja; Choi-Lundberg, Derek; Fluck, Andrew; Sale, Arthur

    2013-01-01

    Visualizing the structure and relationships in three dimensions (3D) of organs is a challenge for students of anatomy. To provide an alternative way of learning anatomy engaging multiple senses, we are developing a force-feedback (haptic) interface for manipulation of 3D virtual organs, using design research methodology, with iterations of system…

  14. Anatomy Education for the YouTube Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, Denis S.; Marzouk, Fadi; Chulak-Oglu, Kyrylo; Bennett, Deirdre; Tierney, Paul; O'Keeffe, Gerard W.

    2016-01-01

    Anatomy remains a cornerstone of medical education despite challenges that have seen a significant reduction in contact hours over recent decades; however, the rise of the "YouTube Generation" or "Generation Connected" (Gen C), offers new possibilities for anatomy education. Gen C, which consists of 80% Millennials, actively…

  15. YouTube: An Emerging Tool in Anatomy Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffar, Akram Abood

    2012-01-01

    The use of online social networks in medical education can remodel and enhance anatomy teaching and learning; one such network is the video-sharing site YouTube. Limited research in the literature exists on the use of YouTube as a platform for anatomy education. The aim of this study is to assess student's perceptions and patterns of usage of this…

  16. The Anatomy Lecture Then and Now: A Foucauldian Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friesen, Norm; Roth, Wolff-Michael

    2014-01-01

    Although there are many points of continuity, there are also a number of changes in the pedagogical form of the anatomy lecture over the longue durée, over centuries of epistemic change, rather than over years or decades. The article begins with an analysis of the physical and technical arrangements of the early modern anatomy lecture, showing how…

  17. Embryology and Anatomy of the Jaw and Dentition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zohrabian, Vahe M; Poon, Colin S; Abrahams, James J

    2015-10-01

    Radiologists should possess working knowledge of the embryological development and anatomy of the jaw and dentition in order to aid in the diagnosis of both simple and complex disorders that affect them. Here, we review the elaborate process of odontogenesis, as well as describe in detail the anatomy of a tooth and its surrounding structures. PMID:26589693

  18. Anatomy in Occupational Therapy Program Curriculum: Practitioners' Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schofield, Katherine Anne

    2014-01-01

    Anatomy education is undergoing significant transformation. It is unknown whether changes are in accordance with occupational therapy (OT) practice needs. The purpose of this pilot study was to survey OT clinicians to determine their perspectives on the value of anatomy in OT curricula, and anatomical knowledge required for practice. In addition…

  19. Numeric and symbolic knowledge representation of cerebral cortex anatomy: methods and preliminary results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dameron, O; Gibaud, B; Morandi, X

    2004-06-01

    The human cerebral cortex anatomy describes the brain organization at the scale of gyri and sulci. It is used as landmarks for neurosurgery as well as localization support for functional data analysis or inter-subject data comparison. Existing models of the cortex anatomy either rely on image labeling but fail to represent variability and structural properties or rely on a conceptual model but miss the inner 3D nature and relations of anatomical structures. This study was therefore conducted to propose a model of sulco-gyral anatomy for the healthy human brain. We hypothesized that both numeric knowledge (i.e., image-based) and symbolic knowledge (i.e., concept-based) have to be represented and coordinated. In addition, the representation of this knowledge should be application-independent in order to be usable in various contexts. Therefore, we devised a symbolic model describing specialization, composition and spatial organization of cortical anatomical structures. We also collected numeric knowledge such as 3D models of shape and shape variation about cortical anatomical structures. For each numeric piece of knowledge, a companion file describes the concept it refers to and the nature of the relationship. Demonstration software performs a mapping between the numeric and the symbolic aspects for browsing the knowledge base. PMID:15118839

  20. Root canal anatomy study of lower incisors by the clearing technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel GALAFASSI

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available To succeed in the endodontic therapy, it’s a requisite to have fullknowledge of the inner root anatomy, as well as its variations. Thelower incisors are the tinniest teeth of the human arcade having a root strongly flattened to the mesio-distal way. This flattening is sometimes as big to split the root canal in two, one vestibular and another lingual.This study has utilized the clearing technique (method that allows to see through transparency the diverse root anatomy to accomplish its objective of analyzing the incidence of the canals present in the cervical third, middle and apical of the incisors’ roots of human lowers. For that purpose, 150 teeth have been obtained from the Teeth Bank of the Odontology Faculty of the University of Passo Fundo, on which the clearing technique and the injection of Naquin ink in the pulp cavity interior were applied, followed by the conservation in the methyl salicylate, allowing to three-dimensionally observe, through transparency, the internal anatomy of the root canal. The results have been analyzed by descriptive statistics, in which it was observed that 81,63% of the analyzed samples have presented one canal in the cervical third; 53,06% have two canals in the middle third and 71,42% have one canal in the apical third. With this it can be concluded that there is a major incidence of the root canal bifurcation in the middle third of the root in relation to the cervical and apical.

  1. Genotoxic damage in pathology anatomy laboratory workers exposed to formaldehyde

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Formaldehyde (FA) is a chemical traditionally used in pathology and anatomy laboratories as a tissue preservative. Several epidemiological studies of occupational exposure to FA have indicated an increased risk of nasopharyngeal cancers in industrial workers, embalmers and pathology anatomists. There is also a clear evidence of nasal squamous cell carcinomas from inhalation studies in the rat. The postulated mode of action for nasal tumours in rats was considered biologically plausible and considered likely to be relevant to humans. Based on the available data IARC, the International Agency for Research on Cancer, has recently classified FA as a human carcinogen. Although the in vitro genotoxic as well as the in vivo carcinogenic potentials of FA are well documented in mammalian cells and in rodents, evidence for genotoxic effects and carcinogenic properties in humans is insufficient and conflicting thus remains to be more documented. To evaluate the genetic effects of long-term occupational exposure to FA a group of 30 Pathological Anatomy laboratory workers was tested for a variety of biological endpoints, cytogenetic tests (micronuclei, MN; sister chromatid exchange, SCE) and comet assay. The level of exposure to FA was evaluated near the breathing zone of workers, time weighted average of exposure was calculated for each subject. The association between the biomarkers and polymorphic genes of xenobiotic metabolising and DNA repair enzymes was also assessed. The mean level of exposure was 0.44 ± 0.08 ppm (0.04-1.58 ppm). MN frequency was significantly higher (p = 0.003) in the exposed subjects (5.47 ± 0.76) when compared with controls (3.27 ± 0.69). SCE mean value was significantly higher (p < 0.05) among the exposed group (6.13 ± 0.29) compared with control group (4.49 ± 0.16). Comet assay data showed a significant increase (p < 0.05) of TL in FA-exposed workers (60.00 ± 2.31) with respect to the control group (41.85 ± 1.97). A positive correlation was

  2. MR and CT anatomy of the axilla

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hergan, K. [Central Inst. of Radiology, County Hospital, Feldkirch (Austria); Morrigl, B. [Innsbruck Univ. (Austria). Inst. of Anatomy; Kathrein, A. [Univ. Hospital, Innsbruck (Austria). Dept. of Trauma Surgery; Buchberger, W. [Univ. Hospital, Innsbruck (Austria). Dept. of Radiology; Judmaier, W. [Univ. Hospital, Innsbruck (Austria). Dept. of Radiology; Peer, S. [Univ. Hospital, Innsbruck (Austria). Dept. of Radiology; Oser, W. [Central Inst. of Radiology, County Hospital, Feldkirch (Austria)

    1997-03-01

    Purpose: To depict the complex anatomy of the axilla with CT and MR imaging. Material and Methods: The axillary regions of 2 cadavers (with arms hyperabducted) were examined by means of CT and MR. In this position the cadavers were frozen and cryosectioned. The anatomical sections documented by the MR and CT images were compared and anatomical structures were designated. To show the reproducibility of the anatomical structures and to find variations, 20 volunteers were also examined by MR, and 20 consecutive patients without axillary symptoms were examined by CT. Results: The complexity of the axilla was excellently shown by both CT and MR, but MR was able to demonstrate more detail in the small vessels and in the brachial plexus. The comparability of the examinations of the different individuals was best in the axial plane. Some differences appeared in the coronal and sagittal planes caused by different positions of the arm. Conclusion: Axillary anatomy was demonstrated in detail and was reproducible with CT and MR imaging. (orig.).

  3. Fruit biomechanics based on anatomy: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhiguo; Yang, Hongling; Li, Pingping; Liu, Jizhan; Wang, Jizhang; Xu, Yunfeng

    2013-01-01

    Fruit biomechanics is needed for quality determination, multiscale modelling and engineering design of fruit processes and equipments. However, these determined fruit biomechanics data often have obvious differences for the same fruit or tissue. In order to investigate it, the fruit biomechanics based on anatomy was reviewed in this paper. First, the anatomical characteristics of fruit biomaterials were described at the macroscopic `tissue' level and microscopic `cellular' level. Subsequently, the factors affecting fruit biomechanics based on anatomy and the relationships between fruit biomechanics, texture and mechanical damage were summarised according to the published literature. Fruit biomechanics is mainly affected by size, number and arrangement of cells, quantity and volume of intracellular spaces, structure, thickness, chemical composition and permeability of cell walls, and pectin degradation level and turgor pressure within cells based on microanatomy. Four test methods and partial determined results of fruit biomechanics were listed and reviewed. The determined mechanical properties data of fruit are only approximate values by using the existing four test methods, owing to the fruit biomaterials being non-homogeneous and living. Lastly, further aspects for research on fruit biomechanics were proposed for the future.

  4. Personalized augmented reality for anatomy education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Meng; Fallavollita, Pascal; Seelbach, Ina; Von Der Heide, Anna Maria; Euler, Ekkehard; Waschke, Jens; Navab, Nassir

    2016-05-01

    Anatomy education is a challenging but vital element in forming future medical professionals. In this work, a personalized and interactive augmented reality system is developed to facilitate education. This system behaves as a "magic mirror" which allows personalized in-situ visualization of anatomy on the user's body. Real-time volume visualization of a CT dataset creates the illusion that the user can look inside their body. The system comprises a RGB-D sensor as a real-time tracking device to detect the user moving in front of a display. In addition, the magic mirror system shows text information, medical images, and 3D models of organs that the user can interact with. Through the participation of 7 clinicians and 72 students, two user studies were designed to respectively assess the precision and acceptability of the magic mirror system for education. The results of the first study demonstrated that the average precision of the augmented reality overlay on the user body was 0.96 cm, while the results of the second study indicate 86.1% approval for the educational value of the magic mirror, and 91.7% approval for the augmented reality capability of displaying organs in three dimensions. The usefulness of this unique type of personalized augmented reality technology has been demonstrated in this paper. PMID:26646315

  5. Microsurgical anatomy of the abducens nerve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joo, Wonil; Yoshioka, Fumitaka; Funaki, Takeshi; Rhoton, Albert L

    2012-11-01

    The aim of this study is to demonstrate and review the detailed microsurgical anatomy of the abducens nerve and surrounding structures along its entire course and to provide its topographic measurements. Ten cadaveric heads were examined using ×3 to ×40 magnification after the arteries and veins were injected with colored silicone. Both sides of each cadaveric head were dissected using different skull base approaches to demonstrate the entire course of the abducens nerve from the pontomedullary sulcus to the lateral rectus muscle. The anatomy of the petroclival area and the cavernous sinus through which the abducens nerve passes are complex due to the high density of critically important neural and vascular structures. The abducens nerve has angulations and fixation points along its course that put the nerve at risk in many clinical situations. From a surgical viewpoint, the petrous tubercle of the petrous apex is an intraoperative landmark to avoid damage to the abducens nerve. The abducens nerve is quite different from the other nerves. No other cranial nerve has a long intradural path with angulations and fixations such as the abducens nerve in petroclival venous confluence. A precise knowledge of the relationship between the abducens nerve and surrounding structures has allowed neurosurgeon to approach the clivus, petroclival area, cavernous sinus, and superior orbital fissure without surgical complications. PMID:22334502

  6. Personalized augmented reality for anatomy education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Meng; Fallavollita, Pascal; Seelbach, Ina; Von Der Heide, Anna Maria; Euler, Ekkehard; Waschke, Jens; Navab, Nassir

    2016-05-01

    Anatomy education is a challenging but vital element in forming future medical professionals. In this work, a personalized and interactive augmented reality system is developed to facilitate education. This system behaves as a "magic mirror" which allows personalized in-situ visualization of anatomy on the user's body. Real-time volume visualization of a CT dataset creates the illusion that the user can look inside their body. The system comprises a RGB-D sensor as a real-time tracking device to detect the user moving in front of a display. In addition, the magic mirror system shows text information, medical images, and 3D models of organs that the user can interact with. Through the participation of 7 clinicians and 72 students, two user studies were designed to respectively assess the precision and acceptability of the magic mirror system for education. The results of the first study demonstrated that the average precision of the augmented reality overlay on the user body was 0.96 cm, while the results of the second study indicate 86.1% approval for the educational value of the magic mirror, and 91.7% approval for the augmented reality capability of displaying organs in three dimensions. The usefulness of this unique type of personalized augmented reality technology has been demonstrated in this paper.

  7. A framework for assessing inter-individual variability in pharmacokinetics using virtual human populations and integrating general knowledge of physical chemistry, biology, anatomy, physiology and genetics: A tale of 'bottom-up' vs 'top-down' recognition of covariates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamei, Masoud; Dickinson, Gemma L; Rostami-Hodjegan, Amin

    2009-01-01

    An increasing number of failures in clinical stages of drug development have been related to the effects of candidate drugs in a sub-group of patients rather than the 'average' person. Expectation of extreme effects or lack of therapeutic effects in some subgroups following administration of similar doses requires a full understanding of the issue of variability and the importance of identifying covariates that determine the exposure to the drug candidates in each individual. In any drug development program the earlier these covariates are known the better. An important component of the drive to decrease this failure rate in drug development involves attempts to use physiologically-based pharmacokinetics 'bottom-up' modeling and simulation to optimize molecular features with respect to the absorption, distribution, metabolism and elimination (ADME) processes. The key element of this approach is the separation of information on the system (i.e. human body) from that of the drug (e.g. physicochemical characteristics determining permeability through membranes, partitioning to tissues, binding to plasma proteins or affinities toward certain enzymes and transporter proteins) and the study design (e.g. dose, route and frequency of administration, concomitant drugs and food). In this review, the classical 'top-down' approach in covariate recognition is compared with the 'bottom-up' paradigm. The determinants and sources of inter-individual variability in different stages of drug absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion are discussed in detail. Further, the commonly known tools for simulating ADME properties are introduced.

  8. Normal anatomy and histology of the adult zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menke, Aswin L; Spitsbergen, Jan M; Wolterbeek, Andre P M; Woutersen, Ruud A

    2011-08-01

    The zebrafish has been shown to be an excellent vertebrate model for studying the roles of specific genes and signaling pathways. The sequencing of its genome and the relative ease with which gene modifications can be performed have led to the creation of numerous human disease models that can be used for testing the potential and the toxicity of new pharmaceutical compounds. Many pharmaceutical companies already use the zebrafish for prescreening purposes. So far, the focus has been on ecotoxicity and the effects on embryonic development, but there is a trend to expand the use of the zebrafish with acute, subchronic, and chronic toxicity studies that are currently still carried out with the more conventional test animals such as rodents. However, before we can fully realize the potential of the zebrafish as an animal model for understanding human development, disease, and toxicology, we must first greatly advance our knowledge of normal zebrafish physiology, anatomy, and histology. To further this knowledge, we describe, in the present article, location and histology of the major zebrafish organ systems with a brief description of their function.

  9. [Structural anatomy of cranial nerves (V, VII, VIII, IX, X)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guclu, B; Meyronet, D; Simon, E; Streichenberger, N; Sindou, M; Mertens, P

    2009-04-01

    This study reports a review of the literature on the structural anatomy of the Vth, VIIth, VIIIth, IXth, and Xth cranial nerves, known to harbor dysfunction syndromes in humans. Because these dysfunctions are hypothesized to be caused by neurovascular conflicts at the root entry/exit zone and the transitional zone between central and peripheral myelinization, this investigation focused on the study and description of this junction. All the cranial nerves, except the optic and olfactory nerves, which are considered to be more a direct expansion of the central nervous system, have a transitional zone between central myelin (coming from oligodendrocytes) and peripheral myelin (produced by Schwann cells). The human studies reported in the literature argue in favor of a dome-shaped transitional zone directed to the periphery. It seems that this junctional region is situated more peripherally in sensory nerves than in motor nerves. The transitional zone is situated very peripherally for the cochlear and vestibular nerves, and on the contrary very close to its exit from the brain stem for the facial nerve.

  10. Microsurgical anatomy of the posterior circulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pai Balaji

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: The microsurgical anatomy of the posterior circulation is very complex and variable. Surgical approaches to this area are considered risky due to the presence of the various important blood vessels and neural structures. Aims: To document the microsurgical anatomy of the posterior circulation along with variations in the Indian population. Materials and Methods: The authors studied 25 cadaveric brain specimens. Microsurgical dissection was carried out from the vertebral arteries to the basilar artery and its branches, the basilar artery bifurcation, posterior cerebral artery and its various branches. Measurements of the outer diameters of the vertebral artery, basilar artery and posterior cerebral artery and their lengths were taken. Results: The mean diameter of the vertebral artery was 3.4 mm on the left and 2.9 mm on the right. The diameter of the basilar artery varied from 3-7 mm (mean of 4.3 mm. The length varied from 24-35 mm (mean of 24.9 mm. The basilar artery gave off paramedian and circumferential perforating arteries. The origin of the anterior inferior cerebellar artery (AICA varied from 0-21 mm (mean 10.0 mm from the vertebrobasilar junction. The diameter of the AICA varied from being hypoplastic i.e., < 0.5 mm to 2 mm (mean 1.0 mm. The superior cerebellar artery (SCA arises very close to the basilar bifurcation, in our series (1-3 mm from the basilar artery bifurcation. The diameter of the SCA varied from 0.5-2.5 mm on both sides. The posterior cerebral artery (PCA is divided into four segments. The PCA gave rise to perforators (thalamoperforators, thalamogeniculate arteries, circumflex arteries and peduncular arteries, medial posterior choroidal artery, lateral posterior choroidal artery and cortical branches. In 39 specimens the P1 segment was found to be larger than the posterior communicating artery, in six specimens it was found to be equal to the diameter of the posterior communicating artery and in five specimens it

  11. Exercises in anatomy: tetralogy of Fallot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Robert H; Sarwark, Anne; Spicer, Diane E; Backer, Carl L

    2014-01-01

    It is axiomatic that those performing surgery on the congenitally malformed heart require a thorough knowledge of the lesions they will be called upon to correct. The necessary anatomical knowledge is becoming increasingly difficult to obtain at first hand, since relatively few centres now hold archives of specimens obtained in an appropriately legal fashion from the patients unfortunately dying in previous years. One centre with such an archive is Ann and Robert H. Lurie Children's Hospital in Chicago, known previously as Chicago Memorial Children's Hospital. The archive was established by Farouk S. Idriss, and was subsequently enhanced and consolidated by his son, Rachid. It is now under the care of Carl L. Backer, the current chief of paediatric cardiothoracic surgery at Lurie Children's. With the support of Carl, the archive has been triaged and catalogued by Diane E. Spicer and Robert H. Anderson. It has now been used to create a series of video presentations, illustrating the salient features of surgical anatomy of selected entities, with the videoclips being edited and prepared for publication by Anne Sarwark. This video contains the fruits of the first of these exercises in anatomy, and is devoted to tetralogy of Fallot.We begin the exercise by making comparisons between the normal heart and the arrangement seen in typical tetralogy. We emphasize the need to recognize the 'building blocks' of the normal outflow tracts, and show how they come apart in tetralogy. We then show the variations to be found in the specific morphology of the borders of the hole between the ventricles, with the crest of the apical ventricular septum being overridden by the orifice of the aortic valve such that the latter structure has a biventricular connection. We emphasize that it is the squeeze between the deviated muscular outlet septum and septoparietal trabeculations that is the essential phenotypic feature of the lesion. We then proceed to demonstrate the further variation to

  12. An investigation of the relationship between having recent knowledge in basic biology and student success in Anatomy and Physiology I

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Edward T.

    Allied Health Programs generally require that students complete coursework in Human Anatomy and Physiology I and II as part of their Pre-Allied Health curriculum. Human Anatomy and Physiology I generally has as a prerequisite some coursework in basic biology. Basic biology as a prerequisite should provide students with the foundation of knowledge in the basic biological principles and processes that will prepare them for the material presented in a Human Anatomy and Physiology I course and the Allied Health Program. The principle question that prompted this study was, Do students need coursework in basic biology to be successful in Anatomy and Physiology I? The purpose of this study was to determine if there was a difference in the exam average obtained in Biology 202, Human Anatomy and Physiology I, for those students who have had, within the previous three years, a foundation course in basic biology as compared to those students who have not, within the previous three years, had a foundation course in basic biology. The current study analyzed data obtained on 642 students who were enrolled in Biology 202, Anatomy and Physiology I, during the Fall semester of 2000 to the Spring semester of 2003 at Wor-Wic Community College. Statistical techniques including an ANOVA, Pearson Product Moment Correlation, and a Multiple Regression Analysis were conducted to reveal any relationships in the data. The dependent variable was the exam average obtained in the independent variables included the time period since the student had taken a basic biology course, sex, age, and college GPA. The results of the ANOVA indicated that there was no relationship between the exam average between current and non-current students, where alpha = 0.05 and p = 0.783. There was statistically significance for GPA, where p = 0 .000. There was also statistically significant interactions between last biology course and GPA, p = 0.05, last biology course, sex, and GPA, p = 0.002. The Pearson Product

  13. The root of dental anatomy: a case for naming Eustachius the "father of dental anatomy".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Gregory W

    2009-01-01

    When one considers the names of those whose affect on dentistry reached far beyond their lifetimes, one may think of Fauchard, Wells, Morton and Black. One name that deserves to be called among the pantheon of the greats is Bartholomaeus Eustachius. Eustachius was not the first to study the anatomy of the teeth and jaws, having been preceded by Da Vinci; however, he was the first to publish a treatise devoted entirely to this subject, Libellus de Dentibus, in 1563. As Sir William Osler, the father of modern medicine, stated: "In Science, the credit goes to the man who convinces the world, not to whom the idea first occurs." The purpose of this paper is to show that Eustachius deserves to be named the father of dental anatomy.

  14. Deep dissection: motivating students beyond rote learning in veterinary anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cake, Martin A

    2006-01-01

    The profusion of descriptive, factual information in veterinary anatomy inevitably creates pressure on students to employ surface learning approaches and "rote learning." This phenomenon may contribute to negative perceptions of the relevance of anatomy as a discipline. Thus, encouraging deep learning outcomes will not only lead to greater satisfaction for both instructors and learners but may have the added effect of raising the profile of and respect for the discipline. Consideration of the literature reveals the broad scope of interventions required to motivate students to go beyond rote learning. While many of these are common to all disciplines (e.g., promoting active learning, making higher-order goals explicit, reducing content in favor of concepts, aligning assessment with outcomes), other factors are peculiar to anatomy, such as the benefits of incorporating clinical tidbits, "living anatomy," the anatomy museum, and dissection classes into a "learning context" that fosters deep approaches. Surprisingly, the 10 interventions discussed focus more on factors contributing to student perceptions of the course than on drastic changes to the anatomy course itself. This is because many traditional anatomy practices, such as dissection and museum-based classes, are eminently compatible with active, student-centered learning strategies and the adoption of deep learning approaches by veterinary students. Thus the key to encouraging, for example, dissection for deep learning ("deep dissection") lies more in student motivation, personal engagement, curriculum structure, and "learning context" than in the nature of the learning activity itself.

  15. Anatomy integration blueprint: A fourth-year musculoskeletal anatomy elective model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazarus, Michelle D; Kauffman, Gordon L; Kothari, Milind J; Mosher, Timothy J; Silvis, Matthew L; Wawrzyniak, John R; Anderson, Daniel T; Black, Kevin P

    2014-01-01

    Current undergraduate medical school curricular trends focus on both vertical integration of clinical knowledge into the traditionally basic science-dedicated curricula and increasing basic science education in the clinical years. This latter type of integration is more difficult and less reported on than the former. Here, we present an outline of a course wherein the primary learning and teaching objective is to integrate basic science anatomy knowledge with clinical education. The course was developed through collaboration by a multi-specialist course development team (composed of both basic scientists and physicians) and was founded in current adult learning theories. The course was designed to be widely applicable to multiple future specialties, using current published reports regarding the topics and clinical care areas relying heavily on anatomical knowledge regardless of specialist focus. To this end, the course focuses on the role of anatomy in the diagnosis and treatment of frequently encountered musculoskeletal conditions. Our iterative implementation and action research approach to this course development has yielded a curricular template for anatomy integration into clinical years. Key components for successful implementation of these types of courses, including content topic sequence, the faculty development team, learning approaches, and hidden curricula, were developed. We also report preliminary feedback from course stakeholders and lessons learned through the process. The purpose of this report is to enhance the current literature regarding basic science integration in the clinical years of medical school.

  16. Anatomi Kurikulum Pendidikan Agama Islam di Sekolah

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marliana Marliana

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Anatomy of curriculum is described as the components that must be present in every curriculum that can be used for the learning process. They are objectives of the curriculum, materials of teaching, contents of the curriculum, strategies or methods, media and evaluation and improvement of teaching. These components are interconnected to one another. Each component has a content which is very important for the continuity of the curriculum. One of the most important parts of the curriculum is procces of learning as an empowering or enable the students. Thus, the need for active and participatory interaction between students and academic material or with a certain situation so that matter can be transformed into the learning experience of students.

  17. Arthroscopic anatomy of the subdeltoid space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J. Salata

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available From the first shoulder arthroscopy performed on a cadaver in 1931, shoulder arthroscopy has grown tremendously in its ability to diagnose and treat pathologic conditions about the shoulder. Despite improvements in arthroscopic techniques and instrumentation, it is only recently that arthroscopists have begun to explore precise anatomical structures within the subdeltoid space. By way of a thorough bursectomy of the subdeltoid region, meticulous hemostasis, and the reciprocal use of posterior and lateral viewing portals, one can identify a myriad of pertinent ligamentous, musculotendinous, osseous, and neurovascular structures. For the purposes of this review, the subdeltoid space has been compartmentalized into lateral, medial, anterior, and posterior regions. Being able to identify pertinent structures in the subdeltoid space will provide shoulder arthroscopists with the requisite foundation in core anatomy that will be required for challenging procedures such as arthroscopic subscapularis mobilization and repair, biceps tenodesis, subcoracoid decompression, suprascapular nerve decompression, quadrangular space decompression and repair of massive rotator cuff tears.

  18. Scapulothoracic Anatomy and Snapping Scapula Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel M. Frank

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The scapulothoracic articulation is a sliding junction between the deep aspect of the scapula and thoracic rib cage at the levels of ribs 2 through 7. Motion at this articulation is dynamically stabilized by a variety of muscular attachments, allowing for controlled positioning of the glenoid to assist in glenohumeral joint function. A thorough understanding of the complex anatomic relationships, including the various muscles, and bursa, is critical to the evaluation of patients presenting with scapulothoracic disorders. The snapping scapula syndrome is caused by either osseous lesions or scapulothoracic bursitis and can be difficult to recognize and treat. The purpose of this review is to discuss the anatomy of the scapulothoracic articulation with an emphasis on the pathology associated with snapping scapula syndrome.

  19. Aleph : anatomie d'une experience

    CERN Multimedia

    Lynn Silverman

    1993-01-01

    "Aleph, anatomie d'une expérience" est un documentaire ethnologique sur les techniciens et les chercheurs de la physique des particules du Centre européen de recherche nucléaire, le CERN, près de Genève. Le film, dont le tournage s'est échelonné sur quatre années, de 1987 à 1991, retrace les différentes étapes de la mise en œuvre, sur le nouvel accélérateur (le LEP) du projet Aleph ; la construction des différents constituants du détecteur dans les centres de recherche de l'Europe entière, leur arrivée au CERN, l'assemblage… jusqu'à l'annonce des premiers résultats, obtenus en 1990.

  20. Spinal Cord Anatomy and Clinical Syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, Eric; Morales, Humberto

    2016-10-01

    We review the anatomy of the spinal cord, providing correlation with key functional and clinically relevant neural pathways, as well as magnetic resonance imaging. Peripherally, the main descending (corticospinal tract) and ascending (gracilis or cuneatus fasciculi and spinothalamic tracts) pathways compose the white matter. Centrally, the gray matter can be divided into multiple laminae. Laminae 1-5 carry sensitive neuron information in the posterior horn, and lamina 9 carries most lower motor neuron information in the anterior horn. Damage to the unilateral corticospinal tract (upper motor neuron information) or gracillis-cuneatus fasciculi (touch and vibration) correlates with ipsilateral clinical findings, whereas damage to unilateral spinothalamic tract (pain-temperature) correlates with contralateral clinical findings. Damage to commissural fibers correlates with a suspended bilateral "girdle" sensory level. Autonomic dysfunction is expected when there is bilateral cord involvement. PMID:27616310

  1. Comparative petiole anatomy of cassava (Manihot) species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graciano-Ribeiro, D; Hashimoto-Freitas, D Y; Nassar, N M A

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we describe the petiole anatomy of six wild cassava (Manihot) species, one hybrid, and two cultivars of Manihot esculenta, in order to identify their dominant anatomical patterns and relate them to possible adaptations to abiotic factors in the Cerrado biome. The median parts of several petiole samples were transversally and longitudinally sectioned and stained. The results include data for the taxonomic classification of the genus, including distinctive anatomical characteristics of hybrid varieties of cassava and wild species, such as the presence/absence of trichomes and a hypodermis, layer type and number in the cortex, number of vascular bundles, cell types in the pith, and type of organization. Morphological analysis revealed differences in length and shape of the petiole insertion. The presence of trichomes, a hypodermis, the amount and type of supporting tissue in the cortex, as well as gelatinous fibers, may be related to drought tolerance. PMID:26909917

  2. Acromioclavicular joint injuries: anatomy, diagnosis, and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willimon, S Clifton; Gaskill, Trevor R; Millett, Peter J

    2011-02-01

    Acromioclavicular (AC) joint injuries are common in athletic populations and account for 40% to 50% of shoulder injuries in many contact sports, including lacrosse, hockey, rugby and football. The AC joint is stabilized by static and dynamic restraints, including the coracoclavicular (CC) ligaments. Knowledge of these supporting structures is important when identifying injury and directing treatment. Management of AC injuries should be guided by severity of injury, duration of injury and symptoms, and individual patient factors. These help determine how best to guide management, and whether patients should be treated surgically or nonsurgically. Treatment options for AC injuries continue to expand, and include arthroscopic-assisted anatomic reconstruction of the CC ligaments. The purpose of this article is to review the anatomy, diagnostic methods, and treatment options for AC joint injuries. In addition, the authors' preferred reconstruction technique and outcomes are presented.

  3. Anatomy and efficiency of urban multimodal mobility

    CERN Document Server

    Gallotti, Riccardo

    2014-01-01

    The growth of transportation networks and their increasing interconnections, although positive, has the downside effect of an increasing complexity which make them difficult to use, to assess, and limits their efficiency. On average in the UK, 23% of travel time is lost in connections for trips with more than one mode, and the lack of synchronization decreases very slowly with population size. This lack of synchronization between modes induces differences between the theoretical quickest trip and the `time-respecting' path, which takes into account waiting times at interconnection nodes. We analyse here the statistics of these paths on the multilayer, temporal network of the entire, multimodal british public transportation system. We propose a statistical decomposition -- the `anatomy' -- of trips in urban areas, in terms of riding, waiting and walking times, and which shows how the temporal structure of trips varies with distance and allows us to compare different cities. Weaknesses in systems can be either ...

  4. Constructive, collaborative, contextual, and self-directed learning in surface anatomy education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergman-de Bres, E.M.; Sieben, J.M.; Smailbegovic, I.; Bruin, A. de; Scherpbier, A.J.J.A.; Vleuten, C.P.M. van der

    2013-01-01

    Anatomy education often consists of a combination of lectures and laboratory sessions, the latter frequently including surface anatomy. Studying surface anatomy enables students to elaborate on their knowledge of the cadaver's static anatomy by enabling the visualization of structures, especially th

  5. William, a voxel model of child anatomy from tomographic images for Monte Carlo dosimetry calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Medical imaging provides two-dimensional pictures of the human internal anatomy from which may be constructed a three-dimensional model of organs and tissues suitable for calculation of dose from radiation. Diagnostic CT provides the greatest exposure to radiation per examination and the frequency of CT examination is high. Esti mates of dose from diagnostic radiography are still determined from data derived from geometric models (rather than anatomical models), models scaled from adult bodies (rather than bodies of children) and CT scanner hardware that is no longer used. The aim of anatomical modelling is to produce a mathematical representation of internal anatomy that has organs of realistic size, shape and positioning. The organs and tissues are represented by a great many cuboidal volumes (voxels). The conversion of medical images to voxels is called segmentation and on completion every pixel in an image is assigned to a tissue or organ. Segmentation is time consuming. An image processing pack age is used to identify organ boundaries in each image. Thirty to forty tomographic voxel models of anatomy have been reported in the literature. Each model is of an individual, or a composite from several individuals. Images of children are particularly scarce. So there remains a need for more paediatric anatomical models. I am working on segmenting ''William'' who is 368 PET-CT images from head to toe of a seven year old boy. William will be used for Monte Carlo dose calculations of dose from CT examination using a simulated modern CT scanner.

  6. Relevant radiological anatomy of the pig as a training model in interventional radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of swine for teaching purposes in medicine and surgery has largely increased in recent years. Detailed knowledge of the porcine anatomy and physiology is a prerequisite for proper use of pigs as a teaching or an experimental model in interventional radiology. A systematic study of the radiological anatomy was undertaken in more than 100 female pigs aged 6-8 weeks. All studies were performed under general anesthesia in a single session. Animals were sacrificed at the end of the study. Selective angiographies were systematically obtained in all anatomical territories. In other animals CT and MRI examinations were performed and were correlated to anatomical sections and acrylic casts of the vascular structures. Endoscopical examinations of the upper gastrointestinal tract, including retrograde opacification of the biliary and pancreatic ducts, were added in selected animals. The main angiographic aspects of the brain, head and neck, thorax, abdomen, and pelvis were recorded. Similarities and differences in comparison with human anatomy are stressed. Potential applications in interventional radiology are indicated. (orig.)

  7. Molecular anatomy and physiology of exocytosis in sensory hair cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutherford, Mark A; Pangršič, Tina

    2012-01-01

    Hair cells mediate our senses of hearing and balance by synaptic release of glutamate from somatic active zones (AZs). They share conserved mechanisms of exocytosis with neurons and other secretory cells of diverse form and function. Concurrently, AZs of these neuro-epithelial hair cells employ several processes that differ remarkably from those of neuronal synaptic terminals of the brain. Their unique molecular anatomy enables them to better respond to small, graded changes in membrane potential and to produce unsurpassed rates of exocytosis. Here, we focus on the AZs of cochlear inner hair cells (IHCs). As in other hair cells, these AZs are occupied by a cytoplasmic extension of the presynaptic density, called the synaptic ribbon: a specialized protein complex required for normal physiological function. Some proteins found at IHC synapses are uniquely expressed or enriched there, where their disruption can beget deafness in humans and in animal models. Other proteins, essential for regulation of conventional neuronal Ca(2+)-triggered fusion, are apparently absent from IHCs. Certain common synaptic proteins appear to have extra significance at ribbon-type AZs because of their interactions with unique molecules, their unusual concentrations, or their atypical localization and regulation. We summarize the molecular-anatomical specializations that underlie the unique synaptic physiology of hair cells. PMID:22682011

  8. Facial animation on an anatomy-based hierarchical face model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu; Prakash, Edmond C.; Sung, Eric

    2003-04-01

    In this paper we propose a new hierarchical 3D facial model based on anatomical knowledge that provides high fidelity for realistic facial expression animation. Like real human face, the facial model has a hierarchical biomechanical structure, incorporating a physically-based approximation to facial skin tissue, a set of anatomically-motivated facial muscle actuators and underlying skull structure. The deformable skin model has multi-layer structure to approximate different types of soft tissue. It takes into account the nonlinear stress-strain relationship of the skin and the fact that soft tissue is almost incompressible. Different types of muscle models have been developed to simulate distribution of the muscle force on the skin due to muscle contraction. By the presence of the skull model, our facial model takes advantage of both more accurate facial deformation and the consideration of facial anatomy during the interactive definition of facial muscles. Under the muscular force, the deformation of the facial skin is evaluated using numerical integration of the governing dynamic equations. The dynamic facial animation algorithm runs at interactive rate with flexible and realistic facial expressions to be generated.

  9. NEEDLE ANATOMY CHANGES WITH INCREASING TREE AGE IN DOUGLAS FIR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morphological differences between old growth and sapling (Pseudotsuga menziesii, (Mirb.) Franco) Douglas fir trees may extend to differences in needle anatomy. We used microscopy with image analysis to compare and quantify anatomical parameters in cross-sections of previous year...

  10. The wood anatomy of Vanguerieae, Cinchoneae, Condamineae, and Rondeletieae (Rubiaceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koek-Noorman, Jifke; Hogeweg, Pauline

    1974-01-01

    This paper deals with the Vanguerieae, Cinchoneae, Condamineae and Rondeletieae, and concludes a study on the anatomy of the secondary xylem of the Cinchonoideae + Ixoroideae. The taxonomically homogeneous Vanguerieae show only little variation. Taxonomically the Cinchoneae, Condamineae, and Rondele

  11. Evaluation of anatomy comic strips for further production and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Dong Sun; Kim, Dae Hyun; Park, Jin Seo; Jang, Hae Gwon; Chung, Min Suk

    2013-09-01

    The corresponding author of the study has been sketching comic strips to explain anatomy in a humorous manner. All the anatomy comic strips, including those in Korean (650 episodes) and English (451 episodes), can be viewed on the homepage (http://anatomy.co.kr). Such comic strips were created with the aim of assisting medical students. However, their impact was unknown, and therefore, we surveyed the students' responses. We noted that anatomy grades were better in the students who read the comic strips. The comics helped the trainees chat with individuals with and without a medical background. The authors also considered comments on the problems with the comic strips and attempted to find solutions. The episodes are being currently used and further produced for educational purposes. To support this effort, the readers' valuable opinions will be continuously collected and assessed.

  12. 全程化人体解剖及生理学实验课程考核体系的构建与实践%Full-process Assessment for Experiments of Human Anatomy and Physiology Curriculum:System Construction and Practice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    樊晓丽; 叶挺梅; 雷焕宗

    2015-01-01

    According to Benjamin Bloom, an American educator, curriculum assessment can be classified into diagnostic, formative and summative assessment. For experimental teaching,it should be more important to assess students’ competence in the experimental process. We developed a database system for assessing students’preview and understanding of theoretical contents and we constructed a full-process assessment system for experiments of human anatomy and physiology curriculum. Based on this system, students’ performance in experiment preview,in classroom,in writing experiment report,in experimental design, understanding experimental theory,and in operation examination respectively account for 10%,20%,20%, 20%,10%and 20%of their final achievements. With this system,the integrated assessment be realized.%美国教育学家布鲁姆认为,教学评价可分为诊断性评价、形成性评价和总结性评价。实验教学是一种过程教学,实验考核也应高度重视过程考核,因其过程往往比结果显得更重要。借助于计算机自主开发了实验预习与理论试题库检测系统,构建成全程化的人体解剖及生理学实验课程考核体系:实验预习(10%)、课堂表现(20%)、实验报告(20%)、实验设计(20%)、实验理论(10%)和操作考试(20%)。坚持平时与期末评价、教师与小组评价、笔试与口试相结合的三大原则,以此来实现评价过程的全程化、评价主体的多元化和评价方式的多样化。

  13. Anatomy and arthrokinematics of the human ankle and intertarsal joints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the ankle (talocrural) joint, the lower end of the tibia and fibula embrace the trochlea tali. Thus, an approximately uniaxial joint is formed which permits dorsiflexion and plantarflexion of the foot against the leg. Due to the geometry of the trochlea tali, conjunct lateral rotation of the fibula against the tibia occurs at the tibiofibular articulations synchronously with active dorsiflexion at the ankle joint. Movements at the talocrural joints are mainly limited by the opposing muscles as well as by strong collateral ligaments. Talus and calcaneus form a functional unit connected by posterior and anterior articulations. The posterior articulation is the subtalar (talocalcaneal) joint; in the anterior articulation, talar facets of the calcaneus together with the posterior surface of the navicular and the superior fibrocartilaginous surface of the plantar calcaneonavicular ligament form a concavity for the talar head. Thus, the talocalcaneonavicular joint is a compound and - like the subtalar joint - a multiaxial articulation. On the weightbearing foot, the distal tarsus and metatarsus are pronated and supinated against the talus in order to maintain plantigrade contact. When the foot is off the ground, these movements are modified to eversion and inversion, also involving the calcaneocuboid joint. In addition, movements between the calcaneus and cuboid also occur during pronative or supinative changes between the fore- and hindfoot. Limitation of movements is due to leg muscles as well as strong ligaments. Finally, the cuneonavicular, cuboideonavicular, intercuneiform and cuneocuboid joints permit some additional alterations of the loaded foot in contact with the ground. (orig.)

  14. Microscopic anatomy of the human vertebro-basilar system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato P. Chopard

    1991-12-01

    Full Text Available Concerning the structure of connective-muscular components the authors studied the walls of the terminal segments of the vertebral arteries as well as the basilar artery, utilizing the following staining methods: Azan modified by Heideinheim, Weigert's resorcin-fuchsin, and Weigert modified by van Gieson. It was established that wall of the vertebro-basilar system exhibits a mixed structure, muscular and elastic, by means of which the vessels are adjusted to the specific blood circulation conditions. Thus, vertebral arteries show in the most external layer of tunica media an evident external elastic lamina. In contrast, in the basilar artery the elastic tissue is localized mainly in the tunica media, and is distributed heterogeneously. In its caudal segment the elastic fibers are situated in the most internal layer of tunica media, and in the cranial segment the elastic component is homogenously distributed in the whole of tunica media.

  15. SPECT studies of liver and spleen - technique and normal anatomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A SPECT methodology for liver/spleen imaging is discussed with emphasis on quality control, conduct of study-imaging conduct of study-reconstruction. Normal transaxial anatomy and common artefacts which can masquerade as intrinsic disease are described. Structured artefacts which can be mistaken for real anatomy may occur from three general sources: camera field non-uniformities; statistical noise; attenuation. Each of these has a characteristic appearance which should alert the viewer to their possible presence

  16. Inside Out: Modern Imaging Techniques to Reveal Animal Anatomy

    OpenAIRE

    Henrik Lauridsen; Kasper Hansen; Tobias Wang; Peter Agger; Andersen, Jonas L.; Knudsen, Peter S.; Rasmussen, Anne S.; Lars Uhrenholt; Michael Pedersen

    2011-01-01

    Animal anatomy has traditionally relied on detailed dissections to produce anatomical illustrations, but modern imaging modalities, such as MRI and CT, now represent an enormous resource that allows for fast non-invasive visualizations of animal anatomy in living animals. These modalities also allow for creation of three-dimensional representations that can be of considerable value in the dissemination of anatomical studies. In this methodological review, we present our experiences using MRI,...

  17. Comparative anatomy of teeth from past to present.

    OpenAIRE

    Alt K; Tuerp J; Brace C; Radlanski R

    1997-01-01

    The comparative anatomy of teeth has a long tradition in research, starting more than two thousand years ago in antiquity. In the 19th century, Richard Owen′s oeuvre Odontography (1840-45) contributed much to establish odontology as an independent scientific discipline. After a short outline of the historical development of the comparative anatomy of teeth, we describe the contents and importance of Owen′s Odontography. Finally, we sketch the contemporary situation of dental mor...

  18. Systematic wood anatomy of the tribe Guettardeae (Rubiaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Welle, ter, B.J.H.; Loureiro, A.A.; Lisboa, P.L.B.; Koek-Noorman, J.

    1983-01-01

    Systematic wood anatomy of the tribe Guettardeae (Rubiaceae). The wood anatomy of nearly all genera of the Guettardeae (Rubiaceae, Guettardoideae) has been examined, and in this respect the tribe is heterogeneous. Suggestions are made for a delimitation of the tribe. Guettarda, Bobea, Antirhea, Malanea and Chomelia Jacq. are sufficiently similar in their wood anatomical characters to warrant retention in the same tribe. Machaonia, Timonius and Dichilanthe are anomalous. Suggestions are given ...

  19. Anatomy education for the YouTube generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, Denis S; Marzouk, Fadi; Chulak-Oglu, Kyrylo; Bennett, Deirdre; Tierney, Paul; O'Keeffe, Gerard W

    2016-01-01

    Anatomy remains a cornerstone of medical education despite challenges that have seen a significant reduction in contact hours over recent decades; however, the rise of the "YouTube Generation" or "Generation Connected" (Gen C), offers new possibilities for anatomy education. Gen C, which consists of 80% Millennials, actively interact with social media and integrate it into their education experience. Most are willing to merge their online presence with their degree programs by engaging with course materials and sharing their knowledge freely using these platforms. This integration of social media into undergraduate learning, and the attitudes and mindset of Gen C, who routinely creates and publishes blogs, podcasts, and videos online, has changed traditional learning approaches and the student/teacher relationship. To gauge this, second year undergraduate medical and radiation therapy students (n = 73) were surveyed regarding their use of online social media in relation to anatomy learning. The vast majority of students had employed web-based platforms to source information with 78% using YouTube as their primary source of anatomy-related video clips. These findings suggest that the academic anatomy community may find value in the integration of social media into blended learning approaches in anatomy programs. This will ensure continued connection with the YouTube generation of students while also allowing for academic and ethical oversight regarding the use of online video clips whose provenance may not otherwise be known.

  20. Anatomy education for the YouTube generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, Denis S; Marzouk, Fadi; Chulak-Oglu, Kyrylo; Bennett, Deirdre; Tierney, Paul; O'Keeffe, Gerard W

    2016-01-01

    Anatomy remains a cornerstone of medical education despite challenges that have seen a significant reduction in contact hours over recent decades; however, the rise of the "YouTube Generation" or "Generation Connected" (Gen C), offers new possibilities for anatomy education. Gen C, which consists of 80% Millennials, actively interact with social media and integrate it into their education experience. Most are willing to merge their online presence with their degree programs by engaging with course materials and sharing their knowledge freely using these platforms. This integration of social media into undergraduate learning, and the attitudes and mindset of Gen C, who routinely creates and publishes blogs, podcasts, and videos online, has changed traditional learning approaches and the student/teacher relationship. To gauge this, second year undergraduate medical and radiation therapy students (n = 73) were surveyed regarding their use of online social media in relation to anatomy learning. The vast majority of students had employed web-based platforms to source information with 78% using YouTube as their primary source of anatomy-related video clips. These findings suggest that the academic anatomy community may find value in the integration of social media into blended learning approaches in anatomy programs. This will ensure continued connection with the YouTube generation of students while also allowing for academic and ethical oversight regarding the use of online video clips whose provenance may not otherwise be known. PMID:26061143

  1. Not all renal stem cell niches are the same: anatomy of an evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara Gerosa

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The renal stem cell niche represents the most important structure of the developing kidney, responsible for nephrogenesis. Recently, some Authors have reported, at ultrastructural level, a previously unknown complexity of the architecture of renal stem cell niche in experimental models. This study was aimed at studying, at histological level, the anatomy of renal stem cell niches in the human fetal kidney. To this end, ten fetal kidneys, whose gestational ages ranged from 11 up to 24 weeks, were studied. H&E-stained sections were observed at high power. The study of the anatomy of renal stem cell niches in the human kidney revealed a previously unreported complexity: some niches appeared as a roundish arrangement of mesenchymal cells; others showed the initial phases of induction by ureteric buds; in other niches the process of mesenchymal epithelial transition was more evident; finally, in other stem cell niches the first signs of nephron origin were detectable. These findings suggest the existence of niches with different anatomy in the same kidney, indicating different stages of evolution even in adjacent niches. All stem cell niches were in strict contact with the capsular cells, suggesting a major role of the renal capsule in nephrogenesis. Finally, our study confirms the existence of a strict contact between the bud tip cells and the surrounding mesenchyme in the human developing kidney, giving a morphological support to the theory of intercellular channels allowing the passage of transcription factors from the epithelial to the mesenchymal stem/progenitors cells.Proceedings of the 2nd International Course on Perinatal Pathology (part of the 11th International Workshop on Neonatology · October 26th-31st, 2015 · Cagliari (Italy · October 31st, 2015 · Stem cells: present and future Guest Editors: Gavino Faa, Vassilios Fanos, Antonio Giordano

  2. Resident perceptions of anatomy education: a survey of medical school alumni from two different anatomy curricula and multiple medical specialties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohl, Michael A; Gest, Thomas R

    2011-01-01

    In 2004, the University of Michigan Medical School reduced its gross anatomy curriculum. To determine the effect of this reduction on resident perceptions of their clinical preparedness, we surveyed alumni that included residents from the original and new shortened curricula. A Likert-scale survey was sent to four classes of alumni. Respondents were compared in old curriculum (OC) and new curriculum (NC) groups, surgical specialty (SS) and nonsurgical specialty (NS) groups, and subgroups of SS and NS were compared for differences between OC and NC. Mean response scores were compared using independent samples T-tests. As a single population (n = 110), respondents felt their anatomy education prepared them well for residency, that a more robust anatomy curriculum would be helpful, that dissection was important to their residency preparation, and that a 4th year anatomy elective was effective in expanding their anatomy education and preparing them for residency. No significant difference existed between OC and NC groups, neither as a whole nor as SS and NS subgroups. The SS group felt dissection was more important to their residency preparation than the NS group (P = 0.001) and that a more robust anatomy curriculum would have better prepared them for residency (P = 0.001). Thirty percent of SS respondents who did not take a 4th year elective commented that they wish they had. Fourth year anatomy electives were highly valued by residents, and respondents felt that they should be offered to students as a way of revisiting anatomy following the 1st year of clinical training. PMID:21381214

  3. Formaldehyde Concentration in the Air and in Cadavers at the Gross Anatomy Laboratory in Hiroshima University

    OpenAIRE

    Kurose, Tomoyuki; Kodera, Haruto; Aoyama, Hirohiko; Kawamata, Seiichi

    2004-01-01

    The formaldehyde concentration in the air and in various tissues of 35 human cadavers were measured during a gross anatomy course held at the Faculty of Medicine of Hiroshima University in the 2003 educational year. Atmospheric formaldehyde levels were 0.25-0.55 ppm and thus less than the upper limit of the guideline for formaldehyde exposure (0.5 ppm) set by the Japan Society for Occupational Health (1988) except for one out of 10 measurements. The formaldehyde concentrations in tissues were...

  4. Vesalius and the emergence of veridical representation in Renaissance anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Gül A

    2013-01-01

    The Renaissance marks the introduction of veridical representation of anatomical structure into printed books. For centuries, anatomy that had relied solely on textual description and the authority of the written word was transformed. An existing graphic tradition only visualized function within a humoral theory, schematically "naming the parts" or mapping the "uses of the parts" for mnemonic purposes. In the sixteenth century, anatomists and artist began to apply their knowledge and skills to present the "fabric" of the dissected human body with increasing detail and accuracy, exemplified by the naturalistic illustrations of the brain in Vesalius' De humani corporis fabrica (Basel, 1543). How did this transformation occur? Among the causal factors, the importance the humanist textual scholarship will be shown not only in the recovery of the anatomical writings of Galen (129-ca. 216), in particular, but also in providing a model in establishing anatomical "truth" by a method of "comparison." It will be argued that Vesalius' comparative approach in dissection, using both human and animal preparations against Galen's textual description, paved the way for cumulative observations of greater detail, which in turn required the representational skills of artists. An analysis of Vesalius' views between 1538 and 1543 shows a shift in the use of illustrations from serving as a visual record to compensate for limited access to cadavers in teaching, to becoming an indispensable tool to accurately convey detailed anatomical structure through the medium of printing. With the Fabrica, morphology became divorced from humoral function and enduring paradigms established that dominated until the nineteenth century. PMID:24041275

  5. Neuroembryology and functional anatomy of craniofacial clefts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewings Ember

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The master plan of all vertebrate embryos is based on neuroanatomy. The embryo can be anatomically divided into discrete units called neuromeres so that each carries unique genetic traits. Embryonic neural crest cells arising from each neuromere induce development of nerves and concomitant arteries and support the development of specific craniofacial tissues or developmental fields. Fields are assembled upon each other in a programmed spatiotemporal order. Abnormalities in one field can affect the shape and position of developing adjacent fields. Craniofacial clefts represent states of excess or deficiency within and between specific developmental fields. The neuromeric organization of the embryo is the common denominator for understanding normal anatomy and pathology of the head and neck. Tessier′s observational cleft classification system can be redefined using neuroanatomic embryology. Reassessment of Tessier′s empiric observations demonstrates a more rational rearrangement of cleft zones, particularly near the midline. Neuromeric theory is also a means to understand and define other common craniofacial problems. Cleft palate, encephaloceles, craniosynostosis and cranial base defects may be analyzed in the same way.

  6. Comparative anatomy and histology of xenarthran osteoderms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Robert V

    2006-12-01

    Reconstruction of soft tissues in fossil vertebrates is an enduring challenge for paleontologists. Because inferences must be based on evidence from hard tissues (typically bones or teeth), even the most complete fossils provide only limited information about certain organ systems. Osteoderms ("dermal armor") are integumentary bones with high fossilization potential that hold information about the anatomy of the skin in many extant and fossil amniotes. Their importance for functional morphology and phylogenetic research has recently been recognized, but studies have focused largely upon reptiles, in which osteoderms are most common. Among mammals, osteoderms occur only in members of the clade Xenarthra, which includes armadillos and their extinct relatives: glyptodonts, pampatheres, and, more distantly, ground sloths. Here, I present new information on the comparative morphology and histology of osteoderms and their associated soft tissues in 11 extant and fossil xenarthrans. Extinct mylodontid sloths possessed simple, isolated ossicles, the presence of which is likely plesiomorphic for Xenarthra. More highly derived osteoderms of glyptodonts, pampatheres, and armadillos feature complex articulations and surface ornamentation. Osteoderms of modern armadillos are physically associated with a variety of soft tissues, including nerve, muscle, gland, and connective tissue. In some cases, similar osteological features may be caused by two or more different tissue types, rendering soft-tissue inferences for fossil osteoderms equivocal. Certain osteological structures, however, are consistently associated with specific soft-tissue complexes and therefore represent a relatively robust foundation upon which to base soft-tissue reconstructions of extinct xenarthrans.

  7. The pathologic anatomy of radiation sickness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The monograph considers pathologic anatomy and some problems of injury pathogenesis from external and incorporated radiation sources. The book is based on the generalized results of perennial authors investigations and literary data. The general characteristic of existing knowledge of the material substrate of different forms and types of radiation injuries, as well as of the dependence of structural changes on the nature and type of radiation, is given. Pathomorphology of organic manifestations of acute radiation sickness is thoroughly studied. The dynamics of structural alterations in blood ressels and their role in delayed trophic derangements due to radiation sickness are considered in detail; the peculiarities of infections and noninfections inflammatory changes in an irradiated organism and in the case of injuries due to the effect of incorporated radioactive substances, are described. Special attention is paid to the nonuniform external irradiation. Structural violations due to injuries caused by various radioactive substances and the peculiarities of their microdistribution in the case of different ways of administration into the organism, are described. Spectral attention is paid to delayed consequences of the organism injury by incorporated radioactive substances. The concluding chapter of the book presents the problems of differential pathoanatomical diagnostics of radiation injuries and their delayed effect due to generally spread nosologic forms of disease

  8. Anatomy education in a changing medical curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, R L

    1999-08-01

    How we educate students in the first two years of medical school is changing at many institutions. Effective medical education should be viewed as a continuum, integration of the basic sciences and clinical medicine should occur throughout the curriculum, and self-directed, life-long learning should be emphasized. Curricular revision may be appropriate if these fundamental concepts are absent. The principles of three curricular models are discussed: traditional, problem-based, and systems-oriented. The ideal curriculum may draw from each of these: A truly integrated curriculum. However, the curricular model chosen must meet the needs of the institution and its students. As anatomists we should not shy away from this process of change. With progressive educational approaches, we can be leaders in this climate of curricular reform. Anatomy courses are laboratory based and the laboratory is an outstanding small group, faculty/student interactive opportunity. However, we must show flexibility and innovation in our educational approaches whatever the curricular design being proposed. PMID:10496094

  9. Monte Carlo dose mapping on deforming anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Hualiang; Siebers, Jeffrey V.

    2009-10-01

    This paper proposes a Monte Carlo-based energy and mass congruent mapping (EMCM) method to calculate the dose on deforming anatomy. Different from dose interpolation methods, EMCM separately maps each voxel's deposited energy and mass from a source image to a reference image with a displacement vector field (DVF) generated by deformable image registration (DIR). EMCM was compared with other dose mapping methods: energy-based dose interpolation (EBDI) and trilinear dose interpolation (TDI). These methods were implemented in EGSnrc/DOSXYZnrc, validated using a numerical deformable phantom and compared for clinical CT images. On the numerical phantom with an analytically invertible deformation map, EMCM mapped the dose exactly the same as its analytic solution, while EBDI and TDI had average dose errors of 2.5% and 6.0%. For a lung patient's IMRT treatment plan, EBDI and TDI differed from EMCM by 1.96% and 7.3% in the lung patient's entire dose region, respectively. As a 4D Monte Carlo dose calculation technique, EMCM is accurate and its speed is comparable to 3D Monte Carlo simulation. This method may serve as a valuable tool for accurate dose accumulation as well as for 4D dosimetry QA.

  10. Anatomy of a Security Operations Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, John

    2010-01-01

    Many agencies and corporations are either contemplating or in the process of building a cyber Security Operations Center (SOC). Those Agencies that have established SOCs are most likely working on major revisions or enhancements to existing capabilities. As principle developers of the NASA SOC; this Presenters' goals are to provide the GFIRST community with examples of some of the key building blocks of an Agency scale cyber Security Operations Center. This presentation viII include the inputs and outputs, the facilities or shell, as well as the internal components and the processes necessary to maintain the SOC's subsistence - in other words, the anatomy of a SOC. Details to be presented include the SOC architecture and its key components: Tier 1 Call Center, data entry, and incident triage; Tier 2 monitoring, incident handling and tracking; Tier 3 computer forensics, malware analysis, and reverse engineering; Incident Management System; Threat Management System; SOC Portal; Log Aggregation and Security Incident Management (SIM) systems; flow monitoring; IDS; etc. Specific processes and methodologies discussed include Incident States and associated Work Elements; the Incident Management Workflow Process; Cyber Threat Risk Assessment methodology; and Incident Taxonomy. The Evolution of the Cyber Security Operations Center viII be discussed; starting from reactive, to proactive, and finally to proactive. Finally, the resources necessary to establish an Agency scale SOC as well as the lessons learned in the process of standing up a SOC viII be presented.

  11. Arterial anatomy of the hallucal sesamoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rath, Bjoern; Notermans, Hans-Peter; Frank, Daniel; Walpert, Juergen; Deschner, James; Luering, Christian M; Koeck, Franz X; Koebke, Juergen

    2009-09-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the arterial supply of the sesamoid bones of the hallux. Twenty-two feet from adult cadavers were injected with epoxide resin or an acrylic polymer in methyl methacrylate (Acrifix) and subsequently processed by two slice plastination methods and the enzyme maceration technique. Afterwards, the arterial supply of the sesamoid bones was studied. The first plantar metatarsal artery provided a medial branch to the medial sesamoid bone. The main branch of the first plantar metatarsal artery continued its course distally along the lateral side of the lateral sesamoid and supplied it. The supplying arteries penetrated the sesamoid bones on the proximal, plantar, and distal sides. The analysis and cataloging of the microvascular anatomy of the sesamoids revealed the first plantar metatarsal artery as the main arterial source to the medial and lateral sesamoid bones. In addition, the first plantar metatarsal artery ran along the lateral plantar side of the lateral sesamoid bone, suggesting that this artery is at increased risk during soft-tissue procedures such as hallux valgus surgery. PMID:19644971

  12. The functional anatomy of suggested limb paralysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deeley, Quinton; Oakley, David A; Toone, Brian; Bell, Vaughan; Walsh, Eamonn; Marquand, Andre F; Giampietro, Vincent; Brammer, Michael J; Williams, Steven C R; Mehta, Mitul A; Halligan, Peter W

    2013-02-01

    Suggestions of limb paralysis in highly hypnotically suggestible subjects have been employed to successfully model conversion disorders, revealing similar patterns of brain activation associated with attempted movement of the affected limb. However, previous studies differ with regard to the executive regions involved during involuntary inhibition of the affected limb. This difference may have arisen as previous studies did not control for differences in hypnosis depth between conditions and/or include subjective measures to explore the experience of suggested paralysis. In the current study we employed functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to examine the functional anatomy of left and right upper limb movements in eight healthy subjects selected for high hypnotic suggestibility during (i) hypnosis (NORMAL) and (ii) attempted movement following additional left upper limb paralysis suggestions (PARALYSIS). Contrast of left upper limb motor function during NORMAL relative to PARALYSIS conditions revealed greater activation of contralateral M1/S1 and ipsilateral cerebellum, consistent with the engagement of these regions in the completion of movements. By contrast, two significant observations were noted in PARALYSIS relative to NORMAL conditions. In conjunction with reports of attempts to move the paralysed limb, greater supplementary motor area (SMA) activation was observed, a finding consistent with the role of SMA in motor intention and planning. The anterior cingulate cortex (ACC, BA 24) was also significantly more active in PARALYSIS relative to NORMAL conditions - suggesting that ACC (BA 24) may be implicated in involuntary, as well as voluntary inhibition of prepotent motor responses.

  13. [Surgical anatomy of the anterior mediastinum].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biondi, Alberto; Rausei, Stefano; Cananzi, Ferdinando C M; Zoccali, Marco; D'Ugo, Stefano; Persiani, Roberto

    2007-01-01

    The mediastinum is located from the thoracic inlet to the diaphragm between the left and right pleural cavities and contains vital structures of the circulatory, respiratory, digestive, and nervous system. Over the years, since there are no fascial or anatomic planes, anatomists and radiologists have suggested various schemes for subdividing the mediastinum and several anatomical and radiological classifications of the mediastinum are reported in the literature. The most popular of these scheme divides medistinum, for purposes of description, into two parts: an upper portion, above the upper level of the pericardium, which is named the superior mediastinum; and a lower portion, below the upper level of the pericardium. For clinical purposes, the mediastinum may be subdivided into three major areas, i.e. anterior, middle, and posterior compartments. The anterior mediastinum is defined as the region posterior to the sternum and anterior to the heart and brachiocephalic vessels. It extends from the thoracic inlet to the diaphragm and contains the thymus gland, fat, and lymph nodes. This article will review surgical anatomy of the anterior mediastinum and will focus on the surgical approch to anterior mediastinum and thymic diseases.

  14. Anatomy of neck configuration in fission decay

    CERN Document Server

    Patra, S K; Satpathy, L

    2010-01-01

    The anatomy of neck configuration in the fission decay of Uranium and Thorium isotopes is investigated in a microscopic study using Relativistic mean field theory. The study includes $^{236}U$ and $^{232}Th$ in the valley of stability and exotic neutron rich isotopes $^{250}U$, $^{256}U$, $^{260}U$, $^{240}Th$, $^{250}Th$, $^{256}Th$ likely to play important role in the r-process nucleosynthesis in stellar evolution. Following the static fission path, the neck configurations are generated and their composition in terms of the number of neutrons and protons are obtained showing the progressive rise in the neutron component with the increase of mass number. Strong correlation between the neutron multiplicity in the fission decay and the number of neutrons in the neck is seen. The maximum neutron-proton ratio is about 5 for $^{260}$U and $^{256}$Th suggestive of the break down of liquid-drop picture and inhibition of the fission decay in still heavier isotopes. Neck as precursor of a new mode of fission decay li...

  15. Comparative and Developmental Anatomy of Cardiac Lymphatics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ratajska

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The role of the cardiac lymphatic system has been recently appreciated since lymphatic disturbances take part in various heart pathologies. This review presents the current knowledge about normal anatomy and structure of lymphatics and their prenatal development for a better understanding of the proper functioning of this system in relation to coronary circulation. Lymphatics of the heart consist of terminal capillaries of various diameters, capillary plexuses that drain continuously subendocardial, myocardial, and subepicardial areas, and draining (collecting vessels that lead the lymph out of the heart. There are interspecies differences in the distribution of lymphatic capillaries, especially near the valves, as well as differences in the routes and number of draining vessels. In some species, subendocardial areas contain fewer lymphatic capillaries as compared to subepicardial parts of the heart. In all species there is at least one collector vessel draining lymph from the subepicardial plexuses and running along the anterior interventricular septum under the left auricle and further along the pulmonary trunk outside the heart and terminating in the right venous angle. The second collector assumes a different route in various species. In most mammalian species the collectors run along major branches of coronary arteries, have valves and a discontinuous layer of smooth muscle cells.

  16. Morphology and functional anatomy of the growing thorax; Morphologie und funktionelle Anatomie des wachsenden Thorax

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weninger, W.J.; Meng, S.; Geyer, S.H.; Weninger, S.U.G. [Integrative Morphology Group, Unversitaet Wien (Austria); Institut fuer Anatomie, Universitaet Wien (Austria)

    2003-12-01

    Morphogenesis of most thoracic organs and structures is not finished with birth but perpetuates in postnatal life. The postnatal growth is partly associated with enormous changes in structure, morphology, and function. Our study presents an overview of morphological, topological and functional peculiarities of thoracic anatomy during infancy, childhood and adolescence. It focuses on the development of the mammary gland, osseous structures of the chest wall, thymus, heart, and lungs. Most of the presented data are based on post-mortem studies. Measurements and numerical data are mainly included for illustration of growth-associated changes. (orig.) [German] Die Morphogenese mancher thorakaler Strukturen und Organe ist zum Zeitpunkt der Geburt noch nicht vollstaendig abgeschlossen. Ihr postpartales Wachstum geht mit teils enormen strukturellen, morphologischen und funktionellen Veraenderungen einher. Die hier praesentierte Arbeit gibt einen Ueberblick ueber morphologische, topologische und funktionelle Besonderheiten der Anatomie des Thorax und seiner Organe im Neonatus, Saeugling, Kind und Jugendlichen. Der Schwerpunkt liegt auf der Beschreibung der Entwicklung der Brustdruese, des knoechernen Thorax, des Thymus, des Herzen und der Lunge. Die vorgestellten Daten stammen grossteils aus Post-mortem-Studien und dienen vorwiegend dazu, das Ausmass wachstumsassoziierter Veraenderungen und Relationen zu illustrieren. (orig.)

  17. Properties of publications on anatomy in medical education literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorstenbosch, Marc; Bolhuis, Sanneke; van Kuppeveld, Sascha; Kooloos, Jan; Laan, Roland

    2011-01-01

    Publications on anatomy in medical education appear to be largely anecdotal. To explore this, we investigated the literature on anatomy in medical education, aiming first to evaluate the contribution of the literature on anatomy in medical education to "best evidence medical education" (BEME) and second to evaluate the development of this literature toward more "best evidence" between 1985 and 2009. Four databases were searched for publications on anatomy in medical education published between 1985 and 2009, resulting in 525 references. Hundred publications were characterized by five variables (journal category, paper subject, paper category, author perspective, and paper perspective). Statements from these publications were characterized by two variables (category and foundation). The publications contained 797 statements that involved the words "anatomy," "anatomical," or "anatomist." Forty-five percent of the publications contained no explicit research question. Forty percent of the statements made were about "teaching methods" and 17% about "teaching content," 8% referred to "practical value," and 10% to "side effects" of anatomy education. Ten percent of the statements were "positional," five percent "traditional," four percent "self-evident," and two percent referred to "quality of care." Fifty-six percent of the statements had no foundation, 17% were founded on empirical data, and 27% by references. These results substantiated the critical comments about the anecdotal nature of the literature. However, it is encouraging to see that between 1985 and 2009 the number of publications is rising that these publications increasingly focus on teaching methods and that an academic writing style is developing. This suggests a growing body of empirical literature about anatomy education.

  18. A digital rat atlas of sectional anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Li; Liu, Qian; Bai, Xueling; Liao, Yinping; Luo, Qingming; Gong, Hui

    2006-09-01

    This paper describes a digital rat alias of sectional anatomy made by milling. Two healthy Sprague-Dawley (SD) rat weighing 160-180 g were used for the generation of this atlas. The rats were depilated completely, then euthanized by Co II. One was via vascular perfusion, the other was directly frozen at -85 °C over 24 hour. After that, the frozen specimens were transferred into iron molds for embedding. A 3% gelatin solution colored blue was used to fill the molds and then frozen at -85 °C for one or two days. The frozen specimen-blocks were subsequently sectioned on the cryosection-milling machine in a plane oriented approximately transverse to the long axis of the body. The surface of specimen-blocks were imaged by a scanner and digitalized into 4,600 x2,580 x 24 bit array through a computer. Finally 9,475 sectional images (arterial vessel were not perfused) and 1,646 sectional images (arterial vessel were perfused) were captured, which made the volume of the digital atlas up to 369.35 Gbyte. This digital rat atlas is aimed at the whole rat and the rat arterial vessels are also presented. We have reconstructed this atlas. The information from the two-dimensional (2-D) images of serial sections and three-dimensional (3-D) surface model all shows that the digital rat atlas we constructed is high quality. This work lays the foundation for a deeper study of digital rat.

  19. Multiple anatomy optimization of accumulated dose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watkins, W. Tyler, E-mail: watkinswt@virginia.edu; Siebers, Jeffrey V. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia 22908 and Department of Radiation Oncology, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia 23298 (United States); Moore, Joseph A. [Department of Radiation Oncology and Molecular Radiation Sciences, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 21231 and Department of Radiation Oncology, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia 23298 (United States); Gordon, James [Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, Michigan 48202 and Department of Radiation Oncology, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia 23298 (United States); Hugo, Geoffrey D. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia 23298 (United States)

    2014-11-01

    Purpose: To investigate the potential advantages of multiple anatomy optimization (MAO) for lung cancer radiation therapy compared to the internal target volume (ITV) approach. Methods: MAO aims to optimize a single fluence to be delivered under free-breathing conditions such that the accumulated dose meets the plan objectives, where accumulated dose is defined as the sum of deformably mapped doses computed on each phase of a single four dimensional computed tomography (4DCT) dataset. Phantom and patient simulation studies were carried out to investigate potential advantages of MAO compared to ITV planning. Through simulated delivery of the ITV- and MAO-plans, target dose variations were also investigated. Results: By optimizing the accumulated dose, MAO shows the potential to ensure dose to the moving target meets plan objectives while simultaneously reducing dose to organs at risk (OARs) compared with ITV planning. While consistently superior to the ITV approach, MAO resulted in equivalent OAR dosimetry at planning objective dose levels to within 2% volume in 14/30 plans and to within 3% volume in 19/30 plans for each lung V20, esophagus V25, and heart V30. Despite large variations in per-fraction respiratory phase weights in simulated deliveries at high dose rates (e.g., treating 4/10 phases during single fraction beams) the cumulative clinical target volume (CTV) dose after 30 fractions and per-fraction dose were constant independent of planning technique. In one case considered, however, per-phase CTV dose varied from 74% to 117% of prescription implying the level of ITV-dose heterogeneity may not be appropriate with conventional, free-breathing delivery. Conclusions: MAO incorporates 4DCT information in an optimized dose distribution and can achieve a superior plan in terms of accumulated dose to the moving target and OAR sparing compared to ITV-plans. An appropriate level of dose heterogeneity in MAO plans must be further investigated.

  20. Quantitative Wood Anatomy-Practical Guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Arx, Georg; Crivellaro, Alan; Prendin, Angela L; Čufar, Katarina; Carrer, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Quantitative wood anatomy analyzes the variability of xylem anatomical features in trees, shrubs, and herbaceous species to address research questions related to plant functioning, growth, and environment. Among the more frequently considered anatomical features are lumen dimensions and wall thickness of conducting cells, fibers, and several ray properties. The structural properties of each xylem anatomical feature are mostly fixed once they are formed, and define to a large extent its functionality, including transport and storage of water, nutrients, sugars, and hormones, and providing mechanical support. The anatomical features can often be localized within an annual growth ring, which allows to establish intra-annual past and present structure-function relationships and its sensitivity to environmental variability. However, there are many methodological challenges to handle when aiming at producing (large) data sets of xylem anatomical data. Here we describe the different steps from wood sample collection to xylem anatomical data, provide guidance and identify pitfalls, and present different image-analysis tools for the quantification of anatomical features, in particular conducting cells. We show that each data production step from sample collection in the field, microslide preparation in the lab, image capturing through an optical microscope and image analysis with specific tools can readily introduce measurement errors between 5 and 30% and more, whereby the magnitude usually increases the smaller the anatomical features. Such measurement errors-if not avoided or corrected-may make it impossible to extract meaningful xylem anatomical data in light of the rather small range of variability in many anatomical features as observed, for example, within time series of individual plants. Following a rigid protocol and quality control as proposed in this paper is thus mandatory to use quantitative data of xylem anatomical features as a powerful source for many

  1. The Nursing students’ metaphors about education of anatomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Çolak Tuncay

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available “Metaphor” word is described as a figurative expression in Turkish. A person transmits more explicitly his/her thoughts that are about an event or a concept he/she experienced. The aim of this study was to reveal emotions and thoughts of 1st class students in nursing about Anatomy lesson. 62 people who are students at 1st class in Vocational School of Health Services in 2014-2015 academic year have attended to our study. In questionnaire anthropometric and demographic traits of them were asked. They were wanted to create a metaphor about anatomy by filling in the blanks in “Anatomy resembles …../ Anatomy is like …. ; because …..” At the end of the assesment it has been detected that 44 metaphors have been produced. In these metaphors the most produced are ocean, puzzle, etc. When we divide these metaphors into categories and investigate them, there is an accumulation in discovering/revealing category with 24 metaphors. We believe that the metaphors which the students will generate, determining how to be lectured theoretical and practical anatomy lessons in a way that students are able to comprehend, will guide them.

  2. Creating Clay Models of a Human Torso as an Alternative to Dissection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shipley, Gwendolyn

    2010-01-01

    Instead of dissecting animals, students create small clay models of human internal organs to demonstrate their understanding of the positioning and interlocking shapes of the organs. Not only is this approach more environmentally friendly, it also forces them to learn human anatomy--which is more relevant to them than the anatomy of other…

  3. Visualization of catheter ablation for atrial fibrillation:Impact of devices and anatomy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mark; A; Benscoter; Paul; A; Iaizzo

    2015-01-01

    Endocardial access to the left atrium is commonly achieved to treat patients with atrial fibrillation, using different device delivery systems for cardiac ablation. But the large variation in human anatomy presses the limits of existing medical devices. In this unique study, we directly visualized the device-tissue interface in fresh reanimated human hearts using Visible Heart?? methodologies. Our goal was to better understand any opportunities to improve therapeutic approaches. The visual images obtained in this study(also featured in this article) allow a more intimate grasp of the key steps required in various ablation procedures, as well as some limitations of current device designs. These images show the potential risks of conducting transseptal punctures and the difficulties of placing catheter tips in certain scenarios(e.g., when creating circumferential lesions); they also demonstrate potential problems that could occur while attempting to place catheter tips on such anatomies like the mitral isthmus. In our analysis of these images, we focus on where enhancements are needed to refine device functionality.

  4. An ethical solution to the challenges in teaching anatomy with dissection in the Chinese culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Luqing; Wang, Yunfeng; Xiao, Ming; Han, Qunying; Ding, Jiong

    2008-01-01

    Universities and medical schools in China are faced with an ongoing shortage of cadavers for education and research because of insufficient numbers of cadaver donations. This article will examine the main obstacles to cadaver donation in the Chinese culture. These include superstitious traditional views about the body, a lack of legislation regulating donations, and a deficiency of effective channels for cadaver donations. Cadaver dissection has always been the most important method of teaching anatomy to medical students. Today, ethics courses have also become essential to a complete medical education. Contemporary physicians need to be equipped to navigate the myriad of moral and ethical issues inherent to modern medicine. In China, cadaver donations lag behind those in other countries, threatening to create valid disadvantages in medical education. New legislation and public education are necessary to remove cultural barriers and change Chinese views on cadaver donation. For this reason, the Department of Human Anatomy at Nanjing Medical University has established the "Educational Center for Medical Ethics." The goal of the Center is to promote proper respect for cadavers used for medical research and education, cherish the human lives the cadavers represent, and gain the trust of potential donors. PMID:19177382

  5. Microsurgical anatomy of the infratentorial trabecular membranes and subarachnoid cisterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinas, F C; Dujovny, M; Fandino, R; Chavez, V

    1996-04-01

    The understanding of the anatomy of the subarachnoid cisterns and trabecular membranes is of paramount importance in the surgical treatment of pathology of the posterior fossa. Aneurysms, arteriovenous malformations, and some tumors should be approached through the subarachnoid space. The subarachnoid cisterns provide natural pathways to approach neurovascular and cranial nerve structures. The microsurgical anatomy of the infratentorial subarachnoid cisterns was studied in twenty adult brains, using the 'immersion technique'. Air was injected into the subarachnoid cisterns and brains were dissected under the operative microscope. Six main compartmental trabecular membranes were identified in the infratentorial level. They divide the subarachnoid space into six cisterns. Cisternal divisions and the disposition of the trabecular membranes were closely related to the vascular divisional patterns of the principal arteries. Thorough knowledge of the microsurgical anatomy of the subarachnoid space will aid neurosurgeons during the surgical approach of many vascular and tumoral lesions located in the posterior fossa.

  6. Multidetector CT angiography of renal vasculature: normal anatomy and variants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuerkvatan, Aysel; Oezdemir, Mustafa; Cumhur, Turhan; Oelcer, Tuelay [Tuerkiye Yueksek ihtisas Hospital, Department of Radiology, Sihhiye, Ankara (Turkey)

    2009-01-15

    Knowledge of the variations in renal vascular anatomy is important before laparoscopic donor or partial nephrectomy and vascular reconstruction for renal artery stenosis or abdominal aortic aneurysm. Recently, multidetector computed tomographic (MDCT) angiography has become a principal imaging investigation for assessment of the renal vasculature and has challenged the role of conventional angiography. It is an excellent imaging technique because it is a fast and non-invasive tool that provides highly accurate and detailed evaluation of normal renal vascular anatomy and variants. The number, size and course of the renal arteries and veins are easily identified by MDCT angiography. The purpose of this pictorial essay is to illustrate MDCT angiographic appearance of normal anatomy and common variants of the renal vasculature. (orig.)

  7. Scimitar syndrome: Surgical approach to an unusual anatomy of the scimitar vein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roy Varghese

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Repair strategies in scimitar syndrome are varied and need to be individualized to the surgical anatomy. This report focuses on the repair achieved in a case with unusual anatomy of the scimitar vein.

  8. A preliminary discussion of angiographic anatomy and variations of rabbit hepatic vessels and catheterization methods of hepatic artery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To study the normal angiographic anatomy and variations of rabbit hepatic vessels, and explore the optimal method for hepatic artery catheterization. Methods: 30 rabbits were divided into two groups randomly. Modified surgical method and interventional method were used to catheterize hepatic artery respectively, and followed by angiography to demonstrate the normal anatomy and variations of rabbit celiac artery, hepatic artery and portal vein. Results: The route and distribution of rabbit celiac artery and hepatic artery were very different from human's. The commonly seen variation showed the differences in branching bifurcation of hepatic-gastric artery, with the incidence of 13.3%. The rates of successfully hepatic artery catheterization with surgical and interventional methods were 86.6%(13/15) and 80%(12/15) respectively (P>0.05). The surgical method will not be successful, whenever there's variation. Conclusion: The normal anatomy and variation of rabbit celiac artery and hepatic artery are quite different from human's. Both surgical and interventional catheterizations could be rather successful but possessing advantages and disadvantages of each its own. (authors)

  9. Imaging of radial wrist pain. I. Imaging modalities and anatomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Ryan Ka Lok; Griffith, James F.; Ng, Alex Wing Hung [The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Department of Imaging and Interventional Radiology, Prince of Wales Hospital, Hong Kong, Shatin (China); Wong, Clara Wing Yee [The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Department of Orthopedics and Traumatology, Shatin (China)

    2014-06-15

    Radial wrist pain is a common clinical complaint. The relatively complex anatomy in this region, combined with the small size of the anatomical structures and occasionally subtle imaging findings, can pose problems when trying to localize the exact cause of pain. To fully comprehend the underlying pathology, one needs a good understanding of both radial-sided wrist anatomy and the relative merits of the different imaging techniques used to assess these structures. In part I of this review, these aspects will be discussed. (orig.)

  10. Imaging of radial wrist pain. I. Imaging modalities and anatomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radial wrist pain is a common clinical complaint. The relatively complex anatomy in this region, combined with the small size of the anatomical structures and occasionally subtle imaging findings, can pose problems when trying to localize the exact cause of pain. To fully comprehend the underlying pathology, one needs a good understanding of both radial-sided wrist anatomy and the relative merits of the different imaging techniques used to assess these structures. In part I of this review, these aspects will be discussed. (orig.)

  11. Lower Face: Clinical Anatomy and Regional Approaches with Injectable Fillers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braz, André; Humphrey, Shannon; Weinkle, Susan; Yee, G Jackie; Remington, B Kent; Lorenc, Z Paul; Yoelin, Steve; Waldorf, Heidi A; Azizzadeh, Babak; Butterwick, Kimberly J; de Maio, Mauricio; Sadick, Neil; Trevidic, Patrick; Criollo-Lamilla, Gisella; Garcia, Philippe

    2015-11-01

    The use of injectable fillers enables facial sculpting through treatment of volume depletion and modeling of facial contours. Injectable fillers are among the most frequently performed minimally invasive cosmetic procedures.However, treatment of the lower third of the face can be challenging and requires expertise in facial anatomy. In this article, the authors provide a comprehensive review of the anatomy of the lower third of the face, highlighting danger zones. In addition, the authors describe their preferred approach and detailed technique used in the treatment of each specific area, namely the jawline, prejowl sulcus, melomental folds, and lips. PMID:26441104

  12. Anatomy and Disorders of the Oral Cavity of Ornamental Fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts-Sweeney, Helen E

    2016-09-01

    Ornamental fish represent the largest and most diverse group of exotic animals kept as pets. The specific oral anatomy of each family or selected species has evolved to suit the natural environment, feeding behaviors, food or prey type, and location of the food/prey in the water column. The anatomy can change over the life of the animal, from fry to adult. The oral cavity of fish is susceptible to many problems including infectious and parasitic diseases, trauma, and neoplasia. Diagnosis may involve wet mount preparations of exfoliative cytology from the lesion, histopathology, and bacterial or fungal culture. PMID:27497201

  13. Morden and traditional approaches to teaching students at the department of normal anatomy of BSMU

    OpenAIRE

    Давыдова, Л. А.; Чайка, Л. Д.; Жарикова, О. Л.

    2013-01-01

    Anatomy is one of the most difficult basic disciplines in the medical curriculum. Use of modern teaching modalities and electronic technologies provides more efficient specialist training. At the department of anatomy of BSMU modern technologies are introduced in different forms of anatomy training: lectures, self study, and test control. Our experience supports the opinion that modern and traditional approaches should be integrated to optimize teaching anatomy.

  14. Progress in laparoscopic anatomy research: A review of the Chinese literature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The development of laparoscopic surgery has generated the new field of study, laparoscopic anatomy. This article reviews the reported literature on laparoscopic anatomy and explores how it has evolved along with advances in abdominal surgery. In addition, the principal concerns in current laparoscopic anatomy research are discussed, including: (1) types of special adjacent anatomical structures; and (2) special surgical planes and anatomical landmarks. Understanding of systematic laparoscopic anatomy can pr...

  15. Translating the foundational model of anatomy into french using knowledge-based and lexical methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merabti Tayeb

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Foundational Model of Anatomy (FMA is the reference ontology regarding human anatomy. FMA vocabulary was integrated into the Health Multi Terminological Portal (HMTP developed by CISMeF based on the CISMeF Information System which also includes 26 other terminologies and controlled vocabularies, mainly in French. However, FMA is primarily in English. In this context, the translation of FMA English terms into French could also be useful for searching and indexing French anatomy resources. Various studies have investigated automatic methods to assist the translation of medical terminologies or create multilingual medical vocabularies. The goal of this study was to facilitate the translation of FMA vocabulary into French. Methods We compare two types of approaches to translate the FMA terms into French. The first one is UMLS-based on the conceptual information of the UMLS metathesaurus. The second method is lexically-based on several Natural Language Processing (NLP tools. Results The UMLS-based approach produced a translation of 3,661 FMA terms into French whereas the lexical approach produced a translation of 3,129 FMA terms into French. A qualitative evaluation was made on 100 FMA terms translated by each method. For the UMLS-based approach, among the 100 translations, 52% were manually rated as "very good" and only 7% translations as "bad". For the lexical approach, among the 100 translations, 47% were rated as "very good" and 20% translations as "bad". Conclusions Overall, a low rate of translations were demonstrated by the two methods. The two approaches permitted us to semi-automatically translate 3,776 FMA terms from English into French, this was to added to the existing 10,844 French FMA terms in the HMTP (4,436 FMA French terms and 6,408 FMA terms manually translated.

  16. Building the Body: Active Learning Laboratories that Emphasize Practical Aspects of Anatomy and Integration with Radiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zumwalt, Ann C.; Lufler, Rebecca S.; Monteiro, Joseph; Shaffer, Kitt

    2010-01-01

    Active learning exercises were developed to allow advanced medical students to revisit and review anatomy in a clinically meaningful context. In our curriculum, students learn anatomy two to three years before they participate in the radiology clerkship. These educational exercises are designed to review anatomy content while highlighting its…

  17. The Anatomy Competence Score--A New Marker for Anatomical Ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoeman, Scarpa; Chandratilake, Madawa

    2012-01-01

    The assessment of students' ability in gross anatomy is a complex process as it involves the measurement of multiple facets. In this work, the authors developed and introduced the Anatomy Competence Score (ACS), which incorporates the three domains of anatomy teaching and assessment namely: theoretical knowledge, practical 3D application of the…

  18. Changes in Anatomy Instruction and USMLE Performance: Empirical Evidence on the Absence of a Relationship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuddy, Monica M.; Swanson, David B.; Drake, Richard L.; Pawlina, Wojciech

    2013-01-01

    Anatomy instruction has evolved over the past two decades as many medical schools have undergone various types of curricular reform. To provide empirical evidence about whether or not curricular changes impact the acquisition and retention of anatomy knowledge, this study investigated the effect of variation in gross anatomy course hours,…

  19. Micro-CT study of the anatomy of the Leafhopper Homalodisca vitripennis (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    A Digital Anatomy Library, DAL, was produced to the anatomy of the glassy-winged sharpshooter adult, Homalodisca vitripennis (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae), vector of bacteria which cause Pierce’s disease of grapevines. The insect anatomy was elucidated using a high resolution Bruker Skyscan 1172 micro t...

  20. Living AnatoME: Teaching and Learning Musculoskeletal Anatomy through Yoga and Pilates

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCulloch, Carrie; Marango, Stephanie Pieczenik; Friedman, Erica S.; Laitman, Jeffrey T.

    2010-01-01

    Living AnatoME, a program designed in 2004 by two medical students in conjunction with the Director of Anatomy, teaches musculoskeletal anatomy through yoga and Pilates. Previously offered as an adjunct to the Gross Anatomy course in 2007, Living AnatoME became an official part of the curriculum. Previous research conducted on the program…

  1. The anatomy of a humanoid robot.

    OpenAIRE

    Seward, D. W.; Margrave, F. W.; Bradshaw, A.

    1996-01-01

    This paper investigates the feasibility of constructing a humanoid robot using existing technology. Firstly, the adoption of the humanoid form is justified. The structure, strength and power capabilities of a human are analysed in engineering terms, and taken to represent the requirements specification for a humanoid robot. Technological alternatives to the biological components are reviewed and compared to this specification. The feasibility of matching human performance is considered, and i...

  2. STUDY OF PASSIVE DIDACTIC TEACHER CENTERED APPROACH AND AN ACTIVE STUDENT CENTERED APPROACH IN TEACHING ANATOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharadkumar Pralhad Sawant

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The importance of Anatomy in undergraduate medical education cannot be adequately emphasised. For doctors, the human body is the focus of investigation and intervention on a daily basis; for this reason, the study of anatomy in some form, will continue to be essential to safe medical practice. It is necessary for core knowledge of anatomy to be assimilated by all doctors in order to practice medicine safely. It may be true that most doctors do not need to dissect a cadaver or study a prosection in order to practice, but if they do, it can improve their understanding and this surely has to be of benefit both for the safety of the patient and satisfaction of the doctor as a professional. Teacher-centered typically refers to learning situations in which the teacher asserts control over the material that students study. In contrast,to teacher centered learning, student-centered typically refers to forms of instruction that, for example, give students opportunities to lead learning activities, participate more actively in discussions, design their own learning projects, explore topics that interest them, and generally contribute to the design of their own course of study. Additionally, student-centered instruction is often associated with classrooms that feature desks arranged in circles or small groups (rather than rows of desks that face the teacher, with “self-guided” or “self-paced” learning, or with learning experiences that occur outside of traditional classroom settings. Anatomy teaching has undergone major changes due to time constraints and the rapid advances in computer technology. Also there has been a shift a teaching methodologies from a passive didactic teacher- centered approach to an active student - centered approach. Conclusion: We should develop and implement an instructional design that focuses on incorporating active-learning and student-centered pedagogy into what is previously a traditional lecture-based course. These

  3. When Young Children Explore Anatomy: Dilemma or Development?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petty, Karen

    2001-01-01

    Offers advice to parents and teachers on addressing children's natural curiosities about their own bodies and those of others. Recommends using anatomically correct terms and dolls, and children's anatomy books; advises what to do when children engage in sex play, self-exploration, and masturbation, or use toilet language. (DLH)

  4. Independent Learning Modules Enhance Student Performance and Understanding of Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrat, Maria A.; Dom, Aaron M.; Buchanan, James T., Jr.; Williams, Alison R.; Efaw, Morgan L.; Richardson, Laura L.

    2014-01-01

    Didactic lessons are only one part of the multimodal teaching strategies used in gross anatomy courses today. Increased emphasis is placed on providing more opportunities for students to develop lifelong learning and critical thinking skills during medical training. In a pilot program designed to promote more engaged and independent learning in…

  5. The changing face of anatomy in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, B M

    1999-08-01

    Over the past decade, the discipline of anatomy has undergone significant changes in the United States. Some of these changes are specific to the discipline of anatomy; others reflect the evolution of the basic biomedical sciences; still others reflect societal changes in the United States. One of the most important trends is the homogenization of basic biomedical research, with scientists in many fields using very similar approaches. This trend is accompanied by an increasing disparity between what anatomy faculty teach and what they do in their research. American medical education is well into a major phase of curricular reform, with greater emphasis on self-learning and problem-oriented approaches. Nevertheless, there is currently a wide spectrum of educational approaches, ranging from very traditional disciplinary teaching to the complete abandonment of the traditional basic science disciplines in totally problem-oriented approaches. Along with the homogenization of basic biomedical research is a much greater intermingling of disciplines represented by new faculty members. Many new anatomy faculty (and faculty of other basic science departments, as well) have been trained in other disciplines. Because of this, they do not have the traditions or loyalty to their discipline of new faculty of previous eras; on the other hand, they introduce an element of "hybrid vigor" that is essential for the evolution of any discipline. Ph.D. programs themselves are increasingly becoming merged into common programs in American medical schools. Adapting to rapid change is the dominant theme in American medical education today. PMID:10496096

  6. Comparative wood anatomy of Bonnetiaceae, Theaceae and Guttiferae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baretta-Kuipers, Tine

    1976-01-01

    A description of the xylem anatomy of the genera Archytaea, Ploiarium, Bonnetia, Neblinaria, Neotatea, Caraipa, Haploclathra, Mahurea, Marila, Kielmeyera, and Asteropeia is given. All these genera except Asteropeia, were included in the family of the Bonnetiaceae by Maguire (1972). He considered the

  7. Systematic wood anatomy and affinities of the Urticaceae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bonsen, K.J.; Welle, ter B.J.H.

    1984-01-01

    The wood anatomy of all tribes of the Urticaceae, a family of herbs, shrublets, and sometimes shrubs, trees or lianas, has been studied and described in detail. Special attention is given to the interpretation of the characters in terms of taxonomy and phylogeny. A classification, in part deviating

  8. The wood anatomy of Gardenieae, Ixoreae and Mussaendeae (Rubiaceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koek-Noorman, Jifke

    1972-01-01

    The tribe Gardenieae in the restricted delimitation proposed by Bremekamp and Verdcourt is wood anatomically homogeneous. The genera of the Ixoreae studied by me also agree with each other in wood structure. Within the tribe Mussaendeae in the delimitation accepted by Schumann the wood anatomy shows

  9. Computed Tomography-Enhanced Anatomy Course Using Enterprise Visualization

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Hila; Cohen, Haim; Medlej, Bahaa; Kornreich, Liora; Peled, Nathan; Hershkovitz, Israel

    2013-01-01

    Rapid changes in medical knowledge are forcing continuous adaptation of the basic science courses in medical schools. This article discusses a three-year experience developing a new Computed Tomography (CT)-based anatomy curriculum at the Sackler School of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, including describing the motivations and reasoning for the…

  10. Reading to Understand Anatomy: A Literature Circle Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calmer, Joseph; Straits, William

    2014-01-01

    As a science teacher, I regularly use outside reading assignments (e.g., news articles) to help develop my students' understanding of topics addressed in my anatomy class. However, I have found that in simply reading texts, students often fail to (1) understand the context of the science discussed, (2) make the connections between ideas…

  11. Teaching Bovine Abdominal Anatomy: Use of a Haptic Simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinnison, Tierney; Forrest, Neil David; Frean, Stephen Philip; Baillie, Sarah

    2009-01-01

    Traditional methods of teaching anatomy to undergraduate medical and veterinary students are being challenged and need to adapt to modern concerns and requirements. There is a move away from the use of cadavers to new technologies as a way of complementing the traditional approaches and addressing resource and ethical problems. Haptic (touch)…

  12. Anatomy of the ankle ligaments: a pictorial essay

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P. Golanó; J. Vega; P.A.J. de Leeuw; F. Malagelada; M.C. Manzanares; V. Götzens; C.N. van Dijk

    2010-01-01

    Understanding the anatomy of the ankle ligaments is important for correct diagnosis and treatment. Ankle ligament injury is the most frequent cause of acute ankle pain. Chronic ankle pain often finds its cause in laxity of one of the ankle ligaments. In this pictorial essay, the ligaments around the

  13. Anatomy education in Namibia: balancing facility design and curriculum development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wessels, Quenton; Vorster, Willie; Jacobson, Christian

    2012-01-01

    The anatomy curriculum at Namibia's first, and currently only, medical school is clinically oriented, outcome-based, and includes all of the components of modern anatomical sciences i.e., histology, embryology, neuroanatomy, gross, and clinical anatomy. The design of the facilities and the equipment incorporated into these facilities were directed toward simplification of work flow and ease of use by faculty, staff, and students. From the onset, the integration of state of the art technology was pursued to facilitate teaching and promote a student-centered pedagogical approach to dissections. The program, as realized, is comprised of three 16-week semesters with seven hours of contact time per week, namely three hours of lectures and four hours of dissection laboratory and microscopy time. Set outcomes were established, each revolving around clinical cases with integrated medical imaging. The design of the facility itself was not constrained by a legacy structure, allowing the School of Medicine, in collaboration with architects and contractors, to design the building from scratch. A design was implemented that allows for the sequential processing of cadaveric material in a unidirectional flow from reception, to preparation, embalming, storage, dissection, and maceration. Importantly, the odor of formaldehyde typically associated with anatomy facilities was eliminated outside of the dissection areas and minimized within via a high-performance ventilation system. By holistically incorporating an integrated curriculum, facility design, and teaching at an early stage, the authors believe they have created a system that might serve as a model for new anatomy programs. PMID:22213639

  14. Oral Anatomy Laboratory Examinations in a Physical Therapy Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabrizio, Philip A.

    2013-01-01

    The process of creating and administering traditional tagged anatomy laboratory examinations is time consuming for instructors and limits laboratory access for students. Depending on class size and the number of class, sections, creating, administering, and breaking down a tagged laboratory examination may involve one to two eight-hour days.…

  15. The Evolving Neuroanatomical Component of the Foundational Model of Anatomy

    OpenAIRE

    Martin, Richard F.; Rickard, Kurt; Mejino, José L.V.; Agoncillo, Augusto V.; Brinkley, James F.; Rosse, Cornelius

    2003-01-01

    In order to meet the need for an expressive ontology in neuroinformatics, we have integrated the extensive terminologies of NeuroNames and Terminologia Anatomica into the Foundational Model of Anatomy (FMA). We have enhanced the FMA to accommodate information unique to neuronal structures, such as axonal input/output relationships.

  16. Exploring the Use of a Facebook Page in Anatomy Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffar, Akram Abood

    2014-01-01

    Facebook is the most popular social media site visited by university students on a daily basis. Consequently, Facebook is the logical place to start with for integrating social media technologies into education. This study explores how a faculty-administered Facebook Page can be used to supplement anatomy education beyond the traditional…

  17. Diffusion of Innovations: Smartphones and Wireless Anatomy Learning Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trelease, Robert B.

    2008-01-01

    The author has previously reported on principles of diffusion of innovations, the processes by which new technologies become popularly adopted, specifically in relation to anatomy and education. In presentations on adopting handheld computers [personal digital assistants (PDAs)] and personal media players for health sciences education, particular…

  18. Anatomy and Physiology. Health Occupations Education. Teacher's Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    East Texas State Univ., Commerce. Occupational Curriculum Lab.

    Nine units on anatomy and physiology are presented in this teacher's guide. The units are the following: organization and general plan of the body; skeletal and muscular systems; digestive system; circulatory system; respiratory system; nervous system and special senses; urinary system; reproductive system; and endocrine glands. Each instructional…

  19. Cancer Genome Anatomy Project | Office of Cancer Genomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    The National Cancer Institute (NCI) Cancer Genome Anatomy Project (CGAP) is an online resource designed to provide the research community access to biological tissue characterization data. Request a free copy of the CGAP Website Virtual Tour CD from ocg@mail.nih.gov.

  20. Clinical aspects of lagomorph dental anatomy: the rabbit (oryctolagus cuniculus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crossley, D A

    1995-12-01

    The lagomorphs most commonly encountered as pets are rabbits. There are many breeds of domestic rabbit, varying from dwarf varieties with an adult weight of under one kilogram to giants weighing 10 kg. This article provides a working knowledge of the dental anatomy and physiology of rabbits so that veterinarians can interpret clinical and radiographic findings when investigating rabbits with suspected dental disease.

  1. Study skills in anatomy and physiology: Is there a difference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husmann, Polly R; Barger, J Bradley; Schutte, Audra F

    2016-01-01

    Many factors influence the way individual students study, including but not limited to: previous coursework, attitudes toward the class (motivation, intimidation, risk, etc.), metacognition, and work schedules. However, little of this research has involved medical students. The present article asks the question, "Do individual medical students study differently for different classes?" Study skills surveys were given to United States medical students at an allopathic medical school and an osteopathic medical school. Students were surveyed near the end of their first year gross anatomy course and again near the end of their first year physiology course. Survey items included Likert scale and open-ended questions about study habits and basic demographic information. The survey responses were correlated with each student's final grade percentages in the courses. Analysis revealed that the four most common study habits were reviewing lecture notes, taking practice examinations, completing learning exercises, and making drawings and diagrams. The two surveys (anatomy and physiology) from each individual were also compared to see if students reported different study habits in anatomy versus physiology. A negative correlation was found between changing study habits between courses and final anatomy grade percentages. Additional analyses suggest that those students who do change their study habits between courses are increasing the number of study strategies that they attempt. This increase in the number of study strategies attempted may not allow the student to reach the same depth of understanding as their colleagues who utilize fewer strategies. PMID:25762466

  2. Development of a Synergistic Case-Based Micro anatomy Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBride, Jennifer M.; Prayson, Richard A.

    2008-01-01

    This paper discusses the development of an interactive approach to teaching and assessing a micro anatomy curriculum in an innovative medical school program. As an alternative to lectures and labs, students are engaged in interactive seminars focused on discussion of clinical and research-based cases matched with normal histology and pathology…

  3. Web-delivery of anatomy video clips using a CD-ROM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacro, T; Gilbertson, B; Coultas, J

    2000-04-15

    Until recently, anatomists had no doubt that the teaching of anatomy had to include cadaver dissection. However, due to a changing academic environment as well as challenged financial institutional resources, computer-assisted instruction was introduced into medical curriculum in an attempt to reduce the cost and the time committed to cadaver dissection. Computer-assisted instruction included locally created or commercially available anatomy software, Internet sites, and databases of digital images of cadaveric structures such as the Virtual Human Project. However, until now, bandwidth limitations have not allowed effective visualization in real-time over the Internet of recorded videos or 3D animations reconstructed from a database. We describe how to successfully link and display large video clips stored on a CD-ROM in support of lectures saved in HTML format on the Internet. This process, described in its totality, allows students to access audiovisual files on a CD-ROM through the Internet, from any location, with either Macintosh or Windows computers, using the Netscape browser. This process allowed us to circumvent one of the most significant limitations of the computer-assisted instruction on the Internet by delivering full audio and visual information on demand, as it would happen in a traditional classroom. PMID:10815812

  4. Teaching clinically relevant dental anatomy in the dental curriculum: description and assessment of an innovative module.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obrez, Ales; Briggs, Charlotte; Buckman, James; Goldstein, Loren; Lamb, Courtney; Knight, William G

    2011-06-01

    The primary objective of the preclinical dental anatomy course in the predoctoral dental curriculum is to introduce students to cognitive and psychomotor skills related to the morphology and spatial and functional relationships of human dentition. Traditionally, didactic content for the subject is found in textbooks and course manuals and summarized by the faculty in lectures to the entire class. Psychomotor skills associated with recognition and reproduction of tooth morphology are traditionally learned by examining preserved tooth specimens and their cross-sections, combined with producing two-dimensional line drawings and carving teeth from wax blocks. These activities have little direct clinical application. In most cases, students are passive in the learning process, and assessment of student performance is unilateral and subjective. A recently revised dental anatomy module at the University of Illinois at Chicago College of Dentistry integrates independent class preparation with active small-group discussion and patient scenario-based wax-up exercises to replace missing tooth structure on manikin teeth. The goal of the revision is to shift emphasis away from decontextualized technical learning toward more active and clinically applicable learning that improves conceptual understanding while contributing to early acquisition of psychomotor skills. This article describes the rationale, components, and advantages of the revised module and presents a pre-post comparison of student learning outcomes for three class cohorts (N=203).

  5. Plastination in Anatomy Learning: An Experience at Cambridge University.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latorre, Rafael; Bainbridge, David; Tavernor, Angie; López Albors, Octavio

    2016-01-01

    Due to lack of objective data, the benefits of using plastination in combination with wet dissection in teaching gross anatomy are unknown. The aim of this study was to obtain objective evidence from students regarding the effectiveness of combining plastinated specimens (PS) with an established gross anatomy education program at Cambridge University that uses wet cadaver dissection and small-group tutorials. For a complete academic year, a total of 135 PS were used alongside wet cadaver dissections. The PS were also available for small-group tutorials. An anonymous closed questionnaire, using a 5-point numerical-estimation Likert scale, was used to gather information relating to the effectiveness of the PS. The level of student satisfaction with the combined use of wet dissections and PS was high, although higher (p<.05) for second-year students (98.4%) than for first-year students (95.5%). Students felt the specimens allowed them to see details that were often more difficult to identify in their dissections, for instance nerves. Voluntary use of PS was higher (p<.01) for second-year students (96.9%), who had previously experienced anatomy teaching with cadaver dissection alone, than for first-year students (77.7%). Overall, 97.7% of all students thought that the PS helped them understand and learn anatomy. All students surveyed (100%) recommended the use of PS in the future. Students considered the use of PS in the dissection room combined with wet cadaver dissection to be beneficial when learning anatomy, particularly when combined with their use during small-group tutorials.

  6. Mapping brain function to brain anatomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Imaging the human brain, MRI is commonly used to reveal anatomical structure, while PET is used to reveal tissue function. This paper presents a protocol for correlating data between these two imaging modalities; this correlation can provide in vivo regional measurements of brain function which are essential to our understanding of the human brain. The authors propose a general protocol to standardize the acquisition and analysis of functional image data. First, MR and PET images are collected to form three-dimensional volumes of structural and functional image data. Second, these volumes of image data are corrected for distortions inherent in each imaging modality. Third, the image volumes are correlated to provide correctly aligned structural and functional images. The functional images are then mapped onto the structural images in both two-dimensional and three-dimensional representations. Finally, morphometric techniques can be used to provide statistical measures of the structure and function of the human brain

  7. Incorporating Radiology into Medical Gross Anatomy: Does the Use of Cadaver CT Scans Improve Students' Academic Performance in Anatomy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lufler, Rebecca S.; Zumwalt, Ann C.; Romney, Carla A.; Hoagland, Todd M.

    2010-01-01

    Radiological images show anatomical structures in multiple planes and may be effective for teaching anatomical spatial relationships, something that students often find difficult to master. This study tests the hypotheses that (1) the use of cadaveric computed tomography (CT) scans in the anatomy laboratory is positively associated with…

  8. Resident Perceptions of Anatomy Education: A Survey of Medical School Alumni from Two Different Anatomy Curricula and Multiple Medical Specialties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohl, Michael A.; Gest, Thomas R.

    2011-01-01

    In 2004, the University of Michigan Medical School reduced its gross anatomy curriculum. To determine the effect of this reduction on resident perceptions of their clinical preparedness, we surveyed alumni that included residents from the original and new shortened curricula. A Likert-scale survey was sent to four classes of alumni. Respondents…

  9. Anatomy Education in a Changing Medical Curriculum in India: Medical Student Feedback on Duration and Emphasis of Gross Anatomy Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holla, Sunil Jonathan; Ramachandran, Kalpana; Isaac, Bina; Koshy, Shajan

    2009-01-01

    Authors report here a survey of medical student feedback on the effectiveness of two different anatomy curricula at Christian Medical College, Vellore, India. Undergraduate medical students seeking the Bachelor in Medicine and Bachelor in Surgery (M.B.B.S.) degrees were divided into two groups by the duration of their respective anatomy…

  10. The Role of Ultrasound in Graduate Anatomy Education: Current State of Integration in the United States and Faculty Perceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royer, Danielle F.

    2016-01-01

    Ultrasound (US) is increasingly taught in medical schools, where it has been shown to be a valuable adjunct to anatomy training. To determine the extent of US training in nonmedical anatomy programs, and evaluate anatomists' perceptions on the role of US in anatomy education, an online survey was distributed to faculty in anatomy Master's and…

  11. The development of a core syllabus for the teaching of head and neck anatomy to medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tubbs, R Shane; Sorenson, Edward P; Sharma, Amit; Benninger, Brion; Norton, Neil; Loukas, Marios; Moxham, Bernard J

    2014-04-01

    The study of human anatomy has traditionally served as a fundamental component in the basic science education of medical students, yet there exists a remarkable lack of firm guidance on essential features that must be included in a gross anatomy course, which would constitute a "Core Syllabus" of absolutely mandatory structures and related clinical pathologies. While universal agreement on the details of a core syllabus is elusive, there is a general consensus that a core syllabus aims to identify the minimum level of knowledge expected of recently qualified medical graduates in order to carry out clinical procedures safely and effectively, while avoiding overloading students with unnecessary facts that have less immediate application to their future careers as clinicians. This paper aims to identify consensus standards of essential features of Head and Neck anatomy via a Delphi Panel consisting of anatomists and clinicians who evaluated syllabus content structures (greater than 1,000) as "essential", "important", "acceptable", or "not required." The goal is to provide guidance for program/course directors who intend to provide the optimal balance between establishing a comprehensive list of clinically relevant essential structures and an overwhelming litany, which would otherwise overburden trainees in their initial years of medical school with superficial rote learning, which potentially dilutes the key and enduring fundamental lessons that prepare students for training in any medical field. PMID:24453104

  12. Single-shot T1 mapping of the corpus callosum: A rapid characterization of fiber bundle anatomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabine eHofer

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Using diffusion-tensor MRI and fiber tractography the topographic organization of the corpus callosum (CC has been described to comprise 5 segments with fibers projecting into prefrontal (I, premotor and supplementary motor (II, primary motor (III, and primary sensory areas (IV, as well as into parietal, temporal, and occipital cortical areas (V. In order to more rapidly characterize the underlying anatomy of these segments, this study used a novel single-shot T1 mapping method to quantitatively determine T1 relaxation times in the human CC. A region-of-interest analysis revealed a tendency for the lowest T1 relaxation times in the genu and the highest T1 relaxation times in the somatomotor region of the CC. This observation separates regions dominated by myelinated fibers with large diameters (somatomotor area from densely packed smaller axonal bundles (genu with less myelin. The results indicate that characteristic T1 relaxation times in callosal profiles provide an additional means to monitor differences in fiber anatomy, fiber density, and gray matter in respective neocortical areas. In conclusion, rapid T1 mapping allows for a characterization of the axonal architecture in an individual CC in less than 10 s. The approach emerges as a valuable means for studying neocortical brain anatomy with possible implications for the diagnosis of neurodegenerative processes.

  13. Developing medical students as teachers: an anatomy-based student-as-teacher program with emphasis on core teaching competencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew Jay, Erie; Starkman, Sidney J; Pawlina, Wojciech; Lachman, Nirusha

    2013-01-01

    Teaching is an increasingly recognized responsibility of the resident physician. Residents, however, often assume teaching responsibilities without adequate preparation. Consequently, many medical schools have implemented student-as-teacher (SAT) programs that provide near-peer teaching opportunities to senior medical students. Near-peer teaching is widely regarded as an effective teaching modality; however, whether near-peer teaching experiences in medical school prepare students for the teaching demands of residency is less understood. We explored whether the anatomy-based SAT program through the Human Structure didactic block at Mayo Medical School addressed the core teaching competencies of a medical educator and prepared its participants for further teaching roles in their medical careers. A web-based survey was sent to all teaching assistants in the anatomy-based SAT program over the past five years (2007-2011). Survey questions were constructed based on previously published competencies in seven teaching domains--course development, course organization, teaching execution, student coaching, student assessment, teacher evaluation, and scholarship. Results of the survey indicate that participants in the anatomy-based SAT program achieved core competencies of a medical educator and felt prepared for the teaching demands of residency.

  14. The 1985 Nevado del Ruiz volcano catastrophe: anatomy and retrospection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voight, Barry

    1990-12-01

    This paper seeks to analyze in an objective way the circumstances and events that contributed to the 1985 Nevado del Ruiz catastrophe, in order to provide useful guidelines for future emergencies. The paper is organized into two principal parts. In the first part, an Anatomy of the catastrophe is developed as a step-by-step chronicle of events and actions taken by individuals and organizations during the period November 1984 through November 1985. This chronicle provides the essential background for the crucial events of November 13. This year-long period is broken down further to emphasize important chapters: the gradual awareness of the awakening of the volcano; a long period of institutional skepticism reflecting an absence of credibility; the closure of the credibility gap with the September 11 phreatic eruption, followed by an intensive effort to gird for the worst; and a detailed account of the day of reckoning. The second part of the paper, Retrospection, examines the numerous complicated factors that influenced the catastrophic outcome, and attempts to cull a few "lessons from Armero" in order to avoid similar occurrences in the future. In a nutshell, the government on the whole acted responsibly but was not willing to bear the economic or political costs of early evacuation or a false alarm. Science accurately foresaw the hazards but was insufficiently precise to render reliable warning of the crucial event at the last possible minute. Catastrophe was therefore a calculated risk, and this combination - the limitations of prediction/detection, the refusal to bear a false alarm and the lack of will to act on the uncertain information available - provided its immediate and most obvious causes. But because the crucial event occurred just two days before the Armero emergency management plan was to be critically examined and improved, the numerous circumstances which delayed progress of emergency management over the previous year also may be said to have

  15. Moving the mountain: analysis of the effort required to transform comparative anatomy into computable anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahdul, Wasila; Dececchi, T Alexander; Ibrahim, Nizar; Lapp, Hilmar; Mabee, Paula

    2015-01-01

    The diverse phenotypes of living organisms have been described for centuries, and though they may be digitized, they are not readily available in a computable form. Using over 100 morphological studies, the Phenoscape project has demonstrated that by annotating characters with community ontology terms, links between novel species anatomy and the genes that may underlie them can be made. But given the enormity of the legacy literature, how can this largely unexploited wealth of descriptive data be rendered amenable to large-scale computation? To identify the bottlenecks, we quantified the time involved in the major aspects of phenotype curation as we annotated characters from the vertebrate phylogenetic systematics literature. This involves attaching fully computable logical expressions consisting of ontology terms to the descriptions in character-by-taxon matrices. The workflow consists of: (i) data preparation, (ii) phenotype annotation, (iii) ontology development and (iv) curation team discussions and software development feedback. Our results showed that the completion of this work required two person-years by a team of two post-docs, a lead data curator, and students. Manual data preparation required close to 13% of the effort. This part in particular could be reduced substantially with better community data practices, such as depositing fully populated matrices in public repositories. Phenotype annotation required ∼40% of the effort. We are working to make this more efficient with Natural Language Processing tools. Ontology development (40%), however, remains a highly manual task requiring domain (anatomical) expertise and use of specialized software. The large overhead required for data preparation and ontology development contributed to a low annotation rate of approximately two characters per hour, compared with 14 characters per hour when activity was restricted to character annotation. Unlocking the potential of the vast stores of morphological

  16. Effectiveness of a radiology-anatomy instructional module in a clinical course on oral radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An insufficient knowledge of anatomy often complicates the interpretation of radiological findings by students learning clinical medicine. During a 3-week clinical course in oral radiology, students attended lectures on anatomy for half of each day. Our objectives were to evaluate this program and determine why some students remained unmotivated to learn anatomy. Surveys were carried out using two questionnaires, one for evaluating the students' beliefs regarding the necessity of knowing anatomy and their understanding of radiology and anatomy, and the other for determining the value of the educational program. In total, 126 questionnaires were analyzed. Structural equation modeling and decision analysis were used to analyze the data obtained. Beliefs regarding the necessity of knowing anatomy were explained by three variables: the necessity of knowing imaging anatomy, the necessity of knowing gross anatomy, and understanding of anatomy. Awareness of the necessity of knowing anatomy and understanding of graphical images were not strongly correlated. The educational program was characterized by two factors: 'value' and 'appropriateness' These were strongly correlated. Student interest in the content of the course was found to be the most important factor in student evaluations of the educational program. Students who answered 'agree', 'disagree' or 'strongly disagree' to three items, interested in the content of the course', 'obtained knowledge through the course' and 'expected the course to be useful in the near future were likely to have insufficient understanding of and awareness of the necessity of radiology and anatomy. The inclusion of lectures on anatomy is beneficial for improving student understanding of oral radiology. Student interest in the content is important in evaluations of radiology-anatomy programs. (author)

  17. 'The anatomy lesson of Dr. Frederik Ruysch' of 1683, a milestone in knowledge about obstetrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ijpma, Frank F A; Radziun, Anna; van Gulik, Thomas M

    2013-09-01

    'The anatomy lesson of Dr. Frederik Ruysch' (1683) belongs to the famous collection of group portraits of the Amsterdam Guild of Surgeons. In this painting, Ruysch is portrayed with a dissected corpse of a newborn, which was still attached to its placenta. Several guild officials as well as his son, who is holding a skeleton of an infant, are surrounding him. Dissection of a child instead of an executed criminal was very uncommon at that time. We therefore investigated the medical background of the painting, with the question why Ruysch was depicted with these obstetrical subjects. To this end, the contents of Ruysch's original works and his over 300-year-old anatomical specimens in the Museum of Anthropology and Ethnography (Kunstkamera) in St. Petersburg were studied and described in the context of the painting. Major contributions to anatomical knowledge and to human development should be attributed to Ruysch, and these provided the essentials of the composition depicted in this painting.

  18. Molecular anatomy of neuronal interactions with special reference to the dopamine control of striatal functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Bloch

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Modern neuroanatomy was initiated at the early beginning of the XXth century when Cajal used the so-called silver impregnation technique to study the details of the anatomy of the nervous system. This technique, for the first time, permitted description and visualization of all components of neurons (Cajal, 1909. Thanks to this major methodological advance, Cajal and followers created microscopic neuroanatomy and gave detailed description of the structure of neurons and of neuronal circuitry in brain of animals and humans. During the following decades, numerous informations were obtained on the organization of the neuronal circuitry in all parts of the central and peripheral nervous system, in normal, experimental and pathological conditions. These works considerably helped to establish the modern anatomical basis of brain functions and dysfunctions. In the early sixties, the appearance of electron microscopy gave a new impulse to the understanding of brain and neuronal structures.

  19. Visualisation of animal anatomy using MRI and CT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Henrik; Hansen, Kasper; Pedersen, Michael;

    Several traditional handbooks and web-based databases exist with descriptions of animal anatomy, providing dissection photographies or hand drawn images in explanatory figures. In recent years sophisticated databases have been developed providing unique 2D and 3D visualisations of the internal...... and external structure of living and extinct vertebrates. Biological visualisation libraries such as www.digimorph.org hold terabytes of images of various species, with its core focus on high-resolution computed tomographic (CT) cranial imaging. Although impressive, CT imaging is mostly suited to visualise...... bone anatomy, and there is a considerable lack of non-interpreted soft-tissue visualisation in figures of anatomical literature and databases. This study aims to present the endless possibilities of high resolution visualisation of both soft and hard structures in animals using magnetic resonance...

  20. Cerebellar anatomy as applied to cerebellar microsurgical resections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Ramos

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To define the anatomy of dentate nucleus and cerebellar peduncles, demonstrating the surgical application of anatomic landmarks in cerebellar resections. METHODS: Twenty cerebellar hemispheres were studied. RESULTS: The majority of dentate nucleus and cerebellar peduncles had demonstrated constant relationship to other cerebellar structures, which provided landmarks for surgical approaching. The lateral border is separated from the midline by 19.5 mm in both hemispheres. The posterior border of the cortex is separated 23.3 mm from the posterior segment of the dentate nucleus; the lateral one is separated 26 mm from the lateral border of the nucleus; and the posterior segment of the dentate nucleus is separated 25.4 mm from the posterolateral angle formed by the junction of lateral and posterior borders of cerebellar hemisphere. CONCLUSIONS: Microsurgical anatomy has provided important landmarks that could be applied to cerebellar surgical resections.

  1. Clinical implications of the surgical anatomy of the sural nerve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coert, J H; Dellon, A L

    1994-11-01

    The exact anatomy of the sural nerve remains important for many clinical situations. To better understand this anatomy, 25 embalmed and 10 fresh cadaver pairs were studied. The origin of the common sural nerve in relation to the fibular head and its medial and lateral sural components were investigated. The lateral sural nerve was absent in 4 percent of the embalmed cadavers. The lateral and medial sural nerves united in the popliteal fossa in 12 percent and in the lower third of the leg in 84 percent of the cadavers. A site was identified where the lateral sural and lateral cutaneous nerve of the calf pierced the deep fascia. This site was centered about the fibular head and may be viewed as a potential site of nerve compression. There is application of these findings to nerve grafting, neuroma prevention and treatment, and sural nerve biopsy.

  2. Normal feline brain: clinical anatomy using magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mogicato, G; Conchou, F; Layssol-Lamour, C; Raharison, F; Sautet, J

    2012-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to provide a clinical anatomy atlas of the feline brain using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Brains of twelve normal cats were imaged using a 1.5 T magnetic resonance unit and an inversion/recovery sequence (T1). Fourteen relevant MRI sections were chosen in transverse, dorsal, median and sagittal planes. Anatomic structures were identified and labelled using anatomical texts and Nomina Anatomica Veterinaria, sectioned specimen heads, and previously published articles. The MRI sections were stained according to the major embryological and anatomical subdivisions of the brain. The relevant anatomical structures seen on MRI will assist clinicians to better understand MR images and to relate this neuro-anatomy to clinical signs.

  3. [Clinical anatomy of the horse: teeth and dentition].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staszyk, C

    2015-01-01

    The routine inspection of the equine oral cavity allows a numerical assessment of the teeth and provides information about positional changes within the dentition. By use of appropriate dental equipment, the occlusal surfaces of all teeth can be inspected and diagnosed. However, neither the teeth nor their occlusal surfaces are constant structures. Instead, equine teeth and, in particular, their occlusal surfaces are subjected to continuous morphological and positional changes due to the effects of aging and the equine-specific high amount of occlusal wear. Therefore, it is mandatory to define anatomical criteria, which allow us to distinguish between anatomical variations and pathological conditions. Moreover, an unambiguous nomenclature with regard to the equine-specific dental anatomy is essential. This article provides a tutorial overview of the equine dental anatomy as well as recent findings in the field of equine dentistry. Special attention is paid to dynamic changes within both individual teeth and dentition.

  4. Learning to be a doctor while learning anatomy!

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Netterstrøm, Ingeborg; Kayser, Lars

    2008-01-01

    are in their third and fifth semester. Anatomy plays a significant role in the medical student's educational process, on both a cognitive and emotional level. It seems that students in learning the subject matter adapt to fundamental values in the medical profession and are thus transformed into real medical......This article presents results from a longitudinal study following a cohort of medical students. Semistructured interviews are conducted every year, in which the students tell about their experiences learning medicine, their daily life, and their social activities in relation to university. The aim...... of the study is to analyze how medical students develop their professional competencies, values, and attitudes. This article focuses on the medical student's professional development in relation to the process of studying and learning anatomy. We analyze interviews conducted while the students...

  5. Bariatric surgery: A review of normal postoperative anatomy and complications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quigley, S., E-mail: shaun.quigley@bartsandthelondon.nhs.uk [Radiology Department, Homerton University Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, London (United Kingdom); Colledge, J. [Radiology Department, Homerton University Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, London (United Kingdom); Mukherjee, S. [Bariatric Surgery Unit, Homerton University Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, London (United Kingdom); Patel, K. [Radiology Department, Homerton University Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, London (United Kingdom)

    2011-10-15

    The number of bariatric surgery procedures performed is increasing every year. Patients may be referred for radiological investigations to exclude complications not only in the early postoperative period but many months later. Radiologists who do not work in bariatric centres are therefore required to have an understanding of the complex normal anatomy and complications associated with bariatric surgery to interpret imaging studies correctly. The purpose of this article is to describe the surgical techniques and normal anatomy of the four bariatric operations performed today, review the most common problems encountered in this patient group, and to describe the imaging findings that allow the accurate diagnosis of complications. In particular, we focus on identification of the internal hernia, a grave complication of bariatric surgery often missed by radiologists.

  6. Study on Quantitative Character for Anatomy in Tomato Seedling Stem

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Fuheng; WEI Liyan; YU Longfeng; QI Donglai; ZHANG Da

    2009-01-01

    The results of quantitative characters for anatomy in stems of three varieties tomatoes seedlings showed that the cell population between vascular bundle and epidermis, the cellular layers among vascular bundles and the cell population in an unit area(mm2) of no vascular bundle areas were similar and there had small difference among three varieties. On the foundation of these studies, the developmental mechanism of tomato seedling stem was discussed.

  7. Functional anatomy of the prostate: Implications for treatment planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To summarize the functional anatomy relevant to prostate cancer treatment planning. Methods and Materials: Coronal, axial, and sagittal T2 magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and MRI angiography were fused by mutual information and registered with computed tomography (CT) scan data sets to improve definition of zonal anatomy of the prostate and critical adjacent structures. Results: The three major prostate zones (inner, outer, and anterior fibromuscular) are visible by T2 MRI imaging. The bladder, bladder neck, and internal (preprostatic) sphincter are a continuous muscular structure and clear definition of the preprostatic sphincter is difficult by MRI. Transition zone hypertrophy may efface the bladder neck and internal sphincter. The external 'lower' sphincter is clearly visible by T2 MRI with wide variations in length. The critical erectile structures are the internal pudendal artery (defined by MRI angiogram or T2 MRI), corpus cavernosum, and neurovascular bundle. The neurovascular bundle is visible along the posterior lateral surface of the prostate on CT and MRI, but its terminal branches (cavernosal nerves) are not visible and must be defined by their relationship to the urethra within the genitourinary diaphragm. Visualization of the ejaculatory ducts within the prostate is possible on sagittal MRI. The anatomy of the prostate-rectum interface is clarified by MRI, as is the potentially important distinction of rectal muscle and rectal mucosa. Conclusion: Improved understanding of functional anatomy and imaging of the prostate and critical adjacent structures will improve prostate radiation therapy by improvement of dose and toxicity correlation, limitation of dose to critical structures, and potential improvement in post therapy quality of life

  8. Comparative Wood Anatomy of Epacrids (Styphelioideae, Ericaceae s.l.)

    OpenAIRE

    LENS, F.; Gasson, P.; Smets, E.; Jansen, S.

    2003-01-01

    The wood anatomy of 16 of the 37 genera within the epacrids (Styphelioideae, Ericaceae s.l.) is investigated by light and scanning electron microscopy. Several features in the secondary xylem occur consistently at the tribal level: arrangement of vessel-ray pits, distribution of axial parenchyma, ray width, and the presence and location of crystals. The primitive nature of Prionoteae and Archerieae is supported by the presence of scalariform perforation plates with many bars and scalariform t...

  9. Xeroradiographic and radiographic anatomy of the channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study was to provide an anatomic reference for the channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) using xeroradiography† and conventional radiography. The entire body of three adult fish was radiographed using standard xeroradiographic and conventional radiographic techniques. Two xeroradiographs and their corresponding conventional radiographs were selected, and the xeroradiographs labeled to illustrate the normal skeletal and soft-tissue anatomy of the channel catfish

  10. Normal Vulvovaginal, Perineal, and Pelvic Anatomy with Reconstructive Considerations

    OpenAIRE

    Yavagal, Sujata; de Farias, Thais F.; Medina, Carlos A.; Takacs, Peter

    2011-01-01

    A thorough insight into the female genital anatomy is crucial for understanding and performing pelvic reconstructive procedures. The intimate relationship between the genitalia and the muscles, ligaments, and fascia that provide support is complex, but critical to restore during surgery for correction of prolapse or aesthetic reasons. The external female genitalia include the mons pubis, labia majora and minora, clitoris, vestibule with glands, perineal body, and the muscles and fascia surrou...

  11. Normal computed tomographic anatomy of the cisterns and cranial nerves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study, based on the normal CT anatomy of the cisterns investigated with Metrizamide, aims at attempting to find out with accuracy which plane of section is the most suitable for the investigation of each group of cisterns (posterior fossa, mesencephalon, suprasellar). Moreover we felt it necessary to include our study the normal appearance of the cranial nerves as their normal CT anatymy - optic nerves expected - is not well known yet. (orig./AJ)

  12. The context of learning anatomy: does it make a difference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Claire F; Martinez-Álvarez, Concepción; McHanwell, Stephen

    2014-03-01

    This study set out to ascertain whether the context in which anatomy is learnt made a difference to students' perceptions of learning. An Approach to Learning Inventory (ASSIST) and a 31-item Anatomy Learning Experience Questionnaire (ALE) were administered to 224 students (77 dental, 132 medical and 19 speech and language) as a multi-site study. Results revealed that 45% adopted a strategic, 39% a deep and 14% a surface approach. Trends between professions are similar for a deep or strategic approach (both ~ 40%). However, a surface approach differed between professions (7% dentistry, 16% medicine, 26% speech and language science). Dental students responded more to being able to use their knowledge than did other groups (P = 0.0001). Medical students found the dissecting environment an intimidating one and subsequently reported finding online resources helpful (P = 0.015 and P = 0.003, respectively). Speech and language science students reported that they experienced greater difficulties with learning anatomy; they reported finding the amount to learn daunting (P = 0.007), struggled to remember what they did last semester (P = 0.032) and were not confident in their knowledge base (P = 0.0001). All students responded strongly to the statement 'I feel that working with cadaveric material is an important part of becoming a doctor/dentist/health care professional'. A strong response to this statement was associated with students adopting a deep approach (P = 0.0001). This study has elucidated that local curriculum factors are important in creating an enabling learning environment. There are also a number of generic issues that can be identified as being inherent in the learning of anatomy as a discipline and are experienced across courses, different student groups and institutions. PMID:23930933

  13. The functional anatomy of psychomotor disturbances in major depressive disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benny eLiberg

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Psychomotor disturbances (PMD are a classic feature of depressive disorder that provide rich clinical information. The aim our narrative review was to characterize the functional anatomy of PMD by summarizing findings from neuroimaging studies. We found evidence across several neuroimaging modalities that suggest involvement of fronto-striatal neurocircuitry, and monoaminergic pathways and metabolism. We suggest that PMD in major depressive disorder emerge from an alteration of limbic signals, which influence emotion, volition, higher-order cognitive functions, and movement.

  14. Neuro-anatomy enters the age of information technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    By usual neuro-anatomy, it has been observed for a long time that considerable anatomical disparities exist from one brain to another one. How to explain this variability? How is it interpreted at a functional level? It is indispensable to deal with these questions before intending to pick, with a view to doing clinical diagnosis, the informations given by a patient brain imagery (NMR imaging, positron computed tomography). The image processing tends to bring some answers elements. (O.M.)

  15. Anatomy and neuro-pathophysiology of the cough reflex arc

    OpenAIRE

    Polverino Mario; Polverino Francesca; Fasolino Marco; Andò Filippo; Alfieri Antonio; De Blasio Francesco

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Coughing is an important defensive reflex that occurs through the stimulation of a complex reflex arc. It accounts for a significant number of consultations both at the level of general practitioner and of respiratory specialists. In this review we first analyze the cough reflex under normal conditions; then we analyze the anatomy and the neuro-pathophysiology of the cough reflex arc. The aim of this review is to provide the anatomic and pathophysiologic elements of evaluation of the...

  16. Systematic wood anatomy and affinities of the Urticaceae

    OpenAIRE

    Bonsen, K.J.; Welle, ter, B.J.H.

    1984-01-01

    The wood anatomy of all tribes of the Urticaceae, a family of herbs, shrublets, and sometimes shrubs, trees or lianas, has been studied and described in detail. Special attention is given to the interpretation of the characters in terms of taxonomy and phylogeny. A classification, in part deviating from the existing morphological classification, is presented. Finally, the relationship within the Urticaceae, as well as the relationships with the Ulmaceae and Moraceae (including Cecropiaceae) a...

  17. Normal anatomy and aneurysms of middle cerebral artery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of the present study is to clarify the existing anatomical knowledge and the nomenclature used in describing the normal anatomy of the MCA and its main and cortical branches. The different classifications now available have led to anatomical and terminological confusion and inaccuracy. In this study, it is proposed to make out a new classification and to correlate this with the radiological and operative findings in patients with MCA aneurysms. (orig.)

  18. Clinical anatomy of greater petrosal nerve and its surgical importance

    OpenAIRE

    Prashant E Natekar; Fatima M De Souza

    2013-01-01

    Background: Surgical approach towards greater petrosal nerve has to be done with caution as many surgeons are unfamiliar with the anatomy of the facial nerve. The anatomical landmarks selected must be reliable and above all easy to identify for identification of the greater petrosal nerve so as to avoid injury to the structures in the middle cranial fossa. Observation and Results: The present study is carried out on 100 temporal bones by examining the following measurements of the right and t...

  19. The eye and visual nervous system: anatomy, physiology and toxicology.

    OpenAIRE

    McCaa, C S

    1982-01-01

    The eyes are at risk to environmental injury by direct exposure to airborne pollutants, to splash injury from chemicals and to exposure via the circulatory system to numerous drugs and bloodborne toxins. In addition, drugs or toxins can destroy vision by damaging the visual nervous system. This review describes the anatomy and physiology of the eye and visual nervous system and includes a discussion of some of the more common toxins affecting vision in man. Images FIGURE 1. FIGURE 2.

  20. Anatomy of the story: Narratives of mortuary science learners and graduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Jose Luis

    in a traditional dissertation such as relevant literature and overall study design. Using the human anatomy as a metaphor, study findings are presented through navel, heart, mind, hands, and legs. The study participants represent the navel. A rich description of nine Mortuary Science learners and graduates and their career journey is provided. The heart represents the values that professionals in Mortuary Science seek to instilled in learners and practitioners: empathy, care and respect for the dead, investment and satisfaction with a job well done, confidence, and eagerness to learn. The mind speaks to the critical analysis of the story to dismantle stereotypes held by learners (e.g., performing autopsies and minimum interaction with surviving relatives). The hands mold ideas and values to develop a new identity for the individuals involved. Here the participants identified the need for team development, relational learning, and on-the-job training. Finally, the legs provide mobility to the story to create an impact beyond the story teller and move people to action. This metaphor symbolizes the eagerness and good disposition of the study participants to create legacy to pave the road for the next generation of Mortuary Science professionals. Finally, recommendations for practice, tensions and challenges, ideas for future research, and concluding thoughts are provided.