WorldWideScience

Sample records for anatomy comparative

  1. Comparative leaf anatomy of Iranian Phlomoides (Lamiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zohreh Seyedi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Phlomoides (Lamiaceae: Lamioideae is a species rich, widespread, and taxonomically complex genus. A comparative anatomical study of the petioles and leaf lamina of 17 Phlomoides taxa representing 4 sections of the genus distributed in Iran was carried out to evaluate interspecific relationships and anatomical features that may be useful in species identification and subgeneric classification. The general leaf anatomy of Phlomoides species presented here corroborates earlier studies in Lamiaceae and on a few studied species in the genus. Leaf anatomy provides valuable characters that are useful in subgeneric classification as well as species discrimination in Phlomoides. The most important diagnostic characters are as follows: the shape of transverse section, length of ventral and dorsiventral axis, number of median bundles in the petiole, number of cell layers of palisade and spongy parenchyma, type and thickness of collenchyma as well as trichome type. Based on the present study and in accordance with previous works, some large sections such as Eremostachys appears to be natural, while circumscription of sect. Filipendula should be revised.

  2. Comparative and Developmental Anatomy of Cardiac Lymphatics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratajska, A.; Gula, G.; Flaht-Zabost, A.; Czarnowska, E.; Ciszek, B.; Jankowska-Steifer, E.; Niderla-Bielinska, J.; Radomska-Lesniewska, D.

    2014-01-01

    The role of the cardiac lymphatic system has been recently appreciated since lymphatic disturbances take part in various heart pathologies. This review presents the current knowledge about normal anatomy and structure of lymphatics and their prenatal development for a better understanding of the proper functioning of this system in relation to coronary circulation. Lymphatics of the heart consist of terminal capillaries of various diameters, capillary plexuses that drain continuously subendocardial, myocardial, and subepicardial areas, and draining (collecting) vessels that lead the lymph out of the heart. There are interspecies differences in the distribution of lymphatic capillaries, especially near the valves, as well as differences in the routes and number of draining vessels. In some species, subendocardial areas contain fewer lymphatic capillaries as compared to subepicardial parts of the heart. In all species there is at least one collector vessel draining lymph from the subepicardial plexuses and running along the anterior interventricular septum under the left auricle and further along the pulmonary trunk outside the heart and terminating in the right venous angle. The second collector assumes a different route in various species. In most mammalian species the collectors run along major branches of coronary arteries, have valves and a discontinuous layer of smooth muscle cells. PMID:24592145

  3. Comparative and Developmental Anatomy of Cardiac Lymphatics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ratajska

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The role of the cardiac lymphatic system has been recently appreciated since lymphatic disturbances take part in various heart pathologies. This review presents the current knowledge about normal anatomy and structure of lymphatics and their prenatal development for a better understanding of the proper functioning of this system in relation to coronary circulation. Lymphatics of the heart consist of terminal capillaries of various diameters, capillary plexuses that drain continuously subendocardial, myocardial, and subepicardial areas, and draining (collecting vessels that lead the lymph out of the heart. There are interspecies differences in the distribution of lymphatic capillaries, especially near the valves, as well as differences in the routes and number of draining vessels. In some species, subendocardial areas contain fewer lymphatic capillaries as compared to subepicardial parts of the heart. In all species there is at least one collector vessel draining lymph from the subepicardial plexuses and running along the anterior interventricular septum under the left auricle and further along the pulmonary trunk outside the heart and terminating in the right venous angle. The second collector assumes a different route in various species. In most mammalian species the collectors run along major branches of coronary arteries, have valves and a discontinuous layer of smooth muscle cells.

  4. Comparative leaf anatomy of Heisteria (Olacaceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baas, P.; Kool, R.

    1983-01-01

    The leaf anatomy of all 33 species of Heisteria is described, based on a study of 143 specimens. There is a considerable amount of diversity in stomatal type (anisocytic, anomocytic, cyclocytic, laterocytic or paracytic), in occurrence and type of mesophyll sclereids, and of fibre bundles along the

  5. Comparative leaf anatomy of the Asiatic Myristicaceae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koster, J.; Baas, P.

    1981-01-01

    The leaf anatomy of c. 60 species of the four Asiatic genera of the Myristicaceae (Gymnacranthera, Horsfieldia, Knema and Myristica) is described in detail. Myristicaceae have characteristic, uniseriate hairs, the cells of which have arms. The number of arms per cell and the relative length of the

  6. Human and animal ear, comparative anatomy and physiology

    OpenAIRE

    Šlehobr, Ondřej

    2007-01-01

    The topic of her thesis, which deals with the comparative anatomy and physiology of the human and animal ears, I decided for several reasons. Above all, it is my long-standing interest a morphological study, and no less importantly, io nature as a whole. In the following chapters using literature trying to outline the structure and function of static and sound system for each class of vertebrates. Due to the phylogenetic background, the first two chapters dealing with invertebrates, which hav...

  7. Virtual reality anatomy: is it comparable with traditional methods in the teaching of human forearm musculoskeletal anatomy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Codd, Anthony M; Choudhury, Bipasha

    2011-01-01

    The use of cadavers to teach anatomy is well established, but limitations with this approach have led to the introduction of alternative teaching methods. One such method is the use of three-dimensional virtual reality computer models. An interactive, three-dimensional computer model of human forearm anterior compartment musculoskeletal anatomy was produced using the open source 3D imaging program "Blender." The aim was to evaluate the use of 3D virtual reality when compared with traditional anatomy teaching methods. Three groups were identified from the University of Manchester second year Human Anatomy Research Skills Module class: a "control" group (no prior knowledge of forearm anatomy), a "traditional methods" group (taught using dissection and textbooks), and a "model" group (taught solely using e-resource). The groups were assessed on anatomy of the forearm by a ten question practical examination. ANOVA analysis showed the model group mean test score to be significantly higher than the control group (mean 7.25 vs. 1.46, P traditional methods group (mean 6.87, P > 0.5). Feedback from all users of the e-resource was positive. Virtual reality anatomy learning can be used to compliment traditional teaching methods effectively. Copyright © 2011 American Association of Anatomists.

  8. An ontology-based comparative anatomy information system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travillian, Ravensara S.; Diatchka, Kremena; Judge, Tejinder K.; Wilamowska, Katarzyna; Shapiro, Linda G.

    2010-01-01

    Introduction This paper describes the design, implementation, and potential use of a comparative anatomy information system (CAIS) for querying on similarities and differences between homologous anatomical structures across species, the knowledge base it operates upon, the method it uses for determining the answers to the queries, and the user interface it employs to present the results. The relevant informatics contributions of our work include (1) the development and application of the structural difference method, a formalism for symbolically representing anatomical similarities and differences across species; (2) the design of the structure of a mapping between the anatomical models of two different species and its application to information about specific structures in humans, mice, and rats; and (3) the design of the internal syntax and semantics of the query language. These contributions provide the foundation for the development of a working system that allows users to submit queries about the similarities and differences between mouse, rat, and human anatomy; delivers result sets that describe those similarities and differences in symbolic terms; and serves as a prototype for the extension of the knowledge base to any number of species. Additionally, we expanded the domain knowledge by identifying medically relevant structural questions for the human, the mouse, and the rat, and made an initial foray into the validation of the application and its content by means of user questionnaires, software testing, and other feedback. Methods The anatomical structures of the species to be compared, as well as the mappings between species, are modeled on templates from the Foundational Model of Anatomy knowledge base, and compared using graph-matching techniques. A graphical user interface allows users to issue queries that retrieve information concerning similarities and differences between structures in the species being examined. Queries from diverse information

  9. Comparative leaf anatomy of Kokoona and Lophopetalum (Celastraceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, W.T.; Baas, P.

    1973-01-01

    The leaf anatomy of Kokoona and Lophopetalum is described in detail. Separation of the two genera as effectuated by Hou (1963) is supported by differences in vascular anatomy of the distal end of the petiole, which is invariably more complex in Lophopetalum than in Kokoona. Other differential

  10. Using Independent Research Projects to Foster Learning in the Comparative Vertebrate Anatomy Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghedotti, Michael J.; Fielitz, Christopher; Leonard, Daniel J.

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents a teaching methodology involving an independent research project component for use in undergraduate Comparative Vertebrate Anatomy laboratory courses. The proposed project introduces cooperative, active learning in a research context to comparative vertebrate anatomy. This project involves pairs or groups of three students…

  11. Comparative leaf morphology and anatomy of three Asteraceae species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Milan

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper was to describe and compare the morphology and anatomy of mature leaves of Mikania glomerata Spreng., Porophyllum ruderale Cass. and Vernonia condensata Baker (Asteraceae species that have different habits emphasizing their secretory structures. Longitudinal and transversal sections of mature leaf blades of the three species were analyzed at the apex, base, and medium third part of the midvein of the leaf blade and of the margin. M. glomerata had uniseriate glandular trichomes and secretory ducts; P. ruderale had hydathodes and secretory cavities; and V. condensata had idioblasts and uni-and biseriate glandular trichomes.Este trabalho teve por objetivo descrever e comparar a morfo-anatomia das folhas adultas de Mikania glomerata Spreng., Porophyllum ruderale Cass. e Vernonia condensata Baker (Asteraceae, que possuem diferentes hábitos, enfatizando suas estruturas secretoras. Secções longitudinais e transversais dos limbos foliares foram analisadas nas regiões do ápice, da base e do terço médio na altura da nervura central, do limbo foliar e da margem. M. glomerata apresentou tricomas glandulares unisseriados e ductos secretores; P. ruderale tinha hidatódios e cavidades secretoras; e V. condensata apresentou idioblastos e tricomas glandulares uni- ou bisseriados.

  12. Cervical carotid and circle of willis arterial anatomy of macaque monkeys: a comparative anatomy study.

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    Kumar, Nishant; Lee, John J; Perlmutter, Joel S; Derdeyn, Colin P

    2009-07-01

    Macaque monkeys are used in many research applications, including cerebrovascular investigations. However, detailed catalogs of the relevant vascular anatomy are scarce. We present our experience with macaque vessel patterns as determined by digital subtraction angiography of 34 different monkeys. We retrospectively analyzed digital subtraction angiograms obtained during experimental internal carotid artery (ICA) catheterization and subsequent injection of 1-methyl 4-phenyl 1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine. Results were catalogued according to vascular distribution and variants observed. Macaque monkeys have a bovine aortic arch. The carotid vessels generally bifurcate, but are occasionally observed to divide into three vessels. The external carotid gives rise primarily to two trunks: an occipital branch and a common vessel that subsequently gives off the lingual, facial, and superior thyroid arteries. The internal maxillary artery may be present as a terminal branch of the external carotid or as a branch of the occipital artery. The ICA is similar in course to that of the human. The anterior circle of Willis was intact in all monkeys in our study. Its primary difference from that of the human is the union of the bilateral anterior cerebral arteries as a single (azygous) median vessel. Macaque cervical carotid and circle of Willis arterial anatomy differs from humans in a couple of specific patterns. Knowledge of these differences and similarities between human and macaque anatomy is important in developing endovascular macaque models of human diseases, such as ischemic stroke.

  13. Comparative wood anatomy of Bonnetiaceae, Theaceae and Guttiferae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baretta-Kuipers, Tine

    1976-01-01

    A description of the xylem anatomy of the genera Archytaea, Ploiarium, Bonnetia, Neblinaria, Neotatea, Caraipa, Haploclathra, Mahurea, Marila, Kielmeyera, and Asteropeia is given. All these genera except Asteropeia, were included in the family of the Bonnetiaceae by Maguire (1972). He considered the

  14. From tissue to silicon to plastic: 3D printing in comparative anatomy and physiology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Henrik; Hansen, Kasper; Nørgård, Mathias Ørum

    2016-01-01

    to produce digital models of animal anatomy well suited to be printed on low cost 3D printers. In this communication we report how to apply such technology in comparative anatomy and physiology to aid discovery, description, comprehension and communication, and we seek to inspire fellow researchers......Comparative anatomy and physiology are disciplines related to structures and mechanisms in three-dimensional space. For the past centuries, scientific reports in these fields have relied on written descriptions and two-dimensional illustrations, but in recent years three-dimensional virtual...

  15. Comparative Effectiveness of Dental Anatomy Carving Pedagogy: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Azevedo, Renato de A; da Rosa, Wellington Luiz de O; da Silva, Adriana F; Correa, Marcos B; Torriani, Marcos A; Lund, Rafael G

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study was to review the effectiveness of methods used for teaching dental anatomy carving to dental students in operative dentistry as evaluated in published studies. This systematic review is described in accordance with the PRISMA statement. Two independent reviewers performed a systematic literature search of research published from January 1945 until May 2014. Seven databases were screened: MedLine (PubMed), Lilacs, IBECS, Web of Science, Scopus, SciELO, and The Cochrane Library. After removing duplicates, only studies using dental carving to assess the practical knowledge of anatomy were selected. The tabulated data were organized by title of article, names of authors, number of students assessed, assessment method, material used, groups tested, main results, and conclusions. The methodology quality was assessed according to the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions. Initially, 2,258 studies were identified in all databases. Five articles met the eligibility criteria and were included in this review. According to these studies, the geometric method, teaching step-by-step along with the teacher, and adjuvant methods such as the use of tutors and teaching through digital media with DVDs proved to be effective in improving learning. There is no standard technique that is widely accepted for the teaching of dental carving, nor is there an appropriately validated method of evaluation to verify whether the teaching methods used are effective for the acquisition of skills and expertise in dental anatomy by students.

  16. Comparing Subscription-Based Anatomy E-Resources for Collections Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClurg, Caitlin; Stieda, Vivian; Talsma, Nicole

    2015-01-01

    This article describes a chart-based approach for health sciences libraries to compare anatomy e-resources. The features, functionalities, and user experiences of seven leading subscription-based e-resources were assessed using a chart that was iteratively developed by the investigators. Acland's Video Atlas of Human Anatomy, Thieme Winking Skull, and Visible Body were the preferred products as they respectively excel in cadaver-based videos, self-assessment, and 3D graphical manipulation. Moreover, each product affords a pleasant user experience. The investigative team found that resources specializing in one aspect of anatomy teaching are superior to those that contain a wealth of content for diverse audiences.

  17. From tissue to silicon to plastic: three-dimensional printing in comparative anatomy and physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauridsen, Henrik; Hansen, Kasper; Nørgård, Mathias Ørum; Wang, Tobias; Pedersen, Michael

    2016-03-01

    Comparative anatomy and physiology are disciplines related to structures and mechanisms in three-dimensional (3D) space. For the past centuries, scientific reports in these fields have relied on written descriptions and two-dimensional (2D) illustrations, but in recent years 3D virtual modelling has entered the scene. However, comprehending complex anatomical structures is hampered by reproduction on flat inherently 2D screens. One way to circumvent this problem is in the production of 3D-printed scale models. We have applied computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging to produce digital models of animal anatomy well suited to be printed on low-cost 3D printers. In this communication, we report how to apply such technology in comparative anatomy and physiology to aid discovery, description, comprehension and communication, and we seek to inspire fellow researchers in these fields to embrace this emerging technology.

  18. Translation of Hecker's 1922 "the occipital-atlanto-axial ligament system": A study in comparative anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oakes, Peter C; Sardi, Juan Pablo; Iwanaga, Joe; Topale, Nitsa; Oskouian, Rod J; Tubbs, R Shane

    2017-04-01

    In 1922, Paul Hecker, a French physician and Head of Anatomy at the Medical College of Strasbourg, published a sentinel thesis on the ligaments of the craniocervical junction based on a study of comparative anatomy. Unfortunately, this dissertation has been lost to history and until now, was unavailable in the English language. Herein, we present a translation of Hecker's work with an update in its nomenclature, which with modern imaging capabilities of the craniocervical junction is germane and timely. Clin. Anat. 30:322-329, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Comparing Individual Instruction & Lecture Formats in Human Anatomy & Physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schindler, Fred H.

    1989-01-01

    Provides a description of and information about an individualized program in science at Central Community College. Reports on a study which compares lecture with individualized instruction. Concludes that there were no significant differences between heterogeneous groups, and there are advantages and disadvantages to each method. Diagrams and…

  20. Comparative anatomy of long bones of the appendicular skeleton of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Morphometry of the long bones of the forelimbs and hindlimbs were studied in Yankassa sheep and Red Sokoto goat. A total of 10 goats and 10 sheep were used for the study. The lengths, and weights of the bones as well as the diameters for the proximal, distal extremities and mid-shaft were determined and compared ...

  1. Comparative anatomy of the thigh nerves of Cebus libidinosus (Rylands et al., 2000

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    R.A.G.M.F. Aversi-Ferreira

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Non-human primates have constituted an important group among animals subjected to various studies. Ethological, evolutionary and paleontological studies have revealed changes in anatomical structures linked to the evolution of primates, considered in studies on the comparative anatomy between Cebus libidinosus and other neotropical monkeys or those from the Old World, and the detailed knowledge on their anatomy may represent an important factor for their preservation and protection when the animals are brought to veterinary clinics after accidents or illnesses. In terms of veterinary importance, sometimes these animals arrive in the veterinary medical clinics after accidents, needing surgery or clinical treatment, but the little data available on anatomy has impaired the correct proceedings. The main justification for studies on C. libidinosus, is due to little information about the anatomy related to C. libidinosus in Brazilian and worldwide scientific literature. In this study, the distribution, enervation and path of the femoral and sciatic nerves of the pelvic limb (thigh of C. libidinosus were studied and these results were compared with literature on the anatomy of humans, chimpanzees and baboons. In general, the enervation model of the four primates is identical, but in specific terms, the differences in enervations indicate evolution convergence closer to the branch of baboons in the evolutionary tree, and these data corroborate other comparative studies in relation to the same primates to vessels, muscles and nerves. In conclusion, the nerve organization in the thigh of C. libidinosus is identical to baboon, chimpanzee and homo, but more similar to baboon. The specific differences found indicate an ancient phylogenic origin to C. libidinosus and baboons (data corroborated by other studies.

  2. Comparative anatomy of the gluteal muscles of Sapajus libidinosus 1

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    Nayane Peixoto Soares

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: New World primates Sapajus sp. unexpectedly display cognitive aspects, tool use, social behavior, memory and anatomical aspects similar to Old World primates, such as chimpanzees and baboons. Convergent evolutionary aspects must have occurred between Sapajus and Old World primates and should be verified not only in terms of behavior analysis, but also of anatomical structure. The pelvic region can provide data for evolutionary verification trends, since taking standing position is one of the characteristics associated to the use of tools by early humans and pongids. We used eight specimens of Sapajus libidinosus to describe the deep muscular structure of the pelvis. Unlike humans, the gluteus medius muscle in S. libidinosus is completely covered by the gluteus maximus and elongated as compared to humans and chimpanzees, putatively by the elongated pelvis of S. libidinosus. Considering origin and insertion, the gluteus maximus muscle resembles more its counterpart in baboons than in humans and chimpanzees, since this muscle in baboons is associated to semibiped posture and to the tail. Gluteus minimum, piriformis, superior gemellus, internal shutter, gemellus and lower square muscles are positioned in this order in relation to the cranial-caudal axis, with all of its tendons converging for a common insertion in the greater trochanter. The muscles of the gluteal region of S. libidinosus are similar to the baboon, especially regarding the gluteus maximus, which points to the evolutionary kinship of these animals.

  3. Lumbar facet anatomy changes in spondylolysis: a comparative skeletal study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dar, Gali; Peleg, Smadar; Steinberg, Nili; Alperovitch-Najenson, Dvora; Salame, Khalil; Hershkovitz, Israel

    2007-01-01

    Opinions differ as to the exact mechanism responsible for spondylolysis (SP) and whether individuals with specific morphological characteristics of the lumbar vertebral neural arch are predisposed to SP. The aim of our study was to reveal the association between SP and the architecture of lumbar articular facets and the inter-facet region. Methods: Using a Microscribe three-dimensional apparatus (Immersion Co., San Jose, CA, USA), length, width and depth of all articular facets and all inter-facet distances in the lumbar spine (L1–L5) were measured. From the Hamann-Todd Human Osteological Collection (Cleveland Museum of Natural History, OH, USA) 120 normal male skeletons with lumbar spines in the control group and 115 with bilateral SP at L5 were selected. Analysis of variance was employed to examine the differences between spondylolytic and normal spines. Results: Three profound differences between SP and the norm appeared: (1) in individuals with SP, the size and shape of L4’s neural arch had significantly greater inter-facet widths, significantly shorter inter-facet heights and significantly shorter and narrower articular facets; (2) only in the L4 vertebra in individuals with SP was the inferior inter-facet width greater in size than the superior inter-facet width of the vertebra below (L5) (38.7 mm versus 40 mm); (3) in all lumbar vertebrae, the right inferior articular facets in individuals with SP were flatter compared to the control group. Conclusions: Individuals with L4 “SP” characteristics are at a greater risk of developing fatigue fractures in the form of spondylolysis at L5. PMID:17440753

  4. Virtual Reality Anatomy: Is It Comparable with Traditional Methods in the Teaching of Human Forearm Musculoskeletal Anatomy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Codd, Anthony M.; Choudhury, Bipasha

    2011-01-01

    The use of cadavers to teach anatomy is well established, but limitations with this approach have led to the introduction of alternative teaching methods. One such method is the use of three-dimensional virtual reality computer models. An interactive, three-dimensional computer model of human forearm anterior compartment musculoskeletal anatomy…

  5. Comparative Anatomy of Myosoton Aquaticum and Stellaria Media and its Systematic Significance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Z.; Bai, L.; Zhou, X.; Wu, L.; Liao, H.

    2016-01-01

    To provide evidence insight into the phylogenetic position of the Myosoton Monch., the anatomy of Myosoton aquaticum and Stellaria media were comparatively observed by light microscopy and scanning electron microscope (SEM). The anatomy of M. aquaticum and St. media is that (1) Root is composed of uniseriate epidermis, parenchyma cortex, endodermis, pericycle and central cylinder, and primary xylem of root is tetrarch. (2) Stem epidermis is arranged in closeness and parallel, and has distinct shuttle-shape tuber. (3) Leaf is dorsiventral mesophyll with palisade layer and spongy parenchyma. (4) Anomocytic type of stomatas are found in the epidermis of the leaf, stem and sepal. (5) Pollen is single and spheroidal. A number of germ pores are completely sunken, papillate and polypantoporate. (6) Crassuliod type of seeds have simple papillae and no strophiole is observed. Seed coat is rounded shape minute secondary sculpturing with an outer surface formed by foveolate epidermal walls. (7) From the globular floral primordium develop to complete bisexual flower, the process of floral initiation is nearly the same. The result supports that: the higher similarity in organ anatomy and floral ontogeny of M. aquaticum and St. media, justifies it is appropriate that Myosoton aquaticum belongs to Stellaria. (author)

  6. The Plant Ontology as a Tool for Comparative Plant Anatomy and Genomic Analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Laurel; Walls, Ramona L.; Elser, Justin; Gandolfo, Maria A.; Stevenson, Dennis W.; Smith, Barry; Preece, Justin; Athreya, Balaji; Mungall, Christopher J.; Rensing, Stefan; Hiss, Manuel; Lang, Daniel; Reski, Ralf; Berardini, Tanya Z.; Li, Donghui; Huala, Eva; Schaeffer, Mary; Menda, Naama; Arnaud, Elizabeth; Shrestha, Rosemary; Yamazaki, Yukiko; Jaiswal, Pankaj

    2013-01-01

    The Plant Ontology (PO; http://www.plantontology.org/) is a publicly available, collaborative effort to develop and maintain a controlled, structured vocabulary (‘ontology’) of terms to describe plant anatomy, morphology and the stages of plant development. The goals of the PO are to link (annotate) gene expression and phenotype data to plant structures and stages of plant development, using the data model adopted by the Gene Ontology. From its original design covering only rice, maize and Arabidopsis, the scope of the PO has been expanded to include all green plants. The PO was the first multispecies anatomy ontology developed for the annotation of genes and phenotypes. Also, to our knowledge, it was one of the first biological ontologies that provides translations (via synonyms) in non-English languages such as Japanese and Spanish. As of Release #18 (July 2012), there are about 2.2 million annotations linking PO terms to >110,000 unique data objects representing genes or gene models, proteins, RNAs, germplasm and quantitative trait loci (QTLs) from 22 plant species. In this paper, we focus on the plant anatomical entity branch of the PO, describing the organizing principles, resources available to users and examples of how the PO is integrated into other plant genomics databases and web portals. We also provide two examples of comparative analyses, demonstrating how the ontology structure and PO-annotated data can be used to discover the patterns of expression of the LEAFY (LFY) and terpene synthase (TPS) gene homologs. PMID:23220694

  7. An approach to comparative anatomy of the acetabulum from amphibians to primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canillas, F; Delgado-Martos, M J; Touza, A; Escario, A; Martos-Rodriguez, A; Delgado-Baeza, E

    2011-12-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the anatomy, both macroscopic and microscopic, of the soft tissue internal structures of the hip joint in animal species and in three human hips (an adult and two fetuses). We dissected the hip joints of 16 species and compared the anatomical features of the soft tissue from the respective acetabula. In addition, a histological study was made of the specimens studied. In amphibians, we found a meniscus in the acetabulum, which was not observed in any of the other species studied. The isolated round ligament is observed from birds onwards. In the group of mammals analysed, including the human specimens, we found a meniscoid structure in the acetabular hip joint. Furthermore, we found that the meniscoid structure forms an anatomo-functional unit with the round ligament and the transverse ligament of the coxofemoral joint. These discoveries suggest the participation of the soft tissue anatomy in adaptative changes of species. © 2011 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  8. Comparative anatomy of rabbit and human achilles tendons with magnetic resonance and ultrasound imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doherty, Geoffrey P; Koike, Yoichi; Uhthoff, Hans K; Lecompte, Martin; Trudel, Guy

    2006-02-01

    We sought to describe the comparative anatomy of the Achilles tendon in rabbits and humans by using macroscopic observation, magnetic resonance imaging, and ultrasonography. The calcaneus-Achilles tendon-gastrocnemius-soleus complexes from 18 New Zealand white rabbits underwent ultrasound (US) and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and gross anatomic sectioning; these results were compared with those from a cadaveric gastrocnemius-soleus-Achilles tendon-calcaneus specimen from a 68-y-old human male. The medial and lateral gastrocnemius muscle tendons merged 5.2 +/- 0.6 mm proximal to the calcaneal insertion macroscopically, at 93% of their course, different from the gastrocnemius human tendons, which merged at 23% of their overall course. The rabbit flexor digitorum superficialis tendon, corresponding to the flexor digitorum longus tendon in human and comparable in size with the gastrocnemius tendons, was located medial and anterior to the medial gastrocnemius tendon proximally and rotated dorsally and laterally to run posterior to the Achilles tendon-calcaneus insertion. In humans, the flexor digitorum longus tendon tracks posteriorly to the medial malleolus. The soleus muscle and tendon are negligible in the rabbit; these particular comparative anatomic features in the rabbit were confirmed on the MR images. Therefore the rabbit Achilles tendon shows distinctive gross anatomical and MR imaging features that must be considered when using the rabbit as a research model, especially for mechanical testing, or when generalizing results from rabbits to humans.

  9. Comparative internal anatomy of Staurozoa (Cnidaria, with functional and evolutionary inferences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucília S. Miranda

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Comparative efforts to understand the body plan evolution of stalked jellyfishes are scarce. Most characters, and particularly internal anatomy, have neither been explored for the class Staurozoa, nor broadly applied in its taxonomy and classification. Recently, a molecular phylogenetic hypothesis was derived for Staurozoa, allowing for the first broad histological comparative study of staurozoan taxa. This study uses comparative histology to describe the body plans of nine staurozoan species, inferring functional and evolutionary aspects of internal morphology based on the current phylogeny of Staurozoa. We document rarely-studied structures, such as ostia between radial pockets, intertentacular lobules, gametoducts, pad-like adhesive structures, and white spots of nematocysts (the last four newly proposed putative synapomorphies for Staurozoa. Two different regions of nematogenesis are documented. This work falsifies the view that the peduncle region of stauromedusae only retains polypoid characters; metamorphosis from stauropolyp to stauromedusa occurs both at the apical region (calyx and basal region (peduncle. Intertentacular lobules, observed previously in only a small number of species, are shown to be widespread. Similarly, gametoducts were documented in all analyzed genera, both in males and females, thereby elucidating gamete release. Finally, ostia connecting adjacent gastric radial pockets appear to be universal for Staurozoa. Detailed histological studies of medusozoan polyps and medusae are necessary to further understand the relationships between staurozoan features and those of other medusozoan cnidarians.

  10. Comparative anatomy of leaflets of Zamia acuminata and Z. pseudomonticola (Zamiaceae) in Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acuña-Castillo, Rafael; Marin-Méndez, Walter

    2013-06-01

    The genus Zamia is morphologically and ecologically the most diverse of the order Cycadales. Throughout its history this genus has been restricted to the New World and is presently almost entirely restricted to the Neotropics. Unusual anatomical traits of the leaflets, such as the sunken stomata and thick cuticle, are common in this and related genera. The objective of this research was to study and compare the leaflet anatomy of Zamia acuminata and Z pseudomonticola and establish possible phylogenetic relationships between the anatomical traits and the near relatives of these species. The leaf material was obtained from living plants and then processed for electron microscopy study. We found that both species are very similar to each other and to Z fairchildiana, and that they share several unusual traits with other species of the genus, such as the parenchyma morphology, the spatial distribution of tissues between the veins and the stomata morphology. The main differences between these species were seen in their fiber clusters and in the abundance oftrichome basal cells on the epidermis. The anatomical similarities between the three species could be the result of their close phylogenetic relationship and the divergences between them could be the result of recent speciation during the Pleistocene, resulting from geological changes in Southern Costa Rica.

  11. Comparative anatomy of leaflets of Zamia acuminata and Z. pseudomonticola (Zamiaceae in Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Acuña-Castillo

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The genus Zamia is morphologically and ecologically the most diverse of the order Cycadales. Throughout its history this genus has been restricted to the New World and is presently almost entirely restricted to the Neotropics. Unusual anatomical traits of the leaflets, such as the sunken stomata and thick cuticle, are common in this and related genera. The objective of this research was to study and compare the leaflet anatomy of Zamia acuminata and Z. pseudomonticola and establish possible phylogenetic relationships between the anatomical traits and the near relatives of these species. The leaf material was obtained from living plants and then processed for electron microscopy study. We found that both species are very similar to each other and to Z. fairchildiana, and that they share several unusual traits with other species of the genus, such as the parenchyma morphology, the spatial distribution of tissues between the veins and the stomata morphology. The main differences between these species were seen in their fiber clusters and in the abundance of trichome basal cells on the epidermis. The anatomical similarities between the three species could be the result of their close phylogenetic relationship and the divergences between them could be the result of recent speciation during the Pleistocene, resulting from geological changes in Southern Costa Rica.

  12. The Hair Follicle: A Comparative Review of Canine Hair Follicle Anatomy and Physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welle, Monika M; Wiener, Dominique J

    2016-06-01

    The hair follicle (HF) has a wide range of functions including thermoregulation, physical and immunological protection against external insults, sensory perception, social interactions, and camouflage. One of the most characteristic features of HFs is that they self-renew during hair cycle (HC) throughout the entire life of an individual to continuously produce new hair. HC disturbances are common in humans and comparable to some alopecic disorders in dogs. A normal HC is maintained by follicular stem cells (SCs), which are predominately found in an area known as the bulge. Due to similar morphological characteristics of the human and canine bulge area, the particularity of compound HFs in humans and dogs as well as similarities in follicular biomarker expression, the dog might be a promising model to study human HC and SC disorders. In this review, we give an overview of normal follicular anatomy, the HC, and follicular SCs and discuss the possible pathogenetic mechanisms of noninflammatory alopecia. © The Author(s) 2016.

  13. The dawn of chelonian research: turtles between comparative anatomy and embryology in the 19th century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacCord, Kate; Caniglia, Guido; Moustakas-Verho, Jacqueline E; Burke, Ann C

    2015-05-01

    Many evo-devo studies of the turtle's shell draw hypotheses and support from historical sources. The groundbreaking works of Cuvier, Geoffroy St. Hilaire, Carus, Rathke, Owen, and others are being revived in modern research, and their centuries-old understanding of the turtle's shell reconsidered. In the works of these eminent biologists of the 19th century, comparative anatomy and embryology of turtle morphology set the stage for future studies in developmental biology, histology, and paleontology. Given the impact that these works still make on modern research, it is important to develop a thorough appreciation of previous authors, regarding how they arrived at their conclusions (i.e., what counted as evidence?), whether there was debate amongst these authors about shell development (i.e., what counted as an adequate explanation?), and even why these men, some of the most powerful and influential thinkers and anatomists of their day, were concerned with turtles. By tracing and exposing the context and content of turtle shell studies in history, our aim is to inform modern debates about the evolution and development of the turtle's shell. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Measuring learning gain: Comparing anatomy drawing screencasts and paper-based resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickering, James D

    2017-07-01

    The use of technology-enhanced learning (TEL) resources is now a common tool across a variety of healthcare programs. Despite this popular approach to curriculum delivery there remains a paucity in empirical evidence that quantifies the change in learning gain. The aim of the study was to measure the changes in learning gain observed with anatomy drawing screencasts in comparison to a traditional paper-based resource. Learning gain is a widely used term to describe the tangible changes in learning outcomes that have been achieved after a specific intervention. In regard to this study, a cohort of Year 2 medical students voluntarily participated and were randomly assigned to either a screencast or textbook group to compare changes in learning gain across resource type. Using a pre-test/post-test protocol, and a range of statistical analyses, the learning gain was calculated at three test points: immediate post-test, 1-week post-test and 4-week post-test. Results at all test points revealed a significant increase in learning gain and large effect sizes for the screencast group compared to the textbook group. Possible reasons behind the difference in learning gain are explored by comparing the instructional design of both resources. Strengths and weaknesses of the study design are also considered. This work adds to the growing area of research that supports the effective design of TEL resources which are complimentary to the cognitive theory of multimedia learning to achieve both an effective and efficient learning resource for anatomical education. Anat Sci Educ 10: 307-316. © 2016 American Association of Anatomists. © 2016 American Association of Anatomists.

  15. Normal pulmonary veins anatomy is associated with better AF-free survival after cryoablation as compared to atypical anatomy with common left pulmonary vein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubala, Maciej; Hermida, Jean-Sylvain; Nadji, Georges; Quenum, Serge; Traulle, Sarah; Jarry, Geneviève

    2011-07-01

    Pulmonary vein cryoablation (PVC) is a new approach in the treatment of recurrent atrial fibrillation (AF). Computed tomography (CT) can be used to evaluate the left atrium anatomy and PVs dimensions to facilitate the procedure. In radiofrequency procedures, some anatomic variants such as common left (CLPV) or right (CRPV) PV were reported as factors associated with technical procedure difficulties and potential long-term complications. We hypothesized that the absence of CLPV as determined by CT would predict better AF-free survival after PVC. We included 118 consecutive patients (mean age 56 ± 10 years; 77% males) with drug refractory paroxysmal (72%)/persistent (28%) AF, with more than 6 months follow-up, who underwent PVC. On CT scanning images performed within 1 month prior to ablation, we evaluated PV anatomic patterns: presence of CLPV or CRPV. Each patient was evaluated by 24-hour Holter monitoring within 1 and 3 months and all patients were periodically evaluated at 1, 3, and 6 months, and every 6 months thereafter. Patients were asked to record their 12-lead electrocardiogram whenever they experienced symptoms suggestive of AF. Recurrence was defined as AF that lasted at least 30 seconds. CLPV was present in 30 (25%) patients and no patients with CRPV were identified. At the end of the 13 months follow-up, patients with normal PVs had significantly better AF-free survival compared to patients with CLPV (67% vs 50%, P = 0.02). The difference was present in patients with paroxysmal AF (P = 0.008) but not in patients with persistent AF (P = 0.92). In patients undergoing cryoballoon PV isolation for AF, the presence of normal PVs pattern is associated with better AF-free survival as compared to atypical PV anatomy with CLPV, particularly in patients with paroxysmal AF. ©2011, The Authors. Journal compilation ©2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Comparative Root and Stem Anatomy of Four Rare Onobrychis Mill. (Fabaceae Taxa Endemic in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet TEKİN

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Four endemic taxa of Onobrychis Mill. genus, some of them being classified in the endangered threat category, were investigated for root and stem anatomy. Onobrychis quadrijuga, O. argyrea subsp. argyrea, O. tournefortii and O. albiflora were studied in regard to specific anatomy for the first time within the hereby study. Anatomical characters as the size and shape of the periderm, cortex, cambium cells in root and epidermis, collenchyma, cortex, cambium and pith cells in stem belonging to these four Onobrychis taxa were determined in detail. Based on the roots and stems measurements and analysis, specific anatomical differences between species were revealed.

  17. The impacts of comparative anatomy of electric rays (Batoidea: Torpediniformes) on their systematic hypotheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claeson, Kerin M

    2014-06-01

    The Comparative anatomy of the 11 recognized genera within Torpediniformes is described, systematically categorized, and illustrated in a comprehensive photo-atlas. Data are compiled into a character matrix and cladistically analyzed using parsimony to test hypotheses about the previously recognized subfamilies, while reconstructing the possible evolutionary history of Torpediniformes. Results are consistent with the previous rank-based classifications, regardless of the parsimony criteria used to generate the phylogenetic hypothesis, with one notable exception: a monophyletic Narcininae was never recovered. Torpedinoidea (=Hypnos + Torpedo) is supported by the presence of long, slender, flexible jaw cartilages, absence of a large rostral fontanelle, presence of suprascapular antimeres that are each shorter than the scapular process of the scapulocoracoid, antorbital cartilages that articulate on the anterior aspect of the nasal capsules and absence of a frontoparietal fontanelle. Subfamilial names Hypninae and Torpedininae are redundant with the genus names Hypnos and Torpedo and are not adopted here. Narcinoidea (=nontorpedinoid torpediniforms) is supported by unambiguous character transformations to the presence of a divided lower lip, labial cartilages, laterolingually compressed palatoquadrates, bifurcated antorbital cartilages, a rostral fontanelle, ventrally projecting nasal capsules, a dorsal rim of the synarcual mouth posterior to occipital condyle, posteriorly positioned lateral stays, and obtuse anterior margins of lateral stays. Narkidae is supported by unambiguous character transformations to the presence of an uncovered eye that protrudes above dorsal surface, a shared rim between the spiracle and the eye, an anterior nasal turret that projects ventrally, a nasal curtain that covers the upper lip and dentition when the mouth is closed, tab-like prepelvic processes, a mesopterygium that is shorter than propterygium but longer than metapterygium, a

  18. A pilot study comparing the use of Thiel- and formalin-embalmed cadavers in the teaching of human anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balta, Joy Y; Lamb, Clare; Soames, Roger W

    2015-01-01

    Formalin had traditionally been used to preserve human material to teach gross anatomy. In 2008 the Centre for Anatomy and Human Identification (CAHID) at the University of Dundee embarked on the use of the Thiel method of embalming. The aim of this pilot study was to assess the difference between formalin-embalmed cadavers (FEC) and Thiel-embalmed cadavers (TEC) used for teaching and surgical training. Three different questionnaires were prepared for data collection from undergraduate and postgraduate students and clinical staff. All undergraduate and postgraduate students as well as clinical staff commented on the appearance of the TEC. There was no overall consensus concerning the use of TEC, some respondents preferred TEC for the entire dissection, some only for certain areas such as the musculoskeletal system. On a technical level TEC were considered less hazardous then FEC by one-third of participants with fewer than 10% regarding TEC as more irritating than FEC. Psychologically, 32.7% of undergraduate students expressed the view that TEC made them feel more uncomfortable compared with FEC because of their life-like appearance. However, 57.1% of undergraduate students encountered the same uncomfortable feelings when viewing both TEC and FEC. The use of Thiel-embalmed cadavers to teach anatomy has an added value, though further research is required over longer periods of time to identify its best usage. © 2014 American Association of Anatomists.

  19. Comparative wood anatomy of root and stem of Citharexylum myrianthum (Verbenaceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmen Regina Marcati; Leandro Roberto Longo; Alex Wiedenhoeft; Claudia Franca Barros

    2014-01-01

    Root and stem wood anatomy of C. myrianthum (Verbenaceae) from a semideciduous seasonal forest in Botucatu municipality (22º52’20”S and 48º26’37”W), São Paulo state, Brazil, were studied. Growth increments demarcated by semi-ring porosity and marginal bands of axial parenchyma were observed in the wood of both root and stem. Many qualitative features...

  20. Compare and contrast tricuspid and mitral valve anatomy: interventional perspectives for transcatheter tricuspid valve therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taramasso, Maurizio; Pozzoli, Alberto; Basso, Cristina; Thiene, Gaetano; Denti, Paolo; Kuwata, Shingo; Nietlispach, Fabian; Alfieri, Ottavio; Hahn, Rebecca T; Nickenig, Georg; Schofer, Joachim; Leon, Martin B; Reisman, Mark; Maisano, Francesco

    2018-03-20

    Moving transcatheter valve intervention towards atrioventricular (AV) valves implies increasing complexity. Some of the knowledge that has been generated during the development of mitral devices can be applied to the tricuspid valve (TV). A deep understanding of the peculiar anatomy of the TV and of the right heart chambers, with differences and similarities between the two AV valves, is fundamental to overcoming the specific challenges related to transcatheter TV therapies. The aim of this report is to explore similarities and differences between the mitral and tricuspid valve apparatus, and their interventional implications.

  1. Comparative anatomy of leaflets of Zamia acuminata and Z. pseudomonticola (Zamiaceae in Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Acuña-Castillo

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The genus Zamia is morphologically and ecologically the most diverse of the order Cycadales. Throughout its history this genus has been restricted to the New World and is presently almost entirely restricted to the Neotropics. Unusual anatomical traits of the leaflets, such as the sunken stomata and thick cuticle, are common in this and related genera. The objective of this research was to study and compare the leaflet anatomy of Zamia acuminata and Z. pseudomonticola and establish possible phylogenetic relationships between the anatomical traits and the near relatives of these species. The leaf material was obtained from living plants and then processed for electron microscopy study. We found that both species are very similar to each other and to Z. fairchildiana, and that they share several unusual traits with other species of the genus, such as the parenchyma morphology, the spatial distribution of tissues between the veins and the stomata morphology. The main differences between these species were seen in their fiber clusters and in the abundance of trichome basal cells on the epidermis. The anatomical similarities between the three species could be the result of their close phylogenetic relationship and the divergences between them could be the result of recent speciation during the Pleistocene, resulting from geological changes in Southern Costa Rica.Zamia es morfológica y ecológicamente el género más diverso del orden Cycadales. Este género siempre ha estado restringido a América, pero en la actualidad habita principalmente en la región neotropical. Características anatómicas inusuales en los foliolos como los estomas hundidos y las cutículas gruesas son comunes en Zamia y géneros afines. El objetivo de este trabajo consiste en comparar la anatomía de los foliolos de Zamia acuminata y Z. pseudomonticola y establecer posibles relaciones filogenéticas entre las características anatómicas y los parientes cercanos de esta

  2. Comparative jaw muscle anatomy in kangaroos, wallabies, and rat-kangaroos (marsupialia: macropodoidea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warburton, Natalie Marina

    2009-06-01

    The jaw muscles were studied in seven genera of macropodoid marsupials with diets ranging from mainly fungi in Potorous to grass in Macropus. Relative size, attachments, and lamination within the jaw adductor muscles varied between macropodoid species. Among macropodine species, the jaw adductor muscle proportions vary with feeding type. The relative mass of the masseter is roughly consistent, but grazers and mixed-feeders (Macropus and Lagostrophus) had relatively larger medial pterygoids and smaller temporalis muscles than the browsers (Dendrolagus, Dorcopsulus, and Setonix). Grazing macropods show similar jaw muscle proportions to "ungulate-grinding" type placental mammals. The internal architecture of the jaw muscles also varies between grazing and browsing macropods, most significantly, the anatomy of the medial pterygoid muscle. Potoroines have distinctly different jaw muscle proportions to macropodines. The masseter muscle group, in particular, the superficial masseter is enlarged, while the temporalis group is relatively reduced. Lagostrophus fasciatus is anatomically distinct from other macropods with respect to its masticatory muscle anatomy, including enlarged superficial medial pterygoid and deep temporalis muscles, an anteriorly inflected masseteric process, and the shape of the mandibular condyle. The enlarged triangular pterygoid process of the sphenoid bone, in particular, is distinctive of Lagsotrophus. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  3. Pharynx Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... e.g. -historical Searches are case-insensitive Pharynx Anatomy Add to My Pictures View /Download : Small: 720x576 ... View Download Large: 3000x2400 View Download Title: Pharynx Anatomy Description: Anatomy of the pharynx; drawing shows the ...

  4. Larynx Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... e.g. -historical Searches are case-insensitive Larynx Anatomy Add to My Pictures View /Download : Small: 648x576 ... View Download Large: 2700x2400 View Download Title: Larynx Anatomy Description: Anatomy of the larynx; drawing shows the ...

  5. Vulva Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... e.g. -historical Searches are case-insensitive Vulva Anatomy Add to My Pictures View /Download : Small: 720x634 ... View Download Large: 3000x2640 View Download Title: Vulva Anatomy Description: Anatomy of the vulva; drawing shows the ...

  6. The anatomy of anatomy

    OpenAIRE

    John Paul Judson

    2012-01-01

    The relationship between anatomy and surgeryhas been historic and epic, spanning many centuries,complementing each other in medical education andbeing independent as well as interdependent in manyways. However, curricular changes that have happenedglobally in recent years with the introduction of severalcontemporary styles of medical teaching have subtlydownplayed the importance of anatomy in medicine,allowing young doctors with poor knowledge of anatomyto become surgeons. With a whimsical in...

  7. Compared leaf anatomy of Nymphaea (Nymphaeaceae) species from Brazilian flood plain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catian, G; Scremin-Dias, E

    2013-11-01

    Nymphaea has seven species already catalogued in the flood prone areas of the Brazilian Pantanal. However, some species remain difficult to identify and descriptions of the anatomy of vegetative organs are an important tool for infrageneric separation to aid in group taxonomy. The species collected in the Pantanal and prepared according to the usual techniques for anatomical studies showed similar structural characteristics, and data on the arrangement of vascular bundles in the midrib and petiole, as well as the form and distribution of sclereids, were consistent. Nymphaea oxypetala stands out from the other evaluated species for having a greater number of differential characters, including angular collenchyma and the absence of bicollateral bundles in the petiole. Nymphaea lingulata stands out as the only species to feature bicollateral bundles in the leaf blade. The results, summarised in the dichotomous key, facilitate the identification of species that use the flower as the main differentiation, but are in a vegetative stage.

  8. Compared leaf anatomy of Nymphaea (Nymphaeaceae species from Brazilian flood plain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Catian

    Full Text Available Nymphaea has seven species already catalogued in the flood prone areas of the Brazilian Pantanal. However, some species remain difficult to identify and descriptions of the anatomy of vegetative organs are an important tool for infrageneric separation to aid in group taxonomy. The species collected in the Pantanal and prepared according to the usual techniques for anatomical studies showed similar structural characteristics, and data on the arrangement of vascular bundles in the midrib and petiole, as well as the form and distribution of sclereids, were consistent. Nymphaea oxypetala stands out from the other evaluated species for having a greater number of differential characters, including angular collenchyma and the absence of bicollateral bundles in the petiole. Nymphaea lingulata stands out as the only species to feature bicollateral bundles in the leaf blade. The results, summarised in the dichotomous key, facilitate the identification of species that use the flower as the main differentiation, but are in a vegetative stage.

  9. Evolutionary developmental pathology and anthropology: A new field linking development, comparative anatomy, human evolution, morphological variations and defects, and medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diogo, Rui; Smith, Christopher M; Ziermann, Janine M

    2015-11-01

    We introduce a new subfield of the recently created field of Evolutionary-Developmental-Anthropology (Evo-Devo-Anth): Evolutionary-Developmental-Pathology-and-Anthropology (Evo-Devo-P'Anth). This subfield combines experimental and developmental studies of nonhuman model organisms, biological anthropology, chordate comparative anatomy and evolution, and the study of normal and pathological human development. Instead of focusing on other organisms to try to better understand human development, evolution, anatomy, and pathology, it places humans as the central case study, i.e., as truly model organism themselves. We summarize the results of our recent Evo-Devo-P'Anth studies and discuss long-standing questions in each of the broader biological fields combined in this subfield, paying special attention to the links between: (1) Human anomalies and variations, nonpentadactyly, homeotic transformations, and "nearest neighbor" vs. "find and seek" muscle-skeleton associations in limb+facial muscles vs. other head muscles; (2) Developmental constraints, the notion of "phylotypic stage," internalism vs. externalism, and the "logic of monsters" vs. "lack of homeostasis" views about human birth defects; (3) Human evolution, reversions, atavisms, paedomorphosis, and peromorphosis; (4) Scala naturae, Haeckelian recapitulation, von Baer's laws, and parallelism between phylogeny and development, here formally defined as "Phylo-Devo parallelism"; and (5) Patau, Edwards, and Down syndrome (trisomies 13, 18, 21), atavisms, apoptosis, heart malformations, and medical implications. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Kidney lower pole pelvicaliceal anatomy: comparative analysis between intravenous urogram and three-dimensional helical computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachid Filho, Daibes; Favorito, Luciano A; Costa, Waldemar S; Sampaio, Francisco J B

    2009-12-01

    The aim of our study was to evaluate if there is any advantage of three-dimensional helical computed tomography (3D-HCT) over intravenous urogram (IVU) in the morphometric and morphological analysis of lower pole spatial anatomy of the kidney. We analyzed 52 renal collecting systems in 30 patients, ranging in age from 23 to 80 years. The study compared the following features: (1) the angle formed between the lower infundibulum and the renal pelvis (i.e., lower infundibulum-pelvic angle [IPA]), (2) the lower infundibulum diameter (ID), and (3) the spatial distribution and number of lower pole calices (i.e., caliceal distribution [CD]). The study started with the 3D-HCT images obtained for posterior reconstruction and analysis. Afterward, we obtained anteroposterior and oblique IVU images. For IPA (in degrees) we found a mean +/- standard deviation (SD) value of 75.79 +/- 15.3 with 3D-HCT and 77.4 +/- 17.17 with IVU, which were not statistically significant. For ID (in mm) we found a mean +/- SD value of 7.5 +/- 2.92 with 3D-HCT and 8.15 +/- 3.27 with IVU. For CD we found a mean +/- SD value of 2.37 +/- 0.75 calices with 3D-HCT and 2.43 +/- 0.67 calices with IVU. On analyzing the difference between 3D-HCT and IVU, we found a mean +/- SD value of 0.06 +/- 0.51, and we verified that 74.5% of the examinations compared did not present statistically significant difference, with a Wilcoxon p-value of 0.405. Although 3D-HCT is more precise to study calculus location, tumors, and vessels, IVU was also demonstrated to be as precise as 3D-HCT for studying the lower pole spatial anatomy. We did not observe any statistically significant difference in the measurements of IPA, ID, and CD obtained using 3D-HCT when compared with those obtained using IVU. Therefore, 3D-HCT does not present any advantage over IVU in the evaluation of lower pole caliceal anatomy.

  11. Hand Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Anatomy Bones Joints Muscles Nerves Vessels Tendons Anatomy The upper extremity is a term used to define the upper limb. This includes the shoulder, arm, forearm, wrist and hand. The hand is a very ...

  12. Tooth anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002214.htm Tooth anatomy To use the sharing features on this page, ... upper jawbone is called the maxilla. Images Tooth anatomy References Chan S, Alessandrini EA. Dental injuries. In: Selbst ...

  13. Paraganglioma Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... e.g. -historical Searches are case-insensitive Paraganglioma Anatomy Add to My Pictures View /Download : Small: 648x576 ... View Download Large: 2700x2400 View Download Title: Paraganglioma Anatomy Description: Paraganglioma of the head and neck; drawing ...

  14. From fish to modern humans--comparative anatomy, homologies and evolution of the pectoral and forelimb musculature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diogo, R; Abdala, V; Aziz, M A; Lonergan, N; Wood, B A

    2009-05-01

    In a recent study Diogo & Abdala [(2007) J Morphol 268, 504-517] reported the results of the first part of a research project on the comparative anatomy, homologies and evolution of the pectoral muscles of osteichthyans (bony fish and tetrapods). That report mainly focused on actinopterygian fish but also compared these fish with certain non-mammalian sarcopterygians. This study, which reports the second part of the research project, focuses mainly on sarcopterygians and particularly on how the pectoral and forelimb muscles have evolved during the transitions from sarcopterygian fish and non-mammalian tetrapods to monotreme and therian mammals and humans. The data obtained by our own dissections of all the pectoral and forelimb muscles of representative members of groups as diverse as sarcopterygian fish, amphibians, reptiles, monotremes and therian mammals such as rodents, tree-shrews, colugos and primates, including humans, are compared with the information available in the literature. Our observations and comparisons clearly stress that, with regard to the number of pectoral and forelimb muscles, the most striking transition within sarcopterygian evolutionary history was that leading to the origin of tetrapods. Whereas extant sarcopterygian fish have an abductor and adductor of the fin and a largely undifferentiated hypaxial and epaxial musculature, extant salamanders such as Ambystoma have more than 40 pectoral and forelimb muscles. There is no clear increase in the number of pectoral and forelimb muscles within the evolutionary transition that led to the origin of mammals and surely not to that leading to the origin of primates and humans.

  15. SURGICAL ANATOMY

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SURGICAL ANATOMY. Rare high origin of the radial artery: a bilateral, symmetrical ease. I. O. ()koro and B. C. J iburum. Department of Anatomy, College of Medicine, lrno State University, Owerri, Nigeria. Reprint requests to: Dr I. O. 0k0r0, Department of Anatomy, [mo State University, P. M. B. 2000. Owerri, Nigeria.

  16. EORTC recommended protocol for melanoma sentinel lymph node sectioning misclassifies up to 50% of the patients compared with complete step sectioning. Danish Society for Pathological Anatomy and Clinical Cytology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riber-Hansen, Rikke; Hastrup, N; Clemmensen, O.

    2010-01-01

    EORTC recommended protocol for melanoma sentinel lymph node sectioning misclassifies up to 50% of the patients compared with complete step sectioning. Danish Society for Pathological Anatomy and Clinical Cytology......EORTC recommended protocol for melanoma sentinel lymph node sectioning misclassifies up to 50% of the patients compared with complete step sectioning. Danish Society for Pathological Anatomy and Clinical Cytology...

  17. Premedical anatomy experience and student performance in medical gross anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondrashov, Peter; McDaniel, Dalton J; Jordan, Rebecca M

    2017-04-01

    Gross anatomy is considered one of the most important basic science courses in medical education, yet few medical schools require its completion prior to matriculation. The effect of taking anatomy courses before entering medical school on performance in medical gross anatomy has been previously studied with inconsistent results. The effect of premedical anatomy coursework on performance in medical gross anatomy, overall medical school grade point average (GPA), and Comprehensive Osteopathic Medical Licensing Examination Level 1 (COMLEX 1) score was evaluated in 456 first-year osteopathic medical students along with a survey on its perceived benefits on success in medical gross anatomy course. No significant differences were found in gross anatomy grade, GPA, or COMLEX 1 score between students with premedical anatomy coursework and those without. However, significant differences and higher scores were observed in students who had taken three or more undergraduate anatomy courses including at least one with cadaveric laboratory. There was significantly lower perceived benefit for academic success in the medical gross anatomy course (Pstudents who had taken premedical anatomy courses (5.9 of 10) compared with those who had not (8.2 of 10). Results suggest that requiring any anatomy course as a prerequisite for medical school would not have significant effect on student performance in the medical gross anatomy course. However, requiring more specific anatomy coursework including taking three or more undergraduate anatomy courses, one with cadaveric laboratory component, may result in higher medical gross anatomy grades, medical school GPA, and COMLEX 1 scores. Clin. Anat. 30:303-311, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Comparative musculoskeletal anatomy of chameleon limbs, with implications for the evolution of arboreal locomotion in lizards and for teratology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molnar, Julia L; Diaz, Raul E; Skorka, Tautis; Dagliyan, Grant; Diogo, Rui

    2017-09-01

    Chameleon species have recently been adopted as models for evo-devo and macroevolutionary processes. However, most anatomical and developmental studies of chameleons focus on the skeleton, and information about their soft tissues is scarce. Here, we provide a detailed morphological description based on contrast enhanced micro-CT scans and dissections of the adult phenotype of all the forelimb and hindlimb muscles of the Veiled Chameleon (Chamaeleo calyptratus) and compare these muscles with those of other chameleons and lizards. We found the appendicular muscle anatomy of chameleons to be surprisingly conservative considering the remarkable structural and functional modifications of the limb skeleton, particularly the distal limb regions. For instance, the zygodactyl autopodia of chameleons are unique among tetrapods, and the carpals and tarsals are highly modified in shape and number. However, most of the muscles usually present in the manus and pes of other lizards are present in the same configuration in chameleons. The most obvious muscular features related to the peculiar opposable autopodia of chameleons are: (1) presence of broad, V-shaped plantar and palmar aponeuroses, and absence of intermetacarpales and intermetatarsales, between the digits separated by the cleft in each autopod; (2) oblique orientation of the superficial short flexors originating from these aponeuroses, which may allow these muscles to act as powerful adductors of the "super-digits"; and (3) well-developed abductor digiti minimi muscles and abductor pollicis/hallucis brevis muscles, which may act as powerful abductors of the "super-digits." © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Comparative anatomy and ontogeny of the ductus arteriosus, a vascular outsider.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergwerff, M; DeRuiter, M C; Gittenberger-de Groot, A C

    1999-12-01

    In its function of separating pulmonary and systemic arterial blood flow, the ductus arteriosus, which connects both circuits, either closes permanently at a certain stage in development or attains a capacity to close and reopen depending on the physiological needs in certain species. In air-breathing vertebrates varying from lungfish to mammals, the ductus arteriosus derives from the sixth pharyngeal arch artery, and in preparation for its specific task, undergoes its own unique differentiation programme, starting early in development. To date, the mechanisms involved in defining this unique status, as compared to the other great arteries, are unclear. This review clarifies some of the elusiveness of the ductus arteriosus. It includes a comparative description of this artery in species exemplifying the different classes of air-breathing vertebrates, and illustrates similarities and differences in morphogenesis and closure mechanisms among the species. It also deals with possible influences of vascular innervation and with congenital anomalies in which the ductus arteriosus is involved. New data suggest that HOXB5 expression in the neural crest along the dorsal half of the sixth arch artery may be involved in the instigation of ductus arteriosus differentiation.

  20. Architecture of the Entorhinal Cortex A Review of Entorhinal Anatomy in Rodents with Some Comparative Notes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Menno P. Witter

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The entorhinal cortex (EC is the major input and output structure of the hippocampal formation, forming the nodal point in cortico-hippocampal circuits. Different division schemes including two or many more subdivisions have been proposed, but here we will argue that subdividing EC into two components, the lateral EC (LEC and medial EC (MEC might suffice to describe the functional architecture of EC. This subdivision then leads to an anatomical interpretation of the different phenotypes of LEC and MEC. First, we will briefly summarize the cytoarchitectonic differences and differences in hippocampal projection patterns on which the subdivision between LEC and MEC traditionally is based and provide a short comparative perspective. Second, we focus on main differences in cortical connectivity, leading to the conclusion that the apparent differences may well correlate with the functional differences. Cortical connectivity of MEC is features interactions with areas such as the presubiculum, parasubiculum, retrosplenial cortex (RSC and postrhinal cortex, all areas that are considered to belong to the “spatial processing domain” of the cortex. In contrast, LEC is strongly connected with olfactory areas, insular, medial- and orbitofrontal areas and perirhinal cortex. These areas are likely more involved in processing of object information, attention and motivation. Third, we will compare the intrinsic networks involving principal- and inter-neurons in LEC and MEC. Together, these observations suggest that the different phenotypes of both EC subdivisions likely depend on the combination of intrinsic organization and specific sets of inputs. We further suggest a reappraisal of the notion of EC as a layered input-output structure for the hippocampal formation.

  1. From fish to modern humans – comparative anatomy, homologies and evolution of the pectoral and forelimb musculature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diogo, R; Abdala, V; Aziz, M A; Lonergan, N; Wood, B A

    2009-01-01

    In a recent study Diogo & Abdala [(2007) JMorphol268, 504–517] reported the results of the first part of a research project on the comparative anatomy, homologies and evolution of the pectoral muscles of osteichthyans (bony fish and tetrapods). That report mainly focused on actinopterygian fish but also compared these fish with certain non-mammalian sarcopterygians. This study, which reports the second part of the research project, focuses mainly on sarcopterygians and particularly on how the pectoral and forelimb muscles have evolved during the transitions from sarcopterygian fish and non-mammalian tetrapods to monotreme and therian mammals and humans. The data obtained by our own dissections of all the pectoral and forelimb muscles of representative members of groups as diverse as sarcopterygian fish, amphibians, reptiles, monotremes and therian mammals such as rodents, tree-shrews, colugos and primates, including humans, are compared with the information available in the literature. Our observations and comparisons clearly stress that, with regard to the number of pectoral and forelimb muscles, the most striking transition within sarcopterygian evolutionary history was that leading to the origin of tetrapods. Whereas extant sarcopterygian fish have an abductor and adductor of the fin and a largely undifferentiated hypaxial and epaxial musculature, extant salamanders such as Ambystoma have more than 40 pectoral and forelimb muscles. There is no clear increase in the number of pectoral and forelimb muscles within the evolutionary transition that led to the origin of mammals and surely not to that leading to the origin of primates and humans. PMID:19438764

  2. Comparative anatomy of stems and leaves of plectranthus L. (Lamiaceae) in Saudi Arabia and systematic implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalik, Kadry N Abdel; Karakish, Eman A

    2016-07-01

    A comparative anatomical study of the Plectranthus species growing in Saudi Arabia by using light microscopy method in order to evaluate their diagnostic value for systematic studies. Macro- and micromorphological characters, including stem, leaf, petiole anatomical, and trichome structures are presented. Descriptions of stem shape in cross-section, epidermal cell shape, cortex, pith, vascular bundles, leaf shape in cross-section, mesophyll, types and distribution of trichomes are presented. Taxonomic phylogenetic implications of stem, leaf, and trichomes anatomical micromorphology are also discussed in comparison with the available gross morphological and molecular data. Results of the present study offer useful data for evaluating the taxonomy of Plectranthus both at subgeneric and sectional levels. Moreover, our results indicate some degree of similarity among the species of subgenus Germanea and support the monophyly of this subgenus. A remarkable result from this study was identifying P. arabicus with distinctive characters and suggesting that it should be treated as a separate subgenus. Likewise, distinguishing differences between closely related endemic species P. asirensis and P. hijazensis are offered, and should be conserved as a different subgenus. A key for the identification of the investigated taxa based on studied characters is provided. Microsc. Res. Tech. 79:583-594, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Comparative anatomy, morphology, and molecular phylogenetics of the African genus Satanocrater (Acanthaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripp, Erin A; Fatimah, Siti

    2012-06-01

    Anatomical and morphological features of Satanocrater were studied to test hypotheses of xeric adaptations in the genus, which is endemic to arid tropical Africa. These features, together with molecular data, were used to test the phylogenetic placement of Satanocrater within the large plant family Acanthaceae. We undertook a comparative study of four species of Satanocrater. Carbon isotope ratios were generated to test a hypothesis of C(4) photosynthesis. Molecular data from chloroplast (trnG-trnS, trnG-trnR, psbA-trnH) and nuclear (Eif3E) loci were used to test the placement of Satanocrater within Acanthaceae. Anatomical features reflecting xeric adaptations of species of Satanocrater included a thick-walled epidermis, thick cuticle, abundant trichomes and glandular scales, stomata overarched by subsidiary cells, tightly packed mesophyll cells, and well-developed palisade parenchyma on both leaf surfaces. Although two species had enlarged bundle sheath cells, a feature often implicated in C(4) photosynthesis, isotope ratios indicated all species of Satanocrater use the C(3) pathway. Molecular data resolved Satanocrater within tribe Ruellieae with strong support. Within Ruellieae, our data suggest that pollen morphology of Satanocrater may represent an intermediate stage in a transition series. Anatomical and morphological features of Satanocrater reflect adaptation to xeric environments and add new information about the biology of xerophytes. Morphological and molecular data place Satanocrater in the tribe Ruellieae with confidence. This study adds to our capacity to test hypotheses of broad evolutionary and ecological interest in a diverse and important family of flowering plants.

  4. Comparative anatomy and evolution of the cardiac innervation in New World monkeys (Platyrrhini, e. Geoffroy, 1812).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawashima, Tomokazu; Thorington, Richard W; Whatton, James F

    2009-05-01

    The morphology of the autonomic cardiac nervous system (ACNS) was examined in 24 sides of 12 New World monkeys (Platyrrhini) of all four families to document the morphology systematically and to study the evolutionary changes of the ACNS in this primate lineage. We report the following: (1) Although several trivial intra- and inter-specific variations are present, a family-dependent morphology of the ACNS does not exist in New World monkeys. (2) The sympathetic ganglia in New World monkeys consist of the superior cervical, the middle cervical, and the cervicothoracic which is composed of the inferior cervical and first and second thoracic, and the thoracic ganglia starting with the third thoracic. The general cardiac nervous system is the sympathetic middle and inferior cardiac nerves and all parasympathetic vagal cardiac branches. (3) The morphology of the ACNS in the New World monkeys is almost consistent regardless of the number of vertebrae, the cardiac position and deviation (axis), and the great arterial branching pattern of the aortic arch, and it is very similar to that in the Old World monkeys, with only one difference: the superior cervical ganglion in the New World monkeys tends to be relatively smaller, higher, and provides a narrower contribution to the spinal nerves than in the Old World monkeys. The ACNS morphology exhibits significant evolutionary changes within the primate lineage from New and Old World monkeys to humans. The comparative morphology within the lineage is concordant with the phylogeny, suggesting that the primate ACNS preserves its evolutionary history in close alignment with phylogeny.

  5. Comparative anatomy of nitrergic intrinsic choroidal neurons (ICN) in various avian species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroedl, Falk; De Stefano, M Egle; Reese, Sven; Brehmer, Axel; Neuhuber, Winfried L

    2004-02-01

    Intrinsic choroidal neurons (ICN) represent a peculiar feature of eyes in higher primates and birds. They account for up to 2000 in human and duck eyes but are virtually absent or rare in all other mammalian species investigated so far. It has been suggested that ICN are involved in regulation of ocular blood supply, hence influencing intraocular pressure, and changes in choroidal thickness, thus influencing accommodation. The present study was undertaken in order to compare differences in various avian species with respect to ICN as well as to provide data on some avian species relevant for experimental ophthalmic research, i.e. chicken and quail. Choroids from 12 avian species were processed for NADPH-diaphorase histochemistry or, in some cases, neuronal nitric oxide synthase immunocytochemistry. ICN were quantified and normalized to mean choroidal area. Three choroids of each galliformes (i.e. chicken, quail, turkey) and anseriformes (i.e. Muscovy duck, Mallard duck, goose) were rastered in squares of 1 mm2 and x/y coordinates were transferred into a 3D-diagram with the amount of ICN represented in the z-axis. ICN were detected in all species investigated. They were predominantly small cells with soma diameters of 20-30 microm. In turkey, and to a lesser amount in chicken, a subpopulation of ICN with somal diameters of up to 70 microm was observed. Highest mean cell counts were found in goose (6195.4; turkey 3558.4; chicken 1681.4; Muscovy duck 785.4; Mallard duck 640.8; quail 440.2). Normalized to choroidal area, highest mean cell counts were (per mm2): 12.62 in goose, 4.42 in both chicken and turkey, 2.86 in quail, 2.66 in Mallard duck and 1.89 in Muscovy duck. In galliformes, ICN were found to be accumulated temporo-cranial, while in anseriformes they were arranged in a more belt-like fashion, passing from cranio-nasal to temporo-caudal. Our results show that besides Muscovy duck, other avian species appear as suitable models for further functional

  6. Skull 5 from Dmanisi: Descriptive anatomy, comparative studies, and evolutionary significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rightmire, G Philip; Ponce de León, Marcia S; Lordkipanidze, David; Margvelashvili, Ann; Zollikofer, Christoph P E

    2017-03-01

    A fifth hominin skull (cranium D4500 and mandible D2600) from Dmanisi is massively constructed, with a large face and a very small brain. Traits documented for the first time in a basal member of the Homo clade include the uniquely low ratio of endocranial volume to basicranial width, reduced vertex height, angular vault profile, smooth nasal sill coupled with a long and sloping maxillary clivus, elongated palate, and tall mandibular corpus. The convex clivus and receding symphysis of skull 5 produce a muzzle-like form similar to that of Australopithecus afarensis. While the Dmanisi cranium is very robust, differing from OH 13, OH 24, and KNM-ER 1813, it resembles Homo habilis specimens in the "squared off" outline of its maxilla in facial view, maxillary sulcus, rounded and receding zygomatic arch, and flexed zygomaticoalveolar pillar. These characters distinguish early Homo from species of Australopithecus and Paranthropus. Skull 5 is unlike Homo rudolfensis cranium KNM-ER 1470. Although it appears generally primitive, skull 5 possesses a bar-like supraorbital torus, elongated temporal squama, occipital transverse torus, and petrotympanic traits considered to be derived for Homo erectus. As a group, the Dmanisi crania and mandibles display substantial anatomical and metric variation. A key question is whether the fossils document age-related growth and sex dimorphism within a single population, or whether two (or more) distinct taxa may be present at the site. We use the coefficient of variation to compare Dmanisi with Paranthropus boisei, H. erectus, and recent Homo sapiens, finding few signals that the Dmanisi sample is excessively variable in comparison to these reference taxa. Using cranial measurements and principal components analysis, we explore the proposal that the Dmanisi skulls can be grouped within a regionally diverse hypodigm for H. erectus. Our results provide only weak support for this hypothesis. Finally, we consider all available morphological

  7. Integer anatomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doolittle, R. [ONR, Arlington, VA (United States)

    1994-11-15

    The title integer anatomy is intended to convey the idea of a systematic method for displaying the prime decomposition of the integers. Just as the biological study of anatomy does not teach us all things about behavior of species neither would we expect to learn everything about the number theory from a study of its anatomy. But, some number-theoretic theorems are illustrated by inspection of integer anatomy, which tend to validate the underlying structure and the form as developed and displayed in this treatise. The first statement to be made in this development is: the way structure of the natural numbers is displayed depends upon the allowed operations.

  8. From fish to modern humans--comparative anatomy, homologies and evolution of the head and neck musculature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diogo, R; Abdala, V; Lonergan, N; Wood, B A

    2008-10-01

    In a recent paper Diogo (2008) reported the results of the first part of an investigation of the comparative anatomy, homologies and evolution of the head and neck muscles of osteichthyans (bony fish + tetrapods). That report mainly focused on actinopterygian fish, but also compared these fish with certain non-mammalian sarcopterygians. The present paper focuses mainly on sarcopterygians, and particularly on how the head and neck muscles have evolved during the transitions from sarcopterygian fish and non-mammalian tetrapods to monotreme and therian mammals, including modern humans. The data obtained from our dissections of the head and neck muscles of representative members of sarcopterygian fish, amphibians, reptiles, monotremes and therian mammals, such as rodents, tree-shrews, colugos and primates, including modern humans, are compared with the information available in the literature. Our observations and comparisons indicate that the number of mandibular and true branchial muscles (sensu this work) present in modern humans is smaller than that found in mammals such as tree-shrews, rats and monotremes, as well as in reptiles such as lizards. Regarding the pharyngeal musculature, there is an increase in the number of muscles at the time of the evolutionary transition leading to therian mammals, but there was no significant increase during the transition leading to the emergence of higher primates and modern humans. The number of hypobranchial muscles is relatively constant within the therian mammals we examined, although in this case modern humans have more muscles than other mammals. The number of laryngeal and facial muscles in modern humans is greater than that found in most other therian taxa. Interestingly, modern humans possess peculiar laryngeal and facial muscles that are not present in the majority of the other mammalian taxa; this seems to corroborate the crucial role played by vocal communication and by facial expressions in primate and especially in

  9. Compared leaf anatomy and water relations of commercial and traditional Prunus dulcis (Mill.) cultivars under rain-fed conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oliveira, I.; Meyer, A.; Afonso, S.

    2018-01-01

    Leaf anatomy and water relations of seven almond (Prunus dulcis Mill.) cultivars, traditional (Bonita, Casanova, Parada, Pegarinhos and Verdeal) and commercial (Ferragnès and Glorieta), grown under rain-fed conditions, were studied. The performed measurements included thickness of leaf tissues...

  10. A comparative study of the anatomy of adipose tissue in areas with and without raised lesions of cellulite using magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hexsel, Doris; Siega, Carolina; Schilling-Souza, Juliana; Porto, Manoela Donida; Rodrigues, Ticiana Costa

    2013-12-01

    Cellulite is considered a noninflammatory phenomenon characterized by alterations to the skin surface, with depressed and raised lesions. Few studies have evaluated subcutaneous fat in patients with cellulite, and there is no information about the anatomy of raised lesions. Sixty women with raised cellulite lesions were evaluated using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Cellulite grade was evaluated using the Cellulite Severity Scale (CSS). Raised cellulite lesions were marked and compared with control areas on the opposite side of the body (buttocks, abdomen, and upper thighs). Mean age was 39.3 ± 11.0 years and average body mass index (BMI) was 25.4 ± 4.1 kg/m(2) . There were no differences between the raised lesions and the control areas in the anatomy of the fat lobes and their size. CSS scores were higher in older patients and in those with higher BMI. Patients with higher BMI had more fat lobes. The anatomy of subcutaneous fat was similar in raised and control areas for shape, size, and thickness. Higher CSS scores were found in older patients and those with higher BMI. © 2013 by the American Society for Dermatologic Surgery, Inc. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Use of 3D printed models in medical education: A randomized control trial comparing 3D prints versus cadaveric materials for learning external cardiac anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Kah Heng Alexander; Loo, Zhou Yaw; Goldie, Stephen J; Adams, Justin W; McMenamin, Paul G

    2016-05-06

    Three-dimensional (3D) printing is an emerging technology capable of readily producing accurate anatomical models, however, evidence for the use of 3D prints in medical education remains limited. A study was performed to assess their effectiveness against cadaveric materials for learning external cardiac anatomy. A double blind randomized controlled trial was undertaken on undergraduate medical students without prior formal cardiac anatomy teaching. Following a pre-test examining baseline external cardiac anatomy knowledge, participants were randomly assigned to three groups who underwent self-directed learning sessions using either cadaveric materials, 3D prints, or a combination of cadaveric materials/3D prints (combined materials). Participants were then subjected to a post-test written by a third party. Fifty-two participants completed the trial; 18 using cadaveric materials, 16 using 3D models, and 18 using combined materials. Age and time since completion of high school were equally distributed between groups. Pre-test scores were not significantly different (P = 0.231), however, post-test scores were significantly higher for 3D prints group compared to the cadaveric materials or combined materials groups (mean of 60.83% vs. 44.81% and 44.62%, P = 0.010, adjusted P = 0.012). A significant improvement in test scores was detected for the 3D prints group (P = 0.003) but not for the other two groups. The finding of this pilot study suggests that use of 3D prints do not disadvantage students relative to cadaveric materials; maximally, results suggest that 3D may confer certain benefits to anatomy learning and supports their use and ongoing evaluation as supplements to cadaver-based curriculums. Anat Sci Educ 9: 213-221. © 2015 American Association of Anatomists. © 2015 American Association of Anatomists.

  12. Dose-modeling study to compare external beam techniques from protocol NSABP B-39/RTOG 0413 for patients with highly unfavorable cardiac anatomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiatt, Jessica R.; Evans, Suzanne B.; Price, Lori Lyn; Cardarelli, Gene A.; Di Petrillo, Thomas A.; Wazer, David E.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to select patients with heart anatomy that is specifically unfavorable for tangential irradiation in whole-breast radiotherapy (WBRT), to be used as an experimental cohort to compare cardiac dosimetric and radiobiological parameters of three-dimensional conformal external beam accelerated partial breast irradiation (3D-CRT APBI) to WBRT with techniques as defined by the National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project (NSABP) B-39/Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) 0413 clinical trial. Methods and Materials: A dosimetric modeling study that compared WBRT and 3D-CRT APBI was performed on CT planning data from 8 patients with left-sided breast cancer. Highly unfavorable cardiac anatomy was defined by the measured contact of the myocardium with the anterior chest wall in the axial and para-sagittal planes. Treatment plans of WBRT and 3D-CRT APBI were generated for each patient in accordance with NSABP B-39/RTOG 0413 protocol. Dose-volume relationships of the heart, including the V 5 min (minimum dose delivered to 5% of the cardiac volume), biological effective dose (BED) of the V 5 min, and normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) were analyzed and compared. Results: Despite expected anatomic variation, significantly large differences were found favoring 3D-CRT APBI in cumulative dose-volume histograms (p 5 min (mean difference, 24.53 Gy; p 5 min (85%, p < 0.01). Conclusions: Use of 3D-CRT APBI can demonstrate improved sparing of the heart in select patients with highly unfavorable cardiac anatomy for WBRT, and may result in reduced risk of cardiac morbidity and mortality

  13. Comparative leaf anatomy in argentine Galactia species Anatomía comparada de hoja en especies argentinas de Galactia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. M. Tourn

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available A comparative study of anatomical characters of the leaves of argentine species of Genera Galactia was carried out in order to evaluate their potential value in Taxonomy. In Argentine 14 species and some varieties from Sections Odonia and Collaearia can be found. Section Odonia: G. benthamiana Mich., G. dubia DC., G. fiebrigiana Burkart var. correntina Burkart, G. glaucophylla Harms, G. gracillima Benth., G. latisiliqua Desv., G. longifolia (Jacq. Benth., G. marginalis Benth., G. striata (Jacq. Urban, G. martioides Burkart, G. neesi D. C. var. australis Malme, G. pretiosa Burkart var. pretiosa, G. texana (Scheele A. Gray and G. boavista (Vell. Burkart from Section Collaearia. The characterization of sections is mainly based on reproductive characters, vegetative ones (exomorphological aspects are scarcely considered. The present paper provides a description of anatomical characters of leaves in argentine species of Galactia. Some of them, may have diagnostic value in taxonomic treatment. Special emphasis is placed on the systematic significance of the midvein structure. The aim of the present study, covering 10 species (named in bold, is a to add more data of leaf anatomy characters, thus b to evaluate the systematic relevance and/ or ecological significance.Se realizó un estudio comparativo de la anatomía foliar de especies argentinas del género Galactia (Fabaceae, a fin de evaluar su potencial en taxonomía. En la Argentina se reconocen 14 especies (con algunas variedades, 13 de la sección Odonia -G. benthamiana Mich., G. fiebrigiana Burkart var. correntina Burkart , G. gracillima Benth., G. latisiliqua Desv., G. marginalis Benth., G. striata (Jacq. Urban y G. texana (Scheele A. Gray, G. dubia DC., G. glaucophylla Harms, G. longifolia (Jacq. Benth., G. martioides Burkart, G. neesi DC. var. australis Malme, G. pretiosa Burkart var. Pretiosa- y G. boavista (Vell. Burkart de la sección Collaearia (Burkart, 1971. Los estudios se realizaron en

  14. A comparative study of cross sectional anatomy and computer tomography of perirenal fat depots in New Zealand White rabbits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yonkova, P.; Dimitrov, R.; Toneva, J.; Zapryanova, D.

    2010-01-01

    CT is a contemporary non-invasive imaging technique that gains an increasing importance for in vivo investigations of subcutaneous and visceral fat. The purpose of this investigation was to describe the topography and anatomy imaging features of perirenal fat depots at the level of both kidneys in clinically healthy New Zealand White rabbits that attained slaughter weight. The CT consecutive transverse scans from the last thoracic to the fifth lumbar vertebrae showed that in rabbits, perirenal fat appeared as a homogeneous hypodense structure at the background of denser shadows of lumbar and abdominal muscles, kidneys and abdominal organs. Perirenal fat depot exhibited a soft tissue density with average attenuation of −120.97±4.73 HU. On CT scans, the largest dimensions of the perirenal fat depot were 1.3±0.01 cm at the level of the right kidneys cranial pole; 1.96 cm in the plane where the right renal hilus was visualized; 1.66±0.08 cm at the level of the right kidneys caudal pole; 1.10±0.18 cm in the plane where the left renal hilus was visualized and 1.06±0.15 cm at the level of the left kidneys caudal pole. No subcutaneous fat deposits in the abdominal area were seen. Results obtained in the present study could be used as basic information for various anatomy investigations of rabbits as well as experimental designs for study of obesity in animals and humans. (author)

  15. Regulatory Anatomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoeyer, Klaus

    2015-01-01

    , legal documents, technological devices, organizational structures, and work practices aimed at minimizing risk. I use this term to reorient the analytical attention with respect to safety regulation. Instead of evaluating whether safety is achieved, the point is to explore the types of “safety” produced...... they arise. In short, I expose the regulatory anatomy of the policy landscape....

  16. The Anatomy of Learning Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhelmsson, Niklas; Dahlgren, Lars Owe; Hult, Hakan; Scheja, Max; Lonka, Kirsti; Josephson, Anna

    2010-01-01

    The experience of clinical teachers as well as research results about senior medical students' understanding of basic science concepts has much been debated. To gain a better understanding about how this knowledge-transformation is managed by medical students, this work aims at investigating their ways of setting about learning anatomy.…

  17. The value of supplementary anatomy workshops for improving ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of anatomy workshops on undergraduate anatomy grade performance. Methods: From 2012 to 2014, mean anatomy and physiology scores of medical students who attended anatomy workshops were compared to those who did not attend. Furthermore, mean scores in ...

  18. Anatomy Transfer

    OpenAIRE

    Dicko, Ali Hamadi; Liu, Tiantian; Gilles, Benjamin; Kavan, Ladislav; Faure, François; Palombi, Olivier; Cani, Marie-Paule

    2013-01-01

    International audience; Characters with precise internal anatomy are important in film and visual effects, as well as in medical applications. We propose the first semi-automatic method for creating anatomical structures, such as bones, muscles, viscera and fat tissues. This is done by transferring a reference anatomical model from an input template to an arbitrary target character, only defined by its boundary representation (skin). The fat distribution of the target character needs to be sp...

  19. Comparative anatomy and histology of developmental and parasitic stages in the life cycle of the lined sea anemone Edwardsiella lineata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reitzel, Adam M; Daly, Marymegan; Sullivan, James C; Finnerty, John R

    2009-02-01

    The evolution of parasitism is often accompanied by profound changes to the developmental program. However, relatively few studies have directly examined the developmental evolution of parasitic species from free-living ancestors. The lined sea anemone Edwardsiella lineata is a relatively recently evolved parasite for which closely related free-living outgroups are known, including the starlet sea anemone Nematostella vectensis. The larva of E. lineata parasitizes the ctenophore Mnemiopsis leidyi, and, once embedded in its host, the anemone assumes a novel vermiform body plan. That we might begin to understand how the developmental program of this species has been transformed during the evolution of parasitism, we characterized the gross anatomy, histology, and cnidom of the parasitic stage, post-parasitic larval stage, and adult stage of the E. lineata life cycle. The distinct parasitic stage of the life cycle differs from the post-parasitic larva with respect to overall shape, external ciliation, cnida frequency, and tissue architecture. The parasitic stage and planula both contain holotrichs, a type of cnida not previously reported in Edwardsiidae. The internal morphology of the post-parasitic planula is extremely similar to the adult morphology, with a complete set of mesenterial tissue and musculature despite this stage having little external differentiation. Finally, we observed 2 previously undocumented aspects of asexual reproduction in E. lineata: (1) the parasitic stage undergoes transverse fission via physal pinching, the first report of asexual reproduction in a pre-adult stage in the Edwardsiidae; and (2) the juvenile polyp undergoes transverse fission via polarity reversal, the first time this form of fission has been reported in E. lineata.

  20. Thymus Gland Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... hyphen, e.g. -historical Searches are case-insensitive Thymus Gland, Adult, Anatomy Add to My Pictures View / ... 1500x1200 View Download Large: 3000x2400 View Download Title: Thymus Gland, Adult, Anatomy Description: Anatomy of the thymus ...

  1. Normal Pancreas Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... e.g. -historical Searches are case-insensitive Pancreas Anatomy Add to My Pictures View /Download : Small: 761x736 ... View Download Large: 3172x3068 View Download Title: Pancreas Anatomy Description: Anatomy of the pancreas; drawing shows the ...

  2. Comparative anatomy, homologies and evolution of the pectoral and forelimb musculature of tetrapods with special attention to extant limbed amphibians and reptiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdala, Virginia; Diogo, Rui

    2010-11-01

    The main aim of the present work is to synthesize the information obtained from our dissections of the pectoral and forelimb muscles of representative members of the major extant taxa of limbed amphibians and reptiles and from our review of the literature, in order to provide an account of the comparative anatomy, homologies and evolution of these muscles in the Tetrapoda. The pectoral and forelimb musculature of all these major taxa conform to a general pattern that seems to have been acquired very early in the evolutionary history of tetrapods. Although some muscles are missing in certain taxa, and a clear departure from this general pattern is obviously present in derived groups such as birds, the same overall configuration is easily distinguishable in these taxa. Among the most notable anatomical differences between the groups, one that seems to have relevant evolutionary and functional implications, concerns the distal insertion points of the forearm musculature. In tetrapods, the muscles of the radial and ulnar complexes of the forearm are pleisomorphically mainly inserted onto the radius/ulna or onto the more proximal carpal bones, but in mammals some of these muscles insert more distally onto bones such as the metacarpals. Interestingly, a similar trend towards a more distal insertion of these muscles is also found in some non-mammalian tetrapod taxa, such as some anurans (e.g. Phyllomedusa). This may be correlated with the acquisition of more subtle digital movement abilities in these latter taxa. © 2010 The Authors. Journal of Anatomy © 2010 Anatomical Society of Great Britain and Ireland.

  3. Puzzle-based versus traditional lecture: comparing the effects of pedagogy on academic performance in an undergraduate human anatomy and physiology II lab.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stetzik, Lucas; Deeter, Anthony; Parker, Jamie; Yukech, Christine

    2015-06-23

    A traditional lecture-based pedagogy conveys information and content while lacking sufficient development of critical thinking skills and problem solving. A puzzle-based pedagogy creates a broader contextual framework, and fosters critical thinking as well as logical reasoning skills that can then be used to improve a student's performance on content specific assessments. This paper describes a pedagogical comparison of traditional lecture-based teaching and puzzle-based teaching in a Human Anatomy and Physiology II Lab. Using a single subject/cross-over design half of the students from seven sections of the course were taught using one type of pedagogy for the first half of the semester, and then taught with a different pedagogy for the second half of the semester. The other half of the students were taught the same material but with the order of the pedagogies reversed. Students' performance on quizzes and exams specific to the course, and in-class assignments specific to this study were assessed for: learning outcomes (the ability to form the correct conclusion or recall specific information), and authentic academic performance as described by (Am J Educ 104:280-312, 1996). Our findings suggest a significant improvement in students' performance on standard course specific assessments using a puzzle-based pedagogy versus a traditional lecture-based teaching style. Quiz and test scores for students improved by 2.1 and 0.4% respectively in the puzzle-based pedagogy, versus the traditional lecture-based teaching. Additionally, the assessments of authentic academic performance may only effectively measure a broader conceptual understanding in a limited set of contexts, and not in the context of a Human Anatomy and Physiology II Lab. In conclusion, a puzzle-based pedagogy, when compared to traditional lecture-based teaching, can effectively enhance the performance of students on standard course specific assessments, even when the assessments only test a limited

  4. Dancers' Perceived and Actual Knowledge of Anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotler, Dana H; Lynch, Meaghan; Cushman, Daniel; Hu, Jason; Garner, Jocelyn

    2017-06-15

    Dancers are highly susceptible to musculoskeletal injuries and frequently require interaction with medical professionals. While many dancers have a finely tuned awareness of their bodies, their knowledge of the fundamentals of human anatomy is not uniform. There is a paucity of literature on the benefits of human anatomy education in dancers, though it seems intuitive that there should be a relationship. The purpose of this study was to assess dancers' perceived and actual knowledge of basic musculoskeletal anatomy and its relationship to function. Adult dancers at the undergraduate, pre-professional, and professional levels were surveyed through an anonymous online questionnaire. Questions included demographic information, dance techniques studied, anatomy training, and injury history. Subjects rated their perceived knowledge of anatomy and were tested with 15 multiple-choice questions on basic musculoskeletal anatomy. Four hundred seventy-five surveys were completed. Ordinal regression showed a correlation of perceived to actual knowledge of anatomy (p < 0.001). Factors that correlated with increases in both perceived and actual knowledge of anatomy included having taken an anatomy course of any type (p < 0.001) and increased age (p ≤ 0.001). Years of dance training and professional dancer status both significantly correlated with increased knowledge of anatomy (p < 0.001) but not perceived knowledge. Chi-square analysis showed that dancers with training in either modern or jazz dance had a significantly higher perceived, but not actual, knowledge when compared to those without training in those styles of dance (p < 0.001 and p = 0.011, respectively). In conclusion, dancers generally scored well on questions pertaining to basic musculoskeletal anatomy, and their perception correlated with their actual knowledge of anatomy. Factors that contribute to dancers' knowledge of anatomy include age, years of experience, professional dancer status, and anatomy training.

  5. Patellar dislocations in children, adolescents and adults: A comparative MRI study of medial patellofemoral ligament injury patterns and trochlear groove anatomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balcarek, Peter, E-mail: peter.balcarek@med.uni-goettingen.de [Department of Trauma Surgery, Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, University Medicine, 37075 Goettingen (Germany); Walde, Tim Alexander; Frosch, Stephan; Schuettrumpf, Jan P.; Wachowski, Martin M.; Stuermer, Klaus M. [Department of Trauma Surgery, Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, University Medicine, 37075 Goettingen (Germany); Frosch, Karl-Heinz [Department of Trauma and Reconstructive Surgery, Asklepios Clinic St. Georg, Hamburg (Germany)

    2011-09-15

    Purpose: The first aim was to compare medial patellofemoral ligament injury patterns in children and adolescents after first-time lateral patellar dislocations with the injury patterns in adults. The second aim was to evaluate the trochlear groove anatomy at different developmental stages of the growing knee joint. Materials and methods: Knee magnetic resonance (MR) images were collected from 22 patients after first-time patellar dislocations. The patients were aged 14.2 years (a range of 11-15 years). The injury pattern of the medial patellofemoral ligament was analysed, and trochlear dysplasia was evaluated with regard to sulcus angle, trochlear depth and trochlear asymmetry. The control data consisted of MR images from 21 adult patients who were treated for first-time lateral patellar dislocation. Results: After patellar dislocation, injury to the medial patellofemoral ligament was found in 90.2% of the children and in 100% of the adult patients. Injury patterns of the medial patellofemoral ligament were similar between the study group and the control group with regard to injury at the patellar attachment site (Type I), to the midsubstance (Type II) and to injury at the femoral origin (Type III) (all p > 0.05). Combined lesions (Type IV) were significantly less frequently observed in adults when compared to the study group (p = 0.02). The magnitude of trochlear dysplasia was similar in children, adolescents and adults with regard to all three of the measured parameter-values (all p > 0.05). In addition, the articular cartilage had a significant effect on the distal femur geometry in both paediatrics and adults. Conclusion: First, the data from our study indicated that the paediatric medial patellofemoral ligament injury patterns, as seen on MR images, were similar to those in adults. Second, the trochlear groove anatomy and the magnitude of trochlear dysplasia, respectively, did not differ between adults and paediatrics with patellar instability. Thus

  6. Patellar dislocations in children, adolescents and adults: A comparative MRI study of medial patellofemoral ligament injury patterns and trochlear groove anatomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balcarek, Peter; Walde, Tim Alexander; Frosch, Stephan; Schuettrumpf, Jan P.; Wachowski, Martin M.; Stuermer, Klaus M.; Frosch, Karl-Heinz

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The first aim was to compare medial patellofemoral ligament injury patterns in children and adolescents after first-time lateral patellar dislocations with the injury patterns in adults. The second aim was to evaluate the trochlear groove anatomy at different developmental stages of the growing knee joint. Materials and methods: Knee magnetic resonance (MR) images were collected from 22 patients after first-time patellar dislocations. The patients were aged 14.2 years (a range of 11-15 years). The injury pattern of the medial patellofemoral ligament was analysed, and trochlear dysplasia was evaluated with regard to sulcus angle, trochlear depth and trochlear asymmetry. The control data consisted of MR images from 21 adult patients who were treated for first-time lateral patellar dislocation. Results: After patellar dislocation, injury to the medial patellofemoral ligament was found in 90.2% of the children and in 100% of the adult patients. Injury patterns of the medial patellofemoral ligament were similar between the study group and the control group with regard to injury at the patellar attachment site (Type I), to the midsubstance (Type II) and to injury at the femoral origin (Type III) (all p > 0.05). Combined lesions (Type IV) were significantly less frequently observed in adults when compared to the study group (p = 0.02). The magnitude of trochlear dysplasia was similar in children, adolescents and adults with regard to all three of the measured parameter-values (all p > 0.05). In addition, the articular cartilage had a significant effect on the distal femur geometry in both paediatrics and adults. Conclusion: First, the data from our study indicated that the paediatric medial patellofemoral ligament injury patterns, as seen on MR images, were similar to those in adults. Second, the trochlear groove anatomy and the magnitude of trochlear dysplasia, respectively, did not differ between adults and paediatrics with patellar instability. Thus

  7. Cerebral Anatomy of the Spider Monkey Ateles Geoffroyi Studied Using Magnetic Resonance Imaging. First Report: a Comparative Study with the Human Brain Homo Sapiens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Chico-Ponce de León

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present qualitative studywas to analyze the morphological aspects of theinner cerebral anatomy of two species of primates,using magnetic resonance images (MRI:spider monkey (A. geoffroyi and human (H.sapiens, on the basis of a comparative study ofthe cerebral structures of the two species, focusingupon the brain of the spider monkey and,primarily, its limbic system. In spite of beingan endemic Western hemisphere species, a factwhich is by its own right interesting for researchdue to this animal’s social organization and motorfunctions, the spider monkey (A. geoffroyihas hardly been studied in regard to its neuroanatomy.MRI was carried out, in one spidermonkey, employing a General Electric Signa1.5 T scanner. This investigation was carried inaccordance to international regulations for theprotection of animals in captivity, taking intoaccount all protective means utilized in experimentalhandling, and not leaving behind any residualeffects, either physiological or behavioral.From a qualitative point of view, the brains ofthe spider monkey and the human were found to have similar structures. In reference to shape,the most similar structures were found in thelimbic system; proportionally, however, cervical curvature, amygdala, hippocampus, anteriorcommissure and the colliculi, were larger in thespider monkey than in the human.

  8. Anatomy of the Andean subduction zone: three-dimensional density model upgraded and compared against global-scale models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tassara, Andrés.; Echaurren, Andrés.

    2012-04-01

    We present an upgraded version of a previously published 3-D density model of the Andean subduction zone between 18°S and 45°S. This model consists of 3-D bodies of constant density, which geometry is constrained by independent seismic data and is triangulated from vertical cross-sections. These bodies define the first-order morphology and internal structure of the subducted Nazca slab and South American Plate. The new version of the density model results after forward modelling the Bouguer anomaly as computed from the most recent version of the Earth Gravitational Model (EGM2008). The 3-D density model incorporates new seismic information to better constrain the geometry of the subducted slab and continental Moho (CMH) and has a trench-parallel resolution doubling the resolution of the previous model. As an example of the potential utility of our model, we compare the geometry of the subducted slab and CMH against the corresponding global models Slab1.0 and Crust2.0, respectively. This exercise demonstrates that, although global models provide a good first-order representation of the slab and upper-plate crustal geometries, they show large discrepancies (up to ±40 km) with our upgraded model for some well-constrained areas. The geometries of the slab, lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary below the continent, CMH and intracrustal density discontinuity that we present here as Supporting Information can be used to study Andean geodynamic processes from a wide range of quantitative approaches.

  9. Comparative anatomy and morphology of Vitis vinifera (Vitaceae) somatic embryos from solid- and liquid-culture-derived proembryogenic masses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayasankar, S; Bondada, Bhaskar R; Li, Zhijian; Gray, D J

    2003-07-01

    Ontogeny of somatic embryos of grapevine (Vitis vinifera) produced from solid- and liquid-culture-derived proembryogenic masses (PEM) was compared using light and scanning electron microscopy. Somatic embryos produced from solid-medium-derived PEM (SPEM) had large cotyledons, little or no visible suspensor structure, and a relatively undeveloped concave shoot apical meristem, whereas those from liquid-medium-derived PEM (LPEM) had smaller cotyledons, a distinct suspensor, and a flat-to-convex shoot apical meristem. The convex shoot apical meristem in LPEM-derived somatic embryos formed as early as the heart stage of development; it was 4-6 cell layers deep and rich in protein. Suspensors persisted in fully developed and mature LPEM-derived somatic embryos. The SPEM-derived somatic embryos exhibited dormancy, as do mature zygotic embryos, which also have a rudimentary suspensor, whereas LPEM-derived embryos were not dormant. We hypothesize that the presence of a persistent suspensor in LPEM-derived somatic embryos modulates development, ultimately resulting in rapid germination and a high plant-regeneration rate.

  10. Distance learning ects and flipped classroom in the anatomy learning: comparative study of the use of augmented reality, video and notes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrer-Torregrosa, Javier; Jiménez-Rodríguez, Miguel Ángel; Torralba-Estelles, Javier; Garzón-Farinós, Fernanda; Pérez-Bermejo, Marcelo; Fernández-Ehrling, Nadia

    2016-09-01

    The establishment of the ECTS (European Credit Transfer System) is one of the pillars of the European Space of Higher Education. This way of accounting for the time spent in training has two essential parts, classroom teaching (work with the professor) and distance learning (work without the professor, whether in an individual or collective way). Much has been published on the distance learning part, but less on the classroom teaching section. In this work, the authors investigate didactic strategies and associated aids for distance learning work in a concept based on flipped classroom where transmitting information is carried out with aids that the professor prepares, so that the student works in an independent way before the classes, thus being able to dedicate the classroom teaching time to more complex learning and being able to count on the professor's help. Three teaching aids applied to the study of anatomy have been compared: Notes with images, videos, and augmented reality. Four dimensions have been compared: the time spent, the acquired learnings, the metacognitive perception, and the prospects of the use of augmented reality for study. The results show the effectiveness, in all aspects, of augmented reality when compared with the rest of aids. The questionnaire assessed the acquired knowledge through a course exam, where 5.60 points were obtained for the notes group, 6.54 for the video group, and 7.19 for the augmented reality group. That is 0.94 more points for the video group compared with the notes and 1.59 more points for the augmented reality group compared with the notes group. This research demonstrates that, although technology has not been sufficiently developed for education, it is expected that it can be improved in both the autonomous work of the student and the academic training of health science students and that we can teach how to learn. Moreover, one can see how the grades of the students who studied with augmented reality are more

  11. Journal of Experimental and Clinical Anatomy

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Journal of Experimental and Clinical Anatomy accepts for publication manuscripts of high standard containing reports of original scientific research in the morphology, mechanical functioning and development of man and animals. The scope the journal embraces articles of human and comparative anatomy, embryology ...

  12. Normal Female Reproductive Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... an inner lining called the endometrium. Normal female reproductive system anatomy. Topics/Categories: Anatomy -- Gynecologic Type: Color, Medical Illustration Source: National Cancer Institute Creator: Terese Winslow (Illustrator) AV Number: CDR609921 Date Created: November 17, 2014 Date Added: ...

  13. Use of 3D Printed Models in Medical Education: A Randomized Control Trial Comparing 3D Prints versus Cadaveric Materials for Learning External Cardiac Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Kah Heng Alexander; Loo, Zhou Yaw; Goldie, Stephen J.; Adams, Justin W.; McMenamin, Paul G.

    2016-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) printing is an emerging technology capable of readily producing accurate anatomical models, however, evidence for the use of 3D prints in medical education remains limited. A study was performed to assess their effectiveness against cadaveric materials for learning external cardiac anatomy. A double blind randomized…

  14. Learning of Cross-Sectional Anatomy Using Clay Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Chang-Seok; Kim, Ji-Young; Choe, Yeon Hyeon

    2009-01-01

    We incorporated clay modeling into gross anatomy and neuro-anatomy courses to help students understand cross-sectional anatomy. By making clay models, cutting them and comparing cut surfaces to CT and MR images, students learned how cross-sectional two-dimensional images were created from three-dimensional structure of human organs. Most students…

  15. Computer assisted surgical anatomy mapping : applications in surgical anatomy research, tailor-made surgery and presonalized teaching

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.L.A. Kerver (Anton)

    2017-01-01

    markdownabstractThis thesis presents a novel anatomy mapping tool named Computer Assisted Surgical Anatomy Mapping (CASAM). It allows researchers to map complex anatomy of multiple specimens and compare their location and course. Renditions such as safe zones or danger zones can be visualized,

  16. Scoliosis convexity and organ anatomy are related.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlösser, Tom P C; Semple, Tom; Carr, Siobhán B; Padley, Simon; Loebinger, Michael R; Hogg, Claire; Castelein, René M

    2017-06-01

    Primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) is a respiratory syndrome in which 'random' organ orientation can occur; with approximately 46% of patients developing situs inversus totalis at organogenesis. The aim of this study was to explore the relationship between organ anatomy and curve convexity by studying the prevalence and convexity of idiopathic scoliosis in PCD patients with and without situs inversus. Chest radiographs of PCD patients were systematically screened for existence of significant lateral spinal deviation using the Cobb angle. Positive values represented right-sided convexity. Curve convexity and Cobb angles were compared between PCD patients with situs inversus and normal anatomy. A total of 198 PCD patients were screened. The prevalence of scoliosis (Cobb >10°) and significant spinal asymmetry (Cobb 5-10°) was 8 and 23%, respectively. Curve convexity and Cobb angle were significantly different within both groups between situs inversus patients and patients with normal anatomy (P ≤ 0.009). Moreover, curve convexity correlated significantly with organ orientation (P scoliosis (8 situs inversus and 8 normal anatomy), except for one case, matching of curve convexity and orientation of organ anatomy was observed: convexity of the curve was opposite to organ orientation. This study supports our hypothesis on the correlation between organ anatomy and curve convexity in scoliosis: the convexity of the thoracic curve is predominantly to the right in PCD patients that were 'randomized' to normal organ anatomy and to the left in patients with situs inversus totalis.

  17. Anatomy of Teaching Anatomy: Do Prosected Cross Sections Improve Students Understanding of Spatial and Radiological Anatomy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. B. Samarakoon

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Cadaveric dissections and prosections have traditionally been part of undergraduate medical teaching. Materials and Methods. Hundred and fifty-nine first-year students in the Faculty of Medicine, University of Colombo, were invited to participate in the above study. Students were randomly allocated to two age and gender matched groups. Both groups were exposed to identical series of lectures regarding anatomy of the abdomen and conventional cadaveric prosections of the abdomen. The test group (n=77, 48.4% was also exposed to cadaveric cross-sectional slices of the abdomen to which the control group (n=82, 51.6% was blinded. At the end of the teaching session both groups were assessed by using their performance in a timed multiple choice question paper as well as ability to identify structures in abdominal CT films. Results. Scores for spatial and radiological anatomy were significantly higher among the test group when compared with the control group (P<0.05, CI 95%. Majority of the students in both control and test groups agreed that cadaveric cross section may be useful for them to understand spatial and radiological anatomy. Conclusion. Introduction of cadaveric cross-sectional prosections may help students to understand spatial and radiological anatomy better.

  18. Anatomy Comic Strips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jin Seo; Kim, Dae Hyun; Chung, Min Suk

    2011-01-01

    Comics are powerful visual messages that convey immediate visceral meaning in ways that conventional texts often cannot. This article's authors created comic strips to teach anatomy more interestingly and effectively. Four-frame comic strips were conceptualized from a set of anatomy-related humorous stories gathered from the authors' collective…

  19. Kant on anatomy and the status of the life sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Michael J

    2016-08-01

    This paper contributes to recent interest in Kant's engagement with the life sciences by focusing on one corner of those sciences that has received comparatively little attention: physical and comparative anatomy. By attending to remarks spread across Kant's writings, we gain some insight into Kant's understanding of the disciplinary limitations but also the methodological sophistication of the study of anatomy and physiology. Insofar as Kant highlights anatomy as a paradigmatic science guided by the principle of teleology in the Critique of the Power of Judgment, a more careful study of Kant's discussions of anatomy promises to illuminate some of the obscurities of that text and of his understanding of the life sciences more generally. In the end, it is argued, Kant's ambivalence with regard to anatomy gives way to a pessimistic conclusion about the possibility that anatomy, natural history, and, by extension, the life sciences more generally might one day become true natural sciences. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. A Review of the Comparative Anatomy, Histology, Physiology and Pathology of the Nasal Cavity of Rats, Mice, Dogs and Non-human Primates. Relevance to Inhalation Toxicology and Human Health Risk Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamanza, R; Wright, J A

    2015-11-01

    There are many significant differences in the structural and functional anatomy of the nasal cavity of man and laboratory animals. Some of the differences may be responsible for the species-specific nasal lesions that are often observed in response to inhaled toxicants. This paper reviews the comparative anatomy, physiology and pathology of the nasal cavity of the rat, mouse, dog, monkey and man, highlighting factors that may influence the distribution of nasal lesions. Gross anatomical variations such as turbinate structure, folds or grooves on nasal walls, or presence or absence of accessory structures, may influence nasal airflow and species-specific uptake and deposition of inhaled material. In addition, interspecies variations in the morphological and biochemical composition and distribution of the nasal epithelium may affect the local tissue susceptibility and play a role in the development of species-specific nasal lesions. It is concluded that, while the nasal cavity of the monkey might be more similar to that of man, each laboratory animal species provides a model that responds in a characteristic and species-specific manner. Therefore for human risk assessment, careful consideration must be given to the anatomical differences between a given animal model and man. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Anatomy of Sarcocaulon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. L. Verhoeven

    1983-11-01

    Full Text Available The anatomy of the leaf blade, petiole, stem and root of the genus Sarcocaulon (DC. Sweet is discussed. On the basis of the leaf anatomy, the four sections recognized by Moffett (1979 can be identified: section Denticulati (dorsiventral leaves, section Multifidi (isobilateral leaves and adaxial and abaxial palisade continuous at midvein, section Crenati (isobilateral leaves, short curved trichomes and glandular hairs, section Sarcocaulon (isobilateral leaves and glandular hairs only. The anatomy of the stem is typically that of a herbaceous dicotyledon with a thick periderm. The root structure shows that the function of the root is not food storage.

  2. Designing anatomy program in modern medical curriculum: matter of balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grković, Ivica; Marinović Guić, Maja; Kosta, Vana; Poljicanin, Ana; Carić, Ana; Vilović, Katarina

    2009-02-01

    To evaluate the structure of the anatomy program in the first year medical curriculum of University of Split School of Medicine by comparing it with the recommendations by the Educational Affairs Committee of the American Association of Clinical Anatomists (AACA) and the Terminologia Anatomica (TA); we also quantitatively evaluated the organization of teaching material in contemporary topographical anatomy textbooks and matched them with the AACA recommendations, TA, and the curriculum of the anatomy course taught at Medical School in Split, Croatia. TA, official recommendations of the AACA, 6 contemporary anatomy textbooks, and the structure of the anatomy course were analyzed for the proportion of the terms or text devoted to standard topographical regions of the body. The findings were correlated using Spearman rho test. The curriculum outline correlated both with the AACA recommendations (Spearman rho=0.83, P=0.015) and TA (Spearman rho=0.73, P=0.046). Textbooks contained 8 distinct sections, 7 allocated to topographic anatomy regions and 1 to general anatomy concepts and principles. The structure of all textbooks correlated significantly with the course curriculum. However, 4 out of 6 textbooks did not correlate with TA and only a single textbook showed significant correlation with the AACA recommendations. Anatomy textbooks vary in the amount of text dedicated to different parts of topographical anatomy and are not quite concordant with curriculum recommendations and standard anatomical terminology. Planning the structure of an anatomy course should not be based on a single book or recommendation but on evidence.

  3. Comparison of a Gross Anatomy Laboratory to Online Anatomy Software for Teaching Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathiowetz, Virgil; Yu, Chih-Huang; Quake-Rapp, Cindee

    2016-01-01

    This study was designed to assess the grades, self-perceived learning, and satisfaction between occupational therapy students who used a gross anatomy laboratory versus online anatomy software (AnatomyTV) as tools to learn anatomy at a large public university and a satellite campus in the mid-western United States. The goal was to determine if…

  4. Comparative anatomy of leaves of Kalanchoe pinnata and K. crenata in sun and shade conditions, as a support for their identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nattacha S. Moreira

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Kalanchoe pinnata (Lam. Pers. and K. crenata (Andrews Haw., Crassulaceae, are popularly used in the treatment of many diseases. Their biological activities, such as anti-leishmaniasis and analgesic, can be useful in phytotherapy. Both species are often misidentified as the other, because of their similar popular uses and names, and the similar external morphology of the leaves. We investigated the existence of anatomical characters that will permit correct identification of the species grown in shade and in sun conditions. We also contribute with new observations on the leaf anatomy of K. pinnata and K. crenata. Fixed (FAA70 leaves were used, and their sections were embedded in Leica historesin. Hydathodes were observed in both species, and for the first time were anatomically described in K. crenata. The species showed anatomical differences in relation to the presence of epidermal idioblasts only in K. crenata, the different pattern of distribution of subepidermal idioblasts, and the presence of leaf buds only in K. pinnata.

  5. Comparative anatomy of leaves of Kalanchoe pinnata and K. crenata in sun and shade conditions, as a support for their identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nattacha S. Moreira

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Kalanchoe pinnata (Lam. Pers. and K. crenata (Andrews Haw., Crassulaceae, are popularly used in the treatment of many diseases. Their biological activities, such as anti-leishmaniasis and analgesic, can be useful in phytotherapy. Both species are often misidentified as the other, because of their similar popular uses and names, and the similar external morphology of the leaves. We investigated the existence of anatomical characters that will permit correct identification of the species grown in shade and in sun conditions. We also contribute with new observations on the leaf anatomy of K. pinnata and K. crenata. Fixed (FAA70 leaves were used, and their sections were embedded in Leica historesin. Hydathodes were observed in both species, and for the first time were anatomically described in K. crenata. The species showed anatomical differences in relation to the presence of epidermal idioblasts only in K. crenata, the different pattern of distribution of subepidermal idioblasts, and the presence of leaf buds only in K. pinnata.

  6. Evaluation of an innovative hands-on anatomy-centered ultrasound curriculum to supplement graduate gross anatomy education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royer, Danielle F; Kessler, Ross; Stowell, Jeffrey R

    2017-07-01

    Ultrasound (US) can enhance anatomy education, yet is incorporated into few non-medical anatomy programs. This study is the first to evaluate the impact of US training in gross anatomy for non-medical students in the United States. All 32 master's students enrolled in gross anatomy with the anatomy-centered ultrasound (ACUS) curriculum were recruited. Mean Likert ratings on pre- and post-course surveys (100% response rates) were compared to evaluate the effectiveness of the ACUS curriculum in developing US confidence, and gauge its impact on views of US. Post-course, students reported significantly higher (P curriculum in students with limited prior experience. Views on the value of US to anatomy education and to students' future careers remained positive after the course. End-of-semester quiz performance (91% response rate) provided data on educational outcomes. The average score was 79%, with a 90% average on questions about distinguishing tissues/artifacts, demonstrating positive learning outcomes and retention. The anatomy-centered ultrasound curriculum significantly increased confidence with and knowledge of US among non-medical anatomy students with limited prior training. Non-medical students greatly value the contributions that US makes to anatomy education and to their future careers. It is feasible to enhance anatomy education outside of medical training by incorporating US. Anat Sci Educ 10: 348-362. © 2016 American Association of Anatomists. © 2016 American Association of Anatomists.

  7. Comparative evaluation of the cadaveric, radiographic and computed tomographic anatomy of the heads of green iguana (Iguana iguana , common tegu ( Tupinambis merianae and bearded dragon ( Pogona vitticeps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banzato Tommaso

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Radiology and computed tomography are the most commonly available diagnostic tools for the diagnosis of pathologies affecting the head and skull in veterinary practice. Nevertheless, accurate interpretation of radiographic and CT studies requires a thorough knowledge of the gross and the cross-sectional anatomy. Despite the increasing success of reptiles as pets, only a few reports over their normal imaging features are currently available. The aim of this study is to describe the normal cadaveric, radiographic and computed tomographic features of the heads of the green iguana, tegu and bearded dragon. Results 6 adult green iguanas, 4 tegus, 3 bearded dragons, and, the adult cadavers of : 4 green iguana, 4 tegu, 4 bearded dragon were included in the study. 2 cadavers were dissected following a stratigraphic approach and 2 cadavers were cross-sectioned for each species. These latter specimens were stored in a freezer (−20°C until completely frozen. Transversal sections at 5 mm intervals were obtained by means of an electric band-saw. Each section was cleaned and photographed on both sides. Radiographs of the head of each subject were obtained. Pre- and post- contrast computed tomographic studies of the head were performed on all the live animals. CT images were displayed in both bone and soft tissue windows. Individual anatomic structures were first recognised and labelled on the anatomic images and then matched on radiographs and CT images. Radiographic and CT images of the skull provided good detail of the bony structures in all species. In CT contrast medium injection enabled good detail of the soft tissues to be obtained in the iguana whereas only the eye was clearly distinguishable from the remaining soft tissues in both the tegu and the bearded dragon. Conclusions The results provide an atlas of the normal anatomical and in vivo radiographic and computed tomographic features of the heads of lizards, and this may be

  8. Comparative evaluation of the cadaveric, radiographic and computed tomographic anatomy of the heads of green iguana (Iguana iguana) , common tegu ( Tupinambis merianae) and bearded dragon ( Pogona vitticeps)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Radiology and computed tomography are the most commonly available diagnostic tools for the diagnosis of pathologies affecting the head and skull in veterinary practice. Nevertheless, accurate interpretation of radiographic and CT studies requires a thorough knowledge of the gross and the cross-sectional anatomy. Despite the increasing success of reptiles as pets, only a few reports over their normal imaging features are currently available. The aim of this study is to describe the normal cadaveric, radiographic and computed tomographic features of the heads of the green iguana, tegu and bearded dragon. Results 6 adult green iguanas, 4 tegus, 3 bearded dragons, and, the adult cadavers of : 4 green iguana, 4 tegu, 4 bearded dragon were included in the study. 2 cadavers were dissected following a stratigraphic approach and 2 cadavers were cross-sectioned for each species. These latter specimens were stored in a freezer (−20°C) until completely frozen. Transversal sections at 5 mm intervals were obtained by means of an electric band-saw. Each section was cleaned and photographed on both sides. Radiographs of the head of each subject were obtained. Pre- and post- contrast computed tomographic studies of the head were performed on all the live animals. CT images were displayed in both bone and soft tissue windows. Individual anatomic structures were first recognised and labelled on the anatomic images and then matched on radiographs and CT images. Radiographic and CT images of the skull provided good detail of the bony structures in all species. In CT contrast medium injection enabled good detail of the soft tissues to be obtained in the iguana whereas only the eye was clearly distinguishable from the remaining soft tissues in both the tegu and the bearded dragon. Conclusions The results provide an atlas of the normal anatomical and in vivo radiographic and computed tomographic features of the heads of lizards, and this may be useful in interpreting any

  9. Comparative skull anatomy of terrestrial and crevice-dwelling Trachylepis skinks (Squamata: Scincidae with a survey of resources in scincid cranial osteology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel J Paluh

    Full Text Available Skinks account for more than 25% of all lizard species; however, representatives of fewer than a quarter of all species have been characterized osteologically. All but a few of the available cranial descriptions concentrate solely on characters that can be seen externally on the intact skull. Mabuyid skinks of the genus Trachylepis are the dominant, fully limbed skinks in Sub-Saharan Africa, and nearly all species have the same generalized body plan. Although a few rock crevice-dwelling species possess slight body depression, extreme dorsoventral depression is observed only in Trachylepis laevis. We investigated the detailed skull anatomy of three Trachylepis skinks (T. laevis, T. sulcata, and T. gonwouoi, a recently described species allied to T. affinis using high-resolution X-ray micro-computed tomography. Our goals were to review the scincid cranial osteology literature in a phylogenetic context, provide a detailed anatomical atlas for the mabuyid lineage, and investigate the morphological adaptations of the highly modified T. laevis. Our results demonstrate that there is significant morphological variation between these three taxa, including the loss and fusion of structures, as well as changes in the shape, scale, and relationship between individual elements. Trachylepis laevis possesses several osteological modifications that have produced a reducton in head depth that are likely functional consequences of extreme rupicolous habits, including a flat skull roof, many strongly recumbent elements, and a depressed neurocranium.We hypothesize these modifications may correspond to descreased bite force and increased capabilities of cranial kinesis. Our study is the first element-by-element description of a skink using computed tomography technology.

  10. Comparative skull anatomy of terrestrial and crevice-dwelling Trachylepis skinks (Squamata: Scincidae) with a survey of resources in scincid cranial osteology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paluh, Daniel J; Bauer, Aaron M

    2017-01-01

    Skinks account for more than 25% of all lizard species; however, representatives of fewer than a quarter of all species have been characterized osteologically. All but a few of the available cranial descriptions concentrate solely on characters that can be seen externally on the intact skull. Mabuyid skinks of the genus Trachylepis are the dominant, fully limbed skinks in Sub-Saharan Africa, and nearly all species have the same generalized body plan. Although a few rock crevice-dwelling species possess slight body depression, extreme dorsoventral depression is observed only in Trachylepis laevis. We investigated the detailed skull anatomy of three Trachylepis skinks (T. laevis, T. sulcata, and T. gonwouoi, a recently described species allied to T. affinis) using high-resolution X-ray micro-computed tomography. Our goals were to review the scincid cranial osteology literature in a phylogenetic context, provide a detailed anatomical atlas for the mabuyid lineage, and investigate the morphological adaptations of the highly modified T. laevis. Our results demonstrate that there is significant morphological variation between these three taxa, including the loss and fusion of structures, as well as changes in the shape, scale, and relationship between individual elements. Trachylepis laevis possesses several osteological modifications that have produced a reducton in head depth that are likely functional consequences of extreme rupicolous habits, including a flat skull roof, many strongly recumbent elements, and a depressed neurocranium.We hypothesize these modifications may correspond to descreased bite force and increased capabilities of cranial kinesis. Our study is the first element-by-element description of a skink using computed tomography technology.

  11. The beauty of anatomy: visual displays and surgical education in early-nineteenth-century London.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkowitz, Carin

    2011-01-01

    The early-nineteenth-century artist, anatomist, and teacher Sir Charles Bell saw anatomy and art as closely related subjects. He taught anatomy to artists and surgeons, illustrated his own anatomical texts, and wrote a treatise on the use of anatomy in art. The author explores the connections among visual displays representing human anatomy, aesthetics, and pedagogical practices for Bell and a particular group of British surgeon-anatomists. Creating anatomical models and drawings was thought to discipline the surgeon's hand, while the study of anatomy and comparative anatomy would discipline the artist's eye. And for Bell, beauty made drawings into better pedagogical tools.

  12. Taxonomic significance of leaf epidermal anatomy of selected ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-06-21

    Jun 21, 2010 ... Taxonomic significance of leaf epidermal anatomy of selected Persicaria Mill. species of family ... characters are comparable over a wide taxonomic range and quite reliable. Comprehensive foliar anatomy .... characteristics of the plants growing in humid conditions. (Stace, 1965; Ayodele and Olwokudejo, ...

  13. Online learning resources in anatomy: What do students think?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, I P; Palmer, E; Burton, J; Brockhouse, M

    2013-07-01

    An interventional cohort comparison study with pretesting and post-testing in semesters 1 and 2 was undertaken of 159 medical students in year 3 of the MMBS course at the University of Adelaide in 2010. The intervention comprised the provision of a number of additional online resources in semester 2. Students' views on online anatomy were also sought by a questionnaire delivered at the end of semesters 1 and 2 and via a small focus group at the end of the study. Anatomy assessment results after the introduction of online anatomy were compared with a total of three control semesters in 2009 and 2010. There was >90% broad agreement before the intervention that wet specimens, tutors and discussions with other students helped students learn anatomy. After the intervention, these views remained, but there was additionally >90% broad agreement that text books helped them learn anatomy, that they had good access to anatomical specimens, and there was less agreement that lectures helped. The intervention left students' views on online anatomy largely unchanged and made no significant difference to summative assessment scores. Focus group discussions revealed that students want anatomy tutors to help direct them to reputable and relevant sites. The provision of more online resources in anatomy did not affect student views or learning outcomes. While students may need help from tutors in selecting appropriate online resources, wet specimens, textbooks, and discussions with tutors and other students remain the preferred means of learning anatomy. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Skull Base Anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Chirag R; Fernandez-Miranda, Juan C; Wang, Wei-Hsin; Wang, Eric W

    2016-02-01

    The anatomy of the skull base is complex with multiple neurovascular structures in a small space. Understanding all of the intricate relationships begins with understanding the anatomy of the sphenoid bone. The cavernous sinus contains the carotid artery and some of its branches; cranial nerves III, IV, VI, and V1; and transmits venous blood from multiple sources. The anterior skull base extends to the frontal sinus and is important to understand for sinus surgery and sinonasal malignancies. The clivus protects the brainstem and posterior cranial fossa. A thorough appreciation of the anatomy of these various areas allows for endoscopic endonasal approaches to the skull base. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Variation in root wood anatomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cutler, D.F.

    1976-01-01

    Variability in the anatomy of root wood of selected specimens particularly Fraxinus excelsior L. and Acer pseudoplatanus L. in the Kew reference microscope slide collection is discussed in relation to generalised statements in the literature on root wood anatomy.

  16. An interactive anatomy dissection DVD

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Sabah, Fadel YS

    2013-01-01

    Anatomy remains the cornerstone of medical education. Human anatomy has not changed, yet our understanding of the topic and the methods by which we teach anatomy continue to evolve. At present lectures, tutorials and human cadaveric dissection in the anatomy room remain central to anatomical education in the Republic of Ireland and throughout many parts of the world. With the emergence of new technologies, new teaching methods can be explored. In-house and on-line teaching of Radiology and...

  17. Synopsis of radiologic anatomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meschan, I.

    1987-01-01

    The book is a compact version of earlier publications that appeared in 1975 as a one- and a two-volume issue under the title 'Atlas of Radiologic Anatomy'. A chapter on computed tomography has been added as this novel technique requires a new approach to radiologic anatomy. The radiologist will find all the information on the anatomic conditions he needs for analysing radiographs and CT pictures. More than 600 radiographs and CT pictures are given that illustrate typical and rare findings. The book also is useful as a source of reference for making good radiographs and evaluating the quality of radiographs or CT pictures. With 1413 figs., 18 tabs [de

  18. Learning Anatomy Enhances Spatial Ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorstenbosch, Marc A. T. M.; Klaassen, Tim P. F. M.; Donders, A. R. T.; Kooloos, Jan G. M.; Bolhuis, Sanneke M.; Laan, Roland F. J. M.

    2013-01-01

    Spatial ability is an important factor in learning anatomy. Students with high scores on a mental rotation test (MRT) systematically score higher on anatomy examinations. This study aims to investigate if learning anatomy also oppositely improves the MRT-score. Five hundred first year students of medicine ("n" = 242, intervention) and…

  19. Learning anatomy enhances spatial ability.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vorstenbosch, M.A.T.M.; Klaassen, T.P.; Donders, A.R.T.; Kooloos, J.G.M.; Bolhuis, S.M.; Laan, R.F.J.M.

    2013-01-01

    Spatial ability is an important factor in learning anatomy. Students with high scores on a mental rotation test (MRT) systematically score higher on anatomy examinations. This study aims to investigate if learning anatomy also oppositely improves the MRT-score. Five hundred first year students of

  20. Porcine Tricuspid Valve Anatomy and Human Compatibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waziri, Farhad; Lyager Nielsen, Sten; Hasenkam, J. Michael

    2016-01-01

    before clinical use. The study aim was to evaluate and compare the tricuspid valve anatomy of porcine and human hearts. METHODS: The anatomy of the tricuspid valve and the surrounding structures that affect the valve during a cardiac cycle were examined in detail in 100 fresh and 19 formalin...... varied greatly (range: 5.2-40.3 mm) and was significantly different in pigs and in humans (12.2 ± 3.2 mm versus 19.2 mm; p animal studies, despite various anatomic differences being noted between porcine...

  1. Anatomy of lead poisoning

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ABEOLUGBENGAS

    Abstract. Objective: Lead poisoning and lead toxicity is usually often interchangeably used by different Scientists. The Anatomy of lead poisoning encompasses its effects on different organ-systems of different species of organisms. It also includes environmental, functional and biochemical components associated with most.

  2. The Anatomy Puzzle Book.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Willis H.; Carter, Robert, III

    This document features review questions, crossword puzzles, and word search puzzles on human anatomy. Topics include: (1) Anatomical Terminology; (2) The Skeletal System and Joints; (3) The Muscular System; (4) The Nervous System; (5) The Eye and Ear; (6) The Circulatory System and Blood; (7) The Respiratory System; (8) The Urinary System; (9) The…

  3. Illustrated Speech Anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shearer, William M.

    Written for students in the fields of speech correction and audiology, the text deals with the following: structures involved in respiration; the skeleton and the processes of inhalation and exhalation; phonation and pitch, the larynx, and esophageal speech; muscles involved in articulation; muscles involved in resonance; and the anatomy of the…

  4. Anatomy for Biomedical Engineers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmichael, Stephen W.; Robb, Richard A.

    2008-01-01

    There is a perceived need for anatomy instruction for graduate students enrolled in a biomedical engineering program. This appeared especially important for students interested in and using medical images. These students typically did not have a strong background in biology. The authors arranged for students to dissect regions of the body that…

  5. Anatomy of the Spine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Osteoporosis Back Pain Basics Book RESOURCES Patient Information Feature Articles Patient Q&A Success Stories Definitions Anatomy of the Spine Definitions A-Z Spine Specialists Videos 9 for Spine Epidural Steroid Injections Exercise: The Backbone of Spine Treatment ... Bones Vertebrae Each individual vertebra has unique features depending on the region in which it is ...

  6. Comparative anatomy of the female genitalia of generic-level taxa in tribe Aedini (Diptera: Culicidae). Part XXXVIII. Genus Petermattinglyius Reinert, Harbach and Kitching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    A comparative, morphological analysis of the female genitalia of species of the genus Petermattinglyius Reinert, Harbach and Kitching was conducted and a composite description is provided. Petermattinglyius is divided into two subgenera, Petermattinglyius and Aglaonotus Reinert, Harbach and Kitchin...

  7. Wood anatomy of the Blakeeae (Melastomataceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koek-Noorman, J.; Hogeweg, P.; Maanen, van W.H.M.; Welle, ter B.J.H.

    1979-01-01

    The present paper deals with the wood anatomy of the Blakeeae (Melastomataceae). Generic descriptions of the secondary xylem of Blakea, Topobea, and Huilaea are given and compared with data on 16 genera of the Miconieae. Numerical pattern detection was undertaken. The results confirm our preliminary

  8. Comparative anatomy of the female genitalia of generic-level taxa in tribe Aedini (Diptera: Culicidae). Part XXXIV. Genus Catageiomyia Theobald

    Science.gov (United States)

    A comparative, morphological analysis of the female genitalia of species included in genus Catageiomyia Theobald was conducted. Treatment of the genital morphology of the genus includes a composite description of the genus, a detailed description and illustration of the type species (Cg. irritans (...

  9. Comparative anatomy of the female genitalia of generic-level taxa in tribe Aedini (Diptera: Culicidae). Part XXXV. Genus Elpeytonius Reinert, Harbach and Kitching

    Science.gov (United States)

    A comparative, morphological analysis of the female genitalia of species included in genus Elpeytonius Reinert, Harbach and Kitching was conducted. The genitalia of the two species included in the genus, El. apicoannulatus (Edwards) and El. simulans (Newstead and Carter), are illustrated. Treatmen...

  10. Comparative anatomy of the female genitalia of generic-level taxa in tribe Aedini (Diptera: Culicidae). Part XXXII. Genus Jarnellius Reinert, Harbach and Kitching

    Science.gov (United States)

    A comparative, morphological analysis of the female genitalia of species included in genus Jarnellius Reinert, Harbach and Kitching was conducted. The female genitalia of the genus are characterized and a comparison with other taxa is provided. The type species of the genus, Ja. varipalpus (Coquil...

  11. Comparative anatomy of the female genitalia of generic-level taxa in tribe Aedini (Diptera: Culicidae). Part XXXVII. Genus Bifidistylus Reinert, Harbach and Kitching

    Science.gov (United States)

    A comparative, morphological analysis of the female genitalia of species included in genus Bifidistylus Reinert, Harbach and Kitching was conducted. Treatment of the genital morphology of the genus includes a composite description of the genus, a detailed description and illustration of the type sp...

  12. A Comparative Study of Cognition and Brain Anatomy between Two Neurodevelopmental Disorders: 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome and Williams Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Linda E.; Stevens, Angela; Daly, Eileen; Toal, Fiona; Azuma, Rayna; Karmiloff-Smith, Annette; Murphy, Declan G. M.; Murphy, Kieran C.

    2009-01-01

    Background: 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS) is associated with intellectual disability, poor social interaction and a high prevalence of psychosis. However, to date there have been no studies comparing cognition and neuroanatomical characteristics of 22q11DS with other syndromes to investigate if the cognitive strengths and difficulties and…

  13. The variability of inner ear orientation in saurischian dinosaurs: testing the use of semicircular canals as a reference system for comparative anatomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Marugán-Lobón

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The vestibular system of the inner ear houses three semicircular canals—oriented on three nearly-orthogonal planes—that respond to angular acceleration stimuli. In recent years, the orientation of the lateral semicircular canal (LSC has been regularly used to determine skull orientations for comparative purposes in studies of non-avian dinosaurs. Such orientations have been inferred based on fixing the LSC to a common set of coordinates (parallel to the Earth’s horizon, given that the orientation to gravity of this sensory system is assumed constant among taxa. Under this assumption, the LSC is used as a baseline (a reference system both to estimate how the animals held their heads and to describe craniofacial variation among dinosaurs. However, the available data in living birds (extant saurischian dinosaurs suggests that the orientation of the LSC in non-avian saurischian dinosaurs could have been very variable and taxon-specific. If such were the case, using the LSC as a comparative reference system would cause inappropriate visual perceptions of craniofacial organization, leading to significant descriptive inconsistencies among taxa. Here, we used Procrustes methods (Geometric Morphometrics, a suite of analytical tools that compares morphology on the basis of shared landmark homology, to show that the variability of LSC relative to skull landmarks is large (ca. 50° and likely unpredictable, thus making it an inconsistent reference system for comparing and describing the skulls of saurischian (sauropodomorph and theropod dinosaurs. In light of our results, the lateral semicircular canal is an inconsistent baseline for comparative studies of craniofacial morphology in dinosaurs.

  14. Comparative leaf and root anatomy of two Dendrobium species (Orchidaceae) from different habitat in relation to their potential adaptation to drought

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metusala, D.; Supriatna, J.; Nisyawati, Sopandie, D.

    2017-07-01

    Dendrobium capra and Dendrobium arcuatum are closely related in phylogeny, but they have very contrasting vegetative morphology and habitats. D. capra is known as a species that is well-adapted to dry lowland teak forest habitat in East Java, where most trees drop their leaves in summer, while D. arcuatum has adapted to mid or high land moist forest at elevation up to 800 m dpl. In order to investigate their potential adaptation to drought stress in the climate change era, we have compared and analyzed the leaf and root anatomical characteristics of both species. Transversal sections were made using hand mini microtome, dehydrated in graded alcohol series and stained with safranin 1 % and fastgreen 1 %. Leaf scraping technique has been used to prepare paradermal sections, and then dehydrated in graded alcohol series and stained with safranin 1 %. Quantitative anatomical characteristics between D. capra and D. arcuatum have been compared using a t-test. The result showed that there were significant differences on anatomical characters between both species. Compared to D. arcuatum, D. capra shows more developed anatomical features for adapting to drought and dry condition. These anatomical features were a thicker cuticle, thicker epidermis, presence of hypodermis, thicker mesophyll, broader primary vascular bundle, well developed xylem's sclerenchyma, lower stomatal density, thicker and high proportion of velamen.

  15. Anatomy of the Spinal Meninges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakka, Laurent; Gabrillargues, Jean; Coll, Guillaume

    2016-06-01

    The spinal meninges have received less attention than the cranial meninges in the literature, although several points remain debatable and poorly understood, like their phylogenesis, their development, and their interactions with the spinal cord. Their constancy among the chordates shows their crucial importance in central nervous system homeostasis and suggests a role far beyond mechanical protection of the neuraxis. This work provides an extensive study of the spinal meninges, from an overview of their phylogenesis and embryology to a descriptive and topographic anatomy with clinical implications. It examines their involvement in spinal cord development, functioning, and repair. This work is a review of the literature using PubMed as a search engine on Medline. The stages followed by the meninges along the phylogenesis could not be easily compared with their development in vertebrates for methodological aspects and convergence processes throughout evolution. The distinction between arachnoid and pia mater appeared controversial. Several points of descriptive anatomy remain debatable: the functional organization of the arterial network, and the venous and lymphatic drainages, considered differently by classical anatomic and neuroradiological approaches. Spinal meninges are involved in neurodevelopment and neurorepair producing neural stem cells and morphogens, in cerebrospinal fluid dynamics and neuraxis functioning by the synthesis of active molecules, and the elimination of waste products of central nervous system metabolism. The spinal meninges should be considered as dynamic functional formations evolving over a lifetime, with ultrastructural features and functional interactions with the neuraxis remaining not fully understood.

  16. Comparative Anatomy of the Hind Limb Vessels of the Bearded Capuchins (Sapajus libidinosus with Apes, Baboons, and Cebus capucinus: With Comments on the Vessels' Role in Bipedalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roqueline A. G. M. F. Aversi-Ferreira

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Capuchin monkeys are known to exhibit sporadic bipedalism while performing specific tasks, such as cracking nuts. The bipedal posture and locomotion cause an increase in the metabolic cost and therefore increased blood supply to lower limbs is necessary. Here, we present a detailed anatomical description of the capuchin arteries and veins of the pelvic limb of Sapajus libidinosus in comparison with other primates. The arterial pattern of the bearded capuchin hind limb is more similar to other quadrupedal Cebus species. Similarities were also found to the pattern observed in the quadruped Papio, which is probably due to a comparable pelvis and the presence of the tail. Sapajus' traits show fewer similarities when compared to great apes and modern humans. Moreover, the bearded capuchin showed unique patterns for the femoral and the short saphenous veins. Although this species switches easily from quadrupedal to bipedal postures, our results indicate that the bearded capuchin has no specific or differential features that support extended bipedal posture and locomotion. Thus, the explanation for the behavioral differences found among capuchin genera probably includes other aspects of their physiology.

  17. Authenticity in Anatomy Art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adkins, Jessica

    2017-01-12

    The aim of this paper is to observe the evolution and evaluate the 'realness' and authenticity in Anatomy Art, an art form I define as one which incorporates accurate anatomical representations of the human body with artistic expression. I examine the art of 17th century wax anatomical models, the preservations of Frederik Ruysch, and Gunther von Hagens' Body Worlds plastinates, giving consideration to authenticity of both body and art. I give extra consideration to the works of Body Worlds since the exhibit creator believes he has created anatomical specimens with more educational value and bodily authenticity than ever before. Ultimately, I argue that von Hagens fails to offer Anatomy Art 'real human bodies,' and that the lack of bodily authenticity of his plastinates results in his creations being less pedagogic than he claims.

  18. Breast development and anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandya, Sonali; Moore, Richard G

    2011-03-01

    In this article, the development of the female breast, as well as the functional anatomy, blood supply, innervation and lymphatic drainage are described. A thorough understanding of the breast anatomy is an important adjunct to a meticulous clinical breast examination. Breast examination is a complex skill involving key maneuvers, including careful inspection and palpation. Clinical breast examination can provide an opportunity for the clinician to educate patients about their breast and about breast cancer, its symptoms, risk factors, early detection, and normal breast composition, and specifically variability. Clinical breast examination can help to detect some cancers not found by mammography, and clinicians should not override their examination findings if imaging is not supportive of the physical findings.

  19. NEEDLE ANATOMY CHANGES WITH INCREASING TREE AGE IN DOUGLAS FIR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morphological differences between old growth and sapling (Pseudotsuga menziesii, (Mirb.) Franco) Douglas fir trees may extend to differences in needle anatomy. We used microscopy with image analysis to compare and quantify anatomical parameters in cross-sections of previous year...

  20. Delaware Anatomy: With Linguistic, Social, and Medical Aspects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Jay

    1977-01-01

    Presents the comprehensive partonomy of anatomy in Unami Lenape or Delaware as provided by a modern Unami specialist. The primary referent is the human body, but some comparative terms referring to animals and plants are also provided. (CHK)

  1. Designing Anatomy Program in Modern Medical Curriculum: Matter of Balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grković, Ivica; Marinović Guić, Maja; Košta, Vana; Poljičanin, Ana; Čarić, Ana; Vilović, Katarina

    2009-01-01

    Aim To evaluate the structure of the anatomy program in the first year medical curriculum of University of Split School of Medicine by comparing it with the recommendations by the Educational Affairs Committee of the American Association of Clinical Anatomists (AACA) and the Terminologia Anatomica (TA); we also quantitatively evaluated the organization of teaching material in contemporary topographical anatomy textbooks and matched them with the AACA recommendations, TA, and the curriculum of the anatomy course taught at Medical School in Split, Croatia. Methods TA, official recommendations of the AACA, 6 contemporary anatomy textbooks, and the structure of the anatomy course were analyzed for the proportion of the terms or text devoted to standard topographical regions of the body. The findings were correlated using Spearman ρ test. Results The curriculum outline correlated both with the AACA recommendations (Spearman ρ = 0.83, P = 0.015) and TA (Spearman ρ = 0.73, P = 0.046). Textbooks contained 8 distinct sections, 7 allocated to topographic anatomy regions and 1 to general anatomy concepts and principles. The structure of all textbooks correlated significantly with the course curriculum. However, 4 out of 6 textbooks did not correlate with TA and only a single textbook showed significant correlation with the AACA recommendations. Conclusion Anatomy textbooks vary in the amount of text dedicated to different parts of topographical anatomy and are not quite concordant with curriculum recommendations and standard anatomical terminology. Planning the structure of an anatomy course should not be based on a single book or recommendation but on evidence. PMID:19260144

  2. Comparison of a gross anatomy laboratory to online anatomy software for teaching anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathiowetz, Virgil; Yu, Chih-Huang; Quake-Rapp, Cindee

    2016-01-01

    This study was designed to assess the grades, self-perceived learning, and satisfaction between occupational therapy students who used a gross anatomy laboratory versus online anatomy software (AnatomyTV) as tools to learn anatomy at a large public university and a satellite campus in the mid-western United States. The goal was to determine if equivalent learning outcomes could be achieved regardless of learning tool used. In addition, it was important to determine why students chose the gross anatomy laboratory over online AnatomyTV. A two group, post-test only design was used with data gathered at the end of the course. Primary outcomes were students' grades, self-perceived learning, and satisfaction. In addition, a survey was used to collect descriptive data. One cadaver prosection was available for every four students in the gross anatomy laboratory. AnatomyTV was available online through the university library. At the conclusion of the course, the gross anatomy laboratory group had significantly higher grade percentage, self-perceived learning, and satisfaction than the AnatomyTV group. However, the practical significance of the difference is debatable. The significantly greater time spent in gross anatomy laboratory during the laboratory portion of the course may have affected the study outcomes. In addition, some students may find the difference in (B+) versus (A-) grade as not practically significant. Further research needs to be conducted to identify what specific anatomy teaching resources are most effective beyond prosection for students without access to a gross anatomy laboratory. © 2015 American Association of Anatomists.

  3. Introduction to anatomy on Wikipedia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledger, Thomas Stephen

    2017-09-01

    Wikipedia (www.wikipedia.com) is the largest encyclopaedia in existence. Of over five million English-language articles, about 6000 relate to Anatomy, which are viewed roughly 30 million times monthly. No work parallels the amount of attention, scope or interdisciplinary layout of Wikipedia, and it offers a unique opportunity to improve the anatomical literacy of the masses. Anatomy on Wikipedia is introduced from an editor's perspective. Article contributors, content, layout and accuracy are discussed, with a view to demystifying editing for anatomy professionals. A final request for edits or on-site feedback from anatomy professionals is made. © 2017 Anatomical Society.

  4. Who Is Repeating Anatomy? Trends in an Undergraduate Anatomy Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schutte, Audra F.

    2016-01-01

    Anatomy courses frequently serve as prerequisites or requirements for health sciences programs. Due to the challenging nature of anatomy, each semester there are students remediating the course (enrolled in the course for a second time), attempting to earn a grade competitive for admissions into a program of study. In this retrospective study,…

  5. Surgical anatomy of the profunda brachii artery | Pulei | Anatomy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Knowledge of this unusual anatomy is important during brachial artery catheterization and harvesting of lateral arm flaps. One hundred and forty four arms from 72 cadavers of black Kenyans were dissected and examined for the origin and termination of PBA at the Department of Human Anatomy, University of Nairobi, ...

  6. Comparative anatomy, nutraceutical potentials and heavy metal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the anatomical features, nutraceutical potentials and heavy metal compositions in two varieties of Lasianthera africana (P. Beauv) which is a member of the family Icacinaceae predominantly found mostly in southern Nigeria. The anatomical studies were carried out with free hand sectioning using a ...

  7. Comparative anatomy of phagocytic and immunological synapses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florence eNiedergang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The generation of phagocytic cups and immunological synapses are crucial events of the innate and adaptive immune responses, respectively. They are triggered by distinct immune receptors and performed by different cell types. However, growing experimental evidence shows that a very close series of molecular and cellular events control these two processes. Thus, the tight and dynamic interplay between receptor signaling, actin and microtubule cytoskeleton, and targeted vesicle traffic are all critical features to build functional phagosomes and immunological synapses. Interestingly, both phagocytic cups and immunological synapses display particular spatial and temporal patterns of receptors and signaling molecules, leading to the notion of phagocytic synapse. Here we discuss both types of structures, their organization and the mechanisms by which they are generated and regulated.

  8. Health Instruction Packages: Cardiac Anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Gwen; And Others

    Text, illustrations, and exercises are utilized in these five learning modules to instruct nurses, students, and other health care professionals in cardiac anatomy and functions and in fundamental electrocardiographic techniques. The first module, "Cardiac Anatomy and Physiology: A Review" by Gwen Phillips, teaches the learner to draw…

  9. Archives: Anatomy Journal of Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 13 of 13 ... Archives: Anatomy Journal of Africa. Journal Home > Archives: Anatomy Journal of Africa. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives. 1 - 13 of 13 Items. 2017 ...

  10. CONTRIBUTIONS OF SUSHRUTA TO ANATOMY

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2005-08-08

    Aug 8, 2005 ... Probably, the exhaustive knowledge of basic sciences he had would have made him a versatile surgeon. This article has compiled the contributions of this great stalwart to anatomy and interprets his perspective towards teaching this subject. Keywords: Sushruta, Dissection, Cadaver, Anatomy, Preservation.

  11. Re-living anatomy: medical student use of lecture capture

    OpenAIRE

    Diss, L; Sharp, A; Scott, F; Moore, L; Daniel, P; Memon, S; Smith, C

    2017-01-01

    Lecture capture resources have become common place within UK Higher education to enhance and support learning in addition to the tradition lecture. These resources can be particularly useful for medical students in anatomy teaching where time dedicated to anatomy within the curriculum has been reduced compared to previous generations(1).\\ud \\ud This study aimed to investigate how lecture capture aided student learning Qualitative feedback was also collected in view to further improve the reso...

  12. Is Student Knowledge of Anatomy Affected by a Problem-Based Learning Approach? A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, Jonathan M.

    2014-01-01

    A fundamental understanding of anatomy is critical for students on many health science courses. It has been suggested that a problem-based approach to learning anatomy may result in deficits in foundation knowledge. The aim of this review is to compare traditional didactic methods with problem-based learning methods for obtaining anatomy knowledge. A Medline search was completed and studies needed to investigate the effects of a problem-based learning method compared with an alternate method ...

  13. The quail anatomy portal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruparelia, Avnika A; Simkin, Johanna E; Salgado, David; Newgreen, Donald F; Martins, Gabriel G; Bryson-Richardson, Robert J

    2014-01-01

    The Japanese quail is a widely used model organism for the study of embryonic development; however, anatomical resources are lacking. The Quail Anatomy Portal (QAP) provides 22 detailed three-dimensional (3D) models of quail embryos during development from embryonic day (E)1 to E15 generated using optical projection tomography. The 3D models provided can be virtually sectioned to investigate anatomy. Furthermore, using the 3D nature of the models, we have generated a tool to assist in the staging of quail samples. Volume renderings of each stage are provided and can be rotated to allow visualization from multiple angles allowing easy comparison of features both between stages in the database and between images or samples in the laboratory. The use of JavaScript, PHP and HTML ensure the database is accessible to users across different operating systems, including mobile devices, facilitating its use in the laboratory.The QAP provides a unique resource for researchers using the quail model. The ability to virtually section anatomical models throughout development provides the opportunity for researchers to virtually dissect the quail and also provides a valuable tool for the education of students and researchers new to the field. DATABASE URL: http://quail.anatomyportal.org (For review username: demo, password: quail123).

  14. Anatomy education in occupational therapy curricula: Perspectives of practitioners in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schofield, Katherine A

    2017-08-30

    The study of human anatomy is an integral component in the education of future occupational therapists, yet there is a paucity of research that explores the anatomy needs of students and new practitioners. As a follow up from a pilot study that surveyed a small cohort of practicing therapists, this article aimed to determine occupational therapy (OT) practitioners' views on anatomy course structure and content deemed important to include in OT curricula, entry level practitioners' anatomy knowledge, and application of anatomy in current practice. A Likert scale and free text questionnaire was distributed to practicing occupational therapists across the United States. Fifty-four percent of the participants in this cohort favored a standalone course, as compared to 94% in the pilot study group. Anatomy course content areas were comparable across groups. Systems identified as essential to cover in an OT anatomy course included skeletal, muscular, and nervous. Regions included the upper limb, thorax/trunk, head and neck, and lower limb. Seventy percent of participants in both groups felt that entry-level practitioners had adequate anatomy knowledge; 30% did not. Practice areas requiring anatomy knowledge included assessment of joint movement, muscle strength, pain, and functional mobility. Qualitative analysis of free text response data revealed the importance of anatomy knowledge in OT assessment and intervention strategies, determining the impact of injury or disease on occupational performance, client safety, and communication with other health care professionals and families. Anat Sci Educ. © 2017 American Association of Anatomists. © 2017 American Association of Anatomists.

  15. Anatomy Journal of Africa: Editorial Policies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This journal has its editorial office based at the department of Human Anatomy, University of Nairobi, and has biannual issues (January and July issues). We accept and publish a wide variety of papers including: - Applied anatomy - Clinical anatomy - Morphology, - Embryology - Anatomical techniques and Variant anatomy.

  16. The Anatomy of Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Onofrio, Mauro; Rampazzo, Roberto; Zaggia, Simone; Longair, Malcolm S.; Ferrarese, Laura; Marziani, Paola; Sulentic, Jack W.; van der Kruit, Pieter C.; Laurikainen, Eija; Elmegreen, Debra M.; Combes, Françoise; Bertin, Giuseppe; Fabbiano, Giuseppina; Giovanelli, Riccardo; Calzetti, Daniela; Moss, David L.; Matteucci, Francesca; Djorgovski, Stanislav George; Fraix-Burnet, Didier; Graham, Alister W. McK.; Tully, Brent R.

    Just after WWII Astronomy started to live its "Golden Age", not differently to many other sciences and human activities, especially in the west side countries. The improved resolution of telescopes and the appearance of new efficient light detectors (e.g. CCDs in the middle eighty) greatly impacted the extragalactic researches. The first morphological analysis of galaxies were rapidly substituted by "anatomic" studies of their structural components, star and gas content, and in general by detailed investigations of their properties. As for the human anatomy, where the final goal was that of understanding the functionality of the organs that are essential for the life of the body, galaxies were dissected to discover their basic structural components and ultimately the mystery of their existence.

  17. Blended learning in anatomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Gert Værge; Brogner, Heidi Marie

    behind DBR is that new knowledge is generated through processes that simultaneously develop, test and improve a design, in this case, an educational design (1) The main principles used in the project is blended learning and flipped learning (2). …"I definitely learn best in practice, but the theory...... in working with the assignments in the classroom."... External assesor, observer and interviewer Based on the different evaluations, the conclusion are that the blended learning approach combined with the ‘flipped classroom’ is a very good way to learn and apply the anatomy, both for the students......The aim of the project was to bridge the gap between theory and practice by working more collaboratively, both peer-to-peer and between student and lecturer. Furthermore the aim was to create active learning environments. The methodology of the project is Design-Based Research (DBR). The idea...

  18. Leaf anatomy of a late Palaeozoic cycad

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Yong; Guo, Yun; Wei, Hai-Bo

    2017-01-01

    Today, cycads are a small group of gymnospermous plants with a limited distribution in the (sub)tropics, but they were major constituents of Mesozoic floras. Fossil leaves sporadically found in latest Carboniferous and Permian floras have putatively been ascribed to cycads. However, their true affinity remains unclear due to the lack of anatomical evidence. Virtually all modern cycads have pinnate leaves, but this type of leaf morphology is by no means unique for cycads. Pinnate leaves of Plagiozamites oblongifolius Halle 1927 with well-preserved cuticles showing the epidermal anatomy are here described from the upper Permian Xuanwei Formation of Yunnan Province, Southwest China. The cuticles show a clear differentiation into costal and intercostal zones; stomata are confined to the intercostal zones on both the upper and lower leaf surfaces. The external morphology and the epidermal anatomy of these fossil leaves are closely comparable with those of extant cycads, particularly members of the family Zamiaceae. PMID:29093177

  19. Leaf anatomy of a late Palaeozoic cycad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Zhuo; Lv, Yong; Guo, Yun; Wei, Hai-Bo; Kerp, Hans

    2017-11-01

    Today, cycads are a small group of gymnospermous plants with a limited distribution in the (sub)tropics, but they were major constituents of Mesozoic floras. Fossil leaves sporadically found in latest Carboniferous and Permian floras have putatively been ascribed to cycads. However, their true affinity remains unclear due to the lack of anatomical evidence. Virtually all modern cycads have pinnate leaves, but this type of leaf morphology is by no means unique for cycads. Pinnate leaves of Plagiozamites oblongifolius Halle 1927 with well-preserved cuticles showing the epidermal anatomy are here described from the upper Permian Xuanwei Formation of Yunnan Province, Southwest China. The cuticles show a clear differentiation into costal and intercostal zones; stomata are confined to the intercostal zones on both the upper and lower leaf surfaces. The external morphology and the epidermal anatomy of these fossil leaves are closely comparable with those of extant cycads, particularly members of the family Zamiaceae. © 2017 The Authors.

  20. VISUALIZATION OF REGISTERED SUBSURFACE ANATOMY

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2010-01-01

    A system and method for visualization of subsurface anatomy includes obtaining a first image from a first camera and a second image from a second camera or a second channel of the first camera, where the first and second images contain shared anatomical structures. The second camera and the second...... channel of the first camera are capable of imaging anatomy beneath the surface in ultra-violet, visual, or infra-red spectrum. A data processor is configured for computing registration of the first image to the second image to provide visualization of subsurface anatomy during surgical procedures...

  1. Editorial: Anatomy Journal Of Africa | Kramer | Anatomy Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Anatomy Journal of Africa. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 2, No 2 (2013) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  2. A radiographic study of pediatric ulnar anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cravino, Mattia; Oni, Julius K; Sala, Debra A; Chu, Alice

    2014-01-01

    The adult ulna has a unique bony architecture that has been described in the literature, but, to the best of our knowledge, the ulnar anatomy in children has not been described. We examined 75 anteroposterior (AP) and 64 lateral radiographs (29 were bilateral) of 50, 0.5- to 11-year-old, healthy children's forearms. On AP radiographs, the total ulnar length, the ulnar proximal angle, the ulnar distal angle, and the distance between each angle from the tip of the triceps insertion; and, on lateral radiographs, the ulnar length and bow deviation were measured. The correlation between age and radiographic measurements, differences based on sex, differences compared with adults' measurements, and interobserver/intraobserver reliability were assessed. Age had a very strong/strong positive correlation with length/distance measurements on both AP and lateral radiographs. Only AP ulnar distal angle was significantly different between sexes (females > males). Compared with the adult ulnar studies, the AP proximal angle in children is significantly smaller and the location of this angle is significantly more distal. Interobserver and intraobserver reliability were very good for length/distance measurements on AP and lateral radiographs. The knowledge of pediatric ulnar anatomy could be helpful in the treatment of forearm deformities due to multiple hereditary exostosis and osteogenesis imperfecta, and in the treatment of ulnar fractures, particularly in Monteggia variants, where restoration of the correct forearm anatomy is essential to obtain good clinical and functional results. Study of diagnostic test, Level II.

  3. Learning anatomy through Thiel- vs. formalin-embalmed cadavers: Student perceptions of embalming methods and effect on functional anatomy knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennel, Larissa; Martin, David M A; Shaw, Hannah; Wilkinson, Tracey

    2018-03-01

    Thiel-embalmed cadavers, which have been adopted for use in anatomy teaching in relatively few universities, show greater flexibility and color retention compared to formalin-embalmed cadavers, properties which might be considered advantageous for anatomy teaching. This study aimed to investigate student attitudes toward the dissection experience with Thiel- compared to formalin/ethanol-embalmed cadavers. It also aimed to determine if one embalming method is more advantageous in terms of learning functional anatomy through the comparison of student anterior forearm functional anatomy knowledge. Student opinions and functional anatomy knowledge were obtained through use of a questionnaire from students at two medical schools, one using Thiel-, and one using more traditional formalin/ethanol-embalmed cadavers. Both the Thiel group and the formalin group of students were surveyed shortly after completing an anterior forearm dissection session. Significant differences (P-values <0.01) in some attitudes were found toward the dissection experience between cohorts using Thiel- vs. formalin-embalmed cadavers. The Thiel group of students felt more confident about recognizing anatomy in the living individual, found it easier to identify and dissect anatomical structures, and indicated more active exploration of functional anatomy due to the retained flexibility of the cadaver. However, on testing, no significant difference in functional anatomy knowledge was found between the two cohorts. Overall, although Thiel embalming may provide an advantageous learning experience in some investigated areas, more research needs to be carried out, especially to establish whether student perception is based on reality, at least in terms of structure identification. Anat Sci Educ 11: 166-174. © 2017 American Association of Anatomists. © 2017 American Association of Anatomists.

  4. PERCEPTIONS REGARDING THE INTEGRATED HUMAN ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY COURSE AMONG UNDERGRADUATE PHARMACY STUDENTS

    OpenAIRE

    Joan Bryant*1, Manjunatha Goud BK2, Anand Srinivasan3 and Vijayalakshmi SB3

    2016-01-01

    Human Anatomy and Physiology is an important core component for all allied healthcare professional education. At our university, we offer an integrated Human Anatomy and Physiology course (HAP) to the first year Pharmacy students. The main objective of this study was to ascertain and compare Pharmacy undergraduate students’ opinions and attitudes towards the integrated course of human anatomy and physiology. A pre-validated questionnaire was given to students of first year pharmacy at ...

  5. Human Cadavers vs. Multimedia Simulation: A Study of Student Learning in Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saltarelli, Andrew J.; Roseth, Cary J.; Saltarelli, William A.

    2014-01-01

    Multimedia and simulation programs are increasingly being used for anatomy instruction, yet it remains unclear how learning with these technologies compares with learning with actual human cadavers. Using a multilevel, quasi-experimental-control design, this study compared the effects of "Anatomy and Physiology Revealed" (APR) multimedia…

  6. Generative Anatomy Modeling Language (GAML).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirel, Doga; Yu, Alexander; Baer-Cooper, Seth; Halic, Tansel; Bayrak, Coskun

    2017-12-01

    This paper presents the Generative Anatomy Modeling Language (GAML) for generating variation of 3D virtual human anatomy in real-time. This framework provides a set of operators for modification of a reference base 3D anatomy. The perturbation of the 3D models is satisfied with nonlinear geometry constraints to create an authentic human anatomy. GAML was used to create 3D difficult anatomical scenarios for virtual simulation of airway management techniques such as Endotracheal Intubation (ETI) and Cricothyroidotomy (CCT). Difficult scenarios for each technique were defined and the model variations procedurally created with GAML. This study presents details of the GAML design, set of operators, types of constraints. Cases of CCT and ETI difficulty were generated and confirmed by expert surgeons. Execution performance pertaining to an increasing complexity of constraints using nonlinear programming was in real-time execution. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Olfaction: anatomy, physiology and behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Benignus, Vernon A.; Prah, James D.

    1982-01-01

    The anatomy, physiology and function of the olfactory system are reviewed, as are the normal effects of olfactory stimulation. It is speculated that olfaction may have important but unobtrusive effects on human behavior.

  8. Skeletal anatomy of the hand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panchal-Kildare, Surbhi; Malone, Kevin

    2013-11-01

    The skeletal anatomy of the hand is composed of phalanges, metacarpal bones, and carpal bones. Its function is a product of the complex interactions between the power provided by the intrinsic and extrinsic musculature, the stability provided by the ligaments, and the structure provided by the bones, which serve as insertion and attachment sites for the muscles and ligaments. This article provides a detailed description of the skeletal anatomy of the human hand. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. The name cranial ovarian suspensory ligaments in mammalian anatomy should be used only to indicate the structures derived from the foetal cranial mesonephric and gonadal ligaments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P. van der Schoot (P.)

    1993-01-01

    textabstractThe term ovarian suspensory ligament appears ambiguous when human adult anatomy textbooks are compared with human embryology or with general mammalian anatomy textbooks. The term ovarian suspensory ligament in laboratory rodents and domestic animals indicates homologous structures during

  10. Penile Embryology and Anatomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny H. Yiee

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge of penile embryology and anatomy is essential to any pediatric urologist in order to fully understand and treat congenital anomalies. Sex differentiation of the external genitalia occurs between the 7thand 17th weeks of gestation. The Y chromosome initiates male differentiation through the SRY gene, which triggers testicular development. Under the influence of androgens produced by the testes, external genitalia then develop into the penis and scrotum. Dorsal nerves supply penile skin sensation and lie within Buck's fascia. These nerves are notably absent at the 12 o'clock position. Perineal nerves supply skin sensation to the ventral shaft skin and frenulum. Cavernosal nerves lie within the corpora cavernosa and are responsible for sexual function. Paired cavernosal, dorsal, and bulbourethral arteries have extensive anastomotic connections. During erection, the cavernosal artery causes engorgement of the cavernosa, while the deep dorsal artery leads to glans enlargement. The majority of venous drainage occurs through a single, deep dorsal vein into which multiple emissary veins from the corpora and circumflex veins from the spongiosum drain. The corpora cavernosa and spongiosum are all made of spongy erectile tissue. Buck's fascia circumferentially envelops all three structures, splitting into two leaves ventrally at the spongiosum. The male urethra is composed of six parts: bladder neck, prostatic, membranous, bulbous, penile, and fossa navicularis. The urethra receives its blood supply from both proximal and distal directions.

  11. The Relative Effectiveness of Computer-Based and Traditional Resources for Education in Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khot, Zaid; Quinlan, Kaitlyn; Norman, Geoffrey R.; Wainman, Bruce

    2013-01-01

    There is increasing use of computer-based resources to teach anatomy, although no study has compared computer-based learning to traditional. In this study, we examine the effectiveness of three formats of anatomy learning: (1) a virtual reality (VR) computer-based module, (2) a static computer-based module providing Key Views (KV), (3) a plastic…

  12. Is Student Knowledge of Anatomy Affected by a Problem-Based Learning Approach? A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Jonathan M.

    2014-01-01

    A fundamental understanding of anatomy is critical for students on many health science courses. It has been suggested that a problem-based approach to learning anatomy may result in deficits in foundation knowledge. The aim of this review is to compare traditional didactic methods with problem-based learning methods for obtaining anatomy…

  13. Papilian's anatomy - celebrating six decades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumitraşcu, Dinu Iuliu; Crivii, Carmen Bianca; Opincariu, Iulian

    2017-01-01

    Victor Papilian was born an artist, during high school he studied music in order to become a violinist in two professional orchestras in Bucharest. Later on he enrolled in the school of medicine, being immediately attracted by anatomy. After graduating, with a briliant dissertation, he became a member of the faculty and continued to teach in his preferred field. His masters, Gh. Marinescu and Victor Babes, proposed him for the position of professor at the newly established Faculty of Medicine of Cluj. Here he reorganized the department radically, created an anatomy museum and edited the first dissection handbook and the first Romanian anatomy (descriptive and topographic) treatise, both books received with great appreciation. He received the Romanian Academy Prize. His knowledge and skills gained him a well deserved reputation and he created a prestigious school of anatomy. He published over 250 scientific papers in national and international journals, ranging from morphology to functional, pathological and anthropological topics. He founded the Society of Anthropology, with its own newsletter; he was elected as a member of the French Society of Anatomy. In parallel he had a rich artistic and cultural activity as writer and playwright: he was president of the Transylvanian Writers' Society, editor of a literary review, director of the Cluj theater and opera, leader of a book club and founder of a symphony orchestra.

  14. The role of radiology in anatomy teaching in UK medical schools: a national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadler, T J; Zhang, T; Taylor, H L; Brassett, C

    2018-02-01

    To investigate the current use of radiology in anatomy teaching across the UK, and to determine the level of interest expressed in expanding its role in medical education. A 22-question electronic survey was distributed to the organisers of anatomy teaching at 35 UK medical schools. The questionnaire explored the use of radiology in their anatomy course, the different kinds of available resources, and attitudes towards integrating radiology into anatomy teaching. Responses were received from 29/35 (83%) medical schools. Among the respondents, radiological anatomy featured in all but one of their curricula. Of those schools using radiology to aid anatomy teaching, 20/28 expressed a wish for more radiology in the curriculum. Timetabling constraints constituted one of the main difficulties in further implementation. In addition, 22/28 medical schools had already fostered collaborative links with local radiology departments, with 18 of these expressing a wish for further cooperation. Of the remaining six schools without current collaboration, four would like to establish connections. Compared with previous studies, this national survey shows a definite increase in radiological anatomy in medical school curricula with a stronger presence of radiologists in anatomy teaching. Despite this, most anatomy departments still express a desire to increase the radiological component in their courses. Copyright © 2017 The Royal College of Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Patient specific anatomy: the new area of anatomy based on computer science illustrated on liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soler, Luc; Mutter, Didier; Pessaux, Patrick; Marescaux, Jacques

    2015-01-01

    Over the past century, medical imaging has brought a new revolution: internal anatomy of a patient could be seen without any invasive technique. This revolution has highlighted the two main limits of current anatomy: the anatomical description is physician dependent, and the average anatomy is more and more frequently insufficient to describe anatomical variations. These drawbacks can sometimes be so important that they create mistakes but they can be overcome through the use of 3D patient-specific surgical anatomy. In this article, we propose to illustrate such improvement of standard anatomy on liver. We first propose a general scheme allowing to easily compare the four main liver anatomical descriptions by Takasaki, Goldsmith and Woodburne, Bismuth and Couinaud. From this general scheme we propose four rules to apply in order to correct these initial anatomical definitions. Application of these rules allows to correct usual vascular topological mistakes of standard anatomy. We finally validate such correction on a database of 20 clinical cases compared to the 111 clinical cases of a Couinaud article. Out of the 20 images of the database, we note a revealing difference in 14 cases (70%) on at least one important branch of the portal network. Only six cases (30%) do not present a revealing difference between both labellings. We also show that the right portal fissure location on our 20 cases defined between segment V and VI of our anatomical definition is well correlated with the real position described by Couinaud on 111 cases, knowing that the theoretical position was only found in 46 cases out of 111, i.e., 41.44% of cases with the non-corrected Couinaud definition. We have proposed a new anatomical segmentation of the liver based on four main rules to apply in order to correct topological errors of the four main standard segmentations. Our validation clearly illustrates that this new definition corrects the large amount of mistakes created by the current

  16. Neurovascular anatomy: a practical guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Randy; Severson, Meryl A; Armonda, Rocco A

    2009-07-01

    Students of cerebrovascular anatomy and physiology tend to model their learning based on normal patterns of blood flow. As such, the focus tends toward arterial physiology and pathology with less than adequate understanding of the significance of the venous system. This article presents a different approach to neurovascular anatomy, starting with the venous system and demonstrating both normal and pathologic states. It reviews the cerebral circulation with attention to the microsurgical relationships, angiographic patterns, and fusion of dual-volume imaging. The importance of bony, sulcal, and ventricular anatomy is presented as it relates to the angiographic representation of pathologic lesions. Examples are given of anatomic variants seen with the operating microscope, biplanar angiography, and three-dimensional rotational angiography." Note that in the synopsis and throughout the article, first person usage has been changed to third person per journal style.

  17. Anatomy of a Cancer Treatment Scam

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for Comment Report An Antitrust Violation File Documents in Adjudicative Proceedings You are here Home » News & Events » Audio/Video » Anatomy of a Cancer Treatment Scam Anatomy of a Cancer Treatment Scam ...

  18. Pocket atlas of radiographic anatomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moeller, T.B.; Reif, E.; Stark, P.

    1993-01-01

    The 'Pocket Atlas of Radiographic Anatomy' presents 170 radiographs of the various body regions of adults, showing only the normal radiographic anatomy. Each radiograph is supplemented on the opposite page by a drawing of the particular body region. There is no commenting text, but the drawings are provided with captions in English. The atlas is a useful guide for interpreting radiographs. The pictures are arranged in chapters entitled as follows: Skeletal Imaging (skull, spine, upper extremity), lower extremity; Miscellaneous Plain Films (chest, mammogram, trachea, lung tomograms); Contrast Examinations (gastrointestinal tract, intravenous contrast examinations, arthrography, angiography); Special Examinations (myelograms, lymphangiograms, bronchograms, sialograms). (UWA). 348 figs [de

  19. Clinical anatomy research in a research-driven anatomy department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, D Gareth; Dias, G J; Mercer, S; Zhang, M; Nicholson, H D

    2002-05-01

    Clinical anatomy is too often viewed as a discipline that reiterates the wisdom of the past, characterized more by description of what is known than by active investigation and critical analysis of hypotheses and ideas. Various misconceptions follow from an acceptance of this premise: the teaching of clinical anatomists is textbook based, there is no clinical anatomy research worthy of the name, and any research that does exist fails to utilize modern technology and does not stand comparison with serious biomedical research as found in cell and molecular biology. The aim of this paper is to challenge each of these contentions by reference to ongoing clinical research studies within this department. It is argued that all teaching (including that of clinical anatomy) should be research-informed and that the discipline of clinical anatomy should have at its base a vigorous research ethos driven by clinically related problems. In interacting with physicians, the role of the clinical anatomist should be to promulgate a questioning scientific spirit, with its willingness to test and challenge accepted anatomic dicta. Copyright 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  20. 3D virtual table in anatomy education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Mads Ronald; Simonsen, Eivind Ortind

    The ‘Anatomage’ is a 3D virtual human anatomy table, with touchscreen functionality, where it is possible to upload CT-scans and digital. Learning the human anatomy terminology requires time, a very good memory, anatomy atlas, books and lectures. Learning the 3 dimensional structure, connections...... and intersections can be supported by technology like the Anatomage....

  1. COMPAR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuefner, K.

    1976-01-01

    COMPAR works on FORTRAN arrays with four indices: A = A(i,j,k,l) where, for each fixed k 0 ,l 0 , only the 'plane' [A(i,j,k 0 ,l 0 ), i = 1, isub(max), j = 1, jsub(max)] is held in fast memory. Given two arrays A, B of this type COMPAR has the capability to 1) re-norm A and B ind different ways; 2) calculate the deviations epsilon defined as epsilon(i,j,k,l): =[A(i,j,k,l) - B(i,j,k,l)] / GEW(i,j,k,l) where GEW (i,j,k,l) may be chosen in three different ways; 3) calculate mean, standard deviation and maximum in the array epsilon (by several intermediate stages); 4) determine traverses in the array epsilon; 5) plot these traverses by a printer; 6) simplify plots of these traverses by the PLOTEASY-system by creating input data blocks for this system. The main application of COMPAR is given (so far) by the comparison of two- and three-dimensional multigroup neutron flux-fields. (orig.) [de

  2. The anatomy and physiology of the avian endocrine system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritchie, Midge; Pilny, Anthony A

    2008-01-01

    The endocrine system of birds is comparable to that of mammals, although there are many unique aspects to consider when studying the anatomy, physiology, and biochemistry. Avian endocrinology is a field of veterinary medicine that is unfamiliar to many practitioners; however, it is important to have a comprehensive understanding when evaluating companion birds in clinical practice. This article covers the anatomy and physiology of the normal avian, and readers are referred to other articles for a more detailed explanation of altered physiology and pathology.

  3. Novel application of rapid prototyping for simulation of bronchoscopic anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bustamante, Sergio; Bose, Somnath; Bishop, Paul; Klatte, Ryan; Norris, Frederick

    2014-08-01

    The authors used rapid prototyping (RP) technology to create anatomically congruent models of tracheo-bronchial tree for teaching relevant bronchoscopic anatomy. Pilot study. A single level tertiary academic medical center. Two 3 dimensional (3D) models of tracheo-bronchial tree (one showing normal anatomy and another with an early take off of right apical bronchus) were recreated from Computed Tomographic images using RP technology. These images were then attached to mannequins and examined with a flexible fiberoptic bronchoscope (FFB). These images were then compared with the actual FFB images obtained during lung isolation. The images obtained through the 3D models were found to be congruent to actual patient anatomy. RP can be successfully used to create anatomically accurate models from imaging studies. There is potential for RP to become a valuable educational tool in the future. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Anatomy of the thymus gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safieddine, Najib; Keshavjee, Shaf

    2011-05-01

    In the case of the thymus gland, the most common indications for resection are myasthenia gravis or thymoma. The consistency and appearance of the thymus gland make it difficult at times to discern from mediastinal fatty tissues. Having a clear understanding of the anatomy and the relationship of the gland to adjacent structures is important. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. DAGAL: Detailed Anatomy of Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapen, Johan H.

    2017-03-01

    The current IAU Symposium is closely connected to the EU-funded network DAGAL (Detailed Anatomy of Galaxies), with the final annual network meeting of DAGAL being at the core of this international symposium. In this short paper, we give an overview of DAGAL, its training activities, and some of the scientific advances that have been made under its umbrella.

  6. Curriculum Guidelines for Microscopic Anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journal of Dental Education, 1993

    1993-01-01

    The American Association of Dental Schools' guidelines for curricula in microscopic anatomy offer an overview of the histology curriculum, note primary educational goals, outline specific content for general and oral histology, suggest prerequisites, and make recommendations for sequencing. Appropriate faculty and facilities are also suggested.…

  7. Soul Anatomy: A virtual cadaver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moaz Bambi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the traditional science of medicine and medical education, teaching human anatomy in the class has always been done using human cadavers. Not only does this violate human sanctity, but according to our research, it is not adequate to provide students with the alleged educational value that it is supposed to deliver. It is very cumbersome to organise all the aspects of cadaver care. Cadavers are also very limited when it comes to controlling their structures and any benefit is almost completely altered the first time the cadaver is used (dissected, and ironically, it is very weak at delivering actual real-life scenarios of a human body to students. Virtual anatomy has been a promising solution that many are counting on. But even today, we have not found a complete solution that combines all the benefits of using human cadavers and those introduced by its technical counterparts. "Soul Anatomy" aims to do just that. It brings the best of all worlds, from a natural intuitive control system, life-like feel of organs, precise accuracy in moving and controlling bodily structures, to the smallest details of being able to show medical information overlays from various medical databases connected to the internet; thus making use of technology in teaching human anatomy by providing a modern learning experience.

  8. Stem anatomy variation in cottonwood

    Science.gov (United States)

    A.N. Foulger; J. Hacskaylo

    1968-01-01

    Investigations of mineral nutrient-tree growth relationships have dealt mainly with associations involving foliage composition, root formation, or volume production of wood. Few studies have been concerned with changes in wood anatomy associated with element deficiency. In 1949 Davis reported that calcium deficiency was accompanied by a reduction of primary tissue and...

  9. Anatomy of the trigeminal nerve

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Eijden, T.M.G.J.; Langenbach, G.E.J.; Baart, J.A.; Brand, H.S.

    2017-01-01

    The trigeminal nerve is the fifth cranial nerve (n. V), which plays an important role in the innervation of the head and neck area, together with other cranial and spinal nerves. Knowledge of the nerve’s anatomy is very important for the correct application of local anaesthetics.

  10. Improving gross anatomy learning using reciprocal peer teaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manyama, Mange; Stafford, Renae; Mazyala, Erick; Lukanima, Anthony; Magele, Ndulu; Kidenya, Benson R; Kimwaga, Emmanuel; Msuya, Sifael; Kauki, Julius

    2016-03-22

    The use of cadavers in human anatomy teaching requires adequate number of anatomy instructors who can provide close supervision of the students. Most medical schools are facing challenges of lack of trained individuals to teach anatomy. Innovative techniques are therefore needed to impart adequate and relevant anatomical knowledge and skills. This study was conducted in order to evaluate the traditional teaching method and reciprocal peer teaching (RPT) method during anatomy dissection. Debriefing surveys were administered to the 227 first year medical students regarding merits, demerits and impact of both RPT and Traditional teaching experiences on student's preparedness prior to dissection, professionalism and communication skills. Out of this, 159 (70 %) completed the survey on traditional method while 148 (65.2 %) completed survey on RPT method. An observation tool for anatomy faculty was used to assess collaboration, professionalism and teaching skills among students. Student's scores on examinations done before introduction of RPT were compared with examinations scores after introduction of RPT. Our results show that the mean performance of students on objective examinations was significantly higher after introduction of RPT compared to the performance before introduction of RPT [63.7 ± 11.4 versus 58.6 ± 10, mean difference 5.1; 95 % CI = 4.0-6.3; p-value learning environment of the dissection groups was very active learning during RPT sessions and that professionalism was observed by most students during discussions. Introduction of RPT in our anatomy dissection laboratory was generally beneficial to both students and faculty. Both objective (student performance) and subjective data indicate that RPT improved student's performance and had a positive learning experience impact. Our future plan is to continue RPT practice and continually evaluate the RPT protocol.

  11. Introductory Anatomy and Physiology in an Undergraduate Nursing Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, S. J.; White, S.; Power, N.

    2017-01-01

    Using an educational data mining approach, first-year academic achievement of undergraduate nursing students, which included two compulsory courses in introductory human anatomy and physiology, was compared with achievement in a final semester course that transitioned students into the workplace. We hypothesized that students could be grouped…

  12. Gregorc Learning Styles and Achievement in Anatomy and Physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harasym, P. H.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Results from the Gregorc Style Delineator (GSD), administered to 260 undergraduate nursing students, were compared with achievement scores in a human anatomy and physiology course. Factor analysis and VARIMAX rotation demonstrate that there is no relationship between any of the four learning styles allegedly identified by the GSD and achievement…

  13. Endoscopic anatomy of the groin; implication for Transabdmominal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hernia surgery is in many ways the quintessential case for demonstrating anatomy in action. Laparoscopic hernia surgery has a more recent history compared to open surgery. The demand for the procedure is increasing. The indications for laparoscopic herniorrhaphy include bilateral disease, recurrence following anterior ...

  14. Classic versus millennial medical lab anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benninger, Brion; Matsler, Nik; Delamarter, Taylor

    2014-10-01

    This study investigated the integration, implementation, and use of cadaver dissection, hospital radiology modalities, surgical tools, and AV technology during a 12-week contemporary anatomy course suggesting a millennial laboratory. The teaching of anatomy has undergone the greatest fluctuation of any of the basic sciences during the past 100 years in order to make room for the meteoric rise in molecular sciences. Classically, anatomy consisted of a 2-year methodical, horizontal, anatomy course; anatomy has now morphed into a 12-week accelerated course in a vertical curriculum, at most institutions. Surface and radiological anatomy is the language for all clinicians regardless of specialty. The objective of this study was to investigate whether integration of full-body dissection anatomy and modern hospital technology, during the anatomy laboratory, could be accomplished in a 12-week anatomy course. Literature search was conducted on anatomy text, journals, and websites regarding contemporary hospital technology integrating multiple image mediums of 37 embalmed cadavers, surgical suite tools and technology, and audio/visual technology. Surgical and radiology professionals were contracted to teach during the anatomy laboratory. Literature search revealed no contemporary studies integrating full-body dissection with hospital technology and behavior. About 37 cadavers were successfully imaged with roentograms, CT, and MRI scans. Students were in favor of the dynamic laboratory consisting of multiple activity sessions occurring simultaneously. Objectively, examination scores proved to be a positive outcome and, subjectively, feedback from students was overwhelmingly positive. Despite the surging molecular based sciences consuming much of the curricula, full-body dissection anatomy is irreplaceable regarding both surface and architectural, radiological anatomy. Radiology should not be a small adjunct to understand full-body dissection, but rather, full-body dissection

  15. Professional storytelling in clinical dental anatomy teaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kieser, Jules; Livingstone, Vicki; Meldrum, Alison

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the present work was to see if storytelling in a clinical dental anatomy course would increase student satisfaction. We enhanced teaching by spontaneous storytelling in problem-based learning, in half of the third-year dentistry class. At the end of the course, we administered an anonymous questionnaire to the students in the class, consisting of 12 questions that students had to answer on a Likert scale of 1-5. An overall satisfaction score was obtained and we used a linear mixed model to compare differences in satisfaction between the two groups, with "group" as the fixed effect. We also conducted an exploratory factor analysis of the responses to investigate whether there were distinct constructs within the data. Overall satisfaction is high, with students "with stories" having higher satisfaction than those "without stories." The former group consistently gives higher satisfaction scores, regardless of which question is being asked. Factor analysis provides evidence that storytelling nurtures reflective learning, while students work on their clinical anatomy problems.

  16. Controlling the vocabulary for anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baud, R H; Lovis, C; Rassinoux, A M; Ruch, P; Geissbuhler, A

    2002-01-01

    When confronted with the representation of human anatomy, natural language processing (NLP) system designers are facing an unsolved and frequent problem: the lack of a suitable global reference. The available sources in electronic format are numerous, but none fits adequately all the constraints and needs of language analysis. These sources are usually incomplete, difficult to use or tailored to specific needs. The anatomist's or ontologist's view does not necessarily match that of the linguist. The purpose of this paper is to review most recognized sources of knowledge in anatomy usable for linguistic analysis. Their potential and limits are emphasized according to this point of view. Focus is given on the role of the consensus work of the International Federation of Associations of Anatomists (IFAA) giving the Terminologia Anatomica.

  17. Introductory anatomy and physiology in an undergraduate nursing curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, S J; White, S; Power, N

    2017-03-01

    Using an educational data mining approach, first-year academic achievement of undergraduate nursing students, which included two compulsory courses in introductory human anatomy and physiology, was compared with achievement in a final semester course that transitioned students into the workplace. We hypothesized that students could be grouped according to their first-year academic achievement using a two-step cluster analysis method and that grades achieved in the human anatomy and physiology courses would be strong predictors of overall achievement. One cohort that graduated in 2014 (n = 105) and one that graduated in 2015 (n = 94) were analyzed separately, and for both cohorts, two groups were identified, these being "high achievers" (HIGH) and "low achievers" (LOW). Consistently, the anatomy and physiology courses were the strongest predictors of group assignment, such that a good grade in these was much more likely to put a student into a high-achieving group. Students in the HIGH groups also scored higher in the Transition to Nursing course when compared with students in the LOW groups. The higher predictor importance of the anatomy and physiology courses suggested that if a first-year grade-point average was calculated for students, an increased weighting should be attributed to these courses. Identifying high-achieving students based on first-year academic scores may be a useful method to predict future academic performance. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  18. Anatomy and physiology of cisternostomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherian, Iype; Grasso, Giovanni; Bernardo, Antonio; Munakomi, Sunil

    2016-01-01

    Cisternostomy is defined as opening the basal cisterns to atmospheric pressure. This technique helps to reduce the intracranial pressure in severe head trauma as well as other conditions when the so-called sudden "brain swelling" troubles the surgeon. We elaborated the surgical anatomy of this procedure as well as the proposed physiology of how cisternostomy works. This novel technique may change the current trends in neurosurgery.

  19. Ecological anatomy of ferns fronds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina M. Derzhavina

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Structural types of frond anatomy are distinguished on the basis of investigation of 30 species of homosporous ferns and with regard for literature: hydromorphic, hygromorphic, mesomorphic, subxeromorphic, and subsucculent (cryptic succulent. Following frond traits are of highest adaptive value: their area and thickness, type of mesophyll, dry weight of an area unit – specific superficial density, cellular volume, and number of cells per unit of frond area.

  20. Postpartum Coccydynia: an Anatomy Overview

    OpenAIRE

    Maulana, Reza; Wahyuniati, Nur; Indra, Imai

    2015-01-01

    Coccydynia is a term that refers to a painful condition in and around the coccyx. This symptom is typically a discomfort or pain which is felt when sitting for long time and when rising from sitting position. Many physiologic and psychological factors contribute to its etiology, but the majority of cases were found to be aggravated by pregnancy and childbirth (postpartum). Luxation and fracture of the coccyx are the two most common lesion of postpartum coccydynia. This poster shows an anatomy...

  1. Magkänslans anatomi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahlström, Kristoffer

    Varför dog 1500 personer i onödan i biltrafiken efter den 11 september 2001? Vad har FBI-agenter gemensamt med barn till alkoholister? Och vad fick författaren George Orwell att börja utöva svart magi? Magkänslans anatomi är en fascinerande kartläggning av de psykologiska mekanismer som ligger ba...

  2. Forearm interosseous membrane imaging and anatomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGinley, Joseph C.; Roach, Neil; Gaughan, John P.; Kozin, Scott H.

    2004-01-01

    To determine the regional thickness variation of the interosseous membrane (IOM) along the forearm and validate magnetic resonance imaging of the IOM with laser micrometry. Axial thickness measurements of 12 cadaver forearms were obtained using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at radial, central, and ulnar locations. The specimens were dissected, and IOM thickness measured using a laser micrometer. MRI and laser measurements of the main and oblique IOM bundles were compared. An axial thickness profile was plotted versus forearm length, and radial, central, and ulnar positions were compared. The main bundle thickness was 2.18±0.20 mm using laser micrometry, which was not significantly different from MRI measurements (1.86±0.25 mm, p=0.11, power = 0.84). The dorsal oblique bundle thickness was not significantly different between measurement methods (2.93±0.77 mm and 3.30±1.64 mm using laser micrometry and MRI respectively, p=0.75, power = 0.04). Both methods demonstrated a progressive increase in thickness proximally within the forearm. MRI measurements demonstrated a significantly greater thickness increase in the radial location compared to the central location (slope = 2.26 and 1.05, r 2 =0.31 and 0.12 respectively, p 2 =0.02, p>0.05). Our findings describe the varying IOM anatomy using MRI, and determined the location of the clinically important IOM fiber bundles. This study confirms the accuracy of MR imaging of the IOM by comparison with a laser micrometer, and demonstrates the thickness variation along the forearm. This information may be used to identify changes in IOM anatomy with both acute IOM injury and chronic fiber attenuation. (orig.)

  3. Forearm interosseous membrane imaging and anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGinley, Joseph C; Roach, Neil; Gaughan, John P; Kozin, Scott H

    2004-10-01

    To determine the regional thickness variation of the interosseous membrane (IOM) along the forearm and validate magnetic resonance imaging of the IOM with laser micrometry. Axial thickness measurements of 12 cadaver forearms were obtained using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at radial, central, and ulnar locations. The specimens were dissected, and IOM thickness measured using a laser micrometer. MRI and laser measurements of the main and oblique IOM bundles were compared. An axial thickness profile was plotted versus forearm length, and radial, central, and ulnar positions were compared. The main bundle thickness was 2.18+/-0.20 mm using laser micrometry, which was not significantly different from MRI measurements (1.86+/-0.25 mm, p=0.11, power = 0.84). The dorsal oblique bundle thickness was not significantly different between measurement methods (2.93+/-0.77 mm and 3.30+/-1.64 mm using laser micrometry and MRI respectively, p=0.75, power = 0.04). Both methods demonstrated a progressive increase in thickness proximally within the forearm. MRI measurements demonstrated a significantly greater thickness increase in the radial location compared to the central location (slope = 2.26 and 1.05, r(2)=0.31 and 0.12 respectively, p0.05). Our findings describe the varying IOM anatomy using MRI, and determined the location of the clinically important IOM fiber bundles. This study confirms the accuracy of MR imaging of the IOM by comparison with a laser micrometer, and demonstrates the thickness variation along the forearm. This information may be used to identify changes in IOM anatomy with both acute IOM injury and chronic fiber attenuation.

  4. Forearm interosseous membrane imaging and anatomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGinley, Joseph C. [Temple University, School of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Roach, Neil [Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, Department of Radiology, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Gaughan, John P. [Temple University, Department of Biostatistics, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Kozin, Scott H. [Shriners Hospitals for Children, Pediatric Hand and Upper Extremity Surgery, Philadelphia (United States); Temple University, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States)

    2004-10-01

    To determine the regional thickness variation of the interosseous membrane (IOM) along the forearm and validate magnetic resonance imaging of the IOM with laser micrometry. Axial thickness measurements of 12 cadaver forearms were obtained using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at radial, central, and ulnar locations. The specimens were dissected, and IOM thickness measured using a laser micrometer. MRI and laser measurements of the main and oblique IOM bundles were compared. An axial thickness profile was plotted versus forearm length, and radial, central, and ulnar positions were compared. The main bundle thickness was 2.18{+-}0.20 mm using laser micrometry, which was not significantly different from MRI measurements (1.86{+-}0.25 mm, p=0.11, power = 0.84). The dorsal oblique bundle thickness was not significantly different between measurement methods (2.93{+-}0.77 mm and 3.30{+-}1.64 mm using laser micrometry and MRI respectively, p=0.75, power = 0.04). Both methods demonstrated a progressive increase in thickness proximally within the forearm. MRI measurements demonstrated a significantly greater thickness increase in the radial location compared to the central location (slope = 2.26 and 1.05, r{sup 2}=0.31 and 0.12 respectively, p<0.05). The ulnar slope was not significantly different from zero (r{sup 2}=0.02, p>0.05). Our findings describe the varying IOM anatomy using MRI, and determined the location of the clinically important IOM fiber bundles. This study confirms the accuracy of MR imaging of the IOM by comparison with a laser micrometer, and demonstrates the thickness variation along the forearm. This information may be used to identify changes in IOM anatomy with both acute IOM injury and chronic fiber attenuation. (orig.)

  5. Brachial Plexus Anatomy: Normal and Variant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven L. Orebaugh

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Effective brachial plexus blockade requires a thorough understanding of the anatomy of the plexus, as well as an appreciation of anatomic variations that may occur. This review summarizes relevant anatomy of the plexus, along with variations and anomalies that may affect nerve blocks conducted at these levels. The Medline, Cochrane Library, and PubMed electronic databases were searched in order to compile reports related to the anatomy of the brachial plexus using the following free terms: "brachial plexus", "median nerve", "ulnar nerve", "radial nerve", "axillary nerve", and "musculocutanous nerve". Each of these was then paired with the MESH terms "anatomy", "nerve block", "anomaly", "variation", and "ultrasound". Resulting articles were hand searched for additional relevant literature. A total of 68 searches were conducted, with a total of 377 possible articles for inclusion. Of these, 57 were found to provide substantive information for this review. The normal anatomy of the brachial plexus is briefly reviewed, with an emphasis on those features revealed by use of imaging technologies. Anomalies of the anatomy that might affect the conduct of the various brachial plexus blocks are noted. Brachial plexus blockade has been effectively utilized as a component of anesthesia for upper extremity surgery for a century. Over that period, our understanding of anatomy and its variations has improved significantly. The ability to explore anatomy at the bedside, with real-time ultrasonography, has improved our appreciation of brachial plexus anatomy as well.

  6. MR Imaging of Prostate Zonal Anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yacoub, Joseph H; Oto, Aytekin

    2018-03-01

    McNeal first described the zonal anatomy of the prostate about 40 years ago, outlining 4 zones of the prostate and defining their relation to the urethra and the ejaculatory ducts. The zonal anatomy remains the accepted model for describing the prostate and the zones are well-depicted on MR imaging, including the central zone, which until recently was grouped with the transition zone in the radiology literature. An accurate understanding of the zonal anatomy and periprostatic anatomy is key for accurate interpretation of the prostate MR imaging. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. The anatomy of forearm free flap phalloplasty for transgender surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, S; Dennis, M; Holland, J; Terrell, M; Loukas, M; Schober, J

    2018-03-01

    Transgender surgeries are becoming more frequent and visual interpretation of anatomy is essential for both surgeons and patients. Since the forearm free flap phalloplasty was introduced in 1984, it has been known to provide reliable cosmetic and functional results for transitioning men compared with phalloplasty by different flaps. Surgical text descriptions were enhanced by the creation of new anatomic illustrations. The forearm free flap consists of the anterior forearm skin, subcutaneous tissue, fascia containing the radial artery as the perforator and its venae comitantes, cephalic and basilic veins, and lateral and medial antebrachial cutaneous nerves are demonstrated in relation to the surgically derived flap. Song's forearm free flap phalloplasty requires two surgical stages with a three-month interval between the stages: prelamination of a neourethra and construction of a neophallus. The neophallus created by forearm flap phalloplasty is reported to achieve acceptable aesthetical and psychological satisfaction, appropriate size and shape, and satisfying sexual intercourse. Despite increasing experiences in gender confirming surgery with modifications made by many authors, urethral complications including fistula and/or stricture formation are the leading causes of reoperation. The poor esthetic outcome of the forearm donor site and a decrease in rigidity of the neophallus are the main limitations. Illustrations of anatomy help inform surgical choice and understanding of risks and benefits by patients. The anatomy of the free forearm flap phalloplasty supports creation of a neophallus for transsexual anatomy revision. Clin. Anat. 31:145-151, 2018. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. The Evolutionary Basis of Naturally Diverse Rice Leaves Anatomy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jolly Chatterjee

    Full Text Available Rice contains genetically and ecologically diverse wild and cultivated species that show a wide variation in plant and leaf architecture. A systematic characterization of leaf anatomy is essential in understanding the dynamics behind such diversity. Therefore, leaf anatomies of 24 Oryza species spanning 11 genetically diverse rice genomes were studied in both lateral and longitudinal directions and possible evolutionary trends were examined. A significant inter-species variation in mesophyll cells, bundle sheath cells, and vein structure was observed, suggesting precise genetic control over these major rice leaf anatomical traits. Cellular dimensions, measured along three growth axes, were further combined proportionately to construct three-dimensional (3D leaf anatomy models to compare the relative size and orientation of the major cell types present in a fully expanded leaf. A reconstruction of the ancestral leaf state revealed that the following are the major characteristics of recently evolved rice species: fewer veins, larger and laterally elongated mesophyll cells, with an increase in total mesophyll area and in bundle sheath cell number. A huge diversity in leaf anatomy within wild and domesticated rice species has been portrayed in this study, on an evolutionary context, predicting a two-pronged evolutionary pathway leading to the 'sativa leaf type' that we see today in domesticated species.

  9. Radiological anatomy - evaluation of integrative education in radiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dettmer, S; Schmiedl, A; Meyer, S; Giesemann, A; Pabst, R; Weidemann, J; Wacker, F K; Kirchhoff, T

    2013-09-01

    Evaluation and analysis of the integrative course "Radiological Anatomy" established since 2007 at the Medical School Hannover (MHH) in comparison with conventional education. Anatomy and radiology are usually taught separately with a considerable time lag. Interdisciplinary teaching of these associated subjects seems logical for several reasons. Therefore, the integrative course "Radiological Anatomy" was established in the second year of medical education, combining these two closely related subjects. This interdisciplinary course was retrospectively evaluated by consideration of a student questionnaire and staff observations. The advantages and disadvantages of integrative teaching in medical education are discussed. The course ratings were excellent (median 1; mean 1.3 on a scale of 1 to 6). This is significantly (p radiology increased during the course (88 %). According to the students' suggestions the course was enhanced by a visitation in the Department of Radiology and the additional topic central nervous system. Integrative teaching of anatomy and radiology was well received by the students. Both, anatomical and radiological comprehension and the motivation to learn were improved. However, it should be considered, that the amount of work and time required by the teaching staff is considerably increased compared to traditional teaching. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  10. Student performance in a flipped classroom dental anatomy course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chutinan, S; Riedy, C A; Park, S E

    2017-11-09

    The purpose of this study was to assess dental student learning in a dental anatomy module between traditional lecture and flipped classroom cohorts. Two cohorts of predoctoral dental students (N = 70 within each cohort) participated in a dental anatomy module within an Introduction to the Dental Patient (IDP) course ([traditional/lecture cohort: academic year (AY) 2012, 2013] and [flipped classroom cohort: AY 2014, 2015]). For the dental anatomy module, both cohorts were evaluated on pre-clinical tooth waxing exercises immediately after each of five lectures and tooth identification after all lectures were given. Additionally, the cohorts' performance on the overall IDP course examination was compared. The flipped classroom cohort had statistically significant higher waxing scores (dental anatomy module) than students in the traditional classroom. There was no statistically significant difference for tooth identification scores and the overall IDP course examination between the traditional vs flipped approach cohorts. This is due to the latter two assessments conducted at the end of the course gave all students enough time to review the lecture content prior to the assessment resulting in similar scores for both cohorts. The flipped classroom cohort promoted students' individual learning and resulted in improved students' performance on immediate evaluation but not on the end of the course evaluation. Redesign of courses to include a new pedagogical approach should be carefully implemented and evaluated for student's educational success. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Study skills in anatomy and physiology: Is there a difference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husmann, Polly R; Barger, J Bradley; Schutte, Audra F

    2016-01-01

    Many factors influence the way individual students study, including but not limited to: previous coursework, attitudes toward the class (motivation, intimidation, risk, etc.), metacognition, and work schedules. However, little of this research has involved medical students. The present article asks the question, "Do individual medical students study differently for different classes?" Study skills surveys were given to United States medical students at an allopathic medical school and an osteopathic medical school. Students were surveyed near the end of their first year gross anatomy course and again near the end of their first year physiology course. Survey items included Likert scale and open-ended questions about study habits and basic demographic information. The survey responses were correlated with each student's final grade percentages in the courses. Analysis revealed that the four most common study habits were reviewing lecture notes, taking practice examinations, completing learning exercises, and making drawings and diagrams. The two surveys (anatomy and physiology) from each individual were also compared to see if students reported different study habits in anatomy versus physiology. A negative correlation was found between changing study habits between courses and final anatomy grade percentages. Additional analyses suggest that those students who do change their study habits between courses are increasing the number of study strategies that they attempt. This increase in the number of study strategies attempted may not allow the student to reach the same depth of understanding as their colleagues who utilize fewer strategies. © 2015 American Association of Anatomists.

  12. Strategic Improvements for Gross Anatomy Web-Based Teaching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David R. Marker

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Current generations of graduate students have been immersed in technology from their early school years and have high expectations regarding digital resources. To better meet the expectations of Gross Anatomy students at our institution, electronic radiology teaching files for first-year coursework were organized into a web site. The web site was custom designed to provide material that directly correlated to the Gross Anatomy dissection and lectures. Quick links provided sets of images grouped by anatomic location. Additionally, Lab and Study Companions provided specific material for the students to review prior to and after lectures and gross dissections. Student opinions of this education resource were compared to student opinions of the prior year’s digital teaching files. The new content was ranked as more user friendly (3.1 points versus 2.3 points and more useful for learning anatomy (3.3 points versus 2.6 points. Many students reported that using the web portal was critical in helping them to better understand relationships of anatomical structures. These findings suggest that a well-organized web portal can provide a user-friendly, valuable educational resource for medical students who are studying Gross Anatomy.

  13. Endoscopic anatomy of the orbital floor and maxillary sinus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Corey C; Bromwich, Matthew; Roth, Kathy; Matic, Damir B

    2008-01-01

    Endoscopic repair of orbital blow-out fractures could become a predictable and efficient treatment alternative to traditional methods. However, maxillary sinus endoscopy provides a complex and disorienting view of the orbital floor. To be a useful and consistent technique for providing access to the orbital floor, specific knowledge of maxillary endoscopic anatomy is required. The purpose of the study was to provide an anatomic description of the orbital floor via the endoscopic approach. Objectives include defining consistent landmarks for use in endoscopic repair of orbital floor fractures. Using 0- and 30-degree rigid endoscopes, 6 fresh cadavers (12 maxillary sinuses) were examined via a standard Caldwell-Luc approach. Computed tomographic scans, plastic molds, and digital images were used to compare observable averages within bony anatomy. Potential bony landmarks were correlated with soft-tissue anatomy in fresh specimens. The maxillary ostium, orbital floor, and lateral ethmoid air cells were visualized, and their structures were described. Observations were made in relation to the anatomy of the orbital floor and maxillary sinus, including fracture pattern and force transmission pathways. An "orbitomaxillary" sinus bony thickening was identified and described for the first time. This study provides the basis for further refinement of surgical technique and opens the door for future clinical trials using endoscopic repair.

  14. Learning Outcomes and Student-Perceived Value of Clay Modeling and Cat Dissection in Undergraduate Human Anatomy and Physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeHoff, Mary Ellen; Clark, Krista L.; Meganathan, Karthikeyan

    2011-01-01

    Alternatives and/or supplements to animal dissection are being explored by educators of human anatomy at different academic levels. Clay modeling is one such alternative that provides a kinesthetic, three-dimensional, constructive, and sensory approach to learning human anatomy. The present study compared two laboratory techniques, clay modeling…

  15. Bridging the transfer gap: laboratory exercise combines clinical exposure and anatomy review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Adam B; Ross, Christopher; Petty, Michael; Williams, James M; Thorp, Laura E

    2009-08-01

    One of the goals of medical education is to bridge the gap between basic science and clinical practice. Students acquire basic science knowledge during their pre-clinical years, yet have limited opportunities to apply this knowledge clinically. This hands-on laboratory exercise was designed to facilitate a review of anatomy in the context of select clinical procedures, highlighting the application of anatomical concepts in clinical practice. In 2008, Year 2 medical students participated in a clinical procedures laboratory taught by senior residents and attending physicians. Before participating, all students completed anatomy and clinical pre-tests and received syllabi detailing the select procedures and the anatomy pertinent to each. Students were organised into experimental (EG, n = 48) and control (CG, n = 17) groups. The EG observed and practised five procedures on cadavers and the CG participated in a traditional anatomy review laboratory with no procedural demonstrations or practice. Anatomy and clinical post-tests were administered to both groups following the 3-hour interventions. Surveys and focus sessions were used to assess student opinions. Scores on the anatomy pre- and post-tests were compared and were found to have significantly increased (P anatomy coupled with the teaching of clinical procedures results in an anatomical review superior to that of traditional methods, enhances knowledge of clinical procedures, and heightens students' awareness of the relationships between basic science and clinical practice.

  16. Anatomy of the Corrugator Muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Kun; Lee, Jung Hun; Lim, Hee Joong

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this article is to systematically review the anatomy and action of the corrugator muscle. PubMed and Scopus were searched using the terms "corrugator" AND "anatomy." Among the 60 full texts from the 145 relevant abstracts, 34 articles without sufficient content were excluded and 4 articles drawn from the reference lists were added. Among the 30 articles analyzed (721 hemifaces), 28% classified by oblique head and transverse head, and 72% did not. Corrugator originated mostly from the medial supraorbital rim (45%), followed by the medial frontal bone (31%), the medial infraorbital rim (17%), and the upper nasal process (7%). Corrugator extended through the frontalis and orbicularis oculi (41%), only the frontalis (41%), or only the orbicularis oculi (18%). Corrugator ran superolaterally (59%), or laterally (41%). Corrugators inserted mostly to the middle of the eyebrow (57%), or the medial half of the eyebrow (36%), but also to the glabella region (7%). The length of the corrugator ranged 38 to 53 mm. The transverse head (23.38 mm) was longer than the oblique head (19.75 mm). Corrugator was thicker at the medial canthus than at the midpupillary line. Corrugator was innervated by the temporal branch of the facial nerve (66%), the zygomatic branch (17%), or the angular nerve (zygomatic branch and buccal branch, 17%). Supraorbital nerve (60%) or supratrochlear nerve (40%) penetrated the corrugator. The action was depressing, pulling the eyebrow medially (91%), or with medial eyebrow elevation and lateral eyebrow depression (9%). Surgeons must keep this anatomy in mind during surgical procedures.

  17. Venous chest anatomy: clinical implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chasen, M.H.; Charnsangavej, C.

    1998-01-01

    This article provides a practical approach to the clinical implications and importance of understanding the collateral venous anatomy of the thorax. Routine radiography, conventional venography, computed tomography (CT), and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging studies provide correlative anatomic models for the demonstration of how interconnecting collateral vascular networks within the thorax maintain venous stability at all times. Five major systems comprise the collateral venous network of the thorax ( Fig. 1 ). These include the paravertebral, azygos-hemiazygos, internal mammary, lateral thoracic, and anterior jugular venous systems (AJVS). The five systems are presented in the following sequence: (a) a brief introduction to the importance of catheter position and malposition in understanding access to the thoracic venous system, (b) the anatomy of the azygos-hemiazygos systems and their relationship with the paravertebral plexus, (c) the importance of the AJVS, (d) 'loop' concepts interconnecting the internal mammary and azygos-hemiazygos systems by means of the lateral thoracic and intercostal veins, and (e) the interconnecting venous networks on the thoracic side of the thoracoabdominal junction. Certain aspects of the venous anatomy of the thorax will not be discussed in this chapter and include (a) the intra-abdominal anastomoses between the superior and inferior vena cavae (IVC) via the internal mammary, lateral thoracic, and azygos-hemiazygos systems (beyond the scope of this article), (b) potential collateral vessels involving vertebral, parascapular, thyroidal, thymic, and other smaller veins that might anastomose with the major systems, and (c) anatomic variants and pitfalls that may mimic pathologic conditions (space limitations). (Copyright (c) 1998 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  18. [The human body and the computer as pedagogic tools for anatomy: review of the literature].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Captier, G; Canovas, F; Bonnel, F

    2005-09-01

    Since the first dissections, the human body has been the main tool for the teaching of anatomy in medical courses. For the last 30 years, university anatomy laboratory dissection has been brought into question and the total hours of anatomy teaching have decreased. In parallel, new technologies have progressed and become more competitive and more attractive than dissection. The aim of this review of the literature was to evaluate the use of the human body as a pedagogic tool compared to today's computer tools. Twenty comparative studies were reviewed. Their analysis showed that the human body remains the main tool in anatomy teaching even if anatomic demonstration (prosection) can replace dissection, and that the computer tools were complementary but not a substitute to dissection.

  19. Gross anatomy of network security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siu, Thomas J.

    2002-01-01

    Information security involves many branches of effort, including information assurance, host level security, physical security, and network security. Computer network security methods and implementations are given a top-down description to permit a medically focused audience to anchor this information to their daily practice. The depth of detail of network functionality and security measures, like that of the study of human anatomy, can be highly involved. Presented at the level of major gross anatomical systems, this paper will focus on network backbone implementation and perimeter defenses, then diagnostic tools, and finally the user practices (the human element). Physical security measures, though significant, have been defined as beyond the scope of this presentation.

  20. A new chapter in Anatomy

    OpenAIRE

    Şengül, Gülgün

    2015-01-01

    Gülgün Şengül (MD) is a Professor of Anatomy in Ege University, School of Medicine, Izmir, Turkey. Her research field is neuroanatomy. She is one of the authors of the comprehensive spinal cord text book The Spinal Cord: A Christopher and Dana Reeve Foundation Text and Atlas (Elsevier, 2009). Her recent work Atlas of the Spinal Cord of the Rat, Mouse, Marmoset, Rhesus, and Human (Elsevier, 2013) comprises the first marmoset and rhesus monkey and human spinal cord atlases published. These prov...

  1. ZBrush Digital Sculpting Human Anatomy

    CERN Document Server

    Spencer, Scott

    2010-01-01

    Taking into account that many of today?s digital artists?particularly 3D character animators?lack foundational artistic instruction, this book teaches anatomy in a coherent and succinct style. A clear writing style explains how to sculpt an accurate human figure, starting with the skeleton and working out to muscle, fat, and skin. Insightful explanations enable you to quickly and easily create and design characters that can be used in film, game, or print, and allows you to gain a strong understanding of the foundational artistic concepts.

  2. Independent learning modules enhance student performance and understanding of anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrat, Maria A; Dom, Aaron M; Buchanan, James T; Williams, Alison R; Efaw, Morgan L; Richardson, Laura L

    2014-01-01

    Didactic lessons are only one part of the multimodal teaching strategies used in gross anatomy courses today. Increased emphasis is placed on providing more opportunities for students to develop lifelong learning and critical thinking skills during medical training. In a pilot program designed to promote more engaged and independent learning in anatomy, self-study modules were introduced to supplement human gross anatomy instruction at Joan C. Edwards School of Medicine at Marshall University. Modules use three-dimensional constructs to help students understand complex anatomical regions. Resources are self-contained in portable bins and are accessible at any time. Students use modules individually or in groups in a structured self-study format that augments material presented in lecture and laboratory. Pilot outcome data, measured by feedback surveys and examination performance statistics, suggest that the activity may be improving learning in gross anatomy. Positive feedback on both pre- and post-examination surveys showed that students felt the activity helped to increase their understanding of the topic. In concordance with student perception, average examination scores on module-related laboratory and lecture questions were higher in the two years of the pilot program compared with the year before its initiation. Modules can be fabricated on a modest budget using minimal resources, making implementation practical for smaller institutions. Upper level medical students assist in module design and upkeep, enabling continuous opportunities for vertical integration across the curriculum. This resource offers a feasible mechanism for enhancing independent and lifelong learning competencies, which could be a valuable complement to any gross anatomy curriculum. © 2014 American Association of Anatomists.

  3. Design Projects in Human Anatomy & Physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polizzotto, Kristin; Ortiz, Mary T.

    2008-01-01

    Very often, some type of writing assignment is required in college entry-level Human Anatomy and Physiology courses. This assignment can be anything from an essay to a research paper on the literature, focusing on a faculty-approved topic of interest to the student. As educators who teach Human Anatomy and Physiology at an urban community college,…

  4. Frontal anatomy and reaction time in Autism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmitz, Nicole; Daly, Eileen; Murphy, Declan

    2007-01-01

    Widespread frontal lobe abnormalities, encompassing anatomy and function, are known to be implicated in Autistic Spectrum Disorders (ASD). The correlation between neurobiology and behaviour, however, is poorly understood in ASD. The aim of this study was to investigate frontal lobe anatomy and

  5. Anatomy of a Cancer Treatment Scam

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... All Events Weekly Calendar Weekly Calendar Archive Speeches Audio/Video Featured Videos FTC Events For Consumers For ... Adjudicative Proceedings You are here Home » News & Events » Audio/Video » Anatomy of a Cancer Treatment Scam Anatomy ...

  6. Gender Bias in Human Anatomy Textbook Illustrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giacomini, M.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Surveyed anatomy texts currently in use in a major western medical school. In text sections dealing with standard (nongender-specific) anatomy, male subjects were shown in 64 percent of the illustrations in which gender was discernible, females in ll percent, and gender-neutral representations, 25 percent. Females and males were represented…

  7. An introduction to human brain anatomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Forstmann, B.U.; Keuken, M.C.; Alkemade, A.; Forstmann, B.U.; Wagenmakers, E.-J.

    2015-01-01

    This tutorial chapter provides an overview of the human brain anatomy. Knowledge of brain anatomy is fundamental to our understanding of cognitive processes in health and disease; moreover, anatomical constraints are vital for neurocomputational models and can be important for psychological

  8. Shark Attack! Sinking Your Teeth into Anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    House, Herbert

    2002-01-01

    Presents a real life shark attack story and studies arm reattachment surgery to teach human anatomy. Discusses how knowledge of anatomy can be put to use in the real world and how the arm functions. Includes teaching notes and suggestions for classroom management. (YDS)

  9. Anatomy of a Cancer Treatment Scam

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Anatomy of a Cancer Treatment Scam Anatomy of a Cancer Treatment Scam January 19, 2012 Curious about a product that claims to treat or cure cancer? ... Center Competition Guidance I Would Like To... Submit a Consumer Complaint to the FTC Apply for a ...

  10. Mapping selection within Drosophila melanogaster embryo's anatomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salvador-Martínez, Irepan; Coronado-Zamora, Marta; Castellano, David

    2018-01-01

    We present a survey of selection across Drosophila melanogaster embryonic anatomy. Our approach integrates genomic variation, spatial gene expression patterns and development, with the aim of mapping adaptation over the entire embryo's anatomy. Our adaptation map is based on analyzing spatial gen...

  11. Human fetal anatomy: MR imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinreb, J C; Lowe, T; Cohen, J M; Kutler, M

    1985-12-01

    Twenty-four pregnant women carrying 26 fetuses (two sets of twins) were imaged with magnetic resonance (MR) imaging at 0.35 T following sonographic evaluation. Each study was retrospectively evaluated to determine which of 33 normal fetal structures were visible on the images and which imaging parameters were most useful for depicting fetal anatomy. Fetal motion degraded fetal images in all but two cases, both with oligohydramnios and in the third trimester of gestation. Nevertheless, many fetal structures were identifiable, particularly in the third trimester. Visualization of fetal anatomy improved with intravenous maternal sedation in five cases. Relatively T1-weighted images occasionally offered the advantage of less image degradation owing to fetal motion and improved contrast between different fetal structures. More T2 weighting was believed to be advantageous in one case for outlining the fetal head and in one case for delineation of the brain. In many cases, structures were similarly identifiable (though with different signal intensities) regardless of the parameters selected. The authors conclude that MR imaging of many fetal structures is currently unsatisfactory and is probably of limited value, particularly in the first and second trimesters. However, the relative frequency and detail with which the fetal head and liver can be depicted indicate that these may be areas for further investigation, and the potential utility of imaging fetal fat warrants further investigation.

  12. Ultrasonographic abdominal anatomy of healthy captive caracals (Caracal caracal).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makungu, Modesta; du Plessis, Wencke M; Barrows, Michelle; Koeppel, Katja N; Groenewald, Hermanus B

    2012-09-01

    Abdominal ultrasonography was performed in six adult captive caracals (Caracal caracal) to describe the normal abdominal ultrasonographic anatomy. Consistently, the splenic parenchyma was hyperechoic to the liver and kidneys. The relative echogenicity of the right kidney's cortex was inconsistent to the liver. The gall bladder was prominent in five animals and surrounded by a clearly visualized thin, smooth, regular echogenic wall. The wall thickness of the duodenum measured significantly greater compared with that of the jejunum and colon. The duodenum had a significantly thicker mucosal layer compared with that of the stomach. Such knowledge of the normal abdominal ultrasonographic anatomy of individual species is important for accurate diagnosis and interpretation of routine health examinations.

  13. Comparison of gross anatomy test scores using traditional specimens vs. QuickTime Virtual Reality animated specimens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maza, Paul Sadiri

    In recent years, technological advances such as computers have been employed in teaching gross anatomy at all levels of education, even in professional schools such as medical and veterinary medical colleges. Benefits of computer based instructional tools for gross anatomy include the convenience of not having to physically view or dissect a cadaver. Anatomy educators debate over the advantages versus the disadvantages of computer based resources for gross anatomy instruction. Many studies, case reports, and editorials argue for the increased use of computer based anatomy educational tools, while others discuss the necessity of dissection for various reasons important in learning anatomy, such as a three-dimensional physical view of the specimen, physical handling of tissues, interactions with fellow students during dissection, and differences between specific specimens. While many articles deal with gross anatomy education using computers, there seems to be a lack of studies investigating the use of computer based resources as an assessment tool for gross anatomy, specifically using the Apple application QuickTime Virtual Reality (QTVR). This study investigated the use of QTVR movie modules to assess if using computer based QTVR movie module assessments were equal in quality to actual physical specimen examinations. A gross anatomy course in the College of Veterinary Medicine at Cornell University was used as a source of anatomy students and gross anatomy examinations. Two groups were compared, one group taking gross anatomy examinations in a traditional manner, by viewing actual physical specimens and answering questions based on those specimens. The other group took the same examinations using the same specimens, but the specimens were viewed as simulated three-dimensional objects in a QTVR movie module. Sample group means for the assessments were compared. A survey was also administered asking students' perceptions of quality and user-friendliness of the QTVR

  14. KELAINAN BANGUN ANATOMIS KUKU KUDA KOLEKSI LABORATORIUM ANATOMI FKH IPB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kemaz A Dewangga

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to observe the anatomical structure of horse hooves collected from the Laboratory of Anatomy FKH IPB. Twenty five hoof specimens, consisting of ten fore hooves and fifteen hind hooves were used as research materials. The external morphology such as color, angle, structure and condition of the hoof wall were described. The observation on external morphology showed that the hooves have two basic colors, black and white. Generally, all of the hoof specimens showed abnormalities in such aspect as angle, structure and condition of the wall. The structures of fore hoof and hind hoof from this study are classified into 8 categories, they are: flat foot, flared foot, knol hoef, fever rings, sand crack, club foot, contracted foot and bull nosed foot.

  15. Acclimatization and leaf anatomy of micropropagated fig plantlets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chrystiane Fráguas Chirinéa

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The survival of micropropagated plants during and after acclimatization is a limiting process to plant establishment. There is little information on how the anatomy of vegetative organs of Ficus carica can be affected by culture conditions and acclimatization. The present research aimed to study the effects of time on culture medium and substrates during the acclimatization of fig tree plantlets produced in vitro, characterizing some leaf anatomy aspects of plantlets cultured in vitro and of fig trees produced in field. Plantlets previously multiplied in vitro were separated and transferred into Wood Plant Medium (WPM where they were kept for 0, 15, 30, 45 and 60 days. Different substrates were tested and studies on leaf anatomy were performed in order to compare among plantlets grown in vitro, plantlets under 20, 40 and 60 days of acclimatization, and field grown plants. Keeping plantlets for 30 days in WPM allowed better development in Plantmax during acclimatization. Field grown plants presented higher number of stomata, greater epicuticular wax thickness and greater leaf tissue production compared to in vitro ones. The leaf tissues of in vitro plantlets show little differentiation and have great stomata number compared with acclimatized plants, which reduce the number of stomata during the acclimatization process.

  16. Can anatomists teach living anatomy using ultrasound as a teaching tool?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurjus, Rosalyn A; Dimorier, Kathryn; Brown, Kirsten; Slaby, Frank; Shokoohi, Hamid; Boniface, Keith; Liu, Yiju Teresa

    2014-01-01

    The utilization of bedside ultrasound by an increasing number of medical specialties has created the need for more ultrasound exposure and teaching in medical school. Although there is a widespread support for more vertical integration of ultrasound teaching throughout the undergraduate curriculum, little is known about whether the quality of ultrasound teaching differs if performed by anatomists or clinicians. The purpose of this study is to compare medical students' evaluation of ultrasound anatomy teaching by clinicians and anatomists. Hands-on interactive ultrasound sessions were scheduled as part of the gross anatomy course following principles of adult learning and instructional design. Seven teachers (three anatomists and four clinicians) taught in each session. Before each session, anatomists were trained in ultrasound by clinicians. Students were divided into groups, rotated teachers between sessions, and completed evaluations. Results indicated students perceived the two groups as comparable for all factors except for knowledge organization and the helpfulness of ultrasound for understanding anatomy (P teach living anatomy using ultrasound with minimal training as well as clinicians, and encourage the teaching of living anatomy by anatomists in human anatomy courses using ultrasound. Repeating this study at a multicenter level is currently being considered to further validate our conclusion. © 2013 American Association of Anatomists.

  17. Arterial anatomy of the thumb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ames, E L; Bissonnette, M; Acland, R; Lister, G; Firrell, J

    1993-08-01

    The anatomical literature has indicated that the arterial supply to the thumb comes from the princeps pollicis artery. However, this simplified description does not often correlate with intraoperative findings. The purpose of this study was to investigate and clarify this important area of anatomy by dissection of fresh cadaver hands. 40 dissections were completed on 35 intravascularly injected and five non-injected hands. Five patterns were identified. The most common pattern showed both a superficial and deep vessel to the first web space in 54% of specimens. Dominant vessels included the superficial palmar branch of the radial artery in 8%, first palmar metacarpal artery in 18% and dorsal metacarpal artery in 8%. Only three specimens correlated with the textbook description. We conclude that the term "princeps pollicis" is actually a misnomer.

  18. LEARNING ANATOMY WITH AUGMENTED REALITY

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Cita; Dyhrberg O'Neill, Lotte; Nielsen, Kurt Gammelgaard

    An Augmented Reality (AR) app for Hololens glasses was developed to help students learn the anatomy of the human body mediastinum. In this research project, we wanted to evaluate whether AR: strengthened the students’ self-efficacy and motivation, helped students to improve learning, and provided...... students with a good learning experience. During class students circulated between different learning stations of 35 minutes duration each. The students at the mediastinum station were randomly divided into three groups. One group received traditional teaching with PowerPoint presentation of CT scans......’ scores on the mediastinum questions in the exam 2 month later were collected to examine the long-term memory of content. Internal consistency was estimated for all measures. Correlations between measures were examined with a correlation matrix, and group differences were examined with one-way analysis...

  19. Anterior ethmoid anatomy facilitates dacryocystorhinostomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaylock, W K; Moore, C A; Linberg, J V

    1990-12-01

    The ethmoid air cell labyrinth lies adjacent to the medial orbital wall, extending even beyond the sutures of the ethmoid bone. Its anatomic relationship to the lacrimal sac fossa is important in lacrimal surgery. We evaluated computed tomographic scans of 190 orbits with normal ethmoid anatomy to define the anatomic relationship of anterior ethmoid air cells to the lacrimal sac fossa. In 93% of the orbits, the cells extended anterior to the posterior lacrimal crest, with 40% entering the frontal process of the maxilla. This anatomic relationship may be used to facilitate the osteotomy during dacryocystorhinostomy. During a 10-year period (310 cases), one of us routinely entered the anterior ethmoid air cells to initiate the osteotomy during dacryocystorhinostomy. This technique has helped to avoid lacerations of the nasal mucosa.

  20. Anatomy of the Platysma Muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Kun; Kim, Ji Yeon; Lim, Jae Hyun

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this paper was to review the anatomy the platysma systematically.The term "platysma AND anatomy" was used to search PubMed and Scopus, producing 394 and 214 papers, respectively. After excluding 95 duplicate titles, 513 abstracts and 98 full papers were reviewed. Among these 98 papers, 83 were excluded and 5 were added. Ultimately, 20 papers were analyzed.The most common aging-related change of the platysma was shortening (70.7%), followed by thinning (25.2%). The platysma most commonly originated from the upper portion of thorax anterior to clavicle (67.7%), followed by the subcutaneous tissue of the subclavicular and acromial regions (22.6%) and pectoralis (9.7%). The platysma ascended upward and medially (68.5%) or ascended from the clavicle to the face (31.5%). The platysma most commonly inserted on the cheek skin (57.5%), followed by the cutaneous muscles around the mouth (18.6%), the mandibulocutaneous ligament or zygoma (18.6%), and the parotid fascia or periosteum of the mandible (5.3%). The platysma was most commonly innervated by the cervical branch of the facial nerve (38.2%) or the cervical branch and mandibular branch of the facial nerve (60.5%), followed by the cervical plexus (0.6%), the cervical motor nucleus (0.6%), and the glossopharyngeal nerve (0.1%). The most common action of the platysma was drawing the lips inferiorly (83.3%) or posteriorly (12.9%). Four papers classified the platysma into subtypes; however, these classification strategies used arbitrary standards.Further studies will be necessary to establish the thickness of the platysma and to characterize age-related changes of the platysma.

  1. High precision anatomy for MEG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troebinger, Luzia; López, José David; Lutti, Antoine; Bradbury, David; Bestmann, Sven; Barnes, Gareth

    2014-02-01

    Precise MEG estimates of neuronal current flow are undermined by uncertain knowledge of the head location with respect to the MEG sensors. This is either due to head movements within the scanning session or systematic errors in co-registration to anatomy. Here we show how such errors can be minimized using subject-specific head-casts produced using 3D printing technology. The casts fit the scalp of the subject internally and the inside of the MEG dewar externally, reducing within session and between session head movements. Systematic errors in matching to MRI coordinate system are also reduced through the use of MRI-visible fiducial markers placed on the same cast. Bootstrap estimates of absolute co-registration error were of the order of 1mm. Estimates of relative co-registration error were <1.5mm between sessions. We corroborated these scalp based estimates by looking at the MEG data recorded over a 6month period. We found that the between session sensor variability of the subject's evoked response was of the order of the within session noise, showing no appreciable noise due to between-session movement. Simulations suggest that the between-session sensor level amplitude SNR improved by a factor of 5 over conventional strategies. We show that at this level of coregistration accuracy there is strong evidence for anatomical models based on the individual rather than canonical anatomy; but that this advantage disappears for errors of greater than 5mm. This work paves the way for source reconstruction methods which can exploit very high SNR signals and accurate anatomical models; and also significantly increases the sensitivity of longitudinal studies with MEG. © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. High precision anatomy for MEG☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troebinger, Luzia; López, José David; Lutti, Antoine; Bradbury, David; Bestmann, Sven; Barnes, Gareth

    2014-01-01

    Precise MEG estimates of neuronal current flow are undermined by uncertain knowledge of the head location with respect to the MEG sensors. This is either due to head movements within the scanning session or systematic errors in co-registration to anatomy. Here we show how such errors can be minimized using subject-specific head-casts produced using 3D printing technology. The casts fit the scalp of the subject internally and the inside of the MEG dewar externally, reducing within session and between session head movements. Systematic errors in matching to MRI coordinate system are also reduced through the use of MRI-visible fiducial markers placed on the same cast. Bootstrap estimates of absolute co-registration error were of the order of 1 mm. Estimates of relative co-registration error were < 1.5 mm between sessions. We corroborated these scalp based estimates by looking at the MEG data recorded over a 6 month period. We found that the between session sensor variability of the subject's evoked response was of the order of the within session noise, showing no appreciable noise due to between-session movement. Simulations suggest that the between-session sensor level amplitude SNR improved by a factor of 5 over conventional strategies. We show that at this level of coregistration accuracy there is strong evidence for anatomical models based on the individual rather than canonical anatomy; but that this advantage disappears for errors of greater than 5 mm. This work paves the way for source reconstruction methods which can exploit very high SNR signals and accurate anatomical models; and also significantly increases the sensitivity of longitudinal studies with MEG. PMID:23911673

  3. A preliminary assessment of the fifth-year chiropractic students' knowledge of anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strkalj, Goran; Schroder, Tania; Pather, Nalini; Solyali, Veli

    2011-01-01

    Anatomy has been at the foundation of medical students' training. In recent decades, medical programs in many countries have undergone major reform in both pedagogy and content. These reforms generated intense debates, focusing mainly on the way the new programs affected medical graduates' knowledge of anatomy and their clinical capabilities. Anatomy, however, is not only core to medicine, but also to a number of allied and complementary health disciplines. While the evaluation of anatomy teaching and learning in the medical programs has been heavily scrutinized, anatomy education in the complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) professions, including those, such as chiropractic, in which anatomy has traditionally been one of the main preclinical subjects, has been less frequently evaluated. The study aimed to make a preliminary assessment of the final year chiropractic students' knowledge of anatomy using the "carpal bone test." The testing was conducted on the final-year chiropractic students at Macquarie University in 2009. In this test, the students were given 5 minutes to label an illustration of the bony skeleton of the carpal region. The results of this assessment were then compared to results of previously published surveys using the "carpal bone test." A total of 84 students participated in the study. Thirty-eight percent (38%) of students identified all eight bones, while 60% of students identified five or more carpal bones. The most frequent correctly identified bone was the pisiform, followed by the scaphoid bone (82% and 74% of students, respectively). The trapezium and trapezoid bones were least frequently identified: both by 52% of students each. These results were generally better than those of the previously tested final-year medical students. The importance of anatomy in chiropractors' education has been generally acknowledged. This study suggests that the comparatively high number of hours devoted to anatomy in Macquarie University

  4. A unified anatomy ontology of the vertebrate skeletal system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wasila M Dahdul

    Full Text Available The skeleton is of fundamental importance in research in comparative vertebrate morphology, paleontology, biomechanics, developmental biology, and systematics. Motivated by research questions that require computational access to and comparative reasoning across the diverse skeletal phenotypes of vertebrates, we developed a module of anatomical concepts for the skeletal system, the Vertebrate Skeletal Anatomy Ontology (VSAO, to accommodate and unify the existing skeletal terminologies for the species-specific (mouse, the frog Xenopus, zebrafish and multispecies (teleost, amphibian vertebrate anatomy ontologies. Previous differences between these terminologies prevented even simple queries across databases pertaining to vertebrate morphology. This module of upper-level and specific skeletal terms currently includes 223 defined terms and 179 synonyms that integrate skeletal cells, tissues, biological processes, organs (skeletal elements such as bones and cartilages, and subdivisions of the skeletal system. The VSAO is designed to integrate with other ontologies, including the Common Anatomy Reference Ontology (CARO, Gene Ontology (GO, Uberon, and Cell Ontology (CL, and it is freely available to the community to be updated with additional terms required for research. Its structure accommodates anatomical variation among vertebrate species in development, structure, and composition. Annotation of diverse vertebrate phenotypes with this ontology will enable novel inquiries across the full spectrum of phenotypic diversity.

  5. A unified anatomy ontology of the vertebrate skeletal system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahdul, Wasila M; Balhoff, James P; Blackburn, David C; Diehl, Alexander D; Haendel, Melissa A; Hall, Brian K; Lapp, Hilmar; Lundberg, John G; Mungall, Christopher J; Ringwald, Martin; Segerdell, Erik; Van Slyke, Ceri E; Vickaryous, Matthew K; Westerfield, Monte; Mabee, Paula M

    2012-01-01

    The skeleton is of fundamental importance in research in comparative vertebrate morphology, paleontology, biomechanics, developmental biology, and systematics. Motivated by research questions that require computational access to and comparative reasoning across the diverse skeletal phenotypes of vertebrates, we developed a module of anatomical concepts for the skeletal system, the Vertebrate Skeletal Anatomy Ontology (VSAO), to accommodate and unify the existing skeletal terminologies for the species-specific (mouse, the frog Xenopus, zebrafish) and multispecies (teleost, amphibian) vertebrate anatomy ontologies. Previous differences between these terminologies prevented even simple queries across databases pertaining to vertebrate morphology. This module of upper-level and specific skeletal terms currently includes 223 defined terms and 179 synonyms that integrate skeletal cells, tissues, biological processes, organs (skeletal elements such as bones and cartilages), and subdivisions of the skeletal system. The VSAO is designed to integrate with other ontologies, including the Common Anatomy Reference Ontology (CARO), Gene Ontology (GO), Uberon, and Cell Ontology (CL), and it is freely available to the community to be updated with additional terms required for research. Its structure accommodates anatomical variation among vertebrate species in development, structure, and composition. Annotation of diverse vertebrate phenotypes with this ontology will enable novel inquiries across the full spectrum of phenotypic diversity.

  6. The value of MR cholangiography in preoperative evaluation of biliary anatomy of living liver donors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Zhefeng; Zhou Min; Peng Zhiyi

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To determine the value of MR cholangiography(MRC) in the preoperative evaluation of biliary anatomy of living liver donors. Methods: Fifty eight consecutive donors underwent MRC examinations and living liver transplantation. MRC was performed on a 1.5 T scanner with breath-hold rapid acquisition of T 2 WI slab and breathing-gating 3D FSE T 2 WI. Images of MRC and IOC were compared and classified according to the modified Huang's classification. Results: Thirty four (58.6%) liver donors showed normal biliary anatomy on IOC, and 24 (41.4%) donors revealed variant bile anatomy. MRC correctly depicted biliary anatomy in 91.4% (53/58) donors. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of MRC in distinguishing normal and different types of variant biliary anatomy were 83.3% (20/24), 100% (34/34), 100% (20/20), 89.5% (34/38) respectively. Conclusion: MRC can accurately assess the biliary anatomy in living liver donors and may guide the preoperative planning of liver transplant. (authors)

  7. Charcoal anatomy of Brazilian species. I. Anacardiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    THAÍS A.P. GONÇALVES

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Anthracological studies are firmly advancing in the tropics during the last decades. The theoretical and methodological bases of the discipline are well established. Yet, there is a strong demand for comparative reference material, seeking for an improvement in the precision of taxonomic determination, both in palaeoecological and palaeoethnobotanical studies and to help preventing illegal charcoal production. This work presents descriptions of charcoal anatomy of eleven Anacardiaceae species from six genera native to Brazil (Anacardium occidentale, Anacardium parvifolium, Astronium graveolens, Astronium lecointei, Lithrea molleoides, Schinus terebenthifolius, Spondias mombin, Spondias purpurea, Spondias tuberosa, Tapirira guianensis, and Tapirira obtusa. They are characterized by diffuse-porous wood, vessels solitary and in multiples, tyloses and spiral thickenings sometimes present; simple perforation plates, alternate intervessel pits, rounded vessel-ray pits with much reduced borders to apparently simple; parenchyma paratracheal scanty to vasicentric; heterocellular rays, some with radial canals and crystals; septate fibres with simple pits. These results are quite similar to previous wood anatomical descriptions of the same species or genera. Yet, charcoal identification is more effective when unknown samples are compared to charred extant equivalents, instead of to wood slides.

  8. Charcoal anatomy of Brazilian species. I. Anacardiaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Thaís A P; Scheel-Ybert, Rita

    2016-01-01

    Anthracological studies are firmly advancing in the tropics during the last decades. The theoretical and methodological bases of the discipline are well established. Yet, there is a strong demand for comparative reference material, seeking for an improvement in the precision of taxonomic determination, both in palaeoecological and palaeoethnobotanical studies and to help preventing illegal charcoal production. This work presents descriptions of charcoal anatomy of eleven Anacardiaceae species from six genera native to Brazil (Anacardium occidentale, Anacardium parvifolium, Astronium graveolens, Astronium lecointei, Lithrea molleoides, Schinus terebenthifolius, Spondias mombin, Spondias purpurea, Spondias tuberosa, Tapirira guianensis, and Tapirira obtusa). They are characterized by diffuse-porous wood, vessels solitary and in multiples, tyloses and spiral thickenings sometimes present; simple perforation plates, alternate intervessel pits, rounded vessel-ray pits with much reduced borders to apparently simple; parenchyma paratracheal scanty to vasicentric; heterocellular rays, some with radial canals and crystals; septate fibres with simple pits. These results are quite similar to previous wood anatomical descriptions of the same species or genera. Yet, charcoal identification is more effective when unknown samples are compared to charred extant equivalents, instead of to wood slides.

  9. Anatomy of a Cancer Treatment Scam

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... a Cancer Treatment Scam Anatomy of a Cancer Treatment Scam January 19, 2012 Curious about a product ... and should not stop or delay their conventional treatment. Category: Scam Watch Health Download File Related Videos ...

  10. Anatomy and physiology of chronic scrotal pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Abhishek P

    2017-05-01

    This article reviews the anatomy and physiology of the scrotum and its contents as it pertains to chronic scrotal pain. Physiology of chronic pain is reviewed, as well as the pathophysiology involved in the development of chronic pain.

  11. Anatomy and arthrography of the knee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaye, J.K.

    1987-01-01

    The pertinent anatomy of the knee and the use of double-contrast knee arthrography is presented. Various types of meniscal lesions as well as extrameniscal abnormalities such as ligamentous abnormalities, synovial diseases, and abnormalities of articular cartilage are illustrated

  12. Anatomy of a Cancer Treatment Scam

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of a Cancer Treatment Scam Anatomy of a Cancer Treatment Scam January 19, 2012 Curious about a product that claims to treat or cure cancer? According to the Federal Trade Commission, consumers should ...

  13. CPR Instruction in a Human Anatomy Class.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutton, Lewis M.

    1978-01-01

    Describes how cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) instruction can be included in a college anatomy and physiology course. Equipment and instructors are provided locally by the Red Cross or American Heart Association. (MA)

  14. Cochlear anatomy: CT and MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez, Manuel; Bruno, Claudio; Martin, Eduardo; Canale, Nancy; De Luca, Laura; Spina, Juan C. h

    2002-01-01

    The authors present a brief overview of the normal cochlear anatomy with CT and MR images in order to allow a more complete identification of the pathological findings in patients with perceptive hipoacusia. (author)

  15. Understanding Colds: Anatomy of the Nose

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Complications Special Features References Common Cold Understanding Colds Anatomy of the Nose The nose contains shelf-like ... in the noses of humans and not in animals except chimpanzees and other higher primates. (4) How ...

  16. Bone Conduction: Anatomy, Physiology, and Communication

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Henry, Paula; Letowski, Tomasz R

    2007-01-01

    .... This report combines results of an extensive literature review of the anatomy and physiology of human hearing, theories behind the mechanisms of bone conduction transmission, devices for use in bone...

  17. Computed tomography of the calcaneus: normal anatomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heger, L.; Wulff, K.

    1985-01-01

    The normal sectional anatomy of the calcaneus was studied as the background for interpretation of computed tomography (CT) of fractures. Multiplanar CT examination of the normal calcaneus was obtained, and sections were matched with a simplified anatomic model. Sectional anatomy in the four most important planes is described. This facilitates three-dimensional understanding of the calcaneus from sections and interpretation of CT sections obtained in any atypical plane

  18. DESIGNING A CONTEMPORARY ANATOMY MUSEUM: ANATOMISTS’ PERSPECTIVE

    OpenAIRE

    Venkatesh. G. Kamath; Biswabina. Ray; Shakuntala R. Pai; Ramakrishna Avadhani

    2015-01-01

    Background: A research study was conducted in sixteen anatomy museums across India. Aim: The aim of the study is to have an integrated approach while designing a museum. Objective: The objective is to stress on the need to have a holistic approach while designing a museum so that that the museum is well planned and organised and has a huge sectional diversity that spans all aspects related to anatomy. Materials and Methods: All the museums were studied using a planned proforma that...

  19. Medical student participation in surface anatomy classes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, R; Brough, H; Ellis, H

    2006-10-01

    Surface anatomy is an integral part of medical education and enables medical students to learn skills for future medical practice. In the past decade, there has been a decline in the teaching of anatomy in the medical curriculum, and this study seeks to assess the attitudes of medical students to participation in surface anatomy classes. Consequently, all first year medical students at the Guy's, King's and St Thomas's Medical School, London, were asked to fill in an anonymous questionnaire at the end of their last surface anatomy session of the year. A total of 290 medical students completed the questionnaires, resulting in an 81.6% response rate. The students had a mean age of 19.6 years (range 18-32) and 104 (35.9%) of them were male. Seventy-six students (26.2%) were subjects in surface anatomy tutorials (60.5% male). Students generally volunteered because no one else did. Of the volunteers, 38.2% would rather not have been subjects, because of embarrassment, inability to make notes, or to see clearly the material being taught. Female medical students from ethnic minority groups were especially reluctant to volunteer to be subjects. Single-sex classes improved the volunteer rate to some extent, but not dramatically. Students appreciate the importance of surface anatomy to cadaveric study and to future clinical practice. Computer models, lectures, and videos are complementary but cannot be a substitute for peer group models, artists' models being the only alternative. Copyright 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  20. Papercraft temporal bone in the first step of anatomy education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiraumi, Harukazu; Sato, Hiroaki; Ito, Juichi

    2017-06-01

    (1) To compare temporal bone anatomy comprehension taught to speech therapy students with or without a papercraft model. (2) To explore the effect of papercraft simulation on the understanding of surgical approaches in first-year residents. (1) One-hundred and ten speech therapy students were divided into three classes. The first class was taught with a lecture only. The students in the second class were given a lecture and a papercraft modeling task without instruction. The third class modeled a papercraft with instruction after the lecture. The students were tested on their understanding of temporal bone anatomy. (2) A questionnaire on the understanding of surgical approaches was completed by 10 residents before and after the papercraft modeling. The papercraft models were cut with scissors to simulate surgical approaches. (1) The average scores were 4.4/8 for the first class, 4.3/8 for the second class, and 6.3/8 for the third class. The third class had significantly better results than the other classes (panatomy using a papercraft temporal bone model is effective in the first step of learning temporal bone anatomy and surgical approaches. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Dissection videos do not improve anatomy examination scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmud, Waqas; Hyder, Omar; Butt, Jamaal; Aftab, Arsalan

    2011-01-01

    In this quasi-experimental study, we describe the effect of showing dissection videos on first-year medical students' performance in terms of test scores during a gross anatomy course. We also surveyed students' perception regarding the showing of dissection videos. Two hundred eighty-seven first-year medical students at Rawalpindi Medical College in Pakistan, divided into two groups, dissected one limb in first term and switched over to the other limb in the second term. During the second term, instruction was supplemented by dissection videos. Second-term anatomy examination marks were compared with first-term scores and with results from first-year medical students in previous years. Multiple linear regression analysis was performed, with term scores (continuous, 0-200) as the dependent variable. Students shown dissection videos scored 1.26 marks higher than those not shown. The relationship was not statistically significant (95% CI: -1.11, 3.70; P = 0.314). Ninety-three percent of students favored regular inclusion of dissection videos in curriculum, and 50% termed it the best source for learning gross anatomy. Seventy-six percent of students did not perform regular cadaver dissection. The most frequent reason cited for not performing regular dissection was high student-cadaver ratio. Dissection videos did not improve performance on final examination scores; however, students favored their use. Copyright © 2011 American Association of Anatomists.

  2. Gaze patterns of gross anatomy students change with classroom learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zumwalt, Ann C; Iyer, Arjun; Ghebremichael, Abenet; Frustace, Bruno S; Flannery, Sean

    2015-01-01

    Numerous studies have documented that experts exhibit more efficient gaze patterns than those of less experienced individuals. In visual search tasks, experts use fewer, longer fixations to fixate for relatively longer on salient regions of the visual field while less experienced observers spend more time examining nonsalient regions. This study investigates whether changes in gaze patterns reflect learning by students in a medical gross anatomy course. Students were asked to examine photographs of dissections similar to those they experienced in class and to identify the tagged structure in each image. We postulated that, compared to naive behavior (behavior at baseline and when examining unfamiliar content) students would examine familiar content for longer and would direct proportionally more fixation time on cognitively salient regions of the images while using fewer, longer duration fixations. Our students examined familiar images for significantly longer than they did at baseline (P patterns were characterized by more numerous fixations rather than fewer, longer fixations. These individuals are successful learners in a challenging gross anatomy course, but are not experts in anatomy. Therefore we speculate that the gaze pattern they exhibit characterizes an earlier stage of the learning process than has previously been documented in studies of expertise, which have primarily focused on the gaze patterns of true experts. © 2014 American Association of Anatomists.

  3. Anatomy drawing screencasts: enabling flexible learning for medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickering, James D

    2015-01-01

    The traditional lecture remains an essential method of disseminating information to medical students. However, due to the constant development of the modern medical curriculum many institutions are embracing novel means for delivering the core anatomy syllabus. Using mobile media devices is one such way, enabling students to access core material at a time and place that suits their specific learning style. This study has examined the effect of five anatomy drawing screencasts that replicate the popular anatomy drawing element of a lecture. These resources were uploaded to the University's Virtual Learning Environment for student access. Usage data and an end of module questionnaire were used to assess the impact of the screencasts on student education. The data revealed a high level of usage that varied in both the time of day and day of the week, with the number of downloads dramatically increasing towards the end of the module when the assessment was approaching. The student group found the additional resources extremely useful in consolidating information and revision, with many commenting on their preference to the screencasts compared to the more traditional approaches to learning. Scrutinizing the screencasts in relation to cognitive load theory and the cognitive theory of multimedia learning indicates a high correlation with an evidence-based approach to designing learning resources. Overall the screencasts have been a well-received enhancement that supports the student learning and has been shown to promote flexible learning. © 2014 American Association of Anatomists.

  4. [Morphology and development of the cranium of Felis silvestris f. catus Linné 1758--a contribution to comparative anatomy of Carnivora. I. Introduction, material and methods, complete cranium and regio ethmoidalis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timm, S

    1987-01-01

    In the present study, the morphology and development of the cartilaginous and osseous cranium of Felis silvestris f. catus is analysed by investigating 2 advanced embryonic stages of 51.1 mm (Felis 1) and 95.5 mm (Felis 2) crown-rump-length, respectively. The heads of Felis 1 and 2 were serially sectioned transversely to produce some models of the cranium and the nasal capsule (wax-plate reconstruction after Born). The investigation of the advanced embryonic cat stages pursues Terry's studies on younger ones of 10 mm to 23.1 mm c.r.l. So, by now, there is an almost complete embryonic series for comparative examination. On the other hand, our knowledge about craniogenesis of fissiped carnivores as a whole will be augmented. The present 1st part of this study gives a detailed description and discussion of the development of the general form of the cranium, the flexures of the skull base, and the ethmoidal region. It is evident that besides general eutherian features, specific characteristics of terrestrial carnivores and felids, resp., can be demonstrated during the development of the embryonic chondrocranium. Special interest lies upon morphogenesis of the whole nasal capsule, which is comparatively short in late embryogenesis, and solum nasi, with its highly differentiated Cartilago ductus nasopalatini and allied structures.

  5. Does attendance at anatomy practical classes correlate with assessment outcome? A retrospective study of a large cohort of undergraduate anatomy students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonsalvez, David G; Ovens, Matthew; Ivanusic, Jason

    2015-12-23

    Anatomy in medical curricula is typically taught via pedagogy consisting of didactic lectures combined with a practical component. The practical component often includes traditional cadaveric dissection classes and/or workshops utilizing anatomical models, carefully prosected cadaveric material and radiology. The primary aim of this study was to determine if there is an association between attendance at practical classes in anatomy and student assessment outcomes. A secondary aim was to determine if student assessment outcomes were better when students preferentially attended workshops or prosection style practical classes. We retrospectively examined practical attendance records and assessment outcomes from a single large anatomy subject (approx. 450 students) to identify how attendance at anatomy practical classes correlates with assessment outcome. Students who scored above the median mark for each assessment attended significantly more practical classes than students who scored below the median assessment mark (Mann Whitney; p attended more than half the practical classes had significantly higher scores on assessments than students that attended less than half the practical classes (Mann Whitney; P statistically significant positive correlation between attendance at practical classes and outcomes for each assessment (Spearman's correlation; p attended more dissection compared to prosection style classes and vice versa (Mann Whitney; p > 0.05). Our findings show there is an association between student attendance at practical classes and performance on anatomy assessment.

  6. Cadaver-specific CT scans visualized at the dissection table combined with virtual dissection tables improve learning performance in general gross anatomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paech, Daniel [German Cancer Research Center, Department of Radiology, Heidelberg (Germany); Heidelberg University, Institute of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Heidelberg (Germany); Giesel, Frederik L. [University Hospital Heidelberg, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Heidelberg (Germany); Unterhinninghofen, Roland [Institute of Anthropomatics, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Karlsruhe (Germany); Schlemmer, Heinz-Peter [German Cancer Research Center, Department of Radiology, Heidelberg (Germany); Kuner, Thomas; Doll, Sara [Heidelberg University, Institute of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Heidelberg (Germany)

    2017-05-15

    The purpose of this study was to quantify the benefit of the incorporation of radiologic anatomy (RA), in terms of student training in RA seminars, cadaver CT scans and life-size virtual dissection tables on the learning success in general anatomy. Three groups of a total of 238 students were compared in a multiple choice general anatomy exam during first-year gross anatomy: (1) a group (year 2015, n{sub 1} = 50) that received training in radiologic image interpretation (RA seminar) and additional access to cadaver CT scans (CT + seminar group); (2) a group (2011, n{sub 2} = 90) that was trained in the RA seminar only (RA seminar group); (3) a group (2011, n{sub 3} = 98) without any radiologic image interpretation training (conventional anatomy group). Furthermore, the students' perception of the new curriculum was assessed qualitatively through a survey. The average test score of the CT + seminar group (21.8 ± 5.0) was significantly higher when compared to both the RA seminar group (18.3 ± 5.0) and the conventional anatomy group (17.1 ± 4.7) (p < 0.001). The incorporation of cadaver CT scans and life-size virtual dissection tables significantly improved the performance of medical students in general gross anatomy. Medical imaging and virtual dissection should therefore be considered to be part of the standard curriculum of gross anatomy. circle Students provided with cadaver CT scans achieved 27 % higher scores in anatomy. (orig.)

  7. Molecular Anatomy of Palate Development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew S Potter

    Full Text Available The NIH FACEBASE consortium was established in part to create a central resource for craniofacial researchers. One purpose is to provide a molecular anatomy of craniofacial development. To this end we have used a combination of laser capture microdissection and RNA-Seq to define the gene expression programs driving development of the murine palate. We focused on the E14.5 palate, soon after medial fusion of the two palatal shelves. The palate was divided into multiple compartments, including both medial and lateral, as well as oral and nasal, for both the anterior and posterior domains. A total of 25 RNA-Seq datasets were generated. The results provide a comprehensive view of the region specific expression of all transcription factors, growth factors and receptors. Paracrine interactions can be inferred from flanking compartment growth factor/receptor expression patterns. The results are validated primarily through very high concordance with extensive previously published gene expression data for the developing palate. In addition selected immunostain validations were carried out. In conclusion, this report provides an RNA-Seq based atlas of gene expression patterns driving palate development at microanatomic resolution. This FACEBASE resource is designed to promote discovery by the craniofacial research community.

  8. Multiple anatomy optimization of accumulated dose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watkins, W. Tyler, E-mail: watkinswt@virginia.edu; Siebers, Jeffrey V. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia 22908 and Department of Radiation Oncology, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia 23298 (United States); Moore, Joseph A. [Department of Radiation Oncology and Molecular Radiation Sciences, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 21231 and Department of Radiation Oncology, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia 23298 (United States); Gordon, James [Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, Michigan 48202 and Department of Radiation Oncology, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia 23298 (United States); Hugo, Geoffrey D. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia 23298 (United States)

    2014-11-01

    Purpose: To investigate the potential advantages of multiple anatomy optimization (MAO) for lung cancer radiation therapy compared to the internal target volume (ITV) approach. Methods: MAO aims to optimize a single fluence to be delivered under free-breathing conditions such that the accumulated dose meets the plan objectives, where accumulated dose is defined as the sum of deformably mapped doses computed on each phase of a single four dimensional computed tomography (4DCT) dataset. Phantom and patient simulation studies were carried out to investigate potential advantages of MAO compared to ITV planning. Through simulated delivery of the ITV- and MAO-plans, target dose variations were also investigated. Results: By optimizing the accumulated dose, MAO shows the potential to ensure dose to the moving target meets plan objectives while simultaneously reducing dose to organs at risk (OARs) compared with ITV planning. While consistently superior to the ITV approach, MAO resulted in equivalent OAR dosimetry at planning objective dose levels to within 2% volume in 14/30 plans and to within 3% volume in 19/30 plans for each lung V20, esophagus V25, and heart V30. Despite large variations in per-fraction respiratory phase weights in simulated deliveries at high dose rates (e.g., treating 4/10 phases during single fraction beams) the cumulative clinical target volume (CTV) dose after 30 fractions and per-fraction dose were constant independent of planning technique. In one case considered, however, per-phase CTV dose varied from 74% to 117% of prescription implying the level of ITV-dose heterogeneity may not be appropriate with conventional, free-breathing delivery. Conclusions: MAO incorporates 4DCT information in an optimized dose distribution and can achieve a superior plan in terms of accumulated dose to the moving target and OAR sparing compared to ITV-plans. An appropriate level of dose heterogeneity in MAO plans must be further investigated.

  9. Multiple anatomy optimization of accumulated dose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkins, W Tyler; Moore, Joseph A; Gordon, James; Hugo, Geoffrey D; Siebers, Jeffrey V

    2014-11-01

    To investigate the potential advantages of multiple anatomy optimization (MAO) for lung cancer radiation therapy compared to the internal target volume (ITV) approach. MAO aims to optimize a single fluence to be delivered under free-breathing conditions such that the accumulated dose meets the plan objectives, where accumulated dose is defined as the sum of deformably mapped doses computed on each phase of a single four dimensional computed tomography (4DCT) dataset. Phantom and patient simulation studies were carried out to investigate potential advantages of MAO compared to ITV planning. Through simulated delivery of the ITV- and MAO-plans, target dose variations were also investigated. By optimizing the accumulated dose, MAO shows the potential to ensure dose to the moving target meets plan objectives while simultaneously reducing dose to organs at risk (OARs) compared with ITV planning. While consistently superior to the ITV approach, MAO resulted in equivalent OAR dosimetry at planning objective dose levels to within 2% volume in 14/30 plans and to within 3% volume in 19/30 plans for each lung V20, esophagus V25, and heart V30. Despite large variations in per-fraction respiratory phase weights in simulated deliveries at high dose rates (e.g., treating 4/10 phases during single fraction beams) the cumulative clinical target volume (CTV) dose after 30 fractions and per-fraction dose were constant independent of planning technique. In one case considered, however, per-phase CTV dose varied from 74% to 117% of prescription implying the level of ITV-dose heterogeneity may not be appropriate with conventional, free-breathing delivery. MAO incorporates 4DCT information in an optimized dose distribution and can achieve a superior plan in terms of accumulated dose to the moving target and OAR sparing compared to ITV-plans. An appropriate level of dose heterogeneity in MAO plans must be further investigated.

  10. Multiple anatomy optimization of accumulated dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watkins, W. Tyler; Siebers, Jeffrey V.; Moore, Joseph A.; Gordon, James; Hugo, Geoffrey D.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the potential advantages of multiple anatomy optimization (MAO) for lung cancer radiation therapy compared to the internal target volume (ITV) approach. Methods: MAO aims to optimize a single fluence to be delivered under free-breathing conditions such that the accumulated dose meets the plan objectives, where accumulated dose is defined as the sum of deformably mapped doses computed on each phase of a single four dimensional computed tomography (4DCT) dataset. Phantom and patient simulation studies were carried out to investigate potential advantages of MAO compared to ITV planning. Through simulated delivery of the ITV- and MAO-plans, target dose variations were also investigated. Results: By optimizing the accumulated dose, MAO shows the potential to ensure dose to the moving target meets plan objectives while simultaneously reducing dose to organs at risk (OARs) compared with ITV planning. While consistently superior to the ITV approach, MAO resulted in equivalent OAR dosimetry at planning objective dose levels to within 2% volume in 14/30 plans and to within 3% volume in 19/30 plans for each lung V20, esophagus V25, and heart V30. Despite large variations in per-fraction respiratory phase weights in simulated deliveries at high dose rates (e.g., treating 4/10 phases during single fraction beams) the cumulative clinical target volume (CTV) dose after 30 fractions and per-fraction dose were constant independent of planning technique. In one case considered, however, per-phase CTV dose varied from 74% to 117% of prescription implying the level of ITV-dose heterogeneity may not be appropriate with conventional, free-breathing delivery. Conclusions: MAO incorporates 4DCT information in an optimized dose distribution and can achieve a superior plan in terms of accumulated dose to the moving target and OAR sparing compared to ITV-plans. An appropriate level of dose heterogeneity in MAO plans must be further investigated

  11. Anatomy Education Environment Measurement Inventory: A Valid Tool to Measure the Anatomy Learning Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadie, Siti Nurma Hanim; Hassan, Asma'; Ismail, Zul Izhar Mohd; Asari, Mohd Asnizam; Khan, Aaijaz Ahmed; Kasim, Fazlina; Yusof, Nurul Aiman Mohd; Manan@Sulong, Husnaida Abdul; Tg Muda, Tg Fatimah Murniwati; Arifin, Wan Nor; Yusoff, Muhamad Saiful Bahri

    2017-01-01

    Students' perceptions of the education environment influence their learning. Ever since the major medical curriculum reform, anatomy education has undergone several changes in terms of its curriculum, teaching modalities, learning resources, and assessment methods. By measuring students' perceptions concerning anatomy education environment,…

  12. Functional implications of felid forelimb anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonyea, W J

    1978-01-01

    The elbow and wrist anatomy of 17 felid species were studied and compared with that of other representative mammaliam carnivores. Based on the shape and position of the olecranon fossa, it was determined that for felids the forelimb cannot travel in a "pendulum-like" motion during locomotion, but must travel through an arch away from the parasagittal plane of the body. For the anterior limb, the degree of deviation from the parasagittal plane was correlated with habitat preference. In this regard, those felids that are exclusive forest dwellers (found exclusively in high, densely structured habitats) had the greatest angle of inclination of the olecranon fossa. In addition, these, species had a large lateral olecranon tuberosity for the attachment of the lateral head of the triceps muscle. For those felids that inhabit more open terrain (low-structured habitat), the olecranon fossa was less inclined, the medical olecranon tuberosity relatively large, and the medial head of the triceps was significantly heavier than those of the forest felids. Both the wrist and elbow joints exhibited a large degree of mobility which was reflective of the claw-equipped forelimb being used as a hunting weapon.

  13. Normal CT anatomy of the spine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quiroga, O.; Matozzi, F.; Beranger, M.; Nazarian, S.; Salamon, G.; Gambarelli, J.

    1982-01-01

    To analyse the anatomo-radiological correlation of the spine and spinal cord, 22 formalized, frozen anatomical specimens corresponding to different regions of the spinal column (8 cervical, 5 dorsal, and 9 lumbar) were studied by CT scans on axial, sagittal and coronal planes and by contact radiography after they were cut into anatomical slices in order to clarify the normal CT anatomy of the spinal column. The results obtained from CT patient scans, performed exclusively on the axial plane, were compared with those obtained from the anatomical specimens (both CT and contrast radiography). High resolution CT programs were used, enabling us to obtain better individualization of the normal structures contained in the spinal column. Direct sagittal and coronal sections were performed on the specimens in order to get further anatomo-radiological information. Enhanced CT studies of the specimens were also available because of the air already present in the subarachnoid spaces. Excellent visualization was obtained of bone structures, soft tissue and the spinal cord. High CT resolution of the spine appeares to be an excellent neuroradiological procedure to study the spine and spinal cord. A metrizamide CT scan is, however, necessary when a normal unenhanced CT scan is insufficient for diagnosis and when the spinal cord is not clearly visible, as often happens at the cervical level. Clinical findings are certainly very useful to ascertain the exact CT level and to limit the radiation exposure. (orig.)

  14. The Open Anatomy Browser: A Collaborative Web-Based Viewer for Interoperable Anatomy Atlases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halle, Michael; Demeusy, Valentin; Kikinis, Ron

    2017-01-01

    The Open Anatomy Browser (OABrowser) is an open source, web-based, zero-installation anatomy atlas viewer based on current web browser technologies and evolving anatomy atlas interoperability standards. OABrowser displays three-dimensional anatomical models, image cross-sections of labeled structures and source radiological imaging, and a text-based hierarchy of structures. The viewer includes novel collaborative tools: users can save bookmarks of atlas views for later access and exchange those bookmarks with other users, and dynamic shared views allow groups of users can participate in a collaborative interactive atlas viewing session. We have published several anatomy atlases (an MRI-derived brain atlas and atlases of other parts of the anatomy) to demonstrate OABrowser's functionality. The atlas source data, processing tools, and the source for OABrowser are freely available through GitHub and are distributed under a liberal open source license.

  15. Anatomia comparada das folhas e raízes de Cymbidium Hort. (Orchidaceae cultivadas ex vitro e in vitro Comparative leaf and root anatomy of ex vitro and in vitro cultured Cymbidium Hort. plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Lischka Sampaio Mayer

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Na fase de cultivo in vitro, as plantas são mantidas em ambiente com alta umidade relativa do ar, baixa luminosidade e trocas gasosas restritas, o que resulta em taxa de transpiração reduzida. Portanto, quando essas mudas são expostas ao meio ex vitro, sofrem estresse que pode causar a morte. O objetivo desse trabalho foi comparar a estrutura anatômica das mudas de Cymbidium 'Joy Polis' cultivadas ex vitro (planta matriz e aclimatizada e in vitro e verificar se a estrutura anatômica das plantas in vitro influencia no processo de aclimatização. As plantas ex vitro foram mantidas em casa-de-vegetação, em vasos individuais com o substrato fibra de coco em pó combinada com fibra de coco, e as plantas in vitro foram mantidas em meio de cultura MS. Para a análise anatômica qualitativa foram coletadas amostras de folhas e raízes de plantas ex vitro e in vitro. As plantas aclimatizadas apresentaram estrutura morfoanatômica semelhante à da planta matriz. A estrutura anatômica das plantas in vitro não influenciou a sobrevivência das mudas durante a aclimatização devido à plasticidade fenotipica desse cultivar. As plantas de Cymbidium 'Joy Polis' possuem grande capacidade de aclimatização ao ambiente, sendo provavelmente este um dos fatores responsáveis pela sobrevivência de 100% das mudas.During in vitro culture plants are kept in an atmosphere with high relative humidity, low light intensity and reduced gas exchange, resulting in low transpiration rates. Therefore, when these plants are exposed to ex vitro conditions, they suffer stress, which can induce mortality. The purpose of this study was to compare the anatomical structure of Cymbidium 'Joy Polis' plants from ex vitro (mother plant and acclimatized plants and in vitro cultures and to verify if the anatomical structure of in vitro cultured plants affects acclimatization. The ex vitro plants were kept in a greenhouse in pots containing a mixture of coconut-fiber powder and

  16. Constructive, collaborative, contextual, and self-directed learning in surface anatomy education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergman-de Bres, E.M.; Sieben, J.M.; Smailbegovic, I.; Bruin, A. de; Scherpbier, A.J.J.A.; Vleuten, C.P.M. van der

    2013-01-01

    Anatomy education often consists of a combination of lectures and laboratory sessions, the latter frequently including surface anatomy. Studying surface anatomy enables students to elaborate on their knowledge of the cadaver's static anatomy by enabling the visualization of structures, especially

  17. Anatomy of the ward round.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Hare, James A

    2008-07-01

    The ward round has been a central activity of hospital life for hundreds of years. It is hardly mentioned in textbooks. The ward round is a parade through the hospital of professionals where most decision making concerning patient care is made. However the traditional format may be intimidating for patients and inadequate for communication. The round provides an opportunity for the multi-disciplinary team to listen to the patient\\'s narrative and jointly interpret his concerns. From this unfolds diagnosis, management plans, prognosis formation and the opportunity to explore social, psychological, rehabilitation and placement issues. Physical examination of the patient at the bedside still remains important. It has been a tradition to discuss the patient at the bedside but sensitive matters especially of uncertainty may better be discussed elsewhere. The senior doctor as round leader must seek the input of nursing whose observations may be under-appreciated due to traditional professional hierarchy. Reductions in the working hours of junior doctors and shortened length of stay have reduced continuity of patient care. This increases the importance of senior staff in ensuring continuity of care and the need for the joint round as the focus of optimal decision making. The traditional round incorporates teaching but patient\\'s right to privacy and their preferences must be respected. The quality and form of the clinical note is underreported but the electronic record is slow to being accepted. The traditional multi-disciplinary round is disappearing in some centres. This may be regrettable. The anatomy and optimal functioning of the ward round deserves scientific scrutiny and experimentation.

  18. Exploring relationships between personality and anatomy performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finn, Gabrielle M; Walker, Simon J; Carter, Madeline; Cox, David R; Hewitson, Ruth; Smith, Claire F

    2015-01-01

    There is increasing recognition in medicine of the importance of noncognitive factors, including personality, for performance, and for good medical practice. The personality domain of conscientiousness is a well-established predictor of performance in workplace and academic settings. This study investigates the relationships between the "Big Five" personality domains, the facets of conscientiousness and performance in a practical anatomy examination. First- and second-year undergraduate medical students (n = 85) completed a paper-based questionnaire, which included a 50-item measure of the Big Five personality domains (neuroticism, extraversion, openness to experience, agreeableness, and conscientiousness) and a 60-item measure of the six conscientiousness facets (orderliness, dutifulness, achievement-striving, self-discipline, self-efficacy, and cautiousness) from the International Personality Item Pool (IPIP). In addition, routinely-collected academic performance scores from the end of semester anatomy practical examinations (spotters) were obtained. Anatomy examination performance correlated moderately with conscientiousness (r = 0.24, P = 0.03). Of the six facets of conscientiousness, a positive relationship was observed between anatomy examination performance and achievement striving (r = 0.22, P = 0.05). In conclusion, this study found that performance in an anatomy examination was related to higher levels of conscientiousness and, more specifically, to higher levels of achievement striving. The results have implications for selection and assessment in medicine. © 2015 American Association of Anatomists.

  19. Anatomy in a modern medical curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turney, B W

    2007-03-01

    Anatomy in undergraduate education has been in decline for many years. Some suggest that it has fallen below a safe level. Balances between detail and safety, and assimilation and application of anatomy have yet to be established as the methods of teaching undergo another metamorphosis. For doctors, the human body is the focus of investigation and intervention on a daily basis; for this reason, the study of anatomy in some form will continue to be essential to safe medical practice. It is necessary for core knowledge of anatomy to be assimilated by all doctors in order to practice and communicate safely. It may be true that most doctors do not need to dissect a cadaver or study a prosection in order to practice, but if it can improve their understanding of what they do and why they do it, this surely has to be of benefit both for the safety of the patient and satisfaction of the doctor as a professional. Integration of newer teaching modalities and modern technology will encourage interest and retention of anatomical knowledge and its clinical relevance. Anatomy has a promising future in postgraduate specialist and surgical training. Detailed knowledge should be integrated into specialist training when it is clinically relevant allowing specialists of the future to practice safely and accurately and also to provide a strong base for future clinical developments.

  20. Approach to the study of human anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridola, Carlo

    2004-01-01

    The first thing to do to describe the human body is to define the anatomical position and the bilateral symmetry which characterise every Metazoi (man included) and permit us to study the body in its two symmetric halves; the left and right sides are the result of a virtual cut on a vertical and median plan. This is followed by a resume of the general structures and the vocabulary of the outer shapes of the human body; its direction (it will be helpful to use the virtual geometric parallelepiped made by three couples of planes one orthogonal to the other); levels of structural organization (chemical, cellular, tissue, organ and the system level; the highest is the organism level). After that, rules and principles are enunciated in the four fundamental laws of anatomy regarding the organ structures and their systems studied by the surface, gross (macroscopic), systemic, regional and constitutional type anatomy. There is also some information concerning education and research, the competence of the Human Anatomy as recommended by art. 1 of D.M. 23. XI. 1999 of the Italian law. Later what Richard Snell written in the preface to "Clinical Anatomy for Medical Students" about the importance of the knowledge of human anatomy for medical and surgical applications will be reported.

  1. From cadavers to clinical practice: the anatomy of lifelong learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Alison; Khan, Khurram; Madurska, Marta; Riddell, Alexis; Saldanha, James

    2015-11-01

    Much has been postulated about the perceived deterioration of anatomy knowledge amongst graduates. Little is known about levels of confidence in, and educational needs concerning, clinical anatomy knowledge amongst foundation year doctors. To establish foundation year doctors' perceptions of anatomy related to: importance to career, confidence in anatomy knowledge and its application, preferred methods of teaching. Secondarily, to determine impact of an integrated clinical approach to anatomy teaching on foundation year doctors' level of knowledge and confidence in its clinical application of anatomy. A course teaching anatomy through common surgeries and related radiology was delivered to foundation year doctors. A pre- and post-course assessment based on anatomy competence score assessed holistic knowledge acquisition. Foundation year doctors' perceptions of anatomy and course satisfaction were measured through questionnaire. Confidence in applying anatomy knowledge was low. The average pre- and post-course assessment score increased from 55% to 81%; 92.86% felt an integrated clinical approach to anatomy teaching improved their confidence on the subject and 58.62% felt it improved their clinical skills. This study identified a need for ongoing educational support for foundation year doctors regarding anatomy teaching. An integrated clinical approach to teaching anatomy proved both highly relevant and popular, as well as an effective teaching approach. © The Author(s) 2015.

  2. Human cadavers Vs. multimedia simulation: A study of student learning in anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saltarelli, Andrew J; Roseth, Cary J; Saltarelli, William A

    2014-01-01

    Multimedia and simulation programs are increasingly being used for anatomy instruction, yet it remains unclear how learning with these technologies compares with learning with actual human cadavers. Using a multilevel, quasi-experimental-control design, this study compared the effects of "Anatomy and Physiology Revealed" (APR) multimedia learning system with a traditional undergraduate human cadaver laboratory. APR is a model-based multimedia simulation tool that uses high-resolution pictures to construct a prosected cadaver. APR also provides animations showing the function of specific anatomical structures. Results showed that the human cadaver laboratory offered a significant advantage over the multimedia simulation program on cadaver-based measures of identification and explanatory knowledge. These findings reinforce concerns that incorporating multimedia simulation into anatomy instruction requires careful alignment between learning tasks and performance measures. Findings also imply that additional pedagogical strategies are needed to support transfer from simulated to real-world application of anatomical knowledge. © 2014 American Association of Anatomists.

  3. Application of flipped classroom pedagogy to the human gross anatomy laboratory: Student preferences and learning outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleagle, Timothy R; Borcherding, Nicholas C; Harris, Jennie; Hoffmann, Darren S

    2017-12-28

    To improve student preparedness for anatomy laboratory dissection, the dental gross anatomy laboratory was transformed using flipped classroom pedagogy. Instead of spending class time explaining the procedures and anatomical structures for each laboratory, students were provided online materials to prepare for laboratory on their own. Eliminating in-class preparation provided the opportunity to end each period with integrative group activities that connected laboratory and lecture material and explored clinical correlations. Materials provided for prelaboratory preparation included: custom-made, three-dimensional (3D) anatomy videos, abbreviated dissection instructions, key atlas figures, and dissection videos. Data from three years of the course (n = 241 students) allowed for analysis of students' preferences for these materials and detailed tracking of usage of 3D anatomy videos. Students reported spending an average of 27:22 (±17:56) minutes preparing for laboratory, similar to the 30 minutes previously allocated for in-class dissection preparation. The 3D anatomy videos and key atlas figures were rated the most helpful resources. Scores on laboratory examinations were compared for the three years before the curriculum change (2011-2013; n = 242) and three years after (2014-2016; n = 241). There was no change in average grades on the first and second laboratory examinations. However, on the final semi-cumulative laboratory examination, scores were significantly higher in the post-flip classes (P = 0.04). These results demonstrate an effective model for applying flipped classroom pedagogy to the gross anatomy laboratory and illustrate a meaningful role for 3D anatomy visualizations in a dissection-based course. Anat Sci Educ. © 2017 American Association of Anatomists. © 2017 American Association of Anatomists.

  4. Comparative study on the anatomy and palynology of the three ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Trerash, Rash meri and Baidhaw) commonly known as grape vine was reported. The samples were prepared in a mixture containing 95% of alcohol and glacial acetic acid. The result revealed differences among the varieties ranging from ...

  5. Human and animal ear, comparative anatomy and physiology, literature overview

    OpenAIRE

    Mesarčíková, Zuzana

    2007-01-01

    As used herein, the ear of humans are different things . For some it may najvysunutejšia be only that portion of the auditory system - pinna , for others it is a conversion part of the auditory apparatus - middle ear , and for another group of people is custom ear receptor component of the spirit of the inner - ear . To say nothing of other meanings words ear to ear containers and bags ; chick ear (she praslenitá - sage salvia verticillata , which so fiercely Zháňal witch Saxana ); Judas' ear...

  6. Comparative anatomy of the mammalian hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nucleus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassone, V M; Speh, J C; Card, J P; Moore, R Y

    1988-01-01

    A detailed analysis of the cytoarchitecture, retinohypothalamic tract (RHT) projections, and immunohistochemical localization of major cell and fiber types within the hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN) was conducted in five mammalian species: two species of opossum, the domestic cat, the guinea pig, and the house mouse. Cytoarchitectural and immunohistochemical studies were conducted in three additional species of marsupial mammals and in the domestic pig. The SCN in this diverse transect of mammalian taxonomy bear striking similarities. First, the SCN are similar in location, lying close to the third ventricle (3V) dorsal to the optic chiasm (OC), with a cytoarchitecture characterized by small, tightly packed neurons. Second, in all groups studied, the SCN receive bilateral retinal input. Third, the SCN contain immunohistochemically similar elements. These similarities suggest that the SCN developed characteristic features early in mammalian phylogeny. Some details of SCN organization vary among the species studied. In marsupials, vasopressin-like immunoreactive (VP-LI) and vasoactive intestinal polypeptide-like immunoreactive (VIP-LI) cells codistribute primarily in the dorsomedial aspects of the SCN, while in eutherians, VP-LI and VIP-LI cells are separated into SCN subnuclei. Furthermore, the marsupial RHT projects to the periventricular dorsomedial region, whereas the eutherian RHT projects more ventrally in the SCN into the zone that typically contains VIP-LI perikarya.

  7. Anatomy and histology of the sacroiliac joints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egund, Niels; Jurik, Anne Grethe

    2014-07-01

    The anatomy of joints provides an important basis for understanding the nature and imaging of pathologic lesions and their imaging appearance. This applies especially to the sacroiliac (SI) joints, which play a major role in the diagnosis of spondyloarthritis. They are composed of two different joint portions, a cartilage-covered portion ventrally and a ligamentous portion dorsally, and thus rather complex anatomically. Knowledge of anatomy and the corresponding normal imaging findings are important in the imaging diagnosis of sacroiliitis, especially by MR imaging. A certain distinction between the two joint portions by MR imaging is only obtainable by axial slice orientation. Together with a perpendicular coronal slice orientation, it provides adequate anatomical information and thereby a possibility for detecting the anatomical site of disease-specific characteristics and normal variants simulating disease. This overview describes current knowledge about the normal macroscopic and microscopic anatomy of the SI joints. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  8. Ontology-enriched Visualization of Human Anatomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pouchard, LC

    2005-12-20

    The project focuses on the problem of presenting a human anatomical 3D model associated with other types of human systemic information ranging from physiological to anatomical information while navigating the 3D model. We propose a solution that integrates a visual 3D interface and navigation features with the display of structured information contained in an ontology of anatomy where the structures of the human body are formally and semantically linked. The displayed and annotated anatomy serves as a visual entry point into a patient's anatomy, medical indicators and other information. The ontology of medical information provides labeling to the highlighted anatomical parts in the 3D display. Because of the logical organization and links between anatomical objects found in the ontology and associated 3D model, the analysis of a structure by a physician is greatly enhanced. Navigation within the 3D visualization and between this visualization and objects representing anatomical concepts within the model is also featured.

  9. Surgical anatomy of the thyroid and parathyroid glands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fancy, Tanya; Gallagher, Daniel; Hornig, Joshua D

    2010-04-01

    This article describes the anatomy and embryology of the thyroid and parathyroid glands and the recurrent laryngeal nerve, discussing how the anatomy affects function and dysfunction of the glands. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. A virtual reality atlas of craniofacial anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Darren M; Oliker, Aaron; Carter, Christina R; Kirov, Miro; McCarthy, Joseph G; Cutting, Court B

    2007-11-01

    Head and neck anatomy is complex and represents an educational challenge to the student. Conventional two-dimensional illustrations inherently fall short in conveying intricate anatomical relationships that exist in three dimensions. A gratis three-dimensional virtual reality atlas of craniofacial anatomy is presented in an effort to address the paucity of readily accessible and customizable three-dimensional educational material available to the student of head and neck anatomy. Three-dimensional model construction was performed in Alias Maya 4.5 and 6.0. A basic three-dimensional skull model was altered to include surgical landmarks and proportions. Some of the soft tissues were adapted from previous work, whereas others were constructed de novo. Texturing was completed with Adobe Photoshop 7.0 and Maya. The Internet application was designed in Viewpoint Enliven 1.0. A three-dimensional computer model of craniofacial anatomy (bone and soft tissue) was completed. The model is compatible with many software packages and can be accessed by means of the Internet or downloaded to a personal computer. As the three-dimensional meshes are publicly available, they can be extensively manipulated by the user, even at the polygonal level. Three-dimensional computer graphics has yet to be fully exploited for head and neck anatomy education. In this context, the authors present a publicly available computer model of craniofacial anatomy. This model may also find applications beyond clinical medicine. The model can be accessed gratis at the Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery Web site or obtained as a three-dimensional mesh, also gratis, by contacting the authors.

  11. Constructionist Learning in Anatomy Education: What Anatomy Students Can Learn through Serious Games Development

    OpenAIRE

    Ma, Minhua; Bale, Kim; Rea, Paul

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we describe the use of 3D games technology in human\\ud anatomy education based on our MSc in Medical Visualisation and Human\\ud Anatomy teaching practice, i.e. students design and develop serious games for anatomy education using the Unity 3D game engine. Students are engaged in this process not only as consumers of serious games, but as authors and creators. The benefits of this constructionist learning approach are discussed. Five domains of learning are identified, in terms o...

  12. Beyond the traditional approach to teaching anatomy for yoga.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardiner-Shires, Alison Marie

    2015-01-01

    The traditional approach to teaching anatomy for yoga, while systematic, is often ineffective. A unique approach to teaching anatomy for a Yoga Teacher Training seminar is presented, founded on the principles of Thomas Myers' Anatomy Trains. Lab activities are detailed and Bloom's Taxonomy is applied to ensure students are engaged in higher level thinking and application. Going beyond the traditional approach to teaching anatomy for yoga can be extremely rewarding for students and teachers alike.

  13. Beyond the traditional approach to teaching anatomy for yoga

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison Marie Gardiner-Shires

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: The traditional approach to teaching anatomy for yoga, while systematic, is often ineffective. Methods: A unique approach to teaching anatomy for a Yoga Teacher Training seminar is presented, founded on the principles of Thomas Myers′ Anatomy Trains. Lab activities are detailed and Bloom′s Taxonomy is applied to ensure students are engaged in higher level thinking and application. Conclusion: Going beyond the traditional approach to teaching anatomy for yoga can be extremely rewarding for students and teachers alike.

  14. Joint model of motion and anatomy for PET image reconstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiao Feng; Pan Tinsu; Clark, John W. Jr.; Mawlawi, Osama

    2007-01-01

    Anatomy-based positron emission tomography (PET) image enhancement techniques have been shown to have the potential for improving PET image quality. However, these techniques assume an accurate alignment between the anatomical and the functional images, which is not always valid when imaging the chest due to respiratory motion. In this article, we present a joint model of both motion and anatomical information by integrating a motion-incorporated PET imaging system model with an anatomy-based maximum a posteriori image reconstruction algorithm. The mismatched anatomical information due to motion can thus be effectively utilized through this joint model. A computer simulation and a phantom study were conducted to assess the efficacy of the joint model, whereby motion and anatomical information were either modeled separately or combined. The reconstructed images in each case were compared to corresponding reference images obtained using a quadratic image prior based maximum a posteriori reconstruction algorithm for quantitative accuracy. Results of these studies indicated that while modeling anatomical information or motion alone improved the PET image quantitation accuracy, a larger improvement in accuracy was achieved when using the joint model. In the computer simulation study and using similar image noise levels, the improvement in quantitation accuracy compared to the reference images was 5.3% and 19.8% when using anatomical or motion information alone, respectively, and 35.5% when using the joint model. In the phantom study, these results were 5.6%, 5.8%, and 19.8%, respectively. These results suggest that motion compensation is important in order to effectively utilize anatomical information in chest imaging using PET. The joint motion-anatomy model presented in this paper provides a promising solution to this problem

  15. Felix Vicq d'Azyr: anatomy, medicine and revolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parent, André

    2007-02-01

    Félix Vicq d'Azyr was born in 1748 in the small town of Valognes, Normandy. He studied medicine in Paris but he was particularly impressed by the lectures given at the Jardin du Roi by the comparative anatomist Louis Daubenton and the surgeon Antoine Petit. In 1773, Vicq d'Azyr initiated a series of successful lectures on human and animal anatomy at the Paris Medical School, from which he received his medical degree in 1774. He was elected the same year at the Academy of Sciences at age 26, thanks to his outstanding contributions to comparative anatomy. Vicq d'Azyr became widely known after his successful management of a severe cattle plague that occurred in the southern part of France in 1774, an event that led to the foundation of the Royal Society of Medicine in 1778. As Permanent Secretary of this society, Vicq d'Azyr wrote several eulogies that were models of eloquence and erudition and worth him a seat at the French Academy in 1788. Vicq d'Azyr published in 1786 a remarkable anatomy and physiology treatise: a large in-folio that contained original descriptions illustrated by means of nature-sized, colored, human brain figures of a quality and exactitude never attained before. In 1789, Vicq d'Azyr was appointed physician to the Queen Marie-Antoinette and, in 1790, he presented to the Constituent Assembly a decisive plan to reform the teaching of medicine in France. Unfortunately, Vicq d'Azyr did not survive the turmoil of the French Revolution; he died at age 46 on June 20, 1794.

  16. Guidelines for Standard Photography in Gross and Clinical Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barut, Cagatay; Ertilav, Hakan

    2011-01-01

    Photography has a widespread usage in medicine and anatomy. In this review, authors focused on the usage of photography in gross and clinical anatomy. Photography in gross and clinical anatomy is not only essential for accurate documentation of morphological findings but also important in sharing knowledge and experience. Photographs of cadavers…

  17. Vegetative anatomy and taxonomy of Berberidopsis and Streptpthamnus (Flacourtiaceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baas, P.

    1984-01-01

    The leaf and twig anatomy of Berberidopsis and Streptothamnus are described in detail. The two genera are very similar in most aspects of their vegetative anatomy and together take a very isolated position in the Flacourtiaceae on account of their xylem anatomy and stomatal type. Differences in

  18. Spatial Abilities and Anatomy Knowledge Assessment: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langlois, Jean; Bellemare, Christian; Toulouse, Josée; Wells, George A.

    2017-01-01

    Anatomy knowledge has been found to include both spatial and non-spatial components. However, no systematic evaluation of studies relating spatial abilities and anatomy knowledge has been undertaken. The objective of this study was to conduct a systematic review of the relationship between spatial abilities test and anatomy knowledge assessment. A…

  19. Ontology for the asexual development and anatomy of the colonial chordate Botryllus schlosseri.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia Manni

    Full Text Available Ontologies provide an important resource to integrate information. For developmental biology and comparative anatomy studies, ontologies of a species are used to formalize and annotate data that are related to anatomical structures, their lineage and timing of development. Here, we have constructed the first ontology for anatomy and asexual development (blastogenesis of a bilaterian, the colonial tunicate Botryllus schlosseri. Tunicates, like Botryllus schlosseri, are non-vertebrates and the only chordate taxon species that reproduce both sexually and asexually. Their tadpole larval stage possesses structures characteristic of all chordates, i.e. a notochord, a dorsal neural tube, and gill slits. Larvae settle and metamorphose into individuals that are either solitary or colonial. The latter reproduce both sexually and asexually and these two reproductive modes lead to essentially the same adult body plan. The Botryllus schlosseri Ontology of Development and Anatomy (BODA will facilitate the comparison between both types of development. BODA uses the rules defined by the Open Biomedical Ontologies Foundry. It is based on studies that investigate the anatomy, blastogenesis and regeneration of this organism. BODA features allow the users to easily search and identify anatomical structures in the colony, to define the developmental stage, and to follow the morphogenetic events of a tissue and/or organ of interest throughout asexual development. We invite the scientific community to use this resource as a reference for the anatomy and developmental ontology of B. schlosseri and encourage recommendations for updates and improvements.

  20. Functional anatomy of the cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) hindlimb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Penny E; Corr, Sandra A; Payne-Davis, Rachel C; Clancy, Sinead N; Lane, Emily; Wilson, Alan M

    2011-04-01

    The cheetah is capable of a top speed of 29 ms(-1) compared to the maximum speed of 17 ms(-1) achieved by the racing greyhound. In this study of the hindlimb and in the accompanying paper on the forelimb we have quantified the musculoskeletal anatomy of the cheetah and greyhound and compared them to identify any differences that may account for this variation in their locomotor abilities. Specifically, bone length, mass and mid-shaft diameter were measured, along with muscle mass, fascicle lengths, pennation angles and moment arms to enable estimates of maximal isometric force, joint torques and joint rotational velocities to be calculated. Surprisingly the cheetahs had a smaller volume of hip extensor musculature than the greyhounds, and we therefore propose that the cheetah powers acceleration using its extensive back musculature. The cheetahs also had an extremely powerful psoas muscle which could help to resist the pitching moments around the hip associated with fast accelerations. The hindlimb bones were proportionally longer and heavier, enabling the cheetah to take longer strides and potentially resist higher peak limb forces. The cheetah therefore possesses several unique adaptations for high-speed locomotion and fast accelerations, when compared to the racing greyhound. © 2010 The Authors. Journal of Anatomy © 2010 Anatomical Society of Great Britain and Ireland.

  1. [Comparison of anatomical terms from Basle nomina anatomica to Terminologia anatomica--terms of general anatomy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Kunihiko

    2004-06-01

    This paper compared and considered terms of general anatomy from the Basle Nomina Anatomica (1895) to the Terminologia Anatomica (1998), together with the Jena Nomina Anatomica (1935). Some differences are found in ideas of the BNA-NA3, NA4-6 and TA. It was noticed after the NA4, that the "coronalis" was used for the site and the "frontalis" for the direction in head, that the term of line and plane was reasonably rearranged, and that some terms were omitted from the part of human body and moved to the systemic anatomy in head and trunk and to the region in limbs.

  2. Effectiveness of using blended learning strategies for teaching and learning human anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, José A; Pleguezuelos, Eulogio; Merí, Alex; Molina-Ros, Antoni; Molina-Tomás, M Carmen; Masdeu, Carlos

    2007-02-01

    This study aimed to implement innovative teaching methods--blended learning strategies--that include the use of new information technologies in the teaching of human anatomy and to analyse both the impact of these strategies on academic performance, and the degree of user satisfaction. The study was carried out among students in Year 1 of the biology degree curriculum (human biology profile) at Pompeu Fabra University, Barcelona. Two groups of students were tested on knowledge of the anatomy of the locomotor system and results compared between groups. Blended learning strategies were employed in 1 group (BL group, n = 69); the other (TT group; n = 65) received traditional teaching aided by complementary material that could be accessed on the Internet. Both groups were evaluated using the same types of examination. The average marks presented statistically significant differences (BL 6.3 versus TT 5.0; P teaching received. Blended learning was more effective than traditional teaching for teaching human anatomy.

  3. Macroscopic digestive tract anatomy of two small antelopes, the blackbuck (Antilope cervicapra) and the Arabian sand gazelle (Gazella subgutturosa marica)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sauer, Cathrine; Bertelsen, Mads Frost; Hammer, Sven

    2016-01-01

    as having either a ‘cattle-type’ or ‘moose-type’ digestive system. The digestive anatomy of the blackbuck resembled that of 'cattle-type' ruminants, which corresponds to their feeding ecology and previous studies of solute and particle retention time; however, a surprising exception was the remarkably small......The digestive tract anatomy of 14 blackbucks (Antilope cervicapra) and 7 Arabian sand gazelles (Gazella subgutturosa marica) was quantified by dimensions, area and weight. Data from the two small-sized antilopinae were evaluated against a larger comparative data set from other ruminants classified...... time had led to the expectation of a more 'cattle-type' anatomy. The results show that outliers to general morphological trends exist, that findings on physiology and anatomy do not always match completely, and that differences in the digestive morphology among ruminant species are more difficult...

  4. An Anatomy Pre-Course Predicts Student Performance in a Professional Veterinary Anatomy Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNulty, Margaret A; Lazarus, Michelle D

    2018-01-18

    Little to no correlation has been identified between previous related undergraduate coursework or outcomes on standardized tests and performance in a veterinary curriculum, including anatomy coursework. Therefore, a relatively simplistic method to predict student performance before entrance would be advantageous to many. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether there is a correlation between performance in a veterinary anatomy pre-course and subsequent performance within a professional anatomy curriculum. Incoming first-year veterinary students at the Louisiana State University School of Veterinary Medicine were asked to participate in a free weeklong pre-course, before the start of the semester. The pre-course covered the musculoskeletal anatomy of the canine thoracic limb using dissection-based methods. Student performance, as evaluated by test grades in the pre-course, did indeed correlate with test grades in professional veterinary anatomy courses. A significant and positive correlation was identified between pre-course final exam performance and performance on examinations in each of 3 professional anatomy courses. Qualitative analyses of student comments pertaining to their experience within the pre-course indicated differences in the perceived benefits of the pre-course between high-, middle-, and low-performing students. These varied perceptions may provide predictive feedback as well as guidance for supporting lower performing students. Together, these results indicate that performance in a weeklong pre-course covering only a small portion of canine anatomy is a strong predictor of performance within a professional anatomy curriculum. In addition, the pre-course differentially affected student perceptions of their learning experience.

  5. Modelling vocal anatomy's significant effect on speech

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, B.

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates the effect of larynx position on the articulatory abilities of a humanlike vocal tract. Previous work has investigated models that were built to resemble the anatomy of existing species or fossil ancestors. This has led to conflicting conclusions about the relation between

  6. Children's Fantasy Literature: Toward an Anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gooderham, David

    1995-01-01

    States that finding a critical language in which to speak about children's fantasy texts is not as straightforward as might first appear. Discusses ideas held by T. Todorov and J.R.R. Tolkien. Argues that fantasy is a metaphorical mode, and details an anatomy of children's fantasy. Concludes that children's fantasy can be described as a body of…

  7. Anatomy of a Cancer Treatment Scam

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Competition Matters Tech@FTC Comment Policy Contests IoT Home Inspector Challenge Robocalls: Humanity Strikes Back DetectaRobo Zapping ... File Documents in Adjudicative Proceedings You are here Home » News & Events » Audio/Video » Anatomy of a Cancer ...

  8. Anatomy and Physiology. Revised Teacher Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, Danene; And Others

    This curriculum guide contains 14 units of instruction for a course in anatomy and physiology for surgical technology students. The units cover the following topics: (1) organization of the body; (2) cells, tissues, and membranes; (3) integumentary system; (4) skeletal system; (5) muscular system; (6) nervous system; (7) special sense organs; (8)…

  9. Anatomy teaching: Flexnerian model to contextualized vertical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abraham Flexner in 1910 established the fundamental model where the subjects of anatomy, physiology, pharmacology, pathology and bacteriology are mastered before the clinical phase of medical training (1). He was clear that this mastery was best achieved by active student learning in the laboratory guided by clinical.

  10. Fostering Improved Anatomy and Physiology Instructor Pedagogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattheis, Allison; Jensen, Murray

    2014-01-01

    Despite widespread calls for reform in undergraduate science, technology, engineering, and mathematics education, effecting lasting change in instructor practice is challenging to achieve. This article describes the results of a 2-yr research study that involved efforts to develop the pedagogical expertise of a group of anatomy and physiology…

  11. A Syllabus for Biol 242--Human Anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Willis H.

    This document is the fall and spring semester course syllabus of Biology 242--Human Anatomy at Southern University (Louisiana). Sections include: (1) Descriptive Information; (2) Specification of Course Goals and Objectives; (3) Readings; (4) Description of Instructional Procedures; (5) Course Requirements; (6) Course Schedule; (7) Evaluation of…

  12. Anatomy, Medical Education, and Human Ancestral Variation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strkalj, Goran; Spocter, Muhammad A.; Wilkinson, A. Tracey

    2011-01-01

    It is argued in this article that the human body both in health and disease cannot be fully understood without adequately accounting for the different levels of human variation. The article focuses on variation due to ancestry, arguing that the inclusion of information pertaining to ancestry in human anatomy teaching materials and courses should…

  13. Testing to Enhance Retention in Human Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, Jessica M.; Thompson, Andrew J.; Marshak, David W.

    2011-01-01

    Recent work in cognitive psychology has shown that repeatedly testing one's knowledge is a powerful learning aid and provides substantial benefits for retention of the material. To apply this in a human anatomy course for medical students, 39 fill-in-the-blank quizzes of about 50 questions each, one for each region of the body, and four about the…

  14. Systematic wood anatomy of the Rosaceae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Shu-Yin

    1992-01-01

    The wood anatomy of the Rosaceae is surveyed and analysed, based on the study of 280 species (c. 500 specimens) belonging to 62 genera from different parts of the world. Eighteen wood anatomical characters have been used for a phenetic and phylogenetic classification. In the phenetic classification,

  15. Ecological anatomy of some hydrophytes in Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-07-20

    Jul 20, 2009 ... Ecological anatomy of some hydrophytes in Nigeria. Adeniyi A. Jayeola1* and Ezekiel A. Folorunso2. 1Department of Botany and Microbiology, University of Ibadan, Nigeria. 2Department of Botany, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile Ife, Nigeria. Accepted 23 January, 2009. Structural features were studied in ...

  16. Journal of Experimental and Clinical Anatomy: Submissions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect Of Variations In The Material Dietary Fatty Acid Composition On The Neurodevelopment Of Rat Pups. Journal of Applied Sciences 2: 1002 _1010. Textbooks: More L (1992). Clinical Oriented Anatomy. Third Edition. Williams and Wilkins, Baltimore. 917pp. Chapter in Books: Bank M (1999). Stroke And Subarachnoid ...

  17. Anatomy of a Cancer Treatment Scam

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... at the FTC Apply to the FTC Testimonials News & Events Press Releases Commission Actions Media Resources Consumer ... Documents in Adjudicative Proceedings You are here Home » News & Events » Audio/Video » Anatomy of a Cancer Treatment ...

  18. Anatomy and physiology of genital organs - women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graziottin, Alessandra; Gambini, Dania

    2015-01-01

    "Anatomy is destiny": Sigmund Freud viewed human anatomy as a necessary, although not a sufficient, condition for understanding the complexity of human sexual function with a solid biologic basis. The aim of the chapter is to describe women's genital anatomy and physiology, focusing on women's sexual function with a clinically oriented vision. Key points include: embryology, stressing that the "female" is the anatomic "default" program, differentiated into "male" only in the presence of androgens at physiologic levels for the gestational age; sex determination and sex differentiation, describing the interplay between anatomic and endocrine factors; the "clitoral-urethral-vaginal" complex, the most recent anatomy reading of the corpora cavernosa pattern in women; the controversial G spot; the role of the pelvic floor muscles in modulating vaginal receptivity and intercourse feelings, with hyperactivity leading to introital dyspareunia and contributing to provoked vestibulodynia and recurrent postcoital cystitis, whilst lesions during delivery reduce vaginal sensations, genital arousability, and orgasm; innervation, vessels, bones, ligaments; and the physiology of women's sexual response. Attention to physiologic aging focuses on "low-grade inflammation," genital and systemic, with its impact on women sexual function, especially after the menopause, if the woman does not or cannot use hormone replacement therapy. © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Mandatory anatomy dissection, effect on examination performance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Regular class attendance is evidence of professionalism. This has led to mandatory class attendance in many disciplines including anatomy. However, there is paucity of data on the effect of mandatory class attendance on student performance in resource-limited settings. The objective of this study was to determine the ...

  20. Surgical anatomy of the nail apparatus.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haneke, E.

    2006-01-01

    Nail surgery is an integral part of dermatologic surgery. An in-depth knowledge of the anatomy, biology, physiology, and gross pathology of the entire nail unit is essential. In particular, knowledge of nail histopathology is necessary to perform diagnostic nail biopsies and other nail procedures

  1. Neuromodulators: available agents, physiology, and anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nettar, Kartik; Maas, Corey

    2011-12-01

    Neuromodulators have risen to the forefront of aesthetic medicine. By reversibly relaxing target muscles, neuromodulators exhibit their effect by softening hyperfunctional lines. An understanding of their physiology, relevant facial anatomy, and current agents is imperative for a successful aesthetic practice. © Thieme Medical Publishers.

  2. Anatomy and Physiology of the Small Bowel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volk, Neil; Lacy, Brian

    2017-01-01

    Comprehension of small intestine physiology and function provides a framework for the understanding of several important disease pathways of the gastrointestinal system. This article reviews the development, anatomy and histology of the small bowel in addition to physiology and digestion of key nutrients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Thoracic radiographic anatomy in goats | Makungu | Tanzania ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    . The aorta was not clearly visible on lateral views. The mean ratio of the CVC diameter to the height of the fourth thoracic vertebral body (T4) was 1.08 ± 0.07. Speciesspecific differences exist in the normal radiographic anatomy of the thorax.

  4. An Innovative 3-dimensional Model of the Epitympanum for Teaching of Middle Ear Anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Chew Lip; Liu, Xuandao; Chee, Shuo Chian Jeremy; Ngo, Raymond Yeow Seng

    2015-11-01

    To facilitate teaching of the anatomy of the epitympanum, we developed and evaluated the effectiveness of an interactive 3-dimensional (3D) computer model that can be viewed from all angles. Questionnaire-based prospective randomized controlled trial. Undergraduate medical education program. The model was created using Google Sketchup, a 3D modeling software. We recruited 72 graduating medical students and randomized them into 2 groups. One group was given the 3D model and reading materials on the epitympanic anatomy (3D group), while the other group relied on reading material and pictures (2-dimensional [2D] group). A questionnaire and anatomy quiz assessed the utility of the 3D model in learning the anatomy of the epitympanum. The mean age of the participants was 22 years. There were no statistically significant differences in demographics and previous experience with 3D models. The 3D group was significantly more confident in its ability to identify structures of the epitympanum on pictures and computed tomography scans when compared to the 2D group. Most participants were in favor of the model as a useful learning tool and preferred to use it with an instructor. In the anatomy quiz, the 3D group fared significantly better, achieving a mean score of 65.1% compared to 32.4% in the 2D group (P 3D teaching model of the epitympanum is efficacious in short-term recall. By allowing the learner to visualize relations of the epitympanum from all directions, the model aids in appreciation of anatomy and identifications of structures of this region. © American Academy of Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery Foundation 2015.

  5. Seed cone anatomy of Cheirolepidiaceae (Coniferales): reinterpreting Pararaucaria patagonica Wieland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escapa, Ignacio H; Rothwell, Gar W; Stockey, Ruth A; Cúneo, N Rubén

    2012-06-01

    Seed cone morphology and anatomy reflect some of the most important changes in the phylogeny and evolutionary biology of conifers. Reexamination of the enigmatic Jurassic seed cone Pararaucaria patagonica reveals previously unknown systematically informative characters that demonstrate affinities with the Cheirolepidiaceae. This paper documents, for the first time, internal anatomy for seed cones of this important extinct Mesozoic conifer family, which may represent the ghost lineage leading to modern Pinaceae. Morphology and anatomy of cones from the Jurassic La Matilde Formation in Patagonia are described from a combination of polished wafers and thin section preparations. New photographic techniques are employed to reveal histological details of thin sections in which organic cell wall remains are not preserved. Specific terminology for conifer seed cones is proposed to help clarify hypotheses of homology for the various structures of the cones. Specimens are demonstrated to have trilobed ovuliferous scale tips along with a seed enclosing pocket of ovuliferous scale tissue. Originally thought to represent a seed wing in P. patagonica, this pocket-forming tissue is comparable to the flap of tissue covering seeds of compressed cheirolepidiaceous cones and is probably the most diagnostic character for seed cones of the family. Pararaucaria patagonica is assigned to Cheirolepidiaceae, documenting anatomical features for seed cones of the family and providing evidence for the antiquity of pinoid conifers leading to the origin of Pinaceae. A list of key morphological and anatomical characters for seed cones of Cheirolepidiaceae is developed to facilitate assignment of a much broader range of fossil remains to the family. This confirms the presence of Cheirolepidiaceae in the Jurassic of the Southern Hemisphere, which was previously suspected from palynological records.

  6. Effectiveness of Three-Dimensional Digital Animation in Teaching Human Anatomy in an Authentic Classroom Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyek, Nady; Collet, Christian; Di Rienzo, Franck; De Almeida, Mickael; Guillot, Aymeric

    2014-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) digital animations were used to teach the human musculoskeletal system to first year kinesiology students. The purpose of this study was to assess the effectiveness of this method by comparing two groups from two different academic years during two of their official required anatomy examinations (trunk and upper limb…

  7. An Enriched Multimedia eBook Application to Facilitate Learning of Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stirling, Allan; Birt, James

    2014-01-01

    This pilot study compared the use of an enriched multimedia eBook with traditional methods for teaching the gross anatomy of the heart and great vessels. Seventy-one first-year students from an Australian medical school participated in the study. Students' abilities were examined by pretest, intervention, and post-test measurements. Perceptions…

  8. Studying global change through investigation of the plastic responses of xylem anatomy in tree rings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fonti, P.; Arx, von G.; García-González, I.; Eilmann, B.; Sass-Klaassen, U.; Gärtner, H.; Eckstein, D.

    2010-01-01

    Variability in xylem anatomy is of interest to plant scientists because of the role water transport plays in plant performance and survival. Insights into plant adjustments to changing environmental conditions have mainly been obtained through structural and functional comparative studies between

  9. Performance of students in anatomy in the 2 nd MBSS examinations ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aim: The aim of our study was to compare the pass rates of medical students in anatomy with those of medical biochemistry and physiology. Method: The 2nd MBBS (Part I MBBS) examination results of some medical schools in Eastern Nigeria over a variable period of 3-5 years were obtained. The schools were those of ...

  10. The history of anatomy in Persia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoja, Mohammadali M; Tubbs, R Shane

    2007-01-01

    The study of human anatomy can be found throughout the rich history of Persia. For thousands of years, morphological descriptions derived from this part of the world have contributed to and have helped form our current anatomical knowledge base. In this article we review the major influential Persian periods and the individuals who have contributed to the development of anatomy. We have divided the history of Persia into five eras: (1) the period of the Elamites, Medes, early Persians and Babylonians (10th millennium to 6th century BC); (2) following the establishment of the Persian Empire (6th century BC) to the 7th century AD; (3) after the Islamic conquest of Persia to the ascendency of Baghdad (7th to 13th century AD); (4) from the Mongol invasion of Persia to the foundations of modern anatomy (13th to 18th century AD); and (5) modern Persia/Iran (18th century AD to present). Evidence indicates that human dissection was commonplace in the first era, which led to a disciplined practice of surgery in the centuries leading to the foundation of the Persian Empire. By the emergence of Zoroastrianism in the Persian Empire, the microcosm theory was widely used to understand internal anatomy in relation to the external universe. The world's first cosmopolitan university and hospital were built in Gondishapur, south-western Persia, in the third century AD. Greek and Syriac knowledge influenced the second era. With the gradual ruin of Gondishapur and the foundation of Baghdad following the Islamic conquest of Persia (637–651 AD), a great movement took place, which led to the flourishing of the so-called Middle Age or Islamic Golden Age. Of the influential anatomists of this period, Mesue (777–857 AD), Tabbari (838–870 AD), Rhazes (865–925 AD), Joveini (?−983 AD), Ali ibn Abbas (930–994 AD), Avicenna (980–1037 AD) and Jorjani (1042–1137 AD) all hailed from Persia. There is evidence in the Persian literature as to the direct involvement of these scholars in

  11. The history of anatomy in Persia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoja, Mohammadali M; Tubbs, R Shane

    2007-04-01

    The study of human anatomy can be found throughout the rich history of Persia. For thousands of years, morphological descriptions derived from this part of the world have contributed to and have helped form our current anatomical knowledge base. In this article we review the major influential Persian periods and the individuals who have contributed to the development of anatomy. We have divided the history of Persia into five eras: (1) the period of the Elamites, Medes, early Persians and Babylonians (10th millennium to 6th century BC); (2) following the establishment of the Persian Empire (6th century BC) to the 7th century AD; (3) after the Islamic conquest of Persia to the ascendency of Baghdad (7th to 13th century AD); (4) from the Mongol invasion of Persia to the foundations of modern anatomy (13th to 18th century AD); and (5) modern Persia/Iran (18th century AD to present). Evidence indicates that human dissection was commonplace in the first era, which led to a disciplined practice of surgery in the centuries leading to the foundation of the Persian Empire. By the emergence of Zoroastrianism in the Persian Empire, the microcosm theory was widely used to understand internal anatomy in relation to the external universe. The world's first cosmopolitan university and hospital were built in Gondishapur, south-western Persia, in the third century AD. Greek and Syriac knowledge influenced the second era. With the gradual ruin of Gondishapur and the foundation of Baghdad following the Islamic conquest of Persia (637-651 AD), a great movement took place, which led to the flourishing of the so-called Middle Age or Islamic Golden Age. Of the influential anatomists of this period, Mesue (777-857 AD), Tabbari (838-870 AD), Rhazes (865-925 AD), Joveini (?-983 AD), Ali ibn Abbas (930-994 AD), Avicenna (980-1037 AD) and Jorjani (1042-1137 AD) all hailed from Persia. There is evidence in the Persian literature as to the direct involvement of these scholars in human

  12. A gross anatomy flipped classroom effects performance, retention, and higher-level thinking in lower performing students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Leslie J

    2018-01-22

    A flipped classroom is a growing pedagogy in higher education. Many research studies on the flipped classroom have focused on student outcomes, with the results being positive or inconclusive. A few studies have analyzed confounding variables, such as student's previous achievement, or the impact of a flipped classroom on long-term retention and knowledge transfer. In the present study, students in a Doctor of Physical Therapy program in a traditional style lecture of gross anatomy (n = 105) were compared to similar students in a flipped classroom (n = 112). Overall, students in the flipped anatomy classroom had an increase in semester average grades (P = 0.01) and performance on higher-level analytical questions (P flipped anatomy classroom performing at a higher level in kinesiology (P flipped anatomy class, outperformed their traditional anatomy class counterparts in anatomy semester grades (P flipped classroom may benefit lower performing student's knowledge acquisition and transfer to a greater degree than higher performing students. Future studies should explore the underlying reasons for improvement in lower performing students. Anat Sci Educ. © 2018 American Association of Anatomists. © 2018 American Association of Anatomists.

  13. Functional anatomy of the cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) forelimb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Penny E; Corr, Sandra A; Payne-Davis, Rachel C; Clancy, Sinead N; Lane, Emily; Wilson, Alan M

    2011-04-01

    Despite the cheetah being the fastest living land mammal, we know remarkably little about how it attains such high top speeds (29 m s(-1)). Here we aim to describe and quantify the musculoskeletal anatomy of the cheetah forelimb and compare it to the racing greyhound, an animal of similar mass, but which can only attain a top speed of 17 m s(-1). Measurements were made of muscle mass, fascicle length and moment arms, enabling calculations of muscle volume, physiological cross-sectional area (PCSA), and estimates of joint torques and rotational velocities. Bone lengths, masses and mid-shaft cross-sectional areas were also measured. Several species differences were observed and have been discussed, such as the long fibred serratus ventralis muscle in the cheetah, which we theorise may translate the scapula along the rib cage (as has been observed in domestic cats), thereby increasing the cheetah's effective limb length. The cheetah's proximal limb contained many large PCSA muscles with long moment arms, suggesting that this limb is resisting large ground reaction force joint torques and therefore is not functioning as a simple strut. Its structure may also reflect a need for control and stabilisation during the high-speed manoeuvring in hunting. The large digital flexors and extensors observed in the cheetah forelimb may be used to dig the digits into the ground, aiding with traction when galloping and manoeuvring. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Anatomy © 2011 Anatomical Society of Great Britain and Ireland.

  14. Anatomy and histology of the lower urinary tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradidarcheep, Wisuit; Wallner, Christian; Dabhoiwala, Noshir F; Lamers, Wouter H

    2011-01-01

    The function of the lower urinary tract is basically storage of urine in the bladder and the at-will periodic evacuation of the stored urine. Urinary incontinence is one of the most common lower urinary tract disorders in adults, but especially in the elderly female. The urethra, its sphincters, and the pelvic floor are key structures in the achievement of continence, but their basic anatomy is little known and, to some extent, still incompletely understood. Because questions with respect to continence arise from human morbidity, but are often investigated in rodent animal models, we present findings in human and rodent anatomy and histology. Differences between males and females in the role that the pelvic floor plays in the maintenance of continence are described. Furthermore, we briefly describe the embryologic origin of ureters, bladder, and urethra, because the developmental origin of structures such as the vesicoureteral junction, the bladder trigone, and the penile urethra are often invoked to explain (clinical) observations. As the human pelvic floor has acquired features in evolution that are typical for a species with bipedal movement, we also compare the pelvic floor of humans with that of rodents to better understand the rodent (or any other quadruped, for that matter) as an experimental model species. The general conclusion is that the "Bauplan" is well conserved, even though its common features are sometimes difficult to discern.

  15. OCT imaging of craniofacial anatomy in xenopus embryos (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deniz, Engin; Jonas, Stephan M.; Griffin, John; Hooper, Michael C.; Choma, Michael A.; Khokha, Mustafa K.

    2016-03-01

    The etiology of craniofacial defects is incompletely understood. The ability to obtain large amounts of gene sequence data from families affected by craniofacial defects is opening up new ways to understand molecular genetic etiological factors. One important link between gene sequence data and clinical relevance is biological research into candidate genes and molecular pathways. We present our recent research using OCT as a nondestructive phenotyping modality of craniofacial morphology in Xenopus embryos, an important animal model for biological research in gene and pathway discovery. We define 2D and 3D scanning protocols for a standardized approach to craniofacial imaging in Xenopus embryos. We define standard views and planar reconstructions for visualizing normal anatomy and landmarks. We compare these views and reconstructions to traditional histopathology using alcian blue staining. In addition to being 3D, nondestructive, and having much faster throughout, OCT can identify craniofacial features that are lost during traditional histopathological preparation. We also identify quantitative morphometric parameters to define normative craniofacial anatomy. We also note that craniofacial and cardiac defects are not infrequently present in the same patient (e.g velocardiofacial syndrome). Given that OCT excels at certain aspects of cardiac imaging in Xenopus embryos, our work highlights the potential of using OCT and Xenopus to study molecular genetic factors that impact both cardiac and craniofacial development.

  16. [New pedagogic methods in anatomy: experience at Cambridge University].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kluchova, D

    2000-01-01

    The expansion of knowledge in basic medical sciences is not linked to the time assigned for the teaching of anatomy to medical undergraduates. The question of "basic knowledge" in teaching anatomy during medical training arises as a need for education of future clinical doctors. Nowadays, two extreme views in teaching anatomy can be recognized: one adopted some pure anatomists who feel their existence threatened even by the idea of any reduction in their field, and one by some morphologists exclusively interested in cellular biology, who consider that classical anatomy is of no interest, since it has been exhausted as a field for research. An intermediate position is taken by some clinicians, who maintain that anatomy is indispensable but seek a severe reduction in the content to what they consider to be necessary. The above mentioned need for clinicians was reflected in recommendations of Education Committee of the General Medical Council (GMC) which in short, could be characterized by: the substantial reduction of factual information, the increase of student learning and the emphasis of clinically applied anatomy with its integration to the general medical education. GMC delegated the Department of Anatomy at the University of Cambridge by the developing of the new anatomy course. This new course was for the first time introduced in school year 1998-1999. In this study are presented ways and methods of undergraduate anatomy teaching at the University of Cambridge. These educational principles could serve as a model for teaching anatomy during its transformation in other medical faculties.

  17. Pocket atlas of MRI body anatomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berquist, T.H.; Ehman, R.L.; May, G.R.

    1987-01-01

    This book is a guide to the anatomy of extracranial organs as seen in magnetic resonance images. This collection of 96 magnetic resonance images, accompanied by explanatory line drawings, covers all the major organs of the body- shoulder and humerus; elbow and forearm; hand and wrist; chest; abdomen; pelvis; thigh; knee; calf; and ankle. The images are displayed in the axial, coronal, and sagittal planes, enabling radiologists to quickly review coronal and sagittal anatomy as it applies to routine MRI practice. Special emphasis is placed on the extremities, where spatial resolution, coronal and sagittal planes, and soft tissue contrast provide important anatomic detail. Each MRI image is carefully labeled - using numbers with legends at the top of the page - to highlight key anatomic features. Where applicable, special parameters and positioning are noted below the images. Accompanying each image is a line drawing demonstrating the level and plane of the image.

  18. [Surgery and anatomy in the Renaissance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero-y Huesca, Andrés; Ramírez-Bollas, Julio; Ponce-Landín, Francisco Javier; Moreno-Rojas, Juan Carlos; Soto-Miranda, Miguel Angel

    2005-01-01

    The interest in the physical perfection and the corporal forms brings as a result the creation of new anatomical studies. The anatomical knowledge progressed in the second half of the XV century, conceiving the knowledge of the human body as a basic reality of Medicine. One of the greater contributions of the Italian Universities to medicine was the teaching of anatomy. The Universities of Padua, Bologna, and Pisa educated in their classrooms great physicians like Andres Vesalio, Gabriel Fallopio, Realdo Colombo, Mondino de Luzzi, Julio Ceasar Aranzio, and Gaspare Tagliacozzi, among others. The teaching of anatomy during the Renaissance was characterized by the development of dissection techniques and autopsy practice, which was recognized as an extremely valuable skill for anatomical study. The dissections were made in circular amphitheatres in the following way: a Medicine professor read the text book, another one made the dissection, and a third one indicated the structures referred.

  19. Fetal anatomy revealed with fast MR sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, D; Hatabu, H; Gaa, J; Atkinson, M W; Edelman, R R

    1996-10-01

    Although all the imaging studies in this pictorial essay were done for maternal rather than fetal indications, fetal anatomy was well visualized. However, when scans are undertaken for fetal indications, fetal motion in between scout views and imaging sequences may make specific image planes difficult to obtain. Of the different techniques described in this review, we preferred the HASTE technique and use it almost exclusively for scanning pregnant patients. The T2-weighting is ideal for delineating fetal organs. Also, the HASTE technique allows images to be obtained in 430 msec, limiting artifacts arising from maternal and fetal motion. MR imaging should play a more important role in evaluating equivocal sonographic cases as fast scanning techniques are more widely used. Obstetric MR imaging no longer will be limited by fetal motion artifacts. When complex anatomy requires definition in a complicated pregnant patient, MR imaging should be considered as a useful adjunct to sonography.

  20. Alterations in physiology and anatomy during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Eng Kien; Tan, Eng Loy

    2013-12-01

    Pregnant women undergo profound anatomical and physiological changes so that they can cope with the increased physical and metabolic demands of their pregnancies. The cardiovascular, respiratory, haematological, renal, gastrointestinal and endocrine systems all undergo important physiological alterations and adaptations needed to allow development of the fetus and to allow the mother and fetus to survive the demands of childbirth. Such alterations in anatomy and physiology may cause difficulties in interpreting signs, symptoms, and biochemical investigations, making the clinical assessment of a pregnant woman inevitably confusing but challenging. Understanding these changes is important for every practicing obstetrician, as the pathological deviations from the normal physiological alterations may not be clear-cut until an adverse outcome has resulted. Only with a sound knowledge of the physiology and anatomy changes can the care of an obstetric parturient be safely optimized for a better maternal and fetal outcome. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. The ischiatic region: normal and MRI anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ripani, M; Continenza, M A; Cacchio, A; Barile, A; Parisi, A; De Paulis, F

    2006-09-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the anatomy correlated to the normal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) images of the proximal thigh region and the ischial tuberosity. MRI coronal and axial sequences were obtained from 20 asymptomatic volunteers (10 male and 10 female) aged 20 to 38 years (mean age: 28 years), and then they were compared with 2 anatomical dissections and 7 cryosections of 6 cadaver thighs. The anatomical specimens were directly correlated with MRI scans. From the comparison it could be seen how the axial MRI sequences well outlined the sciatic nerve, usually observed oval in shape with moderate signal intensity, and thus easily detectable from other surrounding organs. Other structures were also identified by axial images: the ischial tuberosity, the proximal origin of the hamstring muscles arising from the ischium and the related bursae, the gluteus maximus and its bursa, the quadratus femoris and its inconstant bursa, a triangular adipose body and vessels. Coronal scans also showed well the hamstring muscles, both in length and thickness. Both MRI images and cadaver dissections showed the ischial tuberosity as an interesting intersection area that could be delimited as follows: on the dorsal border the gluteus maximus and its bursa, on the dorso-medial side the hamstring muscle origin, and on the antero-lateral side the quadratus femoris muscle with its inconstant bursa and the ischial tuberosity. These anatomical and MRI descriptions are very useful to give a contribution to the right explanation of sciatic symptoms caused by those sports specifically overloading the hamstring muscles. Frequently, in fact, in these athletes a sciatic syndrome arise drawing the physician's attention to the lumbosacral joint or to the sciatic nerve course near the piriformis muscle. Another very important site where the sciatic symptoms can rise, indeed, could also be found in the hamstring muscle region, where the nerve run under the gluteus maximus beside

  2. Clinical anatomy of the subserous layer: An amalgamation of gross and clinical anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yabuki, Yoshihiko

    2016-05-01

    The 1998 edition of Terminologia Anatomica introduced some currently used clinical anatomical terms for the pelvic connective tissue or subserous layer. These innovations persuaded the present author to consider a format in which the clinical anatomical terms could be reconciled with those of gross anatomy and incorporated into a single anatomical glossary without contradiction or ambiguity. Specific studies on the subserous layer were undertaken on 79 Japanese women who had undergone surgery for uterine cervical cancer, and on 26 female cadavers that were dissected, 17 being formalin-fixed and 9 fresh. The results were as follows: (a) the subserous layer could be segmentalized by surgical dissection in the perpendicular, horizontal and sagittal planes; (b) the segmentalized subserous layer corresponded to 12 cubes, or ligaments, of minimal dimension that enabled the pelvic organs to be extirpated; (c) each ligament had a three-dimensional (3D) structure comprising craniocaudal, mediolateral, and dorsoventral directions vis-á-vis the pelvic axis; (d) these 3D-structured ligaments were encoded morphologically in order of decreasing length; and (e) using these codes, all the surgical procedures for 19th century to present-day radical hysterectomy could be expressed symbolically. The establishment of clinical anatomical terms, represented symbolically through coding as demonstrated in this article, could provide common ground for amalgamating clinical anatomy with gross anatomy. Consequently, terms in clinical anatomy and gross anatomy could be reconciled and compiled into a single anatomical glossary. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Complementing anatomy education using three-dimensional anatomy mobile software applications on tablet computers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, T L; Burnett, B; Tunstall, R G; Abrahams, P H

    2014-04-01

    Anatomy has traditionally been a cornerstone of medical education, which has been taught via dissection and didactic lectures. The rising prevalence of mobile tablet technology means medical software applications ("apps") play an increasingly important role in medical education. The applications highlighted in this article will aid anatomical educators to identify which are the most useful in clinical, academic, and educational environments. These have been systematically identified by downloading all applications with keywords related to anatomy and then carrying out qualitative assessment. Novel anatomy applications from developers such as Visible Body, 3D4Medical, and Pocket Anatomy allow students to visualize and manipulate complex anatomical structures using detailed 3D models. They often contain additional content including clinical correlations and a range of media from instructional videos to interactive quiz functions. The strength of tablet technology lies in its ability to consolidate and present anatomical information to the user in the most appropriate manner for their learning style. The only question mark remains over the level of detail and accuracy of these applications. Innovative medical educators who embrace tablet technology will find that anatomy applications serve as a useful learning tool when used in conjunction with existing teaching setups. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Orthodontics and Dental Anatomy: Three-dimensional Scanner Contribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabbout, Fidele; Baron, Pascal

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this article is to focus on the dental anatomy, its influence on therapeutic choices, and decision in orthodontics. A sample of 80 subjects was selected and analyzed. Through the usage of the three-dimensional scanner with the C2000-Cepha and Cepha3DT software, it is now possible to calculate the volume and the dimensions of both crown and root of each tooth and compare them to the literature. Data were collected and statistically evaluated with the StatView software (version 5.0). These references values were compared with those known in the literature redefining our approaches to treatment in orthodontics. The individual anatomical data either unique or in a group of teeth give new insights on the orthodontic therapeutic options.

  5. Positive dental identification using tooth anatomy and digital superimposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansen, Raymond J; Michael Bowers, C

    2013-03-01

    Dental identification of unknown human remains continues to be a relevant and reliable adjunct to forensic investigations. The advent of genomic and mitochondrial DNA procedures has not displaced the practical use of dental and related osseous structures remaining after destructive incidents that can render human remains unrecognizable, severely burned, and fragmented. The ability to conclusively identify victims of accident and homicide is based on the availability of antemortem records containing substantial and unambiguous proof of dental and related osseous characteristics. This case report documents the use of digital comparative analysis of antemortem dental models and postmortem dentition, to determine a dental identification. Images of dental models were digitally analyzed using Adobe Photoshop(TM) software. Individual tooth anatomy was compared between the antemortem and postmortem images. Digital superimposition techniques were also used for the comparison. With the absence of antemortem radiographs, this method proved useful to reach a positive identification in this case. © 2012 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  6. The functional anatomy of forearm rotation

    OpenAIRE

    Lees, Vivien C.

    2009-01-01

    The elbow, forearm and wrist act as a unified structure to provide a stable, strong and highly mobile strut for positioning the hand in space and for conducting load-bearing tasks. An understanding of the relevant anatomy and biomechanics is important for the surgeon assessing and treating disorders of forearm function. This paper is concerned with illuminating the principles and concepts governing forearm rotation and load-bearing functions.

  7. Anatomy, biogenesis, and regeneration of salivary glands

    OpenAIRE

    Holmberg, Kyle V.; Hoffman, Matthew P.

    2014-01-01

    An overview of the anatomy and biogenesis of salivary glands is important in order to understand the physiology, functions and disorders associated with saliva. A major disorder of salivary glands is salivary hypofunction and resulting xerostomia, or dry mouth, which affects hundreds of thousands of patients per year who suffer from salivary gland diseases or undergo head and neck cancer treatment. There is currently no curative therapy for these patients. To improve these patients’ quality o...

  8. Clinical anatomy of the periocular region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shams, Pari N; Ortiz-Pérez, Santiago; Joshi, Naresh

    2013-08-01

    The aims of this article are twofold: (1) to provide the facial plastic surgeon with a comprehensive and up-to-date overview of periocular anatomy including the brow, midface, and temporal region and (2) to highlight important anatomical relationships that must be appreciated in order to achieve the best possible functional and aesthetic surgical outcomes. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  9. Latin and Greek in gross anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Sean B; Carmichael, Stephen W; Pawlina, Wojciech; Spinner, Robert J

    2007-04-01

    Medical students and practitioners learn and use a vocabulary originating almost entirely from classical Latin and Greek languages. Previous generations required Latin or Greek prior to medical school, but the current generation does not have such requirements. Anecdotal evidence suggests that understanding Latin or Greek helps students to learn and practitioners to recall otherwise foreign terminology. This study evaluated students' familiarity with Latin and Greek etymologies before and after a gross anatomy course that incorporated etymologies into its curriculum. First-year medical students at Mayo Clinic College of Medicine were taught Latin and Greek etymologies through lectures and handouts during their gross anatomy course. They took a pretest and a posttest before and after the course to assess their understanding of etymologies. In addition, students from all four years of medical school, residents, and staff physicians also took a general etymology quiz to assess their understanding of etymologies. After their gross anatomy course emphasizing etymologies, first-year students scored higher on the posttest than they did on the pretest. First-year students also reported that learning etymologies enhanced anatomy learning, made the experience more enjoyable, and proved to be less difficult than they thought it would be prior to the course. Medical students, residents, and staff physicians scored almost equally on the general etymology quiz and almost equally reported that etymologies enhanced learning and recalling terminology. Medical students, residents, and staff physicians almost equally endorsed incorporating etymologies into medical education. This study provides novel scientific evidence that a basic understanding of Latin and Greek etymologies enhances performance and comfort when learning and using medical terminology.

  10. Greek anatomist herophilus: the father of anatomy

    OpenAIRE

    Bay, Noel Si-Yang; Bay, Boon-Huat

    2010-01-01

    One of the most stirring controversies in the history of Anatomy is that Herophilus, an ancient Greek anatomist and his younger contemporary, Erasistratus, were accused of performing vivisections of living humans. However, this does not detract from the fact that Herophilus has made phenomenal anatomical observations of the human body which have contributed significantly towards the understanding of the brain, eye, liver, reproductive organs and nervous system. It is notable that he was the f...

  11. Cat dissection and human cadaver prosection versus sculpting human structures from clay: A comparison of alternate approaches to human anatomy laboratory education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waters, John R.

    Dissection and vivisection are traditional approaches to biology laboratory education. In the case of human anatomy teaching laboratories, there is a long tradition of using human and animal cadaver specimens in the classroom. In a review of the literature comparing traditional dissection and vivisection lessons to alternative lessons designed to reduce the time spent dissecting or the numbers of animals used, we conclude that it is difficult to come to any conclusion regarding the efficacy of different approaches. An analysis of the literature is confounded because many studies have very low statistical power or other methodological weaknesses, and investigators rely on a wide variety of testing instruments to measure an equally varied number of course objectives. Additional well designed studies are necessary before educators can reach any informed conclusions about the efficacy of traditional versus alternative approaches to laboratory education. In our experiments, we compared a traditional cat dissection based undergraduate human anatomy lesson to an alternative where students sculpted human muscles onto plastic human skeletons. Students in the alternative treatment performed significantly better than their peers in the traditional treatment when answering both lower and higher order human anatomy questions. In a subsequent experiment with a similar design, we concluded that the superior performance of the students in the alternative treatment on anatomy exams was likely due to the similarity between the human anatomy representation studied in lab, and the human anatomy questions asked on the exams. When the anatomy questions were presented in the context of a cat specimen, students in the traditional cat dissection treatment outperformed their peers in the alternative treatment. In a final experiment where student performance on a human anatomy exam was compared between a traditional prosected human cadaver treatment and the alternative clay sculpting

  12. Michelangelo: anatomy and its implication in his art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilloowala, Rumy

    2009-06-01

    Michelangelo's major interest was the Life of the Soul as expressed in the beautiful structure and movement of the human body, which he often called the "mortal veil" of the divine intentions. This study ascertains Michelangelo's interest in and acquisition of the knowledge of human anatomy, the use of small anatomical models to crystallize his concepts into reality and the application of anatomy to his art. Relatively little is known of this interaction between anatomy and art in Michelangelo's life and work.

  13. Innovative strategies for teaching anatomy to dental students

    OpenAIRE

    Lone, Mutahira

    2018-01-01

    Anatomy education is an integral component of the undergraduate and postgraduate dental curriculum. A detailed understanding of anatomy is a pre-requisite before examination, diagnosis and clinical treatment of patients in all aspects of the healthcare systems. Anatomy teaching is undergoing pioneering changes. Traditional Vesalius’ dissection-based teaching has evolved to include didactic lectures and nowadays incorporates digital teaching, e-learning and a wide range of 3D images and models...

  14. Lecture Classes in Human Anatomy: The Students’ Perceptions

    OpenAIRE

    Kar, Maitreyee; Roy, Hironmoy; Ghosh, Anasuya; Tapadar, Arunabha; Chowdhury, Subhramoy; Mukherjee, Pranab; Jana, Tapan Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: The human anatomy, or in brief, the body structure has fascinated man for ages. Due to the information explosion and the increase in specializations, this knowledge is available in a very sketchy manner in high school biology courses. The first comprehensive course on the human anatomy is taught to the first year medical students in medical colleges. This is in keeping with the regulations of the Medical Council of India. The anatomy lecture classes occupy a considerable time of...

  15. Stereopsis, Visuospatial Ability, and Virtual Reality in Anatomy Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Luursema, Jan-Maarten; Vorstenbosch, Marc; Kooloos, Jan

    2017-01-01

    A new wave of virtual reality headsets has become available. A potential benefit for the study of human anatomy is the reintroduction of stereopsis and absolute size. We report a randomized controlled trial to assess the contribution of stereopsis to anatomy learning, for students of different visuospatial ability. Sixty-three participants engaged in a one-hour session including a study phase and posttest. One group studied 3D models of the anatomy of the deep neck in full stereoptic virtual ...

  16. Teaching medical anatomy: what is the role of imaging today?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grignon, Bruno; Oldrini, Guillaume; Walter, Frédéric

    2016-03-01

    Medical anatomy instruction has been an important issue of debate for many years and imaging anatomy has become an increasingly important component in the field, the role of which has not yet been clearly defined. The aim of the paper was to assess the current deployment of medical imaging in the teaching of anatomy by means of a review of the literature. A systematic search was performed using the electronic database PubMed, ScienceDirect and various publisher databases, with combinations of the relevant MeSH terms. A manual research was added. In most academic curricula, imaging anatomy has been integrated as a part of anatomical education, taught using a very wide variety of strategies. Considerable variation in the time allocation, content and delivery of medical imaging in teaching human anatomy was identified. Given this considerable variation, an objective assessment remains quite difficult. In most publications, students' perceptions regarding anatomical courses including imaging anatomy were investigated by means of questionnaires and, regardless of the method of teaching, it was globally concluded that imaging anatomy enhanced the quality and efficiency of instruction in human anatomy. More objective evaluation based on an increase in students' performance on course examinations or on specific tests performed before and after teaching sessions showed positive results in numerous cases, while mixed results were also indicated by other studies. A relative standardization could be useful in improving the teaching of imaging anatomy, to facilitate its assessment and reinforce its effectiveness.

  17. Design and implementation of an online systemic human anatomy course with laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attardi, Stefanie M; Rogers, Kem A

    2015-01-01

    Systemic Human Anatomy is a full credit, upper year undergraduate course with a (prosection) laboratory component at Western University Canada. To meet enrollment demands beyond the physical space of the laboratory facility, a fully online section was developed to run concurrently with the traditional face to face (F2F) course. Lectures given to F2F students are simultaneously broadcasted to online students using collaborative software (Blackboard Collaborate). The same collaborative software is used by a teaching assistant to deliver laboratory demonstrations in which three-dimensional (3D) virtual anatomical models are manipulated. Ten commercial software programs were reviewed to determine their suitability for demonstrating the virtual models, resulting in the selection of Netter's 3D Interactive Anatomy. Supplementary online materials for the central nervous system were developed by creating 360° images of plastinated prosected brain specimens and a website through which they could be accessed. This is the first description of a fully online undergraduate anatomy course with a live, interactive laboratory component. Preliminary data comparing the online and F2F student grades suggest that previous student academic performance, and not course delivery format, predicts performance in anatomy. Future qualitative studies will reveal student perceptions about their learning experiences in both of the course delivery formats. © 2014 American Association of Anatomists.

  18. An enriched multimedia eBook application to facilitate learning of anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stirling, Allan; Birt, James

    2014-01-01

    This pilot study compared the use of an enriched multimedia eBook with traditional methods for teaching the gross anatomy of the heart and great vessels. Seventy-one first-year students from an Australian medical school participated in the study. Students' abilities were examined by pretest, intervention, and post-test measurements. Perceptions and attitudes toward eBook technology were examined by survey questions. Results indicated a strongly positive user experience coupled with increased marks; however, there were no statistically significant results for the eBook method of delivery alone outperforming the traditional anatomy practical session. Results did show a statistically significant difference in the final marks achieved based on the sequencing of the learning modalities. With initial interaction with the multimedia content followed by active experimentation in the anatomy lab, students' performance was improved in the final test. Obtained data support the role of eBook technology in modern anatomy curriculum being a useful adjunct to traditional methods. Further study is needed to investigate the importance of sequencing of teaching interventions. © 2013 American Association of Anatomists.

  19. Perceptions of a mobile technology on learning strategies in the anatomy laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayfield, Chandler H; Ohara, Peter T; O'Sullivan, Patricia S

    2013-01-01

    Mobile technologies offer new opportunities to improve dissection learning. This study examined the effect of using an iPad-based multimedia dissection manual during anatomy laboratory instruction on learner's perception of anatomy dissection activities and use of time. Three experimental dissection tables used iPads and three tables served as a control for two identical sessions. Trained, non-medical school anatomy faculty observers recorded use of resources at two-minute intervals for 20 observations per table. Students completed pre- and post-perception questionnaires. We used descriptive and inferential analyses. Twenty-one control and 22 experimental students participated. Compared with controls, experimental students reported significantly (P learning anatomy. Experimental students indicated that the iPad helped them in dissection. We observed experimental students more on task (93% vs. 83% of the time) and less likely to be seeking an instructor (2% vs. 32%). The groups received similar attention from instructors (33% vs. 37%). Fifty-nine percent of the time at least one student was looking at the iPad. Groups clustered around the iPad a third of their time. We conclude that the iPad-manual aided learner engagement, achieved instructional objectives, and enhanced the effectiveness and efficiency of dissection education. Copyright © 2012 American Association of Anatomists.

  20. Is the decline of human anatomy hazardous to medical education/profession?--A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Rajani; Shane Tubbs, R; Gupta, Kavita; Singh, Man; Jones, D Gareth; Kumar, Raj

    2015-12-01

    The continuous decrease in teaching time, the artificially created scarcity of competent anatomical faculties and a reduced allocation of resources have brought about the decline of anatomy in medical education. As a result of this, anatomical knowledge and the standard of medical education have fallen with consequences including safety in clinical practice. The aim of the present study is to analyze this declining phase of anatomy and its impact on medical education and to consider corrective measures. This article expresses comparative viewpoints based on a review of the literature. Anatomy enables doctors to master the language of medical science so they can communicate with patients, the public and fellow doctors and diagnose and treat diseases successfully in all medical fields. No medical specialist or expert can master their field without adequate knowledge of human anatomy. The shrinkage of anatomical schedules, inadequate faculties and declining allocation of resources is therefore unfortunate. These factors produce stress in both student and faculty creating gaps in anatomical knowledge that means insufficient skill is developed to practice medicine safely. This decline is hazardous not only to the medical profession but also to society. Reforms consisting of balanced rescheduling of medical curricula and optimum resource allocation have been proposed to improve the standard of education of doctors.

  1. Inaccurate preoperative imaging assessment on biliary anatomy not increases biliary complications after living donor liver transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Xiao; Wei Xuyong; Ling Qi; Wang Kai; Bao Haiwei; Xie Haiyang; Zhou Lin; Zheng Shusen

    2012-01-01

    Backgrounds and aims: Accurate assessment of graft bile duct is important to plan surgical procedure. Magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) has become an important diagnostic procedure in evaluation of pancreaticobiliary ductal abnormalities and has been reported as highly accurate. We aim to estimate the efficacy of preoperative MRCP on depicting biliary anatomy in living donor liver transplantation (LDLT), and to determine whether inaccurate preoperative imaging assessment would increase the biliary complications after LDLT. Methods: The data of 118 cases LDLT were recorded. Information from preoperative MRCP was assessed using intraoperative cholangiography (IOC) as the gold standard. The possible risk factors of recipient biliary complications were analyzed. Results: Of 118 donors, 84 had normal anatomy (type A) and 34 had anatomic variants (19 cases of type B, 9 cases of type C, 1 case of type E, 2 cases of type F and 3 cases of type I) confirmed by IOC. MRCP correctly predicted all 84 normal cases and 17 of 34 variant cases, and showed an accuracy of 85.6% (101/118). The incidence of biliary complications was comparable between cases with accurate and inaccurate classification of biliary tree from MRCP, and between cases with normal and variant anatomy of bile duct. While cases with graft duct opening ≤5 mm showed a significant higher incidence of total biliary complications (21.1% vs. 6.6%, P = 0.028) and biliary stricture (10.5% vs. 1.6%, P = 0.041) compared with cases with large duct opening >5 mm. Conclusion: MRCP could correctly predict normal but not variant biliary anatomy. Inaccurate assessment of biliary anatomy from MRCP not increases the rate of biliary complications, while small-sized graft duct may cause an increase in biliary complications particularly biliary stricture after LDLT.

  2. Student perceptions of independent versus facilitated small group learning approaches to compressed medical anatomy education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whelan, Alexander; Leddy, John J; Mindra, Sean; Matthew Hughes, J D; El-Bialy, Safaa; Ramnanan, Christopher J

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare student perceptions regarding two, small group learning approaches to compressed (46.5 prosection-based laboratory hours), integrated anatomy education at the University of Ottawa medical program. In the facilitated active learning (FAL) approach, tutors engage students and are expected to enable and balance both active learning and progression through laboratory objectives. In contrast, the emphasized independent learning (EIL) approach stresses elements from the "flipped classroom" educational model: prelaboratory preparation, independent laboratory learning, and limited tutor involvement. Quantitative (Likert-style questions) and qualitative data (independent thematic analysis of open-ended commentary) from a survey of students who had completed the preclerkship curriculum identified strengths from the EIL (promoting student collaboration and communication) and FAL (successful progression through objectives) approaches. However, EIL led to student frustration related to a lack of direction and impaired completion of objectives, whereas active learning opportunities in FAL were highly variable and dependent on tutor teaching style. A "hidden curriculum" was also identified, where students (particularly EIL and clerkship students) commonly compared their compressed anatomy education or their anatomy learning environment with other approaches. Finally, while both groups highly regarded the efficiency of prosection-based learning and expressed value for cadaveric-based learning, student commentary noted that the lack of grade value dedicated to anatomy assessment limited student accountability. This study revealed critical insights into small group learning in compressed anatomy education, including the need to balance student active learning opportunities with appropriate direction and feedback (including assessment). © 2015 American Association of Anatomists.

  3. Distributed retrieval practice promotes superior recall of anatomy information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobson, John L; Perez, Jose; Linderholm, Tracy

    2017-07-01

    Effortful retrieval produces greater long-term recall of information when compared to studying (i.e., reading), as do learning sessions that are distributed (i.e., spaced apart) when compared to those that are massed together. Although the retrieval and distributed practice effects are well-established in the cognitive science literature, no studies have examined their additive effect with regard to learning anatomy information. The aim of this study was to determine how the benefits of retrieval practice vary with massed versus distributed learning. Participants used the following strategies to learn sets of skeletal muscle anatomy: (1) studying on three different days over a seven day period (SSSS 7,2,0 ), (2) studying and retrieving on three different days over a seven day period (SRSR 7,2,0 ), (3) studying on two different days over a two day period (SSSSSS 2,0 ), (4) studying and retrieving on two separate days over a two day period (SRSRSR 2,0 ), and (5) studying and retrieving on one day (SRx6 0 ). All strategies consisted of 12 learning phases and lasted exactly 24 minutes. Muscle information retention was assessed via free recall and using repeated measures ANOVAs. A week after learning, the recall scores were 24.72 ± 3.12, 33.88 ± 3.48, 15.51 ± 2.48, 20.72 ± 2.94, and 12.86 ± 2.05 for the SSSS 7,2,0 , SRSR 7,2,0 , SSSSSS 2,0 , STSTST 2,0 , and SRx6 0 strategies, respectively. In conclusion, the distributed strategies produced significantly better recall than the massed strategies, the retrieval-based strategies produced significantly better recall than the studying strategies, and the combination of distributed and retrieval practice generated the greatest recall of anatomy information. Anat Sci Educ 10: 339-347. © 2016 American Association of Anatomists. © 2016 American Association of Anatomists.

  4. Wood anatomy of Argyroxiphium (Asteraceae): adaptive radiation and ecological correlations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlquist, S.

    1997-01-01

    Wood anatomy shows close correlation with ecology: A. kauense, A. sandwicense (stem), and A. virescens, which occur in dry localities, show xeromorphic wood patterns. The most mesomorphic woods are those of the bog species A. grayanum and root wood of A. sandwicense. The wood of A. caliginis is xeromorphic, despite the bog habitat of the species, a fact explainable if A. caliginis is a recent entrant into the bog habitat Libriform wall thickness appears correlated with habit. Quantitative features of stem woods of Argyroxiphium are comparable to woods ranging from desert to moist montane forest areas in California. The similarities to woods from each Californian habitat are correlative to the relative moisture availability of the respective Hawaiian habitats of the Argyroxiphium species. (author)

  5. Intracranial arterial anatomy: evaluation by computed tomography angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Regattieri, Neysa Aparecida Tinoco; Haetinger, Rainer Guilherme; Liberti, Edson Aparecido

    2010-01-01

    By many decades, the intracranial arteries study was realized exclusively by angiography through selective arterial catheterization. Nowadays, with the technologic evaluation of computerized tomography devices with multi detectors allowing acquisitions with even more thinner slices, higher speed and better resolution, it had appeared a new modality of investigation: the computed tomography angiography, less invasive and with minor morbidity than conventional arteriography. Many studies in the literature have been analyzing the sensibility of the new method for the detection of intracranial aneurysms and comparing them with the conventional arteriography. There is a necessity to recognize the normal intracranial arterial anatomy and its variations using images obtained from multiplanar reformations, in order to give important information for surgeries strategies, such as wall calcifications, aneurismatic neck position and relationships with surrounding anatomical structures. (author)

  6. Porcine heart interatrial septum anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holda, Mateusz K; Holda, Jakub; Koziej, Mateusz; Piatek, Katarzyna; Klimek-Piotrowska, Wieslawa

    2018-02-16

    The left-sided atrial septal pouch (SP), a recently re-discovered anatomical structure within the human interatrial septum, has emerged as a possible source of thrombi formation and a trigger for atrial fibrillation, thereby potentially increasing the risk for ischemic stroke. In many studies, the swine interatrial septum has been used as model of the human heart. Also, possible new strategies and devices for management of the SPs may first be tested in this pig model. Therefore, in this study, we aimed to evaluate swine interatrial septum morphology and to compare it with the human analog, especially in the light of SP occurrence. A total of 75 swine (Sus scrofa f. domestica) hearts were examined. The interatrial septum morphology was assessed, and SPs were measured. The most common variant of the interatrial septum was smooth septum (26.6%) followed by the patent foramen ovale channel and right SP (both 22.7%). No left or double SPs were observed. In 28.0% of all cases the fold of tissue (left septal ridge) was observed on the left side of the interatrial septum in the location where the left-sided SP should be expected. The mean length of the patent foramen ovale channel was 7.1±1.5mm. The mean right SP depth was 6.3±2.2mm, and its ostium width and height were 5.8±1.2 and 5.3±1.6mm, respectively. There are significant differences between human and porcine interatrial septum morphology that should be taken into account during experimental studies. The absence of the left SP in swine results in the inability to use porcine heart as an experimental model for left-sided SP management. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  7. "Anatomy lesson of Frederik Ruysch" of 1670: a tribute to Ruysch's contributions to lymphatic anatomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ijpma, Frank F. A.; van Gulik, Thomas M.

    2013-01-01

    Frederick Ruysch was one of the most prominent Dutch physicians of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. For more than 65 years, he was the Praelector Anatomiae (Lecturer of Anatomy) of the Amsterdam Guild of Surgeons. During his career, he conducted many dissections at the guild's theatre to

  8. "Anatomy lesson of Frederik Ruysch" of 1670: a tribute to Ruysch's contributions to lymphatic anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ijpma, Frank F A; van Gulik, Thomas M

    2013-08-01

    Frederick Ruysch was one of the most prominent Dutch physicians of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. For more than 65 years, he was the Praelector Anatomiae (Lecturer of Anatomy) of the Amsterdam Guild of Surgeons. During his career, he conducted many dissections at the guild's theatre to teach anatomy. Ruysch was internationally renowned for his great dissection skills and his innovative techniques for preserving anatomical specimens. The "Anatomy Lesson of Dr. Frederik Ruysch" painted in 1670, is thought to be a group portrait undertaken to commemorate the officials of the Guild of Surgeons. Ruysch was portrayed performing an anatomical dissection of inguinal lymph nodes on the corpse of an executed criminal. This portrait is one of the earliest paintings focusing on the "lymphatic system." We investigated the medical background of the painting by revisiting Ruysch's original work from the mid-seventeenth century. His contributions to the early history of "lymphatic anatomy" are assessed and interpreted from the perspective of the renewed interest in "lymphatic imaging" today. Frederik Ruysch should be considered one of the pioneers contributing to the early knowledge of the lymphatic system. He succeeded in dissecting the lymphatic vessels and valves with the aid of his innovative dissection and preservation techniques. The famous group portrait of the Amsterdam Guild of Surgeons with Ruysch demonstrating the lymph nodes pays tribute to his work on which we still rely today.

  9. Increasing Medical Student Exposure to IR through Integration of IR into the Gross Anatomy Course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DePietro, Daniel M; Kiefer, Ryan M; Redmond, Jonas W; Workman, Alan D; Nadolski, Gregory J; Gade, Terence P; Trerotola, Scott O; Hunt, Stephen J

    2017-10-01

    To compare medical student knowledge of and interest in interventional radiology (IR) before and after the integration of an IR lecture series within the gross anatomy course. Four elective IR lectures were scheduled to coincide with the relevant anatomy dissection curriculum. Anonymous surveys were distributed to 146 students before and after the lectures regarding students' knowledge of and interest in IR, responsibilities of an IR physician, and IR training pathways. Those who did not attend served as controls. Response rates were 67% (n = 98) in the prelecture group, 55% (n = 22) in the group who attended the lecture, and 28% (n = 30) in the control group. A total of 73% of the prelecture group reported little knowledge of IR compared with other specialties. This decreased to 27% in those who attended the lecture (P IR than any other specialty, compared with 7% of controls (P value not significant) and 2% of the prelecture group (P IR procedures (mean, 1.82) than the prelecture group (mean, 0.57; P IR, compared with 24% in the prelecture group and 33% in the control group (P IR residency, compared with 5% in the prelecture group and 33% in the control group (P IR education into the gross anatomy course proved to be a highly effective way of teaching preclinical students about IR and generating interest in the field. Copyright © 2017 SIR. All rights reserved.

  10. What shapes the anatomy of inventors?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skytt-Larsen, Christine Benna

    2016-01-01

    which they themselves believe have formed their inventive capacities. The main findings of the article are that the sociocultural milieus of early childhood, especially the educational backgrounds or skills of parents and grandparents, play an important role in shaping the anatomy of inventors. Further......, the social milieu of an inventor’s final education, whether elementary school or university, is a seminal factor in the development of inventive creativity, given the importance of dedicated teachers, co-students and supervisors. Finally, egalitarian organizational structures in the workplace and a solid...

  11. Vascular anatomy of strictured small bowel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansard, Magnus Jayaraj; Rao, Upender; Pradeep, R; Sekaran, Anuradha; Rao, G V; Reddy, D N

    2011-01-01

    To investigate the role of ischemia in the pathogenesis of small bowel strictures. Vascular anatomy of 39 small bowel strictures was studied using modified Spalteholtz method. Ten normal small bowel segments were studied as controls. 71.8% of small bowel strictures showed block in the mesenteric vessels (p=0.008). Subset analysis of tuberculous strictures showed block in the mesenteric vessels in 70.8% of strictures (p=0.0098). Ischemia plays a significant role in the pathogenesis of small bowel strictures. Mesenteric vasculopathy has a significant association with tuberculous strictures of the intestine.

  12. The subscapularis: anatomy, injury, and imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morag, Yoav; Jamadar, David A.; Dong, Qian; Jacobson, Jon A. [University of Michigan, Department of Radiology, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Miller, Bruce [University of Michigan, Department of Orthopaedics, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    2011-03-15

    The subscapularis is the largest and most powerful of the rotator cuff muscles and fulfills an important role in glenohumeral movement and stability. The spectrum and implications of subscapularis muscle or tendon injury differ from injury to other rotator cuff components because of its unique structure and function. Diagnosing subscapularis injury is clinically difficult and assessment of subscapularis integrity may be limited during arthroscopy or open surgery. Diagnostic imaging plays an important part in diagnosing and evaluating the extent of subscapularis injury. The radiologist should be aware of the anatomy of the subscapularis, the variations in muscle or tendon injury, and the potential implications for treatment and prognosis. (orig.)

  13. Anatomy and Physiology of the Pelvic Floor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eickmeyer, Sarah M

    2017-08-01

    Understanding the anatomic relationship of the pelvic floor muscles with the pelvic girdle, spine, and hips aids the rehabilitation provider in diagnosis, management, and appropriate referrals. The bony anatomy of the pelvic girdle consists of 3 bones and 3 joints. The pelvic floor muscles are comprised mainly of the levator ani muscles with somatic innervation from the lumbosacral plexus. The bony and muscular pelvis is highly interconnected to the hip and gluteal musculature, which together provide support to the internal organs and core muscles. Pelvic floor physiology is centered on bladder and bowel control, sexual functioning, and pregnancy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Dorsal forearm muscles: US anatomy Pictorial Essay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Precerutti, M.; Garioni, E.; Ferrozzi, G.

    2010-01-01

    The dorsal compartment of the forearm contains nine muscles: four belong to the superficial group (extensor digitorum communis, extensor digiti minimi, extensor carpi ulnaris and anconeus) and five to the deep group (supinator, abductor longus, extensor pollicis brevis, extensor pollicis longus, and extensor indices). Of these nine muscles the following details are considered: origin, course, distal insertion and their anatomical connection with those structures which are most often affected by pathologies. The radiologist must have a thorough knowledge of this complex topographic anatomy in order to perform ultrasound (US) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) examinations and correctly interpret the images. PMID:23396199

  15. The history and anatomy of urologic lymphadenectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewinshtein, Daniel J; Porter, Christopher R

    2011-11-01

    The history of urologic lymphadenectomy is rich and diverse. Our current understanding of its use and benefits is a product of the hard work of numerous physicians and scientists from many nations. Standard dissection templates for the various urologic malignancies are based on a complete understanding of the anatomy of the lymphatic system, which has developed immensely since Hippocrates first described the white blood of the lymphatic system while performing an axillary dissection. It is hoped that the next 100 years will bring even greater comprehension of its value and utility. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Modeling of Craniofacial Anatomy, Variation, and Growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorup, Signe Strann

    the two images. To elaborate further: a computational atlas of the average anatomy was constructed. Using non-rigid registration, image data from a subject is automatically transformed into the coordinate space of the atlas. In this process, all knowledge built into the atlas is transferred to the subject......-subject variation etc. Besides image registration, a volumetric segmentation method using graph cuts was developed and applied for intracranial volume estimation. Graph cut is a fast method for segmentation utilizing a suitable graph. Three different craniofacial anomalies were examined in this thesis: Cleft lip...

  17. Anatomy and biomechanics of psoas major.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogduk, N; Pearcy, M; Hadfield, G

    1992-05-01

    The fascicular anatomy of the psoas major was determined by dissection in three cadavers. Its actions on the lumbar spine in the sagittal plane were modelled on erect, flexion, and extension radiographs of ten adult males. Calculations revealed that psoas exerts only very small moments that tend to extend the upper lumbar spine and to flex the lower lumbar spine, but at maximum contraction the psoas exerts severe compression forces on the lumbar segments, and large shear forces. Copyright © 1992. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Interactive videodisk atlas of knee anatomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McEnery, K.W.; Woods, J.W.; Glenn, W.F.; Rauschning, W.

    1987-01-01

    An interactive, computer-assisted atlas of knee anatomy has been developed. MR and CT images from normal volunteers and cryomicrotomed anatomic images were recorded on a laser viodeodisk. Computer software allows movement through the knee and correlation of radiographic images in the coronal, axial, and sagittal planes. Computer graphics are superimposed on the videodisk images. A high-resolution color graphics, touch-screen monitor is included in the computer system. Learning modules allow for rapid identification of specific structure by touching their location on the screen. Computer-created testing modules are available that provide for self-assessment

  19. Thomas Batholin, teologisk anatomi i 1600-tallet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mønster-Kjær, Inge

    2009-01-01

    It is commonly accepted that the reformation heavily influenced scientific thinking in Europs. But in many historical accounts this effect is presented as a fundamental break in the beginning of the 16th century with previous ideas and methods. In the view scientists turned their back...... as a theologian. For him anatomy was merely a tool, and so it had been for for scientists all over Europe from its gradual evovlement as a field from Antiquity to the Renaissance. It had been a tool to illustrate the greatness and perfection of God's creation in artistic ways, a tool to prove sactity, a tool...

  20. [Functional and mechanical anatomy of arm elevation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagey, O; Bonfait, H; Gillot, C; Mazas, F

    1988-01-01

    Experimental work on the functional anatomy of the shoulder has involved a study of the conditions involved in elevation of the arm. Movements of the upper limb are organised round a very special alignment of the scapulo-humeral joint whose geometric features and exact position have been determined. The ligaments of the joint play a major role in the controlling the attainment of this alignment. The value of this alignment in the physiology of the shoulder is demonstrated. A new terminology of shoulder movement is suggested.

  1. 3D Anatomy Models and Impact on Learning: A Review of the Quality of the Literature

    OpenAIRE

    Azer, Samy A.; Azer, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    Background: The aims of this study were to identify studies exploring three-dimensional (3D) anatomy models and their impact on learning, and to assess the quality of research in this area. Methods: PubMed, EMBASE, and the Web of Knowledge databases were searched using the following keywords "3D anatomy", "three dimensional anatomy," "3D virtual reality anatomy," "3D VR anatomy," "3D anatomy model, “3D anatomy teaching", and “anatomy learning VR” . Three evaluators independently assessed t...

  2. Effects of steal-prone anatomy on intraoperative myocardial ischemia. The SPI Research Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, J M; Hollenberg, M; O'Kelly, B F; Kao, A; Mangano, D T

    1992-11-01

    Our study objective was to determine whether the presence of steal-prone anatomy conferred an increased risk in the development of intraoperative myocardial ischemia. Coronary artery steal of collateral blood flow has been demonstrated for many vasodilators, including isoflurane, the most commonly used inhalational anesthetic agent in the United States. It has been postulated that patients with steal-prone anatomy (total occlusion of one coronary artery that is supplied distally by collateral flow from another coronary artery with a > or = 50% stenosis) may be particularly at risk for the development of intraoperative myocardial ischemia when an anesthetic with a vasodilator property is being administered. We evaluated the risk of myocardial ischemia under isoflurane anesthesia (vs. a high dose narcotic technique using sufentanil) using continuous intraoperative electrocardiography and transesophageal echocardiography in patients with and without steal-prone anatomy undergoing coronary artery bypass graft surgery. Sixty-two (33%) of the 186 patients had steal-prone anatomy: in 5 (8%) the collateral-supplying vessel was > or = 50% to 69% stenosed, in 24 (39%) it was > or = 70% to 89% stenosed and in 33 (53%) it was > or = 90% stenosed. The incidence of ischemia (transesophageal echocardiography or intraoperative electrocardiography, or both) was similar in patients with and without steal-prone coronary anatomy (18 [29%] of 62 patients vs. 39 [31%] of 124 patients, p = 0.87, 95% confidence interval = -0.13 to 0.17). The incidence of intraoperative ischemia was similar in patients who received isoflurane or sufentanil anesthesia (20 [32%] of 62 patients vs. 37 [30%] of 124 patients, p = 0.87). The incidence of tachycardia and hypotension was low (increases in heart rate = 9.8%, and decreases in systolic blood pressure = 10.8% of total monitoring time during the prebypass period compared with preoperative baseline values). The incidence of adverse cardiac outcome was

  3. Influence of study approaches and course design on academic success in the undergraduate anatomy laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eleazer, Courtney D; Scopa Kelso, Rebecca

    2018-01-04

    Many pre-health professional programs require completion of an undergraduate anatomy course with a laboratory component, yet grades in these courses are often low. Many students perceive anatomy as a more challenging subject than other coursework, and the resulting anxiety surrounding this perception may be a significant contributor to poor performance. Well-planned and deliberate guidance from instructors, as well as thoughtful course design, may be necessary to assist students in finding the best approach to studying for anatomy. This article assesses which study habits are associated with course success and whether course design influences study habits. Surveys (n = 1,274) were administered to students enrolled in three undergraduate human anatomy laboratory courses with varying levels of cooperative learning and structured guidance. The surveys collected information on potential predictors of performance, including student demographics, educational background, self-assessment ability, and study methods (e.g., flashcards, textbooks, diagrams). Compared to low performers, high performers perceive studying in laboratory, asking the instructor questions, quizzing alone, and quizzing others as more effective for learning. Additionally, students co-enrolled in a flipped, active lecture anatomy course achieve higher grades and find active learning activities (e.g., quizzing alone and in groups) more helpful for their learning in the laboratory. These results strengthen previous research suggesting that student performance is more greatly enhanced by an active classroom environment that practices successful study strategies rather than one that simply encourages students to employ such strategies inside and outside the classroom. Anat Sci Educ. © 2018 American Association of Anatomists. © 2018 American Association of Anatomists.

  4. Anatomy Education for the YouTube Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, Denis S.; Marzouk, Fadi; Chulak-Oglu, Kyrylo; Bennett, Deirdre; Tierney, Paul; O'Keeffe, Gerard W.

    2016-01-01

    Anatomy remains a cornerstone of medical education despite challenges that have seen a significant reduction in contact hours over recent decades; however, the rise of the "YouTube Generation" or "Generation Connected" (Gen C), offers new possibilities for anatomy education. Gen C, which consists of 80% Millennials, actively…

  5. The art of human anatomy: Renaissance to 21st century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hee, Robrecht; Wells, F C; Ballestriero, Roberta; Richardson, Ruth; Mazzarello, Paolo; Cani, Valentina; Catani, Marco

    2014-01-01

    This session examines the relationship between the art and science of anatomy from the time of Vesalius to the present with particular emphasis on the role of the medical artist and the changing nature of anatomical illustration over the last five centuries. Pivotal changes in the art of anatomy will be examined including the evolution of media and brain imaging from Golgi to Geschwind.

  6. Anatomy in Occupational Therapy Program Curriculum: Practitioners' Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schofield, Katherine Anne

    2014-01-01

    Anatomy education is undergoing significant transformation. It is unknown whether changes are in accordance with occupational therapy (OT) practice needs. The purpose of this pilot study was to survey OT clinicians to determine their perspectives on the value of anatomy in OT curricula, and anatomical knowledge required for practice. In addition…

  7. Surgical anatomy of greater occipital nerve and its relation to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: The knowledge of the anatomy of greater occipital nerve and its relation to occipital artery is important for the surgeon. Blockage or surgical release of greater occipital nerve is clinically effective in reducing or eliminating chronic migraine symptoms. Aim: The aim of this research was to study the anatomy of ...

  8. User Acceptance of a Haptic Interface for Learning Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeom, Soonja; Choi-Lundberg, Derek; Fluck, Andrew; Sale, Arthur

    2013-01-01

    Visualizing the structure and relationships in three dimensions (3D) of organs is a challenge for students of anatomy. To provide an alternative way of learning anatomy engaging multiple senses, we are developing a force-feedback (haptic) interface for manipulation of 3D virtual organs, using design research methodology, with iterations of system…

  9. Teaching Anatomy in the XXI Century: New Aspects and Pitfalls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronica Papa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Anatomy has historically been a cornerstone in medical education regardless of nation, racial background, or medical school system. By learning gross anatomy, medical students get a first “impression” about the structure of the human body which is the basis for understanding pathologic and clinical problems. Although the importance of teaching anatomy to both undergraduate and postgraduate students remains undisputed, there is currently a relevant debate concerning methods of anatomy teaching. In the past century, dissection and lectures were its sole pedagogy worldwide. Recently, the time allocated for anatomy teaching was dramatically reduced to such an extent that some suggest that it has fallen below an adequate standard. Traditional anatomy education based on topographical structural anatomy taught in lectures and gross dissection classes has been replaced by a multiple range of study modules, including problem-based learning, plastic models or computer-assisted learning, and curricula integration. “Does the anatomical theatre still have a place in medical education?” And “what is the problem with anatomic specimens?” We endeavor to answer both of these questions and to contribute to the debate on the current situation in undergraduate and graduate anatomy education.

  10. Medical Student Perceptions of Radiology Use in Anatomy Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Kevin P.; Crush, Lee; O'Malley, Eoin; Daly, Fergus E.; Twomey, Maria; O'Tuathaigh, Colm M. P.; Maher, Michael M.; Cryan, John F.; O'Connor, Owen J.

    2015-01-01

    The use of radiology in the teaching of anatomy to medical students is gaining in popularity; however, there is wide variation in how and when radiology is introduced into the curriculum. The authors sought to investigate students' perceptions regarding methods used to depict and teach anatomy and effects of integrated radiology instruction on…

  11. Anatomy Education in Namibia: Balancing Facility Design and Curriculum Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wessels, Quenton; Vorster, Willie; Jacobson, Christian

    2012-01-01

    The anatomy curriculum at Namibia's first, and currently only, medical school is clinically oriented, outcome-based, and includes all of the components of modern anatomical sciences i.e., histology, embryology, neuroanatomy, gross, and clinical anatomy. The design of the facilities and the equipment incorporated into these facilities were directed…

  12. The anatomy lessons of the Amsterdam Guild of Surgeons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    IJpma, F.F.A.

    2014-01-01

    Mandatory lessons in anatomy, taught by the praelector anatomiae (lecturer in anatomy) of the Amsterdam Guild of Surgeons, were an important part of the surgical training starting in the 16th century. We describe how surgeons were trained approximately 350 years ago at the Surgeons’ Guild. The role

  13. The Anatomy Lecture Then and Now: A Foucauldian Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friesen, Norm; Roth, Wolff-Michael

    2014-01-01

    Although there are many points of continuity, there are also a number of changes in the pedagogical form of the anatomy lecture over the longue durée, over centuries of epistemic change, rather than over years or decades. The article begins with an analysis of the physical and technical arrangements of the early modern anatomy lecture, showing how…

  14. Is cadaveric dissection vital in anatomy education? Perceptions of 1 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: The use of innovative ways of teaching anatomy as well as shortage of cadavers for dissection have raised questions as to whether dissection should continue to be used in teaching anatomy. This study aimed to assess the views of medical and dental students on the importance of dissection in learning gross ...

  15. Should Reproductive Anatomy Be Taught in University Health Courses?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Brent; Fletcher, J. Sue

    2013-01-01

    There has been little research on undergraduate reproductive anatomy education. This pilot study explores knowledge of anatomical reproductive anatomy among university students in a lower division and upper division health course. Using a Qualtrics survey program, a convenience sample of 120 lower division and 157 upper division students for a…

  16. YouTube: An Emerging Tool in Anatomy Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffar, Akram Abood

    2012-01-01

    The use of online social networks in medical education can remodel and enhance anatomy teaching and learning; one such network is the video-sharing site YouTube. Limited research in the literature exists on the use of YouTube as a platform for anatomy education. The aim of this study is to assess student's perceptions and patterns of usage of this…

  17. Human Anatomy: Let the Students Tell Us How to Teach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Christopher R.; Bates, Anthony S.; Ellis, Harold; Roberts, Alice M.

    2014-01-01

    Anatomy teaching methods have evolved as the medical undergraduate curriculum has modernized. Traditional teaching methods of dissection, prosection, tutorials and lectures are now supplemented by anatomical models and e-learning. Despite these changes, the preferences of medical students and anatomy faculty towards both traditional and…

  18. Øvelse i sammenlignende anatomi og evolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindow, Bent Erik Kramer

    2014-01-01

    I denne øvelse skal der arbejdes med sammenlignende anatomi. Formålet er at undersøge anatomiske ændringer og evolution over tid.......I denne øvelse skal der arbejdes med sammenlignende anatomi. Formålet er at undersøge anatomiske ændringer og evolution over tid....

  19. Systematic wood anatomy of the tribe Guettardeae (Rubiaceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Welle, ter B.J.H.; Loureiro, A.A.; Lisboa, P.L.B.; Koek-Noorman, J.

    1983-01-01

    Systematic wood anatomy of the tribe Guettardeae (Rubiaceae). The wood anatomy of nearly all genera of the Guettardeae (Rubiaceae, Guettardoideae) has been examined, and in this respect the tribe is heterogeneous. Suggestions are made for a delimitation of the tribe. Guettarda, Bobea, Antirhea,

  20. Uberon: towards a comprehensive multi-species anatomy ontology

    OpenAIRE

    Melissa A. Haendel; Georgios G. Gkoutos; Suzanna E. Lewis; Chris Mungall

    2009-01-01

    The lack of a single unified species-neutral ontology covering the anatomy of a variety of metazoans is a hindrance to translating model organism research to human health. We have developed an Uber-anatomy ontology to fill this need, filling the gap between the CARO upper-level ontology and species-specific anatomical ontologies.

  1. Value of vaginal cervical position in estimating uterine anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fidan, Ulaş; Keskin, Uğur; Ulubay, Mustafa; Öztürk, Mustafa; Bodur, Serkan

    2017-04-01

    The anatomy of the uterus is defined with the angles of the vagina, cervix and uterine corpus. Hereunder there are angles of version and flexion. The cervical position observed during the vaginal speculum examination, may give information about the uterine anatomy. In this study, we investigated the place of the cervical position in the estimation of the uterine anatomy observed during the cervical examination. We enrolled 240 patients in our study, who applied to our routine gynecology outpatient clinic with various complaints. We divided these patients into two groups according to the cervical position (anterior cervical position and posterior cervical position) observed during the speculum examination. We recorded the uterine anatomy also with the transvaginal ultrasonography. During the speculum examination, we determined that 90% of the cases with posterior fornix position were anteverted and 10% retroverted; 64.2% of the cases with anterior fornix position were anteverted and 35.8% retroverted. According to these findings, cervical position observed during the speculum examination might be useful in the estimation of the uterine anatomy regarding the angles of the version. However, the ultrasonographic examination is essential for a definitive determination of the uterine anatomy. Clin. Anat. 30:404-408, 2017. © 2017 The Authors. Clinical Anatomy published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American Association of Clinical Anatomists. © 2017 The Authors. Clinical Anatomy published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American Association of Clinical Anatomists.

  2. Stereopsis, Visuospatial Ability, and Virtual Reality in Anatomy Learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luursema, J.M.; Vorstenbosch, M.A.; Kooloos, J.G.M.

    2017-01-01

    A new wave of virtual reality headsets has become available. A potential benefit for the study of human anatomy is the reintroduction of stereopsis and absolute size. We report a randomized controlled trial to assess the contribution of stereopsis to anatomy learning, for students of different

  3. Student Perspectives of Imaging Anatomy in Undergraduate Medical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Jorge Americo Dinis; Barbosa, Joselina Maria Pinto; Ferreira, Maria Amelia Duarte

    2013-01-01

    Radiological imaging is gaining relevance in the acquisition of competencies in clinical anatomy. The aim of this study was to evaluate the perceptions of medical students on teaching/learning of imaging anatomy as an integrated part of anatomical education. A questionnaire was designed to evaluate the perceptions of second-year students…

  4. Anatomy of the female reproductive system of Rusa deer ( Rusa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study aims to present baseline data on the reproductive anatomy of a poorly known tropical deer species, Rusa deer (Rusa timorensis). The anatomy of female reproductive system is described using seven uniparous hinds, aged between four and eight years. The various reproductive structures were studied via ...

  5. Student Perceptions to Teaching Undergraduate Anatomy in Health Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderton, Ryan S.; Chiu, Li Shan; Aulfrey, Susan

    2016-01-01

    Anatomy and physiology teaching has undergone significant changes to keep up with advances in technology and to cater for a wide array of student specific learning approaches. This paper examines perceptions towards a variety of teaching instruments, techniques, and innovations used in the delivery and teaching of anatomy and physiology for health…

  6. Magnetic resonance imaging of three-dimensional cervical anatomy in the second and third trimester.

    Science.gov (United States)

    House, Michael; Bhadelia, Rafeeque A; Myers, Kristin; Socrate, Simona

    2009-05-01

    Although a short cervix is known to be associated with preterm birth, the patterns of three-dimensional, anatomic changes leading to a short cervix are unknown. Our objective was to (1) construct three-dimensional anatomic models during normal pregnancy and (2) use the models to compare cervical anatomy in the second and third trimester. A cross-sectional study was performed in a population of patients referred to magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for a fetal indication. Using magnetic resonance images for guidance, three-dimensional solid models of the following anatomic structures were constructed: amniotic cavity, uterine wall, cervical stroma, cervical mucosa and anterior vaginal wall. To compare cervical anatomy in the second and third trimester, models were matched according the size of the bony pelvis. Fourteen patients were imaged and divided into two groups according to gestational age: 20-24 weeks (n=7)) and 31-36 weeks (n=7). Compared to the second trimester, the third trimester was associated with significant descent of the amniotic sac (p=.02). Descent of the amniotic sac was associated with modified anatomy of the uterocervical junction. These three-dimensional changes were associated with a cervix that appeared shorter in the third trimester. We report a technique for constructing MRI-based, three-dimensional anatomic models during pregnancy. Compared to the second trimester, the third trimester is associated with three-dimensional changes in the cervix and lower uterine segment.

  7. Clinical relevance of distal biceps insertional and footprint anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Bekerom, Michel P J; Kodde, Izaäk F; Aster, Asir; Bleys, Ronald L A W; Eygendaal, Denise

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this review was to present an overview, based on a literature search, of surgical anatomy for distal biceps tendon repairs, based on the current literature. A narrative review was performed using Pubmed/Medline using key words: Search terms were distal biceps, insertional, and anatomy. Last decade, the interest in both reconstruction techniques, as well as surgical anatomy of the distal biceps tendon, has increased. The insights into various aspects of distal biceps tendon anatomy (two tendons, bicipital tuberosity, lacertus fibrosis, bicipital-radial bursa, posterior interosseous nerve, and lateral antebrachial cutaneous nerve) have evolved significantly in the last years. Thorough knowledge of the anatomy is essential for the surgeon in order to understand the biomechanics of rupture and reconstruction of the distal biceps tendon and to avoid injuries of the nerves. Some tips and tricks are provided, and some pitfalls were described to avoid complications and optimize surgical outcome. IV.

  8. Personalized augmented reality for anatomy education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Meng; Fallavollita, Pascal; Seelbach, Ina; Von Der Heide, Anna Maria; Euler, Ekkehard; Waschke, Jens; Navab, Nassir

    2016-05-01

    Anatomy education is a challenging but vital element in forming future medical professionals. In this work, a personalized and interactive augmented reality system is developed to facilitate education. This system behaves as a "magic mirror" which allows personalized in-situ visualization of anatomy on the user's body. Real-time volume visualization of a CT dataset creates the illusion that the user can look inside their body. The system comprises a RGB-D sensor as a real-time tracking device to detect the user moving in front of a display. In addition, the magic mirror system shows text information, medical images, and 3D models of organs that the user can interact with. Through the participation of 7 clinicians and 72 students, two user studies were designed to respectively assess the precision and acceptability of the magic mirror system for education. The results of the first study demonstrated that the average precision of the augmented reality overlay on the user body was 0.96 cm, while the results of the second study indicate 86.1% approval for the educational value of the magic mirror, and 91.7% approval for the augmented reality capability of displaying organs in three dimensions. The usefulness of this unique type of personalized augmented reality technology has been demonstrated in this paper. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Virtual Reality Educational Tool for Human Anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izard, Santiago González; Juanes Méndez, Juan A; Palomera, Pablo Ruisoto

    2017-05-01

    Virtual Reality is becoming widespread in our society within very different areas, from industry to entertainment. It has many advantages in education as well, since it allows visualizing almost any object or going anywhere in a unique way. We will be focusing on medical education, and more specifically anatomy, where its use is especially interesting because it allows studying any structure of the human body by placing the user inside each one. By allowing virtual immersion in a body structure such as the interior of the cranium, stereoscopic vision goggles make these innovative teaching technologies a powerful tool for training in all areas of health sciences. The aim of this study is to illustrate the teaching potential of applying Virtual Reality in the field of human anatomy, where it can be used as a tool for education in medicine. A Virtual Reality Software was developed as an educational tool. This technological procedure is based entirely on software which will run in stereoscopic goggles to give users the sensation of being in a virtual environment, clearly showing the different bones and foramina which make up the cranium, and accompanied by audio explanations. Throughout the results the structure of the cranium is described in detailed from both inside and out. Importance of an exhaustive morphological knowledge of cranial fossae is further discussed. Application for the design of microsurgery is also commented.

  10. Anatomy, biogenesis and regeneration of salivary glands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmberg, Kyle V; Hoffman, Matthew P

    2014-01-01

    An overview of the anatomy and biogenesis of salivary glands is important in order to understand the physiology, functions and disorders associated with saliva. A major disorder of salivary glands is salivary hypofunction and resulting xerostomia, or dry mouth, which affects hundreds of thousands of patients each year who suffer from salivary gland diseases or undergo head and neck cancer treatment. There is currently no curative therapy for these patients. To improve these patients' quality of life, new therapies are being developed based on findings in salivary gland cell and developmental biology. Here we discuss the anatomy and biogenesis of the major human salivary glands and the rodent submandibular gland, which has been used extensively as a research model. We also include a review of recent research on the identification and function of stem cells in salivary glands, and the emerging field of research suggesting that nerves play an instructive role during development and may be essential for adult gland repair and regeneration. Understanding the molecular mechanisms involved in gland biogenesis provides a template for regenerating, repairing or reengineering diseased or damaged adult human salivary glands. We provide an overview of 3 general approaches currently being developed to regenerate damaged salivary tissue, including gene therapy, stem cell-based therapy and tissue engineering. In the future, it may be that a combination of all three will be used to repair, regenerate and reengineer functional salivary glands in patients to increase the secretion of their saliva, the focus of this monograph.

  11. The anatomy of the vestibular nuclei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Highstein, Stephen M; Holstein, Gay R

    2006-01-01

    The vestibular portion of the eighth cranial nerve informs the brain about the linear and angular movements of the head in space and the position of the head with respect to gravity. The termination sites of these eighth nerve afferents define the territory of the vestibular nuclei in the brainstem. (There is also a subset of afferents that project directly to the cerebellum.) This chapter reviews the anatomical organization of the vestibular nuclei, and the anatomy of the pathways from the nuclei to various target areas in the brain. The cytoarchitectonics of the vestibular brainstem are discussed, since these features have been used to distinguish the individual nuclei. The neurochemical phenotype of vestibular neurons and pathways are also summarized because the chemical anatomy of the system contributes to its signal-processing capabilities. Similarly, the morphologic features of short-axon local circuit neurons and long-axon cells with extrinsic projections are described in detail, since these structural attributes of the neurons are critical to their functional potential. Finally, the composition and hodology of the afferent and efferent pathways of the vestibular nuclei are discussed. In sum, this chapter reviews the morphology, chemoanatomy, connectivity, and synaptology of the vestibular nuclei.

  12. Fostering improved anatomy and physiology instructor pedagogy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattheis, Allison; Jensen, Murray

    2014-12-01

    Despite widespread calls for reform in undergraduate science, technology, engineering, and mathematics education, effecting lasting change in instructor practice is challenging to achieve. This article describes the results of a 2-yr research study that involved efforts to develop the pedagogical expertise of a group of anatomy and physiology instructors at the college level. Data were collected through a series of individual interviews that included the use of the Teacher Beliefs Inventory questionnaire (23) along with observations onsite in participants' college classrooms and at process-oriented guided inquiry learning (POGIL) curriculum writing workshops. Findings indicated attitudinal shifts on the part of participants from teacher-centered to more student-centered pedagogy and supported the benefits of long-term professional development for instructors. Here, we documented the successful progress of these professors as they participated in a curriculum development process that emphasized student-centered teaching with the goal of promoting broader change efforts in introductory anatomy and physiology. Copyright © 2014 The American Physiological Society.

  13. Coronary sinus anatomy: Ajmer Working Group Classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gokhroo, R K; Bisht, Devendra Singh; Padmanabhan, Deepak; Gupta, Sajal

    2014-02-01

    Coronary sinus (CS) anatomy is a major predictor of successful implantation of left ventricular (LV) lead and procedural outcome. We therefore made an attempt to look at the CS anatomy and possible feasibility to classify them into categories depending upon their size, branching pattern, location of posterolateral vein (PLV), and other parameters in order to guide the cardiologist for successful cannulation of the CS and LV lead implantation. We analyzed the levophase angiograms of patients (n = 100) undergoing routine coronary angiography in the right anterior oblique view. We have made an attempt to classify these observations on the basis of predetermined parameters and a working classification was brought out for the ease of the operator and to predict the bottlenecks of the procedure. On the basis of predetermined parameters, venograms obtained from 100 patients were analyzed and findings were divided into three groups depending upon the ease of cannulation of posterolateral vein for LV lead placement. These 3 groups were further classified as type I, type II, and type III coronary sinuses. This observational study proposes a new anatomical working classification for CS for purposes of successful LV lead placement and optimal operative success.

  14. Arthroscopic Anatomy of the Ankle Joint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Ronald G

    2016-10-01

    There are a number of variations in the intra-articular anatomy of the ankle which should not be considered pathological under all circumstances. The anteromedial corner of the tibial plafond (between the anterior edge of the tibial plafond and the medial malleolus) can have a notch, void of cartilage and bone. This area can appear degenerative arthroscopically; it is actually a normal variant of the articular surface. The anterior inferior tibiofibular ligament (AITF) can possess a lower, accessory band which can impinge on the anterolateral edge of the talar dome. In some cases it can cause irritation along this area of the talus laterally. If it is creating local irritation it can be removed since it does not provide any additional stabilization to the syndesmosis. There is a beveled region at the anterior leading edge of the lateral and dorsal surfaces of the talus laterally. This triangular region is void of cartilage and subchondral bone. The lack of talar structure in this region allows the lower portion of the AITF ligament to move over the talus during end range dorsiflexion of the ankle, preventing impingement. The variation in talar anatomy for this area should not be considered pathological. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Radiographic anatomy of juvenile bovine limbs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoey, S E; Biedrzycki, A H; Livesey, M J; Drees, R

    2016-11-26

    Juvenile bovine patients who present with clinical signs of lameness are commonly evaluated using radiographic techniques both within a hospital setting and in a farm environment. The radiographic development of the juvenile bovine skeleton is currently poorly documented. In this study, the limbs of four heifer calves were sequentially radiographed to assess development of the juvenile bovine appendicular skeleton in the first 12 months of life. Images were acquired at three weeks, three months, six months, nine months and one year of age. The normal radiographic anatomy of the fore limbs and hindlimbs and the changes over the first 12 months are described. The majority of physes remain open throughout this period, with the exception of the proximal physes of the proximal and middle phalanges, the proximal radial physis, and the proximal humeral physis which close radiographically between 9 months and 12 months of age, and fusion of the fourth and central tarsal bones occurs between 9 months and 12 months of age. The results of this study may aid in differentiating normal and abnormal anatomy in the juvenile bovine limb. British Veterinary Association.

  16. Perceptions of cadaveric dissection in anatomy teaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naz, Saima; Nazir, Ghazala; Iram, Samia; Mohammad, Malik; Umair; Qari, Iftikhar Hussain; Mohammad, Shaheen

    2011-01-01

    Anatomy professors world over are lamenting about medical students' lack of interest in dissections and its diminishing utilisation in medical studies. The objective of our study was to find out the reasons why some of the Pakistani medical students were avoiding dissections. We conducted this study in 5 medical colleges of Pakistan from Dec 2010-Oct 2011. Questionnaires were prepared and administered to more than 500 Pakistani medical students, at least 6 months after their first cadaver dissecting session. Mostly 1st and 2nd year medical students participated in this study. Around 43% students have actually performed dissections in some form, whereas around 57% had never touched the cadaver. Further evaluation of these results revealed that out of 57% of students, 45% avoided dissection due to bad smell of formaldehyde, 37% due to moral/ethical grounds, 22% due to low motivation and respect of human body, 19.4% due to anxiety, 18.6% due to religious reason, 16% due to fear, asthma and emotional reaction, 9.4% due to toxic chemical, 8.6% due to laziness and 7% due to nightmares. In spite of availability of required number of cadavers in all 5 medical colleges and a clear realisation amongst the students that dissecting cadaver is an effective way of learning anatomy; majority of students were not very keen and had therefore not performed dissection even once.

  17. Procedure Oriented Torsional Anatomy of the Forearm for Spasticity Injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiou-Tan, Faye; Cianca, John; John, Joslyn; Furr-Stimming, Erin; Pandit, Sindhu; Taber, Katherine H

    2015-01-01

    : This is the second in a series of articles related to the concept of "torsional" anatomy. The objective of this article is to provide musculoskeletal ultrasound (MSKUS) anatomy of the forearm in the position of hemispastic flexion as a reference relevant to needle procedures. The MSKUS images were obtained in a healthy human subject. Marker dots were placed over common injection sites in the forearm for spasticity. The MSKUS probe was centered over each dot to obtain a cross-sectional view. A pair of MSKUS images was recorded for each site: the first in anatomic neutral and second in hemiparetic spastic position. The images were compared side to side. In addition, a video recording was made at each site to track the movement of the muscles and nerves during internal rotation. The pronator teres (PT) rotated medially and the brachialis and biceps tendon rotated in view. In addition, the median nerve became more superficial. The flexor carpi radialis rotated medially and was replaced by PT and the median nerve. The flexor carpi ulnaris and flexor digitorum profundus rotated medially and were replaced by the flexor carpi radialis, PT and median nerve. The flexor digitorum superficialis was replaced by the brachioradialis, extensor carpi radialis brevis, and radial nerve. The brachioradialis was replaced by the extensor carpi radialis brevis and extensor digitorum communis. Intended muscle targets rotate out of view and injection range. These are replaced by other muscles and nerves that could inadvertently be injected. This potentially could result in both increased complications and decreased efficacy of the procedure. It is hoped that this series of images will increase the accuracy and safety of needle placement for spasticity injections in the forearm.

  18. Right colic artery anatomy: a systematic review of cadaveric studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haywood, M; Molyneux, C; Mahadevan, V; Srinivasaiah, N

    2017-12-01

    Complete mesocolic excision for right-sided colon cancer may offer an oncologically superior excision compared to traditional right hemicolectomy through high vascular tie and adherence to embryonic planes during dissection, supported by preoperative scanning to accurately define the tumour lymphovascular supply and drainage. The authors support and recommend precision oncosurgery based on these principles, with an emphasis on the importance of understanding the vascular anatomy. However, the anatomical variability of the right colic artery (RCA) has resulted in significant discord in the literature regarding its precise arrangement. We systematically reviewed the literature on the incidence of the different origins of the RCA in cadaveric studies. An electronic search was conducted as per Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses recommendations up to October 2016 using the MESH terms 'right colic artery' and 'anatomy' (PROSPERO registration number CRD42016041578). Ten studies involving 1073 cadavers were identified as suitable for analysis from 211 articles retrieved. The weighted mean incidence with which the right colic artery arose from other parent vessels was calculated at 36.8% for the superior mesenteric artery, 31.9% for the ileocolic artery, 27.7% for the root of the middle colic artery and 2.5% for the right branch of the middle colic artery. In 1.1% of individuals the RCA shared a trunk with the middle colic and ileocolic arteries. The weighted mean incidence of 2 RCAs was 7.0%, and in 8.9% of cadavers the RCA was absent. This anatomical information will add to the technical nuances of precision oncosurgery in right-sided colon resections.

  19. Myological variability in a decoupled skeletal system: batoid cranial anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolmann, Matthew A; Huber, Daniel R; Dean, Mason N; Grubbs, R Dean

    2014-08-01

    Chondrichthyans (sharks, batoids, and chimaeras) have simple feeding mechanisms owing to their relatively few cranial skeletal elements. However, the indirect association of the jaws to the cranium (euhyostylic jaw suspension) has resulted in myriad cranial muscle rearrangements of both the hyoid and mandibular elements. We examined the cranial musculature of an abbreviated phylogenetic representation of batoid fishes, including skates, guitarfishes and with a particular focus on stingrays. We identified homologous muscle groups across these taxa and describe changes in gross morphology across developmental and functional muscle groups, with the goal of exploring how decoupling of the jaws from the skull has effected muscular arrangement. In particular, we focus on the cranial anatomy of durophagous and nondurophagous batoids, as the former display marked differences in morphology compared to the latter. Durophagous stingrays are characterized by hypertrophied jaw adductors, reliance on pennate versus fusiform muscle fiber architecture, tendinous rather than aponeurotic muscle insertions, and an overall reduction in mandibular kinesis. Nondurophagous stingrays have muscles that rely on aponeurotic insertions onto the skeletal structure, and display musculoskeletal specialization for jaw protrusion and independent lower jaw kinesis, relative to durophagous stingrays. We find that among extant chondrichthyans, considerable variation exists in the hyoid and mandibular muscles, slightly less so in hypaxial muscles, whereas branchial muscles are overwhelmingly conserved. As chondrichthyans occupy a position sister to all other living gnathostomes, our understanding of the structure and function of early vertebrate feeding systems rests heavily on understanding chondrichthyan cranial anatomy. Our findings highlight the incredible variation in muscular complexity across chondrichthyans in general and batoids in particular. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. MRI anatomy of anteriorly displaced anus: what obstructs defecation?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AbouZeid, Amr Abdelhamid; Mohammad, Shaimaa Abdelsattar; Khairy, Khaled Talaat

    2014-01-01

    Anteriorly displaced anus is an anomaly that is debated with regard to its nomenclature, diagnosis and management. To describe MRI anatomy of the anal canal in children with anteriorly displaced anus and its impact on the process of defecation. We prospectively examined ten children (7 girls, 3 boys; age range 7 months to 8 years, mean 3 years) with anteriorly displaced anus between August 2009 and April 2012. Noncontrast MRI examinations were performed on a 1.5-T magnet. T1- and T2-weighted turbo spin-echo images were acquired in axial, sagittal and coronal planes of the pelvis. The anorectal angle and the relative hiatal distance were measured in mid-sagittal images, and compared with those of a control group using the Mann-Whitney test. In children with anteriorly displaced anus, no anatomical abnormality was depicted at the level of the proximal anal canal. However, the distal anal canal was displaced anteriorly, running out its external muscle cuff, which remained un-displaced at the usual site of the anus. This changes the orientation of the central axis of the anal canal by passing across instead of along the fibers of the longitudinal muscle coat. Children with anteriorly displaced anus had a more obtuse anorectal angle (mean 112.1 ), which was significantly greater than that of the control group (mean 86.2 ). MRI is a valuable tool in studying the anatomy of the anal canal in children with anteriorly displaced anus. The abnormal orientation of the longitudinal muscle across the anal canal can explain the obstructed defecation in these children. Based on this study, it might be of interest to use MRI in studying equivocal cases and children with unexplained constipation. (orig.)

  1. MRI anatomy of anteriorly displaced anus: what obstructs defecation?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    AbouZeid, Amr Abdelhamid [Ain-Shams University, Department of Pediatric Surgery, Cairo (Egypt); Mohammad, Shaimaa Abdelsattar; Khairy, Khaled Talaat [Ain-Shams University, Department of Radiodiagnosis, Cairo (Egypt)

    2014-07-15

    Anteriorly displaced anus is an anomaly that is debated with regard to its nomenclature, diagnosis and management. To describe MRI anatomy of the anal canal in children with anteriorly displaced anus and its impact on the process of defecation. We prospectively examined ten children (7 girls, 3 boys; age range 7 months to 8 years, mean 3 years) with anteriorly displaced anus between August 2009 and April 2012. Noncontrast MRI examinations were performed on a 1.5-T magnet. T1- and T2-weighted turbo spin-echo images were acquired in axial, sagittal and coronal planes of the pelvis. The anorectal angle and the relative hiatal distance were measured in mid-sagittal images, and compared with those of a control group using the Mann-Whitney test. In children with anteriorly displaced anus, no anatomical abnormality was depicted at the level of the proximal anal canal. However, the distal anal canal was displaced anteriorly, running out its external muscle cuff, which remained un-displaced at the usual site of the anus. This changes the orientation of the central axis of the anal canal by passing across instead of along the fibers of the longitudinal muscle coat. Children with anteriorly displaced anus had a more obtuse anorectal angle (mean 112.1 ), which was significantly greater than that of the control group (mean 86.2 ). MRI is a valuable tool in studying the anatomy of the anal canal in children with anteriorly displaced anus. The abnormal orientation of the longitudinal muscle across the anal canal can explain the obstructed defecation in these children. Based on this study, it might be of interest to use MRI in studying equivocal cases and children with unexplained constipation. (orig.)

  2. Anatomy meets dentistry! Linking anatomy and clinical practice in the preclinical dental curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafai, Nicole; Lemos, Martin; Kennes, Lieven Nils; Hawari, Ayichah; Gerhardt-Szép, Susanne; Classen-Linke, Irmgard

    2016-11-25

    Establishing a strong link early on between preclinical coursework and the clinical context is necessary for students to be able to recognize the practical relevance of the curriculum during their preclinical anatomical courses and to transfer knowledge more easily. Our objective was to enhance the clinical relevance of a preclinical anatomy course for second-year medical students of dentistry by implementing an interdisciplinary skills training course on "Palpation of the Head and Neck Muscles" and to measure the learning outcomes. For the curricular development of the expanded course module, Kern's 6-step approach was applied including subjective evaluation. We used a peer-teaching format supported by an e-learning application. A randomized control study measured effects of the two components (skills training, e-module) on learning outcomes. Four learning methods were compared: (1) lecture, (2) lecture + e-module, (3) lecture + skills training, (4) lecture + skills training + e-module. An objective structured clinical examination (OSCE) was used to measure and compare learning outcomes. The two-way variance analysis demonstrated that participation in the skills training had a statistically significant effect on the OSCE results (p = 0.0007). Students who participated in the skills training did better (φ 107.4 ± 14.4 points) than students who only attended the lecture (φ 88.8 ± 26.2 points). Students who used the e-module but did not attend the skills training earned a slightly but not significantly higher average number of points (φ 91.8 ± 31.3 points) than those who only attended the lecture. The learning outcomes of the skills training were again significantly increased when the training was combined with the e-module (φ 121.8 ± 21.8 points), thus making it the ideal method for achieving the learning objectives defined in this study. The "Palpation of the Head and Neck Muscles" interdisciplinary skills training course

  3. Anatomy meets dentistry! Linking anatomy and clinical practice in the preclinical dental curriculum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole Rafai

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Establishing a strong link early on between preclinical coursework and the clinical context is necessary for students to be able to recognize the practical relevance of the curriculum during their preclinical anatomical courses and to transfer knowledge more easily. Our objective was to enhance the clinical relevance of a preclinical anatomy course for second-year medical students of dentistry by implementing an interdisciplinary skills training course on “Palpation of the Head and Neck Muscles” and to measure the learning outcomes. Methods For the curricular development of the expanded course module, Kern’s 6-step approach was applied including subjective evaluation. We used a peer-teaching format supported by an e-learning application. A randomized control study measured effects of the two components (skills training, e-module on learning outcomes. Four learning methods were compared: (1 lecture, (2 lecture + e-module, (3 lecture + skills training, (4 lecture + skills training + e-module. An objective structured clinical examination (OSCE was used to measure and compare learning outcomes. Results The two-way variance analysis demonstrated that participation in the skills training had a statistically significant effect on the OSCE results (p = 0.0007. Students who participated in the skills training did better (φ 107.4 ± 14.4 points than students who only attended the lecture (φ 88.8 ± 26.2 points. Students who used the e-module but did not attend the skills training earned a slightly but not significantly higher average number of points (φ 91.8 ± 31.3 points than those who only attended the lecture. The learning outcomes of the skills training were again significantly increased when the training was combined with the e-module (φ 121.8 ± 21.8 points, thus making it the ideal method for achieving the learning objectives defined in this study. Conclusions The “Palpation of

  4. Historical development of modern anatomy education in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Tatsuo

    2010-03-01

    Medical schools at the beginning of Meiji era were diverse, both in regard to their founders and their methods of education, frequently employing foreign teachers of various nationalities. In 1871, German teachers were appointed to organize medical education at the medical school of the University of Tokyo. The anatomical education at the school was conducted by German teachers, i.e. Miller (1871-1873), Dönitz (1873-1877), Gierke (1877-1880) and Disse (1880-1885), followed by Koganei, who returned from the study in Germany. At the first meeting of Japanese Association ofAnatomists in 1893 [Meiji 26], the Japanese anatomy teachers met together and most of them were graduates of the University of Tokyo or fellows of its anatomy department. Before 1877 [Meiji 10], the anatomy books were mainly translated from English books, and foreign teachers of various nationalities were employed in many medical schools in Japan. After 1877 [Meiji 10], the anatomy books based on the lectures by German teachers at the University of Tokyo were published. The anatomy books after 1887 [Meiji 20] were written based on German books, and the German anatomical terms were utilized. After 1905 [Meiji 38], the original Japanese anatomy books appeared, employing international anatomical terms. In the Meiji 10s the anatomy teachers and anatomy textbooks spread from the University of Tokyo to the medical schools in Japan as the number of medical schools increased temporally. In the Meiji 20s the five national and three public medical schools in addition to the University of Tokyo provided substantial anatomy education including dissection course. Even in the early Meiji 20s these medical schools supplied only half of the newly licensed doctors, and the others were supplied through the national examination after preparatory education at private medical schools without opportunity of substantial anatomy education including dissection course.

  5. Anatomy learning styles and strategies among Jordanian and Malaysian medical students: the impact of culture on learning anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustafa, Ayman G; Allouh, Mohammed Z; Mustafa, Intisar G; Hoja, Ibrahim M

    2013-07-01

    The study aims to investigate anatomy learning styles and strategies of Jordanian and Malaysian medical students at the Jordan University of Science and Technology. The study is a cross-sectional questionnaire-based study. Students' responses for the questionnaire were numerically coded, and the results were analyzed to reveal statistically significant differences between Jordanian and Malaysian students. The results showed that Jordanian medical students were less interested in using cadavers in learning anatomy than Malaysian medical students. However, similar to their Malaysian counterparts, they prefer to employ other tools to learn anatomy like plastinated models and Internet-based resources. In addition to the aforementioned tools, Malaysian students were more interested in using cross-sectional images and making their own revision cards. Both Jordanian and Malaysian medical students were more interested in learning anatomy through clinical cases, and by system rather than by region. Moreover, it was revealed that Jordanian medical students learn anatomy more efficiently when they formulate a general view of a particular topic. Both Jordanian and Malaysian medical students also relied on reciting definitions and memorizing facts to learn anatomy. The study also reported significant differences between Jordanian and Malaysian students' perspectives on learning anatomy. The findings of the study suggest that Jordanian and Malaysian medical students posses different cultures of learning. Jordanian anatomy instructors need to consider these different learning cultures when they prepare their instructional methods and teaching materials to fulfill the educational needs of their culturally diverse students.

  6. A solution to the worn tooth conundrum in primate functional anatomy

    OpenAIRE

    Ungar, Peter S.; M'Kirera, Francis

    2003-01-01

    Worn teeth are a bane to paleobiologists interested in the diets of human ancestors and other fossil primates. Although worn teeth dominate fossil assemblages, their shapes are usually not used to reconstruct the diets of extinct species. The problem is that traditional studies of primate dental functional anatomy have focused on unworn morphology. This has limited most functional analyses to only a few well-represented fossil species. This paper introduces a method to characterize and compar...

  7. Surface anatomy scanning (SAS) in intracranial tumours: comparison with surgical findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sumida, M.; Uozumi, T.; Kiya, K.; Arita, K.; Kurisu, K.; Onda, J.; Satoh, H.; Ikawa, F.; Yukawa, O.; Migita, K.; Hada, H.; Katada, K.

    1995-01-01

    We evaluated the usefulness of surface anatomy scanning (SAS) in intracranial tumours, comparing it with surgical findings. We examined 31 patients with brain tumours preoperatively. The tumours included 16 meningiomas, 8 gliomas, 4 metastases and 3 others. SAS clearly demonstrated the tumours, allowing them to be distinguished from the structures of the brain surface, including oedema, except in cases of metastasis. SAS clearly demonstrated large cortical veins. SAS is useful for three-dimensional delineation of the brain surface before surgery. (orig.)

  8. The posterior condylar offset ratio and femoral anatomy in anterior versus posterior referencing total knee arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, P H; Vilaça, A

    2015-10-01

    The preservation of joint anatomy is one of the key issues in total knee arthroplasty. The effect of the prosthesis' referencing system, relative to femoral anatomy, remains unknown. It was sought to determine if femoral anatomy, following total knee arthroplasty is better maintained using either anterior referencing or posterior referencing prosthesis. The posterior condylar offset ratio (PCOR) was employed for preoperative and postoperative radiographic comparison of femoral condyles. It was hypothesized that posterior referencing prosthesis would better restore condylar morphology. Sixty-six patients undergoing a total knee arthroplasty with anterior referenced Zimmer(®) NexGen(®) LPS prosthesis and ninety-one with posterior referenced Tornier(®) HLS Noetos(®) were divided into two groups according to the prosthetic model used and retrospectively compared. PCOR was calculated as the quotient of the distance between the posterior condylar border and the tangent to the posterior cortex of the femoral diaphysis, and the distance between the posterior condylar border and the tangent to the anterior cortex of the femoral diaphysis. PCOR was determined preoperatively and postoperatively and compared within each group and between both groups. An increase in the PCOR (Panterior referencing and posterior referencing models. No difference was noted when the postoperative PCOR was compared between both groups (P=0.61). Both anterior and posterior referencing prosthesis lead to a similar increase of the PCOR following total knee arthroplasty. Level IV. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Quantitative comparison of cranial approaches in the anatomy laboratory: A neuronavigation based research method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doglietto, Francesco; Qiu, Jimmy; Ravichandiran, Mayoorendra; Radovanovic, Ivan; Belotti, Francesco; Agur, Anne; Zadeh, Gelareh; Fontanella, Marco Maria; Kucharczyk, Walter; Gentili, Fred

    2017-12-26

    To describe the development and validation of a novel neuronavigation-based method, which allows the quantification of the anatomical features that define an approach, as well as real-time visualization of the surgical pyramid. The method was initially developed with commercially-available hardware for coordinate collection (a digitizer and a frameless navigation system) and software for volume rendering; dedicated neuronavigation software (ApproachViewer, part of GTx-UHN) was then developed. The accuracy of measurements and the possibility of volumetric rendering of surgical approaches simulated in a phantom were compared among three different methods and commercially-available radiological software. In the anatomy laboratory, ApproachViewer was applied to the comparative quantitative analysis of multiple neurosurgical approaches and was used by many surgeons who were untrained for the research method. The accuracy of ApproachViewer is comparable to commercially-available radiological software. In the anatomy laboratory, the method appears versatile. The system can be easily used after brief training. ApproachViewer allows for real-time evaluation and comparison of surgical approaches, as well as post-dissection analyses of collected data. The accuracy of the method depends on the navigation registration: with a 1-2 mm registration error, it is adequate for evaluation and comparison of most neurosurgical approaches. This new research method and software allows semi-automated visualization, quantification, and comparison of neurosurgical approaches in the anatomy laboratory.

  10. Anatomy of the Adductor Magnus Origin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obey, Mitchel R.; Broski, Stephen M.; Spinner, Robert J.; Collins, Mark S.; Krych, Aaron J.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The adductor magnus (AM) has historically been a potential source of confusion in patients with suspected proximal hamstring avulsion injuries. Purpose: To investigate the anatomic characteristics of the AM, including its osseous origin, anatomic dimensions, and relationship to the proximal hamstring tendons. Study Design: Descriptive laboratory study. Methods: Dissection of the AM origin was performed in 11 (8 cadavers) fresh-frozen hip-to-foot cadaveric hemipelvis specimens. The gross anatomy and architecture of the proximal hamstring and AM tendons were studied. After dissecting the hamstring tendons away from their origin, the dimension, shape, and orientation of the tendon footprints on the ischial tuberosity were determined. Results: The AM was identified in all cadaveric specimens. The mean tendon thickness (anterior to posterior [AP]) was 5.7 ± 2.9 mm. The mean tendon width (medial to lateral [ML]) was 7.1 ± 2.2 mm. The mean tendon length was 13.1 ± 8.7 cm. The mean footprint height (AP dimension) was 12.1 ± 2.9 mm, and mean footprint width (ML dimension) was 17.3 ± 7.1 mm. The mean distance between the AM footprint and the most medial aspect of the conjoint tendon footprint was 8.5 ± 4.2 mm. Tendon measurements demonstrated a considerable degree of both intra- and interspecimen variability. Conclusion: The AM tendon is consistently present just medial to the conjoint tendon at the ischial tuberosity, representing the lateral-most portion of the AM muscle. This study found wide variation in the dimensional characteristics of the AM tendon between specimens. Its shape and location can mimic the appearance of an intact hamstring (conjoint or semimembranosus) tendon intraoperatively or on diagnostic imaging, potentially misleading surgeons and radiologists. Therefore, detailed knowledge of the AM tendon anatomy, footprint anatomy, and its relationship to the hamstring muscle complex is paramount when planning surgical approach and technique

  11. The root of dental anatomy: a case for naming Eustachius the "father of dental anatomy".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Gregory W

    2009-01-01

    When one considers the names of those whose affect on dentistry reached far beyond their lifetimes, one may think of Fauchard, Wells, Morton and Black. One name that deserves to be called among the pantheon of the greats is Bartholomaeus Eustachius. Eustachius was not the first to study the anatomy of the teeth and jaws, having been preceded by Da Vinci; however, he was the first to publish a treatise devoted entirely to this subject, Libellus de Dentibus, in 1563. As Sir William Osler, the father of modern medicine, stated: "In Science, the credit goes to the man who convinces the world, not to whom the idea first occurs." The purpose of this paper is to show that Eustachius deserves to be named the father of dental anatomy.

  12. Quantitative and Qualitative Changes in Teaching Histology by Means of Virtual Microscopy in an Introductory Course in Human Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husmann, Polly R.; O'Loughlin, Valerie Dean; Braun, Mark W.

    2009-01-01

    This study compares overall laboratory averages and individual test scores along with a student survey to determine the effects of using virtual microscopy in place of optical microscopes in a large undergraduate human anatomy course. T-tests revealed that the first two laboratory examinations (of four) and the overall laboratory averages were…

  13. Contrast in Usage of FCAT-Approved Anatomical Terminology between Members of Two Anatomy Associations in North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Bradford D.; Thorpe, Donna; Merenda, Victoria; Finch, Brian; Anderson-Smith, Wendy; Consiglio-Lahti, Zane

    2010-01-01

    Almost 12 years since the publishing of Terminologia Anatomica (TA) by the Federative Committee on Anatomical Terminology (FCAT), there has yet to be a unified adoption of FCAT-recommended anatomical terms by North American anatomists. A survey was sent to members of the Human Anatomy & Physiology Society (HAPS) to compare the frequency of…

  14. Modification of leaf morphology and anatomy as a consequence of columnar architecture in domestic apple (Malus x domestica Borkh.) trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Talwara, Susheela; Grout, Brian William Wilson; Toldam-Andersen, Torben Bo

    2013-01-01

    A quantitative study has been made of the modifications to leaf morphology and anatomy evident in columnar apples trees when compared to standard ones, using the original cultivar and the first columnar mutant derived from it, as well as other closely and more distantly related cultivars. Signifi...

  15. Locomotion and basicranial anatomy in primates and marsupials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villamil, Catalina I

    2017-10-01

    There is ongoing debate in paleoanthropology about whether and how the anatomy of the cranium, and especially the cranial base, is evolving in response to locomotor and postural changes. However, the majority of studies focus on two-dimensional data, which fails to capture the complexity of cranial anatomy. This study tests whether three-dimensional cranial base anatomy is linked to locomotion or to other factors in primates (n = 473) and marsupials (n = 231). Results indicate that although there is a small effect of locomotion on cranial base anatomy in primates, this is not the case in marsupials. Instead, facial anatomy likely drives variation in cranial base anatomy in both primates and marsupials, with additional roles for body size and brain size. Although some changes to foramen magnum position and orientation are phylogenetically useful among the hominoids, they do not necessarily reflect locomotion or positional behavior. The interplay between locomotion, posture, and facial anatomy in primates requires further investigation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Imaging of jaw with dental CT software program: Normal Anatomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Myong Gon; Seo, Kwang Hee; Jung, Hak Young; Sung, Nak Kwan; Chung, Duk Soo; Kim, Ok Dong; Lee, Young Hwan

    1994-01-01

    Dental CT software program can provide reformatted cross-sectional and panoramic images that cannot be obtained with conventional axial and direct coronal CT scan. The purpose of this study is to describe the method of the technique and to identify the precise anatomy of jaw. We evaluated 13 mandibles and 7 maxillae of 15 subjects without bony disease who were being considered for endosseous dental implants. Reformatted images obtained by the use of bone algorithm performed on GE HiSpeed Advantage CT scanner were retrospectively reviewed for detailed anatomy of jaw. Anatomy related to neurovascular bundle(mandibular foramen, inferior alveolar canal, mental foramen, canal for incisive artery, nutrient canal, lingual foramen and mylohyoid groove), muscular insertion(mylohyoid line, superior and inferior genial tubercle and digastric fossa) and other anatomy(submandibular fossa, sublingual fossa, contour of alveolar process, oblique line, retromolar fossa, temporal crest and retromolar triangle) were well delineated in mandible. In maxilla, anatomy related to neurovascular bundle(greater palatine foramen and groove, nasopalatine canal and incisive foramen) and other anatomy(alveolar process, maxillary sinus and nasal fossa) were also well delineated. Reformatted images using dental CT software program provided excellent delineation of the jaw anatomy. Therefore, dental CT software program can play an important role in the preoperative assessment of mandible and maxilla for dental implants and other surgical conditions

  17. Imaging of jaw with dental CT software program: Normal Anatomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Myong Gon; Seo, Kwang Hee; Jung, Hak Young; Sung, Nak Kwan; Chung, Duk Soo; Kim, Ok Dong [School of Medicine, Taegu Catholic University, Taegu (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Young Hwan [Taegu Armed Forces General Hospital, Taegu (Korea, Republic of)

    1994-07-15

    Dental CT software program can provide reformatted cross-sectional and panoramic images that cannot be obtained with conventional axial and direct coronal CT scan. The purpose of this study is to describe the method of the technique and to identify the precise anatomy of jaw. We evaluated 13 mandibles and 7 maxillae of 15 subjects without bony disease who were being considered for endosseous dental implants. Reformatted images obtained by the use of bone algorithm performed on GE HiSpeed Advantage CT scanner were retrospectively reviewed for detailed anatomy of jaw. Anatomy related to neurovascular bundle(mandibular foramen, inferior alveolar canal, mental foramen, canal for incisive artery, nutrient canal, lingual foramen and mylohyoid groove), muscular insertion(mylohyoid line, superior and inferior genial tubercle and digastric fossa) and other anatomy(submandibular fossa, sublingual fossa, contour of alveolar process, oblique line, retromolar fossa, temporal crest and retromolar triangle) were well delineated in mandible. In maxilla, anatomy related to neurovascular bundle(greater palatine foramen and groove, nasopalatine canal and incisive foramen) and other anatomy(alveolar process, maxillary sinus and nasal fossa) were also well delineated. Reformatted images using dental CT software program provided excellent delineation of the jaw anatomy. Therefore, dental CT software program can play an important role in the preoperative assessment of mandible and maxilla for dental implants and other surgical conditions.

  18. Spatial abilities and anatomy knowledge assessment: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langlois, Jean; Bellemare, Christian; Toulouse, Josée; Wells, George A

    2017-06-01

    Anatomy knowledge has been found to include both spatial and non-spatial components. However, no systematic evaluation of studies relating spatial abilities and anatomy knowledge has been undertaken. The objective of this study was to conduct a systematic review of the relationship between spatial abilities test and anatomy knowledge assessment. A literature search was done up to March 20, 2014 in Scopus and in several databases on the OvidSP and EBSCOhost platforms. Of the 556 citations obtained, 38 articles were identified and fully reviewed yielding 21 eligible articles and their quality were formally assessed. Non-significant relationships were found between spatial abilities test and anatomy knowledge assessment using essays and non-spatial multiple-choice questions. Significant relationships were observed between spatial abilities test and anatomy knowledge assessment using practical examination, three-dimensional synthesis from two-dimensional views, drawing of views, and cross-sections. Relationships between spatial abilities test and anatomy knowledge assessment using spatial multiple-choice questions were unclear. The results of this systematic review provide evidence for spatial and non-spatial methods of anatomy knowledge assessment. Anat Sci Educ 10: 235-241. © 2016 American Association of Anatomists. © 2016 American Association of Anatomists.

  19. The use of real time ultrasound scanning as a teaching method of anatomy in an undergraduate sonography and medical imaging degree in an Australian university

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowman, A.; Lawson, C.; McKillup, S.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Real-time ultrasound scanning is increasing in popularity as a teaching tool for human anatomy because it is non-invasive, offers real-time 3-D anatomy and is cheaper than dissections. Aim: To assess real-time ultrasound scanning as a teaching method of human anatomy, and to determine what teaching methods medical imaging and sonography students consider effective for understanding human anatomy. Method: Surveys were distributed to two consecutive cohorts of first year medical imaging and medical sonography students at CQUniversity. Participation was voluntary. Comparisons among teaching methods were made using repeated measures ANOVA. Results: Real-time ultrasound scanning was the most preferred method of delivery for anatomy classes overall especially compared to computer programs, videos, 3-D radiological images and dissection. Specifically, students indicated that ultrasound scanning was the preferred method to encourage learning from experience (F 7,231  = 2.942, p = 0.006), to develop team skills (F 7,231  = 4.550, p < 0.006), to follow complex instructions (F 7,231  = 4.656 p < 0.001) and to appreciate anatomical variation (F 7,231  = 2.067, p = 0.048). Dissection was the least favoured teaching method. Conclusion: Real-time ultrasound scanning is a useful tool for teaching anatomy, and animal dissections are a poor substitute for the use of human cadavers. - Highlights: • Real-time ultrasound scanning is a valid teaching tool for human anatomy. • Real-time ultrasound is preferred by students compared to other teaching methods. • Dissection is the least favoured method to learn anatomy. • Ultrasound encourages learning from experience and develops team skills.

  20. Anatomy integration blueprint: A fourth-year musculoskeletal anatomy elective model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazarus, Michelle D; Kauffman, Gordon L; Kothari, Milind J; Mosher, Timothy J; Silvis, Matthew L; Wawrzyniak, John R; Anderson, Daniel T; Black, Kevin P

    2014-01-01

    Current undergraduate medical school curricular trends focus on both vertical integration of clinical knowledge into the traditionally basic science-dedicated curricula and increasing basic science education in the clinical years. This latter type of integration is more difficult and less reported on than the former. Here, we present an outline of a course wherein the primary learning and teaching objective is to integrate basic science anatomy knowledge with clinical education. The course was developed through collaboration by a multi-specialist course development team (composed of both basic scientists and physicians) and was founded in current adult learning theories. The course was designed to be widely applicable to multiple future specialties, using current published reports regarding the topics and clinical care areas relying heavily on anatomical knowledge regardless of specialist focus. To this end, the course focuses on the role of anatomy in the diagnosis and treatment of frequently encountered musculoskeletal conditions. Our iterative implementation and action research approach to this course development has yielded a curricular template for anatomy integration into clinical years. Key components for successful implementation of these types of courses, including content topic sequence, the faculty development team, learning approaches, and hidden curricula, were developed. We also report preliminary feedback from course stakeholders and lessons learned through the process. The purpose of this report is to enhance the current literature regarding basic science integration in the clinical years of medical school. © 2014 American Association of Anatomists.

  1. Perception of medical students towards the clinical relevance of anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moxham, B J; Plaisant, O

    2007-07-01

    Recent developments worldwide in medical curricula have often led to major cuts in the teaching of human anatomy. Indeed, it is perceived by some that gross (topographical) anatomy has an exaggerated importance in the initial training of doctors. The value of anatomy consequently has frequently been considerably diminished within medical curricula that have reduced factual content. To date, however, there have been no objective studies into the perceived relevance of anatomy to clinical medicine that have aimed to quantify the attitudes of medical students. On the basis of responses to an attitude analysis questionnaire devised according to the precepts of Thurstone and Chave (The Measurement of Attitude: A Psychophysical Method and Some Experiments with a Scale for Measuring Attitude Toward the Church. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press, 1951), we investigated the perception of medical students at Cardiff and Paris towards the importance of gross anatomy to clinical medicine. This was undertaken during the early stages of their studies (when they were newly-admitted to university and were about to commence anatomy courses), immediately after finishing their anatomy courses, and later in the final year of medical studies. The results suggest that, even where there might be geopolitical and cultural backgrounds, students at all stages of their medical course share with professional anatomists the view that anatomy is a very important subject for their clinical studies. Thus, contrary to the unquantified beliefs of those who are sceptical about the purpose and value of anatomy in an undergraduate medical curriculum, the students themselves do not appear to share such beliefs. Copyright 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  2. Distal radioulnar joint: functional anatomy, including pathomechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haugstvedt, J R; Langer, M F; Berger, R A

    2017-05-01

    The distal radioulnar joint allows the human to rotate the forearm to place the hand in a desired position to perform different tasks, without interfering with the grasping function of the hand. The ulna is the stable part of the forearm around which the radius rotates; the stability of the distal radioulnar joint is provided by the interaction between ligaments, muscles and bones. The stabilizing structures are the triangular fibrocartilage complex, the ulnocarpal ligament complex, the extensor carpi ulnaris tendon and tendon sheath, the pronator quadratus, the interosseous membrane and ligament, the bone itself and the joint capsule. The purpose of this review article is to present and illustrate the current understanding of the functional anatomy and pathomechanics of this joint.

  3. Scapulothoracic Anatomy and Snapping Scapula Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel M. Frank

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The scapulothoracic articulation is a sliding junction between the deep aspect of the scapula and thoracic rib cage at the levels of ribs 2 through 7. Motion at this articulation is dynamically stabilized by a variety of muscular attachments, allowing for controlled positioning of the glenoid to assist in glenohumeral joint function. A thorough understanding of the complex anatomic relationships, including the various muscles, and bursa, is critical to the evaluation of patients presenting with scapulothoracic disorders. The snapping scapula syndrome is caused by either osseous lesions or scapulothoracic bursitis and can be difficult to recognize and treat. The purpose of this review is to discuss the anatomy of the scapulothoracic articulation with an emphasis on the pathology associated with snapping scapula syndrome.

  4. Clinical anatomy of fecal incontinence in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadam-Halani, Priyanka K; Arya, Lily A; Andy, Uduak U

    2017-10-01

    Fecal incontinence is a devastating condition that has a severe impact on quality of life. This condition disproportionately affects women and its incidence is increasing with the aging United States population. Fecal continence is maintained by coordination of a functioning anal sphincter complex, intact sensation of the anorectum, rectal compliance, and the ability to consciously control defecation. Particularly important are the puborectalis sling of the levator ani muscle complex and intact innervation of the central and peripheral nervous systems. An understanding of the intricate anatomy required to maintain continence and regulate defecation will help clinicians to provide appropriate medical and surgical management and diminish the negative impact of fecal incontinence. In this article, we describe the anatomic and neural basis of fecal continence and normal defecation as well as changes that occur with fecal incontinence in women. Clin. Anat. 30:901-911, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Arthroscopic anatomy of the subdeltoid space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J. Salata

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available From the first shoulder arthroscopy performed on a cadaver in 1931, shoulder arthroscopy has grown tremendously in its ability to diagnose and treat pathologic conditions about the shoulder. Despite improvements in arthroscopic techniques and instrumentation, it is only recently that arthroscopists have begun to explore precise anatomical structures within the subdeltoid space. By way of a thorough bursectomy of the subdeltoid region, meticulous hemostasis, and the reciprocal use of posterior and lateral viewing portals, one can identify a myriad of pertinent ligamentous, musculotendinous, osseous, and neurovascular structures. For the purposes of this review, the subdeltoid space has been compartmentalized into lateral, medial, anterior, and posterior regions. Being able to identify pertinent structures in the subdeltoid space will provide shoulder arthroscopists with the requisite foundation in core anatomy that will be required for challenging procedures such as arthroscopic subscapularis mobilization and repair, biceps tenodesis, subcoracoid decompression, suprascapular nerve decompression, quadrangular space decompression and repair of massive rotator cuff tears.

  6. Anatomi Kurikulum Pendidikan Agama Islam di Sekolah

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marliana Marliana

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Anatomy of curriculum is described as the components that must be present in every curriculum that can be used for the learning process. They are objectives of the curriculum, materials of teaching, contents of the curriculum, strategies or methods, media and evaluation and improvement of teaching. These components are interconnected to one another. Each component has a content which is very important for the continuity of the curriculum. One of the most important parts of the curriculum is procces of learning as an empowering or enable the students. Thus, the need for active and participatory interaction between students and academic material or with a certain situation so that matter can be transformed into the learning experience of students.

  7. Anatomy of news consumption on Facebook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Ana Lucía; Zollo, Fabiana; Del Vicario, Michela; Bessi, Alessandro; Scala, Antonio; Caldarelli, Guido; Stanley, H Eugene; Quattrociocchi, Walter

    2017-03-21

    The advent of social media and microblogging platforms has radically changed the way we consume information and form opinions. In this paper, we explore the anatomy of the information space on Facebook by characterizing on a global scale the news consumption patterns of 376 million users over a time span of 6 y (January 2010 to December 2015). We find that users tend to focus on a limited set of pages, producing a sharp community structure among news outlets. We also find that the preferences of users and news providers differ. By tracking how Facebook pages "like" each other and examining their geolocation, we find that news providers are more geographically confined than users. We devise a simple model of selective exposure that reproduces the observed connectivity patterns.

  8. MR imaging of normal hip anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Connie Y; Huang, Ambrose J

    2013-02-01

    Understanding normal anatomy of the hip is important for diagnosing its pathology. MR arthrography is more sensitive for the detection of intra-articular pathology than noncontrast MR imaging. Important elements of the osseous structures on MR imaging include the alignment and the marrow. Acetabular ossicles may be present. Normal variations involving the cartilage include the supra-acetabular fossa and the stellate lesion. Important muscles of the hip are the sartorius, rectus femoris, iliopsoas, gluteus minimus and medius, adductors, and hamstrings. The iliofemoral, ischiofemoral, and pubofemoral ligaments represent thickenings of the joint capsule that reinforce and stabilize the hip joint. Normal variations in the labrum include labral sulcus and absent labrum. The largest nerves in the hip and thigh are the sciatic nerve, the femoral nerve, and the obturator nerve. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Arthroscopic knee anatomy in young achondroplasia patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Pilar Duque Orozco, M.; Record, N. C.; Rogers, K. J; Bober, M. B.; Mackenzie, W. G.; Atanda, A.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Purpose Achondroplasia is the most common form of skeletal dysplasia, affecting more than 250 000 individuals worldwide. In these patients, the developing knee undergoes multiple anatomical changes. The purpose of this study was to characterise the intra-articular knee anatomy in children with achondroplasia who underwent knee arthroscopy. Methods Records of achondroplasia patients who underwent knee arthroscopy between 2009 and 2014 were reviewed. Demographic data, operative reports, follow-up notes, MRI and arthroscopy images were reviewed. Bony, cartilaginous and ligamentous changes were noted. The trochlea sulcus angle was measured from intra-operative arthroscopic images. Results A total of 12 knee arthroscopies in nine patients were performed. The mean age at surgery was 16.9 years (12 to 22). In all patients, the indication for surgery was knee pain and/or mechanical symptoms that were refractory to non-operative treatment. Three anatomical variations involving the distal femur were found in all knees: a deep femoral trochlea; a high A-shaped intercondylar notch; and a vertically oriented anterior cruciate ligament. The average trochlea sulcus angle measured 123°. Pathology included: synovial plica (one knee); chondral lesions (three knees); discoid lateral meniscus (11 knees); and meniscal tears (six knees). All patients were pain-free and returned to normal activity at final follow-up. Conclusion Children with achondroplasia have characteristic distal femur anatomy noted during knee arthroscopy. These variations should be considered normal during knee arthroscopy in these patients. Arthroscopic findings confirmed previous MRI findings within this specific population with the addition of a deep trochlear groove which was not previously reported. PMID:28828058

  10. New insights into dinosaur jaw muscle anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holliday, Casey M

    2009-09-01

    Jaw muscles are key components of the head and critical to testing hypotheses of soft-tissue homology, skull function, and evolution. Dinosaurs evolved an extraordinary diversity of cranial forms adapted to a variety of feeding behaviors. However, disparate evolutionary transformations in head shape and function among dinosaurs and their living relatives, birds and crocodylians, impair straightforward reconstructions of muscles, and other important cephalic soft tissues. This study presents the osteological correlates and inferred soft tissue anatomy of the jaw muscles and relevant neurovasculature in the temporal region of the dinosaur head. Hypotheses of jaw muscle homology were tested across a broad range archosaur and sauropsid taxa to more accurately infer muscle attachments in the adductor chambers of non-avian dinosaurs. Many dinosaurs likely possessed m. levator pterygoideus, a trait shared with lepidosaurs but not extant archosaurs. Several major clades of dinosaurs (e.g., Ornithopoda, Ceratopsidae, Sauropoda) eliminated the epipterygoid, thus impacting interpretations of m. pseudotemporalis profundus. M. pseudotemporalis superficialis most likely attached to the caudoventral surface of the laterosphenoid, a trait shared with extant archosaurs. Although mm. adductor mandibulae externus profundus and medialis likely attached to the caudal half of the dorsotemporal fossa and coronoid process, clear osteological correlates separating the individual bellies are rare. Most dinosaur clades possess osteological correlates indicative of a pterygoideus ventralis muscle that attaches to the lateral surface of the mandible, although the muscle may have extended as far as the jugal in some taxa (e.g., hadrosaurs, tyrannosaurs). The cranial and mandibular attachments of mm adductor mandibulae externus superficialis and adductor mandibulae posterior were consistent across all taxa studied. These new data greatly increase the interpretive resolution of head anatomy in

  11. Arthroscopic knee anatomy in young achondroplasia patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Pilar Duque Orozco, M; Record, N C; Rogers, K J; Bober, M B; Mackenzie, W G; Atanda, A

    2017-06-01

    Achondroplasia is the most common form of skeletal dysplasia, affecting more than 250 000 individuals worldwide. In these patients, the developing knee undergoes multiple anatomical changes. The purpose of this study was to characterise the intra-articular knee anatomy in children with achondroplasia who underwent knee arthroscopy. Records of achondroplasia patients who underwent knee arthroscopy between 2009 and 2014 were reviewed. Demographic data, operative reports, follow-up notes, MRI and arthroscopy images were reviewed. Bony, cartilaginous and ligamentous changes were noted. The trochlea sulcus angle was measured from intra-operative arthroscopic images. A total of 12 knee arthroscopies in nine patients were performed. The mean age at surgery was 16.9 years (12 to 22). In all patients, the indication for surgery was knee pain and/or mechanical symptoms that were refractory to non-operative treatment. Three anatomical variations involving the distal femur were found in all knees: a deep femoral trochlea; a high A-shaped intercondylar notch; and a vertically oriented anterior cruciate ligament. The average trochlea sulcus angle measured 123°. Pathology included: synovial plica (one knee); chondral lesions (three knees); discoid lateral meniscus (11 knees); and meniscal tears (six knees). All patients were pain-free and returned to normal activity at final follow-up. Children with achondroplasia have characteristic distal femur anatomy noted during knee arthroscopy. These variations should be considered normal during knee arthroscopy in these patients. Arthroscopic findings confirmed previous MRI findings within this specific population with the addition of a deep trochlear groove which was not previously reported.

  12. Panicum simulans (Paniceae, Poaceae, a new species from southern Africa and its leaf anatomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Smook

    1993-10-01

    Full Text Available Panicum simulans Smook from northern Namibia is formally described. The morphology and leaf blade anatomy in transection and surface view, as observed under the light microscope, are described. The species is compared to others with which it has been confused in the past.  P. simulans can be readily distinguished from  P. novemnerve Stapf and P schinzii Hack, on the basis of both anatomical and morphological characters such as the venation of the lower glume and the photosynthetic anatomy, which is of the NAD-me subtype of the C4 photosynthetic pathway. On this basis it appears that P simulans is closely allied to the P. coloratum L. group of species and should be placed in section Panicum of subgenus Panicum.

  13. X-ray computed tomography library of shark anatomy and lower jaw surface models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamminga, Pepijn; De Bruin, Paul W; Geleijns, Jacob; Brazeau, Martin D

    2017-04-11

    The cranial diversity of sharks reflects disparate biomechanical adaptations to feeding. In order to be able to investigate and better understand the ecomorphology of extant shark feeding systems, we created a x-ray computed tomography (CT) library of shark cranial anatomy with three-dimensional (3D) lower jaw reconstructions. This is used to examine and quantify lower jaw disparity in extant shark species in a separate study. The library is divided in a dataset comprised of medical CT scans of 122 sharks (Selachimorpha, Chondrichthyes) representing 73 extant species, including digitized morphology of entire shark specimens. This CT dataset and additional data provided by other researchers was used to reconstruct a second dataset containing 3D models of the left lower jaw for 153 individuals representing 94 extant shark species. These datasets form an extensive anatomical record of shark skeletal anatomy, necessary for comparative morphological, biomechanical, ecological and phylogenetic studies.

  14. Anatomy, histology, and ultrasonography of the normal adrenal gland in brown lemur: Eulemur fulvus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raharison, Fidiniaina; Bourges Abella, Nathalie; Sautet, Jean; Deviers, Alexandra; Mogicato, Giovanni

    2017-04-01

    The medical care currently to brown lemurs (Eulemur fulvus) is limited by a lack of knowledge of their anatomy. The aim of this study was to describe the anatomy and histology and obtain ultrasonographic measurements of normal adrenal glands in these animals. The adrenal glands of four lemurs cadavers were used for the anatomical and histological studies, and those of 15 anesthetized lemurs were examined by ultrasonography. Anatomically, the adrenal glands of brown lemurs are comparable to those of other species. The histological findings showed that the cortex is organized into three distinct layers, whereas most domestic mammals have an additional zone. The surface area of the adrenal glands increased with body weight, and the area of the right adrenal was slightly larger than the left. We suggest using ultrasonography to aid the etiological diagnosis of behavioral abnormalities that might be due to dysfunctions of the adrenal gland. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in obstetrics. II. Fetal anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, M C; Worthington, B S; Buckley, J M; Symonds, E M

    1988-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed in 36 patients at between 10 and 38 weeks gestation to determine the fetal anatomy that could be identified at different gestations. Fetal motion significantly degraded the image quality in the first and second trimesters, but in the final trimester fetal anatomy was clearly demonstrated. T2 weighted sequences showed the fetal brain and lungs to have a high signal intensity. Shorter TR leading to a T1 weighting gave better resolution of the overall anatomy. MRI has revealed the potential for assessment of lung maturity and the growth-retarded fetus.

  16. Anatomy and Histology of the Human and Murine Prostate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ittmann, Michael

    2017-10-16

    The human and murine prostate glands have similar functional roles in the generation of seminal fluid to assist in reproduction. There are significant differences in the anatomy and histology of murine and human prostate and knowledge of the normal anatomy and histology of the murine prostate is essential to interpreting changes in genetically engineered mouse models. In this review, the normal anatomy and histology of both human and mouse prostate will be described. Copyright © 2017 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press; all rights reserved.

  17. Pelvic Organ Prolapse: New Concepts in Pelvic Floor Anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maldonado, Pedro A; Wai, Clifford Y

    2016-03-01

    As the field of reconstructive pelvic surgery continues to evolve, with descriptions of new procedures to repair pelvic organ prolapse, it remains imperative to maintain a functional understanding of pelvic floor anatomy and support. The goal of this review was to provide a focused, conceptual approach to differentiating anatomic defects contributing to prolapse in the various compartments of the vagina. Rather than provide exhaustive descriptions of pelvic floor anatomy, basic pelvic floor anatomy is reviewed, new and historical concepts of pelvic floor support are discussed, and relevance to the surgical management of specific anatomic defects is addressed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Xeroradiographic anatomy of the equine digit and metacarpophalangeal region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smallwood, J.E.; Holladay, S.D.

    1987-01-01

    The purpose of the project was to use xeroradiography to provide a reference for radiographic anatomy of the equine digit and metacarpophalangeal region. The left foredigits and metacarpophalangeal joints of a mature horse and a 30-day-old foal were radiographed, using xeroradiographic techniques. Fifteen xeroradiographs, illustrating standard projections of each area, were selected and appropriately labeled to demonstrate normal radiographic anatomy of these regions. These xeroradiographs have been used successfully for several years to teach radiographic anatomy of these areas to first-year veterinary students at North Carolina State University

  19. Evaluation of an Innovative Digital Assessment Tool in Dental Anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Matt T; Kwon, So Ran; Qian, Fang; Denehy, Gerald E

    2015-05-01

    The E4D Compare software is an innovative tool that provides immediate feedback to students' projects and competencies. It should provide consistent scores even when different scanners are used which may have inherent subtle differences in calibration. This study aimed to evaluate potential discrepancies in evaluation using the E4D Compare software based on four different NEVO scanners in dental anatomy projects. Additionally, correlation between digital and visual scores was evaluated. Thirty-five projects of maxillary left central incisors were evaluated. Among these, thirty wax-ups were performed by four operators and five consisted of standard dentoform teeth. Five scores were obtained for each project: one from an instructor that visually graded the project and from four different NEVO scanners. A faculty involved in teaching the dental anatomy course blindly scored the 35 projects. One operator scanned all projects to four NEVO scanners (D4D Technologies, Richardson, TX, USA). The images were aligned to the gold standard, and tolerance set at 0.3 mm to generate a score. The score reflected percentage match between the project and the gold standard. One-way ANOVA with repeated measures was used to determine whether there was a significant difference in scores among the four NEVO scanners. Paired-sample t-test was used to detect any difference between visual scores and the average scores of the four NEVO scanners. Pearson's correlation test was used to assess the relationship between visual and average scores of NEVO scanners. There was no significant difference in mean scores among four different NEVO scanners [F(3, 102) = 2.27, p = 0.0852 one-way ANOVA with repeated measures]. Moreover, the data provided strong evidence that a significant difference existed between visual and digital scores (p = 0.0217; a paired - sample t-test). Mean visual scores were significantly lower than digital scores (72.4 vs 75.1). Pearson's correlation coefficient of 0.85 indicated

  20. Improving near-peer teaching quality in anatomy by educating teaching assistants: An example from Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, Ellen; Holmin, Tobias E; Johansson, Bengt R; Braide, Magnus

    2018-02-14

    Peer-assisted learning has gained momentum in a variety of disciplines, including medical education. In Gothenburg, Sweden, medical students who have finished their compulsory anatomy courses have the option of working as teaching assistants (TAs). Teaching assistants provide small group teaching sessions as a complement to lectures given by faculty. Previously, TAs were left to handle the role as junior teachers by themselves, but since 2011, a continuation course in anatomy has been developed with the aim of providing the TAs better anatomy knowledge and guidance for teaching. The course was designed to comprise 7.5 ECTS credits (equivalent to 5 weeks of full-time studies), and today all TAs are required to take this course before undertaking their own teaching responsibilities. This study aims to compare course evaluations of TA teaching before and after the introduction of the anatomy continuation course, in order to understand how students perceived teaching performed by self-learned versus trained TAs. The results of this study demonstrate that there was a trend towards better teaching performed by trained TAs. The variability in rankings decreased significantly after the introduction of the continuation course. This was mainly due to an improvement among the TAs with the lowest levels of performance. In addition to comparing student rankings, TAs were interviewed regarding their experiences and perceptions within the continuation course. The course was generally positively regarded. The TAs described a sense of cohesion and appreciation since the institute invested in a course dedicated specifically for them. Anat Sci Educ. © 2018 American Association of Anatomists. © 2018 American Association of Anatomists.

  1. Leaf anatomy of Crambe abyssinica Hochst. during in vitro shoot ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Leaf anatomy of Crambe abyssinica Hochst. during in vitro shoot induction. Elias Terra Werner, Camilla Rozindo Dias Milanez, Andreia Barcelos Passos Lima Gontijo, Taís Cristina Bastos Soares, José Augusto Teixeira do Amaral ...

  2. Evaluation of anatomy comic strips for further production and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Dong Sun; Kim, Dae Hyun; Park, Jin Seo; Jang, Hae Gwon; Chung, Min Suk

    2013-09-01

    The corresponding author of the study has been sketching comic strips to explain anatomy in a humorous manner. All the anatomy comic strips, including those in Korean (650 episodes) and English (451 episodes), can be viewed on the homepage (http://anatomy.co.kr). Such comic strips were created with the aim of assisting medical students. However, their impact was unknown, and therefore, we surveyed the students' responses. We noted that anatomy grades were better in the students who read the comic strips. The comics helped the trainees chat with individuals with and without a medical background. The authors also considered comments on the problems with the comic strips and attempted to find solutions. The episodes are being currently used and further produced for educational purposes. To support this effort, the readers' valuable opinions will be continuously collected and assessed.

  3. the anatomy of pelvic corona mortis vessles in black africans

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    , Moi University, P. O. Box ... This vascular anastomosis is also at risk during ilionguinal approach to the acetabulum (7). A medial approach for pelvic osteotomies for acetabular dysplasia ..... Gray's Anatomy 39th Edition , section 7 abdomen.

  4. Evaluation of anatomy comic strips for further production and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Dong Sun; Kim, Dae Hyun; Park, Jin Seo; Jang, Hae Gwon

    2013-01-01

    The corresponding author of the study has been sketching comic strips to explain anatomy in a humorous manner. All the anatomy comic strips, including those in Korean (650 episodes) and English (451 episodes), can be viewed on the homepage (http://anatomy.co.kr). Such comic strips were created with the aim of assisting medical students. However, their impact was unknown, and therefore, we surveyed the students' responses. We noted that anatomy grades were better in the students who read the comic strips. The comics helped the trainees chat with individuals with and without a medical background. The authors also considered comments on the problems with the comic strips and attempted to find solutions. The episodes are being currently used and further produced for educational purposes. To support this effort, the readers' valuable opinions will be continuously collected and assessed. PMID:24179697

  5. Medical Students' Perception of Problem Areas in Anatomy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To determine perceived problem areas in anatomy, determine possible reasons for these problems and propose solutions to the identified areas. Open ended questionnaires were administered to undergraduate medical students of Delta State University, Abraka after obtaining consent from each respondent.

  6. Unusual termination of the right testicular vein | Woldeyes | Anatomy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Anatomy Journal of Africa. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 5, No 2 (2016) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  7. A Fleshy Palmaris Longus Muscle | Ramesh | Anatomy Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Anatomy Journal of Africa. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 4, No 1 (2015) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  8. Editorial | Ogeng'o | Anatomy Journal of Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Anatomy Journal of Africa. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 6, No 2 (2017) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  9. How-To-Do-It: Pig Foot Anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Paula M.

    1988-01-01

    Described is an activity used to introduce the anatomy of the skeletal and muscular systems. A teacher conducted, video enhanced demonstration and a student activity are discussed. Included is a sample student laboratory paper. (CW)

  10. Historical perspective-Anatomy down the ages in Australasia; lessons for the future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flack, Natasha Ams; Nicholson, Helen D

    2016-01-01

    Is anatomy a dying discipline? This article explores the history and current state of human anatomy in Australasia, and considers the changing nature of the discipline, and possibilities for the future. A web-based search of all tertiary institutions in Australasia was performed to identify which taught anatomy. Those identified were invited to provide further information about postgraduate student numbers, external courses and public outreach. Forty-one institutions across Australasia teach anatomy. There are seven identifiable anatomy departments and nine disciplines of anatomy. From 1900 to 2014, the number of medical schools has increased (from 4 to 20), however a concomitant increase in the number of anatomy departments (2014, n = 7) was not observed. Twenty-one institutions, without medical schools, currently teach anatomy but none have a stand-alone anatomy department. Anatomy is taught in more than 18 different undergraduate and postgraduate programs. From the 28 institutions that provided current data, 310 postgraduate research students were identified. Predominantly, they came from longer-established institutions with an identifiable anatomy department. Similarly, those with anatomy departments/disciplines offered external professional courses. Many institutions engaged in public outreach. The evidence suggests that anatomy is alive and possibly even growing in Australasia. However, the structures around the discipline and the students who are learning anatomy are changing. Our challenge is to prepare the next generation of anatomy faculty to be both researchers and teachers. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Ultrasonography of the lower extremity veins: anatomy and basic approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-Kyu Lee

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Ultrasonography is an imaging modality widely used to evaluate venous diseases of the lower extremities. It is important to understand the normal venous anatomy of the lower extremities, which has deep, superficial, and perforating venous components, in order to determine the pathophysiology of venous disease. This review provides a basic description of the anatomy of the lower extremity veins and useful techniques for approaching each vein via ultrasonography.

  12. Ultrasonography of the lower extremity veins: Anatomy and basic approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Dong Kyu; Ahn, Kyung Sik; Kang, Chang Ho; Cho, Sung Bum [Dept. of Radiology, Korea University Anam Hospital, Korea University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-04-15

    Ultrasonography is an imaging modality widely used to evaluate venous diseases of the lower extremities. It is important to understand the normal venous anatomy of the lower extremities, which has deep, superficial, and perforating venous components, in order to determine the pathophysiology of venous disease. This review provides a basic description of the anatomy of the lower extremity veins and useful techniques for approaching each vein via ultrasonography.

  13. Fascial Anatomy and Its Relevance in Safe Laparoscopic Hysterectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puntambekar, Shailesh P; Puntambekar, Seema P; Gadkari, Yamini; Naval, Suyash

    2015-01-01

    To demonstrate the importance of being familiar with the anatomy of the endopelvic fascia as seen by laparoscopy to perform safe laparoscopic hysterectomies. Combination of surgical videos and design diagrams. Compiled high-definition surgical videos from the Galaxy Care Laparoscopy Institute, Pune, India. These videos clearly demonstrate the anatomy of the endopelvic fascia and describe tips to avoid damage to the major structures, including the major vessels, ureter, bowel, bladder, and endopelvic fascia. The laparoscopic view of the anatomy with the current camera system is an excellent tool to demonstrate and teach pelvic anatomy, which can be applied to surgical principles in difficult benign and oncological cases. We used a total laparoscopic approach to demonstrate the fasciae that were seen during various types of hysterectomies. The video shows the following: (1) the posterior leaf of the broad ligament was opened until it reached the apex of the uterosacral ligament; (2) the anterior leaf of broad ligament was opened until it reached the vesico-uterine peritoneal reflection; (3) the principles of bladder dissection; (4) the pubocervico-vesical fascia and its relevance to bladder dissection; (5) the relevance of the anatomy of the uterine artery, vein, and ureter with endopelvic fascia within the leaves of the broad ligament; (6) Denonvillier's fascia dissection technique for dissection of the rectum away from the vagina; (7) the anatomy of the vesicocervical ligaments, forming the ureteric tunnel; (8) the dissection principles of lateralizing the ureter in the retrovesical region; (9) the endopelvic fascia reflection, which continued caudally, covering the pelvic floor; and (10) the relevance of the anatomy of the endopelvic fascia and the stress urinary incontinence treatment technique. Understanding the anatomy of the fasciae of the pelvis helps to create avascular planes and is crucial for performing safe hysterectomies. Copyright © 2015 AAGL

  14. Comparison of carina-based versus bony anatomy-based registration for setup verification in esophageal cancer radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machiels, Mélanie; Jin, Peng; van Gurp, Christianne H; van Hooft, Jeanin E; Alderliesten, Tanja; Hulshof, Maarten C C M

    2018-03-21

    To investigate the feasibility and geometric accuracy of carina-based registration for CBCT-guided setup verification in esophageal cancer IGRT, compared with current practice bony anatomy-based registration. Included were 24 esophageal cancer patients with 65 implanted fiducial markers, visible on planning CTs and follow-up CBCTs. All available CBCT scans (n = 236) were rigidly registered to the planning CT with respect to the bony anatomy and the carina. Target coverage was visually inspected and marker position variation was quantified relative to both registration approaches; the variation of systematic (Σ) and random errors (σ) was estimated. Automatic carina-based registration was feasible in 94.9% of the CBCT scans, with an adequate target coverage in 91.1% compared to 100% after bony anatomy-based registration. Overall, Σ (σ) in the LR/CC/AP direction was 2.9(2.4)/4.1(2.4)/2.2(1.8) mm using the bony anatomy registration compared to 3.3(3.0)/3.6(2.6)/3.9(3.1) mm for the carina. Mid-thoracic placed markers showed a non-significant but smaller Σ in CC and AP direction when using the carina-based registration. Compared with a bony anatomy-based registration, carina-based registration for esophageal cancer IGRT results in inadequate target coverage in 8.9% of cases. Furthermore, large Σ and σ, requiring larger anisotropic margins, were seen after carina-based registration. Only for tumors entirely confined to the mid-thoracic region the carina-based registration might be slightly favorable.

  15. Surgical anatomy in obstetrics and gynaecology: the trainees' perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sgroi, Joseph; Abbott, Jason

    2014-04-01

    The aim of the Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists (RANZCOG) Integrated and Elective Training Program is to ensure trainees have both clinical and surgical competence. The capacity to recognise important anatomical structures underpins this aim; however, quantification of RANZCOG trainees' anatomical knowledge and their training and assessment is not available. To survey trainees at all levels relating to applied anatomy, training and assessment within the RANZCOG training program. All accredited RANZCOG trainees were invited to participate in an online survey relating to anatomy knowledge, application, assessment and means of improving anatomical training. At the commencement of training, 11% of trainees perceived their anatomical knowledge as adequate and this increased to 77% by the final year of training. For final-year trainees, 78% perceived their anatomy knowledge as sufficient to perform a total abdominal hysterectomy and 87% an ovarian cystectomy or salpingectomy. Eighty-four per cent of trainees perceived the RANZCOG training programme as providing inadequate anatomy teaching. 100% of respondents supported a RANZCOG approved anatomy training course. This is a survey-based study and therefore subjective. Consequently, accurate determination of anatomical knowledge for RANZCOG trainees is inexact. Trainees perceive limitations in their anatomical knowledge. A formalised RANZCOG anatomy course would be of value in providing structured education and assessment of trainees' knowledge and establishing whether there are improvements in surgical competencies. © 2014 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  16. Application of case discussions to improve anatomy learning in Syria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabbagh, Mohammad Ayman

    2013-10-01

    Designing a new approach for learning gross anatomy to improve students' motivation to study anatomy and to enable them to learn independently through case discussion. The study included newly registered students in the first academic year. The total number of students was 165, who were divided by alphabetical order into 15 groups of 11 students. Each group was led by one faculty member and each faculty member lead 3 groups. Each group met twice a week for 2 weeks to discuss one case related to the upper limb anatomy. Students took pre- and posttests and completed an opinion questionnaire about the case discussions. The pretest score shows that 20% of the students received grades of 60% or above and that 80% received grades less than 60%. The posttest showed that 45% of the students received grades of 60% or above and that 55% received grades less than 60%. There was a significant difference between the pre- and posttest for grades 60% (P = 0.0023). In addition, 17% of students achieved the same results (less than 60%) in both the pre- and posttests. The questionnaire revealed that all students stated that the discussion method was useful in their learning process, helped them to increase their motivation to study anatomy (85%), know the usefulness of studying anatomy (84%), and understand the problems (91%). The implementation of the case discussion in teaching anatomy can increase the students' understanding and motivate them to learn.

  17. A sculpture masterpiece for the teaching of anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumitrascu, Dinu Iuliu; Crivii, Carmen Bianca; Opincaru, Iulian

    2016-01-01

    The study of anatomy remains the backbone of medical education in the first years. There is a constant need for educational materials that enable the assimilation of knowledge by students. The casts after human bodies have not lost the value, even in the era of virtual education. We present in this paper a museal item destined to improve the anatomy teaching. Given the existence in the department of anatomy from Cluj -Napoca of an item of exceptional artistic and scientific value, we intensively searched Pubmed and Scopus, as well as by manual search of printed only documents, for all papers related to the muscle man by Brancusi created for educational purposes of anatomy students. This paper presents summary data from the biography of the creators of this item, the world famous sculptor Constantin Brancusi and the professor of anatomy and surgery from Bucharest Dimitrie Gerota. We also describe this item and the conditions which generated it. Teaching anatomy relies on the quality of the didactic support. The muscle man by Brancusi is a very realistic reproduction of a man, very useful for anatomical training and teaching.

  18. Interprofessional approach for teaching functional knee joint anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Jakob J; Obmann, Markus M; Gießler, Marianne; Schuldis, Dominik; Brückner, Ann-Kathrin; Strohm, Peter C; Sandeck, Florian; Spittau, Björn

    2017-03-01

    Profound knowledge in functional and clinical anatomy is a prerequisite for efficient diagnosis in medical practice. However, anatomy teaching does not always consider functional and clinical aspects. Here we introduce a new interprofessional approach to effectively teach the anatomy of the knee joint. The presented teaching approach involves anatomists, orthopaedists and physical therapists to teach anatomy of the knee joint in small groups under functional and clinical aspects. The knee joint courses were implemented during early stages of the medical curriculum and medical students were grouped with students of physical therapy to sensitize students to the importance of interprofessional work. Evaluation results clearly demonstrate that medical students and physical therapy students appreciated this teaching approach. First evaluations of following curricular anatomy exams suggest a benefit of course participants in knee-related multiple choice questions. Together, the interprofessional approach presented here proves to be a suitable approach to teach functional and clinical anatomy of the knee joint and further trains interprofessional work between prospective physicians and physical therapists as a basis for successful healthcare management. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier GmbH.. All rights reserved.

  19. Anatomy education for the YouTube generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, Denis S; Marzouk, Fadi; Chulak-Oglu, Kyrylo; Bennett, Deirdre; Tierney, Paul; O'Keeffe, Gerard W

    2016-01-01

    Anatomy remains a cornerstone of medical education despite challenges that have seen a significant reduction in contact hours over recent decades; however, the rise of the "YouTube Generation" or "Generation Connected" (Gen C), offers new possibilities for anatomy education. Gen C, which consists of 80% Millennials, actively interact with social media and integrate it into their education experience. Most are willing to merge their online presence with their degree programs by engaging with course materials and sharing their knowledge freely using these platforms. This integration of social media into undergraduate learning, and the attitudes and mindset of Gen C, who routinely creates and publishes blogs, podcasts, and videos online, has changed traditional learning approaches and the student/teacher relationship. To gauge this, second year undergraduate medical and radiation therapy students (n = 73) were surveyed regarding their use of online social media in relation to anatomy learning. The vast majority of students had employed web-based platforms to source information with 78% using YouTube as their primary source of anatomy-related video clips. These findings suggest that the academic anatomy community may find value in the integration of social media into blended learning approaches in anatomy programs. This will ensure continued connection with the YouTube generation of students while also allowing for academic and ethical oversight regarding the use of online video clips whose provenance may not otherwise be known. © 2015 American Association of Anatomists.

  20. Advance organizers in a gross anatomy dissection course and their effects on academic achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Eun-Kyung; Nam, Kwang-Il; Oh, Sun-A; Han, Eui-Ryoung; Woo, Young-Jong; Hitchcock, Maurice A

    2013-04-01

    We presented two kinds of advance organizers (AOs), video clips and prosection, for a gross anatomy dissection course and compared their effects on academic achievement and student perception of the learning experience. In total, 141 students at Chonnam National University Medical School were randomly assigned to two groups: Group 1 (n = 70) was provided with video clips AO, whereas Group 2 (n = 71) was provided with prosection AO, the use of cadaveric specimens dissected by the course instructor. Student self-assessment scores regarding the learning objectives of upper limb anatomy improved significantly in both groups. Academic achievement scores in Group 2 were significantly higher than those in Group 1, although the self-assessment scores were not significantly different between the groups. Additionally, students in Group 2 responded significantly more positively to the statements about perception of the learning experience such as helping them understand the course content and concepts, decreasing anxiety about the dissection course, and participating actively in the dissection. It would seem that the application of prosection as an AO improved academic achievement and increased student engagement and satisfaction. This study will contribute to designing effective AOs and developing a teaching and learning strategy for a gross anatomy dissection course. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Reliability of the bony anatomy in image-guided stereotactic radiotherapy of brain metastases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guckenberger, Matthias; Baier, Kurt; Guenther, Iris; Richter, Anne; Wilbert, Juergen; Sauer, Otto; Vordermark, Dirk; Flentje, Michael

    2007-09-01

    To evaluate whether the position of brain metastases remains stable between planning and treatment in cranial stereotactic radiotherapy (SRT). Eighteen patients with 20 brain metastases were treated with single-fraction (17 lesions) or hypofractionated (3 lesions) image-guided SRT. Median time interval between planning and treatment was 8 days. Before treatment a cone-beam CT (CBCT) and a conventional CT after application of i.v. contrast were acquired. Setup errors using automatic bone registration (CBCT) and manual soft-tissue registration of the brain metastases (conventional CT) were compared. Tumor size was not significantly different between planning and treatment. The three-dimensional setup error (mean +/- SD) was 4.0 +/- 2.1 mm and 3.5 +/- 2.2 mm according to the bony anatomy and the lesion itself, respectively. A highly significant correlation between automatic bone match and soft-tissue registration was seen in all three directions (r >/= 0.88). The three-dimensional distance between the isocenter according to bone match and soft-tissue registration was 1.7 +/- 0.7 mm, maximum 2.8 mm. Treatment of intracranial pressure with steroids did not influence the position of the lesion relative to the bony anatomy. With a time interval of approximately 1 week between planning and treatment, the bony anatomy of the skull proved to be an excellent surrogate for the target position in image-guided SRT.

  2. Preserving the Facial Nerve During Orbitozygomatic Craniotomy: Surgical Anatomy Assessment and Stepwise Illustration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tayebi Meybodi, Ali; Lawton, Michael T; Yousef, Sonia; Sánchez, J J González; Benet, Arnau

    2017-09-01

    Surgical safety and efficiency during an orbitozygomatic (OZ) osteotomy rely on thorough knowledge of the surgical anatomy of the facial nerve. Although the anatomy of the facial nerve and its relation to the pterional craniotomy are described, a thorough assessment of facial nerve preservation techniques during the OZ approach and its variations is lacking. We assessed the surgical anatomy of the facial nerve related to the OZ approach and provided a thorough stepwise description on how to preserve it. The OZ approach was performed bilaterally in 15 cadaveric heads. The interfascial and subfascial techniques were performed to study their nuances in preserving the facial nerve. We compared the 2 techniques and provided a thorough description on how to preserve the facial nerve during each step of the OZ approach. At the zygomatic arch, the facial nerve was found between the galea and the superficial temporal fascia. A cut in the fascia at the posterior end of the zygomatic arch did not cross any facial nerve branches. The subfascial technique was simpler, more efficient, and provided more structural protection of the facial nerve branches than the interfascial technique. The frontal division of the facial nerve is related directly to dissection over the zygomatic bone and may be injured during fascial dissection or osteotomies. Both interfascial and subfascial techniques are feasible to use during the OZ craniotomy and provide ample exposure of the OZ unit. Regarding the preservation of the facial nerve branches, we favor the subfascial method. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Inner ear anatomy in Waardenburg syndrome: radiological assessment and comparison with normative data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kontorinis, Georgios; Goetz, Friedrich; Lanfermann, Heinrich; Luytenski, Stefan; Giesemann, Anja M

    2014-08-01

    As patients with Waardenburg syndrome (WS) represent potential candidates for cochlear implantation, their inner ear anatomy is of high significance. There is an ongoing debate whether WS is related to any inner ear dysplasias. Our objective was to evaluate radiologically the inner ear anatomy in patients with WS and identify any temporal bone malformations. A retrospective case review was carried out in a tertiary, referral center. The high resolution computed tomography (HRCT) scans of the temporal bone from 20 patients (40 ears) with WS who were managed for deafness in a tertiary referral center from 1995 to 2012 were retrospectively examined. Measurements of 15 different inner ear dimensions, involving the cochlea, the vestibule, the semicircular canals and the internal auditory meatus, as well as measurements of the vestibular aqueduct, were performed independently by two neuroradiologists. Finally, we compared the results from the WS group with a control group consisting of 50 normal hearing subjects (100 ears) and with previously reported normative values. Inner ear malformations were not found in any of the patients with WS. All measured inner ear dimensions were within the normative values compiled by our study group as well as by others. Inner ear malformations are not characteristic for all types of WS; however, certain rare subtypes might be related to inner ear deformities. Normative cochleovestibular dimensions that can help in assessing the temporal bone anatomy are provided. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Microsurgical anatomy of the anterior commissure: correlations with diffusion tensor imaging fiber tracking and clinical relevance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peltier, Johann; Verclytte, Sébastien; Delmaire, Christine; Pruvo, Jean-Pierre; Havet, Eric; Le Gars, Daniel

    2011-12-01

    Detailed anatomy of the anterior commissure is unknown in the literature. To describe the anterior commissure with the use of a fiber dissection technique by focusing on the morphology (length and breadth of the 2 portions), the course, and the relations with neighboring fasciculi, particularly in the temporal stem. We dissected 8 previously frozen, formalin-fixed human brains under the operating microscope using the fiber dissection described by Klingler. Lateral, inferior, and medial approaches were made. The anterior olfactive limb of the anterior commissure was sometimes absent during dissection. The cross-sectional 3-dimensional magnetic resonance rendering images showed that fibers of the anterior commissure curved laterally within the basal forebrain. The tip of the temporal limb of the anterior commissure was intermingled with other fasciculi in various directions to form a dense 3-dimensional network. Functional anatomy and comparative anatomy are described. The anterior commissure can be involved in various pathologies such as diffuse axonal injury, schizophrenia, and cerebral tumoral dissemination.

  5. Effectiveness of three-dimensional digital animation in teaching human anatomy in an authentic classroom context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyek, Nady; Collet, Christian; Di Rienzo, Franck; De Almeida, Mickael; Guillot, Aymeric

    2014-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) digital animations were used to teach the human musculoskeletal system to first year kinesiology students. The purpose of this study was to assess the effectiveness of this method by comparing two groups from two different academic years during two of their official required anatomy examinations (trunk and upper limb assessments). During the upper limb section, the teacher used two-dimensional (2D) drawings embedded into PowerPoint(®) slides and 3D digital animations for the first group (2D group) and the second (3D group), respectively. The same 3D digital animations were used for both groups during the trunk section. The only difference between the two was the multimedia used to present the information during the upper limb section. The 2D group surprisingly outperformed the 3D group on the trunk assessment. On the upper limb assessment no difference in the scores on the overall anatomy examination was found. However, the 3D group outperformed the 2D group in questions requiring spatial ability. Data supported that 3D digital animations were effective instructional multimedia material tools in teaching human anatomy especially in recalling anatomical knowledge requiring spatial ability. The importance of evaluating the effectiveness of a new instructional material outside laboratory environment (e.g., after a complete semester and on official examinations) was discussed. © 2014 American Association of Anatomists.

  6. Practical training on porcine hearts enhances students' knowledge of human cardiac anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musumeci, Giuseppe; Loreto, Carla; Mazzone, Venera; Szychlinska, Marta Anna; Castrogiovanni, Paola; Castorina, Sergio

    2014-05-01

    Historically, cadavers have been used for the study of anatomy. Nowadays, the territorial and legal limitations of this approach have led to the introduction of alternative teaching methods such as the use of practical exercise consisting of dissection and observation of animal organs. The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of practical training on animal organs compared with the traditional method of anatomy teaching, based on the dissection of human cadavers. In this study, we seek to demonstrate the usefulness of practical exercise on animal organs. This practical training was held a week after the series of lectures, thus leaving time for the students to learn and understand the topics discussed. Immediately after the lecture, all of the students completed a preliminary test to assess the immediate effect of the lecture. Immediately before the practical exercise, both control and experimental groups completed a second test to assess the effectiveness of personal study. Immediately after practical training, a third test was completed by the experimental group and the control group (no practical activity on animal organs) to highlight the added value of hands-on practice in addition to the lecture. Data obtained from statistical analysis showed a panatomy learning between control and experimental groups. Thus, the results of this study emphasize the utility of practical training on animal organs in learning and understanding anatomy, considering the limitations of the use of cadavers. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  7. Learning outcomes and student-perceived value of clay modeling and cat dissection in undergraduate human anatomy and physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeHoff, Mary Ellen; Clark, Krista L; Meganathan, Karthikeyan

    2011-03-01

    Alternatives and/or supplements to animal dissection are being explored by educators of human anatomy at different academic levels. Clay modeling is one such alternative that provides a kinesthetic, three-dimensional, constructive, and sensory approach to learning human anatomy. The present study compared two laboratory techniques, clay modeling of human anatomy and dissection of preserved cat specimens, in the instruction of muscles, peripheral nerves, and blood vessels. Specifically, we examined the effect of each technique on student performance on low-order and high-order questions related to each body system as well as the student-perceived value of each technique. Students who modeled anatomic structures in clay scored significantly higher on low-order questions related to peripheral nerves; scores were comparable between groups for high-order questions on peripheral nerves and for questions on muscles and blood vessels. Likert-scale surveys were used to measure student responses to statements about each laboratory technique. A significantly greater percentage of students in the clay modeling group "agreed" or "strongly agreed" with positive statements about their respective technique. These results indicate that clay modeling and cat dissection are equally effective in achieving student learning outcomes for certain systems in undergraduate human anatomy. Furthermore, clay modeling appears to be the preferred technique based on students' subjective perceptions of value to their learning experience.

  8. Coronary anatomy characteristics in patients with isolated right bundle branch block versus subjects with normal surface electrocardiogram.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakbaz, Marziyeh; Kazemisaeid, Ali; Yaminisharif, Ahmad; Davoodi, Gholamreza; Tokaldany, Masoumeh Lotfi; Hakki, Elham

    2013-03-01

    Isolated right bundle branch block is a common finding in the general population. It may be associated with variations in detailed coronary anatomy characteristics. The aim of this study was to investigate the coronary anatomy in patients with isolated right bundle branch block and to compare that with normal individuals. In this case-control study we investigated the coronary anatomy by reviewing angiographic films in two groups of normal coronary artery patients: patients with right bundle branch block (RBBB) (n = 92) and those with normal electrocardiograms (n = 184). There was no significant difference between the two groups in terms of diminutive left anterior descending artery, dominancy, number of obtuse marginal artery, diagonal, acute marginal artery, the position of the first septal versus diagonal branch, presence of ramus artery, and size of left main artery. The number of septal branches was higher in the case group (p-value right circulatory system was more common in both groups but cases showed more tendency to follow this pattern (p-value = 0.021). The frequency of the normal conus branch was higher in the cases versus controls (p-value = 0.009). Coronary anatomy characteristics are somewhat different in subjects with RBBB compared to normal individuals.

  9. Outcomes and Prognostic Factors of Endovascular Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Repair in Patients with Hostile Neck Anatomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Hye Doo; Lee, Yun Young; Lee, Seung Jin; Yim, Nam Yeol; Kim, Jae Kyu; Choi, Soo Jin Na; Jung, Sang Young; Chang, Nam Kyu; Lim, Jae Hoon

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate the outcomes and find the prognostic factors of endovascular abdominal aortic aneurysm repair (EVAR) in patients with hostile neck anatomy of the abdominal aorta. This study was performed on 100 patients with abdominal aneurysm who were treated with EVAR between March 2006 and December 2010. We divided the patients into two groups: good neck anatomy (GNA), and hostile neck anatomy (HNA) and then compared the primary success rate and the incidence rate of complications with EVAR between the two groups. Our aim was to determine the factors related to the complications of EVAR among HNA types. There were no significant differences of primary success rate and incidence rate of complications between the two groups. Among the types of HNA, the short neck angle [odd ratio (OR), 4.23; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.21-18.70; p = 0.023] and large neck angle (OR, 2.58; 95% CI, 0.15-11.85; p = 0.031) showed a low primary success rate. The short neck angle (OR, 2.32; 95% CI, 1.18-12.29; p = 0.002) and large neck angle (OR, 4.67; 95% CI, 0.14-19.07; p = 0.032) showed a high incidence rate of early type 1 complication. In the case of the large neck angle (OR, 3.78; 95% CI, 0.96-20.80; p = 0.047), the large neck thrombus (OR, 2.23; 95% CI, 0.24-7.12; p = 0.035) and large neck calcification (OR, 2.50; 95% CI, 0.08-18.37; p 0.043) showed a high incidence rate of complications within a year. The results suggest that patients with hostile neck anatomy can be treated with EVAR successfully, although there was a higher incidence of complications in patients with a short neck length, severe neck angulation, circumferential thrombosis, and calcified proximal neck.

  10. The head and neck anatomy of sea turtles (Cryptodira: Chelonioidea and skull shape in Testudines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc E H Jones

    Full Text Available Sea turtles (Chelonoidea are a charismatic group of marine reptiles that occupy a range of important ecological roles. However, the diversity and evolution of their feeding anatomy remain incompletely known.Using computed tomography and classical comparative anatomy we describe the cranial anatomy in two sea turtles, the loggerhead (Caretta caretta and Kemp's ridley (Lepidochelys kempii, for a better understanding of sea turtle functional anatomy and morphological variation. In both taxa the temporal region of the skull is enclosed by bone and the jaw joint structure and muscle arrangement indicate that palinal jaw movement is possible. The tongue is relatively small, and the hyoid apparatus is not as conspicuous as in some freshwater aquatic turtles. We find several similarities between the muscles of C. caretta and L. kempii, but comparison with other turtles suggests only one of these characters may be derived: connection of the m. adductor mandibulae internus into the Pars intramandibularis via the Zwischensehne. The large fleshy origin of the m. adductor mandibulae externus Pars superficialis from the jugal seems to be a characteristic feature of sea turtles.In C. caretta and L. kempii the ability to suction feed does not seem to be as well developed as that found in some freshwater aquatic turtles. Instead both have skulls suited to forceful biting. This is consistent with the observation that both taxa tend to feed on relatively slow moving but sometimes armoured prey. The broad fleshy origin of the m. adductor mandibulae externus Pars superficialis may be linked to thecheek region being almost fully enclosed in bone but the relationship is complex.

  11. The Head and Neck Anatomy of Sea Turtles (Cryptodira: Chelonioidea) and Skull Shape in Testudines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Marc E. H.; Werneburg, Ingmar; Curtis, Neil; Penrose, Rod; O’Higgins, Paul; Fagan, Michael J.; Evans, Susan E.

    2012-01-01

    Background Sea turtles (Chelonoidea) are a charismatic group of marine reptiles that occupy a range of important ecological roles. However, the diversity and evolution of their feeding anatomy remain incompletely known. Methodology/Principal Findings Using computed tomography and classical comparative anatomy we describe the cranial anatomy in two sea turtles, the loggerhead (Caretta caretta) and Kemp’s ridley (Lepidochelys kempii), for a better understanding of sea turtle functional anatomy and morphological variation. In both taxa the temporal region of the skull is enclosed by bone and the jaw joint structure and muscle arrangement indicate that palinal jaw movement is possible. The tongue is relatively small, and the hyoid apparatus is not as conspicuous as in some freshwater aquatic turtles. We find several similarities between the muscles of C. caretta and L. kempii, but comparison with other turtles suggests only one of these characters may be derived: connection of the m. adductor mandibulae internus into the Pars intramandibularis via the Zwischensehne. The large fleshy origin of the m. adductor mandibulae externus Pars superficialis from the jugal seems to be a characteristic feature of sea turtles. Conclusions/Significance In C. caretta and L. kempii the ability to suction feed does not seem to be as well developed as that found in some freshwater aquatic turtles. Instead both have skulls suited to forceful biting. This is consistent with the observation that both taxa tend to feed on relatively slow moving but sometimes armoured prey. The broad fleshy origin of the m. adductor mandibulae externus Pars superficialis may be linked to thecheek region being almost fully enclosed in bone but the relationship is complex. PMID:23144831

  12. Differences in subependymal vein anatomy may predispose preterm infants to GMH-IVH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tortora, Domenico; Severino, Mariasavina; Malova, Mariya; Parodi, Alessandro; Morana, Giovanni; Sedlacik, Jan; Govaert, Paul; Volpe, Joseph J; Rossi, Andrea; Ramenghi, Luca Antonio

    2018-01-01

    The anatomy of the deep venous system plays an important role in the pathogenesis of brain lesions in the preterm brain as shown by different histological studies. The aims of this study were to compare the subependymal vein anatomy of preterm neonates with germinal matrix haemorrhage-intraventricular haemorrhage (GMH-IVH), as evaluated by susceptibility-weighted imaging (SWI) venography, with a group of age-matched controls with normal brain MRI, and to explore the relationship between the anatomical features of subependymal veins and clinical risk factors for GMH-IVH. SWI venographies of 48 neonates with GMH-IVH and 130 neonates with normal brain MRI were retrospectively evaluated. Subependymal vein anatomy was classified into six different patterns: type 1 represented the classic pattern and types 2-6 were considered anatomic variants. A quantitative analysis of the venous curvature index was performed. Variables were analysed by using Mann-Whitney U and χ 2 tests, and a multiple logistic regression analysis was performed to evaluate the association between anatomical features, clinical factors and GMH-IVH. A significant difference was noticed among the six anatomical patterns according to the presence of GMH-IVH (χ 2 =14.242, p=0.014). Anatomic variants were observed with higher frequency in neonates with GMH-IVH than in controls (62.2% and 49.6%, respectively). Neonates with GMH-IVH presented a narrower curvature of the terminal portion of subependymal veins (p<0.05). These anatomical features were significantly associated with GMH-IVH (p<0.05). Preterm neonates with GMH-IVH show higher variability of subependymal veins anatomy confirming a potential role as predisposing factor for GMH-IVH. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  13. SU-F-BRCD-06: Multiple Anatomy Optimization of Accumulated Dose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkins, W T; Moore, J A; Sharma, M; Dial, C; Xu, H; Hugo, G D; Gordon, J J; Siebers, J V

    2012-06-01

    Multiple anatomy optimization (MAO) utilizing deformable dose accumulation on entire 4DCT data sets is implemented to overcome ambiguity between optimal dose defined on a single anatomy and optimal accumulated dose resulting from dose delivery to moving and deforming anatomy. Six lung cancer patients are planned using two methods of radiotherapy optimization: the internal target volume (ITV) envelope method and MAO, which simultaneously optimizes a single fluence for delivery to all 10 breathing phases such that the accumulated dose satisfies the plan objectives. Target dose is constrained to 70 Gy. The ITV-plan is optimized on a single breathing phase with the planning target volume defined as the ITV; the MAO target is the moving CTV. MAO is compared to single image ITV optimization based on the accumulated dose assuming equal monitor-units to each phase. Dose-volume differences between single image estimations and 10-image accumulation are examined. Single image optimal dose distributions overestimate target V70 by 4.2%±3.1% (average, one standard deviation) and in five of six cases ipsilateral lung V20 is underestimated (1.4%±0.9%). For these five cases, MAO increases V70 by 2.8%±2.5% (maximum of 6% increase in V70) and reduces ipsilateral lung V20 by up to 3% (average decrease of 1.2%±1.3%). Contralateral lung V20, esophagus V25, and heart V30 are also reduced by up to 5%, 3%, and 3%. For the sixth case, lung tumor motion is on the order of the dose voxel size (3mm), and MAO did not improve upon the ITV plan. Dose-volume optimization on a stationary image does not ensure accumulated dose coverage to the moving CTV. Multiple anatomy optimization can remove dose ambiguity and improve plan quality. P01CA11602 and Philips Medical Systems. © 2012 American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

  14. Root Length and Anatomy of Impacted Maxillary Canines in Patients with Unilateral Maxillary Canine Impaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostfa Shahabi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Canine impaction is a common occurrence. In this study, we sought to investigate the root anatomy and length of impacted canines and lateral incisor adjacent to impacted maxillary canine. Materials and Methods: In this retrospective study, three-dimensional tomographic imaging was performed on 26 patients with unilateral maxillary canine impaction. In this study, we evaluated root length and anatomy of impacted canines, in terms of resorption intensity and curvature, with Planmeca Romexis Viewer 4.0. Furthermore, crown shape as well as root length and anatomy of the lateral incisors adjacent to impacted canines were investigated and compared with the other side on the dental arch, where canine eruption was normal. Results: Root length of impacted canines was significantly lower than that of normal canines (P=0.011. There were no significant differences between root length of lateral incisors adjacent to impacted canines and root length of lateral incisors adjacent to normal canines (P=0.221. Moreover, the resorption intensity of the adjacent lateral incisors was higher than that of the impacted canines. No significant differences were noted in root resorption intensity between the lateral incisors adjacent to the imacted canines and the lateral incisors adjacent to normal canines (P=0.36. In addition, resorption intensity was significantly higher in impacted canines than in normal canines (P=0.024. Root anatomy of impacted canines was not significantly different from that of normal canines (P=0.055. The crown shape of the lateral incisors adjacent to impacted canines was not significantly different from that of the lateral incisors adjacent to normal canines (P=0.052. Conclusion: Impaction can probably affect root length and canine resorption severity. However, root and crown shape of lateral incisors cannot always be associated with canine impaction.

  15. Functional anatomy and biomechanics of the carpus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmitt, R.

    2006-01-01

    The wrist is an exceedingly complex structure composed of several joints and a dedicated ligamentous system. Its functional principles allow a wide range of carpal motion and make the wrist remarkably resistant to external stress forces: The proximal carpal row serves as an intercalated link interposed between the static elements of both the forearm and the distal carpal row. Like a flexible placeholder, the proximal row synchronously adapts to the spatial and temporal requirements of the wrist. There are synergistic movement patterns including simultaneous flexion of the proximal row as the wrist is deviated radially and simultaneous extension during ulnar deviation. Together with pronosupination of the radioulnar joints, the combined radial/ulnar inclination and flexion/extension enable spherical, out-of-plane movements of the hand. Carpal function is best explained by the ''model of a ring under tension.'' This review addresses the anatomy and the biomechanics of the wrist and illustrates systematic image analysis by using carpal lines and angles as well as indices of carpal height. (orig.) [de

  16. The deep lymphatic anatomy of the hand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Chuan-Xiang; Pan, Wei-Ren; Liu, Zhi-An; Zeng, Fan-Qiang; Qiu, Zhi-Qiang

    2018-04-03

    The deep lymphatic anatomy of the hand still remains the least described in medical literature. Eight hands were harvested from four nonembalmed human cadavers amputated above the wrist. A small amount of 6% hydrogen peroxide was employed to detect the lymphatic vessels around the superficial and deep palmar vascular arches, in webs from the index to little fingers, the thenar and hypothenar areas. A 30-gauge needle was inserted into the vessels and injected with a barium sulphate compound. Each specimen was dissected, photographed and radiographed to demonstrate deep lymphatic distribution of the hand. Five groups of deep collecting lymph vessels were found in the hand: superficial palmar arch lymph vessel (SPALV); deep palmar arch lymph vessel (DPALV); thenar lymph vessel (TLV); hypothenar lymph vessel (HTLV); deep finger web lymph vessel (DFWLV). Each group of vessels drained in different directions first, then all turned and ran towards the wrist in different layers. The deep lymphatic drainage of the hand has been presented. The results will provide an anatomical basis for clinical management, educational reference and scientific research. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  17. Neuroembryology and functional anatomy of craniofacial clefts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewings Ember

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The master plan of all vertebrate embryos is based on neuroanatomy. The embryo can be anatomically divided into discrete units called neuromeres so that each carries unique genetic traits. Embryonic neural crest cells arising from each neuromere induce development of nerves and concomitant arteries and support the development of specific craniofacial tissues or developmental fields. Fields are assembled upon each other in a programmed spatiotemporal order. Abnormalities in one field can affect the shape and position of developing adjacent fields. Craniofacial clefts represent states of excess or deficiency within and between specific developmental fields. The neuromeric organization of the embryo is the common denominator for understanding normal anatomy and pathology of the head and neck. Tessier′s observational cleft classification system can be redefined using neuroanatomic embryology. Reassessment of Tessier′s empiric observations demonstrates a more rational rearrangement of cleft zones, particularly near the midline. Neuromeric theory is also a means to understand and define other common craniofacial problems. Cleft palate, encephaloceles, craniosynostosis and cranial base defects may be analyzed in the same way.

  18. Anatomy of a Security Operations Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, John

    2010-01-01

    Many agencies and corporations are either contemplating or in the process of building a cyber Security Operations Center (SOC). Those Agencies that have established SOCs are most likely working on major revisions or enhancements to existing capabilities. As principle developers of the NASA SOC; this Presenters' goals are to provide the GFIRST community with examples of some of the key building blocks of an Agency scale cyber Security Operations Center. This presentation viII include the inputs and outputs, the facilities or shell, as well as the internal components and the processes necessary to maintain the SOC's subsistence - in other words, the anatomy of a SOC. Details to be presented include the SOC architecture and its key components: Tier 1 Call Center, data entry, and incident triage; Tier 2 monitoring, incident handling and tracking; Tier 3 computer forensics, malware analysis, and reverse engineering; Incident Management System; Threat Management System; SOC Portal; Log Aggregation and Security Incident Management (SIM) systems; flow monitoring; IDS; etc. Specific processes and methodologies discussed include Incident States and associated Work Elements; the Incident Management Workflow Process; Cyber Threat Risk Assessment methodology; and Incident Taxonomy. The Evolution of the Cyber Security Operations Center viII be discussed; starting from reactive, to proactive, and finally to proactive. Finally, the resources necessary to establish an Agency scale SOC as well as the lessons learned in the process of standing up a SOC viII be presented.

  19. Functional anatomy and physiology of gastric secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubert, Mitchell L

    2015-11-01

    This review summarizes the past year's literature regarding the neuroendocrine and intracellular regulation of gastric acid secretion, discussing both basic and clinical aspects. Gastric acid facilitates the digestion of protein as well as the absorption of iron, calcium, vitamin B12, and certain medications. High acidity kills ingested microorganisms and limits bacterial overgrowth, enteric infection, and possibly spontaneous bacterial peritonitis. The main stimulants of acid secretion are gastrin, released from antral gastrin cells; histamine, released from oxyntic enterochromaffin-like cells; and acetylcholine, released from antral and oxyntic intramural neurons. Ghrelin and coffee also stimulate acid secretion whereas somatostatin, cholecystokinin, glucagon-like peptide-1, and atrial natriuretic peptide inhibit acid secretion. Although 95% of parietal cells are contained within the oxyntic mucosa (fundus and body), 50% of human antral glands contain parietal cells. Proton pump inhibitors are considered well tolerated drugs, but concerns have been raised regarding dysbiosis, atrophic gastritis, hypergastrinemia, hypomagnesemia, and enteritis/colitis. Our understanding of the functional anatomy and physiology of gastric secretion continues to advance. Such knowledge is crucial for improved management of acid-peptic disorders, prevention and management of neoplasia, and the development of novel medications.

  20. Anatomy of an online misinformation network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Chengcheng; Hui, Pik-Mai; Wang, Lei; Jiang, Xinwen; Flammini, Alessandro; Menczer, Filippo; Ciampaglia, Giovanni Luca

    2018-01-01

    Massive amounts of fake news and conspiratorial content have spread over social media before and after the 2016 US Presidential Elections despite intense fact-checking efforts. How do the spread of misinformation and fact-checking compete? What are the structural and dynamic characteristics of the core of the misinformation diffusion network, and who are its main purveyors? How to reduce the overall amount of misinformation? To explore these questions we built Hoaxy, an open platform that enables large-scale, systematic studies of how misinformation and fact-checking spread and compete on Twitter. Hoaxy captures public tweets that include links to articles from low-credibility and fact-checking sources. We perform k-core decomposition on a diffusion network obtained from two million retweets produced by several hundred thousand accounts over the six months before the election. As we move from the periphery to the core of the network, fact-checking nearly disappears, while social bots proliferate. The number of users in the main core reaches equilibrium around the time of the election, with limited churn and increasingly dense connections. We conclude by quantifying how effectively the network can be disrupted by penalizing the most central nodes. These findings provide a first look at the anatomy of a massive online misinformation diffusion network.