WorldWideScience

Sample records for anatomical models

  1. Reference Man anatomical model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cristy, M.

    1994-10-01

    The 70-kg Standard Man or Reference Man has been used in physiological models since at least the 1920s to represent adult males. It came into use in radiation protection in the late 1940s and was developed extensively during the 1950s and used by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) in its Publication 2 in 1959. The current Reference Man for Purposes of Radiation Protection is a monumental book published in 1975 by the ICRP as ICRP Publication 23. It has a wealth of information useful for radiation dosimetry, including anatomical and physiological data, gross and elemental composition of the body and organs and tissues of the body. The anatomical data includes specified reference values for an adult male and an adult female. Other reference values are primarily for the adult male. The anatomical data include much data on fetuses and children, although reference values are not established. There is an ICRP task group currently working on revising selected parts of the Reference Man document.

  2. Handbook of anatomical models for radiation dosimetry

    CERN Document Server

    Eckerman, Keith F

    2010-01-01

    Covering the history of human model development, this title presents the major anatomical and physical models that have been developed for human body radiation protection, diagnostic imaging, and nuclear medicine therapy. It explores how these models have evolved and the role that modern technologies have played in this development.

  3. Parametric Anatomical Modeling: A method for modeling the anatomical layout of neurons and their projections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin ePyka

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Computational models of neural networks can be based on a variety of different parameters. These parameters include, for example, the 3d shape of neuron layers, the neurons' spatial projection patterns, spiking dynamics and neurotransmitter systems. While many well-developed approaches are available to model, for example, the spiking dynamics, there is a lack of approaches for modeling the anatomical layout of neurons and their projections. We present a new method, called Parametric Anatomical Modeling (PAM, to fill this gap. PAM can be used to derive network connectivities and conduction delays from anatomical data, such as the position and shape of the neuronal layers and the dendritic and axonal projection patterns. Within the PAM framework, several mapping techniques between layers can account for a large variety of connection properties between pre- and post-synaptic neuron layers. PAM is implemented as a Python tool and integrated in the 3d modeling software Blender. We demonstrate on a 3d model of the hippocampal formation how PAM can help reveal complex properties of the synaptic connectivity and conduction delays, properties that might be relevant to uncover the function of the hippocampus. Based on these analyses, two experimentally testable predictions arose: i the number of neurons and the spread of connections is heterogeneously distributed across the main anatomical axes, ii the distribution of connection lengths in CA3-CA1 differ qualitatively from those between DG-CA3 and CA3-CA3. Models created by PAM can also serve as an educational tool to visualize the 3d connectivity of brain regions. The low-dimensional, but yet biologically plausible, parameter space renders PAM suitable to analyse allometric and evolutionary factors in networks and to model the complexity of real networks with comparatively little effort.

  4. Parametric Anatomical Modeling: a method for modeling the anatomical layout of neurons and their projections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyka, Martin; Klatt, Sebastian; Cheng, Sen

    2014-01-01

    Computational models of neural networks can be based on a variety of different parameters. These parameters include, for example, the 3d shape of neuron layers, the neurons' spatial projection patterns, spiking dynamics and neurotransmitter systems. While many well-developed approaches are available to model, for example, the spiking dynamics, there is a lack of approaches for modeling the anatomical layout of neurons and their projections. We present a new method, called Parametric Anatomical Modeling (PAM), to fill this gap. PAM can be used to derive network connectivities and conduction delays from anatomical data, such as the position and shape of the neuronal layers and the dendritic and axonal projection patterns. Within the PAM framework, several mapping techniques between layers can account for a large variety of connection properties between pre- and post-synaptic neuron layers. PAM is implemented as a Python tool and integrated in the 3d modeling software Blender. We demonstrate on a 3d model of the hippocampal formation how PAM can help reveal complex properties of the synaptic connectivity and conduction delays, properties that might be relevant to uncover the function of the hippocampus. Based on these analyses, two experimentally testable predictions arose: (i) the number of neurons and the spread of connections is heterogeneously distributed across the main anatomical axes, (ii) the distribution of connection lengths in CA3-CA1 differ qualitatively from those between DG-CA3 and CA3-CA3. Models created by PAM can also serve as an educational tool to visualize the 3d connectivity of brain regions. The low-dimensional, but yet biologically plausible, parameter space renders PAM suitable to analyse allometric and evolutionary factors in networks and to model the complexity of real networks with comparatively little effort.

  5. An anatomically oriented breast model for MRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutra, Dominik; Bergtholdt, Martin; Sabczynski, Jörg; Dössel, Olaf; Buelow, Thomas

    2015-03-01

    Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women in the western world. In the breast cancer care-cycle, MRIis e.g. employed in lesion characterization and therapy assessment. Reading of a single three dimensional image or comparing a multitude of such images in a time series is a time consuming task. Radiological reporting is done manually by translating the spatial position of a finding in an image to a generic representation in the form of a breast diagram, outlining quadrants or clock positions. Currently, registration algorithms are employed to aid with the reading and interpretation of longitudinal studies by providing positional correspondence. To aid with the reporting of findings, knowledge about the breast anatomy has to be introduced to translate from patient specific positions to a generic representation. In our approach we fit a geometric primitive, the semi-super-ellipsoid to patient data. Anatomical knowledge is incorporated by fixing the tip of the super-ellipsoid to the mammilla position and constraining its center-point to a reference plane defined by landmarks on the sternum. A coordinate system is then constructed by linearly scaling the fitted super-ellipsoid, defining a unique set of parameters to each point in the image volume. By fitting such a coordinate system to a different image of the same patient, positional correspondence can be generated. We have validated our method on eight pairs of baseline and follow-up scans (16 breasts) that were acquired for the assessment of neo-adjuvant chemotherapy. On average, the location predicted and the actual location of manually set landmarks are within a distance of 5.6 mm. Our proposed method allows for automatic reporting simply by uniformly dividing the super-ellipsoid around its main axis.

  6. Additive Manufacturing of Anatomical Models from Computed Tomography Scan Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gür, Y

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of the study presented here was to investigate the manufacturability of human anatomical models from Computed Tomography (CT) scan data via a 3D desktop printer which uses fused deposition modelling (FDM) technology. First, Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) CT scan data were converted to 3D Standard Triangle Language (STL) format by using In Vaselius digital imaging program. Once this STL file is obtained, a 3D physical version of the anatomical model can be fabricated by a desktop 3D FDM printer. As a case study, a patient's skull CT scan data was considered, and a tangible version of the skull was manufactured by a 3D FDM desktop printer. During the 3D printing process, the skull was built using acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS) co-polymer plastic. The printed model showed that the 3D FDM printing technology is able to fabricate anatomical models with high accuracy. As a result, the skull model can be used for preoperative surgical planning, medical training activities, implant design and simulation to show the potential of the FDM technology in medical field. It will also improve communication between medical stuff and patients. Current result indicates that a 3D desktop printer which uses FDM technology can be used to obtain accurate anatomical models.

  7. A time dependent anatomically detailed model of cardiac conduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxberg, B. E.; Grumbach, M. P.; Cohen, R. J.

    1985-01-01

    In order to understand the determinants of transitions in cardiac electrical activity from normal patterns to dysrhythmias such as ventricular fibrillation, we are constructing an anatomically and physiologically detailed finite element simulation of myocardial electrical propagation. A healthy human heart embedded in paraffin was sectioned to provide a detailed anatomical substrate for model calculations. The simulation of propagation includes anisotropy in conduction velocity due to fiber orientation as well as gradients in conduction velocities, absolute and relative refractory periods, action potential duration and electrotonic influence of nearest neighbors. The model also includes changes in the behaviour of myocardial tissue as a function of the past local activity. With this model, we can examine the significance of fiber orientation and time dependence of local propagation parameters on dysrhythmogenesis.

  8. Plastinated nasal model: a new concept of anatomically realistic cast.

    OpenAIRE

    Durand, Marc; Pourchez, Jérémie; Louis, Bruno; Pouget, Jean-François; Isabey, Daniel; Coste, André; Prades, Jean-Michel; Rusch, Philippe; Cottier, Michèle

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: For many years, researchers have been interested in investigating airflow and aerosol deposition in the nasal cavities. The nasal airways appear to be a complex geometrical system. Thus, in vitro experimental studies are frequently conducted with a more or less biomimetic nasal replica. AIM: This study is devoted to the development of an anatomically realistic nose model with bilateral nasal cavities, i.e. nasal anatomy, airway geometry and aerodynamic properties as close as possi...

  9. An anatomical and functional model of the human tracheobronchial tree.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florens, M; Sapoval, B; Filoche, M

    2011-03-01

    The human tracheobronchial tree is a complex branched distribution system in charge of renewing the air inside the acini, which are the gas exchange units. We present here a systematic geometrical model of this system described as a self-similar assembly of rigid pipes. It includes the specific geometry of the upper bronchial tree and a self-similar intermediary tree with a systematic branching asymmetry. It ends by the terminal bronchioles whose generations range from 8 to 22. Unlike classical models, it does not rely on a simple scaling law. With a limited number of parameters, this model reproduces the morphometric data from various sources (Horsfield K, Dart G, Olson DE, Filley GF, Cumming G. J Appl Physiol 31: 207-217, 1971; Weibel ER. Morphometry of the Human Lung. New York: Academic Press, 1963) and the main characteristics of the ventilation. Studying various types of random variations of the airway sizes, we show that strong correlations are needed to reproduce the measured distributions. Moreover, the ventilation performances are observed to be robust against anatomical variability. The same methodology applied to the rat also permits building a geometrical model that reproduces the anatomical and ventilation characteristics of this animal. This simple model can be directly used as a common description of the entire tree in analytical or numerical studies such as the computation of air flow distribution or aerosol transport. PMID:21183626

  10. DESIGN OF 3D MODEL OF CUSTOMIZED ANATOMICALLY ADJUSTED IMPLANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miodrag Manić

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Design and manufacturing of customized implants is a field that has been rapidly developing in recent years. This paper presents an originally developed method for designing a 3D model of customized anatomically adjusted implants. The method is based upon a CT scan of a bone fracture. A CT scan is used to generate a 3D bone model and a fracture model. Using these scans, an indicated location for placing the implant is recognized and the design of a 3D model of customized implants is made. With this method it is possible to design volumetric implants used for replacing a part of the bone or a plate type for fixation of a bone part. The sides of the implants, this one lying on the bone, are fully aligned with the anatomical shape of the bone surface which neighbors the fracture. The given model is designed for implants production utilizing any method, and it is ideal for 3D printing of implants.

  11. Sparse decomposition and modeling of anatomical shape variation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sjöstrand, Karl; Rostrup, Egill; Ryberg, Charlotte;

    2007-01-01

    counterparts if constructed carefully. In most medical applications, models are required to have both good statistical performance and a relevant clinical interpretation to be of value. Morphometry of the corpus callosum is one illustrative example. This paper presents a method for relating spatial features to...... anatomical variation related to clinical outcome. In the present application, landmark-based shape data of the corpus callosum is analyzed in relation to age, gender, and clinical tests of walking speed and verbal fluency. To put the data-driven sparse principal component method into perspective, we consider...

  12. Sparse Decomposition and Modeling of Anatomical Shape Variation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sjöstrand, Karl; Rostrup, Egill; Ryberg, Charlotte;

    2007-01-01

    counterparts if constructed carefully. In most medical applications, models are required to have both good statistical performance and a relevant clinical interpretation to be of value. Morphometry of the corpus callosum is one illustrative example. This paper presents a method for relating spatial features to...... anatomical variation related to clinical outcome. In the present application, landmark-based shape data of the corpus callosum is analyzed in relation to age, gender, and clinical tests of walking speed and verbal fluency. To put the data-driven sparse principal component method into perspective, we consider...

  13. Anatomically based lower limb nerve model for electrical stimulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soboleva Tanya K

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Functional Electrical Stimulation (FES is a technique that aims to rehabilitate or restore functionality of skeletal muscles using external electrical stimulation. Despite the success achieved within the field of FES, there are still a number of questions that remain unanswered. One way of providing input to the answers is through the use of computational models. Methods This paper describes the development of an anatomically based computer model of the motor neurons in the lower limb of the human leg and shows how it can be used to simulate electrical signal propagation from the beginning of the sciatic nerve to a skeletal muscle. One-dimensional cubic Hermite finite elements were used to represent the major portions of the lower limb nerves. These elements were fit to data that had been digitised using images from the Visible Man project. Nerves smaller than approximately 1 mm could not be seen in the images, and thus a tree-branching algorithm was used to connect the ends of the fitted nerve model to the respective skeletal muscle. To simulate electrical propagation, a previously published mammalian nerve model was implemented and solved on the anatomically based nerve mesh using a finite difference method. The grid points for the finite difference method were derived from the fitted finite element mesh. By adjusting the tree-branching algorithm, it is possible to represent different levels of motor-unit recruitment. Results To illustrate the process of a propagating nerve stimulus to a muscle in detail, the above method was applied to the nerve tree that connects to the human semitendinosus muscle. A conduction velocity of 89.8 m/s was obtained for a 15 μm diameter nerve fibre. This signal was successfully propagated down the motor neurons to a selected group of motor units in the muscle. Conclusion An anatomically and physiologically based model of the posterior motor neurons in the human lower limb was developed. This

  14. 3D reconstruction of carotid atherosclerotic plaque: comparison between spatial compound ultrasound models and anatomical models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lind, Bo L.; Fagertun, Jens; Wilhjelm, Jens E.;

    2007-01-01

    This study deals with the creation of 3D models that can work as a tool for discriminating between tissue and background in the development of tissue classification methods. Ten formalin-fixed atherosclerotic carotid plaques removed by endarterectomy were scanned with 3D multi-angle spatial...... compound ultrasound (US) and subsequently sliced and photographed to produce a 3D anatomical data set. Outlines in the ultrasound data were found by means of active contours and combined into 10 3D ultrasound models. The plaque regions of the anatomical photographs were outlined manually and then combined...... into 10 3D anatomical models. The volumes of the anatomical models correlated with the volume found by a water displacement method (r = 0.95), except for an offset. The models were compared in three ways. Visual inspection showed quite good agreement between the models. The volumes of the ultrasound...

  15. Functionalized anatomical models for EM-neuron Interaction modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neufeld, Esra; Cassará, Antonino Mario; Montanaro, Hazael; Kuster, Niels; Kainz, Wolfgang

    2016-06-01

    The understanding of interactions between electromagnetic (EM) fields and nerves are crucial in contexts ranging from therapeutic neurostimulation to low frequency EM exposure safety. To properly consider the impact of in vivo induced field inhomogeneity on non-linear neuronal dynamics, coupled EM-neuronal dynamics modeling is required. For that purpose, novel functionalized computable human phantoms have been developed. Their implementation and the systematic verification of the integrated anisotropic quasi-static EM solver and neuronal dynamics modeling functionality, based on the method of manufactured solutions and numerical reference data, is described. Electric and magnetic stimulation of the ulnar and sciatic nerve were modeled to help understanding a range of controversial issues related to the magnitude and optimal determination of strength-duration (SD) time constants. The results indicate the importance of considering the stimulation-specific inhomogeneous field distributions (especially at tissue interfaces), realistic models of non-linear neuronal dynamics, very short pulses, and suitable SD extrapolation models. These results and the functionalized computable phantom will influence and support the development of safe and effective neuroprosthetic devices and novel electroceuticals. Furthermore they will assist the evaluation of existing low frequency exposure standards for the entire population under all exposure conditions.

  16. Functionalized anatomical models for EM-neuron Interaction modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neufeld, Esra; Cassará, Antonino Mario; Montanaro, Hazael; Kuster, Niels; Kainz, Wolfgang

    2016-06-21

    The understanding of interactions between electromagnetic (EM) fields and nerves are crucial in contexts ranging from therapeutic neurostimulation to low frequency EM exposure safety. To properly consider the impact of in vivo induced field inhomogeneity on non-linear neuronal dynamics, coupled EM-neuronal dynamics modeling is required. For that purpose, novel functionalized computable human phantoms have been developed. Their implementation and the systematic verification of the integrated anisotropic quasi-static EM solver and neuronal dynamics modeling functionality, based on the method of manufactured solutions and numerical reference data, is described. Electric and magnetic stimulation of the ulnar and sciatic nerve were modeled to help understanding a range of controversial issues related to the magnitude and optimal determination of strength-duration (SD) time constants. The results indicate the importance of considering the stimulation-specific inhomogeneous field distributions (especially at tissue interfaces), realistic models of non-linear neuronal dynamics, very short pulses, and suitable SD extrapolation models. These results and the functionalized computable phantom will influence and support the development of safe and effective neuroprosthetic devices and novel electroceuticals. Furthermore they will assist the evaluation of existing low frequency exposure standards for the entire population under all exposure conditions. PMID:27224508

  17. Computerised 3-D anatomical modelling using plastinates: an example utilising the human heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tunali, S; Kawamoto, K; Farrell, M L; Labrash, S; Tamura, K; Lozanoff, S

    2011-08-01

    Computerised modelling methods have become highly useful for generating electronic representations of anatomical structures. These methods rely on crosssectional tissue slices in databases such as the Visible Human Male and Female, the Visible Korean Human, and the Visible Chinese Human. However, these databases are time consuming to generate and require labour-intensive manual digitisation while the number of specimens is very limited. Plastinated anatomical material could provide a possible alternative to data collection, requiring less time to prepare and enabling the use of virtually any anatomical or pathological structure routinely obtained in a gross anatomy laboratory. The purpose of this study was to establish an approach utilising plastinated anatomical material, specifically human hearts, for the purpose computerised 3-D modelling. Human hearts were collected following gross anatomical dissection and subjected to routine plastination procedures including dehydration (-25(o)C), defatting, forced impregnation, and curing at room temperature. A graphics pipeline was established comprising data collection with a hand-held scanner, 3-D modelling, model polishing, file conversion, and final rendering. Representative models were viewed and qualitatively assessed for accuracy and detail. The results showed that the heart model provided detailed surface information necessary for gross anatomical instructional purposes. Rendering tools facilitated optional model manipulation for further structural clarification if selected by the user. The use of plastinated material for generating 3-D computerised models has distinct advantages compared to cross-sectional tissue images. PMID:21866531

  18. Anatomical models and wax Venuses: art masterpieces or scientific craft works?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballestriero, R

    2010-02-01

    The art of wax modelling has an ancient origin but rose to prominence in 14th century Italy with the cult of votive artefacts. With the advent of Neoclassicism this art, now deemed repulsive, continued to survive in a scientific environment, where it flourished in the study of normal and pathological anatomy, obstetrics, zoology and botany. The achievement of having originated the creation of anatomical models in coloured wax must be ascribed to a joint effort undertaken by the Sicilian wax modeller Gaetano Giulio Zumbo and the French surgeon Guillaume Desnoues in the late 17th century. Interest in anatomical wax models spread throughout Europe during the 18th century, first in Bologna with Ercole Lelli, Giovanni Manzolini and Anna Morandi, and then in Florence with Felice Fontana and Clemente Susini. In England, the art of anatomical ceroplastics was brought to London from Florence by the sculptor Joseph Towne. Throughout the centuries many anatomical artists preferred this material due to the remarkable mimetic likeness obtained, far surpassing any other material. Independent of the material used, whether wood, wax or clay, anatomical models were always considered merely craft works confined to hospitals or faculties of medicine and have survived to this day only because of their scientific interest. Italian and English waxes are stylistically different but the remarkable results obtained by Susini and Towne, and the fact that some contemporary artists are again representing anatomical wax bodies in their works, makes the border that formerly separated art and craft indistinguishable. PMID:20002228

  19. Chinese adult anatomical models and the application in evaluation of RF exposures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu Tongning; Shao Qing; Zhang Chen; Zhao Chen; Lu Bingsong; Xiao Li; Wang Nan; Xie Yi [China Academy of Telecommunication Research of Ministry of Industry and Information Technology, No. 52, Huayuanbei Road, Beijing, 100191 (China); Tan Liwen; Li Ying; Zhang Shaoxiang [Department of Anatomy (Computing Medical Institute of Chongqing), College of Basic Medical Sciences, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing, 400038 (China); Conil, Emmanuelle; Hadjem, Abdelhamid; Wiart, Joe, E-mail: wutongning@emcite.com, E-mail: zhangcvh@yahoo.com.cn [WHIST Joint Laboratory between INSTITUT TELECOM and Orange Labs, 38-40, rue du General Leclerc, 92794 Issy-les-Moulineaux, Cedex 9 (France)

    2011-04-07

    This paper presents the work of constructing Chinese adult anatomical models and their application in evaluation of radio frequency (RF) electromagnetic field exposures. The original dataset was obtained from photos of the sliced frozen cadavers from the Chinese Visible Human Project. Details of preparing the cadaver for slicing procedures which may influence the anatomical structures are discussed. Segmentation and reconstruction were performed mainly manually by experienced anatomists. The reconstructed models represent the average Chinese in their twenties and thirties. The finest resolution for the models is 1 x 1 x 1 mm{sup 3} with 90 identified tissues/organs for the female and 87 identified tissues/organs for the male. Tiny anatomical structures such as blood vessels with diameters of 1 mm, various glands and nerves were identified. Whole-body-averaged specific absorption rate (WBSAR) from 20 MHz to 5.8 GHz was calculated with the finite-difference time-domain method for different RF exposure configurations. The WBSAR results are consistent with those from other available models. Finally, some details about the anatomical models are discussed.

  20. 3D active workspace of human hand anatomical model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ungureanu Loredana

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background If the model of the human hand is created with accuracy by respecting the type of motion provided by each articulation and the dimensions of articulated bones, it can function as the real organ providing the same motions. Unfortunately, the human hand is hard to model due to its kinematical chains submitted to motion constraints. On the other hand, if an application does not impose a fine manipulation it is not necessary to create a model as complex as the human hand is. But always the hand model has to perform a certain space of motions in imposed workspace architecture no matter what the practical application does. Methods Based on Denavit-Hartenberg convention, we conceived the kinematical model of the human hand, having in mind the structure and the behavior of the natural model. We obtained the kinematical equations describing the motion of every fingertip with respect to the general coordinate system, placed on the wrist. For every joint variable, a range of motion was established. Dividing these joint variables to an appropriate number of intervals and connecting them, the complex surface bordering the active hand model workspace was obtained. Results Using MATLAB 7.0, the complex surface described by fingertips, when hand articulations are all simultaneously moving, was obtained. It can be seen that any point on surface has its own coordinates smaller than the maximum length of the middle finger in static position. Therefore, a sphere having the centre in the origin of the general coordinate system and the radius which equals this length covers the represented complex surface. Conclusion We propose a human hand model that represents a new solution compared to the existing ones. This model is capable to make special movements like power grip and dexterous manipulations. During them, the fingertips do not exceed the active workspace encapsulated by determined surfaces. The proposed kinematical model can help to choose

  1. Short Term Evaluation of an Anatomically Shaped Polycarbonate Urethane Total Meniscus Replacement in a Goat Model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vrancken, A.C.T.; Madej, W.; Hannink, G.; Verdonschot, N.J.; Tienen, T.G. van; Buma, P.

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: Since the treatment options for symptomatic total meniscectomy patients are still limited, an anatomically shaped, polycarbonate urethane (PCU), total meniscus replacement was developed. This study evaluates the in vivo performance of the implant in a goat model, with a specific focus on th

  2. Fabrication and Assessment of 3D Printed Anatomical Models of the Lower Limb for Anatomical Teaching and Femoral Vessel Access Training in Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Reilly, Michael K.; Reese, Sven; Herlihy, Therese; Geoghegan, Tony; Cantwell, Colin P.; Feeney, Robin N. M.; Jones, James F. X.

    2016-01-01

    For centuries, cadaveric dissection has been the touchstone of anatomy education. It offers a medical student intimate access to his or her first patient. In contrast to idealized artisan anatomical models, it presents the natural variation of anatomy in fine detail. However, a new teaching construct has appeared recently in which artificial…

  3. Selection of an animal model for implant fixation studies: anatomical aspects.

    OpenAIRE

    Goel, V. K.; Drinker, H.; Panjabi, M. M.; Strongwater, A.

    1982-01-01

    A number of different animal models have been employed by investigators to study the biology of the bone-cement interface as it relates to the problem of hip implant loosening in humans. This study compares to the human three species (baboon, dog, and sheep) currently under use as experimental animal models from an anatomical point of view. A number of parameters, important for the dimensional design of a femoral prosthesis, loads at the hip joint and its subsequent performance, were used for...

  4. Anatomically realistic multiscale models of normal and abnormal gastrointestinal electrical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Leo K; Komuro, Rie; Austin, Travis M; Buist, Martin L; Pullan, Andrew J

    2007-03-01

    One of the major aims of the International Union of Physiological Sciences (IUPS) Physiome Project is to develop multiscale mathematical and computer models that can be used to help understand human health. We present here a small facet of this broad plan that applies to the gastrointestinal system. Specifically, we present an anatomically and physiologically based modelling framework that is capable of simulating normal and pathological electrical activity within the stomach and small intestine. The continuum models used within this framework have been created using anatomical information derived from common medical imaging modalities and data from the Visible Human Project. These models explicitly incorporate the various smooth muscle layers and networks of interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) that are known to exist within the walls of the stomach and small bowel. Electrical activity within individual ICCs and smooth muscle cells is simulated using a previously published simplified representation of the cell level electrical activity. This simulated cell level activity is incorporated into a bidomain representation of the tissue, allowing electrical activity of the entire stomach or intestine to be simulated in the anatomically derived models. This electrical modelling framework successfully replicates many of the qualitative features of the slow wave activity within the stomach and intestine and has also been used to investigate activity associated with functional uncoupling of the stomach.

  5. Anatomically realistic multiscale models of normal and abnormal gastrointestinal electrical activity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Leo K Cheng; Rie Komuro; Travis M Austin; Martin L Buist; Andrew J Pullan

    2007-01-01

    One of the major aims of the Tnternational Union of Physiological Sciences (IUPS) Physiome Project is to develop multiscale mathematical and computer models that can be used to help understand human health.We present here a small facet of this broad plan that applies to the gastrointestinal system. Specifically,we present an anatomically and physiologically based modelling framework that is capable of simulating normal and pathological electrical activity within the stomach and small intestine. The continuum models used within this framework have been created using anatomical information derived from common medical imaging modalities and data from the Visible Human Project. These models explicitly incorporate the various smooth muscle layers and networks of interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) that are known to exist within the walls of the stomach and small bowel. Electrical activity within individual ICCs and smooth muscle cells is simulated using a previously published simplified representation of the cell level electrical activity. This simulated cell level activity is incorporated into a bidomain representation of the tissue, allowing electrical activity of the entire stomach or intestine to be simulated in the anatomically derived models. This electrical modelling framework successfully replicates many of the qualitative features of the slow wave activity within the stomach and intestine and has also been used to investigate activity associated with functional uncoupling of the stomach.

  6. Anatomical database generation for radiation transport modeling from computed tomography (CT) scan data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Margle, S.M.; Tinnel, E.P.; Till, L.E.; Eckerman, K.F.; Durfee, R.C.

    1989-01-01

    Geometric models of the anatomy are used routinely in calculations of the radiation dose in organs and tissues of the body. Development of such models has been hampered by lack of detailed anatomical information on children, and models themselves have been limited to quadratic conic sections. This summary reviews the development of an image processing workstation used to extract anatomical information from routine diagnostic CT procedure. A standard IBM PC/AT microcomputer has been augmented with an automatically loading 9-track magnetic tape drive, an 8-bit 1024 {times} 1024 pixel graphics adapter/monitor/film recording package, a mouse/trackball assembly, dual 20 MB removable cartridge media, a 72 MB disk drive, and a printer. Software utilized by the workstation includes a Geographic Information System (modified for manipulation of CT images), CAD software, imaging software, and various modules to ease data transfer among the software packages. 5 refs., 3 figs.

  7. Automatic Segmentation Framework of Building Anatomical Mouse Model for Bioluminescence Tomography

    OpenAIRE

    Abdullah Alali

    2013-01-01

    Bioluminescence tomography is known as a highly ill-posed inverse problem. To improve the reconstruction performance by introducing anatomical structures as a priori knowledge, an automatic segmentation framework has been proposed in this paper to extract the mouse whole-body organs and tissues, which enables to build up a heterogeneous mouse model for reconstruction of bioluminescence tomography. Finally, an in vivo mouse experiment has been conducted to evaluate this framework by using an X...

  8. Particle Image Velocimetry Measurements in Anatomically-Accurate Models of the Mammalian Nasal Cavity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumple, C.; Richter, J.; Craven, B. A.; Krane, M.

    2012-11-01

    A summary of the research being carried out by our multidisciplinary team to better understand the form and function of the nose in different mammalian species that include humans, carnivores, ungulates, rodents, and marine animals will be presented. The mammalian nose houses a convoluted airway labyrinth, where two hallmark features of mammals occur, endothermy and olfaction. Because of the complexity of the nasal cavity, the anatomy and function of these upper airways remain poorly understood in most mammals. However, recent advances in high-resolution medical imaging, computational modeling, and experimental flow measurement techniques are now permitting the study of airflow and respiratory and olfactory transport phenomena in anatomically-accurate reconstructions of the nasal cavity. Here, we focus on efforts to manufacture transparent, anatomically-accurate models for stereo particle image velocimetry (SPIV) measurements of nasal airflow. Challenges in the design and manufacture of index-matched anatomical models are addressed and preliminary SPIV measurements are presented. Such measurements will constitute a validation database for concurrent computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations of mammalian respiration and olfaction. Supported by the National Science Foundation.

  9. Accounting for anatomical noise in search-capable model observers for planar nuclear imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, Anando; Gifford, Howard C

    2016-01-01

    Model observers intended to predict the diagnostic performance of human observers should account for the effects of both quantum and anatomical noise. We compared the abilities of several visual-search (VS) and scanning Hotelling-type models to account for anatomical noise in a localization receiver operating characteristic (LROC) study involving simulated nuclear medicine images. Our VS observer invoked a two-stage process of search and analysis. The images featured lesions in the prostate and pelvic lymph nodes. Lesion contrast and the geometric resolution and sensitivity of the imaging collimator were the study variables. A set of anthropomorphic mathematical phantoms was imaged with an analytic projector based on eight parallel-hole collimators with different sensitivity and resolution properties. The LROC study was conducted with human observers and the channelized nonprewhitening, channelized Hotelling (CH) and VS model observers. The CH observer was applied in a "background-known-statistically" protocol while the VS observer performed a quasi-background-known-exactly task. Both of these models were applied with and without internal noise in the decision variables. A perceptual search threshold was also tested with the VS observer. The model observers without inefficiencies failed to mimic the average performance trend for the humans. The CH and VS observers with internal noise matched the humans primarily at low collimator sensitivities. With both internal noise and the search threshold, the VS observer attained quantitative agreement with the human observers. Computational efficiency is an important advantage of the VS observer.

  10. The role of fine-scale anatomical structure in the dynamics of reentry in computational models of the rabbit ventricles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, Martin J; Plank, Gernot

    2012-09-15

    Fine-scale anatomical structures in the heart may play an important role in sustaining cardiac arrhythmias. However, the extent of this role and how it may differ between species are not fully understood. In this study we used computational modelling to assess the impact of anatomy upon arrhythmia maintenance in the rabbit ventricles. Specifically, we quantified the dynamics of excitation wavefronts during episodes of simulated tachyarrhythmias and fibrillatory arrhythmias, defined as being respectively characterised by relatively low and high spatio-temporal disorganisation.Two computational models were used: a highly anatomically detailed MR-derived rabbit ventricular model (representing vasculature, endocardial structures) and a simplified equivalent model, constructed from the same MR-data but lacking such fine-scale anatomical features. During tachyarrhythmias, anatomically complex and simplified models showed very similar dynamics; however, during fibrillatory arrhythmias, as activation wavelength decreased, the presence of fine-scale anatomical details appeared to marginally increase disorganisation of wavefronts during arrhythmias in the complex model. Although a small amount of clustering of reentrant rotor centres (filaments) around endocardial structures was witnessed in follow-up analysis (which slightly increased during fibrillation as rotor size decreased), this was significantly less than previously reported in large animals. Importantly, no anchoring of reentrant rotors was visibly identifiable in arrhythmia movies. These differences between tachy- and fibrillatory arrhythmias suggest that the relative size of reentrant rotors with respect to anatomical obstacles governs the influence of fine-scale anatomy in the maintenance of ventricular arrhythmias in the rabbit. In conclusion, our simulations suggest that fine-scale anatomical features play little apparent role in the maintenance of tachyarrhythmias in the rabbit ventricles and, contrary to

  11. Computed anatomical modelling of the optic pathway and oculomotor system using magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juanes, J A; Ruisoto, P; Prats-Galino, A; Framiñán, A; Riesco, J M

    2014-07-01

    This study presents a computer-based tool for three-dimensional (3D) visualization of the optic pathway and oculomotor system using 3D high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) datasets from a healthy subject. The 3D models were built as wireframe grids co-registered with MRI sections. First, 3D anatomical models were generated of the visual pathway from the eyeball to the primary visual cortex and of the cranial oculomotor nerves from the brain stem to the extrinsic eye muscles. Second, a graphical user interface allowed individual and group visualization, translation, rotation and zooming of the 3D models in different spatial positions simultaneously with MRI orthogonal cut planes. Educational and clinical applications are also discussed.

  12. Construction of a computational anatomical model of the peripheral cardiac conduction system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebastian, Rafael; Zimmerman, Viviana; Romero, Daniel; Frangi, Alejandro F

    2011-12-01

    A methodology is presented here for automatic construction of a ventricular model of the cardiac conduction system (CCS), which is currently a missing block in many multiscale cardiac electromechanic models. It includes the His bundle, left bundle branches, and the peripheral CCS. The algorithm is fundamentally an enhancement of a rule-based method known as the Lindenmayer systems (L-systems). The generative procedure has been divided into three consecutive independent stages, which subsequently build the CCS from proximal to distal sections. Each stage is governed by a set of user parameters together with anatomical and physiological constrains to direct the generation process and adhere to the structural observations derived from histology studies. Several parameters are defined using statistical distributions to introduce stochastic variability in the models. The CCS built with this approach can generate electrical activation sequences with physiological characteristics. PMID:21896384

  13. Surface mesh to voxel data registration for patient-specific anatomical modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Júlia E. E.; Giessler, Paul; Keszei, András.; Herrler, Andreas; Deserno, Thomas M.

    2016-03-01

    Virtual Physiological Human (VPH) models are frequently used for training, planning, and performing medical procedures. The Regional Anaesthesia Simulator and Assistant (RASimAs) project has the goal of increasing the application and effectiveness of regional anesthesia (RA) by combining a simulator of ultrasound-guided and electrical nerve-stimulated RA procedures and a subject-specific assistance system through an integration of image processing, physiological models, subject-specific data, and virtual reality. Individualized models enrich the virtual training tools for learning and improving regional anaesthesia (RA) skills. Therefore, we suggest patient-specific VPH models that are composed by registering the general mesh-based models with patient voxel data-based recordings. Specifically, the pelvis region has been focused for the support of the femoral nerve block. The processing pipeline is composed of different freely available toolboxes such as MatLab, the open Simulation framework (SOFA), and MeshLab. The approach of Gilles is applied for mesh-to-voxel registration. Personalized VPH models include anatomical as well as mechanical properties of the tissues. Two commercial VPH models (Zygote and Anatomium) were used together with 34 MRI data sets. Results are presented for the skin surface and pelvic bones. Future work will extend the registration procedure to cope with all model tissue (i.e., skin, muscle, bone, vessel, nerve, fascia) in a one-step procedure and extrapolating the personalized models to body regions actually being out of the captured field of view.

  14. Enhancement of mobile C-arm cone-beam reconstruction using prior anatomical models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadowsky, Ofri; Lee, Junghoon; Sutter, Edward G.; Wall, Simon J.; Prince, Jerry L.; Taylor, Russell H.

    2009-02-01

    We demonstrate an improvement to cone-beam tomographic imaging by using a prior anatomical model. A protocol for scanning and reconstruction has been designed and implemented for a conventional mobile C-arm: a 9 inch image-intensifier OEC-9600. Due to the narrow field of view (FOV), the reconstructed image contains strong truncation artifacts. We propose to improve the reconstructed images by fusing the observed x-ray data with computed projections of a prior 3D anatomical model, derived from a subject-specific CT or from a statistical database (atlas), and co-registered (3D/2D) to the x-rays. The prior model contains a description of geometry and radiodensity as a tetrahedral mesh shape and density polynomials, respectively. A CT-based model can be created by segmentation, meshing and polynomial fitting of the object's CT study. The statistical atlas is created through principal component analysis (PCA) of a collection of mesh instances deformably-registered (3D/3D) to patient datasets. The 3D/2D registration method optimizes a pixel-based similarity score (mutual information) between the observed x-rays and the prior. The transformation involves translation, rotation and shape deformation based on the atlas. After registration, the image intensities of observed and prior projections are matched and adjusted, and the two information sources are blended as inputs to a reconstruction algorithm. We demonstrate recostruction results of three cadaveric specimens, and the effect of fusing prior data to compensate for truncation. Further uses of hybrid reconstruction, such as compensation for the scan's limited arc length, are suggested for future research.

  15. Actor-critic models of the basal ganglia: new anatomical and computational perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joel, Daphna; Niv, Yael; Ruppin, Eytan

    2002-01-01

    A large number of computational models of information processing in the basal ganglia have been developed in recent years. Prominent in these are actor-critic models of basal ganglia functioning, which build on the strong resemblance between dopamine neuron activity and the temporal difference prediction error signal in the critic, and between dopamine-dependent long-term synaptic plasticity in the striatum and learning guided by a prediction error signal in the actor. We selectively review several actor-critic models of the basal ganglia with an emphasis on two important aspects: the way in which models of the critic reproduce the temporal dynamics of dopamine firing, and the extent to which models of the actor take into account known basal ganglia anatomy and physiology. To complement the efforts to relate basal ganglia mechanisms to reinforcement learning (RL), we introduce an alternative approach to modeling a critic network, which uses Evolutionary Computation techniques to 'evolve' an optimal RL mechanism, and relate the evolved mechanism to the basic model of the critic. We conclude our discussion of models of the critic by a critical discussion of the anatomical plausibility of implementations of a critic in basal ganglia circuitry, and conclude that such implementations build on assumptions that are inconsistent with the known anatomy of the basal ganglia. We return to the actor component of the actor-critic model, which is usually modeled at the striatal level with very little detail. We describe an alternative model of the basal ganglia which takes into account several important, and previously neglected, anatomical and physiological characteristics of basal ganglia-thalamocortical connectivity and suggests that the basal ganglia performs reinforcement-biased dimensionality reduction of cortical inputs. We further suggest that since such selective encoding may bias the representation at the level of the frontal cortex towards the selection of rewarded

  16. An anatomically shaped lower body model for CT scanning of cadaver femurs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanck, Esther; Deenen, J C W; Verdonschot, Nico [Orthopaedic Research Laboratory, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Center, PO Box 9101, 6500 HB Nijmegen (Netherlands); Huisman, Henk Jan [Department of Radiology, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Center, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Kooloos, Jan G [Department of Anatomy, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Center, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Huizenga, Henk [Department of Radiotherapy, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Center, Nijmegen (Netherlands)], E-mail: e.tanck@orthop.umcn.nl

    2010-01-21

    Bone specific, CT-based finite element (FE) analyses have great potential to accurately predict the fracture risk of deteriorated bones. However, it has been shown that differences exist between FE-models of femora scanned in a water basin or scanned in situ within the human body, as caused by differences in measured bone mineral densities (BMD). In this study we hypothesized that these differences can be reduced by re-creating the patient CT-conditions by using an anatomically shaped physical model of the lower body. BMD distributions were obtained from four different femora that were scanned under three conditions: (1) in situ within the cadaver body, (2) in a water basin and (3) in the body model. The BMD of the three scanning protocols were compared at two locations: proximally, in the trabecular bone of the femoral head, and in the cortical bone of the femoral shaft. Proximally, no significant differences in BMD were found between the in situ scans and the scans in the body model, whereas the densities from the water basin scans were on average 10.8% lower than in situ. In the femoral shaft the differences between the three scanning protocols were insignificant. In conclusion, the body model better approached the in situ situation than a water basin. Future studies can use this body model to mimic patient situations and to develop protocols to improve the performance of the FE-models in actual patients. (note)

  17. Analysis of mouse model pathology: a primer for studying the anatomic pathology of genetically engineered mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardiff, Robert D; Miller, Claramae H; Munn, Robert J

    2014-06-01

    This primer of pathology is intended to introduce investigators to the structure (morphology) of cancer with an emphasis on genetically engineered mouse (GEM) models (GEMMs). We emphasize the necessity of using the entire biological context for the interpretation of anatomic pathology. Because the primary investigator is responsible for almost all of the information and procedures leading up to microscopic examination, they should also be responsible for documentation of experiments so that the microscopic interpretation can be rendered in context of the biology. The steps involved in this process are outlined, discussed, and illustrated. Because GEMMs are unique experimental subjects, some of the more common pitfalls are discussed. Many of these errors can be avoided with attention to detail and continuous quality assurance.

  18. Understanding complex systems: lessons from Auzoux's and von Hagens's anatomical models

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Antonio G Valdecasas; Ana M Correas; Carmen R Guerrero; Jesús Juez

    2009-12-01

    Animal and human anatomy is among the most complex systems known, and suitable teaching methods have been of great importance in the progress of knowledge. Examining the human body is part of the process by which medical students come to understand living forms. However, the need to preserve cadavers has led to the development of various techniques to manufacture models for teaching purposes. A variety of materials, such as wax, wood, papier-mâché, or glass, have long been used to construct animal and plant models. In the case of the human body, the most innovative, yet controversial, method of preservation has been plastination, invented by the German physician Gunther von Hagens, by which actual human bodies are preserved as odourless and aesthetic models for teaching and exhibitions. We point out in our study that the ‘hands-on’ approach that some anatomical models allow, namely, the (clastic) disassembly and reassembly of the parts of complex systems and their models, is not only a crucial tool for learning, but is far superior to the simple passive observation that rigid, single-piece models allow. And what is valid for the learning of anatomy can be generalized to the acquisition of knowledge of other complex physical systems.

  19. Understanding complex systems: lessons from Auzoux's and von Hagens's anatomical models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdecasas, Antonio G; Correas, Ana M; Guerrero, Carmen R; Juez, Jesús

    2009-12-01

    Animal and human anatomy is among the most complex systems known, and suitable teaching methods have been of great importance in the progress of knowledge. Examining the human body is part of the process by which medical students come to understand living forms. However, the need to preserve cadavers has led to the development of various techniques to manufacture models for teaching purposes. A variety of materials, such as wax, wood, papier-mache, or glass, have long been used to construct animal and plant models. In the case of the human body, the most innovative, yet controversial, method of preservation has been plastination, invented by the German physician Gunther von Hagens, by which actual human bodies are preserved as odourless and aesthetic models for teaching and exhibitions. We point out in our study that the 'hands-on' approach that some anatomical models allow, namely, the (clastic) disassembly and reassembly of the parts of complex systems and their models, is not only a crucial tool for learning, but is far superior to the simple passive observation that rigid, single-piece models allow. And what is valid for the learning of anatomy can be generalized to the acquisition of knowledge of other complex physical systems. PMID:20093736

  20. Explorable Three-Dimensional Digital Model of the Female Pelvis, Pelvic Contents, and Perineum for Anatomical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sergovich, Aimee; Johnson, Marjorie; Wilson, Timothy D.

    2010-01-01

    The anatomy of the pelvis is complex, multilayered, and its three-dimensional organization is conceptually difficult for students to grasp. The aim of this project was to create an explorable and projectable stereoscopic, three-dimensional (3D) model of the female pelvis and pelvic contents for anatomical education. The model was created using…

  1. Evaluation and calibration of functional network modeling methods based on known anatomical connections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Debra Ann; Cha, Kuwook; Lewis, Lindsay B; Mendola, Janine D; Shmuel, Amir

    2013-02-15

    Recent studies have identified large scale brain networks based on the spatio-temporal structure of spontaneous fluctuations in resting-state fMRI data. It is expected that functional connectivity based on resting-state data is reflective of - but not identical to - the underlying anatomical connectivity. However, which functional connectivity analysis methods reliably predict the network structure remains unclear. Here we tested and compared network connectivity analysis methods by applying them to fMRI resting-state time-series obtained from the human visual cortex. The methods evaluated here are those previously tested against simulated data in Smith et al. (Neuroimage, 2011). To this end, we defined regions within retinotopic visual areas V1, V2, and V3 according to their eccentricity in the visual field, delineating central, intermediate, and peripheral eccentricity regions of interest (ROIs). These ROIs served as nodes in the models we study. We based our evaluation on the "ground-truth", thoroughly studied retinotopically-organized anatomical connectivity in the monkey visual cortex. For each evaluated method, we computed the fractional rate of detecting connections known to exist ("c-sensitivity"), while using a threshold of the 95th percentile of the distribution of interaction magnitudes of those connections not expected to exist. Under optimal conditions - including session duration of 68min, a relatively small network consisting of 9 nodes and artifact-free regression of the global effect - each of the top methods predicted the expected connections with 67-85% c-sensitivity. Correlation methods, including Correlation (Corr; 85%), Regularized Inverse Covariance (ICOV; 84%) and Partial Correlation (PCorr; 81%) performed best, followed by Patel's Kappa (80%), Bayesian Network method PC (BayesNet; 77%), General Synchronization measures (67-77%), and Coherence (CohB; 74%). With decreased session duration, these top methods saw decreases in c

  2. CFD simulation of aerosol deposition in an anatomically based human large-medium airway model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Baoshun; Lutchen, Kenneth R

    2009-02-01

    Quantitative data on aerosol deposition in the human respiratory tract are useful for understanding the causes of certain lung diseases and for designing efficient drug delivery systems via inhalation. In this study, aerosol deposition in a 3D anatomically based human large-medium airway model was simulated using computational fluid dynamics (CFD). The model extended from mouth to generation 10 and included two-thirds of the airways obtained by multi-detector row computed tomography (MDCT) imaging on normal healthy human subjects. Steady oral inhalation (15, 30, and 60 L/min) and aerosol (1-30 micrometer) deposition were computed by CFD using the realizable k-epsilon turbulence model. Based on the mean turbulence flow field, the computed extrathoracic deposition, ratio of left to right lung deposition, and deposition efficiency at each generation compared favorably with existing in vivo and in vitro experiments. The significant deposition in the large-medium airway model showed that the total tracheobronchial deposition is dominated by the large-medium airways for micrometer-sized aerosol particles. These quantitative data and the methods developed in this study provided valuable means toward subject-specific modeling of aerosol deposition in the human lung based on realistic lung geometry. PMID:19082892

  3. Short Term Evaluation of an Anatomically Shaped Polycarbonate Urethane Total Meniscus Replacement in a Goat Model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A C T Vrancken

    Full Text Available Since the treatment options for symptomatic total meniscectomy patients are still limited, an anatomically shaped, polycarbonate urethane (PCU, total meniscus replacement was developed. This study evaluates the in vivo performance of the implant in a goat model, with a specific focus on the implant location in the joint, geometrical integrity of the implant and the effect of the implant on synovial membrane and articular cartilage histopathological condition.The right medial meniscus of seven Saanen goats was replaced by the implant. Sham surgery (transection of the MCL, arthrotomy and MCL suturing was performed in six animals. The contralateral knee joints of both groups served as control groups. After three months follow-up the following aspects of implant performance were evaluated: implant position, implant deformation and the histopathological condition of the synovium and cartilage.Implant geometry was well maintained during the three month implantation period. No signs of PCU wear were found and the implant did not induce an inflammatory response in the knee joint. In all animals, implant fixation was compromised due to suture breakage, wear or elongation, likely causing the increase in extrusion observed in the implant group. Both the femoral cartilage and tibial cartilage in direct contact with the implant showed increased damage compared to the sham and sham-control groups.This study demonstrates that the novel, anatomically shaped PCU total meniscal replacement is biocompatible and resistant to three months of physiological loading. Failure of the fixation sutures may have increased implant mobility, which probably induced implant extrusion and potentially stimulated cartilage degeneration. Evidently, redesigning the fixation method is necessary. Future animal studies should evaluate the improved fixation method and compare implant performance to current treatment standards, such as allografts.

  4. Principal component analysis-based anatomical motion models for use in adaptive radiation therapy of head and neck cancer patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chetvertkov, Mikhail A.

    Purpose: To develop standard and regularized principal component analysis (PCA) models of anatomical changes from daily cone beam CTs (CBCTs) of head and neck (H&N) patients, assess their potential use in adaptive radiation therapy (ART), and to extract quantitative information for treatment response assessment. Methods: Planning CT (pCT) images of H&N patients were artificially deformed to create "digital phantom" images, which modeled systematic anatomical changes during Radiation Therapy (RT). Artificial deformations closely mirrored patients' actual deformations, and were interpolated to generate 35 synthetic CBCTs, representing evolving anatomy over 35 fractions. Deformation vector fields (DVFs) were acquired between pCT and synthetic CBCTs (i.e., digital phantoms), and between pCT and clinical CBCTs. Patient-specific standard PCA (SPCA) and regularized PCA (RPCA) models were built from these synthetic and clinical DVF sets. Eigenvectors, or eigenDVFs (EDVFs), having the largest eigenvalues were hypothesized to capture the major anatomical deformations during treatment. Modeled anatomies were used to assess the dose deviations with respect to the planned dose distribution. Results: PCA models achieve variable results, depending on the size and location of anatomical change. Random changes prevent or degrade SPCA's ability to detect underlying systematic change. RPCA is able to detect smaller systematic changes against the background of random fraction-to-fraction changes, and is therefore more successful than SPCA at capturing systematic changes early in treatment. SPCA models were less successful at modeling systematic changes in clinical patient images, which contain a wider range of random motion than synthetic CBCTs, while the regularized approach was able to extract major modes of motion. For dose assessment it has been shown that the modeled dose distribution was different from the planned dose for the parotid glands due to their shrinkage and shift into

  5. Evaluation of a μCT-based electro-anatomical cochlear implant model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cakir, Ahmet; Dawant, Benoit M.; Noble, Jack H.

    2016-03-01

    Cochlear implants (CIs) are considered standard treatment for patients who experience sensory-based hearing loss. Although these devices have been remarkably successful at restoring hearing, it is rare to achieve natural fidelity, and many patients experience poor outcomes. Previous studies have shown that outcomes can be improved when optimizing CI processor settings using an estimation of the CI's neural activation patterns found by detecting the distance between the CI electrodes and the nerves they stimulate in pre- and post-implantation CT images. We call this method Image-Guided CI Programming (IGCIP). More comprehensive electro-anatomical models (EAMs) might better estimate neural activation patterns than using a distance-based estimate, potentially leading to selecting further optimized CI settings. Our goal in this study is to investigate whether μCT-based EAMs can accurately estimate neural stimulation patterns. For this purpose, we have constructed EAMs of N=9 specimens. We analyzed the sensitivity of our model to design parameters such as field-of-view, resolution, and tissue resistivity. Our results show that our model is stable to parameter changes. To evaluate the utility of patient-specific modeling, we quantify the difference in estimated neural activation patterns across specimens for identically located electrodes. The average computed coefficient of variation (COV) across specimens is 0.186, suggesting patient-specific models are necessary and that the accuracy of a generic model would be insufficient. Our results suggest that development of in vivo patient-specific EAMs could lead to better methods for selecting CI settings, which would ultimately lead to better hearing outcomes with CIs.

  6. Transcranial magnetic stimulation of mouse brain using high-resolution anatomical models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowther, L. J.; Hadimani, R. L.; Kanthasamy, A. G.; Jiles, D. C.

    2014-05-01

    Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) offers the possibility of non-invasive treatment of brain disorders in humans. Studies on animals can allow rapid progress of the research including exploring a variety of different treatment conditions. Numerical calculations using animal models are needed to help design suitable TMS coils for use in animal experiments, in particular, to estimate the electric field induced in animal brains. In this paper, we have implemented a high-resolution anatomical MRI-derived mouse model consisting of 50 tissue types to accurately calculate induced electric field in the mouse brain. Magnetic field measurements have been performed on the surface of the coil and compared with the calculations in order to validate the calculated magnetic and induced electric fields in the brain. Results show how the induced electric field is distributed in a mouse brain and allow investigation of how this could be improved for TMS studies using mice. The findings have important implications in further preclinical development of TMS for treatment of human diseases.

  7. Model observer design for detecting multiple abnormalities in anatomical background images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Gezheng; Markey, Mia K.; Park, Subok

    2016-03-01

    As psychophysical studies are resource-intensive to conduct, model observers are commonly used to assess and optimize medical imaging quality. Existing model observers were typically designed to detect at most one signal. However, in clinical practice, there may be multiple abnormalities in a single image set (e.g., multifocal and multicentric breast cancers (MMBC)), which can impact treatment planning. Prevalence of signals can be different across anatomical regions, and human observers do not know the number or location of signals a priori. As new imaging techniques have the potential to improve multiple-signal detection (e.g., digital breast tomosynthesis may be more effective for diagnosis of MMBC than planar mammography), image quality assessment approaches addressing such tasks are needed. In this study, we present a model-observer mechanism to detect multiple signals in the same image dataset. To handle the high dimensionality of images, a novel implementation of partial least squares (PLS) was developed to estimate different sets of efficient channels directly from the images. Without any prior knowledge of the background or the signals, the PLS channels capture interactions between signals and the background which provide discriminant image information. Corresponding linear decision templates are employed to generate both image-level and location-specific scores on the presence of signals. Our preliminary results show that the model observer using PLS channels, compared to our first attempts with Laguerre-Gauss channels, can achieve high performance with a reasonably small number of channels, and the optimal design of the model observer may vary as the tasks of clinical interest change.

  8. Building Spatiotemporal Anatomical Models using Joint 4-D Segmentation, Registration, and Subject-Specific Atlas Estimation

    OpenAIRE

    Prastawa, Marcel; Awate, Suyash P.; Gerig, Guido

    2012-01-01

    Longitudinal analysis of anatomical changes is a vital component in many personalized-medicine applications for predicting disease onset, determining growth/atrophy patterns, evaluating disease progression, and monitoring recovery. Estimating anatomical changes in longitudinal studies, especially through magnetic resonance (MR) images, is challenging because of temporal variability in shape (e.g. from growth/atrophy) and appearance (e.g. due to imaging parameters and tissue properties affecti...

  9. Generating 3D anatomically detailed models of the retina from OCT data sets: implications for computational modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shalbaf, Farzaneh; Dokos, Socrates; Lovell, Nigel H.; Turuwhenua, Jason; Vaghefi, Ehsan

    2015-12-01

    Retinal prosthesis has been proposed to restore vision for those suffering from the retinal pathologies that mainly affect the photoreceptors layer but keep the inner retina intact. Prior to costly risky experimental studies computational modelling of the retina will help to optimize the device parameters and enhance the outcomes. Here, we developed an anatomically detailed computational model of the retina based on OCT data sets. The consecutive OCT images of individual were subsequently segmented to provide a 3D representation of retina in the form of finite elements. Thereafter, the electrical properties of the retina were modelled by implementing partial differential equation on the 3D mesh. Different electrode configurations, that is bipolar and hexapolar configurations, were implemented and the results were compared with the previous computational and experimental studies. Furthermore, the possible effects of the curvature of retinal layers on the current steering through the retina were proposed and linked to the clinical observations.

  10. SAR exposure from UHF RFID reader in adult, child, pregnant woman, and fetus anatomical models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiocchi, Serena; Markakis, Ioannis A; Ravazzani, Paolo; Samaras, Theodoros

    2013-09-01

    The spread of radio frequency identification (RFID) devices in ubiquitous applications without their simultaneous exposure assessment could give rise to public concerns about their potential adverse health effects. Among the various RFID system categories, the ultra high frequency (UHF) RFID systems have recently started to be widely used in many applications. This study addresses a computational exposure assessment of the electromagnetic radiation generated by a realistic UHF RFID reader, quantifying the exposure levels in different exposure scenarios and subjects (two adults, four children, and two anatomical models of women 7 and 9 months pregnant). The results of the computations are presented in terms of the whole-body and peak spatial specific absorption rate (SAR) averaged over 10 g of tissue to allow comparison with the basic restrictions of the exposure guidelines. The SAR levels in the adults and children were below 0.02 and 0.8 W/kg in whole-body SAR and maximum peak SAR levels, respectively, for all tested positions of the antenna. On the contrary, exposure of pregnant women and fetuses resulted in maximum peak SAR(10 g) values close to the values suggested by the guidelines (2 W/kg) in some of the exposure scenarios with the antenna positioned in front of the abdomen and with a 100% duty cycle and 1 W radiated power.

  11. Currents induced in anatomic models of the human for uniform and nonuniform power frequency magnetic fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandhi, O P; Kang, G; Wu, D; Lazzi, G

    2001-02-01

    We have used the quasi-static impedance method to calculate the currents induced in the nominal 2 x 2 x 3 and 6 mm resolution anatomically based models of the human body for exposure to magnetic fields at 60 Hz. Uniform magnetic fields of various orientations and magnitudes 1 or 0.417 mT suggested in the ACGIH and ICNIRP safety guidelines are used to calculate induced electric fields or current densities for the various glands and organs of the body including the pineal gland. The maximum 1 cm(2) area-averaged induced current densities for the central nervous system tissues, such as the brain and the spinal cord, were within the reference level of 10 mA/m(2) as suggested in the ICNIRP guidelines for magnetic fields (0.417 mT at 60 Hz). Tissue conductivities were found to play an important role and higher assumed tissue conductivities gave higher induced current densities. We have also determined the induced current density distributions for nonuniform magnetic fields associated with two commonly used electrical appliances, namely a hair dryer and a hair clipper. Because of considerably higher magnetic fields for the latter device, higher induced electric fields and current densities were calculated.

  12. Intraosseous rotation of the scaphoid: assessment by using a 3D CT model - an anatomic study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidle, Gernot; Gabl, Markus [Medical University Innsbruck, Department of Trauma Surgery, Innsbruck (Austria); Rieger, Michael [Regional Hospital Hall, Department of Radiology, Hall in Tirol (Austria); Klauser, Andrea Sabine; Thauerer, Michael [Medical University Innsbruck, Department of Radiology, Innsbruck (Austria); Hoermann, Romed [Medical University Innsbruck, Department of Anatomy, Histology and Embryology-Division of Clinical and Functional Anatomy, Innsbruck (Austria)

    2014-06-15

    The purpose of this study was to assess intraosseous rotation as the third dimension of scaphoid anatomy on a 3D CT model using common volume rendering software to impact anatomical reconstruction of scaphoid fractures. CT images of 13 cadaver wrist pairs were acquired. Reference axes for the alignment of distal and proximal scaphoid poles were defined three-dimensionally. Two methods for rotation measurement - the reference axis method (RAM) and the scapho-trapezio-trapezoidal joint method (STTM) - were developed and compared by three independent observers. Rotation measured by the RAM averaged 66.9 ± 7 for the right and 67.2 ± 5.8 for the left wrists. Using the STTM there was a mean rotation of 68.6 ± 6.6 for the right and 68.6 ± 6.8 for the left wrists. The overall results showed a significant variability of the measured values between different specimens (P < 0.05). There was no significant difference between left and right wrists of the same specimen, neither for the RAM (P = 0.268) nor for the STTM (P = 0.774). Repeatability coefficients between the observers were low, indicating good repeatability. The presented methods are practical tools to quantify intraosseous rotation between distal and proximal scaphoid poles using common volume rendering software. For clinical application the opposite side provides the best reference values to assess malrotation in scaphoid fracture cases. (orig.)

  13. Development of a rabbit's urethral sphincter deficiency animal model for anatomical-functional evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Skaff

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to develop a new durable animal model (using rabbits for anatomical-functional evaluation of urethral sphincter deficiency. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 40 New Zealand male rabbits, weighting 2.500 kg to 3.100 kg, were evaluated to develop an incontinent animal model. Thirty-two animals underwent urethrolysis and 8 animals received sham operation. Before and at 2, 4, 8 and 12 weeks after urethrolysis or sham operation, it was performed cystometry and leak point pressure (LPP evaluation with different bladder distension volumes (10, 20, 30 mL. In each time point, 10 animals (8 from the study group and 2 from the sham group were sacrificed to harvest the bladder and urethra. The samples were evaluated by H&E and Masson's Trichrome to determine urethral morphology and collagen/smooth muscle density. RESULTS: Twelve weeks after urethrolysis, it was observed a significant decrease in LPP regardless the bladder volume (from 33.7 ± 6.6 to 12.8 ± 2.2 cmH2O. The histological analysis evidenced a decrease of 22% in smooth muscle density with a proportional increase in the collagen, vessels and elastin density (p < 0.01. CONCLUSIONS: Transabdominal urethrolysis develops urethral sphincter insufficiency in rabbits, with significant decrease in LPP associated with decrease of smooth muscle fibers and increase of collagen density. This animal model can be used to test autologous cell therapy for stress urinary incontinence treatment.

  14. Model-based dose calculations for COMS eye plaque brachytherapy using an anatomically realistic eye phantom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lesperance, Marielle; Inglis-Whalen, M.; Thomson, R. M., E-mail: rthomson@physics.carleton.ca [Carleton Laboratory for Radiotherapy Physics, Department of Physics, Carleton University, Ottawa K1S 5B6 (Canada)

    2014-02-15

    Purpose : To investigate the effects of the composition and geometry of ocular media and tissues surrounding the eye on dose distributions for COMS eye plaque brachytherapy with{sup 125}I, {sup 103}Pd, or {sup 131}Cs seeds, and to investigate doses to ocular structures. Methods : An anatomically and compositionally realistic voxelized eye model with a medial tumor is developed based on a literature review. Mass energy absorption and attenuation coefficients for ocular media are calculated. Radiation transport and dose deposition are simulated using the EGSnrc Monte Carlo user-code BrachyDose for a fully loaded COMS eye plaque within a water phantom and our full eye model for the three radionuclides. A TG-43 simulation with the same seed configuration in a water phantom neglecting the plaque and interseed effects is also performed. The impact on dose distributions of varying tumor position, as well as tumor and surrounding tissue media is investigated. Each simulation and radionuclide is compared using isodose contours, dose volume histograms for the lens and tumor, maximum, minimum, and average doses to structures of interest, and doses to voxels of interest within the eye. Results : Mass energy absorption and attenuation coefficients of the ocular media differ from those of water by as much as 12% within the 20–30 keV photon energy range. For all radionuclides studied, average doses to the tumor and lens regions in the full eye model differ from those for the plaque in water by 8%–10% and 13%–14%, respectively; the average doses to the tumor and lens regions differ between the full eye model and the TG-43 simulation by 2%–17% and 29%–34%, respectively. Replacing the surrounding tissues in the eye model with water increases the maximum and average doses to the lens by 2% and 3%, respectively. Substituting the tumor medium in the eye model for water, soft tissue, or an alternate melanoma composition affects tumor dose compared to the default eye model

  15. Model-based dose calculations for COMS eye plaque brachytherapy using an anatomically realistic eye phantom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose : To investigate the effects of the composition and geometry of ocular media and tissues surrounding the eye on dose distributions for COMS eye plaque brachytherapy with125I, 103Pd, or 131Cs seeds, and to investigate doses to ocular structures. Methods : An anatomically and compositionally realistic voxelized eye model with a medial tumor is developed based on a literature review. Mass energy absorption and attenuation coefficients for ocular media are calculated. Radiation transport and dose deposition are simulated using the EGSnrc Monte Carlo user-code BrachyDose for a fully loaded COMS eye plaque within a water phantom and our full eye model for the three radionuclides. A TG-43 simulation with the same seed configuration in a water phantom neglecting the plaque and interseed effects is also performed. The impact on dose distributions of varying tumor position, as well as tumor and surrounding tissue media is investigated. Each simulation and radionuclide is compared using isodose contours, dose volume histograms for the lens and tumor, maximum, minimum, and average doses to structures of interest, and doses to voxels of interest within the eye. Results : Mass energy absorption and attenuation coefficients of the ocular media differ from those of water by as much as 12% within the 20–30 keV photon energy range. For all radionuclides studied, average doses to the tumor and lens regions in the full eye model differ from those for the plaque in water by 8%–10% and 13%–14%, respectively; the average doses to the tumor and lens regions differ between the full eye model and the TG-43 simulation by 2%–17% and 29%–34%, respectively. Replacing the surrounding tissues in the eye model with water increases the maximum and average doses to the lens by 2% and 3%, respectively. Substituting the tumor medium in the eye model for water, soft tissue, or an alternate melanoma composition affects tumor dose compared to the default eye model simulation by up to 16

  16. Computed tomography of the vesicular glands: anatomical animal model (Oryctolagus cuniculus)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spiral CT is a non-invasive imaging method of choice for animal anatomical studies. The aim of the study was to establish the imaging anatomical features of the vesicular glands in the rabbit. Eight sexually mature healthy clinically male New Zealand rabbits of 18 months of age with body weight from 2.8 kg to 3.2 kg were used. The animals were anesthetized. As contrast medium Opti-ray350 was administrated. The computed tomography scan was complied with certain bone and soft tissue markers. For this purpose, a whole body multi-slice spiral computed tomography scanner was used. The both soft tissue glands were heterogeneous and relatively hyperdense structures, and defined in detail from the adjacent soft tissues. The urinary bladder neck was ventrally to the glands. Both vesicular glands were better differentiated each other when the rabbit is examined in abdominal recumbence. In dorsal recumbence the shape of the transversal image of the glandular finding was oval. In abdominal recumbence both the left and right soft tissue vesicular gland were defined. Transversal anatomical computed tomographic investigation of the rabbit vesicular gland is a detailed and definitive method, to study the normal morphology of these glands. Key words: Vesicular Gland. Helical Computed Tomography. Anatomy. Rabbit

  17. Accurate alignment of functional EPI data to anatomical MRI using a physics-based distortion model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studholme, C; Constable, R T; Duncan, J S

    2000-11-01

    Mapping of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to conventional anatomical MRI is a valuable step in the interpretation of fMRI activations. One of the main limits on the accuracy of this alignment arises from differences in the geometric distortion induced by magnetic field inhomogeneity. This paper describes an approach to the registration of echo planar image (EPI) data to conventional anatomical images which takes into account this difference in geometric distortion. We make use of an additional spin echo EPI image and use the known signal conservation in spin echo distortion to derive a specialized multimodality nonrigid registration algorithm. We also examine a plausible modification using log-intensity evaluation of the criterion to provide increased sensitivity in areas of low EPI signal. A phantom-based imaging experiment is used to evaluate the behavior of the different criteria, comparing nonrigid displacement estimates to those provided by a imagnetic field mapping acquisition. The algorithm is then applied to a range of nine brain imaging studies illustrating global and local improvement in the anatomical alignment and localization of fMRI activations.

  18. The Virtual Family-development of surface-based anatomical models of two adults and two children for dosimetric simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this study was to develop anatomically correct whole body human models of an adult male (34 years old), an adult female (26 years old) and two children (an 11-year-old girl and a six-year-old boy) for the optimized evaluation of electromagnetic exposure. These four models are referred to as the Virtual Family. They are based on high resolution magnetic resonance (MR) images of healthy volunteers. More than 80 different tissue types were distinguished during the segmentation. To improve the accuracy and the effectiveness of the segmentation, a novel semi-automated tool was used to analyze and segment the data. All tissues and organs were reconstructed as three-dimensional (3D) unstructured triangulated surface objects, yielding high precision images of individual features of the body. This greatly enhances the meshing flexibility and the accuracy with respect to thin tissue layers and small organs in comparison with the traditional voxel-based representation of anatomical models. Conformal computational techniques were also applied. The techniques and tools developed in this study can be used to more effectively develop future models and further improve the accuracy of the models for various applications. For research purposes, the four models are provided for free to the scientific community. (note)

  19. Basic Restriction and Reference Level in Anatomically-based Japanese Models for Low-Frequency Electric and Magnetic Field Exposures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takano, Yukinori; Hirata, Akimasa; Fujiwara, Osamu

    Human exposed to electric and/or magnetic fields at low frequencies may cause direct effect such as nerve stimulation and excitation. Therefore, basic restriction is regulated in terms of induced current density in the ICNIRP guidelines and in-situ electric field in the IEEE standard. External electric or magnetic field which does not produce induced quantities exceeding the basic restriction is used as a reference level. The relationship between the basic restriction and reference level for low-frequency electric and magnetic fields has been investigated using European anatomic models, while limited for Japanese model, especially for electric field exposures. In addition, that relationship has not well been discussed. In the present study, we calculated the induced quantities in anatomic Japanese male and female models exposed to electric and magnetic fields at reference level. A quasi static finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method was applied to analyze this problem. As a result, spatially averaged induced current density was found to be more sensitive to averaging algorithms than that of in-situ electric field. For electric and magnetic field exposure at the ICNIRP reference level, the maximum values of the induced current density for different averaging algorithm were smaller than the basic restriction for most cases. For exposures at the reference level in the IEEE standard, the maximum electric fields in the brain were larger than the basic restriction in the brain while smaller for the spinal cord and heart.

  20. Quantitative modeling of the accuracy in registering preoperative patient-specific anatomic models into left atrial cardiac ablation procedures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rettmann, Maryam E., E-mail: rettmann.maryam@mayo.edu; Holmes, David R.; Camp, Jon J.; Cameron, Bruce M.; Robb, Richard A. [Biomedical Imaging Resource, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, Rochester, Minnesota 55905 (United States); Kwartowitz, David M. [Department of Bioengineering, Clemson University, Clemson, South Carolina 29634 (United States); Gunawan, Mia [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular and Cellular Biology, Georgetown University, Washington D.C. 20057 (United States); Johnson, Susan B.; Packer, Douglas L. [Division of Cardiovascular Diseases, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota 55905 (United States); Dalegrave, Charles [Clinical Cardiac Electrophysiology, Cardiology Division Hospital Sao Paulo, Federal University of Sao Paulo, 04024-002 Brazil (Brazil); Kolasa, Mark W. [David Grant Medical Center, Fairfield, California 94535 (United States)

    2014-02-15

    Purpose: In cardiac ablation therapy, accurate anatomic guidance is necessary to create effective tissue lesions for elimination of left atrial fibrillation. While fluoroscopy, ultrasound, and electroanatomic maps are important guidance tools, they lack information regarding detailed patient anatomy which can be obtained from high resolution imaging techniques. For this reason, there has been significant effort in incorporating detailed, patient-specific models generated from preoperative imaging datasets into the procedure. Both clinical and animal studies have investigated registration and targeting accuracy when using preoperative models; however, the effect of various error sources on registration accuracy has not been quantitatively evaluated. Methods: Data from phantom, canine, and patient studies are used to model and evaluate registration accuracy. In the phantom studies, data are collected using a magnetically tracked catheter on a static phantom model. Monte Carlo simulation studies were run to evaluate both baseline errors as well as the effect of different sources of error that would be present in a dynamicin vivo setting. Error is simulated by varying the variance parameters on the landmark fiducial, physical target, and surface point locations in the phantom simulation studies. In vivo validation studies were undertaken in six canines in which metal clips were placed in the left atrium to serve as ground truth points. A small clinical evaluation was completed in three patients. Landmark-based and combined landmark and surface-based registration algorithms were evaluated in all studies. In the phantom and canine studies, both target registration error and point-to-surface error are used to assess accuracy. In the patient studies, no ground truth is available and registration accuracy is quantified using point-to-surface error only. Results: The phantom simulation studies demonstrated that combined landmark and surface-based registration improved

  1. Quantitative modeling of the accuracy in registering preoperative patient-specific anatomic models into left atrial cardiac ablation procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: In cardiac ablation therapy, accurate anatomic guidance is necessary to create effective tissue lesions for elimination of left atrial fibrillation. While fluoroscopy, ultrasound, and electroanatomic maps are important guidance tools, they lack information regarding detailed patient anatomy which can be obtained from high resolution imaging techniques. For this reason, there has been significant effort in incorporating detailed, patient-specific models generated from preoperative imaging datasets into the procedure. Both clinical and animal studies have investigated registration and targeting accuracy when using preoperative models; however, the effect of various error sources on registration accuracy has not been quantitatively evaluated. Methods: Data from phantom, canine, and patient studies are used to model and evaluate registration accuracy. In the phantom studies, data are collected using a magnetically tracked catheter on a static phantom model. Monte Carlo simulation studies were run to evaluate both baseline errors as well as the effect of different sources of error that would be present in a dynamicin vivo setting. Error is simulated by varying the variance parameters on the landmark fiducial, physical target, and surface point locations in the phantom simulation studies. In vivo validation studies were undertaken in six canines in which metal clips were placed in the left atrium to serve as ground truth points. A small clinical evaluation was completed in three patients. Landmark-based and combined landmark and surface-based registration algorithms were evaluated in all studies. In the phantom and canine studies, both target registration error and point-to-surface error are used to assess accuracy. In the patient studies, no ground truth is available and registration accuracy is quantified using point-to-surface error only. Results: The phantom simulation studies demonstrated that combined landmark and surface-based registration improved

  2. A multi-segment foot model based on anatomically registered technical coordinate systems: method repeatability in pediatric feet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saraswat, Prabhav; MacWilliams, Bruce A; Davis, Roy B

    2012-04-01

    Several multi-segment foot models to measure the motion of intrinsic joints of the foot have been reported. Use of these models in clinical decision making is limited due to lack of rigorous validation including inter-clinician, and inter-lab variability measures. A model with thoroughly quantified variability may significantly improve the confidence in the results of such foot models. This study proposes a new clinical foot model with the underlying strategy of using separate anatomic and technical marker configurations and coordinate systems. Anatomical landmark and coordinate system identification is determined during a static subject calibration. Technical markers are located at optimal sites for dynamic motion tracking. The model is comprised of the tibia and three foot segments (hindfoot, forefoot and hallux) and inter-segmental joint angles are computed in three planes. Data collection was carried out on pediatric subjects at two sites (Site 1: n=10 subjects by two clinicians and Site 2: five subjects by one clinician). A plaster mold method was used to quantify static intra-clinician and inter-clinician marker placement variability by allowing direct comparisons of marker data between sessions for each subject. Intra-clinician and inter-clinician joint angle variability were less than 4°. For dynamic walking kinematics, intra-clinician, inter-clinician and inter-laboratory variability were less than 6° for the ankle and forefoot, but slightly higher for the hallux. Inter-trial variability accounted for 2-4° of the total dynamic variability. Results indicate the proposed foot model reduces the effects of marker placement variability on computed foot kinematics during walking compared to similar measures in previous models.

  3. Towards anatomic scale agent-based modeling with a massively parallel spatially explicit general-purpose model of enteric tissue (SEGMEnT_HPC.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Chase Cockrell

    Full Text Available Perhaps the greatest challenge currently facing the biomedical research community is the ability to integrate highly detailed cellular and molecular mechanisms to represent clinical disease states as a pathway to engineer effective therapeutics. This is particularly evident in the representation of organ-level pathophysiology in terms of abnormal tissue structure, which, through histology, remains a mainstay in disease diagnosis and staging. As such, being able to generate anatomic scale simulations is a highly desirable goal. While computational limitations have previously constrained the size and scope of multi-scale computational models, advances in the capacity and availability of high-performance computing (HPC resources have greatly expanded the ability of computational models of biological systems to achieve anatomic, clinically relevant scale. Diseases of the intestinal tract are exemplary examples of pathophysiological processes that manifest at multiple scales of spatial resolution, with structural abnormalities present at the microscopic, macroscopic and organ-levels. In this paper, we describe a novel, massively parallel computational model of the gut, the Spatially Explicitly General-purpose Model of Enteric Tissue_HPC (SEGMEnT_HPC, which extends an existing model of the gut epithelium, SEGMEnT, in order to create cell-for-cell anatomic scale simulations. We present an example implementation of SEGMEnT_HPC that simulates the pathogenesis of ileal pouchitis, and important clinical entity that affects patients following remedial surgery for ulcerative colitis.

  4. Effect of Anatomically Realistic Full-Head Model on Activation of Cortical Neurons in Subdural Cortical Stimulation—A Computational Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Hyeon; Kim, Donghyeon; Jun, Sung Chan

    2016-06-01

    Electrical brain stimulation (EBS) is an emerging therapy for the treatment of neurological disorders, and computational modeling studies of EBS have been used to determine the optimal parameters for highly cost-effective electrotherapy. Recent notable growth in computing capability has enabled researchers to consider an anatomically realistic head model that represents the full head and complex geometry of the brain rather than the previous simplified partial head model (extruded slab) that represents only the precentral gyrus. In this work, subdural cortical stimulation (SuCS) was found to offer a better understanding of the differential activation of cortical neurons in the anatomically realistic full-head model than in the simplified partial-head models. We observed that layer 3 pyramidal neurons had comparable stimulation thresholds in both head models, while layer 5 pyramidal neurons showed a notable discrepancy between the models; in particular, layer 5 pyramidal neurons demonstrated asymmetry in the thresholds and action potential initiation sites in the anatomically realistic full-head model. Overall, the anatomically realistic full-head model may offer a better understanding of layer 5 pyramidal neuronal responses. Accordingly, the effects of using the realistic full-head model in SuCS are compelling in computational modeling studies, even though this modeling requires substantially more effort.

  5. Lagrangian and Eulerian biventricular strains from anatomical NURBS models using tagged MRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tustison, Nicholas J.; Amini, Amir A.

    2005-04-01

    We present current research in which both left and right ventricular deformation is estimated from tagged cardiac magnetic resonance imaging using volumetric deformable models constructed from nonuniform rational B-splines (NURBS). The four model types considered include Cartesian-based NURBS models with both a cylindrical and prolate-spheroidal parameterization, prolate spheroidal-based NURBS models with a prolate-spheroidal parameterization, and cylindrical-based NURBS models with a cylindrical parameterization. For each frame subsequent to end-diastole, a NURBS model is constructed by fitting two surfaces with the same parameterization to the corresponding set of epicardial and endocardial contours from which a volumetric model is created. Using normal displacements of the three sets of orthogonal tag planes as well as displacements of contour/tag line intersection points and tag plane intersection points, one can solve for the optimal homogeneous coordinates, in a weighted least squares sense, of the control points of the deformed NURBS model at end-diastole using quadratic programming. This allows for subsequent forward displacement fitting from end-diastole to all later time frames. After fitting to all time points of data, lofting the NURBS model at each time point creates a comprehensive 4-D NURBS model. From this model, we can extract 3-D myocardial deformation fields and corresponding strain maps which are local measures of non-rigid deformation. The results show that, in the case of simulated data, the quadratic Cartesian-based NURBS model outperformed its counterparts in predicting normal strain. This model was used to then calculate normal Lagrangian and Eulerian strains in canine data.

  6. Anatomically accurate high resolution modeling of human whole heart electromechanics: A strongly scalable algebraic multigrid solver method for nonlinear deformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augustin, Christoph M.; Neic, Aurel; Liebmann, Manfred; Prassl, Anton J.; Niederer, Steven A.; Haase, Gundolf; Plank, Gernot

    2016-01-01

    Electromechanical (EM) models of the heart have been used successfully to study fundamental mechanisms underlying a heart beat in health and disease. However, in all modeling studies reported so far numerous simplifications were made in terms of representing biophysical details of cellular function and its heterogeneity, gross anatomy and tissue microstructure, as well as the bidirectional coupling between electrophysiology (EP) and tissue distension. One limiting factor is the employed spatial discretization methods which are not sufficiently flexible to accommodate complex geometries or resolve heterogeneities, but, even more importantly, the limited efficiency of the prevailing solver techniques which is not sufficiently scalable to deal with the incurring increase in degrees of freedom (DOF) when modeling cardiac electromechanics at high spatio-temporal resolution. This study reports on the development of a novel methodology for solving the nonlinear equation of finite elasticity using human whole organ models of cardiac electromechanics, discretized at a high para-cellular resolution. Three patient-specific, anatomically accurate, whole heart EM models were reconstructed from magnetic resonance (MR) scans at resolutions of 220 μm, 440 μm and 880 μm, yielding meshes of approximately 184.6, 24.4 and 3.7 million tetrahedral elements and 95.9, 13.2 and 2.1 million displacement DOF, respectively. The same mesh was used for discretizing the governing equations of both electrophysiology (EP) and nonlinear elasticity. A novel algebraic multigrid (AMG) preconditioner for an iterative Krylov solver was developed to deal with the resulting computational load. The AMG preconditioner was designed under the primary objective of achieving favorable strong scaling characteristics for both setup and solution runtimes, as this is key for exploiting current high performance computing hardware. Benchmark results using the 220 μm, 440 μm and 880 μm meshes demonstrate

  7. A patient-specific respiratory model of anatomical motion for radiation treatment planning

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Qinghui; Pevsner, Alex; Hertanto, Agung; Hu, Yu-Chi; Rosenzweig, Kenneth E.; Ling, C. Clifton; Mageras, Gig S.

    2007-01-01

    Modeling of respiratory motion is important for a more accurate understanding and accounting of its effect on dose to cancers in the thorax and abdomen by radiotherapy. We have developed a model of respiration-induced organ motion in the thorax, without the commonly adopted assumption of repeatable breath cycles. The model describes the motion of a volume of interest within the patient, based on a reference 3-dimensional image (at end-expiration), and the diaphragm positions at different time...

  8. Anatomical Knowledge Gain through a Clay-Modeling Exercise Compared to Live and Video Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kooloos, Jan G. M.; Schepens-Franke, Annelieke N.; Bergman, Esther M.; Donders, Rogier A. R. T.; Vorstenbosch, Marc A. T. M.

    2014-01-01

    Clay modeling is increasingly used as a teaching method other than dissection. The haptic experience during clay modeling is supposed to correspond to the learning effect of manipulations during exercises in the dissection room involving tissues and organs. We questioned this assumption in two pretest-post-test experiments. In these experiments,…

  9. Anatomical knowledge gain through a clay-modeling exercise compared to live and video observations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooloos, J.G.M.; Schepens-Franke, A.N.; Bergman, E.M.; Donders, R.; Vorstenbosch, M.A.

    2014-01-01

    Clay modeling is increasingly used as a teaching method other than dissection. The haptic experience during clay modeling is supposed to correspond to the learning effect of manipulations during exercises in the dissection room involving tissues and organs. We questioned this assumption in two prete

  10. Single-step stereolithography of complex anatomical models for optical flow measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Zélicourt, Diane; Pekkan, Kerem; Kitajima, Hiroumi; Frakes, David; Yoganathan, Ajit P

    2005-02-01

    Transparent stereolithographic rapid prototyping (RP) technology has already demonstrated in literature to be a practical model construction tool for optical flow measurements such as digital particle image velocimetry (DPIV), laser doppler velocimetry (LDV), and flow visualization. Here, we employ recently available transparent RP resins and eliminate time-consuming casting and chemical curing steps from the traditional approach. This note details our methodology with relevant material properties and highlights its advantages. Stereolithographic model printing with our procedure is now a direct single-step process, enabling faster geometric replication of complex computational fluid dynamics (CFD) models for exact experimental validation studies. This methodology is specifically applied to the in vitro flow modeling of patient-specific total cavopulmonary connection (TCPC) morphologies. The effect of RP machining grooves, surface quality, and hydrodynamic performance measurements as compared with the smooth glass models are also quantified.

  11. Development of a new generation of high-resolution anatomical models for medical device evaluation: the Virtual Population 3.0

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosselin, Marie-Christine; Neufeld, Esra; Moser, Heidi; Huber, Eveline; Farcito, Silvia; Gerber, Livia; Jedensjö, Maria; Hilber, Isabel; Di Gennaro, Fabienne; Lloyd, Bryn; Cherubini, Emilio; Szczerba, Dominik; Kainz, Wolfgang; Kuster, Niels

    2014-09-01

    The Virtual Family computational whole-body anatomical human models were originally developed for electromagnetic (EM) exposure evaluations, in particular to study how absorption of radiofrequency radiation from external sources depends on anatomy. However, the models immediately garnered much broader interest and are now applied by over 300 research groups, many from medical applications research fields. In a first step, the Virtual Family was expanded to the Virtual Population to provide considerably broader population coverage with the inclusion of models of both sexes ranging in age from 5 to 84 years old. Although these models have proven to be invaluable for EM dosimetry, it became evident that significantly enhanced models are needed for reliable effectiveness and safety evaluations of diagnostic and therapeutic applications, including medical implants safety. This paper describes the research and development performed to obtain anatomical models that meet the requirements necessary for medical implant safety assessment applications. These include implementation of quality control procedures, re-segmentation at higher resolution, more-consistent tissue assignments, enhanced surface processing and numerous anatomical refinements. Several tools were developed to enhance the functionality of the models, including discretization tools, posing tools to expand the posture space covered, and multiple morphing tools, e.g., to develop pathological models or variations of existing ones. A comprehensive tissue properties database was compiled to complement the library of models. The results are a set of anatomically independent, accurate, and detailed models with smooth, yet feature-rich and topologically conforming surfaces. The models are therefore suited for the creation of unstructured meshes, and the possible applications of the models are extended to a wider range of solvers and physics. The impact of these improvements is shown for the MRI exposure of an adult

  12. Continuous modelling study of numerical volumes - Applications to the visualization of anatomical structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several technics of imaging (IRM, image scanners, tomoscintigraphy, echography) give numerical informations presented by means of a stack of parallel cross-sectional images. Since many years, 3-D mathematical tools have been developed and allow the 3 D images synthesis of surfaces. In first part, we give the technics of numerical volume exploitation and their medical applications to diagnosis and therapy. The second part is about a continuous modelling of the volume with a tensor product of cubic splines. We study the characteristics of this representation and its clinical validation. Finally, we treat of the problem of surface visualization of objects contained in the volume. The results show the interest of this model and allow to propose specifications for 3-D workstation realization

  13. A patient-specific respiratory model of anatomical motion for radiation treatment planning

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Qinghui; Hertanto, Agung; Hu, Yu-Chi; Rosenzweig, Kenneth E; Ling, C Clifton; Mageras, Gig S

    2007-01-01

    Modeling of respiratory motion is important for a more accurate understanding and accounting of its effect on dose to cancers in the thorax and abdomen by radiotherapy. We have developed a model of respiration-induced organ motion in the thorax, without the commonly adopted assumption of repeatable breath cycles. The model describes the motion of a volume of interest within the patient, based on a reference 3-dimensional image (at end-expiration), and the diaphragm positions at different time points. The input data are respiration-correlated CT images of patients treated for nonsmall cell lung cancer, consisting of 3D images, including the diaphragm positions, at 10 phases of the respiratory cycle. A deformable image registration algorithm calculates the deformation field that maps each 3D image to the reference 3D image. A principle component analysis is performed to parameterize the 3D deformation field in terms of the diaphragm motion. We show that the first two principal components are adequate to accurat...

  14. Flow dynamics in anatomical models of abdominal aortic aneurysms: computational analysis of pulsatile flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finol, Ender A; Amon, Cristina H

    2003-01-01

    Blood flow in human arteries is dominated by time-dependent transport phenomena. In particular, in the abdominal segment of the aorta under a patient's average resting conditions, blood exhibits laminar flow patterns that are influenced by secondary flows induced by adjacent branches and in irregular vessel geometries. The flow dynamics becomes more complex when there is a pathological condition that causes changes in the normal structural composition of the vessel wall, for example, in the presence of an aneurysm. An aneurysm is an irreversible dilation of a blood vessel accompanied by weakening of the vessel wall. This work examines the importance of hemodynamics in the characterization of pulsatile blood flow patterns in individual Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm (AAA) models. These patient-specific computational models have been developed for the numerical simulation of the momentum transport equations utilizing the Finite Element Method (FEM) for the spatial and temporal discretization. We characterize pulsatile flow dynamics in AAAs for average resting conditions by means of identifying regions of disturbed flow and quantifying the disturbance by evaluating wall pressure and wall shear stresses at the aneurysm wall. PMID:14515766

  15. Automatic iterative segmentation of multiple sclerosis lesions using Student's t mixture models and probabilistic anatomical atlases in FLAIR images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freire, Paulo G L; Ferrari, Ricardo J

    2016-06-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a demyelinating autoimmune disease that attacks the central nervous system (CNS) and affects more than 2 million people worldwide. The segmentation of MS lesions in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a very important task to assess how a patient is responding to treatment and how the disease is progressing. Computational approaches have been proposed over the years to segment MS lesions and reduce the amount of time spent on manual delineation and inter- and intra-rater variability and bias. However, fully-automatic segmentation of MS lesions still remains an open problem. In this work, we propose an iterative approach using Student's t mixture models and probabilistic anatomical atlases to automatically segment MS lesions in Fluid Attenuated Inversion Recovery (FLAIR) images. Our technique resembles a refinement approach by iteratively segmenting brain tissues into smaller classes until MS lesions are grouped as the most hyperintense one. To validate our technique we used 21 clinical images from the 2015 Longitudinal Multiple Sclerosis Lesion Segmentation Challenge dataset. Evaluation using Dice Similarity Coefficient (DSC), True Positive Ratio (TPR), False Positive Ratio (FPR), Volume Difference (VD) and Pearson's r coefficient shows that our technique has a good spatial and volumetric agreement with raters' manual delineations. Also, a comparison between our proposal and the state-of-the-art shows that our technique is comparable and, in some cases, better than some approaches, thus being a viable alternative for automatic MS lesion segmentation in MRI.

  16. A micro-anatomical model of the distribution of myocardial endomysial collagen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macchiarelli, G; Ohtani, O; Nottola, S A; Stallone, T; Camboni, A; Prado, I M; Motta, P M

    2002-01-01

    Myocardial connective tissue probably provides passive support for regulating heart tensile strength and stiffness and ultimately for controlling heart mechanics through its endomysial part. However, endomysial collagen micro-arrangement is still a matter of debate. In order to define the fine distribution of left ventricle endomysial collagen, we applied the NaOH-scanning electron microscopy (SEM) maceration method (one of the techniques of choice for studying collagen micro-arrangement) to rabbit heart. Gomori-reticulum staining was used for correlated light microscopy (LM) observations. The SEM-NaOH method allowed isolation of collagen by removing other extracellular matrix components and cells and preserved collagen structure and position. Endomysial collagen appeared arranged in laminae that delimited the lacunae that were left empty by macerated myocytes and small vessels (mostly capillaries). These laminae were formed by reticular fibers, as confirmed by LM observations of Gomorireticulum-stained samples, and were organized in irregularly meshed networks made of thin (single) and thick (composed) filaments. In longitudinal views, collagen laminae extended the entire length of lacunae. In transversal views, the cut surface of the laminae appeared to be made of collagen bundles. These observations provide an updated microanatomical view of endomysial collagen distribution, which integrates previous studies. This model is based on the evidence that collagen laminae enveloped the surface of small vessels and myocytes. Thus, a type of myocyte-myocyte or capillary-myocyte "laminar connection" anchored to the entire cell length here is emphasized, rather than a type of "strut connection" anchored to defined loci, as usually described. This structure explains better how endomysium may provide the necessary support for heart compliance and protection against overstretch.

  17. A unified anatomical theory and computational model of cognitive information processing in the mammalian brain and the introduction of DNA reco codes

    OpenAIRE

    Solari, Soren

    2009-01-01

    This dissertation presents a comprehensive unified anatomical theory in conjunction with computational models that serve to provide a complete working explanatory framework for cognitive information processing in the mammalian brain. Our model provides sufficient detail such that we are able to hypothesize the function of individual populations of neurons as they correlate to psychological observation. We first introduce our working hypothesis, confabulation theory, on the fundamental cortica...

  18. Anatomic Total Shoulder System

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available GLOBAL AP ANATOMIC TOTAL SHOULDER SYSTEM METHODIST HOSPITAL PHILADELPHIA, PA April 17, 2008 00:00:10 ANNOUNCER: ... you'll be able to watch a live global AP anatomic total shoulder surgery from Methodist Hospital ...

  19. Digital 3D anatomical modeling of the mandible with full teeth%数字化全牙列下颌骨三维解剖建模

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱赴东; 石珏; 宋恩; 葛巍立; 廖胜辉

    2014-01-01

    Objective To study and establish a high quality digital 3D anatomical modeling of the mandible with full teeth.Methods A set of accurate digital models of standard anatomical specimens of mandibular teeth were obtained by laser scanning, and the 3D mandible model was reconstructed by CT scan data;then, a registration deformation method based on the geometry and image anatomical landmark was employed to do the registration of each tooth to the mandible model, and finally the tooth enamel , dentin, periodontal ligament were generated .Results A high quality digital 3D anatomical modeling of the mandible with full teeth was built , each tooth had detail crown and whole root , the distinction between the enamel , dentin, periodontal ligament , and any anatomical regions can be zoomed and rotately displayed . Conclusion The digital 3D anatomical modeling of the mandible with full teeth has realistic 3D imaging view and convenient teaching-learning function , and has tremendous apllication futures in the stomatology , maxillofacial and other medical departments .%目的:探讨建立具有高质量牙列的下颌骨三维数字化解剖模型。方法用激光扫描获取1套标准下颌牙列解剖标本的精确三维模型,用CT扫描数据重建下颌骨三维模型,使用基于几何和图像解剖标志的配准变形方法将每颗牙齿模型对齐融合到下颌骨模型,进一步生成牙齿的牙釉质、牙本质、牙周膜。结果成功建立了具有高质量牙列的下颌骨三维数字化解剖模型,每颗牙齿具有牙冠细节和完整的牙根,区分牙釉质、牙本质、牙周膜,可以对任意解剖区域放大和旋转观察,显示解剖标志。结论高质量牙列的下颌骨三维数字化解剖模型具有逼真的三维显象和方便的教学学习功能,可用于口腔、颌面、解剖等多个学科。

  20. The use of a new 3D splint and double CT scan procedure to obtain an accurate anatomic virtual augmented model of the skull.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swennen, G R J; Barth, E-L; Eulzer, C; Schutyser, F

    2007-02-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) virtual planning of orthognathic surgery requires detailed visualization of the interocclusal relationship. The purpose of this study was to introduce the modification of the double computed tomography (CT) scan procedure using a newly designed 3D splint in order to obtain a detailed anatomic 3D virtual augmented model of the skull. A total of 10 dry adult human cadaver skulls were used to evaluate the accuracy of the automatic rigid registration method for fusion of both CT datasets (Maxilim, version 1.3.0). The overall mean registration error was 0.1355+/-0.0323 mm (range 0.0760-0.1782 mm). Analysis of variance showed a registration method error of 0.0564 mm (P 3D splint with the double CT scan procedure allowed accurate registration and the set-up of an accurate anatomic 3D virtual augmented model of the skull with detailed dental surface.

  1. A unified deformable (UD) segment model for quantifying total power of anatomical and prosthetic below-knee structures during stance in gait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Kota Z; Kepple, Thomas M; Stanhope, Steven J

    2012-10-11

    Anatomically-relevant (AR) biomechanical models are traditionally used to quantify joint powers and segmental energies of lower extremity structures during gait. While AR models contain a series of rigid body segments linked together via mechanical joints, prosthetic below-knee structures are often deformable objects without a definable ankle joint. Consequently, the application of AR models for the study of prosthetic limbs has been problematic. The purpose of this study was to develop and validate a unified deformable (UD) segment model for quantifying the total power of below-knee structures. Estimates of total below-knee power derived via the UD segment model were compared to those derived via an AR model during stance in gait of eleven healthy subjects. The UD segment model achieved similar results to the AR model. Differences in peak power, total positive work, and total negative work were 1.91±0.31%, 3.97±0.49%, and 1.39±0.33%, relative to the AR model estimates. The main advantage of the UD segment model is that it does not require the definition of an ankle joint or foot structures. Therefore, this technique may be valuable for facilitating direct comparisons between anatomical and disparate prosthetic below-knee structures in future studies.

  2. Effect of Anatomical Modeling on Space Radiation Dose Estimates: A Comparison of Doses for NASA Phantoms and 5th, 50th, and 95th Percentile UF Hybrid Phantoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahadori, A.; VanBaalen, M.; Shavers, M.; Semones, E.; Dodge, C.; Bolch, W.

    2010-01-01

    The estimate of absorbed dose to individual organs of a space crewmember is affected by the geometry of the anatomical model of the astronaut used in the radiation transport calculation. For astronaut dosimetry, NASA currently uses the computerized anatomical male (CAM) and computerized anatomical female (CAF) stylized phantoms to represent astronauts in its operational radiation dose analyses. These phantoms are available in one size and in two body positions. In contrast, the UF Hybrid Adult Male and Female (UFHADM and UFHADF) phantoms have organ shapes based on actual CT data. The surfaces of these phantoms are defined by non-uniform rational B-spline surfaces, and are thus flexible in terms of body morphometry and extremity positioning. In this study, UFHADM and UFHADF are scaled to dimensions corresponding to 5th, 50th, and 95th percentile (PCTL) male and female astronauts. A ray-tracing program is written in Visual Basic 2008, which is then used to create areal density maps for dose points corresponding to various organs within the phantoms. The areal density maps, along with appropriate space radiation spectra, are input into the NASA program couplet HZETRN/BRYNTRN, and organ doses are calculated. The areal density maps selected tissues and organs of the 5th, 50th, and 95th PCTL male and female phantoms are presented and compared. In addition, the organ doses for the 5th, 50th, and 95th PCTL male and female phantoms are presented and compared to organ doses for CAM and CAF.

  3. Anatomic Total Shoulder System

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available GLOBAL AP ANATOMIC TOTAL SHOULDER SYSTEM METHODIST HOSPITAL PHILADELPHIA, PA April 17, 2008 00:00:10 ANNOUNCER: DePuy Orthopedics is continually advancing the standard of orthopedic patient care. In a few ...

  4. Anatomic Total Shoulder System

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to a patient's unique anatomical makeup. Dr. Gerald R. Williams, Jr., a shoulder specialist from the Rothman ... That might help. Could you raise the O.R. table, please? 00:28:35 WOMAN: Can you ...

  5. Anatomic Total Shoulder System

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available GLOBAL AP ANATOMIC TOTAL SHOULDER SYSTEM METHODIST HOSPITAL PHILADELPHIA, PA April 17, 2008 00:00:10 ANNOUNCER: DePuy Orthopedics is continually advancing the standard of orthopedic patient ...

  6. Correction of dental artifacts within the anatomical surface in PET/MRI using Active Shape Models and k-Nearest-Neighbors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ladefoged, Claes N.; Andersen, Flemming L.; Keller, Sune H.;

    2014-01-01

    n combined PET/MR, attenuation correction (AC) is performed indirectly based on the available MR image information. Metal implant-induced susceptibility artifacts and subsequent signal voids challenge MR-based AC. Several papers acknowledge the problem in PET attenuation correction when dental...... artifacts are ignored, but none of them attempts to solve the problem. We propose a clinically feasible correction method which combines Active Shape Models (ASM) and k- Nearest-Neighbors (kNN) into a simple approach which finds and corrects the dental artifacts within the surface boundaries of the patient...... vector, and fill the artifact voxels with a value representing soft tissue. We tested the method using fourteen patients without artifacts, and eighteen patients with dental artifacts of varying sizes within the anatomical surface of the head/neck region. Though the method wrongly filled a small volume...

  7. Structural and micro-anatomical changes in vertebrae associated with idiopathic-type spinal curvature in the curveback guppy model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wallis Rob

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The curveback lineage of guppy is characterized by heritable idiopathic-type spinal curvature that develops during growth. Prior work has revealed several important developmental similarities to the human idiopathic scoliosis (IS syndrome. In this study we investigate structural and histological aspects of the vertebrae that are associated with spinal curvature in the curveback guppy and test for sexual dimorphism that might explain a female bias for severe curve magnitudes in the population. Methods Vertebrae were studied from whole-mount skeletal specimens of curved and non-curved adult males and females. A series of ratios were used to characterize structural aspects of each vertebra. A three-way analysis of variance tested for effects of sex, curvature, vertebral position along the spine, and all 2-way interactions (i.e., sex and curvature, sex and vertebra position, and vertebra position and curvature. Histological analyses were used to characterize micro-architectural changes in affected vertebrae and the intervertebral region. Results In curveback, vertebrae that are associated with curvature demonstrate asymmetric shape distortion, migration of the intervertebral ligament, and vertebral thickening on the concave side of curvature. There is sexual dimorphism among curved individuals such that for several vertebrae, females have more slender vertebrae than do males. Also, in the region of the spine where lordosis typically occurs, curved and non-curved females have a reduced width at the middle of their vertebrae, relative to males. Conclusions Based on similarities to human spinal curvatures and to animals with induced curves, the concave-convex biases described in the guppy suggest that there is a mechanical component to curve pathogenesis in curveback. Because idiopathic-type curvature in curveback is primarily a sagittal deformity, it is structurally more similar to Scheuermann kyphosis than IS. Anatomical

  8. Anatomic Total Shoulder System

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... advancing the standard of orthopedic patient care. In a few moments, you'll be able to watch a live global AP anatomic total shoulder surgery from Methodist Hospital in Philadelphia. A revolution in shoulder orthopedics, the Global AP gives ...

  9. Smart grid initialization reduces the computational complexity of multi-objective image registration based on a dual-dynamic transformation model to account for large anatomical differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosman, Peter A. N.; Alderliesten, Tanja

    2016-03-01

    We recently demonstrated the strong potential of using dual-dynamic transformation models when tackling deformable image registration problems involving large anatomical differences. Dual-dynamic transformation models employ two moving grids instead of the common single moving grid for the target image (and single fixed grid for the source image). We previously employed powerful optimization algorithms to make use of the additional flexibility offered by a dual-dynamic transformation model with good results, directly obtaining insight into the trade-off between important registration objectives as a result of taking a multi-objective approach to optimization. However, optimization has so far been initialized using two regular grids, which still leaves a great potential of dual-dynamic transformation models untapped: a-priori grid alignment with image structures/areas that are expected to deform more. This allows (far) less grid points to be used, compared to using a sufficiently refined regular grid, leading to (far) more efficient optimization, or, equivalently, more accurate results using the same number of grid points. We study the implications of exploiting this potential by experimenting with two new smart grid initialization procedures: one manual expert-based and one automated image-feature-based. We consider a CT test case with large differences in bladder volume with and without a multi-resolution scheme and find a substantial benefit of using smart grid initialization.

  10. Early fetal anatomical sonography.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Donnelly, Jennifer C

    2012-10-01

    Over the past decade, prenatal screening and diagnosis has moved from the second into the first trimester, with aneuploidy screening becoming both feasible and effective. With vast improvements in ultrasound technology, sonologists can now image the fetus in greater detail at all gestational ages. In the hands of experienced sonographers, anatomic surveys between 11 and 14 weeks can be carried out with good visualisation rates of many structures. It is important to be familiar with the normal development of the embryo and fetus, and to be aware of the major anatomical landmarks whose absence or presence may be deemed normal or abnormal depending on the gestational age. Some structural abnormalities will nearly always be detected, some will never be and some are potentially detectable depending on a number of factors.

  11. Numerical simulation of pharyngeal airflow applied to obstructive sleep apnea: effect of the nasal cavity in anatomically accurate airway models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cisonni, Julien; Lucey, Anthony D; King, Andrew J C; Islam, Syed Mohammed Shamsul; Lewis, Richard; Goonewardene, Mithran S

    2015-11-01

    Repetitive brief episodes of soft-tissue collapse within the upper airway during sleep characterize obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), an extremely common and disabling disorder. Failure to maintain the patency of the upper airway is caused by the combination of sleep-related loss of compensatory dilator muscle activity and aerodynamic forces promoting closure. The prediction of soft-tissue movement in patient-specific airway 3D mechanical models is emerging as a useful contribution to clinical understanding and decision making. Such modeling requires reliable estimations of the pharyngeal wall pressure forces. While nasal obstruction has been recognized as a risk factor for OSA, the need to include the nasal cavity in upper-airway models for OSA studies requires consideration, as it is most often omitted because of its complex shape. A quantitative analysis of the flow conditions generated by the nasal cavity and the sinuses during inspiration upstream of the pharynx is presented. Results show that adequate velocity boundary conditions and simple artificial extensions of the flow domain can reproduce the essential effects of the nasal cavity on the pharyngeal flow field. Therefore, the overall complexity and computational cost of accurate flow predictions can be reduced.

  12. Development of a rate model to investigate contributions of anatomic and physiologic determinants of in vivo skin permeation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fleischer, N.M.

    1991-01-01

    The skin is a heterogeneous, bi-directional impediment to chemical flux, in which the stratum corneum is a major, though not the sole, rate-limiting barrier layer to permeation. Systemic toxicity following dermal exposure to environmental chemicals and use of skin as a portal for systemic administration of drugs have led to extensive investigations of the inward flux of xenobiotics applied to the outer surface of skin. Those investigations mainly utilized in vitro experimental systems that were limited by the absence of normal physiologic functions. The objective of the present research was to investigate an in vivo skin permeation model system that was sensitive to perturbations of skin capillary physiology and stratum corneum. A [open quotes]fuzzy[close quotes] rat model system was devised that employed outward cutaneous migration of a systemically administered permeation probe, isoflurane. Specially devised, transdermal vapor collection devices were used to capture the outward flux of isoflurane through the skin. Isoflurane flux measurements, coupled with blood isoflurane concentrations, were used to calculate cutaneous permeability coefficients (K[sub p]) of isolflurane, as an index of permeation, under various conditions of normal or perturbed cutaneous physiologic states. Physiologic perturbations were performed to test the sensitivity of the model system to detect effects of minoxidil-mediated vasodilation, phenylephrine-mediated vasoconstriction, and leukotriene D[sub 4]-mediated increased capillary permeability on the outward flux of isoflurane. Tape stripping and topical ether-ethanol application produced either physical removal or chemical disruption of the stratum corneum, respectively. Minoxidil, leukotriene D[sub 4], tape stripping of stratum corneum, and topical ether-ethanol experiments produced statistically significant increases (52 to 193%) in the K[sub p's], while phenylephrine had no significant effect on isoflurane permeation.

  13. Dental moulages and anatomic wax models from the collections of the Dental Institute of the Berlin University (1884-1945)

    OpenAIRE

    Werner, Nina

    2015-01-01

    In the early 20th century the Dental Institute of the Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universität zu Berlin possessed a large collection of moulages and wax models. They were mainly produced and used up to the 1920s. Today there are only 50 pieces still existing, which are located at the Berlin Medical Historical Museum of the Charité. The objective was to find out all the missing information such as people involved, the origin, historic use, the shown disease patterns and the historical and today’s t...

  14. Anatomical imaging for radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, Philip M [Joint Physics Department, Institute of Cancer Research and Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust, Downs Road, Sutton, Surrey SM2 5PT (United Kingdom)], E-mail: phil.evans@icr.ac.uk

    2008-06-21

    The goal of radiation therapy is to achieve maximal therapeutic benefit expressed in terms of a high probability of local control of disease with minimal side effects. Physically this often equates to the delivery of a high dose of radiation to the tumour or target region whilst maintaining an acceptably low dose to other tissues, particularly those adjacent to the target. Techniques such as intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT), stereotactic radiosurgery and computer planned brachytherapy provide the means to calculate the radiation dose delivery to achieve the desired dose distribution. Imaging is an essential tool in all state of the art planning and delivery techniques: (i) to enable planning of the desired treatment, (ii) to verify the treatment is delivered as planned and (iii) to follow-up treatment outcome to monitor that the treatment has had the desired effect. Clinical imaging techniques can be loosely classified into anatomic methods which measure the basic physical characteristics of tissue such as their density and biological imaging techniques which measure functional characteristics such as metabolism. In this review we consider anatomical imaging techniques. Biological imaging is considered in another article. Anatomical imaging is generally used for goals (i) and (ii) above. Computed tomography (CT) has been the mainstay of anatomical treatment planning for many years, enabling some delineation of soft tissue as well as radiation attenuation estimation for dose prediction. Magnetic resonance imaging is fast becoming widespread alongside CT, enabling superior soft-tissue visualization. Traditionally scanning for treatment planning has relied on the use of a single snapshot scan. Recent years have seen the development of techniques such as 4D CT and adaptive radiotherapy (ART). In 4D CT raw data are encoded with phase information and reconstructed to yield a set of scans detailing motion through the breathing, or cardiac, cycle. In ART a set of

  15. Scroll-wave dynamics in the presence of ionic and conduction inhomogeneities in an anatomically realistic mathematical model for the pig heart

    CERN Document Server

    Majumder, R; Panfilov, A V

    2016-01-01

    Nonlinear waves of the reaction-diffusion (RD) type occur in many biophysical systems, including the heart, where they initiate cardiac contraction. Such waves can form vortices called scroll waves, which result in the onset of life-threatening cardiac arrhythmias. The dynamics of scroll waves is affected by the presence of inhomogeneities, which, in a very general way, can be of \\textit{(i)} ionic type, i.e., they affect the reaction part, or \\textit{(ii)} conduction type, i.e., they affect the diffusion part of an RD equation. We demostrate, for the first time, by using a state-of-the-art, anatomically realistic model of the pig heart, how differences in the geometrical and biophysical nature of such inhomogeneities can influence scroll-wave dynamics in different ways. Our study reveals that conduction-type inhomogeneities become increasingly important at small length scales, i.e., in the case of multiple, randomly distributed, obstacles in space at the cellular scale ($0.2-0.4{\\rm mm}$). Such configuration...

  16. [BODIES ARTIFACTS AND ANATOMICAL MODELS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aruta, Alessandro

    2015-01-01

    Through three different museological approaches, diachronically arranged, the essay intends to introduce some pertinent questions related to the topic of the conference "Bodies and Anatomy: the corpses in the museums from Ruysch to Von Hagens. The first item analyzes a recent line of British museological studies, treating mainly medical British museums of the XVIII and XIX century, with intriguing developments arriving up to nowadays. A second point illustrates several aspects with regards to the donation and the arrangement of the morbid specimina Luigi Gedda collection, coming from the CSS Mendel of Rome to the Museum of Pathological Anatomy of Sapienza University of Rome. Finally, in a crossover between the previous points, it will be presented some recent studies regarding the employment of new communication technologies in the scientific and medical museology. PMID:26946593

  17. [BODIES ARTIFACTS AND ANATOMICAL MODELS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aruta, Alessandro

    2015-01-01

    Through three different museological approaches, diachronically arranged, the essay intends to introduce some pertinent questions related to the topic of the conference "Bodies and Anatomy: the corpses in the museums from Ruysch to Von Hagens. The first item analyzes a recent line of British museological studies, treating mainly medical British museums of the XVIII and XIX century, with intriguing developments arriving up to nowadays. A second point illustrates several aspects with regards to the donation and the arrangement of the morbid specimina Luigi Gedda collection, coming from the CSS Mendel of Rome to the Museum of Pathological Anatomy of Sapienza University of Rome. Finally, in a crossover between the previous points, it will be presented some recent studies regarding the employment of new communication technologies in the scientific and medical museology.

  18. Computational investigation of nonlinear microwave tomography on anatomically realistic breast phantoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, P. D.; Rubæk, Tonny; Mohr, J. J.

    2013-01-01

    The performance of a nonlinear microwave tomography algorithm is tested using simulated data from anatomically realistic breast phantoms. These tests include several different anatomically correct breast models from the University of Wisconsin-Madison repository with and without tumors inserted....

  19. Integrating anatomical pathology to the healthcare enterprise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel-Le Bozec, Christel; Henin, Dominique; Fabiani, Bettina; Bourquard, Karima; Ouagne, David; Degoulet, Patrice; Jaulent, Marie-Christine

    2006-01-01

    For medical decisions, healthcare professionals need that all required information is both correct and easily available. We address the issue of integrating anatomical pathology department to the healthcare enterprise. The pathology workflow from order to report, including specimen process and image acquisition was modeled. Corresponding integration profiles were addressed by expansion of the IHE (Integrating the Healthcare Enterprise) initiative. Implementation using respectively DICOM Structured Report (SR) and DICOM Slide-Coordinate Microscopy (SM) was tested. The two main integration profiles--pathology general workflow and pathology image workflow--rely on 13 transactions based on HL7 or DICOM standard. We propose a model of the case in anatomical pathology and of other information entities (orders, image folders and reports) and real-world objects (specimen, tissue samples, slides, etc). Cases representation in XML schemas, based on DICOM specification, allows producing DICOM image files and reports to be stored into a PACS (Picture Archiving and Communication System. PMID:17108550

  20. ANATOMICAL PROPERTIES OF PLANTAGO ARENARIA

    OpenAIRE

    Nicoleta IANOVICI; SINITEAN, Adrian; Aurel FAUR

    2011-01-01

    Psammophytes are marked by a number of adaptations that enable them to exist in the hard environmental conditions of the sand habitats. In this study, the anatomical characteristics of Plantago arenaria were examined. Studies were conducted to assess the diversity of anatomical adaptations of vegetative organs in this taxa. Results are presented with original photographs. The analysis of leaf anatomy in P. arenaria showed that the leaves contained a contained xeromorphic traits. Arbuscular my...

  1. Quantifying anatomical shape variations in neurological disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Nikhil; Fletcher, P Thomas; Preston, J Samuel; King, Richard D; Marron, J S; Weiner, Michael W; Joshi, Sarang

    2014-04-01

    We develop a multivariate analysis of brain anatomy to identify the relevant shape deformation patterns and quantify the shape changes that explain corresponding variations in clinical neuropsychological measures. We use kernel Partial Least Squares (PLS) and formulate a regression model in the tangent space of the manifold of diffeomorphisms characterized by deformation momenta. The scalar deformation momenta completely encode the diffeomorphic changes in anatomical shape. In this model, the clinical measures are the response variables, while the anatomical variability is treated as the independent variable. To better understand the "shape-clinical response" relationship, we also control for demographic confounders, such as age, gender, and years of education in our regression model. We evaluate the proposed methodology on the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) database using baseline structural MR imaging data and neuropsychological evaluation test scores. We demonstrate the ability of our model to quantify the anatomical deformations in units of clinical response. Our results also demonstrate that the proposed method is generic and generates reliable shape deformations both in terms of the extracted patterns and the amount of shape changes. We found that while the hippocampus and amygdala emerge as mainly responsible for changes in test scores for global measures of dementia and memory function, they are not a determinant factor for executive function. Another critical finding was the appearance of thalamus and putamen as most important regions that relate to executive function. These resulting anatomical regions were consistent with very high confidence irrespective of the size of the population used in the study. This data-driven global analysis of brain anatomy was able to reach similar conclusions as other studies in Alzheimer's disease based on predefined ROIs, together with the identification of other new patterns of deformation. The

  2. 脊髓造影螺旋CT重建颈椎病仿真解剖模型的意义%Significance of helical CT myelography in reconstructing virtual anatomical models of cervical spondylosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆政峰; 董启榕; 郑祖根; 龚建平

    2008-01-01

    背景:随着螺旋CT及计算机图像后处理技术的进步,医学仿真影像学在复杂颈椎病的诊断与治疗中获得了良好的临床应用效果.目的:观察脊髓造影螺旋CT扫描多平面重建及三维重建颈椎影像仿真解剖模型的效果及其临床意义.设计、时间及地点:计算机三维重建,金标准对比实验,于2001-01/2006-01在苏州大学附属第二医院完成.对象接受手术治疗的20例病情复杂的颈椎病患者.方法:对20例患者进行颈脊髓造影螺旋CT薄层扫描,分别行多平面重建和三维重建,建市颈椎CT仿真解剖模型.将扫描及其蕈建结果:用于术前病情评估、模拟手术,并以手术直视所见为金标准评价仿真解剖模型的准确性和效能.主要观察指标:仿真解削模型的准确性和效能.结果:仍真解剖模型可同步显示骨件椎管和膜性椎管,为术前评估和模拟手术提供了颈椎全面、细微骨件解剖结构和硬膜囊、脊髓、神经根袖等软组织受压等解剖信息,与患者实际解剖相符合.结论:仿真解剖模型直观、逼真,准确再现了颈椎解削,可应用于综合评估颈椎病病情并模拟手术.%BACKGROUND: With the advancements in helical CT myelography and computer image postprocessing, virtual medical imaging has acquired good outcomes in the diagnosis and treatment of complex cervical spondylosis. OBJECTIVE: To observe the effects and significance of helical CT myelography on multiplanar and three-dimensional reconstruction of virtual anatomical models of cervical spondylosis. DESIGN, TIME AND SETTING: The present computer three-dimensional reconstruction, gold standard control study was performed at the Second Hospital Affiliated to Soochow University between January 2001 and January 2006. PARTICIPANTS: Twenty patients with complex cervical spondylosis, who had received surgery, were employed for this study. METHODS: Virtual anatomical model of cervical spondylosis was

  3. Anatomically Correct Surface Recovery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Rasmus Ramsbøl; Nielsen, Jannik Boll; Larsen, Rasmus;

    2015-01-01

    We present a method for 3D surface recovery in partial surface scans. The method is based on an Active Shape Model, which is used to predict missing data. The model is constructed using a bootstrap framework, where an initially small collection of hand-annotated samples is used to fit......-of-the-art surface reconstruction algorithm, the presented method gives matching prediction results for the synthetic evaluation samples and superior results for the direct scanner data....

  4. 膝关节有限元解剖模型的构建及其力学分析%The construction of the anatomical finite element model of knee joint and its mechanical anal-ysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董跃福; 牟志芳; 蒋胜波; 刘建; 刘旭东

    2015-01-01

    Objective To develop an anatomically accurate finite element model of knee joint through the method of multimodality CT and MRI image data fusion and to further analyze and verify it for offering a useful tool for the study of knee biomechanics. Methods CT and MRI image data of an intact knee joint were imported into Mimics soft-ware. 3D models of bones,articular cartilages and ligaments were respectively constructed from image data. Following the fusion of the constructed 3D models based on external landmarks, the complete knee model was constructed. Then the knee finite element model was developed in Hypermesh software. Based on anatomical observation and manual measurement, the finite element model was assessed in its fidelity level. Finally the finite element model was analyzed and verified after the definition of its material behavior, boundary conditions and loading. Results The complete knee finite element mode composed of bone,meniscus, articular cartilage,and ligament was developed from CT and MRI images, and it maintained its important anatomical features of knee joint. The obtained finite element analysis results corresponded to that reported in the literature, which meaned the model′s reliability. Conclusions Through the method of multimodality CT and MRI image data fusion, the anatomically accurate finite element model of knee joint can be developed, and it maintains its important anatomical features. This model is a useful tool for the study of knee biomechanics.%目的 通过多模态CT和MRI影像数据融合构建膝关节有限元解剖模型,并进行有限元分析和验证,为膝关节力学仿真研究提供可靠的有限元模型. 方法 采集正常膝关节CT和MRI影像数据,导入到 Mimics软件中,构建膝关节骨骼、半月板、关节软骨、韧带等结构的三维模型. 以外部标记为参照点进行模型配准,融合成膝关节整体模型. 在Hypermesh软件中进行网格划分,构建膝关节有限元模型. 通

  5. ANATOMICAL PROPERTIES OF PLANTAGO ARENARIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicoleta IANOVICI

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Psammophytes are marked by a number of adaptations that enable them to exist in the hard environmental conditions of the sand habitats. In this study, the anatomical characteristics of Plantago arenaria were examined. Studies were conducted to assess the diversity of anatomical adaptations of vegetative organs in this taxa. Results are presented with original photographs. The analysis of leaf anatomy in P. arenaria showed that the leaves contained a contained xeromorphic traits. Arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis seems to be critical for their survival.

  6. Anatomically-aided PET reconstruction using the kernel method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchcroft, Will; Wang, Guobao; Chen, Kevin T.; Catana, Ciprian; Qi, Jinyi

    2016-09-01

    This paper extends the kernel method that was proposed previously for dynamic PET reconstruction, to incorporate anatomical side information into the PET reconstruction model. In contrast to existing methods that incorporate anatomical information using a penalized likelihood framework, the proposed method incorporates this information in the simpler maximum likelihood (ML) formulation and is amenable to ordered subsets. The new method also does not require any segmentation of the anatomical image to obtain edge information. We compare the kernel method with the Bowsher method for anatomically-aided PET image reconstruction through a simulated data set. Computer simulations demonstrate that the kernel method offers advantages over the Bowsher method in region of interest quantification. Additionally the kernel method is applied to a 3D patient data set. The kernel method results in reduced noise at a matched contrast level compared with the conventional ML expectation maximization algorithm.

  7. 数字化肺动脉三维模型的建立及解剖学测量%Establishment of Three Dimensional Model of Pulmonary Artery and Its Anatomical Measurement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周仁鹏; 陶晓晓; 赵琦峰

    2011-01-01

    Objective To offer the personal three - dimensional anatomical information for clinic with digital pulmonary artery( PA)model based on the data of spiral CT strengthening scanning data.Methods Thoracic arterial phase enhanced CT daia were acquired.Three - dimensional model of the pulmonary artery with MIMICS10.01 software was reconstruct.Then anatomic index of PA waa observed and measured on 3 D model.Results The three - dimensional model displayed accurately morphology structure of PA and relevant indicators, offered the precise anatomical parameters such as length, area, volume.Conclusion The 3D reconstruction model can clearly show the geometric and local details to offer a considerable method for the study of morphological characteristics of human pulmonary artery.Acquired pulmonary artery measurements can provide information for clinical diagnose and therapy.%目的 以螺旋CT数据三维重建数字化肺动脉模型,在此基础上进行相关的解剖学测量,为临床提供个体化的立体解剖信息.方法 将螺旋CT动脉期扫描的DICOM格式数据导入Mimics10.01软件中,然后三维重建肺动脉模型,并在此基础上利用软件自带功能进行各种解剖学测量.结果 数字化肺动脉模型能够准确地反映其形态学结构,全方位观测相关解剖学指标,可获得长度、面积、体积等精确的解剖参数.结论 数字化肺动脉模型能反映肺动脉的几何特征及局部细节,为研究人体肺动脉的形态特点提供新的途径;获得的肺动脉测量数据,可为临床提供诊断信息和治疗依据.

  8. Anatomical structure of Polystichum Roth ferns rachises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oksana V. Tyshchenko

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The morpho-anatomical characteristics of rachis cross sections of five Polystichum species is presented. The main and auxiliary anatomical features which help to distinguish investigated species are revealed.

  9. Anatomic study of infrapopliteal vessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lappas, D; Stavropoulos, N A; Noussios, G; Sakellariou, V; Skandalakis, P

    2012-08-01

    The purpose of this project is to study and analyse the anatomical variations of the infrapopliteal vessels concerning their branching pattern. A reliable sample of one hundred formalin-fixed adult cadavers was dissected by the Anatomical Laboratory of Athens University. The variations can be classified in the following way: the normal branching of the popliteal artery was present in 90%. The remainder revealed variant branching patterns: hypoplastic or aplastic posterior tibial artery and the pedis arteries arising from the peroneal (3%); hypoplastic or aplastic anterior tibial artery (1.5%); and the dorsalis pedis formed by two equal branches, arising from the peroneal and the anterior tibial artery (2%). The variations were more frequent in females and in short-height individuals. Knowledge of these variations is rather important for any invasive technic concerning lower extremities.

  10. Optimization of mammography with respect to anatomical noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredenberg, E.; Svensson, B.; Danielsson, M.; Lazzari, B.; Cederström, B.

    2011-03-01

    Beam quality optimization in mammography traditionally considers detection of a target obscured by quantum noise on a homogenous background. It can be argued that this scheme does not correspond well to the clinical imaging task because real mammographic images contain a complex superposition of anatomical structures, resulting in anatomical noise that may dominate over quantum noise. Using a newly developed spectral mammography system, we measured the correlation and magnitude of the anatomical noise in a set of mammograms. The results from these measurements were used as input to an observer-model optimization that included quantum noise as well as anatomical noise. We found that, within this framework, the detectability of tumors and microcalcifications behaved very differently with respect to beam quality and dose. The results for small microcalcifications were similar to what traditional optimization methods would yield, which is to be expected since quantum noise dominates over anatomical noise at high spatial frequencies. For larger tumors, however, low-frequency anatomical noise was the limiting factor. Because anatomical structure has similar energy dependence as tumor contrast, optimal x-ray energy was significantly higher and the useful energy region wider than traditional methods suggest. Measurements on a tissue phantom confirmed these theoretical results. Furthermore, since quantum noise constitutes only a small fraction of the noise, the dose could be reduced substantially without sacrificing tumor detectability. Exposure settings used clinically are therefore not necessarily optimal for this imaging task. The impact of these findings on the mammographic imaging task as a whole is, however, at this stage unclear.

  11. Digital imaging in anatomic pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, M J; Sotnikov, A V

    1996-10-01

    Advances in computer technology continue to bring new innovations to departments of anatomic pathology. This article briefly reviews the present status of digital optical imaging, and explores the directions that this technology may lead over the next several years. Technical requirements for digital microscopic and gross imaging, and the available options for image archival and retrieval are summarized. The advantages of digital images over conventional photography in the conference room, and the usefulness of digital imaging in the frozen section suite and gross room, as an adjunct to surgical signout and as a resource for training and education, are discussed. An approach to the future construction of digital histologic sections and the computer as microscope is described. The digital technologic applications that are now available as components of the surgical pathologist's workstation are enumerated. These include laboratory information systems, computerized voice recognition, and on-line or CD-based literature searching, texts and atlases and, in some departments, on-line image databases. The authors suggest that, in addition to these resources that are already available, tomorrow's surgical pathology workstation will include network-linked digital histologic databases, on-line software for image analysis and 3-D image enhancement, expert systems, and ultimately, advanced pattern recognition capabilities. In conclusion, the authors submit that digital optical imaging is likely to have a significant and positive impact on the future development of anatomic pathology. PMID:8853053

  12. Deformable meshes for medical image segmentation accurate automatic segmentation of anatomical structures

    CERN Document Server

    Kainmueller, Dagmar

    2014-01-01

    ? Segmentation of anatomical structures in medical image data is an essential task in clinical practice. Dagmar Kainmueller introduces methods for accurate fully automatic segmentation of anatomical structures in 3D medical image data. The author's core methodological contribution is a novel deformation model that overcomes limitations of state-of-the-art Deformable Surface approaches, hence allowing for accurate segmentation of tip- and ridge-shaped features of anatomical structures. As for practical contributions, she proposes application-specific segmentation pipelines for a range of anatom

  13. Anatomical features and sequence of modeling the human head sculpture in the classroom for stu-dents with “Fine Arts” direction

    OpenAIRE

    Gennady Sofronov; Sofronova Nadezhda

    2015-01-01

    The paper deals with the importance of implementation of sculptural modeling of the human head; the main goals and objectives, focusing on knowledge of plastic anatomy, finding a proportional relationship of all parts and elements of the head, on a phased maintenance of work, on the study of sculptural volume plas-tics, transmission and creation of professional artistic image.

  14. A 2D-Computer Model of Atrial Tissue Based on Histographs Describes the Electro-Anatomical Impact of Microstructure on Endocardiac Potentials and Electric Near-Fields

    OpenAIRE

    Campos, Fernando O.; Wiener, Thomas; Prassl, Anton J.; Ahammer, Helmut; Plank, Gernot; dos Santos, Rodrigo Weber; Sánchez-Quintana, Damián; Hofer, Ernst

    2010-01-01

    In experiments with cardiac tissue, local conduction is described by waveform analysis of the derivative of the extracellular potential Φ.e and by the loop morphology of the near-field strength E (the components of the electric field parallel and very close to the tissue surface). The question arises whether the features of these signals can be used to quantify the degree of fibrosis in the heart. A computer model allows us to study the behavior of electric signals at the endocardium with res...

  15. Electric field and current density distributions induced in an anatomically-based model of the human head by magnetic fields from a hair dryer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tofani, S; Ossola, P; d'Amore, G; Gandhi, O P

    1995-01-01

    We have used the impedance method to calculate the induced electric (E) fields and current densities (J) for the spatially varying vector magnetic fields due to a hair dryer. In this method, applicable for low-frequency exposures where the quasi-static approximation may be made, the biological body or the exposed parts thereof are represented by a three-dimensional (3-D) network of impedances whose individual values are obtained from the electrical properties sigma, epsilon r for the various tissues. We have measured the 3-D variations of the 50-Hz magnetic fields from a typical hair dryer and found that the various components correlate well with those for a helical coil. The non-uniform magnetic fields thus obtained are used to calculate the induced E and J with a resolution of 1.31 cm for the model of the head and neck. The induced E values are compared with the fields endogenous to the body and the minimum detectable E-field limits based on the cellular thermal noise model proposed by Weaver and Astumian (1990, 1992).

  16. Brain Morphometry Using Anatomical Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansal, Ravi; Gerber, Andrew J.; Peterson, Bradley S.

    2008-01-01

    The efficacy of anatomical magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in studying the morphological features of various regions of the brain is described, also providing the steps used in the processing and studying of the images. The ability to correlate these features with several clinical and psychological measures can help in using anatomical MRI to…

  17. Are the Genitalia of Anatomical Dolls Distorted?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bays, Jan

    1990-01-01

    To determine whether the genitalia of anatomical dolls are disproportionately large and may suggest sexual activity to children who have not been abused, the genitalia and breasts of 17 sets of anatomical dolls were measured. When the measurements were extrapolated to adult human proportions, the sizes were not found to be exaggerated. (Author/JDD)

  18. Analysis of the local worst-case SAR exposure caused by an MRI multi-transmit body coil in anatomical models of the human body

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Multi-transmit coils are increasingly being employed in high-field magnetic resonance imaging, along with a growing interest in multi-transmit body coils. However, they can lead to an increase in whole-body and local specific absorption rate (SAR) compared to conventional body coils excited in circular polarization for the same total incident input power. In this study, the maximum increase of SAR for three significantly different human anatomies is investigated for a large 3 T (128 MHz) multi-transmit body coil using numerical simulations and a (generalized) eigenvalue-based approach. The results demonstrate that the increase of SAR strongly depends on the anatomy. For the three models and normalization to the sum of the rung currents squared, the whole-body averaged SAR increases by up to a factor of 1.6 compared to conventional excitation and the peak spatial SAR (averaged over any 10 cm3 of tissue) by up to 13.4. For some locations the local averaged SAR goes up as much as 800 times (130 when looking only at regions where it is above 1% of the peak spatial SAR). The ratio of the peak spatial SAR to the whole-body SAR increases by a factor of up to 47 and can reach values above 800. Due to the potentially much larger power deposition, additional, preferably patient-specific, considerations are necessary to avoid injuries by such systems.

  19. Long-term Cost-Effectiveness of Diagnostic Tests for Assessing Stable Chest Pain: Modeled Analysis of Anatomical and Functional Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertoldi, Eduardo G; Stella, Steffan F; Rohde, Luis E; Polanczyk, Carisi A

    2016-05-01

    Several tests exist for diagnosing coronary artery disease, with varying accuracy and cost. We sought to provide cost-effectiveness information to aid physicians and decision-makers in selecting the most appropriate testing strategy. We used the state-transitions (Markov) model from the Brazilian public health system perspective with a lifetime horizon. Diagnostic strategies were based on exercise electrocardiography (Ex-ECG), stress echocardiography (ECHO), single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), computed tomography coronary angiography (CTA), or stress cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (C-MRI) as the initial test. Systematic review provided input data for test accuracy and long-term prognosis. Cost data were derived from the Brazilian public health system. Diagnostic test strategy had a small but measurable impact in quality-adjusted life-years gained. Switching from Ex-ECG to CTA-based strategies improved outcomes at an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of 3100 international dollars per quality-adjusted life-year. ECHO-based strategies resulted in cost and effectiveness almost identical to CTA, and SPECT-based strategies were dominated because of their much higher cost. Strategies based on stress C-MRI were most effective, but the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio vs CTA was higher than the proposed willingness-to-pay threshold. Invasive strategies were dominant in the high pretest probability setting. Sensitivity analysis showed that results were sensitive to costs of CTA, ECHO, and C-MRI. Coronary CT is cost-effective for the diagnosis of coronary artery disease and should be included in the Brazilian public health system. Stress ECHO has a similar performance and is an acceptable alternative for most patients, but invasive strategies should be reserved for patients at high risk. PMID:27080921

  20. The effect of anatomical modeling on space radiation dose estimates: a comparison of doses for NASA phantoms and the 5th, 50th, and 95th percentile male and female astronauts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bahadori, Amir A; Bolch, Wesley E [Department of Nuclear and Radiological Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States); Van Baalen, Mary; Semones, Edward J [NASA Johnson Space Center, Houston, TX 77058 (United States); Shavers, Mark R [Wyle Integrated Science and Engineering, Houston, TX 77058 (United States); Dodge, Charles, E-mail: wbolch@ufl.edu [University of Houston-Downtown, Houston, TX 77002 (United States)

    2011-03-21

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) performs organ dosimetry and risk assessment for astronauts using model-normalized measurements of the radiation fields encountered in space. To determine the radiation fields in an organ or tissue of interest, particle transport calculations are performed using self-shielding distributions generated with the computer program CAMERA to represent the human body. CAMERA mathematically traces linear rays (or path lengths) through the computerized anatomical man (CAM) phantom, a computational stylized model developed in the early 1970s with organ and body profiles modeled using solid shapes and scaled to represent the body morphometry of the 1950 50th percentile (PCTL) Air Force male. With the increasing use of voxel phantoms in medical and health physics, a conversion from a mathematical-based to a voxel-based ray-tracing algorithm is warranted. In this study, the voxel-based ray tracer (VoBRaT) is introduced to ray trace voxel phantoms using a modified version of the algorithm first proposed by Siddon (1985 Med. Phys. 12 252-5). After validation, VoBRAT is used to evaluate variations in body self-shielding distributions for NASA phantoms and six University of Florida (UF) hybrid phantoms, scaled to represent the 5th, 50th, and 95th PCTL male and female astronaut body morphometries, which have changed considerably since the inception of CAM. These body self-shielding distributions are used to generate organ dose equivalents and effective doses for five commonly evaluated space radiation environments. It is found that dosimetric differences among the phantoms are greatest for soft radiation spectra and light vehicular shielding.

  1. Three-dimensional modeling of human hands based on hand anatomical structures%基于解剖结构可视化手模型的构建

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白桂有; 张正治; 杨博贵; 孙华; 贾卫斗

    2007-01-01

    确显示手掌部主要解剖结构.%BACKGROUND:The anatomic structures and kinetic characteristics are the bases to establish hand model, and the kinetic characteristics of hand are determined by the anatomic structure. So, numerous scholars have paid close attention to virtual hand models based on the anatomic structures of hand.OBJECTIVE: To construct visible hand model based on anatomic structure.DESIGN: Single sample trial.SETTING: Center Laboratory, Third Military Medical University of Chinese PLA.MATERIALS: This trial was carried out in the Center Laboratory, Third Military Medical University of Chinese PLA in October 2003. Two fresh adult hands, which involved wrist joint, provided by the Department of Anatomy, Third Military Medical University of Chinese PLA, were employed. The two hands had no organic damage by naked observation.METHODS: The specimens were embedded and mill-cut (mill-cut layer thinness 0.2 mm). Cannon (ESO 1OD) digital camera (6.3 million pixel) was used for image collection. Each image was 31.5 MB, Data of 1 200 images were obtained.Adobe Photoshop 7.0 software was used for image treatment and then two-dimensional cross-section images were collected. The bone, flexor tendon and the outline of hand was three-dimensionally reconstructed by using the software,which was developed by the Department of Computer Science and Technology,Tsinghua University and Institute of Computer Medicine, Department of Anatomy, Third Military Medical University of Chinese PLA.MATN OUTCOME MEASURES: Three-dimensional reconstruction of the bone, flexor tendon and outline of hand.RESULTS: ①The outline of hand: After being reconstructed, the outline, which consisted of all fingers and nails, was well displayed, and observed from many directions.② Three-dimensional reconstruction of the bone of hand: The reconstructed bones of hands involved digital bones, metacarpal bones, carpal bones and all joints, and they could be displayed solely or in groups with other

  2. Sensitivity of predicted muscle forces during gait to anatomical variability in musculotendon geometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosmans, Lode; Valente, Giordano; Wesseling, Mariska; Van Campen, Anke; De Groote, Friedl; De Schutter, Joris; Jonkers, Ilse

    2015-07-16

    Scaled generic musculoskeletal models are commonly used to drive dynamic simulations of motions. It is however, acknowledged that not accounting for variability in musculoskeletal geometry and musculotendon parameters may confound the simulation results, even when analysing control subjects. This study documents the three-dimensional anatomical variability of musculotendon origins and insertions of 33 lower limb muscles determined based on magnetic resonance imaging in six subjects. This anatomical variability was compared to the musculotendon point location in a generic musculoskeletal model. Furthermore, the sensitivity of muscle forces during gait, calculated using static optimization, to perturbations of the musculotendon point location was analyzed with a generic model. More specific, a probabilistic approach was used: for each analyzed musculotendon point, the three-dimensional location was re-sampled with a uniform Latin hypercube method within the anatomical variability and the static optimization problem was then re-solved for all perturbations. We found that musculotendon point locations in the generic model showed only variable correspondences with the anatomical variability. The anatomical variability of musculotendon point location did affect the calculated muscle forces: muscles most sensitive to perturbations within the anatomical variability are iliacus and psoas. Perturbation of the gluteus medius anterior, iliacus and psoas induces the largest concomitant changes in muscle forces of the unperturbed muscles. Therefore, when creating subject-specific musculoskeletal models, these attachment points should be defined accurately. In addition, the size of the anatomical variability of the musculotendon point location was not related to the sensitivity of the calculated muscle forces. PMID:25979383

  3. An anatomical and functional topography of human auditory cortical areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle eMoerel

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available While advances in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI throughout the last decades have enabled the detailed anatomical and functional inspection of the human brain non-invasively, to date there is no consensus regarding the precise subdivision and topography of the areas forming the human auditory cortex. Here, we propose a topography of the human auditory areas based on insights on the anatomical and functional properties of human auditory areas as revealed by studies of cyto- and myelo-architecture and fMRI investigations at ultra-high magnetic field (7 Tesla. Importantly, we illustrate that - whereas a group-based approach to analyze functional (tonotopic maps is appropriate to highlight the main tonotopic axis - the examination of tonotopic maps at single subject level is required to detail the topography of primary and non-primary areas that may be more variable across subjects. Furthermore, we show that considering multiple maps indicative of anatomical (i.e. myelination as well as of functional properties (e.g. broadness of frequency tuning is helpful in identifying auditory cortical areas in individual human brains. We propose and discuss a topography of areas that is consistent with old and recent anatomical post mortem characterizations of the human auditory cortex and that may serve as a working model for neuroscience studies of auditory functions.

  4. Anatomic Eponyms in Neuroradiology: Head and Neck.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunch, Paul M

    2016-10-01

    In medicine, an eponym is a word-typically referring to an anatomic structure, disease, or syndrome-that is derived from a person's name. Medical eponyms are ubiquitous and numerous. They are also at times controversial. Eponyms reflect medicine's rich and colorful history and can be useful for concisely conveying complex concepts. Familiarity with eponyms facilitates correct usage and accurate communication. In this article, 22 eponyms used to describe anatomic structures of the head and neck are discussed. For each structure, the author first provides a biographical account of the individual for whom the structure is named. An anatomic description and brief discussion of the structure's clinical relevance follow. PMID:27283070

  5. Anatomical entity recognition with a hierarchical framework augmented by external resources.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Xu

    Full Text Available References to anatomical entities in medical records consist not only of explicit references to anatomical locations, but also other diverse types of expressions, such as specific diseases, clinical tests, clinical treatments, which constitute implicit references to anatomical entities. In order to identify these implicit anatomical entities, we propose a hierarchical framework, in which two layers of named entity recognizers (NERs work in a cooperative manner. Each of the NERs is implemented using the Conditional Random Fields (CRF model, which use a range of external resources to generate features. We constructed a dictionary of anatomical entity expressions by exploiting four existing resources, i.e., UMLS, MeSH, RadLex and BodyPart3D, and supplemented information from two external knowledge bases, i.e., Wikipedia and WordNet, to improve inference of anatomical entities from implicit expressions. Experiments conducted on 300 discharge summaries showed a micro-averaged performance of 0.8509 Precision, 0.7796 Recall and 0.8137 F1 for explicit anatomical entity recognition, and 0.8695 Precision, 0.6893 Recall and 0.7690 F1 for implicit anatomical entity recognition. The use of the hierarchical framework, which combines the recognition of named entities of various types (diseases, clinical tests, treatments with information embedded in external knowledge bases, resulted in a 5.08% increment in F1. The resources constructed for this research will be made publicly available.

  6. Characterizing brain anatomical connections using diffusion weighted MRI and graph theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iturria-Medina, Y; Canales-Rodríguez, E J; Melie-García, L; Valdés-Hernández, P A; Martínez-Montes, E; Alemán-Gómez, Y; Sánchez-Bornot, J M

    2007-07-01

    A new methodology based on Diffusion Weighted Magnetic Resonance Imaging (DW-MRI) and Graph Theory is presented for characterizing the anatomical connections between brain gray matter areas. In a first step, brain voxels are modeled as nodes of a non-directed graph in which the weight of an arc linking two neighbor nodes is assumed to be proportional to the probability of being connected by nervous fibers. This probability is estimated by means of probabilistic tissue segmentation and intravoxel white matter orientational distribution function, obtained from anatomical MRI and DW-MRI, respectively. A new tractography algorithm for finding white matter routes is also introduced. This algorithm solves the most probable path problem between any two nodes, leading to the assessment of probabilistic brain anatomical connection maps. In a second step, for assessing anatomical connectivity between K gray matter structures, the previous graph is redefined as a K+1 partite graph by partitioning the initial nodes set in K non-overlapped gray matter subsets and one subset clustering the remaining nodes. Three different measures are proposed for quantifying anatomical connections between any pair of gray matter subsets: Anatomical Connection Strength (ACS), Anatomical Connection Density (ACD) and Anatomical Connection Probability (ACP). This methodology was applied to both artificial and actual human data. Results show that nervous fiber pathways between some regions of interest were reconstructed correctly. Additionally, mean connectivity maps of ACS, ACD and ACP between 71 gray matter structures for five healthy subjects are presented.

  7. Complex anatomic variation in the brachial region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troupis, Th; Michalinos, A; Protogerou, V; Mazarakis, A; Skandalakis, P

    2015-01-01

    Authors describe a case of a complex anatomic variation discovered during dissection of the humeral region. On the right side, brachial artery followed a superficial course. Musculocutaneous nerve did not pierce coracobrachialis muscle but instead passed below the muscle before continuing in the forearm. On the left side, a communication between musculocutaneous and median nerve was dissected. Those variations are analytically presented with a brief review on their anatomic and clinical implications. Considerations on their embryological origin are attempted.

  8. Anatomical imbalance between cortical networks in autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Takamitsu; Rees, Geraint

    2016-01-01

    Influential psychological models of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have proposed that this prevalent developmental disorder results from impairment of global (integrative) information processing and overload of local (sensory) information. However, little neuroanatomical evidence consistent with this account has been reported. Here, we examined relative grey matter volumes (rGMVs) between three cortical networks, how they changed with age, and their relationship with core symptomatology. Using public neuroimaging data of high-functioning ASD males and age-/sex-/IQ-matched controls, we first identified age-associated atypical increases in rGMVs of the regions of two sensory systems (auditory and visual networks), and an age-related aberrant decrease in rGMV of a task-control system (fronto-parietal network, FPN) in ASD children. While the enlarged rGMV of the auditory network in ASD adults was associated with the severity of autistic socio-communicational core symptom, that of the visual network was instead correlated with the severity of restricted and repetitive behaviours in ASD. Notably, the atypically decreased rGMV of FPN predicted both of the two core symptoms. These findings suggest that disproportionate undergrowth of a task-control system (FPN) may be a common anatomical basis for the two ASD core symptoms, and relative overgrowth of the two different sensory systems selectively compounds the distinct symptoms. PMID:27484308

  9. Employing anatomical knowledge in vertebral column labeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Jianhua; Summers, Ronald M.

    2009-02-01

    The spinal column constitutes the central axis of human torso and is often used by radiologists to reference the location of organs in the chest and abdomen. However, visually identifying and labeling vertebrae is not trivial and can be timeconsuming. This paper presents an approach to automatically label vertebrae based on two pieces of anatomical knowledge: one vertebra has at most two attached ribs, and ribs are attached only to thoracic vertebrae. The spinal column is first extracted by a hybrid method using the watershed algorithm, directed acyclic graph search and a four-part vertebra model. Then curved reformations in sagittal and coronal directions are computed and aggregated intensity profiles along the spinal cord are analyzed to partition the spinal column into vertebrae. After that, candidates for rib bones are detected using features such as location, orientation, shape, size and density. Then a correspondence matrix is established to match ribs and vertebrae. The last vertebra (from thoracic to lumbar) with attached ribs is identified and labeled as T12. The rest of vertebrae are labeled accordingly. The method was tested on 50 CT scans and successfully labeled 48 of them. The two failed cases were mainly due to rudimentary ribs.

  10. Anatomical imbalance between cortical networks in autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Takamitsu; Rees, Geraint

    2016-01-01

    Influential psychological models of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have proposed that this prevalent developmental disorder results from impairment of global (integrative) information processing and overload of local (sensory) information. However, little neuroanatomical evidence consistent with this account has been reported. Here, we examined relative grey matter volumes (rGMVs) between three cortical networks, how they changed with age, and their relationship with core symptomatology. Using public neuroimaging data of high-functioning ASD males and age-/sex-/IQ-matched controls, we first identified age-associated atypical increases in rGMVs of the regions of two sensory systems (auditory and visual networks), and an age-related aberrant decrease in rGMV of a task-control system (fronto-parietal network, FPN) in ASD children. While the enlarged rGMV of the auditory network in ASD adults was associated with the severity of autistic socio-communicational core symptom, that of the visual network was instead correlated with the severity of restricted and repetitive behaviours in ASD. Notably, the atypically decreased rGMV of FPN predicted both of the two core symptoms. These findings suggest that disproportionate undergrowth of a task-control system (FPN) may be a common anatomical basis for the two ASD core symptoms, and relative overgrowth of the two different sensory systems selectively compounds the distinct symptoms. PMID:27484308

  11. Lateral laryngopharyngeal diverticulum: anatomical and videofluoroscopic study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Milton Melciades Barbosa [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro ICB/CCS/UFRJ, Laboratorio de Motilidade Digestiva e Imagem, S. F1-008, Departamento de Anatomia, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Koch, Hilton Augusto [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro ICB/CCS/UFRJ, Departamento de Radiologia, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

    2005-07-01

    The aims were to characterize the anatomical region where the lateral laryngopharyngeal protrusion occurs and to define if this protrusion is a normal or a pathological entity. This protrusion was observed on frontal contrasted radiographs as an addition image on the upper portion of the laryngopharynx. We carried out a plane-by-plane qualitative anatomical study through macroscopic and mesoscopic surgical dissection on 12 pieces and analyzed through a videofluoroscopic method on frontal incidence the pharyngeal phase of the swallowing process of 33 patients who had a lateral laryngopharyngeal protrusion. The anatomical study allowed us to identify the morphological characteristics that configure the high portion of the piriform recess as a weak anatomical point. The videofluoroscopic study allowed us to observe the laryngopharyngeal protrusion and its relation to pharyngeal repletion of the contrast medium. All kinds of the observed protrusions could be classified as ''lateral laryngopharyngeal diverticula.'' The lateral diverticula were more frequent in older people. These lateral protrusions can be found on one or both sides, usually with a small volume, without sex or side prevalence. This formation is probably a sign of a pharyngeal transference difficulty associated with a deficient tissue resistance in the weak anatomical point of the high portion of the piriform recess. (orig.)

  12. Anatomic Breast Coordinate System for Mammogram Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karemore, Gopal Raghunath; Brandt, S; Karssemeijer, N;

    2011-01-01

    inside the breast. Most of the risk assessment and CAD modules use a breast region in a image centered Cartesian x,y coordinate system. Nevertheless, anatomical structure follows curve-linear trajectories. We examined an anatomical breast coordinate system that preserves the anatomical correspondence...... between the mammograms and allows extracting not only the aligned position but also the orientation aligned with the anatomy of the breast tissue structure. Materials and Methods The coordinate system used the nipple location as the point A and the border of the pectoral muscle as a line BC. The skin air...... was represented by geodesic distance (s) from nipple and parametric angle (¿) as shown in figure 1. The scoring technique called MTR (mammographic texture resemblance marker) used this breast coordinate system to extract Gaussian derivative features. The features extracted using the (x,y) and the curve...

  13. Standardized anatomic space for abdominal fat quantification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Yubing; Udupa, Jayaram K.; Torigian, Drew A.

    2014-03-01

    The ability to accurately measure subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) and visceral adipose tissue (VAT) from images is important for improved assessment and management of patients with various conditions such as obesity, diabetes mellitus, obstructive sleep apnea, cardiovascular disease, kidney disease, and degenerative disease. Although imaging and analysis methods to measure the volume of these tissue components have been developed [1, 2], in clinical practice, an estimate of the amount of fat is obtained from just one transverse abdominal CT slice typically acquired at the level of the L4-L5 vertebrae for various reasons including decreased radiation exposure and cost [3-5]. It is generally assumed that such an estimate reliably depicts the burden of fat in the body. This paper sets out to answer two questions related to this issue which have not been addressed in the literature. How does one ensure that the slices used for correlation calculation from different subjects are at the same anatomic location? At what anatomic location do the volumes of SAT and VAT correlate maximally with the corresponding single-slice area measures? To answer these questions, we propose two approaches for slice localization: linear mapping and non-linear mapping which is a novel learning based strategy for mapping slice locations to a standardized anatomic space so that same anatomic slice locations are identified in different subjects. We then study the volume-to-area correlations and determine where they become maximal. We demonstrate on 50 abdominal CT data sets that this mapping achieves significantly improved consistency of anatomic localization compared to current practice. Our results also indicate that maximum correlations are achieved at different anatomic locations for SAT and VAT which are both different from the L4-L5 junction commonly utilized.

  14. Indexing Anatomical Phrases in Neuro-Radiology Reports to the UMLS 2005AA

    OpenAIRE

    Bashyam, Vijayaraghavan; Taira, Ricky K.

    2005-01-01

    This work describes a methodology to index anatomical phrases to the 2005AA release of the Unified Medical Language System (UMLS). A phrase chunking tool based on Natural Language Processing (NLP) was developed to identify semantically coherent phrases within medical reports. Using this phrase chunker, a set of 2,551 unique anatomical phrases was extracted from brain radiology reports. These phrases were mapped to the 2005AA release of the UMLS using a vector space model. Pr...

  15. The glenohumeral joint of hominoid primates: locomotor correlates, anatomical variation and evolution

    OpenAIRE

    Arias Martorell, Júlia

    2014-01-01

    The Doctoral Thesis entitled "the glenohumeral joint of hominoid primates: locomotor Correlates, anatomical variation and evolution" is about the anatomical adaptations in the shoulder joint (glenohumeral joint) of hominoid primates. The action of the forces exerted during locomotion model the shape of the joint determining the range of motion animals can achieve. The hominoid primates stand out as having very mobile joints, with the ability to raise the arm above the shoulder enabling the us...

  16. Congenital neck masses: embryological and anatomical perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahida Rasool

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Neck masses are a common problem in paediatric age group. They tend to occur frequently and pose a diagnostic dilemma to the ENT surgeons. Although the midline and lateral neck masses differ considerably in their texture and presentation but the embryological perspective of these masses is not mostly understood along with the fundamental anatomical knowledge. The article tries to correlate the embryological, anatomical and clinical perspectives for the same. [Int J Res Med Sci 2013; 1(4.000: 329-332

  17. Anatomical basis for Wilms tumor surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trobs R

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Wilms tumor surgery requires meticulous planning and sophisticated surgical technique. Detailed anatomical knowledge can facilitate the uneventful performance of tumor nephrectomy and cannot be replaced by advanced and sophisticated imaging techniques. We can define two main goals for surgery: (1 exact staging as well as (2 safe and complete resection of tumor without spillage. This review aims to review the anatomical basis for Wilms tumor surgery. It focuses on the surgical anatomy of retroperitoneal space, aorta, vena cava and their large branches with lymphatics. Types and management of vascular injuries are discussed.

  18. Biofabrication of multi-material anatomically shaped tissue constructs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Additive manufacturing in the field of regenerative medicine aims to fabricate organized tissue-equivalents. However, the control over shape and composition of biofabricated constructs is still a challenge and needs to be improved. The current research aims to improve shape, by converging a number of biocompatible, quality construction materials into a single three-dimensional fiber deposition process. To demonstrate this, several models of complex anatomically shaped constructs were fabricated by combined deposition of poly(vinyl alcohol), poly(ε-caprolactone), gelatin methacrylamide/gellan gum and alginate hydrogel. Sacrificial components were co-deposited as temporary support for overhang geometries and were removed after fabrication by immersion in aqueous solutions. Embedding of chondrocytes in the gelatin methacrylamide/gellan component demonstrated that the fabrication and the sacrificing procedure did not affect cell viability. Further, it was shown that anatomically shaped constructs can be successfully fabricated, yielding advanced porous thermoplastic polymer scaffolds, layered porous hydrogel constructs, as well as reinforced cell-laden hydrogel structures. In conclusion, anatomically shaped tissue constructs of clinically relevant sizes can be generated when employing multiple building and sacrificial materials in a single biofabrication session. The current techniques offer improved control over both internal and external construct architecture underscoring its potential to generate customized implants for human tissue regeneration. (paper)

  19. Anatomically Plausible Surface Alignment and Reconstruction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paulsen, Rasmus R.; Larsen, Rasmus

    2010-01-01

    With the increasing clinical use of 3D surface scanners, there is a need for accurate and reliable algorithms that can produce anatomically plausible surfaces. In this paper, a combined method for surface alignment and reconstruction is proposed. It is based on an implicit surface representation...

  20. HPV Vaccine Effective at Multiple Anatomic Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    A new study from NCI researchers finds that the HPV vaccine protects young women from infection with high-risk HPV types at the three primary anatomic sites where persistent HPV infections can cause cancer. The multi-site protection also was observed at l

  1. Influences on anatomical knowledge: The complete arguments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergman, E.M.; Verheijen, I.W.; Scherpbier, A.J.J.A.; Vleuten, C.P.M. van der; Bruin, A.B. De

    2014-01-01

    Eight factors are claimed to have a negative influence on anatomical knowledge of medical students: (1) teaching by nonmedically qualified teachers, (2) the absence of a core anatomy curriculum, (3) decreased use of dissection as a teaching tool, (4) lack of teaching anatomy in context, (5) integrat

  2. Report of a rare anatomic variant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Brucker, Y; Ilsen, B; Muylaert, C;

    2015-01-01

    We report the CT findings in a case of partial anomalous pulmonary venous return (PAPVR) from the left upper lobe in an adult. PAPVR is an anatomic variant in which one to three pulmonary veins drain into the right atrium or its tributaries, rather than into the left atrium. This results in a lef...

  3. ANATOMIC RESEARCH OF SUPERIOR CLUNIAL NERVE TRAUMA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    In order to find the mechanism of superior clunial nerve (SCN) trauma, we dissected and revealed SCN from 12 corpses (24 sides). Combining 100 sides of SCN trauma, we inspected the course of SCN, the relation between SCN and it's neighbour tissues with the situation of SCN when being subjected to force. We found that the following special anatomic characteristics and mechanical elements such as the course of SCN, it's turning angles, the bony fibrous tube at the iliac crest, the posterior layer of the lumbodorsal fascia and SCN neighbour adipose tissue, are the causes of external force inducing SCN trauma. The anatomic revealment is the guidance of SCN trauma treatment with edged needle.

  4. ACCESSORY SPLEEN: A CLINICALLY RELEVANT ANATOMIC ANOMALY

    OpenAIRE

    Prachi Saffar; Amit Kumar; Ankur

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of our study is to emphasize on the clinical relevance of the presence of accessory spleen. It is not only a well-documented anatomic anomaly, it holds special significance in the differential diagnosis of intra-abdominal tumours and lymphadenopathy. MATERIALS AND METHODS Thirty male cadavers from North Indian population above the age of 60 yrs. were dissected in the Anatomy Department of FMHS, SGT University, Gurgaon, over a period of 5 yrs. (Sep 2010-Aug 2015) and presence...

  5. Microstructure and Anatomical Characteristics of Daemonorops margaritae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Daemonorops margaritae is among the most important commercial rattan in South China. Its microstructure and basic anatomical characteristics as well as variation were investigated. Results show that: 1)The variation along the height is small, while the variation along the radial direction is significant; 2) The fibre length, fibre ratio and distribution density of the vascular bundles in the cross section decrease from cortex to core, while the fibre width, vessel element length and width, parenchyma ratio,...

  6. Pure endoscopic endonasal odontoidectomy: anatomical study

    OpenAIRE

    Messina, Andrea; Bruno, Maria Carmela; Decq, Philippe; Coste, Andre; Cavallo, Luigi Maria; de Divittis, Enrico; Cappabianca, Paolo; Tschabitscher, Manfred

    2007-01-01

    Different disorders may produce irreducible atlanto-axial dislocation with compression of the ventral spinal cord. Among the surgical approaches available for a such condition, the transoral resection of the odontoid process is the most often used. The aim of this anatomical study is to demonstrate the possibility of an anterior cervico-medullary decompression through an endoscopic endonasal approach. Three fresh cadaver heads were used. A modified endonasal endoscopic approach was made in al...

  7. Establishing better biological models to understand occlusion.I:TM joint anatomic relationships%建立更好的生物模型以深入了解咬合

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PULLINGER(综述); 张晗(译); 徐珂(译)

    2015-01-01

    are a common basis to reject any useful prediction value.Notwithstanding,a relationship of form with function is a basic tenet of biology.These are multifactor problems,but the questions mostly have not been analysed as such.This review moves the question forward by focusing on TMjoint anatomic organisation as the multifactor system it is expected to be in a closed system like a synovial joint.Multifactor analysis allows the data to speak for itself and reduces bias.Classification tree analysis revealed useful prediction values and usable clinical models which are illustrated,backed up by stepwise logistic regression.Explained vari-ance,R2 ,predicting normals from pooled TMJ patients was 32.6%,sensitivity 67.9%,specificity 85.7%;37% versus disc displacement with reduction;and 28.8% versus disc displacement without reduction.Significant osseous organisational differences between TMjoints with clicking and locking suggest that this is not necessarily a single disease continuum.However,a subset of joints with clicking contained char-acteristics of joints with locking that might contribute to symptom progression versus resistance.Moderately strong models confirm there is a relationship between TMJ osseous organisation and function,but it should not be overstated.More than one model of normals and of TMde-rangement organisation is revealed.The implications to clinical decision-making are discussed.

  8. Exploring brain function from anatomical connectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gorka eZamora-López

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The intrinsic relationship between the architecture of the brain and the range of sensory and behavioral phenomena it produces is a relevant question in neuroscience. Here, we review recent knowledge gained on the architecture of the anatomical connectivity by means of complex network analysis. It has been found that corticocortical networks display a few prominent characteristics: (i modular organization, (ii abundant alternative processing paths and (iii the presence of highly connected hubs. Additionally, we present a novel classification of cortical areas of the cat according to the role they play in multisensory connectivity. All these properties represent an ideal anatomical substrate supporting rich dynamical behaviors, as-well-as facilitating the capacity of the brain to process sensory information of different modalities segregated and to integrate them towards a comprehensive perception of the real world. The result here exposed are mainly based in anatomical data of cats’ brain, but we show how further observations suggest that, from worms to humans, the nervous system of all animals might share fundamental principles of organization.

  9. Shape analysis of simulated breast anatomical structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contijoch, Francisco; Lynch, Jennifer M.; Pokrajac, David D.; Maidment, Andrew D. A.; Bakic, Predrag R.

    2012-03-01

    Recent advances in high-resolution 3D breast imaging, namely, digital breast tomosynthesis and dedicated breast CT, have enabled detailed analysis of the shape and distribution of anatomical structures in the breast. Such analysis is critically important, since the projections of breast anatomical structures make up the parenchymal pattern in clinical images which can mask the existing abnormalities or introduce false alarms; the parenchymal pattern is also correlated with the risk of cancer. As a first step towards the shape analysis of anatomical structures in the breast, we have analyzed an anthropomorphic software breast phantom. The phantom generation is based upon the recursive splitting of the phantom volume using octrees, which produces irregularly shaped tissue compartments, qualitatively mimicking the breast anatomy. The shape analysis was performed by fitting ellipsoids to the simulated tissue compartments. The ellipsoidal semi-axes were calculated by matching the moments of inertia of each individual compartment and of an ellipsoid. The distribution of Dice coefficients, measuring volumetric overlap between the compartment and the corresponding ellipsoid, as well as the distribution of aspect ratios, measuring relative orientations of the ellipsoids, were used to characterize various classes of phantoms with qualitatively distinctive appearance. A comparison between input parameters for phantom generation and the properties of fitted ellipsoids indicated the high level of user control in the design of software breast phantoms. The proposed shape analysis could be extended to clinical breast images, and used to inform the selection of simulation parameters for improved realism.

  10. Anatomical MRI with an atomic magnetometer

    CERN Document Server

    Savukov, I

    2012-01-01

    Ultra-low field (ULF) MRI is a promising method for inexpensive medical imaging with various additional advantages over conventional instruments such as low weight, low power, portability, absence of artifacts from metals, and high contrast. Anatomical ULF MRI has been successfully implemented with SQUIDs, but SQUIDs have the drawback of cryogen requirement. Atomic magnetometers have sensitivity comparable to SQUIDs and can be in principle used for ULF MRI to replace SQUIDs. Unfortunately some problems exist due to the sensitivity of atomic magnetometers to magnetic field and gradients. At low frequency, noise is also substantial and a shielded room is needed for improving sensitivity. In this paper, we show that at 85 kHz, the atomic magnetometer can be used to obtain anatomical images. This is the first demonstration of any use of atomic magnetometers for anatomical MRI. The demonstrated resolution is 1.1x1.4 mm2 in about six minutes of acquisition with SNR of 10. Some applications of the method are discuss...

  11. Kinematic and dynamic analysis of an anatomically based knee joint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kok-Meng; Guo, Jiajie

    2010-05-01

    This paper presents a knee-joint model to provide a better understanding on the interaction between natural joints and artificial mechanisms for design and control of rehabilitation exoskeletons. The anatomically based knee model relaxes several commonly made assumptions that approximate a human knee as engineering pin-joint in exoskeleton design. Based on published MRI data, we formulate the kinematics of a knee-joint and compare three mathematical approximations; one model bases on two sequential circles rolling a flat plane; and the other two are mathematically differentiable ellipses-based models with and without sliding at the contact. The ellipses-based model taking sliding contact into accounts shows that the rolling-sliding ratio of a knee-joint is not a constant but has an average value consistent with published measurements. This knee-joint kinematics leads to a physically more accurate contact-point trajectory than methods based on multiple circles or lines, and provides a basis to derive a knee-joint kinetic model upon which the effects of a planar exoskeleton mechanism on the internal joint forces and torque during flexion can be numerically investigated. Two different knee-joint kinetic models (pin-joint approximation and anatomically based model) are compared against a condition with no exoskeleton. The leg and exoskeleton form a closed kinematic chain that has a significant effect on the joint forces in the knee. Human knee is more tolerant than pin-joint in negotiating around a singularity but its internal forces increase with the exoskeleton mass-to-length ratio. An oversimplifying pin-joint approximation cannot capture the finite change in the knee forces due to the singularity effect.

  12. Introducing International Journal of Anatomical Variations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tunali S

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Welcome to International Journal of Anatomical Variations (IJAV - an annual journal of anatomical variations and clinical anatomy case reports. After having a notable experience for eight years in NEUROANATOMY, we are pleased to introduce you IJAV. We are eventually announcing our new journal after three years of feasibility and background study period. We hope that IJAV will fill in the gap in anatomy journals’ bunch. IJAV is an annual, open access journal having electronic version only. Despite of unavailability of a budget for publishing IJAV, the evaluation of submissions and access to the full text articles is totally free of charge.Our vision for IJAV is to constitute an online compendium for anatomical variations in gross, radiological and surgical anatomy, neuroanatomy and case reports in clinical anatomy. We believe that cases have an important role in clinical anatomy education. In this aspect, we aim to serve as an open source of case reports. We hope that IJAV will be cited in most of the case reports related to clinical anatomy and anatomical variations in near future.In NEUROANATOMY, we encouraged the submission of case reports in the area of neuroanatomy. Whereas in IJAV, besides neuroanatomy, we will consider case reports in any area related to human anatomy. The scope of IJAV will encompass any anatomical variations in gross, radiological and surgical anatomy. Case reports in clinical anatomy are also welcome.All submitted articles will be peer-reviewed. No processing fee will be charged from authors. One of the most important features of IJAV will be speedy review and rapid publication. We strive to publish an accepted manuscript within three weeks of initial submission. Our young and dynamic Scientific Advisory Board will achieve this objective.A few remarks about our logo and page design: Prof. Dr. M. Mustafa ALDUR designed our logo, being inspired by a quadricuspid aortic valve case, reported by Francesco FORMICA et al

  13. Radiofrequency Ablation for Laparoscopic Anatomical Hepatectomy in Porcine Model%射频消融技术在腹腔镜解剖性肝切除动物模型中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张煊; 王宏光; 纪文斌; 顾万清; 董家鸿

    2013-01-01

    Objective To assess the feasibility, efficacy and safety of laparoscopic anatomical hepatectomy in a porcine model by using radiofrequency ablation to determine the surgical area, occlude the inflow, and assist the division of liver parenchyma. Methods Totally 20 pigs were enrolled into this study for two experiments. In the first experiment, the animals were randomly divided into radiofrequency ablation and conventional laparoscopy groups with 10 in each. In the radiofrequency ablation group, under ultrasound guidance, we positioned the lower hepatic portal vein, and then performed hepatic segmentectomy with the assistance by radiofrequency ablation for liver inflow occlusion. While in the conventional laparoscopy group, hepatic segmentectomy was carried out with a routine laparoscopic procedure. In the second experiment, the pigs were re-divided into two groups randomly to receive hepatic lobectomy with radiofrequency ablation-assisted laparoscopy or conventional laparoscopy respectively ( radiofrequency ablation and conventional laparoscopy groups, 10 in each). In both the experiments, the results of the two procedures were compared. Results In the first experiment, the segmentectomy was completed in the 9 pigs from the radiofrequency ablation group and 10 from the conventional laparoscopy group. The operation time was (74 ± 16) min and (104 ±28) min, respectively (t = -2. 821, P =0.012) , and intraoperative blood loss was (84 ± 20) ml and ( 114 ± 32) ml, respectively (t = - 2. 416, P = 0. 027). In the second experiment, hepatic lobectomy was completed in all the animals of both the groups, and significant difference was detected in intraoperative blood loss but not operation time between the two groups [ (110 ± 36) ml vs. (164 ± 50) ml, t = - 2.772, P = 0. 013 , and (136 ±26) min vs. (124 ± 18) min, t = 1. 200, P = 0. 246].Conclusions Under ultrasound guidance, it is effective for reducing operation time and intraoperative blood loss to employ

  14. Probabilistic anatomical labeling of brain structures using statistical probabilistic anatomical maps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jin Su; Lee, Dong Soo; Lee, Byung Il; Lee, Jae Sung; Shin, Hee Won; Chung, June Key; Lee, Myung Chul [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-12-01

    The use of statistical parametric mapping (SPM) program has increased for the analysis of brain PET and SPECT images. Montreal neurological institute (MNI) coordinate is used in SPM program as a standard anatomical framework. While the most researchers look up Talairach atlas to report the localization of the activations detected in SPM program, there is significant disparity between MNI templates and Talairach atlas. That disparity between Talairach and MNI coordinates makes the interpretation of SPM result time consuming, subjective and inaccurate. The purpose of this study was to develop a program to provide objective anatomical information of each x-y-z position in ICBM coordinate. Program was designed to provide the anatomical information for the given x-y-z position in MNI coordinate based on the statistical probabilistic anatomical map (SPAM) images of ICBM. When x-y-z position was given to the program, names of the anatomical structures with non-zero probability and the probabilities that the given position belongs to the structures were tabulated. The program was coded using IDL and JAVA language for the easy transplantation to any operating system or platform. Utility of this program was shown by comparing the results of this program to those of SPM program. Preliminary validation study was performed by applying this program to the analysis of PET brain activation study of human memory in which the anatomical information on the activated areas are previously known. Real time retrieval of probabilistic information with 1 mm spatial resolution was archived using the programs. Validation study showed the relevance of this program: probability that the activated area for memory belonged to hippocampal formation was more than 80%. These programs will be useful for the result interpretation of the image analysis performed on MNI coordinate, as done in SPM program.

  15. TOPICAL REVIEW: Anatomical imaging for radiotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Philip M.

    2008-06-01

    The goal of radiation therapy is to achieve maximal therapeutic benefit expressed in terms of a high probability of local control of disease with minimal side effects. Physically this often equates to the delivery of a high dose of radiation to the tumour or target region whilst maintaining an acceptably low dose to other tissues, particularly those adjacent to the target. Techniques such as intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT), stereotactic radiosurgery and computer planned brachytherapy provide the means to calculate the radiation dose delivery to achieve the desired dose distribution. Imaging is an essential tool in all state of the art planning and delivery techniques: (i) to enable planning of the desired treatment, (ii) to verify the treatment is delivered as planned and (iii) to follow-up treatment outcome to monitor that the treatment has had the desired effect. Clinical imaging techniques can be loosely classified into anatomic methods which measure the basic physical characteristics of tissue such as their density and biological imaging techniques which measure functional characteristics such as metabolism. In this review we consider anatomical imaging techniques. Biological imaging is considered in another article. Anatomical imaging is generally used for goals (i) and (ii) above. Computed tomography (CT) has been the mainstay of anatomical treatment planning for many years, enabling some delineation of soft tissue as well as radiation attenuation estimation for dose prediction. Magnetic resonance imaging is fast becoming widespread alongside CT, enabling superior soft-tissue visualization. Traditionally scanning for treatment planning has relied on the use of a single snapshot scan. Recent years have seen the development of techniques such as 4D CT and adaptive radiotherapy (ART). In 4D CT raw data are encoded with phase information and reconstructed to yield a set of scans detailing motion through the breathing, or cardiac, cycle. In ART a set of

  16. [Sigismund Laskowski and his anatomical preparations technique].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gryglewski, Ryszard W

    2015-01-01

    Fixation of the entire bodies or individual organs, and later as well tissues and cellular structures, was and still is often a challenge for anatomists and histologists. Technique that combines extensive knowledge of natural sciences, as well as technical skills, was by those best researchers as Frederik Ruysch, brought to perfection. Preparations, if done with care and talent, are really propelling progress in anatomical studies and determining the quality of education for medical students and young physicians. And as it is true for many of today's medical disciplines and natural sciences, the nineteenth century was in many ways a breaking point for preparatory techniques in the realm of anatomy and histology. Among those who have achieved success, earning notoriety during their lifetime and often going into the annals of European most distinguished scholars were some Polish names: Louis Maurice Hirschfeld, whose preparations of the nervous system earned him well-deserved, international fame, Louis Charles Teichmann, who was the very first so precisely describing the lymphatic system and a creator of unique injection mass, Henry Kadyi, known for his outstanding preparations, especially of vascular system. Henry Frederick Hoyer sen., who was one of the first to use formalin regularly for accurate microscopic preparations, is seen by many as the founder of the Polish histology. In this group of innovators and precursors of modern preparation techniques place should be reserved for Zygmunt (Sigismund) Laskowski, Polish patriot, fighting in January Uprising, later an immigrant, a professor at the university sequentially Paris and Geneva. Acclaimed author of anatomical tables and certainly creator of one of the groundbreaking techniques in anatomical preparations. Based after many years of research on the simple glycerine-phenol mixture achieved excellent results both in fixation of entire bodies and organs or tissues. Quality of those preparations was as high and

  17. Tennis elbow. Anatomical, epidemiological and therapeutic aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhaar, J A

    1994-10-01

    Five studies of tennis elbow are presented. Epidemiological studies showed an incidence of tennis elbow between 1 and 2%. The prevalence of tennis elbow in women between 40 and 50 years of age was 10%. Half of the patients with tennis elbow seek medical attention. Local corticosteroid injections were superior to the physiotherapy regime of Cyriax. Release of the common forearm extensor origin resulted in 70% excellent or good results one year after operation and 89% at five years. Anatomical investigations and nerve conduction studies of the Radial Tunnel Syndrome supported the hypothesis that the Lateral Cubital Force Transmission System is involved in the pathogenesis of tennis elbow.

  18. Constitutional and Anatomical Characteristics of Mature Women

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Vladimir NNikolenko; DmitryBNikityuk; SvetlanaVKlochkova; AnastasiaABahmet

    2015-01-01

    Objective To identify the constitutional and anatomical peculiarities of constitution of women of mature age.Methods There was completed comprehensive anthropometric and bio-electrical survey of 651 mature women ( relative norm) living in the Moscow region .Results The quantitative distribution of women by somatotypological affiliation was revealed;anthropometric and body component composition in representatives of different somatotypes were defined .Conclusion Thus, the performed study revealed and quantiely character-ised the distribution of women according to their constitutional types in the studied population of mature age women living in Moscow region under the relative norm conditions .

  19. A procedure to average 3D anatomical structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramanya, K; Dean, D

    2000-12-01

    Creating a feature-preserving average of three dimensional anatomical surfaces extracted from volume image data is a complex task. Unlike individual images, averages present right-left symmetry and smooth surfaces which give insight into typical proportions. Averaging multiple biological surface images requires careful superimposition and sampling of homologous regions. Our approach to biological surface image averaging grows out of a wireframe surface tessellation approach by Cutting et al. (1993). The surface delineating wires represent high curvature crestlines. By adding tile boundaries in flatter areas the 3D image surface is parametrized into anatomically labeled (homology mapped) grids. We extend the Cutting et al. wireframe approach by encoding the entire surface as a series of B-spline space curves. The crestline averaging algorithm developed by Cutting et al. may then be used for the entire surface. Shape preserving averaging of multiple surfaces requires careful positioning of homologous surface regions such as these B-spline space curves. We test the precision of this new procedure and its ability to appropriately position groups of surfaces in order to produce a shape-preserving average. Our result provides an average that well represents the source images and may be useful clinically as a deformable model or for animation.

  20. Pterion: An anatomical variation and surgical landmark

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prashant E Natekar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction : The frontal and the parietal bones superiorly and the greater wing of the sphenoid and the squamous temporal inferiorly of one side meet at an H-shaped sutural junction termed the pterion. This is an important anatomical and anthropological landmark as it overlies both the anterior branch of middle meningeal artery and the lateral fissure of the cerebral hemisphere. The knowledge of sutural joints between frontal, parietal, sphenoid and temporal bones at pterion is clinically, radiologically and surgically important during surgical interventions involving burr hole surgeries. Materials and Methods : Study performed on 150 dry temporal bones. The pterion, and its sutural articulations with frontal, parietal, sphenoid and temporal bones and also anatomical variations, if any, were studied. Results : Four types of pterion, i.e. sphenoparietal, frontotemporal, stellate and epipteric, were observed. Conclusions : The knowledge of the variations of pterion and its surgical anatomy, in Indian population are important for surgeons operating in the fieldThe present study will also contribute additional information of skull bone fractures in infancy and early childhood, which may be associated with large intersutural bones giving false appearance of fracture radiologically and also during surgical interventions involving burr hole surgeries, as their extensions may lead to continuation of fracture lines.

  1. Fusing Simultaneous EEG and fMRI Using Functional and Anatomical Information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Sofie Therese; Winkler, Irene; Hansen, Lars Kai;

    2015-01-01

    SPoC), to not only use functional but also anatomical information. The goal is to extract correlated source components from electroencephalography (EEG) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Anatomical information enters our proposed extension to mSPoC via the forward model, which relates the activity...... on cortex level to the EEG sensors. The augmented mSPoC is shown to outperform the original version in realistic simulations where the signal to noise ratio is low or where training epochs are scarce....

  2. Leaf morphological and anatomical traits from tropical to temperate coniferous forests: Mechanisms and influencing factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Miao; Yu, Guirui; He, Nianpeng; Hou, Jihua

    2016-01-22

    Leaf traits may reflect the adaptation mechanisms of plants to the environment. In this study, we investigated leaf morphological and anatomical traits in nine cold-temperate to tropical forests along a 4,200-km transect to test how they vary across latitudinal gradients. The results showed that leaf dry weight decreased (P palisade-leaf mesophyll thickness ratio increased (P mesophyll thickness ratio decreased, with increasing latitude (P palisade mesophyll thickness, but negative correlations between stomatal length and stomatal density (all P < 0.01). The observed negative correlations represented the adaptive mechanisms of leaves through their morphological and anatomical traits. These findings provided new insights into the responses of leaf morphological and anatomical traits to climate changes and important parameters for future model optimization.

  3. Effectiveness of Plastinated Anatomical Specimens Depicting Common Sports Injuries to Enhance Musculoskeletal Injury Evaluation Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamura, Kaori; Stickley, Christopher D.; Labrash, Steven J.; Lozanoff, Scott

    2014-01-01

    Context: Plastination techniques have emerged as effective methods for preserving human tissue and enabling human specimens to be utilized in a fashion similar to anatomical models with much greater accuracy. Opportunities to observe and experience human specimens in classroom settings should be beneficial to undergraduate and graduate students in…

  4. Anatomic correlations in radiogallium imaging of the peritoneum and retroperitoneum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiogallium (67Ga) imaging of the abdomen and pelvis has been useful not only in detecting inflammations in these regions, but in pointing out their precise anatomic localization. Once the anatomic site is determined, it is often possible to infer the source of origin of the problem (such as ruptured viscus or pancreatitis). Interpretation of the images depends on recognition of patterns that define known anatomic boundaries such as the transverse mesocolon, root of the small mesentery, perirenal space, and pararenal space, or else show diffuse peritoneal uptake. The anatomic patterns may have continued usefulness in future studies, such as when radiolabeled leukocytes are employed to localize inflammations

  5. Do retractile testes have anatomical anomalies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Kleber M.; Costa, Suelen F.; Sampaio, Francisco J.B.; Favorito, Luciano A.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objectives: To assess the incidence of anatomical anomalies in patients with retractile testis. Materials and Methods: We studied prospectively 20 patients (28 testes) with truly retractile testis and compared them with 25 human fetuses (50 testes) with testis in scrotal position. We analyzed the relations among the testis, epididymis and patency of the processus vaginalis (PV). To analyze the relations between the testis and epididymis, we used a previous classification according to epididymis attachment to the testis and the presence of epididymis atresia. To analyze the structure of the PV, we considered two situations: obliteration of the PV and patency of the PV. We used the Chi-square test for contingency analysis of the populations under study (p patent processus vaginalis and epididymal anomalies. PMID:27564294

  6. [Antique anatomical collections for contemporary museums].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesi, Gabriella; Santi, Raffaella

    2013-01-01

    Anatomy and Pathology Museum collections display a great biological value and offer unique samples for research purposes. Pathological specimens may be investigated by means of modern radiological and molecular biology techniques in order to provide the etiological background of disease, with relevance to present-day knowledge. Meanwhile, historical resources provide epidemiologic data regarding the socio-economic conditions of the resident populations, the more frequently encountered illnesses and dietary habits. These multidisciplinary approaches lead to more accurate diagnoses also allowing new strategies in cataloguing and musealization of anatomical specimens. Further, once these data are gathered, they may constitute the basis of riedited Museum catalogues feasible to be digitalized and displayed via the Web.

  7. Normal anatomical measurements in cervical computerized tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaunbauer, W.; Daepp, S.; Haertel, M.

    1985-11-01

    Radiodiagnostically relevant normal values and variations for measurements of the cervical region, the arithmetical average and the standard deviation were determined from adequate computer tomograms on 60 healthy women and men, aged 20 to 83 years. The sagittal diameter of the prevertebral soft tissue and the lumina of the upper respiratory tract were evaluated at exactly defined levels between the hyoid bone and the incisura jugularis sterni. - The thickness of the aryepiglottic folds, the maximal sagittal and transverse diameters of the thyroid gland and the calibre of the great cervical vessels were defined. - To assess information about laryngeal function in computerized tomography, measurements of distances between the cervical spine and anatomical fixed points of the larynx and hypopharynx were made as well as of the degree of vocal cord movement during normal respiration and phonation.

  8. Anatomical decomposition in dual energy chest digital tomosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Donghoon; Kim, Ye-seul; Choi, Sunghoon; Lee, Haenghwa; Choi, Seungyeon; Kim, Hee-Joung

    2016-03-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death worldwide and the early diagnosis of lung cancer has recently become more important. For early screening lung cancer, computed tomography (CT) has been used as a gold standard for early diagnosis of lung cancer [1]. The major advantage of CT is that it is not susceptible to the problem of misdiagnosis caused by anatomical overlapping while CT has extremely high radiation dose and cost compared to chest radiography. Chest digital tomosynthesis (CDT) is a recently introduced new modality for lung cancer screening with relatively low radiation dose compared to CT [2] and also showing high sensitivity and specificity to prevent anatomical overlapping occurred in chest radiography. Dual energy material decomposition method has been proposed for better detection of pulmonary nodules as means of reducing the anatomical noise [3]. In this study, possibility of material decomposition in CDT was tested by simulation study and actual experiment using prototype CDT. Furthermore organ absorbed dose and effective dose were compared with single energy CDT. The Gate v6 (Geant4 application for tomographic emission), and TASMIP (Tungsten anode spectral model using the interpolating polynomial) code were used for simulation study and simulated cylinder shape phantom consisted of 4 inner beads which were filled with spine, rib, muscle and lung equivalent materials. The patient dose was estimated by PCXMC 1.5 Monte Carlo simulation tool [4]. The tomosynthesis scan was performed with a linear movement and 21 projection images were obtained over 30 degree of angular range with 1.5° degree of angular interval. The proto type CDT system has same geometry with simulation study and composed of E7869X (Toshiba, Japan) x-ray tube and FDX3543RPW (Toshiba, Japan) detector. The result images showed that reconstructed with dual energy clearly visualize lung filed by removing unnecessary bony structure. Furthermore, dual energy CDT could enhance

  9. The use of anatomical information for molecular image reconstruction algorithms: Attention/Scatter correction, motion compensation, and noise reduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chun, Se Young [School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology (UNIST), Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-03-15

    PET and SPECT are important tools for providing valuable molecular information about patients to clinicians. Advances in nuclear medicine hardware technologies and statistical image reconstruction algorithms enabled significantly improved image quality. Sequentially or simultaneously acquired anatomical images such as CT and MRI from hybrid scanners are also important ingredients for improving the image quality of PET or SPECT further. High-quality anatomical information has been used and investigated for attenuation and scatter corrections, motion compensation, and noise reduction via post-reconstruction filtering and regularization in inverse problems. In this article, we will review works using anatomical information for molecular image reconstruction algorithms for better image quality by describing mathematical models, discussing sources of anatomical information for different cases, and showing some examples.

  10. The Use of Anatomical Information for Molecular Image Reconstruction Algorithms: Attenuation/Scatter Correction, Motion Compensation, and Noise Reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chun, Se Young

    2016-03-01

    PET and SPECT are important tools for providing valuable molecular information about patients to clinicians. Advances in nuclear medicine hardware technologies and statistical image reconstruction algorithms enabled significantly improved image quality. Sequentially or simultaneously acquired anatomical images such as CT and MRI from hybrid scanners are also important ingredients for improving the image quality of PET or SPECT further. High-quality anatomical information has been used and investigated for attenuation and scatter corrections, motion compensation, and noise reduction via post-reconstruction filtering and regularization in inverse problems. In this article, we will review works using anatomical information for molecular image reconstruction algorithms for better image quality by describing mathematical models, discussing sources of anatomical information for different cases, and showing some examples. PMID:26941855

  11. 16 CFR Figure 1 to Part 1203 - Anatomical Planes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Anatomical Planes 1 Figure 1 to Part 1203 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS SAFETY STANDARD FOR BICYCLE HELMETS Pt. 1203, Fig. 1 Figure 1 to Part 1203—Anatomical Planes ER10MR98.001...

  12. PC Assisted Anatomical Measurements in 3D Using CT Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvidtfeldt, Mogens; Pedersen, Steen

    1999-01-01

    To assess facilities and applications of a programme for a PC based CT measurements in 3D of anatomical angelse in the skeleton.......To assess facilities and applications of a programme for a PC based CT measurements in 3D of anatomical angelse in the skeleton....

  13. An Investigation of Anatomical Competence in Junior Medical Doctors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorstenbosch, Marc A. T. M.; Kooloos, Jan G. M.; Bolhuis, Sanneke M.; Laan, Roland F. J. M.

    2016-01-01

    Because of a decrease of the time available for anatomy education, decisions need to be made to reduce the relevant content of the anatomy curriculum. Several expert consensus initiatives resulted in lists of structures, lacking analysis of anatomical competence. This study aims to explore the use of anatomical knowledge by medical doctors in an…

  14. Prostatome: A combined anatomical and disease based MRI atlas of the prostate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rusu, Mirabela; Madabhushi, Anant, E-mail: anant.madabhushi@case.edu [Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio 44106 (United States); Bloch, B. Nicolas; Jaffe, Carl C. [Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts 02118 (United States); Genega, Elizabeth M. [Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts 02215 (United States); Lenkinski, Robert E.; Rofsky, Neil M. [UT Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas 75235 (United States); Feleppa, Ernest [Riverside Research Institute, New York, New York 10038 (United States)

    2014-07-15

    yielded a central gland Dice similarity coefficient (DSC) of 90%, and prostate DSC of 88%, while the misalignment of the urethra and verumontanum was found to be 3.45 mm, and 4.73 mm, respectively, which were measured to be significantly smaller compared to the alternative strategies. As might have been anticipated from our limited cohort of biopsy confirmed cancers, the disease atlas showed that most of the tumor extent was limited to the peripheral zone. Moreover, central gland tumors were typically larger in size, possibly because they are only discernible at a much later stage. Conclusions: The authors presented the AnCoR framework to explicitly model anatomic constraints for the construction of a fused anatomic imaging-disease atlas. The framework was applied to constructing a preliminary version of an anatomic-disease atlas of the prostate, the prostatome. The prostatome could facilitate the quantitative characterization of gland morphology and imaging features of prostate cancer. These techniques, may be applied on a large sample size data set to create a fully developed prostatome that could serve as a spatial prior for targeted biopsies by urologists. Additionally, the AnCoR framework could allow for incorporation of complementary imaging and molecular data, thereby enabling their careful correlation for population based radio-omics studies.

  15. 4D measurement system for automatic location of anatomical structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witkowski, Marcin; Sitnik, Robert; Kujawińska, Małgorzata; Rapp, Walter; Kowalski, Marcin; Haex, Bart; Mooshake, Sven

    2006-04-01

    Orthopedics and neurosciences are fields of medicine where the analysis of objective movement parameters is extremely important for clinical diagnosis. Moreover, as there are significant differences between static and dynamic parameters, there is a strong need of analyzing the anatomical structures under functional conditions. In clinical gait analysis the benefits of kinematical methods are undoubted. In this paper we present a 4D (3D + time) measurement system capable of automatic location of selected anatomical structures by locating and tracing the structures' position and orientation in time. The presented system is designed to help a general practitioner in diagnosing selected lower limbs' dysfunctions (e.g. knee injuries) and also determine if a patient should be directed for further examination (e.g. x-ray or MRI). The measurement system components are hardware and software. For the hardware part we adapt the laser triangulation method. In this way we can evaluate functional and dynamic movements in a contact-free, non-invasive way, without the use of potentially harmful radiation. Furthermore, opposite to marker-based video-tracking systems, no preparation time is required. The software part consists of a data acquisition module, an image processing and point clouds (point cloud, set of points described by coordinates (x, y, z)) calculation module, a preliminary processing module, a feature-searching module and an external biomechanical module. The paper briefly presents the modules mentioned above with the focus on the feature-searching module. Also we present some measurement and analysis results. These include: parameters maps, landmarks trajectories in time sequence and animation of a simplified model of lower limbs.

  16. Review of the Historical Evolution of Anatomical Terms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Algieri, Rubén D.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Most of the medical terms of Greek origin are traditionally attributed to Hippocrates (460-370 BC. Claudius Galen of Pergamum (130-200 BC developed a classification of bones and joints and described different brain areas. His teachings have remained unchanged for over a thousand years. Andreas Vesalius of Brussels (1514-1564, through the systematic study of human body structure, changed many concepts. He published his work in his production "De humani corporis fabrica libri septem", where a special attention is evident to the discovery and description of new anatomical facts. From here there is a revolution in the morphological sciences, where the same anatomical structure passed to receive different names. In the nineteenth century, the different anatomists in the world decide to meet in order to unify criteria regarding the anatomical structures and determine a only one universal language in the anatomical sciences. In 1895, in Basel (Switzerland it’s approved a list of 5.573 terms, called Basle Nomina Anatomica (BNA and was written in Latin. Eponyms were deleted. In 1903, he founded the International Federation of Associations of anatomists (IFAA. In 1935, in Jena (Germany, approving the Jena Nomina Anatomica (JNA. In 1950, in Oxford, formed the Committee of the International Anatomical Nomenclature (IANC. In 1955, in Paris (France it is agreed to adopt a Latin nomenclature based on the BNA, the Paris Nomina Anatomica (PNA. In 1980, for the first time in Latin America, takes place on the 11th International Congress of Anatomists, Mexico. In 1989, the International Committee of Anatomical Nomenclature, published the sixth edition of the Nomina Anatomica, without review by the IFAA. The same year, the latter established a Federative International Committee of Anatomical Terminology (FICAT. In 1998, he published a new list FICAT: International Anatomical Terminology (TAI, with the structures named in Latin language and their equivalence in

  17. Automated anatomical description of pleural thickening towards improvement of its computer-assisted diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaisaowong, Kraisorn; Jiang, Mingze; Faltin, Peter; Merhof, Dorit; Eisenhawer, Christian; Gube, Monika; Kraus, Thomas

    2016-03-01

    Pleural thickenings are caused by asbestos exposure and may evolve into malignant pleural mesothelioma. An early diagnosis plays a key role towards an early treatment and an increased survival rate. Today, pleural thickenings are detected by visual inspection of CT data, which is time-consuming and underlies the physician's subjective judgment. A computer-assisted diagnosis system to automatically assess pleural thickenings has been developed, which includes not only a quantitative assessment with respect to size and location, but also enhances this information with an anatomical description, i.e. lung side (left, right), part of pleura (pars costalis, mediastinalis, diaphragmatica, spinalis), as well as vertical (upper, middle, lower) and horizontal (ventral, dorsal) position. For this purpose, a 3D anatomical model of the lung surface has been manually constructed as a 3D atlas. Three registration sub-steps including rigid, affine, and nonrigid registration align the input patient lung to the 3D anatomical atlas model of the lung surface. Finally, each detected pleural thickening is assigned a set of labels describing its anatomical properties. Through this added information, an enhancement to the existing computer-assisted diagnosis system is presented in order to assure a higher precision and reproducible assessment of pleural thickenings, aiming at the diagnosis of the pleural mesothelioma in its early stage.

  18. Exploring the human body space: A geographical information system based anatomical atlas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Barbeito

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Anatomical atlases allow mapping the anatomical structures of the human body. Early versions of these systems consisted of analogical representations with informative text and labeled images of the human body. With computer systems, digital versions emerged and the third and fourth dimensions were introduced. Consequently, these systems increased their efficiency, allowing more realistic visualizations with improved interactivity and functionality. The 4D atlases allow modeling changes over time on the structures represented. The anatomical atlases based on geographic information system (GIS environments allow the creation of platforms with a high degree of interactivity and new tools to explore and analyze the human body. In this study we expand the functions of a human body representation system by creating new vector data, topology, functions, and an improved user interface. The new prototype emulates a 3D GIS with a topological model of the human body, replicates the information provided by anatomical atlases, and provides a higher level of functionality and interactivity. At this stage, the developed system is intended to be used as an educational tool and integrates into the same interface the typical representations of surface and sectional atlases.

  19. Hamstring tendons insertion - an anatomical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiano Antonio Grassi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To study the anatomy of the hamstring tendons insertion and anatomical rela-tionships. METHODS: Ten cadaver knees with medial and anterior intact structures were selected. The dissection was performed from anteromedial access to exposure of the insertion of the flexor tendons (FT, tibial plateau (TP and tibial tuberosity (TT. A needle of 40 × 12 and a caliper were used to measure the distance of the tibial plateau of the knee flexor tendons insertion at 15 mm from the medial border of the patellar tendon and tibial tuberosity to the insertion of the flexor tendons of the knee. The angle between tibial plateau and the insertion of the flexor tendons of the knee (A-TP-FT was calculated using Image Pro Plus software. RESULTS: The mean distance TP-FT was 41 ± 4.6 mm. The distance between the TT-FT was 6.88 ± 1 mm. The (A-TP-FT was 20.3 ± 4.9°. CONCLUSION: In the anterior tibial flexor tendons are about 40 mm from the plateau with an average of 20°.

  20. Anatomic Reconstruction of the Proximal Tibiofibular Joint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, Brent T; Moulton, Samuel G; Cram, Tyler R; LaPrade, Robert F

    2016-02-01

    Proximal tibiofibular joint (PTFJ) instability can be easily missed or confused for other, more common lateral knee pathologies such as meniscal tears, fibular collateral ligament injury, biceps femoris pathology, or iliotibial band syndrome. Because of this confusion, some authors believe that PTFJ instability is more common than initially appreciated. Patients with PTFJ subluxation may have no history of inciting trauma or injury, and it is not uncommon for these patients to have bilateral symptoms and generalized ligamentous laxity. Currently, the optimal surgical treatment for patients with chronic PTFJ instability is unknown. Historically, a variety of surgical treatments have been reported. Initially, joint arthrodesis and fibular head resection were recommended. More recently, temporary screw fixation, nonanatomic reconstruction with strips of the biceps femoris tendon or iliotibial band, and reconstruction with free hamstring autograft have been described. The purpose of this report is to present our surgical technique for treatment of chronic PTFJ instability using an anatomic reconstruction of the posterior ligamentous structures of the PTFJ with a semitendinosus autograft. PMID:27274455

  1. Is the cervical fascia an anatomical proteus?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natale, Gianfranco; Condino, Sara; Stecco, Antonio; Soldani, Paola; Belmonte, Monica Mattioli; Gesi, Marco

    2015-11-01

    The cervical fasciae have always represented a matter of debate. Indeed, in the literature, it is quite impossible to find two authors reporting the same description of the neck fascia. In the present review, a historical background was outlined, confirming that the Malgaigne's definition of the cervical fascia as an anatomical Proteus is widely justified. In an attempt to provide an essential and a more comprehensive classification, a fixed pattern of description of cervical fasciae is proposed. Based on the morphogenetic criteria, two fascial groups have been recognized: (1) fasciae which derive from primitive fibro-muscular laminae (muscular fasciae or myofasciae); (2) fasciae which derive from connective thickening (visceral fasciae). Topographic and comparative approaches allowed to distinguish three different types of fasciae in the neck: the superficial, the deep and the visceral fasciae. The first is most connected to the skin, the second to the muscles and the third to the viscera. The muscular fascia could be further divided into three layers according to the relationship with the different muscles.

  2. Lateral femoral cutaneous neuralgia: an anatomical insight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias Filho, L C; Valença, M M; Guimarães Filho, F A V; Medeiros, R C; Silva, R A M; Morais, M G V; Valente, F P; França, S M L

    2003-07-01

    A detailed anatomic study was carried out on the lateral femoral cutaneous nerve to better understand the etiology and treatment of lateral femoral cutaneous neuralgia. As it passed from the pelvis into the thigh, the lateral femoral cutaneous nerve ran through an "aponeuroticofascial tunnel," beginning at the iliopubic tract and ending at the inguinal ligament; as it passed through the tunnel, an enlargement in its side-to-side diameter was observed, suggesting that the fascial structures proximal to the inguinal ligament may be implicated in the genesis of lateral femoral cutaneous neuralgia. The finding of pseudoneuromas at this location, distant from the inguinal ligament, supports this hypothesis. The anterior superior iliac spine is located approximately 0.7 cm from the lateral femoral cutaneous nerve and serves as the bony landmark for nerve localization. Within the first 3 cm of leaving the pelvis, the lateral femoral cutaneous nerve was observed deep to the fascia lata; therefore, surgical dissection within the subcutaneous fascia may be conducted with relative impunity near the anterior superior iliac spine just inferior to the inguinal ligament. In 36% of cases there was no posterior branch of the nerve, which is correlated to lateral femoral cutaneous neuralgia symptoms often being limited to the anterior branch region. An accessory nerve was found in 30% of cases. PMID:12794914

  3. Simultaneous anatomical sketching as learning by doing method of teaching human anatomy

    OpenAIRE

    Noorafshan, Ali; Hoseini, Leila; AMINI, MITRA; Dehghani, Mohammad-Reza; Kojuri, Javad; Bazrafkan, Leila

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Learning by lecture is a passive experience. Many innovative techniques have been presented to stimulate students to assume a more active attitude toward learning. In this study, simultaneous sketch drawing, as an interactive learning technique was applied to teach anatomy to the medical students. Materials and Methods: We reconstructed a fun interactive model of teaching anatomy as simultaneous anatomic sketching. To test the model's instruction effectiveness, we conducted a quasi...

  4. Anatomic atlas for computed tomography in the mesaticephalic dog: head and neck

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study was to produce a comprehensive anatomic atlas of CT anatomy of the dog for use by veterinary radiologists, clinicians, and surgeons. Whole-body CT images of two mature beagle dogs were made with the dogs supported in sternal recumbency and using a slice thickness of 13 mm. The head was scanned using high-resolution imaging with a slice thickness of 8 mm. At the end of the CT session, each dog was euthanized, and while carefully maintaining the same position, the body was placed in a walk-in freezer until completely frozen. The body was then sectioned at 13-mm (head at 8-mm) intervals, with the cuts matched as closely as possible to the CT slices. The forzen sections were cleaned, photographed, and radiographed using xeroradiography. Each CT image was studied and compared with its corresponding xeroradiograph and anatomic section to assist in the accurate identification of specific structures. Intact, sagittally sectioned, and disarticulated dog skulls were used as reference models. Clinically relevant anatomic structures were identified and labeled in the three corresponding photographs (CT image, xeroradiograph, and anatomic section). In this paper, the CT anatomy of the head and neck of the mesaticephalic dog is presented

  5. An anatomically driven anisotropic diffusion filtering method for 3D SPECT reconstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, we aim to reconstruct single-photon emission computed tomography images using anatomical information from magnetic resonance imaging as a priori knowledge about the activity distribution. The trade-off between anatomical and emission data is one of the main concerns for such studies. In this work, we propose an anatomically driven anisotropic diffusion filter (ADADF) as a penalized maximum likelihood expectation maximization optimization framework. The ADADF method has improved edge-preserving denoising characteristics compared to other smoothing penalty terms based on quadratic and non-quadratic functions. The proposed method has an important ability to retain information which is absent in the anatomy. To make our approach more stable to the noise-edge classification problem, robust statistics have been employed. Comparison of the ADADF method is performed with a successful anatomically driven technique, namely, the Bowsher prior (BP). Quantitative assessment using simulated and clinical neuroreceptor volumetric data show the advantage of the ADADF over the BP. For the modelled data, the overall image resolution, the contrast, the signal-to-noise ratio and the ability to preserve important features in the data are all improved by using the proposed method. For clinical data, the contrast in the region of interest is significantly improved using the ADADF compared to the BP, while successfully eliminating noise. (paper)

  6. Hemispheric Asymmetry of Human Brain Anatomical Network Revealed by Diffusion Tensor Tractography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ni Shu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The topological architecture of the cerebral anatomical network reflects the structural organization of the human brain. Recently, topological measures based on graph theory have provided new approaches for quantifying large-scale anatomical networks. However, few studies have investigated the hemispheric asymmetries of the human brain from the perspective of the network model, and little is known about the asymmetries of the connection patterns of brain regions, which may reflect the functional integration and interaction between different regions. Here, we utilized diffusion tensor imaging to construct binary anatomical networks for 72 right-handed healthy adult subjects. We established the existence of structural connections between any pair of the 90 cortical and subcortical regions using deterministic tractography. To investigate the hemispheric asymmetries of the brain, statistical analyses were performed to reveal the brain regions with significant differences between bilateral topological properties, such as degree of connectivity, characteristic path length, and betweenness centrality. Furthermore, local structural connections were also investigated to examine the local asymmetries of some specific white matter tracts. From the perspective of both the global and local connection patterns, we identified the brain regions with hemispheric asymmetries. Combined with the previous studies, we suggested that the topological asymmetries in the anatomical network may reflect the functional lateralization of the human brain.

  7. Hemispheric Asymmetry of Human Brain Anatomical Network Revealed by Diffusion Tensor Tractography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Ni; Liu, Yaou; Duan, Yunyun; Li, Kuncheng

    2015-01-01

    The topological architecture of the cerebral anatomical network reflects the structural organization of the human brain. Recently, topological measures based on graph theory have provided new approaches for quantifying large-scale anatomical networks. However, few studies have investigated the hemispheric asymmetries of the human brain from the perspective of the network model, and little is known about the asymmetries of the connection patterns of brain regions, which may reflect the functional integration and interaction between different regions. Here, we utilized diffusion tensor imaging to construct binary anatomical networks for 72 right-handed healthy adult subjects. We established the existence of structural connections between any pair of the 90 cortical and subcortical regions using deterministic tractography. To investigate the hemispheric asymmetries of the brain, statistical analyses were performed to reveal the brain regions with significant differences between bilateral topological properties, such as degree of connectivity, characteristic path length, and betweenness centrality. Furthermore, local structural connections were also investigated to examine the local asymmetries of some specific white matter tracts. From the perspective of both the global and local connection patterns, we identified the brain regions with hemispheric asymmetries. Combined with the previous studies, we suggested that the topological asymmetries in the anatomical network may reflect the functional lateralization of the human brain.

  8. Population of anatomically variable 4D XCAT adult phantoms for imaging research and optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Segars, W. P.; Bond, Jason; Frush, Jack; Hon, Sylvia; Eckersley, Chris; Samei, E. [Carl E. Ravin Advanced Imaging Laboratories, Department of Radiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27705 (United States); Williams, Cameron H.; Frush, D. [Department of Radiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710 (United States); Feng Jianqiao; Tward, Daniel J.; Ratnanather, J. T.; Miller, M. I. [Center for Imaging Science, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 21218 (United States)

    2013-04-15

    Purpose: The authors previously developed the 4D extended cardiac-torso (XCAT) phantom for multimodality imaging research. The XCAT consisted of highly detailed whole-body models for the standard male and female adult, including the cardiac and respiratory motions. In this work, the authors extend the XCAT beyond these reference anatomies by developing a series of anatomically variable 4D XCAT adult phantoms for imaging research, the first library of 4D computational phantoms. Methods: The initial anatomy of each phantom was based on chest-abdomen-pelvis computed tomography data from normal patients obtained from the Duke University database. The major organs and structures for each phantom were segmented from the corresponding data and defined using nonuniform rational B-spline surfaces. To complete the body, the authors manually added on the head, arms, and legs using the original XCAT adult male and female anatomies. The structures were scaled to best match the age and anatomy of the patient. A multichannel large deformation diffeomorphic metric mapping algorithm was then used to calculate the transform from the template XCAT phantom (male or female) to the target patient model. The transform was applied to the template XCAT to fill in any unsegmented structures within the target phantom and to implement the 4D cardiac and respiratory models in the new anatomy. Each new phantom was refined by checking for anatomical accuracy via inspection of the models. Results: Using these methods, the authors created a series of computerized phantoms with thousands of anatomical structures and modeling cardiac and respiratory motions. The database consists of 58 (35 male and 23 female) anatomically variable phantoms in total. Like the original XCAT, these phantoms can be combined with existing simulation packages to simulate realistic imaging data. Each new phantom contains parameterized models for the anatomy and the cardiac and respiratory motions and can, therefore, serve

  9. Embryologic and anatomic basis of duodenal surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Androulakis, J; Colborn, G L; Skandalakis, P N; Skandalakis, L J; Skandalakis, J E

    2000-02-01

    The following points should be remembered by surgeons (Table 1). In writing about the head of the pancreas, the common bile duct, and the duodenum in 1979, the authors stated that Embryologically, anatomically and surgically these three entities form an inseparable unit. Their relations and blood supply make it impossible for the surgeon to remove completely the head of the pancreas without removing the duodenum and the distal part of the common bile duct. Here embryology and anatomy conspire to produce some of the most difficult surgery of the abdominal cavity. The only alternative procedure, the so-called 95% pancreatectomy, leaves a rim of pancreas along the medial border of the duodenum to preserve the duodenal blood supply. The authors had several conversations with Child, one of the pioneers of this procedure, whose constant message was to always be careful with the blood supply of the duodenum (personal communication, 1970). Beger et al popularized duodenum-preserving resection of the pancreatic head, emphasizing preservation of endocrine pancreatic function. They reported that ampullectomy (removal of the papilla and ampulla of Vater) carries a mortality rate of less than 0.4% and a morbidity rate of less than 10.0%. Surgeons should not ligate the superior and inferior pancreaticoduodenal arteries because such ligation may cause necrosis of the head of the pancreas and of much of the duodenum. The accessory pancreatic duct of Santorini passes under the gastrointestinal artery. For safety, surgeons should ligate the artery away from the anterior medial duodenal wall, where the papilla is located, thereby avoiding injury to or ligation of the duct. "Water under the bridge" applies not only to the relationship of the uterine artery and ureter but also to the gastroduodenal artery and the accessory pancreatic duct. In 10% of cases, the duct of Santorini is the only duct draining the pancreas, so ligation of the gastroduodenal artery with accidental inclusion of

  10. Collaborative regression-based anatomical landmark detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yaozong; Shen, Dinggang

    2015-12-01

    Anatomical landmark detection plays an important role in medical image analysis, e.g. for registration, segmentation and quantitative analysis. Among the various existing methods for landmark detection, regression-based methods have recently attracted much attention due to their robustness and efficiency. In these methods, landmarks are localised through voting from all image voxels, which is completely different from the classification-based methods that use voxel-wise classification to detect landmarks. Despite their robustness, the accuracy of regression-based landmark detection methods is often limited due to (1) the inclusion of uninformative image voxels in the voting procedure, and (2) the lack of effective ways to incorporate inter-landmark spatial dependency into the detection step. In this paper, we propose a collaborative landmark detection framework to address these limitations. The concept of collaboration is reflected in two aspects. (1) Multi-resolution collaboration. A multi-resolution strategy is proposed to hierarchically localise landmarks by gradually excluding uninformative votes from faraway voxels. Moreover, for informative voxels near the landmark, a spherical sampling strategy is also designed at the training stage to improve their prediction accuracy. (2) Inter-landmark collaboration. A confidence-based landmark detection strategy is proposed to improve the detection accuracy of ‘difficult-to-detect’ landmarks by using spatial guidance from ‘easy-to-detect’ landmarks. To evaluate our method, we conducted experiments extensively on three datasets for detecting prostate landmarks and head & neck landmarks in computed tomography images, and also dental landmarks in cone beam computed tomography images. The results show the effectiveness of our collaborative landmark detection framework in improving landmark detection accuracy, compared to other state-of-the-art methods.

  11. ACCESSORY SPLEEN: A CLINICALLY RELEVANT ANATOMIC ANOMALY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prachi Saffar

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of our study is to emphasize on the clinical relevance of the presence of accessory spleen. It is not only a well-documented anatomic anomaly, it holds special significance in the differential diagnosis of intra-abdominal tumours and lymphadenopathy. MATERIALS AND METHODS Thirty male cadavers from North Indian population above the age of 60 yrs. were dissected in the Anatomy Department of FMHS, SGT University, Gurgaon, over a period of 5 yrs. (Sep 2010-Aug 2015 and presence of accessory spleen recorded. Tissue from the accessory spleen was also subjected to routine histological processing and slide prepared by haematoxylin and eosin staining. RESULTS Accessory spleen was present in two cadavers near the splenic hilum. One was 3.9 cm in the long axis and weighed about 48.4 grams, while the other was 1.2 cm in long axis and weighed about 12.5 grams. One had a separate arterial branch from the main splenic artery; that it was splenic tissue was confirmed histologically. DISCUSSION The presence of accessory spleen is considered to be due to embryonic non-fusion of the splenic aggregate with the main mass. CONCLUSION Though accessory spleen in itself pose no clinical problems, its significance cannot be undermined. Surgeons and radiologists are advised to look for and rule out the presence of accessory spleen, especially while evaluating a case of abdominal and perineal pathology, else it may be wrongly diagnosed as malignant tumour or enlarged lymph node leading to grave consequences.

  12. ANATOMICAL LANDMARKS FOR ROBOTIC NERVE SPARING RADICAL PROSTATECTOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. N. Moiseenko

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A detailed anatomical study of the prostate and pelvic organs has been recently relevant. Their anatomical knowledge is directly associated with the improved procedure of nerve-sparing robot-assisted radical prostatectomy, which contributes to the preservation of the anatomical structures responsible for postsurgical erection and urinary continence. The main tasks of radical prostatectomy are effective cancer control, early recovery of urinary continence, and recovery of erectile function.The literature on the anatomy of the prostate and its adjacent structures is analyzed in the context of nerve-sparing robot-assisted radical prostatectomy.

  13. A reusable anatomically segmented digital mannequin for public health communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujieda, Kaori; Okubo, Kosaku

    2016-01-01

    The ongoing development of world wide web technologies has facilitated a change in health communication, which has now become bi-directional and encompasses people with diverse backgrounds. To enable an even greater role for medical illustrations, a data set, BodyParts3D, has been generated and its data set can be used by anyone to create and exchange customised three-dimensional (3D) anatomical images. BP3D comprises more than 3000 3D object files created by segmenting a digital mannequin in accordance with anatomical naming conventions. This paper describes the methodologies and features used to generate an anatomically correct male mannequin.

  14. Anatomic changes due to interspecific grafting in cassava (Manihot esculenta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bomfim, N; Ribeiro, D G; Nassar, N M A

    2011-05-31

    Cassava rootstocks of varieties UnB 201 and UnB 122 grafted with scions of Manihot fortalezensis were prepared for anatomic study. The roots were cut, stained with safranin and alcian blue, and examined microscopically, comparing them with sections taken from ungrafted roots. There was a significant decrease in number of pericyclic fibers, vascular vessels and tyloses in rootstocks. They exhibited significant larger vessels. These changes in anatomic structure are a consequence of genetic effects caused by transference of genetic material from scion to rootstock. The same ungrafted species was compared. This is the first report on anatomic changes due to grafting in cassava.

  15. Anatomic Double-Bundle Posterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chahla, Jorge; Nitri, Marco; Civitarese, David; Dean, Chase S; Moulton, Samuel G; LaPrade, Robert F

    2016-02-01

    The posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) is known to be the main posterior stabilizer of the knee. Anatomic single-bundle PCL reconstruction, focusing on reconstruction of the larger anterolateral bundle, is the most commonly performed procedure. Because of the residual posterior and rotational tibial instability after the single-bundle procedure and the inability to restore the normal knee kinematics, an anatomic double-bundle PCL reconstruction has been proposed in an effort to re-create the native PCL footprint more closely and to restore normal knee kinematics. We detail our technique for an anatomic double-bundle PCL reconstruction using Achilles and anterior tibialis tendon allografts. PMID:27284530

  16. Anatomical features and clinical relevance of a persistent trigeminal artery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcalá-Cerra, Gabriel; Tubbs, R S; Niño-Hernández, Lucía M

    2012-01-01

    Background: Although persistent trigeminal artery (PTA) is uncommonly identified, knowledge of this structure is essential for clinicians who interpret cranial imaging, perform invasive studies of the cerebral vasculature, and operate this region. Methods: A review of the medical literature using standard search engines was performed to locate articles regarding the PTA, with special attention with anatomical descriptions. Results: Although anatomical reports of PTA anatomy are very scarce, those were analyzed to describe in detail the current knowledge about its anatomical relationships and variants. Additionally, the embryology, classification, clinical implications, and imaging modalities of this vessel are extensively discussed. Conclusions: Through a comprehensive review of isolated reports of the PTA, the clinician can better understand and treat patients with such an anatomical derailment. PMID:23087827

  17. Zebrafish Expression Ontology of Gene Sets (ZEOGS): a tool to analyze enrichment of zebrafish anatomical terms in large gene sets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prykhozhij, Sergey V; Marsico, Annalisa; Meijsing, Sebastiaan H

    2013-09-01

    The zebrafish (Danio rerio) is an established model organism for developmental and biomedical research. It is frequently used for high-throughput functional genomics experiments, such as genome-wide gene expression measurements, to systematically analyze molecular mechanisms. However, the use of whole embryos or larvae in such experiments leads to a loss of the spatial information. To address this problem, we have developed a tool called Zebrafish Expression Ontology of Gene Sets (ZEOGS) to assess the enrichment of anatomical terms in large gene sets. ZEOGS uses gene expression pattern data from several sources: first, in situ hybridization experiments from the Zebrafish Model Organism Database (ZFIN); second, it uses the Zebrafish Anatomical Ontology, a controlled vocabulary that describes connected anatomical structures; and third, the available connections between expression patterns and anatomical terms contained in ZFIN. Upon input of a gene set, ZEOGS determines which anatomical structures are overrepresented in the input gene set. ZEOGS allows one for the first time to look at groups of genes and to describe them in terms of shared anatomical structures. To establish ZEOGS, we first tested it on random gene selections and on two public microarray datasets with known tissue-specific gene expression changes. These tests showed that ZEOGS could reliably identify the tissues affected, whereas only very few enriched terms to none were found in the random gene sets. Next we applied ZEOGS to microarray datasets of 24 and 72 h postfertilization zebrafish embryos treated with beclomethasone, a potent glucocorticoid. This analysis resulted in the identification of several anatomical terms related to glucocorticoid-responsive tissues, some of which were stage-specific. Our studies highlight the ability of ZEOGS to extract spatial information from datasets derived from whole embryos, indicating that ZEOGS could be a useful tool to automatically analyze gene expression

  18. Anatomic Dead Space Cannot Be Predicted by Body Weight

    OpenAIRE

    Brewer, Lara M.; Orr, Joseph A.

    2007-01-01

    Anatomic, airway, or tracheal, dead space is the part of the tidal volume that does not participate in gas exchange. Knowledge of the size of the dead space is important for proper mechanical ventilation, especially if small tidal volumes are used. Respiratory and medical textbooks state that anatomic dead space can be estimated from the patient’s body weight. Specifically, these references suggest dead space can be predicted using a relationship of one milliliter per pound of body weight. Us...

  19. Anatomic anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction using an individualized approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carola F. van Eck

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL reconstruction is one of the most commonly performed orthopaedic procedures. Recently, there has been a shift in interest towards reconstruction techniques that more closely restore the native anatomy of the ACL. This review paper discusses our approach to individualized anatomic ACL reconstruction, including the anatomy of the ACL, the physical exam, imaging modalities, the surgical technique for anatomic reconstruction including pre- and intraoperative considerations and our postoperative rehabilitation protocol.

  20. Detection and Analysis of Statistical Differences in Anatomical Shape

    OpenAIRE

    Golland, Polina; Grimson, W. Eric L.; Martha E. Shenton; Kikinis, Ron

    2005-01-01

    We present a computational framework for image-based analysis and interpretation of statistical differences in anatomical shape between populations. Applications of such analysis include understanding developmental and anatomical aspects of disorders when comparing patients vs. normal controls, studying morphological changes caused by aging, or even differences in normal anatomy, for example, differences between genders. Once a quantitative description of organ shape is extracted from input i...

  1. Anatomic Double-Bundle Posterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction

    OpenAIRE

    Chahla, Jorge; Nitri, Marco; Civitarese, David; Dean, Chase S.; Moulton, Samuel G.; LaPrade, Robert F.

    2016-01-01

    The posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) is known to be the main posterior stabilizer of the knee. Anatomic single-bundle PCL reconstruction, focusing on reconstruction of the larger anterolateral bundle, is the most commonly performed procedure. Because of the residual posterior and rotational tibial instability after the single-bundle procedure and the inability to restore the normal knee kinematics, an anatomic double-bundle PCL reconstruction has been proposed in an effort to re-create the n...

  2. Toledo School of Translators and their influence on anatomical terminology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arráez-Aybar, Luis-Alfonso; Bueno-López, José-L; Raio, Nicolas

    2015-03-01

    Translation facilitates transmission of knowledge between cultures. The fundamental transfer of anatomic terminology from the Ancient Greek and Islamic Golden Age cultures, to medieval Latin Christendom took place in the so-called Toledo School of Translators in the 12th-13th centuries. Translations made in Toledo circulated widely across Europe. They were the foundation of scientific thinking that was born in the boards of first universities. In Toledo, Gerard of Cremona translated Avicenna's Canon of Medicine, the key work of Islamic Golden Age of medicine. Albertus Magnus, Mondino de Luzzi and Guy de Chauliac, the leading authors of anatomical Latin words in the Middle Ages, founded their books on Gerard's translations. The anatomical terms of the Canon retain auctoritas up to the Renaissance. Thus, terms coined by Gerard such as diaphragm, orbit, pupil or sagittal remain relevant in the current official anatomical terminology. The aim of the present paper is to bring new attention to the highly significant influence that the Toledo School of Translators had in anatomical terminology. For this, we shall review here the onomastic origins of a number of anatomical terms (additamentum; coracoid process; coxal; false ribs; femur; panniculus; spondylus; squamous sutures; thorax; xiphoid process, etc.) which are still used today. PMID:25667112

  3. Anatomical Findings in Patients with Infective Endocarditis Diagnosed at Autopsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Angel Serra Valdés

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Infective endocarditis continues to challenge modern medicine despite its rare occurrence in the general population. Its incidence depends on risk groups. Correlation of anatomical and pathological findings with clinical and epidemiological elements may explain the current features of this condition. Objective: to describe the anatomical features of patients with infective endocarditis diagnosed at autopsy. Methods: A descriptive study including cases of infective endocarditis diagnosed at autopsy between 1986 and 2008 was conducted in the Provincial Clinical-Surgical Hospital Celia Sanchez, Granma. The variables analyzed were: age, sex, previous anatomical lesions, location of vegetations, multi-organ embolic infarcts and embolic abscesses, complications, culture of lesions and direct causes of death. Results: frequency of infective endocarditis diagnosed at necropsy ranged annually from 0.4 to 1.5%. Native valve endocarditis without previous damage was the most frequent. The anatomical findings were more common in the left side of the heart. Right-sided nosocomial endocarditis accounted for almost a third of the deceased patients and risk factors were identified. Embolic lesions affecting various organs, systemic complications and direct causes of death showed acute infectious endocarditis. The most common pathogen was Staphylococcus aureus. Conclusion: knowing the anatomical findings may contribute to the understanding of the clinical and epidemiological aspects of this condition. Correlation between anatomical and clinical findings was low; therefore difficulties in establishing the diagnosis during life are inferred.

  4. Free-form image registration of human cochlear μCT data using skeleton similarity as anatomical prior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjer, Hans Martin; Fagertun, Jens; Vera, Sergio;

    2016-01-01

    Better understanding of the anatomical variability of the human cochlear is important for the design and function of Cochlear Implants. Proper non-rigid alignment of high-resolution cochlear μCT data is a challenge for the typical cubic B-spline registration model. In this paper we study one way...... of incorporating skeleton-based similarity as an anatomical registration prior. We extract a centerline skeleton of the cochlear spiral, and generate corresponding parametric pseudo-landmarks between samples. These correspondences are included in the cost function of a typical cubic B-spline registration model...

  5. [The anatomical revolution and the transition of anatomical conception in late imperial china].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sihn, Kyu Hwan

    2012-04-30

    This paper aimed to examine the anatomical revolution from Yilingaicuo (Correcting the Errors of Medicine) and Quantixinlun(Outline of Anatomy and Physiology) in late imperial China. As the cephalocentrism which the brain superintend human operation of the mind was diffused in China since 16th century, the cephalocentrism and the cardiocentrism had competed for the hegemony of anatomical conception. Because of the advent of Yilingaicuo and Quantixinlun, the cephalocentrism became the main stream in the anatomical conception. The supporters of the Wang Yangming's Xinxue(the Learning of Heart and Mind) argued that the heart was the central organ of perception, sensitivity, and morality of the human body in medicine since 16th century. Even reformist and revolutionary intellectuals like Tan sitong and Mao zedong who had supported the Wang Yangming's Xinxue embraced the cephalocentrism in the late 19th century and the early 20th century. May Fourth intellectuals had not obsessed metaphysical interpretation of human body any more in the New Culture Movement in 1910s. They regarded human body as the object of research and writing. The anatomy was transformed into the instrumental knowledge for mutilation of the body. Yilingaicuo challenged the traditional conception of body, and Chinese intellectuals drew interest in the anatomy knowledge based on real mutilation. Quantixinlun based on Western medicine fueled a controversy about anatomy. Though new knowledge of anatomy was criticized by traditional Chinese medical doctors from the usefulness and morality of anatomy, nobody disavowed new knowledge of anatomy from the institutionalization of Western medicine in medical school. The internal development of cephalocentrism and positivism had influence on anatomy in China since 16th century. The advent of Yilingaicuo and Quantixinlun provided the milestone of new anatomy, though both sides represented traditional Chinese medicine and Western medicine respectively. They

  6. Anatomical characterization of central, apical and minimal corneal thickness

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Federico; Saenz-Frances; Martha; Cecilia; Bermúdez-Vallecilla; Lara; Borrego-Sanz; Luis; Jaez; J; osé; Marìa; Martinez-de-la-Casa; Laura; Morales-Fernandez; Enrique; Santos-Bueso; Julián; Garcia-Sanchez; Julián; Garcia-Feijoo

    2014-01-01

    ·AIM: To anatomically locate the points of minimum corneal thickness and central corneal thickness(pupil center) in relation to the corneal apex.·METHODS: Observational, cross-sectional study, 299 healthy volunteers. Thickness at the corneal apex(AT),minimum corneal thickness(MT) and corneal thickness at the pupil center(PT) were determined using the pentacam. Distances from the corneal apex to MT(MD)and PT(PD) were calculated and their quadrant position(taking the corneal apex as the reference) determined:point of minimum thickness(MC) and point of central thickness(PC) depending on the quadrant position. Two multivariate linear regression models were constructed to examine the influence of age, gender, power of the flattest and steepest corneal axes, position of the flattest axis, corneal volume(determined using the Pentacam)and PT on MD and PD. The effects of these variables on MC and PC were also determined in two multinomial regression models.·RESULTS: MT was located at a mean distance of 0.909 mm from the apex(79.4% in the inferior-temporal quadrant). PT was located at a mean distance of 0.156 mm from the apex. The linear regression model for MD indicated it was significantly influenced by corneal volume(B =-0.024; 95% CI:-0.043 to-0.004). No significant relations were identified in the linear regression model for PD or the multinomial logisticregressions for MC and PC.·CONCLUSION: MT was typically located at the inferiortemporal quadrant of the cornea and its distance to the corneal apex tended to decrease with the increment of corneal volume.

  7. GBM heterogeneity characterization by radiomic analysis of phenotype anatomical planes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaddad, Ahmad; Desrosiers, Christian; Toews, Matthew

    2016-03-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most common malignant primary tumor of the central nervous system, characterized among other traits by rapid metastatis. Three tissue phenotypes closely associated with GBMs, namely, necrosis (N), contrast enhancement (CE), and edema/invasion (E), exhibit characteristic patterns of texture heterogeneity in magnetic resonance images (MRI). In this study, we propose a novel model to characterize GBM tissue phenotypes using gray level co-occurrence matrices (GLCM) in three anatomical planes. The GLCM encodes local image patches in terms of informative, orientation-invariant texture descriptors, which are used here to sub-classify GBM tissue phenotypes. Experiments demonstrate the model on MRI data of 41 GBM patients, obtained from the cancer genome atlas (TCGA). Intensity-based automatic image registration is applied to align corresponding pairs of fixed T1˗weighted (T1˗WI) post-contrast and fluid attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) images. GBM tissue regions are then segmented using the 3D Slicer tool. Texture features are computed from 12 quantifier functions operating on GLCM descriptors, that are generated from MRI intensities within segmented GBM tissue regions. Various classifier models are used to evaluate the effectiveness of texture features for discriminating between GBM phenotypes. Results based on T1-WI scans showed a phenotype classification accuracy of over 88.14%, a sensitivity of 85.37% and a specificity of 96.1%, using the linear discriminant analysis (LDA) classifier. This model has the potential to provide important characteristics of tumors, which can be used for the sub-classification of GBM phenotypes.

  8. Evidence for a genetic discontinuity between Neandertals and 24,000-year-old anatomically modern Europeans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caramelli, David; Lalueza-Fox, Carles; Vernesi, Cristiano; Lari, Martina; Casoli, Antonella; Mallegni, Francesco; Chiarelli, Brunetto; Dupanloup, Isabelle; Bertranpetit, Jaume; Barbujani, Guido; Bertorelle, Giorgio

    2003-05-27

    During the late Pleistocene, early anatomically modern humans coexisted in Europe with the anatomically archaic Neandertals for some thousand years. Under the recent variants of the multiregional model of human evolution, modern and archaic forms were different but related populations within a single evolving species, and both have contributed to the gene pool of current humans. Conversely, the Out-of-Africa model considers the transition between Neandertals and anatomically modern humans as the result of a demographic replacement, and hence it predicts a genetic discontinuity between them. Following the most stringent current standards for validation of ancient DNA sequences, we typed the mtDNA hypervariable region I of two anatomically modern Homo sapiens sapiens individuals of the Cro-Magnon type dated at about 23 and 25 thousand years ago. Here we show that the mtDNAs of these individuals fall well within the range of variation of today's humans, but differ sharply from the available sequences of the chronologically closer Neandertals. This discontinuity is difficult to reconcile with the hypothesis that both Neandertals and early anatomically modern humans contributed to the current European gene pool. PMID:12743370

  9. Influence of anatomic reference on the buccal contour of prosthetic crowns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia Sabrina Queirós Vasconcelos

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available During clinical practice, when performing prosthetic rehabilitation with single crowns, improper reproduction of the dental contour by the dental laboratory is a common occurrence. Therefore, the present study evaluated the fidelity of the reproduction of the buccal contour in an upper left canine performed by three Dental Prosthesis Technicians (DPT using the indirect laminate veneer technique. First, the DPTs confected the veneers based on a model obtained from the upper arch of a dental dummy, containing a replica of an upper left canine with a prosthetic preparation for a laminate veneer. Then, the same DPTs received other identical models, now with the replica of the upper left canine with no preparation, to be used as an anatomical reference for confecting the laminate veneers. The laminate veneers were then bonded to the plaster models and had their buccal contour individually measured. Measurements were also made of the buccal contour of the reference canine. The data were analyzed by ANOVA and the t-test (p = 0.05. Results showed 100% of buccal overcontour when the laminate veneers were compared to the reference canine, regardless of which DPT confected the veneer and regardless of using or not the anatomical reference. The DPTs who participated in the present study were unable to acomplish a faithful anatomical reproduction of the buccal contour, creating an overcontour in all samples. This situation may be responsible for increasing the probability of periodontal and esthetic harm in clinical practice.

  10. D-BRAIN: Anatomically Accurate Simulated Diffusion MRI Brain Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrone, Daniele; Jeurissen, Ben; Aelterman, Jan; Roine, Timo; Sijbers, Jan; Pizurica, Aleksandra; Leemans, Alexander; Philips, Wilfried

    2016-01-01

    Diffusion Weighted (DW) MRI allows for the non-invasive study of water diffusion inside living tissues. As such, it is useful for the investigation of human brain white matter (WM) connectivity in vivo through fiber tractography (FT) algorithms. Many DW-MRI tailored restoration techniques and FT algorithms have been developed. However, it is not clear how accurately these methods reproduce the WM bundle characteristics in real-world conditions, such as in the presence of noise, partial volume effect, and a limited spatial and angular resolution. The difficulty lies in the lack of a realistic brain phantom on the one hand, and a sufficiently accurate way of modeling the acquisition-related degradation on the other. This paper proposes a software phantom that approximates a human brain to a high degree of realism and that can incorporate complex brain-like structural features. We refer to it as a Diffusion BRAIN (D-BRAIN) phantom. Also, we propose an accurate model of a (DW) MRI acquisition protocol to allow for validation of methods in realistic conditions with data imperfections. The phantom model simulates anatomical and diffusion properties for multiple brain tissue components, and can serve as a ground-truth to evaluate FT algorithms, among others. The simulation of the acquisition process allows one to include noise, partial volume effects, and limited spatial and angular resolution in the images. In this way, the effect of image artifacts on, for instance, fiber tractography can be investigated with great detail. The proposed framework enables reliable and quantitative evaluation of DW-MR image processing and FT algorithms at the level of large-scale WM structures. The effect of noise levels and other data characteristics on cortico-cortical connectivity and tractography-based grey matter parcellation can be investigated as well. PMID:26930054

  11. Disrupted anatomic networks in the 22q11.2 deletion syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, J Eric; Yi, James; Calkins, Monica E; Ruparel, Kosha; Roalf, David R; Cassidy, Amy; Souders, Margaret C; Satterthwaite, Theodore D; McDonald-McGinn, Donna M; Zackai, Elaine H; Gur, Ruben C; Emanuel, Beverly S; Gur, Raquel E

    2016-01-01

    The 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS) is an uncommon genetic disorder with an increased risk of psychosis. Although the neural substrates of psychosis and schizophrenia are not well understood, aberrations in cortical networks represent intriguing potential mechanisms. Investigations of anatomic networks within 22q11DS are sparse. We investigated group differences in anatomic network structure in 48 individuals with 22q11DS and 370 typically developing controls by analyzing covariance patterns in cortical thickness among 68 regions of interest using graph theoretical models. Subjects with 22q11DS had less robust geographic organization relative to the control group, particularly in the occipital and parietal lobes. Multiple global graph theoretical statistics were decreased in 22q11DS. These results are consistent with prior studies demonstrating decreased connectivity in 22q11DS using other neuroimaging methodologies. PMID:27622139

  12. Using local extremum curvatures to extract anatomical markers from medical images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Briquer, Lionel; Lachmann, Frederic; Barillot, Christian

    1993-09-01

    Among the studies concerning the segmentation and the identification of anatomical structures from medical images, one of the major problems is the fusion of heterogeneous data for the recognition of these structures. In this domain, the fusion of inter-patient data for the constitution of anatomical models for instance is particularly critical especially with regards to the identification of complex cerebral structures like the cortical gyri. The goal of this work is to find anatomical markers which can be useful to characterize specific regions in brain images by using either CT or MR images. We have focused this study on the definition of a geometrical operator based on the detection of local extremum curvatures. The main issues addressed by this work concern the fusion of multimodal data from one patient (e.g. between CT and MRI) and moreover the fusion of inter-patient data as a first step toward the modelling of brain morphological deformations. Examples are shown upon 2D MR and CT brain images.

  13. Anatomical Disregard as a Risk Factor in Thoracic Surgery.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arribalzaga, Eduardo B.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The anatomy plays a significant role in medical education, allowing a progressive appropriate professional development. Because of different factors adverse events (AE occur, where patient’s safety is achieved by surgical knowledge, prevention and elimination of risk factors. Absence or incorrect knowledge of the anatomical basis at the beginning of the graduate studies specialization are factors that alter the surgical patient’s safety, risking his life. The safety checklist in surgery is used to reduce avoidable risks for the patient in the operating room.Objectives: 1. Analyze the anatomic disregard as a risk factor in surgical anatomical processes of the thorax. 2. Evaluate actions to provide greater safety for the patient with thoracic surgical pathology. 3. Evaluate the importance of implementing register systems to improve the quality of care and patient’s safety with thoracic surgical pathology.Retrospective statistical analysis of anatomic disregard as a risk factor contributing to adverse events (AEs in anatomical and surgical procedures of the thorax was performed in the General Surgery Service of the Hospital Aeronáutico Central of Buenos Aires Air (HAC, from October 2009 to April 2011; and a case of anatomical disregard and its clinical-surgical implications was reported, in General Surgery Service of Hospital de Clínicas of Buenos Aires.In the General Surgery Service of HAC, 21 patients (17.64% had AE all (100% preventable. 100% were due to human factors, corresponding to 12 (57.14%, because of ignorance of anatomical region and the rest by other factors: absence of checklist in 7 (58.33% of which 5 (71.43% correspond to the first 9 months of the studied period and 2 (28.57% in the next 9 months. A case of anatomical disregard was reported in the surgical practice of General Surgery Service of Hospital de Clínicas, Buenos Aires where it was because of complications that endangered the patient’s life.The registration

  14. CT following US for possible appendicitis: anatomic coverage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Malley, Martin E. [University of Toronto, Princess Margaret Hospital, 3-920, Joint Department of Medical Imaging, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Alharbi, Fawaz [University of Toronto, Toronto General Hospital, NCSB 1C572, Joint Department of Medical Imaging, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Qassim University, Department of Medical Imaging, Buraydah, Qassim (Saudi Arabia); Chawla, Tanya P. [University of Toronto, Mount Sinai Hospital, Room 567, Joint Department of Medical Imaging, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Moshonov, Hadas [University of Toronto, Joint Department of Medical Imaging, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

    2016-02-15

    To determine superior-inferior anatomic borders for CT following inconclusive/nondiagnostic US for possible appendicitis. Ninety-nine patients with possible appendicitis and inconclusive/nondiagnostic US followed by CT were included in this retrospective study. Two radiologists reviewed CT images and determined superior-inferior anatomic borders required to diagnose or exclude appendicitis and diagnose alternative causes. This ''targeted'' coverage was used to estimate potential reduction in anatomic coverage compared to standard abdominal/pelvic CT. The study group included 83 women and 16 men; mean age 32 (median, 29; range 18-73) years. Final diagnoses were: nonspecific abdominal pain 50/99 (51 %), appendicitis 26/99 (26 %), gynaecological 12/99 (12 %), gastrointestinal 9/99 (10 %), and musculoskeletal 2/99 (2 %). Median dose-length product for standard CT was 890.0 (range, 306.3 - 2493.9) mGy.cm. To confidently diagnose/exclude appendicitis or identify alternative diagnoses, maximum superior-inferior anatomic CT coverage was the superior border of L2-superior border of pubic symphysis, for both reviewers. Targeted CT would reduce anatomic coverage by 30-55 % (mean 39 %, median 40 %) compared to standard CT. When CT is performed for appendicitis following inconclusive/nondiagnostic US, targeted CT from the superior border of L2-superior border of pubic symphysis can be used resulting in significant reduction in exposure to ionizing radiation compared to standard CT. (orig.)

  15. [ANATOMICAL PREPARATIONS IN MUSEUMS A SPECIAL CATEGORY OF CULTURAL HERITAGE].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monza, Francesca; Licata, Marta

    2015-01-01

    The international debate on the issue of human remains in museums and on the ethical issues related to their exhibition stimulates reflection on the Italian anatomical collections and on their preparations. A definition of human remains or of anatomical preparation does not exist in the Italian legislation. The anatomical specimens in museums are protected by the laws of Cultural Heritage as part of public collections, but their status is not well defined. By their nature of human material they would in fact be considered as a special category of Cultural Heritage. Because they are part of a cadaver they can be regarded as res nullius, but since treated with special techniques they could also change their meaning and being considered a species nova. Finally, it reflects on the possibility of creating a museum in Italy composed by new anatomical preparations. The article outline the contours of a museological issue that deserves to be investigated in order to better identify the anatomical preparations and their management in museums.

  16. Anatomic Mesenchymal Stem Cell-Based Engineered Cartilage Constructs for Biologic Total Joint Replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, Vishal; Kim, Minwook; Keah, Niobra M; Neuwirth, Alexander L; Stoeckl, Brendan D; Bickard, Kevin; Restle, David J; Salowe, Rebecca; Wang, Margaret Ye; Steinberg, David R; Mauck, Robert L

    2016-02-01

    Cartilage has a poor healing response, and few viable options exist for repair of extensive damage. Hyaluronic acid (HA) hydrogels seeded with mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) polymerized through UV crosslinking can generate functional tissue, but this crosslinking is not compatible with indirect rapid prototyping utilizing opaque anatomic molds. Methacrylate-modified polymers can also be chemically crosslinked in a cytocompatible manner using ammonium persulfate (APS) and N,N,N',N'-tetramethylethylenediamine (TEMED). The objectives of this study were to (1) compare APS/TEMED crosslinking with UV crosslinking in terms of functional maturation of MSC-seeded HA hydrogels; (2) generate an anatomic mold of a complex joint surface through rapid prototyping; and (3) grow anatomic MSC-seeded HA hydrogel constructs using this alternative crosslinking method. Juvenile bovine MSCs were suspended in methacrylated HA (MeHA) and crosslinked either through UV polymerization or chemically with APS/TEMED to generate cylindrical constructs. Minipig porcine femoral heads were imaged using microCT, and anatomic negative molds were generated by three-dimensional printing using fused deposition modeling. Molded HA constructs were produced using the APS/TEMED method. All constructs were cultured for up to 12 weeks in a chemically defined medium supplemented with TGF-β3 and characterized by mechanical testing, biochemical assays, and histologic analysis. Both UV- and APS/TEMED-polymerized constructs showed increasing mechanical properties and robust proteoglycan and collagen deposition over time. At 12 weeks, APS/TEMED-polymerized constructs had higher equilibrium and dynamic moduli than UV-polymerized constructs, with no differences in proteoglycan or collagen content. Molded HA constructs retained their hemispherical shape in culture and demonstrated increasing mechanical properties and proteoglycan and collagen deposition, especially at the edges compared to the center of these larger

  17. Orbitofrontal sulcal and gyrus pattern in human: an anatomical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Pereira Rodrigues

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The anatomical characterization of the orbitofrontal cortex in human is limited in literature instead of many functional and clinical studies involving it. Objective Anatomically define the orbitofrontal region aiming to possible neurosurgical treatments and unify the scientific nomenclature as well. Method We analyze eighty four human hemispheres using a surgical microscope. Then we chose four hemispheres and dissect them according to Klinger’ technique. Results We found five main sulcus: olfatory sulcus, orbital medial sulcus, orbital lateral sulcus, orbital transverse sulcus and orbital intermediate sulcus. These sulcus, excluding the intermediate sulcus, delimit five gyrus: rectus gurys, orbital medial gyrus, orbital anterior gyrus, orbital lateral gyrus and orbital posterior gyrus. The main sulcal configuration can be divided on four more frequently patterns. Conclusion Orbitofrontal cortex is associated with many psychiatric disorders. Better anatomical and functional characterization of the orbitofrontal cortex and its connections will improve our knowledge about these diseases.

  18. Photosynthesis rate in moss leaves of various anatomical structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Krupa

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of measurements of the rate of gas exchange in the leaves of mosses the value of the compensation and of the light saturation of photosynthesis points was determined. These points differentiate mosses into photo- and sciophilous ones.Moss species such as: Mnium punctatum, Catherinea undulata, Polytrichum juniperinum, Funaria hygrometrica, Polytrichum piliferum, Aloina rigida were also classified according to differences in the anatomical structure of their leaves. The morphological characters of the anatomical structure of leaves and their chlorophyll content are connected with photosynthetic activity. There is a correlation between the leaf surface and the degree of differentiation of the anatomical structure. This results in an enlargement of the contact surface of the cells assimilating from the air, and this in turn is associated with an increase in the photosynthetic activity per leaf surface area unit.

  19. Identification of Salicornia population: Anatomical characterization and RAPD fingerprinting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milić Dubravka

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Anatomical and Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD analysis of two typical populations of Salicornia europaea from Montenegro and Greece (Lesvos, one typical population of S. ramosissima from Spain and one population that belongs to the Salicornia genus from Serbia, was undertaken to develop a new strategy for identifying Salicornia plants. Anatomical variability and differentiation were examined using Principal Component Analysis (PCA and Multivariate Discriminant Function Analysis (MDA. On the basis of the anatomical measurements, the four populations were classified into three groups: one joining the plants from Serbia and Spain, one comprising the Montenegrin group and one comprising the Lesvos group. RAPD analysis indicated that populations from Spain and Serbia were closely related to each other and the Lesvos group was quite different from all the other investigated populations. These results opened up the possibility that the specimens from Serbia belonged to S. ramosissima and not to S. europaea, as reported previously.

  20. Gastric Anatomic Type Is Associated with Obesity and Gender

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Jen Wang

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To enhance our understanding of the associations among gastric anatomy, obesity, and gender. Methods: 777 randomly selected participants received health checkups, including a series of radiographs of the upper gastrointestinal tract (UGI; the findings were linked with each corresponding subject's gender and BMI. We measured the length, angle, and different portions of the stomach with the subjects in the standing position using radiographs to classify all individuals into anatomic types 1 through 6 based on gastric morphology. The gastric morphology was identified based on the initial UGI examination: 166 follow-up UGI radiographs at 12 ± 1.5 months to evaluate whether the stability of gastric anatomy persisted over time. Results: There was a significant difference in anatomic types between females and males (p Conclusion: Gastric anatomic types were associated with obesity and gender.

  1. Anterolateral Ligament Reconstruction Technique: An Anatomic-Based Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chahla, Jorge; Menge, Travis J; Mitchell, Justin J; Dean, Chase S; LaPrade, Robert F

    2016-06-01

    Restoration of anteroposterior laxity after an anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction has been predictable with traditional open and endoscopic techniques. However, anterolateral rotational stability has been difficult to achieve in a subset of patients, even with appropriate anatomic techniques. Therefore, differing techniques have attempted to address this rotational laxity by augmenting or reconstructing lateral-sided structures about the knee. In recent years, there has been a renewed interest in the anterolateral ligament as a potential contributor to residual anterolateral rotatory instability in anterior cruciate ligament-deficient patients. Numerous anatomic and biomechanical studies have been performed to further define the functional importance of the anterolateral ligament, highlighting the need for surgical techniques to address these injuries in the unstable knee. This article details our technique for an anatomic anterolateral ligament reconstruction using a semitendinosus tendon allograft. PMID:27656361

  2. Benign anatomical mistakes: the correct anatomical term for the recurrent laryngeal nerve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirilas, Petros; Skandalakis, John E

    2002-01-01

    The term recurrent laryngeal nerve has been adopted by Nomina Anatomica (1989) and Terminologia Anatomica (1998) to describe this vagus branch from its origin, its turn dorsally around the subclavian artery and the aortic arch, and its cranial pathway until it reaches its terminal organs in the neck. However, there is still much confusion, and either the terms inferior and recurrent laryngeal nerve are used interchangeably or inferior laryngeal nerve is considered the terminal branch of the recurrent laryngeal nerve. We hereby feel that it is necessary to reassess the term and we propose the term inferior laryngeal nerve for the entire nerve under consideration, from its origin from the vagus nerve to its destinations, including tracheal, esophageal, and pharyngeal branches. If the term superior laryngeal nerve is a given, standard and accepted term in the anatomical terminology, then logically the term inferior laryngeal nerve should also be accepted, as opposed to it. Of course the upward travel of the inferior laryngeal nerve is "recurrent". When nonrecurrence is encountered together with an arteria lusoria, a retroesophageal right subclavian artery or a right aortic arch, we consider that the term nonrecurrent inferior laryngeal nerve should be used to describe the deviation from the normal.

  3. Bilateral lingual-facial trunk: anatomic and clinical implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troupis, T; Michalinos, A; Kakisis, J; Natsis, K; Sofidis, G; Skandalakis, P

    2015-01-01

    Common origin of lingual and facial artery is a relatively frequent anatomic varia-tion. Instead, bilateral lingual-facial trunk has been described only sparsely in the literature. In this report authors describe and analyse a case of bilateral common lingual-facial trunk in the context of its anatomical, clinical and embryological implications. We also describe possible consequences in performance of elective and emergent surgical operations and modification in surgical techniques that should be considered. We believe that surgeons should be suspicious for this variation's existence and keep alternative solutions in their armentarium.

  4. Reply to “Introducing International Journal of Anatomical Variations”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Potu BK

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available To the Editor, International Journal of Anatomical Variations:Please accept my heartiest congratulations on your recent opening of International Journal of Anatomical Variations Journal. I have already gone through the articles of first volume. It was surprised to read some of the unique variations published in it. Reading of these variations by vascular surgeons and angiologist will certainly boost their knowledge for better diagnosis and I hope you will continue publishing these types of rare variations. It would be great, if you encourage authors to submit research related articles. It is obvious that you have a wide-open future ahead of you.

  5. Fabrication and perfusion culture of anatomically shaped artificial bone using stereolithography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Because patient bone defects are usually varied and complicated in geometry, it would be preferred to fabricate custom-made artificial bone grafts that are anatomically specific to individual patient defects. Using a rabbit femoral segment as a bone reconstruction model, we successfully produced customized ceramic scaffolds by stereolithography, which not only had an anatomically correct external shape according to computed tomography data but also contained an interconnecting internal network of channels designed for perfusion culture. Rabbit bone marrow stromal cells were isolated and cultured with these scaffolds using a novel oscillatory perfusion system that was stereolithographically fabricated to fit well to the unique scaffold shapes. After five days of three-dimensional culture with oscillatory perfusion, the cells attached and proliferated homogenously in the scaffolds. However, control cells inside the scaffolds cultured under static conditions were dead after prolonged in vitro culture. Cellular DNA content and alkaline phosphatase activities were significantly higher in the perfusion group versus the static group. Therefore, anatomically correct artificial bone can be successfully constructed using stereolithography and oscillatory culture technology, and could be useful for bone engraftment and defect repair. (paper)

  6. Ethical issues surrounding the use of images from donated cadavers in the anatomical sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornwall, Jon; Callahan, David; Wee, Richman

    2016-01-01

    Body donor programs rely on the generosity and trust of the public to facilitate the provision of cadaver resources for anatomical education and research. The uptake and adoption of emerging technologies, including those allowing the acquisition and distribution of images, are becoming more widespread, including within anatomical science education. Images of cadavers are useful for research and education, and their supply and distribution have commercial potential for textbooks and online education. It is unclear whether the utilization of images of donated cadavers are congruent with donor expectations, societal norms and boundaries of established public understanding. Presently, no global "best practices" or standards exist, nor is there a common model requiring specific image-related consent from body donors. As ongoing success of body donation programs relies upon the ethical and institutional governance of body utilization to maintain trust and a positive relationship with potential donors and the community, discussions considering the potential impact of image misuse are important. This paper discusses the subject of images of donated cadavers, commenting on images in non-specific use, education, research, and commercial applications. It explores the role and significance of such images in the context of anatomical science and society, and discusses how misuse - including unconsented use - of images has the potential to affect donor program success, suggesting that informed consent is currently necessary for all images arising from donated cadavers. Its purpose is to encourage discussion to guide responsible utilization of cadaver images, while protecting the interests of body donors and the public.

  7. Fabrication and perfusion culture of anatomically shaped artificial bone using stereolithography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Dajiang; Asaoka, Teruo; Ushida, Takashi; Furukawa, Katsuko S

    2014-09-12

    Because patient bone defects are usually varied and complicated in geometry, it would be preferred to fabricate custom-made artificial bone grafts that are anatomically specific to individual patient defects. Using a rabbit femoral segment as a bone reconstruction model, we successfully produced customized ceramic scaffolds by stereolithography, which not only had an anatomically correct external shape according to computed tomography data but also contained an interconnecting internal network of channels designed for perfusion culture. Rabbit bone marrow stromal cells were isolated and cultured with these scaffolds using a novel oscillatory perfusion system that was stereolithographically fabricated to fit well to the unique scaffold shapes. After five days of three-dimensional culture with oscillatory perfusion, the cells attached and proliferated homogenously in the scaffolds. However, control cells inside the scaffolds cultured under static conditions were dead after prolonged in vitro culture. Cellular DNA content and alkaline phosphatase activities were significantly higher in the perfusion group versus the static group. Therefore, anatomically correct artificial bone can be successfully constructed using stereolithography and oscillatory culture technology, and could be useful for bone engraftment and defect repair.

  8. [Anatomic and functional features of venous valves].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griton, P; Vanet, P; Cloarec, M

    1997-05-01

    The comparison of the venous system in the human organism, and in particular the venous valves of the lower limbs, with studies conducted in animal models helped us to understand better the mechanisms involved in adapting to the upright position and walking. We examined work conducted in several species from the horse to the dog, especially in animals who often take on an upright position such as the chimpanzee and the kangouroo, in search for structures comparable to those in man. Different types of valves can be described in man: flotting valves (bicuspid, pigeon nest valves); reinforced valves (mid-thigh); reinforcing valves (periarticular zone in the knee); finally, "flat" valves which are highly resistant formations but with little anti-back flow action. We also describe valvular structures with muscle cells found in the plantar aspect of the foot and the veins of the quadriceps muscle, these valves may have an active hematopropulsive action (Bassi). These results allowed us to identify certain common points between the structures observed in the posterior legs of certain animals and to propose models for investigating venous diseases. PMID:9480339

  9. Surface anatomy and anatomical planes in the adult turkish population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzun, C; Atman, E D; Ustuner, E; Mirjalili, S A; Oztuna, D; Esmer, T S

    2016-03-01

    Surface anatomy and anatomical planes are widely used in education and clinical practice. The planes are largely derived from cadaveric studies and their projections on the skin show discrepancies between and within anatomical reference textbooks. In this study, we reassessed the accuracy of common thoracic and abdominopelvic anatomical planes using computed tomography (CT) imaging in the live adult Turkish population. After patients with distorting pathologies had been excluded, CT images of 150 supine patients at the end tidal inspiration were analyzed. Sternal angle, transpyloric, subcostal, supracristal and pubic crest planes and their relationships to anatomical structures were established by dual consensus. The tracheal bifurcation, azygos vein/superior vena cava (SVC) junction and pulmonary bifurcation were usually below the sternal angle while the concavity of the aortic arch was generally within the plane. The tip of the tenth rib, the superior mesenteric artery and the portal vein were usually within the transpyloric plane while the renal hila and the fundus of the gallbladder were below it. The inferior mesenteric artery was below the subcostal plane and the aortic bifurcation was below the supracristal plane in most adults. Projectional surface anatomy is fundamental to medical education and clinical practice. Modern cross-sectional imaging techniques allow large groups of live patients to be examined. Classic textbook information regarding anatomy needs to be reviewed and updated using the data gathered from these recent studies, taking ethnic differences into consideration.

  10. Anatomical, neurophysiological and perceptual issues of tactile perception

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cheung, B.; Erp, J.B.F. van; Cholewiak, R.W.

    2008-01-01

    In this chapter, we are concerned with what our touch receptors and the associated central nervous structures do. Our description begins with the anatomical and physiological characteristics of the touch receptors followed by a comprehensive psychophysical overview of touch sensation and perception.

  11. ANATOMICAL PRINCIPLES BEHIND PRESERVATION OF LARYNGEAL NERVES DURING THYROIDECTOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Fabian

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the anatomical principles behind preservation of inferior laryngeal nerve and of the external branch of superior laryngeal nerve during thyroidectomy. The embryological development of thyroid and recurrent laryngeal nerves explains the constant relationship between Zuckerkandl’s tuberculum and the recurrent laryngeal nerve, while anomalies in development of the aortic arches explain the presence of rare anatomical variants, with a high risk of nerve injury, of non-recurrent course of the inferior laryngeal nerve. Good knowledge of the relationship between the external branch of superior laryngeal nerve and the superior thyroid artery makes possible to avoid transection of this branch during ligature around superior thyroid artery and vein. Anatomical landmarks used to identify the recurrent laryngeal nerve (tracheo-oesophageal sulcus, the cross-over with the inferior thyroid artery, Berry’s ligament, Zuckerkandl’s tuberculum and variations in the extra-laryngeal branching of the nerve are discussed based on data from the literature. The anatomical variants when the inferior laryngeal nerve doesn’t have a recurrent course are also discussed

  12. Anatomical Modifications in two Juncus Species under Salt Stress Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Al HASSAN

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The anatomic structure of roots and culms of two Juncus species with different degrees of salt tolerance was analysed in plants grown for two months under salt stress (NaCl treatments and in control, non-treated plants. The aim of the study was not only to compare the anatomical structures of a halophyte (J. acutus and a related glycophyte (J. articulatus, but mostly to assess whether salt stress induced anatomical modifications, by identifying differences between control and treated plants. Several slight differences have been indeed detected, in terms of endodermis type, development of aerenchyma and extent of sclerenchyma in perivascular sheaths. The role of Casparian endodermis was here discussed in relation to its complex implications in controlling salt influx at the root level that is an efficient mechanism involved in halophytes. Aerenchyma is a common feature found in marshy halophytes, allowing them to survive naturally under flooding conditions; however, when occurring in non-waterlogged plants, as is the case of this study, it should be regarded as a genetically, constitutive adaptation rather than an inducible one. Nevertheless, such anatomic modifications should be regarded as mere alterations due to stress – that is, as stress responses – and not as truly adaptations to salinity. In this context, the nature of these modifications – either considered as adaptations or damage indicators of salt stress – should be further reconsidered.

  13. Adaptation of Museum Specimens for Use in Anatomical Teaching Aids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, P. F.; And Others

    1977-01-01

    Color transparencies are prepared of a re-colored anatomical specimen after placing labels temporarily in position to indicate specific structures. The specimen is also radiographed to show skeletal and soft tissue structures. Cross-reference among the specimen, photographs, and radiographs is supplemented by examination and self-assessment…

  14. The Main Technical Points of Thoracoscopic Anatomical Lung Segment Resection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang CHEN

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Thoracoscopic segmentectomy is technically much more meticulous than lobectomy, due to the complicated anotomical variations of segmental bronchi and vessels. Preoperative three-dimensional computed tomography bronchography and angiography, 3D-CTBA could reveal the anatomical structures and variations of the segmental bronchi/vessels and locate the pulmonary nodules, which is helpful for surgery planning. Preoperative nodule localization is of vital importance for thoracoscopic segmentectomy. Techniques involved in this procedure include dissection of the targeted arteries, bronchus and intra-segmental veins, retention of the inter-segmental veins, identification of the inter-segmental boarder with the inflation-deflation method and seperation of intra-segmental pulmonary tissues by electrotome and/or endoscopic staplers. The incision margin for malignant nodules should be at least 2 cm or the diameter of the tumor. Meanwhile, sampling of N1 and N2 station lymph nodes and intraoperative frozen section is also necessary. The complication rate of thoracoscopic segmentectomy is comparatively low. The anatomic relationship between pulmonary segments and lobes is that a lobe consists of several irregular cone-shaped segments with the inter-segmental veins lies between the segments. Our center has explored a method to separate pulmonary segments from the lobe on the basis of cone-shaped principle, and we named it “Cone-shaped Segmentectomy”. This technique could precisely decide and dissect the targeted bronchi and vessels, and anatomically separate the inter-segmental boarder, which ultimately achieve a completely anatomical segmentectomy.

  15. Segmentation of anatomical structures in chest CT scans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rikxoort, E.M.

    2009-01-01

    In this thesis, methods are described for the automatic segmentation of anatomical structures from chest CT scans. First, a method to segment the lungs from chest CT scans is presented. Standard lung segmentation algorithms rely on large attenuation differences between the lungs and the surrounding

  16. Ankle Joint Fusion With an Anatomically Preshaped Anterior Locking Plate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiewiorski, Martin; Barg, Alexej; Schlemmer, Thomas; Valderrabano, Victor

    2016-01-01

    We present a novel fixation plate for primary ankle joint fusion. A single anatomically preshaped angular stable plate was used with an anterior approach. An excellent result with good bone consolidation was present at the 1-year follow-up examination. PMID:25998475

  17. A hierarchical scheme for geodesic anatomical labeling of airway trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feragen, Aasa; Petersen, Jens; Owen, Megan;

    2012-01-01

    We present a fast and robust supervised algorithm for label- ing anatomical airway trees, based on geodesic distances in a geometric tree-space. Possible branch label configurations for a given unlabeled air- way tree are evaluated based on the distances to a training set of labeled airway trees....

  18. Dissimilarity-based classification of anatomical tree structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Lauge Emil Borch Laurs; Lo, Pechin Chien Pau; Dirksen, Asger;

    2011-01-01

    A novel method for classification of abnormality in anatomical tree structures is presented. A tree is classified based on direct comparisons with other trees in a dissimilarity-based classification scheme. The pair-wise dissimilarity measure between two trees is based on a linear assignment betw...

  19. Optimizing conditions for computer-assisted anatomical learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luursema, Jan-Maarten; Verwey, Willem B.; Kommers, Piet A.M.; Geelkerken, Robert H.; Vos, Hans J.

    2006-01-01

    An experiment evaluated the impact of two typical features of virtual learning environments on anatomical learning for users of differing visuo-spatial ability. The two features studied are computer-implemented stereopsis (the spatial information that is based on differences in visual patterns proje

  20. The role of stereopsis in virtual anatomical learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luursema, Jan-Maarten; Verwey, Willem B.; Kommers, Piet A.M.; Annema, Jan-Henk

    2008-01-01

    The use of virtual learning environments in the medical field is on the rise. An earlier experiment [Luursema, J.-M., Verwey, W.B., Kommers, P.A.M., Geelkerken, R.H., Vos, H.J., 2006. Optimizing conditions for computer-assisted anatomical learning. Interacting with Computers, 18, 1123–1138.] found t

  1. The Contribution of Dynamic Exploration to Virtual Anatomical Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan-Maarten Luursema

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Virtual Learning Environments are increasingly becoming part of the medical curriculum. In a previous study we (luursema et al., 2006 found that a combination of computer-implemented stereopsis (visual depth through seeing with both eyes and dynamic exploration (being able to continuously change one's viewpoint relative to the studied objects in real time is beneficial to anatomical learning, especially for subjects of low visuo spatial ability (the ability to form, retrieve, and manipulate mental representations of a visuo-spatial nature. A follow-up study (luursema et al., 2008 found the contribution of computer-implemented stereopsis to this effect to be small but significant. The present experiment investigated the contribution of dynamic exploration to anatomical learning by means of a virtual learning environment. Seventy participants were tested for visuo-spatial ability and were grouped in pairs matched for this ability. One individual of the pair actively manipulated a 3D reconstruction of the human abdomen; the other individual passively watched the interactions of the first individual on a separate screen. Learning was assessed by two anatomical learning tests. Dynamic exploration provided a small but significant benefit to anatomical learning.

  2. Anatomical Variations of Cerebral MR Venography: Is Gender Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Rambir; Bansal, Nikhil; Paliwal, Vimal Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Knowledge of variations in the cerebral dural venous sinus anatomy seen on magnetic resonance (MR) venography is essential to avoid over-diagnosis of cerebral venous sinus thrombosis (CVST). Very limited data is available on gender difference of the cerebral dural venous sinus anatomy variations. Materials and Methods A retrospective study was conducted to study the normal anatomy of the intracranial venous system and its normal variation, as depicted by 3D MR venography, in normal adults and any gender-related differences. Results A total of 1654 patients (582 men, 1072 women, age range 19 to 86 years, mean age: 37.98±13.83 years) were included in the study. Most common indication for MR venography was headache (75.4%). Hypoplastic left transverse sinus was the most common anatomical variation in 352 (21.3%) patients. Left transverse sinus was hypoplastic in more commonly in male in comparison to female (24.9% versus 19.3%, p = 0.009). Most common variation of superior sagittal sinus (SSS) was atresia of anterior one third SSS (15, 0.9%). Except hypoplastic left transverse sinus, rest of anatomical variations of the transverse and other sinuses were not significantly differ among both genders. Conclusion Hypoplastic left transverse sinus is the most common anatomical variation and more common in male compared to female in the present study. Other anatomical variations of dural venous sinuses are not significantly differ among both genders. PMID:27621945

  3. Anatomical noise in contrast-enhanced digital mammography. Part I. Single-energy imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hill, Melissa L.; Yaffe, Martin J. [Sunnybrook Research Institute, 2075 Bayview Avenue, Toronto, Ontario M4N 3M5 (Canada); Department of Medical Biophysics, University of Toronto, 2075 Bayview Avenue, Toronto, Ontario M4N 3M5 (Canada); Mainprize, James G. [Sunnybrook Research Institute, 2075 Bayview Avenue, Toronto, Ontario M4N 3M5 (Canada); Carton, Ann-Katherine; Muller, Serge [GE Healthcare, 283 rue de la Miniere, Buc 78530 (France); Ebrahimi, Mehran [Faculty of Science, University of Ontario Institute of Technology, 2000 Simcoe Street North, Oshawa, Ontario L1H 7K4 (Canada); Jong, Roberta A. [Breast Imaging, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, 2075 Bayview Avenue, Toronto, Ontario M4N 3M5 (Canada); Dromain, Clarisse [Department of Radiology, Institut Gustave Roussy, 39 rue Camille Desmoulin, Villejuif 94805 (France)

    2013-05-15

    Purpose: The use of an intravenously injected iodinated contrast agent could help increase the sensitivity of digital mammography by adding information on tumor angiogenesis. Two approaches have been made for clinical implementation of contrast-enhanced digital mammography (CEDM), namely, single-energy (SE) and dual-energy (DE) imaging. In each technique, pairs of mammograms are acquired, which are then subtracted with the intent to cancel the appearance of healthy breast tissue to permit sensitive detection and specific characterization of lesions. Patterns of contrast agent uptake in the healthy parenchyma, and uncanceled signal from background tissue create a 'clutter' that can mask or mimic an enhancing lesion. This type of 'anatomical noise' is often the limiting factor in lesion detection tasks, and thus, noise quantification may be useful for cascaded systems analysis of CEDM and for phantom development. In this work, the authors characterize the anatomical noise in CEDM clinical images and the authors evaluate the influence of the x-ray energy used for acquisition, the presence of iodine in the breast, and the timing of imaging postcontrast administration on anatomical noise. The results are presented in a two-part report, with SE CEDM described here, and DE CEDM in Part II. Methods: A power law is used to model anatomical noise in CEDM images. The exponent, {beta}, which describes the anatomical structure, and the constant {alpha}, which represents the magnitude of the noise, are determined from Wiener spectra (WS) measurements on images. A total of 42 SE CEDM cases from two previous clinical pilot studies are assessed. The parameters {alpha} and {beta} are measured both from unprocessed images and from subtracted images. Results: Consistent results were found between the two SE CEDM pilot studies, where a significant decrease in {beta} from a value of approximately 3.1 in the unprocessed images to between about 1.1 and 1.8 in the

  4. Characteristic anatomical structures of rat temporal bone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Peng Li; Kelei Gao; Dalian Ding; Richard Salvi

    2015-01-01

    As most gene sequences and functional structures of internal organs in rats have been well studied, rat models are widely used in experi-mental medical studies. A large number of descriptions and atlas of the rat temporal bone have been published, but some detailed anatomy of its surface and inside structures remains to be studied. By focusing on some unique characteristics of the rat temporal bone, the current paper aims to provide more accurate and detailed information on rat temporal bone anatomy in an attempt to complete missing or unclear areas in the existed knowledge. We also hope this paper can lay a solid foundation for experimental rat temporal bone surgeries, and promote information exchange among colleagues, as well as providing useful guidance for novice researchers in the field of hearing research involving rats. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Production & hosting by Elsevier (Singapore) Pte Ltd On behalf of PLA General Hospital Department of Otolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).

  5. Investigations of Anatomical Variations of the Thorax and Heart, and Anatomical Knowledge for First Year Medical Dental and Podiatry Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verenna, Anne-Marie

    2013-01-01

    The universal presence of anatomy in healthcare professions is undeniable. It is a cornerstone to each of the clinical and basic sciences. Therefore, further expansion of current anatomical knowledge and effective methods to teach anatomy is essential. In this work, the relationship of the dorsal scapular artery with the trunks of the brachial…

  6. Computational analysis of polyethylene wear in anatomical and reverse shoulder prostheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quental, C; Folgado, J; Fernandes, P R; Monteiro, J

    2015-02-01

    The wear of ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene, UHMWPE, components has been associated with the failure of joint prostheses in the hip, knee, and shoulder. Considering that in vitro experiments are generally too expensive and time-consuming, computational models are an attractive alternative to study the wear behavior of UHMWPE components. The objective of the present study was to develop a computational wear model to evaluate the wear resistance of anatomical and reverse shoulder prostheses. The effects of the wear law and the updating of the UHMWPE surface on the prediction of wear were also considered. Apart from Archard's law, a new wear law, so-called second generation law, which includes the concept of cross-shear and a pressure-independent wear factor, was considered. The wear analyses were performed considering three shoulder joint motions. The muscle and joint reaction forces applied were estimated by an inverse biomechanical model of the upper limb. The results show that abrasive wear is as important for the reverse components as it is for the anatomical. Nevertheless, the volumetric wears estimated over 1 year are within the range considered clinically desirable to reduce the risk of osteolysis. For the anatomical components, the predictions from Archard's law compare better, than those of the second generation law, to the experimental and clinical data available in the literature. Yet, the opposite result is obtained for the reverse components. From the numerical point of view, an updating procedure for the UHMWPE surface is mandatory to improve the numerical predictions. PMID:25362522

  7. Anatomical noise in contrast-enhanced digital mammography. Part II. Dual-energy imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hill, Melissa L.; Yaffe, Martin J. [Sunnybrook Research Institute, 2075 Bayview Avenue, Toronto, Ontario M4N 3M5, Canada and Department of Medical Biophysics, University of Toronto, 2075 Bayview Avenue, Toronto, Ontario M4N 3M5 (Canada); Mainprize, James G. [Sunnybrook Research Institute, 2075 Bayview Avenue, Toronto, Ontario M4N 3M5 (Canada); Carton, Ann-Katherine; Saab-Puong, Sylvie; Iordache, Răzvan; Muller, Serge [GE Healthcare, 283 rue de la Minière, Buc 78530 (France); Jong, Roberta A. [Breast Imaging, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, 2075 Bayview Avenue, Toronto, Ontario M4N 3M5 (Canada); Dromain, Clarisse [Department of Radiology, Institut Gustave Roussy, 39 rue Camille Desmoulin, Villejuif 94805 (France)

    2013-08-15

    Purpose: Dual-energy (DE) contrast-enhanced digital mammography (CEDM) uses an iodinated contrast agent in combination with digital mammography (DM) to evaluate lesions on the basis of tumor angiogenesis. In DE imaging, low-energy (LE) and high-energy (HE) images are acquired after contrast administration and their logarithms are subtracted to cancel the appearance of normal breast tissue. Often there is incomplete signal cancellation in the subtracted images, creating a background “clutter” that can impair lesion detection. This is the second component of a two-part report on anatomical noise in CEDM. In Part I the authors characterized the anatomical noise for single-energy (SE) temporal subtraction CEDM by a power law, with model parameters α and β. In this work the authors quantify the anatomical noise in DE CEDM clinical images and compare this with the noise in SE CEDM. The influence on the anatomical noise of the presence of iodine in the breast, the timing of imaging postcontrast administration, and the x-ray energy used for acquisition are each evaluated.Methods: The power law parameters, α and β, were measured from unprocessed LE and HE images and from DE subtracted images to quantify the anatomical noise. A total of 98 DE CEDM cases acquired in a previous clinical pilot study were assessed. Conventional DM images from 75 of the women were evaluated for comparison with DE CEDM. The influence of the imaging technique on anatomical noise was determined from an analysis of differences between the power law parameters as measured in DM, LE, HE, and DE subtracted images for each subject.Results: In DE CEDM, weighted image subtraction lowers β to about 1.1 from 3.2 and 3.1 in LE and HE unprocessed images, respectively. The presence of iodine has a small but significant effect in LE images, reducing β by about 0.07 compared to DM, with α unchanged. Increasing the x-ray energy, from that typical in DM to a HE beam, significantly decreases α by about 2

  8. Using Computers for Assessment of Facial Features and Recognition of Anatomical Variants that Result in Unfavorable Rhinoplasty Outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarik Ozkul

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Rhinoplasty and facial plastic surgery are among the most frequently performed surgical procedures in the world. Although the underlying anatomical features of nose and face are very well known, performing a successful facial surgery requires not only surgical skills but also aesthetical talent from surgeon. Sculpting facial features surgically in correct proportions to end up with an aesthetically pleasing result is highly difficult. To further complicate the matter, some patients may have some anatomical features which affect rhinoplasty operation outcome negatively. If goes undetected, these anatomical variants jeopardize the surgery causing unexpected rhinoplasty outcomes. In this study, a model is developed with the aid of artificial intelligence tools, which analyses facial features of the patient from photograph, and generates an index of "appropriateness" of the facial features and an index of existence of anatomical variants that effect rhinoplasty negatively. The software tool developed is intended to detect the variants and warn the surgeon before the surgery. Another purpose of the tool is to generate an objective score to assess the outcome of the surgery.

  9. An anatomical evaluation of the serratus anterior plane block.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayes, J; Davison, E; Panahi, P; Patten, D; Eljelani, F; Womack, J; Varma, M

    2016-09-01

    The serratus anterior plane block has been described for analgesia of the hemithorax. This study was conducted to determine the spread of injectate and investigate the anatomical basis of the block. Ultrasound-guided serratus anterior plane block was performed on six soft-fix embalmed cadavers. All cadavers received bilateral injections, on one side performed with 20 ml latex and on the other with 20 ml methylene blue. Subsequent dissection explored the extent of spread and nerve involvement. Photographs were taken throughout dissection. The intercostal nerves were involved on three occasions with dye, but not with latex. The lateral cutaneous branches of the intercostal nerve contained dye and latex on all occasions. The serratus plane block appears to be mediated through blockade of the lateral cutaneous branches of the intercostal nerves. Anatomically, serratus plane block does not appear to be equivalent to paravertebral block for rib fracture analgesia. PMID:27440171

  10. First discovery of anatomically preserved Cordaitean leaves in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, S.; Tian, B. [China University of Mining & Technology (China). Analysis and Test Centre

    1995-06-01

    The first species of the anatomically-preserved Cordaitean leaves is described and is named Cordaites taiyuanensis sp. nov. The morphological feature of the new species is similar to that of Cordaites principals (Germ.) Gein, widely distributed in the Carboniferous and Permian strata in China, but its antomatical structure is different from that of the same species of Euroamerican Flora. The main characteristics of the anatomical structure are: the primary xylem of the bundles is of mesarch; the upper and lower epidermises both have 3-5 thin and short hydrodermal sclerenchyma strands (interstitial strips); the mesophyle does not differentiate into palisade tissue and spongy tissue; the walls of the mesophyll cells are conspicuously infolded; and the margin of the leaf is thickened into a drumstick shape in the transverse section. 8 refs., 2 tabs.

  11. [Anatomical rationale for lingual nerve injury prevention during mandibular block].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semkin, V A; Dydikin, S S; Kuzin, A V; Sogacheva, V V

    2015-01-01

    The topographic and anatomical study of lingual nerve structural features was done. It was revealed that during mandibular anesthesia possible lingual nerve injury can occur if puncture needle is lower than 1 cm. of molars occlusal surface level. The position of the lingual nerve varies withmandible movements. At the maximum open mouth lingual nerve is not mobile and is pressed against the inner surface of the mandibular ramus by the medial pterygoid muscle and the temporal muscle tendon. When closing the mouth to 1.25±0.2 cmfrom the physiological maximum, lingual nerve is displaced posteriorly from the internal oblique line of the mandible and gets mobile. On the basis of topographic and anatomic features of the lingual nervestructure the authors recommend the re-do of inferior alveolar nerve block, a semi-closed mouth position or the use the "high block techniques" (Torus anesthesia, Gow-Gates, Vazirani-Akinozi). PMID:26271698

  12. Analysis of anatomic variability in children with low mathematical skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Zhaoying; Fuchs, Lynn; Davis, Nikki; Cannistraci, Christopher J.; Anderson, Adam W.; Gore, John C.; Dawant, Benoit M.

    2008-03-01

    Mathematical difficulty affects approximately 5-9% of the population. Studies on individuals with dyscalculia, a neurologically based math disorder, provide important insight into the neural correlates of mathematical ability. For example, cognitive theories, neuropsychological studies, and functional neuroimaging studies in individuals with dyscalculia suggest that the bilateral parietal lobes and intraparietal sulcus are central to mathematical performance. The purpose of the present study was to investigate morphological differences in a group of third grade children with poor math skills. We compare population averages of children with low math skill (MD) to gender and age matched controls with average math ability. Anatomical data were gathered with high resolution MRI and four different population averaging methods were used to study the effect of the normalization technique on the results. Statistical results based on the deformation fields between the two groups show anatomical differences in the bilateral parietal lobes, right frontal lobe, and left occipital/parietal lobe.

  13. Anatomical structure of moss leaves and their photosynthetic activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Krupa

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The photosynthetic activity of the leaf area unit increases depending on the degree of differentiation of the anatomical structure of the leaves of six chosen moss species. There is a correlation between the leaf area and the degree of differentiation of the anatomical structure resulting in enlargement of the area of contact of the assimilating cells with air. The leaves of Catharinea undulata having a one-layer blade and provided with several lamellae show a higher photosynthesis per 1 cm2 of their surface than the one-layer leaves of Mniurnm or Funaria. Aloina leaves are the smallest in area among those of the moss species discussed, however, their photosynthetic rate is almost 4.5 times higher than in Funaria leaves. By analogy to the structure of leaves and their function in vascular, plants, these changes and correlations may be considered as attempts of primeval adaptation of mosses to terrestrial conditions of living.

  14. Anatomical variations of paranasal sinuses: what to inform the otolaryngologist?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anatomic variations of paranasal sinuses are common findings in daily practice. For a radiologist, to know these variations is necessary because of the pathological conditions related to them, and also because they are import for planning a functional endoscopic endonasal surgery, the procedure of choice for diagnosis, biopsy and treatment of various sinonasal diseases. To assure that this surgery is done safely, preventing iatrogenic injuries, it is essential that the surgeon has the mapping of these structures. Thus, a CT is indispensable for preoperative evaluation of paranasal sinuses. Since a general radiologist is expected to know these changes and their relationship to pathological conditions, a literature review and a iconographic essay were conducted with the aim of discussing the importance of major anatomic variations of paranasal sinuses. (author)

  15. Simultaneous Segmentation and Anatomical Labeling of the Cerebral Vasculature

    OpenAIRE

    Robben, David; Türetken, Engin; Sunaert, Stefan; Thijs, Vincent; Wilms, Guy; Fua, Pascal; Maes, Frederik; Suetens, Paul

    2014-01-01

    We present a novel algorithm for the simultaneous segmentation and anatomical labeling of the cerebral vasculature. The method first constructs an over-complete graph capturing the vasculature. It then selects and labels the subset of edges that most likely represents the true vasculature. Unlike existing approaches that first attempt to obtain a good segmentation and then perform labeling, we jointly optimize for both by simultaneously taking into account the image evidence and the prior kno...

  16. The anatomical, surgical and orthopedic importance of gastrocnemius

    OpenAIRE

    Ashfaq U. Hassan; Zahida Rasool; Nasir Muzzaffar

    2013-01-01

    Gastrocnemius is one of the most important muscles of lower limb. It belongs to the superficial compartment of calf muscles. They belong to group of superficial flexors. Gastrocnemius, plantaris and soleus form the bulk of the calf. Gastrocnemius forms the belly of the calf. It arises by two distinct heads, connected to the condyles of the femur by strong, flat tendons. It has an immense anatomic, medical, orthopedic and physiological importance and is attributed in a variety of medical and s...

  17. Anatomical Atlas-Guided Diffuse Optical Tomography of Brain Activation

    OpenAIRE

    Custo, Anna; Boas, David A.; Tsuzuki, Daisuke; Dan, Ippeita; Mesquita, Rickson; Fischl, Bruce; Grimson, W. Eric L.; Wells, Williams

    2009-01-01

    We describe a neuro imaging protocol that utilizes an anatomical atlas of the human head to guide Diffuse optical tomography of human brain activation. The protocol is demonstrated by imaging the hemodynamic response to median nerve stimulation in three healthy subjects, and comparing the images obtained using a head atlas with the images obtained using the subject-specific head anatomy. The results indicate that using the head atlas anatomy it is possible to reconstruct the location of the b...

  18. MORPHOLOGICAL ANATOMICAL AND PHITOCHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF SOME ALGAE

    OpenAIRE

    N. S. Kaysheva; M. N. Arkhipova; A. S. Kayshev

    2014-01-01

    Morphological and anatomical features of thalluses of brown (Laminaria saccharina, Fucus vesiculosus) and red (Ahnfeltia plicata) algae, procured at a coastal strip of the Northern basin in gulfs of Ura-Guba and Palkina-Guba at different depths. Compliance of Fucus and Ahnfeltia with pharmacopoeial norms and merchandising indices for Laminaria was established, except for high concentration of sand in Ahnfeltia thalluses. The identity of algae between each other was shown based on the results ...

  19. Anatomical and psychometric relationships of behavioral neglect in daily living.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rousseaux, Marc; Allart, Etienne; Bernati, Thérèse; Saj, Arnaud

    2015-04-01

    Spatial neglect has been related to both cortical (predominantly at the temporal-parietal junction) and subcortical (predominantly of the superior longitudinal fasciculus) lesions. The objectives of this observational study were to specify the anatomical relationships of behavioral neglect in activities of daily living (N-ADLs), and the anatomical and psychometric relationships of N-ADLs on one hand and components of neglect (peripersonal neglect and personal neglect) and anosognosia on the other. Forty five patients were analyzed for behavioral difficulties in daily living (on the Catherine Bergego scale) and the main components of neglect (using conventional clinical assessments) during the first months post right hemisphere stroke. Voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping was used to identify brain areas within which lesions explained the severity of bias in each assessment (non-parametric permutation test; p<0.01, one tailed). N-ADLs was associated with lesions centered on the posterior part of the superior temporal gyrus and extending to the temporo-parietal junction, temporo-occipital junction and subcortical white matter (including the superior longitudinal fasciculus). Peripersonal neglect resulted from extended cortical lesions centered on the superior temporal gyrus and the inferior parietal gyrus, with subcortical extension. Personal neglect resulted predominantly from lesions centered on the somatosensory cortex and at a lesser degree on the superior temporal sulcus. Anosognosia resulted from lesions of the posterior inferior temporal gyrus and superior temporal gyrus. In anatomic terms, N-ADLs was strongly related to peripersonal neglect, and those relationships were also shown by the psychometric analysis. In conclusions, superior temporal gyrus and superior longitudinal fasciculus lesions have a pivotal role in N-ADLs. N-ADLs is principally related (anatomically and psychometrically) to peripersonal neglect, and at a lesser degree to anosognosia and

  20. Anatomical and functional assemblies of brain BOLD oscillations

    OpenAIRE

    Baria, Alexis T.; Baliki, Marwan N; Parrish, Todd; Apkarian, A. Vania

    2011-01-01

    Brain oscillatory activity has long been thought to have spatial properties, the details of which are unresolved. Here we examine spatial organizational rules for the human brain oscillatory activity as measured by blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD). Resting state BOLD signal was transformed into frequency space (Welch’s method), averaged across subjects, and its spatial distribution studied as a function of four frequency bands, spanning the full bandwidth of BOLD. The brain showed anatomic...

  1. An anatomic gene expression atlas of the adult mouse brain

    OpenAIRE

    Ng, Lydia; Bernard, Amy; Lau, Chris; Overly, Caroline C.; Dong, Hong-Wei; Kuan, Chihchau; Pathak, Sayan; Sunkin, Susan M.; Dang, Chinh; Bohland, Jason W.; Bokil, Hemant; Mitra, Partha P.; Puelles, Luis; Hohmann, John; Anderson, David J.

    2009-01-01

    Studying gene expression provides a powerful means of understanding structure-function relationships in the nervous system. The availability of genome-scale in situ hybridization datasets enables new possibilities for understanding brain organization based on gene expression patterns. The Anatomic Gene Expression Atlas (AGEA) is a new relational atlas revealing the genetic architecture of the adult C57Bl/6J mouse brain based on spatial correlations across expression data for thousands of gene...

  2. Variability of acorn anatomical characteristics in Quercus robur L. genotypes

    OpenAIRE

    Nikolić Nataša P.; Merkulov Ljiljana S.; Krstić Borivoj Đ.; Pajević Slobodanka P.; Borišev Milan K.; Orlović Saša S.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine variability of acorn anatomical characteristics in seventeen Quercus robur L. genotypes. Acorns were collected in clonal seed orchard Banov Brod (Srem, Vojvodina, Serbia). Microscopic measurements were done for pericarp (total thickness, thickness of exocarp and mesocarp), seed coat (total thickness, thickness of outer epidermis, parenchyma, and inner epidermis), and embryo axis (diameter, thickness of cortical region, and diameter of stellar zone). Obtain...

  3. The Essential Anatomical Subunit Approximation Unilateral Cleft Lip Repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, David K; Swanson, Jordan W

    2016-07-01

    The anatomical subunit approximation cleft lip repair advantageously achieves a balanced lip contour, with the line of repair hidden along seams of aesthetic subunits. Dr. David Fisher's original description of the repair reflects the considerable thought that went into the evolution of his design. As his technique has gained acceptance in the intervening 10 years, the authors note several key principles embodied in it that represent a shift in the cleft lip repair paradigm. The authors believe understanding these principles is important to mastery of the anatomical subunit technique, and facilitate its teaching. First, design a plan that adheres to anatomical subunits and perform measurements precisely. Second, identify and adequately release each cleft tissue layer from the lip and nose to enable restoration of balance. Third, drive surgical approximation through inset of the lateral muscle into the superiorly backcut medial orbicularis muscle, followed by skin closure with inferior triangle interposition above the white roll. In this article, the authors present essential components of the technique, and identify several principles that enable its successful execution. PMID:27348690

  4. Testing anatomically specified hypotheses in functional imaging using cytoarchitectonic maps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eickhoff, Simon B; Heim, Stefan; Zilles, Karl; Amunts, Katrin

    2006-08-15

    The statistical inference on functional imaging data is severely complicated by the embedded multiple testing problem. Defining a region of interest (ROI) where the activation is hypothesized a priori helps to circumvent this problem, since in this case the inference is restricted to fewer simultaneous tests, rendering it more sensitive. Cytoarchitectonic maps obtained from postmortem brains provide objective, a priori ROIs that can be used to test anatomically specified hypotheses about the localization of functional activations. We here analyzed three methods for the definition of ROIs based on probabilistic cytoarchitectonic maps. (1) ROIs defined by the volume assigned to a cytoarchitectonic area in the summary map of all areas (maximum probability map, MPM), (2) ROIs based on thresholding the individual probabilistic maps and (3) spherical ROIs build around the cytoarchitectonic center of gravity. The quality with which the thus defined ROIs represented the respective cytoarchitectonic areas as well as their sensitivity for detecting functional activations was subsequently statistically evaluated. Our data showed that the MPM method yields ROIs, which reflect most adequately the underlying anatomical hypotheses. These maps also show a high degree of sensitivity in the statistical analysis. We thus propose the use of MPMs for the definition of ROIs. In combination with thresholding based on the Gaussian random field theory, these ROIs can then be applied to test anatomically specified hypotheses in functional neuroimaging studies. PMID:16781166

  5. Anatomic variations of anterior cerebral artery cortical branches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefani, M A; Schneider, F L; Marrone, A C; Severino, A G; Jackowski, A P; Wallace, M C

    2000-01-01

    The anterior cerebral artery (ACA) is a major vessel responsible for the blood supply to the interhemispheric region. The ACA segment after the anterior communicating artery (AComA) origin is called the distal ACA and has central and cortical branches. The cortical branches are distributed in the different regions of the orbital and medial part of the brain. The objects of this study are the anatomical variations found in the distal ACA. In 76 hemispheres the ACA distal branches were injected with latex and dissected under microscope magnification. Vessel diameters and distances between vessel origins and anterior communicating artery were recorded and analyzed. Microsurgical dissection was carried out to demonstrate anatomic variations of these vessels. Average diameter of ACA at origin was 2.61 +/- 0.34 mm and average diameter of cortical branches diameter ranged from 0.79 +/- 0.27 mm to 1.84 +/- 0.3 mm. Distances between vessel origin and AComA ranged from 7.68 +/- 3.91 mm (orbitofrontal) to 112.6 +/- 11.63 mm (inferior internal parietal). This study found anatomical variations: a single (azygos) ACA was present in one case and three in three cases. Crossing branches of the distal ACA to the contralateral hemisphere were present in 26% of the cases. In some cases a single ACA may supply the posterior hemispheric region through crossing branches. This calls attention to potential bilateral brain infarcts due to a single unilateral ACA occlusion. PMID:10873213

  6. Detection and analysis of statistical differences in anatomical shape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golland, Polina; Grimson, W Eric L; Shenton, Martha E; Kikinis, Ron

    2005-02-01

    We present a computational framework for image-based analysis and interpretation of statistical differences in anatomical shape between populations. Applications of such analysis include understanding developmental and anatomical aspects of disorders when comparing patients versus normal controls, studying morphological changes caused by aging, or even differences in normal anatomy, for example, differences between genders. Once a quantitative description of organ shape is extracted from input images, the problem of identifying differences between the two groups can be reduced to one of the classical questions in machine learning of constructing a classifier function for assigning new examples to one of the two groups while making as few misclassifications as possible. The resulting classifier must be interpreted in terms of shape differences between the two groups back in the image domain. We demonstrate a novel approach to such interpretation that allows us to argue about the identified shape differences in anatomically meaningful terms of organ deformation. Given a classifier function in the feature space, we derive a deformation that corresponds to the differences between the two classes while ignoring shape variability within each class. Based on this approach, we present a system for statistical shape analysis using distance transforms for shape representation and the support vector machines learning algorithm for the optimal classifier estimation and demonstrate it on artificially generated data sets, as well as real medical studies. PMID:15581813

  7. Anatomic double-bundle anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DAI Xue-song

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To retrospectively evaluate the early results of anatomic double-bundle anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction and compare with the results of native ACL of the contralateral knee.Methods: The results of a consecutive series of 118 patients receiving arthroscopic ACL reconstruction were evaluated.Eight patients were lost to the latest follow-up,leaving a total of 110 patients available for study within at least 3 years' clinical follow-up.Among them,63 patients underwent postoperative MRI and CT scan,as well as clinical evaluation.Results: After reconstruction,the knees were stable and pain-free.Mean postoperative Lysholm score was 95.54 in 110 patients after 3 years.CT and MRI assessment showed that the reconstruction centered in the femoral footprint of ACL (n=63).The sagittal ACL angle in the reconstructed ACL (52.16°±2.45°) was much close to that in the contralateral intact ACL (51.31 °±2.18°,P>0.05).By ACL-Blumensaat line angle analysis,there was no difference between doublebundle reconstructed knees and their contralateral normal knees (4.67°±0.43° vs.4.62°±0.60°,P>0.05).Conclusion:Anatomic double-bundle ACL reconstruction can place grafts more precisely in the anatomic footprint of the ACL and better restore knee kinematics.

  8. Increased global and local efficiency of human brain anatomical networks detected with FLAIR-DTI compared to non-FLAIR-DTI.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shumei Li

    Full Text Available Diffusion-weighted MRI (DW-MRI, the only non-invasive technique for probing human brain white matter structures in vivo, has been widely used in both fundamental studies and clinical applications. Many studies have utilized diffusion tensor imaging (DTI and tractography approaches to explore the topological properties of human brain anatomical networks by using the single tensor model, the basic model to quantify DTI indices and tractography. However, the conventional DTI technique does not take into account contamination by the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF, which has been known to affect the estimated DTI measures and tractography in the single tensor model. Previous studies have shown that the Fluid-Attenuated Inversion Recovery (FLAIR technique can suppress the contribution of the CSF to the DW-MRI signal. We acquired DTI datasets from twenty-two subjects using both FLAIR-DTI and conventional DTI (non-FLAIR-DTI techniques, constructed brain anatomical networks using deterministic tractography, and compared the topological properties of the anatomical networks derived from the two types of DTI techniques. Although the brain anatomical networks derived from both types of DTI datasets showed small-world properties, we found that the brain anatomical networks derived from the FLAIR-DTI showed significantly increased global and local network efficiency compared with those derived from the conventional DTI. The increases in the network regional topological properties derived from the FLAIR-DTI technique were observed in CSF-filled regions, including the postcentral gyrus, periventricular regions, inferior frontal and temporal gyri, and regions in the visual cortex. Because brain anatomical networks derived from conventional DTI datasets with tractography have been widely used in many studies, our findings may have important implications for studying human brain anatomical networks derived from DW-MRI data and tractography.

  9. The Intermingled History of Occupational Therapy and Anatomical Education: A Retrospective Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Melissa A.; Lawson, Katherine

    2014-01-01

    Few research articles have addressed the anatomical needs of entry-level occupational therapy students. Given this paucity of empirical evidence, there is a lack of knowledge regarding anatomical education in occupational therapy. This article will primarily serve as a retrospective look at the inclusion of anatomical education in the occupational…

  10. The anatomical and clinical research for lumbosacral region disc heniation treated with osteotemes nerval root shape model Fenestration%骨刀沿神经根走形开窗减压髓核切除术治疗腰骶部椎间盘突出症的应用解剖与临床研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张玉坤; 黄卫民; 沙吾提江·卡斯木; 刘新军; 李磊; 田慧中

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the anatomic basis of osteotemes nerval root shape model fenestration for treatment of lumbosacral region disc herniation by osteotomes in order to improve the treating result. Methods Anatomic structures,including verterbral plate,ligamentum flavum and intervertebral disk on 35 adult cadaver spine specimens were observed and measured.Osteotome nerval root shape fenestration were made to remove nucleus pulposus for 68 cases.Results (1)The lamina′s thickness of inferior margin of L3 ~L5 were (6.21±1.21),(5.93±1.22),and (5.65±1.19)mm respectively.(2)The distance between the attachment point of ligamentum flavum to vertebral lamina and the inferior border of vertebral lamina of L3 ~ L5 were (13.21 ± 2.33),(12.71 ± 1.41),and(9.72 ± 2.13)mm respectively.(3)The vertical dimension between the inferior border of L3 ~L5 vertebral lamina and the superior of L3 ~L5 intervertebral disc were (12.02±1.61),(10.18±1.26),and(-0.12±3.53)mm respectively.(4)The distance between the lateral border of inferior articular process and the root of spinous process of L3 ~ L5 were (12.14 ±1.33),(15.21±1.82),and(20.12 ± 1.73)mm respectively.Preoperative JOA score and VAS score were statistically decreased at 2 year and final follow-up.There was no significant difference between 2 year and final follow-up.Conclusion It is valuable to master the skill of low lumbar vertebrate discectomy through fenestration.Osteotemes nerval root shape model fenestration is a safe and effective method in the treat-ment of lumbosacral region disc herniation and is worth of popularization.%目的:为骨刀沿神经根走形开窗治疗腰骶部椎间盘突出症提供解剖学基础,并提高其手术效果。方法35具成人腰椎标本,观测椎板、黄韧带、椎间盘之间的解剖关系。对68例腰椎间盘突出症患者用不同型号的骨刀沿神经根走形在椎板间开窗摘除间盘髓核组织。结果(1)L3~L5椎板下缘厚度分别为(6

  11. Morphological and anatomical characteristics of Scots pine needles under industrial pollution impact of Krasnoyarsk city

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    L. N. Skripal’shchikova

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The changes of morphological and anatomical characteristics of Scots pine needles as well as their fluctuating asymmetry (FA were studied in pine stands under the influence of industrial emissions of Krasnoyarsk. Observations were made in forest-steppe zone on windward pine forest edges in the conditions of long-term anthropogenic effect. Background site was pine stand 100 km from the city outside the direction of wind pollution. The investigations were carried out in 2013–2014 in pure pine stands of grass type, V–VI class of age. For every model tree the needle lengths in pairs were measured, as well as the cross section area of needle, area of central cylinder and conducting bindles areas and the number of resin canals. Indices of fluctuating asymmetry were calculated by method of Palmer and Strobeck (1986. The content of copper, nickel, zinc, cobalt, aluminum, cadmium, lead, fluorine and sulfur were analyzed in needle samples in parallel. The dimensions of needles and its internal structure elements showed the tendency to decrease under the influence of urban industrial emissions in comparison with background sites. On the other hand, there were adaptations of morphological and anatomical parameters of physiologically active needles to the changing environment through a compensatory mechanism. Fluctuating asymmetry indices of needles parameters were found to vary both in technogenic conditions and background ones. The variations were caused by abiotic factors of habitats and levels of technogenic loadings in these stands. Correlation analysis revealed relations between concentrations of heavy metals, aluminum and fluorine and morphological and anatomical characteristics of needles and FA indices. The most unfavorable effects were produced by high concentrations of lead and fluorine.

  12. Improving spatial localization in MEG inverse imaging by leveraging intersubject anatomical differences

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    Eric eLarson

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Modern neuroimaging techniques enable non-invasive observation of ongoing neural processing, with magnetoencephalography (MEG in particular providing direct measurement of neural activity with millisecond time resolution. However, accurately mapping measured MEG sensor readings onto the underlying source neural structures remains an active area of research. This so-called inverse problem is ill posed, and poses a challenge for source estimation that is often cited as a drawback limiting MEG data interpretation. However, anatomically constrained MEG localization estimates may be more accurate than commonly believed. Here we hypothesize that, by combining anatomically constrained inverse estimates across subjects, the spatial uncertainty of MEG source localization can be mitigated. Specifically, we argue that differences in subject brain geometry yield differences in point-spread functions, resulting in improved spatial localization across subjects. To test this, we use standard methods to combine subject anatomical MRI scans with coregistration information to obtain an accurate forward (physical solution, modeling the MEG sensor data resulting from brain activity originating from different cortical locations. Using a linear minimum-norm inverse to localize this brain activity, we demonstrate that a substantial increase in the spatial accuracy of MEG source localization can result from combining data from subjects with differing brain geometry. This improvement may be enabled by an increase in the amount of available spatial information in MEG data as measurements from different subjects are combined. This approach becomes more important in the face of practical issues of coregistration errors and potential noise sources, where we observe even larger improvements in localization when combining data across subjects. Finally, we use a simple auditory N100(m localization task to show how this effect can influence localization using a recorded neural

  13. Anatomical Studies on Several Species of Heliotropium L. in Iran

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    Maryam ABBASI

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Heliotropium spp. is distributed worldwide mainly in tropical and subtropical regions, with dry and warm temperate to semi-arid regions so that Southwest and center of Asia have considered as the main centre of origin and diversity of Heliotropium genus. Iran, with 32 species and 14 (sub endemic species, has the highest diversity in the world followed by Pakistan and Turkey with 15 species and only one endemic species and the Arabian Peninsula with 15 species and three endemic species are in the next ranks. In order to anatomical studies on Heliotropium, twelve species of this genus were selected from different regions of Iran. The selected species included: H. bacciferum Forssk., H. ramossisimum BGE., H. brevilimb Boiss., H. transoxanum BGE., H. dasycarpum Ledeb, H. dyginum Forssk., H. aucheri Dc., H. carmanicum BGE. As perennial group and H. ellipticum Ledeb., H. lasiocarpum Fisch., H. suaveolens M.B. as annual group. In order to add more data to leaf anatomy characters, evaluating of systematic relevance and/or adaptive value of the morphological and anatomical diversity we have studied 24 anatomical characters in theses 12 species. For example shape and vascular bundles of main midrib, type of parenchyma cells located under lower epidermis of midrib, distance between vascular bundles and lower or upper epidermis, angle of between two parts of blade, number of cellular layers in lower or upper mesophylla, length of upper and lower mesophylla, type of cell wall in lower and upper mesophylla and thickness of lamina were investigated in this study. In order to this present obtained H. aucheri can be separated from H. carmanicum in H. aucheri subsp. carmanicum. It can be conclude that two species H. aucheri and H. carmanicum are independent species and can accept H. transoxanum as a sub group of H. dasycarpum.

  14. THE AZYGOS VENOUS SYSTEM AND ITS ANATOMICAL VARIATIONS

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    Madiki Sudhakara Rao

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available AIMS AND OBJECTIVES Azygos veins are important cavocaval and portacaval junctions, which form a collateral circulation in caval vein occlusion and in portal hypertension, cirrhosis of liver. The unpaired azygos venous system consists of azygos vein, hemiazygos vein and accessory azygos vein. This system of veins, along with its mediastinal, bronchial and oesophageal tributaries drains most of the body wall of trunk, namely posterior abdominal and thoracic wall. Anatomical variations of this unpaired azygos venous system are clinically important. AIMS To study and report the occurrence of anatomical variations of the unpaired azygos venous system in the region of East Godavari District, Andhra Pradesh (India. METHODS The present study was carried out in the Department of Anatomy, KIMS & RF, Amalapuram and G.S.L. Medical College, Rajahmundry over a period of 2 years. The present study was conducted on 60 cadavers (irrespective of age and sex. The entire course of the azygos venous system in these 60 cadavers was carefully observed and documented. RESULTS Anatomical variations were present in 16.66% of cases, out of which three distinct types were identified. 6.6% exhibited two separate azygos venous systems with no communications, 5% with communication between the left brachiocephalic vein and the azygos vein and 5% presence of post-aortic venous channels. CONCLUSION Variations of azygos venous system may be wrongly dubbed as aneurysm, lymphadenopathy or other abnormalities while reporting a CT scan of mediastinum. Venous anomalies are also detected only during surgery. The most troublesome intraoperative hazard is haemorrhage, which is mainly of venous origin. To avoid such situations is to have an awareness and knowledge of the expected venous anomalies.

  15. Rotational flaps in oncologic breast surgery. Anatomical and technical considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acea Nebril, Benigno; Builes Ramírez, Sergio; García Novoa, Alejandra; Varela Lamas, Cristina

    2016-01-01

    Local flaps are a group of surgical procedures that can solve the thoracic closure of large defects after breast cancer surgery with low morbidity. Its use in skin necrosis complications after conservative surgery or skin sparing mastectomies facilitates the initiation of adjuvant treatments and reduces delays in this patient group. This article describes the anatomical basis for the planning of thoracic and abdominal local flaps. Also, the application of these local flaps for closing large defects in the chest and selective flaps for skin coverage by necrosis in breast conserving surgery.

  16. Pneumomediastinum: Elucidation of the anatomic pathway by liquid ventilation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jamadar, D.A.; Kazerooni, E.A.; Hirschl, R.B. [Univ. of Michigan Hospitals, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    1996-03-01

    Partial liquid ventilation is a new technique to improve oxygenation in patients with severe acute respiratory distress syndrome. In a patient with status asthmaticus and tension pneumothorax treated with subsequent liquid ventilation, radiopaque perfluorocarbon was identified along bronchovascular structures, in the mediastinum, and in the retroperitoneum. Perfluorocarbon outlined on CT and chest radiography the anatomic pathway by which spontaneous pneumomediastinum develops following alveolar rupture, as described earlier by histopathologic study in animals. This represents the radiopaque equivalent of radiolucent pneumomediastinum. Perfluorocarbon remained in the pulmonary interstitium on radiography 30 days after beginning liquid ventilation, without sequelae. 9 refs., 3 figs.

  17. The investigate of ultrasonography integration into anatomical curriculum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Wenyuan; Wang Ying; Liu Xing; Liu Yaoguang; Teng Chenyi; Ma Yanwen; Wang Yu

    2015-01-01

    As a complementary teaching way, ultrasonography is considered an important teaching tools and methods to improving medical students’ skills and understanding the real time human anatomy . We success-fully integrated ultrasound into anatomy teaching by using portable ultrasound and interactive panel discussion ses-sions. The integrated curriculum not only allows medical students to see the complexity real-time three-dimension-al human anatomy, but also can improve medical students’ interest in anatomy teaching. Integrated ultrasound into anatomy teaching established close ties between basic medical science and its clinical application, and overcome the phase difficulties of anatomical knowledge application from preclinical to clinical.

  18. Anatomical and Histological Factors Affecting Intranasal Drug and Vaccine Delivery

    OpenAIRE

    Gizurarson, Sveinbjörn

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this review is to provide an understanding of the anatomical and histological structure of the nasal cavity, which is important for nasal drug and vaccine delivery as well as the development of new devices. The surface area of the nasal cavity is about 160 cm2, or 96 m2 if the microvilli are included. The olfactory region, however, is only about 5 cm2 (0.3 m2 including the microvilli). There are 6 arterial branches that serve the nasal cavity, making this region a very attractive r...

  19. MORPHOLOGICAL AND ANATOMICAL RESEARCH OF LEAVES OF FEIJOA SELLOWIANA BERG

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    N. N. Vdovenko-Martynova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Feijoa leaves gathered from Feijoa sellowiana Berg. of Myrtaceae family on the Black Sea coast of the Caucasus were the object of this research. Establishment of morphological and anatomical features for diagnosis of feijoa leaves was the purpose of this work. Using macro- and microscopic analysis methods we have determined external and microdiagnostic features which can be used for development of authenticity of the feijoa leaves active parts.

  20. A karyotypic and anatomical study of an unidentified liliaceous plant

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    J. J. Spies

    1983-12-01

    Full Text Available An unidentified sterile liliaceous plant and three possible relatives were studied karyotypically and anatomically. All these plants have a somatic chromosome number of 2n = 14. The possibility of the sterile plant having arisen as a result of a mutation appears unlikely, when compared with the possibility of hybrid origin. Chromosome morphology rules out  Bulbine latifolia (L.f. R. & S. and Aloe arborescens Mill, as possible parents. The sterile plant and Aloe marlothii Berger have similar karyotypes and. therefore. A. marlothii may be one of the parents. A close relationship between the sterile plant and the genus Aloe is further confirmed by their similar epidermal structure.

  1. Etymology of homeric anatomical terms for the head and neck

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    Eleni KONSOLAKI, Panagiotis AGGOURIDAKIS, Georgia FRAGAKI, Georgios ROMANOS,

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available SUMMARY: The search for the origin of medical terms used in every day practice has started since the distant past. Words that refer to the head and the neck can be found as early as in the Homeric epics; many of these have survived in some form in modern languages. Both doctors and philosophers have been concerned with the etymology of medical terminology in studies and dictionaries. This paper presents etymological suggestions for the anatomical terminology of the head and the neck as a useful aid to the oral and maxillofacial surgeon.

  2. Nervous Plexopathies in oncologic patients: Anatomical, clinical and radiological Considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lumbosacral or brachial plexopathies are lesions of two or more roots of the same plexus. They are very frequent in cancer patients and are usually due to extra spinal involvement of these roots, by a primary or secondary neoplasm. The CT scan is very useful in the evaluation of patients with this disease. In the article anatomic al aspects, the main clinical symptoms and signs, and the performance of CT scan are reviewed with all these elements it is possible to make a diagnosis

  3. Tracheal Atresia with Segmental Esophageal Duplication: An Unusual Anatomic Arrangement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaerty, Kirsten; Thomas, Joseph T; Petersen, Scott; Tan, Edwin; Kumar, Sailesh; Gardener, Glenn; Armes, Jane

    2016-01-01

    An unusual anatomic configuration of segmental tracheal agenesis/atresia with esophageal duplication on autopsy in a fetus that demised in utero at 29 weeks is reported. The mother was scanned initially for a cardiac anomaly at 20 weeks and on follow-up scan at 27 weeks had polyhydramnios and underwent amnioreduction. The final autopsy diagnosis was vertebral, ano-rectal, cardiac, tracheoesophageal, renal, and limb malformations (VACTERL). We discuss the autopsy findings along with the embryological mechanisms and compare the configuration with Floyd's classification for tracheal agenesis. The difficulties in prenatal diagnosis are discussed. PMID:26367770

  4. Anatomical reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament: a logical approach

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    Julio Cesar Gali

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT We describe the surgical approach that we have used over the last years for anterior cruciate ligament (ACL reconstruction, highlighting the importance of arthroscopic viewing through the anteromedial portal (AMP and femoral tunnel drilling through an accessory anteromedial portal (AMP. The AMP allows direct view of the ACL femoral insertion site on the medial aspect of the lateral femoral condyle, does not require guides for anatomic femoral tunnel reaming, prevents an additional lateral incision in the distal third of the thigh (as would be unavoidable when the outside-intechnique is used and also can be used for double-bundle ACL reconstruction.

  5. [BOOSTING CITIZENS'AWARENESS: THE ANATOMICAL COLLECTIONS FOR TEACHING PAST AND PRESENT].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vannozzi, Francesca

    2015-01-01

    The challenge of eight museums of the University Museum System of the University of Siena for years has been that of annually offering to Siena schools a course of learning on the themes of science. The learning workshop is articulated in a frontal lesson, followed by a visit of the class in the proponent museum to better expound the chosen theme by the teacher. The fundamental role for such a didactic proposal is sustained by the conserved collections in the museum, used in the past to facilitate the university professor in their lessons, and that continue to show a strong didactic value helping the young student to "enter" in a captivating and easy manner into the world of science. In particular, the Anatomical Museum "L. Comparini" has now organized for some years a course of learning using historical instruments, models in terracotta and wax, plastinates, and tables that consent the operator to confront, with young children, the theme of the history of anatomy and the ways and means for research, formation, and the distribution of the anatomical sciences.

  6. Experimental Characterization of the Anatomical Structures of the Lumbar Spine Under Dynamic Sagittal Bending.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradfield, C A; Demetropoulos, C K; Luongo, M E; Pyles, C O; Armiger, R S; Merkle, A C

    2015-01-01

    Underbody blast (UBB) events transmit high-rate vertical loads through the seated occupant’s lumbar spine and have a high probability of inducing severe injury. While previous studies have characterized the lumbar spine under quasi-static loading, additional work should focus on the complex kinetic and kinematic response under high loading rates. To discern the biomechanical influence of the lumbar spine’s anatomical structures during dynamic loading, the axial force, flexion-extension moments and range of motion for lumbar motion segments (n=18) were measured during different states of progressive dissection. Pre-compression was applied using a static mass while dynamic bending was applied using an offset drop mass. Dynamic loading resulted in peak axial loads of 4,224±133 N, while maximum peak extension and flexion moments were 19.6±12.5 and -44.8±8.6 Nm in the pre-dissected state, respectively. Upon dissection, transection of the interspinous ligament, ligamentum flavum and facet capsules resulted in significantly larger flexion angles, while the removal of the posterior elements increased the total peak angular displacement in extension from 3.3±1.5 to 5.0±1.7 degrees (p=0.002). This study provides insight on the contribution of individual anatomical components on overall lumbar response under high-rate loading, as well as validation data for numerical models. PMID:25996712

  7. Grey and White Matter Clinico-Anatomical Correlates of Disinhibition in Neurodegenerative Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santillo, Alexander Frizell; Lundblad, Karl; Nilsson, Markus; Landqvist Waldö, Maria; van Westen, Danielle; Lätt, Jimmy; Blennow Nordström, Erik; Vestberg, Susanna; Lindberg, Olof; Nilsson, Christer

    2016-01-01

    Disinhibition is an important symptom in neurodegenerative diseases. However, the clinico-anatomical underpinnings remain controversial. We explored the anatomical correlates of disinhibition in neurodegenerative disease using the perspective of grey and white matter imaging. Disinhibition was assessed with a neuropsychological test and a caregiver information-based clinical rating scale in 21 patients with prefrontal syndromes due to behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia (n = 12) or progressive supranuclear palsy (n = 9), and healthy controls (n = 25). Cortical thickness was assessed using the Freesurfer software on 3T MRI data. The integrity of selected white matter tracts was determined by the fractional anisotropy (FA) from Diffusion Tensor Imaging. Disinhibition correlated with the cortical thickness of the right parahippocampal gyrus, right orbitofrontal cortex and right insula and the FA of the right uncinate fasciculus and right anterior cingulum. Notably, no relationship was seen with the thickness of ventromedial prefrontal cortex. Our results support an associative model of inhibitory control, distributed in a medial temporal lobe-insular-orbitofrontal network, connected by the intercommunicating white matter tracts. This reconciles some of the divergences among previous studies, but also questions the current conceptualisation of the “prefrontal” syndrome and the central role attributed to the ventromedial prefrontal cortex in inhibitory control. PMID:27723823

  8. Anatomically constrained dipole adjustment (ANACONDA) for accurate MEG/EEG focal source localizations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper proposes an alternative approach to enhance localization accuracy of MEG and EEG focal sources. The proposed approach assumes anatomically constrained spatio-temporal dipoles, initial positions of which are estimated from local peak positions of distributed sources obtained from a pre-execution of distributed source reconstruction. The positions of the dipoles are then adjusted on the cortical surface using a novel updating scheme named cortical surface scanning. The proposed approach has many advantages over the conventional ones: (1) as the cortical surface scanning algorithm uses spatio-temporal dipoles, it is robust with respect to noise; (2) it requires no a priori information on the numbers and initial locations of the activations; (3) as the locations of dipoles are restricted only on a tessellated cortical surface, it is physiologically more plausible than the conventional ECD model. To verify the proposed approach, it was applied to several realistic MEG/EEG simulations and practical experiments. From the several case studies, it is concluded that the anatomically constrained dipole adjustment (ANACONDA) approach will be a very promising technique to enhance accuracy of focal source localization which is essential in many clinical and neurological applications of MEG and EEG

  9. FEM-based simulation of a fluorescence tomography experiment using anatomical MR images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Wuwei; Elmer, Andreas; Augath, Mark-Aurel; Rudin, Markus

    2016-03-01

    A hybrid system combining fluorescence molecular tomography (FMT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is attractive for preclinical imaging as it allows fusion of molecular information derived from FMT and anatomical reference data derived from MRI. We have previously developed such a system and demonstrated its performance in biological applications. For reconstruction slab geometry with homogeneous optical parameters was assumed, which led to undesirable artifacts. In order to exploit the power of the hybrid system, the use of MRI derived anatomical information, as a constraint for FMT reconstruction, appears logical. Heterogeneity of tissues and irregular surface derived from MRI can be accounted for by generating a mesh using the finite element method (FEM), and attributing optical parameters to individual mesh points. We have established a forward simulation tool based on TOAST++ to mimic an FMT experiment. MRI images were recorded on a 9.4T MR scanner using a T1-weighted pulse sequence. The voxelized dataset was processed by iso2mesh to yield a 3D-mesh. Four steps of FMT simulation were included: 1) Assignment of optical properties, 2) Specification of boundary conditions and generation of 3) excitation and 4) emission maps. FEM-derived results were compared with those obtained using the analytical solution of Green's function and with experimental data with a single fluorescent inclusion in a silicon phantom. Once, the forward modeling method is properly validated it will be used as a central element of a reconstruction algorithm for analyzing data derived from a hybrid FMT/MRI setup.

  10. Underlying sources of cognitive-anatomical variation in multi-modal neuroimaging and cognitive testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, P.D.; Paul, E.J.; Cooke, G.E.; Ward, N.; Monti, J.M.; Horecka, K.M.; Allen, C.M.; Hillman, C.H.; Cohen, N.J.; Kramer, A.F.; Barbey, A.K.

    2016-01-01

    Healthy adults have robust individual differences in neuroanatomy and cognitive ability not captured by demographics or gross morphology (Luders, Narr, Thompson, & Toga, 2009). We used a hierarchical independent component analysis (hICA) to create novel characterizations of individual differences in our participants (N = 190). These components fused data across multiple cognitive tests and neuroanatomical variables. The first level contained four independent, underlying sources of phenotypic variance that predominately modeled broad relationships within types of data (e.g., “white matter,” or “subcortical gray matter”), but were not reflective of traditional individual difference measures such as sex, age, or intracranial volume. After accounting for the novel individual difference measures, a second level analysis identified two underlying sources of phenotypic variation. One of these made strong, joint contributions to both the anatomical structures associated with the core fronto-parietal “rich club” network (van den Heuvel & Sporns, 2011), and to cognitive factors. These findings suggest that a hierarchical, data-driven approach is able to identify underlying sources of individual difference that contribute to cognitive-anatomical variation in healthy young adults. PMID:26808332

  11. Anatomical reconstructions of the human cardiac venous system using contrast-computed tomography of perfusion-fixed specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Julianne; Fitch, Emily; Iaizzo, Paul A

    2013-01-01

    A detailed understanding of the complexity and relative variability within the human cardiac venous system is crucial for the development of cardiac devices that require access to these vessels. For example, cardiac venous anatomy is known to be one of the key limitations for the proper delivery of cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT)(1) Therefore, the development of a database of anatomical parameters for human cardiac venous systems can aid in the design of CRT delivery devices to overcome such a limitation. In this research project, the anatomical parameters were obtained from 3D reconstructions of the venous system using contrast-computed tomography (CT) imaging and modeling software (Materialise, Leuven, Belgium). The following parameters were assessed for each vein: arc length, tortuousity, branching angle, distance to the coronary sinus ostium, and vessel diameter. CRT is a potential treatment for patients with electromechanical dyssynchrony. Approximately 10-20% of heart failure patients may benefit from CRT(2). Electromechanical dyssynchrony implies that parts of the myocardium activate and contract earlier or later than the normal conduction pathway of the heart. In CRT, dyssynchronous areas of the myocardium are treated with electrical stimulation. CRT pacing typically involves pacing leads that stimulate the right atrium (RA), right ventricle (RV), and left ventricle (LV) to produce more resynchronized rhythms. The LV lead is typically implanted within a cardiac vein, with the aim to overlay it within the site of latest myocardial activation. We believe that the models obtained and the analyses thereof will promote the anatomical education for patients, students, clinicians, and medical device designers. The methodologies employed here can also be utilized to study other anatomical features of our human heart specimens, such as the coronary arteries. To further encourage the educational value of this research, we have shared the venous models on our

  12. Anatomically shaped tooth and periodontal regeneration by cell homing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, K; Lee, C H; Kim, B K; Mao, J J

    2010-08-01

    Tooth regeneration by cell delivery encounters translational hurdles. We hypothesized that anatomically correct teeth can regenerate in scaffolds without cell transplantation. Novel, anatomically shaped human molar scaffolds and rat incisor scaffolds were fabricated by 3D bioprinting from a hybrid of poly-epsilon-caprolactone and hydroxyapatite with 200-microm-diameter interconnecting microchannels. In each of 22 rats, an incisor scaffold was implanted orthotopically following mandibular incisor extraction, whereas a human molar scaffold was implanted ectopically into the dorsum. Stromal-derived factor-1 (SDF1) and bone morphogenetic protein-7 (BMP7) were delivered in scaffold microchannels. After 9 weeks, a putative periodontal ligament and new bone regenerated at the interface of rat incisor scaffold with native alveolar bone. SDF1 and BMP7 delivery not only recruited significantly more endogenous cells, but also elaborated greater angiogenesis than growth-factor-free control scaffolds. Regeneration of tooth-like structures and periodontal integration by cell homing provide an alternative to cell delivery, and may accelerate clinical applications.

  13. Isolated Male Epispadias: Anatomic Functional Restoration Is the Primary Goal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruneel, Elke; Ploumidis, Achilles; Van Laecke, Erik; Hoebeke, Piet

    2016-01-01

    Background. Isolated male epispadias (IME) is a rare congenital penile malformation, as often part of bladder-exstrophy-epispadias complex (BEEC). In its isolated presentation, it consists in a defect of the dorsal aspect of the penis, leaving the urethral plate open. Occurrence of urinary incontinence is related to the degree of dorsal displacement of the meatus and the underlying underdevelopment of the urethral sphincter. The technique for primary IME reconstruction, based on anatomic restoration of the urethra and bladder neck, is here illustrated. Patients and Methods. A retrospective database was created with patients who underwent primary IME repair between June 1998 and February 2014. Intraoperative variables, postoperative complications, and outcomes were assessed. A descriptive statistical analysis was performed. Results and Limitations. Eight patients underwent primary repair, with penopubic epispadias (PPE) in 3, penile epispadias (PE) in 2, and glandular epispadias (GE) in 3. Median age at surgery was 13.0 months [7–47]; median follow-up was 52 months [9–120]. Complications requiring further surgery were reported in two patients, while further esthetic surgeries were required in 4 patients. Conclusion. Anatomical restoration in primary IME is safe and effective, with acceptable results given the initial pathology. PMID:27722172

  14. Anatomical, Clinical and Electrical Observations in Piriformis Syndrome

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    Assoum Hani A

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We provided clinical and electrical descriptions of the piriformis syndrome, contributing to better understanding of the pathogenesis and further diagnostic criteria. Methods Between 3550 patients complaining of sciatica, we concluded 26 cases of piriformis syndrome, 15 females, 11 males, mean age 35.37 year-old. We operated 9 patients, 2 to 19 years after the onset of symptoms, 5 had piriformis steroids injection. A dorsolumbar MRI were performed in all cases and a pelvic MRI in 7 patients. The electro-diagnostic test was performed in 13 cases, between them the H reflex of the peroneal nerve was tested 7 times. Results After a followup 1 to 11 years, for the 17 non operated patients, 3 patients responded to conservative treatment. 6 of the operated had an excellent result, 2 residual minor pain and one failed. 3 new anatomical observations were described with atypical compression of the sciatic nerve by the piriformis muscle. Conclusion While the H reflex test of the tibial nerve did not give common satisfaction in the literature for diagnosis, the H reflex of the peroneal nerve should be given more importance, because it demonstrated in our study more specific sign, with six clinical criteria it contributed to improve the method of diagnosis. The cause of this particular syndrome does not only depend on the relation sciatic nerve-piriformis muscle, but the environmental conditions should be considered with the series of the anatomical anomalies to explain the real cause of this pain.

  15. Variations in meniscofemoral ligaments at anatomical study and MR imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, J.M.; Suh, J.S. [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Na, J.B. [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Kyungsang National University, College of Medicine, Jinju (Korea, Republic of); Cho, J.H. [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Ajou University College of Medicine, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Y.; Yoo, W.K. [Department of Rehabilitation, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, H.Y.; Chung, I.H. [Department of Anatomy, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-04-01

    Purpose To demonstrate variations in the meniscofemoral ligaments (ligaments of Wrisberg and Humphrey) at anatomical study and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. Design Twenty-eight cadaveric knees were partially dissected for the examination of the meniscofemoral ligaments. One hundred knee MR examinations were reviewed by two experienced musculoskeletal radiologists. Proximal variations in the meniscofemoral ligaments at MR imaging were classified into three types according to the attachment site: type I, medial femoral condyle; type II, proximal half of the posterior cruciate ligament (PCL); type III, distal half of the PCL. Distal variations were classified into vertical or oblique types according to the orientation of the intermediate signal at the interface of the ligament and lateral meniscus. Results At anatomical study, six cases showed variations in the proximal insertion site of the meniscofemoral ligaments. At MR imaging 93 cases had one or more meniscofemoral ligaments, giving a total of 107 ligaments: 90 ligaments of Wrisberg and 17 ligaments of Humphrey. Forty-one ligaments of Wrisberg were type I, 28 type II, 19 type III, and with two indeterminate type, while 6 ligaments of Humphrey were type I and the remaining 11 were indeterminate. Seven cases showed no meniscofemoral ligament. Of the 107 meniscofemoral ligaments, the distal insertion orientation was of vertical type in 10 ligaments, oblique type in 70 and unidentified in 27. Conclusion An understanding of the high incidence of meniscofemoral ligament variations may help in the interpretation of knee MR studies. (orig.) With 7 figs., 1 tab., 16 refs.

  16. [Osteochondrodysplasias. Prenatal diagnosis and pathological-anatomic findings].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tennstedt, C; Bartho, S; Bollmann, R; Schwenke, A; Nitz, I; Rothe, K

    1993-03-01

    Prenatal sonographic investigations were applied for malformations to 7,194 foetuses, between October 1985 and April 1992, with 28 cases of osteochondrodysplasia (OCD) and one case of dysostosis being dissected. Included were 20 cases of lethal osteochondrodysplasia, among them two cases of lethal hypophosphatasia, five cases of thanatophoric dysplasia, one case each of Type II shortrib (polydactyly) syndrome (VERMA-NAUMOFF) and metatropic dysplasia, three cases of campomelic dysplasia and eight cases of Type II A imperfect osteogenesis. Also observed were eight cases of nonlethal OCD, among them three cases of diastrophic dysplasia and five of achondroplasia. Dysostosis was recorded from one case and was diagnosed as Type V acrocephalosyndactyly (Pfeiffer). Identification of a specific OCD proved to be difficult in the second or third trimenon. Hence, the form of OCD was prenatally diagnosed only in ten of all cases investigated. Tentative diagnosis was first established from the postmortem radiograph. Additional malformations and other abnormalities then were detected by complementary pathologico-anatomic processing of findings. The final diagnosis was derived from radiological, pathologico-anatomic and histological findings. Diagnosis of this constitutional osteopathy is quite difficult and calls for interdisciplinary cooperation between gynaecologists, neonatologists, paediatric surgeons, radiologists, geneticists and pathologists. More effective counselling of affected families is the major purpose of all the efforts involved. PMID:8499423

  17. Rare anatomical variation of the musculocutaneous nerve - case report

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    Sergio Ricardo Rios Nascimento

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The clinical and surgical importance of anatomical knowledge of the musculocutaneous nerve and its variations is due to the fact that one of the complications in many upper-limb surgical procedures involves injury to this nerve. During routine dissection of the right upper limb of a male cadaver, we observed an anatomical variation of this nerve. The musculocutaneous nerve originated in the lateral cord and continued laterally, passing under the coracobrachialis muscle and then continuing until its first branch to the biceps brachialis muscle. Just after this, it supplied another two branches, i.e. the lateral cutaneous nerve of the forearm and a branch to the brachialis muscle, and then it joined the median nerve. The median nerve followed the arm medially to the region of the cubital fossa and then gave rise to the anterior intermediate nerve of the forearm. The union between the musculocutaneous nerve and the median nerve occurred approximately at the midpoint of the arm and the median nerve. Given that either our example is not covered by the classifications found in the literature or that it fits into more than one variation proposed, without us finding something truly similar, we consider this variation to be rare.

  18. Variability of acorn anatomical characteristics in Quercus robur L. genotypes

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    Nikolić Nataša P.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine variability of acorn anatomical characteristics in seventeen Quercus robur L. genotypes. Acorns were collected in clonal seed orchard Banov Brod (Srem, Vojvodina, Serbia. Microscopic measurements were done for pericarp (total thickness, thickness of exocarp and mesocarp, seed coat (total thickness, thickness of outer epidermis, parenchyma, and inner epidermis, and embryo axis (diameter, thickness of cortical region, and diameter of stellar zone. Obtained results revealed certain divergence between genotypes. The thickness of pericarp varied from 418 to 559 mm (genotypes 20 and 22, respectively. On average, the participation of exocarp in the total thickness of pericarp was 36.3%, of mesocarp 61.0%, while of endocarp 2.6%. The thickness of seed coat for individual genotypes ranged from 71 mm (genotype 28 to 157 mm (genotype 38. In addition, anatomic parameters of embryo axis varied among studied genotypes. The lowest cortical zone thickness and stellar zone diameter were measured in genotype 40, while the highest values in genotype 33.

  19. The anatomical study of transoral atlantoaxial reduction plate internal fixation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    AI Fu-zhi; YIN Qing-shui; WANG Zhi-yun; XIA Hong; CHANG Yun-bing; WU Zeng-hui; LIU Jing-fa

    2006-01-01

    Objective:To study relevant anatomical features of the structures involved in transoral atlanto-axial reduction plate (TARP) internal fixation through transoral approach for treating irreducible atlanto-axial dislocation and providing anatomical basis for the clinical application of TARP.Methods: Ten fresh craniocervical specimens were microsurgically dissected layer by layer through transoral approach. The stratification of the posterior pharyngeal wall, the course of the vertebral artery, anatomical relationships of the adjacent structures of the atlas and axis, and the closely relevant anatomical parameters for TARP internal fixation were measured.Results: The posterior pharyngeal wall consisted of two layers and two interspaces: the mucosa, prevertebral fascia, retropharyngeal space, and prevertebral space. The range from the anterior edge of the foramen magnum to C3could be exposed by this approach. The thickness of the posterior pharyngeal wall was (3.6 ± 0.3) mm (ranging2.9-4.3 mm) at the anterior tubercle of C1,(6.1 ± 0.4) mm ( ranging 5.2-7.1 mm) at the lateral mass of C1 and (5.5±0.4) mm (ranging4.3-6.5 mm) at the central part of C2, respectively. The distance from the incisor tooth to the anterior tubercle of C1, C1 screw entry point, and C2 screw entry point was ( 82. 5 ± 7. 8 ) mm ( ranging 71.4-96. 2 mm), ( 90. 1 ± 3. 8 ) mm ( ranging82.2-96. 3 mm), and ( 89.0 ± 4.1 ) mm ( ranging 81.3-95.3 mm), respectively. The distance between the vertebral artery at the atlas and the midline was (25.2 ±2.3) mm (ranging 20.4-29.7 mm) and that between the vertebral artery at the axis and the midline was ( 18.4 ±2.6) mm ( ranging 13. 1-23.0 mm). The allowed width of the atlas and axis for exposure was (39. 4 ± 2. 2 ) mm( ranging 36.2-42.7 mm) and ( 39.0 ± 2. 1 ) mm ( ranging35.8-42. 3 mm), respectively. The distance (a) between the two atlas screw insertion points (center of anterior aspect of C1 lateral mass) was (31.4 ± 3.3 ) mm ( ranging25.4-36.6 mm

  20. Applied Endoscopic Anatomical Evaluation of the Lacrimal Sac

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    Seyyed Mostafa Hashemi

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Dacryocystorhinostomy (DCR, a popular surgical procedure, has been performed using an endoscopic approach over recent years. Excellent anatomical knowledge is required for this endoscopic surgical approach. This study was performed in order to better evaluate the anatomical features of the lacrimal apparatus from cadavers in the Isfahan forensic center as a sample of the Iranian population.   Materials and Methods: DCR was performed using a standard method on 26 cadaver eyes from the forensic center of Isfahan. The lacrimal sac was exposed completely, then the anatomical features of the lacrimal sac and canaliculus were measured using a specified ruler.   Results: A total of 26 male cadaveric eyes were used, of which four (16.7% were probably non-Caucasian. Two (8% of the eyes needed septoplasty, one (4% needed uncinectomy, and none needed turbinoplasty. Four (16% lacrimal sacs were anterior to axilla, one (4% was posterior and 20 (80% were at the level of the axilla of the middle turbinate. The distance  from the nasal sill to the anterior edge of the lacrimal sac (from its mid-height was 39.04 (±4.92 mm. The distance from the nasal sill to the posterior edge of the lacrimal sac (from its mid-height was 45.50 (±4.47 mm. The width and length of the lacrimal sac was 7.54 (±1.44 mm and 13.16 (±5.37 mm, respectively. The distance from the anterior edge of the lacrimal sac to the posterior edge of the uncinate process was 14.06 (±3.00 mm, while the distance from the anterior nasal spine to the anterior edge of the lacrimal sac (from its mid-height was 37.20 (±5.37 mm.The height of the fundus was 3.26 (±1.09 mm. The distance from the superior punctum to the fundus was 12.70 (±1.45 mm, and the distance from the inferior punctum to the fundus was 11.10 (±2.02 mm.   Conclusion:  Given the differences between the various studies conducted in order to evaluate the position of the lacrimal sac, studies such as this can help to

  1. Identification keys on rattans (Calamus spp.) from Central Sulawesi based on anatomical structure of stems

    OpenAIRE

    ANDI TANRA TELLU

    2005-01-01

    This study was conducted to obtain information the anatomical characteristics of 20 rattan species from Central Sulawesi and to use it for anatomical identification of rattan species. The rattan comprised 16 Calamus species, three Daemonorops species and one Korthalsia species. For anatomical observation 10-15 mm pieces of the mature stem from shares of tip do not have frond were processed with polyethilene glycol 2000, cut at 18-32 µm and stained with a combination of acridin-cryzoidin red a...

  2. MORPHOLOGICAL AND ANATOMICAL STUDY ON ENDEMIC CROCUS OLIVIERI GAY SUBSP. ISTANBULENSIS MATHEW SUBSPECIES (IRIDACEAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadriye Yetişen

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, morphological and anatomical properties of Crocus olivieri Gay subsp. istanbulensis Mathew were investigated. Cross-sections of root, scape and leaf parts of the plant were examined anddemonstrated by photographs. Most of the anatomical properties are similar to the other member of Iridaceae family. Sclerenchyma groups were observed around to leaf vascular bundle. Morphological and anatomical findings compared with other two subspecies of Crocus olivieri.

  3. APPLICABILITY ANALYSIS OF ADDITIVE MANUFACTURING PROCESSES IN THE FABRICATION OF ANATOMICALLY SHAPED LATTICE SCAFFOLDS

    OpenAIRE

    Jelena Milovanović; Miloš Stojković; Miroslav Trajanović

    2015-01-01

    Manufacturing of anatomically shaped scaffolds for bonе tissue recovery as well as other similar anatomically shaped implants represents a major challenge for modern manufacturing technologies. The complexity of anatomically shaped lattice scaffolds for bone tissue recovery requires involvement of so-called additive manufacturing processes.This paper brings out the criterial matrix for the assessment of additive manufacturing processes applicability in the case of bone tissue scaffold manufac...

  4. Factors Affecting Dimensional Accuracy of 3-D Printed Anatomical Structures Derived from CT Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogden, Kent M; Aslan, Can; Ordway, Nathaniel; Diallo, Dalanda; Tillapaugh-Fay, Gwen; Soman, Pranav

    2015-12-01

    Additive manufacturing and bio-printing, with the potential for direct fabrication of complex patient-specific anatomies derived from medical scan data, are having an ever-increasing impact on the practice of medicine. Anatomic structures are typically derived from CT or MRI scans, and there are multiple steps in the model derivation process that influence the geometric accuracy of the printed constructs. In this work, we compare the dimensional accuracy of 3-D printed constructs of an L1 vertebra derived from CT data for an ex vivo cadaver T-L spine with the original vertebra. Processing of segmented structures using binary median filters and various surface extraction algorithms is evaluated for the effect on model dimensions. We investigate the effects of changing CT reconstruction kernels by scanning simple geometric objects and measuring the impact on the derived model dimensions. We also investigate if there are significant differences between physical and virtual model measurements. The 3-D models were printed using a commercial 3-D printer, the Replicator 2 (MakerBot, Brooklyn, NY) using polylactic acid (PLA) filament. We found that changing parameters during the scan reconstruction, segmentation, filtering, and surface extraction steps will have an effect on the dimensions of the final model. These effects need to be quantified for specific situations that rely on the accuracy of 3-D printed models used in medicine or tissue engineering applications. PMID:25982877

  5. Effect of anatomical backgrounds on detectability in volumetric cone beam CT images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Minah; Park, Subok; Baek, Jongduk

    2016-03-01

    As anatomical noise is often a dominating factor affecting signal detection in medical imaging, we investigate the effects of anatomical backgrounds on signal detection in volumetric cone beam CT images. Signal detection performances are compared between transverse and longitudinal planes with either uniform or anatomical backgrounds. Sphere objects with diameters of 1mm, 5mm, 8mm, and 11mm are used as the signals. Three-dimensional (3D) anatomical backgrounds are generated using an anatomical noise power spectrum, 1/fβ, with β=3, equivalent to mammographic background [1]. The mean voxel value of the 3D anatomical backgrounds is used as an attenuation coefficient of the uniform background. Noisy projection data are acquired by the forward projection of the uniform and anatomical 3D backgrounds with/without sphere lesions and by the addition of quantum noise. Then, images are reconstructed by an FDK algorithm [2]. For each signal size, signal detection performances in transverse and longitudinal planes are measured by calculating the task SNR of a channelized Hotelling observer with Laguerre-Gauss channels. In the uniform background case, transverse planes yield higher task SNR values for all sphere diameters but 1mm. In the anatomical background case, longitudinal planes yield higher task SNR values for all signal diameters. The results indicate that it is beneficial to use longitudinal planes to detect spherical signals in anatomical backgrounds.

  6. Foundations of Intonational Meaning: Anatomical and Physiological Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gussenhoven, Carlos

    2016-04-01

    Like non-verbal communication, paralinguistic communication is rooted in anatomical and physiological factors. Paralinguistic form-meaning relations arise from the way these affect speech production, with some fine-tuning by the cultural and linguistic context. The effects have been classified as "biological codes," following the terminological lead of John Ohala's Frequency Code. Intonational morphemes, though arguably non-arbitrary in principle, are in fact heavily biased toward these paralinguistic meanings. Paralinguistic and linguistic meanings for four biological codes are illustrated. In addition to the Frequency Code, the Effort Code, and the Respiratory Code, the Sirenic Code is introduced here, which is based on the use of whispery phonation, widely seen as being responsible for the signaling and perception of feminine attractiveness and sometimes used to express interrogativity in language. In the context of the evolution of language, the relations between physiological conditions and the resulting paralinguistic and linguistic meanings will need to be clarified. PMID:27016315

  7. An ``Anatomic approach" to study the Casimir effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intravaia, Francesco; Haakh, Harald; Henkel, Carsten

    2010-03-01

    The Casimir effect, in its simplest definition, is a quantum mechanical force between two objects placed in vacuum. In recent years the Casimir force has been the object of an exponentially growing attention both from theorists and experimentalists. A new generation of experiments paved the way for new challenges and spotted some shadows in the comparison to theory. Here we are going to isolate different contributions to the Casimir interaction and perform a detailed study to shine new light on this phenomenon. As an example, the contributions of Foucault (eddy current) modes will be discussed in different configurations. This ``anatomic approach'' allows to clearly put into evidence special features and to explain unusual behaviors. This brings new physical understanding on the undergoing physical mechanisms and suggests new ways to engineer the Casimir effect.

  8. Simultaneous segmentation and anatomical labeling of the cerebral vasculature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robben, David; Türetken, Engin; Sunaert, Stefan; Thijs, Vincent; Wilms, Guy; Fua, Pascal; Maes, Frederik; Suetens, Paul

    2016-08-01

    We present a novel algorithm for the simultaneous segmentation and anatomical labeling of the cerebral vasculature. Unlike existing approaches that first attempt to obtain a good segmentation and then perform labeling, we optimize for both by simultaneously taking into account the image evidence and the prior knowledge about the geometry and connectivity of the vasculature. This is achieved by first constructing an overcomplete graph capturing the vasculature, and then selecting and labeling the subset of edges that most likely represents the true vasculature. We formulate the latter problem as an Integer Program (IP), which can be solved efficiently to provable optimality. We evaluate our approach on a publicly available dataset of 50 cerebral MRA images, and demonstrate that it compares favorably against state-of-the-art methods. PMID:27131026

  9. Evaluation of an anatomical compensation filter for chest radiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manninen, H.; Rytkoenen, H.; Soimakallio, S.; Terho, E.O.; Hentunen, J.

    1986-11-01

    An anatomical compensation filter for improving the radiographic demonstration of the mediastinal and retrocardiac areas of a chest radiograph has been evaluated. The filter, made of a transparent, light-weight lead-plastic material was attached to the X-ray collimator housing. The device reliably improved the visibility of normally underpenetrated areas without producing detectable artefacts, provided the patient was correctly positioned. Hilar structures were also slightly better visualised. At the same time there was no statistically significant deterioration in visualisation of peripheral pulmonary vessels or parenchymal structures. Rib details and pleural calcifications were less well seen, however, a result that was to be expected because of the X-ray beam hardening.

  10. Tridimensional Regression for Comparing and Mapping 3D Anatomical Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kendra K. Schmid

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Shape analysis is useful for a wide variety of disciplines and has many applications. There are many approaches to shape analysis, one of which focuses on the analysis of shapes that are represented by the coordinates of predefined landmarks on the object. This paper discusses Tridimensional Regression, a technique that can be used for mapping images and shapes that are represented by sets of three-dimensional landmark coordinates, for comparing and mapping 3D anatomical structures. The degree of similarity between shapes can be quantified using the tridimensional coefficient of determination (2. An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of this technique to correctly match the image of a face with another image of the same face. These results were compared to the 2 values obtained when only two dimensions are used and show that using three dimensions increases the ability to correctly match and discriminate between faces.

  11. The anatomical, surgical and orthopedic importance of gastrocnemius

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashfaq U. Hassan

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Gastrocnemius is one of the most important muscles of lower limb. It belongs to the superficial compartment of calf muscles. They belong to group of superficial flexors. Gastrocnemius, plantaris and soleus form the bulk of the calf. Gastrocnemius forms the belly of the calf. It arises by two distinct heads, connected to the condyles of the femur by strong, flat tendons. It has an immense anatomic, medical, orthopedic and physiological importance and is attributed in a variety of medical and surgical problems. A profound knowledge of this muscle is of great importance to any surgeon or orthopedicians or any clinician. [Int J Res Med Sci 2013; 1(4.000: 326-328

  12. ANATOMICAL STUDIES ON SCOPOLIA CARNIOLICA JACQ. VEGETATIVE ORGANS

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    Cristina STEFANESCU

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Scopolia carniolica Jacq. is a medicinal species of Solanaceae, harvested from the Romanian spontaneous flora for its atropine and scopolamine content. We have analyzed the anatomical structure of the vegetative organs (rhizome, root, stem and leaf and the biometrical parameters of the leaf blade (vascular islet, stomatal index and palisade ratio, in order to establish the main specific characters and differential elements useful for the correct identification and for avoiding the impurification of medicinal products. The characteristic structures for the rhizome and root are the secondary ones, mainly with parenchyma elements and lacking in mechanical fibres; the stem has a primary becoming secondary structure, bicolateral vascular bundles with cambium in the interior and between them and endoderma as starch layer. The sand cells are characteristic for rhizome, root and stem structures. On the leaf surface were identified protector multicellular trichomes and specific secretory and glandular ones.

  13. Benign anatomical mistakes: "ampulla of Vater" and "papilla of Vater".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirilas, Petros; Colborn, Gene L; Skandalakis, Lee J; Skandalakis, Panajiotis N; Zoras, Odysseas; Skandalakis, John E

    2005-03-01

    The anatomy of the ampullary termination of the bile and pancreatic ducts is complex; appropriate terminology for this area is confusing and inaccurate. We examine the terms "ampulla of Vater" and "papilla of Vater" for anatomical and historical correctness. The term "ampulla" refers to a dilated part of a duct or other channel. Thus, this word is topographically correct to describe the dilatation at the confluence of the bile and main pancreatic ducts; historically, however, there is considerable reason to believe that its first description was by Santorini rather than Vater. The eponymous term "papilla of Vater" is also incorrect historically. The use of eponyms is firmly entrenched in the medical literature, but some are so problematic that they should be discarded. The eponymous terms for both the ampulla and the papilla should be replaced with the terms "hepatopancreatic ampulla" (or "biliaropancreatic ampulla") and "major [or "greater"] duodenal papilla," respectively.

  14. The anatomic coracoclavicular ligament reconstruction: surgical technique and indications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carofino, Brad C; Mazzocca, Augustus D

    2010-03-01

    The anatomic coracoclavicular ligament reconstruction (ACCR) is a surgical procedure to address acriomioclavicular joint instability. The coracoclavicular ligaments are reconstructed using a semitendinosus allograft passed beneath the coracoid and through bone tunnels in the clavicle. The graft is secured with interference screw fixation, and the acromioclavicular joint is retained. Here we describe the authors' surgical technique, indications, and rehabilitation protocol. Also, a preliminary case series of seventeen patients is presented. Patients demonstrated significant improvement in pain levels and function. The mean ASES score increased from 52 preoperatively to 92. The Constant Murley rose from 66.6 to 94.7. There were three failures in this series, and two required revision surgery. PMID:20188267

  15. Automatic detection of anatomical landmarks in uterine cervix images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenspan, Hayit; Gordon, Shiri; Zimmerman, Gali; Lotenberg, Shelly; Jeronimo, Jose; Antani, Sameer; Long, Rodney

    2009-03-01

    The work focuses on a unique medical repository of digital cervicographic images ("Cervigrams") collected by the National Cancer Institute (NCI) in longitudinal multiyear studies. NCI, together with the National Library of Medicine (NLM), is developing a unique web-accessible database of the digitized cervix images to study the evolution of lesions related to cervical cancer. Tools are needed for automated analysis of the cervigram content to support cancer research. We present a multistage scheme for segmenting and labeling regions of anatomical interest within the cervigrams. In particular, we focus on the extraction of the cervix region and fine detection of the cervix boundary; specular reflection is eliminated as an important preprocessing step; in addition, the entrance to the endocervical canal (the "os"), is detected. Segmentation results are evaluated on three image sets of cervigrams that were manually labeled by NCI experts.

  16. Algorithms to automatically quantify the geometric similarity of anatomical surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Boyer, D; Clair, E St; Puente, J; Funkhouser, T; Patel, B; Jernvall, J; Daubechies, I

    2011-01-01

    We describe new approaches for distances between pairs of 2-dimensional surfaces (embedded in 3-dimensional space) that use local structures and global information contained in inter-structure geometric relationships. We present algorithms to automatically determine these distances as well as geometric correspondences. This is motivated by the aspiration of students of natural science to understand the continuity of form that unites the diversity of life. At present, scientists using physical traits to study evolutionary relationships among living and extinct animals analyze data extracted from carefully defined anatomical correspondence points (landmarks). Identifying and recording these landmarks is time consuming and can be done accurately only by trained morphologists. This renders these studies inaccessible to non-morphologists, and causes phenomics to lag behind genomics in elucidating evolutionary patterns. Unlike other algorithms presented for morphological correspondences our approach does not requir...

  17. Anatomic Study of Female Sterility of Pinus tabulaeformis Carr.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cheng Pengjun; Li Fenglan; Zheng Caixia

    2003-01-01

    The anatomic research on the mutant clone of Pinus tabulaeformis Carr. in the seed orchard in Xingcheng, LiaoningProvince was carried out. The female cone of the mutant clone looked like normal, but its ovules degenerated in the early stage. Thispaper tries to find out the reason and time of ovule abortion. It seems that the ovule abortion is probably caused by female sterilitybecause the microspores of this mutant clone were normal. Through the serial observations on the one-year-old macrosporangiatesand the ovules of two-year-old female cones of mutant and normal clone, it is found that the reason of ovule abortion in mutant cloneis the failure of the mitosis of free nuclei in the female gametophyte, and the time is about in the early April.

  18. Anatomical delineation of congenital heart disease using 3D magnetic resonance imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams Bornemeier, Renee; Fellows, Kenneth E.; Fogel, Mark A.; Weinberg, Paul M.

    1994-05-01

    Anatomic delineation of the heart and great vessels is a necessity when managing children with congenital heart disease. Spatial orientation of the vessels and chambers in the heart and the heart itself may be quite abnormal. Though magnetic resonance imaging provides a noninvasive means for determining the anatomy, the intricate interrelationships between many structures are difficult to conceptualize from a 2-D format. Taking the 2-D images and using a volumetric analysis package allows for a 3-D replica of the heart to be created. This model can then be used to view the anatomy and spatial arrangement of the cardiac structures. This information may be utilized by the physicians to assist in the clinical management of these children.

  19. Efficacy of an Intra-Operative Imaging Software System for Anatomic Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xudong Zhang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available An imaging software system was studied for improving the performance of anatomic anterior cruciate ligament (ACL reconstruction which requires identifying ACL insertion sites for bone tunnel placement. This software predicts and displays the insertion sites based on the literature data and patient-specific bony landmarks. Twenty orthopaedic surgeons performed simulated arthroscopic ACL surgeries on 20 knee specimens, first without and then with the visual guidance by fluoroscopic imaging, and their tunnel entry positions were recorded. The native ACL insertion morphologies of individual specimens were quantified in relation to CT-based bone models and then used to evaluate the software-generated insertion locations. Results suggested that the system was effective in leading surgeons to predetermined locations while the application of averaged insertion morphological information in individual surgeries can be susceptible to inaccuracy and uncertainty. Implications on challenges associated with developing engineering solutions to aid in re-creating or recognizing anatomy in surgical care delivery are discussed.

  20. Design and use of numerical anatomical atlases for radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main objective of this thesis is to provide radio-oncology specialists with automatic tools for delineating organs at risk of a patient undergoing a radiotherapy treatment of cerebral or head and neck tumors. To achieve this goal, we use an anatomical atlas, i.e. a representative anatomy associated to a clinical image representing it. The registration of this atlas allows us to segment automatically the patient structures and to accelerate this process. Contributions in this method are presented on three axes. First, we want to obtain a registration method which is as independent as possible from the setting of its parameters. This setting, done by the clinician, indeed needs to be minimal while guaranteeing a robust result. We therefore propose registration methods allowing a better control of the obtained transformation, using rejection techniques of inadequate matching or locally affine transformations. The second axis is dedicated to the consideration of structures associated with the presence of the tumor. These structures, not present in the atlas, indeed lead to local errors in the atlas-based segmentation. We therefore propose methods to delineate these structures and take them into account in the registration. Finally, we present the construction of an anatomical atlas of the head and neck region and its evaluation on a database of patients. We show in this part the feasibility of the use of an atlas for this region, as well as a simple method to evaluate the registration methods used to build an atlas. All this research work has been implemented in a commercial software (Imago from DOSIsoft), allowing us to validate our results in clinical conditions. (author)

  1. Anatomical and Radiological Aspects of the Supratrochlear Foramen in Brazilians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutfiten-Schlesinger, Gabriel; Leite, Túlio FO; Pires, Lucas AS; Silva, Julio G.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The supratrochlear foramen is an anatomic variation of great clinical and anthropologic interest. Although many studies addressed this subject in different ethnic groups, there are no studies regarding Brazilians. Aim To verify the incidence and morphometric measures of the supratrochlear foramen in Brazilian humeri. Materials and Methods A total of 330 dry humeri were analysed and divided in three groups: bones presenting the supratrochlear foramen (Group 1), bones displaying a translucent foramen (Group 2) and humeri without the foramen (Group 3). The aperture was measured with a digital vernier caliper. Radiographic pictures with different incidences were taken. Results Our analysis showed that 22.5% of humeri belonged in Group 1, 41.2% in Group 2, and 36.3% in Group 3. The mean vertical diameter and the mean horizontal diameter of the supratrochlear foramen on the left side were 2.779±2.050 mm and 2.332±1.23 mm, respectively. The mean vertical diameter and the mean horizontal diameter of the foramen on the right side were 2.778±2.197 mm, and 2.365±1.396 mm, respectively. The student’s t-test showed that there was no significant difference regarding the size of the foramen between both sides. The best X-ray machine setup was 50 kilo voltage and 0.08 milliamperage per second, associated with a slight increase in the distance of the x-ray tube. Conclusion The aperture seems to be the key point during the pre-operative planning of intramedullary fixation, since it has direct relation to the size of the intramedullary canal, thus, being an entity of clinical, anatomical, anthropological, radiological, and surgical interest. PMID:27790415

  2. Anatomical Correlates of Non-Verbal Perception in Dementia Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Pin-Hsuan; Chen, Hsiu-Hui; Chen, Nai-Ching; Chang, Wen-Neng; Huang, Chi-Wei; Chang, Ya-Ting; Hsu, Shih-Wei; Hsu, Che-Wei; Chang, Chiung-Chih

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Patients with dementia who have dissociations in verbal and non-verbal sound processing may offer insights into the anatomic basis for highly related auditory modes. Methods: To determine the neuronal networks on non-verbal perception, 16 patients with Alzheimer’s dementia (AD), 15 with behavior variant fronto-temporal dementia (bv-FTD), 14 with semantic dementia (SD) were evaluated and compared with 15 age-matched controls. Neuropsychological and auditory perceptive tasks were included to test the ability to compare pitch changes, scale-violated melody and for naming and associating with environmental sound. The brain 3D T1 images were acquired and voxel-based morphometry (VBM) was used to compare and correlated the volumetric measures with task scores. Results: The SD group scored the lowest among 3 groups in pitch or scale-violated melody tasks. In the environmental sound test, the SD group also showed impairment in naming and also in associating sound with pictures. The AD and bv-FTD groups, compared with the controls, showed no differences in all tests. VBM with task score correlation showed that atrophy in the right supra-marginal and superior temporal gyri was strongly related to deficits in detecting violated scales, while atrophy in the bilateral anterior temporal poles and left medial temporal structures was related to deficits in environmental sound recognition. Conclusions: Auditory perception of pitch, scale-violated melody or environmental sound reflects anatomical degeneration in dementia patients and the processing of non-verbal sounds are mediated by distinct neural circuits.

  3. Clinical repercussions of Martin-Gruber anastomosis: anatomical study☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavalheiro, Cristina Schmitt; Filho, Mauro Razuk; Pedro, Gabriel; Caetano, Maurício Ferreira; Vieira, Luiz Angelo; Caetano, Edie Benedito

    2016-01-01

    Objective The main objective of this study was to describe Martin-Gruber anastomosis anatomically and to recognize its clinical repercussions. Method 100 forearms of 50 adult cadavers were dissected in an anatomy laboratory. The dissection was performed by means of a midline incision along the entire forearm and the lower third of the upper arm. Two flaps including skin and subcutaneous tissue were folded back on the radial and ulnar sides, respectively. Results Nerve communication between the median and ulnar nerves in the forearm (Martin-Gruber anastomosis) was found in 27 forearms. The anastomosis was classified into six types: type I: anastomosis between the anterior interosseous nerve and the ulnar nerve (n = 9); type II: anastomosis between the anterior interosseous nerve and the ulnar nerve at two points (double anastomosis) (n = 2); type III: anastomosis between the median nerve and the ulnar nerve (n = 4); type IV: anastomosis between branches of the median nerve and ulnar nerve heading toward the flexor digitorum profundus muscle of the fingers; these fascicles form a loop with distal convexity (n = 5); type V: intramuscular anastomosis (n = 5); and type VI: anastomosis between a branch of the median nerve to the flexor digitorum superficialis muscle and the ulnar nerve (n = 2). Conclusion Knowledge of the anatomical variations relating to the innervation of the hand has great importance, especially with regard to physical examination, diagnosis, prognosis and surgical treatment. If these variations are not given due regard, errors and other consequences will be inevitable. PMID:27069892

  4. Auxiliary anatomical labels for joint segmentation and atlas registration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gass, Tobias; Szekely, Gabor; Goksel, Orcun

    2014-03-01

    This paper studies improving joint segmentation and registration by introducing auxiliary labels for anatomy that has similar appearance to the target anatomy while not being part of that target. Such auxiliary labels help avoid false positive labelling of non-target anatomy by resolving ambiguity. A known registration of a segmented atlas can help identify where a target segmentation should lie. Conversely, segmentations of anatomy in two images can help them be better registered. Joint segmentation and registration is then a method that can leverage information from both registration and segmentation to help one another. It has received increasing attention recently in the literature. Often, merely a single organ of interest is labelled in the atlas. In the presense of other anatomical structures with similar appearance, this leads to ambiguity in intensity based segmentation; for example, when segmenting individual bones in CT images where other bones share the same intensity profile. To alleviate this problem, we introduce automatic generation of additional labels in atlas segmentations, by marking similar-appearance non-target anatomy with an auxiliary label. Information from the auxiliary-labeled atlas segmentation is then incorporated by using a novel coherence potential, which penalizes differences between the deformed atlas segmentation and the target segmentation estimate. We validated this on a joint segmentation-registration approach that iteratively alternates between registering an atlas and segmenting the target image to find a final anatomical segmentation. The results show that automatic auxiliary labelling outperforms the same approach using a single label atlasses, for both mandibular bone segmentation in 3D-CT and corpus callosum segmentation in 2D-MRI.

  5. Anatomical Correlates of Non-Verbal Perception in Dementia Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Pin-Hsuan; Chen, Hsiu-Hui; Chen, Nai-Ching; Chang, Wen-Neng; Huang, Chi-Wei; Chang, Ya-Ting; Hsu, Shih-Wei; Hsu, Che-Wei; Chang, Chiung-Chih

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Patients with dementia who have dissociations in verbal and non-verbal sound processing may offer insights into the anatomic basis for highly related auditory modes. Methods: To determine the neuronal networks on non-verbal perception, 16 patients with Alzheimer’s dementia (AD), 15 with behavior variant fronto-temporal dementia (bv-FTD), 14 with semantic dementia (SD) were evaluated and compared with 15 age-matched controls. Neuropsychological and auditory perceptive tasks were included to test the ability to compare pitch changes, scale-violated melody and for naming and associating with environmental sound. The brain 3D T1 images were acquired and voxel-based morphometry (VBM) was used to compare and correlated the volumetric measures with task scores. Results: The SD group scored the lowest among 3 groups in pitch or scale-violated melody tasks. In the environmental sound test, the SD group also showed impairment in naming and also in associating sound with pictures. The AD and bv-FTD groups, compared with the controls, showed no differences in all tests. VBM with task score correlation showed that atrophy in the right supra-marginal and superior temporal gyri was strongly related to deficits in detecting violated scales, while atrophy in the bilateral anterior temporal poles and left medial temporal structures was related to deficits in environmental sound recognition. Conclusions: Auditory perception of pitch, scale-violated melody or environmental sound reflects anatomical degeneration in dementia patients and the processing of non-verbal sounds are mediated by distinct neural circuits. PMID:27630558

  6. TissueCypher™: A systems biology approach to anatomic pathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey W Prichard

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Current histologic methods for diagnosis are limited by intra- and inter-observer variability. Immunohistochemistry (IHC methods are frequently used to assess biomarkers to aid diagnoses, however, IHC staining is variable and nonlinear and the manual interpretation is subjective. Furthermore, the biomarkers assessed clinically are typically biomarkers of epithelial cell processes. Tumors and premalignant tissues are not composed only of epithelial cells but are interacting systems of multiple cell types, including various stromal cell types that are involved in cancer development. The complex network of the tissue system highlights the need for a systems biology approach to anatomic pathology, in which quantification of system processes is combined with informatics tools to produce actionable scores to aid clinical decision-making. Aims: Here, we describe a quantitative, multiplexed biomarker imaging approach termed TissueCypher™ that applies systems biology to anatomic pathology. Applications of TissueCypher™ in understanding the tissue system of Barrett's esophagus (BE and the potential use as an adjunctive tool in the diagnosis of BE are described. Patients and Methods: The TissueCypher™ Image Analysis Platform was used to assess 14 epithelial and stromal biomarkers with known diagnostic significance in BE in a set of BE biopsies with nondysplastic BE with reactive atypia (RA, n = 22 and Barrett's with high-grade dysplasia (HGD, n = 17. Biomarker and morphology features were extracted and evaluated in the confirmed BE HGD cases versus the nondysplastic BE cases with RA. Results: Multiple image analysis features derived from epithelial and stromal biomarkers, including immune biomarkers and morphology, showed significant differences between HGD and RA. Conclusions: The assessment of epithelial cell abnormalities combined with an assessment of cellular changes in the lamina propria may serve as an adjunct to conventional

  7. Anatomical Correlates of Non-Verbal Perception in Dementia Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pin-Hsuan Lin

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Patients with dementia who have dissociations in verbal and non-verbal sound processing may offer insights into the anatomic basis for highly related auditory modes. Methods: To determine the neuronal networks on non-verbal perception, 16 patients with Alzheimer’s dementia (AD, 15 with behavior variant fronto-temporal dementia (bv-FTD, 14 with semantic dementia (SD were evaluated and compared with 15 age-matched controls. Neuropsychological and auditory perceptive tasks were included to test the ability to compare pitch changes, scale-violated melody and for naming and associating with environmental sound. The brain 3D T1 images were acquired and voxel-based morphometry (VBM was used to compare and correlated the volumetric measures with task scores. Results: The SD group scored the lowest among 3 groups in pitch or scale-violated melody tasks. In the environmental sound test, the SD group also showed impairment in naming and also in associating sound with pictures. The AD and bv-FTD groups, compared with the controls, showed no differences in all tests. VBM with task score correlation showed that atrophy in the right supra-marginal and superior temporal gyri was strongly related to deficits in detecting violated scales, while atrophy in the bilateral anterior temporal poles and left medial temporal structures was related to deficits in environmental sound recognition. Conclusions: Auditory perception of pitch, scale-violated melody or environmental sound reflects anatomical degeneration in dementia patients and the processing of non-verbal sounds is mediated by distinct neural circuits.

  8. Patellar calcar: MRI appearance of a previously undescribed anatomical entity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collins, Mark S.; Tiegs-Heiden, Christin A. [Department of Radiology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota (United States); Stuart, Michael J. [Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota (United States)

    2014-02-15

    The femoral calcar is a constant anatomical structure within the proximal femur representing a condensation of bone trabeculae. It is our impression that a similar structure is present within the patella. The purpose of this retrospective study was to define the prevalence, appearance, location, and configuration of the patellar calcar on MRI examinations. One hundred consecutive unenhanced knee MRIs were retrospectively reviewed by two readers who were blinded to the clinical indication. The patellar calcar was defined as a dark signaling, linear or curvilinear structure subjacent to the patellar articular surface. If present, the patellar calcar was assigned to a ''well seen,'' ''moderately well seen,'' or ''faintly seen'' category. Location of the calcar within the patella, orientation, configuration, and thickness were recorded. Confounding variables, such as marrow edema, patellar chondromalacia, bipartite patella, or postoperative changes were also recorded. The patellar calcar was visualized in 81 out of 100 (81 %) MRIs. When detected, the calcar was well seen in 20 out of 81 (25 %), moderately well seen in 35 out of 81 (43 %), and faintly seen in 26 out of 81 (32 %). The anteroposterior width of the calcar measured at its thickest segment was: < 1 mm in 43 out of 81 (53 %), 1 mm in 28 out of 81 (35 %), and >1 mm in 10 out of 81 (12 %). The patellar calcar was seen in the majority of knee MRIs and had a consistent imaging appearance. The calcar may be obscured by degenerative arthrosis of the patella and rarely may mimic patellar stress fracture or osteochondritis dissecans. Radiologists and clinicians should be familiar with this normal anatomical structure. (orig.)

  9. Automatic extraction analysis of the anatomical functional area for normal brain 18F-FDG PET imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using self-designed automatic extraction software of brain functional area, the grey scale distribution of 18F-FDG imaging and the relationship between the 18F-FDG accumulation of brain anatomic function area and the 18F-FDG injected dose, the level of glucose, the age, etc., were studied. According to the Talairach coordinate system, after rotation, drift and plastic deformation, the 18F-FDG PET imaging was registered into the Talairach coordinate atlas, and then the average gray value scale ratios between individual brain anatomic functional area and whole brain area was calculated. Further more the statistics of the relationship between the 18F-FDG accumulation of every brain anatomic function area and the 18F-FDG injected dose, the level of glucose and the age were tested by using multiple stepwise regression model. After images' registration, smoothing and extraction, main cerebral cortex of the 18F-FDG PET brain imaging can be successfully localized and extracted, such as frontal lobe, parietal lobe, occipital lobe, temporal lobe, cerebellum, brain ventricle, thalamus and hippocampus. The average ratios to the inner reference of every brain anatomic functional area were 1.01 ± 0.15. By multiple stepwise regression with the exception of thalamus and hippocampus, the grey scale of all the brain functional area was negatively correlated to the ages, but with no correlation to blood sugar and dose in all areas. To the 18F-FDG PET imaging, the brain functional area extraction program could automatically delineate most of the cerebral cortical area, and also successfully reflect the brain blood and metabolic study, but extraction of the more detailed area needs further investigation

  10. Effect of Calcium Phosphate–Hybridized Tendon Graft in Anatomic Single-Bundle ACL Reconstruction in Goats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutsuzaki, Hirotaka; Fujie, Hiromichi; Nakajima, Hiromi; Fukagawa, Makoto; Nomura, Shunsuke; Sakane, Masataka

    2016-01-01

    Background: We previously developed a novel technique using an alternate soaking process that improves tendon-bone healing by hybridizing the tendon graft with calcium phosphate (CaP). However, the effects of the CaP-hybridized tendon graft on anatomic single-bundle anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction remain unclear. Purpose: To determine the effects of CaP-hybridized tendon grafts compared with untreated tendon grafts 6 months after anatomic single-bundle ACL reconstruction using a goat model. Study Design: Controlled laboratory study. Methods: Animals were divided into a CaP group (n = 5 goats) and a control group (n = 5 goats), and we analyzed (1) knee kinematics and in situ forces under applied anterior tibial loads of 50 N and internal tibial torque of 2.0 N·m in the grafts at full extension and at 60° and 90° of knee flexion, (2) the mean percentage of bone tunnel enlargement using computed tomography (CT), and (3) the histology of the tendon-bone interface. Results: The in situ forces under applied anterior tibial loads of 50 N at 60° and 90° of knee flexion in the CaP group were greater than those in the control group (P joint aperture sites of the anterior femoral and posterior tibial bone tunnel, was greater in the CaP group than that in the control group (P joint aperture site in both anterior femoral and posterior tibial tunnels 6 months after anatomic single-bundle ACL reconstruction in goats. The in situ forces under applied anterior tibial loads at greater flexion angles in the CaP group increased compared with controls. Clinical Relevance: Anatomic single-bundle ACL reconstruction using CaP-hybridized tendon grafts may lead to better postoperative knee function. PMID:27660798

  11. Anatomic Illustrations of Cranial Ultrasound Images Through the Posterior Fontanelle in Neonates: Objective Analysis of Oblique Sonographic Scans using MRI and a Reconstruction Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Sang Young; Lee, Young Seok; Yoo, Dong Soo; Chang, Young Pyo [Dankook University Hospital, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-09-15

    Neonatal cranial sonography through the posterior fontanelle is more useful than through the anterior approach for the evaluation of posterior brain structures. The aims of this study were to determine the appropriate neonatal cranial sonography scan planes through the posterior fontanelle, and to objectively evaluate the anatomy of neonatal cranial sonographic images. Neonates who underwent cranial sonography and MRI including 3D-SPGR axial scans and showed normal features on both modalities were enrolled. We reconstructed MR images corresponding to sonographic planes, then constructed anatomic models of the neonatal cranial sonographic images using axial MRI as the standard reference on the same screen. We successfully created anatomic atlas that represents 8 oblique coronal and 4 oblique sagittal scans and planes that corresponded to the neonatal cranial sonographic images through the posterior fontanelle. The objective manner of this anatomic research provided standardized sonographic scan planes and created anatomic model through the posterior fontanelle. Cranial sonographic models through the posterior fontanelle using MRI and multi-planar reconstruction program will be helpful in the evaluation of sonographic anatomy and detection of abnormalities in the basal ganglia, thalamus and posterior part of the brain

  12. Peculiarities of leaves morpho-anatomical parameters of Salvia L. species under the conditions of introduction

    OpenAIRE

    Oksana V. Tyshchenko; Tatyana V. Multjan; Galyna O. Rudik

    2012-01-01

    The comparison of morpho-anatomical parameters of the leaves of three Salvia L. species of different biomorphes, which are grown under the introduction in O.V. Fomin Botanical Garden, is considered. The morpho-anatomical features, which allow to discover structural adaptation possibilities of Salvia species ex situ , are established.

  13. Medium-Term Anatomic and Functional Results of Laparoscopic Sacrocolpopexy Beyond the Learning Curve

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F. Claerhout; D. de Ridder; J.P. Roovers; H. Rommens; F. Spelzini; V. Vandenbroucke; G. Coremans; J. Deprest

    2009-01-01

    Background: Limited prospective data on the anatomic and functional outcome after laparoscopic sacrocolpopexy (LSC) are available in the literature. Objective: To describe the medium-term anatomic and functional outcome of LSC. Design, setting, and participants: Prospective consecutive series of 132

  14. Unifying the analyses of anatomical and diffusion tensor images using volume-preserved warping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Dongrong; Hao, Xuejun; Bansal, Ravi;

    2007-01-01

    PURPOSE: To introduce a framework that automatically identifies regions of anatomical abnormality within anatomical MR images and uses those regions in hypothesis-driven selection of seed points for fiber tracking with diffusion tensor (DT) imaging (DTI). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Regions of interes...

  15. "Anatomizing" Reversed: Use of Examination Questions that Foster Use of Higher Order Learning Skills by Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, E. Robert

    2010-01-01

    "Anatomizing" is a new verb some use to describe the breaking apart of a complex entity such as the human body, into isolated tidbits of information for study, which can never equal the complex, integrated whole. Although popular with first-year medical students, this practice of "tidbitting" anatomical information into easy to memorize facts or…

  16. TECHNIQUE AND SURGICAL OUTCOMES OF ANATOMICAL LIVER RESECTIONS FOR COLORECTAL CANCER LIVER METASTASES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. V. Sidorov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Technique and surgical outcomes of anatomical liver resections using ERBEJET2® water-jet dissector were described. Overall 98 patients with colorectal cancer liver metastases were included in this study. In 43 patients resections were performed using water-jet dissection technique. Water-jet dissection seems to be safe and effective technique for anatomical liver resections.

  17. Unifying the analyses of anatomical and diffusion tensor images using volume-preserved warping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Dongrong; Hao, Xuejun; Bansal, Ravi;

    2007-01-01

    PURPOSE: To introduce a framework that automatically identifies regions of anatomical abnormality within anatomical MR images and uses those regions in hypothesis-driven selection of seed points for fiber tracking with diffusion tensor (DT) imaging (DTI). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Regions of interest...

  18. Femoral rotation unpredictably affects radiographic anatomical lateral distal femoral angle measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miles, James Edward

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To describe the effects of internal and external femoral rotation on radiographic measurements of the anatomical lateral distal femoral angle (a-LDFA) using two methods for defining the anatomical proximal femoral axis (a-PFA). Methods: Digital radiographs were obtained of 14 right...

  19. Living AnatoME: Teaching and Learning Musculoskeletal Anatomy through Yoga and Pilates

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCulloch, Carrie; Marango, Stephanie Pieczenik; Friedman, Erica S.; Laitman, Jeffrey T.

    2010-01-01

    Living AnatoME, a program designed in 2004 by two medical students in conjunction with the Director of Anatomy, teaches musculoskeletal anatomy through yoga and Pilates. Previously offered as an adjunct to the Gross Anatomy course in 2007, Living AnatoME became an official part of the curriculum. Previous research conducted on the program…

  20. Anatomist on the dissecting table? Dutch anatomical professionals' views on body donation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bolt, Sophie; Venbrux, Eric; Eisinga, Rob; Gerrits, Peter O.

    2012-01-01

    Anatomical professionals know better than anyone else that donated bodies are a valuable asset to anatomical science and medical education. They highly value voluntary donations, since a dearth of bodies negatively affects their profession. With this in mind, we conducted a survey (n = 54) at the 17

  1. Anatomist on the dissecting table? Dutch anatomical professionals' views on body donation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bolt, S.H.; Venbrux, H.J.M.; Eisinga, R.N.; Gerrits, P.O.

    2012-01-01

    Anatomical professionals know better than anyone else that donated bodies are a valuable asset to anatomical science and medical education. They highly value voluntary donations, since a dearth of bodies negatively affects their profession. With this in mind, we conducted a survey (n ¼ 54) at the 17

  2. Anatomical Dolls: Their Use in Assessment of Children Who May Have Been Sexually Abused

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faller, Kathleen Coulborn

    2005-01-01

    This article examines anatomical dolls in interviews of children who may have been sexually abused from three perspectives. The article summarizes research findings on anatomical dolls, discusses advantages and disadvantages of using them, and describes endorsed doll uses. Although additional, ecologically-valid research is needed on anatomical…

  3. Altered anatomical network in early blindness revealed by diffusion tensor tractography.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ni Shu

    Full Text Available The topological architecture of the cerebral anatomical network reflects the structural organization of the human brain. Recently, topological measures based on graph theory have provided new approaches for quantifying large-scale anatomical networks. Diffusion MRI studies have revealed the efficient small-world properties and modular structure of the anatomical network in normal subjects. However, no previous study has used diffusion MRI to reveal changes in the brain anatomical network in early blindness. Here, we utilized diffusion tensor imaging to construct binary anatomical networks for 17 early blind subjects and 17 age- and gender-matched sighted controls. We established the existence of structural connections between any pair of the 90 cortical and sub-cortical regions using deterministic tractography. Compared with controls, early blind subjects showed a decreased degree of connectivity, a reduced global efficiency, and an increased characteristic path length in their brain anatomical network, especially in the visual cortex. Moreover, we revealed some regions with motor or somatosensory function have increased connections with other brain regions in the early blind, which suggested experience-dependent compensatory plasticity. This study is the first to show alterations in the topological properties of the anatomical network in early blindness. From the results, we suggest that analyzing the brain's anatomical network obtained using diffusion MRI data provides new insights into the understanding of the brain's re-organization in the specific population with early visual deprivation.

  4. Fast left ventricle tracking in CMR images using localized anatomical affine optical flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Queirós, Sandro; Vilaça, João. L.; Morais, Pedro; Fonseca, Jaime C.; D'hooge, Jan; Barbosa, Daniel

    2015-03-01

    In daily cardiology practice, assessment of left ventricular (LV) global function using non-invasive imaging remains central for the diagnosis and follow-up of patients with cardiovascular diseases. Despite the different methodologies currently accessible for LV segmentation in cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) images, a fast and complete LV delineation is still limitedly available for routine use. In this study, a localized anatomically constrained affine optical flow method is proposed for fast and automatic LV tracking throughout the full cardiac cycle in short-axis CMR images. Starting from an automatically delineated LV in the end-diastolic frame, the endocardial and epicardial boundaries are propagated by estimating the motion between adjacent cardiac phases using optical flow. In order to reduce the computational burden, the motion is only estimated in an anatomical region of interest around the tracked boundaries and subsequently integrated into a local affine motion model. Such localized estimation enables to capture complex motion patterns, while still being spatially consistent. The method was validated on 45 CMR datasets taken from the 2009 MICCAI LV segmentation challenge. The proposed approach proved to be robust and efficient, with an average distance error of 2.1 mm and a correlation with reference ejection fraction of 0.98 (1.9 +/- 4.5%). Moreover, it showed to be fast, taking 5 seconds for the tracking of a full 4D dataset (30 ms per image). Overall, a novel fast, robust and accurate LV tracking methodology was proposed, enabling accurate assessment of relevant global function cardiac indices, such as volumes and ejection fraction

  5. Why can't rodents vomit? A comparative behavioral, anatomical, and physiological study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles C Horn

    Full Text Available The vomiting (emetic reflex is documented in numerous mammalian species, including primates and carnivores, yet laboratory rats and mice appear to lack this response. It is unclear whether these rodents do not vomit because of anatomical constraints (e.g., a relatively long abdominal esophagus or lack of key neural circuits. Moreover, it is unknown whether laboratory rodents are representative of Rodentia with regards to this reflex. Here we conducted behavioral testing of members of all three major groups of Rodentia; mouse-related (rat, mouse, vole, beaver, Ctenohystrica (guinea pig, nutria, and squirrel-related (mountain beaver species. Prototypical emetic agents, apomorphine (sc, veratrine (sc, and copper sulfate (ig, failed to produce either retching or vomiting in these species (although other behavioral effects, e.g., locomotion, were noted. These rodents also had anatomical constraints, which could limit the efficiency of vomiting should it be attempted, including reduced muscularity of the diaphragm and stomach geometry that is not well structured for moving contents towards the esophagus compared to species that can vomit (cat, ferret, and musk shrew. Lastly, an in situ brainstem preparation was used to make sensitive measures of mouth, esophagus, and shoulder muscular movements, and phrenic nerve activity-key features of emetic episodes. Laboratory mice and rats failed to display any of the common coordinated actions of these indices after typical emetic stimulation (resiniferatoxin and vagal afferent stimulation compared to musk shrews. Overall the results suggest that the inability to vomit is a general property of Rodentia and that an absent brainstem neurological component is the most likely cause. The implications of these findings for the utility of rodents as models in the area of emesis research are discussed.

  6. The functional and anatomical dissection of somatosensory subpopulations using mouse genetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire E Le Pichon

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The word somatosensation comes from joining the Greek word for body (soma with a word for perception (sensation. Somatosensory neurons comprise the largest sensory system in mammals and have nerve endings coursing throughout the skin, viscera, muscle, and bone. Their cell bodies reside in a chain of ganglia adjacent to the dorsal spinal cord (the dorsal root ganglia and at the base of the skull (the trigeminal ganglia. While the neuronal cell bodies are intermingled within the ganglia, the somatosensory system is in reality composed of numerous sub-systems, each specialized to detect distinct stimuli, such as temperature and touch. Historically, somatosensory neurons have been classified using a diverse host of anatomical and physiological parameters, such as the size of the cell body, degree of myelination, histological labeling with markers, specialization of the nerve endings, projection patterns in the spinal cord and brainstem, receptive tuning, and conduction velocity of their action potentials. While useful, the picture that emerged was one of heterogeneity, with many markers at least partially overlapping. More recently, by capitalizing on advances in molecular techniques, researchers have identified specific ion channels and sensory receptors expressed in subsets of sensory neurons. These studies have proved invaluable as they allow genetic access to small subsets of neurons for further molecular dissection. Data being generated from transgenic mice favor the model whereby an array of dedicated neurons is responsible for selectively encoding different modalities. Here we review the current knowledge of the different sensory neuron subtypes in the mouse, the markers used to study them, and the neurogenetic strategies used to define their anatomical projections and functional roles.

  7. Anatomic Illustrations of Cranial Ultrasound Images Obtained Through the Mastoid Fontanelle in Neonates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Bong Man; Lee, Young Seok [Dankook University Hospital, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-09-15

    Neonatal cranial sonography performed through the mastoid fontanelle is more useful to evaluate the peripheral structures at the convexity of the cerebral hemispheres and brainstem rather than that performed through the anterior fontanelle. The purpose of this study is to demonstrate the anatomy of the extracerebral CSF space and brainstem and to suggest appropriate scan planes for performing neonatal cranial sonography through the mastoid fontanelle using MRI and multiplanar reconstruction programs. A neonate with normal features on ultrasonography and good image quality on MRI, including the 3D-SPGR axial scans, was selected. We made the reconstructed MR images corresponding to the sonongraphic planes and the anatomic models of the neonatal cranial sonographic images by using axial MRI as the standard reference on the same screen. We demonstrated the sonographic images at the levels of the body of the caudate nucleus and lentiform nucleus, the head of the caudate nucleus and thalamus, the third ventricle and midbrain, and the midbrain and cerebellar vermis on the oblique axial scans. Four oblique coronal images at the levels of the periventricular white matter, basal ganglia, thalamus and tentorium were also obtained. We illustrated the anatomic atlas with including four oblique axial scans and four oblique coronal scans that corresponded to the neonatal cranial sonographic images through the mastoid fontanelle. We objectively analyzed the anatomy of the extracerebral CSF space and brainstem by using MRI and multiplanar reconstruction programs and we provided the standardized sonographic scan planes through the mastoid fontanelle. This study will be very helpful for evaluating the abnormalities of the peripheral structures at the convexity of the cerebral hemispheres and brainstem

  8. A feasibility study for anatomical noise reduction in dual-energy chest digital tomosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, D.; Kim, Y.-s.; Choi, S.; Lee, H.; Choi, S.; Kim, H.-J.

    2016-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death worldwide. Thus, early diagnosis is of considerable importance. For early screening of lung cancer, computed tomography (CT) has been used as the gold standard. Chest digital tomosynthesis (CDT) is a recently introduced modality for lung cancer screening with a relatively low radiation dose compared to CT. The dual energy material decomposition method has been proposed for better detection of pulmonary nodules by means of reducing anatomical noise. In this study, the possibility of material decomposition in CDT was tested by both a simulation study and an experimental study using a CDT prototype. The Geant4 application for tomographic emission (GATE) v6 and tungsten anode spectral model using interpolating polynomials (TASMIP) codes were used for the simulation study to create simulated phantom shapes consisting of five inner cylinders filled with different densities of bone and airequivalent materials. Furthermore, the CDT prototype system and human phantom chest were used for the experimental study. CDT scan in both the simulation and experimental studies was performed with linear movement and 21 projection images were obtained over a 30 degree angular range with a 1.5 degree angular interval. To obtain materialselective images, a projectionbased energy subtraction technique was applied to high and low energy images. The resultant simulation images showed that dual-energy reconstruction could achieve an approximately 32% higher contrast to noise ratio (CNR) in images and the difference in CNR value according to bone density was significant compared to single energy CDT. Additionally, image artifacts were effectively corrected in dual energy CDT simulation studies. Likewise the experimental study with dual energy produced clear images of lung fields and bone structure by removing unnecessary anatomical structures. Dual energy tomosynthesis is a new technique; therefore, there is little guidance regarding its

  9. Age-Dependent Effects of Haptoglobin Deletion in Neurobehavioral and Anatomical Outcomes Following Traumatic Brain Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glushakov, Alexander V.; Arias, Rodrigo A.; Tolosano, Emanuela; Doré, Sylvain

    2016-01-01

    Cerebral hemorrhages are common features of traumatic brain injury (TBI) and their presence is associated with chronic disabilities. Recent clinical and experimental evidence suggests that haptoglobin (Hp), an endogenous hemoglobin-binding protein most abundant in blood plasma, is involved in the intrinsic molecular defensive mechanism, though its role in TBI is poorly understood. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of Hp deletion on the anatomical and behavioral outcomes in the controlled cortical impact model using wildtype (WT) C57BL/6 mice and genetically modified mice lacking the Hp gene (Hp−∕−) in two age cohorts [2–4 mo-old (young adult) and 7–8 mo-old (older adult)]. The data obtained suggest age-dependent significant effects on behavioral and anatomical TBI outcomes and recovery from injury. Moreover, in the adult cohort, neurological deficits in Hp−∕− mice at 24 h were significantly improved compared to WT, whereas there were no significant differences in brain pathology between these genotypes. In contrast, in the older adult cohort, Hp−∕− mice had significantly larger lesion volumes compared to WT, but neurological deficits were not significantly different. Immunohistochemistry for ionized calcium-binding adapter molecule 1 (Iba1) and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) revealed significant differences in microglial and astrocytic reactivity between Hp−∕− and WT in selected brain regions of the adult but not the older adult-aged cohort. In conclusion, the data obtained in the study provide clarification on the age-dependent aspects of the intrinsic defensive mechanisms involving Hp that might be involved in complex pathways differentially affecting acute brain trauma outcomes. PMID:27486583

  10. A feasibility study for anatomical noise reduction in dual-energy chest digital tomosynthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death worldwide. Thus, early diagnosis is of considerable importance. For early screening of lung cancer, computed tomography (CT) has been used as the gold standard. Chest digital tomosynthesis (CDT) is a recently introduced modality for lung cancer screening with a relatively low radiation dose compared to CT. The dual energy material decomposition method has been proposed for better detection of pulmonary nodules by means of reducing anatomical noise. In this study, the possibility of material decomposition in CDT was tested by both a simulation study and an experimental study using a CDT prototype. The Geant4 application for tomographic emission (GATE) v6 and tungsten anode spectral model using interpolating polynomials (TASMIP) codes were used for the simulation study to create simulated phantom shapes consisting of five inner cylinders filled with different densities of bone and airequivalent materials. Furthermore, the CDT prototype system and human phantom chest were used for the experimental study. CDT scan in both the simulation and experimental studies was performed with linear movement and 21 projection images were obtained over a 30 degree angular range with a 1.5 degree angular interval. To obtain materialselective images, a projectionbased energy subtraction technique was applied to high and low energy images. The resultant simulation images showed that dual-energy reconstruction could achieve an approximately 32% higher contrast to noise ratio (CNR) in images and the difference in CNR value according to bone density was significant compared to single energy CDT. Additionally, image artifacts were effectively corrected in dual energy CDT simulation studies. Likewise the experimental study with dual energy produced clear images of lung fields and bone structure by removing unnecessary anatomical structures. Dual energy tomosynthesis is a new technique; therefore, there is little guidance regarding its

  11. Some anatomical variation of paranasal sinuses using sinus endoscopic approach on "cadaver" in Isfahan, Iran

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    Nezamoddin Berjis

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Due to the anatomical variations of the paranasal sinuses and its great importance in sinus surgery, as this area is in very close proximity to vital structures including the optic nerve, carotid artery, and skull base, anatomical knowledge of this area is of high importance. The purpose of this study is defining a full and clear impression of paranasal sinus anatomy and its variations as a model for the human population of the country. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted on 45 cadavers in Isfahan forensic Medicine center during 2010 to 2011. Nasal and paranasal sinuses endoscopic dissection was done with (zero and 30 o lenses (Olympus. The methods of performed dissection were via the Stamberger technique. Results: This study showed that 88.9% (40 cases of middle turbinates were in a typical form, while 6.7% (3 cases were in medial and only 4.4% (2 cases were in the lateral form. We also observed 88.9% (40 cases with Agger nasi cells, 37.8% (17 cases with Onodi cells, 28.9% cases with accessory Ostia of maxillary sinus (13 cases, and 15.6% of the cases (7 cases with concha bullosa. The position of the maxillary sinus ostium was as follows. The inferior 1/3 of hiatus semilunaris in 38 (84.5%, superior 1/3 of hiatus semilunaris in 4 (4.4%, middle 1/3 of hiatus semilunaris in 5 (11.1%. The sphenoid ostia in 53.3% (24 cases were slit shape, 28.9% (13 cases oval, and 17.8% (18 cases were round shape. Conclusion : Our survey showed that the distance between anterior nasal spine and anterior wall of the sphenoid sinus was within 7.6 ± 0.2 cm SD.

  12. Microscopic and endoscopic anatomical study of the extended transsphenoidal approach

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    HUANG Xin-tao

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background Traditional transsphenoidal approach has less treatment effect in invasive pituitary adenoma. To remove tumors growing outside the sella become one of the challenges in neurosurgery. This study aims to study anatomical characteristics of the extended transsphenoidal approach for clinical operation. Methods A mimetic surgery was performed on 10 adult cadaver heads through extended transsphenoidal approach by endoscopy. The study data of related anatomic structures were measured. Results The distance from sphenoidal ostium to anterior nasal spine is (59.68 ± 4.28 mm (52.62-63.16 mm, to posterior nasal aperture is (12.88 ± 1.46 mm (10.47-15.61 mm. The incidence of optic nerve and internal carotid artery protuberance in the lateral wall of sphenoidal sinus is 11/20 and 17/20, respectivly. The medial wall of the cavernous sinus is comprised of one dural layer. The incidence of anterior intercavernous sinus, posterior intercavernous sinus, inferior intercavernous sinus and basilar sinus is 17/20, 12/20, 11/20 and 20/20, respectively. The distance between the bilateral hidden segment of internal carotid artery is (15.30 ± 1.25 mm (12.42-21.76 mm, between the bilateral inferior horizontal segment midpoint is (14.03 ± 1.19 mm (10.42-18.43 mm, between the bilateral anterior vertical segment is (18.87 ± 1.44 mm (16.75-24.88 mm, and between the bilateral inner edge of tuberculum sellae is (12.73 ± 0.94 mm (9.97-16.18 mm. In 7 cases (7/20, the intracavernous carotid is in direct contact with the sellar part of the medial wall; in all cases (20/20, the venous plexus extends into the space between the intracavernous carotid and the sphenoidal part of the medial wall. The incidence of the intracavernous carotid coursing along the inferior one third of the pituitary gland is 9/20, along the inferior two thirds of the pituitary gland is 7/20, along the all the thirds of the pituitary gland is 3/20, while below the level of the sellar floor is

  13. Biomechanical comparison of conventional and anatomical calcaneal plates for the treatment of intraarticular calcaneal fractures - a finite element study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Bin; Chen, Wen-Chuan; Lee, Pei-Yuan; Lin, Kang-Ping; Lin, Kun-Jhih; Tsai, Cheng-Lun; Wei, Hung-Wen

    2016-10-01

    Initial stability is essential for open reduction internal fixation of intraarticular calcaneal fractures. Geometrical feature of a calcaneal plate is influential to its endurance under physiological load. It is unclear if conventional and pre-contoured anatomical calcaneal plates may exhibit differently in biomechanical perspective. A Sanders' Type II-B intraarticular calcaneal fracture model was reconstructed to evaluate the effectiveness of calcaneal plates using finite element methods. Incremental vertical joint loads up to 450 N were exerted on the subtalar joint to evaluate the stability and safety of the calcaneal plates and bony structure. Results revealed that the anatomical calcaneal plate model had greater average structural stiffness (585.7 N/mm) and lower von Mises stress on the plate (774.5 MPa) compared to those observed in the conventional calcaneal plate model (stiffness: 430.9 N/mm; stress on plate: 867.1 MPa). Although both maximal compressive and maximal tensile stress and strain were lower in the anatomical calcaneal plate group, greater loads on fixation screws were found (average 172.7 MPa compared to 82.18 MPa in the conventional calcaneal plate). It was noted that high magnitude stress concentrations would occur where the bone plate bridges the fracture line on the lateral side of the calcaneus bone. Sufficient fixation strength at the posterolateral calcaneus bone is important for maintaining subtalar joint load after reduction and fixation of a Sanders' Type II-B calcaneal fracture. In addition, geometrical design of a calcaneal plate should worth considering for the mechanical safety in practical usage. PMID:26813403

  14. Mandibular Ramus Fracture: An Overview of Rare Anatomical Subsite

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    Anendd Jadhav

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. The present study aims at exemplifying the incidence, and aetiology and analyses the outcomes of open reduction internal fixation (ORIF over closed treatment of mandibular ramus fractures. Patients and Method. In the present retrospective analysis of mandibular fracture patients, variables analysed were age, sex, cause of injury, pretreatment occlusion, treatment given, period of maxillo-mandibular fixation (MMF, and posttreatment occlusion. Results. Out of 388 mandibular fractures treated, ramus fractures were 12 (3.09%. In the present study, predominant cause of mandibular ramus fracture was road traffic accident (RTA n = 07 (58.33% followed by fall n = 04 (33.33% and assault n = 1 (8.33%. The average age was 35.9 years with a male predilection. Of these, 9 patients were treated with ORIF while remaining 3 with closed treatment. The average MMF after closed treatment was 21 days and 3 to 5 days after ORIF. There was improvement in occlusion in all 12 patients posttreatment with no major complication except for reduced mouth opening in cases treated with ORIF which recovered with physiotherapy and muscle relaxants. Conclusion. Mandibular ramus fractures accounted for 3.09% with RTA as a common aetiology. ORIF of ramus fractures facilitated adequate functional and anatomic reduction with early return of function.

  15. Cerebral functional connectivity periodically (de)synchronizes with anatomical constraints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liégeois, Raphaël; Ziegler, Erik; Phillips, Christophe; Geurts, Pierre; Gómez, Francisco; Bahri, Mohamed Ali; Yeo, B T Thomas; Soddu, Andrea; Vanhaudenhuyse, Audrey; Laureys, Steven; Sepulchre, Rodolphe

    2016-07-01

    This paper studies the link between resting-state functional connectivity (FC), measured by the correlations of fMRI BOLD time courses, and structural connectivity (SC), estimated through fiber tractography. Instead of a static analysis based on the correlation between SC and FC averaged over the entire fMRI time series, we propose a dynamic analysis, based on the time evolution of the correlation between SC and a suitably windowed FC. Assessing the statistical significance of the time series against random phase permutations, our data show a pronounced peak of significance for time window widths around 20-30 TR (40-60 s). Using the appropriate window width, we show that FC patterns oscillate between phases of high modularity, primarily shaped by anatomy, and phases of low modularity, primarily shaped by inter-network connectivity. Building upon recent results in dynamic FC, this emphasizes the potential role of SC as a transitory architecture between different highly connected resting-state FC patterns. Finally, we show that the regions contributing the most to these whole-brain level fluctuations of FC on the supporting anatomical architecture belong to the default mode and the executive control networks suggesting that they could be capturing consciousness-related processes such as mind wandering. PMID:26197763

  16. Distally Based Iliotibial Band Flap: Anatomic Study with Surgical Considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Victor W; Higgins, James P

    2016-09-01

    Background Reconstruction of high-risk fascia, tendon, or ligament defects may benefit from vascularized tissue. The iliotibial band (ITB), a thick fibrous tract of connective tissue, serves as a potential donor site for free tissue transfer but its blood supply has not been thoroughly investigated. The aim of this anatomical study was to investigate the vascular supply to the distal ITB and its role as a free fascial flap. Methods We dissected 16 fresh-frozen cadaveric legs and injected latex into the superolateral geniculate artery (SLGA). A distal ITB fascial flap was designed and measurements were taken for flap dimensions, pedicle length and size, and SLGA perfusion territory. Results The SLGA perfused 11.5 ± 2.3 cm of distal ITB (proximal to the lateral femoral epicondyle) and provided 6.4 ± 0.7cm of pedicle length to the ITB flap. Conclusions Chimeric options to include bone (from the lateral femoral condyle), cartilage (from the lateral femoral trochlea), muscle (from vastus lateralis or biceps femoris), and skin are possible. Surgical harvest techniques are proposed, including preservation of ITB insertions to minimize lateral knee instability. Clinical validation is needed to determine the role of the distal ITB free fascial flap in reconstructive microsurgery.

  17. Anatomical distribution of estrogen target neurons in turtle brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Autoradiographic studies with [3H]estradiol-17β in red-eared turtle (Pseudemys scripta elegans) show concentration and retention of radioactivity in nuclei of neurons in certain regions. Accumulations of estrogen target neurons exist in the periventricular brain with relationships to ventral extensions of the forebrain ventricles, including parolfactory, amygdaloid, septal, preoptic, hypothalamic and thalamic areas, as well as the dorsal ventricular ridge, the piriform cortex, and midbrain-pontine periaqueductal structures. The general anatomical pattern of distribution of estrogen target neurons corresponds to those observed not only in another reptile (Anolis carolinensis), but also in birds and mammals, as well as in teleosts and cyclostomes. In Pseudemys, which appears to display an intermediate degree of phylogenetic differentiation, the amygdaloid-septal-preoptic groups of estrogen target neurons constitute a continuum. In phylogenetic ascendency, e.g. in mammals, these cell populations are increasingly separated and distinct, while in phylogenetic descendency, e.g. in teleosts and cyclostomes, an amygdaloid group appears to be absent or contained within the septal-preoptic target cell population. (Auth.)

  18. Anatomical structure of lingual foramen in cone beam computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ki, Min Woo; Hwang, Eui Hwan; Lee, Sang Rae [Kyunghee University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-07-15

    To evaluate whether cone beam computed tomography can depict the distribution, position, frequency, relative vertical dimension, and the diameter of the lingual foramen and direction of lingual bone canal. Cone beam computed tomography of mandible was performed on 25 males and 25 females with no history of any orthodontic treatments or any other dental surgeries. A statistical comparison was done on the mean values of males and females. In the location and distribution of lingual foramina, median lingual foramen was found in all subjects and lateral lingual foramen in 58%. In the lateral lingual foramen, bilateral type was found in 28% and unilateral type in 30%. In the number of lingual foramina, median lingual foramen had two foramina and lateral lingual foramen had one foramen, mostly. In the relative mean vertical dimension of lingual foramina, median lingual foramen was 0.03 {+-} 0.08, and both lateral lingual foramina was 0.20 {+-} 0.04. The mean diameter of lingual foramina, median lingual foramen was 0.9 mm {+-} 0.28, right lateral lingual foramen was 0.92 mm {+-} 0.23, and left lateral lingual foramen was 0.88 mm {+-} 0.27. The most frequent direction of the lingual bone canals, median lingual bone canal proceeded in anteroinferior direction and lateral lingual bone canal in anterosuperolateral direction. Cone beam computed tomography can be helpful for surgery and implantation on the mandibular area. Radiologist should be aware of this anatomical feature and its possible implications.

  19. Distally Based Iliotibial Band Flap: Anatomic Study with Surgical Considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Victor W; Higgins, James P

    2016-09-01

    Background Reconstruction of high-risk fascia, tendon, or ligament defects may benefit from vascularized tissue. The iliotibial band (ITB), a thick fibrous tract of connective tissue, serves as a potential donor site for free tissue transfer but its blood supply has not been thoroughly investigated. The aim of this anatomical study was to investigate the vascular supply to the distal ITB and its role as a free fascial flap. Methods We dissected 16 fresh-frozen cadaveric legs and injected latex into the superolateral geniculate artery (SLGA). A distal ITB fascial flap was designed and measurements were taken for flap dimensions, pedicle length and size, and SLGA perfusion territory. Results The SLGA perfused 11.5 ± 2.3 cm of distal ITB (proximal to the lateral femoral epicondyle) and provided 6.4 ± 0.7cm of pedicle length to the ITB flap. Conclusions Chimeric options to include bone (from the lateral femoral condyle), cartilage (from the lateral femoral trochlea), muscle (from vastus lateralis or biceps femoris), and skin are possible. Surgical harvest techniques are proposed, including preservation of ITB insertions to minimize lateral knee instability. Clinical validation is needed to determine the role of the distal ITB free fascial flap in reconstructive microsurgery. PMID:27135145

  20. Retromolar foramen: an anatomical study with clinical considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamieldien, M Y; Van Schoor, A

    2016-09-01

    The retromolar canal and foramen, an anatomical variation in the mandibular retromolar area, houses and transmits neurovascular elements that may innervate the mandibular third molar and associated tissues. These structures have been implicated in local anaesthetic failure, loss of sensation in the normal distribution of the buccal nerve, and local haemorrhage during surgery. Examination of 885 dry mandibles showed that 70 had a retromolar foramen (8%). There were no significant differences between groups according to age, sex, or ancestry. The mean (SD) distance from molar to retromolar foramen was 16.8 (5.6) mm for the mandibular second molar and 10.5 (3.8) mm for the mandibular third molar. The link between these structures and failure of local anaesthesia seems tenuous at best. Bleeding may not represent a serious complication. Although there may be a possibility of perineural spread of infective and invasive pathology, we know of no reported cases. The only clear evidence of complications associated with a confirmed retromolar foramen seems to be loss of sensation in the normal distribution of the buccal nerve. Even though the retromolar foramen does not seem to be of great clinical importance, it could be a source of anxiety for the inexperienced practitioner. PMID:27354332

  1. Anatomic Reconstruction Technique for a Plantar Calcaneonavicular (Spring) Ligament Tear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmanovich, Ezequiel; Shabat, Shay; Brin, Yaron S; Feldman, Viktor; Kish, Benny; Nyska, Meir

    2015-01-01

    Acquired flatfoot deformity in adults is usually due to partial or complete tearing of the posterior tibial tendon, with secondary failure of other structures such as the plantar calcaneonavicular (spring) ligament (SL), which maintain the medial longitudinal arch. In flexible cases, the tibialis posterior can be replaced with the flexor digitorum longus. It is common practice to suture the SL directly in the case of a tear; however, if the tear is complete, suturing directly to the ligament alone will not be possible. Reconstruction of the ligament is needed; however, no validated methods are available to reconstruct this ligament. The operative technique of SL reconstruction described in this report as a part of acquired flatfoot deformity reconstruction consists of augmenting remnants of the spring from the navicularis to the sustentaculum tali and suspending it to the medial malleolus using 2-mm-wide, long-chain polyethylene suture tape. This technique results in the firm anatomic reconstruction of the SL, in addition to "classic" medial arch reconstruction. We recommend SL reconstruction for medial arch reconstruction when the SL is torn. PMID:26253476

  2. Scalenus minimus muscle: overestimated or not? An anatomical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natsis, Konstantinos; Totlis, Trifon; Didagelos, Matthaios; Tsakotos, George; Vlassis, Konstantinos; Skandalakis, Panagiotis

    2013-04-01

    The wide range of scalenus minimus muscle incidence reported in the literature along with the plethora of fibromuscular structures that may appear in the interscalene triangle, having various terminologies, were the reasons to conduct the present study questioning the reported high incidence of this supernumerary scalene muscle. Seventy-three Greek cadavers were dissected and examined for the presence of a scalenus minimus muscle. It was found unilaterally in three of 73 (4.11%) cadavers studied. The literature review, concerning its incidence, revealed a wide range between 7.8 and 71.7 per cent, which cannot be attributed only to racial variation. Thus, there is a matter whether other variations of the scalene muscles are considered as a true scalenus minimus muscle. Recognition of this muscle is important not only for anatomists, but also has clinical significance for the diagnosis of the thoracic outlet syndrome. Surgeons performing scalenectomy and anesthesiologists during interscalene brachial plexus block should keep in mind the anatomical variations of this region.

  3. Anatomic Localization of Thrombi in Our Cases of Pulmonary Thromboembolism

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    Cantürk Taþçý

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Pulmonary thromboembolism (PTE, known to be diagnosed with the disease requiring immediate treatment. Pulmonary angiography as the gold standard among the methods being used in the diagnosis of pulmonary CT angiography, ventilation perfusion scan, is located within the lower extremity venous Doppler ultrasound diagnostic algorithms. Scintigraphy and CT angiography in the diagnosis of PTE according to the conditions of the hospital may gain priority. In recent years, close to the accuracy of CT angiography results were obtained with the invasive angiography. Radiologists subsegment branches of pulmonary artery thrombus, a fact that they are looking forced. CT angiographic images of patients with pulmonary thromboembolism with thrombus in our study by examining the distribution profile were revealed. Radiologists and clinicians aimed to give information on this issue. Material and Method: Within one year period at our outpatient clinic of Chest Diseases and pulmonary CT angiography images of 37 patients diagnosed with PTE were reviewed retrospectively. Results: Determined the distribution and frequency of thrombi. Thrombus in the pulmonaryarteries are most commonly seen in all the branches to the lower lobes. The thrombus inthe left upper lobe was the least anatomical localisation. Discussion: Today, close to the results seen that BTPA invasive pulmonary angiography. Thrombioften seen as places for Clinicians and radiologists believe that information about the donor.

  4. [Linburg-Comstock syndrome. Epidemiologic and anatomic study, clinical applications].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamitouche, K; Roux, J L; Baeten, Y; Allieu, Y

    2000-05-01

    The Linburg-Comstock (LC) syndrome is distinguished by the inability to actively flex the interphalangeal (IP) joint of the thumb without simultaneously flexing the distal IP joint of the index finger. Any resistance to this 'parasitic' reaction causes pain on the palmar side of the wrist or in the distal part of the forearm; this is due to an anomalous tendinous connection between the flexor pollicus longus (FPL) and the flexor digitorum profundus (FDP). An epidemiological study was carried out on 264 individuals (a total of 528 hands were examined), and the LC syndrome was found in 98 subjects (37%); women were more frequently affected than men, and bilaterally rather than unilaterally. In addition, we dissected 26 fresh cadaver upper limbs, and in seven cases found an anomalous connection between FPL and FDP. We also examined the case of a young violinist with bilateral LC syndrome, who complained of pain in the distal part of the left forearm after prolonged musical exercises. Surgical investigation determined a complete fusion between FPL and FDP of the index with a common tendon. Treatment consisted of splitting this common tendon to form two separate tendons, thereby permitting a certain degree of independence between the thumb and index finger, and which considerably improved the violinist's musical performance. A review of the literature showed that there was a large quantity of anatomical descriptions available on these types of connection. Certain publications also provide an extremely precise report on the anthropological significance of these anomalies.

  5. Anatomical Study of Sacral Hiatus for Caudal Epidural Block

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    Dhananjay S Patil

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Anatomy of the sacral hiatus is having clinical importance during caudal epidural block. Present study is aimed at determining anatomy of sacrum specially sacral hiatus for caudal epidural block, with the help of morphometric measurements of the sacrum in relation to sacral hiatus in dry sacral bones. Material & method: Total 103 complete and undamaged adult, dry sacral bones were measured with Vernier caliper (accuracy 0.1 mm and anatomical measurements were obtained. Results: Three bones were excluded because of total posterior closure defect. Agenesis of the sacral hiatus was detected in three sacral bones. Right and left superolateral sacral crests of the sacrum were taken as two points on dorsal surface of sacrum (forming the base of a triangle because posterior superior iliac spines impose on the superolateral sacral crests. The distance between the two superolateral sacral crests (base of a triangle, the distances between the right and left superolateral sacral crest and the sacral apex were on average 60.61(SD 6.71, 61.95 (11.71 and 61.4 (11.98 mm respectively.. Summary: An equilateral triangle formed between the apex of the sacral hiatus and right and left superolateral sacral crests. This equilateral triangle will help in determining the location of the sacral hiatus during caudal epidural block. [National J of Med Res 2012; 2(3.000: 272-275

  6. Image-anatomic research of the alar ligament

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To detect position and morphous as well as coursing of the alar ligament, and to further investigate the sectional anatomy and CT and MRI imaging of the alar ligament. Methods: Twelve formalin fixed specimens including head and neck utilized, three of the twelve were observed in gross anatomy, nine of them were dissectioned. Fifty- one healthy volunteers from each group were selected to perform CT and MRI examination respectively. By combining gross and sectional anatomy. CT and MRI manifestations of the alar ligament were analyzed, the alar ligament width was measured. Results: Location and shape, as well as coursing of the alar ligament could be demonstrated clearly in gross and sectional anatomy. The transverse plane across the upper dens and the coronal plane by the middle dens were the optimal planes for demonstrating the alar ligament. The display ratio of the alar ligament was even 100% (51/51) in both images of CT and MRI. MRI had better advantages than CT in respect of demonstrating the alar ligament, PDWI (proton density weighted imaging, PDWI) is the most optimal sequence for the alar ligament. There were no significant differences of the alar ligament width between male and female and between the right and the left side (P>0.05). Conclusion: In combination with gross and sectional anatomy. CT and MRI could both provide an imageo-anatomic basis for diagnosis of the alar ligament trauma and malformation as well as infection. (authors)

  7. Anatomical correlates of cognitive functions in early Parkinson's disease patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Biundo

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cognitive deficits may occur early in Parkinson's disease (PD but the extent of cortical involvement associated with cognitive dysfunction needs additional investigations. The aim of our study is to identify the anatomical pattern of cortical thickness alterations in patients with early stage PD and its relationship with cognitive disability. METHODS: We recruited 29 PD patients and 21 healthy controls. All PD patients performed an extensive neuropsychological examination and 14 were diagnosed with mild cognitive impairment (PD-MCI. Surface-based cortical thickness analysis was applied to investigate the topographical distribution of cortical and subcortical alterations in early PD compared with controls and to assess the relationship between cognition and regional cortical changes in PD-MCI. RESULTS: Overall PD patients showed focal cortical (occipital-parietal areas, orbito-frontal and olfactory areas and subcortical thinning when compared with controls. PD-MCI showed a wide spectrum of cognitive deficits and related significant regional thickening in the right parietal-frontal as well as in the left temporal-occipital areas. CONCLUSION: Our results confirm the presence of changes in grey matter thickness at relatively early PD stage and support previous studies showing thinning and atrophy in the neocortex and subcortical regions. Relative cortical thickening in PD-MCI may instead express compensatory neuroplasticity. Brain reserve mechanisms might first modulate cognitive decline during the initial stages of PD.

  8. Generation of anatomically realistic numerical phantoms for optoacoustic breast imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Yang; Mitsuhashi, Kenji; Appleton, Catherine M.; Oraevsky, Alexander; Anastasio, Mark A.

    2016-03-01

    Because optoacoustic tomography (OAT) can provide functional information based on hemoglobin contrast, it is a promising imaging modality for breast cancer diagnosis. Developing an effective OAT breast imaging system requires balancing multiple design constraints, which can be expensive and time-consuming. Therefore, computer- simulation studies are often conducted to facilitate this task. However, most existing computer-simulation studies of OAT breast imaging employ simple phantoms such as spheres or cylinders that over-simplify the complex anatomical structures in breasts, thus limiting the value of these studies in guiding real-world system design. In this work, we propose a method to generate realistic numerical breast phantoms for OAT research based on clinical magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data. The phantoms include a skin layer that defines breast-air boundary, major vessel branches that affect light absorption in the breast, and fatty tissue and fibroglandular tissue whose acoustical heterogeneity perturbs acoustic wave propagation. By assigning realistic optical and acoustic parameters to different tissue types, we establish both optic and acoustic breast phantoms, which will be exported into standard data formats for cross-platform usage.

  9. Anatomic and functional imaging of tagged molecules in animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisenberger, Andrew G.; Majewski, Stanislaw; Paulus, Michael J.; Gleason, Shaun S.

    2007-04-24

    A novel functional imaging system for use in the imaging of unrestrained and non-anesthetized small animals or other subjects and a method for acquiring such images and further registering them with anatomical X-ray images previously or subsequently acquired. The apparatus comprises a combination of an IR laser profilometry system and gamma, PET and/or SPECT, imaging system, all mounted on a rotating gantry, that permits simultaneous acquisition of positional and orientational information and functional images of an unrestrained subject that are registered, i.e. integrated, using image processing software to produce a functional image of the subject without the use of restraints or anesthesia. The functional image thus obtained can be registered with a previously or subsequently obtained X-ray CT image of the subject. The use of the system described herein permits functional imaging of a subject in an unrestrained/non-anesthetized condition thereby reducing the stress on the subject and eliminating any potential interference with the functional testing that such stress might induce.

  10. The knee in full flexion: an anatomical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinskerova, V; Samuelson, K M; Stammers, J; Maruthainar, K; Sosna, A; Freeman, M A R

    2009-06-01

    There has been only one limited report dating from 1941 using dissection which has described the tibiofemoral joint between 120 degrees and 160 degrees of flexion despite the relevance of this arc to total knee replacement. We now provide a full description having examined one living and eight cadaver knees using MRI, dissection and previously published cryosections in one knee. In the range of flexion from 120 degrees to 160 degrees the flexion facet centre of the medial femoral condyle moves back 5 mm and rises up on to the posterior horn of the medial meniscus. At 160 degrees the posterior horn is compressed in a synovial recess between the femoral cortex and the tibia. This limits flexion. The lateral femoral condyle also rolls back with the posterior horn of the lateral meniscus moving with the condyle. Both move down over the posterior tibia at 160 degrees of flexion. Neither the events between 120 degrees and 160 degrees nor the anatomy at 160 degrees could result from a continuation of the kinematics up to 120 degrees . Therefore hyperflexion is a separate arc. The anatomical and functional features of this arc suggest that it would be difficult to design an implant for total knee replacement giving physiological movement from 0 degrees to 160 degrees .

  11. Automatic anatomical structures location based on dynamic shape measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witkowski, Marcin; Rapp, Walter; Sitnik, Robert; Kujawinska, Malgorzata; Vander Sloten, Jos; Haex, Bart; Bogaert, Nico; Heitmann, Kjell

    2005-09-01

    New image processing methods and active photonics apparatus have made possible the development of relatively inexpensive optical systems for complex shape and object measurements. We present dynamic 360° scanning method for analysis of human lower body biomechanics, with an emphasis on the analysis of the knee joint. The anatomical structure (of high medical interest) that is possible to scan and analyze, is patella. Tracking of patella position and orientation under dynamic conditions may lead to detect pathological patella movements and help in knee joint disease diagnosis. The processed data is obtained from a dynamic laser triangulation surface measurement system, able to capture slow to normal movements with a scan frequency between 15 and 30 Hz. These frequency rates are enough to capture controlled movements used e.g. for medical examination purposes. The purpose of the work presented is to develop surface analysis methods that may be used as support of diagnosis of motoric abilities of lower limbs. The paper presents algorithms used to process acquired lower limbs surface data in order to find the position and orientation of patella. The algorithms implemented include input data preparation, curvature description methods, knee region discrimination and patella assumed position/orientation calculation. Additionally, a method of 4D (3D + time) medical data visualization is proposed. Also some exemplary results are presented.

  12. Anatomical Study an the Development of Strawberry Fruit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    The development of strawberry fruit, two cultivars-Gelila and Xiaoshi, was systematically studied by anatomical and embryological methods. The growth dynamics of fruit showed that the two cultivars performed similar changes with their fresh weight volume and structure, it included the first slow growth stage, the rapid growth stage and the second solw growth stage. The fruit was a typical polyachene with a ovule which belonged to a Poligonum type, the growth process of pollen tube from stigma to embryo sac was clearly observed by flourescence microscopy. Embryo development was similar to that of most dicotyls, and the mature embryo was orthotropous; Endosperm development was a nuclear type, and gradually disappeared with development:Seed coat consisted of 3~4 layer cells, and pericarp was composed of 6~8 layer cells which differentiated from ovary wall cell; The structure of receptacle was a typical stem which consisted of epidermis ,cortex and vascular cylinder. With development, the cortex and pith of fruit contained plentiful parenchyma tissue, and they were mainly edible sections.

  13. Determinants of alveolar ridge preservation differ by anatomic location

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leblebicioglu, Binnaz; Salas, Mabel; Ort, Yirae; Johnson, Ashley; Yildiz, Vedat O.; Kim, Do-Gyoon; Agarwal, Sudha; Tatakis, Dimitris N.

    2016-01-01

    Aim To investigate and compare outcomes following alveolar ridge preservation (ARP) in posterior maxilla and mandible. Methods Twenty-four patients (54 ± 3 years) with single posterior tooth extraction were included. ARP was performed with freeze-dried bone allograft and collagen membrane. Clinical parameters were recorded at extraction and re-entry. Harvested bone cores were analysed by microcomputed tomography (micro-CT), histomorphometry and immunohistochemistry. Results In both jaws, ARP prevented ridge height loss, but ridge width was significantly reduced by approximately 2.5 mm. Healing time, initial clinical attachment loss and amount of keratinized tissue at extraction site were identified as determinants of ridge height outcome. Buccal plate thickness and tooth root length were identified as determinants of ridge width outcome. In addition, initial ridge width was positively correlated with ridge width loss. Micro-CT revealed greater mineralization per unit volume in new bone compared with existing bone in mandible (p < 0.001). Distributions of residual graft, new cellular bone and immature tissue were similar in both jaws. Conclusion Within the limitations of this study, the results indicate that in different anatomic locations different factors may determine ARP outcomes. Further studies are needed to better understand determinants of ARP outcomes. PMID:23432761

  14. 3D harmonic phase tracking with anatomical regularization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yitian; Bernard, Olivier; Saloux, Eric; Manrique, Alain; Allain, Pascal; Makram-Ebeid, Sherif; De Craene, Mathieu

    2015-12-01

    This paper presents a novel algorithm that extends HARP to handle 3D tagged MRI images. HARP results were regularized by an original regularization framework defined in an anatomical space of coordinates. In the meantime, myocardium incompressibility was integrated in order to correct the radial strain which is reported to be more challenging to recover. Both the tracking and regularization of LV displacements were done on a volumetric mesh to be computationally efficient. Also, a window-weighted regression method was extended to cardiac motion tracking which helps maintain a low complexity even at finer scales. On healthy volunteers, the tracking accuracy was found to be as accurate as the best candidates of a recent benchmark. Strain accuracy was evaluated on synthetic data, showing low bias and strain errors under 5% (excluding outliers) for longitudinal and circumferential strains, while the second and third quartiles of the radial strain errors are in the (-5%,5%) range. In clinical data, strain dispersion was shown to correlate with the extent of transmural fibrosis. Also, reduced deformation values were found inside infarcted segments. PMID:26363844

  15. An anatomic gene expression atlas of the adult mouse brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Lydia; Bernard, Amy; Lau, Chris; Overly, Caroline C; Dong, Hong-Wei; Kuan, Chihchau; Pathak, Sayan; Sunkin, Susan M; Dang, Chinh; Bohland, Jason W; Bokil, Hemant; Mitra, Partha P; Puelles, Luis; Hohmann, John; Anderson, David J; Lein, Ed S; Jones, Allan R; Hawrylycz, Michael

    2009-03-01

    Studying gene expression provides a powerful means of understanding structure-function relationships in the nervous system. The availability of genome-scale in situ hybridization datasets enables new possibilities for understanding brain organization based on gene expression patterns. The Anatomic Gene Expression Atlas (AGEA) is a new relational atlas revealing the genetic architecture of the adult C57Bl/6J mouse brain based on spatial correlations across expression data for thousands of genes in the Allen Brain Atlas (ABA). The AGEA includes three discovery tools for examining neuroanatomical relationships and boundaries: (1) three-dimensional expression-based correlation maps, (2) a hierarchical transcriptome-based parcellation of the brain and (3) a facility to retrieve from the ABA specific genes showing enriched expression in local correlated domains. The utility of this atlas is illustrated by analysis of genetic organization in the thalamus, striatum and cerebral cortex. The AGEA is a publicly accessible online computational tool integrated with the ABA (http://mouse.brain-map.org/agea). PMID:19219037

  16. Anatomical Mercury: Changing Understandings of Quicksilver, Blood, and the Lymphatic System, 1650-1800.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendriksen, Marieke M A

    2015-10-01

    The use of mercury as an injection mass in anatomical experiments and preparations was common throughout Europe in the long eighteenth century, and refined mercury-injected preparations as well as plates of anatomical mercury remain today. The use and meaning of mercury in related disciplines such as medicine and chemistry in the same period have been studied, but our knowledge of anatomical mercury is sparse and tends to focus on technicalities. This article argues that mercury had a distinct meaning in anatomy, which was initially influenced by alchemical and classical understandings of mercury. Moreover, it demonstrates that the choice of mercury as an anatomical injection mass was deliberate and informed by an intricate cultural understanding of its materiality, and that its use in anatomical preparations and its perception as an anatomical material evolved with the understanding of the circulatory and lymphatic systems. By using the material culture of anatomical mercury as a starting point, I seek to provide a new, object-driven interpretation of complex and strongly interrelated historiographical categories such as mechanism, vitalism, chemistry, anatomy, and physiology, which are difficult to understand through a historiography that focuses exclusively on ideas. PMID:25324429

  17. Economically affordable anatomical kidney phantom with calyxes for puncture and drainage training in interventional urology and radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trends in interventional radiology and urology training are orientated towards reducing costs and increasing efficiency. In order to comply with the trends, we propose training on inexpensive patient-specific kidney phantoms. To develop a new kidney phantom for puncture and drainage training in interventional urology and radiology, and to evaluate their anatomical correctness and suitability for training compared to the traditional way of training on home-made phantoms. A case study for validation of kidney phantoms was conducted with nine radiology students divided into two groups: one trained on standard home-made training phantom (n = 4) and the other on our kidney phantoms (n = 5). Another test phantom was used to evaluate the effectiveness of the training of the two groups. The tests were video recorded and analyzed. Duration of the procedure was used as the primary indicator of procedure’s quality. Comparison tests were also conducted with professional radiologists. Anatomical correctness of the kidney phantom was evaluated by comparing the post mortem kidney scans with reconstructed models from CT scans. Subjective feedback was also collected from the participants. Wider use of kidney phantoms was analyzed. The average volumetric difference between post mortem kidney scans and reconstructed CT kidney models was 4.70 ± 3.25%. All five students practicing on the kidney phantom improved their performance and the results were almost equal to the results of the professional radiologist while in the other group two students out of four trained on standard home-made training phantoms failed to improve their performance. However, the small number of test subjects prevents us from drawing general conclusions about the efficiency of the new practice. The kidney phantoms were found usable also for nephrostomy catheter placement training under fluoroscopy. The feedback from radiologists showed that the anatomically correct features of the phantom is an added value

  18. Anatomical and histological factors affecting intranasal drug and vaccine delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gizurarson, Sveinbjörn

    2012-11-01

    The aim of this review is to provide an understanding of the anatomical and histological structure of the nasal cavity, which is important for nasal drug and vaccine delivery as well as the development of new devices. The surface area of the nasal cavity is about 160 cm2, or 96 m2 if the microvilli are included. The olfactory region, however, is only about 5 cm2 (0.3 m2 including the microvilli). There are 6 arterial branches that serve the nasal cavity, making this region a very attractive route for drug administration. The blood flow into the nasal region is slightly more than reabsorbed back into the nasal veins, but the excess will drain into the lymph vessels, making this region a very attractive route for vaccine delivery. Many of the side effects seen following intranasal administration are caused by some of the 6 nerves that serve the nasal cavity. The 5th cranial nerve (trigeminus nerve) is responsible for sensing pain and irritation following nasal administration but the 7th cranial nerve (facial nerve) will respond to such irritation by stimulating glands and cause facial expressions in the subject. The first cranial nerve (olfactory nerve), however, is the target when direct absorption into the brain is the goal, since this is the only site in our body where the central nervous system is directly expressed on the mucosal surface. The nasal mucosa contains 7 cell types and 4 types of glands. Four types of cells and 2 types of glands are located in the respiratory region but 6 cell types and 2 types of glands are found in the olfactory region. PMID:22788696

  19. Segmentation and visualization of anatomical structures from volumetric medical images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jonghyun; Park, Soonyoung; Cho, Wanhyun; Kim, Sunworl; Kim, Gisoo; Ahn, Gukdong; Lee, Myungeun; Lim, Junsik

    2011-03-01

    This paper presents a method that can extract and visualize anatomical structures from volumetric medical images by using a 3D level set segmentation method and a hybrid volume rendering technique. First, the segmentation using the level set method was conducted through a surface evolution framework based on the geometric variation principle. This approach addresses the topological changes in the deformable surface by using the geometric integral measures and level set theory. These integral measures contain a robust alignment term, an active region term, and a mean curvature term. By using the level set method with a new hybrid speed function derived from the geometric integral measures, the accurate deformable surface can be extracted from a volumetric medical data set. Second, we employed a hybrid volume rendering approach to visualize the extracted deformable structures. Our method combines indirect and direct volume rendering techniques. Segmented objects within the data set are rendered locally by surface rendering on an object-by-object basis. Globally, all the results of subsequent object rendering are obtained by direct volume rendering (DVR). Then the two rendered results are finally combined in a merging step. This is especially useful when inner structures should be visualized together with semi-transparent outer parts. This merging step is similar to the focus-plus-context approach known from information visualization. Finally, we verified the accuracy and robustness of the proposed segmentation method for various medical volume images. The volume rendering results of segmented 3D objects show that our proposed method can accurately extract and visualize human organs from various multimodality medical volume images.

  20. MORPHOLOGICAL ANATOMICAL AND PHITOCHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF SOME ALGAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. S. Kaysheva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Morphological and anatomical features of thalluses of brown (Laminaria saccharina, Fucus vesiculosus and red (Ahnfeltia plicata algae, procured at a coastal strip of the Northern basin in gulfs of Ura-Guba and Palkina-Guba at different depths. Compliance of Fucus and Ahnfeltia with pharmacopoeial norms and merchandising indices for Laminaria was established, except for high concentration of sand in Ahnfeltia thalluses. The identity of algae between each other was shown based on the results of qualitative analysis on polysaccharides, alginic acids, reducing sugars, iodine, mannitol, amino acids presence. Quantitative content of polysaccharides, alginic acids, reducing sugars, pentosans, iodine, cellulose, mannitol, proteins, lipids, agar was determined. In comparison with Fucus and Ahnfeltia higher concentration of the following content was noted in Laminaria: alginic acids (1.4 and 5.75 times higher, polysaccharides (1.3 and 1.4 times, iodine (4.5 and 1.8 times, mannatol (1.5 and 2.5 times (data received is statistically reliable. Impropriety of storm algae for processing was shown as law quality raw material. The highest concentration of active substances was revealed in Laminaria thalluses which were procured at the depth of 10 m in a period from September to October. Active accumulation of sodium, potassium, calcium, iron, magnesium, manganese corresponding to similar sea water composition was established in algae. Mathematical equations of regression between protein and manganese, protein and iron content in algae were deduced. Under proper conditions of drying and storage high quality of the materials can be preserved during 3 years. Based on the findings of photochemical researches, taking into account squares of plantations and possible exploitation stocks, the possibility and prospectivity of industrial processing of Fucus vesiculosus and Ahnfeltia plicata together with Laminaria saccharina as plant sources of polysaccharides (mainly

  1. Near and far space neglect: task sensitivity and anatomical substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aimola, Lina; Schindler, Igor; Simone, Anna Maria; Venneri, Annalena

    2012-05-01

    Most group studies which have investigated neglect for near and far space have found an increased severity of symptoms in far space compared to near space. However, the majority of these studies used relatively small samples and based their findings almost exclusively on line bisection performance. The aim of the present study was, therefore, to explore the occurrence of neglect for near and far space in a larger group of unselected right brain damaged patients and to evaluate whether neglect specific to near and far space is a task-related deficit or generalises across distance irrespective of task. In addition, a lesion overlap analysis was carried out to identify critical lesion sites associated with distance specific neglect deficits. Thirty-eight right hemisphere damaged patients carried out a line bisection and a cancellation task by using a pen in near space (40 cm) and a laser pointer in far space (320 cm). The results showed that both the number of left-sided omissions and rightward bisection errors were significantly increased in near compared to far space. Distance specific dissociations, albeit less common, were more frequently observed for cancellation than line bisection. These results suggest that space representation in neglect is more severely impaired in near than in far space. In addition, distance related dissociations in neglect may depend on task demands. Although the anatomical findings were broadly consistent with a dorsal and ventral stream dichotomy for near and far space processing, they also suggest the involvement of intermediate structures in distance related neglect phenomena. PMID:22306826

  2. Michelangelo's Apollo and pathos: an anatomical and anthropometric interpretation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilloowala, Rumy

    2010-06-01

    Michelangelo was a complex personality with strong conflicting emotions. Most prevalent, in both his life and subsequently his work, were the contrasting feelings of grandeur (Apollo) and pathos. He used his extensive knowledge of anatomy to convey expressions of justice, power and awe in works like David, Moses, and Christ in the Last Judgment. In his more mature years he gravitates to works depicting suffering (pathos) and the physical decline of the human body as seen in the captives for the tomb of Pope Julius II and the female subjects in the Medici Chapel. The Renaissance belief in humanism, influenced by the study of antiquity, put man at the centre of the universe. Michelangelo, more than any other artist of the time, was an ardent exponent of this trend. His interest in the human body, though paramount, ranged far beyond the mere depiction of anatomical details or naturalism in art. The human body, which no artist since the ancient Greeks held in such high esteem, was the vehicle through which he sought to portray the inner life of the spirit. He was more interested in the universal spirit shining through the individual. It is this quality that enables him to speak to us across the boundaries of time and space. He never says, "I want you to recognize this man." Instead, he says, "I want you to recognize yourself and through yourself all mankind". Some of the outward manifestations of the life of the spirit were, to Michelangelo and to men of his time, beauty, justice, noble courage and awe-inspiring righteousness. It is not surprising, therefore, that two of the most important themes expressed in his art are Apollo (beauty and justice) and pathos (the spiritual struggle of man on earth) and that the sole form he deemed appropriate for embodiment of these lofty ideas was the human nude. PMID:20977150

  3. Angelman syndrome: A review highlighting musculoskeletal and anatomical aberrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachdeva, Rohit; Donkers, Sarah J; Kim, Soo Y

    2016-07-01

    Angelman's syndrome (AS) is a genetic neurodevelopment disorder. The cause is a known abnormality involving the maternal inherited ubiquitin-protein ligase (UBE3A) gene. Clinical characteristics universal to the disorder are well documented in the literature and include developmental delay, seizures, ataxia, altered tone, severely impaired speech and intellect, as well as an overall happy demeanor, frequent bouts of laughter, and hypermotoric behavior. Associated with this disorder are several musculoskeletal aberrations. To date, a review of case studies reporting on these musculoskeletal changes has not been carried out. Thus, the purpose of this paper was to provide an overview of the musculoskeletal changes present in individuals with AS. In our review of 21 case reports from 1965-2013, the most consistently reported anatomical changes were of the craniofacial region. These include microcephaly, brachycephaly, a palpable occipital groove, prognathism, and wide spaced teeth. Other musculoskeletal abnormalities less frequently reported in the literature include scoliosis, excessive lumbar lordosis, and pes planus. Given that the majority of the case reports reviewed was of young children, the possibility of underreporting musculoskeletal changes which may manifest in the later years of life may be present. Early diagnosis and interventions to minimize secondary complications are crucial to maintain quality of life. An overall multidisciplinary approach is emphasized to maximize developmental potential for these individuals. Future prospective studies that follow patients into adulthood are needed to better understand the prevalence and development of secondary musculoskeletal changes, which in turn can inform intervention techniques and preventative measures. Clin. Anat. 29:561-567, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. AN ANATOMIC STUDY OF ADIPOFASCIAL FLAP OF THE LEG

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Objective To investigate the vascular anatomy of the subcutaneous tissues and fascias of the leg. Methods Four fresh cadaver legs which had been injected with colored latex were dissected under magnification to identify the origin, course an distribution of vessels from the subfascial level to the skin. The adipofascial flap was harvested from the whole medial side of the leg and fascial flap from other leg of the same cadaver. The posterior tibial artery and its first and second supra-malleolus septal arteries were retained in these flaps. Selective injection of China ink through posterior tibial artery was carried out, and dimension of ink- stained areas was recorded. Results Three main trunk vessels of the leg gave off branches to deep fascia and subcutaneous tissues, forming a large vascular plexus in the subcutaneous tissues on the deep fascia and a deli- cate, but dense and well anastomosed vascular plexus beneath the deep fascia. The vascular plexus in the subcu- taneous tissues ran deeper than the superficial venous system. The areas stained by selective injection in adipo- fascial flaps were larger than those in the fascial flaps. Conclusion Subcutaneous tissues and deep fascia can be considered as an anatomic entity nourished by two very well developed vascular networks which lie on both sides of deep fascia. Incorporation of the deep fascia can not only protect the subcutaneous tissue from being lacerated during raising of the flap, but also enhance vascularity of the adipofascial flap. Leaving superficial veins intact while raising the skin flap does not jeopardize the vascular plexus in the subcutaneous tissues and can preserve the superficial lymnphatic vessels, so that postoperative edema of the flap or the leg could be avoided.

  5. Anatomical specializations for enhanced olfactory sensitivity in kiwi, Apteryx mantelli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corfield, Jeremy R; Eisthen, Heather L; Iwaniuk, Andrew N; Parsons, Stuart

    2014-01-01

    The ability to function in a nocturnal and ground-dwelling niche requires a unique set of sensory specializations. The New Zealand kiwi has shifted away from vision, instead relying on auditory and tactile stimuli to function in its environment and locate prey. Behavioral evidence suggests that kiwi also rely on their sense of smell, using olfactory cues in foraging and possibly also in communication and social interactions. Anatomical studies appear to support these observations: the olfactory bulbs and tubercles have been suggested to be large in the kiwi relative to other birds, although the extent of this enlargement is poorly understood. In this study, we examine the size of the olfactory bulbs in kiwi and compare them with 55 other bird species, including emus, ostriches, rheas, tinamous, and 2 extinct species of moa (Dinornithiformes). We also examine the cytoarchitecture of the olfactory bulbs and olfactory epithelium to determine if any neural specializations beyond size are present that would increase olfactory acuity. Kiwi were a clear outlier in our analysis, with olfactory bulbs that are proportionately larger than those of any other bird in this study. Emus, close relatives of the kiwi, also had a relative enlargement of the olfactory bulbs, possibly supporting a phylogenetic link to well-developed olfaction. The olfactory bulbs in kiwi are almost in direct contact with the olfactory epithelium, which is indeed well developed and complex, with olfactory receptor cells occupying a large percentage of the epithelium. The anatomy of the kiwi olfactory system supports an enhancement for olfactory sensitivities, which is undoubtedly associated with their unique nocturnal niche.

  6. Angelman syndrome: A review highlighting musculoskeletal and anatomical aberrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachdeva, Rohit; Donkers, Sarah J; Kim, Soo Y

    2016-07-01

    Angelman's syndrome (AS) is a genetic neurodevelopment disorder. The cause is a known abnormality involving the maternal inherited ubiquitin-protein ligase (UBE3A) gene. Clinical characteristics universal to the disorder are well documented in the literature and include developmental delay, seizures, ataxia, altered tone, severely impaired speech and intellect, as well as an overall happy demeanor, frequent bouts of laughter, and hypermotoric behavior. Associated with this disorder are several musculoskeletal aberrations. To date, a review of case studies reporting on these musculoskeletal changes has not been carried out. Thus, the purpose of this paper was to provide an overview of the musculoskeletal changes present in individuals with AS. In our review of 21 case reports from 1965-2013, the most consistently reported anatomical changes were of the craniofacial region. These include microcephaly, brachycephaly, a palpable occipital groove, prognathism, and wide spaced teeth. Other musculoskeletal abnormalities less frequently reported in the literature include scoliosis, excessive lumbar lordosis, and pes planus. Given that the majority of the case reports reviewed was of young children, the possibility of underreporting musculoskeletal changes which may manifest in the later years of life may be present. Early diagnosis and interventions to minimize secondary complications are crucial to maintain quality of life. An overall multidisciplinary approach is emphasized to maximize developmental potential for these individuals. Future prospective studies that follow patients into adulthood are needed to better understand the prevalence and development of secondary musculoskeletal changes, which in turn can inform intervention techniques and preventative measures. Clin. Anat. 29:561-567, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26480021

  7. Evolving anatomic and electrophysiologic considerations associated with Fontan conversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavroudis, Constantine; Backer, Carl Lewis; Deal, Barbara J; Stewart, Robert D; Franklin, Wayne H; Tsao, Sabrina; Ward, Kendra

    2007-01-01

    The principles of Fontan conversion with arrhythmia surgery are to restore the cardiac anatomy by converting the original atriopulmonary connection to a total cavopulmonary artery extracardiac connection and treat the underlying atrial arrhythmias. Successful outcomes of this procedure are dependent on a thorough understanding of several factors: the patient's fundamental diagnosis of single-ventricle anatomy, the resultant cardiac configuration from the original atriopulmonary Fontan connection, right atrial dilatation that leads to atrial flutter or fibrillation, and associated congenital cardiac anomalies. The purpose of this article is to present some of the more challenging anatomic and electrophysiologic problems we have encountered with Fontan conversion and arrhythmia surgery and the innovative solutions we have used to treat them. The cases reviewed herein include: takedown of a Bjork-Fontan modification, right ventricular hypertension and tricuspid regurgitation after atriopulmonary Fontan for pulmonary atresia and intact ventricular septum, takedown of atrioventricular valve isolation patch for right-sided maze procedure, resultant hemodynamic considerations leading to intraoperative pulmonary vein stenosis after Fontan conversion, unwanted inferior vena cava retraction during the extracardiac connection, right atrial cannulation in the presence of a right atrial clot, distended left superior vena cava causing left pulmonary vein stenosis, dropped atrial septum, and the modified right-sided maze procedure for various single-ventricle pathology. Since 1994 we have performed Fontan conversion with arrhythmia surgery on 109 patients with a 0.9% mortality rate. We attribute our program's success in no small measure to the strong collaborative efforts of the cardiothoracic surgery and cardiology teams.

  8. Computer tomographic imaging and anatomic correlation of the human brain: A comparative atlas of thin CT-scan sections and correlated neuro-anatomic preparations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is of the greatest importance to the radiologist, the neurologist and the neurosurgeon to be able to localize topographically a pathological brain process on the CT scan as precisely as possible. For that purpose, the identification of as many anatomical structures as possible on the CT scan image are necessary and indispensable. In this atlas a great number of detailed anatomical data on frontal horizontal CT scan sections, each being only 2 mm thick, are indicated, e.g. the cortical gyri, the basal ganglia, details of the white matter, extracranial muscles and blood vessels, parts of the base and the vault of the skull, etc. The very precise topographical description of the numerous CT scan images was realized by the author by confrontation of these images with the corresponding anatomical sections of the same brain specimen, performed by an original technique

  9. Lung segmentation in chest radiographs using anatomical atlases with nonrigid registration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candemir, Sema; Jaeger, Stefan; Palaniappan, Kannappan; Musco, Jonathan P; Singh, Rahul K; Zhiyun Xue; Karargyris, Alexandros; Antani, Sameer; Thoma, George; McDonald, Clement J

    2014-02-01

    The National Library of Medicine (NLM) is developing a digital chest X-ray (CXR) screening system for deployment in resource constrained communities and developing countries worldwide with a focus on early detection of tuberculosis. A critical component in the computer-aided diagnosis of digital CXRs is the automatic detection of the lung regions. In this paper, we present a nonrigid registration-driven robust lung segmentation method using image retrieval-based patient specific adaptive lung models that detects lung boundaries, surpassing state-of-the-art performance. The method consists of three main stages: 1) a content-based image retrieval approach for identifying training images (with masks) most similar to the patient CXR using a partial Radon transform and Bhattacharyya shape similarity measure, 2) creating the initial patient-specific anatomical model of lung shape using SIFT-flow for deformable registration of training masks to the patient CXR, and 3) extracting refined lung boundaries using a graph cuts optimization approach with a customized energy function. Our average accuracy of 95.4% on the public JSRT database is the highest among published results. A similar degree of accuracy of 94.1% and 91.7% on two new CXR datasets from Montgomery County, MD, USA, and India, respectively, demonstrates the robustness of our lung segmentation approach. PMID:24239990

  10. [Anatomical Vitamin C-Research during National Socialism and the Post-war Period: Max Clara's Human Experiments at the Munich Anatomical Institute].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schûtz, Mathias; Schochow, Maximilian; Waschke, Jens; Marckmann, Georg; Steger, Florian

    2014-01-01

    In autumn of 1942, Max Clara (1899-1966) became chairman of the anatomical institute Munich. There, he intensified his research concerning the proof of vitamin C with the bodies of executed prisoners which were delivered by the Munich-Stadelheim prison. This research on human organs was pursued by applying ascorbic acid (Cebion) to prisoners before their execution. The paper investigates this intensified and radicalized anatomical research through human experiments, which Max Clara conducted in Munich and published from Istanbul during the postwar years, as well as its scientific references from the Nazi period.

  11. Anatomical Features of the Scots Pine Stem Phloem After Forest FireAnatomical Features of the Scots Pine Stem Phloem After Forest Fire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Stasova

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to study changes in anatomical structure of phloem tissue in pine (Pinus sylvestris L. stems influenced by creeping forest fires of various rates. The experiments were carried out in the Lower Angara river region of the Angara provenance, Krasnoyarsk Krai, Central Siberia. The trees with green crowns and different fire damaged butts were chosen as models. Control (undamaged trees were taken from stands adjacent to experimental plots. The changes of inner bark thickness, number of phloem annual layers between cambium and periderm and number of cells in conductive phloem were found in the stem side opposite to fire scars. The structure fluctuations of phloem tissue were detected: disturbances of sieve cell arrangement, phloem ray enlargements, resin canal overgrowth and formation of great resin ducts. The lignin accumulation was observed in inner bark and a large amount of callusing was detected between conductive and nonconductive phloem. Over the course of time, repairing of tissues occurred and the normal inner bark structure and chemistry (without lignin were restored. The creeping fire of low intensity caused the maximal changes of phloem quantitative characteristics in trees with bark charring and these tendencies were stored after eight years. After creeping fire of high intensity the tendency for phloem thickening in trees with one fire scar and to thinning in strongly damaged trees were revealed. Also tendencies to decrease of the number of phloem annual layers, number of sieve cells in conductive phloem and ray frequency with increasing of stem injury degree were observed, besides axial parenchyma percentage trended to increase. Eight years after fire these tendencies were often not visible.

  12. An interactive three dimensional approach to anatomical description—the jaw musculature of the Australian laughing kookaburra (Dacelo novaeguineae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle R. Quayle

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The investigation of form-function relationships requires a detailed understanding of anatomical systems. Here we document the 3-dimensional morphology of the cranial musculoskeletal anatomy in the Australian Laughing Kookaburra Dacelo novaeguineae, with a focus upon the geometry and attachments of the jaw muscles in this species. The head of a deceased specimen was CT scanned, and an accurate 3D representation of the skull and jaw muscles was generated through manual segmentation of the CT scan images, and augmented by dissection of the specimen. We identified 14 major jaw muscles: 6 in the temporal group (M. adductor mandibulae and M. pseudotemporalis, 7 in the pterygoid group (M. pterygoideus dorsalis and M. pterygoideus ventralis, and the single jaw abductor M. depressor mandibulae. Previous descriptions of avian jaw musculature are hindered by limited visual representation and inconsistency in the nomenclature. To address these issues, we: (1 present the 3D model produced from the segmentation process as a digital, fully interactive model in the form of an embedded 3D image, which can be viewed from any angle, and within which major components can be set as opaque, transparent, or hidden, allowing the anatomy to be visualised as required to provide a detailed understanding of the jaw anatomy; (2 provide a summary of the nomenclature used throughout the avian jaw muscle literature. The approach presented here provides considerable advantages for the documentation and communication of detailed anatomical structures in a wide range of taxa.

  13. Proximal Femoral Morphology and the Relevance to Design of Anatomically Precontoured Plates: A Study of the Chinese Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kun-Jhih Lin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Adequately shaped femoral plate is critical for the fixation of fracture in the pertrochanteric regions. Lateral aspect of greater trochanter is an important region where the proximal femoral plate anchored. However, little is known regarding the morphology of greater trochanter. The objective of this study was to measure main dimensions of greater trochanter and other regions in the proximal end of the femur to provide an anatomical basis for the design of the proximal femoral plate. Anthropometric data on the proximal femur were performed utilizing three-dimensional computational modeling. Computed tomography images of healthy femurs in 53 women and 47 men were contributed to three-dimensional femur modeling. All data were compared between male and female femora. The results showed that mean values for male group were found to be greater in most of measured femoral dimensions. Oppositely, females demonstrated higher neck-shaft angle on anteroposterior view and femoral anteversion angle. The anthropometric data can be used for the anatomical shape design of femoral plates for osteosynthesis of fractures in the trochanteric regions. A distinct plate design may be necessary to accommodate differences between the genders.

  14. Phylogenetic and phytogeographical relationships in Maloideae (Rosaceae) based on morphological and anatomical characters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aldasoro, J.J.; Aedo, C.; Navarro, C.

    2005-01-01

    Phylogenetic relationships among 24 genera of Rosaceae subfam. Maloideae and Spiraeoideae are explored by means of a cladistic analysis; 16 morphological and anatomical characters were included in the analysis. Published suprageneric classifications and characters used in these classifications are b

  15. Enhancing our understanding of anatomical diversity in Tomentella ectomycorrhizas: characterization of six new morphotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakucs, Erzsébet; Erős-Honti, Zsolt; Seress, Diána; Kovács, Gábor M

    2015-08-01

    Ectomycorrhizas (ECM) formed by Tomentella species (Thelephorales, Basidiomycota) were collected in beech forests of Hungary and studied using anatomical and molecular phylogenetic methods. The mycobionts were identified by analysing the sequences of nuclear ribosomal DNA (nrDNA) internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions together with sequences obtained from public databases. At the sampling plots, we found the occurrence of 11 Tomentella morphotypes. Among these, six morphotypes (four identified, Tomentella atroarenicolor, Tomentella bryophila, Tomentella lapida, Tomentella subclavigera, and two unidentified) were morpho-anatomically characterized for the first time. Although the six morphotypes differed anatomically from each other and from Tomentella ectomycorrhizas described previously, they shared anatomical features common to tomentelloid ectomycorrhizas fungi. These results expand our understanding of the diversity of this widely distributed ectomycorrhizal genus. PMID:25564437

  16. Anatomical mapping of the nasal muscles and application to cosmetic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konschake, Marko; Fritsch, Helga

    2014-11-01

    We present an anatomical mapping of the most important muscles influencing the nose, incorporating constant anatomical structures, and their spatial correlations. At our disposal were the midfaces of 18 bodies of both sexes, obtained by informed consent from body donors aged between 60 and 80 years. Macroscopically, we dissected the nasal regions of eight corpses, six midfaces were prepared according to plastination histology, four by creating plastinated slices. On their way from their periosteal origin to the edge of the skin, the muscles of the nose cross the subcutaneous adipose tissue, dividing it into superficial and deep layers. The individual muscle fibers insert into the skin directly at the reticular corium. Sometimes, they reach the border of the epidermis which represents a special arrangement of corial muscle attachments. The course of the anatomical fibers of individual nasal muscles presented macroscopically and microscopically in this study offers surgeons a detailed overview of the anatomically important muscular landmarks of the midface. PMID:24863980

  17. Anatomical exploration of a dicephalous goat kid using sheet plastination (E12).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elnady, Fawzy; Sora, Mircea-Constantin

    2009-06-01

    A dicephalous, 1-day-old, female goat kid was presented for anatomical study. Epoxy plastination slices (E12) were used successfully to explore this condition. They provided excellent anatomic and bone detail, demonstrating organ position, shared structures, and vascular anatomy. Sheet plastination (E12) was used as an optimal method to clarify how the two heads were united, especially the neuroanatomy. The plastinated transparent slices allowed detailed study of the anatomical structures, in a non-collapsed and non-dislocated state. Thus, we anatomically explored this rare condition without traditional dissection. The advantages of plastination extended to the preservation at room temperature of this case for further topographical investigation. To the authors' best knowledge, this is the first published report of plastination of a dicephalous goat. PMID:19489957

  18. Three-Dimensional Display Technologies for Anatomical Education: A Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackett, Matthew; Proctor, Michael

    2016-04-01

    Anatomy is a foundational component of biological sciences and medical education and is important for a variety of clinical tasks. To augment current curriculum and improve students' spatial knowledge of anatomy, many educators, anatomists, and researchers use three-dimensional (3D) visualization technologies. This article reviews 3D display technologies and their associated assessments for anatomical education. In the first segment, the review covers the general function of displays employing 3D techniques. The second segment of the review highlights the use and assessment of 3D technology in anatomical education, focusing on factors such as knowledge gains, student perceptions, and cognitive load. The review found 32 articles on the use of 3D displays in anatomical education and another 38 articles on the assessment of 3D displays. The review shows that the majority (74 %) of studies indicate that the use of 3D is beneficial for many tasks in anatomical education, and that student perceptions are positive toward the technology.

  19. Anatomic adaptation of seedlings of woody plants to various levels of soil water supply

    OpenAIRE

    I. P. Grigoryuk; V. I. Tkachov; P. P. Yavorivskyi

    2005-01-01

    Tree seedlings anatomical parameters adaptation to different soil water supply levels were studied. Differences in stomata number and shape and fiber length for leaf-bearing species and central cylinder area for coniferous species have been determined.

  20. Three-Dimensional Display Technologies for Anatomical Education: A Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackett, Matthew; Proctor, Michael

    2016-08-01

    Anatomy is a foundational component of biological sciences and medical education and is important for a variety of clinical tasks. To augment current curriculum and improve students' spatial knowledge of anatomy, many educators, anatomists, and researchers use three-dimensional (3D) visualization technologies. This article reviews 3D display technologies and their associated assessments for anatomical education. In the first segment, the review covers the general function of displays employing 3D techniques. The second segment of the review highlights the use and assessment of 3D technology in anatomical education, focusing on factors such as knowledge gains, student perceptions, and cognitive load. The review found 32 articles on the use of 3D displays in anatomical education and another 38 articles on the assessment of 3D displays. The review shows that the majority (74 %) of studies indicate that the use of 3D is beneficial for many tasks in anatomical education, and that student perceptions are positive toward the technology.

  1. Reduction of variance in measurements of average metabolite concentration in anatomically-defined brain regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Ryan J.; Newman, Michael; Nikolaidis, Aki

    2016-11-01

    Multiple methods have been proposed for using Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy Imaging (MRSI) to measure representative metabolite concentrations of anatomically-defined brain regions. Generally these methods require spectral analysis, quantitation of the signal, and reconciliation with anatomical brain regions. However, to simplify processing pipelines, it is practical to only include those corrections that significantly improve data quality. Of particular importance for cross-sectional studies is knowledge about how much each correction lowers the inter-subject variance of the measurement, thereby increasing statistical power. Here we use a data set of 72 subjects to calculate the reduction in inter-subject variance produced by several corrections that are commonly used to process MRSI data. Our results demonstrate that significant reductions of variance can be achieved by performing water scaling, accounting for tissue type, and integrating MRSI data over anatomical regions rather than simply assigning MRSI voxels with anatomical region labels.

  2. Naming the Soft Tissue Layers of the Temporoparietal Region: Unifying Anatomic Terminology Across Surgical Disciplines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K.M. Davidge; W.R. van Furth; A. Agur; M. Cusimano

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The complexity of temporoparietal anatomy is compounded by inconsistent nomenclature. OBJECTIVE: To provide a comprehensive review of the variations in terminology and anatomic descriptions of the temporoparietal soft tissue layers, with the aim of improving learning and communication ac

  3. Hierarchical anatomical brain networks for MCI prediction: revisiting volumetric measures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luping Zhou

    Full Text Available Owning to its clinical accessibility, T1-weighted MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging has been extensively studied in the past decades for prediction of Alzheimer's disease (AD and mild cognitive impairment (MCI. The volumes of gray matter (GM, white matter (WM and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF are the most commonly used measurements, resulting in many successful applications. It has been widely observed that disease-induced structural changes may not occur at isolated spots, but in several inter-related regions. Therefore, for better characterization of brain pathology, we propose in this paper a means to extract inter-regional correlation based features from local volumetric measurements. Specifically, our approach involves constructing an anatomical brain network for each subject, with each node representing a Region of Interest (ROI and each edge representing Pearson correlation of tissue volumetric measurements between ROI pairs. As second order volumetric measurements, network features are more descriptive but also more sensitive to noise. To overcome this limitation, a hierarchy of ROIs is used to suppress noise at different scales. Pairwise interactions are considered not only for ROIs with the same scale in the same layer of the hierarchy, but also for ROIs across different scales in different layers. To address the high dimensionality problem resulting from the large number of network features, a supervised dimensionality reduction method is further employed to embed a selected subset of features into a low dimensional feature space, while at the same time preserving discriminative information. We demonstrate with experimental results the efficacy of this embedding strategy in comparison with some other commonly used approaches. In addition, although the proposed method can be easily generalized to incorporate other metrics of regional similarities, the benefits of using Pearson correlation in our application are reinforced by the experimental

  4. Making anatomical dynamic film using the principle of linear motion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sun Guosheng

    2015-01-01

    :Making anatomical dynamic film using the principle of linear motion is an innovative technology and provides the dynamic aid for anat omy teaching.

  5. The zygomaticotemporal branch of the trigeminal nerve: an anatomical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Totonchi, Ali; Pashmini, Nazly; Guyuron, Bahman

    2005-01-01

    cephalic direction. Three types of accessory branches were found in relation to the main branch: (1) accessory branch cephalad, (2) accessory branch lateral, and (3) accessory branches in the immediate vicinity of the main branch. This anatomical information has proven colossally helpful in injection of botulinum toxin A in the temporalis muscle to eliminate the trigger sites in the parietotemporal region and surgical management of migraine headaches triggered from this zone.

  6. Design and implementation of an anatomical web interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The Internet, and in particular, the World-Wide Web, has provided tremendous opportunities for enabling access and transfer of information. Traditionally, Internet services have relied on textual methods for delivery of information. The World-Wide Web (WWW) in its current (and ever-changing form) is primarily a method of communication which includes both graphical and textual information. The easy-to-use graphical interface, developed as part of the WWW, is based on the Hypertext Mark-up Language (HTML). More advanced interfaces can be developed by incorporating interactive documents, which can be updated depending upon the wishes of the user. The Common Gateway Interface (CGI) can be utilised to transfer information b y utilising various programming and scripting languages (eg. C, Perl). This paper describes the development of a WWW interface for the viewing of anatomical and radiographic information in the form of two-dimensional cross-sectional images and three-dimensional reconstruction images. HTML documents were prepared using a commercial software program (HotDog, Sausage Software Co., Australia). Forms were used to control user-selection parameters such as imaging modality and cross-sectional slice number. All documents were developed and tested using Netscape 2.0. Visual and radiographic images were processed using ANALYZETM Version 7.5 (Biomedical Imaging Resource, Mayo Foundation, Rochester, USA). Perl scripting was used to process all requests passed to the WWW server. ANSI 'C' programming was used to implement image processing operations which are performed in response to user-selected options. The interface which has been developed is easy to use, is independent of browsing software, is accessible by multiple users, and provides an example of how easily medical imaging data can be distributed amongst interested parties. Various imaging datasets, including the Visible Human ProjectTM (National Library of Medicine, USA.) have been prepared

  7. Outcomes of Anatomical versus Functional Testing for Coronary Artery Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, Pamela S.; Hoffmann, Udo; Patel, Manesh R.; Mark, Daniel B.; Al-Khalidi, Hussein R.; Cavanaugh, Brendan; Cole, Jason; Dolor, Rowena J.; Fordyce, Christopher B.; Huang, Megan; Khan, Muhammad Akram; Kosinski, Andrzej S.; Krucoff, Mitchell W.; Malhotra, Vinay; Picard, Michael H.; Udelson, James E.; Velazquez, Eric J.; Yow, Eric; Cooper, Lawton S.; Lee, Kerry L.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Many patients have symptoms suggestive of coronary artery disease (CAD) and are often evaluated with the use of diagnostic testing, although there are limited data from randomized trials to guide care. METHODS We randomly assigned 10,003 symptomatic patients to a strategy of initial anatomical testing with the use of coronary computed tomographic angiography (CTA) or to functional testing (exercise electrocardiography, nuclear stress testing, or stress echocardiography). The composite primary end point was death, myocardial infarction, hospitalization for unstable angina, or major procedural complication. Secondary end points included invasive cardiac catheterization that did not show obstructive CAD and radiation exposure. RESULTS The mean age of the patients was 60.8±8.3 years, 52.7% were women, and 87.7% had chest pain or dyspnea on exertion. The mean pretest likelihood of obstructive CAD was 53.3±21.4%. Over a median follow-up period of 25 months, a primary end-point event occurred in 164 of 4996 patients in the CTA group (3.3%) and in 151 of 5007 (3.0%) in the functional-testing group (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.04; 95% confidence interval, 0.83 to 1.29; P = 0.75). CTA was associated with fewer catheterizations showing no obstructive CAD than was functional testing (3.4% vs. 4.3%, P = 0.02), although more patients in the CTA group underwent catheterization within 90 days after randomization (12.2% vs. 8.1%). The median cumulative radiation exposure per patient was lower in the CTA group than in the functional-testing group (10.0 mSv vs. 11.3 mSv), but 32.6% of the patients in the functional-testing group had no exposure, so the overall exposure was higher in the CTA group (mean, 12.0 mSv vs. 10.1 mSv; P<0.001). CONCLUSIONS In symptomatic patients with suspected CAD who required noninvasive testing, a strategy of initial CTA, as compared with functional testing, did not improve clinical outcomes over a median follow-up of 2 years. (Funded by the

  8. [The anatomical and functional origin of the first bipedalism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coppens, Y

    1991-10-01

    This communication is the synthesis of ten years of researchers of comparative anatomy done by the author or under his control on fossil Hominids, three million years old, found by his expeditions in Eastern Ethiopia. It brings, for the first time, the odd picture of a skeleton adapted to arboricolism and bipedalism together. The rachis has already the curves of an erect being but with at least a thoraco-lumbar cyphosis a bit more elongated than in our own rachis; the pelvis is wide and shallow like the pelvis of a biped but with many particular features like the width of the iliac wings, a great biacetabular diameter, the small size of the coxo-femoral joints; the femur is short with a special long neck, a very oblique diaphysis like in Man and an intercondylar fossa, deep and wide like in chimp; the tibia is also short, its spines very tight in such a way that the knee shows a great laxity. The foot is short and flat, with an abducted hallux and long curved toes; the scapular, elbow and wrist joints show, at the opposite of the knee joint, a great solidity, but both characteristics of the hind and fore-limb joints are not in contradiction: they are, as in chimpanzees again, functionally adapted to climbing and moving in the trees where are needed firm grip of the hands as well as mobility of the knee and of the foot. It seems that the early Australopithecine' bipedalism was original, different from ours and quite instable: short steps were necessary to maintain equilibrium as well as a strong rotation of the pelvis around the vertebral axis (50 to 60 degrees on each side). This analysis is then demonstrating a real evolution of bipedalism which was not at all, at once, the bipedalism of Homo sapiens, as it has been claimed. This paper is also showing that bipedalism anatomic organization is taking place from the pelvis to the foot and not the other way round. At last, as we have found, also in Ethiopia, stone-tools more than three million years old in association

  9. The zygomaticotemporal branch of the trigeminal nerve: an anatomical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Totonchi, Ali; Pashmini, Nazly; Guyuron, Bahman

    2005-01-01

    cephalic direction. Three types of accessory branches were found in relation to the main branch: (1) accessory branch cephalad, (2) accessory branch lateral, and (3) accessory branches in the immediate vicinity of the main branch. This anatomical information has proven colossally helpful in injection of botulinum toxin A in the temporalis muscle to eliminate the trigger sites in the parietotemporal region and surgical management of migraine headaches triggered from this zone. PMID:15622263

  10. Anatomics Knowledges of Aortic Root in the Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation.

    OpenAIRE

    Marcelo Cerezo; Omar Bertani; Gisela Panciroli; Sebastián Duhalde; Karina Ferreira; Luciano Honaine

    2010-01-01

    The Aortic Valve is a valvular system that bears different high pressure forces. It takes part of a complex structure called Aortic Root. Nowadays, anatomic knowledge has taken a preponderant role, due to the use of the Transcatether Aortic Valve Implant (TAVI). To describe the patient´s characteristics which exclude them of the TAVI for anatomic reasons in cadaveric dissections and transthoracic echocardiograms. A descriptive retrospective analysis of 67 individuals was performed and divided...

  11. A Mathematical Framework for Incorporating Anatomical Knowledge in DT-MRI Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Maddah, Mahnaz; Zöllei, Lilla; Grimson, W. Eric L.; Westin, Carl-Fredrik; Wells, William M.

    2008-01-01

    We propose a Bayesian approach to incorporate anatomical information in the clustering of fiber trajectories. An expectation-maximization (EM) algorithm is used to cluster the trajectories, in which an atlas serves as the prior on the labels. The atlas guides the clustering algorithm and makes the resulting bundles anatomically meaningful. In addition, it provides the seed points for the tractography and initial settings of the EM algorithm. The proposed approach provides a robust and automat...

  12. Heterogeneity and Matching of Ventilation and Perfusion within Anatomical Lung Units in Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Glenny, Robb W.; Bauer, Christian; Hofmanninger, Johannes; Lamm, Wayne J.; Krueger, Melissa A.; Beichel, Reinhard R.

    2013-01-01

    Prior studies exploring the spatial distributions of ventilation and perfusion have partitioned the lung into discrete regions not constrained by anatomical boundaries and may blur regional differences in perfusion and ventilation. To characterize the anatomical heterogeneity of regional ventilation and perfusion, we administered fluorescent microspheres to mark regional ventilation and perfusion in 5 Sprague-Dawley rats and then using highly automated computer algorithms, partitioned the lun...

  13. Root anatomical phenes predict root penetration ability and biomechanical properties in maize (Zea Mays)

    OpenAIRE

    Chimungu, Joseph G.; Loades, Kenneth W.; Lynch, Jonathan P.

    2015-01-01

    The ability of roots to penetrate hard soil is important for crop productivity but specific root phenes contributing to this ability are poorly understood. Root penetrability and biomechanical properties are likely to vary in the root system dependent on anatomical structure. No information is available to date on the influence of root anatomical phenes on root penetrability and biomechanics. Root penetration ability was evaluated using a wax layer system. Root tensile and bending strength we...

  14. Evaluation of predictors for anatomical success in macular hole surgery in Indian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atul Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim was to evaluate outcomes and predictors for anatomical success in macular hole (MH surgery. Materials and Methods: This was a prospective cohort study of patients operated for idiopathic MH with stages II, III or IV. Patients underwent pars plana vitrectomy with internal limiting membrane (ILM peeling, internal gas tamponade, and postoperative face down positioning. The primary outcome measure was anatomical closure of MH, while secondary outcome measure was postoperative external limiting membrane (ELM continuity. Effect of MH size, duration of MH, size of ILM peel, type of gas tamponade (SF6 vs. C3F8 and macular hole index (MHI on anatomical MH closure was also evaluated. Results: Of the 62 eyes operated, anatomical closure of MH was achieved in 55 eyes (88.7%. The median duration of follow-up was 8 months (range: 6-15 months. Mean BVCA improved from 0.94 ± 0.26 at baseline to 0.40 ± 0.23 logMAR at last follow-up (P = 0.01. There was a statistically significant association between size of ILM peel and anatomical closure of MH (P = 0.04. Duration of symptoms, size of MH, type of gas tamponade, MHI had no effect on anatomical closure (P = 0.22, 0.28, 0.40 respectively, Chi-square test. Postoperative continuity of the ELM was significantly associated with a shorter symptom duration (<6 months before surgery. Conclusion: Acceptable anatomical closure could be attained with the defined technique. Size of ILM peel is a new predictor of anatomical success while symptom duration affects postoperative ELM continuity.

  15. Marginal space learning for medical image analysis efficient detection and segmentation of anatomical structures

    CERN Document Server

    Zheng, Yefeng

    2014-01-01

    Presents an award winning image analysis technology (Thomas Edison Patent Award, MICCAI Young Investigator Award) that achieves object detection and segmentation with state-of-the-art accuracy and efficiency Flexible, machine learning-based framework, applicable across multiple anatomical structures and imaging modalities Thirty five clinical applications on detecting and segmenting anatomical structures such as heart chambers and valves, blood vessels, liver, kidney, prostate, lymph nodes, and sub-cortical brain structures, in CT, MRI, X-Ray and Ultrasound.

  16. ANATOMIC STUDY OF THE PROXIMAL THIRD OF THE FEMUR: FEMOROACETABULAR IMPACT AND THE CAM EFFECT

    OpenAIRE

    Labronici, Pedro José; Alves, Sergio Delmonte; da Silva, Anselmo Fernandes; Giuberti, Gilberto Ribeiro; de Azevedo Neto, Justino Nóbrega; Mezzalira Penedo, Jorge Luiz

    2015-01-01

    To analyze anatomical variations of the proximal end of femur that could cause a femoroacetabular impact. Methods: 199 skeletically mature anatomical specimens of femurs were used. The femurs were measured in order to determine the anteversion angle of the femoral neck, neckshaft angle, sphericity of the femoral head at anteroposterior and superoinferior, angle between epiphysis and the anterior femoral neck, angle between epiphysis and the neck at lateral plane, anteroposterior distance at 5...

  17. Asymmetry and structural system analysis of the proximal femur meta-epiphysis: osteoarticular anatomical pathology

    OpenAIRE

    Baydoun Safaa; Kolesnik Alexander I; Haddad John J; Ivanov Alexander V; Samaha Ali A; Arabi Maher R; Yashina Irena N; Samaha Rana A; Ivanov Dimetry A

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background The human femur is commonly considered as a subsystem of the locomotor apparatus with four conspicuous levels of organization. This phenomenon is the result of the evolution of the locomotor apparatus, which encompasses both constitutional and individual variability. The work therein reported, therefore, underlies the significance of observing anatomical system analysis of the proximal femur meta-epiphysis in normal conditions, according to the anatomic positioning with re...

  18. Anatomical characteristics of Turkish steno-endemic Origanum leptocladum Boiss. (Lamiaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Süleyman Doğu; Muhittin Dinç

    2013-01-01

    Origanum leptocladum Boiss. is an endemic East Mediterranean element, naturally growing only in Ermenek district of Karaman province in Turkey. The aim of this study is to determine anatomical features of the species. The study materials were collected from Karaman-Ermenek in 2009 and then preserved in 70 % alcohol. O. leptocladum generally exhibits the anatomical feaures of the family Lamiaceae. Hovewer, herbaceaus stem is weakly-rectangle shaped or tends to be circular, the collenchymatic t...

  19. Anatomical characteristics of Turkish endemic Stachys rupestrıs Montbret et Aucher ex Bentham (Lamiaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Baştürk Kaya; Muhittin Dinç; Süleyman Doğu

    2015-01-01

    Stachys rupestris Montbret et Aucher ex Bentham, is an endemic species that show deploying at Middle Taurus and Amanos mountains in Turkey. In this study, the stem and leaf anatomy of the individuals that were collected from Mersin-Aslanköy were investigated. The obtained data from the anatomical studies shows that S. rupestris represents the anatomical characteristics of Lamiaceae family. The stem in primer structure is quadrangular, with a vascular bundle at each corner and it has collenchy...

  20. Innate lymphoid cells promote anatomical containment of lymphoid-resident commensal bacteria

    OpenAIRE

    Sonnenberg, Gregory F.; Monticelli, Laurel A.; Alenghat, Theresa; Fung, Thomas C.; Hutnick, Natalie A.; Kunisawa, Jun; Shibata, Naoko; Grunberg, Stephanie; Sinha, Rohini; Zahm, Adam M.; Mélanie R Tardif; Sathaliyawala, Taheri; Kubota, Masaru; Farber, Donna L.; Collman, Ronald G.

    2012-01-01

    The mammalian intestinal tract is colonized by trillions of beneficial commensal bacteria that are anatomically restricted to specific niches. However, the mechanisms that regulate anatomical containment remain unclear. Here we identify that interleukin (IL)-22-producing innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) are present in intestinal tissues of healthy mammals. Depletion of ILCs resulted in peripheral dissemination of commensal bacteria and systemic inflammation, which was prevented by administration ...

  1. An Anatomically Validated Brachial Plexus Contouring Method for Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy Planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van de Velde, Joris, E-mail: joris.vandevelde@ugent.be [Department of Anatomy, Ghent University, Ghent (Belgium); Department of Radiotherapy, Ghent University, Ghent (Belgium); Audenaert, Emmanuel [Department of Physical Medicine and Orthopedic Surgery, Ghent University, Ghent (Belgium); Speleers, Bruno; Vercauteren, Tom; Mulliez, Thomas [Department of Radiotherapy, Ghent University, Ghent (Belgium); Vandemaele, Pieter; Achten, Eric [Department of Radiology, Ghent University, Ghent (Belgium); Kerckaert, Ingrid; D' Herde, Katharina [Department of Anatomy, Ghent University, Ghent (Belgium); De Neve, Wilfried [Department of Radiotherapy, Ghent University, Ghent (Belgium); Van Hoof, Tom [Department of Anatomy, Ghent University, Ghent (Belgium)

    2013-11-15

    Purpose: To develop contouring guidelines for the brachial plexus (BP) using anatomically validated cadaver datasets. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography (CT) were used to obtain detailed visualizations of the BP region, with the goal of achieving maximal inclusion of the actual BP in a small contoured volume while also accommodating for anatomic variations. Methods and Materials: CT and MRI were obtained for 8 cadavers positioned for intensity modulated radiation therapy. 3-dimensional reconstructions of soft tissue (from MRI) and bone (from CT) were combined to create 8 separate enhanced CT project files. Dissection of the corresponding cadavers anatomically validated the reconstructions created. Seven enhanced CT project files were then automatically fitted, separately in different regions, to obtain a single dataset of superimposed BP regions that incorporated anatomic variations. From this dataset, improved BP contouring guidelines were developed. These guidelines were then applied to the 7 original CT project files and also to 1 additional file, left out from the superimposing procedure. The percentage of BP inclusion was compared with the published guidelines. Results: The anatomic validation procedure showed a high level of conformity for the BP regions examined between the 3-dimensional reconstructions generated and the dissected counterparts. Accurate and detailed BP contouring guidelines were developed, which provided corresponding guidance for each level in a clinical dataset. An average margin of 4.7 mm around the anatomically validated BP contour is sufficient to accommodate for anatomic variations. Using the new guidelines, 100% inclusion of the BP was achieved, compared with a mean inclusion of 37.75% when published guidelines were applied. Conclusion: Improved guidelines for BP delineation were developed using combined MRI and CT imaging with validation by anatomic dissection.

  2. Effects of Anatomical Characteristics of Ethiopian Lowland Bamboo on Physical and Mechanical Properties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SEYOUM; Kelemwork

    2009-01-01

    The main aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of anatomical characteristics of Ethiopian lowland bamboo on selected physical and mechanical properties. A total of 45 solid culms from three different age groups (2-, 3- and 4- year-old) were harvested from natural bamboo forest in Ethiopia and then samples were transported to China for carrying out anatomical characteristics test. Physical and mechanical properties testing were conducted in Ethiopia. The result indicates that age and height had signi...

  3. Anatomic variation and orgasm: Could variations in anatomy explain differences in orgasmic success?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emhardt, E; Siegel, J; Hoffman, L

    2016-07-01

    Though the public consciousness is typically focused on factors such as psychology, penis size, and the presence of the "G-spot," there are other anatomical and neuro-anatomic differences that could play an equal, or more important, role in the frequency and intensity of orgasms. Discovering these variations could direct further medical or procedural management to improve sexual satisfaction. The aim of this study is to review the available literature of anatomical sexual variation and to explain why this variation may predispose some patients toward a particular sexual experience. In this review, we explored the available literature on sexual anatomy and neuro-anatomy. We used PubMed and OVID Medline for search terms, including orgasm, penile size variation, clitoral variation, Grafenberg spot, and benefits of orgasm. First we review the basic anatomy and innervation of the reproductive organs. Then we describe several anatomical variations that likely play a superior role to popular known variation (penis size, presence of g-spot, etc). For males, the delicate play between the parasympathetic and sympathetic nervous systems is vital to achieve orgasm. For females, the autonomic component is more complex. The clitoris is the primary anatomical feature for female orgasm, including its migration toward the anterior vaginal wall. In conclusions, orgasms are complex phenomena involving psychological, physiological, and anatomic variation. While these variations predispose people to certain sexual function, future research should explore how to surgically or medically alter these. Clin. Anat. 29:665-672, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26916103

  4. Strong links between genomic and anatomical diversity in both mammalian olfactory chemosensory systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrett, Eva C; Steiper, Michael E

    2014-05-22

    Mammalian olfaction comprises two chemosensory systems: the odorant-detecting main olfactory system (MOS) and the pheromone-detecting vomeronasal system (VNS). Mammals are diverse in their anatomical and genomic emphases on olfactory chemosensation, including the loss or reduction of these systems in some orders. Despite qualitative evidence linking the genomic evolution of the olfactory systems to specific functions and phenotypes, little work has quantitatively tested whether the genomic aspects of the mammalian olfactory chemosensory systems are correlated to anatomical diversity. We show that the genomic and anatomical variation in these systems is tightly linked in both the VNS and the MOS, though the signature of selection is different in each system. Specifically, the MOS appears to vary based on absolute organ and gene family size while the VNS appears to vary according to the relative proportion of functional genes and relative anatomical size and complexity. Furthermore, there is little evidence that these two systems are evolving in a linked fashion. The relationships between genomic and anatomical diversity strongly support a role for natural selection in shaping both the anatomical and genomic evolution of the olfactory chemosensory systems in mammals. PMID:24718758

  5. Increased cortical-limbic anatomical network connectivity in major depression revealed by diffusion tensor imaging.

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    Peng Fang

    Full Text Available Magnetic resonance imaging studies have reported significant functional and structural differences between depressed patients and controls. Little attention has been given, however, to the abnormalities in anatomical connectivity in depressed patients. In the present study, we aim to investigate the alterations in connectivity of whole-brain anatomical networks in those suffering from major depression by using machine learning approaches. Brain anatomical networks were extracted from diffusion magnetic resonance images obtained from both 22 first-episode, treatment-naive adults with major depressive disorder and 26 matched healthy controls. Using machine learning approaches, we differentiated depressed patients from healthy controls based on their whole-brain anatomical connectivity patterns and identified the most discriminating features that represent between-group differences. Classification results showed that 91.7% (patients=86.4%, controls=96.2%; permutation test, p<0.0001 of subjects were correctly classified via leave-one-out cross-validation. Moreover, the strengths of all the most discriminating connections were increased in depressed patients relative to the controls, and these connections were primarily located within the cortical-limbic network, especially the frontal-limbic network. These results not only provide initial steps toward the development of neurobiological diagnostic markers for major depressive disorder, but also suggest that abnormal cortical-limbic anatomical networks may contribute to the anatomical basis of emotional dysregulation and cognitive impairments associated with this disease.

  6. Absence of Flexor Carpi Radialis during an Elective Carpometacarpal Arthroplasty of the Thumb: A Rare Anatomical Variation

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    Stratos S. Sofos

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. We present an extremely rare anatomical variation of unilateral flexor carpi radialis (FCR absence. This rare anatomical variation posed a clinical dilemma to us and we highlight the importance of the surgeon being aware of this anatomical variation of an important structure both as a reconstruction tool and as an anatomical landmark. Methods. This anatomical variation of the unilaterally absent FCR was found upon dissection during a carpometacarpal arthroplasty of the thumb. Results. Upon the discovery of an absent FCR tendon, we proceeded with a simple trapeziectomy. Conclusions. We present an extremely rare anatomical variation of unilateral FCR absence. This rare anatomical variation may pose clinical dilemmas to the operating surgeon who aims to utilise the FCR either for tendon transfer, for tendon graft, or, as seen in our case, in the reconstruction of a carpometacarpal excision at the thumb. We highlight this diagnosis of suspicion, which may influence the clinical procedure.

  7. Maximizing Modern Distribution of Complex Anatomical Spatial Information: 3D Reconstruction and Rapid Prototype Production of Anatomical Corrosion Casts of Human Specimens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jianyi; Nie, Lanying; Li, Zeyu; Lin, Lijun; Tang, Lei; Ouyang, Jun

    2012-01-01

    Anatomical corrosion casts of human specimens are useful teaching aids. However, their use is limited due to ethical dilemmas associated with their production, their lack of perfect reproducibility, and their consumption of original specimens in the process of casting. In this study, new approaches with modern distribution of complex anatomical…

  8. The effects of anatomical information and observer expertise on abnormality detection task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, L.; Cavaro-Ménard, C.; Le Callet, P.; Cooper, L. H. K.; Hunault, G.; Tanguy, J.-Y.

    2011-03-01

    This paper presents a novel study investigating the influences of Magnetic Resonance (MR) image anatomical information and observer expertise on an abnormality detection task. MRI is exquisitely sensitive for detecting brain abnormalities, particularly in the evaluation of white matter diseases, e.g. multiple sclerosis (MS). For this reason, MS lesions are simulated as the target stimuli for detection in the present study. Two different image backgrounds are used in the following experiments: a) homogeneous region of white matter tissue, and b) one slice of a healthy brain MR image. One expert radiologist (more than 10 years' experience), three radiologists (less than 5 years' experience) and eight naïve observers (without any prior medical knowledge) have performed these experiments, during which they have been asked different questions dependent upon level of experience; the three radiologists and eight naïve observers were asked if they were aware of any hyper-signal, likely to represent an MS lesion, while the most experienced consultant was asked if a clinically significant sign was present. With the percentages of response "yes" displayed on the y-axis and the lesion intensity contrasts on the x-axis, psychometric function is generated from the observer' responses. Results of psychometric functions and calculated thresholds indicate that radiologists have better hyper-signal detection ability than naïve observers, which is intuitively shown by the lower simple visibility thresholds of radiologists. However, when radiologists perform a task with clinical implications, e.g. to detect a clinically significant sign, their detection thresholds are elevated. Moreover, the study indicates that for the radiologists, the simple visibility thresholds remain the same with and without the anatomical information, which reduces the threshold for the clinically significant sign detection task. Findings provide further insight into human visual system processing for this

  9. Three-Dimensional Analysis of the Characteristics of the Femoral Canal Isthmus: An Anatomical Study

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    Xiu-yun Su

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To establish a new approach for measuring and locating the femoral intramedullary canal isthmus in 3-dimensional (3D space. Methods. Based on the computed tomography data from 204 Chinese patients, 3D models of the whole femur and the corresponding femoral isthmus tube were reconstructed using Mimics software (Materialise, Haasrode, Belgium. The anatomical parameters of the femur and the isthmus, including the femur length and radius, and the isthmus diameter and height, were measured accordingly. Results. The mean ratio of the isthmus height versus the femoral height was 55 ± 4.8%. The mean diameter of the isthmus was 10.49 ± 1.52 mm. The femoral length, the isthmus diameter, and the isthmus tube length were significantly larger in the male group. Significant correlations were observed between the femoral length and the isthmus diameter (r=0.24, p<0.01 and between the femoral length and the isthmus height (r=0.6, p<0.01. Stepwise linear regression analyses demonstrated that the femoral length and radius were the most important factors influencing the location and dimension of the femoral canal isthmus. Conclusion. The current study developed a new approach for measuring the femoral canal and for optimization of customer-specific femoral implants.

  10. Three-Dimensional Assessment of Bilateral Symmetry of the Scaphoid: An Anatomic Study

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    Paul W. L. ten Berg

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Preoperative 3D CT imaging techniques provide displacement analysis of the distal scaphoid fragment in 3D space, using the matched opposite scaphoid as reference. Its accuracy depends on the presence of anatomical bilateral symmetry, which has not been investigated yet using similar techniques. Our purpose was to investigate symmetry by comparing the relative positions of distal and proximal poles between sides. We used bilateral CT scans of 19 adult healthy volunteers to obtain 3D scaphoid models. Left proximal and distal poles were matched to corresponding mirrored right sides. The left-to-right positional differences between poles were quantified in terms of three translational and three rotational parameters. The mean (SD of ulnar, dorsal, and distal translational differences of distal poles relative to proximal poles was 0.1 (0.6; 0.4 (1.2; 0.2 (0.6 mm and that of palmar rotation, ulnar deviation, and pronation differences was −1.1 (4.9; −1.5 (3.3; 1.0 (3.7°, respectively. These differences did not significantly differ from zero and thus were not biased to left or right side. We proved that, on average, the articular surfaces of scaphoid poles were symmetrically aligned in 3D space. This suggests that the contralateral scaphoid can serve as reference in corrective surgery. No level of evidence is available.

  11. Anatomical Study of Somatic Embryogenesis in Glycine max (L. Merrill

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    Juliana Aparecida Fernando

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available A comparative anatomical analysis of somatic embryogenesis in two soybean (Glycine max (L. Merrill genotypes was carried out. The somatic embryos were originated from cotyledonary explants obtained from immature zygotic embryos. The medium used for somatic embryogenesis induction was Murashige and Skoog, 1962, salts and Gamborg et al., 1968, vitamins (MSB supplemented with 0.8 mg.L-1 of 2,4-D for genotype PI 123439 and 40 mg.L-1 of 2,4-D for ‘Williams 82’. Globular structures, constituted by meristematic cells, originated from subepidermal cell divisions of the cotyledonary mesophyll. In PI 123439, the globular structures presented tracheary differentiation among meristematic cells and they could follow distinct morphogenetic process depending on their location along the explant. For ‘Williams 82’ it was observed globular structures along the cotyledonary explant surface. They gave rise to somatic embryos. These embryos showed different morphologies and they were classified based on their shape and number of cotyledons. The ability of these morphological types to convert to plantlets was discussed.Realizou-se uma análise anatômica comparativa da embriogênese somática em dois genótipos de soja (Glycine max (L. Merrill. Os embriões somáticos foram obtidos a partir de explantes cotiledonares excisados de embriões zigóticos imaturos do genótipo PI 123439, adaptado às condições tropicais, e ‘Williams 82’. O meio utilizado para indução da embriogênese somática constituiu-se de sais de Murashige e Skoog,1962, e vitaminas de Gamborg et al., 1968 (MSB suplementado com 0,8 mg.L-1 de 2,4-D (PI 123439 e 40 mg.L-1 (‘Williams 82’. Estruturas globulares originaram-se a partir de divisões celulares nas camadas subepidérmicas do mesofilo cotiledonar e foram constituídas por células meristemáticas. No genótipo PI 123439, as estruturas globulares apresentaram diferenciação traqueal entre as células meristemáticas e

  12. Three-dimensional in vivo imaging of the murine liver: a micro-computed tomography-based anatomical study.

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    Teresa Fiebig

    Full Text Available Various murine models are currently used to study acute and chronic pathological processes of the liver, and the efficacy of novel therapeutic regimens. The increasing availability of high-resolution small animal imaging modalities presents researchers with the opportunity to precisely identify and describe pathological processes of the liver. To meet the demands, the objective of this study was to provide a three-dimensional illustration of the macroscopic anatomical location of the murine liver lobes and hepatic vessels using small animal imaging modalities. We analysed micro-CT images of the murine liver by integrating additional information from the published literature to develop comprehensive illustrations of the macroscopic anatomical features of the murine liver and hepatic vasculature. As a result, we provide updated three-dimensional illustrations of the macroscopic anatomy of the murine liver and hepatic vessels using micro-CT. The information presented here provides researchers working in the field of experimental liver disease with a comprehensive, easily accessable overview of the macroscopic anatomy of the murine liver.

  13. Anatomical Details of the Rabbit Nasal Passages and Their Implications in Breathing, Air Conditioning, and Olfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, Jinxiang; Si, Xiuhua A; Kim, Jongwon; Zhang, Yu; Jacob, Richard E; Kabilan, Senthil; Corley, Richard A

    2016-07-01

    The rabbit is commonly used as a laboratory animal for inhalation toxicology tests and detail knowledge of the rabbit airway morphometry is needed for outcome analysis or theoretical modeling. The objective of this study is to quantify the morphometric dimension of the nasal airway of a New Zealand white rabbit and to relate the morphology and functions through analytical and computational methods. Images of high-resolution MRI scans of the rabbit were processed to measure the axial distribution of the cross-sectional areas, perimeter, and complexity level. The lateral recess, which has functions other than respiration or olfaction, was isolated from the nasal airway and its dimension was quantified separately. A low Reynolds number turbulence model was implemented to simulate the airflow, heat transfer, vapor transport, and wall shear stress. Results of this study provide detailed morphological information of the rabbit that can be used in the studies of olfaction, inhalation toxicology, drug delivery, and physiology-based pharmacokinetics modeling. For the first time, we reported a spiral nasal vestibule that splits into three paths leading to the dorsal meatus, maxilloturbinate, and ventral meatus, respectively. Both non-dimensional functional analysis and CFD simulations suggested that the airflow in the rabbit nose is laminar and the unsteady effect is only significantly during sniffing. Due to the large surface-to-volume ratio, the maxilloturbinate is highly effective in warming and moistening the inhaled air to body conditions. The unique anatomical structure and respiratory airflow pattern may have important implications for designing new odorant detectors or electronic noses. Anat Rec, 299:853-868, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Chronology of Ksar Akil (Lebanon and implications for the colonization of Europe by anatomically modern humans.

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    Katerina Douka

    Full Text Available The Out-of-Africa model holds that anatomically modern humans (AMH evolved and dispersed from Africa into Asia, and later Europe. Palaeoanthropological evidence from the Near East assumes great importance, but AMH remains from the region are extremely scarce. 'Egbert', a now-lost AMH fossil from the key site of Ksar Akil (Lebanon and 'Ethelruda', a recently re-discovered fragmentary maxilla from the same site, are two rare examples where human fossils are directly linked with early Upper Palaeolithic archaeological assemblages. Here we radiocarbon date the contexts from which Egbert and Ethelruda were recovered, as well as the levels above and below the findspots. In the absence of well-preserved organic materials, we primarily used marine shell beads, often regarded as indicative of behavioural modernity. Bayesian modelling allows for the construction of a chronostratigraphic framework for Ksar Akil, which supports several conclusions. The model-generated age estimates place Egbert between 40.8-39.2 ka cal BP (68.2% prob. and Ethelruda between 42.4-41.7 ka cal BP (68.2% prob.. This indicates that Egbert is of an age comparable to that of the oldest directly-dated European AMH (Peştera cu Oase. Ethelruda is older, but on current estimates not older than the modern human teeth from Cavallo in Italy. The dating of the so-called "transitional" or Initial Upper Palaeolithic layers of the site may indicate that the passage from the Middle to Upper Palaeolithic at Ksar Akil, and possibly in the wider northern Levant, occurred later than previously estimated, casting some doubts on the assumed singular role of the region as a locus for human dispersals into Europe. Finally, tentative interpretations of the fossil's taxonomy, combined with the chronometric dating of Ethelruda's context, provides evidence that the transitional/IUP industries of Europe and the Levant, or at least some of them, may be the result of early modern human migration(s.

  15. Anatomical Details of the Rabbit Nasal Passages and Their Implications in Breathing, Air Conditioning, and Olfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, Jinxiang; Si, Xiuhua A; Kim, Jongwon; Zhang, Yu; Jacob, Richard E; Kabilan, Senthil; Corley, Richard A

    2016-07-01

    The rabbit is commonly used as a laboratory animal for inhalation toxicology tests and detail knowledge of the rabbit airway morphometry is needed for outcome analysis or theoretical modeling. The objective of this study is to quantify the morphometric dimension of the nasal airway of a New Zealand white rabbit and to relate the morphology and functions through analytical and computational methods. Images of high-resolution MRI scans of the rabbit were processed to measure the axial distribution of the cross-sectional areas, perimeter, and complexity level. The lateral recess, which has functions other than respiration or olfaction, was isolated from the nasal airway and its dimension was quantified separately. A low Reynolds number turbulence model was implemented to simulate the airflow, heat transfer, vapor transport, and wall shear stress. Results of this study provide detailed morphological information of the rabbit that can be used in the studies of olfaction, inhalation toxicology, drug delivery, and physiology-based pharmacokinetics modeling. For the first time, we reported a spiral nasal vestibule that splits into three paths leading to the dorsal meatus, maxilloturbinate, and ventral meatus, respectively. Both non-dimensional functional analysis and CFD simulations suggested that the airflow in the rabbit nose is laminar and the unsteady effect is only significantly during sniffing. Due to the large surface-to-volume ratio, the maxilloturbinate is highly effective in warming and moistening the inhaled air to body conditions. The unique anatomical structure and respiratory airflow pattern may have important implications for designing new odorant detectors or electronic noses. Anat Rec, 299:853-868, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27145450

  16. A novel approach to an anatomical adapted stent design for the percutaneous therapy of tricuspid valve diseases: preliminary experiences from an engineering point of view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pott, Desiree; Malasa, Margarita; Urban, Ute; Kütting, Maximilian; Safi, Yara; Roggenkamp, Jan; Steinseifer, Ulrich; Hatam, Nima; Autschbach, Rüdiger; Spillner, Jan; Amerini, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    Tricuspid valve regurgitation mostly occurs as result of dilation of the right ventricle, secondary to left heart valve diseases. Until recently, little attention has been given to the development of percutaneous therapeutic tools exclusively designed for tricuspid valve disease. A new approach to the interventional therapy of tricuspid regurgitation, in particular, the design of a conceptual new valve-bearing, self-expansible stent, is presented here. A three-dimensional computer model of a right porcine heart was developed to gain a realistic anatomical geometry. The new design consists of two tubular stent elements, one inside the superior vena cava and the other inside the tricuspid valve annulus after being eventually equipped with a biological valve prosthesis, which are connected by struts. Anchoring to the heart structure is provided primarily by the vena cava stent, strengthened by the struts. The stents are designed to be cut from a 10 mm tube and later expanded to their designated diameter. Simulation software analyzing the expansion process with respect to the intended geometrical design is used in an iterative process. A validation of the anatomical geometry and function of the stent design inside a silicone model within in vitro tests and a random porcine heart shows an accurate anatomical fitting.

  17. Variation in stem anatomical characteristics of Campanuloideae species in relation to evolutionary history and ecological preferences.

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    Fritz Hans Schweingruber

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The detailed knowledge of plant anatomical characters and their variation among closely related taxa is key to understanding their evolution and function. We examined anatomical variation in 46 herbaceous taxa from the subfamily Campanuloideae (Campanulaceae to link this information with their phylogeny, ecology and comparative material of 56 woody tropical taxa from the subfamily Lobelioideae. The species studied covered major environmental gradients from Mediterranean to Arctic zones, allowing us to test hypotheses on the evolution of anatomical structure in relation to plant competitive ability and ecological preferences. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To understand the evolution of anatomical diversity, we reconstructed the phylogeny of studied species from nucleotide sequences and examined the distribution of anatomical characters on the resulting phylogenetic tree. Redundancy analysis, with phylogenetic corrections, was used to separate the evolutionary inertia from the adaptation to the environment. A large anatomical diversity exists within the Campanuloideae. Traits connected with the quality of fibres were the most congruent with phylogeny, and the Rapunculus 2 ("phyteumoid" clade was especially distinguished by a number of characters (absence of fibres, pervasive parenchyma, type of rays from two other clades (Campanula s. str. and Rapunculus 1 characterized by the dominance of fibres and the absence of parenchyma. Septate fibres are an exclusive trait in the Lobelioideae, separating it clearly from the Campanuloideae where annual rings, pervasive parenchyma and crystals in the phellem are characteristic features. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Despite clear phylogenetic inertia in the anatomical features studied, the ecological attributes and plant height had a significant effect on anatomical divergence. From all three evolutionary clades, the taller species converged towards similar anatomical structure, characterized by a

  18. Identification keys on rattans (Calamus spp. from Central Sulawesi based on anatomical structure of stems

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    ANDI TANRA TELLU

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to obtain information the anatomical characteristics of 20 rattan species from Central Sulawesi and to use it for anatomical identification of rattan species. The rattan comprised 16 Calamus species, three Daemonorops species and one Korthalsia species. For anatomical observation 10-15 mm pieces of the mature stem from shares of tip do not have frond were processed with polyethilene glycol 2000, cut at 18-32 µm and stained with a combination of acridin-cryzoidin red and astrablue. Cleared preparation were used to observe stegmata, and macerated material was used to measure the length of fibers and vessel elements. Anilin sulfate was used to confirm the existence of lignin. Anatomical characteristics used in identification were shape and will thickening of epidermal cells and the position stomata at epidermal; the arrangement of sub epidermal parenchyma; composition of vascular bundles and their distribution; the shape and arrangement of central ground parenchyma and the occurrence of fiber bundles. The research result indicated that the anatomical character can be compiled to a key identify the rattan at genus and species level.

  19. Sinonasal Anatomical Variants: CT and Endoscopy Study and Its Correlation with Extent of Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendiratta, Vandana; Baisakhiya, Nitish; Singh, Dalbir; Datta, Ginni; Mittal, Amit; Mendiratta, Parveen

    2016-09-01

    To evaluate the incidence of anatomical variations in sinonasal area by nasal endoscopy and CT scan paranasal sinuses and to correlate the anatomical variations in sinonasal area with extent of disease. The present study was conducted on 40 patients of chronic sinusitis. All the patients underwent CT scan paranasal sinus axial and coronal view and nasal endoscopy. The most common anatomical variations were agger nasi cells (80 %), deviated nasal septum (72.5 %) and concha bullosa (47.5 %). Other anatomical variations seen in sinonasal region were uncinate process variations, paradoxical middle turbinate, haller cells, accessory ostia of maxillary sinus, multiseptated sphenoid. Osteomeatal unit (87.5 %) and maxillary sinuses (87.5 %) were the most commonly involved which was followed by anterior ethmoids (70 %), posterior ethmoids (50 %), frontal sinuses (32.5 %) and the sphenoids (20 %). Considering the results obtained, we believe that anatomical variations may increase the risk of sinus mucosal disease. We therefore, emphasize the importance of a careful evaluation of CT study in patients with persistent symptoms of chronic rhinosinusitis. PMID:27508139

  20. Comparison of leaf anatomical characteristics of hibiscus rosa-sinensis grown in faisalabad region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The genetic potential of different plant species to different environmental conditions differ in relation to different physiological, biochemical and anatomical characteristics. Of these varying attributes leaf anatomical characteristics play most important role for the establishment of that cultivar in varied environmental conditions. So, the present study was conducted to assess the inter-cultivar genetic potential of Hibiscus in relation to leaf anatomical characteristics. To fulfill the study requirements Hibiscus rosa-sinensis and its six cultivars (were well adapted to their specific natural habitat) were collected from different locations of district Faisalabad Pakistan that have great environmental changes round the year. Results showed significant variability among cultivars in relation to analyzed anatomical characteristics. Cultivars Lemon shiffon and Wilder's white emerge more promising among others by possessing more epidermal thickness, increased epidermal cell area, high cortical cell area and incremented stomatal density as compared with other cultivars. On the other hand, cultivars Cooperi alba, Mrs. George Davis and Frank green possessed least cortex cell area, lowest xylem region thickness and minimum phloem region thickness respectively. Overall, it can be concluded that anatomical genetic potential has endorsed cultivars Lemon chiffon and Wilder's white with enormous capability to grow well under variable environments. (author)

  1. Extra-anatomical bypass: a surgical option for recurrent aortic coarctation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malaj, Alban; Martinelli, Ombretta; Irace, Francesco Giosue'; Jabbour, Jihad; Gossetti, Bruno; Mazzesi, Giuseppe

    2013-01-01

    Background. Balloon aortoplasty with or without stenting is a less invasive alternative to open surgery for the management of recurrent isthmic coarctation. However, in patients with previous small size tube graft, an open surgical correction is mandatory and, in most cases, an anatomical aortic reconstruction is carried out. Methods. We present the case of a 48-year-old woman with recurrent aortic coarctation and systemic hypertension with systolic value around 190-200 mmHg and preoperative systolic pressure gradient 70 mmHg, submitted to an extra-anatomical bypass. Through a median sternotomy, an extra-anatomical bypass from ascending to descending aorta was performed. Results. No intra- or postoperative complications were observed. The postoperative pressure gradient was 10 mmHg and the systolic pressure ranged from 130 to 140 mmHg. Conclusion. The extra-anatomical bypass can be considered an effective and safe alternative to the anatomical aortic reconstruction in the cases with recurrent aortic coarctation unfit for endovascular treatment.

  2. Extra-Anatomical Bypass: A Surgical Option for Recurrent Aortic Coarctation

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    Alban Malaj

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Balloon aortoplasty with or without stenting is a less invasive alternative to open surgery for the management of recurrent isthmic coarctation. However, in patients with previous small size tube graft, an open surgical correction is mandatory and, in most cases, an anatomical aortic reconstruction is carried out. Methods. We present the case of a 48-year-old woman with recurrent aortic coarctation and systemic hypertension with systolic value around 190–200 mmHg and preoperative systolic pressure gradient 70 mmHg, submitted to an extra-anatomical bypass. Through a median sternotomy, an extra-anatomical bypass from ascending to descending aorta was performed. Results. No intra- or postoperative complications were observed. The postoperative pressure gradient was 10 mmHg and the systolic pressure ranged from 130 to 140 mmHg. Conclusion. The extra-anatomical bypass can be considered an effective and safe alternative to the anatomical aortic reconstruction in the cases with recurrent aortic coarctation unfit for endovascular treatment.

  3. [BIRTH AND DEVELOPMENT OF THE ANATOMICAL MUSEUMS OF MODENA BETWEEN XVIII AND XIX CENTURY. THE OBSTETRIC MUSEUM, THE ANATOMICAL MUSEUM, THE ETHNOGRAPHIC ANTHROPOLOGIC MUSEUM].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corradini, Elena

    2015-01-01

    The interest for the study of Anatomy in Modena was particularly developed since the second half of eighteenth century, when the Duke Francesco III of Este promoted the reformation of the University and Antonio Scarpa was called from Padua to teach Anatomy. Scarpa promoted the building of the Anatomical Theatre, near the Grande Spedale, that was inaugurated in 1776. On the same year, the School of Obstetrics opened and determined the constitution of a first Cabinet or Obstetric Museum in a room next to the Theatre. After the Restoration, between 1817 and 1818, the Archduke Francesco IV of Austria Este promoted the realization of an Anatomical Museum: a big organized room in a new floor built on the Theatre. Two more rooms were added in, 1839 and a fourth one in 1853, under the direction of Paolo Gaddi. Furthermore Gaddi's interest for ethnographic studies determined the opening of the Ethnographic Anthropological Museum in 1866.

  4. Endoscopic expand transnasal approach to the suprasellar region :anatomical study and clinical considerations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Xiao-jie; CHEN Kai-lai; WANG Qin; JI Wei-yang; LI Bing; SUN Ji-yong; LI Jiang-an

    2009-01-01

    Backgroud The expanded endonasal approach (EEA) is used sparingly by surgeons for resection of lesions in the ventrocranial base. Herein, we examined the anatomy of the ventrocranial base by endoscopy and comment on the use of EEA in clinical practice.Methods Twenty artery-injected adult cadaveric heads were studied under surgical conditions using the endoscopic EEA. The extent of the surgical exposure, the endoscopic anatomic view and the maneuverability of surgical instruments about the suprasellar region were studied by the endoscopic EEA.Results The EEA by endoscope can reach the suprasellar region. In this approach, the optocarotid recess, supra and infra-optic chiasm interspace, the ophthalmic artery and others were important anatomical landmarks for identification of the suprasellar region.Conclusions The endoscopic EEA can be used to remove many types of lesions in the ventrocranial base. The microanatorny observed using the endoscope provides important anatomical information on the suprasellar region for neurosurgeons.

  5. Anatomical characteristics of Turkish steno-endemic Origanum leptocladum Boiss. (Lamiaceae

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    Süleyman Doğu

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Origanum leptocladum Boiss. is an endemic East Mediterranean element, naturally growing only in Ermenek district of Karaman province in Turkey. The aim of this study is to determine anatomical features of the species. The study materials were collected from Karaman-Ermenek in 2009 and then preserved in 70 % alcohol. O. leptocladum generally exhibits the anatomical feaures of the family Lamiaceae. Hovewer, herbaceaus stem is weakly-rectangle shaped or tends to be circular, the collenchymatic tissue at the corner of the stem and scleranchymatic pericycle around the vascular tissue are weakly-developed. The most striking anatomical feature is that leaf lamina is dorsiventral in the region near to midvein, but equifacial out of the midvein. According to the results, while the stomata are of mesomorphic type on the leaf surfaces, O. leptocladum has xeromorphic characters such as palisade richness in mesophyll, the occurrence of rich scleranchymatic tissue in midvein and cuticle thickness on leaf surface.

  6. Effect of anatomical and chemical structure in the permeability of "Amapá" wood

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    Edy Eime Pereira Baraúna

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper aimed to study the permeability to air and liquid, in the longitudinal direction of "amapá" wood (Brosimum parinarioides Ducke, originating from the Amazon Forest. Furthermore, the influence of anatomical and chemical characteristics in the permeability of the wood was investigated. For this study, samples were collected from three trees, in the state of Pará, Brazil, and submitted to permeability test, anatomical characterization, and chemical analyses. The permeability to the air of the "amapá" wood was estimated at 63.7.10-9 m3.[m.(N.m-2.s]-1 and to the liquid was 2.07.10-9 m3.[m.(N.m-2.s]-1. There were low correlations between air and liquid permeability and the anatomical features.

  7. Combined anterolateral ligament and anatomic anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction of the knee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, James O; Yasen, Sam K; Lord, Breck; Wilson, Adrian J

    2015-11-01

    Although anatomic anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction is established for the surgical treatment of anterolateral knee instability, there remains a significant cohort of patients who continue to experience post-operative instability. Recent advances in our understanding of the anatomic, biomechanical and radiological characteristics of the native anterolateral ligament (ALL) of the knee have led to a resurgent interest in reconstruction of this structure as part of the management of knee instability. This technical note describes our readily reproducible combined minimally invasive technique to reconstruct both the ACL and ALL anatomically using autologous semitendinosus and gracilis grafts. This method of ALL reconstruction can be easily integrated with all-inside ACL reconstruction, requiring minimal additional operative time, equipment and expertise. Level of evidence V.

  8. LEAF ANATOMICAL VARIATION IN RELATION TO STRESS TOLERANCE AMONG SOME WOODY SPECIES ON THE ACCRA PLAINS OF GHANA

    OpenAIRE

    DZOMEKU BELOVED MENSAH

    2012-01-01

    Leaf anatomical study was conducted on some woody species on the Accra Plains of Ghana. Leaf epidermal strips and transverse sections were mounted in Canada balsam and studied. The anatomical studies revealed numerous stomata on the lower epidermis of Azadirachta indica. The anatomical studies revealed the presence of thick cuticles, double-layered palisade mesophyll in most species and the presence of epidermal hairs in some species. Ficus capensis showed the presence of cystolith in the low...

  9. Multivariate pattern analysis reveals anatomical connectivity differences between the left and right mesial temporal lobe epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Fang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have demonstrated differences of clinical signs and functional brain network organizations between the left and right mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (mTLE, but the anatomical connectivity differences underlying functional variance between the left and right mTLE remain uncharacterized. We examined 43 (22 left, 21 right mTLE patients with hippocampal sclerosis and 39 healthy controls using diffusion tensor imaging. After the whole-brain anatomical networks were constructed for each subject, multivariate pattern analysis was applied to classify the left mTLE from the right mTLE and extract the anatomical connectivity differences between the left and right mTLE patients. The classification results reveal 93.0% accuracy for the left mTLE versus the right mTLE, 93.4% accuracy for the left mTLE versus controls and 90.0% accuracy for the right mTLE versus controls. Compared with the right mTLE, the left mTLE exhibited a different connectivity pattern in the cortical-limbic network and cerebellum. The majority of the most discriminating anatomical connections were located within or across the cortical-limbic network and cerebellum, thereby indicating that these disease-related anatomical network alterations may give rise to a portion of the complex of emotional and memory deficit between the left and right mTLE. Moreover, the orbitofrontal gyrus, cingulate cortex, hippocampus and parahippocampal gyrus, which exhibit high discriminative power in classification, may play critical roles in the pathophysiology of mTLE. The current study demonstrated that anatomical connectivity differences between the left mTLE and the right mTLE may have the potential to serve as a neuroimaging biomarker to guide personalized diagnosis of the left and right mTLE.

  10. Anatomical background noise power spectrum in differential phase contrast breast images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrett, John; Ge, Yongshuai; Li, Ke; Chen, Guang-Hong

    2015-03-01

    In x-ray breast imaging, the anatomical noise background of the breast has a significant impact on the detection of lesions and other features of interest. This anatomical noise is typically characterized by a parameter, β, which describes a power law dependence of anatomical noise on spatial frequency (the shape of the anatomical noise power spectrum). Large values of β have been shown to reduce human detection performance, and in conventional mammography typical values of β are around 3.2. Recently, x-ray differential phase contrast (DPC) and the associated dark field imaging methods have received considerable attention as possible supplements to absorption imaging for breast cancer diagnosis. However, the impact of these additional contrast mechanisms on lesion detection is not yet well understood. In order to better understand the utility of these new methods, we measured the β indices for absorption, DPC, and dark field images in 15 cadaver breast specimens using a benchtop DPC imaging system. We found that the measured β value for absorption was consistent with the literature for mammographic acquisitions (β = 3.61±0.49), but that both DPC and dark field images had much lower values of β (β = 2.54±0.75 for DPC and β = 1.44±0.49 for dark field). In addition, visual inspection showed greatly reduced anatomical background in both DPC and dark field images. These promising results suggest that DPC and dark field imaging may help provide improved lesion detection in breast imaging, particularly for those patients with dense breasts, in whom anatomical noise is a major limiting factor in identifying malignancies.

  11. ANATOMICAL VARIATIONS IN SINONASAL REGION IN CASES OF SINUS HEADACHE - CT SCAN - PNS STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arun Kumar

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Sinus headache secondary to Chronic Rhinosinusitis refers to episode of pain over the sinus area of the face and is often associated with nasal congestion, rhinorrhea, facial pressure, lacrimation, nausea and sensory sensitivity. Any small lesions or anatomical variations over lateral wall of nose may giv e rise to sinus headache. CT scan play a vital role in accurate assessment of osteomeatal complex area and anatomical variations at this site. AIM: To study anatomical variations of osteomeatal complex area and deviated septum in cases of chronic sinus hea dache secondary to Chronic Rhinosinusitis. MATERIALS AND METHODS : This study was conducted in Jhalawar Medical College, ENT Department between Sept. 2012 to Dec. 2014. In this study 75 patients withchronic sinus headache was selected who had chronic headac he for more than 3 months duration not responding to medical line of treatment and who were willing to undergo function endoscopic sinus surgery. All patients underwent for CT scan para nasal sinus. RESULT: In this study deviated nasal septum was found in 77.33% patients, apart from that it was observed that 54.66% of the sinus headache cases had two or more anatomical variations and 28% had single anatomical variations, out of them commonest finding is concha bullosa followed by enlarge bulla ethmoid, para doxical middle turbinate, medialiseduncinate process, lateraliseduncinate process, prominent aggar nasi cells, haller cells and onodi cells in decreasing order . CONCLUSION: The study of CT scan PNS conclude that Deviated Nasal Septum and anatomical variati ons at lateral wall of nose causes narrowing of osteomeatal complex area which predisposed patients to sino nasal disease and sinus headache

  12. The Application of an Anatomical Database for Fetal Congenital Heart Disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Yang; Qiu-Yan Pei; Yun-Tao Li; Zhen-Juan Yang

    2015-01-01

    Background:Fetal congenital heart anomalies are the most common congenital anomalies in live births.Fetal echocardiography (FECG) is the only prenatal diagnostic approach used to detect fetal congenital heart disease (CHD).FECG is not widely used,and the antenatal diagnosis rate of CHD varies considerably.Thus,mastering the anatomical characteristics of different kinds of CHD is critical for ultrasound physicians to improve FECG technology.The aim of this study is to investigate the applications of a fetal CHD anatomic database in FECG teaching and training program.Methods:We evaluated 60 transverse section databases including 27 types of fetal CHD built in the Prenatal Diagnosis Center in Peking University People's Hospital.Each original database contained 400-700 cross-sectional digital images with a resolution of 3744 pixels × 5616 pixels.We imported the database into Amira 5.3.1 (Australia Visage Imaging Company,Australia) three-dimensional (3D) software.The database functions use a series of 3D software visual operations.The features of the fetal CHD anatomical database were analyzed to determine its applications in FECG continuing education and training.Results:The database was rebuilt using the 3D software.The original and rebuilt databases can be displayed dynamically,continuously,and synchronically and can be rotated at arbitrary angles.The sections from the dynamic displays and rotating angles are consistent with the sections in FECG.The database successfully reproduced the anatomic structures and spatial relationship features of different fetal CHDs.We established a fetal CHD anatomy training database and a standardized training database for FECG.Ultrasound physicians and students can learn the anatomical features of fetal CHD and FECG through either centralized training or distance education.Conclusions:The database of fetal CHD successfully reproduced the anatomic structures and spatial relationship of different kinds of fetal CHD.This database can be

  13. The diaphragm as an anatomic surrogate for lung tumor motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerviño, Laura I.; Chao, Alvin K. Y.; Sandhu, Ajay; Jiang, Steve B.

    2009-06-01

    Lung tumor motion due to respiration poses a challenge in the application of modern three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy. Direct tracking of the lung tumor during radiation therapy is very difficult without implanted fiducial markers. Indirect tracking relies on the correlation of the tumor's motion and the surrogate's motion. The present paper presents an analysis of the correlation between tumor motion and diaphragm motion in order to evaluate the potential use of diaphragm as a surrogate for tumor motion. We have analyzed the correlation between diaphragm motion and superior-inferior lung tumor motion in 32 fluoroscopic image sequences from ten lung cancer patients. A simple linear model and a more complex linear model that accounts for phase delays between the two motions have been used. Results show that the diaphragm is a good surrogate for tumor motion prediction for most patients, resulting in an average correlation factor of 0.94 and 0.98 with each model respectively. The model that accounts for delays leads to an average localization prediction error of 0.8 mm and an error at the 95% confidence level of 2.1 mm. However, for one patient studied, the correlation is much weaker compared to other patients. This indicates that, before using diaphragm for lung tumor prediction, the correlation should be examined on a patient-by-patient basis.

  14. Anatomical pathways involved in generating and sensing rhythmic whisker movements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.W.J. Bosman (Laurens); A.R. Houweling (Arthur); C.B. Owens (Cullen); N. Tanke (Nouk); O.T. Shevchouk (Olesya); N. Rahmati (Negah); W.H.T. Teunissen (Wouter); C. Ju (Chiheng); W. Gong (Wei); S.K.E. Koekkoek (Bas); C.I. de Zeeuw (Chris)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractThe rodent whisker system is widely used as a model system for investigating sensorimotor integration, neural mechanisms of complex cognitive tasks, neural development, and robotics. The whisker pathways to the barrel cortex have received considerable attention. However, many subcortical

  15. Diaphragm as an anatomic surrogate for lung tumor motion

    CERN Document Server

    Cervino, Laura I; Sandhu, Ajay; Jiang, Steve B

    2009-01-01

    Lung tumor motion due to respiration poses a challenge in the application of modern three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy. Direct tracking of the lung tumor during radiation therapy is very difficult without implanted fiducial markers. Indirect tracking relies on the correlation of the tumor's motion and the surrogate's motion. The present paper presents an analysis of the correlation between the tumor motion and the diaphragm motion in order to evaluate the potential use of diaphragm as a surrogate for tumor motion. We have analyzed the correlation between diaphragm motion and superior-inferior lung tumor motion in 32 fluoroscopic image sequences from 10 lung cancer patients. A simple linear model and a more complex linear model that accounts for phase delays between the two motions have been used. Results show that the diaphragm is a good surrogate for tumor motion prediction for most patients, resulting in an average correlation factor of 0.94 and 0.98 with each model respectively. The model that accoun...

  16. Understanding the current anatomical competence landscape: Comparing perceptions of program directors, residents, and fourth-year medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fillmore, Erin P; Brokaw, James J; Kochhar, Komal; Nalin, Peter M

    2016-07-01

    A mixed methods survey of fourth-year medical students, resident physicians, and residency program directors at the Indiana University School of Medicine gathered perceptions of anatomical competence-defined as the anatomical education necessary for effective clinical practice. The survey items explored numerous aspects of anatomical competence, including the most effective modes of instruction, perceptions of readiness for clinical practice, and specific suggestions for improving anatomical education during medical school and residency. The response rate was 46% for fourth-year medical students, 47% for residents (as graduates from 137 medical schools), and 71% for program directors. A majority of students and residents reported that their course in Gross Anatomy prepared them well for clinical practice; that cadaveric dissection was important in the early development of their anatomical competence; and that placing a greater emphasis on clinical relevance in medical school would have improved their anatomical competence even further. However, in terms of anatomical preparedness upon entering residency, the program directors rated their residents less prepared than the residents rated themselves. All three groups agreed that there is need for additional opportunities for anatomical educational during medical school and residency. Suggestions for improving anatomical education included the following: providing more opportunities for cadaveric dissection during medical school and residency; more consistent teaching of anatomy for clinical practice; more workshops that review anatomy; and better integration of anatomy with the teaching of other subjects during medical school. Anat Sci Educ 9: 307-318. © 2015 American Association of Anatomists. PMID:26632977

  17. Understanding the current anatomical competence landscape: Comparing perceptions of program directors, residents, and fourth-year medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fillmore, Erin P; Brokaw, James J; Kochhar, Komal; Nalin, Peter M

    2016-07-01

    A mixed methods survey of fourth-year medical students, resident physicians, and residency program directors at the Indiana University School of Medicine gathered perceptions of anatomical competence-defined as the anatomical education necessary for effective clinical practice. The survey items explored numerous aspects of anatomical competence, including the most effective modes of instruction, perceptions of readiness for clinical practice, and specific suggestions for improving anatomical education during medical school and residency. The response rate was 46% for fourth-year medical students, 47% for residents (as graduates from 137 medical schools), and 71% for program directors. A majority of students and residents reported that their course in Gross Anatomy prepared them well for clinical practice; that cadaveric dissection was important in the early development of their anatomical competence; and that placing a greater emphasis on clinical relevance in medical school would have improved their anatomical competence even further. However, in terms of anatomical preparedness upon entering residency, the program directors rated their residents less prepared than the residents rated themselves. All three groups agreed that there is need for additional opportunities for anatomical educational during medical school and residency. Suggestions for improving anatomical education included the following: providing more opportunities for cadaveric dissection during medical school and residency; more consistent teaching of anatomy for clinical practice; more workshops that review anatomy; and better integration of anatomy with the teaching of other subjects during medical school. Anat Sci Educ 9: 307-318. © 2015 American Association of Anatomists.

  18. An essay concerning human understanding: how the cerebri anatome of Thomas Willis influenced John Locke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lega, Bradley C

    2006-03-01

    Neurosurgeons are familiar with the anatomic investigations of Thomas Willis, but his intellectual legacy actually extends into the arena of philosophy. John Locke was a student of Willis while at Oxford, and this essay explores how some of Willis's anatomic discoveries might have influenced the ideas Locke expressed in his Essay Concerning Human Understanding. It also includes historical information about 17th century England and the group of men (including Christopher Wren and Robert Boyle) who worked with Willis and founded the Oxford Experimental Philosophy Club, which became the Royal Society.

  19. Ossification in the cephalic attachment of the ligamentum flavum: an anatomical and CT study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A review of 50 anatomical specimens and 100 routine CT scans of the chest and abdomen demonstrated that ossification in the cephalic attachment of the ligamentum flavum is a common anatomical finding, but not as common on CT. Examination of hospital charts and plain radiographs of 26 patients with such ossification suggests that it is probably a normal variant; there was no evidence that it is related to diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis (DISH) or inflammatory arthropathy. Marked ossification may cause or contribute to neurological symptoms

  20. Ossification in the caudal attachments of the ligamentum flavum: an anatomic and computed tomographic study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A review of anatomic specimens and routine computed tomographic (CT) scans of the chest and abdomen demonstrated that ossification in the caudal attachments of the ligamentum flavum is a common anatomic finding, but a much less common CT finding. Its characteristic location should help prevent confusion with other entities. The present study was prompted by a case of thoracic spine trauma, reported here, in which areas of bone density in the spinal canal simulated fracture fragments. The true nature of these bony projections, namely ossification in the ligamentum flavum, was established by computer reconstruction of axial CT images

  1. Validation of Setaria (L. P. Beauv Species based on Palyonological and Anatomical Techniques.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul nazir

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In present study external morphology, leaf epidermal anatomy and pollen structureof three species of genus Setaria(Poaceaeviz., S. glauca, S. verticillata and S. viridiswere studied. The major emphasis was on the importance of palyno-anatomical characters used as an aid in plant systematics. Light microscopy (LM and scanning electron microscopy (SEMwere used to study leaf epidermal anatomy and pollen structure.Palyno-anatomical analysis of genus Setaria shows variations within the species. It is stated that the study based on classical and modern approaches is very useful for systematic delimitation of problematic taxa like Setaria.

  2. La anatomía comparada: su vigencia como programa de investigación

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdala, Virginia

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available En los círculos científicos actuales predomina la idea de que la anatomía es casi un anacronismo victoriano, salvo en el contexto de proveedora de caracteres para análisis filogenéticos. Esta estimación del rol de la anatomía como una actividad subordinada lleva implícita la idea de que no se trata más de una disciplina científica. Que probablemente lo haya sido, pero que no merece más ese status.

  3. Cognitive and anatomic double dissociation in the representation of concrete and abstract words in semantic variant and behavioral variant frontotemporal degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cousins, Katheryn A Q; York, Collin; Bauer, Laura; Grossman, Murray

    2016-04-01

    We examine the anatomic basis for abstract and concrete lexical representations in semantic memory by assessing patients with focal neurodegenerative disease. Prior evidence from healthy adult studies suggests that there may be an anatomical dissociation between abstract and concrete representations: abstract words more strongly activate the left inferior frontal gyrus relative to concrete words, while concrete words more strongly activate left anterior-inferior temporal regions. However, this double dissociation has not been directly examined. We test this dissociation in two patient groups with focal cortical atrophy in each of these regions, the behavioral variant of Frontotemporal Degeneration (bvFTD) and the semantic variant of Primary Progressive Aphasia (svPPA). We administered an associativity judgment task for abstract and concrete words, where subjects select which of two words is best associated with a given target word. Both bvFTD and svPPA patients were significantly impaired in their overall performance compared to controls. While controls treated concrete and abstract words equally, we found a category-specific double dissociation in patients' judgments: bvFTD patients showed a concreteness effect (CE), with significantly worse performance for abstract compared to concrete words, while svPPA patients showed reversal of the CE, with significantly worse performance for concrete over abstract words. Regression analyses also revealed an anatomic double dissociation: The CE is associated with inferior frontal atrophy in bvFTD, while reversal of the CE is associated with left anterior-inferior temporal atrophy in svPPA. These results support a cognitive and anatomic model of semantic memory organization where abstract and concrete representations are supported by dissociable neuroanatomic substrates.

  4. Plastination technology for anatomical studies in Nigeria: Opinion of teachers at medical institutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onyemaechi O. Azu

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Dr. Gunther von Hagens developed plastination as a technique of tissue preservation in 1977. He used a delicate method of forced impregnation with curable polymers like silicone, epoxy or polyester resins for preservation of anatomical specimens. With plastination, every part of a biological tissue is treated, preserving it for educational purposes. Hence, there are vast applications in the medical field. We set out to survey the knowledge and opinion of lecturers of anatomy about plastinated specimen use in medical schools through the administration of questionnaires to respondents who participated at the Society of Experimental and Clinical Anatomists of Nigeria (SECAN conference in 2011. It was found that 50.0%and 23.75%of respondents respectively, had their masters and doctorate degrees in Anatomy. Less than 8.0% utilised plastination as a tool for teaching as against 40%(plastic models, 36.25%(cadavers and 15.0%(pathology pots. Conventional methods such as fixation by immersion (15.0% and embalming (52.5% with formaldehyde were commonly used for long term preservation of tissues in their various institutions. These methods were found to be less costly (25.0%, easy to use (56.25% and the only method (12.25% available, even though they posed some health hazards (96.0%. Whilst only 6.25%of the respondents did not know anything about plastination, 93.75%were aware of it. The advocacy for preservation of tissues by plastination has been gradual in developed countries. We recommend the use of plastinates in medical schools in Nigeria.

  5. Adaptive algorithms to map how brain trauma affects anatomical connectivity in children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennis, Emily L.; Prasad, Gautam; Babikian, Talin; Kernan, Claudia; Mink, Richard; Babbitt, Christopher; Johnson, Jeffrey; Giza, Christopher C.; Asarnow, Robert F.; Thompson, Paul M.

    2015-12-01

    Deficits in white matter (WM) integrity occur following traumatic brain injury (TBI), and often persist long after the visible scars have healed. Heterogeneity in injury types and locations can complicate analyses, making it harder to discover common biomarkers for tracking recovery. Here we apply a newly developed adaptive connectivity method, EPIC (evolving partitions to improve connectomics) to identify differences in structural connectivity that persist longitudinally. This data comes from a longitudinal study, in which we scanned participants (aged 8-19 years) with anatomical and diffusion MRI in both the post-acute and chronic phases (1-6 months and 13-19 months post-injury). To identify patterns of abnormal connectivity, we trained a model on data from 32 TBI patients in the post-acute phase and 45 well-matched healthy controls, reducing an initial 68x68 connectivity matrix to a 14x14 matrix. We then applied this reduced parcellation to the chronic data in participants who had returned for their chronic assessment (21 TBI and 26 healthy controls) and tested for group differences. We found significant differences in two connections, comprising callosal fibers and long anterior-posterior fibers, with the TBI group showing increased fiber density relative to controls. Longitudinal analysis revealed that these were connections that were decreasing over time in the healthy controls, as is a common developmental phenomenon, but they were increasing in the TBI group. While we cannot definitively tell why this may occur with our current data, this study provides targets for longitudinal tracking, and poses questions for future investigation.

  6. Temperature anomaly detection and estimation using microwave radiometry and anatomical information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Patrick; Sobers, Tamara; St. Peter, Benjamin; Siqueira, Paul; Capraro, Geoffrey

    2011-03-01

    Many medically significant conditions (e.g., ischemia, carcinoma and inflammation) involve localized anomalies in physiological parameters such as the metabolic and blood perfusion rates. These in turn lead to deviations from normal tissue temperature patterns. Microwave radiometry is a passive system for sensing the radiation that objects emit naturally in the microwave frequency band. Since the emitted power depends on temperature, and since radiation at low microwave frequencies can propagate through several centimeters of tissue, microwave radiometry has the potential to provide valuable information about subcutaneous anomalies. The radiometric temperature measurement for a tissue region can be modeled as the inner product of the temperature pattern and a weighting function that depends on tissue properties and the radiometer's antenna. In the absence of knowledge of the weighting functions, it can be difficult to extract specific information about tissue temperature patterns (or the underlying physiological parameters) from the measurements. In this paper, we consider a scenario in which microwave radiometry works in conjunction with another imaging modality (e.g., 3D-CT or MRI) that provides detailed anatomical information. This information is used along with sensor properties in electromagnetic simulation software to generate weighting functions. It also is used in bio-heat equations to generate nominal tissue temperature patterns. We then develop a hypothesis testing framework that makes use of the weighting functions, nominal temperature patterns, and maximum likelihood estimates to detect anomalies. Simulation results are presented to illustrate the proposed detection procedures. The design and performance of an S-band (2-4 GHz) radiometer, and some of the challenges in using such a radiometer for temperature measurements deep in tissue, are also discussed.

  7. Printed Three-dimensional Anatomic Templates for Virtual Preoperative Planning Before Reconstruction of Old Pelvic Injuries: Initial Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin-Bao Wu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Old pelvis fractures are among the most challenging fractures to treat because of their complex anatomy, difficult-to-access surgical sites, and the relatively low incidence of such cases. Proper evaluation and surgical planning are necessary to achieve the pelvic ring symmetry and stable fixation of the fracture. The goal of this study was to assess the use of three-dimensional (3D printing techniques for surgical management of old pelvic fractures. Methods: First, 16 dried human cadaveric pelvises were used to confirm the anatomical accuracy of the 3D models printed based on radiographic data. Next, nine clinical cases between January 2009 and April 2013 were used to evaluate the surgical reconstruction based on the 3D printed models. The pelvic injuries were all type C, and the average time from injury to reconstruction was 11 weeks (range: 8-17 weeks. The workflow consisted of: (1 Printing patient-specific bone models based on preoperative computed tomography (CT scans, (2 virtual fracture reduction using the printed 3D anatomic template, (3 virtual fracture fixation using Kirschner wires, and (4 preoperatively measuring the osteotomy and implant position relative to landmarks using the virtually defined deformation. These models aided communication between surgical team members during the procedure. This technique was validated by comparing the preoperative planning to the intraoperative procedure. Results: The accuracy of the 3D printed models was within specification. Production of a model from standard CT DICOM data took 7 hours (range: 6-9 hours. Preoperative planning using the 3D printed models was feasible in all cases. Good correlation was found between the preoperative planning and postoperative follow-up X-ray in all nine cases. The patients were followed for 3-29 months (median: 5 months. The fracture healing time was 9-17 weeks (mean: 10 weeks. No delayed incision healing, wound infection, or nonunions occurred. The

  8. Printed Three-dimensional Anatomic Templates for Virtual Preoperative Planning Before Reconstruction of Old Pelvic Injuries: Initial Results

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xin-Bao Wu; Jun-Qiang Wang; Chun-Peng Zhao; Xu Sun; Yin Shi; Zi-An Zhang; Yu-Neng Li

    2015-01-01

    Background:Old pelvis fractures are among the most challenging fractures to treat because of their complex anatomy,difficult-to-access surgical sites,and the relatively low incidence of such cases.Proper evaluation and surgical planning are necessary to achieve the pelvic ring symmetry and stable fixation of the fracture.The goal of this study was to assess the use of three-dimensional (3D) printing techniques for surgical management of old pelvic fractures.Methods:First,16 dried human cadaveric pelvises were used to confirm the anatomical accuracy of the 3D models printed based on radiographic data.Next,nine clinical cases between January 2009 and April 2013 were used to evaluate the surgical reconstruction based on the 3D printed models.The pelvic injuries were all type C,and the average time from injury to reconstruction was 11 weeks (range:8-17 weeks).The workflow consisted of.:(1) Printing patient-specific bone models based on preoperative computed tomography (CT) scans,(2) virtual fracture reduction using the printed 3D anatomic template,(3) virtual fracture fixation using Kirschner wires,and (4) preoperatively measuring the osteotomy and implant position relative to landmarks using the virtually defined deformation.These models aided communication between surgical team members during the procedure.This technique was validated by comparing the preoperative planning to the intraoperative procedure.Results:The accuracy of the 3D printed models was within specification.Production of a model from standard CT DICOM data took 7 hours (range:6-9 hours).Preoperative planning using the 3D printed models was feasible in all cases.Good correlation was found between the preoperative planning and postoperative follow-up X-ray in all nine cases.The patients were followed for 3-29 months (median:5 months).The fracture healing time was 9-17 weeks (mean:l0 weeks).No delayed incision healing,wound infection,or nonunions occurred.The results were excellent in two cases,good in

  9. The spatial rhetoric of Gustav Zeiller's popular anatomical museum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fakiner, Nike

    2016-01-01

    This article focuses on the public experience of science by studying the exhibition practice of a small popular anatomy museum. The owner, Gustav Zeiller, a little-known German model maker and entrepreneur, opened his private collection in Dresden in 1888 with the aim of providing experts and laymen alike with a scientific education on bodily matters and health care. The spatial configuration of his museum environment turned the wax models into didactic instruments. Relying on the possible connexion between material culture studies and history of the emotions, this article highlights how Zeiller choreographed the encounter between the museum objects and its visitors. I argue that the spatial set up of his museum objects entailed rhetorical choices that did not simply address the social utility of his museum. Moreover, it fulfilled the aim of modifying the emotional disposition of his intended spectatorship. I hope to show that studying the emotional responses toward artefacts can offer a fruitful approach to examine the public experience of medicine.

  10. The spatial rhetoric of Gustav Zeiller's popular anatomical museum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fakiner, Nike

    2016-01-01

    This article focuses on the public experience of science by studying the exhibition practice of a small popular anatomy museum. The owner, Gustav Zeiller, a little-known German model maker and entrepreneur, opened his private collection in Dresden in 1888 with the aim of providing experts and laymen alike with a scientific education on bodily matters and health care. The spatial configuration of his museum environment turned the wax models into didactic instruments. Relying on the possible connexion between material culture studies and history of the emotions, this article highlights how Zeiller choreographed the encounter between the museum objects and its visitors. I argue that the spatial set up of his museum objects entailed rhetorical choices that did not simply address the social utility of his museum. Moreover, it fulfilled the aim of modifying the emotional disposition of his intended spectatorship. I hope to show that studying the emotional responses toward artefacts can offer a fruitful approach to examine the public experience of medicine. PMID:27363244

  11. A novel method to quantify and compare anatomical shape: application in cervix cancer radiotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Seungjong; Jaffray, David; Cho, Young-Bin

    2014-06-01

    Adaptive radiation therapy (ART) had been proposed to restore dosimetric deficiencies during treatment delivery. In this paper, we developed a technique of Geometric reLocation for analyzing anatomical OBjects' Evolution (GLOBE) for a numerical model of tumor evolution under radiation therapy and characterized geometric changes of the target using GLOBE. A total of 174 clinical target volumes (CTVs) obtained from 32 cervical cancer patients were analyzed. GLOBE consists of three main steps; step (1) deforming a 3D surface object to a sphere by parametric active contour (PAC), step (2) sampling a deformed PAC on 642 nodes of icosahedron geodesic dome for reference frame, and step (3) unfolding 3D data to 2D plane for convenient visualization and analysis. The performance was evaluated with respect to (1) convergence of deformation (iteration number and computation time) and (2) accuracy of deformation (residual deformation). Based on deformation vectors from planning CTV to weekly CTVs, target specific (TS) margins were calculated on each sampled node of GLOBE and the systematic (Σ) and random (σ) variations of the vectors were calculated. Population based anisotropic (PBA) margins were generated using van Herk's margin recipe. GLOBE successfully modeled 152 CTVs from 28 patients. Fast convergence was observed for most cases (137/152) with the iteration number of 65 ± 74 (average ± STD) and the computation time of 13.7 ± 18.6 min. Residual deformation of PAC was 0.9 ± 0.7 mm and more than 97% was less than 3 mm. Margin analysis showed random nature of TS-margin. As a consequence, PBA-margins perform similarly to ISO-margins. For example, PBA-margins for 90% patients' coverage with 95% dose level is close to 13 mm ISO-margins in the aspect of target coverage and OAR sparing. GLOBE demonstrates a systematic analysis of tumor motion and deformation of patients with cervix cancer during radiation therapy and numerical modeling of PBA-margin on 642 locations of CTV

  12. Curricular response to increase recall and transfer of anatomical knowledge into the obstetrics/gynecology clerkship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurjus, Rosalyn A; Brown, Kirsten; Goldman, Ellen; Galoosian, Artin; Butera, Gisela; Krapf, Jill M

    2016-07-01

    Deficits in retention of anatomy knowledge from the preclinical years to clinical application on the wards have been well documented in the medical education literature. We developed and evaluated a web and laboratory-based curriculum to address deficits in anatomy knowledge retention and to increase anatomy knowledge recall through repetition and application of clinical concepts during the obstetrics and gynecology (Ob/Gyn) core clinical clerkship. Using principles of adult learning and instructional design, a curriculum was designed consisting of (1) interactive, case-based e-modules reviewing clinically relevant anatomical topics and (2) a hands-on laboratory session reinforcing the content of the e-modules, with the practice of clinical techniques using anatomical cadaveric dissections. The curriculum's effectiveness was evaluated by using multiple choice testing and comparing baseline and final test scores. For questions testing content directly covered in this curriculum, mean final scores increased by 14.3% (P improvement, P = 0.002). A curriculum with web-based preparatory material and a hands-on gross anatomy laboratory session effectively addresses deficits in anatomy retention and improves anatomical knowledge recall for medical students on a clinical clerkship. In the future, the authors plan to conduct a multicenter study to further evaluate the ability of this curriculum to improve clinically relevant anatomical knowledge. Anat Sci Educ 9: 337-343. © 2015 American Association of Anatomists. PMID:26588426

  13. SOME HISTO-ANATOMICAL ASPECTS CONCERNING THE LEAF STRUCTURE OF BASELLA ALBA AND BASELLA RUBRA

    OpenAIRE

    BUSUIOC GABRIELA; IFRIM CAMELIA

    2004-01-01

    We analyze the histo-anatomical peculiarities leaf of two Basella species cultivated in the Botanical Garden of Iasi (Romania). The aim of the papers is to identifying their leaf characteristics which is tipically for Basellaceae family and the differences between this two species who was observed on the studied material.

  14. SOME HISTO-ANATOMICAL ASPECTS CONCERNING THE LEAF STRUCTURE OF BASELLA ALBA AND BASELLA RUBRA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BUSUIOC GABRIELA

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available We analyze the histo-anatomical peculiarities leaf of two Basella species cultivated in the Botanical Garden of Iasi (Romania. The aim of the papers is to identifying their leaf characteristics which is tipically for Basellaceae family and the differences between this two species who was observed on the studied material.

  15. MORPHOLOGICAL AND ANATOMICAL STUDY OF SHOOTS OF JUNIPERUS COMMUNIS L. FROM CUPRESSACEAE FAMILY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. K. Serebryanaya

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We have conducted morphological and anatomical studies of Juniperus communis, revealed diagnostic indices of the stamina, stalk, and needle. The leaf is sessile, linear awe shaped, pointed. Stalk form at cross section is cylindrical. Needles are lanceolar with one whitish vertical stripe, with paracytic stomata. 

  16. Anatomic atlas for computed tomography in the mesaticephalic dog: caudal abdomen and pelvis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study was to produce a comprehensive anatomic atlas of CT anatomy of the dog for use by veterinary radiologists, clinicians, and surgeons. Whole-body CT images of two mature beagle dogs were made with the dogs supported in sternal recumbency and using a slice thickness of 13 mm. At the end of the CT session, each dog was euthanized, and while carefully maintaining the same position, the body was frozen. The body was then sectioned at 13-mm intervals, with the cuts matched as closely as possible to the CT slices. The frozen sections were cleaned, photographed, and radiographed using xeroradiography. Each CT image was studied and compared with its corresponding xeroradiograph and anatomic section to assist in the accurate identification of specific structures. Clinically relevant anatomic structures were identified and labeled in the three corresponding photographs (CT image, xeroradiograph, and anatomic section). In previous papers, the head and neck, and the thorax and cranial abdomen of the mesaticephalic (beagle) dog were presented. In this paper, the caudal part of the abdomen and pelvis of the bitch and male dog are presented

  17. Anatomically guided voxel-based partial volume effect correction in brain PET : Impact of MRI segmentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gutierrez, Daniel; Montandon, Marie-Louise; Assal, Frederic; Allaoua, Mohamed; Ratib, Osman; Loevblad, Karl-Olof; Zaidi, Habib

    2012-01-01

    Partial volume effect is still considered one of the main limitations in brain PET imaging given the limited spatial resolution of current generation PET scanners. The accuracy of anatomically guided partial volume effect correction (PVC) algorithms in brain PET is largely dependent on the performan

  18. Functional biomechanical performance of a novel anatomically shaped polycarbonate urethane total meniscus replacement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vrancken, A.C.T.; Eggermont, F.; Tienen, van T.G.; Hannink, G.; Buma, P.; Janssen, D.; Verdonschot, N.J.J.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the functional biomechanical performance of a novel anatomically shaped, polycarbonate urethane total meniscus implant. Methods: Five human cadaveric knees were flexed between 0° and 90° under compressive loads mimicking a squat movement. Anteroposterior (AP) laxity tests were

  19. Anatomic correction of ALCAPA in an adult presenting with sudden cardiac death

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simry, Walid; Afifi, Ahmed; Hosny, Hatem; Elguindy, Ahmed; Yacoub, Magdi

    2015-01-01

    We report on a young adult with ALCAPA, who was successfully resuscitated after collapsing in ventricular fibrillation while playing football. This was followed by anatomical correction of the anomaly with a smooth recovery and return to his daily activities. The advantages of this approach are discussed in this brief report. PMID:26779521

  20. An Anatomical Study on the Foramen Ovale and the Foramen Spinosum

    OpenAIRE

    Khairnar, Karan Bhagwawan; Bhusari, Prashant Amanrao

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: An anatomical study was undertaken to note the shape of the foramen ovale(FO), foramen spinosum (FS) & presence or absence of canalis innominatus. FO is present in the posterior part of the greater wing of sphenoid. FS is located posterolareral to foramen ovale.

  1. Anatomical structure of pericarp in Gladiolus imbricatus L. and Iris sibirica L. (Iridaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christyna Skrypec

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The study of anatomical structure of pericarp in Gladiolus imbricatus reveals that this species has a capsule of Lilium-type, with effective mechanism of dehiscence. While Iris sibiriса has a capsule of Galanthus-type with reduced mechanism of dehiscence.

  2. An Improved Medical Image Fusion Algorithm for Anatomical and Functional Medical Images

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Mei-ling; TAO Ling; QIAN Zhi-yu

    2009-01-01

    In recent years,many medical image fusion methods had been exploited to derive useful information from multimodality medical image data,but,not an appropriate fusion algorithm for anatomical and functional medical images.In this paper,the traditional method of wavelet fusion is improved and a new fusion algorithm of anatomical and functional medical images,in which high-frequency and low-frequency coefficients are studied respectively.When choosing high-frequency coefficients,the global gradient of each sub-image is calculated to realize adaptive fusion,so that the fused image can reserve the functional information;while choosing the low coefficients is based on the analysis of the neighborbood region energy,so that the fused image can reserve the anatomical image's edge and texture feature.Experimental results and the quality evaluation parameters show that the improved fusion algorithm can enhance the edge and texture feature and retain the function information and anatomical information effectively.

  3. Anatomical characterization of cytoglobin and neuroglobin mRNA and protein expression in the mouse brain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hundahl, Christian Ansgar; Allen, Gregg C; Hannibal, Jens;

    2010-01-01

    The present study aimed at characterizing the anatomical and subcellular localization of cytoglobin (Cygb) and neuroglobin (Ngb) in the mouse brain by use of in situ hybridisation, immunohistochemistry and immunoelectron microscopy. Cygb and Ngb were only found in distinct brain areas and often in...

  4. Topographic-anatomical peculiarities of the larynx in fetal period of embryogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popelyuk O.-M.V.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The dynamics of morphogenesis and syntopia of human larynx in connection with organization of adjacent structures was studied. The development and changes of topographic-anatomical correlation of larynx with adjacent structures was researched successively, the formation of its shape, structural organization, the influence of blood vessels and nerves on mentioned area was determined during the fetal period of human ontogenesis.

  5. Anatomical Variations of Anterior Osteomeatal Complex in Patients With Chronic Sinusitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarafraz

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background Identifying predisposing factors for chronic sinusitis is very important. Objectives Anatomical variation of the lateral nasal wall has been investigated in several studies and it has been suggested as a predisposing factor for sinusitis. Patients and Methods In this case-control study, 74 patients who were diagnosed with chronic sinusitis (the case group based on clinical criteria and CT scan were entered into the study and 74 patients without chronic sinusitis were considered as the control group. CT scans of all patients were reviewed by a radiologist to interpret and evaluate anatomic variations of anterior osteomeatal complex including nasal deviation, concha bullosa, agger nasi, lateralized uncinate, Haller’s cells, paradoxical middle turbinate, and maxillary hypoplasia. Data were analyzed using the chi-squared test and Fisher’s exact test with SPSS software version 18. P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results Results showed that the most common sinus involved was maxillary sinus. Among anatomic variations, septal deviation and concha bullosa were associated with chronic sinusitis (P < 0.01 and P < 0.032, respectively. Conclusions Among anatomic variations, septal deviation and concha bullosa are predisposing factors for chronic sinusitis and we recommend that patients with chronic sinusitis be treated by surgical procedures.

  6. Anatomical Distribution and Genetic Relatedness of Antimicrobial Resistant E. coli from Healthy Companion Animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aims: Escherichia coli have been targeted for studying antimicrobial resistance in companion animals due to opportunistic infections and as a surrogate for resistance patterns in zoonotic organisms. The aim of our study examined antimicrobial resistance in E. coli isolated from various anatomical ...

  7. An Update on the Status of Anatomical Sciences Education in United States Medical Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, Richard L.; McBride, Jennifer M.; Pawlina, Wojciech

    2014-01-01

    Curricular changes continue at United States medical schools and directors of gross anatomy, microscopic anatomy, neuroscience/neuroanatomy, and embryology courses continue to adjust and modify their offerings. Developing and supplying data related to current trends in anatomical sciences education is important if informed decisions are going to…

  8. Medical Education in the Anatomical Sciences: The Winds of Change Continue to Blow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, Richard L.; McBride, Jennifer M.; Lachman, Nirusha; Pawlina, Wojciech

    2009-01-01

    At most institutions, education in the anatomical sciences has undergone several changes over the last decade. To identify the changes that have occurred in gross anatomy, microscopic anatomy, neuroscience/neuroanatomy, and embryology courses, directors of these courses were asked to respond to a survey with questions pertaining to total course…

  9. A "Second Life" for Gross Anatomy: Applications for Multiuser Virtual Environments in Teaching the Anatomical Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, April; Hazzard, Matthew; Challman, Sandra D.; Morgenstein, Aaron M.; Brueckner, Jennifer K.

    2011-01-01

    This article describes the emerging role of educational multiuser virtual environments, specifically Second Life[TM], in anatomical sciences education. Virtual worlds promote inquiry-based learning and conceptual understanding, potentially making them applicable for teaching and learning gross anatomy. A short introduction to Second Life as an…

  10. ANATOMICAL PROPERTIES AND FIBER QUALITY OF FIVE POTENTIAL COMMERCIAL WOOD SPECIES FROM CIANJUR, WEST JAVA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ratih Damayanti

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available A detailed description of wood anatomy is essential for assessing the use of a wood species for processing , and also beneficial for the identification of wood samples. Computerized keys are available that allow the identification of wood samples until the genus level; however, it is not easy to use these keys to identif y unknown species. Therefore, a database of anatomical characteristics and the computerized keys need to be completed up to species level. As the relevance, this study has examined the wood anatomical properties of the five corresponding tree species originated from Cianjur, West Java, which are commercially potential for their exploitation, i.e Castanopsis acuminatissima ADC. (Fagaceae; Castanopsistungurrut ADC. (Fagaceae; Cinnamomum inners Reinw. ex Blume (Lauraceae; Ficus nervosa Heyne (Moraceae and Horsfieldia glabra Warb. (Myristicaceae. Expectedly the results would be beneficial for wood identification purposes and evaluation for other possible uses. Obser vations on anatomical structures covered macroscopic and microscopic characteristics were carried out through the sectioned and macerated wood samples. The obser ved characteristics of the anatomical features were defined conforming to the IAWA List of Microscopic Features for Hardwood  Identification.  Based on the scrutiny on those obser ved characteristics and linked to the fiber quality, it was judged that the fiber in all the five wood species could be classified as class I for pulp and paper processing.

  11. Anatomical characterisation of the cricothyroid membrane in females of childbearing age using computed tomography.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Long, N

    2014-02-01

    In the event of failure to secure the airway by conventional means, it may be necessary to perform invasive airway access via the cricothyroid membrane. No studies have addressed anatomy of this structure in the obstetric population. We aimed to review the anatomical variation of this structure in a population of childbearing age.

  12. BIOMONITORING OF URBAN HABITAT QUALITY BY ANATOMICAL LEAF PARAMETERS IN TIMIŞOARA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NICOLETA IANOVICI

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of anatomical features from the leaf has been evaluated in solving different kind of problems.The interactions between different plant species and urban habitat quality were extensively investigated by different authors. Studies concerning the anatomy of the vegetative organs under conditions of pollution have been carried out. The necessity of studying the capacity of plant species for bioindication of anthropogenic pollution defines the aim of this study: to analyze some anatomical leaf characteristics in urban area. The photos were taken with an Cannon photo camera, using an Optika research microscope. In the mesophyll and epidermis of the plants from polluted sites isolate dark spots or massive deposits of polyphenolic compounds could be observed. We conclude that Plantago is a suitable bioindicator of urban habitat quality as it is a commonly distributed species, which is easy to sample and shows a clear anatomical response to differences in habitat quality. The thickness of the foliar lamina has decreased. The stomatal density was higher at the abaxial side in comparison with the adaxial side. The present study provides a good basis for further research on impact of the environment to anatomical structure of the plants.

  13. The Oldest Anatomically Modern Humans from Far Southeast Europe : Direct Dating, Culture and Behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prat, Sandrine; Pean, Stephane C.; Crepin, Laurent; Drucker, Dorothee G.; Puaud, Simon J.; Valladas, Helene; Laznickova-Galetova, Martina; van der Plicht, Johannes; Yanevich, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    Background: Anatomically Modern Humans (AMHs) are known to have spread across Europe during the period coinciding with the Middle to Upper Paleolithic transition. Whereas their dispersal into Western Europe is relatively well established, evidence of an early settlement of Eastern Europe by modern h

  14. Anatomically asymmetrical runners move more asymmetrically at the same metabolic cost.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Seminati

    Full Text Available We hypothesized that, as occurring in cars, body structural asymmetries could generate asymmetry in the kinematics/dynamics of locomotion, ending up in a higher metabolic cost of transport, i.e. more 'fuel' needed to travel a given distance. Previous studies found the asymmetries in horses' body negatively correlated with galloping performance. In this investigation, we analyzed anatomical differences between the left and right lower limbs as a whole by performing 3D cross-correlation of Magnetic Resonance Images of 19 male runners, clustered as Untrained Runners, Occasional Runners and Skilled Runners. Running kinematics of their body centre of mass were obtained from the body segments coordinates measured by a 3D motion capture system at incremental running velocities on a treadmill. A recent mathematical procedure quantified the asymmetry of the body centre of mass trajectory between the left and right steps. During the same sessions, runners' metabolic consumption was measured and the cost of transport was calculated. No correlations were found between anatomical/kinematic variables and the metabolic cost of transport, regardless of the training experience. However, anatomical symmetry significant correlated to the kinematic symmetry, and the most trained subjects showed the highest level of kinematic symmetry during running. Results suggest that despite the significant effects of anatomical asymmetry on kinematics, either those changes are too small to affect economy or some plastic compensation in the locomotor system mitigates the hypothesized change in energy expenditure of running.

  15. Anatomically asymmetrical runners move more asymmetrically at the same metabolic cost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seminati, Elena; Nardello, Francesca; Zamparo, Paola; Ardigò, Luca P; Faccioli, Niccolò; Minetti, Alberto E

    2013-01-01

    We hypothesized that, as occurring in cars, body structural asymmetries could generate asymmetry in the kinematics/dynamics of locomotion, ending up in a higher metabolic cost of transport, i.e. more 'fuel' needed to travel a given distance. Previous studies found the asymmetries in horses' body negatively correlated with galloping performance. In this investigation, we analyzed anatomical differences between the left and right lower limbs as a whole by performing 3D cross-correlation of Magnetic Resonance Images of 19 male runners, clustered as Untrained Runners, Occasional Runners and Skilled Runners. Running kinematics of their body centre of mass were obtained from the body segments coordinates measured by a 3D motion capture system at incremental running velocities on a treadmill. A recent mathematical procedure quantified the asymmetry of the body centre of mass trajectory between the left and right steps. During the same sessions, runners' metabolic consumption was measured and the cost of transport was calculated. No correlations were found between anatomical/kinematic variables and the metabolic cost of transport, regardless of the training experience. However, anatomical symmetry significant correlated to the kinematic symmetry, and the most trained subjects showed the highest level of kinematic symmetry during running. Results suggest that despite the significant effects of anatomical asymmetry on kinematics, either those changes are too small to affect economy or some plastic compensation in the locomotor system mitigates the hypothesized change in energy expenditure of running. PMID:24086316

  16. Effects of anatomical position on esophageal transit time: A biomagnetic diagnostic technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Teodoro Cordova-Fraga; Modesto Sosa; Cados Wiechers; Jose Maria De la Roca-Chiapas; Alejandro Maldonado Moreles; Jesus BernaI-Alvarado; Raquel Huerta-Franco

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To study the esophageal transit time (ETT)and compare its mean value among three anatomical inclinations of the body; and to analyze the correlation of ETT to body mass index (BMI).METHODS: A biomagnetic technique was implemented to perform this study: (1) The transit time of a magnetic marker (MM) through the esophagus was measured using two fluxgate sensors placed over the chest of 14 healthy subjects; (2) the ETT was assessed in three anatomical positions (at upright,fowler,and supine positions; 90°,45° and 0°,respectively).RESULTS: ANOVA and Tuckey post-hoc tests demonstrated significant differences between ETT mean of the different positions.The ETT means were 5.2 ±1.1 s,6.1±1.5 s,and 23.6 ± 9.2 s for 90°,45° and 0°,respectively.Pearson correlation results were r = -0.716 and P < 0.001 by subjects' anatomical position,and r =-0.024 and P > 0.05 according the subject's BHI.CONCLUSION: We demonstrated that using this biomagnetic technique,it is possible to measure the ETT and the effects of the anatomical position on the ETT.

  17. Esophageal Cancer in Canada: Trends according to Morphology and Anatomical Location

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael C Otterstatter

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Esophageal adenocarcinoma has one of the fastest rising incidence rates and one of the lowest survival rates of any cancer type in the Western world. However, in many countries, trends in esophageal cancer differ according to tumour morphology and anatomical location. In Canada, incidence and survival trends for esophageal cancer subtypes are poorly known.

  18. Anatomical variation of abductor pollicis longus in Indian population A cadaveric study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerina Tewari

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: Bi-tendinous APL is commonly observed on the dorsal compartment of the wrist in Indian population and these tendon-slips are commonly attached to thefirst metacarpal base and trapezium. This variation must be understood by the Indian Orthopedic surgeons as the response to treatment of DQT and reason forfirst carpo-metacarpal arthritis can be dependent on this anatomical variation.

  19. Influence of anatomic landmarks in the virtual environment on simulated angled laparoscope navigation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buzink, S.N.; Christie, L.S.; Goossens, R.H.M.; De Ridder, H.; Jakimowicz, J.J.

    2010-01-01

    Background - The aim of this study is to investigate the influence of the presence of anatomic landmarks on the performance of angled laparoscope navigation on the SimSurgery SEP simulator. Methods - Twenty-eight experienced laparoscopic surgeons (familiar with 30º angled laparoscope, >100 basic lap

  20. Lead tolerance of water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes Mart. - Pontederiaceae as defined by anatomical and physiological traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FABRICIO J. PEREIRA

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at verifying the lead tolerance of water hyacinth and at looking at consequent anatomical and physiological modifications. Water hyacinth plants were grown on nutrient solutions with five different lead concentrations: 0.00, 0.50, 1.00, 2.00 and 4.00 mg L–1 by 20 days. Photosynthesis, transpiration, stomatal conductance and the Ci/Ca rate were measured at the end of 15 days of experiment. At the end of the experiment, the anatomical modifications in the roots and leaves, and the activity of antioxidant system enzymes, were evaluated. Photosynthetic and Ci/Ca rates were both increased under all lead treatments. Leaf anatomy did not exhibit any evidence of toxicity effects, but showed modifications of the stomata and in the thickness of the palisade and spongy parenchyma in the presence of lead. Likewise, root anatomy did not exhibit any toxicity effects, but the xylem and phloem exhibited favorable modifications as well as increased apoplastic barriers. All antioxidant system enzymes exhibited increased activity in the leaves, and some modifications in roots, in the presence of lead. It is likely, therefore, that water hyacinth tolerance to lead is related to anatomical and physiological modifications such as increased photosynthesis and enhanced anatomical capacity for CO2 assimilation and water conductance.