Sample records for anatomical models

  1. Reference Man anatomical model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cristy, M.


    The 70-kg Standard Man or Reference Man has been used in physiological models since at least the 1920s to represent adult males. It came into use in radiation protection in the late 1940s and was developed extensively during the 1950s and used by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) in its Publication 2 in 1959. The current Reference Man for Purposes of Radiation Protection is a monumental book published in 1975 by the ICRP as ICRP Publication 23. It has a wealth of information useful for radiation dosimetry, including anatomical and physiological data, gross and elemental composition of the body and organs and tissues of the body. The anatomical data includes specified reference values for an adult male and an adult female. Other reference values are primarily for the adult male. The anatomical data include much data on fetuses and children, although reference values are not established. There is an ICRP task group currently working on revising selected parts of the Reference Man document.

  2. Network models in anatomical systems. (United States)

    Esteve-Altava, Borja; Marugán-Lobón, Jesús; Botella, Héctor; Rasskin-Gutman, Diego


    Network theory has been extensively used to model the underlying structure of biological processes. From genetics to ecology, network thinking is changing our understanding of complex systems, specifically how their internal structure determines their overall behavior. Concepts such as hubs, scale-free or small-world networks, common in the complexity literature, are now used more and more in sociology, neurosciences, as well as other anthropological fields. Even though the use of network models is nowadays so widely applied, few attempts have been carried out to enrich our understanding in the classical morphological sciences such as in comparative anatomy or physical anthropology. The purpose of this article is to introduce the usage of network tools in morphology; specifically by building anatomical networks, dealing with the most common analyses and problems, and interpreting their outcome.

  3. Handbook of anatomical models for radiation dosimetry

    CERN Document Server

    Eckerman, Keith F


    Covering the history of human model development, this title presents the major anatomical and physical models that have been developed for human body radiation protection, diagnostic imaging, and nuclear medicine therapy. It explores how these models have evolved and the role that modern technologies have played in this development.

  4. Parametric Anatomical Modeling: a method for modeling the anatomical layout of neurons and their projections. (United States)

    Pyka, Martin; Klatt, Sebastian; Cheng, Sen


    Computational models of neural networks can be based on a variety of different parameters. These parameters include, for example, the 3d shape of neuron layers, the neurons' spatial projection patterns, spiking dynamics and neurotransmitter systems. While many well-developed approaches are available to model, for example, the spiking dynamics, there is a lack of approaches for modeling the anatomical layout of neurons and their projections. We present a new method, called Parametric Anatomical Modeling (PAM), to fill this gap. PAM can be used to derive network connectivities and conduction delays from anatomical data, such as the position and shape of the neuronal layers and the dendritic and axonal projection patterns. Within the PAM framework, several mapping techniques between layers can account for a large variety of connection properties between pre- and post-synaptic neuron layers. PAM is implemented as a Python tool and integrated in the 3d modeling software Blender. We demonstrate on a 3d model of the hippocampal formation how PAM can help reveal complex properties of the synaptic connectivity and conduction delays, properties that might be relevant to uncover the function of the hippocampus. Based on these analyses, two experimentally testable predictions arose: (i) the number of neurons and the spread of connections is heterogeneously distributed across the main anatomical axes, (ii) the distribution of connection lengths in CA3-CA1 differ qualitatively from those between DG-CA3 and CA3-CA3. Models created by PAM can also serve as an educational tool to visualize the 3d connectivity of brain regions. The low-dimensional, but yet biologically plausible, parameter space renders PAM suitable to analyse allometric and evolutionary factors in networks and to model the complexity of real networks with comparatively little effort.

  5. Generation of infant anatomical models for evaluating electromagnetic field exposures. (United States)

    Li, Congsheng; Chen, Zhiye; Yang, Lei; Lv, Bin; Liu, Jianzhe; Varsier, Nadège; Hadjem, Abdelhamid; Wiart, Joe; Xie, Yi; Ma, Lin; Wu, Tongning


    Realistic anatomical modeling is essential in analyzing human exposure to electromagnetic fields. Infants have significant physical and anatomical differences compared with other age groups. However, few realistic infant models are available. In this work, we developed one 12-month-old male whole body model and one 17-month-old male head model from magnetic resonance images. The whole body and head models contained 28 and 30 tissues, respectively, at spatial resolution of 1 mm × 1 mm × 1 mm. Fewer identified tissues in the whole body model were a result of the low original image quality induced by the fast imaging sequence. The anatomical and physical parameters of the models were validated against findings in published literature (e.g., a maximum deviation as 18% in tissue mass was observed compared with the data from International Commission on Radiological Protection). Several typical exposure scenarios were realized for numerical simulation. Dosimetric comparison with various adult and child anatomical models was conducted. Significant differences in the physical and anatomical features between adult and child models demonstrated the importance of creating realistic infant models. Current safety guidelines for infant exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields may not be conservative.

  6. An anatomically oriented breast model for MRI (United States)

    Kutra, Dominik; Bergtholdt, Martin; Sabczynski, Jörg; Dössel, Olaf; Buelow, Thomas


    Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women in the western world. In the breast cancer care-cycle, MRIis e.g. employed in lesion characterization and therapy assessment. Reading of a single three dimensional image or comparing a multitude of such images in a time series is a time consuming task. Radiological reporting is done manually by translating the spatial position of a finding in an image to a generic representation in the form of a breast diagram, outlining quadrants or clock positions. Currently, registration algorithms are employed to aid with the reading and interpretation of longitudinal studies by providing positional correspondence. To aid with the reporting of findings, knowledge about the breast anatomy has to be introduced to translate from patient specific positions to a generic representation. In our approach we fit a geometric primitive, the semi-super-ellipsoid to patient data. Anatomical knowledge is incorporated by fixing the tip of the super-ellipsoid to the mammilla position and constraining its center-point to a reference plane defined by landmarks on the sternum. A coordinate system is then constructed by linearly scaling the fitted super-ellipsoid, defining a unique set of parameters to each point in the image volume. By fitting such a coordinate system to a different image of the same patient, positional correspondence can be generated. We have validated our method on eight pairs of baseline and follow-up scans (16 breasts) that were acquired for the assessment of neo-adjuvant chemotherapy. On average, the location predicted and the actual location of manually set landmarks are within a distance of 5.6 mm. Our proposed method allows for automatic reporting simply by uniformly dividing the super-ellipsoid around its main axis.

  7. Additive Manufacturing of Anatomical Models from Computed Tomography Scan Data. (United States)

    Gür, Y


    The purpose of the study presented here was to investigate the manufacturability of human anatomical models from Computed Tomography (CT) scan data via a 3D desktop printer which uses fused deposition modelling (FDM) technology. First, Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) CT scan data were converted to 3D Standard Triangle Language (STL) format by using In Vaselius digital imaging program. Once this STL file is obtained, a 3D physical version of the anatomical model can be fabricated by a desktop 3D FDM printer. As a case study, a patient's skull CT scan data was considered, and a tangible version of the skull was manufactured by a 3D FDM desktop printer. During the 3D printing process, the skull was built using acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS) co-polymer plastic. The printed model showed that the 3D FDM printing technology is able to fabricate anatomical models with high accuracy. As a result, the skull model can be used for preoperative surgical planning, medical training activities, implant design and simulation to show the potential of the FDM technology in medical field. It will also improve communication between medical stuff and patients. Current result indicates that a 3D desktop printer which uses FDM technology can be used to obtain accurate anatomical models.

  8. Modeling and Simulating Virtual Anatomical Humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Madehkhaksar, Forough; Luo, Zhiping; Pronost, Nicolas; Egges, Arjan


    This chapter presents human musculoskeletal modeling and simulation as a challenging field that lies between biomechanics and computer animation. One of the main goals of computer animation research is to develop algorithms and systems that produce plausible motion. On the other hand, the main chall

  9. Anatomical evaluation of CT-MRI combined femoral model

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    Kim Gyu-Ha


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Both CT and MRI are complementary to each other in that CT can produce a distinct contour of bones, and MRI can show the shape of both ligaments and bones. It will be ideal to build a CT-MRI combined model to take advantage of complementary information of each modality. This study evaluated the accuracy of the combined femoral model in terms of anatomical inspection. Methods Six normal porcine femora (180 ± 10 days, 3 lefts and 3 rights with ball markers were scanned by CT and MRI. The 3D/3D registration was performed by two methods, i.e. the landmark-based 3 points-to-3 points and the surface matching using the iterative closest point (ICP algorithm. The matching accuracy of the combined model was evaluated with statistical global deviation and locally measure anatomical contour-based deviation. Statistical analysis to assess any significant difference between accuracies of those two methods was performed using univariate repeated measures ANOVA with the Turkey post hoc test. Results This study revealed that the local 2D contour-based measurement of matching deviation was 0.5 ± 0.3 mm in the femoral condyle, and in the middle femoral shaft. The global 3D contour matching deviation of the landmark-based matching was 1.1 ± 0.3 mm, but local 2D contour deviation through anatomical inspection was much larger as much as 3.0 ± 1.8 mm. Conclusion Even with human-factor derived errors accumulated from segmentation of MRI images, and limited image quality, the matching accuracy of CT-&-MRI combined 3D models was 0.5 ± 0.3 mm in terms of local anatomical inspection.



    Miodrag Manić; Zoran Stamenković; Milorad Mitković; Miloš Stojković; Duncan E.T. Shephard


    Design and manufacturing of customized implants is a field that has been rapidly developing in recent years. This paper presents an originally developed method for designing a 3D model of customized anatomically adjusted implants. The method is based upon a CT scan of a bone fracture. A CT scan is used to generate a 3D bone model and a fracture model. Using these scans, an indicated location for placing the implant is recognized and the design of a 3D model of customized implants is made. Wit...


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    Miodrag Manić


    Full Text Available Design and manufacturing of customized implants is a field that has been rapidly developing in recent years. This paper presents an originally developed method for designing a 3D model of customized anatomically adjusted implants. The method is based upon a CT scan of a bone fracture. A CT scan is used to generate a 3D bone model and a fracture model. Using these scans, an indicated location for placing the implant is recognized and the design of a 3D model of customized implants is made. With this method it is possible to design volumetric implants used for replacing a part of the bone or a plate type for fixation of a bone part. The sides of the implants, this one lying on the bone, are fully aligned with the anatomical shape of the bone surface which neighbors the fracture. The given model is designed for implants production utilizing any method, and it is ideal for 3D printing of implants.

  12. A propositional representation model of anatomical and functional brain data. (United States)

    Maturana, Pablo; Batrancourt, Bénédicte


    Networks can represent a large number of systems. Recent advances in the domain of networks have been transferred to the field of neuroscience. For example, the graph model has been used in neuroscience research as a methodological tool to examine brain networks organization, topology and complex dynamics, as well as a framework to test the structure-function hypothesis using neuroimaging data. In the current work we propose a graph-theoretical framework to represent anatomical, functional and neuropsychological assessment instruments information. On the one hand, interrelationships between anatomic elements constitute an anatomical graph. On the other hand, a functional graph contains several cognitive functions and their more elementary cognitive processes. Finally, the neuropsychological assessment instruments graph includes several neuropsychological tests and scales linked with their different sub-tests and variables. The two last graphs are connected by relations of type "explore" linking a particular instrument with the cognitive function it explores. We applied this framework to a sample of patients with focal brain damage. Each patient was related to: (i) the cerebral entities injured (assessed with structural neuroimaging data) and (ii) the neusopsychological assessment tests carried out (weight by performance). Our model offers a suitable platform to visualize patients' relevant information, facilitating the representation, standardization and sharing of clinical data. At the same time, the integration of a large number of patients in this framework will make possible to explore relations between anatomy (injured entities) and function (performance in different tests assessing different cognitive functions) and the use of neurocomputational tools for graph analysis may help diagnostic and contribute to the comprehension of neural bases of cognitive functions.

  13. Anatomically based lower limb nerve model for electrical stimulation

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    Soboleva Tanya K


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Functional Electrical Stimulation (FES is a technique that aims to rehabilitate or restore functionality of skeletal muscles using external electrical stimulation. Despite the success achieved within the field of FES, there are still a number of questions that remain unanswered. One way of providing input to the answers is through the use of computational models. Methods This paper describes the development of an anatomically based computer model of the motor neurons in the lower limb of the human leg and shows how it can be used to simulate electrical signal propagation from the beginning of the sciatic nerve to a skeletal muscle. One-dimensional cubic Hermite finite elements were used to represent the major portions of the lower limb nerves. These elements were fit to data that had been digitised using images from the Visible Man project. Nerves smaller than approximately 1 mm could not be seen in the images, and thus a tree-branching algorithm was used to connect the ends of the fitted nerve model to the respective skeletal muscle. To simulate electrical propagation, a previously published mammalian nerve model was implemented and solved on the anatomically based nerve mesh using a finite difference method. The grid points for the finite difference method were derived from the fitted finite element mesh. By adjusting the tree-branching algorithm, it is possible to represent different levels of motor-unit recruitment. Results To illustrate the process of a propagating nerve stimulus to a muscle in detail, the above method was applied to the nerve tree that connects to the human semitendinosus muscle. A conduction velocity of 89.8 m/s was obtained for a 15 μm diameter nerve fibre. This signal was successfully propagated down the motor neurons to a selected group of motor units in the muscle. Conclusion An anatomically and physiologically based model of the posterior motor neurons in the human lower limb was developed. This

  14. 3D reconstruction of carotid atherosclerotic plaque: comparison between spatial compound ultrasound models and anatomical models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lind, Bo L.; Fagertun, Jens; Wilhjelm, Jens E.;


    This study deals with the creation of 3D models that can work as a tool for discriminating between tissue and background in the development of tissue classification methods. Ten formalin-fixed atherosclerotic carotid plaques removed by endarterectomy were scanned with 3D multi-angle spatial...... compound ultrasound (US) and subsequently sliced and photographed to produce a 3D anatomical data set. Outlines in the ultrasound data were found by means of active contours and combined into 10 3D ultrasound models. The plaque regions of the anatomical photographs were outlined manually and then combined...... into 10 3D anatomical models. The volumes of the anatomical models correlated with the volume found by a water displacement method (r = 0.95), except for an offset. The models were compared in three ways. Visual inspection showed quite good agreement between the models. The volumes of the ultrasound...

  15. Mathematical modelling of the growth of human fetus anatomical structures. (United States)

    Dudek, Krzysztof; Kędzia, Wojciech; Kędzia, Emilia; Kędzia, Alicja; Derkowski, Wojciech


    The goal of this study was to present a procedure that would enable mathematical analysis of the increase of linear sizes of human anatomical structures, estimate mathematical model parameters and evaluate their adequacy. Section material consisted of 67 foetuses-rectus abdominis muscle and 75 foetuses- biceps femoris muscle. The following methods were incorporated to the study: preparation and anthropologic methods, image digital acquisition, Image J computer system measurements and statistical analysis method. We used an anthropologic method based on age determination with the use of crown-rump length-CRL (V-TUB) by Scammon and Calkins. The choice of mathematical function should be based on a real course of the curve presenting growth of anatomical structure linear size Ύ in subsequent weeks t of pregnancy. Size changes can be described with a segmental-linear model or one-function model with accuracy adequate enough for clinical purposes. The interdependence of size-age is described with many functions. However, the following functions are most often considered: linear, polynomial, spline, logarithmic, power, exponential, power-exponential, log-logistic I and II, Gompertz's I and II and von Bertalanffy's function. With the use of the procedures described above, mathematical models parameters were assessed for V-PL (the total length of body) and CRL body length increases, rectus abdominis total length h, its segments hI, hII, hIII, hIV, as well as biceps femoris length and width of long head (LHL and LHW) and of short head (SHL and SHW). The best adjustments to measurement results were observed in the exponential and Gompertz's models.

  16. Multivariate models of inter-subject anatomical variability. (United States)

    Ashburner, John; Klöppel, Stefan


    This paper presents a very selective review of some of the approaches for multivariate modelling of inter-subject variability among brain images. It focusses on applying probabilistic kernel-based pattern recognition approaches to pre-processed anatomical MRI, with the aim of most accurately modelling the difference between populations of subjects. Some of the principles underlying the pattern recognition approaches of Gaussian process classification and regression are briefly described, although the reader is advised to look elsewhere for full implementational details. Kernel pattern recognition methods require matrices that encode the degree of similarity between the images of each pair of subjects. This review focusses on similarity measures derived from the relative shapes of the subjects' brains. Pre-processing is viewed as generative modelling of anatomical variability, and there is a special emphasis on the diffeomorphic image registration framework, which provides a very parsimonious representation of relative shapes. Although the review is largely methodological, excessive mathematical notation is avoided as far as possible, as the paper attempts to convey a more intuitive understanding of various concepts. The paper should be of interest to readers wishing to apply pattern recognition methods to MRI data, with the aim of clinical diagnosis or biomarker development. It also tries to explain that the best models are those that most accurately predict, so similar approaches should also be relevant to basic science. Knowledge of some basic linear algebra and probability theory should make the review easier to follow, although it may still have something to offer to those readers whose mathematics may be more limited.

  17. Functionalized anatomical models for EM-neuron Interaction modeling (United States)

    Neufeld, Esra; Cassará, Antonino Mario; Montanaro, Hazael; Kuster, Niels; Kainz, Wolfgang


    The understanding of interactions between electromagnetic (EM) fields and nerves are crucial in contexts ranging from therapeutic neurostimulation to low frequency EM exposure safety. To properly consider the impact of in vivo induced field inhomogeneity on non-linear neuronal dynamics, coupled EM-neuronal dynamics modeling is required. For that purpose, novel functionalized computable human phantoms have been developed. Their implementation and the systematic verification of the integrated anisotropic quasi-static EM solver and neuronal dynamics modeling functionality, based on the method of manufactured solutions and numerical reference data, is described. Electric and magnetic stimulation of the ulnar and sciatic nerve were modeled to help understanding a range of controversial issues related to the magnitude and optimal determination of strength-duration (SD) time constants. The results indicate the importance of considering the stimulation-specific inhomogeneous field distributions (especially at tissue interfaces), realistic models of non-linear neuronal dynamics, very short pulses, and suitable SD extrapolation models. These results and the functionalized computable phantom will influence and support the development of safe and effective neuroprosthetic devices and novel electroceuticals. Furthermore they will assist the evaluation of existing low frequency exposure standards for the entire population under all exposure conditions.

  18. Performance Evaluation of Color Models in the Fusion of Functional and Anatomical Images. (United States)

    Ganasala, Padma; Kumar, Vinod; Prasad, A D


    Fusion of the functional image with an anatomical image provides additional diagnostic information. It is widely used in diagnosis, treatment planning, and follow-up of oncology. Functional image is a low-resolution pseudo color image representing the uptake of radioactive tracer that gives the important metabolic information. Whereas, anatomical image is a high-resolution gray scale image that gives structural details. Fused image should consist of all the anatomical details without any changes in the functional content. This is achieved through fusion in de-correlated color model and the choice of color model has greater impact on the fusion outcome. In the present work, suitability of different color models for functional and anatomical image fusion is studied. After converting the functional image into de-correlated color model, the achromatic component of functional image is fused with an anatomical image by using proposed nonsubsampled shearlet transform (NSST) based image fusion algorithm to get new achromatic component with all the anatomical details. This new achromatic and original chromatic channels of functional image are converted to RGB format to get fused functional and anatomical image. Fusion is performed in different color models. Different cases of SPECT-MRI images are used for this color model study. Based on visual and quantitative analysis of fused images, the best color model for the stated purpose is determined.

  19. Anatomical models and wax Venuses: art masterpieces or scientific craft works? (United States)

    Ballestriero, R


    The art of wax modelling has an ancient origin but rose to prominence in 14th century Italy with the cult of votive artefacts. With the advent of Neoclassicism this art, now deemed repulsive, continued to survive in a scientific environment, where it flourished in the study of normal and pathological anatomy, obstetrics, zoology and botany. The achievement of having originated the creation of anatomical models in coloured wax must be ascribed to a joint effort undertaken by the Sicilian wax modeller Gaetano Giulio Zumbo and the French surgeon Guillaume Desnoues in the late 17th century. Interest in anatomical wax models spread throughout Europe during the 18th century, first in Bologna with Ercole Lelli, Giovanni Manzolini and Anna Morandi, and then in Florence with Felice Fontana and Clemente Susini. In England, the art of anatomical ceroplastics was brought to London from Florence by the sculptor Joseph Towne. Throughout the centuries many anatomical artists preferred this material due to the remarkable mimetic likeness obtained, far surpassing any other material. Independent of the material used, whether wood, wax or clay, anatomical models were always considered merely craft works confined to hospitals or faculties of medicine and have survived to this day only because of their scientific interest. Italian and English waxes are stylistically different but the remarkable results obtained by Susini and Towne, and the fact that some contemporary artists are again representing anatomical wax bodies in their works, makes the border that formerly separated art and craft indistinguishable.

  20. Chinese adult anatomical models and the application in evaluation of RF exposures (United States)

    Wu, Tongning; Tan, Liwen; Shao, Qing; Zhang, Chen; Zhao, Chen; Li, Ying; Conil, Emmanuelle; Hadjem, Abdelhamid; Wiart, Joe; Lu, Bingsong; Xiao, Li; Wang, Nan; Xie, Yi; Zhang, Shaoxiang


    This paper presents the work of constructing Chinese adult anatomical models and their application in evaluation of radio frequency (RF) electromagnetic field exposures. The original dataset was obtained from photos of the sliced frozen cadavers from the Chinese Visible Human Project. Details of preparing the cadaver for slicing procedures which may influence the anatomical structures are discussed. Segmentation and reconstruction were performed mainly manually by experienced anatomists. The reconstructed models represent the average Chinese in their twenties and thirties. The finest resolution for the models is 1 × 1 × 1 mm3 with 90 identified tissues/organs for the female and 87 identified tissues/organs for the male. Tiny anatomical structures such as blood vessels with diameters of 1 mm, various glands and nerves were identified. Whole-body-averaged specific absorption rate (WBSAR) from 20 MHz to 5.8 GHz was calculated with the finite-difference time-domain method for different RF exposure configurations. The WBSAR results are consistent with those from other available models. Finally, some details about the anatomical models are discussed.

  1. 3D active workspace of human hand anatomical model

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    Ungureanu Loredana


    Full Text Available Abstract Background If the model of the human hand is created with accuracy by respecting the type of motion provided by each articulation and the dimensions of articulated bones, it can function as the real organ providing the same motions. Unfortunately, the human hand is hard to model due to its kinematical chains submitted to motion constraints. On the other hand, if an application does not impose a fine manipulation it is not necessary to create a model as complex as the human hand is. But always the hand model has to perform a certain space of motions in imposed workspace architecture no matter what the practical application does. Methods Based on Denavit-Hartenberg convention, we conceived the kinematical model of the human hand, having in mind the structure and the behavior of the natural model. We obtained the kinematical equations describing the motion of every fingertip with respect to the general coordinate system, placed on the wrist. For every joint variable, a range of motion was established. Dividing these joint variables to an appropriate number of intervals and connecting them, the complex surface bordering the active hand model workspace was obtained. Results Using MATLAB 7.0, the complex surface described by fingertips, when hand articulations are all simultaneously moving, was obtained. It can be seen that any point on surface has its own coordinates smaller than the maximum length of the middle finger in static position. Therefore, a sphere having the centre in the origin of the general coordinate system and the radius which equals this length covers the represented complex surface. Conclusion We propose a human hand model that represents a new solution compared to the existing ones. This model is capable to make special movements like power grip and dexterous manipulations. During them, the fingertips do not exceed the active workspace encapsulated by determined surfaces. The proposed kinematical model can help to choose

  2. Fabrication and Assessment of 3D Printed Anatomical Models of the Lower Limb for Anatomical Teaching and Femoral Vessel Access Training in Medicine (United States)

    O'Reilly, Michael K.; Reese, Sven; Herlihy, Therese; Geoghegan, Tony; Cantwell, Colin P.; Feeney, Robin N. M.; Jones, James F. X.


    For centuries, cadaveric dissection has been the touchstone of anatomy education. It offers a medical student intimate access to his or her first patient. In contrast to idealized artisan anatomical models, it presents the natural variation of anatomy in fine detail. However, a new teaching construct has appeared recently in which artificial…

  3. The Parametric Model of the Human Mandible Coronoid Process Created by Method of Anatomical Features. (United States)

    Vitković, Nikola; Mitić, Jelena; Manić, Miodrag; Trajanović, Miroslav; Husain, Karim; Petrović, Slađana; Arsić, Stojanka


    Geometrically accurate and anatomically correct 3D models of the human bones are of great importance for medical research and practice in orthopedics and surgery. These geometrical models can be created by the use of techniques which can be based on input geometrical data acquired from volumetric methods of scanning (e.g., Computed Tomography (CT)) or on the 2D images (e.g., X-ray). Geometrical models of human bones created in such way can be applied for education of medical practitioners, preoperative planning, etc. In cases when geometrical data about the human bone is incomplete (e.g., fractures), it may be necessary to create its complete geometrical model. The possible solution for this problem is the application of parametric models. The geometry of these models can be changed and adapted to the specific patient based on the values of parameters acquired from medical images (e.g., X-ray). In this paper, Method of Anatomical Features (MAF) which enables creation of geometrically precise and anatomically accurate geometrical models of the human bones is implemented for the creation of the parametric model of the Human Mandible Coronoid Process (HMCP). The obtained results about geometrical accuracy of the model are quite satisfactory, as it is stated by the medical practitioners and confirmed in the literature.

  4. Exploring the anatomical encoding of voice with a mathematical model of the vocal system. (United States)

    Assaneo, M Florencia; Sitt, Jacobo; Varoquaux, Gael; Sigman, Mariano; Cohen, Laurent; Trevisan, Marcos A


    The faculty of language depends on the interplay between the production and perception of speech sounds. A relevant open question is whether the dimensions that organize voice perception in the brain are acoustical or depend on properties of the vocal system that produced it. One of the main empirical difficulties in answering this question is to generate sounds that vary along a continuum according to the anatomical properties the vocal apparatus that produced them. Here we use a mathematical model that offers the unique possibility of synthesizing vocal sounds by controlling a small set of anatomically based parameters. In a first stage the quality of the synthetic voice was evaluated. Using specific time traces for sub-glottal pressure and tension of the vocal folds, the synthetic voices generated perceptual responses, which are indistinguishable from those of real speech. The synthesizer was then used to investigate how the auditory cortex responds to the perception of voice depending on the anatomy of the vocal apparatus. Our fMRI results show that sounds are perceived as human vocalizations when produced by a vocal system that follows a simple relationship between the size of the vocal folds and the vocal tract. We found that these anatomical parameters encode the perceptual vocal identity (male, female, child) and show that the brain areas that respond to human speech also encode vocal identity. On the basis of these results, we propose that this low-dimensional model of the vocal system is capable of generating realistic voices and represents a novel tool to explore the voice perception with a precise control of the anatomical variables that generate speech. Furthermore, the model provides an explanation of how auditory cortices encode voices in terms of the anatomical parameters of the vocal system.

  5. Anatomically realistic multiscale models of normal and abnormal gastrointestinal electrical activity. (United States)

    Cheng, Leo K; Komuro, Rie; Austin, Travis M; Buist, Martin L; Pullan, Andrew J


    One of the major aims of the International Union of Physiological Sciences (IUPS) Physiome Project is to develop multiscale mathematical and computer models that can be used to help understand human health. We present here a small facet of this broad plan that applies to the gastrointestinal system. Specifically, we present an anatomically and physiologically based modelling framework that is capable of simulating normal and pathological electrical activity within the stomach and small intestine. The continuum models used within this framework have been created using anatomical information derived from common medical imaging modalities and data from the Visible Human Project. These models explicitly incorporate the various smooth muscle layers and networks of interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) that are known to exist within the walls of the stomach and small bowel. Electrical activity within individual ICCs and smooth muscle cells is simulated using a previously published simplified representation of the cell level electrical activity. This simulated cell level activity is incorporated into a bidomain representation of the tissue, allowing electrical activity of the entire stomach or intestine to be simulated in the anatomically derived models. This electrical modelling framework successfully replicates many of the qualitative features of the slow wave activity within the stomach and intestine and has also been used to investigate activity associated with functional uncoupling of the stomach.

  6. Anatomically realistic multiscale models of normal and abnormal gastrointestinal electrical activity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Leo K Cheng; Rie Komuro; Travis M Austin; Martin L Buist; Andrew J Pullan


    One of the major aims of the Tnternational Union of Physiological Sciences (IUPS) Physiome Project is to develop multiscale mathematical and computer models that can be used to help understand human health.We present here a small facet of this broad plan that applies to the gastrointestinal system. Specifically,we present an anatomically and physiologically based modelling framework that is capable of simulating normal and pathological electrical activity within the stomach and small intestine. The continuum models used within this framework have been created using anatomical information derived from common medical imaging modalities and data from the Visible Human Project. These models explicitly incorporate the various smooth muscle layers and networks of interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) that are known to exist within the walls of the stomach and small bowel. Electrical activity within individual ICCs and smooth muscle cells is simulated using a previously published simplified representation of the cell level electrical activity. This simulated cell level activity is incorporated into a bidomain representation of the tissue, allowing electrical activity of the entire stomach or intestine to be simulated in the anatomically derived models. This electrical modelling framework successfully replicates many of the qualitative features of the slow wave activity within the stomach and intestine and has also been used to investigate activity associated with functional uncoupling of the stomach.

  7. Particle Image Velocimetry Measurements in Anatomically-Accurate Models of the Mammalian Nasal Cavity (United States)

    Rumple, C.; Richter, J.; Craven, B. A.; Krane, M.


    A summary of the research being carried out by our multidisciplinary team to better understand the form and function of the nose in different mammalian species that include humans, carnivores, ungulates, rodents, and marine animals will be presented. The mammalian nose houses a convoluted airway labyrinth, where two hallmark features of mammals occur, endothermy and olfaction. Because of the complexity of the nasal cavity, the anatomy and function of these upper airways remain poorly understood in most mammals. However, recent advances in high-resolution medical imaging, computational modeling, and experimental flow measurement techniques are now permitting the study of airflow and respiratory and olfactory transport phenomena in anatomically-accurate reconstructions of the nasal cavity. Here, we focus on efforts to manufacture transparent, anatomically-accurate models for stereo particle image velocimetry (SPIV) measurements of nasal airflow. Challenges in the design and manufacture of index-matched anatomical models are addressed and preliminary SPIV measurements are presented. Such measurements will constitute a validation database for concurrent computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations of mammalian respiration and olfaction. Supported by the National Science Foundation.

  8. Simplified three-dimensional model provides anatomical insights in lizards' caudal autotomy as printed illustration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Lizards' caudal autotomy is a complex and vastly employed antipredator mechanism, with thorough anatomic adaptations involved. Due to its diminished size and intricate structures, vertebral anatomy is hard to be clearly conveyed to students and researchers of other areas. Three-dimensional models are prodigious tools in unveiling anatomical nuances. Some of the techniques used to create them can produce irregular and complicated forms, which despite being very accurate, lack didactical uniformity and simplicity. Since both are considered fundamental characteristics for comprehension, a simplified model could be the key to improve learning. The model here presented depicts the caudal osteology of Tropidurus itambere, and was designed to be concise, in order to be easily assimilated, yet complete, not to compromise the informative aspect. The creation process requires only basic skills in manipulating polygons in 3D modeling softwares, in addition to the appropriate knowledge of the structure to be modeled. As reference for the modeling, we used microscopic observation and a photograph database of the caudal structures. This way, no advanced laboratory equipment was needed and all biological materials were preserved for future research. Therefore, we propose a wider usage of simplified 3D models both in the classroom and as illustrations for scientific publications.

  9. Anatomical features for an adequate choice of experimental animal model in biomedicine: II. Small laboratory rodents, rabbit, and pig. (United States)

    Lossi, Laura; D'Angelo, Livia; De Girolamo, Paolo; Merighi, Adalberto


    The anatomical features distinctive to each of the very large array of species used in today's biomedical research must be born in mind when considering the correct choice of animal model(s), particularly when translational research is concerned. In this paper we take into consideration and discuss the most important anatomical and histological features of the commonest species of laboratory rodents (rat, mouse, guinea pig, hamster, and gerbil), rabbit, and pig related to their importance for applied research.

  10. Accounting for anatomical noise in search-capable model observers for planar nuclear imaging. (United States)

    Sen, Anando; Gifford, Howard C


    Model observers intended to predict the diagnostic performance of human observers should account for the effects of both quantum and anatomical noise. We compared the abilities of several visual-search (VS) and scanning Hotelling-type models to account for anatomical noise in a localization receiver operating characteristic (LROC) study involving simulated nuclear medicine images. Our VS observer invoked a two-stage process of search and analysis. The images featured lesions in the prostate and pelvic lymph nodes. Lesion contrast and the geometric resolution and sensitivity of the imaging collimator were the study variables. A set of anthropomorphic mathematical phantoms was imaged with an analytic projector based on eight parallel-hole collimators with different sensitivity and resolution properties. The LROC study was conducted with human observers and the channelized nonprewhitening, channelized Hotelling (CH) and VS model observers. The CH observer was applied in a "background-known-statistically" protocol while the VS observer performed a quasi-background-known-exactly task. Both of these models were applied with and without internal noise in the decision variables. A perceptual search threshold was also tested with the VS observer. The model observers without inefficiencies failed to mimic the average performance trend for the humans. The CH and VS observers with internal noise matched the humans primarily at low collimator sensitivities. With both internal noise and the search threshold, the VS observer attained quantitative agreement with the human observers. Computational efficiency is an important advantage of the VS observer.

  11. The role of fine-scale anatomical structure in the dynamics of reentry in computational models of the rabbit ventricles. (United States)

    Bishop, Martin J; Plank, Gernot


    Fine-scale anatomical structures in the heart may play an important role in sustaining cardiac arrhythmias. However, the extent of this role and how it may differ between species are not fully understood. In this study we used computational modelling to assess the impact of anatomy upon arrhythmia maintenance in the rabbit ventricles. Specifically, we quantified the dynamics of excitation wavefronts during episodes of simulated tachyarrhythmias and fibrillatory arrhythmias, defined as being respectively characterised by relatively low and high spatio-temporal disorganisation.Two computational models were used: a highly anatomically detailed MR-derived rabbit ventricular model (representing vasculature, endocardial structures) and a simplified equivalent model, constructed from the same MR-data but lacking such fine-scale anatomical features. During tachyarrhythmias, anatomically complex and simplified models showed very similar dynamics; however, during fibrillatory arrhythmias, as activation wavelength decreased, the presence of fine-scale anatomical details appeared to marginally increase disorganisation of wavefronts during arrhythmias in the complex model. Although a small amount of clustering of reentrant rotor centres (filaments) around endocardial structures was witnessed in follow-up analysis (which slightly increased during fibrillation as rotor size decreased), this was significantly less than previously reported in large animals. Importantly, no anchoring of reentrant rotors was visibly identifiable in arrhythmia movies. These differences between tachy- and fibrillatory arrhythmias suggest that the relative size of reentrant rotors with respect to anatomical obstacles governs the influence of fine-scale anatomy in the maintenance of ventricular arrhythmias in the rabbit. In conclusion, our simulations suggest that fine-scale anatomical features play little apparent role in the maintenance of tachyarrhythmias in the rabbit ventricles and, contrary to

  12. A three-dimensional musculoskeletal model for gait analysis. Anatomical variability estimates. (United States)

    White, S C; Yack, H J; Winter, D A


    Three-dimensional coordinates defining the origin and insertion of 40 muscle units, and bony landmarks for osteometric scaling were identified on dry bone specimens. Interspecimen coordinate differences along the anterior-posterior axis of the pelvis and the long bone axes of the pelvis, femur and leg were reduced by scaling but landmark differences along the other axes were not. The coordinates were mapped to living subjects using close-range photogrammetry to locate superficial reference markers. The error of predicting the positions of internal coordinates was assessed by comparing joint centre locations calculated from local axes defining the orientation of segments superior and inferior to a joint. A difference was attributed to: anatomical variability not accounted for by scaling; errors in identifying and placing reference landmarks; the accuracy of locating markers using photogrammetry and error introduced by marker oscillation during movement. Anatomical differences between specimens are one source of error in defining a musculoskeletal model but larger errors are introduced when such models are mapped to living subjects.

  13. Computed anatomical modelling of the optic pathway and oculomotor system using magnetic resonance imaging. (United States)

    Juanes, J A; Ruisoto, P; Prats-Galino, A; Framiñán, A; Riesco, J M


    This study presents a computer-based tool for three-dimensional (3D) visualization of the optic pathway and oculomotor system using 3D high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) datasets from a healthy subject. The 3D models were built as wireframe grids co-registered with MRI sections. First, 3D anatomical models were generated of the visual pathway from the eyeball to the primary visual cortex and of the cranial oculomotor nerves from the brain stem to the extrinsic eye muscles. Second, a graphical user interface allowed individual and group visualization, translation, rotation and zooming of the 3D models in different spatial positions simultaneously with MRI orthogonal cut planes. Educational and clinical applications are also discussed.

  14. Surface mesh to voxel data registration for patient-specific anatomical modeling (United States)

    de Oliveira, Júlia E. E.; Giessler, Paul; Keszei, András.; Herrler, Andreas; Deserno, Thomas M.


    Virtual Physiological Human (VPH) models are frequently used for training, planning, and performing medical procedures. The Regional Anaesthesia Simulator and Assistant (RASimAs) project has the goal of increasing the application and effectiveness of regional anesthesia (RA) by combining a simulator of ultrasound-guided and electrical nerve-stimulated RA procedures and a subject-specific assistance system through an integration of image processing, physiological models, subject-specific data, and virtual reality. Individualized models enrich the virtual training tools for learning and improving regional anaesthesia (RA) skills. Therefore, we suggest patient-specific VPH models that are composed by registering the general mesh-based models with patient voxel data-based recordings. Specifically, the pelvis region has been focused for the support of the femoral nerve block. The processing pipeline is composed of different freely available toolboxes such as MatLab, the open Simulation framework (SOFA), and MeshLab. The approach of Gilles is applied for mesh-to-voxel registration. Personalized VPH models include anatomical as well as mechanical properties of the tissues. Two commercial VPH models (Zygote and Anatomium) were used together with 34 MRI data sets. Results are presented for the skin surface and pelvic bones. Future work will extend the registration procedure to cope with all model tissue (i.e., skin, muscle, bone, vessel, nerve, fascia) in a one-step procedure and extrapolating the personalized models to body regions actually being out of the captured field of view.

  15. Enhancement of mobile C-arm cone-beam reconstruction using prior anatomical models (United States)

    Sadowsky, Ofri; Lee, Junghoon; Sutter, Edward G.; Wall, Simon J.; Prince, Jerry L.; Taylor, Russell H.


    We demonstrate an improvement to cone-beam tomographic imaging by using a prior anatomical model. A protocol for scanning and reconstruction has been designed and implemented for a conventional mobile C-arm: a 9 inch image-intensifier OEC-9600. Due to the narrow field of view (FOV), the reconstructed image contains strong truncation artifacts. We propose to improve the reconstructed images by fusing the observed x-ray data with computed projections of a prior 3D anatomical model, derived from a subject-specific CT or from a statistical database (atlas), and co-registered (3D/2D) to the x-rays. The prior model contains a description of geometry and radiodensity as a tetrahedral mesh shape and density polynomials, respectively. A CT-based model can be created by segmentation, meshing and polynomial fitting of the object's CT study. The statistical atlas is created through principal component analysis (PCA) of a collection of mesh instances deformably-registered (3D/3D) to patient datasets. The 3D/2D registration method optimizes a pixel-based similarity score (mutual information) between the observed x-rays and the prior. The transformation involves translation, rotation and shape deformation based on the atlas. After registration, the image intensities of observed and prior projections are matched and adjusted, and the two information sources are blended as inputs to a reconstruction algorithm. We demonstrate recostruction results of three cadaveric specimens, and the effect of fusing prior data to compensate for truncation. Further uses of hybrid reconstruction, such as compensation for the scan's limited arc length, are suggested for future research.

  16. An anatomically shaped lower body model for CT scanning of cadaver femurs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanck, Esther; Deenen, J C W; Verdonschot, Nico [Orthopaedic Research Laboratory, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Center, PO Box 9101, 6500 HB Nijmegen (Netherlands); Huisman, Henk Jan [Department of Radiology, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Center, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Kooloos, Jan G [Department of Anatomy, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Center, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Huizenga, Henk [Department of Radiotherapy, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Center, Nijmegen (Netherlands)], E-mail:


    Bone specific, CT-based finite element (FE) analyses have great potential to accurately predict the fracture risk of deteriorated bones. However, it has been shown that differences exist between FE-models of femora scanned in a water basin or scanned in situ within the human body, as caused by differences in measured bone mineral densities (BMD). In this study we hypothesized that these differences can be reduced by re-creating the patient CT-conditions by using an anatomically shaped physical model of the lower body. BMD distributions were obtained from four different femora that were scanned under three conditions: (1) in situ within the cadaver body, (2) in a water basin and (3) in the body model. The BMD of the three scanning protocols were compared at two locations: proximally, in the trabecular bone of the femoral head, and in the cortical bone of the femoral shaft. Proximally, no significant differences in BMD were found between the in situ scans and the scans in the body model, whereas the densities from the water basin scans were on average 10.8% lower than in situ. In the femoral shaft the differences between the three scanning protocols were insignificant. In conclusion, the body model better approached the in situ situation than a water basin. Future studies can use this body model to mimic patient situations and to develop protocols to improve the performance of the FE-models in actual patients. (note)

  17. Analysis of mouse model pathology: a primer for studying the anatomic pathology of genetically engineered mice. (United States)

    Cardiff, Robert D; Miller, Claramae H; Munn, Robert J


    This primer of pathology is intended to introduce investigators to the structure (morphology) of cancer with an emphasis on genetically engineered mouse (GEM) models (GEMMs). We emphasize the necessity of using the entire biological context for the interpretation of anatomic pathology. Because the primary investigator is responsible for almost all of the information and procedures leading up to microscopic examination, they should also be responsible for documentation of experiments so that the microscopic interpretation can be rendered in context of the biology. The steps involved in this process are outlined, discussed, and illustrated. Because GEMMs are unique experimental subjects, some of the more common pitfalls are discussed. Many of these errors can be avoided with attention to detail and continuous quality assurance.

  18. Anatomical Reproducibility of a Head Model Molded by a Three-dimensional Printer. (United States)

    Kondo, Kosuke; Nemoto, Masaaki; Masuda, Hiroyuki; Okonogi, Shinichi; Nomoto, Jun; Harada, Naoyuki; Sugo, Nobuo; Miyazaki, Chikao


    We prepared rapid prototyping models of heads with unruptured cerebral aneurysm based on image data of computed tomography angiography (CTA) using a three-dimensional (3D) printer. The objective of this study was to evaluate the anatomical reproducibility and accuracy of these models by comparison with the CTA images on a monitor. The subjects were 22 patients with unruptured cerebral aneurysm who underwent preoperative CTA. Reproducibility of the microsurgical anatomy of skull bone and arteries, the length and thickness of the main arteries, and the size of cerebral aneurysm were compared between the CTA image and rapid prototyping model. The microsurgical anatomy and arteries were favorably reproduced, apart from a few minute regions, in the rapid prototyping models. No significant difference was noted in the measured lengths of the main arteries between the CTA image and rapid prototyping model, but errors were noted in their thickness (p 3D printer. It was concluded that these models are useful tools for neurosurgical simulation. The thickness of the main arteries and size of cerebral aneurysm should be comprehensively judged including other neuroimaging in consideration of errors.

  19. Evaluation of an autoclave resistant anatomic nose model for the testing of nasal swabs. (United States)

    Bartolitius, Lennart; Frickmann, Hagen; Warnke, Philipp; Ottl, Peter; Podbielski, Andreas


    A nose model that allows for the comparison of different modes of sample acquisition as well as of nasal swab systems concerning their suitability to detect defined quantities of intranasal microorganisms, and further for training procedures of medical staff, was evaluated. Based on an imprint of a human nose, a model made of a silicone elastomer was formed. Autoclave stability was assessed. Using an inoculation suspension containing Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis, the model was compared with standardized glass plate inoculations. Effects of inoculation time, mode of sampling, and sample storage time were assessed. The model was stable to 20 autoclaving cycles. There were no differences regarding the optimum coverage from the nose and from glass plates. Optimum sampling time was 1 h after inoculation. Storage time after sampling was of minor relevance for the recovery. Rotating the swab around its own axis while circling the nasal cavity resulted in best sampling results. The suitability of the assessed nose model for the comparison of sampling strategies and systems was confirmed. Without disadvantages in comparison with sampling from standardized glass plates, the model allows for the assessment of a correct sampling technique due to its anatomically correct shape.

  20. Understanding complex systems: lessons from Auzoux's and von Hagens's anatomical models

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Antonio G Valdecasas; Ana M Correas; Carmen R Guerrero; Jesús Juez


    Animal and human anatomy is among the most complex systems known, and suitable teaching methods have been of great importance in the progress of knowledge. Examining the human body is part of the process by which medical students come to understand living forms. However, the need to preserve cadavers has led to the development of various techniques to manufacture models for teaching purposes. A variety of materials, such as wax, wood, papier-mâché, or glass, have long been used to construct animal and plant models. In the case of the human body, the most innovative, yet controversial, method of preservation has been plastination, invented by the German physician Gunther von Hagens, by which actual human bodies are preserved as odourless and aesthetic models for teaching and exhibitions. We point out in our study that the ‘hands-on’ approach that some anatomical models allow, namely, the (clastic) disassembly and reassembly of the parts of complex systems and their models, is not only a crucial tool for learning, but is far superior to the simple passive observation that rigid, single-piece models allow. And what is valid for the learning of anatomy can be generalized to the acquisition of knowledge of other complex physical systems.

  1. Explorable Three-Dimensional Digital Model of the Female Pelvis, Pelvic Contents, and Perineum for Anatomical Education (United States)

    Sergovich, Aimee; Johnson, Marjorie; Wilson, Timothy D.


    The anatomy of the pelvis is complex, multilayered, and its three-dimensional organization is conceptually difficult for students to grasp. The aim of this project was to create an explorable and projectable stereoscopic, three-dimensional (3D) model of the female pelvis and pelvic contents for anatomical education. The model was created using…

  2. Evaluation and calibration of functional network modeling methods based on known anatomical connections. (United States)

    Dawson, Debra Ann; Cha, Kuwook; Lewis, Lindsay B; Mendola, Janine D; Shmuel, Amir


    Recent studies have identified large scale brain networks based on the spatio-temporal structure of spontaneous fluctuations in resting-state fMRI data. It is expected that functional connectivity based on resting-state data is reflective of - but not identical to - the underlying anatomical connectivity. However, which functional connectivity analysis methods reliably predict the network structure remains unclear. Here we tested and compared network connectivity analysis methods by applying them to fMRI resting-state time-series obtained from the human visual cortex. The methods evaluated here are those previously tested against simulated data in Smith et al. (Neuroimage, 2011). To this end, we defined regions within retinotopic visual areas V1, V2, and V3 according to their eccentricity in the visual field, delineating central, intermediate, and peripheral eccentricity regions of interest (ROIs). These ROIs served as nodes in the models we study. We based our evaluation on the "ground-truth", thoroughly studied retinotopically-organized anatomical connectivity in the monkey visual cortex. For each evaluated method, we computed the fractional rate of detecting connections known to exist ("c-sensitivity"), while using a threshold of the 95th percentile of the distribution of interaction magnitudes of those connections not expected to exist. Under optimal conditions - including session duration of 68min, a relatively small network consisting of 9 nodes and artifact-free regression of the global effect - each of the top methods predicted the expected connections with 67-85% c-sensitivity. Correlation methods, including Correlation (Corr; 85%), Regularized Inverse Covariance (ICOV; 84%) and Partial Correlation (PCorr; 81%) performed best, followed by Patel's Kappa (80%), Bayesian Network method PC (BayesNet; 77%), General Synchronization measures (67-77%), and Coherence (CohB; 74%). With decreased session duration, these top methods saw decreases in c

  3. Short Term Evaluation of an Anatomically Shaped Polycarbonate Urethane Total Meniscus Replacement in a Goat Model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A C T Vrancken

    Full Text Available Since the treatment options for symptomatic total meniscectomy patients are still limited, an anatomically shaped, polycarbonate urethane (PCU, total meniscus replacement was developed. This study evaluates the in vivo performance of the implant in a goat model, with a specific focus on the implant location in the joint, geometrical integrity of the implant and the effect of the implant on synovial membrane and articular cartilage histopathological condition.The right medial meniscus of seven Saanen goats was replaced by the implant. Sham surgery (transection of the MCL, arthrotomy and MCL suturing was performed in six animals. The contralateral knee joints of both groups served as control groups. After three months follow-up the following aspects of implant performance were evaluated: implant position, implant deformation and the histopathological condition of the synovium and cartilage.Implant geometry was well maintained during the three month implantation period. No signs of PCU wear were found and the implant did not induce an inflammatory response in the knee joint. In all animals, implant fixation was compromised due to suture breakage, wear or elongation, likely causing the increase in extrusion observed in the implant group. Both the femoral cartilage and tibial cartilage in direct contact with the implant showed increased damage compared to the sham and sham-control groups.This study demonstrates that the novel, anatomically shaped PCU total meniscal replacement is biocompatible and resistant to three months of physiological loading. Failure of the fixation sutures may have increased implant mobility, which probably induced implant extrusion and potentially stimulated cartilage degeneration. Evidently, redesigning the fixation method is necessary. Future animal studies should evaluate the improved fixation method and compare implant performance to current treatment standards, such as allografts.

  4. Principal component analysis-based anatomical motion models for use in adaptive radiation therapy of head and neck cancer patients (United States)

    Chetvertkov, Mikhail A.

    Purpose: To develop standard and regularized principal component analysis (PCA) models of anatomical changes from daily cone beam CTs (CBCTs) of head and neck (H&N) patients, assess their potential use in adaptive radiation therapy (ART), and to extract quantitative information for treatment response assessment. Methods: Planning CT (pCT) images of H&N patients were artificially deformed to create "digital phantom" images, which modeled systematic anatomical changes during Radiation Therapy (RT). Artificial deformations closely mirrored patients' actual deformations, and were interpolated to generate 35 synthetic CBCTs, representing evolving anatomy over 35 fractions. Deformation vector fields (DVFs) were acquired between pCT and synthetic CBCTs (i.e., digital phantoms), and between pCT and clinical CBCTs. Patient-specific standard PCA (SPCA) and regularized PCA (RPCA) models were built from these synthetic and clinical DVF sets. Eigenvectors, or eigenDVFs (EDVFs), having the largest eigenvalues were hypothesized to capture the major anatomical deformations during treatment. Modeled anatomies were used to assess the dose deviations with respect to the planned dose distribution. Results: PCA models achieve variable results, depending on the size and location of anatomical change. Random changes prevent or degrade SPCA's ability to detect underlying systematic change. RPCA is able to detect smaller systematic changes against the background of random fraction-to-fraction changes, and is therefore more successful than SPCA at capturing systematic changes early in treatment. SPCA models were less successful at modeling systematic changes in clinical patient images, which contain a wider range of random motion than synthetic CBCTs, while the regularized approach was able to extract major modes of motion. For dose assessment it has been shown that the modeled dose distribution was different from the planned dose for the parotid glands due to their shrinkage and shift into

  5. MIDA: A Multimodal Imaging-Based Detailed Anatomical Model of the Human Head and Neck.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Ida Iacono

    Full Text Available Computational modeling and simulations are increasingly being used to complement experimental testing for analysis of safety and efficacy of medical devices. Multiple voxel- and surface-based whole- and partial-body models have been proposed in the literature, typically with spatial resolution in the range of 1-2 mm and with 10-50 different tissue types resolved. We have developed a multimodal imaging-based detailed anatomical model of the human head and neck, named "MIDA". The model was obtained by integrating three different magnetic resonance imaging (MRI modalities, the parameters of which were tailored to enhance the signals of specific tissues: i structural T1- and T2-weighted MRIs; a specific heavily T2-weighted MRI slab with high nerve contrast optimized to enhance the structures of the ear and eye; ii magnetic resonance angiography (MRA data to image the vasculature, and iii diffusion tensor imaging (DTI to obtain information on anisotropy and fiber orientation. The unique multimodal high-resolution approach allowed resolving 153 structures, including several distinct muscles, bones and skull layers, arteries and veins, nerves, as well as salivary glands. The model offers also a detailed characterization of eyes, ears, and deep brain structures. A special automatic atlas-based segmentation procedure was adopted to include a detailed map of the nuclei of the thalamus and midbrain into the head model. The suitability of the model to simulations involving different numerical methods, discretization approaches, as well as DTI-based tensorial electrical conductivity, was examined in a case-study, in which the electric field was generated by transcranial alternating current stimulation. The voxel- and the surface-based versions of the models are freely available to the scientific community.

  6. MIDA: A Multimodal Imaging-Based Detailed Anatomical Model of the Human Head and Neck. (United States)

    Iacono, Maria Ida; Neufeld, Esra; Akinnagbe, Esther; Bower, Kelsey; Wolf, Johanna; Vogiatzis Oikonomidis, Ioannis; Sharma, Deepika; Lloyd, Bryn; Wilm, Bertram J; Wyss, Michael; Pruessmann, Klaas P; Jakab, Andras; Makris, Nikos; Cohen, Ethan D; Kuster, Niels; Kainz, Wolfgang; Angelone, Leonardo M


    Computational modeling and simulations are increasingly being used to complement experimental testing for analysis of safety and efficacy of medical devices. Multiple voxel- and surface-based whole- and partial-body models have been proposed in the literature, typically with spatial resolution in the range of 1-2 mm and with 10-50 different tissue types resolved. We have developed a multimodal imaging-based detailed anatomical model of the human head and neck, named "MIDA". The model was obtained by integrating three different magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) modalities, the parameters of which were tailored to enhance the signals of specific tissues: i) structural T1- and T2-weighted MRIs; a specific heavily T2-weighted MRI slab with high nerve contrast optimized to enhance the structures of the ear and eye; ii) magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) data to image the vasculature, and iii) diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to obtain information on anisotropy and fiber orientation. The unique multimodal high-resolution approach allowed resolving 153 structures, including several distinct muscles, bones and skull layers, arteries and veins, nerves, as well as salivary glands. The model offers also a detailed characterization of eyes, ears, and deep brain structures. A special automatic atlas-based segmentation procedure was adopted to include a detailed map of the nuclei of the thalamus and midbrain into the head model. The suitability of the model to simulations involving different numerical methods, discretization approaches, as well as DTI-based tensorial electrical conductivity, was examined in a case-study, in which the electric field was generated by transcranial alternating current stimulation. The voxel- and the surface-based versions of the models are freely available to the scientific community.

  7. Action potential generation in an anatomically constrained model of medial superior olive axons. (United States)

    Lehnert, Simon; Ford, Marc C; Alexandrova, Olga; Hellmundt, Franziska; Felmy, Felix; Grothe, Benedikt; Leibold, Christian


    Neurons in the medial superior olive (MSO) encode interaural time differences (ITDs) with sustained firing rates of >100 Hz. They are able to generate such high firing rates for several hundred milliseconds despite their extremely low-input resistances of only few megaohms and high synaptic conductances in vivo. The biophysical mechanisms by which these leaky neurons maintain their excitability are not understood. Since action potentials (APs) are usually assumed to be generated in the axon initial segment (AIS), we analyzed anatomical data of proximal MSO axons in Mongolian gerbils and found that the axon diameter is <1 μm and the internode length is ∼100 μm. Using a morphologically constrained computational model of the MSO axon, we show that these thin axons facilitate the excitability of the AIS. However, for ongoing high rates of synaptic inputs the model generates a substantial fraction of APs in its nodes of Ranvier. These distally initiated APs are mediated by a spatial gradient of sodium channel inactivation and a strong somatic current sink. The model also predicts that distal AP initiation increases the dynamic range of the rate code for ITDs.

  8. PIV-measured versus CFD-predicted flow dynamics in anatomically realistic cerebral aneurysm models. (United States)

    Ford, Matthew D; Nikolov, Hristo N; Milner, Jaques S; Lownie, Stephen P; Demont, Edwin M; Kalata, Wojciech; Loth, Francis; Holdsworth, David W; Steinman, David A


    Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling of nominally patient-specific cerebral aneurysms is increasingly being used as a research tool to further understand the development, prognosis, and treatment of brain aneurysms. We have previously developed virtual angiography to indirectly validate CFD-predicted gross flow dynamics against the routinely acquired digital subtraction angiograms. Toward a more direct validation, here we compare detailed, CFD-predicted velocity fields against those measured using particle imaging velocimetry (PIV). Two anatomically realistic flow-through phantoms, one a giant internal carotid artery (ICA) aneurysm and the other a basilar artery (BA) tip aneurysm, were constructed of a clear silicone elastomer. The phantoms were placed within a computer-controlled flow loop, programed with representative flow rate waveforms. PIV images were collected on several anterior-posterior (AP) and lateral (LAT) planes. CFD simulations were then carried out using a well-validated, in-house solver, based on micro-CT reconstructions of the geometries of the flow-through phantoms and inlet/outlet boundary conditions derived from flow rates measured during the PIV experiments. PIV and CFD results from the central AP plane of the ICA aneurysm showed a large stable vortex throughout the cardiac cycle. Complex vortex dynamics, captured by PIV and CFD, persisted throughout the cardiac cycle on the central LAT plane. Velocity vector fields showed good overall agreement. For the BA, aneurysm agreement was more compelling, with both PIV and CFD similarly resolving the dynamics of counter-rotating vortices on both AP and LAT planes. Despite the imposition of periodic flow boundary conditions for the CFD simulations, cycle-to-cycle fluctuations were evident in the BA aneurysm simulations, which agreed well, in terms of both amplitudes and spatial distributions, with cycle-to-cycle fluctuations measured by PIV in the same geometry. The overall good agreement

  9. Model observer design for multi-signal detection in the presence of anatomical noise (United States)

    Wen, Gezheng; Markey, Mia K.; Park, Subok


    As psychophysical studies are resource-intensive to conduct, model observers are commonly used to assess and optimize medical imaging quality. Model observers are typically designed to detect at most one signal. However, in clinical practice, there may be multiple abnormalities in a single image set (e.g. multifocal multicentric (MFMC) breast cancer), which can impact treatment planning. Prevalence of signals can be different across anatomical regions, and human observers do not know the number or location of signals a priori. As new imaging techniques have the potential to improve multiple-signal detection (e.g. digital breast tomosynthesis may be more effective for diagnosis of MFMC than mammography), image quality assessment approaches addressing such tasks are needed. In this study, we present a model observer to detect multiple signals in an image dataset. A novel implementation of partial least squares (PLS) was developed to estimate different sets of efficient channels directly from the images. The PLS channels are adaptive to the characteristics of signals and the background, and they capture the interactions among signal locations. Corresponding linear decision templates are employed to generate both image-level and location-specific scores on the presence of signals. Our results show that: (1) the model observer can achieve high performance with a reasonably small number of channels; (2) the model observer with PLS channels outperforms that with benchmark modified Laguerre–Gauss channels, especially when realistic signal shapes and complex background statistics are involved; (3) the tasks of clinical interest, and other constraints such as sample size would alter the optimal design of the model observer.

  10. Model observer design for detecting multiple abnormalities in anatomical background images (United States)

    Wen, Gezheng; Markey, Mia K.; Park, Subok


    As psychophysical studies are resource-intensive to conduct, model observers are commonly used to assess and optimize medical imaging quality. Existing model observers were typically designed to detect at most one signal. However, in clinical practice, there may be multiple abnormalities in a single image set (e.g., multifocal and multicentric breast cancers (MMBC)), which can impact treatment planning. Prevalence of signals can be different across anatomical regions, and human observers do not know the number or location of signals a priori. As new imaging techniques have the potential to improve multiple-signal detection (e.g., digital breast tomosynthesis may be more effective for diagnosis of MMBC than planar mammography), image quality assessment approaches addressing such tasks are needed. In this study, we present a model-observer mechanism to detect multiple signals in the same image dataset. To handle the high dimensionality of images, a novel implementation of partial least squares (PLS) was developed to estimate different sets of efficient channels directly from the images. Without any prior knowledge of the background or the signals, the PLS channels capture interactions between signals and the background which provide discriminant image information. Corresponding linear decision templates are employed to generate both image-level and location-specific scores on the presence of signals. Our preliminary results show that the model observer using PLS channels, compared to our first attempts with Laguerre-Gauss channels, can achieve high performance with a reasonably small number of channels, and the optimal design of the model observer may vary as the tasks of clinical interest change.

  11. Generating 3D anatomically detailed models of the retina from OCT data sets: implications for computational modelling (United States)

    Shalbaf, Farzaneh; Dokos, Socrates; Lovell, Nigel H.; Turuwhenua, Jason; Vaghefi, Ehsan


    Retinal prosthesis has been proposed to restore vision for those suffering from the retinal pathologies that mainly affect the photoreceptors layer but keep the inner retina intact. Prior to costly risky experimental studies computational modelling of the retina will help to optimize the device parameters and enhance the outcomes. Here, we developed an anatomically detailed computational model of the retina based on OCT data sets. The consecutive OCT images of individual were subsequently segmented to provide a 3D representation of retina in the form of finite elements. Thereafter, the electrical properties of the retina were modelled by implementing partial differential equation on the 3D mesh. Different electrode configurations, that is bipolar and hexapolar configurations, were implemented and the results were compared with the previous computational and experimental studies. Furthermore, the possible effects of the curvature of retinal layers on the current steering through the retina were proposed and linked to the clinical observations.

  12. SAR exposure from UHF RFID reader in adult, child, pregnant woman, and fetus anatomical models. (United States)

    Fiocchi, Serena; Markakis, Ioannis A; Ravazzani, Paolo; Samaras, Theodoros


    The spread of radio frequency identification (RFID) devices in ubiquitous applications without their simultaneous exposure assessment could give rise to public concerns about their potential adverse health effects. Among the various RFID system categories, the ultra high frequency (UHF) RFID systems have recently started to be widely used in many applications. This study addresses a computational exposure assessment of the electromagnetic radiation generated by a realistic UHF RFID reader, quantifying the exposure levels in different exposure scenarios and subjects (two adults, four children, and two anatomical models of women 7 and 9 months pregnant). The results of the computations are presented in terms of the whole-body and peak spatial specific absorption rate (SAR) averaged over 10 g of tissue to allow comparison with the basic restrictions of the exposure guidelines. The SAR levels in the adults and children were below 0.02 and 0.8 W/kg in whole-body SAR and maximum peak SAR levels, respectively, for all tested positions of the antenna. On the contrary, exposure of pregnant women and fetuses resulted in maximum peak SAR(10 g) values close to the values suggested by the guidelines (2 W/kg) in some of the exposure scenarios with the antenna positioned in front of the abdomen and with a 100% duty cycle and 1 W radiated power.

  13. Intraosseous rotation of the scaphoid: assessment by using a 3D CT model - an anatomic study

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    Schmidle, Gernot; Gabl, Markus [Medical University Innsbruck, Department of Trauma Surgery, Innsbruck (Austria); Rieger, Michael [Regional Hospital Hall, Department of Radiology, Hall in Tirol (Austria); Klauser, Andrea Sabine; Thauerer, Michael [Medical University Innsbruck, Department of Radiology, Innsbruck (Austria); Hoermann, Romed [Medical University Innsbruck, Department of Anatomy, Histology and Embryology-Division of Clinical and Functional Anatomy, Innsbruck (Austria)


    The purpose of this study was to assess intraosseous rotation as the third dimension of scaphoid anatomy on a 3D CT model using common volume rendering software to impact anatomical reconstruction of scaphoid fractures. CT images of 13 cadaver wrist pairs were acquired. Reference axes for the alignment of distal and proximal scaphoid poles were defined three-dimensionally. Two methods for rotation measurement - the reference axis method (RAM) and the scapho-trapezio-trapezoidal joint method (STTM) - were developed and compared by three independent observers. Rotation measured by the RAM averaged 66.9 ± 7 for the right and 67.2 ± 5.8 for the left wrists. Using the STTM there was a mean rotation of 68.6 ± 6.6 for the right and 68.6 ± 6.8 for the left wrists. The overall results showed a significant variability of the measured values between different specimens (P < 0.05). There was no significant difference between left and right wrists of the same specimen, neither for the RAM (P = 0.268) nor for the STTM (P = 0.774). Repeatability coefficients between the observers were low, indicating good repeatability. The presented methods are practical tools to quantify intraosseous rotation between distal and proximal scaphoid poles using common volume rendering software. For clinical application the opposite side provides the best reference values to assess malrotation in scaphoid fracture cases. (orig.)

  14. Currents induced in anatomic models of the human for uniform and nonuniform power frequency magnetic fields. (United States)

    Gandhi, O P; Kang, G; Wu, D; Lazzi, G


    We have used the quasi-static impedance method to calculate the currents induced in the nominal 2 x 2 x 3 and 6 mm resolution anatomically based models of the human body for exposure to magnetic fields at 60 Hz. Uniform magnetic fields of various orientations and magnitudes 1 or 0.417 mT suggested in the ACGIH and ICNIRP safety guidelines are used to calculate induced electric fields or current densities for the various glands and organs of the body including the pineal gland. The maximum 1 cm(2) area-averaged induced current densities for the central nervous system tissues, such as the brain and the spinal cord, were within the reference level of 10 mA/m(2) as suggested in the ICNIRP guidelines for magnetic fields (0.417 mT at 60 Hz). Tissue conductivities were found to play an important role and higher assumed tissue conductivities gave higher induced current densities. We have also determined the induced current density distributions for nonuniform magnetic fields associated with two commonly used electrical appliances, namely a hair dryer and a hair clipper. Because of considerably higher magnetic fields for the latter device, higher induced electric fields and current densities were calculated.

  15. Development of a rabbit's urethral sphincter deficiency animal model for anatomical-functional evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Skaff


    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to develop a new durable animal model (using rabbits for anatomical-functional evaluation of urethral sphincter deficiency. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 40 New Zealand male rabbits, weighting 2.500 kg to 3.100 kg, were evaluated to develop an incontinent animal model. Thirty-two animals underwent urethrolysis and 8 animals received sham operation. Before and at 2, 4, 8 and 12 weeks after urethrolysis or sham operation, it was performed cystometry and leak point pressure (LPP evaluation with different bladder distension volumes (10, 20, 30 mL. In each time point, 10 animals (8 from the study group and 2 from the sham group were sacrificed to harvest the bladder and urethra. The samples were evaluated by H&E and Masson's Trichrome to determine urethral morphology and collagen/smooth muscle density. RESULTS: Twelve weeks after urethrolysis, it was observed a significant decrease in LPP regardless the bladder volume (from 33.7 ± 6.6 to 12.8 ± 2.2 cmH2O. The histological analysis evidenced a decrease of 22% in smooth muscle density with a proportional increase in the collagen, vessels and elastin density (p < 0.01. CONCLUSIONS: Transabdominal urethrolysis develops urethral sphincter insufficiency in rabbits, with significant decrease in LPP associated with decrease of smooth muscle fibers and increase of collagen density. This animal model can be used to test autologous cell therapy for stress urinary incontinence treatment.

  16. The evolution of anatomical illustration and wax modelling in Italy from the 16th to early 19th centuries. (United States)

    Riva, Alessandro; Conti, Gabriele; Solinas, Paola; Loy, Francesco


    Although the contribution to anatomical illustration by Vesalius and his followers has received much attention, less credit has been given to Veslingius and particularly Fabricius. By 1600, Fabricius had amassed more than 300 paintings that together made the Tabulae Pictae, a great atlas of anatomy that was highly admired by his contemporaries. Many of his new observations were incorporated into subsequent books, including those by Casserius, Spighelius, Harvey and Veslingius. Also of importance were the Tabulae by Eustachius (1552), which, although only published in 1714, greatly influenced anatomical wax modelling. In 1742, Pope Benedict XIV established a Museum of Anatomy in Bologna, entrusting to Ercole Lelli the creation of several anatomical preparations in wax. Felice Fontana realised that the production of a large number of models by the casting method would make cadaveric specimens superfluous for anatomical teaching and in 1771 he asked the Grand Duke to fund a wax-modelling workshop in Florence as part of the Natural History Museum, later known as La Specola. Fontana engaged Giuseppe Ferrini as his first modeller and then the 19-year-old Clemente Susini who, by his death in 1814, had superintended the production of, or personally made, more than 2000 models. In 1780, the Austrian Emperor Joseph II visited La Specola and ordered a great number of models for his Josephinum museum; these were made by Fontana with the help of Clemente Susini and supervised by the anatomist Paolo Mascagni. It is, however, in Cagliari that some of Susini's greatest waxes are to be found. These were made when he was free of Fontana's influence and were based on dissections made by Francesco Antonio Boi (University of Cagliari). Their distinctive anatomical features include the emphasis given to nerves and the absence of lymphatics in the brain, a mistake made on earlier waxes. The refined technical perfection of the anatomical details demonstrates the closeness of the

  17. Review and standardization of cell phone exposure calculations using the SAM phantom and anatomically correct head models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kainz Wolfgang


    Full Text Available Abstract We reviewed articles using computational RF dosimetry to compare the Specific Anthropomorphic Mannequin (SAM to anatomically correct models of the human head. Published conclusions based on such comparisons have varied widely. We looked for reasons that might cause apparently similar comparisons to produce dissimilar results. We also looked at the information needed to adequately compare the results of computational RF dosimetry studies. We concluded studies were not comparable because of differences in definitions, models, and methodology. Therefore we propose a protocol, developed by an IEEE standards group, as an initial step in alleviating this problem. The protocol calls for a benchmark validation study comparing the SAM phantom to two anatomically correct models of the human head. It also establishes common definitions and reporting requirements that will increase the comparability of all computational RF dosimetry studies of the human head.

  18. Criteria for anatomical compatibility of the total artificial heart: computerized three-dimensional modeling of the cardiovascular anatomy. (United States)

    Chatel, D; Martin-Bouyer, Y; Vicaut, E; Bouchoucha, H; Achard, F; Sablayrolles, J L; Carpentier, A


    A quantitative study of cardiovascular anatomy was performed by obtaining three-dimensional reconstructions from regular computed tomography scan images in 15 patients, all candidates for heart transplantation. Volumetric estimates of the cardiovascular structures were obtained from these three-dimensional reconstructions using data directly related to total artificial heart (TAH) implantations. By using computerized three-dimensional modeling of these structures, reproducible measurements of the parameters defining the shape and the anatomical connections of the intrathoracic space available for TAH implantation could be derived. The results are intended to be used for both technical and clinical applications such as computer-assisted drawing of the pericardial cavity and the anatomical connections (useful for improving the design of TAH) and combined statistical calculations (multiple regressions, cluster algorithm) of the measurement results, which will then enable the best selection to be made among two or three TAH models for each patient.

  19. A veterinary digital anatomical database.


    Snell, J.R.; Green, R; Stott, G; Van Baerle, S.


    This paper describes the Veterinary Digital Anatomical Database Project. The purpose of the project is to investigate the construction and use of digitally stored anatomical models. We will be discussing the overall project goals and the results to date. Digital anatomical models are 3 dimensional, solid model representations of normal anatomy. The digital representations are electronically stored and can be manipulated and displayed on a computer graphics workstation. A digital database of a...

  20. Building generic anatomical models using virtual model cutting and iterative registration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hallgrímsson Benedikt


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Using 3D generic models to statistically analyze trends in biological structure changes is an important tool in morphometrics research. Therefore, 3D generic models built for a range of populations are in high demand. However, due to the complexity of biological structures and the limited views of them that medical images can offer, it is still an exceptionally difficult task to quickly and accurately create 3D generic models (a model is a 3D graphical representation of a biological structure based on medical image stacks (a stack is an ordered collection of 2D images. We show that the creation of a generic model that captures spatial information exploitable in statistical analyses is facilitated by coupling our generalized segmentation method to existing automatic image registration algorithms. Methods The method of creating generic 3D models consists of the following processing steps: (i scanning subjects to obtain image stacks; (ii creating individual 3D models from the stacks; (iii interactively extracting sub-volume by cutting each model to generate the sub-model of interest; (iv creating image stacks that contain only the information pertaining to the sub-models; (v iteratively registering the corresponding new 2D image stacks; (vi averaging the newly created sub-models based on intensity to produce the generic model from all the individual sub-models. Results After several registration procedures are applied to the image stacks, we can create averaged image stacks with sharp boundaries. The averaged 3D model created from those image stacks is very close to the average representation of the population. The image registration time varies depending on the image size and the desired accuracy of the registration. Both volumetric data and surface model for the generic 3D model are created at the final step. Conclusions Our method is very flexible and easy to use such that anyone can use image stacks to create models and

  1. Interpreting the effects of altered brain anatomical connectivity on fMRI functional connectivity: a role for computational neural modeling. (United States)

    Horwitz, Barry; Hwang, Chuhern; Alstott, Jeff


    Recently, there have been a large number of studies using resting state fMRI to characterize abnormal brain connectivity in patients with a variety of neurological, psychiatric, and developmental disorders. However, interpreting what the differences in resting state fMRI functional connectivity (rsfMRI-FC) actually reflect in terms of the underlying neural pathology has proved to be elusive because of the complexity of brain anatomical connectivity. The same is the case for task-based fMRI studies. In the last few years, several groups have used large-scale neural modeling to help provide some insight into the relationship between brain anatomical connectivity and the corresponding patterns of fMRI-FC. In this paper we review several efforts at using large-scale neural modeling to investigate the relationship between structural connectivity and functional/effective connectivity to determine how alterations in structural connectivity are manifested in altered patterns of functional/effective connectivity. Because the alterations made in the anatomical connectivity between specific brain regions in the model are known in detail, one can use the results of these simulations to determine the corresponding alterations in rsfMRI-FC. Many of these simulation studies found that structural connectivity changes do not necessarily result in matching changes in functional/effective connectivity in the areas of structural modification. Often, it was observed that increases in functional/effective connectivity in the altered brain did not necessarily correspond to increases in the strength of the anatomical connection weights. Note that increases in rsfMRI-FC in patients have been interpreted in some cases as resulting from neural plasticity. These results suggest that this interpretation can be mistaken. The relevance of these simulation findings to the use of functional/effective fMRI connectivity as biomarkers for brain disorders is also discussed.

  2. A veterinary digital anatomical database. (United States)

    Snell, J R; Green, R; Stott, G; Van Baerle, S


    This paper describes the Veterinary Digital Anatomical Database Project. The purpose of the project is to investigate the construction and use of digitally stored anatomical models. We will be discussing the overall project goals and the results to date. Digital anatomical models are 3 dimensional, solid model representations of normal anatomy. The digital representations are electronically stored and can be manipulated and displayed on a computer graphics workstation. A digital database of anatomical structures can be used in conjunction with gross dissection in teaching normal anatomy to first year students in the professional curriculum. The computer model gives students the opportunity to "discover" relationships between anatomical structures that may have been destroyed or may not be obvious in the gross dissection. By using a digital database, the student will have the ability to view and manipulate anatomical structures in ways that are not available through interactive video disk (IVD). IVD constrains the student to preselected views and sections stored on the disk.

  3. Three dimensional printing as an effective method of producing anatomically accurate models for studies in thermal ecology. (United States)

    Watson, Charles M; Francis, Gamal R


    Hollow copper models painted to match the reflectance of the animal subject are standard in thermal ecology research. While the copper electroplating process results in accurate models, it is relatively time consuming, uses caustic chemicals, and the models are often anatomically imprecise. Although the decreasing cost of 3D printing can potentially allow the reproduction of highly accurate models, the thermal performance of 3D printed models has not been evaluated. We compared the cost, accuracy, and performance of both copper and 3D printed lizard models and found that the performance of the models were statistically identical in both open and closed habitats. We also find that 3D models are more standard, lighter, durable, and inexpensive, than the copper electroformed models.

  4. Accurate alignment of functional EPI data to anatomical MRI using a physics-based distortion model. (United States)

    Studholme, C; Constable, R T; Duncan, J S


    Mapping of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to conventional anatomical MRI is a valuable step in the interpretation of fMRI activations. One of the main limits on the accuracy of this alignment arises from differences in the geometric distortion induced by magnetic field inhomogeneity. This paper describes an approach to the registration of echo planar image (EPI) data to conventional anatomical images which takes into account this difference in geometric distortion. We make use of an additional spin echo EPI image and use the known signal conservation in spin echo distortion to derive a specialized multimodality nonrigid registration algorithm. We also examine a plausible modification using log-intensity evaluation of the criterion to provide increased sensitivity in areas of low EPI signal. A phantom-based imaging experiment is used to evaluate the behavior of the different criteria, comparing nonrigid displacement estimates to those provided by a imagnetic field mapping acquisition. The algorithm is then applied to a range of nine brain imaging studies illustrating global and local improvement in the anatomical alignment and localization of fMRI activations.

  5. Quantitative modeling of the accuracy in registering preoperative patient-specific anatomic models into left atrial cardiac ablation procedures

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    Rettmann, Maryam E., E-mail:; Holmes, David R.; Camp, Jon J.; Cameron, Bruce M.; Robb, Richard A. [Biomedical Imaging Resource, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, Rochester, Minnesota 55905 (United States); Kwartowitz, David M. [Department of Bioengineering, Clemson University, Clemson, South Carolina 29634 (United States); Gunawan, Mia [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular and Cellular Biology, Georgetown University, Washington D.C. 20057 (United States); Johnson, Susan B.; Packer, Douglas L. [Division of Cardiovascular Diseases, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota 55905 (United States); Dalegrave, Charles [Clinical Cardiac Electrophysiology, Cardiology Division Hospital Sao Paulo, Federal University of Sao Paulo, 04024-002 Brazil (Brazil); Kolasa, Mark W. [David Grant Medical Center, Fairfield, California 94535 (United States)


    Purpose: In cardiac ablation therapy, accurate anatomic guidance is necessary to create effective tissue lesions for elimination of left atrial fibrillation. While fluoroscopy, ultrasound, and electroanatomic maps are important guidance tools, they lack information regarding detailed patient anatomy which can be obtained from high resolution imaging techniques. For this reason, there has been significant effort in incorporating detailed, patient-specific models generated from preoperative imaging datasets into the procedure. Both clinical and animal studies have investigated registration and targeting accuracy when using preoperative models; however, the effect of various error sources on registration accuracy has not been quantitatively evaluated. Methods: Data from phantom, canine, and patient studies are used to model and evaluate registration accuracy. In the phantom studies, data are collected using a magnetically tracked catheter on a static phantom model. Monte Carlo simulation studies were run to evaluate both baseline errors as well as the effect of different sources of error that would be present in a dynamicin vivo setting. Error is simulated by varying the variance parameters on the landmark fiducial, physical target, and surface point locations in the phantom simulation studies. In vivo validation studies were undertaken in six canines in which metal clips were placed in the left atrium to serve as ground truth points. A small clinical evaluation was completed in three patients. Landmark-based and combined landmark and surface-based registration algorithms were evaluated in all studies. In the phantom and canine studies, both target registration error and point-to-surface error are used to assess accuracy. In the patient studies, no ground truth is available and registration accuracy is quantified using point-to-surface error only. Results: The phantom simulation studies demonstrated that combined landmark and surface-based registration improved

  6. A multi-segment foot model based on anatomically registered technical coordinate systems: method repeatability in pediatric feet. (United States)

    Saraswat, Prabhav; MacWilliams, Bruce A; Davis, Roy B


    Several multi-segment foot models to measure the motion of intrinsic joints of the foot have been reported. Use of these models in clinical decision making is limited due to lack of rigorous validation including inter-clinician, and inter-lab variability measures. A model with thoroughly quantified variability may significantly improve the confidence in the results of such foot models. This study proposes a new clinical foot model with the underlying strategy of using separate anatomic and technical marker configurations and coordinate systems. Anatomical landmark and coordinate system identification is determined during a static subject calibration. Technical markers are located at optimal sites for dynamic motion tracking. The model is comprised of the tibia and three foot segments (hindfoot, forefoot and hallux) and inter-segmental joint angles are computed in three planes. Data collection was carried out on pediatric subjects at two sites (Site 1: n=10 subjects by two clinicians and Site 2: five subjects by one clinician). A plaster mold method was used to quantify static intra-clinician and inter-clinician marker placement variability by allowing direct comparisons of marker data between sessions for each subject. Intra-clinician and inter-clinician joint angle variability were less than 4°. For dynamic walking kinematics, intra-clinician, inter-clinician and inter-laboratory variability were less than 6° for the ankle and forefoot, but slightly higher for the hallux. Inter-trial variability accounted for 2-4° of the total dynamic variability. Results indicate the proposed foot model reduces the effects of marker placement variability on computed foot kinematics during walking compared to similar measures in previous models.

  7. Researching the effect of the practical applications performed with cadaver dissection and anatomical models on anatomy education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vedat Sabancıoğulları


    Full Text Available Objective: The most important element in providing good quality of healthcare is well training of healthcare staff, particularly doctors. The way of being a good and successful healthcare staff is to learn the human anatomy accurately and permanently. Practical applications as well as theoretical courses are also highly important in learning human anatomy. In classical anatomy education, using cadaver is accepted to be indispensable. However, along with the new medical faculties, there has been an increase in the shortage of cadaver, and anatomy practices have mainly begun to be carried out on models or mock-ups. Therefore, we aimed to study with anatomic models in practical applications and to research the effect of cadaver dissection on learning anatomy. Method: In this study including 120-second grade students that their achievement levels are close together and participating in the theoretical courses of anatomy in medical faculty during 2015 – 2016 academic year. To realize this, students were divided into four groups (1st group were include students only listening to theoretical course, 2nd group theoretical course and performing application with anatomic models, 3rd group theoretical course and performing application with cadaver dissection, and 4th group theoretical course and performing application with anatomic models and cadaver dissection of 30 people. Degree of students’ understanding the subject was detected with written and practical exams consists of 10 questions after the theoretical and practical courses on each committee. The resulting data are loaded to SPSS 22.0 software and statistical evaluation One-way ANOVA, Mann-Whitney, chi-square test was used. Results: The average of students who practice on both models and cadavers were statistically significant (p 0.05. Conclusions: The results obtained from our study indicate that anatomy practical training is carried out with the dissection of cadavers that made it easier to

  8. Towards anatomic scale agent-based modeling with a massively parallel spatially explicit general-purpose model of enteric tissue (SEGMEnT_HPC.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Chase Cockrell

    Full Text Available Perhaps the greatest challenge currently facing the biomedical research community is the ability to integrate highly detailed cellular and molecular mechanisms to represent clinical disease states as a pathway to engineer effective therapeutics. This is particularly evident in the representation of organ-level pathophysiology in terms of abnormal tissue structure, which, through histology, remains a mainstay in disease diagnosis and staging. As such, being able to generate anatomic scale simulations is a highly desirable goal. While computational limitations have previously constrained the size and scope of multi-scale computational models, advances in the capacity and availability of high-performance computing (HPC resources have greatly expanded the ability of computational models of biological systems to achieve anatomic, clinically relevant scale. Diseases of the intestinal tract are exemplary examples of pathophysiological processes that manifest at multiple scales of spatial resolution, with structural abnormalities present at the microscopic, macroscopic and organ-levels. In this paper, we describe a novel, massively parallel computational model of the gut, the Spatially Explicitly General-purpose Model of Enteric Tissue_HPC (SEGMEnT_HPC, which extends an existing model of the gut epithelium, SEGMEnT, in order to create cell-for-cell anatomic scale simulations. We present an example implementation of SEGMEnT_HPC that simulates the pathogenesis of ileal pouchitis, and important clinical entity that affects patients following remedial surgery for ulcerative colitis.

  9. Effect of Anatomically Realistic Full-Head Model on Activation of Cortical Neurons in Subdural Cortical Stimulation—A Computational Study (United States)

    Seo, Hyeon; Kim, Donghyeon; Jun, Sung Chan


    Electrical brain stimulation (EBS) is an emerging therapy for the treatment of neurological disorders, and computational modeling studies of EBS have been used to determine the optimal parameters for highly cost-effective electrotherapy. Recent notable growth in computing capability has enabled researchers to consider an anatomically realistic head model that represents the full head and complex geometry of the brain rather than the previous simplified partial head model (extruded slab) that represents only the precentral gyrus. In this work, subdural cortical stimulation (SuCS) was found to offer a better understanding of the differential activation of cortical neurons in the anatomically realistic full-head model than in the simplified partial-head models. We observed that layer 3 pyramidal neurons had comparable stimulation thresholds in both head models, while layer 5 pyramidal neurons showed a notable discrepancy between the models; in particular, layer 5 pyramidal neurons demonstrated asymmetry in the thresholds and action potential initiation sites in the anatomically realistic full-head model. Overall, the anatomically realistic full-head model may offer a better understanding of layer 5 pyramidal neuronal responses. Accordingly, the effects of using the realistic full-head model in SuCS are compelling in computational modeling studies, even though this modeling requires substantially more effort.

  10. Validation of airway resistance models for predicting pressure loss through anatomically realistic conducting airway replicas of adults and children. (United States)

    Borojeni, Azadeh A T; Noga, Michelle L; Martin, Andrew R; Finlay, Warren H


    This work describes in vitro measurement of the total pressure loss at varying flow rate through anatomically realistic conducting airway replicas of 10 children, 4 to 8 years old, and 5 adults. Experimental results were compared with analytical predictions made using published airway resistance models. For the adult replicas, the model proposed by van Ertbruggen et al. (2005. J. Appl. Physiol. 98, 970-980) most accurately predicted central conducting airway resistance for inspiratory flow rates ranging from 15 to 90 L/min. Models proposed by Pedley et al. (1970. J. Respir. Physiol. 9, 371-386) and by Katz et al. (2011. J. Biomech. 44, 1137-1143) also provided reasonable estimates, but with a tendency to over predict measured pressure loss for both models. For child replicas, the Pedley and Katz models both provided good estimation of measured pressure loss at flow rates representative of resting tidal breathing, but under predicted measured values at high inspiratory flow rate (60 L/min). The van Ertbruggen model, developed based on flow simulations performed in an adult airway model, tended to under predict measured pressure loss through the child replicas across the range of flow rates studied (2 to 60 L/min). These results are intended to provide guidance for selection of analytical pressure loss models for use in predicting airway resistance and ventilation distribution in adults and children.

  11. Evaluation of the anatomical and functional consequences of repetitive mild cervical contusion using a model of spinal concussion. (United States)

    Jin, Ying; Bouyer, Julien; Haas, Christopher; Fischer, Itzhak


    Spinal cord concussion is characterized by a transient loss of motor and sensory function that generally resolves without permanent deficits. Spinal cord concussions usually occur during vehicular accidents, falls, and sport activity, but unlike brain concussions, have received much less attention despite the potential for repeated injury leading to permanent neurological sequelae. Consequently, there is no consensus regarding decisions related to return to play following an episode of spinal concussion, nor an understanding of the short- and long-term consequences of repeated injury. Importantly, there are no models of spinal concussion to study the anatomical and functional sequelae of single or repeated injury. We have developed a new model of spinal cord concussion focusing on the anatomical and behavioral outcomes of single and repeated injury. Rats received a very mild (50 kdyn, IH impactor) spinal contusion at C5 and were separated into two groups three weeks after the initial injury--C1, which received a second, sham surgery, and C2, which received a second contusion at the same site. To track motor function and recovery, animals received weekly behavioral tests--BBB, CatWalk™, cylinder, and Von Frey. Analysis of locomotor activity by BBB demonstrated that rats rapidly recovered, regaining near-normal function by one week after the first and second injury, which was confirmed using the more detailed CatWalk™ analysis. The cylinder test showed that a single contusion did not induce significant deficits of the affected limb, but that repeated injury resulted in significant alteration in paw preference, with animals favoring the unaffected limb. Intriguingly, Von Frey analysis demonstrated an increased sensitivity in the contralateral hindlimb in the C2 group vs. the C1 group. Anatomical analyses revealed that while the lesion volume of both groups was minimal, the area of spared white matter in the C2 group was significantly reduced 1 and 2mm rostral to

  12. Lagrangian and Eulerian biventricular strains from anatomical NURBS models using tagged MRI (United States)

    Tustison, Nicholas J.; Amini, Amir A.


    We present current research in which both left and right ventricular deformation is estimated from tagged cardiac magnetic resonance imaging using volumetric deformable models constructed from nonuniform rational B-splines (NURBS). The four model types considered include Cartesian-based NURBS models with both a cylindrical and prolate-spheroidal parameterization, prolate spheroidal-based NURBS models with a prolate-spheroidal parameterization, and cylindrical-based NURBS models with a cylindrical parameterization. For each frame subsequent to end-diastole, a NURBS model is constructed by fitting two surfaces with the same parameterization to the corresponding set of epicardial and endocardial contours from which a volumetric model is created. Using normal displacements of the three sets of orthogonal tag planes as well as displacements of contour/tag line intersection points and tag plane intersection points, one can solve for the optimal homogeneous coordinates, in a weighted least squares sense, of the control points of the deformed NURBS model at end-diastole using quadratic programming. This allows for subsequent forward displacement fitting from end-diastole to all later time frames. After fitting to all time points of data, lofting the NURBS model at each time point creates a comprehensive 4-D NURBS model. From this model, we can extract 3-D myocardial deformation fields and corresponding strain maps which are local measures of non-rigid deformation. The results show that, in the case of simulated data, the quadratic Cartesian-based NURBS model outperformed its counterparts in predicting normal strain. This model was used to then calculate normal Lagrangian and Eulerian strains in canine data.

  13. Anatomical Knowledge Gain through a Clay-Modeling Exercise Compared to Live and Video Observations (United States)

    Kooloos, Jan G. M.; Schepens-Franke, Annelieke N.; Bergman, Esther M.; Donders, Rogier A. R. T.; Vorstenbosch, Marc A. T. M.


    Clay modeling is increasingly used as a teaching method other than dissection. The haptic experience during clay modeling is supposed to correspond to the learning effect of manipulations during exercises in the dissection room involving tissues and organs. We questioned this assumption in two pretest-post-test experiments. In these experiments,…

  14. Anatomical knowledge gain through a clay-modeling exercise compared to live and video observations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooloos, J.G.M.; Schepens-Franke, A.N.; Bergman, E.M.; Donders, R.; Vorstenbosch, M.A.


    Clay modeling is increasingly used as a teaching method other than dissection. The haptic experience during clay modeling is supposed to correspond to the learning effect of manipulations during exercises in the dissection room involving tissues and organs. We questioned this assumption in two prete

  15. Single-step stereolithography of complex anatomical models for optical flow measurements. (United States)

    de Zélicourt, Diane; Pekkan, Kerem; Kitajima, Hiroumi; Frakes, David; Yoganathan, Ajit P


    Transparent stereolithographic rapid prototyping (RP) technology has already demonstrated in literature to be a practical model construction tool for optical flow measurements such as digital particle image velocimetry (DPIV), laser doppler velocimetry (LDV), and flow visualization. Here, we employ recently available transparent RP resins and eliminate time-consuming casting and chemical curing steps from the traditional approach. This note details our methodology with relevant material properties and highlights its advantages. Stereolithographic model printing with our procedure is now a direct single-step process, enabling faster geometric replication of complex computational fluid dynamics (CFD) models for exact experimental validation studies. This methodology is specifically applied to the in vitro flow modeling of patient-specific total cavopulmonary connection (TCPC) morphologies. The effect of RP machining grooves, surface quality, and hydrodynamic performance measurements as compared with the smooth glass models are also quantified.

  16. Influence of anatomical dominance and hypertension on coronary conduit arterial and microcirculatory flow patterns: a multiscale modeling study. (United States)

    Mynard, Jonathan P; Smolich, Joseph J


    Coronary hemodynamics are known to be affected by intravascular and extravascular factors that vary regionally and transmurally between the perfusion territories of left and right coronary arteries. However, despite clinical evidence that left coronary arterial dominance portends greater cardiovascular risk, relatively little is known about the effects of left or right dominance on regional conduit arterial and microcirculatory blood flow patterns, particularly in the presence of systemic or pulmonary hypertension. We addressed this issue using a multiscale numerical model of the human coronary circulation situated in a closed-loop cardiovascular model. The coronary model represented left or right dominant anatomies and accounted for transmural and regional differences in vascular properties and extravascular compression. Regional coronary flow dynamics of the two anatomical variants were compared under normotensive conditions, raised systemic or pulmonary pressures with maintained flow demand, and after accounting for adaptations known to occur in acute and chronic hypertensive states. Key findings were that 1) right coronary arterial flow patterns were strongly influenced by dominance and systemic/pulmonary hypertension; 2) dominance had minor effects on left coronary arterial and all microvascular flow patterns (aside from mean circumflex flow); 3) although systemic hypertension favorably increased perfusion pressure, this benefit varied regionally and transmurally and was offset by increased left ventricular and septal flow demands; and 4) pulmonary hypertension had a substantial negative effect on right ventricular and septal flows, which was exacerbated by greater metabolic demands. These findings highlight the importance of interactions between coronary arterial dominance and hypertension in modulating coronary hemodynamics.

  17. Development of a new generation of high-resolution anatomical models for medical device evaluation: the Virtual Population 3.0 (United States)

    Gosselin, Marie-Christine; Neufeld, Esra; Moser, Heidi; Huber, Eveline; Farcito, Silvia; Gerber, Livia; Jedensjö, Maria; Hilber, Isabel; Di Gennaro, Fabienne; Lloyd, Bryn; Cherubini, Emilio; Szczerba, Dominik; Kainz, Wolfgang; Kuster, Niels


    The Virtual Family computational whole-body anatomical human models were originally developed for electromagnetic (EM) exposure evaluations, in particular to study how absorption of radiofrequency radiation from external sources depends on anatomy. However, the models immediately garnered much broader interest and are now applied by over 300 research groups, many from medical applications research fields. In a first step, the Virtual Family was expanded to the Virtual Population to provide considerably broader population coverage with the inclusion of models of both sexes ranging in age from 5 to 84 years old. Although these models have proven to be invaluable for EM dosimetry, it became evident that significantly enhanced models are needed for reliable effectiveness and safety evaluations of diagnostic and therapeutic applications, including medical implants safety. This paper describes the research and development performed to obtain anatomical models that meet the requirements necessary for medical implant safety assessment applications. These include implementation of quality control procedures, re-segmentation at higher resolution, more-consistent tissue assignments, enhanced surface processing and numerous anatomical refinements. Several tools were developed to enhance the functionality of the models, including discretization tools, posing tools to expand the posture space covered, and multiple morphing tools, e.g., to develop pathological models or variations of existing ones. A comprehensive tissue properties database was compiled to complement the library of models. The results are a set of anatomically independent, accurate, and detailed models with smooth, yet feature-rich and topologically conforming surfaces. The models are therefore suited for the creation of unstructured meshes, and the possible applications of the models are extended to a wider range of solvers and physics. The impact of these improvements is shown for the MRI exposure of an adult

  18. How Spatial Abilities and Dynamic Visualizations Interplay When Learning Functional Anatomy with 3D Anatomical Models (United States)

    Berney, Sandra; Bétrancourt, Mireille; Molinari, Gaëlle; Hoyek, Nady


    The emergence of dynamic visualizations of three-dimensional (3D) models in anatomy curricula may be an adequate solution for spatial difficulties encountered with traditional static learning, as they provide direct visualization of change throughout the viewpoints. However, little research has explored the interplay between learning material…

  19. Lumbar spine segmentation using a statistical multi-vertebrae anatomical shape+pose model. (United States)

    Rasoulian, Abtin; Rohling, Robert; Abolmaesumi, Purang


    Segmentation of the spinal column from computed tomography (CT) images is a preprocessing step for a range of image-guided interventions. One intervention that would benefit from accurate segmentation is spinal needle injection. Previous spinal segmentation techniques have primarily focused on identification and separate segmentation of each vertebra. Recently, statistical multi-object shape models have been introduced to extract common statistical characteristics between several anatomies. These models can be used for segmentation purposes because they are robust, accurate, and computationally tractable. In this paper, we develop a statistical multi-vertebrae shape+pose model and propose a novel registration-based technique to segment the CT images of spine. The multi-vertebrae statistical model captures the variations in shape and pose simultaneously, which reduces the number of registration parameters. We validate our technique in terms of accuracy and robustness of multi-vertebrae segmentation of CT images acquired from lumbar vertebrae of 32 subjects. The mean error of the proposed technique is below 2 mm, which is sufficient for many spinal needle injection procedures, such as facet joint injections.

  20. Hierarchical statistical shape models of multiobject anatomical structures: application to brain MRI. (United States)

    Cerrolaza, Juan J; Villanueva, Arantxa; Cabeza, Rafael


    The accurate segmentation of subcortical brain structures in magnetic resonance (MR) images is of crucial importance in the interdisciplinary field of medical imaging. Although statistical approaches such as active shape models (ASMs) have proven to be particularly useful in the modeling of multiobject shapes, they are inefficient when facing challenging problems. Based on the wavelet transform, the fully generic multiresolution framework presented in this paper allows us to decompose the interobject relationships into different levels of detail. The aim of this hierarchical decomposition is twofold: to efficiently characterize the relationships between objects and their particular localities. Experiments performed on an eight-object structure defined in axial cross sectional MR brain images show that the new hierarchical segmentation significantly improves the accuracy of the segmentation, and while it exhibits a remarkable robustness with respect to the size of the training set.

  1. A patient-specific respiratory model of anatomical motion for radiation treatment planning

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Qinghui; Hertanto, Agung; Hu, Yu-Chi; Rosenzweig, Kenneth E; Ling, C Clifton; Mageras, Gig S


    Modeling of respiratory motion is important for a more accurate understanding and accounting of its effect on dose to cancers in the thorax and abdomen by radiotherapy. We have developed a model of respiration-induced organ motion in the thorax, without the commonly adopted assumption of repeatable breath cycles. The model describes the motion of a volume of interest within the patient, based on a reference 3-dimensional image (at end-expiration), and the diaphragm positions at different time points. The input data are respiration-correlated CT images of patients treated for nonsmall cell lung cancer, consisting of 3D images, including the diaphragm positions, at 10 phases of the respiratory cycle. A deformable image registration algorithm calculates the deformation field that maps each 3D image to the reference 3D image. A principle component analysis is performed to parameterize the 3D deformation field in terms of the diaphragm motion. We show that the first two principal components are adequate to accurat...

  2. Automatic iterative segmentation of multiple sclerosis lesions using Student's t mixture models and probabilistic anatomical atlases in FLAIR images. (United States)

    Freire, Paulo G L; Ferrari, Ricardo J


    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a demyelinating autoimmune disease that attacks the central nervous system (CNS) and affects more than 2 million people worldwide. The segmentation of MS lesions in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a very important task to assess how a patient is responding to treatment and how the disease is progressing. Computational approaches have been proposed over the years to segment MS lesions and reduce the amount of time spent on manual delineation and inter- and intra-rater variability and bias. However, fully-automatic segmentation of MS lesions still remains an open problem. In this work, we propose an iterative approach using Student's t mixture models and probabilistic anatomical atlases to automatically segment MS lesions in Fluid Attenuated Inversion Recovery (FLAIR) images. Our technique resembles a refinement approach by iteratively segmenting brain tissues into smaller classes until MS lesions are grouped as the most hyperintense one. To validate our technique we used 21 clinical images from the 2015 Longitudinal Multiple Sclerosis Lesion Segmentation Challenge dataset. Evaluation using Dice Similarity Coefficient (DSC), True Positive Ratio (TPR), False Positive Ratio (FPR), Volume Difference (VD) and Pearson's r coefficient shows that our technique has a good spatial and volumetric agreement with raters' manual delineations. Also, a comparison between our proposal and the state-of-the-art shows that our technique is comparable and, in some cases, better than some approaches, thus being a viable alternative for automatic MS lesion segmentation in MRI.

  3. A micro-anatomical model of the distribution of myocardial endomysial collagen. (United States)

    Macchiarelli, G; Ohtani, O; Nottola, S A; Stallone, T; Camboni, A; Prado, I M; Motta, P M


    Myocardial connective tissue probably provides passive support for regulating heart tensile strength and stiffness and ultimately for controlling heart mechanics through its endomysial part. However, endomysial collagen micro-arrangement is still a matter of debate. In order to define the fine distribution of left ventricle endomysial collagen, we applied the NaOH-scanning electron microscopy (SEM) maceration method (one of the techniques of choice for studying collagen micro-arrangement) to rabbit heart. Gomori-reticulum staining was used for correlated light microscopy (LM) observations. The SEM-NaOH method allowed isolation of collagen by removing other extracellular matrix components and cells and preserved collagen structure and position. Endomysial collagen appeared arranged in laminae that delimited the lacunae that were left empty by macerated myocytes and small vessels (mostly capillaries). These laminae were formed by reticular fibers, as confirmed by LM observations of Gomorireticulum-stained samples, and were organized in irregularly meshed networks made of thin (single) and thick (composed) filaments. In longitudinal views, collagen laminae extended the entire length of lacunae. In transversal views, the cut surface of the laminae appeared to be made of collagen bundles. These observations provide an updated microanatomical view of endomysial collagen distribution, which integrates previous studies. This model is based on the evidence that collagen laminae enveloped the surface of small vessels and myocytes. Thus, a type of myocyte-myocyte or capillary-myocyte "laminar connection" anchored to the entire cell length here is emphasized, rather than a type of "strut connection" anchored to defined loci, as usually described. This structure explains better how endomysium may provide the necessary support for heart compliance and protection against overstretch.

  4. The use of a new 3D splint and double CT scan procedure to obtain an accurate anatomic virtual augmented model of the skull. (United States)

    Swennen, G R J; Barth, E-L; Eulzer, C; Schutyser, F


    Three-dimensional (3D) virtual planning of orthognathic surgery requires detailed visualization of the interocclusal relationship. The purpose of this study was to introduce the modification of the double computed tomography (CT) scan procedure using a newly designed 3D splint in order to obtain a detailed anatomic 3D virtual augmented model of the skull. A total of 10 dry adult human cadaver skulls were used to evaluate the accuracy of the automatic rigid registration method for fusion of both CT datasets (Maxilim, version 1.3.0). The overall mean registration error was 0.1355+/-0.0323 mm (range 0.0760-0.1782 mm). Analysis of variance showed a registration method error of 0.0564 mm (P 3D splint with the double CT scan procedure allowed accurate registration and the set-up of an accurate anatomic 3D virtual augmented model of the skull with detailed dental surface.

  5. A unified deformable (UD) segment model for quantifying total power of anatomical and prosthetic below-knee structures during stance in gait. (United States)

    Takahashi, Kota Z; Kepple, Thomas M; Stanhope, Steven J


    Anatomically-relevant (AR) biomechanical models are traditionally used to quantify joint powers and segmental energies of lower extremity structures during gait. While AR models contain a series of rigid body segments linked together via mechanical joints, prosthetic below-knee structures are often deformable objects without a definable ankle joint. Consequently, the application of AR models for the study of prosthetic limbs has been problematic. The purpose of this study was to develop and validate a unified deformable (UD) segment model for quantifying the total power of below-knee structures. Estimates of total below-knee power derived via the UD segment model were compared to those derived via an AR model during stance in gait of eleven healthy subjects. The UD segment model achieved similar results to the AR model. Differences in peak power, total positive work, and total negative work were 1.91±0.31%, 3.97±0.49%, and 1.39±0.33%, relative to the AR model estimates. The main advantage of the UD segment model is that it does not require the definition of an ankle joint or foot structures. Therefore, this technique may be valuable for facilitating direct comparisons between anatomical and disparate prosthetic below-knee structures in future studies.

  6. The Fate of Anatomical Collections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knoeff, Rina; Zwijnenberg, Robert


    Almost every medical faculty possesses anatomical and/or pathological collections: human and animal preparations, wax- and other models, as well as drawings, photographs, documents and archives relating to them. In many institutions these collections are well-preserved, but in others they are poorly

  7. Monte Carlo model for a prototype CT-compatible, anatomically adaptive, shielded intracavitary brachytherapy applicator for the treatment of cervical cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Price, Michael J.; Gifford, Kent A.; Horton, John L. Jr.; Eifel, Patricia J.; Gillin, Michael T.; Lawyer, Ann A.; Mourtada, Firas [Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, 1220 Holcombe Boulevard, Houston, Texas 77030 and Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, University of Texas-Houston, 6767 Bertner Avenue, Houston, Texas 77030 (United States); Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, 1220 Holcombe Boulevard, Houston, Texas 77030 (United States); Division of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, 1220 Holcombe Boulevard, Houston, Texas 77030 and Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, University of Texas-Houston, 6767 Bertner Avenue, Houston, Texas 77030 (United States); Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, 1220 Holcombe Boulevard, Houston, Texas 77030 and Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, University of Texas-Houston, 6767 Bertner Avenue, Houston, Texas 77030 (United States); Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, 1220 Holcombe Boulevard, Houston, Texas 77030 (United States); Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, 1220 Holcombe Boulevard, Houston, Texas 77030 and Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, University of Texas-Houston, 6767 Bertner Avenue, Houston, Texas 77030 (United States)


    Purpose: Current, clinically applicable intracavitary brachytherapy applicators that utilize shielded ovoids contain a pair of tungsten-alloy shields which serve to reduce dose delivered to the rectum and bladder during source afterloading. After applicator insertion, these fixed shields are not necessarily positioned to provide optimal shielding of these critical structures due to variations in patient anatomies. The authors present a dosimetric evaluation of a novel prototype intracavitary brachytherapy ovoid [anatomically adaptive applicator (A{sup 3})], featuring a single shield whose position can be adjusted with two degrees of freedom: Rotation about and translation along the long axis of the ovoid. Methods: The dosimetry of the device for a HDR {sup 192}Ir was characterized using radiochromic film measurements for various shield orientations. A MCNPX Monte Carlo model was developed of the prototype ovoid and integrated with a previously validated model of a v2 mHDR {sup 192}Ir source (Nucletron Co.). The model was validated for three distinct shield orientations using film measurements. Results: For the most complex case, 91% of the absolute simulated and measured dose points agreed within 2% or 2 mm and 96% agreed within 10% or 2 mm. Conclusions: Validation of the Monte Carlo model facilitates future investigations into any dosimetric advantages the use of the A{sup 3} may have over the current state of art with respect to optimization and customization of dose delivery as a function of patient anatomical geometries.

  8. Slice-based supine to standing postured deformation for Chinese anatomical models and the dosimetric results by wide band frequency electromagnetic field exposure: morphing. (United States)

    Wu, Tongning; Tan, Liwen; Shao, Qing; Li, Ying; Yang, Lei; Zhao, Chen; Xie, Yi; Zhang, Shaoxiang


    Digital human models are frequently obtained from supine-postured medical images or cadaver slices, but many applications require standing models. This paper presents the work of reconstructing standing Chinese adult anatomical models from supine postured slices. Apart from the previous studies, the deformation works on 2-D segmented slices. The surface profile of the standing posture is adjusted by population measurement data. A non-uniform texture amplification approach is applied on the 2-D slices to recover the skin contour and to redistribute the internal tissues. Internal organ shift due to postures is taken into account. The feet are modified by matrix rotation. Then, the supine and standing models are utilised for the evaluation of electromagnetic field exposure over wide band frequency and different incident directions.

  9. Correction of dental artifacts within the anatomical surface in PET/MRI using active shape models and k-nearest-neighbors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ladefoged, Claes N.; Andersen, Flemming L.; Keller, Sune H.


    n combined PET/MR, attenuation correction (AC) is performed indirectly based on the available MR image information. Metal implant-induced susceptibility artifacts and subsequent signal voids challenge MR-based AC. Several papers acknowledge the problem in PET attenuation correction when dental...... artifacts are ignored, but none of them attempts to solve the problem. We propose a clinically feasible correction method which combines Active Shape Models (ASM) and k- Nearest-Neighbors (kNN) into a simple approach which finds and corrects the dental artifacts within the surface boundaries of the patient...... vector, and fill the artifact voxels with a value representing soft tissue. We tested the method using fourteen patients without artifacts, and eighteen patients with dental artifacts of varying sizes within the anatomical surface of the head/neck region. Though the method wrongly filled a small volume...

  10. Correction of dental artifacts within the anatomical surface in PET/MRI using Active Shape Models and k-Nearest-Neighbors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ladefoged, Claes N.; Andersen, Flemming L.; Keller, Sune H.;


    n combined PET/MR, attenuation correction (AC) is performed indirectly based on the available MR image information. Metal implant-induced susceptibility artifacts and subsequent signal voids challenge MR-based AC. Several papers acknowledge the problem in PET attenuation correction when dental...... artifacts are ignored, but none of them attempts to solve the problem. We propose a clinically feasible correction method which combines Active Shape Models (ASM) and k- Nearest-Neighbors (kNN) into a simple approach which finds and corrects the dental artifacts within the surface boundaries of the patient...... vector, and fill the artifact voxels with a value representing soft tissue. We tested the method using fourteen patients without artifacts, and eighteen patients with dental artifacts of varying sizes within the anatomical surface of the head/neck region. Though the method wrongly filled a small volume...

  11. Structural and micro-anatomical changes in vertebrae associated with idiopathic-type spinal curvature in the curveback guppy model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wallis Rob


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The curveback lineage of guppy is characterized by heritable idiopathic-type spinal curvature that develops during growth. Prior work has revealed several important developmental similarities to the human idiopathic scoliosis (IS syndrome. In this study we investigate structural and histological aspects of the vertebrae that are associated with spinal curvature in the curveback guppy and test for sexual dimorphism that might explain a female bias for severe curve magnitudes in the population. Methods Vertebrae were studied from whole-mount skeletal specimens of curved and non-curved adult males and females. A series of ratios were used to characterize structural aspects of each vertebra. A three-way analysis of variance tested for effects of sex, curvature, vertebral position along the spine, and all 2-way interactions (i.e., sex and curvature, sex and vertebra position, and vertebra position and curvature. Histological analyses were used to characterize micro-architectural changes in affected vertebrae and the intervertebral region. Results In curveback, vertebrae that are associated with curvature demonstrate asymmetric shape distortion, migration of the intervertebral ligament, and vertebral thickening on the concave side of curvature. There is sexual dimorphism among curved individuals such that for several vertebrae, females have more slender vertebrae than do males. Also, in the region of the spine where lordosis typically occurs, curved and non-curved females have a reduced width at the middle of their vertebrae, relative to males. Conclusions Based on similarities to human spinal curvatures and to animals with induced curves, the concave-convex biases described in the guppy suggest that there is a mechanical component to curve pathogenesis in curveback. Because idiopathic-type curvature in curveback is primarily a sagittal deformity, it is structurally more similar to Scheuermann kyphosis than IS. Anatomical

  12. Correction of dental artifacts within the anatomical surface in PET/MRI using active shape models and k-nearest-neighbors (United States)

    Ladefoged, Claes N.; Andersen, Flemming L.; Keller, Sune H.; Beyer, Thomas; Højgaard, Liselotte; Lauze, François


    In combined PET/MR, attenuation correction (AC) is performed indirectly based on the available MR image information. Metal implant-induced susceptibility artifacts and subsequent signal voids challenge MR-based AC. Several papers acknowledge the problem in PET attenuation correction when dental artifacts are ignored, but none of them attempts to solve the problem. We propose a clinically feasible correction method which combines Active Shape Models (ASM) and k- Nearest-Neighbors (kNN) into a simple approach which finds and corrects the dental artifacts within the surface boundaries of the patient anatomy. ASM is used to locate a number of landmarks in the T1-weighted MR-image of a new patient. We calculate a vector of offsets from each voxel within a signal void to each of the landmarks. We then use kNN to classify each voxel as belonging to an artifact or an actual signal void using this offset vector, and fill the artifact voxels with a value representing soft tissue. We tested the method using fourteen patients without artifacts, and eighteen patients with dental artifacts of varying sizes within the anatomical surface of the head/neck region. Though the method wrongly filled a small volume in the bottom part of a maxillary sinus in two patients without any artifacts, due to their abnormal location, it succeeded in filling all dental artifact regions in all patients. In conclusion, we propose a method, which combines ASM and kNN into a simple approach which, as the results show, succeeds to find and correct the dental artifacts within the anatomical surface.

  13. Smart grid initialization reduces the computational complexity of multi-objective image registration based on a dual-dynamic transformation model to account for large anatomical differences (United States)

    Bosman, Peter A. N.; Alderliesten, Tanja


    We recently demonstrated the strong potential of using dual-dynamic transformation models when tackling deformable image registration problems involving large anatomical differences. Dual-dynamic transformation models employ two moving grids instead of the common single moving grid for the target image (and single fixed grid for the source image). We previously employed powerful optimization algorithms to make use of the additional flexibility offered by a dual-dynamic transformation model with good results, directly obtaining insight into the trade-off between important registration objectives as a result of taking a multi-objective approach to optimization. However, optimization has so far been initialized using two regular grids, which still leaves a great potential of dual-dynamic transformation models untapped: a-priori grid alignment with image structures/areas that are expected to deform more. This allows (far) less grid points to be used, compared to using a sufficiently refined regular grid, leading to (far) more efficient optimization, or, equivalently, more accurate results using the same number of grid points. We study the implications of exploiting this potential by experimenting with two new smart grid initialization procedures: one manual expert-based and one automated image-feature-based. We consider a CT test case with large differences in bladder volume with and without a multi-resolution scheme and find a substantial benefit of using smart grid initialization.

  14. Development of a Rat Model to Investigate Contributions of Anatomic and Physiologic Determinants of in Vivo Skin Permeation (United States)


    vapor pressure of water (17.5 mm Hg) at room temperature. 54 A. Procedure for assaying Isoflurane in blood Blood samples were analyzed by a...the outward flux of isoflurane through the skin. Isoflurane flux measurements, coupled with blood isoflurane concentrations, were used to calculate...model 34 D. Skin blood flow 35 5. Isoflurane as a model compound for studying skin permeation 39 A. Physicochemical features of isoflurane ... 39 B

  15. Early fetal anatomical sonography.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Donnelly, Jennifer C


    Over the past decade, prenatal screening and diagnosis has moved from the second into the first trimester, with aneuploidy screening becoming both feasible and effective. With vast improvements in ultrasound technology, sonologists can now image the fetus in greater detail at all gestational ages. In the hands of experienced sonographers, anatomic surveys between 11 and 14 weeks can be carried out with good visualisation rates of many structures. It is important to be familiar with the normal development of the embryo and fetus, and to be aware of the major anatomical landmarks whose absence or presence may be deemed normal or abnormal depending on the gestational age. Some structural abnormalities will nearly always be detected, some will never be and some are potentially detectable depending on a number of factors.

  16. Numerical simulation of pharyngeal airflow applied to obstructive sleep apnea: effect of the nasal cavity in anatomically accurate airway models. (United States)

    Cisonni, Julien; Lucey, Anthony D; King, Andrew J C; Islam, Syed Mohammed Shamsul; Lewis, Richard; Goonewardene, Mithran S


    Repetitive brief episodes of soft-tissue collapse within the upper airway during sleep characterize obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), an extremely common and disabling disorder. Failure to maintain the patency of the upper airway is caused by the combination of sleep-related loss of compensatory dilator muscle activity and aerodynamic forces promoting closure. The prediction of soft-tissue movement in patient-specific airway 3D mechanical models is emerging as a useful contribution to clinical understanding and decision making. Such modeling requires reliable estimations of the pharyngeal wall pressure forces. While nasal obstruction has been recognized as a risk factor for OSA, the need to include the nasal cavity in upper-airway models for OSA studies requires consideration, as it is most often omitted because of its complex shape. A quantitative analysis of the flow conditions generated by the nasal cavity and the sinuses during inspiration upstream of the pharynx is presented. Results show that adequate velocity boundary conditions and simple artificial extensions of the flow domain can reproduce the essential effects of the nasal cavity on the pharyngeal flow field. Therefore, the overall complexity and computational cost of accurate flow predictions can be reduced.

  17. A Hybrid Method for Automatic Anatomical Variant Detection and Segmentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lorenz, C.; Hanna, R.; Barschdorf, H.; Klinder, T.; Weber, IF.; Krueger, M.; Doessel, O.


    The delineation of anatomical structures in medical images can be achieved in an efficient and robust manner using statistical anatomical organ models, which has been demonstrated for an already considerable set of organs, including the heart. While it is possible to provide models with sufficient s

  18. Scroll-wave dynamics in the presence of ionic and conduction inhomogeneities in an anatomically realistic mathematical model for the pig heart

    CERN Document Server

    Majumder, R; Panfilov, A V


    Nonlinear waves of the reaction-diffusion (RD) type occur in many biophysical systems, including the heart, where they initiate cardiac contraction. Such waves can form vortices called scroll waves, which result in the onset of life-threatening cardiac arrhythmias. The dynamics of scroll waves is affected by the presence of inhomogeneities, which, in a very general way, can be of \\textit{(i)} ionic type, i.e., they affect the reaction part, or \\textit{(ii)} conduction type, i.e., they affect the diffusion part of an RD equation. We demostrate, for the first time, by using a state-of-the-art, anatomically realistic model of the pig heart, how differences in the geometrical and biophysical nature of such inhomogeneities can influence scroll-wave dynamics in different ways. Our study reveals that conduction-type inhomogeneities become increasingly important at small length scales, i.e., in the case of multiple, randomly distributed, obstacles in space at the cellular scale ($0.2-0.4{\\rm mm}$). Such configuration...

  19. Scroll-wave dynamics in the presence of ionic and conduction inhomogeneities in an anatomically realistic mathematical model for the pig heart (United States)

    Majumder, R.; Pandit, R.; Panfilov, A. V.


    Nonlinear waves of the reaction-diffusion (RD) type occur in many biophysical systems, including the heart, where they initiate cardiac contraction. Such waves can form vortices called scroll waves, which result in the onset of life-threatening cardiac arrhythmias. The dynamics of scroll waves is affected by the presence of inhomogeneities, which, in a very general way, can be of ionic type, i.e., they affect the reaction part, or conduction type, i.e., they affect the diffusion part of an RD-equation. We demostrate, for the first time, by using a state-of-the-art, anatomically realistic model of the pig heart, how differences in the geometrical and biophysical nature of such inhomogeneities can influence scroll-wave dynamics in different ways. Our study reveals that conduction-type inhomogeneities become increasingly important at small length scales, i.e., in the case of multiple, randomly distributed, obstacles in space at the cellular scale (0.2-0.4mm). Such configurations can lead to scroll-wave break up. In contrast, ionic inhomogeneities, affect scroll-wave dynamics significantly at large length scales, when these inhomogeneities are localized in space at the tissue level (5-10mm). In such configurations, these inhomogeneities can attract scroll waves, by pinning them to the heterogeneity, or lead to scroll-wave breakup.

  20. Anatomical Data for Analyzing Human Motion. (United States)

    Plagenhoef, Stanley; And Others


    Anatomical data obtained from cadavers and from water displacement studies with living subjects were used to determine the weight, center of gravity, and radius of gyration for 16 body segments. A lead model was used to study movement patterns of the trunk section of the body. (Authors/PP)


    Aruta, Alessandro


    Through three different museological approaches, diachronically arranged, the essay intends to introduce some pertinent questions related to the topic of the conference "Bodies and Anatomy: the corpses in the museums from Ruysch to Von Hagens. The first item analyzes a recent line of British museological studies, treating mainly medical British museums of the XVIII and XIX century, with intriguing developments arriving up to nowadays. A second point illustrates several aspects with regards to the donation and the arrangement of the morbid specimina Luigi Gedda collection, coming from the CSS Mendel of Rome to the Museum of Pathological Anatomy of Sapienza University of Rome. Finally, in a crossover between the previous points, it will be presented some recent studies regarding the employment of new communication technologies in the scientific and medical museology.

  2. Occipital neuralgia: anatomic considerations. (United States)

    Cesmebasi, Alper; Muhleman, Mitchel A; Hulsberg, Paul; Gielecki, Jerzy; Matusz, Petru; Tubbs, R Shane; Loukas, Marios


    Occipital neuralgia is a debilitating disorder first described in 1821 as recurrent headaches localized in the occipital region. Other symptoms that have been associated with this condition include paroxysmal burning and aching pain in the distribution of the greater, lesser, or third occipital nerves. Several etiologies have been identified in the cause of occipital neuralgia and include, but are not limited to, trauma, fibrositis, myositis, fracture of the atlas, and compression of the C-2 nerve root, C1-2 arthrosis syndrome, atlantoaxial lateral mass osteoarthritis, hypertrophic cervical pachymeningitis, cervical cord tumor, Chiari malformation, and neurosyphilis. The management of occipital neuralgia can include conservative approaches and/or surgical interventions. Occipital neuralgia is a multifactorial problem where multiple anatomic areas/structures may be involved with this pathology. A review of these etiologies may provide guidance in better understanding occipital neuralgia.

  3. Neuroimaging evidence of major morpho-anatomical and functional abnormalities in the BTBR T+TF/J mouse model of autism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Dodero

    Full Text Available BTBR T+tf/J (BTBR mice display prominent behavioural deficits analogous to the defining symptoms of autism, a feature that has prompted a widespread use of the model in preclinical autism research. Because neuro-behavioural traits are described with respect to reference populations, multiple investigators have examined and described the behaviour of BTBR mice against that exhibited by C57BL/6J (B6, a mouse line characterised by high sociability and low self-grooming. In an attempt to probe the translational relevance of this comparison for autism research, we used Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI to map in both strain multiple morpho-anatomical and functional neuroimaging readouts that have been extensively used in patient populations. Diffusion tensor tractography confirmed previous reports of callosal agenesis and lack of hippocampal commissure in BTBR mice, and revealed a concomitant rostro-caudal reorganisation of major cortical white matter bundles. Intact inter-hemispheric tracts were found in the anterior commissure, ventro-medial thalamus, and in a strain-specific white matter formation located above the third ventricle. BTBR also exhibited decreased fronto-cortical, occipital and thalamic gray matter volume and widespread reductions in cortical thickness with respect to control B6 mice. Foci of increased gray matter volume and thickness were observed in the medial prefrontal and insular cortex. Mapping of resting-state brain activity using cerebral blood volume weighted fMRI revealed reduced cortico-thalamic function together with foci of increased activity in the hypothalamus and dorsal hippocampus of BTBR mice. Collectively, our results show pronounced functional and structural abnormalities in the brain of BTBR mice with respect to control B6 mice. The large and widespread white and gray matter abnormalities observed do not appear to be representative of the neuroanatomical alterations typically observed in autistic patients. The

  4. Computational investigation of nonlinear microwave tomography on anatomically realistic breast phantoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, P. D.; Rubæk, Tonny; Mohr, J. J.


    The performance of a nonlinear microwave tomography algorithm is tested using simulated data from anatomically realistic breast phantoms. These tests include several different anatomically correct breast models from the University of Wisconsin-Madison repository with and without tumors inserted....

  5. Anatomical adaptations of aquatic mammals. (United States)

    Reidenberg, Joy S


    This special issue of the Anatomical Record explores many of the anatomical adaptations exhibited by aquatic mammals that enable life in the water. Anatomical observations on a range of fossil and living marine and freshwater mammals are presented, including sirenians (manatees and dugongs), cetaceans (both baleen whales and toothed whales, including dolphins and porpoises), pinnipeds (seals, sea lions, and walruses), the sea otter, and the pygmy hippopotamus. A range of anatomical systems are covered in this issue, including the external form (integument, tail shape), nervous system (eye, ear, brain), musculoskeletal systems (cranium, mandible, hyoid, vertebral column, flipper/forelimb), digestive tract (teeth/tusks/baleen, tongue, stomach), and respiratory tract (larynx). Emphasis is placed on exploring anatomical function in the context of aquatic life. The following topics are addressed: evolution, sound production, sound reception, feeding, locomotion, buoyancy control, thermoregulation, cognition, and behavior. A variety of approaches and techniques are used to examine and characterize these adaptations, ranging from dissection, to histology, to electron microscopy, to two-dimensional (2D) and 3D computerized tomography, to experimental field tests of function. The articles in this issue are a blend of literature review and new, hypothesis-driven anatomical research, which highlight the special nature of anatomical form and function in aquatic mammals that enables their exquisite adaptation for life in such a challenging environment.

  6. Anatomical pathology is dead? Long live anatomical pathology. (United States)

    Nicholls, John M; Francis, Glenn D


    The standard diagnostic instrument used for over 150 years by anatomical pathologists has been the optical microscope and glass slide. The advent of immunohistochemistry in the routine laboratory in the 1980s, followed by in situ hybridisation in the 1990s, has increased the armamentaria available to the diagnostic pathologist, and this technology has led to changed patient management in a limited number of neoplastic diseases. The first decade of the 21 century has seen an increasing number of publications using proteomic technologies that promise to change disease diagnosis and management, the traditional role of an anatomical pathologist. Despite the plethora of publications on proteomics and pathology, to date there are actually limited data where proteomic technologies do appear to be of greater diagnostic value than the standard histological slide. Though proteomic techniques will become more prevalent in the future, it will need the expertise of an anatomical pathologist to dissect out and validate this added information.

  7. 膝关节有限元解剖模型的构建及其力学分析%The construction of the anatomical finite element model of knee joint and its mechanical anal-ysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董跃福; 牟志芳; 蒋胜波; 刘建; 刘旭东


    Objective To develop an anatomically accurate finite element model of knee joint through the method of multimodality CT and MRI image data fusion and to further analyze and verify it for offering a useful tool for the study of knee biomechanics. Methods CT and MRI image data of an intact knee joint were imported into Mimics soft-ware. 3D models of bones,articular cartilages and ligaments were respectively constructed from image data. Following the fusion of the constructed 3D models based on external landmarks, the complete knee model was constructed. Then the knee finite element model was developed in Hypermesh software. Based on anatomical observation and manual measurement, the finite element model was assessed in its fidelity level. Finally the finite element model was analyzed and verified after the definition of its material behavior, boundary conditions and loading. Results The complete knee finite element mode composed of bone,meniscus, articular cartilage,and ligament was developed from CT and MRI images, and it maintained its important anatomical features of knee joint. The obtained finite element analysis results corresponded to that reported in the literature, which meaned the model′s reliability. Conclusions Through the method of multimodality CT and MRI image data fusion, the anatomically accurate finite element model of knee joint can be developed, and it maintains its important anatomical features. This model is a useful tool for the study of knee biomechanics.%目的 通过多模态CT和MRI影像数据融合构建膝关节有限元解剖模型,并进行有限元分析和验证,为膝关节力学仿真研究提供可靠的有限元模型. 方法 采集正常膝关节CT和MRI影像数据,导入到 Mimics软件中,构建膝关节骨骼、半月板、关节软骨、韧带等结构的三维模型. 以外部标记为参照点进行模型配准,融合成膝关节整体模型. 在Hypermesh软件中进行网格划分,构建膝关节有限元模型. 通

  8. Anatomically-aided PET reconstruction using the kernel method (United States)

    Hutchcroft, Will; Wang, Guobao; Chen, Kevin T.; Catana, Ciprian; Qi, Jinyi


    This paper extends the kernel method that was proposed previously for dynamic PET reconstruction, to incorporate anatomical side information into the PET reconstruction model. In contrast to existing methods that incorporate anatomical information using a penalized likelihood framework, the proposed method incorporates this information in the simpler maximum likelihood (ML) formulation and is amenable to ordered subsets. The new method also does not require any segmentation of the anatomical image to obtain edge information. We compare the kernel method with the Bowsher method for anatomically-aided PET image reconstruction through a simulated data set. Computer simulations demonstrate that the kernel method offers advantages over the Bowsher method in region of interest quantification. Additionally the kernel method is applied to a 3D patient data set. The kernel method results in reduced noise at a matched contrast level compared with the conventional ML expectation maximization algorithm.

  9. 骶髂关节解剖型钢板的全骨盆三维有限元模拟%3D FE simulation of anatomic plates for sacroliliac joints on whole pevis model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑琦; 廖胜辉; 石仕元; 费骏; 魏威; 汪翼凡


    目的在高度仿真的完整骨盆三维有限元模型基础上,模拟使用新设计的解剖型钢板对骶髂关节骨折脱位进行固定,并与普通钢板的模拟固定进行对比,验证和分析新型钢板的性能.方法从CT精确重建髋骨和骶骨模型,采用专门的半自动流线型生物力学有限元网格划分器生成规则的体网格模型,并进一步建立骶髂关节的终板、软骨、关节接触面,和骨盆上的主要韧带组织及耻骨间盘.然后去掉一侧的骶髂关节韧带群模拟骨折脱位,使用新型的骶髂关节解剖型棒-板内固定系统进行固定模拟,同时使用普通钢板替代解剖型钢板建立对比模型,分别进行加载分析受力情况.结果通过使用新的解剖型钢板改进棒一板内固定系统,骶髂关节的最大相对位移值减小了约23%,骨盆主要传承负载区域的最大的应力值降低了约25%.结论新型的解剖型钢板有效地提高了骶髂关节棒-板内固定系统的力学性能,为骨盆骨折的治疗增加了一种更有效的新方法.%Objective Based on a geometrical and mechanical accurate 3D FE model of whole pelvis,this paper evaluatesthe biomechanical properties of a new sacroliliac bar-plate internal fixation system with anatomic plate,compared to normal rect plate.Methods Using accurate solid models of the sacral and hip bones from CT data,an ad hoc biomechanieal semi-automatic mesh generator was employed to generate regular FE mesh of the pevis model.Sacroiliac joint related end plates,cartilages,and contact surfaces,as well as several important ligaments and the interpubic disc were reeonstucted to consummate the whole model.One side of sacroiliac joint rellated ligaments was deleted to simulate the case of sacroiliac joint fracture.Then the new sacroliliac bar-plate internal fixation system with anatomic plate was integrated to fix the fracture,and acontrol model using normal rect plate was also generated.All models were

  10. Anatomical structure of Polystichum Roth ferns rachises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oksana V. Tyshchenko


    Full Text Available The morpho-anatomical characteristics of rachis cross sections of five Polystichum species is presented. The main and auxiliary anatomical features which help to distinguish investigated species are revealed.

  11. Anatomic study of infrapopliteal vessels. (United States)

    Lappas, D; Stavropoulos, N A; Noussios, G; Sakellariou, V; Skandalakis, P


    The purpose of this project is to study and analyse the anatomical variations of the infrapopliteal vessels concerning their branching pattern. A reliable sample of one hundred formalin-fixed adult cadavers was dissected by the Anatomical Laboratory of Athens University. The variations can be classified in the following way: the normal branching of the popliteal artery was present in 90%. The remainder revealed variant branching patterns: hypoplastic or aplastic posterior tibial artery and the pedis arteries arising from the peroneal (3%); hypoplastic or aplastic anterior tibial artery (1.5%); and the dorsalis pedis formed by two equal branches, arising from the peroneal and the anterior tibial artery (2%). The variations were more frequent in females and in short-height individuals. Knowledge of these variations is rather important for any invasive technic concerning lower extremities.

  12. Utilization management in anatomic pathology. (United States)

    Lewandrowski, Kent; Black-Schaffer, Steven


    There is relatively little published literature concerning utilization management in anatomic pathology. Nonetheless there are many utilization management opportunities that currently exist and are well recognized. Some of these impact only the cost structure within the pathology department itself whereas others reduce charges for third party payers. Utilization management may result in medical legal liabilities for breaching the standard of care. For this reason it will be important for pathology professional societies to develop national utilization guidelines to assist individual practices in implementing a medically sound approach to utilization management.

  13. Anatomic Optical Coherence Tomography of Upper Airways (United States)

    Chin Loy, Anthony; Jing, Joseph; Zhang, Jun; Wang, Yong; Elghobashi, Said; Chen, Zhongping; Wong, Brian J. F.

    The upper airway is a complex and intricate system responsible for respiration, phonation, and deglutition. Obstruction of the upper airways afflicts an estimated 12-18 million Americans. Pharyngeal size and shape are important factors in the pathogenesis of airway obstructions. In addition, nocturnal loss in pharyngeal muscular tone combined with high pharyngeal resistance can lead to collapse of the airway and periodic partial or complete upper airway obstruction. Anatomical optical coherence tomography (OCT) has the potential to provide high-speed three-dimensional tomographic images of the airway lumen without the use of ionizing radiation. In this chapter we describe the methods behind endoscopic OCT imaging and processing to generate full three dimensional anatomical models of the human airway which can be used in conjunction with numerical simulation methods to assess areas of airway obstruction. Combining this structural information with flow dynamic simulations, we can better estimate the site and causes of airway obstruction and better select and design surgery for patients with obstructive sleep apnea.

  14. Accuracy of distal radius positioning using an anatomical plate. (United States)

    Vroemen, Joy C; Dobbe, Johannes G G; Sierevelt, Inger N; Strackee, Simon D; Streekstra, Geert J


    Over the past decade, several anatomical plates have been introduced to improve the result of open reduction and internal fixation of the distal radius. Using 3-dimensional imaging techniques, the authors studied the accuracy and reproducibility of distal radius positioning using anatomical plates.Distal radius fractures and the correction of these fractures were simulated with plastic bone models of radii. The authors simulated a defect by removing an arbitrary wedge shape from the artificial radii. Two surgeons corrected these fractures by placing 2 anatomical plate types according to the plate manufacturers' instructions. The residual positioning errors of the distal segment in relation to the unaffected radii were determined using 3-dimensional imaging and were compared with naturally occurring bilateral radius differences in healthy individuals. In many cases, positioning does not agree with differences based on bilateral asymmetry in healthy patients.This study indicated the accuracy of anatomical plates. Positioning an anatomical plate may lead to considerable residual errors in individual patients. Volar distal radius plate shapes differ among plate manufacturers. Therefore, one plate may perform better than another in an individual.

  15. Deformable meshes for medical image segmentation accurate automatic segmentation of anatomical structures

    CERN Document Server

    Kainmueller, Dagmar


    ? Segmentation of anatomical structures in medical image data is an essential task in clinical practice. Dagmar Kainmueller introduces methods for accurate fully automatic segmentation of anatomical structures in 3D medical image data. The author's core methodological contribution is a novel deformation model that overcomes limitations of state-of-the-art Deformable Surface approaches, hence allowing for accurate segmentation of tip- and ridge-shaped features of anatomical structures. As for practical contributions, she proposes application-specific segmentation pipelines for a range of anatom

  16. Theory and experiment for the effect of vascular microstructure on surface tissue heat transfer--Part I: Anatomical foundation and model conceptualization. (United States)

    Weinbaum, S; Jiji, L M; Lemons, D E


    A new theoretical model supported by ultrastructural studies and high-spatial resolution temperature measurements is presented for surface tissue heat transfer in a two-part study. In this first paper, vascular casts of the rabbit thigh prepared by the tissue clearance method were serially sectioned parallel to the skin surface to determine the detailed variation of the vascular geometry as a function of tissue depth. Simple quantitative models of the basic vascular structures observed were then analyzed in terms of their characteristic thermal relaxation lengths and a new three-layer conceptual model proposed for surface tissue heat transfer. Fine wire temperature measurements with an 80-micron average diameter thermocouple junction and spatial increments of 20 micrometers between measurement sites have shown for the first time the detailed temperature fluctuations in the microvasculature and have confirmed the fundamental assumptions of the proposed three-layer model for the deep tissue, skeletal muscle and cutaneous layers.

  17. Anatomical assessment of congenital heart disease. (United States)

    Wood, John C


    Cardiac MRI (CMR) is replacing diagnostic cardiac catheterization as the modality of choice for anatomic and functional characterization of congenital heart disease (CHD) when echocardiographic imaging is insufficient. In this manuscript, we discuss the principles of anatomic imaging of CHD, placing emphasis on the appropriate choice and modification of pulse sequences necessary to evaluate infants and small children. Clinical examples are provided to illustrate the relative strengths and shortcomings of different CMR imaging techniques. Although cardiovascular function and flow techniques are not described, their role in evaluating the severity of anatomic defects is emphasized. Anatomic characterization represents the first component of a carefully-planned, integrated CMR assessment of CHD.

  18. Fusing Simultaneous EEG and fMRI Using Functional and Anatomical Information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Sofie Therese; Winkler, Irene; Hansen, Lars Kai


    SPoC), to not only use functional but also anatomical information. The goal is to extract correlated source components from electroencephalography (EEG) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Anatomical information enters our proposed extension to mSPoC via the forward model, which relates the activity...

  19. Morphometric characterization of the human portal and hepatic venous trees: A quantitative support to the liver micro-anatomic models free of subunits. (United States)

    Almenar-Medina, Sergio; Palomar-De Lucas, Brenda; Guerrero-Albors, Ester; Ruiz-Sauri, Amparo


    Conventional models of liver microanatomy assume the presence of subunits. Nevertheless, some researchers propose that the liver is a continuous structure, free of these subunits, but with a characteristic vascular pattern. The present study describes a morphometric analysis of portal and hepatic veins in 50 human autopsy non-pathological liver samples. The main objective was to measure three proportions: 1. portal tracts / hepatic veins, 2. distributing portal veins / distributing hepatic veins and 3. terminal portal veins / terminal hepatic veins. These ratios were compared with the traditional microcirculatory liver models. Our material comprised 3,665 portal veins and 3,761 hepatic veins. The minimum diameter of half of the venous vessels of both types belongs to the interval (25μm , 60μm), given that 1881 portal veins (49.434%) and 1924 hepatic veins (50.565%) fall within this interval. We have statistically shown with the χ² test (α=0.990) that the portal and hepatic veins belonging to the interval (25μm , 400μm) (distributing veins) had an identical proportion. If the portal and hepatic veins are arranged according to the principle of interdigitation of Takashasi (1970), there should be an almost identical number of both types of veins. Our results contradict the presumably numeric preponderance of distributing portal veins with regard to the distributing hepatic veins that is inherent in the models of Kiernan, Matsumoto and Rappaport.

  20. Electric field and current density distributions induced in an anatomically-based model of the human head by magnetic fields from a hair dryer. (United States)

    Tofani, S; Ossola, P; d'Amore, G; Gandhi, O P


    We have used the impedance method to calculate the induced electric (E) fields and current densities (J) for the spatially varying vector magnetic fields due to a hair dryer. In this method, applicable for low-frequency exposures where the quasi-static approximation may be made, the biological body or the exposed parts thereof are represented by a three-dimensional (3-D) network of impedances whose individual values are obtained from the electrical properties sigma, epsilon r for the various tissues. We have measured the 3-D variations of the 50-Hz magnetic fields from a typical hair dryer and found that the various components correlate well with those for a helical coil. The non-uniform magnetic fields thus obtained are used to calculate the induced E and J with a resolution of 1.31 cm for the model of the head and neck. The induced E values are compared with the fields endogenous to the body and the minimum detectable E-field limits based on the cellular thermal noise model proposed by Weaver and Astumian (1990, 1992).

  1. Brain Morphometry Using Anatomical Magnetic Resonance Imaging (United States)

    Bansal, Ravi; Gerber, Andrew J.; Peterson, Bradley S.


    The efficacy of anatomical magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in studying the morphological features of various regions of the brain is described, also providing the steps used in the processing and studying of the images. The ability to correlate these features with several clinical and psychological measures can help in using anatomical MRI to…

  2. Analysis of the local worst-case SAR exposure caused by an MRI multi-transmit body coil in anatomical models of the human body

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neufeld, Esra; Gosselin, Marie-Christine; Murbach, Manuel; Christ, Andreas; Cabot, Eugenia; Kuster, Niels, E-mail: [Foundation for Research on Information Technologies in Society (IT' IS), Zeughausstr. 43, 8004 Zuerich (Switzerland)


    Multi-transmit coils are increasingly being employed in high-field magnetic resonance imaging, along with a growing interest in multi-transmit body coils. However, they can lead to an increase in whole-body and local specific absorption rate (SAR) compared to conventional body coils excited in circular polarization for the same total incident input power. In this study, the maximum increase of SAR for three significantly different human anatomies is investigated for a large 3 T (128 MHz) multi-transmit body coil using numerical simulations and a (generalized) eigenvalue-based approach. The results demonstrate that the increase of SAR strongly depends on the anatomy. For the three models and normalization to the sum of the rung currents squared, the whole-body averaged SAR increases by up to a factor of 1.6 compared to conventional excitation and the peak spatial SAR (averaged over any 10 cm{sup 3} of tissue) by up to 13.4. For some locations the local averaged SAR goes up as much as 800 times (130 when looking only at regions where it is above 1% of the peak spatial SAR). The ratio of the peak spatial SAR to the whole-body SAR increases by a factor of up to 47 and can reach values above 800. Due to the potentially much larger power deposition, additional, preferably patient-specific, considerations are necessary to avoid injuries by such systems.

  3. Analysis of the local worst-case SAR exposure caused by an MRI multi-transmit body coil in anatomical models of the human body (United States)

    Neufeld, Esra; Gosselin, Marie-Christine; Murbach, Manuel; Christ, Andreas; Cabot, Eugenia; Kuster, Niels


    Multi-transmit coils are increasingly being employed in high-field magnetic resonance imaging, along with a growing interest in multi-transmit body coils. However, they can lead to an increase in whole-body and local specific absorption rate (SAR) compared to conventional body coils excited in circular polarization for the same total incident input power. In this study, the maximum increase of SAR for three significantly different human anatomies is investigated for a large 3 T (128 MHz) multi-transmit body coil using numerical simulations and a (generalized) eigenvalue-based approach. The results demonstrate that the increase of SAR strongly depends on the anatomy. For the three models and normalization to the sum of the rung currents squared, the whole-body averaged SAR increases by up to a factor of 1.6 compared to conventional excitation and the peak spatial SAR (averaged over any 10 cm3 of tissue) by up to 13.4. For some locations the local averaged SAR goes up as much as 800 times (130 when looking only at regions where it is above 1% of the peak spatial SAR). The ratio of the peak spatial SAR to the whole-body SAR increases by a factor of up to 47 and can reach values above 800. Due to the potentially much larger power deposition, additional, preferably patient-specific, considerations are necessary to avoid injuries by such systems.

  4. Sequestration of rhBMP-2 into self-assembled polyelectrolyte complexes promotes anatomic localization of new bone in a porcine model of spinal reconstructive surgery. (United States)

    Abbah, Sunny-Akogwu; Lam, Wing Moon Raymond; Hu, Tao; Goh, James; Wong, Hee-Kit


    Efficient and therapeutically safe delivery of recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein 2 (rhBMP-2) continues to be a central issue in bone tissue engineering. Recent evidence indicates that layer-by-layer self-assembly of polyelectrolyte complexes (PECs) can be used to recreate synthetic matrix environments that would act as tuneable reservoirs for delicate biomolecules and cells. Although preliminary in vitro as well as small-animal in vivo studies support this premise, translation into clinically relevant bone defect volumes in larger animal models remains unreported. Here we explored the use of native heparin-based PEC, deposited on a hydrated alginate gel template, to load bioactive rhBMP-2 and to facilitate lumbar interbody spinal fusion in pigs. We observed that triple PEC deposits with the highest protein sequestration efficiency and immobilization capacity promoted higher volume of new bone formation when compared with single PEC with low sequestration efficiency and immobilization capacity. This also resulted in a significantly enhanced biomechanical stability of the fused spinal segment when compared with PEC carriers with relatively low protein sequestration and immobilization capacities (pcollagen sponge carriers. We conclude that this growth factor sequestration platform is effective in the healing of clinically relevant bone defect volume and could overcome some of the safety concerns and limitations currently associated with rhBMP-2 therapy such as excessive heterotopic ossification.

  5. The effect of anatomical modeling on space radiation dose estimates: a comparison of doses for NASA phantoms and the 5th, 50th, and 95th percentile male and female astronauts. (United States)

    Bahadori, Amir A; Van Baalen, Mary; Shavers, Mark R; Dodge, Charles; Semones, Edward J; Bolch, Wesley E


    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) performs organ dosimetry and risk assessment for astronauts using model-normalized measurements of the radiation fields encountered in space. To determine the radiation fields in an organ or tissue of interest, particle transport calculations are performed using self-shielding distributions generated with the computer program CAMERA to represent the human body. CAMERA mathematically traces linear rays (or path lengths) through the computerized anatomical man (CAM) phantom, a computational stylized model developed in the early 1970s with organ and body profiles modeled using solid shapes and scaled to represent the body morphometry of the 1950 50th percentile (PCTL) Air Force male. With the increasing use of voxel phantoms in medical and health physics, a conversion from a mathematical-based to a voxel-based ray-tracing algorithm is warranted. In this study, the voxel-based ray tracer (VoBRaT) is introduced to ray trace voxel phantoms using a modified version of the algorithm first proposed by Siddon (1985 Med. Phys. 12 252-5). After validation, VoBRAT is used to evaluate variations in body self-shielding distributions for NASA phantoms and six University of Florida (UF) hybrid phantoms, scaled to represent the 5th, 50th, and 95th PCTL male and female astronaut body morphometries, which have changed considerably since the inception of CAM. These body self-shielding distributions are used to generate organ dose equivalents and effective doses for five commonly evaluated space radiation environments. It is found that dosimetric differences among the phantoms are greatest for soft radiation spectra and light vehicular shielding.

  6. Three-dimensional modeling of human hands based on hand anatomical structures%基于解剖结构可视化手模型的构建

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白桂有; 张正治; 杨博贵; 孙华; 贾卫斗


    确显示手掌部主要解剖结构.%BACKGROUND:The anatomic structures and kinetic characteristics are the bases to establish hand model, and the kinetic characteristics of hand are determined by the anatomic structure. So, numerous scholars have paid close attention to virtual hand models based on the anatomic structures of hand.OBJECTIVE: To construct visible hand model based on anatomic structure.DESIGN: Single sample trial.SETTING: Center Laboratory, Third Military Medical University of Chinese PLA.MATERIALS: This trial was carried out in the Center Laboratory, Third Military Medical University of Chinese PLA in October 2003. Two fresh adult hands, which involved wrist joint, provided by the Department of Anatomy, Third Military Medical University of Chinese PLA, were employed. The two hands had no organic damage by naked observation.METHODS: The specimens were embedded and mill-cut (mill-cut layer thinness 0.2 mm). Cannon (ESO 1OD) digital camera (6.3 million pixel) was used for image collection. Each image was 31.5 MB, Data of 1 200 images were obtained.Adobe Photoshop 7.0 software was used for image treatment and then two-dimensional cross-section images were collected. The bone, flexor tendon and the outline of hand was three-dimensionally reconstructed by using the software,which was developed by the Department of Computer Science and Technology,Tsinghua University and Institute of Computer Medicine, Department of Anatomy, Third Military Medical University of Chinese PLA.MATN OUTCOME MEASURES: Three-dimensional reconstruction of the bone, flexor tendon and outline of hand.RESULTS: ①The outline of hand: After being reconstructed, the outline, which consisted of all fingers and nails, was well displayed, and observed from many directions.② Three-dimensional reconstruction of the bone of hand: The reconstructed bones of hands involved digital bones, metacarpal bones, carpal bones and all joints, and they could be displayed solely or in groups with other

  7. Sensitivity of predicted muscle forces during gait to anatomical variability in musculotendon geometry. (United States)

    Bosmans, Lode; Valente, Giordano; Wesseling, Mariska; Van Campen, Anke; De Groote, Friedl; De Schutter, Joris; Jonkers, Ilse


    Scaled generic musculoskeletal models are commonly used to drive dynamic simulations of motions. It is however, acknowledged that not accounting for variability in musculoskeletal geometry and musculotendon parameters may confound the simulation results, even when analysing control subjects. This study documents the three-dimensional anatomical variability of musculotendon origins and insertions of 33 lower limb muscles determined based on magnetic resonance imaging in six subjects. This anatomical variability was compared to the musculotendon point location in a generic musculoskeletal model. Furthermore, the sensitivity of muscle forces during gait, calculated using static optimization, to perturbations of the musculotendon point location was analyzed with a generic model. More specific, a probabilistic approach was used: for each analyzed musculotendon point, the three-dimensional location was re-sampled with a uniform Latin hypercube method within the anatomical variability and the static optimization problem was then re-solved for all perturbations. We found that musculotendon point locations in the generic model showed only variable correspondences with the anatomical variability. The anatomical variability of musculotendon point location did affect the calculated muscle forces: muscles most sensitive to perturbations within the anatomical variability are iliacus and psoas. Perturbation of the gluteus medius anterior, iliacus and psoas induces the largest concomitant changes in muscle forces of the unperturbed muscles. Therefore, when creating subject-specific musculoskeletal models, these attachment points should be defined accurately. In addition, the size of the anatomical variability of the musculotendon point location was not related to the sensitivity of the calculated muscle forces.

  8. An anatomical and functional topography of human auditory cortical areas. (United States)

    Moerel, Michelle; De Martino, Federico; Formisano, Elia


    While advances in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) throughout the last decades have enabled the detailed anatomical and functional inspection of the human brain non-invasively, to date there is no consensus regarding the precise subdivision and topography of the areas forming the human auditory cortex. Here, we propose a topography of the human auditory areas based on insights on the anatomical and functional properties of human auditory areas as revealed by studies of cyto- and myelo-architecture and fMRI investigations at ultra-high magnetic field (7 Tesla). Importantly, we illustrate that-whereas a group-based approach to analyze functional (tonotopic) maps is appropriate to highlight the main tonotopic axis-the examination of tonotopic maps at single subject level is required to detail the topography of primary and non-primary areas that may be more variable across subjects. Furthermore, we show that considering multiple maps indicative of anatomical (i.e., myelination) as well as of functional properties (e.g., broadness of frequency tuning) is helpful in identifying auditory cortical areas in individual human brains. We propose and discuss a topography of areas that is consistent with old and recent anatomical post-mortem characterizations of the human auditory cortex and that may serve as a working model for neuroscience studies of auditory functions.

  9. An anatomical and functional topography of human auditory cortical areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle eMoerel


    Full Text Available While advances in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI throughout the last decades have enabled the detailed anatomical and functional inspection of the human brain non-invasively, to date there is no consensus regarding the precise subdivision and topography of the areas forming the human auditory cortex. Here, we propose a topography of the human auditory areas based on insights on the anatomical and functional properties of human auditory areas as revealed by studies of cyto- and myelo-architecture and fMRI investigations at ultra-high magnetic field (7 Tesla. Importantly, we illustrate that - whereas a group-based approach to analyze functional (tonotopic maps is appropriate to highlight the main tonotopic axis - the examination of tonotopic maps at single subject level is required to detail the topography of primary and non-primary areas that may be more variable across subjects. Furthermore, we show that considering multiple maps indicative of anatomical (i.e. myelination as well as of functional properties (e.g. broadness of frequency tuning is helpful in identifying auditory cortical areas in individual human brains. We propose and discuss a topography of areas that is consistent with old and recent anatomical post mortem characterizations of the human auditory cortex and that may serve as a working model for neuroscience studies of auditory functions.

  10. Anatomic Eponyms in Neuroradiology: Head and Neck. (United States)

    Bunch, Paul M


    In medicine, an eponym is a word-typically referring to an anatomic structure, disease, or syndrome-that is derived from a person's name. Medical eponyms are ubiquitous and numerous. They are also at times controversial. Eponyms reflect medicine's rich and colorful history and can be useful for concisely conveying complex concepts. Familiarity with eponyms facilitates correct usage and accurate communication. In this article, 22 eponyms used to describe anatomic structures of the head and neck are discussed. For each structure, the author first provides a biographical account of the individual for whom the structure is named. An anatomic description and brief discussion of the structure's clinical relevance follow.

  11. Characterizing brain anatomical connections using diffusion weighted MRI and graph theory. (United States)

    Iturria-Medina, Y; Canales-Rodríguez, E J; Melie-García, L; Valdés-Hernández, P A; Martínez-Montes, E; Alemán-Gómez, Y; Sánchez-Bornot, J M


    A new methodology based on Diffusion Weighted Magnetic Resonance Imaging (DW-MRI) and Graph Theory is presented for characterizing the anatomical connections between brain gray matter areas. In a first step, brain voxels are modeled as nodes of a non-directed graph in which the weight of an arc linking two neighbor nodes is assumed to be proportional to the probability of being connected by nervous fibers. This probability is estimated by means of probabilistic tissue segmentation and intravoxel white matter orientational distribution function, obtained from anatomical MRI and DW-MRI, respectively. A new tractography algorithm for finding white matter routes is also introduced. This algorithm solves the most probable path problem between any two nodes, leading to the assessment of probabilistic brain anatomical connection maps. In a second step, for assessing anatomical connectivity between K gray matter structures, the previous graph is redefined as a K+1 partite graph by partitioning the initial nodes set in K non-overlapped gray matter subsets and one subset clustering the remaining nodes. Three different measures are proposed for quantifying anatomical connections between any pair of gray matter subsets: Anatomical Connection Strength (ACS), Anatomical Connection Density (ACD) and Anatomical Connection Probability (ACP). This methodology was applied to both artificial and actual human data. Results show that nervous fiber pathways between some regions of interest were reconstructed correctly. Additionally, mean connectivity maps of ACS, ACD and ACP between 71 gray matter structures for five healthy subjects are presented.

  12. Classifying anatomical subtypes of subjective memory impairment. (United States)

    Jung, Na-Yeon; Seo, Sang Won; Yoo, Heejin; Yang, Jin-Ju; Park, Seongbeom; Kim, Yeo Jin; Lee, Juyoun; Lee, Jin San; Jang, Young Kyoung; Lee, Jong Min; Kim, Sung Tae; Kim, Seonwoo; Kim, Eun-Joo; Na, Duk L; Kim, Hee Jin


    We aimed to categorize subjective memory impairment (SMI) individuals based on their patterns of cortical thickness and to propose simple models that can classify each subtype. We recruited 613 SMI individuals and 613 age- and gender-matched normal controls. Using hierarchical agglomerative cluster analysis, SMI individuals were divided into 3 subtypes: temporal atrophy (12.9%), minimal atrophy (52.4%), and diffuse atrophy (34.6%). Individuals in the temporal atrophy (Alzheimer's disease-like atrophy) subtype were older, had more vascular risk factors, and scored the lowest on neuropsychological tests. Combination of these factors classified the temporal atrophy subtype with 73.2% accuracy. On the other hand, individuals with the minimal atrophy (non-neurodegenerative) subtype were younger, were more likely to be female, and had depression. Combination of these factors discriminated the minimal atrophy subtype with 76.0% accuracy. We suggest that SMI can be largely categorized into 3 anatomical subtypes that have distinct clinical features. Our models may help physicians decide next steps when encountering SMI patients and may also be used in clinical trials.

  13. Complex anatomic variation in the brachial region. (United States)

    Troupis, Th; Michalinos, A; Protogerou, V; Mazarakis, A; Skandalakis, P


    Authors describe a case of a complex anatomic variation discovered during dissection of the humeral region. On the right side, brachial artery followed a superficial course. Musculocutaneous nerve did not pierce coracobrachialis muscle but instead passed below the muscle before continuing in the forearm. On the left side, a communication between musculocutaneous and median nerve was dissected. Those variations are analytically presented with a brief review on their anatomic and clinical implications. Considerations on their embryological origin are attempted.

  14. [Establishment of anatomical terminology in Japan]. (United States)

    Shimada, Kazuyuki


    The history of anatomical terminology in Japan began with the publication of Waran Naikei Ihan-teimŏ in 1805 and Chŏtei Kaitai Shinsho in 1826. Although the establishment of Japanese anatomical terminology became necessary during the Meiji era when many western anatomy books imported into Janan were translated, such terminology was not unified during this period and varied among translators. In 1871, Tsukumo Ono's Kaibŏgaku Gosen was published by the Ministry of Education. Although this book is considered to be the first anatomical glossary terms in Japan, its contents were incomplete. Overseas, the German Anatomical Society established a unified anatomical terminology in 1895 called the Basle Nomina Anatomica (B.N.A.). Based on this development, Kaibŏgaku Meishŭ which follows the BNA, by Buntarŏ Suzuki was published in 1905. With the subsequent establishment in 1935 of Jena Nomina Anatomica (J.N.A.), the unification of anatomical terminology was also accelerated in Japan, leading to the further development of terminology.

  15. Employing anatomical knowledge in vertebral column labeling (United States)

    Yao, Jianhua; Summers, Ronald M.


    The spinal column constitutes the central axis of human torso and is often used by radiologists to reference the location of organs in the chest and abdomen. However, visually identifying and labeling vertebrae is not trivial and can be timeconsuming. This paper presents an approach to automatically label vertebrae based on two pieces of anatomical knowledge: one vertebra has at most two attached ribs, and ribs are attached only to thoracic vertebrae. The spinal column is first extracted by a hybrid method using the watershed algorithm, directed acyclic graph search and a four-part vertebra model. Then curved reformations in sagittal and coronal directions are computed and aggregated intensity profiles along the spinal cord are analyzed to partition the spinal column into vertebrae. After that, candidates for rib bones are detected using features such as location, orientation, shape, size and density. Then a correspondence matrix is established to match ribs and vertebrae. The last vertebra (from thoracic to lumbar) with attached ribs is identified and labeled as T12. The rest of vertebrae are labeled accordingly. The method was tested on 50 CT scans and successfully labeled 48 of them. The two failed cases were mainly due to rudimentary ribs.

  16. Finite element study on the anatomic transtibial technique for single-bundle anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. (United States)

    Bae, Ji Yong; Kim, Geon-Hee; Seon, Jong Keun; Jeon, Insu


    The anatomic transtibial (TT) technique is proposed as a new approach for single-bundle anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. Geometric models of the anatomic TT and anteromedial (AM) portal techniques were fabricated with a reconstructed knee joint model and virtual surgical operations. Grafts of 7 mm diameter were modeled and inserted into tunnels drilled in each model. In the models, the shape of the graft between the femur and the tibia, the lengths of the bone tunnels, and the femoral graft bending angles were evaluated. To evaluate the biomechanical effects of both techniques on the grafts, the contact pressures and maximum principal stresses in the grafts were calculated using the finite element method. The anatomic TT technique placed the femoral tunnel to the anatomic position of the native ACL femoral attachment site. In addition, it decreased the peak contact pressure and the maximum principal stress at the full extension position of the graft compared with the AM portal technique. The anatomic TT technique may be regarded as a superior surgical technique compared with the conventional TT and AM portal techniques. Because of the easy surgical operation involved, the technique decreases the operation time for ACL reconstruction and it provides a deformation behavior of grafts similar to that in the native ACL in a knee joint. With its few side effects, the anatomic TT technique may considerably help patients.

  17. Lateral laryngopharyngeal diverticulum: anatomical and videofluoroscopic study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Milton Melciades Barbosa [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro ICB/CCS/UFRJ, Laboratorio de Motilidade Digestiva e Imagem, S. F1-008, Departamento de Anatomia, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Koch, Hilton Augusto [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro ICB/CCS/UFRJ, Departamento de Radiologia, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)


    The aims were to characterize the anatomical region where the lateral laryngopharyngeal protrusion occurs and to define if this protrusion is a normal or a pathological entity. This protrusion was observed on frontal contrasted radiographs as an addition image on the upper portion of the laryngopharynx. We carried out a plane-by-plane qualitative anatomical study through macroscopic and mesoscopic surgical dissection on 12 pieces and analyzed through a videofluoroscopic method on frontal incidence the pharyngeal phase of the swallowing process of 33 patients who had a lateral laryngopharyngeal protrusion. The anatomical study allowed us to identify the morphological characteristics that configure the high portion of the piriform recess as a weak anatomical point. The videofluoroscopic study allowed us to observe the laryngopharyngeal protrusion and its relation to pharyngeal repletion of the contrast medium. All kinds of the observed protrusions could be classified as ''lateral laryngopharyngeal diverticula.'' The lateral diverticula were more frequent in older people. These lateral protrusions can be found on one or both sides, usually with a small volume, without sex or side prevalence. This formation is probably a sign of a pharyngeal transference difficulty associated with a deficient tissue resistance in the weak anatomical point of the high portion of the piriform recess. (orig.)


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of anatomic variations in patients suffering from chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS and to compare them with normal population. DESIGN: This is a case control study. A prospective s tudy of anatomic variations was done on 100 computed tomography (CT scans of patients with chronic rhinosinusitis. Prevalence of anatomic variations in control group was assessed by studying 100 CT scans of non- CRS patients. RESULTS: Even though proportion of concha bullosa was more among chronic rhinosinusitis patients compared to normal individual s, it was statistically not significant. There was no significant difference in the prevalence of pa radoxical middle turbinate, retroverted uncinate process, overpneumatized ethmoid bulla and s eptal deviation in chronic rhinosinusitis patients compared to normal individuals. There was s ignificantly lesser proportion of individuals having haller cells and agger nasi cell s in chronic rhinosinusitis compared to normal individuals. CONCLUSION: There is no significant prevalence of anatomic vari ations in osteomeatal unit in patients with chronic rhinosinus itis. The anatomic variations may predispose to pathological changes only if they are bi gger in size. More detailed studies are recommended in this regard as a good knowledge of c omplex anatomy of the paranasal sinuses is essential to understand chronic rhinosinusitis a nd to plan its treatment

  19. Anatomical eponyms - unloved names in medical terminology. (United States)

    Burdan, F; Dworzański, W; Cendrowska-Pinkosz, M; Burdan, M; Dworzańska, A


    Uniform international terminology is a fundamental issue of medicine. Names of various organs or structures have developed since early human history. The first proper anatomical books were written by Hippocrates, Aristotle and Galen. For this reason the modern terms originated from Latin or Greek. In a modern time the terminology was improved in particular by Vasalius, Fabricius and Harvey. Presently each known structure has internationally approved term that is explained in anatomical or histological terminology. However, some elements received eponyms, terms that incorporate the surname of the people that usually describe them for the first time or studied them (e.g., circle of Willis, follicle of Graff, fossa of Sylvious, foramen of Monro, Adamkiewicz artery). Literature and historical hero also influenced medical vocabulary (e.g. Achilles tendon and Atlas). According to various scientists, all the eponyms bring colour to medicine, embed medical traditions and culture to our history but lack accuracy, lead of confusion, and hamper scientific discussion. The current article presents a wide list of the anatomical eponyms with their proper anatomical term or description according to international anatomical terminology. However, since different eponyms are used in various countries, the list could be expanded.

  20. Anatomical and Functional Plasticity in Early Blind Individuals and the Mixture of Experts Architecture


    Bock, Andrew S.; Ione eFine


    As described elsewhere in this special issue, recent advances in neuroimaging over the last decade have led to a rapid expansion in our knowledge of anatomical and functional correlations within the normal and abnormal human brain. Here, we review how early blindness has been used as a model system for examining the role of visual experience in the development of anatomical connections and functional responses. We discuss how lack of power in group comparisons may provide a potential explanat...

  1. Anatomic Breast Coordinate System for Mammogram Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karemore, Gopal Raghunath; Brandt, S; Karssemeijer, N;


    inside the breast. Most of the risk assessment and CAD modules use a breast region in a image centered Cartesian x,y coordinate system. Nevertheless, anatomical structure follows curve-linear trajectories. We examined an anatomical breast coordinate system that preserves the anatomical correspondence...... between the mammograms and allows extracting not only the aligned position but also the orientation aligned with the anatomy of the breast tissue structure. Materials and Methods The coordinate system used the nipple location as the point A and the border of the pectoral muscle as a line BC. The skin air...... was represented by geodesic distance (s) from nipple and parametric angle (¿) as shown in figure 1. The scoring technique called MTR (mammographic texture resemblance marker) used this breast coordinate system to extract Gaussian derivative features. The features extracted using the (x,y) and the curve...

  2. Standardized anatomic space for abdominal fat quantification (United States)

    Tong, Yubing; Udupa, Jayaram K.; Torigian, Drew A.


    The ability to accurately measure subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) and visceral adipose tissue (VAT) from images is important for improved assessment and management of patients with various conditions such as obesity, diabetes mellitus, obstructive sleep apnea, cardiovascular disease, kidney disease, and degenerative disease. Although imaging and analysis methods to measure the volume of these tissue components have been developed [1, 2], in clinical practice, an estimate of the amount of fat is obtained from just one transverse abdominal CT slice typically acquired at the level of the L4-L5 vertebrae for various reasons including decreased radiation exposure and cost [3-5]. It is generally assumed that such an estimate reliably depicts the burden of fat in the body. This paper sets out to answer two questions related to this issue which have not been addressed in the literature. How does one ensure that the slices used for correlation calculation from different subjects are at the same anatomic location? At what anatomic location do the volumes of SAT and VAT correlate maximally with the corresponding single-slice area measures? To answer these questions, we propose two approaches for slice localization: linear mapping and non-linear mapping which is a novel learning based strategy for mapping slice locations to a standardized anatomic space so that same anatomic slice locations are identified in different subjects. We then study the volume-to-area correlations and determine where they become maximal. We demonstrate on 50 abdominal CT data sets that this mapping achieves significantly improved consistency of anatomic localization compared to current practice. Our results also indicate that maximum correlations are achieved at different anatomic locations for SAT and VAT which are both different from the L4-L5 junction commonly utilized.

  3. Anatomical and functional neuroimaging in awake, behaving marmosets. (United States)

    Silva, Afonso C


    The common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) is a small New World monkey that has gained significant recent interest in neuroscience research, not only because of its compatibility with gene editing techniques, but also due to its tremendous versatility as an experimental animal model. Neuroimaging modalities, including anatomical (MRI) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), complemented by two-photon laser scanning microscopy and electrophysiology, have been at the forefront of unraveling the anatomical and functional organization of the marmoset brain. High-resolution anatomical MRI of the marmoset brain can be obtained with remarkable cytoarchitectonic detail. Functional MRI of the marmoset brain has been used to study various sensory systems, including somatosensory, auditory, and visual pathways, while resting-state fMRI studies have unraveled functional brain networks that bear great correspondence to those previously described in humans. Two-photon laser scanning microscopy of the marmoset brain has enabled the simultaneous recording of neuronal activity from thousands of neurons with single cell spatial resolution. In this article, we aim to review the main results obtained by our group and by our colleagues in applying neuroimaging techniques to study the marmoset brain. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Develop Neurobiol 77: 373-389, 2017.

  4. Congenital neck masses: embryological and anatomical perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahida Rasool


    Full Text Available Neck masses are a common problem in paediatric age group. They tend to occur frequently and pose a diagnostic dilemma to the ENT surgeons. Although the midline and lateral neck masses differ considerably in their texture and presentation but the embryological perspective of these masses is not mostly understood along with the fundamental anatomical knowledge. The article tries to correlate the embryological, anatomical and clinical perspectives for the same. [Int J Res Med Sci 2013; 1(4.000: 329-332

  5. Anatomical basis for Wilms tumor surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trobs R


    Full Text Available Wilms tumor surgery requires meticulous planning and sophisticated surgical technique. Detailed anatomical knowledge can facilitate the uneventful performance of tumor nephrectomy and cannot be replaced by advanced and sophisticated imaging techniques. We can define two main goals for surgery: (1 exact staging as well as (2 safe and complete resection of tumor without spillage. This review aims to review the anatomical basis for Wilms tumor surgery. It focuses on the surgical anatomy of retroperitoneal space, aorta, vena cava and their large branches with lymphatics. Types and management of vascular injuries are discussed.

  6. Anatomical and Functional Plasticity in Early Blind Individuals and the Mixture of Experts Architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew S Bock


    Full Text Available As described elsewhere in this special issue, recent advances in neuroimaging over the last decade have led to a rapid expansion in our knowledge of anatomical and functional correlations within the normal and abnormal human brain. Here, we review how early blindness has been used as a model system for examining the role of visual experience in the development of anatomical connections and functional responses. We discuss how lack of power in group comparisons may provide a potential explanation for why extensive anatomical changes in cortico-cortical connectivity are not observed. Finally we suggest a framework – cortical specialization via hierarchical mixtures of experts – which offers some promise in reconciling a wide range of functional and anatomical data.

  7. Anatomical and functional plasticity in early blind individuals and the mixture of experts architecture. (United States)

    Bock, Andrew S; Fine, Ione


    As described elsewhere in this special issue, recent advances in neuroimaging over the last decade have led to a rapid expansion in our knowledge of anatomical and functional correlations within the normal and abnormal human brain. Here, we review how early blindness has been used as a model system for examining the role of visual experience in the development of anatomical connections and functional responses. We discuss how lack of power in group comparisons may provide a potential explanation for why extensive anatomical changes in cortico-cortical connectivity are not observed. Finally we suggest a framework-cortical specialization via hierarchical mixtures of experts-which offers some promise in reconciling a wide range of functional and anatomical data.

  8. Giving Ourselves: The Ethics of Anatomical Donation (United States)

    Gunderman, Richard B.


    In some European countries, such as Italy, medical education is threatened by a dearth of anatomical specimens. Such a shortage could spread to other nations, including the United States. This article addresses two ethical questions in body donation. Why might people choose to donate their bodies to education and science? What sorts of ethical…

  9. Report of a rare anatomic variant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Brucker, Y; Ilsen, B; Muylaert, C;


    We report the CT findings in a case of partial anomalous pulmonary venous return (PAPVR) from the left upper lobe in an adult. PAPVR is an anatomic variant in which one to three pulmonary veins drain into the right atrium or its tributaries, rather than into the left atrium. This results in a lef...

  10. [Anatomic variants of Meckel's cave on MRI]. (United States)

    Benoudiba, F; Hadj-Rabia, M; Iffenecker, C; Fuerxer, F; Bekkali, F; Francke, J P; Doyon, D


    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) gives an accurate analysis of Meckel's cave variability. Images were acquired in 50 patients with several sections for anatomical comparison. Using several sections, MRI is a suitable method for better analysis of the trigeminal cistern. The most frequent findings are symmetrical trigeminal cisterns. Expansion of Meckel's cave or its disappearance has pathological significance.

  11. HPV Vaccine Effective at Multiple Anatomic Sites (United States)

    A new study from NCI researchers finds that the HPV vaccine protects young women from infection with high-risk HPV types at the three primary anatomic sites where persistent HPV infections can cause cancer. The multi-site protection also was observed at l


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. Demesсhenko


    Full Text Available Purpose: to identify anatomical landmarks on tibial articular surface to serve as reference in preparing tibial canal with respect to the center of ACL footprint during single bundle arthroscopic repair.Materials and methods. Twelve frozen knee joint specimens and 68 unpaired macerated human tibia were studied using anatomical, morphometric, statistical methods as well as graphic simulation.Results. Center of the tibial ACL footprint was located 13,1±1,7 mm anteriorly from posterior border of intercondylar eminence, at 1/3 of the distance along the line connecting apexes of internal and external tubercles and 6,1±0,5 mm anteriorly along the perpendicular raised to this point.Conclusion. Internal and external tubercles, as well as posterior border of intercondylar eminence can be considered as anatomical references to determine the center of the tibial ACL footprint and to prepare bone canals for anatomic ligament repair.

  13. Wood anatomical classification using iterative character weighing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hogeweg, P.; Koek-Noorman, J.


    In this paper we investigate the pattern of wood anatomical variation in some groups of Rubiaceae (i.e. Cinchoneae, Rondeletieae and Condamineae) by using a numerical pattern detection method which involves character weighing (Hogeweg 1975). In this method character weights are obtained iteratively

  14. Evolution of the Anatomical Theatre in Padova (United States)

    Macchi, Veronica; Porzionato, Andrea; Stecco, Carla; Caro, Raffaele


    The anatomical theatre played a pivotal role in the evolution of medical education, allowing students to directly observe and participate in the process of dissection. Due to the increase of training programs in clinical anatomy, the Institute of Human Anatomy at the University of Padova has renovated its dissecting room. The main guidelines in…

  15. Influences on anatomical knowledge: The complete arguments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergman, E.M.; Verheijen, I.W.; Scherpbier, A.J.J.A.; Vleuten, C.P.M. van der; Bruin, A.B. De


    Eight factors are claimed to have a negative influence on anatomical knowledge of medical students: (1) teaching by nonmedically qualified teachers, (2) the absence of a core anatomy curriculum, (3) decreased use of dissection as a teaching tool, (4) lack of teaching anatomy in context, (5) integrat

  16. Establishing better biological models to understand occlusion.I:TM joint anatomic relationships%建立更好的生物模型以深入了解咬合

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PULLINGER(综述); 张晗(译); 徐珂(译)


    are a common basis to reject any useful prediction value.Notwithstanding,a relationship of form with function is a basic tenet of biology.These are multifactor problems,but the questions mostly have not been analysed as such.This review moves the question forward by focusing on TMjoint anatomic organisation as the multifactor system it is expected to be in a closed system like a synovial joint.Multifactor analysis allows the data to speak for itself and reduces bias.Classification tree analysis revealed useful prediction values and usable clinical models which are illustrated,backed up by stepwise logistic regression.Explained vari-ance,R2 ,predicting normals from pooled TMJ patients was 32.6%,sensitivity 67.9%,specificity 85.7%;37% versus disc displacement with reduction;and 28.8% versus disc displacement without reduction.Significant osseous organisational differences between TMjoints with clicking and locking suggest that this is not necessarily a single disease continuum.However,a subset of joints with clicking contained char-acteristics of joints with locking that might contribute to symptom progression versus resistance.Moderately strong models confirm there is a relationship between TMJ osseous organisation and function,but it should not be overstated.More than one model of normals and of TMde-rangement organisation is revealed.The implications to clinical decision-making are discussed.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    In order to find the mechanism of superior clunial nerve (SCN) trauma, we dissected and revealed SCN from 12 corpses (24 sides). Combining 100 sides of SCN trauma, we inspected the course of SCN, the relation between SCN and it's neighbour tissues with the situation of SCN when being subjected to force. We found that the following special anatomic characteristics and mechanical elements such as the course of SCN, it's turning angles, the bony fibrous tube at the iliac crest, the posterior layer of the lumbodorsal fascia and SCN neighbour adipose tissue, are the causes of external force inducing SCN trauma. The anatomic revealment is the guidance of SCN trauma treatment with edged needle.

  18. Exploring brain function from anatomical connectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gorka eZamora-López


    Full Text Available The intrinsic relationship between the architecture of the brain and the range of sensory and behavioral phenomena it produces is a relevant question in neuroscience. Here, we review recent knowledge gained on the architecture of the anatomical connectivity by means of complex network analysis. It has been found that corticocortical networks display a few prominent characteristics: (i modular organization, (ii abundant alternative processing paths and (iii the presence of highly connected hubs. Additionally, we present a novel classification of cortical areas of the cat according to the role they play in multisensory connectivity. All these properties represent an ideal anatomical substrate supporting rich dynamical behaviors, as-well-as facilitating the capacity of the brain to process sensory information of different modalities segregated and to integrate them towards a comprehensive perception of the real world. The result here exposed are mainly based in anatomical data of cats’ brain, but we show how further observations suggest that, from worms to humans, the nervous system of all animals might share fundamental principles of organization.

  19. Anatomical MRI with an atomic magnetometer. (United States)

    Savukov, I; Karaulanov, T


    Ultra-low field (ULF) MRI is a promising method for inexpensive medical imaging with various additional advantages over conventional instruments such as low weight, low power, portability, absence of artifacts from metals, and high contrast. Anatomical ULF MRI has been successfully implemented with SQUIDs, but SQUIDs have the drawback of a cryogen requirement. Atomic magnetometers have sensitivity comparable to SQUIDs and can be in principle used for ULF MRI to replace SQUIDs. Unfortunately some problems exist due to the sensitivity of atomic magnetometers to a magnetic field and gradients. At low frequency, noise is also substantial and a shielded room is needed for improving sensitivity. In this paper, we show that at 85 kHz, the atomic magnetometer can be used to obtain anatomical images. This is the first demonstration of any use of atomic magnetometers for anatomical MRI. The demonstrated resolution is 1.1 mm×1.4 mm in about 6 min of acquisition with SNR of 10. Some applications of the method are discussed. We discuss several measures to increase the sensitivity to reach a resolution 1 mm×1 mm.

  20. Anatomical MRI with an atomic magnetometer

    CERN Document Server

    Savukov, I


    Ultra-low field (ULF) MRI is a promising method for inexpensive medical imaging with various additional advantages over conventional instruments such as low weight, low power, portability, absence of artifacts from metals, and high contrast. Anatomical ULF MRI has been successfully implemented with SQUIDs, but SQUIDs have the drawback of cryogen requirement. Atomic magnetometers have sensitivity comparable to SQUIDs and can be in principle used for ULF MRI to replace SQUIDs. Unfortunately some problems exist due to the sensitivity of atomic magnetometers to magnetic field and gradients. At low frequency, noise is also substantial and a shielded room is needed for improving sensitivity. In this paper, we show that at 85 kHz, the atomic magnetometer can be used to obtain anatomical images. This is the first demonstration of any use of atomic magnetometers for anatomical MRI. The demonstrated resolution is 1.1x1.4 mm2 in about six minutes of acquisition with SNR of 10. Some applications of the method are discuss...

  1. Kinematic and dynamic analysis of an anatomically based knee joint. (United States)

    Lee, Kok-Meng; Guo, Jiajie


    This paper presents a knee-joint model to provide a better understanding on the interaction between natural joints and artificial mechanisms for design and control of rehabilitation exoskeletons. The anatomically based knee model relaxes several commonly made assumptions that approximate a human knee as engineering pin-joint in exoskeleton design. Based on published MRI data, we formulate the kinematics of a knee-joint and compare three mathematical approximations; one model bases on two sequential circles rolling a flat plane; and the other two are mathematically differentiable ellipses-based models with and without sliding at the contact. The ellipses-based model taking sliding contact into accounts shows that the rolling-sliding ratio of a knee-joint is not a constant but has an average value consistent with published measurements. This knee-joint kinematics leads to a physically more accurate contact-point trajectory than methods based on multiple circles or lines, and provides a basis to derive a knee-joint kinetic model upon which the effects of a planar exoskeleton mechanism on the internal joint forces and torque during flexion can be numerically investigated. Two different knee-joint kinetic models (pin-joint approximation and anatomically based model) are compared against a condition with no exoskeleton. The leg and exoskeleton form a closed kinematic chain that has a significant effect on the joint forces in the knee. Human knee is more tolerant than pin-joint in negotiating around a singularity but its internal forces increase with the exoskeleton mass-to-length ratio. An oversimplifying pin-joint approximation cannot capture the finite change in the knee forces due to the singularity effect.

  2. Introducing International Journal of Anatomical Variations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tunali S


    Full Text Available Welcome to International Journal of Anatomical Variations (IJAV - an annual journal of anatomical variations and clinical anatomy case reports. After having a notable experience for eight years in NEUROANATOMY, we are pleased to introduce you IJAV. We are eventually announcing our new journal after three years of feasibility and background study period. We hope that IJAV will fill in the gap in anatomy journals’ bunch. IJAV is an annual, open access journal having electronic version only. Despite of unavailability of a budget for publishing IJAV, the evaluation of submissions and access to the full text articles is totally free of charge.Our vision for IJAV is to constitute an online compendium for anatomical variations in gross, radiological and surgical anatomy, neuroanatomy and case reports in clinical anatomy. We believe that cases have an important role in clinical anatomy education. In this aspect, we aim to serve as an open source of case reports. We hope that IJAV will be cited in most of the case reports related to clinical anatomy and anatomical variations in near future.In NEUROANATOMY, we encouraged the submission of case reports in the area of neuroanatomy. Whereas in IJAV, besides neuroanatomy, we will consider case reports in any area related to human anatomy. The scope of IJAV will encompass any anatomical variations in gross, radiological and surgical anatomy. Case reports in clinical anatomy are also welcome.All submitted articles will be peer-reviewed. No processing fee will be charged from authors. One of the most important features of IJAV will be speedy review and rapid publication. We strive to publish an accepted manuscript within three weeks of initial submission. Our young and dynamic Scientific Advisory Board will achieve this objective.A few remarks about our logo and page design: Prof. Dr. M. Mustafa ALDUR designed our logo, being inspired by a quadricuspid aortic valve case, reported by Francesco FORMICA et al

  3. The anatomical diaspora: evidence of early American anatomical traditions in North Dakota. (United States)

    Stubblefield, Phoebe R


    The current focus in forensic anthropology on increasing scientific certainty in ancestry determination reinforces the need to examine the ancestry of skeletal remains used for osteology instruction. Human skeletal remains were discovered on the University of North Dakota campus in 2007. After recovery, the osteological examination resulted in a profile for a 33- to 46-year-old woman of African descent with stature ranging from 56.3 to 61.0 in. The pattern of postmortem damage indicated that the remains had been prepared for use as an anatomical teaching specimen. Review of the American history of anatomical teaching revealed a preference for Black subjects, which apparently extended to states like North Dakota despite extremely low resident populations of people of African descent. This study emphasizes the need to examine the ancestry of older teaching specimens that lack provenience, rather than assuming they are derived from typical (i.e., Indian) sources of anatomical material.

  4. [Measurement and analysis of anatomical parameter values in tree shrews]. (United States)

    Li, Bo; Zhang, Rong-Ping; Li, Jin-Tao; He, Bao-Li; Zhen, Hong; Wang, Li-Mei; Jiao, Jian-Lin


    79.21 + heart × 24.09. Female and male laboratory domesticated tree shrews showed certain influences in body size, organ weight and coefficient, and intestinal canal regarding anatomical parameters. This experiment provides basic data for studies on laboratory tree shrews and animal models.

  5. TOPICAL REVIEW: Anatomical imaging for radiotherapy (United States)

    Evans, Philip M.


    The goal of radiation therapy is to achieve maximal therapeutic benefit expressed in terms of a high probability of local control of disease with minimal side effects. Physically this often equates to the delivery of a high dose of radiation to the tumour or target region whilst maintaining an acceptably low dose to other tissues, particularly those adjacent to the target. Techniques such as intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT), stereotactic radiosurgery and computer planned brachytherapy provide the means to calculate the radiation dose delivery to achieve the desired dose distribution. Imaging is an essential tool in all state of the art planning and delivery techniques: (i) to enable planning of the desired treatment, (ii) to verify the treatment is delivered as planned and (iii) to follow-up treatment outcome to monitor that the treatment has had the desired effect. Clinical imaging techniques can be loosely classified into anatomic methods which measure the basic physical characteristics of tissue such as their density and biological imaging techniques which measure functional characteristics such as metabolism. In this review we consider anatomical imaging techniques. Biological imaging is considered in another article. Anatomical imaging is generally used for goals (i) and (ii) above. Computed tomography (CT) has been the mainstay of anatomical treatment planning for many years, enabling some delineation of soft tissue as well as radiation attenuation estimation for dose prediction. Magnetic resonance imaging is fast becoming widespread alongside CT, enabling superior soft-tissue visualization. Traditionally scanning for treatment planning has relied on the use of a single snapshot scan. Recent years have seen the development of techniques such as 4D CT and adaptive radiotherapy (ART). In 4D CT raw data are encoded with phase information and reconstructed to yield a set of scans detailing motion through the breathing, or cardiac, cycle. In ART a set of

  6. Tennis elbow. Anatomical, epidemiological and therapeutic aspects. (United States)

    Verhaar, J A


    Five studies of tennis elbow are presented. Epidemiological studies showed an incidence of tennis elbow between 1 and 2%. The prevalence of tennis elbow in women between 40 and 50 years of age was 10%. Half of the patients with tennis elbow seek medical attention. Local corticosteroid injections were superior to the physiotherapy regime of Cyriax. Release of the common forearm extensor origin resulted in 70% excellent or good results one year after operation and 89% at five years. Anatomical investigations and nerve conduction studies of the Radial Tunnel Syndrome supported the hypothesis that the Lateral Cubital Force Transmission System is involved in the pathogenesis of tennis elbow.

  7. Constitutional and Anatomical Characteristics of Mature Women

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Vladimir NNikolenko; DmitryBNikityuk; SvetlanaVKlochkova; AnastasiaABahmet


    Objective To identify the constitutional and anatomical peculiarities of constitution of women of mature age.Methods There was completed comprehensive anthropometric and bio-electrical survey of 651 mature women ( relative norm) living in the Moscow region .Results The quantitative distribution of women by somatotypological affiliation was revealed;anthropometric and body component composition in representatives of different somatotypes were defined .Conclusion Thus, the performed study revealed and quantiely character-ised the distribution of women according to their constitutional types in the studied population of mature age women living in Moscow region under the relative norm conditions .

  8. A procedure to average 3D anatomical structures. (United States)

    Subramanya, K; Dean, D


    Creating a feature-preserving average of three dimensional anatomical surfaces extracted from volume image data is a complex task. Unlike individual images, averages present right-left symmetry and smooth surfaces which give insight into typical proportions. Averaging multiple biological surface images requires careful superimposition and sampling of homologous regions. Our approach to biological surface image averaging grows out of a wireframe surface tessellation approach by Cutting et al. (1993). The surface delineating wires represent high curvature crestlines. By adding tile boundaries in flatter areas the 3D image surface is parametrized into anatomically labeled (homology mapped) grids. We extend the Cutting et al. wireframe approach by encoding the entire surface as a series of B-spline space curves. The crestline averaging algorithm developed by Cutting et al. may then be used for the entire surface. Shape preserving averaging of multiple surfaces requires careful positioning of homologous surface regions such as these B-spline space curves. We test the precision of this new procedure and its ability to appropriately position groups of surfaces in order to produce a shape-preserving average. Our result provides an average that well represents the source images and may be useful clinically as a deformable model or for animation.

  9. Retinal vascular tree reconstruction with anatomical realism. (United States)

    Lin, Kai-Shun; Tsai, Chia-Ling; Tsai, Chih-Hsiangng; Sofka, Michal; Chen, Shih-Jen; Lin, Wei-Yang


    Motivated by the goals of automatically extracting vessel segments and constructing retinal vascular trees with anatomical realism, this paper presents and analyses an algorithm that combines vessel segmentation and grouping of the extracted vessel segments. The proposed method aims to restore the topology of the vascular trees with anatomical realism for clinical studies and diagnosis of retinal vascular diseases, which manifest abnormalities in either venous and/or arterial vascular systems. Vessel segments are grouped using extended Kalman filter which takes into account continuities in curvature, width, and intensity changes at the bifurcation or crossover point. At a junction, the proposed method applies the minimum-cost matching algorithm to resolve the conflict in grouping due to error in tracing. The system was trained with 20 images from the DRIVE dataset, and tested using the remaining 20 images. The dataset contained a mixture of normal and pathological images. In addition, six pathological fluorescein angiogram sequences were also included in this study. The results were compared against the groundtruth images provided by a physician, achieving average success rates of 88.79% and 90.09%, respectively.

  10. Anatomical considerations to prevent facial nerve injury. (United States)

    Roostaeian, Jason; Rohrich, Rod J; Stuzin, James M


    Injury to the facial nerve during a face lift is a relatively rare but serious complication. A large body of literature has been dedicated toward bettering the understanding of the anatomical course of the facial nerve and the relative danger zones. Most of these prior reports, however, have focused on identifying the location of facial nerve branches based on their trajectory mostly in two dimensions and rarely in three dimensions. Unfortunately, the exact location of the facial nerve relative to palpable or visible facial landmarks is quite variable. Although the precise location of facial nerve branches is variable, its relationship to soft-tissue planes is relatively constant. The focus of this report is to improve understanding of facial soft-tissue anatomy so that safe planes of dissection during surgical undermining may be identified for each branch of the facial nerve. Certain anatomical locations more prone to injury and high-risk patient parameters are further emphasized to help minimize the risk of facial nerve injury during rhytidectomy.

  11. Pterion: An anatomical variation and surgical landmark

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prashant E Natekar


    Full Text Available Introduction : The frontal and the parietal bones superiorly and the greater wing of the sphenoid and the squamous temporal inferiorly of one side meet at an H-shaped sutural junction termed the pterion. This is an important anatomical and anthropological landmark as it overlies both the anterior branch of middle meningeal artery and the lateral fissure of the cerebral hemisphere. The knowledge of sutural joints between frontal, parietal, sphenoid and temporal bones at pterion is clinically, radiologically and surgically important during surgical interventions involving burr hole surgeries. Materials and Methods : Study performed on 150 dry temporal bones. The pterion, and its sutural articulations with frontal, parietal, sphenoid and temporal bones and also anatomical variations, if any, were studied. Results : Four types of pterion, i.e. sphenoparietal, frontotemporal, stellate and epipteric, were observed. Conclusions : The knowledge of the variations of pterion and its surgical anatomy, in Indian population are important for surgeons operating in the fieldThe present study will also contribute additional information of skull bone fractures in infancy and early childhood, which may be associated with large intersutural bones giving false appearance of fracture radiologically and also during surgical interventions involving burr hole surgeries, as their extensions may lead to continuation of fracture lines.

  12. Fusing Simultaneous EEG and fMRI Using Functional and Anatomical Information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Sofie Therese; Winkler, Irene; Hansen, Lars Kai;


    SPoC), to not only use functional but also anatomical information. The goal is to extract correlated source components from electroencephalography (EEG) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Anatomical information enters our proposed extension to mSPoC via the forward model, which relates the activity...... on cortex level to the EEG sensors. The augmented mSPoC is shown to outperform the original version in realistic simulations where the signal to noise ratio is low or where training epochs are scarce....

  13. Anatomical Connections of the Functionally Defined "Face Patches" in the Macaque Monkey. (United States)

    Grimaldi, Piercesare; Saleem, Kadharbatcha S; Tsao, Doris


    The neural circuits underlying face recognition provide a model for understanding visual object representation, social cognition, and hierarchical information processing. A fundamental piece of information lacking to date is the detailed anatomical connections of the face patches. Here, we injected retrograde tracers into four different face patches (PL, ML, AL, AM) to characterize their anatomical connectivity. We found that the patches are strongly and specifically connected to each other, and individual patches receive inputs from extrastriate cortex, the medial temporal lobe, and three subcortical structures (the pulvinar, claustrum, and amygdala). Inputs from prefrontal cortex were surprisingly weak. Patches were densely interconnected to one another in both feedforward and feedback directions, inconsistent with a serial hierarchy. These results provide the first direct anatomical evidence that the face patches constitute a highly specialized system and suggest that subcortical regions may play a vital role in routing face-related information to subsequent processing stages.

  14. Leaf morphological and anatomical traits from tropical to temperate coniferous forests: Mechanisms and influencing factors. (United States)

    Tian, Miao; Yu, Guirui; He, Nianpeng; Hou, Jihua


    Leaf traits may reflect the adaptation mechanisms of plants to the environment. In this study, we investigated leaf morphological and anatomical traits in nine cold-temperate to tropical forests along a 4,200-km transect to test how they vary across latitudinal gradients. The results showed that leaf dry weight decreased (P palisade-leaf mesophyll thickness ratio increased (P mesophyll thickness ratio decreased, with increasing latitude (P palisade mesophyll thickness, but negative correlations between stomatal length and stomatal density (all P < 0.01). The observed negative correlations represented the adaptive mechanisms of leaves through their morphological and anatomical traits. These findings provided new insights into the responses of leaf morphological and anatomical traits to climate changes and important parameters for future model optimization.

  15. Effectiveness of Plastinated Anatomical Specimens Depicting Common Sports Injuries to Enhance Musculoskeletal Injury Evaluation Education (United States)

    Tamura, Kaori; Stickley, Christopher D.; Labrash, Steven J.; Lozanoff, Scott


    Context: Plastination techniques have emerged as effective methods for preserving human tissue and enabling human specimens to be utilized in a fashion similar to anatomical models with much greater accuracy. Opportunities to observe and experience human specimens in classroom settings should be beneficial to undergraduate and graduate students in…

  16. Nomina anatomica. Anatomic terminology and the old French terminology. (United States)

    Chiapas-Gasca, Karla; Passos, Luiz Fernando De Souza; Euzébio Ribeiro, Sandra Lúcia; Villaseñor-Ovies, Pablo

    A surprising finding in our seminars in Latin America and Spain was that approximately half of the participants continued to use the old French anatomical nomenclature. The substance of this paper is a table in which we compare the anatomical names for the items reviewed in our seminar, in a Spanish version of the old French nomenclature and in the Spanish, Portuguese, and English versions of the currently employed anatomical terms.

  17. Anatomical aspects of sinus floor elevations. (United States)

    van den Bergh, J P; ten Bruggenkate, C M; Disch, F J; Tuinzing, D B


    Inadequate bone height in the lateral part of the maxilla forms a contra-indication for implant surgery. This condition can be treated with an internal augmentation of the maxillary sinus floor. This sinus floor elevation, formerly called sinus lifting, consists of a surgical procedure in which a top hinge door in the lateral maxillary sinus wall is prepared and internally rotated to a horizontal position. The new elevated sinus floor, together with the inner maxillary mucosa, will create a space that can be filled with graft material. Sinus lift procedures depend greatly on fragile structures and anatomical variations. The variety of anatomical modalities in shape of the inner aspect of the maxillary sinus defines the surgical approach. Conditions such as sinus floor convolutions, sinus septum, transient mucosa swelling and narrow sinus may form a (usually relative) contra-indication for sinus floor elevation. Absolute contra-indications are maxillary sinus diseases (tumors) and destructive former sinus surgery (like the Caldwell-Luc operation). The lateral sinus wall is usually a thin bone plate, which is easily penetrated with rotating or sharp instruments. The fragile Schneiderian membrane plays an important role for the containment of the bonegraft. The surgical procedure of preparing the trap door and luxating it, together with the preparation of the sinus mucosa, may cause a mucosa tear. Usually, when these perforations are not too large, they will fold together when turning the trap door inward and upward, or they can be glued with a fibrin sealant, or they can be covered with a resorbable membrane. If the perforation is too large, a cortico-spongious block graft can be considered. However, in most cases the sinus floor elevation will be deleted. Perforations may also occur due to irregularities in the sinus floor or even due to immediate contact of sinus mucosa with oral mucosa. Obstruction of the antro-nasal foramen is, due to its high location, not a

  18. Bioreactor cultivation of anatomically shaped human bone grafts. (United States)

    Temple, Joshua P; Yeager, Keith; Bhumiratana, Sarindr; Vunjak-Novakovic, Gordana; Grayson, Warren L


    In this chapter, we describe a method for engineering bone grafts in vitro with the specific geometry of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) condyle. The anatomical geometry of the bone grafts was segmented from computed tomography (CT) scans, converted to G-code, and used to machine decellularized trabecular bone scaffolds into the identical shape of the condyle. These scaffolds were seeded with human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) using spinner flasks and cultivated for up to 5 weeks in vitro using a custom-designed perfusion bioreactor system. The flow patterns through the complex geometry were modeled using the FloWorks module of SolidWorks to optimize bioreactor design. The perfused scaffolds exhibited significantly higher cellular content, better matrix production, and increased bone mineral deposition relative to non-perfused (static) controls after 5 weeks of in vitro cultivation. This technology is broadly applicable for creating patient-specific bone grafts of varying shapes and sizes.

  19. [Antique anatomical collections for contemporary museums]. (United States)

    Nesi, Gabriella; Santi, Raffaella


    Anatomy and Pathology Museum collections display a great biological value and offer unique samples for research purposes. Pathological specimens may be investigated by means of modern radiological and molecular biology techniques in order to provide the etiological background of disease, with relevance to present-day knowledge. Meanwhile, historical resources provide epidemiologic data regarding the socio-economic conditions of the resident populations, the more frequently encountered illnesses and dietary habits. These multidisciplinary approaches lead to more accurate diagnoses also allowing new strategies in cataloguing and musealization of anatomical specimens. Further, once these data are gathered, they may constitute the basis of riedited Museum catalogues feasible to be digitalized and displayed via the Web.

  20. Anatomically Plausible Surface Alignment and Reconstruction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paulsen, Rasmus R.; Larsen, Rasmus


    With the increasing clinical use of 3D surface scanners, there is a need for accurate and reliable algorithms that can produce anatomically plausible surfaces. In this paper, a combined method for surface alignment and reconstruction is proposed. It is based on an implicit surface representation...... combined with a Markov Random Field regularisation method. Conceptually, the method maintains an implicit ideal description of the sought surface. This implicit surface is iteratively updated by realigning the input point sets and Markov Random Field regularisation. The regularisation is based on a prior...... energy that has earlier proved to be particularly well suited for human surface scans. The method has been tested on full cranial scans of ten test subjects and on several scans of the outer human ear....

  1. Do retractile testes have anatomical anomalies? (United States)

    Anderson, Kleber M.; Costa, Suelen F.; Sampaio, Francisco J.B.; Favorito, Luciano A.


    ABSTRACT Objectives: To assess the incidence of anatomical anomalies in patients with retractile testis. Materials and Methods: We studied prospectively 20 patients (28 testes) with truly retractile testis and compared them with 25 human fetuses (50 testes) with testis in scrotal position. We analyzed the relations among the testis, epididymis and patency of the processus vaginalis (PV). To analyze the relations between the testis and epididymis, we used a previous classification according to epididymis attachment to the testis and the presence of epididymis atresia. To analyze the structure of the PV, we considered two situations: obliteration of the PV and patency of the PV. We used the Chi-square test for contingency analysis of the populations under study (p patent processus vaginalis and epididymal anomalies. PMID:27564294

  2. Anatomic brain asymmetry in vervet monkeys. (United States)

    Fears, Scott C; Scheibel, Kevin; Abaryan, Zvart; Lee, Chris; Service, Susan K; Jorgensen, Matthew J; Fairbanks, Lynn A; Cantor, Rita M; Freimer, Nelson B; Woods, Roger P


    Asymmetry is a prominent feature of human brains with important functional consequences. Many asymmetric traits show population bias, but little is known about the genetic and environmental sources contributing to inter-individual variance. Anatomic asymmetry has been observed in Old World monkeys, but the evidence for the direction and extent of asymmetry is equivocal and only one study has estimated the genetic contributions to inter-individual variance. In this study we characterize a range of qualitative and quantitative asymmetry measures in structural brain MRIs acquired from an extended pedigree of Old World vervet monkeys (n = 357), and implement variance component methods to estimate the proportion of trait variance attributable to genetic and environmental sources. Four of six asymmetry measures show pedigree-level bias and one of the traits has a significant heritability estimate of about 30%. We also found that environmental variables more significantly influence the width of the right compared to the left prefrontal lobe.

  3. The use of anatomical information for molecular image reconstruction algorithms: Attention/Scatter correction, motion compensation, and noise reduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chun, Se Young [School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology (UNIST), Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)


    PET and SPECT are important tools for providing valuable molecular information about patients to clinicians. Advances in nuclear medicine hardware technologies and statistical image reconstruction algorithms enabled significantly improved image quality. Sequentially or simultaneously acquired anatomical images such as CT and MRI from hybrid scanners are also important ingredients for improving the image quality of PET or SPECT further. High-quality anatomical information has been used and investigated for attenuation and scatter corrections, motion compensation, and noise reduction via post-reconstruction filtering and regularization in inverse problems. In this article, we will review works using anatomical information for molecular image reconstruction algorithms for better image quality by describing mathematical models, discussing sources of anatomical information for different cases, and showing some examples.

  4. Anatomical decomposition in dual energy chest digital tomosynthesis (United States)

    Lee, Donghoon; Kim, Ye-seul; Choi, Sunghoon; Lee, Haenghwa; Choi, Seungyeon; Kim, Hee-Joung


    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death worldwide and the early diagnosis of lung cancer has recently become more important. For early screening lung cancer, computed tomography (CT) has been used as a gold standard for early diagnosis of lung cancer [1]. The major advantage of CT is that it is not susceptible to the problem of misdiagnosis caused by anatomical overlapping while CT has extremely high radiation dose and cost compared to chest radiography. Chest digital tomosynthesis (CDT) is a recently introduced new modality for lung cancer screening with relatively low radiation dose compared to CT [2] and also showing high sensitivity and specificity to prevent anatomical overlapping occurred in chest radiography. Dual energy material decomposition method has been proposed for better detection of pulmonary nodules as means of reducing the anatomical noise [3]. In this study, possibility of material decomposition in CDT was tested by simulation study and actual experiment using prototype CDT. Furthermore organ absorbed dose and effective dose were compared with single energy CDT. The Gate v6 (Geant4 application for tomographic emission), and TASMIP (Tungsten anode spectral model using the interpolating polynomial) code were used for simulation study and simulated cylinder shape phantom consisted of 4 inner beads which were filled with spine, rib, muscle and lung equivalent materials. The patient dose was estimated by PCXMC 1.5 Monte Carlo simulation tool [4]. The tomosynthesis scan was performed with a linear movement and 21 projection images were obtained over 30 degree of angular range with 1.5° degree of angular interval. The proto type CDT system has same geometry with simulation study and composed of E7869X (Toshiba, Japan) x-ray tube and FDX3543RPW (Toshiba, Japan) detector. The result images showed that reconstructed with dual energy clearly visualize lung filed by removing unnecessary bony structure. Furthermore, dual energy CDT could enhance

  5. Prostatome: A combined anatomical and disease based MRI atlas of the prostate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rusu, Mirabela; Madabhushi, Anant, E-mail: [Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio 44106 (United States); Bloch, B. Nicolas; Jaffe, Carl C. [Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts 02118 (United States); Genega, Elizabeth M. [Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts 02215 (United States); Lenkinski, Robert E.; Rofsky, Neil M. [UT Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas 75235 (United States); Feleppa, Ernest [Riverside Research Institute, New York, New York 10038 (United States)


    yielded a central gland Dice similarity coefficient (DSC) of 90%, and prostate DSC of 88%, while the misalignment of the urethra and verumontanum was found to be 3.45 mm, and 4.73 mm, respectively, which were measured to be significantly smaller compared to the alternative strategies. As might have been anticipated from our limited cohort of biopsy confirmed cancers, the disease atlas showed that most of the tumor extent was limited to the peripheral zone. Moreover, central gland tumors were typically larger in size, possibly because they are only discernible at a much later stage. Conclusions: The authors presented the AnCoR framework to explicitly model anatomic constraints for the construction of a fused anatomic imaging-disease atlas. The framework was applied to constructing a preliminary version of an anatomic-disease atlas of the prostate, the prostatome. The prostatome could facilitate the quantitative characterization of gland morphology and imaging features of prostate cancer. These techniques, may be applied on a large sample size data set to create a fully developed prostatome that could serve as a spatial prior for targeted biopsies by urologists. Additionally, the AnCoR framework could allow for incorporation of complementary imaging and molecular data, thereby enabling their careful correlation for population based radio-omics studies.

  6. 16 CFR Figure 1 to Part 1203 - Anatomical Planes (United States)


    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Anatomical Planes 1 Figure 1 to Part 1203 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS SAFETY STANDARD FOR BICYCLE HELMETS Pt. 1203, Fig. 1 Figure 1 to Part 1203—Anatomical Planes ER10MR98.001...

  7. An Investigation of Anatomical Competence in Junior Medical Doctors (United States)

    Vorstenbosch, Marc A. T. M.; Kooloos, Jan G. M.; Bolhuis, Sanneke M.; Laan, Roland F. J. M.


    Because of a decrease of the time available for anatomy education, decisions need to be made to reduce the relevant content of the anatomy curriculum. Several expert consensus initiatives resulted in lists of structures, lacking analysis of anatomical competence. This study aims to explore the use of anatomical knowledge by medical doctors in an…

  8. Exploring the human body space: A geographical information system based anatomical atlas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Barbeito


    Full Text Available Anatomical atlases allow mapping the anatomical structures of the human body. Early versions of these systems consisted of analogical representations with informative text and labeled images of the human body. With computer systems, digital versions emerged and the third and fourth dimensions were introduced. Consequently, these systems increased their efficiency, allowing more realistic visualizations with improved interactivity and functionality. The 4D atlases allow modeling changes over time on the structures represented. The anatomical atlases based on geographic information system (GIS environments allow the creation of platforms with a high degree of interactivity and new tools to explore and analyze the human body. In this study we expand the functions of a human body representation system by creating new vector data, topology, functions, and an improved user interface. The new prototype emulates a 3D GIS with a topological model of the human body, replicates the information provided by anatomical atlases, and provides a higher level of functionality and interactivity. At this stage, the developed system is intended to be used as an educational tool and integrates into the same interface the typical representations of surface and sectional atlases.

  9. Automated anatomical description of pleural thickening towards improvement of its computer-assisted diagnosis (United States)

    Chaisaowong, Kraisorn; Jiang, Mingze; Faltin, Peter; Merhof, Dorit; Eisenhawer, Christian; Gube, Monika; Kraus, Thomas


    Pleural thickenings are caused by asbestos exposure and may evolve into malignant pleural mesothelioma. An early diagnosis plays a key role towards an early treatment and an increased survival rate. Today, pleural thickenings are detected by visual inspection of CT data, which is time-consuming and underlies the physician's subjective judgment. A computer-assisted diagnosis system to automatically assess pleural thickenings has been developed, which includes not only a quantitative assessment with respect to size and location, but also enhances this information with an anatomical description, i.e. lung side (left, right), part of pleura (pars costalis, mediastinalis, diaphragmatica, spinalis), as well as vertical (upper, middle, lower) and horizontal (ventral, dorsal) position. For this purpose, a 3D anatomical model of the lung surface has been manually constructed as a 3D atlas. Three registration sub-steps including rigid, affine, and nonrigid registration align the input patient lung to the 3D anatomical atlas model of the lung surface. Finally, each detected pleural thickening is assigned a set of labels describing its anatomical properties. Through this added information, an enhancement to the existing computer-assisted diagnosis system is presented in order to assure a higher precision and reproducible assessment of pleural thickenings, aiming at the diagnosis of the pleural mesothelioma in its early stage.

  10. 4D measurement system for automatic location of anatomical structures (United States)

    Witkowski, Marcin; Sitnik, Robert; Kujawińska, Małgorzata; Rapp, Walter; Kowalski, Marcin; Haex, Bart; Mooshake, Sven


    Orthopedics and neurosciences are fields of medicine where the analysis of objective movement parameters is extremely important for clinical diagnosis. Moreover, as there are significant differences between static and dynamic parameters, there is a strong need of analyzing the anatomical structures under functional conditions. In clinical gait analysis the benefits of kinematical methods are undoubted. In this paper we present a 4D (3D + time) measurement system capable of automatic location of selected anatomical structures by locating and tracing the structures' position and orientation in time. The presented system is designed to help a general practitioner in diagnosing selected lower limbs' dysfunctions (e.g. knee injuries) and also determine if a patient should be directed for further examination (e.g. x-ray or MRI). The measurement system components are hardware and software. For the hardware part we adapt the laser triangulation method. In this way we can evaluate functional and dynamic movements in a contact-free, non-invasive way, without the use of potentially harmful radiation. Furthermore, opposite to marker-based video-tracking systems, no preparation time is required. The software part consists of a data acquisition module, an image processing and point clouds (point cloud, set of points described by coordinates (x, y, z)) calculation module, a preliminary processing module, a feature-searching module and an external biomechanical module. The paper briefly presents the modules mentioned above with the focus on the feature-searching module. Also we present some measurement and analysis results. These include: parameters maps, landmarks trajectories in time sequence and animation of a simplified model of lower limbs.

  11. The importance of being Florentine: a journey around the world for wax anatomical Venuses. (United States)

    de Ceglia, Francesco Paolo


    This article reconstructs the 19th century history of events regarding a few female wax anatomical models made in Florence. More or less faithful copies of those housed in Florence's Museum of Physics and Natural History, these models were destined for display in temporary exhibitions. In their travels through Europe and the United States, they transformed the expression "Florentine Venus" into a sort of brand name used to label and offer respectability to pieces of widely varying quality.

  12. Hamstring tendons insertion - an anatomical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiano Antonio Grassi


    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To study the anatomy of the hamstring tendons insertion and anatomical rela-tionships. METHODS: Ten cadaver knees with medial and anterior intact structures were selected. The dissection was performed from anteromedial access to exposure of the insertion of the flexor tendons (FT, tibial plateau (TP and tibial tuberosity (TT. A needle of 40 × 12 and a caliper were used to measure the distance of the tibial plateau of the knee flexor tendons insertion at 15 mm from the medial border of the patellar tendon and tibial tuberosity to the insertion of the flexor tendons of the knee. The angle between tibial plateau and the insertion of the flexor tendons of the knee (A-TP-FT was calculated using Image Pro Plus software. RESULTS: The mean distance TP-FT was 41 ± 4.6 mm. The distance between the TT-FT was 6.88 ± 1 mm. The (A-TP-FT was 20.3 ± 4.9°. CONCLUSION: In the anterior tibial flexor tendons are about 40 mm from the plateau with an average of 20°.

  13. [The meninges, an anatomical point of view]. (United States)

    Sakka, L; Chazal, J


    The meninges correspond to an anatomical concept. For the morphologist, the microscopic organization, the hypothetical presence of a subdural space, the nature of the interface between the deep meningeal layer and the nervous parenchyma in the perivascular spaces are the central issues. For the clinician, dynamic aspects of cerebrospinal fluid flow, secretion, and resorption are essential factors with practical consequences in terms of disease and patient management. Comparative anatomy, embryology, and organogenesis provide an interesting perspective for the descriptive and functional anatomy of the meninges. Usually considered as protective membranes, the meninges play a prominent role in the development and maintenance of the central nervous system. The meninges are in constant evolution, from their formation to senescence. The meninges present three layers in children and adults: the dura mater, the arachnoid and the pia mater. The cerebrospinal fluid is secreted by the choroid plexuses, flows through the ventricles and the subarachnoid space, and is absorbed by arachnoid granulations. Other sites of secretion and resorption are suggested by comparative anatomy and human embryology and organogenesis.

  14. Is the cervical fascia an anatomical proteus? (United States)

    Natale, Gianfranco; Condino, Sara; Stecco, Antonio; Soldani, Paola; Belmonte, Monica Mattioli; Gesi, Marco


    The cervical fasciae have always represented a matter of debate. Indeed, in the literature, it is quite impossible to find two authors reporting the same description of the neck fascia. In the present review, a historical background was outlined, confirming that the Malgaigne's definition of the cervical fascia as an anatomical Proteus is widely justified. In an attempt to provide an essential and a more comprehensive classification, a fixed pattern of description of cervical fasciae is proposed. Based on the morphogenetic criteria, two fascial groups have been recognized: (1) fasciae which derive from primitive fibro-muscular laminae (muscular fasciae or myofasciae); (2) fasciae which derive from connective thickening (visceral fasciae). Topographic and comparative approaches allowed to distinguish three different types of fasciae in the neck: the superficial, the deep and the visceral fasciae. The first is most connected to the skin, the second to the muscles and the third to the viscera. The muscular fascia could be further divided into three layers according to the relationship with the different muscles.

  15. Construction and biomechanical properties of polyaxial self-locking anatomical plate based on the geometry of distal tibia. (United States)

    Liang, Weiguo; Ye, Weixiong; Ye, Dongping; Zhou, Ziqiang; Chen, Zhiguang; Li, Aiguo; Xie, Zong-Han; Zhang, Lihai; Xu, Jiake


    In order to provide scientific and empirical evidence for the clinical application of the polyaxial self-locking anatomical plate, 80 human tibias from healthy adults were scanned by spiral CT and their three-dimensional images were reconstructed using the surface shaded display (SSD) method. Firstly, based on the geometric data of distal tibia, a polyaxial self-locking anatomical plate for distal tibia was designed and constructed. Biomechanical tests were then performed by applying axial loading, 4-point bending, and axial torsion loading on the fracture fixation models of fresh cadaver tibias. Our results showed that variation in twisting angles of lateral tibia surface was found in various segments of the distal tibia. The polyaxial self-locking anatomical plate was constructed based on the geometry of the distal tibia. Compared to the conventional anatomical locking plate, the polyaxial self-locking anatomical plate of the distal tibia provides a better fit to the geometry of the distal tibia of the domestic population, and the insertion angle of locking screws can be regulated up to 30°. Collectively, this study assesses the geometry of the distal tibia and provides variable locking screw trajectory to improve screw-plate stability through the design of a polyaxial self-locking anatomical plate.

  16. Virtual electrodes around anatomical structures and their roles in defibrillation (United States)

    Vigmond, Edward; Bishop, Martin


    Background Virtual electrodes from structural/conductivity heterogeneities are known to elicit wavefront propagation, upon field-stimulation, and are thought to be important for defibrillation. In this work we investigate how the constitutive and geometrical parameters associated with such anatomical heterogeneities, represented by endo/epicardial surfaces and intramural surfaces in the form of blood-vessels, affect the virtual electrode patterns produced. Methods and results The steady-state bidomain model is used to obtain, using analytical and numerical methods, the virtual electrode patterns created around idealized endocardial trabeculations and blood-vessels. The virtual electrode pattern around blood-vessels is shown to be composed of two dominant effects; current traversing the vessel surface and conductivity heterogeneity from the fibre-architecture. The relative magnitudes of these two effects explain the swapping of the virtual electrode polarity observed, as a function of the vessel radius, and aid in the understanding of the virtual electrode patterns predicted by numerical bidomain modelling. The relatively high conductivity of blood, compared to myocardium, is shown to cause stronger depolarizations in the endocardial trabeculae grooves than the protrusions. Conclusions The results provide additional quantitative understanding of the virtual electrodes produced by small-scale ventricular anatomy, and highlight the importance of faithfully representing the physiology and the physics in the context of computational modelling of field stimulation. PMID:28253365

  17. Interpretability of anatomical variability analysis of abdominal organs via clusterization of decomposition modes. (United States)

    Reyes, Mauricio; Gonzalez Ballester, Miguel A; Li, Zhixi; Kozic, Nina; Summers, Ronald M; Linguraru, Marius George


    Extensive recent work has taken place on the construction of probabilistic atlases of anatomical organs, especially the brain, and their application in medical image analysis. These techniques are leading the way into similar studies of other organs and more comprehensively of groups of organs. In this paper we report results on the analysis of anatomical variability obtained from probabilistic atlases of abdominal organs. Two factor analysis techniques, namely principal component analysis (PCA) and principal factor analysis (PFA), were used to decompose and study shape variability within the abdomen. To assess and ease the interpretability of the resulting deformation modes, a clustering technique of the deformation vectors is proposed. The analysis of deformation fields obtained using these two factor analysis techniques showed strong correlation with anatomical landmarks and known mechanical deformations in the abdomen, allowing us to conclude that PFA is a complementary decomposition technique that offers easy-to-interpret additional information to PCA in a clinical setting. The analysis of organ anatomical variability will represent a potentially important research tool for abdominal diagnosis and modeling.

  18. Hemispheric Asymmetry of Human Brain Anatomical Network Revealed by Diffusion Tensor Tractography. (United States)

    Shu, Ni; Liu, Yaou; Duan, Yunyun; Li, Kuncheng


    The topological architecture of the cerebral anatomical network reflects the structural organization of the human brain. Recently, topological measures based on graph theory have provided new approaches for quantifying large-scale anatomical networks. However, few studies have investigated the hemispheric asymmetries of the human brain from the perspective of the network model, and little is known about the asymmetries of the connection patterns of brain regions, which may reflect the functional integration and interaction between different regions. Here, we utilized diffusion tensor imaging to construct binary anatomical networks for 72 right-handed healthy adult subjects. We established the existence of structural connections between any pair of the 90 cortical and subcortical regions using deterministic tractography. To investigate the hemispheric asymmetries of the brain, statistical analyses were performed to reveal the brain regions with significant differences between bilateral topological properties, such as degree of connectivity, characteristic path length, and betweenness centrality. Furthermore, local structural connections were also investigated to examine the local asymmetries of some specific white matter tracts. From the perspective of both the global and local connection patterns, we identified the brain regions with hemispheric asymmetries. Combined with the previous studies, we suggested that the topological asymmetries in the anatomical network may reflect the functional lateralization of the human brain.

  19. Hemispheric Asymmetry of Human Brain Anatomical Network Revealed by Diffusion Tensor Tractography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ni Shu


    Full Text Available The topological architecture of the cerebral anatomical network reflects the structural organization of the human brain. Recently, topological measures based on graph theory have provided new approaches for quantifying large-scale anatomical networks. However, few studies have investigated the hemispheric asymmetries of the human brain from the perspective of the network model, and little is known about the asymmetries of the connection patterns of brain regions, which may reflect the functional integration and interaction between different regions. Here, we utilized diffusion tensor imaging to construct binary anatomical networks for 72 right-handed healthy adult subjects. We established the existence of structural connections between any pair of the 90 cortical and subcortical regions using deterministic tractography. To investigate the hemispheric asymmetries of the brain, statistical analyses were performed to reveal the brain regions with significant differences between bilateral topological properties, such as degree of connectivity, characteristic path length, and betweenness centrality. Furthermore, local structural connections were also investigated to examine the local asymmetries of some specific white matter tracts. From the perspective of both the global and local connection patterns, we identified the brain regions with hemispheric asymmetries. Combined with the previous studies, we suggested that the topological asymmetries in the anatomical network may reflect the functional lateralization of the human brain.

  20. Brain growth across the life span in autism: age-specific changes in anatomical pathology. (United States)

    Courchesne, Eric; Campbell, Kathleen; Solso, Stephanie


    Autism is marked by overgrowth of the brain at the earliest ages but not at older ages when decreases in structural volumes and neuron numbers are observed instead. This has led to the theory of age-specific anatomic abnormalities in autism. Here we report age-related changes in brain size in autistic and typical subjects from 12 months to 50 years of age based on analyses of 586 longitudinal and cross-sectional MRI scans. This dataset is several times larger than the largest autism study to date. Results demonstrate early brain overgrowth during infancy and the toddler years in autistic boys and girls, followed by an accelerated rate of decline in size and perhaps degeneration from adolescence to late middle age in this disorder. We theorize that underlying these age-specific changes in anatomic abnormalities in autism, there may also be age-specific changes in gene expression, molecular, synaptic, cellular, and circuit abnormalities. A peak age for detecting and studying the earliest fundamental biological underpinnings of autism is prenatal life and the first three postnatal years. Studies of the older autistic brain may not address original causes but are essential to discovering how best to help the older aging autistic person. Lastly, the theory of age-specific anatomic abnormalities in autism has broad implications for a wide range of work on the disorder including the design, validation, and interpretation of animal model, lymphocyte gene expression, brain gene expression, and genotype/CNV-anatomic phenotype studies.

  1. [The anatomical revolution and the transition of anatomical conception in late imperial china]. (United States)

    Sihn, Kyu Hwan


    This paper aimed to examine the anatomical revolution from Yilingaicuo (Correcting the Errors of Medicine) and Quantixinlun(Outline of Anatomy and Physiology) in late imperial China. As the cephalocentrism which the brain superintend human operation of the mind was diffused in China since 16th century, the cephalocentrism and the cardiocentrism had competed for the hegemony of anatomical conception. Because of the advent of Yilingaicuo and Quantixinlun, the cephalocentrism became the main stream in the anatomical conception. The supporters of the Wang Yangming's Xinxue(the Learning of Heart and Mind) argued that the heart was the central organ of perception, sensitivity, and morality of the human body in medicine since 16th century. Even reformist and revolutionary intellectuals like Tan sitong and Mao zedong who had supported the Wang Yangming's Xinxue embraced the cephalocentrism in the late 19th century and the early 20th century. May Fourth intellectuals had not obsessed metaphysical interpretation of human body any more in the New Culture Movement in 1910s. They regarded human body as the object of research and writing. The anatomy was transformed into the instrumental knowledge for mutilation of the body. Yilingaicuo challenged the traditional conception of body, and Chinese intellectuals drew interest in the anatomy knowledge based on real mutilation. Quantixinlun based on Western medicine fueled a controversy about anatomy. Though new knowledge of anatomy was criticized by traditional Chinese medical doctors from the usefulness and morality of anatomy, nobody disavowed new knowledge of anatomy from the institutionalization of Western medicine in medical school. The internal development of cephalocentrism and positivism had influence on anatomy in China since 16th century. The advent of Yilingaicuo and Quantixinlun provided the milestone of new anatomy, though both sides represented traditional Chinese medicine and Western medicine respectively. They

  2. The peroneocuboid joint: morphogenesis and anatomical study. (United States)

    Guimerá, V; Lafuente, A; Zambrana, L; Rodriguez-Niedenführ, M; Sañudo, J R; Vazquez, T


    The peroneocuboid joint, between the peroneus longus tendon and the cuboid bone, has not been anatomically well-defined and no embryological study has been published. Furthermore, the ossification of the os peroneum (a sesamoid inside the peroneus longus tendon) and its associated pathology has been considered to be generated by orthostatic and/or mechanical loads. A light microscopy analysis of serially sectioned human embryonic and fetal feet, the analysis of human adult feet by means of standard macroscopic dissection, X-ray and histological techniques have been carried out. The peroneus longus tendon was fully visible until its insertion in the 1st metatarsal bone already at embryonic stage 23 (56-57 days). The peroneocuboid joint cavity appeared at the transition of the embryonic to the fetal period (8-9th week of gestation) and was independent of the proximal synovial sheath. The joint cavity extended from the level of the calcaneocuboid joint all the way to the insertion of the peroneus longus tendon in the 1st metatarsal bone. The frenular ligaments, fixing the peroneus longus tendon to the 5th metatarsal bone or the long calcaneocuboid ligament, developed in the embryonic period. The peroneus longus tendon presented a thickening in the area surrounding the cuboid bone as early as the fetal period. This thickening may be considered the precursor of the os peroneum and was similar in shape and in size relation to the tendon, to the os peroneum observed in adults. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to show that the os peroneum, articular facets of the peroneus longus tendon and cuboid bone, the peroneocuboid joint and the frenular ligaments appear during the embryonic/fetal development period and therefore they can not be generated exclusively by orthostatic and mechanical forces or pathological processes.

  3. Collaborative regression-based anatomical landmark detection (United States)

    Gao, Yaozong; Shen, Dinggang


    Anatomical landmark detection plays an important role in medical image analysis, e.g. for registration, segmentation and quantitative analysis. Among the various existing methods for landmark detection, regression-based methods have recently attracted much attention due to their robustness and efficiency. In these methods, landmarks are localised through voting from all image voxels, which is completely different from the classification-based methods that use voxel-wise classification to detect landmarks. Despite their robustness, the accuracy of regression-based landmark detection methods is often limited due to (1) the inclusion of uninformative image voxels in the voting procedure, and (2) the lack of effective ways to incorporate inter-landmark spatial dependency into the detection step. In this paper, we propose a collaborative landmark detection framework to address these limitations. The concept of collaboration is reflected in two aspects. (1) Multi-resolution collaboration. A multi-resolution strategy is proposed to hierarchically localise landmarks by gradually excluding uninformative votes from faraway voxels. Moreover, for informative voxels near the landmark, a spherical sampling strategy is also designed at the training stage to improve their prediction accuracy. (2) Inter-landmark collaboration. A confidence-based landmark detection strategy is proposed to improve the detection accuracy of ‘difficult-to-detect’ landmarks by using spatial guidance from ‘easy-to-detect’ landmarks. To evaluate our method, we conducted experiments extensively on three datasets for detecting prostate landmarks and head & neck landmarks in computed tomography images, and also dental landmarks in cone beam computed tomography images. The results show the effectiveness of our collaborative landmark detection framework in improving landmark detection accuracy, compared to other state-of-the-art methods.

  4. A reusable anatomically segmented digital mannequin for public health communication. (United States)

    Fujieda, Kaori; Okubo, Kosaku


    The ongoing development of world wide web technologies has facilitated a change in health communication, which has now become bi-directional and encompasses people with diverse backgrounds. To enable an even greater role for medical illustrations, a data set, BodyParts3D, has been generated and its data set can be used by anyone to create and exchange customised three-dimensional (3D) anatomical images. BP3D comprises more than 3000 3D object files created by segmenting a digital mannequin in accordance with anatomical naming conventions. This paper describes the methodologies and features used to generate an anatomically correct male mannequin.

  5. Anatomic changes due to interspecific grafting in cassava (Manihot esculenta). (United States)

    Bomfim, N; Ribeiro, D G; Nassar, N M A


    Cassava rootstocks of varieties UnB 201 and UnB 122 grafted with scions of Manihot fortalezensis were prepared for anatomic study. The roots were cut, stained with safranin and alcian blue, and examined microscopically, comparing them with sections taken from ungrafted roots. There was a significant decrease in number of pericyclic fibers, vascular vessels and tyloses in rootstocks. They exhibited significant larger vessels. These changes in anatomic structure are a consequence of genetic effects caused by transference of genetic material from scion to rootstock. The same ungrafted species was compared. This is the first report on anatomic changes due to grafting in cassava.

  6. Zebrafish Expression Ontology of Gene Sets (ZEOGS): a tool to analyze enrichment of zebrafish anatomical terms in large gene sets. (United States)

    Prykhozhij, Sergey V; Marsico, Annalisa; Meijsing, Sebastiaan H


    The zebrafish (Danio rerio) is an established model organism for developmental and biomedical research. It is frequently used for high-throughput functional genomics experiments, such as genome-wide gene expression measurements, to systematically analyze molecular mechanisms. However, the use of whole embryos or larvae in such experiments leads to a loss of the spatial information. To address this problem, we have developed a tool called Zebrafish Expression Ontology of Gene Sets (ZEOGS) to assess the enrichment of anatomical terms in large gene sets. ZEOGS uses gene expression pattern data from several sources: first, in situ hybridization experiments from the Zebrafish Model Organism Database (ZFIN); second, it uses the Zebrafish Anatomical Ontology, a controlled vocabulary that describes connected anatomical structures; and third, the available connections between expression patterns and anatomical terms contained in ZFIN. Upon input of a gene set, ZEOGS determines which anatomical structures are overrepresented in the input gene set. ZEOGS allows one for the first time to look at groups of genes and to describe them in terms of shared anatomical structures. To establish ZEOGS, we first tested it on random gene selections and on two public microarray datasets with known tissue-specific gene expression changes. These tests showed that ZEOGS could reliably identify the tissues affected, whereas only very few enriched terms to none were found in the random gene sets. Next we applied ZEOGS to microarray datasets of 24 and 72 h postfertilization zebrafish embryos treated with beclomethasone, a potent glucocorticoid. This analysis resulted in the identification of several anatomical terms related to glucocorticoid-responsive tissues, some of which were stage-specific. Our studies highlight the ability of ZEOGS to extract spatial information from datasets derived from whole embryos, indicating that ZEOGS could be a useful tool to automatically analyze gene expression

  7. Functional and anatomical properties of human visual cortical fields. (United States)

    Zhang, Shouyu; Cate, Anthony D; Herron, Timothy J; Kang, Xiaojian; Yund, E William; Bao, Shanglian; Woods, David L


    Human visual cortical fields (VCFs) vary in size and anatomical location across individual subjects. Here, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) with retinotopic stimulation to identify VCFs on the cortical surface. We found that aligning and averaging VCF activations across the two hemispheres provided clear delineation of multiple retinotopic fields in visual cortex. The results show that VCFs have consistent locations and extents in different subjects that provide stable and accurate landmarks for functional and anatomical mapping. Interhemispheric comparisons revealed minor differences in polar angle and eccentricity tuning in comparable VCFs in the left and right hemisphere, and somewhat greater intersubject variability in the right than left hemisphere. We then used the functional boundaries to characterize the anatomical properties of VCFs, including fractional anisotropy (FA), magnetization transfer ratio (MTR) and the ratio of T1W and T2W images and found significant anatomical differences between VCFs and between hemispheres.

  8. Anatomical terminology and nomenclature: past, present and highlights. (United States)

    Kachlik, David; Baca, Vaclav; Bozdechova, Ivana; Cech, Pavel; Musil, Vladimir


    The anatomical terminology is a base for medical communication. It is elaborated into a nomenclature in Latin. Its history goes back to 1895, when the first Latin anatomical nomenclature was published as Basiliensia Nomina Anatomica. It was followed by seven revisions (Jenaiensia Nomina Anatomica 1935, Parisiensia Nomina Anatomica 1955, Nomina Anatomica 2nd to 6th edition 1960-1989). The last revision, Terminologia Anatomica, (TA) created by the Federative Committee on Anatomical Terminology and approved by the International Federation of Associations of Anatomists, was published in 1998. Apart from the official Latin anatomical terminology, it includes a list of recommended English equivalents. In this article, major changes and pitfalls of the nomenclature are discussed, as well as the clinical anatomy terms. The last revision (TA) is highly recommended to the attention of not only teachers, students and researchers, but also to clinicians, doctors, translators, editors and publishers to be followed in their activities.

  9. Anatomical Consideration in Catheter Ablation of Idiopathic Ventricular Arrhythmias. (United States)

    Yamada, Takumi; Kay, G Neal


    Idiopathic ventricular arrhythmias (VAs) are ventricular tachycardias (VTs) or premature ventricular contractions (PVCs) with a mechanism that is not related to myocardial scar. The sites of successful catheter ablation of idiopathic VA origins have been progressively elucidated and include both the endocardium and, less commonly, the epicardium. Idiopathic VAs usually originate from specific anatomical structures such as the ventricular outflow tracts, aortic root, atrioventricular (AV) annuli, papillary muscles, Purkinje network and so on, and exhibit characteristic electrocardiograms based on their anatomical background. Catheter ablation of idiopathic VAs is usually safe and highly successful, but can sometimes be challenging because of the anatomical obstacles such as the coronary arteries, epicardial fat pads, intramural and epicardial origins, AV conduction system and so on. Therefore, understanding the relevant anatomy is important to achieve a safe and successful catheter ablation of idiopathic VAs. This review describes the anatomical consideration in the catheter ablation of idiopathic VAs.

  10. Free-form image registration of human cochlear μCT data using skeleton similarity as anatomical prior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjer, Hans Martin; Fagertun, Jens; Vera, Sergio


    Better understanding of the anatomical variability of the human cochlear is important for the design and function of Cochlear Implants. Proper non-rigid alignment of high-resolution cochlear μCT data is a challenge for the typical cubic B-spline registration model. In this paper we study one way...... of incorporating skeleton-based similarity as an anatomical registration prior. We extract a centerline skeleton of the cochlear spiral, and generate corresponding parametric pseudo-landmarks between samples. These correspondences are included in the cost function of a typical cubic B-spline registration model...

  11. Etiologic analysis of 100 anatomically failed dacryocystorhinostomies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dave TV


    Full Text Available Tarjani Vivek Dave, Faraz Ali Mohammed, Mohammad Javed Ali, Milind N Naik The Institute of Dacryology, L V Prasad Eye Institute, Hyderabad, India Background: The aim of this study was to assess the etiological factors contributing to the failure of a dacryocystorhinostomy (DCR. Patients and methods: Retrospective review was performed in 100 consecutive patients who were diagnosed with anatomically failed DCR at presentation to a tertiary care hospital over a 5-year period from 2010 to 2015. Patient records were reviewed for demographic data, type of past surgery, preoperative endoscopic findings, previous use of adjuvants such as intubation and mitomycin C, and intraoperative notes during the re-revision. The potential etiological factors for failure were noted. Results: Of the 100 patients with failed DCRs, the primary surgery was an external DCR in 73 and endoscopic DCR in 27 patients. Six patients in each group had multiple revisions. The mean ages at presentation in the external and endoscopic groups were 39.41 years and 37.19 years, respectively. All patients presented with epiphora. The most common causes of failure were inadequate osteotomy (69.8% in the external group and 85.1% in the endoscopic group, P=0.19 followed by inadequate or inappropriate sac marsupialization (60.2% in the external group and 77.7% in the endoscopic group, P=0.16 and cicatricial closure of the ostium (50.6% in the external group and 55.5% in the endoscopic group, P=0.83. The least common causes such as ostium granulomas and paradoxical middle turbinate (1.37%, n=1 were noted in the external group only. Conclusion: Inadequate osteotomy, incomplete sac marsupialization, and cicatricial closure of the ostium were the most common causes of failure and did not significantly differ in the external and endoscopic groups. Meticulous evaluation to identify causative factors for failure and addressing them are crucial for subsequent successful outcomes. Keywords: failed

  12. Anatomic anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction using an individualized approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carola F. van Eck


    Full Text Available Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL reconstruction is one of the most commonly performed orthopaedic procedures. Recently, there has been a shift in interest towards reconstruction techniques that more closely restore the native anatomy of the ACL. This review paper discusses our approach to individualized anatomic ACL reconstruction, including the anatomy of the ACL, the physical exam, imaging modalities, the surgical technique for anatomic reconstruction including pre- and intraoperative considerations and our postoperative rehabilitation protocol.

  13. Anatomical and functional segments of the deltoid muscle. (United States)

    Sakoma, Yoshimasa; Sano, Hirotaka; Shinozaki, Nobuhisa; Itoigawa, Yoshiaki; Yamamoto, Nobuyuki; Ozaki, Toshifumi; Itoi, Eiji


    Previous studies showed that the insertion of the intramuscular tendons of the deltoid muscle formed three discrete lines. The purpose of the present study was to establish a new dividing method of the deltoid muscle into various anatomical segments based on the distribution of the intramuscular tendons with their insertions (anatomical study). We further hoped to clarify the relationship between the anatomical segments and their activity pattern assessed by positron emission tomography with [¹⁸F]-2-fluoro-deoxyglucose (FDG-PET; PET study). Sixty cadaveric shoulders were investigated in the anatomical study. Three tendinous insertions of the deltoid muscle to the humerus were identified. Then, the intramuscular tendons were traced from their humeral insertions to the proximal muscular origins. The extent of each anatomical segment of the muscle including its origin and insertion was determined through careful dissection. Six healthy volunteers were examined using FDG-PET for the PET study. PET images were obtained after exercise of elevation in the scapular plane. On the PET images, margins of each anatomical segment of the deltoid muscle were determined using magnetic resonance images. Then, the standardized uptake value in each segment was calculated to quantify its activity. The anatomical study demonstrated that the deltoid muscle was divided into seven segments based on the distribution of its intramuscular tendons. The PET study revealed that the intake of FDG was not uniform in the deltoid muscle. The area with high FDG intake corresponded well to the individual muscular segments separated by the intramuscular tendons. We conclude that the deltoid muscle has seven anatomical segments, which seem to represent the functional units of this muscle.

  14. Orbitofrontal sulcal and gyrus pattern in human: an anatomical study


    Thiago Pereira Rodrigues; Mariana Athaniel Silva Rodrigues; Daniel de Araújo Paz; Marcos Devanir Silva da Costa; Ricardo Silva Centeno; Feres Eduardo Chaddad Neto; Sergio Cavalheiro


    The anatomical characterization of the orbitofrontal cortex in human is limited in literature instead of many functional and clinical studies involving it. Objective Anatomically define the orbitofrontal region aiming to possible neurosurgical treatments and unify the scientific nomenclature as well. Method We analyze eighty four human hemispheres using a surgical microscope. Then we chose four hemispheres and dissect them according to Klinger’ technique. Results We found five main sulc...

  15. The "anatomic" view of the suprarenals in medical imaging. (United States)

    Sénécail, B; Colin, D; Person, H; Vallée, B; Lefèvre, C


    Based on coordinates derived from three series of anatomic sections, the authors propose a view for tomographic investigation, applicable in MRI and ultrasound, which reconstructs the ideal image of the suprarenal gland in its quadrilateral as described by Testut. This "anatomic" view is 45 degrees vertical and oblique, intermediate between the sagittal and frontal views, which it can advantageously replace. A new aspect of suprarenal tomography, recalling the image of a triskele, is described in the context of this view.

  16. The linguistic roots of Modern English anatomical terminology. (United States)

    Turmezei, Tom D


    Previous research focusing on Classical Latin and Greek roots has shown that understanding the etymology of English anatomical terms may be beneficial for students of human anatomy. However, not all anatomical terms are derived from Classical origins. This study aims to explore the linguistic roots of the Modern English terminology used in human gross anatomy. By reference to the Oxford English Dictionary, etymologies were determined for a lexicon of 798 Modern English gross anatomical terms from the 40(th) edition of Gray's Anatomy. Earliest traceable language of origin was determined for all 798 terms; language of acquisition was determined for 747 terms. Earliest traceable languages of origin were: Classical Latin (62%), Classical Greek (24%), Old English (7%), Post-Classical Latin (3%), and other (4%). Languages of acquisition were: Classical Latin (42%), Post-Classical Latin (29%), Old English (8%), Modern French (6%), Classical Greek (5%), Middle English (3%), and other (7%). While the roots of Modern English anatomical terminology mostly lie in Classical languages (accounting for the origin of 86% of terms), the anatomical lexicon of Modern English is actually much more diverse. Interesting and perhaps less familiar examples from these languages and the methods by which such terms have been created and absorbed are discussed. The author suggests that awareness of anatomical etymologies may enhance the enjoyment and understanding of human anatomy for students and teachers alike.

  17. Anatomical Findings in Patients with Infective Endocarditis Diagnosed at Autopsy

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    Miguel Angel Serra Valdés


    Full Text Available Background: Infective endocarditis continues to challenge modern medicine despite its rare occurrence in the general population. Its incidence depends on risk groups. Correlation of anatomical and pathological findings with clinical and epidemiological elements may explain the current features of this condition. Objective: to describe the anatomical features of patients with infective endocarditis diagnosed at autopsy. Methods: A descriptive study including cases of infective endocarditis diagnosed at autopsy between 1986 and 2008 was conducted in the Provincial Clinical-Surgical Hospital Celia Sanchez, Granma. The variables analyzed were: age, sex, previous anatomical lesions, location of vegetations, multi-organ embolic infarcts and embolic abscesses, complications, culture of lesions and direct causes of death. Results: frequency of infective endocarditis diagnosed at necropsy ranged annually from 0.4 to 1.5%. Native valve endocarditis without previous damage was the most frequent. The anatomical findings were more common in the left side of the heart. Right-sided nosocomial endocarditis accounted for almost a third of the deceased patients and risk factors were identified. Embolic lesions affecting various organs, systemic complications and direct causes of death showed acute infectious endocarditis. The most common pathogen was Staphylococcus aureus. Conclusion: knowing the anatomical findings may contribute to the understanding of the clinical and epidemiological aspects of this condition. Correlation between anatomical and clinical findings was low; therefore difficulties in establishing the diagnosis during life are inferred.

  18. Toledo School of Translators and their influence on anatomical terminology. (United States)

    Arráez-Aybar, Luis-Alfonso; Bueno-López, José-L; Raio, Nicolas


    Translation facilitates transmission of knowledge between cultures. The fundamental transfer of anatomic terminology from the Ancient Greek and Islamic Golden Age cultures, to medieval Latin Christendom took place in the so-called Toledo School of Translators in the 12th-13th centuries. Translations made in Toledo circulated widely across Europe. They were the foundation of scientific thinking that was born in the boards of first universities. In Toledo, Gerard of Cremona translated Avicenna's Canon of Medicine, the key work of Islamic Golden Age of medicine. Albertus Magnus, Mondino de Luzzi and Guy de Chauliac, the leading authors of anatomical Latin words in the Middle Ages, founded their books on Gerard's translations. The anatomical terms of the Canon retain auctoritas up to the Renaissance. Thus, terms coined by Gerard such as diaphragm, orbit, pupil or sagittal remain relevant in the current official anatomical terminology. The aim of the present paper is to bring new attention to the highly significant influence that the Toledo School of Translators had in anatomical terminology. For this, we shall review here the onomastic origins of a number of anatomical terms (additamentum; coracoid process; coxal; false ribs; femur; panniculus; spondylus; squamous sutures; thorax; xiphoid process, etc.) which are still used today.

  19. GBM heterogeneity characterization by radiomic analysis of phenotype anatomical planes (United States)

    Chaddad, Ahmad; Desrosiers, Christian; Toews, Matthew


    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most common malignant primary tumor of the central nervous system, characterized among other traits by rapid metastatis. Three tissue phenotypes closely associated with GBMs, namely, necrosis (N), contrast enhancement (CE), and edema/invasion (E), exhibit characteristic patterns of texture heterogeneity in magnetic resonance images (MRI). In this study, we propose a novel model to characterize GBM tissue phenotypes using gray level co-occurrence matrices (GLCM) in three anatomical planes. The GLCM encodes local image patches in terms of informative, orientation-invariant texture descriptors, which are used here to sub-classify GBM tissue phenotypes. Experiments demonstrate the model on MRI data of 41 GBM patients, obtained from the cancer genome atlas (TCGA). Intensity-based automatic image registration is applied to align corresponding pairs of fixed T1˗weighted (T1˗WI) post-contrast and fluid attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) images. GBM tissue regions are then segmented using the 3D Slicer tool. Texture features are computed from 12 quantifier functions operating on GLCM descriptors, that are generated from MRI intensities within segmented GBM tissue regions. Various classifier models are used to evaluate the effectiveness of texture features for discriminating between GBM phenotypes. Results based on T1-WI scans showed a phenotype classification accuracy of over 88.14%, a sensitivity of 85.37% and a specificity of 96.1%, using the linear discriminant analysis (LDA) classifier. This model has the potential to provide important characteristics of tumors, which can be used for the sub-classification of GBM phenotypes.

  20. Anatomical characterization of central, apical and minimal corneal thickness

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Federico; Saenz-Frances; Martha; Cecilia; Bermúdez-Vallecilla; Lara; Borrego-Sanz; Luis; Jaez; J; osé; Marìa; Martinez-de-la-Casa; Laura; Morales-Fernandez; Enrique; Santos-Bueso; Julián; Garcia-Sanchez; Julián; Garcia-Feijoo


    ·AIM: To anatomically locate the points of minimum corneal thickness and central corneal thickness(pupil center) in relation to the corneal apex.·METHODS: Observational, cross-sectional study, 299 healthy volunteers. Thickness at the corneal apex(AT),minimum corneal thickness(MT) and corneal thickness at the pupil center(PT) were determined using the pentacam. Distances from the corneal apex to MT(MD)and PT(PD) were calculated and their quadrant position(taking the corneal apex as the reference) determined:point of minimum thickness(MC) and point of central thickness(PC) depending on the quadrant position. Two multivariate linear regression models were constructed to examine the influence of age, gender, power of the flattest and steepest corneal axes, position of the flattest axis, corneal volume(determined using the Pentacam)and PT on MD and PD. The effects of these variables on MC and PC were also determined in two multinomial regression models.·RESULTS: MT was located at a mean distance of 0.909 mm from the apex(79.4% in the inferior-temporal quadrant). PT was located at a mean distance of 0.156 mm from the apex. The linear regression model for MD indicated it was significantly influenced by corneal volume(B =-0.024; 95% CI:-0.043 to-0.004). No significant relations were identified in the linear regression model for PD or the multinomial logisticregressions for MC and PC.·CONCLUSION: MT was typically located at the inferiortemporal quadrant of the cornea and its distance to the corneal apex tended to decrease with the increment of corneal volume.

  1. Influence of anatomic reference on the buccal contour of prosthetic crowns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia Sabrina Queirós Vasconcelos


    Full Text Available During clinical practice, when performing prosthetic rehabilitation with single crowns, improper reproduction of the dental contour by the dental laboratory is a common occurrence. Therefore, the present study evaluated the fidelity of the reproduction of the buccal contour in an upper left canine performed by three Dental Prosthesis Technicians (DPT using the indirect laminate veneer technique. First, the DPTs confected the veneers based on a model obtained from the upper arch of a dental dummy, containing a replica of an upper left canine with a prosthetic preparation for a laminate veneer. Then, the same DPTs received other identical models, now with the replica of the upper left canine with no preparation, to be used as an anatomical reference for confecting the laminate veneers. The laminate veneers were then bonded to the plaster models and had their buccal contour individually measured. Measurements were also made of the buccal contour of the reference canine. The data were analyzed by ANOVA and the t-test (p = 0.05. Results showed 100% of buccal overcontour when the laminate veneers were compared to the reference canine, regardless of which DPT confected the veneer and regardless of using or not the anatomical reference. The DPTs who participated in the present study were unable to acomplish a faithful anatomical reproduction of the buccal contour, creating an overcontour in all samples. This situation may be responsible for increasing the probability of periodontal and esthetic harm in clinical practice.

  2. Segmenting the prostate and rectum in CT imagery using anatomical constraints. (United States)

    Chen, Siqi; Lovelock, D Michael; Radke, Richard J


    The automatic segmentation of the prostate and rectum from 3D computed tomography (CT) images is still a challenging problem, and is critical for image-guided therapy applications. We present a new, automatic segmentation algorithm based on deformable organ models built from previously segmented training data. The major contributions of this work are a new segmentation cost function based on a Bayesian framework that incorporates anatomical constraints from surrounding bones and a new appearance model that learns a nonparametric distribution of the intensity histograms inside and outside organ contours. We report segmentation results on 185 datasets of the prostate site, demonstrating improved performance over previous models.

  3. CT following US for possible appendicitis: anatomic coverage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Malley, Martin E. [University of Toronto, Princess Margaret Hospital, 3-920, Joint Department of Medical Imaging, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Alharbi, Fawaz [University of Toronto, Toronto General Hospital, NCSB 1C572, Joint Department of Medical Imaging, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Qassim University, Department of Medical Imaging, Buraydah, Qassim (Saudi Arabia); Chawla, Tanya P. [University of Toronto, Mount Sinai Hospital, Room 567, Joint Department of Medical Imaging, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Moshonov, Hadas [University of Toronto, Joint Department of Medical Imaging, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)


    To determine superior-inferior anatomic borders for CT following inconclusive/nondiagnostic US for possible appendicitis. Ninety-nine patients with possible appendicitis and inconclusive/nondiagnostic US followed by CT were included in this retrospective study. Two radiologists reviewed CT images and determined superior-inferior anatomic borders required to diagnose or exclude appendicitis and diagnose alternative causes. This ''targeted'' coverage was used to estimate potential reduction in anatomic coverage compared to standard abdominal/pelvic CT. The study group included 83 women and 16 men; mean age 32 (median, 29; range 18-73) years. Final diagnoses were: nonspecific abdominal pain 50/99 (51 %), appendicitis 26/99 (26 %), gynaecological 12/99 (12 %), gastrointestinal 9/99 (10 %), and musculoskeletal 2/99 (2 %). Median dose-length product for standard CT was 890.0 (range, 306.3 - 2493.9) To confidently diagnose/exclude appendicitis or identify alternative diagnoses, maximum superior-inferior anatomic CT coverage was the superior border of L2-superior border of pubic symphysis, for both reviewers. Targeted CT would reduce anatomic coverage by 30-55 % (mean 39 %, median 40 %) compared to standard CT. When CT is performed for appendicitis following inconclusive/nondiagnostic US, targeted CT from the superior border of L2-superior border of pubic symphysis can be used resulting in significant reduction in exposure to ionizing radiation compared to standard CT. (orig.)

  4. [Anatomical names of foramina and canales in skeleton]. (United States)

    Shikano, S; Yamashita, Y


    Latin anatomical names of Foramina and Canales in skeleton were analyzed and compared with Japanese anatomical names for better understanding of the structures of the human body and for possible revision in the future. The conclusions were as follows: 1. In general, short tunnels were called Foramina (singular: Foramen), and long tunnels Canales (singular: Canalis). 2. One end of Canalis was sometimes called Foramen. In this case, Canalis and Foramen were usually modified by the same words. 3. Each name of Foramina contained the word which means form, state, absolute size, region of existence, one of the contents or function of Foramina. 4. Each name of Canales contained the word which means region of existence, one of the contents or function of Canales. 5. Some names of Foramina and Canales that were supposed to mean the region of existence meant one of the contents of the structures. 6. As for Latin anatomical names, the relation between words were relatively clear by the proper use of noun, adjective, nominative, and genitive. 7. Since different Chinese characters were sometimes pronounced similarly in Japanese anatomical names, different structures might be confused. 8. It seemed that some Japanese anatomical names needed partial correction.


    Monza, Francesca; Licata, Marta


    The international debate on the issue of human remains in museums and on the ethical issues related to their exhibition stimulates reflection on the Italian anatomical collections and on their preparations. A definition of human remains or of anatomical preparation does not exist in the Italian legislation. The anatomical specimens in museums are protected by the laws of Cultural Heritage as part of public collections, but their status is not well defined. By their nature of human material they would in fact be considered as a special category of Cultural Heritage. Because they are part of a cadaver they can be regarded as res nullius, but since treated with special techniques they could also change their meaning and being considered a species nova. Finally, it reflects on the possibility of creating a museum in Italy composed by new anatomical preparations. The article outline the contours of a museological issue that deserves to be investigated in order to better identify the anatomical preparations and their management in museums.

  6. Photosynthesis rate in moss leaves of various anatomical structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Krupa


    Full Text Available On the basis of measurements of the rate of gas exchange in the leaves of mosses the value of the compensation and of the light saturation of photosynthesis points was determined. These points differentiate mosses into photo- and sciophilous ones.Moss species such as: Mnium punctatum, Catherinea undulata, Polytrichum juniperinum, Funaria hygrometrica, Polytrichum piliferum, Aloina rigida were also classified according to differences in the anatomical structure of their leaves. The morphological characters of the anatomical structure of leaves and their chlorophyll content are connected with photosynthetic activity. There is a correlation between the leaf surface and the degree of differentiation of the anatomical structure. This results in an enlargement of the contact surface of the cells assimilating from the air, and this in turn is associated with an increase in the photosynthetic activity per leaf surface area unit.

  7. Dissimilarity-based classification of anatomical tree structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Lauge; Lo, Pechin Chien Pau; Dirksen, Asger


    A novel method for classification of abnormality in anatomical tree structures is presented. A tree is classified based on direct comparisons with other trees in a dissimilarity-based classification scheme. The pair-wise dissimilarity measure between two trees is based on a linear assignment...... between the branch feature vectors representing those trees. Hereby, localized information in the branches is collectively used in classification and variations in feature values across the tree are taken into account. An approximate anatomical correspondence between matched branches can be achieved...... by including anatomical features in the branch feature vectors. The proposed approach is applied to classify airway trees in computed tomography images of subjects with and without chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Using the wall area percentage (WA%), a common measure of airway abnormality in COPD...

  8. Orbitofrontal sulcal and gyrus pattern in human: an anatomical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Pereira Rodrigues


    Full Text Available The anatomical characterization of the orbitofrontal cortex in human is limited in literature instead of many functional and clinical studies involving it. Objective Anatomically define the orbitofrontal region aiming to possible neurosurgical treatments and unify the scientific nomenclature as well. Method We analyze eighty four human hemispheres using a surgical microscope. Then we chose four hemispheres and dissect them according to Klinger’ technique. Results We found five main sulcus: olfatory sulcus, orbital medial sulcus, orbital lateral sulcus, orbital transverse sulcus and orbital intermediate sulcus. These sulcus, excluding the intermediate sulcus, delimit five gyrus: rectus gurys, orbital medial gyrus, orbital anterior gyrus, orbital lateral gyrus and orbital posterior gyrus. The main sulcal configuration can be divided on four more frequently patterns. Conclusion Orbitofrontal cortex is associated with many psychiatric disorders. Better anatomical and functional characterization of the orbitofrontal cortex and its connections will improve our knowledge about these diseases.

  9. Development of an Interactive Anatomical Three-Dimensional Eye Model (United States)

    Allen, Lauren K.; Bhattacharyya, Siddhartha; Wilson, Timothy D.


    The discrete anatomy of the eye's intricate oculomotor system is conceptually difficult for novice students to grasp. This is problematic given that this group of muscles represents one of the most common sites of clinical intervention in the treatment of ocular motility disorders and other eye disorders. This project was designed to develop a…

  10. [Videothoracoscopic anatomic pulmonary segmentary: an initial single-center experience]. (United States)

    Reis, João Eurico; Bravio, Ivan; Baptista, Pedro; Martelo, Fernando Palma


    The use of minimally invasive surgery for the treatment of lung cancer has been growing worldwide. Between May 2008 and November 2012, we performed 24 videothoracoscopic anatomical lung resections in our department. This includes 22 lobectomies and 2 anatomic segmentectomies, which is known to be a more complex surgery, since it demands a finer dissection of sub-lobar structures. We report the clinical cases of two patients who underwent anatomic segmentectomies. The first one was a 63 year old woman, smoker and with a history of breast cancer 20 years earlier. An incidental 9 mm node was found in the lingula. The patient underwent an anatomic lingulectomy and the frozen section was suggestive of a primary lung cancer. Therefore, we proceeded to a full lymphadenectomy. The final pathology evaluation showed a typical carcinoid tumour (pT1aN0). The second patient was a 50 year old woman, a smoker and with a heavy family history of lung cancer. In a screening CT scan a 8 mm ground glass opacity was identified in the left lower lobe (segment VI). After a VATS wedge resection of the node the frozen section evaluation was compatible with adenocarcinoma. We then proceeded to an anatomic segmentectomy with lymphadenectomy. The definitive pathology evaluation confirmed that it was a pT1a N0 bronchioloalveolar adenocarcinoma. The patients now have 5 and 2 months of follow up respectivelly and neither of them has signs of recurrence and the surgical incision showed a good aesthetic result. Anatomic segmentectomy is the indicated surgery especially in patients with low grade tumours, in early stage lung cancers or in patients without pulmonary function for a lobar resection, and it can be done safely using VATS.

  11. Benign anatomical mistakes: the correct anatomical term for the recurrent laryngeal nerve. (United States)

    Mirilas, Petros; Skandalakis, John E


    The term recurrent laryngeal nerve has been adopted by Nomina Anatomica (1989) and Terminologia Anatomica (1998) to describe this vagus branch from its origin, its turn dorsally around the subclavian artery and the aortic arch, and its cranial pathway until it reaches its terminal organs in the neck. However, there is still much confusion, and either the terms inferior and recurrent laryngeal nerve are used interchangeably or inferior laryngeal nerve is considered the terminal branch of the recurrent laryngeal nerve. We hereby feel that it is necessary to reassess the term and we propose the term inferior laryngeal nerve for the entire nerve under consideration, from its origin from the vagus nerve to its destinations, including tracheal, esophageal, and pharyngeal branches. If the term superior laryngeal nerve is a given, standard and accepted term in the anatomical terminology, then logically the term inferior laryngeal nerve should also be accepted, as opposed to it. Of course the upward travel of the inferior laryngeal nerve is "recurrent". When nonrecurrence is encountered together with an arteria lusoria, a retroesophageal right subclavian artery or a right aortic arch, we consider that the term nonrecurrent inferior laryngeal nerve should be used to describe the deviation from the normal.

  12. Congenital blindness is associated with large-scale reorganization of anatomical networks. (United States)

    Hasson, Uri; Andric, Michael; Atilgan, Hicret; Collignon, Olivier


    Blindness is a unique model for understanding the role of experience in the development of the brain's functional and anatomical architecture. Documenting changes in the structure of anatomical networks for this population would substantiate the notion that the brain's core network-level organization may undergo neuroplasticity as a result of life-long experience. To examine this issue, we compared whole-brain networks of regional cortical-thickness covariance in early blind and matched sighted individuals. This covariance is thought to reflect signatures of integration between systems involved in similar perceptual/cognitive functions. Using graph-theoretic metrics, we identified a unique mode of anatomical reorganization in the blind that differed from that found for sighted. This was seen in that network partition structures derived from subgroups of blind were more similar to each other than they were to partitions derived from sighted. Notably, after deriving network partitions, we found that language and visual regions tended to reside within separate modules in sighted but showed a pattern of merging into shared modules in the blind. Our study demonstrates that early visual deprivation triggers a systematic large-scale reorganization of whole-brain cortical-thickness networks, suggesting changes in how occipital regions interface with other functional networks in the congenitally blind.

  13. Fabrication and perfusion culture of anatomically shaped artificial bone using stereolithography. (United States)

    Du, Dajiang; Asaoka, Teruo; Ushida, Takashi; Furukawa, Katsuko S


    Because patient bone defects are usually varied and complicated in geometry, it would be preferred to fabricate custom-made artificial bone grafts that are anatomically specific to individual patient defects. Using a rabbit femoral segment as a bone reconstruction model, we successfully produced customized ceramic scaffolds by stereolithography, which not only had an anatomically correct external shape according to computed tomography data but also contained an interconnecting internal network of channels designed for perfusion culture. Rabbit bone marrow stromal cells were isolated and cultured with these scaffolds using a novel oscillatory perfusion system that was stereolithographically fabricated to fit well to the unique scaffold shapes. After five days of three-dimensional culture with oscillatory perfusion, the cells attached and proliferated homogenously in the scaffolds. However, control cells inside the scaffolds cultured under static conditions were dead after prolonged in vitro culture. Cellular DNA content and alkaline phosphatase activities were significantly higher in the perfusion group versus the static group. Therefore, anatomically correct artificial bone can be successfully constructed using stereolithography and oscillatory culture technology, and could be useful for bone engraftment and defect repair.

  14. Ethical issues surrounding the use of images from donated cadavers in the anatomical sciences. (United States)

    Cornwall, Jon; Callahan, David; Wee, Richman


    Body donor programs rely on the generosity and trust of the public to facilitate the provision of cadaver resources for anatomical education and research. The uptake and adoption of emerging technologies, including those allowing the acquisition and distribution of images, are becoming more widespread, including within anatomical science education. Images of cadavers are useful for research and education, and their supply and distribution have commercial potential for textbooks and online education. It is unclear whether the utilization of images of donated cadavers are congruent with donor expectations, societal norms and boundaries of established public understanding. Presently, no global "best practices" or standards exist, nor is there a common model requiring specific image-related consent from body donors. As ongoing success of body donation programs relies upon the ethical and institutional governance of body utilization to maintain trust and a positive relationship with potential donors and the community, discussions considering the potential impact of image misuse are important. This paper discusses the subject of images of donated cadavers, commenting on images in non-specific use, education, research, and commercial applications. It explores the role and significance of such images in the context of anatomical science and society, and discusses how misuse - including unconsented use - of images has the potential to affect donor program success, suggesting that informed consent is currently necessary for all images arising from donated cadavers. Its purpose is to encourage discussion to guide responsible utilization of cadaver images, while protecting the interests of body donors and the public.

  15. Anatomic Eponyms in Neuroradiology: Brain, Cerebral Vasculature, and Calvarium. (United States)

    Bunch, Paul M; Zamani, Amir A


    Medical eponyms are ubiquitous, numerous, and at times controversial. They are often useful for succinctly conveying complex concepts, and familiarity with eponyms is important for proper usage and appropriate communication. In this historical review, we identify 18 anatomic eponyms used to describe structures of the brain, cerebral vasculature, and calvarium. For each structure, we first offer a biographical sketch of the individual for whom the structure is named. This is followed by a description of the anatomic structure and a brief discussion of its clinical relevance.

  16. Dissimilarity-based classification of anatomical tree structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Lauge Emil Borch Laurs; Lo, Pechin Chien Pau; Dirksen, Asger


    A novel method for classification of abnormality in anatomical tree structures is presented. A tree is classified based on direct comparisons with other trees in a dissimilarity-based classification scheme. The pair-wise dissimilarity measure between two trees is based on a linear assignment...... by including anatomical features in the branch feature vectors. The proposed approach is applied to classify airway trees in computed tomography images of subjects with and without chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Using the wall area percentage (WA%), a common measure of airway abnormality in COPD...

  17. Reply to “Introducing International Journal of Anatomical Variations”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Potu BK


    Full Text Available To the Editor, International Journal of Anatomical Variations:Please accept my heartiest congratulations on your recent opening of International Journal of Anatomical Variations Journal. I have already gone through the articles of first volume. It was surprised to read some of the unique variations published in it. Reading of these variations by vascular surgeons and angiologist will certainly boost their knowledge for better diagnosis and I hope you will continue publishing these types of rare variations. It would be great, if you encourage authors to submit research related articles. It is obvious that you have a wide-open future ahead of you.

  18. Bilateral lingual-facial trunk: anatomic and clinical implications. (United States)

    Troupis, T; Michalinos, A; Kakisis, J; Natsis, K; Sofidis, G; Skandalakis, P


    Common origin of lingual and facial artery is a relatively frequent anatomic varia-tion. Instead, bilateral lingual-facial trunk has been described only sparsely in the literature. In this report authors describe and analyse a case of bilateral common lingual-facial trunk in the context of its anatomical, clinical and embryological implications. We also describe possible consequences in performance of elective and emergent surgical operations and modification in surgical techniques that should be considered. We believe that surgeons should be suspicious for this variation's existence and keep alternative solutions in their armentarium.

  19. Anatomizing Exotic Production of the Higgs Boson

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Felix [Fermilab


    We discuss exotic production modes of the Higgs boson and how their phenomenology can be probed in current Higgs analyses. We highlight the importance of differential distributions in disentangling standard production mechanisms from exotic modes. We present two model benchmarks for exotic Higgs production arising from chargino-neutralino production and study their impact on the current Higgs dataset. As a corollary, we emphasize that current Higgs coupling fits do not fully explore the space of new physics deviations possible in Higgs data.

  20. Anatomical Modifications in two Juncus Species under Salt Stress Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Al HASSAN


    Full Text Available The anatomic structure of roots and culms of two Juncus species with different degrees of salt tolerance was analysed in plants grown for two months under salt stress (NaCl treatments and in control, non-treated plants. The aim of the study was not only to compare the anatomical structures of a halophyte (J. acutus and a related glycophyte (J. articulatus, but mostly to assess whether salt stress induced anatomical modifications, by identifying differences between control and treated plants. Several slight differences have been indeed detected, in terms of endodermis type, development of aerenchyma and extent of sclerenchyma in perivascular sheaths. The role of Casparian endodermis was here discussed in relation to its complex implications in controlling salt influx at the root level that is an efficient mechanism involved in halophytes. Aerenchyma is a common feature found in marshy halophytes, allowing them to survive naturally under flooding conditions; however, when occurring in non-waterlogged plants, as is the case of this study, it should be regarded as a genetically, constitutive adaptation rather than an inducible one. Nevertheless, such anatomic modifications should be regarded as mere alterations due to stress – that is, as stress responses – and not as truly adaptations to salinity. In this context, the nature of these modifications – either considered as adaptations or damage indicators of salt stress – should be further reconsidered.

  1. Anatomical Shape and Motion Reconstruction from Sparse Image Data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N. Baka (Nora)


    textabstractIn current clinical practice, medical imaging plays a key role in diagnosis, therapy planning and therapy monitoring. Some of these modalities, such as CT, MRI, and 3D ultrasound, provide high resolution volumetric anatomical information, and more recently, 3D imaging in time. In certain

  2. The Main Technical Points of Thoracoscopic Anatomical Lung Segment Resection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang CHEN


    Full Text Available Thoracoscopic segmentectomy is technically much more meticulous than lobectomy, due to the complicated anotomical variations of segmental bronchi and vessels. Preoperative three-dimensional computed tomography bronchography and angiography, 3D-CTBA could reveal the anatomical structures and variations of the segmental bronchi/vessels and locate the pulmonary nodules, which is helpful for surgery planning. Preoperative nodule localization is of vital importance for thoracoscopic segmentectomy. Techniques involved in this procedure include dissection of the targeted arteries, bronchus and intra-segmental veins, retention of the inter-segmental veins, identification of the inter-segmental boarder with the inflation-deflation method and seperation of intra-segmental pulmonary tissues by electrotome and/or endoscopic staplers. The incision margin for malignant nodules should be at least 2 cm or the diameter of the tumor. Meanwhile, sampling of N1 and N2 station lymph nodes and intraoperative frozen section is also necessary. The complication rate of thoracoscopic segmentectomy is comparatively low. The anatomic relationship between pulmonary segments and lobes is that a lobe consists of several irregular cone-shaped segments with the inter-segmental veins lies between the segments. Our center has explored a method to separate pulmonary segments from the lobe on the basis of cone-shaped principle, and we named it “Cone-shaped Segmentectomy”. This technique could precisely decide and dissect the targeted bronchi and vessels, and anatomically separate the inter-segmental boarder, which ultimately achieve a completely anatomical segmentectomy.

  3. Adaptation of Museum Specimens for Use in Anatomical Teaching Aids (United States)

    Harris, P. F.; And Others


    Color transparencies are prepared of a re-colored anatomical specimen after placing labels temporarily in position to indicate specific structures. The specimen is also radiographed to show skeletal and soft tissue structures. Cross-reference among the specimen, photographs, and radiographs is supplemented by examination and self-assessment…

  4. Pigmentation in Anuran Testes: Anatomical Pattern and Variation


    Franco-Belussi, Lilian [UNESP; Zieri, Rodrigo [UNESP; de Souza Santos, Lia Raquel; Moresco, Rafaela Maria; Oliveira, Classius de [UNESP


    In amphibians, pigmented cells are present in several organs, composing an extracutaneous pigmentary system. Seventeen species from two families were studied to develop a protocol for pigmentary classification. The amount and distribution of these cells are variable, allowing the establishment of anatomical patterns for visceral pigmentation in anuran testes. Anat Rec, 292:178-182, 2009. (C) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  5. Agreement between anatomic and ultrasound measurements of femoral trochlear depth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miles, James Edward; Westrup, Ulrik; Eriksen, Thomas

    and ultrasonographic measurements of trochlear depth using the red fox hind limb as a canine surrogate, dividing the trochlea into five regions from the origin of the caudal cruciate ligament to the proximal aspect of the trochlea. We found reasonable agreement between anatomic and ultrasonographic measurements...

  6. Anatomical and chemical characteristics associated with lodging resistance in wheat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Eryan; Kong; Dongcheng; Liu; Xiaoli; Guo; Wenlong; Yang; Jiazhu; Sun; Xin; Li; Kehui; Zhan; Dangqun; Cui; Jinxing; Lin; Aimin; Zhang


    Anatomical and chemical characteristics of stems affect lodging in wheat(Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars. Traits associated with lodging resistance, such as plant height, stem strength, culm wall thickness, pith diameter, and stem diameter, were extensively investigated in earlier studies. However, the solid stem trait was rarely considered. In this study, we measured a range of anatomical and chemical characteristics on solid and hollow stemmed wheat cultivars. Significant correlations were detected between resistance to lodging and several anatomical features, including width of mechanical tissue, weight of low internodes, and width of stem walls. Morphological features that gave the best indication of improved lodging resistance were increased stem width, width of mechanical tissue layer, and stem density. Multiple linear regression analysis showed that 99% of the variation in lodging resistance could be explained by the width of the mechanical tissue layer, suggesting that solid stemmed wheat has several anatomical features for increasing resistance to lodging. In addition, microsatellite markers GWM247 and GWM340 were linked to a single solid stem QTL on chromosome 3BL in a population derived from the cross Xinongshixin(solid stem)/Line 3159(hollow stem). These markers should be valuable in breeding wheat for solid stem.

  7. Recent advances in medical imaging: anatomical and clinical applications. (United States)

    Grignon, Bruno; Mainard, Laurence; Delion, Matthieu; Hodez, Claude; Oldrini, Guillaume


    The aim of this paper was to present an overview of the most important recent advances in medical imaging and their potential clinical and anatomical applications. Dramatic changes have been particularly observed in the field of computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Computed tomography (CT) has been completely overturned by the successive development of helical acquisition, multidetector and large area-detector acquisition. Visualising brain function has become a new challenge for MRI, which is called functional MRI, currently based principally on blood oxygenation level-dependent sequences, which could be completed or replaced by other techniques such as diffusion MRI (DWI). Based on molecular diffusion due to the thermal energy of free water, DWI offers a spectrum of anatomical and clinical applications, ranging from brain ischemia to visualisation of large fibrous structures of the human body such as the anatomical bundles of white matter with diffusion tensor imaging and tractography. In the field of X-ray projection imaging, a new low-dose device called EOS has been developed through new highly sensitive detectors of X-rays, allowing for acquiring frontal and lateral images simultaneously. Other improvements have been briefly mentioned. Technical principles have been considered in order to understand what is most useful in clinical practice as well as in the field of anatomical applications. Nuclear medicine has not been included.

  8. A hierarchical scheme for geodesic anatomical labeling of airway trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feragen, Aasa; Petersen, Jens; Owen, Megan;


    We present a fast and robust supervised algorithm for label- ing anatomical airway trees, based on geodesic distances in a geometric tree-space. Possible branch label configurations for a given unlabeled air- way tree are evaluated based on the distances to a training set of labeled airway trees....

  9. A hierarchical scheme for geodesic anatomical labeling of airway trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feragen, Aasa; Petersen, Jens; Owen, Megan


    We present a fast and robust supervised algorithm for label- ing anatomical airway trees, based on geodesic distances in a geometric tree-space. Possible branch label configurations for a given unlabeled air- way tree are evaluated based on the distances to a training set of labeled airway trees...

  10. CAVEman: Standardized Anatomical Context for Biomedical Data Mapping (United States)

    Turinsky, Andrei L.; Fanea, Elena; Trinh, Quang; Wat, Stephen; Hallgrimsson, Benedikt; Dong, Xiaoli; Shu, Xueling; Stromer, Julie N.; Hill, Jonathan W.; Edwards, Carol; Grosenick, Brenda; Yajima, Masumi; Sensen, Christoph W.


    The authors have created a software system called the CAVEman, for the visual integration and exploration of heterogeneous anatomical and biomedical data. The CAVEman can be applied for both education and research tasks. The main component of the system is a three-dimensional digital atlas of the adult male human anatomy, structured according to…

  11. Surface anatomy and anatomical planes in the adult turkish population. (United States)

    Uzun, C; Atman, E D; Ustuner, E; Mirjalili, S A; Oztuna, D; Esmer, T S


    Surface anatomy and anatomical planes are widely used in education and clinical practice. The planes are largely derived from cadaveric studies and their projections on the skin show discrepancies between and within anatomical reference textbooks. In this study, we reassessed the accuracy of common thoracic and abdominopelvic anatomical planes using computed tomography (CT) imaging in the live adult Turkish population. After patients with distorting pathologies had been excluded, CT images of 150 supine patients at the end tidal inspiration were analyzed. Sternal angle, transpyloric, subcostal, supracristal and pubic crest planes and their relationships to anatomical structures were established by dual consensus. The tracheal bifurcation, azygos vein/superior vena cava (SVC) junction and pulmonary bifurcation were usually below the sternal angle while the concavity of the aortic arch was generally within the plane. The tip of the tenth rib, the superior mesenteric artery and the portal vein were usually within the transpyloric plane while the renal hila and the fundus of the gallbladder were below it. The inferior mesenteric artery was below the subcostal plane and the aortic bifurcation was below the supracristal plane in most adults. Projectional surface anatomy is fundamental to medical education and clinical practice. Modern cross-sectional imaging techniques allow large groups of live patients to be examined. Classic textbook information regarding anatomy needs to be reviewed and updated using the data gathered from these recent studies, taking ethnic differences into consideration.

  12. Tools to analyse and display variations in anatomical delineation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ebert, Martin A.; McDermott, L. N.; Haworth, A.; van der Wath, E.; Hooton, B.


    Variations in anatomical delineation, principally due to a combination of inter-observer contributions and image-specificity, remain one of the most significant impediments to geometrically-accurate radiotherapy. Quantification of spatial variability of the delineated contours comprising a structure

  13. The Contribution of Dynamic Exploration to Virtual Anatomical Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan-Maarten Luursema


    Full Text Available Virtual Learning Environments are increasingly becoming part of the medical curriculum. In a previous study we (luursema et al., 2006 found that a combination of computer-implemented stereopsis (visual depth through seeing with both eyes and dynamic exploration (being able to continuously change one's viewpoint relative to the studied objects in real time is beneficial to anatomical learning, especially for subjects of low visuo spatial ability (the ability to form, retrieve, and manipulate mental representations of a visuo-spatial nature. A follow-up study (luursema et al., 2008 found the contribution of computer-implemented stereopsis to this effect to be small but significant. The present experiment investigated the contribution of dynamic exploration to anatomical learning by means of a virtual learning environment. Seventy participants were tested for visuo-spatial ability and were grouped in pairs matched for this ability. One individual of the pair actively manipulated a 3D reconstruction of the human abdomen; the other individual passively watched the interactions of the first individual on a separate screen. Learning was assessed by two anatomical learning tests. Dynamic exploration provided a small but significant benefit to anatomical learning.

  14. The anatomic and electrophysiological characters of the coronary sinus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANG Kai; MA Jian; ZHANG Shu


    @@ With the development of the technology of electrophysiological study and radiofrequency catheter ablation, electrophysiologists realized that the coronary sinus (CS) was involved in several types of arrhythmias due to its special anatomic and histological characteristics. In this article we review the anatomy, histology and electrophysiology of the CS and the relation between the CS and selected types of arrhythmias.

  15. Handedness and cerebral anatomical asymmetries in young adult males. (United States)

    Hervé, Pierre-Yves; Crivello, Fabrice; Perchey, Guy; Mazoyer, Bernard; Tzourio-Mazoyer, Nathalie


    Using voxel-based morphometry, we measured the cerebral anatomical asymmetries in a sample of 56 young right-handed males and then compared voxelwise asymmetry indices of these subjects to those of 56 young left-handed males. In the right-handed, the clusters of grey matter asymmetry corresponding to the leftward occipital petalia and planum temporale asymmetries were retrieved. Strong rightward temporo-parietal asymmetries were also observed, but the rightward grey matter asymmetry in the frontal lobe was less massive than previously described. Group comparisons of left- and right-handed subjects' asymmetry maps, performed at a statistical threshold not corrected for multiple comparisons, revealed significant effects of handedness on this pattern of anatomical asymmetry in frontal regions, notably in the lower central and precentral sulci, and also in the planum temporale, with right-handed subjects being more leftward asymmetric. Concerning white matter, although almost no focal differences between left- and right-handed subjects were detected, volumetric analyses at the hemispheric level revealed a leftward asymmetry, which happened to be significantly less marked in the left-handed. This latter result, together with the pattern of leftward white matter asymmetries, suggested that anatomical correlates of the left hemispheric specialization for language would exist in white matter. In the population we studied, differences in anatomical asymmetry between left- and right-handed subjects provided structural arguments for a greater functional ambilaterality in left-handed subjects.

  16. Anatomic considerations for abdominally placed permanent left ventricular assist devices. (United States)

    Parnis, S M; McGee, M G; Igo, S R; Dasse, K; Frazier, O H


    To determine anatomic parameters for a permanent, electrically actuated left ventricular assist device (LVAD), the effects of abdominal placement of pneumatic LVADs used as temporary support for patients awaiting heart transplantation was studied. Understanding the anatomic constraints imposed by the abdominal viscera in LVAD placement is crucial, because improper placement can result in compression or obstruction of adjacent structures. Anatomic compatibility was assessed in four men (age 22-48 years) who were supported by the LVAD for over 1 month (range 35-132 days). The pump was intraperitoneally placed in the left upper quadrant. Radiographic techniques were employed, including CT scanning (with patients supine) and contrast imaging (patients in anatomical position), and the pump and conduits appeared to be properly positioned, with minimal compression of the body of the stomach, and no obstruction of adjacent organs. Three patients returned to a solid food diet and exercised daily by stationary cycling and walking. No signs of migration or erosion of the pump were present at the time of LVAD removal and cardiac transplantation. Successful clinical experience with short-term use of the LVAD suggests that the electrically actuated device can be well tolerated in patients requiring permanent left ventricular assistance.

  17. Optimizing conditions for computer-assisted anatomical learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luursema, Jan-Maarten; Verwey, Willem B.; Kommers, Piet A.M.; Geelkerken, Robert H.; Vos, Hans J.


    An experiment evaluated the impact of two typical features of virtual learning environments on anatomical learning for users of differing visuo-spatial ability. The two features studied are computer-implemented stereopsis (the spatial information that is based on differences in visual patterns proje

  18. The role of stereopsis in virtual anatomical learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luursema, Jan-Maarten; Verwey, Willem B.; Kommers, Piet A.M.; Annema, Jan-Henk


    The use of virtual learning environments in the medical field is on the rise. An earlier experiment [Luursema, J.-M., Verwey, W.B., Kommers, P.A.M., Geelkerken, R.H., Vos, H.J., 2006. Optimizing conditions for computer-assisted anatomical learning. Interacting with Computers, 18, 1123–1138.] found t

  19. Multiple variations of the tendons of the anatomical snuffbox (United States)

    Thwin, San San; Zaini, Fazlin; Than, Myo


    INTRODUCTION Multiple tendons of the abductor pollicis longus (APL) in the anatomical snuffbox of the wrist can lead to the development of de Quervain's syndrome, which is caused by stenosing tenosynovitis. A cadaveric study was performed to establish the variations present in the tendons of the anatomical snuffbox in a Malaysian population, in the hope that this knowledge would aid clinical investigation and surgical treatment of de Quervain's tenosynovitis. METHODS Routine dissection of ten upper limbs was performed to determine the variations in the tendons of the anatomical snuffbox of the wrist. RESULTS In all the dissected upper limbs, the APL tendon of the first extensor compartment was found to have several (3–14) tendon slips. The insertion of the APL tendon slips in all upper limbs were at the base of the first metacarpal bone, trapezium and fascia of the opponens pollicis muscle; however, in seven specimens, they were also found to be attached to the fleshy belly of the abductor pollicis brevis muscle. In two specimens, double tendons of the extensor pollicis longus located in the third extensor compartment were inserted into the capsule of the proximal interphalangeal joints before being joined to the extensor expansion. In two other specimens, the first extensor compartment had two osseofibrous tunnels divided by a septum that separated the APL tendon from the extensor pollicis brevis tendon. CONCLUSION Multiple variations were found in the anatomical snuffbox region of the dissected upper limbs. Knowledge of these variations would be useful in interventional radiology and orthopaedic surgery. PMID:24452976

  20. Segmentation of anatomical structures in chest CT scans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rikxoort, E.M.


    In this thesis, methods are described for the automatic segmentation of anatomical structures from chest CT scans. First, a method to segment the lungs from chest CT scans is presented. Standard lung segmentation algorithms rely on large attenuation differences between the lungs and the surrounding

  1. Anatomical, neurophysiological and perceptual issues of tactile perception

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cheung, B.; Erp, J.B.F. van; Cholewiak, R.W.


    In this chapter, we are concerned with what our touch receptors and the associated central nervous structures do. Our description begins with the anatomical and physiological characteristics of the touch receptors followed by a comprehensive psychophysical overview of touch sensation and perception.

  2. Wood anatomical variation in relation to latitude anf altitude

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graaff, van der N.A.; Baas, P.


    The wood anatomical variation within 17 eurytherm hardwood genera in relation to altitude and latitude has been studied using wood samples from 52 species. With increasing latitude a miniaturization of secondary xylem elements (shorter vessel members, narrower vessels, shorter and sometimes narrower

  3. Anatomical Variations of Cerebral MR Venography: Is Gender Matter? (United States)

    Singh, Rambir; Bansal, Nikhil; Paliwal, Vimal Kumar


    Purpose Knowledge of variations in the cerebral dural venous sinus anatomy seen on magnetic resonance (MR) venography is essential to avoid over-diagnosis of cerebral venous sinus thrombosis (CVST). Very limited data is available on gender difference of the cerebral dural venous sinus anatomy variations. Materials and Methods A retrospective study was conducted to study the normal anatomy of the intracranial venous system and its normal variation, as depicted by 3D MR venography, in normal adults and any gender-related differences. Results A total of 1654 patients (582 men, 1072 women, age range 19 to 86 years, mean age: 37.98±13.83 years) were included in the study. Most common indication for MR venography was headache (75.4%). Hypoplastic left transverse sinus was the most common anatomical variation in 352 (21.3%) patients. Left transverse sinus was hypoplastic in more commonly in male in comparison to female (24.9% versus 19.3%, p = 0.009). Most common variation of superior sagittal sinus (SSS) was atresia of anterior one third SSS (15, 0.9%). Except hypoplastic left transverse sinus, rest of anatomical variations of the transverse and other sinuses were not significantly differ among both genders. Conclusion Hypoplastic left transverse sinus is the most common anatomical variation and more common in male compared to female in the present study. Other anatomical variations of dural venous sinuses are not significantly differ among both genders. PMID:27621945

  4. Anatomical patterns of dermatitis in adult filaggrin mutation carriers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heede, Nina G; Thyssen, Jacob Pontoppidan; Thuesen, Betina H;


    BACKGROUND: Common filaggrin (FLG) null mutations are associated with severe and early onset of atopic dermatitis (AD). To date, few studies have investigated anatomical patterns of dermatitis and none has been conducted in the general population. OBJECTIVE: We evaluated patterns of dermatitis in...

  5. Characteristic anatomical structures of rat temporal bone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Peng Li; Kelei Gao; Dalian Ding; Richard Salvi


    As most gene sequences and functional structures of internal organs in rats have been well studied, rat models are widely used in experi-mental medical studies. A large number of descriptions and atlas of the rat temporal bone have been published, but some detailed anatomy of its surface and inside structures remains to be studied. By focusing on some unique characteristics of the rat temporal bone, the current paper aims to provide more accurate and detailed information on rat temporal bone anatomy in an attempt to complete missing or unclear areas in the existed knowledge. We also hope this paper can lay a solid foundation for experimental rat temporal bone surgeries, and promote information exchange among colleagues, as well as providing useful guidance for novice researchers in the field of hearing research involving rats. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Production & hosting by Elsevier (Singapore) Pte Ltd On behalf of PLA General Hospital Department of Otolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (

  6. Representation and visualization of variability in a 3D anatomical atlas using the kidney as an example (United States)

    Hacker, Silke; Handels, Heinz


    Computer-based 3D atlases allow an interactive exploration of the human body. However, in most cases such 3D atlases are derived from one single individual, and therefore do not regard the variability of anatomical structures concerning their shape and size. Since the geometric variability across humans plays an important role in many medical applications, our goal is to develop a framework of an anatomical atlas for representation and visualization of the variability of selected anatomical structures. The basis of the project presented is the VOXEL-MAN atlas of inner organs that was created from the Visible Human data set. For modeling anatomical shapes and their variability we utilize "m-reps" which allow a compact representation of anatomical objects on the basis of their skeletons. As an example we used a statistical model of the kidney that is based on 48 different variants. With the integration of a shape description into the VOXEL-MAN atlas it is now possible to query and visualize different shape variations of an organ, e.g. by specifying a person's age or gender. In addition to the representation of individual shape variants, the average shape of a population can be displayed. Besides a surface representation, a volume-based representation of the kidney's shape variants is also possible. It results from the deformation of the reference kidney of the volume-based model using the m-rep shape description. In this way a realistic visualization of the shape variants becomes possible, as well as the visualization of the organ's internal structures.

  7. Anatomical standardization of small animal brain FDG-PET images using synthetic functional template: experimental comparison with anatomical template. (United States)

    Coello, Christopher; Hjornevik, Trine; Courivaud, Frédéric; Willoch, Frode


    Anatomical standardization (also called spatial normalization) of positron emission tomography (PET) small animal brain images is required to make statistical comparisons across individuals. Frequently, PET images are co-registered to an individual MR or CT image of the same subject in order to transform the functional images to an anatomical space. In the present work, we evaluate the normalization of synthetic PET (synPET) images to a synthetic PET template. To provide absolute error in terms of pixel misregistration, we created a synthetic PET image from the individual MR image through segmentation of the brain into gray and white matter which produced functional and anatomical images in the same space. When comparing spatial normalization of synPET images to a synPET template with the gold standard (MR images to an MR template), a mean translation error of 0.24mm (±0.20) and a maximal mean rotational error of 0.85° (±0.91) were found. Significant decrease in misregistration error was measured when achieving spatial normalization of functional images to a functional template instead of an anatomical template. This accuracy strengthens the use of standardization methods where individual PET images are registered to a customized PET template in order to statistically assess physiological changes in rat brains.

  8. Concentric Tube Robot Design and Optimization Based on Task and Anatomical Constraints (United States)

    Bergeles, Christos; Gosline, Andrew H.; Vasilyev, Nikolay V.; Codd, Patrick J.; del Nido, Pedro J.; Dupont, Pierre E.


    Concentric tube robots are catheter-sized continuum robots that are well suited for minimally invasive surgery inside confined body cavities. These robots are constructed from sets of pre-curved superelastic tubes and are capable of assuming complex 3D curves. The family of 3D curves that the robot can assume depends on the number, curvatures, lengths and stiffnesses of the tubes in its tube set. The robot design problem involves solving for a tube set that will produce the family of curves necessary to perform a surgical procedure. At a minimum, these curves must enable the robot to smoothly extend into the body and to manipulate tools over the desired surgical workspace while respecting anatomical constraints. This paper introduces an optimization framework that utilizes procedureor patient-specific image-based anatomical models along with surgical workspace requirements to generate robot tube set designs. The algorithm searches for designs that minimize robot length and curvature and for which all paths required for the procedure consist of stable robot configurations. Two mechanics-based kinematic models are used. Initial designs are sought using a model assuming torsional rigidity. These designs are then refined using a torsionally-compliant model. The approach is illustrated with clinically relevant examples from neurosurgery and intracardiac surgery. PMID:26380575

  9. Using Computers for Assessment of Facial Features and Recognition of Anatomical Variants that Result in Unfavorable Rhinoplasty Outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarik Ozkul


    Full Text Available Rhinoplasty and facial plastic surgery are among the most frequently performed surgical procedures in the world. Although the underlying anatomical features of nose and face are very well known, performing a successful facial surgery requires not only surgical skills but also aesthetical talent from surgeon. Sculpting facial features surgically in correct proportions to end up with an aesthetically pleasing result is highly difficult. To further complicate the matter, some patients may have some anatomical features which affect rhinoplasty operation outcome negatively. If goes undetected, these anatomical variants jeopardize the surgery causing unexpected rhinoplasty outcomes. In this study, a model is developed with the aid of artificial intelligence tools, which analyses facial features of the patient from photograph, and generates an index of "appropriateness" of the facial features and an index of existence of anatomical variants that effect rhinoplasty negatively. The software tool developed is intended to detect the variants and warn the surgeon before the surgery. Another purpose of the tool is to generate an objective score to assess the outcome of the surgery.

  10. The role of long-range connectivity for the characterization of the functional-anatomical organization of the cortex. (United States)

    Knösche, Thomas R; Tittgemeyer, Marc


    This review focuses on the role of long-range connectivity as one element of brain structure that is of key importance for the functional-anatomical organization of the cortex. In this context, we discuss the putative guiding principles for mapping brain function and structure onto the cortical surface. Such mappings reveal a high degree of functional-anatomical segregation. Given that brain regions frequently maintain characteristic connectivity profiles and the functional repertoire of a cortical area is closely related to its anatomical connections, long-range connectivity may be used to define segregated cortical areas. This methodology is called connectivity-based parcellation. Within this framework, we investigate different techniques to estimate connectivity profiles with emphasis given to non-invasive methods based on diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (dMRI) and diffusion tractography. Cortical parcellation is then defined based on similarity between diffusion tractograms, and different clustering approaches are discussed. We conclude that the use of non-invasively acquired connectivity estimates to characterize the functional-anatomical organization of the brain is a valid, relevant, and necessary endeavor. Current and future developments in dMRI technology, tractography algorithms, and models of the similarity structure hold great potential for a substantial improvement and enrichment of the results of the technique.

  11. The role of Long-Range Connectivity for the Characterization of the Functional-Anatomical Organization of the Cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas R Knösche


    Full Text Available This review focuses on the role of long-range connectivity as one element of brain structure that is of key importance for the functional-anatomical organization of the cortex. In this context, we discuss the putative guiding principles for mapping brain function and structure onto the cortical surface. Such mappings reveal a high-degree of functional-anatomical segregation. Given that brain regions frequently maintain characteristic connectivity profiles and the functional repertoire of a cortical area is closely related to its anatomical connections, long-range connectivity may be used to define segregated cortical areas. This methodology is called connectivity-based parcellation.Within this framework, we investigate different techniques to estimate connectivity profiles with emphasis given to non-invasive methods based on diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (dMRI and diffusion tractography. Cortical parcellation is then defined based on similarity between diffusion tractograms, and different clustering approaches are discussed.We conclude that the use of non-invasively acquired connectivity estimates to characterize the functional-anatomical organization of the brain is a valid, relevant and necessary endeavor. Current and future developments in dMRI technology, tractography algorithms and models of the similarity structure hold great potential for a substantial improvement and enrichment of the results of the technique.

  12. Altered Anatomical Network in Early Blindness Revealed by Diffusion Tensor Tractography


    Ni Shu; Yong Liu; Jun Li; Yonghui Li; Chunshui Yu; Tianzi Jiang


    The topological architecture of the cerebral anatomical network reflects the structural organization of the human brain. Recently, topological measures based on graph theory have provided new approaches for quantifying large-scale anatomical networks. Diffusion MRI studies have revealed the efficient small-world properties and modular structure of the anatomical network in normal subjects. However, no previous study has used diffusion MRI to reveal changes in the brain anatomical network in e...

  13. Anatomical structure of moss leaves and their photosynthetic activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Krupa


    Full Text Available The photosynthetic activity of the leaf area unit increases depending on the degree of differentiation of the anatomical structure of the leaves of six chosen moss species. There is a correlation between the leaf area and the degree of differentiation of the anatomical structure resulting in enlargement of the area of contact of the assimilating cells with air. The leaves of Catharinea undulata having a one-layer blade and provided with several lamellae show a higher photosynthesis per 1 cm2 of their surface than the one-layer leaves of Mniurnm or Funaria. Aloina leaves are the smallest in area among those of the moss species discussed, however, their photosynthetic rate is almost 4.5 times higher than in Funaria leaves. By analogy to the structure of leaves and their function in vascular, plants, these changes and correlations may be considered as attempts of primeval adaptation of mosses to terrestrial conditions of living.

  14. First discovery of anatomically preserved Cordaitean leaves in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, S.; Tian, B. [China University of Mining & Technology (China). Analysis and Test Centre


    The first species of the anatomically-preserved Cordaitean leaves is described and is named Cordaites taiyuanensis sp. nov. The morphological feature of the new species is similar to that of Cordaites principals (Germ.) Gein, widely distributed in the Carboniferous and Permian strata in China, but its antomatical structure is different from that of the same species of Euroamerican Flora. The main characteristics of the anatomical structure are: the primary xylem of the bundles is of mesarch; the upper and lower epidermises both have 3-5 thin and short hydrodermal sclerenchyma strands (interstitial strips); the mesophyle does not differentiate into palisade tissue and spongy tissue; the walls of the mesophyll cells are conspicuously infolded; and the margin of the leaf is thickened into a drumstick shape in the transverse section. 8 refs., 2 tabs.

  15. Anatomical, functional and molecular biomarker applications of magnetic resonance neuroimaging. (United States)

    Liu, Christina H


    MRI and magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) along with computed tomography and PET are the most common imaging modalities used in the clinics to detect structural abnormalities and pathological conditions in the brain. MRI generates superb image resolution/contrast without radiation exposure that is associated with computed tomography and PET; MRS and spectroscopic imaging technologies allow us to measure changes in brain biochemistry. Increasingly, neurobiologists and MRI scientists are collaborating to solve neuroscience problems across sub-cellular through anatomical levels. To achieve successful cross-disciplinary collaborations, neurobiologists must have sufficient knowledge of magnetic resonance principles and applications in order to effectively communicate with their MRI colleagues. This review provides an overview of magnetic resonance techniques and how they can be used to gain insight into the active brain at the anatomical, functional and molecular levels with the goal of encouraging neurobiologists to include MRI/MRS as a research tool in their endeavors.

  16. Anatomical variation of the origin of the left vertebral artery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patasi B


    Full Text Available This paper presents and describes the anatomical variation of the left vertebral artery originating from the arch of aorta as a case report. This variation was found in one of the cadavers at the Division of Clinical and Functional Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine, University of Ottawa. During routine dissection of a male cadaver, in the superior mediastinum and the neck we observed an atypical origin of the left vertebral artery. Atypical origin was compared to the typical origin of the left vertebral artery in the anatomical literature. We compared our findings with different possible variations of the origin of the left vertebral artery reported in the literature. The clinical importance of the variation is discussed.

  17. [Anatomical quantification of the tibial part of the plantar aponeurosis]. (United States)

    Hiramoto, Y


    The metrical analysis of the anatomical characteristics is important because of its objectiveness. As it is concerned with the organs belonging to the locomotor system, the metrical method of the bones has already been systematized by Martin (1928), whereas the same kind of method for use on other organs remains undeveloped. The author aims to establish the metrical method of the plantar aponeurosis. The method for measuring the tibial part of the aponeurosis developed in this paper is sufficiently applicable for obtaining its principal anatomical characteristics. The results show that the tibial portion of the plantar aponeurosis becomes statistically significantly wider and thinner in its anterior part, and that the thickness of the tibial portion of the aponeurosis in the anterior part is larger on the right side than on the left side.

  18. Analysis of anatomic variability in children with low mathematical skills (United States)

    Han, Zhaoying; Fuchs, Lynn; Davis, Nikki; Cannistraci, Christopher J.; Anderson, Adam W.; Gore, John C.; Dawant, Benoit M.


    Mathematical difficulty affects approximately 5-9% of the population. Studies on individuals with dyscalculia, a neurologically based math disorder, provide important insight into the neural correlates of mathematical ability. For example, cognitive theories, neuropsychological studies, and functional neuroimaging studies in individuals with dyscalculia suggest that the bilateral parietal lobes and intraparietal sulcus are central to mathematical performance. The purpose of the present study was to investigate morphological differences in a group of third grade children with poor math skills. We compare population averages of children with low math skill (MD) to gender and age matched controls with average math ability. Anatomical data were gathered with high resolution MRI and four different population averaging methods were used to study the effect of the normalization technique on the results. Statistical results based on the deformation fields between the two groups show anatomical differences in the bilateral parietal lobes, right frontal lobe, and left occipital/parietal lobe.

  19. Physical therapy management of female chronic pelvic pain: Anatomic considerations. (United States)

    George, Susan E; Clinton, Susan C; Borello-France, Diane F


    The multisystem nature of female chronic pelvic pain (CPP) makes this condition a challenge for physical therapists and other health care providers to manage. This article uses a case scenario to illustrate commonly reported somatic, visceral, and neurologic symptoms and their associated health and participation impact in a female with CPP. Differential diagnosis of pain generators requires an in-depth understanding of possible anatomic and physiologic contributors to this disorder. This article provides a detailed discussion of the relevant clinical anatomy with specific attention to complex interrelationships between anatomic structures potentially leading to the patient's pain. In addition, it describes the physical therapy management specific to this case, including examination, differential diagnosis, and progression of interventions.

  20. Increased global and local efficiency of human brain anatomical networks detected with FLAIR-DTI compared to non-FLAIR-DTI.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shumei Li

    Full Text Available Diffusion-weighted MRI (DW-MRI, the only non-invasive technique for probing human brain white matter structures in vivo, has been widely used in both fundamental studies and clinical applications. Many studies have utilized diffusion tensor imaging (DTI and tractography approaches to explore the topological properties of human brain anatomical networks by using the single tensor model, the basic model to quantify DTI indices and tractography. However, the conventional DTI technique does not take into account contamination by the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF, which has been known to affect the estimated DTI measures and tractography in the single tensor model. Previous studies have shown that the Fluid-Attenuated Inversion Recovery (FLAIR technique can suppress the contribution of the CSF to the DW-MRI signal. We acquired DTI datasets from twenty-two subjects using both FLAIR-DTI and conventional DTI (non-FLAIR-DTI techniques, constructed brain anatomical networks using deterministic tractography, and compared the topological properties of the anatomical networks derived from the two types of DTI techniques. Although the brain anatomical networks derived from both types of DTI datasets showed small-world properties, we found that the brain anatomical networks derived from the FLAIR-DTI showed significantly increased global and local network efficiency compared with those derived from the conventional DTI. The increases in the network regional topological properties derived from the FLAIR-DTI technique were observed in CSF-filled regions, including the postcentral gyrus, periventricular regions, inferior frontal and temporal gyri, and regions in the visual cortex. Because brain anatomical networks derived from conventional DTI datasets with tractography have been widely used in many studies, our findings may have important implications for studying human brain anatomical networks derived from DW-MRI data and tractography.

  1. Anatomical and biochemical investigation of primary brain tumours

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Del Sole, A. [Univ. di Milano (Italy); Falini, A. [Univ. Vita e Salute (Italy). IRCCS; Ravasi, L.; Ottobrini, L.; Lucignani, G. [Univ. di Milano (Italy). Ist. di Scienze Radiologiche; De Marchis, D. [Univ. di Milano-Bicocca (Italy); Bombardieri, E. [Istituto Nazionale dei Tumori, Milano (Italy)


    Cancerous transformation entails major biochemical changes including modifications of the energy metabolism of the cell, e.g. utilisation of glucose and other substrates, protein synthesis, and expression of receptors and antigens. Tumour growth also leads to heterogeneity in blood flow owing to focal necrosis, angiogenesis and metabolic demands, as well as disruption of transport mechanisms of substrates across cell membranes and other physiological boundaries such as the blood-brain barrier. All these biochemical, histological and anatomical changes can be assessed with emission tomography, X-ray computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS). Whereas anatomical imaging is aimed at the diagnosis of brain tumours, biochemical imaging is better suited for tissue characterisation. The identification of a tumoural mass and the assessment of its size and vascularisation are best achieved with X-ray CT and MRI, while biochemical imaging can provide additional information that is crucial for tumour classification, differential diagnosis and follow-up. As the assessment of variables such as water content, appearance of cystic lesions and location of the tumour are largely irrelevant for tissue characterisation, a number of probes have been employed for the assessment of the biochemical features of tumours. Since biochemical changes may be related to the growth rate of cancer cells, they can be thought of as markers of tumour cell proliferation. Biochemical imaging with radionuclides of processes that occur at a cellular level provides information that complements findings obtained by anatomical imaging aimed at depicting structural, vascular and histological changes. This review focusses on the clinical application of anatomical brain imaging and biochemical assessment with positron emission tomography, single-photon emission tomography and MRS in the diagnosis of primary brain tumours, as well as in follow-up. (orig.)

  2. Morphological and anatomical structure of Satureja hortensis L. herb

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Марія Іванівна Шанайда


    Full Text Available Considering the fact that morphological and anatomical characteristic of this or that medicinal herb is rather sufficient for both identification and determination of the quality parameters of herbs, the analysis of diagnostic macroscopic and microscopic features of the unofficial herb of Summer savory (Satureja hortensis L. is relevant direction of pharmaceutical research.Aim of our research was morphological and anatomical study of the Satureja hortensis herb.Methods. Aerial part (herb of Summer savory was collected in 2014-2015 during full bloom period under cultivation in the Western Podillya region. Microscopic analysis of the dried and fixed in ethanol-glycerin-water (1:1:1 mixture herb was carried out according to the conventional methods. Prepared cross-sections and surface samples of stems, leaves and flowers was studied using МS 10 microscope and Sаmsung PL50 camera. Color, shape, surface character of the herbal material constituents were identified at morphological study, as well as their taste and odor.Results. The complex of specific morphological and anatomical diagnostic features of the species, which allow to identify the herb and to avoid impurities of other species during collecting and using of Summer savory herb were determined.Conclusion. The main morphological and anatomical features of stems, leaves and flowers of the unofficial herb of Summer savory (Satureja hortensis were determined. The obtained data will be used for the herbal material standardization and development of the normative documentation “Summer savory herb” as a promising source for herbal substances creation

  3. Anatomical variation of the origin of the left vertebral artery


    Patasi B; Yeung A; Goodwin S; Jalali A


    This paper presents and describes the anatomical variation of the left vertebral artery originating from the arch of aorta as a case report. This variation was found in one of the cadavers at the Division of Clinical and Functional Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine, University of Ottawa. During routine dissection of a male cadaver, in the superior mediastinum and the neck we observed an atypical origin of the left vertebral artery. Atypical origin was compared to the typical origin of the left ver...

  4. Early Results of Anatomic Double Bundle Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demet Pepele


    Full Text Available Aim: The goal in anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR is to restore the normal anatomic structure and function of the knee. In the significant proportion of patients after the traditional single-bundle ACLR, complaints of instability still continue. Anatomic double bundle ACLR may provide normal kinematics in knees, much closer to the natural anatomy. The aim of this study is to clinically assess the early outcomes of our anatomical double bundle ACLR. Material and Method: In our clinic between June 2009 and March 2010, performed the anatomic double bundle ACLR with autogenous hamstring grafts 20 patients were evaluated prospectively with Cincinnati, IKDC and Lysholm scores and in clinically for muscle strength and with Cybex II dynamometer. Results: The mean follow-up is 17.8 months (13-21 months. Patients%u2019 scores of Cincinnati, IKDC and Lysholm were respectively, preoperative 18.1, 39.3 and 39.8, while the post-op increased to 27.2, 76.3 and 86.3. In their last check, 17 percent of the patients according to IKDC scores (85% A (excellent and B (good group and 3 patients took place as C (adequate group. The power measurements of quadriceps and hamstring muscle groups of patients who underwent surgery showed no significant difference compared with the intact knees. Discussion: Double-bundle ACL reconstruction is a satisfactory method. There is a need comparative, long-term studies in large numbers in order to determine improving clinical outcome, preventing degeneration and restoring the knee biomechanics better.

  5. Anatomical and psychometric relationships of behavioral neglect in daily living. (United States)

    Rousseaux, Marc; Allart, Etienne; Bernati, Thérèse; Saj, Arnaud


    Spatial neglect has been related to both cortical (predominantly at the temporal-parietal junction) and subcortical (predominantly of the superior longitudinal fasciculus) lesions. The objectives of this observational study were to specify the anatomical relationships of behavioral neglect in activities of daily living (N-ADLs), and the anatomical and psychometric relationships of N-ADLs on one hand and components of neglect (peripersonal neglect and personal neglect) and anosognosia on the other. Forty five patients were analyzed for behavioral difficulties in daily living (on the Catherine Bergego scale) and the main components of neglect (using conventional clinical assessments) during the first months post right hemisphere stroke. Voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping was used to identify brain areas within which lesions explained the severity of bias in each assessment (non-parametric permutation test; p<0.01, one tailed). N-ADLs was associated with lesions centered on the posterior part of the superior temporal gyrus and extending to the temporo-parietal junction, temporo-occipital junction and subcortical white matter (including the superior longitudinal fasciculus). Peripersonal neglect resulted from extended cortical lesions centered on the superior temporal gyrus and the inferior parietal gyrus, with subcortical extension. Personal neglect resulted predominantly from lesions centered on the somatosensory cortex and at a lesser degree on the superior temporal sulcus. Anosognosia resulted from lesions of the posterior inferior temporal gyrus and superior temporal gyrus. In anatomic terms, N-ADLs was strongly related to peripersonal neglect, and those relationships were also shown by the psychometric analysis. In conclusions, superior temporal gyrus and superior longitudinal fasciculus lesions have a pivotal role in N-ADLs. N-ADLs is principally related (anatomically and psychometrically) to peripersonal neglect, and at a lesser degree to anosognosia and

  6. Tree-space statistics and approximations for large-scale analysis of anatomical trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feragen, Aasa; Owen, Megan; Petersen, Jens;


    Statistical analysis of anatomical trees is hard to perform due to differences in the topological structure of the trees. In this paper we define statistical properties of leaf-labeled anatomical trees with geometric edge attributes by considering the anatomical trees as points in the geometric s...... healthy ones. Software is available from

  7. Midline fascial plication under continuous digital transrectal control: which factors determine anatomic outcome?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Milani, A.L.; Withagen, M.I.J.; Schweitzer, K.J.; Janszen, E.W.; Vierhout, M.E.


    INTRODUCTION AND HYPOTHESIS: The aim of the study was to report anatomic and functional outcome of midline fascial plication under continuous digital transrectal control and to identify predictors of anatomic failure. METHODS: Prospective observational cohort. Anatomic success defined as POP-Q stage

  8. The Intermingled History of Occupational Therapy and Anatomical Education: A Retrospective Exploration (United States)

    Carroll, Melissa A.; Lawson, Katherine


    Few research articles have addressed the anatomical needs of entry-level occupational therapy students. Given this paucity of empirical evidence, there is a lack of knowledge regarding anatomical education in occupational therapy. This article will primarily serve as a retrospective look at the inclusion of anatomical education in the occupational…

  9. Anatomic double-bundle anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DAI Xue-song


    Objective: To retrospectively evaluate the early results of anatomic double-bundle anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction and compare with the results of native ACL of the contralateral knee.Methods: The results of a consecutive series of 118 patients receiving arthroscopic ACL reconstruction were evaluated.Eight patients were lost to the latest follow-up,leaving a total of 110 patients available for study within at least 3 years' clinical follow-up.Among them,63 patients underwent postoperative MRI and CT scan,as well as clinical evaluation.Results: After reconstruction,the knees were stable and pain-free.Mean postoperative Lysholm score was 95.54 in 110 patients after 3 years.CT and MRI assessment showed that the reconstruction centered in the femoral footprint of ACL (n=63).The sagittal ACL angle in the reconstructed ACL (52.16°±2.45°) was much close to that in the contralateral intact ACL (51.31 °±2.18°,P>0.05).By ACL-Blumensaat line angle analysis,there was no difference between doublebundle reconstructed knees and their contralateral normal knees (4.67°±0.43° vs.4.62°±0.60°,P>0.05).Conclusion:Anatomic double-bundle ACL reconstruction can place grafts more precisely in the anatomic footprint of the ACL and better restore knee kinematics.

  10. The anatomical and clinical research for lumbosacral region disc heniation treated with osteotemes nerval root shape model Fenestration%骨刀沿神经根走形开窗减压髓核切除术治疗腰骶部椎间盘突出症的应用解剖与临床研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张玉坤; 黄卫民; 沙吾提江·卡斯木; 刘新军; 李磊; 田慧中


    Objective To investigate the anatomic basis of osteotemes nerval root shape model fenestration for treatment of lumbosacral region disc herniation by osteotomes in order to improve the treating result. Methods Anatomic structures,including verterbral plate,ligamentum flavum and intervertebral disk on 35 adult cadaver spine specimens were observed and measured.Osteotome nerval root shape fenestration were made to remove nucleus pulposus for 68 cases.Results (1)The lamina′s thickness of inferior margin of L3 ~L5 were (6.21±1.21),(5.93±1.22),and (5.65±1.19)mm respectively.(2)The distance between the attachment point of ligamentum flavum to vertebral lamina and the inferior border of vertebral lamina of L3 ~ L5 were (13.21 ± 2.33),(12.71 ± 1.41),and(9.72 ± 2.13)mm respectively.(3)The vertical dimension between the inferior border of L3 ~L5 vertebral lamina and the superior of L3 ~L5 intervertebral disc were (12.02±1.61),(10.18±1.26),and(-0.12±3.53)mm respectively.(4)The distance between the lateral border of inferior articular process and the root of spinous process of L3 ~ L5 were (12.14 ±1.33),(15.21±1.82),and(20.12 ± 1.73)mm respectively.Preoperative JOA score and VAS score were statistically decreased at 2 year and final follow-up.There was no significant difference between 2 year and final follow-up.Conclusion It is valuable to master the skill of low lumbar vertebrate discectomy through fenestration.Osteotemes nerval root shape model fenestration is a safe and effective method in the treat-ment of lumbosacral region disc herniation and is worth of popularization.%目的:为骨刀沿神经根走形开窗治疗腰骶部椎间盘突出症提供解剖学基础,并提高其手术效果。方法35具成人腰椎标本,观测椎板、黄韧带、椎间盘之间的解剖关系。对68例腰椎间盘突出症患者用不同型号的骨刀沿神经根走形在椎板间开窗摘除间盘髓核组织。结果(1)L3~L5椎板下缘厚度分别为(6

  11. Anatomical Knee Variants in Discoid Lateral Meniscal Tears (United States)

    Chen, Xu-Xu; Li, Jian; Wang, Tao; Zhao, Yang; Kang, Hui


    Background: Discoid lateral meniscus was a common meniscal dysplasia and was predisposed to tear. There were some anatomical knee variants in patients with discoid lateral meniscus. The aim of this study was to analyze the relationship between anatomical knee variants and discoid lateral meniscal tears. Methods: There were totally 125 cases of discoid lateral meniscus enrolled in this study from February 2008 to December 2013. Eighty-seven patients who underwent arthroscopic surgery for right torn discoid lateral meniscus were enrolled in the torn group. An additional 38 patients who were incidentally identified as having intact discoid lateral menisci on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings were included in the control group. All patients were evaluated for anatomical knee variants on plain radiographs, including lateral joint space distance, height of the lateral tibial spine, height of the fibular head, obliquity of the lateral tibial plateau, squaring of the lateral femoral condyle, cupping of the lateral tibial plateau, lateral femoral condylar notch, and condylar cutoff sign. The relationship between anatomical variants and meniscal tear was evaluated. These anatomical variants in cases with complete discoid meniscus were also compared with those in cases with incomplete discoid meniscus. Results: There were no significant differences between the two groups in lateral joint space distance (P = 0.528), height of the lateral tibial spine (P = 0.927), height of the fibular head (P = 0.684), obliquity of the lateral tibial plateau (P = 0.672), and the positive rates of squaring of the lateral femoral condyle (P = 0.665), cupping of the lateral tibial plateau (P = 0.239), and lateral femoral condylar notch (P = 0.624). The condylar cutoff sign was significantly different between the two groups, with the prominence ratio in the torn group being smaller than that in the control group (0.74 ± 0.11 vs. 0.81 ± 0.04, P = 0.049). With the decision value of the

  12. 3D Measurement of Anatomical Cross-sections of Foot while Walking (United States)

    Kimura, Makoto; Mochimaru, Masaaki; Kanade, Takeo

    Recently, techniques for measuring and modeling of human body are taking attention, because human models are useful for ergonomic design in manufacturing. We aim to measure accurate shape of human foot that will be useful for the design of shoes. For such purpose, shape measurement of foot in motion is obviously important, because foot shape in the shoe is deformed while walking or running. In this paper, we propose a method to measure anatomical cross-sections of foot while walking. No one had ever measured dynamic shape of anatomical cross-sections, though they are very basic and popular in the field of biomechanics. Our proposed method is based on multi-view stereo method. The target cross-sections are painted in individual colors (red, green, yellow and blue), and the proposed method utilizes the characteristic of target shape in the camera captured images. Several nonlinear conditions are introduced in the process to find the consistent correspondence in all images. Our desired accuracy is less than 1mm error, which is similar to the existing 3D scanners for static foot measurement. In our experiments, the proposed method achieved the desired accuracy.

  13. Improving spatial localization in MEG inverse imaging by leveraging intersubject anatomical differences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric eLarson


    Full Text Available Modern neuroimaging techniques enable non-invasive observation of ongoing neural processing, with magnetoencephalography (MEG in particular providing direct measurement of neural activity with millisecond time resolution. However, accurately mapping measured MEG sensor readings onto the underlying source neural structures remains an active area of research. This so-called inverse problem is ill posed, and poses a challenge for source estimation that is often cited as a drawback limiting MEG data interpretation. However, anatomically constrained MEG localization estimates may be more accurate than commonly believed. Here we hypothesize that, by combining anatomically constrained inverse estimates across subjects, the spatial uncertainty of MEG source localization can be mitigated. Specifically, we argue that differences in subject brain geometry yield differences in point-spread functions, resulting in improved spatial localization across subjects. To test this, we use standard methods to combine subject anatomical MRI scans with coregistration information to obtain an accurate forward (physical solution, modeling the MEG sensor data resulting from brain activity originating from different cortical locations. Using a linear minimum-norm inverse to localize this brain activity, we demonstrate that a substantial increase in the spatial accuracy of MEG source localization can result from combining data from subjects with differing brain geometry. This improvement may be enabled by an increase in the amount of available spatial information in MEG data as measurements from different subjects are combined. This approach becomes more important in the face of practical issues of coregistration errors and potential noise sources, where we observe even larger improvements in localization when combining data across subjects. Finally, we use a simple auditory N100(m localization task to show how this effect can influence localization using a recorded neural

  14. Morphological and anatomical characteristics of Scots pine needles under industrial pollution impact of Krasnoyarsk city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. N. Skripal’shchikova


    Full Text Available The changes of morphological and anatomical characteristics of Scots pine needles as well as their fluctuating asymmetry (FA were studied in pine stands under the influence of industrial emissions of Krasnoyarsk. Observations were made in forest-steppe zone on windward pine forest edges in the conditions of long-term anthropogenic effect. Background site was pine stand 100 km from the city outside the direction of wind pollution. The investigations were carried out in 2013–2014 in pure pine stands of grass type, V–VI class of age. For every model tree the needle lengths in pairs were measured, as well as the cross section area of needle, area of central cylinder and conducting bindles areas and the number of resin canals. Indices of fluctuating asymmetry were calculated by method of Palmer and Strobeck (1986. The content of copper, nickel, zinc, cobalt, aluminum, cadmium, lead, fluorine and sulfur were analyzed in needle samples in parallel. The dimensions of needles and its internal structure elements showed the tendency to decrease under the influence of urban industrial emissions in comparison with background sites. On the other hand, there were adaptations of morphological and anatomical parameters of physiologically active needles to the changing environment through a compensatory mechanism. Fluctuating asymmetry indices of needles parameters were found to vary both in technogenic conditions and background ones. The variations were caused by abiotic factors of habitats and levels of technogenic loadings in these stands. Correlation analysis revealed relations between concentrations of heavy metals, aluminum and fluorine and morphological and anatomical characteristics of needles and FA indices. The most unfavorable effects were produced by high concentrations of lead and fluorine.

  15. An arthroscopic evaluation of the anatomical "critical zone". (United States)

    Naidoo, Nerissa; Lazarus, Lelika; Osman, Shameem Ahmed; Satyapal, Kapil Sewsaran


    The "critical zone", a region of speculated vascularity, is situated approximately 10mm proximal to the insertion of the supraspinatus tendon. Despite its obvious role as an anatomical landmark demarcator, its patho-anatomic nature has been identified as the source of rotator cuff pathology. Although many studies have attempted to evaluate the vascularity of this region, the architecture regarding the exact length, width and shape of the critical zone, remains unreported. This study aimed to determine the shape and morphometry of the "critical zone" arthroscopically. The sample series, which comprised of 38 cases (n = 38) specific to pathological types, employed an anatomical investigation of the critical zone during routine real-time arthroscopy. Demographic representation: i) Sex: 19 Males, 19 Females; ii) Age range: 18 - 76 years old; iii) Race: White (29), Indian (7) and Coloured (2). The incidence of shape and the mean lengths and widths of the critical zone were determined in accordance with the relevant demographic factors and patient history. Although the cresenteric shape was predominant, hemispheric and sail-shaped critical zones were also identified. The lengths and widths of the critical zone appeared markedly increased in male individuals. While the increase in age may account for the increased incidence of rotator cuff degeneration due to poor end vascular supply, the additional factors of height and weight presented as major determinants of the increase in size of the critical zone. In addition, the comparisons of length and width with each other and shape yielded levels of significant difference, therefore indicating a directly proportional relationship between the length and width of the critical zone. This detailed understanding of the critical zone may prove beneficial for the success of post-operative rotator cuff healing.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madiki Sudhakara Rao


    Full Text Available AIMS AND OBJECTIVES Azygos veins are important cavocaval and portacaval junctions, which form a collateral circulation in caval vein occlusion and in portal hypertension, cirrhosis of liver. The unpaired azygos venous system consists of azygos vein, hemiazygos vein and accessory azygos vein. This system of veins, along with its mediastinal, bronchial and oesophageal tributaries drains most of the body wall of trunk, namely posterior abdominal and thoracic wall. Anatomical variations of this unpaired azygos venous system are clinically important. AIMS To study and report the occurrence of anatomical variations of the unpaired azygos venous system in the region of East Godavari District, Andhra Pradesh (India. METHODS The present study was carried out in the Department of Anatomy, KIMS & RF, Amalapuram and G.S.L. Medical College, Rajahmundry over a period of 2 years. The present study was conducted on 60 cadavers (irrespective of age and sex. The entire course of the azygos venous system in these 60 cadavers was carefully observed and documented. RESULTS Anatomical variations were present in 16.66% of cases, out of which three distinct types were identified. 6.6% exhibited two separate azygos venous systems with no communications, 5% with communication between the left brachiocephalic vein and the azygos vein and 5% presence of post-aortic venous channels. CONCLUSION Variations of azygos venous system may be wrongly dubbed as aneurysm, lymphadenopathy or other abnormalities while reporting a CT scan of mediastinum. Venous anomalies are also detected only during surgery. The most troublesome intraoperative hazard is haemorrhage, which is mainly of venous origin. To avoid such situations is to have an awareness and knowledge of the expected venous anomalies.

  17. A surgical view of the superior nasal turbinate: anatomical study. (United States)

    Orhan, Mustafa; Govsa, Figen; Saylam, Canan


    Differences of the superior nasal turbinate (SNT), presence of the supreme nasal turbinate (SpNT) and measurements of opening sphenoid sinus (OSS) are consistent anatomical landmarks that allow for safe entrances, such as posterior ethmoidectomy and sphenoid sinusotomy. The purpose of study was to investigate the anatomical details of the SNT for approaching the OSS on 20 specimens of adult cadavers under an operating microscope. The SNT and SpNT were localized more perpendicular than parallel to their axes. The SpNT structure was observed in 12 specimens (60%) and it was classified into three types. Type A SpNT was shortest of all turbinates (58.3%). In types B and C, SpNT was equal or larger than the SNT. These types were seen in 41.7% of specimens. In 11 specimens, posterior ethmoidal cells opened to supreme nasal meatus. In 7 specimens, there was one opening to supreme nasal meatus, while 2 openings were detected in 12 specimens, and 3 openings were seen in 1 specimen. All these openings belonged to posterior ethmoidal cells. To determine the position of the OSS, distances between some anatomical points were measured. In cases where the SpNT is present or the SpNT is bigger than the SNT, it is certain that a different method will be applied during the procedure in the nasal cavity. The SNT and the SpNT may easily be injured by unrecognized dissection in types B and C, leading to the disruption of its olfactory neuroepithelium and possibly to postoperative hyposmia.

  18. Automatic semantic interpretation of anatomic spatial relationships in clinical text. (United States)

    Bean, C A; Rindflesch, T C; Sneiderman, C A


    A set of semantic interpretation rules to link the syntax and semantics of locative relationships among anatomic entities was developed and implemented in a natural language processing system. Two experiments assessed the ability of the system to identify and characterize physico-spatial relationships in coronary angiography reports. Branching relationships were by far the most common observed (75%), followed by PATH (20%) and PART/WHOLE relationships. Recall and precision scores were 0.78 and 0.67 overall, suggesting the viability of this approach in semantic processing of clinical text.

  19. Rotational flaps in oncologic breast surgery. Anatomical and technical considerations. (United States)

    Acea Nebril, Benigno; Builes Ramírez, Sergio; García Novoa, Alejandra; Varela Lamas, Cristina


    Local flaps are a group of surgical procedures that can solve the thoracic closure of large defects after breast cancer surgery with low morbidity. Its use in skin necrosis complications after conservative surgery or skin sparing mastectomies facilitates the initiation of adjuvant treatments and reduces delays in this patient group. This article describes the anatomical basis for the planning of thoracic and abdominal local flaps. Also, the application of these local flaps for closing large defects in the chest and selective flaps for skin coverage by necrosis in breast conserving surgery.

  20. Correlative CT and anatomic study of the sciatic nerve

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pech, P.; Haughton, V.


    Sciatica can be caused by numerous processes affecting the sciatic nerve or its components within the pelvis including tumors, infectious diseases, aneurysms, fractures, and endometriosis. The CT diagnosis of these causes of sciatica has not been emphasized. This study identified the course and appearance of the normal sciatic nerve in the pelvis by correlating CT and anatomic slices in cadavers. For purposes of discussion, the sciatic nerve complex is conveniently divided into three parts: presacral, muscular, and ischial. Each part is illustrated here by two cryosections with corresponding CT images.

  1. A high-rising epiglottis: a benign anatomical variant. (United States)

    Alamri, Yassar; Stringer, Mark D


    We report an asymptomatic 10-year-old boy who was found to have a high-rising epiglottis visible in his pharynx. This benign anatomical variant is not widely recognized yet may cause anxiety to patients and their families. The prevalence of this finding is controversial, and it is uncertain whether it reflects an abnormal position, size, and/or shape of the epiglottis. It is probably more common in children, which is to be expected considering the normal descent of the larynx with postnatal growth. To date, the condition has not been associated with any significant clinical sequelae.

  2. Anatomical reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament: a logical approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Cesar Gali


    Full Text Available ABSTRACT We describe the surgical approach that we have used over the last years for anterior cruciate ligament (ACL reconstruction, highlighting the importance of arthroscopic viewing through the anteromedial portal (AMP and femoral tunnel drilling through an accessory anteromedial portal (AMP. The AMP allows direct view of the ACL femoral insertion site on the medial aspect of the lateral femoral condyle, does not require guides for anatomic femoral tunnel reaming, prevents an additional lateral incision in the distal third of the thigh (as would be unavoidable when the outside-intechnique is used and also can be used for double-bundle ACL reconstruction.

  3. A Methodology for Anatomic Ultrasound Image Diagnostic Quality Assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hemmsen, Martin Christian; Lange, Theis; Brandt, Andreas Hjelm


    is valuable in the continuing process of method optimization and guided development of new imaging methods. It includes a three phased study plan covering from initial prototype development to clinical assessment. Recommendations to the clinical assessment protocol, software, and statistical analysis......This paper discusses methods for assessment of ultrasound image quality based on our experiences with evaluating new methods for anatomic imaging. It presents a methodology to ensure a fair assessment between competing imaging methods using clinically relevant evaluations. The methodology...... to properly reveal the clinical value. The paper exemplifies the methodology using recent studies of Synthetic Aperture Sequential Beamforming tissue harmonic imaging....

  4. Risky Cerebrovascular Anatomic Orientation: Implications for Brain Revascularization. (United States)

    Nagm, Alhusain; Horiuchi, Tetsuyoshi; Yanagawa, Takao; Hongo, Kazuhiro


    This study documents a risky vascular anatomic orientation that might play an important role in the postoperative hemodynamics following anterior cerebral artery (ACA) revascularization. A 71-year-old woman presented with uncontrollable frequent right lower limb transient ischemic attacks (TIAs) attributed to a left cerebral ischemic lesion due to severe left ACA stenosis. She underwent successful left-sided superficial temporal artery-ACA bypass using interposed vascular graft. The patient awoke satisfactory from anesthesia; however, on postoperative day 1, she developed right-sided hemiparesis. Extensive postoperative investigations disclosed that watershed shift infarction was considered the etiology for this neurologic deterioration.

  5. Anatomical study of sciatic nerve and common peroneal nerve compression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mingzhao Jia; Qing Xia; Jinmin Sun; Qiang Zhou; Weidong Wang


    BACKGROUND: Many diseases of the common peroneal nerve are a result of sciatic nerve injury. The present study addresses whether anatomical positioning of the sciatic nerve is responsible for these injuries. OBJECTIVE: To analyze anatomical causes of sciatic nerve and common peroneal nerve injury by studying the relationship between the sciatic nerve and piriformis. DESIGN, TIME AND SETTING: Observe and measure repeatedly. The experiment was conducted in the Department of Anatomy, Tianjin Medical College between January and June 2005. MATERIALS: Fifty-two adult cadavers 33 males and 19 females, with a total of 104 hemispheres, and fixed with formaldehyde, were provided by Tianjin Medical College and Tianjin Medical University. METHODS: A posterior cut was made from the lumbosacral region to the upper leg, fully exposing the piriformis and path of the sciatic nerve. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: (1) Anatomical characteristics of the tibial nerve and common peroneal nerve. (2) According to different areas where the sciatic nerve crosses the piriformis, the study was divided into two types--normal and abnormal. Normal is considered to be when the sciatic nerve passes through the infrapiriform foramen. Remaining pathways are considered to be abnormal. (3) Observe the relationship between the suprapiriform foramen, infrapiriform foramen, as well as the superior and inferior space of piriformis. RESULTS: (1) The nerve tract inside the common peroneal nerve is smaller and thinner, with less connective tissue than the tibial nerve. When pathological changes or variations of the piriformis, or over-abduction of the hip joint, occur, injury to the common peroneal nerve often arises due to blockage and compression. (2) A total of 76 hemispheres (73.08%) were normal, 28 were abnormal (26.92%). The piriformis can be injured, and the sciatic nerve can become compressed, when the hip joint undergoes intorsion, extorsion, or abduction. (3) The structures between the infrapiriform and

  6. The investigate of ultrasonography integration into anatomical curriculum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Wenyuan; Wang Ying; Liu Xing; Liu Yaoguang; Teng Chenyi; Ma Yanwen; Wang Yu


    As a complementary teaching way, ultrasonography is considered an important teaching tools and methods to improving medical students’ skills and understanding the real time human anatomy . We success-fully integrated ultrasound into anatomy teaching by using portable ultrasound and interactive panel discussion ses-sions. The integrated curriculum not only allows medical students to see the complexity real-time three-dimension-al human anatomy, but also can improve medical students’ interest in anatomy teaching. Integrated ultrasound into anatomy teaching established close ties between basic medical science and its clinical application, and overcome the phase difficulties of anatomical knowledge application from preclinical to clinical.

  7. Cone beam x-ray luminescence computed tomography reconstruction with a priori anatomical information (United States)

    Lo, Pei-An; Lin, Meng-Lung; Jin, Shih-Chun; Chen, Jyh-Cheng; Lin, Syue-Liang; Chang, C. Allen; Chiang, Huihua Kenny


    X-ray luminescence computed tomography (XLCT) is a novel molecular imaging modality that reconstructs the optical distribution of x-ray-excited phosphor particles with prior informational of anatomical CT image. The prior information improves the accuracy of image reconstruction. The system can also present anatomical CT image. The optical system based on a high sensitive charge coupled device (CCD) is perpendicular with a CT system. In the XLCT system, the xray was adopted to excite the phosphor of the sample and CCD camera was utilized to acquire luminescence emitted from the sample in 360 degrees projection free-space. In this study, the fluorescence diffuse optical tomography (FDOT)-like algorithm was used for image reconstruction, the structural prior information was incorporated in the reconstruction by adding a penalty term to the minimization function. The phosphor used in this study is Gd2O2S:Tb. For the simulation and experiments, the data was collected from 16 projections. The cylinder phantom was 40 mm in diameter and contains 8 mm diameter inclusion; the phosphor in the in vivo study was 5 mm in diameter at a depth of 3 mm. Both the errors were no more than 5%. Based on the results from these simulation and experimental studies, the novel XLCT method has demonstrated the feasibility for in vivo animal model studies.

  8. Grey and White Matter Clinico-Anatomical Correlates of Disinhibition in Neurodegenerative Disease (United States)

    Santillo, Alexander Frizell; Lundblad, Karl; Nilsson, Markus; Landqvist Waldö, Maria; van Westen, Danielle; Lätt, Jimmy; Blennow Nordström, Erik; Vestberg, Susanna; Lindberg, Olof; Nilsson, Christer


    Disinhibition is an important symptom in neurodegenerative diseases. However, the clinico-anatomical underpinnings remain controversial. We explored the anatomical correlates of disinhibition in neurodegenerative disease using the perspective of grey and white matter imaging. Disinhibition was assessed with a neuropsychological test and a caregiver information-based clinical rating scale in 21 patients with prefrontal syndromes due to behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia (n = 12) or progressive supranuclear palsy (n = 9), and healthy controls (n = 25). Cortical thickness was assessed using the Freesurfer software on 3T MRI data. The integrity of selected white matter tracts was determined by the fractional anisotropy (FA) from Diffusion Tensor Imaging. Disinhibition correlated with the cortical thickness of the right parahippocampal gyrus, right orbitofrontal cortex and right insula and the FA of the right uncinate fasciculus and right anterior cingulum. Notably, no relationship was seen with the thickness of ventromedial prefrontal cortex. Our results support an associative model of inhibitory control, distributed in a medial temporal lobe-insular-orbitofrontal network, connected by the intercommunicating white matter tracts. This reconciles some of the divergences among previous studies, but also questions the current conceptualisation of the “prefrontal” syndrome and the central role attributed to the ventromedial prefrontal cortex in inhibitory control. PMID:27723823

  9. Discovering anatomical patterns with pathological meaning by clustering of visual primitives in structural brain MRI (United States)

    Leon, Juan; Pulido, Andrea; Romero, Eduardo


    Computational anatomy is a subdiscipline of the anatomy that studies macroscopic details of the human body structure using a set of automatic techniques. Different reference systems have been developed for brain mapping and morphometry in functional and structural studies. Several models integrate particular anatomical regions to highlight pathological patterns in structural brain MRI, a really challenging task due to the complexity, variability, and nonlinearity of the human brain anatomy. In this paper, we present a strategy that aims to find anatomical regions with pathological meaning by using a probabilistic analysis. Our method starts by extracting visual primitives from brain MRI that are partitioned into small patches and which are then softly clustered, forming different regions not necessarily connected. Each of these regions is described by a co- occurrence histogram of visual features, upon which a probabilistic semantic analysis is used to find the underlying structure of the information, i.e., separated regions by their low level similarity. The proposed approach was tested with the OASIS data set which includes 69 Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients and 65 healthy subjects (NC).

  10. FEM-based simulation of a fluorescence tomography experiment using anatomical MR images (United States)

    Ren, Wuwei; Elmer, Andreas; Augath, Mark-Aurel; Rudin, Markus


    A hybrid system combining fluorescence molecular tomography (FMT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is attractive for preclinical imaging as it allows fusion of molecular information derived from FMT and anatomical reference data derived from MRI. We have previously developed such a system and demonstrated its performance in biological applications. For reconstruction slab geometry with homogeneous optical parameters was assumed, which led to undesirable artifacts. In order to exploit the power of the hybrid system, the use of MRI derived anatomical information, as a constraint for FMT reconstruction, appears logical. Heterogeneity of tissues and irregular surface derived from MRI can be accounted for by generating a mesh using the finite element method (FEM), and attributing optical parameters to individual mesh points. We have established a forward simulation tool based on TOAST++ to mimic an FMT experiment. MRI images were recorded on a 9.4T MR scanner using a T1-weighted pulse sequence. The voxelized dataset was processed by iso2mesh to yield a 3D-mesh. Four steps of FMT simulation were included: 1) Assignment of optical properties, 2) Specification of boundary conditions and generation of 3) excitation and 4) emission maps. FEM-derived results were compared with those obtained using the analytical solution of Green's function and with experimental data with a single fluorescent inclusion in a silicon phantom. Once, the forward modeling method is properly validated it will be used as a central element of a reconstruction algorithm for analyzing data derived from a hybrid FMT/MRI setup.

  11. Comparison of subjective comfort ratings between anatomically shaped and cylindrical handles. (United States)

    Harih, Gregor; Dolšak, Bojan


    Most authors have provided diameter recommendations for cylindrical handle design in order to increase performance, avoid discomfort, and reduce the risk of cumulative trauma disorders. None of the studies has investigated the importance of determining the correct handle shape on the subjective comfort ratings, which could further improve the handles' ergonomics. Therefore, new methods based on a virtual hand model in its optimal power grasp posture have been developed in order to obtain customised handles with best fits for targeted subjects. Cylindrical and anatomically shaped handles were evaluated covering ten subjects by means of an extensive subjective comfort questionnaire. The results suggest large impact of the handle shape on the perceived subjective comfort ratings. Anatomically shaped handles were rated as being considerably more comfortable than cylindrical handles for almost all the subjective comfort predictors. They showed that handle shapes based on optimal power grasp postures can improve subjective comfort ratings, thus maximising performance. Future research should consider real conditions, since the comfort ratings can vary based on the specific task and by the tool selected for the task.


    Vannozzi, Francesca


    The challenge of eight museums of the University Museum System of the University of Siena for years has been that of annually offering to Siena schools a course of learning on the themes of science. The learning workshop is articulated in a frontal lesson, followed by a visit of the class in the proponent museum to better expound the chosen theme by the teacher. The fundamental role for such a didactic proposal is sustained by the conserved collections in the museum, used in the past to facilitate the university professor in their lessons, and that continue to show a strong didactic value helping the young student to "enter" in a captivating and easy manner into the world of science. In particular, the Anatomical Museum "L. Comparini" has now organized for some years a course of learning using historical instruments, models in terracotta and wax, plastinates, and tables that consent the operator to confront, with young children, the theme of the history of anatomy and the ways and means for research, formation, and the distribution of the anatomical sciences.

  13. Anatomically shaped tooth and periodontal regeneration by cell homing. (United States)

    Kim, K; Lee, C H; Kim, B K; Mao, J J


    Tooth regeneration by cell delivery encounters translational hurdles. We hypothesized that anatomically correct teeth can regenerate in scaffolds without cell transplantation. Novel, anatomically shaped human molar scaffolds and rat incisor scaffolds were fabricated by 3D bioprinting from a hybrid of poly-epsilon-caprolactone and hydroxyapatite with 200-microm-diameter interconnecting microchannels. In each of 22 rats, an incisor scaffold was implanted orthotopically following mandibular incisor extraction, whereas a human molar scaffold was implanted ectopically into the dorsum. Stromal-derived factor-1 (SDF1) and bone morphogenetic protein-7 (BMP7) were delivered in scaffold microchannels. After 9 weeks, a putative periodontal ligament and new bone regenerated at the interface of rat incisor scaffold with native alveolar bone. SDF1 and BMP7 delivery not only recruited significantly more endogenous cells, but also elaborated greater angiogenesis than growth-factor-free control scaffolds. Regeneration of tooth-like structures and periodontal integration by cell homing provide an alternative to cell delivery, and may accelerate clinical applications.

  14. Anatomical, Clinical and Electrical Observations in Piriformis Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Assoum Hani A


    Full Text Available Abstract Background We provided clinical and electrical descriptions of the piriformis syndrome, contributing to better understanding of the pathogenesis and further diagnostic criteria. Methods Between 3550 patients complaining of sciatica, we concluded 26 cases of piriformis syndrome, 15 females, 11 males, mean age 35.37 year-old. We operated 9 patients, 2 to 19 years after the onset of symptoms, 5 had piriformis steroids injection. A dorsolumbar MRI were performed in all cases and a pelvic MRI in 7 patients. The electro-diagnostic test was performed in 13 cases, between them the H reflex of the peroneal nerve was tested 7 times. Results After a followup 1 to 11 years, for the 17 non operated patients, 3 patients responded to conservative treatment. 6 of the operated had an excellent result, 2 residual minor pain and one failed. 3 new anatomical observations were described with atypical compression of the sciatic nerve by the piriformis muscle. Conclusion While the H reflex test of the tibial nerve did not give common satisfaction in the literature for diagnosis, the H reflex of the peroneal nerve should be given more importance, because it demonstrated in our study more specific sign, with six clinical criteria it contributed to improve the method of diagnosis. The cause of this particular syndrome does not only depend on the relation sciatic nerve-piriformis muscle, but the environmental conditions should be considered with the series of the anatomical anomalies to explain the real cause of this pain.

  15. Isolated Male Epispadias: Anatomic Functional Restoration Is the Primary Goal (United States)

    Bruneel, Elke; Ploumidis, Achilles; Van Laecke, Erik; Hoebeke, Piet


    Background. Isolated male epispadias (IME) is a rare congenital penile malformation, as often part of bladder-exstrophy-epispadias complex (BEEC). In its isolated presentation, it consists in a defect of the dorsal aspect of the penis, leaving the urethral plate open. Occurrence of urinary incontinence is related to the degree of dorsal displacement of the meatus and the underlying underdevelopment of the urethral sphincter. The technique for primary IME reconstruction, based on anatomic restoration of the urethra and bladder neck, is here illustrated. Patients and Methods. A retrospective database was created with patients who underwent primary IME repair between June 1998 and February 2014. Intraoperative variables, postoperative complications, and outcomes were assessed. A descriptive statistical analysis was performed. Results and Limitations. Eight patients underwent primary repair, with penopubic epispadias (PPE) in 3, penile epispadias (PE) in 2, and glandular epispadias (GE) in 3. Median age at surgery was 13.0 months [7–47]; median follow-up was 52 months [9–120]. Complications requiring further surgery were reported in two patients, while further esthetic surgeries were required in 4 patients. Conclusion. Anatomical restoration in primary IME is safe and effective, with acceptable results given the initial pathology. PMID:27722172

  16. Functional Connectivity Patterns of Visual Cortex Reflect its Anatomical Organization. (United States)

    Genç, Erhan; Schölvinck, Marieke Louise; Bergmann, Johanna; Singer, Wolf; Kohler, Axel


    The brain is continuously active, even without external input or task demands. This so-called resting-state activity exhibits a highly specific spatio-temporal organization. However, how exactly these activity patterns map onto the anatomical and functional architecture of the brain is still unclear. We addressed this question in the human visual cortex. We determined the representation of the visual field in visual cortical areas of 44 subjects using fMRI and examined resting-state correlations between these areas along the visual hierarchy, their dorsal and ventral segments, and between subregions representing foveal versus peripheral parts of the visual field. We found that retinotopically corresponding regions, particularly those representing peripheral visual fields, exhibit strong correlations. V1 displayed strong internal correlations between its dorsal and ventral segments and the highest correlation with LGN compared with other visual areas. In contrast, V2 and V3 showed weaker correlations with LGN and stronger between-area correlations, as well as with V4 and hMT+. Interhemispheric correlations between homologous areas were especially strong. These correlation patterns were robust over time and only marginally altered under task conditions. These results indicate that resting-state fMRI activity closely reflects the anatomical organization of the visual cortex both with respect to retinotopy and hierarchy.

  17. Anatomical and functional characteristics of carotid sinus stimulation in humans (United States)

    Querry, R. G.; Smith, S. A.; Stromstad, M.; Ide, K.; Secher, N. H.; Raven, P. B.


    Transmission characteristics of pneumatic pressure to the carotid sinus were evaluated in 19 subjects at rest and during exercise. Either a percutaneous fluid-filled (n = 12) or balloon-tipped catheter (n = 7) was placed at the carotid bifurcation to record internal transmission of external neck pressure/neck suction (NP/NS). Sustained, 5-s pulses, and rapid ramping pulse protocols (+40 to -80 Torr) were recorded. Transmission of pressure stimuli was less with the fluid-filled catheter compared with that of the balloon-tipped catheter (65% vs. 82% negative pressure, 83% vs. 89% positive pressure; P Anatomical location of the carotid sinus averaged 3.2 cm (left) and 3.6 cm (right) from the gonion of the mandible with a range of 0-7.5 cm. Transmission was not altered by exercise or Valsalva maneuver, but did vary depending on the position of the carotid sinus locus beneath the sealed chamber. These data indicate that transmission of external NP/NS was higher than previously recorded in humans, and anatomical variation of carotid sinus location and equipment design can affect transmission results.

  18. Anatomic structural study of cerebellopontine angle via endoscope

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIA Yin; LI Xi-ping; HAN De-min; ZHENG Jun; LONG Hai-shan; SHI Jin-feng


    Background Minimally invasive surgery in skull base relying on searching for possible anatomic basis for endoscopic technology is controversial. The objective of this study was to observe the spatial relationships between main blood vessels and nerves in the cerebellopontine angle area and provide anatomic basis for lateral and posterior skull base minimally invasive surgery via endoscopic retrosigmoid keyhole approach.Methods This study was conducted on thirty dried adult skulls to measure the spatial relationships among the surface bony marks of posterior cranial fossa, and to locate the most appropriate drilling area for retrosigmoid keyhole approach.In addition, we used 10 formaldehyde-fixed adult cadaver specimens for simulating endoscopic retrosigmoid approach to determine the visible scope.Results The midpoint between the mastoid tip and the asterion was the best drilling point for retrosigmoid approach. A hole centered on this point with the 2.0 cm in diameter was suitable for exposing the related structures in the cerebellopontine angle. Retrosigmoid keyhole approach can decrease the pressure on the cerebellum and expose the related structures effectively which include facial nerve, vestibulocochlear nerve, trigeminal nerve, glossopharyngeal nerve, vagus nerve, accessory nerve, hypoglossal nerve, anterior inferior cerebellar artery, posterior inferior cerebellar artery and labyrinthine artery, etc.Conclusions Exact location on endoscope retrosigmoid approach can avoid dragging cerebellum during the minimally invasive surgery. The application of retrosigmoid keyhole approach will extend the application of endoscopic technology.

  19. Variations in meniscofemoral ligaments at anatomical study and MR imaging

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    Cho, J.M.; Suh, J.S. [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Na, J.B. [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Kyungsang National University, College of Medicine, Jinju (Korea, Republic of); Cho, J.H. [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Ajou University College of Medicine, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Y.; Yoo, W.K. [Department of Rehabilitation, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, H.Y.; Chung, I.H. [Department of Anatomy, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    Purpose To demonstrate variations in the meniscofemoral ligaments (ligaments of Wrisberg and Humphrey) at anatomical study and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. Design Twenty-eight cadaveric knees were partially dissected for the examination of the meniscofemoral ligaments. One hundred knee MR examinations were reviewed by two experienced musculoskeletal radiologists. Proximal variations in the meniscofemoral ligaments at MR imaging were classified into three types according to the attachment site: type I, medial femoral condyle; type II, proximal half of the posterior cruciate ligament (PCL); type III, distal half of the PCL. Distal variations were classified into vertical or oblique types according to the orientation of the intermediate signal at the interface of the ligament and lateral meniscus. Results At anatomical study, six cases showed variations in the proximal insertion site of the meniscofemoral ligaments. At MR imaging 93 cases had one or more meniscofemoral ligaments, giving a total of 107 ligaments: 90 ligaments of Wrisberg and 17 ligaments of Humphrey. Forty-one ligaments of Wrisberg were type I, 28 type II, 19 type III, and with two indeterminate type, while 6 ligaments of Humphrey were type I and the remaining 11 were indeterminate. Seven cases showed no meniscofemoral ligament. Of the 107 meniscofemoral ligaments, the distal insertion orientation was of vertical type in 10 ligaments, oblique type in 70 and unidentified in 27. Conclusion An understanding of the high incidence of meniscofemoral ligament variations may help in the interpretation of knee MR studies. (orig.) With 7 figs., 1 tab., 16 refs.

  20. Rare anatomical variation of the musculocutaneous nerve - case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Ricardo Rios Nascimento


    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The clinical and surgical importance of anatomical knowledge of the musculocutaneous nerve and its variations is due to the fact that one of the complications in many upper-limb surgical procedures involves injury to this nerve. During routine dissection of the right upper limb of a male cadaver, we observed an anatomical variation of this nerve. The musculocutaneous nerve originated in the lateral cord and continued laterally, passing under the coracobrachialis muscle and then continuing until its first branch to the biceps brachialis muscle. Just after this, it supplied another two branches, i.e. the lateral cutaneous nerve of the forearm and a branch to the brachialis muscle, and then it joined the median nerve. The median nerve followed the arm medially to the region of the cubital fossa and then gave rise to the anterior intermediate nerve of the forearm. The union between the musculocutaneous nerve and the median nerve occurred approximately at the midpoint of the arm and the median nerve. Given that either our example is not covered by the classifications found in the literature or that it fits into more than one variation proposed, without us finding something truly similar, we consider this variation to be rare.

  1. Assessment of anatomical knowledge: Approaches taken by higher education institutions. (United States)

    Choudhury, Bipasha; Freemont, Anthony


    Assessment serves the primary function of determining a student's competence in a subject. Several different assessment formats are available for assessing anatomical skills, knowledge and understanding and, as assessment can drive learning, a careful selection of assessments can help to engender the correct deep learning facility required of the safe clinical practitioner. The aim of this review was to survey the published literature to see whether higher education institutions are taking an andragogical approach to assessment. Five databases (EMBASE, ERIC, Medline, PubMed, and Web of Knowledge) were searched using standardized search terms with two limits applied (English language, and 2000 to the present). Among the 2,094 papers found, 32 were deemed suitable for this review. Current literature on assessment can be categorized into the following themes: assessment driven learning, types of assessments, frequency of assessments, and use of images in assessments. The consensus is to use a variety of methods, written and practical, to assess anatomical knowledge and skill in different domains. Institutions aim for different levels of Bloom's taxonomy for students at similar stages of their medical degree. Formative assessments are used widely, in differing formats, with mostly good effects on the final examination grade. In conclusion, a wide variety of assessments, each aimed at a different level of Bloom's taxonomy, are used by different institutions. Clin. Anat. 30:290-299, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. The anatomical study of transoral atlantoaxial reduction plate internal fixation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    AI Fu-zhi; YIN Qing-shui; WANG Zhi-yun; XIA Hong; CHANG Yun-bing; WU Zeng-hui; LIU Jing-fa


    Objective:To study relevant anatomical features of the structures involved in transoral atlanto-axial reduction plate (TARP) internal fixation through transoral approach for treating irreducible atlanto-axial dislocation and providing anatomical basis for the clinical application of TARP.Methods: Ten fresh craniocervical specimens were microsurgically dissected layer by layer through transoral approach. The stratification of the posterior pharyngeal wall, the course of the vertebral artery, anatomical relationships of the adjacent structures of the atlas and axis, and the closely relevant anatomical parameters for TARP internal fixation were measured.Results: The posterior pharyngeal wall consisted of two layers and two interspaces: the mucosa, prevertebral fascia, retropharyngeal space, and prevertebral space. The range from the anterior edge of the foramen magnum to C3could be exposed by this approach. The thickness of the posterior pharyngeal wall was (3.6 ± 0.3) mm (ranging2.9-4.3 mm) at the anterior tubercle of C1,(6.1 ± 0.4) mm ( ranging 5.2-7.1 mm) at the lateral mass of C1 and (5.5±0.4) mm (ranging4.3-6.5 mm) at the central part of C2, respectively. The distance from the incisor tooth to the anterior tubercle of C1, C1 screw entry point, and C2 screw entry point was ( 82. 5 ± 7. 8 ) mm ( ranging 71.4-96. 2 mm), ( 90. 1 ± 3. 8 ) mm ( ranging82.2-96. 3 mm), and ( 89.0 ± 4.1 ) mm ( ranging 81.3-95.3 mm), respectively. The distance between the vertebral artery at the atlas and the midline was (25.2 ±2.3) mm (ranging 20.4-29.7 mm) and that between the vertebral artery at the axis and the midline was ( 18.4 ±2.6) mm ( ranging 13. 1-23.0 mm). The allowed width of the atlas and axis for exposure was (39. 4 ± 2. 2 ) mm( ranging 36.2-42.7 mm) and ( 39.0 ± 2. 1 ) mm ( ranging35.8-42. 3 mm), respectively. The distance (a) between the two atlas screw insertion points (center of anterior aspect of C1 lateral mass) was (31.4 ± 3.3 ) mm ( ranging25.4-36.6 mm

  3. Anatomist on the dissecting table? Dutch anatomical professionals' views on body donation. (United States)

    Bolt, Sophie; Venbrux, Eric; Eisinga, Rob; Gerrits, Peter O


    Anatomical professionals know better than anyone else that donated bodies are a valuable asset to anatomical science and medical education. They highly value voluntary donations, since a dearth of bodies negatively affects their profession. With this in mind, we conducted a survey (n = 54) at the 171st scientific meeting of the Dutch Anatomical Society in 2009 to see to what extent anatomical professionals are willing to donate their own body. The results reveal that none of the survey participants are registered as a whole body donor and that only a quarter of them would consider the possibility of body donation. We argue that the two main constraints preventing Dutch anatomical professionals from donating their own body are their professional and their social environments. In contrast to the absence of registered body donors, half of the anatomical professionals are registered as an organ donor. This figure far exceeds the proportion of registered organ donors among the general Dutch population.

  4. Unifying the analyses of anatomical and diffusion tensor images using volume-preserved warping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Dongrong; Hao, Xuejun; Bansal, Ravi


    . CONCLUSION: Our framework automatically detects volumetric abnormalities in anatomical MRIs to aid in generating a priori hypotheses concerning anatomical connectivity that then can be tested using DTI. Additionally, automation enhances the reliability of ROIs, fiber tracking, and fiber clustering.......PURPOSE: To introduce a framework that automatically identifies regions of anatomical abnormality within anatomical MR images and uses those regions in hypothesis-driven selection of seed points for fiber tracking with diffusion tensor (DT) imaging (DTI). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Regions of interest...... for fiber tracking. In our applied example, a comparison of fiber tracts in the two diagnostic groups showed that most fiber tracts failed to correspond across groups, suggesting that anatomical connectivity was severely disrupted in fiber bundles leading from regions of known anatomical abnormality...

  5. Factors Affecting Dimensional Accuracy of 3-D Printed Anatomical Structures Derived from CT Data. (United States)

    Ogden, Kent M; Aslan, Can; Ordway, Nathaniel; Diallo, Dalanda; Tillapaugh-Fay, Gwen; Soman, Pranav


    Additive manufacturing and bio-printing, with the potential for direct fabrication of complex patient-specific anatomies derived from medical scan data, are having an ever-increasing impact on the practice of medicine. Anatomic structures are typically derived from CT or MRI scans, and there are multiple steps in the model derivation process that influence the geometric accuracy of the printed constructs. In this work, we compare the dimensional accuracy of 3-D printed constructs of an L1 vertebra derived from CT data for an ex vivo cadaver T-L spine with the original vertebra. Processing of segmented structures using binary median filters and various surface extraction algorithms is evaluated for the effect on model dimensions. We investigate the effects of changing CT reconstruction kernels by scanning simple geometric objects and measuring the impact on the derived model dimensions. We also investigate if there are significant differences between physical and virtual model measurements. The 3-D models were printed using a commercial 3-D printer, the Replicator 2 (MakerBot, Brooklyn, NY) using polylactic acid (PLA) filament. We found that changing parameters during the scan reconstruction, segmentation, filtering, and surface extraction steps will have an effect on the dimensions of the final model. These effects need to be quantified for specific situations that rely on the accuracy of 3-D printed models used in medicine or tissue engineering applications.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadriye Yetişen


    Full Text Available In this study, morphological and anatomical properties of Crocus olivieri Gay subsp. istanbulensis Mathew were investigated. Cross-sections of root, scape and leaf parts of the plant were examined anddemonstrated by photographs. Most of the anatomical properties are similar to the other member of Iridaceae family. Sclerenchyma groups were observed around to leaf vascular bundle. Morphological and anatomical findings compared with other two subspecies of Crocus olivieri.

  7. Applied Endoscopic Anatomical Evaluation of the Lacrimal Sac

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    Seyyed Mostafa Hashemi


    Full Text Available Introduction: Dacryocystorhinostomy (DCR, a popular surgical procedure, has been performed using an endoscopic approach over recent years. Excellent anatomical knowledge is required for this endoscopic surgical approach. This study was performed in order to better evaluate the anatomical features of the lacrimal apparatus from cadavers in the Isfahan forensic center as a sample of the Iranian population.   Materials and Methods: DCR was performed using a standard method on 26 cadaver eyes from the forensic center of Isfahan. The lacrimal sac was exposed completely, then the anatomical features of the lacrimal sac and canaliculus were measured using a specified ruler.   Results: A total of 26 male cadaveric eyes were used, of which four (16.7% were probably non-Caucasian. Two (8% of the eyes needed septoplasty, one (4% needed uncinectomy, and none needed turbinoplasty. Four (16% lacrimal sacs were anterior to axilla, one (4% was posterior and 20 (80% were at the level of the axilla of the middle turbinate. The distance  from the nasal sill to the anterior edge of the lacrimal sac (from its mid-height was 39.04 (±4.92 mm. The distance from the nasal sill to the posterior edge of the lacrimal sac (from its mid-height was 45.50 (±4.47 mm. The width and length of the lacrimal sac was 7.54 (±1.44 mm and 13.16 (±5.37 mm, respectively. The distance from the anterior edge of the lacrimal sac to the posterior edge of the uncinate process was 14.06 (±3.00 mm, while the distance from the anterior nasal spine to the anterior edge of the lacrimal sac (from its mid-height was 37.20 (±5.37 mm.The height of the fundus was 3.26 (±1.09 mm. The distance from the superior punctum to the fundus was 12.70 (±1.45 mm, and the distance from the inferior punctum to the fundus was 11.10 (±2.02 mm.   Conclusion:  Given the differences between the various studies conducted in order to evaluate the position of the lacrimal sac, studies such as this can help to

  8. Two unusual anatomic variations create a diagnostic dilemma in distal ulnar nerve compression. (United States)

    Kiehn, Mark W; Derrick, Allison J; Iskandar, Bermans J


    Diagnosis of peripheral neuropathies is based upon patterns of functional deficits and electrodiagnostic testing. However, anatomic variations can lead to confounding patterns of physical and electrodiagnostic findings. Authors present a case of ulnar nerve compression due to a rare combination of anatomic variations, aberrant branching pattern, and FCU insertion at the wrist, which posed a diagnostic and therapeutic dilemma. The literature related to isolated distal ulnar motor neuropathy and anatomic variations of the ulnar nerve and adjacent structures is also reviewed. This case demonstrates how anatomic variations can complicate the interpretation of clinical and electrodiagnostic findings and underscores the importance of thorough exploration of the nerve in consideration for possible variations.

  9. Effect of anatomical backgrounds on detectability in volumetric cone beam CT images (United States)

    Han, Minah; Park, Subok; Baek, Jongduk


    As anatomical noise is often a dominating factor affecting signal detection in medical imaging, we investigate the effects of anatomical backgrounds on signal detection in volumetric cone beam CT images. Signal detection performances are compared between transverse and longitudinal planes with either uniform or anatomical backgrounds. Sphere objects with diameters of 1mm, 5mm, 8mm, and 11mm are used as the signals. Three-dimensional (3D) anatomical backgrounds are generated using an anatomical noise power spectrum, 1/fβ, with β=3, equivalent to mammographic background [1]. The mean voxel value of the 3D anatomical backgrounds is used as an attenuation coefficient of the uniform background. Noisy projection data are acquired by the forward projection of the uniform and anatomical 3D backgrounds with/without sphere lesions and by the addition of quantum noise. Then, images are reconstructed by an FDK algorithm [2]. For each signal size, signal detection performances in transverse and longitudinal planes are measured by calculating the task SNR of a channelized Hotelling observer with Laguerre-Gauss channels. In the uniform background case, transverse planes yield higher task SNR values for all sphere diameters but 1mm. In the anatomical background case, longitudinal planes yield higher task SNR values for all signal diameters. The results indicate that it is beneficial to use longitudinal planes to detect spherical signals in anatomical backgrounds.

  10. Application of Fascial Manipulation technique in chronic shoulder pain--anatomical basis and clinical implications. (United States)

    Day, Julie Ann; Stecco, Carla; Stecco, Antonio


    Classical anatomy still relegates muscular fascia to a role of contention. Nonetheless, different hypotheses concerning the function of this resilient tissue have led to the formulation of numerous soft tissue techniques for the treatment of musculoskeletal pain. This paper presents a pilot study concerning the application of one such manual technique, Fascial Manipulation, in 28 subjects suffering from chronic posterior brachial pain. This method involves a deep kneading of muscular fascia at specific points, termed centres of coordination (cc) and centres of fusion (cf), along myofascial sequences, diagonals, and spirals. Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) measurement of pain administered prior to the first session, and after the third session was compared with a follow-up evaluation at 3 months. Results suggest that the application of Fascial Manipulation technique may be effective in reducing pain in chronic shoulder dysfunctions. The anatomical substratum of the myofascial continuity has been documented by dissections and the biomechanical model is discussed.

  11. Efficacy of an Intra-Operative Imaging Software System for Anatomic Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xudong Zhang


    Full Text Available An imaging software system was studied for improving the performance of anatomic anterior cruciate ligament (ACL reconstruction which requires identifying ACL insertion sites for bone tunnel placement. This software predicts and displays the insertion sites based on the literature data and patient-specific bony landmarks. Twenty orthopaedic surgeons performed simulated arthroscopic ACL surgeries on 20 knee specimens, first without and then with the visual guidance by fluoroscopic imaging, and their tunnel entry positions were recorded. The native ACL insertion morphologies of individual specimens were quantified in relation to CT-based bone models and then used to evaluate the software-generated insertion locations. Results suggested that the system was effective in leading surgeons to predetermined locations while the application of averaged insertion morphological information in individual surgeries can be susceptible to inaccuracy and uncertainty. Implications on challenges associated with developing engineering solutions to aid in re-creating or recognizing anatomy in surgical care delivery are discussed.

  12. Three dimensional finite element analysis of anatomic distal radius Nitinol memory connector treating distal radius fracture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏佳灿; 张春才; 禹宝庆; 许硕贵; 王家林; 纪方; 张雪松; 吴建国; 王保华; 薛召军; 丁祖泉


    Objective: To study the memory biomechanical character of anatomic distal radius Nitinol memory connector (DRMC) in treating distal radius fracture. Methods: Establishing three dimensional model and finite element analysis, we calculated the stress in and around the fracture faces when distal radius fracture was fixated with DRMC. Results: Axial holding stress produced by holding part of DRMC on distal radius was 14.66 MPa. The maximum stress of holding part was 40-70 MPa, the minimum stress was 3-7 MPa,and the stress of compression part was 20-40 MPa. Conclusion: The distribution of stress produced by DRMC around the fracture line is reasonable, and axial holding stress can help stabilize fracture during earlier period. The existence of longitudal compression and memory effect can transfer fixated disused section into developed section and enhance fracture healing.

  13. A Methodology for Anatomic Ultrasound Image Diagnostic Quality Assessment. (United States)

    Hemmsen, Martin Christian; Lange, Theis; Brandt, Andreas Hjelm; Nielsen, Michael Bachmann; Jensen, Jorgen Arendt


    This paper discusses the methods for the assessment of ultrasound image quality based on our experiences with evaluating new methods for anatomic imaging. It presents a methodology to ensure a fair assessment between competing imaging methods using clinically relevant evaluations. The methodology is valuable in the continuing process of method optimization and guided development of new imaging methods. It includes a three phased study plan covering from initial prototype development to clinical assessment. Recommendations to the clinical assessment protocol, software, and statistical analysis are presented. Earlier uses of the methodology has shown that it ensures validity of the assessment, as it separates the influences between developer, investigator, and assessor once a research protocol has been established. This separation reduces confounding influences on the result from the developer to properly reveal the clinical value. This paper exemplifies the methodology using recent studies of synthetic aperture sequential beamforming tissue harmonic imaging.

  14. The Anatomical Society core regional anatomy syllabus for undergraduate medicine. (United States)

    Smith, C F; Finn, G M; Stewart, J; Atkinson, M A; Davies, D C; Dyball, R; Morris, J; Ockleford, C; Parkin, I; Standring, S; Whiten, S; Wilton, J; McHanwell, S


    The Anatomical Society's core syllabus for anatomy (2003 and later refined in 2007) set out a series of learning outcomes that an individual medical student should achieve on graduation. The core syllabus, with 182 learning outcomes grouped in body regions, referenced in the General Medical Council's Teaching Tomorrow's Doctors, was open to criticism on the grounds that the learning outcomes were generated by a relatively small group of anatomists, albeit some of whom were clinically qualified. We have therefore used a modified Delphi technique to seek a wider consensus. A Delphi panel was constructed involving 'experts' (n = 39). The revised core syllabus of 156 learning outcomes presented here is applicable to all medical programmes and may be used by curriculum planners, teachers and students alike in addressing the perennial question: 'What do I need to know ?'

  15. Anatomía de los Cítricos



    La agricultura del s. XXI debe estar basada en el conocimiento científico, y no solo en el empirismo y la experiencia, por muy amplia que ésta sea. Solo de este modo el agricultor será capaz de comprender e interpretar la adaptación de las especies al medio y favorecer la producción de frutos. A todo ello contribuye el conocimiento en Anatomía, Bioquímica, Biología, Botánica, Climatología, Edafología, Entomología, Fisiología, Genética, Patología. El primer paso para el avance en el cultivo...

  16. An ``Anatomic approach" to study the Casimir effect (United States)

    Intravaia, Francesco; Haakh, Harald; Henkel, Carsten


    The Casimir effect, in its simplest definition, is a quantum mechanical force between two objects placed in vacuum. In recent years the Casimir force has been the object of an exponentially growing attention both from theorists and experimentalists. A new generation of experiments paved the way for new challenges and spotted some shadows in the comparison to theory. Here we are going to isolate different contributions to the Casimir interaction and perform a detailed study to shine new light on this phenomenon. As an example, the contributions of Foucault (eddy current) modes will be discussed in different configurations. This ``anatomic approach'' allows to clearly put into evidence special features and to explain unusual behaviors. This brings new physical understanding on the undergoing physical mechanisms and suggests new ways to engineer the Casimir effect.

  17. Anatomical investigation on Cactaceae Juss.: a historical retrospect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galina V. Kalashnyk


    Full Text Available Cactaceae consists of perennial stem succulents with diverse morphology. Due the distinctive structure and form the interest of researchers to this group of plants is increasing nowadays. The present paper provides an overview of published data concerning anatomical studies on the family Cactaceae since the mid-nineteenth century to our days. It is important to consider that recent interest in this field does not reduce, while the number of studies dealing with the structure and features of seedlings, the effect of various environmental factors on them is uprising. Such studies have a great practical importance for introduction and reintroduction of cacti, as well as for determination of their adaptive characteristics to environmental conditions.

  18. Reentry confined to the atrioventricular node: electrophysiologic and anatomic findings. (United States)

    Sheinman, M M; Gonzalez, R; Thomas, A; Ullyot, D; Bharati, S; Lev, M


    A patient with recurrent disabling, paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia refractory to drug treatment underwent electrophysiologic studies. The paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia was found to be due to atrioventricular (A-V) nodal reentry. The patient died shortly after surgical His bundle section and detailed anatomic studies were performed. These showed fatty infiltration of the approaches to the sinoatrial node, atrial preferential pathways, and A-V node and common bundle. The A-V node was mechanically damaged and the common His bundle was completely severed. These abnormalities were clearly delineated and there was no evidence of an atrio-His bundle bypass tract to an accessory A-V node. Specifically, the central fibrous body and pars membranacea were defined and no atrial muscular fibers pierced these structures to joint the A-V bundle. It is concluded that paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia due to A-V nodal reentry can be confined to the A-V node.

  19. Simultaneous molecular and anatomical imaging of the mouse in vivo. (United States)

    Goertzen, Andrew L; Meadors, A Ken; Silverman, Robert W; Cherry, Simon R


    Non-invasive imaging technologies are opening up new windows into mouse biology. We have developed a mouse imaging system that integrates positron emission tomography (PET) with x-ray computed tomography (CT), allowing simultaneous anatomic and molecular imaging in vivo with the potential for precise registration of the two image volumes. The x-ray system consists of a compact mini-focal x-ray tube and an amorphous selenium flat panel x-ray detector with a low-noise CMOS readout. The PET system uses planar arrays of lutetium oxyorthosilicate scintillator coupled to position-sensitive photomultiplier tubes. We describe the design of this dual-modality imaging system and show, for the first time, simultaneously acquired PET and CT images in a phantom and in mice.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李玉华; 薛建平; 朱铭


    Objective To evaluate the significance of multidetector CT 3D reconstruction technique in showing anatomy of ethmoid sinus, at the same time, anatomic variations of ethmoid sinus and its clinical significance were also discussed. Methods 250 cases of ethmoid sinuses were scanned transversally by multidetector scaner, coronal and sagittal views were reconstructed. Results Coronal and sagittal views were good enough to make diagnosis. 5 kinds of common ethmoid sinus variations were seen, including pneumatization of ethmoid bulla (56. 5% ) , Onodi air cell(26% ) , Hailer cell(6. 5% ) ,low ethmoid foveolas( 4. 3% )and over intromigratiny lamella papyracea (6. 5% ). Conclusion The coronal and other special views of ethmoid sinus are showed clearly by 3 D reconstruction which can provide detailed image informations for functional endoscopic sinus surgery.

  1. Benign anatomical mistakes: "ampulla of Vater" and "papilla of Vater". (United States)

    Mirilas, Petros; Colborn, Gene L; Skandalakis, Lee J; Skandalakis, Panajiotis N; Zoras, Odysseas; Skandalakis, John E


    The anatomy of the ampullary termination of the bile and pancreatic ducts is complex; appropriate terminology for this area is confusing and inaccurate. We examine the terms "ampulla of Vater" and "papilla of Vater" for anatomical and historical correctness. The term "ampulla" refers to a dilated part of a duct or other channel. Thus, this word is topographically correct to describe the dilatation at the confluence of the bile and main pancreatic ducts; historically, however, there is considerable reason to believe that its first description was by Santorini rather than Vater. The eponymous term "papilla of Vater" is also incorrect historically. The use of eponyms is firmly entrenched in the medical literature, but some are so problematic that they should be discarded. The eponymous terms for both the ampulla and the papilla should be replaced with the terms "hepatopancreatic ampulla" (or "biliaropancreatic ampulla") and "major [or "greater"] duodenal papilla," respectively.

  2. Tridimensional Regression for Comparing and Mapping 3D Anatomical Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kendra K. Schmid


    Full Text Available Shape analysis is useful for a wide variety of disciplines and has many applications. There are many approaches to shape analysis, one of which focuses on the analysis of shapes that are represented by the coordinates of predefined landmarks on the object. This paper discusses Tridimensional Regression, a technique that can be used for mapping images and shapes that are represented by sets of three-dimensional landmark coordinates, for comparing and mapping 3D anatomical structures. The degree of similarity between shapes can be quantified using the tridimensional coefficient of determination (2. An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of this technique to correctly match the image of a face with another image of the same face. These results were compared to the 2 values obtained when only two dimensions are used and show that using three dimensions increases the ability to correctly match and discriminate between faces.

  3. MR-anatomy of infants hip: comparison to anatomical preparations. (United States)

    Krasny, R; Prescher, A; Botschek, A; Lemke, R; Casser, H R; Adam, G


    The correlation between anatomical preparations and MRI images of the most important structures of newborn hips in coronal and axial orientation was performed in 18 post mortem babies. T1-weighted images present a good differentiation between cartilage, bone, ligaments and surrounding soft tissues. Coronal images give the best opportunity to study the clinically important structures of the roof of acetabulum including the labrum and the ground of the acetabulum. The latter is shown in a more detailed way by MRI than by sonography. Axial images allow additional examinations of the ventral and dorsal parts of the joint. By using both coronal and axial images the exact determination of the centering of the femur head in the hip joint is possible.

  4. [The anatomic lobulation of the prostate, a controversial description]. (United States)

    Dauge, M C; Delmas, V; Potier, M


    Vésalius, in 1543, described, for the first time, the prostate as an unique organ. But, in the 19th century, two schools confronted; for Cruveilhier and Testut, the prostate was made of several lobes, when Cloquet and Sappey thought it as a unique zone. Albarran, in 1902, described the sub-uretral glands. Thereafter, Cuneo, in 1911 and Franks, in 1954, described two zones, one, internal, formed by the Albarran's glands, and the other, external, concerning the whole prostatic gland. On the contrary, Lowsley, in 1912, and Gil Vernet, in 1953, described several lobes, 5 for Lowsley, 3 for Gil Vernet. Recently, in 1968, and 1978, McNeal had made the proof that the prostate is histologically and anatomically heterogeneous, with three zones, transitional, central and peripheral ones.

  5. Craniofacial pain and anatomical abnormalities of the nasal cavities. (United States)

    Mendonça, Jeferson Cedaro de; Bussoloti Filho, Ivo


    The causal relation between anatomical variations of the nose and headaches and facial pain is analyzed through literature review of the topic. The pathogenesis that can be involved in this relation proves to be wider than simple alteration of nasal septum and turbinates that can cause mechanical stimulus through contact between these structures, which covers infectious factors, neurogenic inflammation, correlation with migraines and the role of nasal obstruction. The clinical findings of a lot of authors including the test with topical anesthetic to prove this causal relation, the indication of surgical treatment, in addition to good results of this treatment, are reported. The mechanism of pain relief obtained through surgical correction of nasal septum and turbinate is discussed. These data make us conclude that there are multiple etiologic factors involved, which makes us question the fundamental role of the mechanical aspect.

  6. Wood anatomical characteristics of Durio Adans. (malvaceae - helicteroideae: Durioneae) (United States)

    Nordahlia, A. S.; Noraini, T.; Chung, R. C. K.; Nadiah, I.; Lim, S. C.; Norazahana, A.; Noorsolihani, S.


    A wood anatomy study was carried out on 10 Durio species. Three species, namely D. griffithii, D. grandiflorus and D. excelsus were included, and these species were previously placed in the genus Boschia. Findings have shown presence of prismatic crystals in chambered and non-chambered axial parenchyma in seven Durio species studied, whilst silica was absent. However, in the other three species (D. griffithii, D. grandiflorus and D. excelsus) silica was present, whilst crystal was absent. The presence of this mineral inclusion in these three species was not good taxonomic character at generic level and cannot be used to distinguish Boschia from Durio. Therefore, Durio is suggested to be maintained based on findings in this study. There is no diagnostic wood anatomical characteristic that can be used to differentiate species in Durio. As a conclusion the wood anatomy alone does not aid in delimiting species in Durio.

  7. Algorithms to automatically quantify the geometric similarity of anatomical surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Boyer, D; Clair, E St; Puente, J; Funkhouser, T; Patel, B; Jernvall, J; Daubechies, I


    We describe new approaches for distances between pairs of 2-dimensional surfaces (embedded in 3-dimensional space) that use local structures and global information contained in inter-structure geometric relationships. We present algorithms to automatically determine these distances as well as geometric correspondences. This is motivated by the aspiration of students of natural science to understand the continuity of form that unites the diversity of life. At present, scientists using physical traits to study evolutionary relationships among living and extinct animals analyze data extracted from carefully defined anatomical correspondence points (landmarks). Identifying and recording these landmarks is time consuming and can be done accurately only by trained morphologists. This renders these studies inaccessible to non-morphologists, and causes phenomics to lag behind genomics in elucidating evolutionary patterns. Unlike other algorithms presented for morphological correspondences our approach does not requir...

  8. Automatic detection of anatomical landmarks in uterine cervix images. (United States)

    Greenspan, Hayit; Gordon, Shiri; Zimmerman, Gali; Lotenberg, Shelly; Jeronimo, Jose; Antani, Sameer; Long, Rodney


    The work focuses on a unique medical repository of digital cervicographic images ("Cervigrams") collected by the National Cancer Institute (NCI) in longitudinal multiyear studies. NCI, together with the National Library of Medicine (NLM), is developing a unique web-accessible database of the digitized cervix images to study the evolution of lesions related to cervical cancer. Tools are needed for automated analysis of the cervigram content to support cancer research. We present a multistage scheme for segmenting and labeling regions of anatomical interest within the cervigrams. In particular, we focus on the extraction of the cervix region and fine detection of the cervix boundary; specular reflection is eliminated as an important preprocessing step; in addition, the entrance to the endocervical canal (the "os"), is detected. Segmentation results are evaluated on three image sets of cervigrams that were manually labeled by NCI experts.

  9. Anatomic Study of Female Sterility of Pinus tabulaeformis Carr.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cheng Pengjun; Li Fenglan; Zheng Caixia


    The anatomic research on the mutant clone of Pinus tabulaeformis Carr. in the seed orchard in Xingcheng, LiaoningProvince was carried out. The female cone of the mutant clone looked like normal, but its ovules degenerated in the early stage. Thispaper tries to find out the reason and time of ovule abortion. It seems that the ovule abortion is probably caused by female sterilitybecause the microspores of this mutant clone were normal. Through the serial observations on the one-year-old macrosporangiatesand the ovules of two-year-old female cones of mutant and normal clone, it is found that the reason of ovule abortion in mutant cloneis the failure of the mitosis of free nuclei in the female gametophyte, and the time is about in the early April.

  10. Effect of Calcium Phosphate–Hybridized Tendon Graft in Anatomic Single-Bundle ACL Reconstruction in Goats (United States)

    Mutsuzaki, Hirotaka; Fujie, Hiromichi; Nakajima, Hiromi; Fukagawa, Makoto; Nomura, Shunsuke; Sakane, Masataka


    Background: We previously developed a novel technique using an alternate soaking process that improves tendon-bone healing by hybridizing the tendon graft with calcium phosphate (CaP). However, the effects of the CaP-hybridized tendon graft on anatomic single-bundle anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction remain unclear. Purpose: To determine the effects of CaP-hybridized tendon grafts compared with untreated tendon grafts 6 months after anatomic single-bundle ACL reconstruction using a goat model. Study Design: Controlled laboratory study. Methods: Animals were divided into a CaP group (n = 5 goats) and a control group (n = 5 goats), and we analyzed (1) knee kinematics and in situ forces under applied anterior tibial loads of 50 N and internal tibial torque of 2.0 N·m in the grafts at full extension and at 60° and 90° of knee flexion, (2) the mean percentage of bone tunnel enlargement using computed tomography (CT), and (3) the histology of the tendon-bone interface. Results: The in situ forces under applied anterior tibial loads of 50 N at 60° and 90° of knee flexion in the CaP group were greater than those in the control group (P joint aperture sites of the anterior femoral and posterior tibial bone tunnel, was greater in the CaP group than that in the control group (P joint aperture site in both anterior femoral and posterior tibial tunnels 6 months after anatomic single-bundle ACL reconstruction in goats. The in situ forces under applied anterior tibial loads at greater flexion angles in the CaP group increased compared with controls. Clinical Relevance: Anatomic single-bundle ACL reconstruction using CaP-hybridized tendon grafts may lead to better postoperative knee function. PMID:27660798

  11. An atypical lateral hernia and concomitant inguinal and umbilical hernias in a patient with polycystic kidney disease and an intracranial aneurysm - a combined approach of clinical and radiological investigation, endoscopic hernia repair, and anatomical cadaver model documentation and a systematic review of the literature. (United States)

    Veréb-Amolini, László; Betschart, Thomas; Kiss, Emilia; Ullrich, Oliver; Wildi, Stefan; Eppler, Elisabeth


    Atypical hernias are difficult to diagnose due to their rarity and often unspecific symptoms. In the literature there exist hints to peri-inguinal hernias, i.e. direct lateral hernia, but most of them are forms of Spigelian hernias. Since the majority were described during the first half of the past century or even earlier, only very few cases have been documented using modern diagnostic techniques. We report a unique case of a 51 year old patient presenting with an atypical inguinal hernia with concomitant inguinal and umbilical hernias in combination with cystic kidney disease and intracranial aneurysm. The atypical position of the hernia was assumed from clinical inspection, ultrasound and CT scan and verified during pre-peritoneoscopy. Using an anatomical cadaver dissection approach, we followed the unusual position of the hernia through the abdominal wall below the aponeurosis of the external oblique muscle. After a thorough literature search, we assume that the present hernia containing a hernial sac has not been documented before, especially not in such a multidisciplinary approach comprising radiological, surgical and anatomical localisation and endoscopic treatment in a patient with a clinical situation being aggravated by large cystic kidneys leading to dialysis-dependency. Rare hernias have been described as being often associated with concomitant inguinal or other hernias, a predisposition for the male gender and a pathogenic mechanism related to other soft tissue defects such as cystic kidney disease or cranial aneurysm. Thus, we consider this a unique case that has not been documented in this constellation previously, which may increase the awareness for these rare hernias.

  12. Clinical repercussions of Martin-Gruber anastomosis: anatomical study☆ (United States)

    Cavalheiro, Cristina Schmitt; Filho, Mauro Razuk; Pedro, Gabriel; Caetano, Maurício Ferreira; Vieira, Luiz Angelo; Caetano, Edie Benedito


    Objective The main objective of this study was to describe Martin-Gruber anastomosis anatomically and to recognize its clinical repercussions. Method 100 forearms of 50 adult cadavers were dissected in an anatomy laboratory. The dissection was performed by means of a midline incision along the entire forearm and the lower third of the upper arm. Two flaps including skin and subcutaneous tissue were folded back on the radial and ulnar sides, respectively. Results Nerve communication between the median and ulnar nerves in the forearm (Martin-Gruber anastomosis) was found in 27 forearms. The anastomosis was classified into six types: type I: anastomosis between the anterior interosseous nerve and the ulnar nerve (n = 9); type II: anastomosis between the anterior interosseous nerve and the ulnar nerve at two points (double anastomosis) (n = 2); type III: anastomosis between the median nerve and the ulnar nerve (n = 4); type IV: anastomosis between branches of the median nerve and ulnar nerve heading toward the flexor digitorum profundus muscle of the fingers; these fascicles form a loop with distal convexity (n = 5); type V: intramuscular anastomosis (n = 5); and type VI: anastomosis between a branch of the median nerve to the flexor digitorum superficialis muscle and the ulnar nerve (n = 2). Conclusion Knowledge of the anatomical variations relating to the innervation of the hand has great importance, especially with regard to physical examination, diagnosis, prognosis and surgical treatment. If these variations are not given due regard, errors and other consequences will be inevitable. PMID:27069892

  13. Auxiliary anatomical labels for joint segmentation and atlas registration (United States)

    Gass, Tobias; Szekely, Gabor; Goksel, Orcun


    This paper studies improving joint segmentation and registration by introducing auxiliary labels for anatomy that has similar appearance to the target anatomy while not being part of that target. Such auxiliary labels help avoid false positive labelling of non-target anatomy by resolving ambiguity. A known registration of a segmented atlas can help identify where a target segmentation should lie. Conversely, segmentations of anatomy in two images can help them be better registered. Joint segmentation and registration is then a method that can leverage information from both registration and segmentation to help one another. It has received increasing attention recently in the literature. Often, merely a single organ of interest is labelled in the atlas. In the presense of other anatomical structures with similar appearance, this leads to ambiguity in intensity based segmentation; for example, when segmenting individual bones in CT images where other bones share the same intensity profile. To alleviate this problem, we introduce automatic generation of additional labels in atlas segmentations, by marking similar-appearance non-target anatomy with an auxiliary label. Information from the auxiliary-labeled atlas segmentation is then incorporated by using a novel coherence potential, which penalizes differences between the deformed atlas segmentation and the target segmentation estimate. We validated this on a joint segmentation-registration approach that iteratively alternates between registering an atlas and segmenting the target image to find a final anatomical segmentation. The results show that automatic auxiliary labelling outperforms the same approach using a single label atlasses, for both mandibular bone segmentation in 3D-CT and corpus callosum segmentation in 2D-MRI.

  14. Anatomical Correlates of Non-Verbal Perception in Dementia Patients (United States)

    Lin, Pin-Hsuan; Chen, Hsiu-Hui; Chen, Nai-Ching; Chang, Wen-Neng; Huang, Chi-Wei; Chang, Ya-Ting; Hsu, Shih-Wei; Hsu, Che-Wei; Chang, Chiung-Chih


    Purpose: Patients with dementia who have dissociations in verbal and non-verbal sound processing may offer insights into the anatomic basis for highly related auditory modes. Methods: To determine the neuronal networks on non-verbal perception, 16 patients with Alzheimer’s dementia (AD), 15 with behavior variant fronto-temporal dementia (bv-FTD), 14 with semantic dementia (SD) were evaluated and compared with 15 age-matched controls. Neuropsychological and auditory perceptive tasks were included to test the ability to compare pitch changes, scale-violated melody and for naming and associating with environmental sound. The brain 3D T1 images were acquired and voxel-based morphometry (VBM) was used to compare and correlated the volumetric measures with task scores. Results: The SD group scored the lowest among 3 groups in pitch or scale-violated melody tasks. In the environmental sound test, the SD group also showed impairment in naming and also in associating sound with pictures. The AD and bv-FTD groups, compared with the controls, showed no differences in all tests. VBM with task score correlation showed that atrophy in the right supra-marginal and superior temporal gyri was strongly related to deficits in detecting violated scales, while atrophy in the bilateral anterior temporal poles and left medial temporal structures was related to deficits in environmental sound recognition. Conclusions: Auditory perception of pitch, scale-violated melody or environmental sound reflects anatomical degeneration in dementia patients and the processing of non-verbal sounds are mediated by distinct neural circuits. PMID:27630558

  15. TissueCypher™: A systems biology approach to anatomic pathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey W Prichard


    Full Text Available Background: Current histologic methods for diagnosis are limited by intra- and inter-observer variability. Immunohistochemistry (IHC methods are frequently used to assess biomarkers to aid diagnoses, however, IHC staining is variable and nonlinear and the manual interpretation is subjective. Furthermore, the biomarkers assessed clinically are typically biomarkers of epithelial cell processes. Tumors and premalignant tissues are not composed only of epithelial cells but are interacting systems of multiple cell types, including various stromal cell types that are involved in cancer development. The complex network of the tissue system highlights the need for a systems biology approach to anatomic pathology, in which quantification of system processes is combined with informatics tools to produce actionable scores to aid clinical decision-making. Aims: Here, we describe a quantitative, multiplexed biomarker imaging approach termed TissueCypher™ that applies systems biology to anatomic pathology. Applications of TissueCypher™ in understanding the tissue system of Barrett's esophagus (BE and the potential use as an adjunctive tool in the diagnosis of BE are described. Patients and Methods: The TissueCypher™ Image Analysis Platform was used to assess 14 epithelial and stromal biomarkers with known diagnostic significance in BE in a set of BE biopsies with nondysplastic BE with reactive atypia (RA, n = 22 and Barrett's with high-grade dysplasia (HGD, n = 17. Biomarker and morphology features were extracted and evaluated in the confirmed BE HGD cases versus the nondysplastic BE cases with RA. Results: Multiple image analysis features derived from epithelial and stromal biomarkers, including immune biomarkers and morphology, showed significant differences between HGD and RA. Conclusions: The assessment of epithelial cell abnormalities combined with an assessment of cellular changes in the lamina propria may serve as an adjunct to conventional

  16. Patellar calcar: MRI appearance of a previously undescribed anatomical entity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collins, Mark S.; Tiegs-Heiden, Christin A. [Department of Radiology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota (United States); Stuart, Michael J. [Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota (United States)


    The femoral calcar is a constant anatomical structure within the proximal femur representing a condensation of bone trabeculae. It is our impression that a similar structure is present within the patella. The purpose of this retrospective study was to define the prevalence, appearance, location, and configuration of the patellar calcar on MRI examinations. One hundred consecutive unenhanced knee MRIs were retrospectively reviewed by two readers who were blinded to the clinical indication. The patellar calcar was defined as a dark signaling, linear or curvilinear structure subjacent to the patellar articular surface. If present, the patellar calcar was assigned to a ''well seen,'' ''moderately well seen,'' or ''faintly seen'' category. Location of the calcar within the patella, orientation, configuration, and thickness were recorded. Confounding variables, such as marrow edema, patellar chondromalacia, bipartite patella, or postoperative changes were also recorded. The patellar calcar was visualized in 81 out of 100 (81 %) MRIs. When detected, the calcar was well seen in 20 out of 81 (25 %), moderately well seen in 35 out of 81 (43 %), and faintly seen in 26 out of 81 (32 %). The anteroposterior width of the calcar measured at its thickest segment was: < 1 mm in 43 out of 81 (53 %), 1 mm in 28 out of 81 (35 %), and >1 mm in 10 out of 81 (12 %). The patellar calcar was seen in the majority of knee MRIs and had a consistent imaging appearance. The calcar may be obscured by degenerative arthrosis of the patella and rarely may mimic patellar stress fracture or osteochondritis dissecans. Radiologists and clinicians should be familiar with this normal anatomical structure. (orig.)

  17. Anatomical Correlates of Non-Verbal Perception in Dementia Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pin-Hsuan Lin


    Full Text Available Purpose: Patients with dementia who have dissociations in verbal and non-verbal sound processing may offer insights into the anatomic basis for highly related auditory modes. Methods: To determine the neuronal networks on non-verbal perception, 16 patients with Alzheimer’s dementia (AD, 15 with behavior variant fronto-temporal dementia (bv-FTD, 14 with semantic dementia (SD were evaluated and compared with 15 age-matched controls. Neuropsychological and auditory perceptive tasks were included to test the ability to compare pitch changes, scale-violated melody and for naming and associating with environmental sound. The brain 3D T1 images were acquired and voxel-based morphometry (VBM was used to compare and correlated the volumetric measures with task scores. Results: The SD group scored the lowest among 3 groups in pitch or scale-violated melody tasks. In the environmental sound test, the SD group also showed impairment in naming and also in associating sound with pictures. The AD and bv-FTD groups, compared with the controls, showed no differences in all tests. VBM with task score correlation showed that atrophy in the right supra-marginal and superior temporal gyri was strongly related to deficits in detecting violated scales, while atrophy in the bilateral anterior temporal poles and left medial temporal structures was related to deficits in environmental sound recognition. Conclusions: Auditory perception of pitch, scale-violated melody or environmental sound reflects anatomical degeneration in dementia patients and the processing of non-verbal sounds is mediated by distinct neural circuits.

  18. Anatomical and Radiological Aspects of the Supratrochlear Foramen in Brazilians (United States)

    Gutfiten-Schlesinger, Gabriel; Leite, Túlio FO; Pires, Lucas AS; Silva, Julio G.


    Introduction The supratrochlear foramen is an anatomic variation of great clinical and anthropologic interest. Although many studies addressed this subject in different ethnic groups, there are no studies regarding Brazilians. Aim To verify the incidence and morphometric measures of the supratrochlear foramen in Brazilian humeri. Materials and Methods A total of 330 dry humeri were analysed and divided in three groups: bones presenting the supratrochlear foramen (Group 1), bones displaying a translucent foramen (Group 2) and humeri without the foramen (Group 3). The aperture was measured with a digital vernier caliper. Radiographic pictures with different incidences were taken. Results Our analysis showed that 22.5% of humeri belonged in Group 1, 41.2% in Group 2, and 36.3% in Group 3. The mean vertical diameter and the mean horizontal diameter of the supratrochlear foramen on the left side were 2.779±2.050 mm and 2.332±1.23 mm, respectively. The mean vertical diameter and the mean horizontal diameter of the foramen on the right side were 2.778±2.197 mm, and 2.365±1.396 mm, respectively. The student’s t-test showed that there was no significant difference regarding the size of the foramen between both sides. The best X-ray machine setup was 50 kilo voltage and 0.08 milliamperage per second, associated with a slight increase in the distance of the x-ray tube. Conclusion The aperture seems to be the key point during the pre-operative planning of intramedullary fixation, since it has direct relation to the size of the intramedullary canal, thus, being an entity of clinical, anatomical, anthropological, radiological, and surgical interest. PMID:27790415

  19. Global tractography with embedded anatomical priors for quantitative connectivity analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alia eLemkaddem


    Full Text Available The main assumption of fiber-tracking algorithms is that fiber trajectories are represented by paths of highest diffusion, which is usually accomplished by following the principal diffusion directions estimated in every voxel from the measured diffusion MRI data. The state-of-the-art approaches, known as global tractography, reconstruct all the fiber tracts of the whole brain simultaneously by solving a global energy minimization problem. The tractograms obtained with these algorithms outperform any previous technique but, unfortunately, the price to pay is an increased computational cost which is not suitable in many practical settings, both in terms of time and memory requirements. Furthermore, existing global tractography algorithms suffer from an important shortcoming that is crucial in the context of brain connectivity analyses. As no anatomical priors are used during in the reconstruction process, the recovered fiber tracts are not guaranteed to connect cortical regions and, as a matter of fact, most of them stop prematurely in the white matter. This does not only unnecessarily slow down the estimation procedure and potentially biases any subsequent analysis but also, most importantly, prevents the de facto quantification of brain connectivity. In this work, we propose a novel approach for global tractography that is specifically designed for connectivity analysis applications by explicitly enforcing anatomical priors of the tracts in the optimization and considering the effective contribution of each of them, i.e. volume, to the acquired diffusion MRI image. We evaluated our approach on both a realistic diffusion MRI phantom and in-vivo data, and also compared its performance to existing tractography aloprithms.

  20. Anatomic Illustrations of Cranial Ultrasound Images Through the Posterior Fontanelle in Neonates: Objective Analysis of Oblique Sonographic Scans using MRI and a Reconstruction Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Sang Young; Lee, Young Seok; Yoo, Dong Soo; Chang, Young Pyo [Dankook University Hospital, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of)


    Neonatal cranial sonography through the posterior fontanelle is more useful than through the anterior approach for the evaluation of posterior brain structures. The aims of this study were to determine the appropriate neonatal cranial sonography scan planes through the posterior fontanelle, and to objectively evaluate the anatomy of neonatal cranial sonographic images. Neonates who underwent cranial sonography and MRI including 3D-SPGR axial scans and showed normal features on both modalities were enrolled. We reconstructed MR images corresponding to sonographic planes, then constructed anatomic models of the neonatal cranial sonographic images using axial MRI as the standard reference on the same screen. We successfully created anatomic atlas that represents 8 oblique coronal and 4 oblique sagittal scans and planes that corresponded to the neonatal cranial sonographic images through the posterior fontanelle. The objective manner of this anatomic research provided standardized sonographic scan planes and created anatomic model through the posterior fontanelle. Cranial sonographic models through the posterior fontanelle using MRI and multi-planar reconstruction program will be helpful in the evaluation of sonographic anatomy and detection of abnormalities in the basal ganglia, thalamus and posterior part of the brain

  1. Human Choice Strategy Varies with Anatomical Projections from Ventromedial Prefrontal Cortex to Medial Striatum. (United States)

    Piray, Payam; Toni, Ivan; Cools, Roshan


    Two distinct systems, goal-directed and habitual, support decision making. It has recently been hypothesized that this distinction may arise from two computational mechanisms, model-based and model-free reinforcement learning, neuronally implemented in frontostriatal circuits involved in learning and behavioral control. Here, we test whether the relative strength of anatomical connectivity within frontostriatal circuits accounts for variation in human individuals' reliance on model-based and model-free control. This hypothesis was tested by combining diffusion tensor imaging with a multistep decision task known to distinguish model-based and model-free control in humans. We found large interindividual differences in the degree of model-based control, and those differences are predicted by the structural integrity of white-matter tracts from the ventromedial prefrontal cortex to the medial striatum. Furthermore, an analysis based on masking out of bottom-up tracts suggests that this effect is driven by top-down influences from ventromedial prefrontal cortex to medial striatum. Our findings indicate that individuals with stronger afferences from the ventromedial prefrontal cortex to the medial striatum are more likely to rely on a model-based strategy to control their instrumental actions. These findings suggest a mechanism for instrumental action control through which medial striatum determines, at least partly, the relative contribution of model-based and model-free systems during decision-making according to top-down model-based information from the ventromedial prefrontal cortex. These findings have important implications for understanding the neural circuitry that might be susceptible to pathological computational processes in impulsive/compulsive psychiatric disorders.

  2. Extra-anatomic transplantations in autologous adult cell therapies aiding anatomical regeneration and physiological recovery – An insight and categorization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Autologous mature adult cells as well as stem cells, which are not considered pluripotent, have been reported to be safe and efficacious in clinical applications for regenerating cartilage [1] and corneal epithelium [2]. Use of primary autologous cells and stem cells expanded in number from cartilage and corneal epithelial tissues have shown abilities to reconstruct and regenerate tissues, de novo. It is to be noted that in both these cases, the source of the cells that have been used for transplantation into the cornea and cartilage have been from the same organ and tissue. The replacement cells for regeneration have also been sourced from the same germ layer, as that of the cells of the target tissue; corneal epithelial tissue embryologically originating from the ectoderm has been replaced with corneal limbal stem cells that are also of ectodermal origin from the unaffected healthy eye of the same individual. Similarly, the cartilage which developmentally is from the mesoderm has been replaced with mature chondrocytes from the non-weight bearing area of the cartilage, again of the same individual. Figure 1: Autologous, in vitro cultured, adult cell based therapies; An overview and categorization. (Click here for High Resol. Image The proceedings of the IIDIAS session published in this issue have described two novel cell therapies, where cells taken from a tissue or organ, after normal in vitro expansion, have been clinically applied to aid the regeneration of a different tissue or organ, i.e skeletal myoblasts having been used for myocardial regeneration and buccal mucosal epithelium having been used for corneal epithelial regeneration heralding the birth of a new paradigm called ‘extra-anatomic cell therapy’. The myocardium is a specialized muscle in that it works as an electrical synctitium with an intrinsic capacity to generate and propagate action potentials (involuntary as opposed to the skeletal muscles that are dependent on neuronal

  3. Validation of semi-quantitative methods for DAT SPECT: influence of anatomical variability and partial volume effect (United States)

    Gallego, J.; Niñerola-Baizán, A.; Cot, A.; Aguiar, P.; Crespo, C.; Falcón, C.; Lomeña, F.; Sempau, J.; Pavía, J.; Ros, D.


    The aim of this work was to evaluate the influence of anatomical variability between subjects and of the partial volume effect (PVE) on the standardized Specific Uptake Ratio (SUR) in [123I]FP-bib SPECT studies. To this end, magnetic resonance (MR) images of 23 subjects with differences in the striatal volume of up to 44% were segmented and used to generate a database of 138 Monte Carlo simulated SPECT studies. Data included normal uptakes and pathological cases. Studies were reconstructed by filtered back projection (FBP) and the ordered-subset expectation-maximization algorithm. Quantification was carried out by applying a reference method based on regions of interest (ROIs) derived from the MR images and ROIs derived from the Automated Anatomical Labelling map. Our results showed that, regardless of anatomical variability, the relationship between calculated and true SUR values for caudate and putamen could be described by a multiple linear model which took into account the spill-over phenomenon caused by PVE ({{R}2}≥slant 0.963 for caudate and ≥0.980 for putamen) and also by a simple linear model (R2 ≥ 0.952 for caudate and ≥0.973 for putamen). Calculated values were standardized by inverting both linear systems. Differences between standardized and true values showed that, although the multiple linear model was the best approach in terms of variability ({χ2}  ≥ 11.79 for caudate and  ≤7.36 for putamen), standardization based on a simple linear model was also suitable ({χ2}  ≥ 12.44 for caudate and  ≤12.57 for putamen).

  4. Anatomist on the dissecting table? Dutch anatomical professionals' views on body donation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bolt, Sophie; Venbrux, Eric; Eisinga, Rob; Gerrits, Peter O.


    Anatomical professionals know better than anyone else that donated bodies are a valuable asset to anatomical science and medical education. They highly value voluntary donations, since a dearth of bodies negatively affects their profession. With this in mind, we conducted a survey (n = 54) at the 17

  5. Anatomist on the dissecting table? Dutch anatomical professionals' views on body donation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bolt, S.H.; Venbrux, H.J.M.; Eisinga, R.N.; Gerrits, P.O.


    Anatomical professionals know better than anyone else that donated bodies are a valuable asset to anatomical science and medical education. They highly value voluntary donations, since a dearth of bodies negatively affects their profession. With this in mind, we conducted a survey (n ¼ 54) at the 17

  6. Living AnatoME: Teaching and Learning Musculoskeletal Anatomy through Yoga and Pilates (United States)

    McCulloch, Carrie; Marango, Stephanie Pieczenik; Friedman, Erica S.; Laitman, Jeffrey T.


    Living AnatoME, a program designed in 2004 by two medical students in conjunction with the Director of Anatomy, teaches musculoskeletal anatomy through yoga and Pilates. Previously offered as an adjunct to the Gross Anatomy course in 2007, Living AnatoME became an official part of the curriculum. Previous research conducted on the program…

  7. Anatomical Dolls: Their Use in Assessment of Children Who May Have Been Sexually Abused (United States)

    Faller, Kathleen Coulborn


    This article examines anatomical dolls in interviews of children who may have been sexually abused from three perspectives. The article summarizes research findings on anatomical dolls, discusses advantages and disadvantages of using them, and describes endorsed doll uses. Although additional, ecologically-valid research is needed on anatomical…

  8. Altered anatomical network in early blindness revealed by diffusion tensor tractography. (United States)

    Shu, Ni; Liu, Yong; Li, Jun; Li, Yonghui; Yu, Chunshui; Jiang, Tianzi


    The topological architecture of the cerebral anatomical network reflects the structural organization of the human brain. Recently, topological measures based on graph theory have provided new approaches for quantifying large-scale anatomical networks. Diffusion MRI studies have revealed the efficient small-world properties and modular structure of the anatomical network in normal subjects. However, no previous study has used diffusion MRI to reveal changes in the brain anatomical network in early blindness. Here, we utilized diffusion tensor imaging to construct binary anatomical networks for 17 early blind subjects and 17 age- and gender-matched sighted controls. We established the existence of structural connections between any pair of the 90 cortical and sub-cortical regions using deterministic tractography. Compared with controls, early blind subjects showed a decreased degree of connectivity, a reduced global efficiency, and an increased characteristic path length in their brain anatomical network, especially in the visual cortex. Moreover, we revealed some regions with motor or somatosensory function have increased connections with other brain regions in the early blind, which suggested experience-dependent compensatory plasticity. This study is the first to show alterations in the topological properties of the anatomical network in early blindness. From the results, we suggest that analyzing the brain's anatomical network obtained using diffusion MRI data provides new insights into the understanding of the brain's re-organization in the specific population with early visual deprivation.

  9. Altered anatomical network in early blindness revealed by diffusion tensor tractography.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ni Shu

    Full Text Available The topological architecture of the cerebral anatomical network reflects the structural organization of the human brain. Recently, topological measures based on graph theory have provided new approaches for quantifying large-scale anatomical networks. Diffusion MRI studies have revealed the efficient small-world properties and modular structure of the anatomical network in normal subjects. However, no previous study has used diffusion MRI to reveal changes in the brain anatomical network in early blindness. Here, we utilized diffusion tensor imaging to construct binary anatomical networks for 17 early blind subjects and 17 age- and gender-matched sighted controls. We established the existence of structural connections between any pair of the 90 cortical and sub-cortical regions using deterministic tractography. Compared with controls, early blind subjects showed a decreased degree of connectivity, a reduced global efficiency, and an increased characteristic path length in their brain anatomical network, especially in the visual cortex. Moreover, we revealed some regions with motor or somatosensory function have increased connections with other brain regions in the early blind, which suggested experience-dependent compensatory plasticity. This study is the first to show alterations in the topological properties of the anatomical network in early blindness. From the results, we suggest that analyzing the brain's anatomical network obtained using diffusion MRI data provides new insights into the understanding of the brain's re-organization in the specific population with early visual deprivation.

  10. The finger of God : anatomical practice in 17th century Leiden

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huisman, Tijs


    A description of 17th century anatomical activity at the major Dutch university in a cultural context This study offers a history of the Leiden anatomical theatre in the first century of its existence; who were the scientists working there in the 17th century, the Dutch Golden Age. What was the mot

  11. "Anatomizing" Reversed: Use of Examination Questions that Foster Use of Higher Order Learning Skills by Students (United States)

    Burns, E. Robert


    "Anatomizing" is a new verb some use to describe the breaking apart of a complex entity such as the human body, into isolated tidbits of information for study, which can never equal the complex, integrated whole. Although popular with first-year medical students, this practice of "tidbitting" anatomical information into easy to memorize facts or…

  12. The Science and Politics of Naming: Reforming Anatomical Nomenclature, ca. 1886-1955. (United States)

    Buklijas, Tatjana


    Anatomical nomenclature is medicine's official language. Early in their medical studies, students are expected to memorize not only the bodily geography but also the names for all the structures that, by consensus, constitute the anatomical body. The making and uses of visual maps of the body have received considerable historiographical attention, yet the history of production, communication, and reception of anatomical names-a history as long as the history of anatomy itself-has been studied far less. My essay examines the reforms of anatomical naming between the first modern nomenclature, the 1895 Basel Nomina Anatomica (BNA), and the 1955 Nomina Anatomica Parisiensia (NAP, also known as PNA), which is the basis for current anatomical terminology. I focus on the controversial and ultimately failed attempt to reform anatomical nomenclature, known as Jena Nomina Anatomica (INA), of 1935. Discussions around nomenclature reveal not only how anatomical names are made and communicated, but also the relationship of anatomy with the clinic; disciplinary controversies within anatomy; national traditions in science; and the interplay between international and scientific disciplinary politics. I show how the current anatomical nomenclature, a successor to the NAP, is an outcome of both political and disciplinary tensions that reached their peak before 1945.

  13. Femoral rotation unpredictably affects radiographic anatomical lateral distal femoral angle measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miles, James Edward


    Objective: To describe the effects of internal and external femoral rotation on radiographic measurements of the anatomical lateral distal femoral angle (a-LDFA) using two methods for defining the anatomical proximal femoral axis (a-PFA). Methods: Digital radiographs were obtained of 14 right fem...

  14. Anatomic structure of stem leave petioles of some species of the genus Potentilla (Rosaceae

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    T. N. Motorykina


    Full Text Available The anatomic structure of stem leaf petioles of 15 species of the genus Potentilla is studied. During the research the anatomical features characterizing the species Potentilla as a whole, and also characters whichcan be used for differentiation of subgenera, sections and closely related species of this genus are allocated.

  15. Anatomical likelihood estimation meta-analysis of grey and white matter anomalies in autism spectrum disorders

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    Thomas P. DeRamus


    Full Text Available Autism spectrum disorders (ASD are characterized by impairments in social communication and restrictive, repetitive behaviors. While behavioral symptoms are well-documented, investigations into the neurobiological underpinnings of ASD have not resulted in firm biomarkers. Variability in findings across structural neuroimaging studies has contributed to difficulty in reliably characterizing the brain morphology of individuals with ASD. These inconsistencies may also arise from the heterogeneity of ASD, and wider age-range of participants included in MRI studies and in previous meta-analyses. To address this, the current study used coordinate-based anatomical likelihood estimation (ALE analysis of 21 voxel-based morphometry (VBM studies examining high-functioning individuals with ASD, resulting in a meta-analysis of 1055 participants (506 ASD, and 549 typically developing individuals. Results consisted of grey, white, and global differences in cortical matter between the groups. Modeled anatomical maps consisting of concentration, thickness, and volume metrics of grey and white matter revealed clusters suggesting age-related decreases in grey and white matter in parietal and inferior temporal regions of the brain in ASD, and age-related increases in grey matter in frontal and anterior-temporal regions. White matter alterations included fiber tracts thought to play key roles in information processing and sensory integration. Many current theories of pathobiology ASD suggest that the brains of individuals with ASD may have less-functional long-range (anterior-to-posterior connections. Our findings of decreased cortical matter in parietal–temporal and occipital regions, and thickening in frontal cortices in older adults with ASD may entail altered cortical anatomy, and neurodevelopmental adaptations.

  16. Anatomical likelihood estimation meta-analysis of grey and white matter anomalies in autism spectrum disorders. (United States)

    DeRamus, Thomas P; Kana, Rajesh K


    Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are characterized by impairments in social communication and restrictive, repetitive behaviors. While behavioral symptoms are well-documented, investigations into the neurobiological underpinnings of ASD have not resulted in firm biomarkers. Variability in findings across structural neuroimaging studies has contributed to difficulty in reliably characterizing the brain morphology of individuals with ASD. These inconsistencies may also arise from the heterogeneity of ASD, and wider age-range of participants included in MRI studies and in previous meta-analyses. To address this, the current study used coordinate-based anatomical likelihood estimation (ALE) analysis of 21 voxel-based morphometry (VBM) studies examining high-functioning individuals with ASD, resulting in a meta-analysis of 1055 participants (506 ASD, and 549 typically developing individuals). Results consisted of grey, white, and global differences in cortical matter between the groups. Modeled anatomical maps consisting of concentration, thickness, and volume metrics of grey and white matter revealed clusters suggesting age-related decreases in grey and white matter in parietal and inferior temporal regions of the brain in ASD, and age-related increases in grey matter in frontal and anterior-temporal regions. White matter alterations included fiber tracts thought to play key roles in information processing and sensory integration. Many current theories of pathobiology ASD suggest that the brains of individuals with ASD may have less-functional long-range (anterior-to-posterior) connections. Our findings of decreased cortical matter in parietal-temporal and occipital regions, and thickening in frontal cortices in older adults with ASD may entail altered cortical anatomy, and neurodevelopmental adaptations.

  17. Anatomic Illustrations of Cranial Ultrasound Images Obtained Through the Mastoid Fontanelle in Neonates

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    Kim, Bong Man; Lee, Young Seok [Dankook University Hospital, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of)


    Neonatal cranial sonography performed through the mastoid fontanelle is more useful to evaluate the peripheral structures at the convexity of the cerebral hemispheres and brainstem rather than that performed through the anterior fontanelle. The purpose of this study is to demonstrate the anatomy of the extracerebral CSF space and brainstem and to suggest appropriate scan planes for performing neonatal cranial sonography through the mastoid fontanelle using MRI and multiplanar reconstruction programs. A neonate with normal features on ultrasonography and good image quality on MRI, including the 3D-SPGR axial scans, was selected. We made the reconstructed MR images corresponding to the sonongraphic planes and the anatomic models of the neonatal cranial sonographic images by using axial MRI as the standard reference on the same screen. We demonstrated the sonographic images at the levels of the body of the caudate nucleus and lentiform nucleus, the head of the caudate nucleus and thalamus, the third ventricle and midbrain, and the midbrain and cerebellar vermis on the oblique axial scans. Four oblique coronal images at the levels of the periventricular white matter, basal ganglia, thalamus and tentorium were also obtained. We illustrated the anatomic atlas with including four oblique axial scans and four oblique coronal scans that corresponded to the neonatal cranial sonographic images through the mastoid fontanelle. We objectively analyzed the anatomy of the extracerebral CSF space and brainstem by using MRI and multiplanar reconstruction programs and we provided the standardized sonographic scan planes through the mastoid fontanelle. This study will be very helpful for evaluating the abnormalities of the peripheral structures at the convexity of the cerebral hemispheres and brainstem

  18. Fast left ventricle tracking in CMR images using localized anatomical affine optical flow (United States)

    Queirós, Sandro; Vilaça, João. L.; Morais, Pedro; Fonseca, Jaime C.; D'hooge, Jan; Barbosa, Daniel


    In daily cardiology practice, assessment of left ventricular (LV) global function using non-invasive imaging remains central for the diagnosis and follow-up of patients with cardiovascular diseases. Despite the different methodologies currently accessible for LV segmentation in cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) images, a fast and complete LV delineation is still limitedly available for routine use. In this study, a localized anatomically constrained affine optical flow method is proposed for fast and automatic LV tracking throughout the full cardiac cycle in short-axis CMR images. Starting from an automatically delineated LV in the end-diastolic frame, the endocardial and epicardial boundaries are propagated by estimating the motion between adjacent cardiac phases using optical flow. In order to reduce the computational burden, the motion is only estimated in an anatomical region of interest around the tracked boundaries and subsequently integrated into a local affine motion model. Such localized estimation enables to capture complex motion patterns, while still being spatially consistent. The method was validated on 45 CMR datasets taken from the 2009 MICCAI LV segmentation challenge. The proposed approach proved to be robust and efficient, with an average distance error of 2.1 mm and a correlation with reference ejection fraction of 0.98 (1.9 +/- 4.5%). Moreover, it showed to be fast, taking 5 seconds for the tracking of a full 4D dataset (30 ms per image). Overall, a novel fast, robust and accurate LV tracking methodology was proposed, enabling accurate assessment of relevant global function cardiac indices, such as volumes and ejection fraction

  19. Insight and psychosis: Functional and anatomical brain connectivity and self-reflection in Schizophrenia. (United States)

    Ćurčić-Blake, Branislava; van der Meer, Lisette; Pijnenborg, Gerdina H M; David, Anthony S; Aleman, André


    Impaired insight into illness, associated with worse treatment outcome, is common in schizophrenia. Insight has been related to the self-reflective processing, centred on the medial frontal cortex. We hypothesized that anatomical and functional routes to and from the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) would differ in patients according to their degree of impaired insight. Forty-five schizophrenia patients and 19 healthy subjects performed a self-reflection task during fMRI, and underwent diffusion tensor imaging. Using dynamic causal modelling we observed increased effective connectivity from the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC), inferior parietal lobule (IPL), and dorsal mPFC (dmPFC) towards the vmPFC with poorer insight and decrease from vmPFC to the IPL. Stronger connectivity from the PCC to vmPFC during judgment of traits related to self was associated with poorer insight. We found small-scale significant changes in white matter integrity associated with clinical insight. Self-reflection may be influenced by synaptic changes that lead to the observed alterations in functional connectivity accompanied by the small-scale but measurable alterations in anatomical connections. Our findings may point to a neural compensatory response to an impairment of connectivity between self-processing regions. Similarly, the observed hyper-connectivity might be a primary deficit linked to inefficiency in the component cognitive processes that lead to impaired insight. We suggest that the stronger cognitive demands placed on patients with poor insight is reflected in increased effective connectivity during the task in this study.

  20. The functional and anatomical dissection of somatosensory subpopulations using mouse genetics

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    Claire E Le Pichon


    Full Text Available The word somatosensation comes from joining the Greek word for body (soma with a word for perception (sensation. Somatosensory neurons comprise the largest sensory system in mammals and have nerve endings coursing throughout the skin, viscera, muscle, and bone. Their cell bodies reside in a chain of ganglia adjacent to the dorsal spinal cord (the dorsal root ganglia and at the base of the skull (the trigeminal ganglia. While the neuronal cell bodies are intermingled within the ganglia, the somatosensory system is in reality composed of numerous sub-systems, each specialized to detect distinct stimuli, such as temperature and touch. Historically, somatosensory neurons have been classified using a diverse host of anatomical and physiological parameters, such as the size of the cell body, degree of myelination, histological labeling with markers, specialization of the nerve endings, projection patterns in the spinal cord and brainstem, receptive tuning, and conduction velocity of their action potentials. While useful, the picture that emerged was one of heterogeneity, with many markers at least partially overlapping. More recently, by capitalizing on advances in molecular techniques, researchers have identified specific ion channels and sensory receptors expressed in subsets of sensory neurons. These studies have proved invaluable as they allow genetic access to small subsets of neurons for further molecular dissection. Data being generated from transgenic mice favor the model whereby an array of dedicated neurons is responsible for selectively encoding different modalities. Here we review the current knowledge of the different sensory neuron subtypes in the mouse, the markers used to study them, and the neurogenetic strategies used to define their anatomical projections and functional roles.

  1. The functional and anatomical dissection of somatosensory subpopulations using mouse genetics. (United States)

    Le Pichon, Claire E; Chesler, Alexander T


    The word somatosensation comes from joining the Greek word for body (soma) with a word for perception (sensation). Somatosensory neurons comprise the largest sensory system in mammals and have nerve endings coursing throughout the skin, viscera, muscle, and bone. Their cell bodies reside in a chain of ganglia adjacent to the dorsal spinal cord (the dorsal root ganglia) and at the base of the skull (the trigeminal ganglia). While the neuronal cell bodies are intermingled within the ganglia, the somatosensory system is in reality composed of numerous sub-systems, each specialized to detect distinct stimuli, such as temperature and touch. Historically, somatosensory neurons have been classified using a diverse host of anatomical and physiological parameters, such as the size of the cell body, degree of myelination, histological labeling with markers, specialization of the nerve endings, projection patterns in the spinal cord and brainstem, receptive tuning, and conduction velocity of their action potentials. While useful, the picture that emerged was one of heterogeneity, with many markers at least partially overlapping. More recently, by capitalizing on advances in molecular techniques, researchers have identified specific ion channels and sensory receptors expressed in subsets of sensory neurons. These studies have proved invaluable as they allow genetic access to small subsets of neurons for further molecular dissection. Data being generated from transgenic mice favor a model whereby an array of dedicated neurons is responsible for selectively encoding different modalities. Here we review the current knowledge of the different sensory neuron subtypes in the mouse, the markers used to study them, and the neurogenetic strategies used to define their anatomical projections and functional roles.

  2. Some anatomical variation of paranasal sinuses using sinus endoscopic approach on "cadaver" in Isfahan, Iran

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    Nezamoddin Berjis


    Full Text Available Background: Due to the anatomical variations of the paranasal sinuses and its great importance in sinus surgery, as this area is in very close proximity to vital structures including the optic nerve, carotid artery, and skull base, anatomical knowledge of this area is of high importance. The purpose of this study is defining a full and clear impression of paranasal sinus anatomy and its variations as a model for the human population of the country. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted on 45 cadavers in Isfahan forensic Medicine center during 2010 to 2011. Nasal and paranasal sinuses endoscopic dissection was done with (zero and 30 o lenses (Olympus. The methods of performed dissection were via the Stamberger technique. Results: This study showed that 88.9% (40 cases of middle turbinates were in a typical form, while 6.7% (3 cases were in medial and only 4.4% (2 cases were in the lateral form. We also observed 88.9% (40 cases with Agger nasi cells, 37.8% (17 cases with Onodi cells, 28.9% cases with accessory Ostia of maxillary sinus (13 cases, and 15.6% of the cases (7 cases with concha bullosa. The position of the maxillary sinus ostium was as follows. The inferior 1/3 of hiatus semilunaris in 38 (84.5%, superior 1/3 of hiatus semilunaris in 4 (4.4%, middle 1/3 of hiatus semilunaris in 5 (11.1%. The sphenoid ostia in 53.3% (24 cases were slit shape, 28.9% (13 cases oval, and 17.8% (18 cases were round shape. Conclusion : Our survey showed that the distance between anterior nasal spine and anterior wall of the sphenoid sinus was within 7.6 ± 0.2 cm SD.

  3. Why can't rodents vomit? A comparative behavioral, anatomical, and physiological study. (United States)

    Horn, Charles C; Kimball, Bruce A; Wang, Hong; Kaus, James; Dienel, Samuel; Nagy, Allysa; Gathright, Gordon R; Yates, Bill J; Andrews, Paul L R


    The vomiting (emetic) reflex is documented in numerous mammalian species, including primates and carnivores, yet laboratory rats and mice appear to lack this response. It is unclear whether these rodents do not vomit because of anatomical constraints (e.g., a relatively long abdominal esophagus) or lack of key neural circuits. Moreover, it is unknown whether laboratory rodents are representative of Rodentia with regards to this reflex. Here we conducted behavioral testing of members of all three major groups of Rodentia; mouse-related (rat, mouse, vole, beaver), Ctenohystrica (guinea pig, nutria), and squirrel-related (mountain beaver) species. Prototypical emetic agents, apomorphine (sc), veratrine (sc), and copper sulfate (ig), failed to produce either retching or vomiting in these species (although other behavioral effects, e.g., locomotion, were noted). These rodents also had anatomical constraints, which could limit the efficiency of vomiting should it be attempted, including reduced muscularity of the diaphragm and stomach geometry that is not well structured for moving contents towards the esophagus compared to species that can vomit (cat, ferret, and musk shrew). Lastly, an in situ brainstem preparation was used to make sensitive measures of mouth, esophagus, and shoulder muscular movements, and phrenic nerve activity-key features of emetic episodes. Laboratory mice and rats failed to display any of the common coordinated actions of these indices after typical emetic stimulation (resiniferatoxin and vagal afferent stimulation) compared to musk shrews. Overall the results suggest that the inability to vomit is a general property of Rodentia and that an absent brainstem neurological component is the most likely cause. The implications of these findings for the utility of rodents as models in the area of emesis research are discussed.

  4. Deep sleep divides the cortex into opposite modes of anatomical-functional coupling. (United States)

    Tagliazucchi, Enzo; Crossley, Nicolas; Bullmore, Edward T; Laufs, Helmut


    The coupling of anatomical and functional connectivity at rest suggests that anatomy is essential for wake-typical activity patterns. Here, we study the development of this coupling from wakefulness to deep sleep. Globally, similarity between whole-brain anatomical and functional connectivity networks increased during deep sleep. Regionally, we found differential coupling: during sleep, functional connectivity of primary cortices resembled more the underlying anatomical connectivity, while we observed the opposite in associative cortices. Increased anatomical-functional similarity in sensory areas is consistent with their stereotypical, cross-modal response to the environment during sleep. In distinction, looser coupling-relative to wakeful rest-in higher order integrative cortices suggests that sleep actively disrupts default patterns of functional connectivity in regions essential for the conscious access of information and that anatomical connectivity acts as an anchor for the restoration of their functionality upon awakening.

  5. Advertising cadavers in the republic of letters: anatomical publications in the early modern Netherlands. (United States)

    Margócsy, Dániel


    This paper sketches how late seventeenth-century Dutch anatomists used printed publications to advertise their anatomical preparations, inventions and instructional technologies to an international clientele. It focuses on anatomists Frederik Ruysch (1638-1732) and Lodewijk de Bils (1624-69), inventors of two separate anatomical preparation methods for preserving cadavers and body parts in a lifelike state for decades or centuries. Ruysch's and de Bils's publications functioned as an 'advertisement' for their preparations. These printed volumes informed potential customers that anatomical preparations were aesthetically pleasing and scientifically important but did not divulge the trade secrets of the method of production. Thanks to this strategy of non-disclosure and advertisement, de Bils and Ruysch could create a well-working monopoly market of anatomical preparations. The 'advertising' rhetorics of anatomical publications highlight the potential dangers of equating the growth of print culture with the development of an open system of knowledge exchange.

  6. Quantitative Anatomic Analysis of the Native Ligamentum Teres (United States)

    Mikula, Jacob D.; Slette, Erik L.; Chahla, Jorge; Brady, Alex W.; Locks, Renato; Trindade, Christiano A. C.; Rasmussen, Matthew T.; LaPrade, Robert F.; Philippon, Marc J.


    Background: While recent studies have addressed the biomechanical function of the ligamentum teres and provided descriptions of ligamentum teres reconstruction techniques, its detailed quantitative anatomy remains relatively undocumented. Moreover, there is a lack of consensus in the literature regarding the number and morphology of the acetabular attachments of the ligamentum teres. Purpose: To provide a clinically relevant quantitative anatomic description of the native human ligamentum teres. Study Design: Descriptive laboratory study. Methods: Ten human cadaveric hemipelvises, complete with femurs (mean age, 59.6 years; range, 47-65 years), were dissected free of all extra-articular soft tissues to isolate the ligamentum teres and its attachments. A coordinate measuring device was used to quantify the attachment areas and their relationships to pertinent open and arthroscopic landmarks on both the acetabulum and the femur. The clock face reference system was utilized to describe acetabular anatomy, and all anatomic relationships were described using the mean and 95% confidence intervals. Results: There were 6 distinct attachments to the acetabulum and 1 to the femur. The areas of the acetabular and femoral attachment footprints of the ligamentum teres were 434 mm2 (95% CI, 320-549 mm2) and 84 mm2 (95% CI, 65-104 mm2), respectively. The 6 acetabular clock face locations were as follows: anterior attachment, 4:53 o’clock (95% CI, 4:45-5:02); posterior attachment, 6:33 o’clock (95% CI, 6:23-6:43); ischial attachment, 8:07 o’clock (95% CI, 7:47-8:26); iliac attachment, 1:49 o’clock (95% CI, 1:04-2:34); and a smaller pubic attachment that was located at 3:50 o’clock (95% CI, 3:41-4:00). The ischial attachment possessed the largest cross-sectional attachment area (127.3 mm2; 95% CI, 103.0-151.7 mm2) of all the acetabular attachments of the ligamentum teres. Conclusion: The most important finding of this study was that the human ligamentum teres had 6

  7. A new method of producing casts for anatomical studies. (United States)

    De Sordi, Nadia; Bombardi, Cristiano; Chiocchetti, Roberto; Clavenzani, Paolo; Trerè, Claudio; Canova, Marco; Grandis, Annamaria


    The objective of the present study was to verify if polyurethane foam is a suitable material to make accurate casts of vessels and viscera, and to develop a method based on its use for anatomical studies. This new technique has been tested primarily on the lungs of different animals, but also on the renal, intestinal and equine digital vessels. It consisted of three steps: specimen preparation, injection of the foam and corrosion of the cast. All structures injected with foam were properly filled. The bronchial tree and the vessels could be observed up to their finer branches. The method is inexpensive, simple and requires no special equipment. The pre-casting procedure does not require perfusion of the specimens with formalin, or prolonged flushing with carbon dioxide gas or air for drying. The polyurethane foam does not need a catalyst. It is simply diluted with acetone, which does not cause shrinkage of the cast due to evaporation during hardening. The foam naturally expands into the cavities without high pressure of the inoculum, and hardens in just 2 or 3 h at room temperature. Only two drawbacks were observed. The first is the fact that multiple injections cannot be made in the same cavity since the foam solidifies quickly; the second is the slight brittleness of the cast, due to the low elasticity of polyurethane foam. In conclusion, polyurethane foam was a suitable material for producing accurate casts of vessels and viscera.

  8. Anatomic dimensions of the patella measured during total knee arthroplasty. (United States)

    Baldwin, James L; House, C Ken


    The anatomic measurements of 92 patellae with normal underlying bony structure were studied during total knee arthroplasty before and after resection of the articular surface. The articular surface of the patella was found to have an oval shape with a width-to-height ratio (46 x 36 mm) of 1.30. The dome was 4.8 mm high and displaced medially 3.6 mm. The medial facet was slightly thicker than the lateral facet (18 vs 17 mm). The lateral facet is 25% wider than the medial facet. Coverage provided by oval patellar prostheses was significantly better than with round prostheses. The patellae in women were significantly smaller than in men. Size differences and deformity need to be taken into account when the patella is prepared for resurfacing. It is recommended that the bony resection should be no greater than one third of the maximum patellar thickness to avoid alteration of normal bony structure. Key words: patella, total knee arthroplasty, anatomy.

  9. Anatomical Study of Sacral Hiatus for Caudal Epidural Block

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    Dhananjay S Patil


    Full Text Available Introduction: Anatomy of the sacral hiatus is having clinical importance during caudal epidural block. Present study is aimed at determining anatomy of sacrum specially sacral hiatus for caudal epidural block, with the help of morphometric measurements of the sacrum in relation to sacral hiatus in dry sacral bones. Material & method: Total 103 complete and undamaged adult, dry sacral bones were measured with Vernier caliper (accuracy 0.1 mm and anatomical measurements were obtained. Results: Three bones were excluded because of total posterior closure defect. Agenesis of the sacral hiatus was detected in three sacral bones. Right and left superolateral sacral crests of the sacrum were taken as two points on dorsal surface of sacrum (forming the base of a triangle because posterior superior iliac spines impose on the superolateral sacral crests. The distance between the two superolateral sacral crests (base of a triangle, the distances between the right and left superolateral sacral crest and the sacral apex were on average 60.61(SD 6.71, 61.95 (11.71 and 61.4 (11.98 mm respectively.. Summary: An equilateral triangle formed between the apex of the sacral hiatus and right and left superolateral sacral crests. This equilateral triangle will help in determining the location of the sacral hiatus during caudal epidural block. [National J of Med Res 2012; 2(3.000: 272-275

  10. Anatomical consequences of partial beak amputation (beak trimming) in turkeys. (United States)

    Gentle, M J; Thorp, B H; Hughes, B O


    A detailed anatomical study was made of the effects of trimming the upper beak of turkeys. The anatomy of the normal beak was compared with that of beaks from birds which had been trimmed by one of three methods, all commonly used in the poultry industry: the Bio-Beaker which passes an electric current through the premaxilla, secateurs, or a heated blade debeaker. All three resulted in the loss of significant amounts of beak tissue. By 42 days after trimming the beak had healed with extensive regrowth, including bone and cartilage formation, and the pattern of regrowth was similar after all three methods. In the normal bird the dermis at the tip of the upper beak contains large numbers of nerve fibres and sensory receptors, but in the beak-trimmed birds the dermal tissue, although well supplied with blood vessels, was devoid of afferent nerve fibres and sensory nerve endings. In contrast with the results of previous studies with older chickens there was no evidence of neuroma formation. Trimming with secateurs was the most precise method. The heated blade damaged additional tissue close to the position of the cut, and the BioBeaker produced the most tissue damage. Behavioural studies suggested that the effectiveness of beak trimming in controlling feather pecking depends on the extent of the tissue damage.

  11. Chapter 12: the anatomical foundations of clinical neurology. (United States)

    Bentivoglio, Marina; Mazzarello, Paolo


    The chapter provides an itinerary of knowledge on nervous system anatomy as one of the pillars of clinical neurology. The journey starts from the Renaissance explosion on the approach to the human body, its functions and its diseases, dealing with the seminal contributions of Leonardo da Vinci and Vesalius. The itinerary proceeds through the contributions of the 17th century, especially by Thomas Willis and the pioneering investigations of Marcello Malpighi and Antony van Leeuwenhoek, and onto the 18th century. The itinerary thus leads to the progress from gross anatomy to the microscopic investigation of the nervous system in the 19th century: the reticular theories, the revolution of the neural doctrine and their protagonists (Camillo Golgi and Santiago Ramón y Cajal), which initiated the modern era of the neurosciences. The chapter also includes sections on the contributions of developmental neuroanatomy to neurology, on the history of tract tracing, and on the cytoarchitecture of the cerebral cortex. The never-ending story of the anatomical foundations of clinical neurology continues to evolve at the dawn of the 21st century, including knowledge that guides deep brain stimulation, and novel approaches to the anatomy of the living brain based on rapidly developing neuroimaging technology.

  12. Anatomical variation of arterial supply to the rabbit spleen. (United States)

    Ikegami, Reona; Tanimoto, Yoshimasa; Kishimoto, Miori; Shibata, Hideshi


    The rabbit, which is widely used as an experimental animal and is also popular as a companion animal, has a flat and elongated spleen with the longitudinal hilus running along its visceral surface. The spleen receives via the hilus an arterial supply that is essential for splenic nutrition and normal functioning. However, the distribution and variation of the arteries to the spleen have not been studied in detail. This study investigated anatomical variations of splenic arterial supply in 33 New Zealand White rabbits with a colored latex injection into arteries. We also examined whether the length of the spleen correlated with the number of the splenic branches of the splenic artery. The splenic artery always arose as the first independent branch of the celiac artery and ran along the splenic hilus to usually provide 6 (range, 3 to 10) splenic branches to the spleen. There was a moderate correlation (R=0.6) between the number of splenic branches and the longitudinal length of the spleen. The splenic branches often arose as a trunk or trunks in common with short gastric arteries. The number of common trunk(s) was usually 1 (range, 0 to 4). The data showed that the pattern and number of arterial branches to the spleen varied according to the individual animal, suggesting that such variations should be considered when performing experimental and veterinary surgical treatments in rabbits.

  13. [Linburg-Comstock syndrome. Epidemiologic and anatomic study, clinical applications]. (United States)

    Hamitouche, K; Roux, J L; Baeten, Y; Allieu, Y


    The Linburg-Comstock (LC) syndrome is distinguished by the inability to actively flex the interphalangeal (IP) joint of the thumb without simultaneously flexing the distal IP joint of the index finger. Any resistance to this 'parasitic' reaction causes pain on the palmar side of the wrist or in the distal part of the forearm; this is due to an anomalous tendinous connection between the flexor pollicus longus (FPL) and the flexor digitorum profundus (FDP). An epidemiological study was carried out on 264 individuals (a total of 528 hands were examined), and the LC syndrome was found in 98 subjects (37%); women were more frequently affected than men, and bilaterally rather than unilaterally. In addition, we dissected 26 fresh cadaver upper limbs, and in seven cases found an anomalous connection between FPL and FDP. We also examined the case of a young violinist with bilateral LC syndrome, who complained of pain in the distal part of the left forearm after prolonged musical exercises. Surgical investigation determined a complete fusion between FPL and FDP of the index with a common tendon. Treatment consisted of splitting this common tendon to form two separate tendons, thereby permitting a certain degree of independence between the thumb and index finger, and which considerably improved the violinist's musical performance. A review of the literature showed that there was a large quantity of anatomical descriptions available on these types of connection. Certain publications also provide an extremely precise report on the anthropological significance of these anomalies.

  14. Post-mastectomy chylous fistula: anatomical and clinical implications. (United States)

    Purkayastha, Joydeep; Hazarika, Sidhartha; Deo, S V S; Kar, Madhabananda; Shukla, N K


    A chylous fistula after a modified radical mastectomy is a rare occurrence; however, major anatomical variations in the termination of the thoracic duct may occur, rendering it susceptible to injury. High output chylous fistulae are difficult to manage and have local, metabolic, and immunologic complications with a mortality rate varying from 12.5-50%. Herein such a case of postmastectomy chylous fistula and its management are discussed. A 56-year-old postmenopausal woman with invasive duct carcinoma of the left breast underwent modified radical mastectomy with complete axillary clearance (Level I, II, III nodes). The operative procedure was uneventful. On the commencement of a normal diet, however, the patient started exuding milky fluid from the axillary drain and analysis of the fluid revealed biochemical features compatible with chyle. After 2 weeks of failed conservative management, the axilla was re-explored. A continuous flow of clear fluid was observed originating from a single major lymphatic trunk inferior to the axillary vein in the region of the former Level II nodes. The leak was controlled by the application of multiple mass ligatures using 2-0 silk suture. A part of the pectoralis major muscle was rotated and sutured over the area of the leak as additional reinforcement. Suturing a muscle flap over the leak has been described previously and functions theoretically by causing fibrosis. The chylous fistula in the present case was managed successfully with mass ligatures and muscle flap reinforcement.

  15. Generation of anatomically realistic numerical phantoms for optoacoustic breast imaging (United States)

    Lou, Yang; Mitsuhashi, Kenji; Appleton, Catherine M.; Oraevsky, Alexander; Anastasio, Mark A.


    Because optoacoustic tomography (OAT) can provide functional information based on hemoglobin contrast, it is a promising imaging modality for breast cancer diagnosis. Developing an effective OAT breast imaging system requires balancing multiple design constraints, which can be expensive and time-consuming. Therefore, computer- simulation studies are often conducted to facilitate this task. However, most existing computer-simulation studies of OAT breast imaging employ simple phantoms such as spheres or cylinders that over-simplify the complex anatomical structures in breasts, thus limiting the value of these studies in guiding real-world system design. In this work, we propose a method to generate realistic numerical breast phantoms for OAT research based on clinical magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data. The phantoms include a skin layer that defines breast-air boundary, major vessel branches that affect light absorption in the breast, and fatty tissue and fibroglandular tissue whose acoustical heterogeneity perturbs acoustic wave propagation. By assigning realistic optical and acoustic parameters to different tissue types, we establish both optic and acoustic breast phantoms, which will be exported into standard data formats for cross-platform usage.

  16. Serotonin and the search for the anatomical substrate of aggression. (United States)

    Alekseyenko, Olga V; Kravitz, Edward A


    All species of animals display aggression in order to obtain resources such as territories, mates, or food. Appropriate displays of aggression rely on the correct identification of a potential competitor, an evaluation of the environmental signals, and the physiological state of the animal. With a hard-wired circuitry involving fixed numbers of neurons, neuromodulators like serotonin offer adaptive flexibility in behavioral responses without changing the "hard-wiring". In a recent report, we combined intersectional genetics, quantitative behavioral assays and morphological analyses to identify single serotonergic neurons that modulate the escalation of aggression. We found anatomical target areas within the brain where these neurons appear to form synaptic contacts with 5HT1A receptor-expressing neurons, and then confirmed the likelihood of those connections on a functional level. In this Extra View article, we offer an extended discussion of these recent findings and elaborate on how they can link a cellular and functional mapping of an aggression-regulating circuit at a single-cell resolution level.

  17. Anatomical distribution of estrogen target neurons in turtle brain

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    Kim, Y.S.; Stumpf, W.E.; Sar, M. (North Carolina Univ., Chapel Hill (USA))


    Autoradiographic studies with (/sup 3/H)estradiol-17..beta.. in red-eared turtle (Pseudemys scripta elegans) show concentration and retention of radioactivity in nuclei of neurons in certain regions. Accumulations of estrogen target neurons exist in the periventricular brain with relationships to ventral extensions of the forebrain ventricles, including parolfactory, amygdaloid, septal, preoptic, hypothalamic and thalamic areas, as well as the dorsal ventricular ridge, the piriform cortex, and midbrain-pontine periaqueductal structures. The general anatomical pattern of distribution of estrogen target neurons corresponds to those observed not only in another reptile (Anolis carolinensis), but also in birds and mammals, as well as in teleosts and cyclostomes. In Pseudemys, which appears to display an intermediate degree of phylogenetic differentiation, the amygdaloid-septal-preoptic groups of estrogen target neurons constitute a continuum. In phylogenetic ascendency, e.g. in mammals, these cell populations are increasingly separated and distinct, while in phylogenetic descendency, e.g. in teleosts and cyclostomes, an amygdaloid group appears to be absent or contained within the septal-preoptic target cell population.

  18. Anatomical Study an the Development of Strawberry Fruit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The development of strawberry fruit, two cultivars-Gelila and Xiaoshi, was systematically studied by anatomical and embryological methods. The growth dynamics of fruit showed that the two cultivars performed similar changes with their fresh weight volume and structure, it included the first slow growth stage, the rapid growth stage and the second solw growth stage. The fruit was a typical polyachene with a ovule which belonged to a Poligonum type, the growth process of pollen tube from stigma to embryo sac was clearly observed by flourescence microscopy. Embryo development was similar to that of most dicotyls, and the mature embryo was orthotropous; Endosperm development was a nuclear type, and gradually disappeared with development:Seed coat consisted of 3~4 layer cells, and pericarp was composed of 6~8 layer cells which differentiated from ovary wall cell; The structure of receptacle was a typical stem which consisted of epidermis ,cortex and vascular cylinder. With development, the cortex and pith of fruit contained plentiful parenchyma tissue, and they were mainly edible sections.

  19. Anatomical correlates of cognitive functions in early Parkinson's disease patients.

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    Roberta Biundo

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cognitive deficits may occur early in Parkinson's disease (PD but the extent of cortical involvement associated with cognitive dysfunction needs additional investigations. The aim of our study is to identify the anatomical pattern of cortical thickness alterations in patients with early stage PD and its relationship with cognitive disability. METHODS: We recruited 29 PD patients and 21 healthy controls. All PD patients performed an extensive neuropsychological examination and 14 were diagnosed with mild cognitive impairment (PD-MCI. Surface-based cortical thickness analysis was applied to investigate the topographical distribution of cortical and subcortical alterations in early PD compared with controls and to assess the relationship between cognition and regional cortical changes in PD-MCI. RESULTS: Overall PD patients showed focal cortical (occipital-parietal areas, orbito-frontal and olfactory areas and subcortical thinning when compared with controls. PD-MCI showed a wide spectrum of cognitive deficits and related significant regional thickening in the right parietal-frontal as well as in the left temporal-occipital areas. CONCLUSION: Our results confirm the presence of changes in grey matter thickness at relatively early PD stage and support previous studies showing thinning and atrophy in the neocortex and subcortical regions. Relative cortical thickening in PD-MCI may instead express compensatory neuroplasticity. Brain reserve mechanisms might first modulate cognitive decline during the initial stages of PD.

  20. Arterial vascularization patterns of the splenium: An anatomical study. (United States)

    Kahilogullari, G; Comert, A; Ozdemir, M; Brohi, R A; Ozgural, O; Esmer, A F; Egemen, N; Karahan, S T


    The aim of this study was to provide detailed information about the arterial vascularization of the splenium of the corpus callosum (CC). The splenium is unique in that it is part of the largest commissural tract in the brain and a region in which pathologies are seen frequently. An exact description of the arterial vascularization of this part of the CC remains under debate. Thirty adult human brains (60 hemispheres) were obtained from routine autopsies. Cerebral arteries were separately cannulated and injected with colored latex. Then, the brains were fixed in formaldehyde, and dissections were performed using a surgical microscope. The diameter of the arterial branches supplying the splenium of the CC at their origin was investigated, and the vascularization patterns of these branches were observed. Vascular supply to the splenium was provided by the anterior pericallosal artery (40%) from the anterior circulation and by the posterior pericallosal artery (88%) and posterior accessory pericallosal artery (50%) from the posterior circulation. The vascularization pattern of the splenium differs in each hemisphere and is usually supplied by multiple branches. The arterial vascularization of the splenium of the CC was studied comprehensively considering the ongoing debate and the inadequacy of the studies on this issue currently available in the literature. This anatomical knowledge is essential during the treatment of pathologies in this region and especially for splenial arteriovenous malformations.

  1. Anatomical Characteristics and Biomechanical Properties of the Oblique Popliteal Ligament (United States)

    Wu, Xiang-Dong; Yu, Jin-Hui; Zou, Tao; Wang, Wei; LaPrade, Robert F.; Huang, Wei; Sun, Shan-Quan


    This anatomical study sought to investigate the morphological characteristics and biomechanical properties of the oblique popliteal ligament (OPL). Embalmed cadaveric knees were used for the study. The OPL and its surrounding structures were dissected; its morphology was carefully observed, analyzed and measured; its biomechanical properties were investigated. The origins and insertions of the OPL were relatively similar, but its overall shape was variable. The OPL had two origins: one originated from the posterior surface of the posteromedial tibia condyle, merged with fibers from the semimembranosus tendon, the other originated from the posteromedial part of the capsule. The two origins converged and coursed superolaterally, then attached to the fabella or to the tendon of the lateral head of the gastrocnemius and blended with the posterolateral joint capsule. The OPL was classified into Band-shaped, Y-shaped, Z-shaped, Trident-shaped, and Complex-shaped configurations. The mean length, width, and thickness of the OPL were 39.54, 22.59, and 1.44 mm, respectively. When an external rotation torque (18 N·m) was applied both before and after the OPL was sectioned, external rotation increased by 8.4° (P = 0.0043) on average. The OPL was found to have a significant role in preventing excessive external rotation and hyperextension of the knee. PMID:28205540

  2. Anatomical and physiological development of the human inner ear. (United States)

    Lim, Rebecca; Brichta, Alan M


    We describe the development of the human inner ear with the invagination of the otic vesicle at 4 weeks gestation (WG), the growth of the semicircular canals from 5 WG, and the elongation and coiling of the cochlea at 10 WG. As the membranous labyrinth takes shape, there is a concomitant development of the sensory neuroepithelia and their associated structures within. This review details the growth and differentiation of the vestibular and auditory neuroepithelia, including synaptogenesis, the expression of stereocilia and kinocilia, and innervation of hair cells by afferent and efferent nerve fibres. Along with development of essential sensory structures we outline the formation of crucial accessory structures of the vestibular system - the cupula and otolithic membrane and otoconia as well as the three cochlea compartments and the tectorial membrane. Recent molecular studies have elaborated on classical anatomical studies to characterize the development of prosensory and sensory regions of the fetal human cochlea using the transcription factors, PAX2, MAF-B, SOX2, and SOX9. Further advances are being made with recent physiological studies that are beginning to describe when hair cells become functionally active during human gestation. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Reviews 2016>.

  3. Ectopic parathyroid glands and their anatomical, clinical and surgical implications. (United States)

    Noussios, G; Anagnostis, P; Natsis, K


    Ectopic parathyroid glands result from aberrant migration during early stages of development and lack of successful identification may lead to lack of success in parathyroid surgery. They constitute a common etiology of persistent or recurrent hyperparathyroidism, when they are missed at initial diagnosis. Their prevalence is about 2-43% in anatomical series and up to 16% and 14% in patients with primary and secondary hyperparathyroidism, respectively. Ectopic inferior parathyroids are most frequently found in the anterior mediastinum, in association with the thymus or the thyroid gland, while the most common position for ectopic superior parathyroids is the tracheoesophageal groove and retroesophageal region. Neck ultrasound and 99mTc Sestamibi scan are first-line imaging modalities, although with low sensitivity and specificity. However, their combination with modern techniques, such as single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) alone or in combination with CT (SPECT/CT) increases their diagnostic accuracy. Fine needle-aspiration cytology of a lesion suspicious for parathyroid tissue and measurement of parathyroid hormone (PTH) in the aspired material further assist to the successful preoperative localization of ectopic glands. Common sites for surgical investigation are the upper thyroid pole and the upper vascular thyroid stalk behind the hypopharynx and cervical esophagus for the superior parathyroids, and the carotid artery bifurcation and the thymic tongue, for the inferior parathyroids. Radioguided minimally invasive parathyroidectomy after successful localization, assisted by rapid PTH measurement postoperatively, significantly improves surgical outcomes in patients with ectopic parathyroid adenomas.

  4. Identification of parathyroid glands: anatomical study and surgical implications. (United States)

    Melo, Catarina; Pinheiro, Susana; Carvalho, Lina; Bernardes, António


    While performing thyroid surgery, the unintentional lesion of parathyroid glands and laryngeal nerves results in a profound alteration in patient's quality of life. To minimize thyroid surgery morbidity, the surgeon must have an in-depth knowledge of the thyroid gland morphology and its anatomical relations in the anterior compartment of the neck. This work intended to simulate total thyroidectomies using cadaver parts and isolate fragments that may correspond to parathyroid glands. The thyroid glands and "eventual" parathyroid glands were then submitted to histological study. Ninety-two cadaver parts were used for macroscopic dissection. A total of 242 fragments were isolated, 154 of which were confirmed through histological study to be parathyroid glands. In 36 cases, all "eventual" parathyroid glands isolated during dissection were confirmed through histological verification. In 40 cases, some glands were confirmed. In 16 cases, none of the "eventual" parathyroid glands was confirmed. The 92 thyroid glands isolated during dissection were also submitted to histological study. In 21 thyroid glands, 16 parathyroid glands were identified in the histological cuts: 8 sub-capsular, 8 extra-capsular, 6 intra-thyroidal. There was no statistical difference between the dimensions of the parathyroid glands. Parathyroid gland identification and preservation are sometimes a challenge during thyroid surgery, difficulty that has been demonstrated during dissection of cadaver parts.

  5. Distally Based Iliotibial Band Flap: Anatomic Study with Surgical Considerations. (United States)

    Wong, Victor W; Higgins, James P


    Background Reconstruction of high-risk fascia, tendon, or ligament defects may benefit from vascularized tissue. The iliotibial band (ITB), a thick fibrous tract of connective tissue, serves as a potential donor site for free tissue transfer but its blood supply has not been thoroughly investigated. The aim of this anatomical study was to investigate the vascular supply to the distal ITB and its role as a free fascial flap. Methods We dissected 16 fresh-frozen cadaveric legs and injected latex into the superolateral geniculate artery (SLGA). A distal ITB fascial flap was designed and measurements were taken for flap dimensions, pedicle length and size, and SLGA perfusion territory. Results The SLGA perfused 11.5 ± 2.3 cm of distal ITB (proximal to the lateral femoral epicondyle) and provided 6.4 ± 0.7cm of pedicle length to the ITB flap. Conclusions Chimeric options to include bone (from the lateral femoral condyle), cartilage (from the lateral femoral trochlea), muscle (from vastus lateralis or biceps femoris), and skin are possible. Surgical harvest techniques are proposed, including preservation of ITB insertions to minimize lateral knee instability. Clinical validation is needed to determine the role of the distal ITB free fascial flap in reconstructive microsurgery.

  6. Estimating Fast Neural Input Using Anatomical and Functional Connectivity. (United States)

    Eriksson, David


    In the last 20 years there has been an increased interest in estimating signals that are sent between neurons and brain areas. During this time many new methods have appeared for measuring those signals. Here we review a wide range of methods for which connected neurons can be identified anatomically, by tracing axons that run between the cells, or functionally, by detecting if the activity of two neurons are correlated with a short lag. The signals that are sent between the neurons are represented by the activity in the neurons that are connected to the target population or by the activity at the corresponding synapses. The different methods not only differ in the accuracy of the signal measurement but they also differ in the type of signal being measured. For example, unselective recording of all neurons in the source population encompasses more indirect pathways to the target population than if one selectively record from the neurons that project to the target population. Infact, this degree of selectivity is similar to that of optogenetic perturbations; one can perturb selectively or unselectively. Thus it becomes possible to match a given signal measurement method with a signal perturbation method, something that allows for an exact input control to any neuronal population.

  7. The knee in full flexion: an anatomical study. (United States)

    Pinskerova, V; Samuelson, K M; Stammers, J; Maruthainar, K; Sosna, A; Freeman, M A R


    There has been only one limited report dating from 1941 using dissection which has described the tibiofemoral joint between 120 degrees and 160 degrees of flexion despite the relevance of this arc to total knee replacement. We now provide a full description having examined one living and eight cadaver knees using MRI, dissection and previously published cryosections in one knee. In the range of flexion from 120 degrees to 160 degrees the flexion facet centre of the medial femoral condyle moves back 5 mm and rises up on to the posterior horn of the medial meniscus. At 160 degrees the posterior horn is compressed in a synovial recess between the femoral cortex and the tibia. This limits flexion. The lateral femoral condyle also rolls back with the posterior horn of the lateral meniscus moving with the condyle. Both move down over the posterior tibia at 160 degrees of flexion. Neither the events between 120 degrees and 160 degrees nor the anatomy at 160 degrees could result from a continuation of the kinematics up to 120 degrees . Therefore hyperflexion is a separate arc. The anatomical and functional features of this arc suggest that it would be difficult to design an implant for total knee replacement giving physiological movement from 0 degrees to 160 degrees .

  8. Scalenus minimus muscle: overestimated or not? An anatomical study. (United States)

    Natsis, Konstantinos; Totlis, Trifon; Didagelos, Matthaios; Tsakotos, George; Vlassis, Konstantinos; Skandalakis, Panagiotis


    The wide range of scalenus minimus muscle incidence reported in the literature along with the plethora of fibromuscular structures that may appear in the interscalene triangle, having various terminologies, were the reasons to conduct the present study questioning the reported high incidence of this supernumerary scalene muscle. Seventy-three Greek cadavers were dissected and examined for the presence of a scalenus minimus muscle. It was found unilaterally in three of 73 (4.11%) cadavers studied. The literature review, concerning its incidence, revealed a wide range between 7.8 and 71.7 per cent, which cannot be attributed only to racial variation. Thus, there is a matter whether other variations of the scalene muscles are considered as a true scalenus minimus muscle. Recognition of this muscle is important not only for anatomists, but also has clinical significance for the diagnosis of the thoracic outlet syndrome. Surgeons performing scalenectomy and anesthesiologists during interscalene brachial plexus block should keep in mind the anatomical variations of this region.

  9. Rectal and colon cancer: Not just a different anatomic site. (United States)

    Tamas, K; Walenkamp, A M E; de Vries, E G E; van Vugt, M A T M; Beets-Tan, R G; van Etten, B; de Groot, D J A; Hospers, G A P


    Due to differences in anatomy, primary rectal and colon cancer require different staging procedures, different neo-adjuvant treatment and different surgical approaches. For example, neoadjuvant radiotherapy or chemoradiotherapy is administered solely for rectal cancer. Neoadjuvant therapy and total mesorectal excision for rectal cancer might be responsible in part for the differing effect of adjuvant systemic treatment on overall survival, which is more evident in colon cancer than in rectal cancer. Apart from anatomic divergences, rectal and colon cancer also differ in their embryological origin and metastatic patterns. Moreover, they harbor a different composition of drug targets, such as v-raf murine sarcoma viral oncogene homolog B (BRAF), which is preferentially mutated in proximal colon cancers, and the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), which is prevalently amplified or overexpressed in distal colorectal cancers. Despite their differences in metastatic pattern, composition of drug targets and earlier local treatment, metastatic rectal and colon cancer are, however, commonly regarded as one entity and are treated alike. In this review, we focused on rectal cancer and its biological and clinical differences and similarities relative to colon cancer. These aspects are crucial because they influence the current staging and treatment of these cancers, and might influence the design of future trials with targeted drugs.

  10. Anatomic and functional imaging of tagged molecules in animals (United States)

    Weisenberger, Andrew G.; Majewski, Stanislaw; Paulus, Michael J.; Gleason, Shaun S.


    A novel functional imaging system for use in the imaging of unrestrained and non-anesthetized small animals or other subjects and a method for acquiring such images and further registering them with anatomical X-ray images previously or subsequently acquired. The apparatus comprises a combination of an IR laser profilometry system and gamma, PET and/or SPECT, imaging system, all mounted on a rotating gantry, that permits simultaneous acquisition of positional and orientational information and functional images of an unrestrained subject that are registered, i.e. integrated, using image processing software to produce a functional image of the subject without the use of restraints or anesthesia. The functional image thus obtained can be registered with a previously or subsequently obtained X-ray CT image of the subject. The use of the system described herein permits functional imaging of a subject in an unrestrained/non-anesthetized condition thereby reducing the stress on the subject and eliminating any potential interference with the functional testing that such stress might induce.


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    Patrícia Aparecida Rigatto Castelo


    Full Text Available This study aimed to determine the dimensions of the wood fibers of Parkia gigantocarpa Ducke and their relations to pulp production. For determining the dimensions of the fibers were sampled three experimental planting trees 14 years of age and collected discs,without bark of the tree on the basis of 25, 50, 75 and 100% of the height of commercial trees. The samples were extracted from the discs. The macerated material slides were stained with safranin aqueous solution of 1%. For each sample were taken 30 measures in length, width and lumen diameter. The fibers had an average length of 1,63 mm, width of 48,40 μm; lumen diameter of 37,52 μm; wall thickness of 5,44 μm. The indices were obtained from Runkel 0,29; wall fraction of 22,47%; flexibility coefficient of 77,53% and felting index of 33,67. According to the anatomical properties evaluated, the specie in question has the potential to be used in pulp production. However, some additional studies are necessary for its complete characterization.

  12. Mandibular Ramus Fracture: An Overview of Rare Anatomical Subsite

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    Anendd Jadhav


    Full Text Available Aim. The present study aims at exemplifying the incidence, and aetiology and analyses the outcomes of open reduction internal fixation (ORIF over closed treatment of mandibular ramus fractures. Patients and Method. In the present retrospective analysis of mandibular fracture patients, variables analysed were age, sex, cause of injury, pretreatment occlusion, treatment given, period of maxillo-mandibular fixation (MMF, and posttreatment occlusion. Results. Out of 388 mandibular fractures treated, ramus fractures were 12 (3.09%. In the present study, predominant cause of mandibular ramus fracture was road traffic accident (RTA n = 07 (58.33% followed by fall n = 04 (33.33% and assault n = 1 (8.33%. The average age was 35.9 years with a male predilection. Of these, 9 patients were treated with ORIF while remaining 3 with closed treatment. The average MMF after closed treatment was 21 days and 3 to 5 days after ORIF. There was improvement in occlusion in all 12 patients posttreatment with no major complication except for reduced mouth opening in cases treated with ORIF which recovered with physiotherapy and muscle relaxants. Conclusion. Mandibular ramus fractures accounted for 3.09% with RTA as a common aetiology. ORIF of ramus fractures facilitated adequate functional and anatomic reduction with early return of function.

  13. CBCT Assessment of Mental Foramen Position Relative to Anatomical Landmarks (United States)

    Sheikhi, Mahnaz


    Purpose. This study was carried out on an Iranian population aiming to investigate mental foramen position relative to inferior border of mandible and skeletal midline and its gender and age differences on CBCT projections. Materials and Methods. A number of 180 CBCT images of patients were analyzed in different planes (tangential, cross-sectional, and axial). The distances from the superior border of mental foramen to the inferior border of mandible and from the anterior border of mental foramen to the midline were calculated. Results. The mean distance from mental foramen to the inferior border of mandible in the right side was 13.26 mm (SD ± 2.34) and in the left side was 13.37 mm (SD ± 2.19). There was a statistically significant difference between genders in terms of the distance between mental foramen and inferior border of mandible (P value = 0.000). The mean distances from mental foramen to midline were 25.86 mm (SD ± 0.27) and 25.53 mm (SD ± 0.31) in the right and left sides, respectively. Conclusions. The vertical and horizontal positions of mental foramen can be determined from stable anatomical landmarks such as mandibular inferior border and skeletal midline in both dentulous and edentulous patients. The distance from the superior border of mental foramen to the inferior border of mandible exhibited sexual dimorphism. PMID:27999594

  14. Anatomical causes of female infertility and their management. (United States)

    Abrao, Mauricio S; Muzii, Ludovico; Marana, Riccardo


    The main female anatomical causes of infertility include post-infectious tubal damage, endometriosis, and congenital/acquired uterine anomalies. Congenital (septate uterus) and acquired (myomas and synechiae) diseases of the uterus may lead to infertility, pregnancy loss, and other obstetric complications. Pelvic inflammatory disease represents the most common cause of tubal damage. Surgery still remains an important option for tubal factor infertility, with results in terms of reproductive outcome that compare favorably with those of in vitro fertilization. Endometriosis is a common gynecologic condition affecting women of reproductive age, which can cause pain and infertility. The cause of infertility associated with endometriosis remains elusive, suggesting a multifactorial mechanism involving immunologic, genetic, and environmental factors. Despite the high prevalence of endometriosis, the exact mechanisms of its pathogenesis are unknown. Specific combinations of medical, surgical, and psychological treatments can ameliorate the quality of life of women with endometriosis. In the majority of cases, surgical treatment of endometriosis has promoted significant increases in fertilization rates. There are obvious associations between endometriosis and the immune system, and future strategies to treat endometriosis might be based on immunologic concepts.

  15. Anatomical structure of lingual foramen in cone beam computed tomography

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    Ki, Min Woo; Hwang, Eui Hwan; Lee, Sang Rae [Kyunghee University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    To evaluate whether cone beam computed tomography can depict the distribution, position, frequency, relative vertical dimension, and the diameter of the lingual foramen and direction of lingual bone canal. Cone beam computed tomography of mandible was performed on 25 males and 25 females with no history of any orthodontic treatments or any other dental surgeries. A statistical comparison was done on the mean values of males and females. In the location and distribution of lingual foramina, median lingual foramen was found in all subjects and lateral lingual foramen in 58%. In the lateral lingual foramen, bilateral type was found in 28% and unilateral type in 30%. In the number of lingual foramina, median lingual foramen had two foramina and lateral lingual foramen had one foramen, mostly. In the relative mean vertical dimension of lingual foramina, median lingual foramen was 0.03 {+-} 0.08, and both lateral lingual foramina was 0.20 {+-} 0.04. The mean diameter of lingual foramina, median lingual foramen was 0.9 mm {+-} 0.28, right lateral lingual foramen was 0.92 mm {+-} 0.23, and left lateral lingual foramen was 0.88 mm {+-} 0.27. The most frequent direction of the lingual bone canals, median lingual bone canal proceeded in anteroinferior direction and lateral lingual bone canal in anterosuperolateral direction. Cone beam computed tomography can be helpful for surgery and implantation on the mandibular area. Radiologist should be aware of this anatomical feature and its possible implications.

  16. Lessons about neurodevelopment from anatomical magnetic resonance imaging. (United States)

    Silk, Timothy J; Wood, Amanda G


    The arrival of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has offered major advances in our understanding of both normal and abnormal neurodevelopment. This review is a broad overview of the key findings that anatomical MRI research has provided in regard to the normal developing brain and presents key issues and consideration in pediatric imaging. Volumetric MRI studies, using various methods, have reliably found that gray-matter volume increases and peaks in late childhood, followed by a slow but continued loss, whereas white matter increases rapidly until age 10 years with continued development well beyond adolescence. The introduction of analysis techniques, such as voxel-based morphometry, cortical thickness measures, and cortical pattern mapping, have begun to answer more regionally specific questions. Pediatric neuroimaging studies carry specific requirements, given not only the high degree of variability between individuals, ages, and sexes but also issues of behavioral compliance, MR signal, and postprocessing methodologies such as appropriate normalization. Considerations in future pediatric imaging studies are presented. Ultimately, the promise of computational analysis of structural MRI data is to understand how changes in cerebral morphology relate to acquisition and enhancement of skills and behaviors in typical and atypical development.

  17. Automatic anatomical structures location based on dynamic shape measurement (United States)

    Witkowski, Marcin; Rapp, Walter; Sitnik, Robert; Kujawinska, Malgorzata; Vander Sloten, Jos; Haex, Bart; Bogaert, Nico; Heitmann, Kjell


    New image processing methods and active photonics apparatus have made possible the development of relatively inexpensive optical systems for complex shape and object measurements. We present dynamic 360° scanning method for analysis of human lower body biomechanics, with an emphasis on the analysis of the knee joint. The anatomical structure (of high medical interest) that is possible to scan and analyze, is patella. Tracking of patella position and orientation under dynamic conditions may lead to detect pathological patella movements and help in knee joint disease diagnosis. The processed data is obtained from a dynamic laser triangulation surface measurement system, able to capture slow to normal movements with a scan frequency between 15 and 30 Hz. These frequency rates are enough to capture controlled movements used e.g. for medical examination purposes. The purpose of the work presented is to develop surface analysis methods that may be used as support of diagnosis of motoric abilities of lower limbs. The paper presents algorithms used to process acquired lower limbs surface data in order to find the position and orientation of patella. The algorithms implemented include input data preparation, curvature description methods, knee region discrimination and patella assumed position/orientation calculation. Additionally, a method of 4D (3D + time) medical data visualization is proposed. Also some exemplary results are presented.

  18. Anatomical predictors of aphasia recovery: a tractography study of bilateral perisylvian language networks. (United States)

    Forkel, Stephanie J; Thiebaut de Schotten, Michel; Dell'Acqua, Flavio; Kalra, Lalit; Murphy, Declan G M; Williams, Steven C R; Catani, Marco


    Stroke-induced aphasia is associated with adverse effects on quality of life and the ability to return to work. For patients and clinicians the possibility of relying on valid predictors of recovery is an important asset in the clinical management of stroke-related impairment. Age, level of education, type and severity of initial symptoms are established predictors of recovery. However, anatomical predictors are still poorly understood. In this prospective longitudinal study, we intended to assess anatomical predictors of recovery derived from diffusion tractography of the perisylvian language networks. Our study focused on the arcuate fasciculus, a language pathway composed of three segments connecting Wernicke's to Broca's region (i.e. long segment), Wernicke's to Geschwind's region (i.e. posterior segment) and Broca's to Geschwind's region (i.e. anterior segment). In our study we were particularly interested in understanding how lateralization of the arcuate fasciculus impacts on severity of symptoms and their recovery. Sixteen patients (10 males; mean age 60 ± 17 years, range 28-87 years) underwent post stroke language assessment with the Revised Western Aphasia Battery and neuroimaging scanning within a fortnight from symptoms onset. Language assessment was repeated at 6 months. Backward elimination analysis identified a subset of predictor variables (age, sex, lesion size) to be introduced to further regression analyses. A hierarchical regression was conducted with the longitudinal aphasia severity as the dependent variable. The first model included the subset of variables as previously defined. The second model additionally introduced the left and right arcuate fasciculus (separate analysis for each segment). Lesion size was identified as the only independent predictor of longitudinal aphasia severity in the left hemisphere [beta = -0.630, t(-3.129), P = 0.011]. For the right hemisphere, age [beta = -0.678, t(-3.087), P = 0.010] and volume of the long

  19. An anatomically structured sensory-motor sequence learning system displays some general linguistic capacities. (United States)

    Dominey, P F


    The capacity in primates to master temporal-sequential constraints from the external world might provide a basis for accommodating similar constraints in language. While the neural specialization required for language clearly distinguishes man from the other primates, it is less clear to what extent this specialization constitutes a drastic neurophysiological divergence versus a variation on an existing sequencing capability. In an effort to address this issue, an anatomically structured neural network model, previously developed to reproduce complex sensory-motor sequences and the corresponding single-unit recordings from primate prefrontal cortex, is studied in a simple linguistic context. The model is presented sentences from a small language and demonstrates a simple capacity to "understand" and generalize at different levels. Interactions between variations on (a) the model architecture and (b) the target language structure agree with data from crosslinguistic aphasia studies. These results support the hypothesis that a brain architecture for nonlinguistic cognitive functions (in this case sensory-motor sequencing) can provide a basis for a general sequence processing component of linguistic function.

  20. The Anatomical Institute at the University of Greifswald during National Socialism: The procurement of bodies and their use for anatomical purposes. (United States)

    Alvermann, Dirk; Mittenzwei, Jan


    This is the first comprehensive account of body procurement at the Anatomical Institute at Greifswald University during National Socialism (NS). As in all other German anatomical departments, the bodies received during this period included increasing numbers of victims of the NS regime. Prior to 1939, 90% of all bodies came from hospitals, state nursing homes and mental institutions (Heil- und Pflegeanstalten), but dropped to less than 30% after 1941. While the total catchment area for body procurement decreased, the number of suppliers increased and included prisons, POW camps, Gestapo offices and military jurisdiction authorities. Among the 432 documented bodies delivered to the institute, 132 came from state nursing homes and mental institutions, mainly from Ueckermünde. These were bodies of persons, who probably were victims of "euthanasia" crimes. The Anatomical Institute also procured 46 bodies of forced laborers, of whom at least twelve had been executed. Other groups of victims included 21 bodies of executed Wehrmacht soldiers and 16 Russian prisoners of war from the camp Stalag II C in Greifswald, who had died of starvation and exhaustion. From 1941 onwards, the number of bodies delivered from prisons and penitentiaries greatly increased. In total, 60 bodies of prisoners, mainly from the penitentiary in Gollnow, were delivered to the Anatomical Institute. Greifswald Anatomical Institute was not just a passive recipient of bodies from all of these sources, but the anatomists actively lobbied with the authorities for an increased body supply for teaching and research purposes.

  1. Small-world anatomical networks in the human brain revealed by cortical thickness from MRI. (United States)

    He, Yong; Chen, Zhang J; Evans, Alan C


    An important issue in neuroscience is the characterization for the underlying architectures of complex brain networks. However, little is known about the network of anatomical connections in the human brain. Here, we investigated large-scale anatomical connection patterns of the human cerebral cortex using cortical thickness measurements from magnetic resonance images. Two areas were considered anatomically connected if they showed statistically significant correlations in cortical thickness and we constructed the network of such connections using 124 brains from the International Consortium for Brain Mapping database. Significant short- and long-range connections were found in both intra- and interhemispheric regions, many of which were consistent with known neuroanatomical pathways measured by human diffusion imaging. More importantly, we showed that the human brain anatomical network had robust small-world properties with cohesive neighborhoods and short mean distances between regions that were insensitive to the selection of correlation thresholds. Additionally, we also found that this network and the probability of finding a connection between 2 regions for a given anatomical distance had both exponentially truncated power-law distributions. Our results demonstrated the basic organizational principles for the anatomical network in the human brain compatible with previous functional networks studies, which provides important implications of how functional brain states originate from their structural underpinnings. To our knowledge, this study provides the first report of small-world properties and degree distribution of anatomical networks in the human brain using cortical thickness measurements.

  2. Anatomical Mercury: Changing Understandings of Quicksilver, Blood, and the Lymphatic System, 1650-1800. (United States)

    Hendriksen, Marieke M A


    The use of mercury as an injection mass in anatomical experiments and preparations was common throughout Europe in the long eighteenth century, and refined mercury-injected preparations as well as plates of anatomical mercury remain today. The use and meaning of mercury in related disciplines such as medicine and chemistry in the same period have been studied, but our knowledge of anatomical mercury is sparse and tends to focus on technicalities. This article argues that mercury had a distinct meaning in anatomy, which was initially influenced by alchemical and classical understandings of mercury. Moreover, it demonstrates that the choice of mercury as an anatomical injection mass was deliberate and informed by an intricate cultural understanding of its materiality, and that its use in anatomical preparations and its perception as an anatomical material evolved with the understanding of the circulatory and lymphatic systems. By using the material culture of anatomical mercury as a starting point, I seek to provide a new, object-driven interpretation of complex and strongly interrelated historiographical categories such as mechanism, vitalism, chemistry, anatomy, and physiology, which are difficult to understand through a historiography that focuses exclusively on ideas.

  3. The anatomical variations of sylvian veins and cisterns. (United States)

    Aydin, I H; Tüzün, Y; Takçi, E; Kadioğlu, H H; Kayaoğlu, C R; Barlas, E


    The anatomical variations of sylvian vein and cistern were investigated during the pterional approach in 750 operative cases with different pathologies. All patients were operated on at the Neurosurgical Department of Ataturk University Medical School, Erzurum, Turkiye. The patients underwent surgery for the lesions necessitating the right or left pterional approach. The findings were recorded during surgical intervention and observed through the operative sketches of the pathologies, the slides, and videotapes of the operations. In our study, we surgically classified the variations of sylvian vein, according to its branching and draining patterns. Type I: The fronto-orbital (frontosylvian), fronto-parietal (parietosylvian) and anterior temporal (temporosylvian) veins drain into one sylvian vein. Type II: Two superficial sylvian veins with separated basal vein draining into the sphenoparietal and Rosenthal's basal vein. Type III: Two superficial sylvian veins draining into the sphenoparietal and the superior petrosal veins. Type IV: Hypoplastic superficial sylvian vein and the deep one. Four types of sylvian vein variations were defined as follows. The type I was seen in 52.8% (n = 396), the type II was found in 19.2% (n = 144), type III was recorded in 18.2% (n = 137), and type IV, or hypoplastic and deep form was discovered in 9.8% (n = 73) of patients. The coursing of sylvian vein was in the temporal side (Temporal Coursing) in 62.4 percent of the cases (n = 469), in the frontal side (Frontal Coursing) in 25 % of the patients (n = 187) and in 9 percent of the cases (n = 67) in the deep localization (Deep Coursing). Only 3.6% of the cases (n = 27) showed Mixed Coursing. The variations of the sylvian cisterns were classified into three types, according to the relationships between the lateral fronto-orbital gyrus and the superior temporal gyrus. In Sylvian type, the frontal and temporal lobes are loosely (Sylvian Type A, wide and large) or tightly (Sylvian Type B

  4. Anatomical specializations for enhanced olfactory sensitivity in kiwi, Apteryx mantelli. (United States)

    Corfield, Jeremy R; Eisthen, Heather L; Iwaniuk, Andrew N; Parsons, Stuart


    The ability to function in a nocturnal and ground-dwelling niche requires a unique set of sensory specializations. The New Zealand kiwi has shifted away from vision, instead relying on auditory and tactile stimuli to function in its environment and locate prey. Behavioral evidence suggests that kiwi also rely on their sense of smell, using olfactory cues in foraging and possibly also in communication and social interactions. Anatomical studies appear to support these observations: the olfactory bulbs and tubercles have been suggested to be large in the kiwi relative to other birds, although the extent of this enlargement is poorly understood. In this study, we examine the size of the olfactory bulbs in kiwi and compare them with 55 other bird species, including emus, ostriches, rheas, tinamous, and 2 extinct species of moa (Dinornithiformes). We also examine the cytoarchitecture of the olfactory bulbs and olfactory epithelium to determine if any neural specializations beyond size are present that would increase olfactory acuity. Kiwi were a clear outlier in our analysis, with olfactory bulbs that are proportionately larger than those of any other bird in this study. Emus, close relatives of the kiwi, also had a relative enlargement of the olfactory bulbs, possibly supporting a phylogenetic link to well-developed olfaction. The olfactory bulbs in kiwi are almost in direct contact with the olfactory epithelium, which is indeed well developed and complex, with olfactory receptor cells occupying a large percentage of the epithelium. The anatomy of the kiwi olfactory system supports an enhancement for olfactory sensitivities, which is undoubtedly associated with their unique nocturnal niche.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Objective To investigate the vascular anatomy of the subcutaneous tissues and fascias of the leg. Methods Four fresh cadaver legs which had been injected with colored latex were dissected under magnification to identify the origin, course an distribution of vessels from the subfascial level to the skin. The adipofascial flap was harvested from the whole medial side of the leg and fascial flap from other leg of the same cadaver. The posterior tibial artery and its first and second supra-malleolus septal arteries were retained in these flaps. Selective injection of China ink through posterior tibial artery was carried out, and dimension of ink- stained areas was recorded. Results Three main trunk vessels of the leg gave off branches to deep fascia and subcutaneous tissues, forming a large vascular plexus in the subcutaneous tissues on the deep fascia and a deli- cate, but dense and well anastomosed vascular plexus beneath the deep fascia. The vascular plexus in the subcu- taneous tissues ran deeper than the superficial venous system. The areas stained by selective injection in adipo- fascial flaps were larger than those in the fascial flaps. Conclusion Subcutaneous tissues and deep fascia can be considered as an anatomic entity nourished by two very well developed vascular networks which lie on both sides of deep fascia. Incorporation of the deep fascia can not only protect the subcutaneous tissue from being lacerated during raising of the flap, but also enhance vascularity of the adipofascial flap. Leaving superficial veins intact while raising the skin flap does not jeopardize the vascular plexus in the subcutaneous tissues and can preserve the superficial lymnphatic vessels, so that postoperative edema of the flap or the leg could be avoided.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. S. Kaysheva


    Full Text Available Morphological and anatomical features of thalluses of brown (Laminaria saccharina, Fucus vesiculosus and red (Ahnfeltia plicata algae, procured at a coastal strip of the Northern basin in gulfs of Ura-Guba and Palkina-Guba at different depths. Compliance of Fucus and Ahnfeltia with pharmacopoeial norms and merchandising indices for Laminaria was established, except for high concentration of sand in Ahnfeltia thalluses. The identity of algae between each other was shown based on the results of qualitative analysis on polysaccharides, alginic acids, reducing sugars, iodine, mannitol, amino acids presence. Quantitative content of polysaccharides, alginic acids, reducing sugars, pentosans, iodine, cellulose, mannitol, proteins, lipids, agar was determined. In comparison with Fucus and Ahnfeltia higher concentration of the following content was noted in Laminaria: alginic acids (1.4 and 5.75 times higher, polysaccharides (1.3 and 1.4 times, iodine (4.5 and 1.8 times, mannatol (1.5 and 2.5 times (data received is statistically reliable. Impropriety of storm algae for processing was shown as law quality raw material. The highest concentration of active substances was revealed in Laminaria thalluses which were procured at the depth of 10 m in a period from September to October. Active accumulation of sodium, potassium, calcium, iron, magnesium, manganese corresponding to similar sea water composition was established in algae. Mathematical equations of regression between protein and manganese, protein and iron content in algae were deduced. Under proper conditions of drying and storage high quality of the materials can be preserved during 3 years. Based on the findings of photochemical researches, taking into account squares of plantations and possible exploitation stocks, the possibility and prospectivity of industrial processing of Fucus vesiculosus and Ahnfeltia plicata together with Laminaria saccharina as plant sources of polysaccharides (mainly

  7. Angelman syndrome: A review highlighting musculoskeletal and anatomical aberrations. (United States)

    Sachdeva, Rohit; Donkers, Sarah J; Kim, Soo Y


    Angelman's syndrome (AS) is a genetic neurodevelopment disorder. The cause is a known abnormality involving the maternal inherited ubiquitin-protein ligase (UBE3A) gene. Clinical characteristics universal to the disorder are well documented in the literature and include developmental delay, seizures, ataxia, altered tone, severely impaired speech and intellect, as well as an overall happy demeanor, frequent bouts of laughter, and hypermotoric behavior. Associated with this disorder are several musculoskeletal aberrations. To date, a review of case studies reporting on these musculoskeletal changes has not been carried out. Thus, the purpose of this paper was to provide an overview of the musculoskeletal changes present in individuals with AS. In our review of 21 case reports from 1965-2013, the most consistently reported anatomical changes were of the craniofacial region. These include microcephaly, brachycephaly, a palpable occipital groove, prognathism, and wide spaced teeth. Other musculoskeletal abnormalities less frequently reported in the literature include scoliosis, excessive lumbar lordosis, and pes planus. Given that the majority of the case reports reviewed was of young children, the possibility of underreporting musculoskeletal changes which may manifest in the later years of life may be present. Early diagnosis and interventions to minimize secondary complications are crucial to maintain quality of life. An overall multidisciplinary approach is emphasized to maximize developmental potential for these individuals. Future prospective studies that follow patients into adulthood are needed to better understand the prevalence and development of secondary musculoskeletal changes, which in turn can inform intervention techniques and preventative measures. Clin. Anat. 29:561-567, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Evolving anatomic and electrophysiologic considerations associated with Fontan conversion. (United States)

    Mavroudis, Constantine; Backer, Carl Lewis; Deal, Barbara J; Stewart, Robert D; Franklin, Wayne H; Tsao, Sabrina; Ward, Kendra


    The principles of Fontan conversion with arrhythmia surgery are to restore the cardiac anatomy by converting the original atriopulmonary connection to a total cavopulmonary artery extracardiac connection and treat the underlying atrial arrhythmias. Successful outcomes of this procedure are dependent on a thorough understanding of several factors: the patient's fundamental diagnosis of single-ventricle anatomy, the resultant cardiac configuration from the original atriopulmonary Fontan connection, right atrial dilatation that leads to atrial flutter or fibrillation, and associated congenital cardiac anomalies. The purpose of this article is to present some of the more challenging anatomic and electrophysiologic problems we have encountered with Fontan conversion and arrhythmia surgery and the innovative solutions we have used to treat them. The cases reviewed herein include: takedown of a Bjork-Fontan modification, right ventricular hypertension and tricuspid regurgitation after atriopulmonary Fontan for pulmonary atresia and intact ventricular septum, takedown of atrioventricular valve isolation patch for right-sided maze procedure, resultant hemodynamic considerations leading to intraoperative pulmonary vein stenosis after Fontan conversion, unwanted inferior vena cava retraction during the extracardiac connection, right atrial cannulation in the presence of a right atrial clot, distended left superior vena cava causing left pulmonary vein stenosis, dropped atrial septum, and the modified right-sided maze procedure for various single-ventricle pathology. Since 1994 we have performed Fontan conversion with arrhythmia surgery on 109 patients with a 0.9% mortality rate. We attribute our program's success in no small measure to the strong collaborative efforts of the cardiothoracic surgery and cardiology teams.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodica BERCU


    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to present the morphometric and anatomical features of three species of Citrus L. fruits: Citrus reticulata Blanco, Citrus× sinensis Osbeck and Citrus maragarita Lour. Morphometrically were determined the length, width, area and volume for 10 fruits of each species. Anatomically, were analyzed the exocarp and mesocarp tissues, including the secretory cavities and endocarp components, respectively the number of carpels (segments and the length of the juice vesicles. The studied species fruits disclose both similarities and differences concerning their morphometric and anatomical features.

  10. Integrating anatomical and functional imaging for the assessment of coronary artery disease. (United States)

    Lee, Andrea K Y; Qutub, Mohammed A; Aljizeeri, Ahmed; Chow, Benjamin J W


    Coronary artery disease (CAD) is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality. Invasive cardiac angiography with fractional flow reserve measurement allows for the anatomical and functional assessment of CAD. Given the invasive nature of invasive cardiac angiography and the risks of procedure-related complications, research has focused upon noninvasive methods for anatomical and functional measures of CAD. As such, there is growing interest in the development of hybrid imaging because it may provide incremental diagnostic information over each imaging modality alone. We will provide an overview of the evidence to date on the anatomical and functional stratification of CAD and current hybrid techniques.

  11. Learning from redundant but inconsistent reference data: anatomical views and measurements for fetal brain screening (United States)

    Waechter-Stehle, I.; Klinder, T.; Rouet, J.-M.; Roundhill, D.; Andrews, G.; Cavallaro, A.; Molloholli, M.; Norris, T.; Napolitano, R.; Papageorghiou, A.; Lorenz, C.


    In a fetal brain screening examination, a standardized set of anatomical views is inspected and certain biometric measurements are taken in these views. Acquisition of recommended planes requires a certain level of operator expertise. 3D ultrasound has the potential to reduce the manual task to only capture a volume containing the head and to subsequently determine the standard 2D views and measurements automatically. For this purpose, a segmentation model of the fetal brain was created and trained with expert annotations. It was found that the annotations show a considerable intra- and inter-observer variability. To handle the variability, we propose a method to train the model with redundant but inconsistent reference data from many expert users. If the outlier-cleaned average of all reference annotations is considered as ground truth, errors of the automatic view detection are lower than the errors of all individual users and errors of the measurements are in the same range as user error. The resulting functionality allows the completely automated estimation of views and measurements in 3D fetal ultrasound images.

  12. Functional and anatomical evidence of cerebral tissue hypoxia in young sickle cell anemia mice. (United States)

    Cahill, Lindsay S; Gazdzinski, Lisa M; Tsui, Albert Ky; Zhou, Yu-Qing; Portnoy, Sharon; Liu, Elaine; Mazer, C David; Hare, Gregory Mt; Kassner, Andrea; Sled, John G


    Cerebral ischemia is a significant source of morbidity in children with sickle cell anemia; however, the mechanism of injury is poorly understood. Increased cerebral blood flow and low hemoglobin levels in children with sickle cell anemia are associated with increased stroke risk, suggesting that anemia-induced tissue hypoxia may be an important factor contributing to subsequent morbidity. To better understand the pathophysiology of brain injury, brain physiology and morphology were characterized in a transgenic mouse model, the Townes sickle cell model. Relative to age-matched controls, sickle cell anemia mice demonstrated: (1) decreased brain tissue pO2 and increased expression of hypoxia signaling protein in the perivascular regions of the cerebral cortex; (2) elevated basal cerebral blood flow , consistent with adaptation to anemia-induced tissue hypoxia; (3) significant reduction in cerebrovascular blood flow reactivity to a hypercapnic challenge; (4) increased diameter of the carotid artery; and (5) significant volume changes in white and gray matter regions in the brain, as assessed by ex vivo magnetic resonance imaging. Collectively, these findings support the hypothesis that brain tissue hypoxia contributes to adaptive physiological and anatomic changes in Townes sickle cell mice. These findings may help define the pathophysiology for stroke in children with sickle cell anemia.

  13. [Anatomical Vitamin C-Research during National Socialism and the Post-war Period: Max Clara's Human Experiments at the Munich Anatomical Institute]. (United States)

    Schûtz, Mathias; Schochow, Maximilian; Waschke, Jens; Marckmann, Georg; Steger, Florian


    In autumn of 1942, Max Clara (1899-1966) became chairman of the anatomical institute Munich. There, he intensified his research concerning the proof of vitamin C with the bodies of executed prisoners which were delivered by the Munich-Stadelheim prison. This research on human organs was pursued by applying ascorbic acid (Cebion) to prisoners before their execution. The paper investigates this intensified and radicalized anatomical research through human experiments, which Max Clara conducted in Munich and published from Istanbul during the postwar years, as well as its scientific references from the Nazi period.

  14. Use of contextual inquiry to understand anatomic pathology workflow: Implications for digital pathology adoption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonhan Ho


    Full Text Available Background: For decades anatomic pathology (AP workflow have been a highly manual process based on the use of an optical microscope and glass slides. Recent innovations in scanning and digitizing of entire glass slides are accelerating a move toward widespread adoption and implementation of a workflow based on digital slides and their supporting information management software. To support the design of digital pathology systems and ensure their adoption into pathology practice, the needs of the main users within the AP workflow, the pathologists, should be identified. Contextual inquiry is a qualitative, user-centered, social method designed to identify and understand users′ needs and is utilized for collecting, interpreting, and aggregating in-detail aspects of work. Objective: Contextual inquiry was utilized to document current AP workflow, identify processes that may benefit from the introduction of digital pathology systems, and establish design requirements for digital pathology systems that will meet pathologists′ needs. Materials and Methods: Pathologists were observed and interviewed at a large academic medical center according to contextual inquiry guidelines established by Holtzblatt et al. 1998. Notes representing user-provided data were documented during observation sessions. An affinity diagram, a hierarchal organization of the notes based on common themes in the data, was created. Five graphical models were developed to help visualize the data including sequence, flow, artifact, physical, and cultural models. Results: A total of six pathologists were observed by a team of two researchers. A total of 254 affinity notes were documented and organized using a system based on topical hierarchy, including 75 third-level, 24 second-level, and five main-level categories, including technology, communication, synthesis/preparation, organization, and workflow. Current AP workflow was labor intensive and lacked scalability. A large number

  15. Anatomical Features of the Scots Pine Stem Phloem After Forest FireAnatomical Features of the Scots Pine Stem Phloem After Forest Fire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Stasova


    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to study changes in anatomical structure of phloem tissue in pine (Pinus sylvestris L. stems influenced by creeping forest fires of various rates. The experiments were carried out in the Lower Angara river region of the Angara provenance, Krasnoyarsk Krai, Central Siberia. The trees with green crowns and different fire damaged butts were chosen as models. Control (undamaged trees were taken from stands adjacent to experimental plots. The changes of inner bark thickness, number of phloem annual layers between cambium and periderm and number of cells in conductive phloem were found in the stem side opposite to fire scars. The structure fluctuations of phloem tissue were detected: disturbances of sieve cell arrangement, phloem ray enlargements, resin canal overgrowth and formation of great resin ducts. The lignin accumulation was observed in inner bark and a large amount of callusing was detected between conductive and nonconductive phloem. Over the course of time, repairing of tissues occurred and the normal inner bark structure and chemistry (without lignin were restored. The creeping fire of low intensity caused the maximal changes of phloem quantitative characteristics in trees with bark charring and these tendencies were stored after eight years. After creeping fire of high intensity the tendency for phloem thickening in trees with one fire scar and to thinning in strongly damaged trees were revealed. Also tendencies to decrease of the number of phloem annual layers, number of sieve cells in conductive phloem and ray frequency with increasing of stem injury degree were observed, besides axial parenchyma percentage trended to increase. Eight years after fire these tendencies were often not visible.

  16. Avoiding the ventricle : a simple step to improve accuracy of anatomical targeting during deep brain stimulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zrinzo, Ludvic; van Hulzen, Arjen L. J.; Gorgulho, Alessandra A.; Limousin, Patricia; Staal, Michiel J.; De Salles, Antonio A. F.; Hariz, Marwan I.


    Object. The authors examined the accuracy of anatomical targeting during electrode implantation for deep brain stimulation in functional neurosurgical procedures. Special attention was focused on the impact that ventricular involvement of the electrode trajectory had on targeting accuracy. Methods.

  17. Trends in epidemiology and patho-anatomical pattern of proximal humeral fractures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahrs, Christian; Stojicevic, Tanja; Tanja, Stojicevic;


    PURPOSE: Proximal humeral fractures are common and frequently associated with osteoporosis. Little is known about the association between the patho-anatomical fracture pattern of proximal humeral fractures and patient characteristics. The purpose of this six year longitudinal registry analysis...

  18. Vitrectomy for posterior segment intraocular foreign bodies, visual and anatomical outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalil Ghasemi Falavarjani


    Conclusions: High anatomical success could be achieved after the removal of posterior segment IOFBs by vitrectomy, despite a delay in surgery. Poor visual outcome may be mainly due to the initial ocular injury.

  19. Three-Dimensional Display Technologies for Anatomical Education: A Literature Review (United States)

    Hackett, Matthew; Proctor, Michael


    Anatomy is a foundational component of biological sciences and medical education and is important for a variety of clinical tasks. To augment current curriculum and improve students' spatial knowledge of anatomy, many educators, anatomists, and researchers use three-dimensional (3D) visualization technologies. This article reviews 3D display technologies and their associated assessments for anatomical education. In the first segment, the review covers the general function of displays employing 3D techniques. The second segment of the review highlights the use and assessment of 3D technology in anatomical education, focusing on factors such as knowledge gains, student perceptions, and cognitive load. The review found 32 articles on the use of 3D displays in anatomical education and another 38 articles on the assessment of 3D displays. The review shows that the majority (74 %) of studies indicate that the use of 3D is beneficial for many tasks in anatomical education, and that student perceptions are positive toward the technology.

  20. The relationship of anatomical and functional connectivity to resting-state connectivity in primate somatosensory cortex. (United States)

    Wang, Zheng; Chen, Li Min; Négyessy, László; Friedman, Robert M; Mishra, Arabinda; Gore, John C; Roe, Anna W


    Studies of resting-state activity in the brain have provoked critical questions about the brain's functional organization, but the biological basis of this activity is not clear. Specifically, the relationships between interregional correlations in resting-state measures of activity, neuronal functional connectivity and anatomical connectivity are much debated. To investigate these relationships, we have examined both anatomical and steady-state functional connectivity within the hand representation of primary somatosensory cortex (areas 3b and 1) in anesthetized squirrel monkeys. The comparison of three data sets (fMRI, electrophysiological, and anatomical) indicate two primary axes of information flow within the SI: prominent interdigit interactions within area 3b and predominantly homotopic interactions between area 3b and area 1. These data support a strikingly close relationship between baseline functional connectivity and anatomical connections. This study extends findings derived from large-scale cortical networks to the realm of local millimeter-scale networks.

  1. Current and future anatomical and functional imaging approaches to pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmers, H.J.L.M.; Taieb, D.; Pacak, K.


    After establishing a biochemical diagnosis, pheochromocytomas and extra-adrenal paragangliomas (PPGLs) can be localized using different anatomical and functional imaging modalities. These include computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) usin

  2. Employment of the anatomical terminology of the Nomina Anatomica in the radiologic literature. (United States)

    Grignon, B; Roland, J; Braun, M


    The purpose of this paper was to assess the relationship of the anatomical terms employed in the radiologic literature to the International Nomenclature derived from the Nomina Anatomica. A critical analysis was made of the anatomical terminology employed in three French and two American journals of radiology. In about 40% of the French journals, the International Anatomical Nomenclature was not adhered to, whereas in 50%, there was no difference in the terms encountered between the French traditional terminology and the French adaptation of the Nomina Anatomica. In contrast, a close adherence to the Nomina Anatomica was observed in the two American journals. The exceptions most frequently encountered are detailed. The aim and principles of the Nomina Anatomica, based on the Latin terminology and aimed at clarification and systematisation, are stressed. The advantages of employing the International Anatomical Nomenclature in medical papers, allowing easy understanding by foreign readers in a world of rapid information exchange are highlighted.

  3. Reduction of variance in measurements of average metabolite concentration in anatomically-defined brain regions (United States)

    Larsen, Ryan J.; Newman, Michael; Nikolaidis, Aki


    Multiple methods have been proposed for using Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy Imaging (MRSI) to measure representative metabolite concentrations of anatomically-defined brain regions. Generally these methods require spectral analysis, quantitation of the signal, and reconciliation with anatomical brain regions. However, to simplify processing pipelines, it is practical to only include those corrections that significantly improve data quality. Of particular importance for cross-sectional studies is knowledge about how much each correction lowers the inter-subject variance of the measurement, thereby increasing statistical power. Here we use a data set of 72 subjects to calculate the reduction in inter-subject variance produced by several corrections that are commonly used to process MRSI data. Our results demonstrate that significant reductions of variance can be achieved by performing water scaling, accounting for tissue type, and integrating MRSI data over anatomical regions rather than simply assigning MRSI voxels with anatomical region labels.

  4. Naming the Soft Tissue Layers of the Temporoparietal Region: Unifying Anatomic Terminology Across Surgical Disciplines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K.M. Davidge; W.R. van Furth; A. Agur; M. Cusimano


    BACKGROUND: The complexity of temporoparietal anatomy is compounded by inconsistent nomenclature. OBJECTIVE: To provide a comprehensive review of the variations in terminology and anatomic descriptions of the temporoparietal soft tissue layers, with the aim of improving learning and communication ac

  5. Estudo anatômico do modelo arterial de vasos responsáveis pelo aporte sanguíneo da glândula submandibular de primatas neotropicais [Cebus apella, Linnaeus, 1766] Anatomic study of the arterial model of vessels responsible for the blood supply of neotropic primate´s submandile gland [Cebus apella, Linnaeus 1766

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jussara Rocha Ferreira


    Full Text Available Estudaram-se aspectos anatômicos das artérias responsáveis pelo suprimento sangüíneo das glândulas salivares submandibulares do macaco prego Cebus apella. A técnica utilizada foi: canulação da aorta, injeção de látex, fixação, e dissecação de 30 antímeros (contendo 30 glândulas principais e mais 3 acessórias, em um total de 33 glândulas de macacos adultos oriundos da FMVZ/USP. A artéria facial penetra no trígono submandibular e fornece um ramo para a glândula. Em um espécime, dois ramos eram fornecidos para o antímero esquerdo (3,03%. A artéria emite de zero a cinco ramos colaterais no antímero esquerdo, e de zero a quatro no direito. Após emitir as colaterais, termina em ramo(s único(s (9,09%, em bifurcação (69,7%, em trifurcação (18,18% e em quadrifurcação (3,03%. A distribuição dos ramos no parênquima teve direção no sentido cranial, caudal, lateral, medial e recorrente. Os dados analisados permitiram traçar um padrão vascular para esta glândula no Cebus apellaAnatomic aspects of arteries responsible for Cebus apella salivary gland blood supply were studied. The technique utilized was cannulation of the aorta, injection of latex, fixation and dissection of 30 adult monkey antimeres (containing 30 main glands and 3 acessory glands, in a total of 33 glands belonging to the FMVZ/USP. The facial artery penetrates the mandibular trigon providing single branche to the gland. In one specimen two branches were provided to the left antimer (3,03%. A variety of zero to five collateral branches to the left antimer, and of zero to four to the right antimer were observed. The main artery ends in a single branch (9,09%, in bifurcation (69,7%, in trifurcation (18,18% and in quadrifurcation (3,03%. The distribution of the branches in the parenchyma had the following directions: cranial, caudal, lateral, medial and recurring. The data obtained permitted to trace a vascular pattern for this gland in Cebus apella

  6. The zygomaticotemporal branch of the trigeminal nerve: an anatomical study. (United States)

    Totonchi, Ali; Pashmini, Nazly; Guyuron, Bahman


    cephalic direction. Three types of accessory branches were found in relation to the main branch: (1) accessory branch cephalad, (2) accessory branch lateral, and (3) accessory branches in the immediate vicinity of the main branch. This anatomical information has proven colossally helpful in injection of botulinum toxin A in the temporalis muscle to eliminate the trigger sites in the parietotemporal region and surgical management of migraine headaches triggered from this zone.

  7. Making anatomical dynamic film using the principle of linear motion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sun Guosheng


    :Making anatomical dynamic film using the principle of linear motion is an innovative technology and provides the dynamic aid for anat omy teaching.

  8. Outcomes of Anatomical versus Functional Testing for Coronary Artery Disease (United States)

    Douglas, Pamela S.; Hoffmann, Udo; Patel, Manesh R.; Mark, Daniel B.; Al-Khalidi, Hussein R.; Cavanaugh, Brendan; Cole, Jason; Dolor, Rowena J.; Fordyce, Christopher B.; Huang, Megan; Khan, Muhammad Akram; Kosinski, Andrzej S.; Krucoff, Mitchell W.; Malhotra, Vinay; Picard, Michael H.; Udelson, James E.; Velazquez, Eric J.; Yow, Eric; Cooper, Lawton S.; Lee, Kerry L.


    BACKGROUND Many patients have symptoms suggestive of coronary artery disease (CAD) and are often evaluated with the use of diagnostic testing, although there are limited data from randomized trials to guide care. METHODS We randomly assigned 10,003 symptomatic patients to a strategy of initial anatomical testing with the use of coronary computed tomographic angiography (CTA) or to functional testing (exercise electrocardiography, nuclear stress testing, or stress echocardiography). The composite primary end point was death, myocardial infarction, hospitalization for unstable angina, or major procedural complication. Secondary end points included invasive cardiac catheterization that did not show obstructive CAD and radiation exposure. RESULTS The mean age of the patients was 60.8±8.3 years, 52.7% were women, and 87.7% had chest pain or dyspnea on exertion. The mean pretest likelihood of obstructive CAD was 53.3±21.4%. Over a median follow-up period of 25 months, a primary end-point event occurred in 164 of 4996 patients in the CTA group (3.3%) and in 151 of 5007 (3.0%) in the functional-testing group (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.04; 95% confidence interval, 0.83 to 1.29; P = 0.75). CTA was associated with fewer catheterizations showing no obstructive CAD than was functional testing (3.4% vs. 4.3%, P = 0.02), although more patients in the CTA group underwent catheterization within 90 days after randomization (12.2% vs. 8.1%). The median cumulative radiation exposure per patient was lower in the CTA group than in the functional-testing group (10.0 mSv vs. 11.3 mSv), but 32.6% of the patients in the functional-testing group had no exposure, so the overall exposure was higher in the CTA group (mean, 12.0 mSv vs. 10.1 mSv; P<0.001). CONCLUSIONS In symptomatic patients with suspected CAD who required noninvasive testing, a strategy of initial CTA, as compared with functional testing, did not improve clinical outcomes over a median follow-up of 2 years. (Funded by the

  9. Anatomical basis for the interpretation of CT-scan imaging of the lumbar spine. Pitfalls

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    Laredo, J.D.; Bard, M.


    A good understanding of the normal anatomy of the lumbar spine is required for the interpretation of CT-scans obtained for ischiatic or crural neuralgia. An attempt has been made to rely on precise terminology to designate each anatomical region pertaining to the lumbar canal. Examples of tomodensitometric investigations of the normal intervertebral space are given, and criteria allowing for the identification of normal anatomical variations are also provided.

  10. A Body Of Knowledge: The Wellcome Ayurvedic Anatomical Man And His Sanskrit Context


    Wujastyk, Dominik


    A widely-known painting currently in the Wellcome Library (Iconographic 574912i) depicts an anatomical view of the male human body according to the tenets of classical Indian medicine, or ayurveda. The painting is surrounded by text passages in the Sanskrit language on medical and anatomical topics. In this paper, the Sanskrit texts are identified, edited, translated and assessed. I establish a terminus a quo for the painting, and explore the relationship of text and image.

  11. Effects of Anatomical Characteristics of Ethiopian Lowland Bamboo on Physical and Mechanical Properties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SEYOUM; Kelemwork


    The main aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of anatomical characteristics of Ethiopian lowland bamboo on selected physical and mechanical properties. A total of 45 solid culms from three different age groups (2-, 3- and 4- year-old) were harvested from natural bamboo forest in Ethiopia and then samples were transported to China for carrying out anatomical characteristics test. Physical and mechanical properties testing were conducted in Ethiopia. The result indicates that age and height had signi...

  12. Marginal space learning for medical image analysis efficient detection and segmentation of anatomical structures

    CERN Document Server

    Zheng, Yefeng


    Presents an award winning image analysis technology (Thomas Edison Patent Award, MICCAI Young Investigator Award) that achieves object detection and segmentation with state-of-the-art accuracy and efficiency Flexible, machine learning-based framework, applicable across multiple anatomical structures and imaging modalities Thirty five clinical applications on detecting and segmenting anatomical structures such as heart chambers and valves, blood vessels, liver, kidney, prostate, lymph nodes, and sub-cortical brain structures, in CT, MRI, X-Ray and Ultrasound.

  13. A Body Of Knowledge: The Wellcome Ayurvedic Anatomical Man And His Sanskrit Context. (United States)

    Wujastyk, Dominik


    A widely-known painting currently in the Wellcome Library (Iconographic 574912i) depicts an anatomical view of the male human body according to the tenets of classical Indian medicine, or ayurveda. The painting is surrounded by text passages in the Sanskrit language on medical and anatomical topics. In this paper, the Sanskrit texts are identified, edited, translated and assessed. I establish a terminus a quo for the painting, and explore the relationship of text and image.

  14. TRAPEZOID SHAPED OMOHYOIDEUS MUSCLE: An Anatomic Variation seen in Functional Neck Dissection


    Lokman Uzun; Numan Kokten; Gul Ozbilen Acar


    Omohyoid muscle (Om) is an important anatomical landmark in cervical lymph node partition, neck dissection for head and neck cancers and cervical spine surgery. It consists of two bellies united at an angle by an intermediate tendon. Variations in the origin and insertion of the muscle, absence or duplication of the superior or inferior bellies, aberrant position in relation to IJV and sternocleideomastoid muscle have been reported. We report a rare anatomical variation of the Om in this repo...

  15. An Anatomically Validated Brachial Plexus Contouring Method for Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy Planning

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    Van de Velde, Joris, E-mail: [Department of Anatomy, Ghent University, Ghent (Belgium); Department of Radiotherapy, Ghent University, Ghent (Belgium); Audenaert, Emmanuel [Department of Physical Medicine and Orthopedic Surgery, Ghent University, Ghent (Belgium); Speleers, Bruno; Vercauteren, Tom; Mulliez, Thomas [Department of Radiotherapy, Ghent University, Ghent (Belgium); Vandemaele, Pieter; Achten, Eric [Department of Radiology, Ghent University, Ghent (Belgium); Kerckaert, Ingrid; D' Herde, Katharina [Department of Anatomy, Ghent University, Ghent (Belgium); De Neve, Wilfried [Department of Radiotherapy, Ghent University, Ghent (Belgium); Van Hoof, Tom [Department of Anatomy, Ghent University, Ghent (Belgium)


    Purpose: To develop contouring guidelines for the brachial plexus (BP) using anatomically validated cadaver datasets. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography (CT) were used to obtain detailed visualizations of the BP region, with the goal of achieving maximal inclusion of the actual BP in a small contoured volume while also accommodating for anatomic variations. Methods and Materials: CT and MRI were obtained for 8 cadavers positioned for intensity modulated radiation therapy. 3-dimensional reconstructions of soft tissue (from MRI) and bone (from CT) were combined to create 8 separate enhanced CT project files. Dissection of the corresponding cadavers anatomically validated the reconstructions created. Seven enhanced CT project files were then automatically fitted, separately in different regions, to obtain a single dataset of superimposed BP regions that incorporated anatomic variations. From this dataset, improved BP contouring guidelines were developed. These guidelines were then applied to the 7 original CT project files and also to 1 additional file, left out from the superimposing procedure. The percentage of BP inclusion was compared with the published guidelines. Results: The anatomic validation procedure showed a high level of conformity for the BP regions examined between the 3-dimensional reconstructions generated and the dissected counterparts. Accurate and detailed BP contouring guidelines were developed, which provided corresponding guidance for each level in a clinical dataset. An average margin of 4.7 mm around the anatomically validated BP contour is sufficient to accommodate for anatomic variations. Using the new guidelines, 100% inclusion of the BP was achieved, compared with a mean inclusion of 37.75% when published guidelines were applied. Conclusion: Improved guidelines for BP delineation were developed using combined MRI and CT imaging with validation by anatomic dissection.

  16. An anatomical and histochemical examination of the pituitary gland of carp (Cyprinus carpio)


    EKİCİ, Aygül; TİMUR, Metin


    The present study was carried out for the purpose of studying the anatomical and the histochemical structure of the pituitary gland of the common carp, Cyprinus carpio. Anatomically, the shape of the gland has been observed to be round-oval, looking like an acorn. The pituitary gland consists of the adenohypophysis and neurohypophysis parts. Microscopically, the adenohypophysis consists of anterior (pars distalis) and posterior (pars intermedia) parts. The second lobe of the gland, called the...

  17. Evaluation of predictors for anatomical success in macular hole surgery in Indian population

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    Atul Kumar


    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim was to evaluate outcomes and predictors for anatomical success in macular hole (MH surgery. Materials and Methods: This was a prospective cohort study of patients operated for idiopathic MH with stages II, III or IV. Patients underwent pars plana vitrectomy with internal limiting membrane (ILM peeling, internal gas tamponade, and postoperative face down positioning. The primary outcome measure was anatomical closure of MH, while secondary outcome measure was postoperative external limiting membrane (ELM continuity. Effect of MH size, duration of MH, size of ILM peel, type of gas tamponade (SF6 vs. C3F8 and macular hole index (MHI on anatomical MH closure was also evaluated. Results: Of the 62 eyes operated, anatomical closure of MH was achieved in 55 eyes (88.7%. The median duration of follow-up was 8 months (range: 6-15 months. Mean BVCA improved from 0.94 ± 0.26 at baseline to 0.40 ± 0.23 logMAR at last follow-up (P = 0.01. There was a statistically significant association between size of ILM peel and anatomical closure of MH (P = 0.04. Duration of symptoms, size of MH, type of gas tamponade, MHI had no effect on anatomical closure (P = 0.22, 0.28, 0.40 respectively, Chi-square test. Postoperative continuity of the ELM was significantly associated with a shorter symptom duration (<6 months before surgery. Conclusion: Acceptable anatomical closure could be attained with the defined technique. Size of ILM peel is a new predictor of anatomical success while symptom duration affects postoperative ELM continuity.

  18. Effect of anatomical and chemical structure in the permeability of "Amapá" wood


    Edy Eime Pereira Baraúna; José Tarcísio Lima; Renato da Silva Vieira; José Reinaldo Moreira da Silva; Thiago Campos Monteiro


    This paper aimed to study the permeability to air and liquid, in the longitudinal direction of "amapá" wood (Brosimum parinarioides Ducke), originating from the Amazon Forest. Furthermore, the influence of anatomical and chemical characteristics in the permeability of the wood was investigated. For this study, samples were collected from three trees, in the state of Pará, Brazil, and submitted to permeability test, anatomical characterization, and chemical analyses. The permeability to the ai...



    Fernando José Fabrowski; Graciela Inés Bolzon de Muñiz; Maria Cristina M. Mazza; Tomoe Nakashima; Umberto Klock; João Carlos Possamai; Silvana Nisgoski


    The main objective of this research was to compare anatomical wood characteristics of the popular varieties of Mimosa scabrella Bentham known as bracatinga-branca, bracatinga-vermelha and bracatinga-argentina. The material  used in this work was collected from 6 to 7 years old trees of the popular varieties from areas located in Colombo municipality, State of Paraná, owned by Embrapa Florestas. Botanic for anatomical characterization of wood material was identified and described. Results did ...

  20. The comparative analysis of leaf anatomical structure of Rhododendron catawbiense Michx. and Rh. maximum L. applied in green building of Bugsko-Palesky region

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    Yulia V. Bondar


    Full Text Available The anatomical structure of the leaves of two Rhododendron L. species from the first and the second years of growing was investigated. Diagnostic features have been revealed, and that will allow further to more rational choice of specific structure planned in landscape gardening, and also to develop practical recommendations about cultivation of modeling species of this genus. Comparative- morphological method was applied.

  1. Anatomic variation and orgasm: Could variations in anatomy explain differences in orgasmic success? (United States)

    Emhardt, E; Siegel, J; Hoffman, L


    Though the public consciousness is typically focused on factors such as psychology, penis size, and the presence of the "G-spot," there are other anatomical and neuro-anatomic differences that could play an equal, or more important, role in the frequency and intensity of orgasms. Discovering these variations could direct further medical or procedural management to improve sexual satisfaction. The aim of this study is to review the available literature of anatomical sexual variation and to explain why this variation may predispose some patients toward a particular sexual experience. In this review, we explored the available literature on sexual anatomy and neuro-anatomy. We used PubMed and OVID Medline for search terms, including orgasm, penile size variation, clitoral variation, Grafenberg spot, and benefits of orgasm. First we review the basic anatomy and innervation of the reproductive organs. Then we describe several anatomical variations that likely play a superior role to popular known variation (penis size, presence of g-spot, etc). For males, the delicate play between the parasympathetic and sympathetic nervous systems is vital to achieve orgasm. For females, the autonomic component is more complex. The clitoris is the primary anatomical feature for female orgasm, including its migration toward the anterior vaginal wall. In conclusions, orgasms are complex phenomena involving psychological, physiological, and anatomic variation. While these variations predispose people to certain sexual function, future research should explore how to surgically or medically alter these. Clin. Anat. 29:665-672, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Increased cortical-limbic anatomical network connectivity in major depression revealed by diffusion tensor imaging.

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    Peng Fang

    Full Text Available Magnetic resonance imaging studies have reported significant functional and structural differences between depressed patients and controls. Little attention has been given, however, to the abnormalities in anatomical connectivity in depressed patients. In the present study, we aim to investigate the alterations in connectivity of whole-brain anatomical networks in those suffering from major depression by using machine learning approaches. Brain anatomical networks were extracted from diffusion magnetic resonance images obtained from both 22 first-episode, treatment-naive adults with major depressive disorder and 26 matched healthy controls. Using machine learning approaches, we differentiated depressed patients from healthy controls based on their whole-brain anatomical connectivity patterns and identified the most discriminating features that represent between-group differences. Classification results showed that 91.7% (patients=86.4%, controls=96.2%; permutation test, p<0.0001 of subjects were correctly classified via leave-one-out cross-validation. Moreover, the strengths of all the most discriminating connections were increased in depressed patients relative to the controls, and these connections were primarily located within the cortical-limbic network, especially the frontal-limbic network. These results not only provide initial steps toward the development of neurobiological diagnostic markers for major depressive disorder, but also suggest that abnormal cortical-limbic anatomical networks may contribute to the anatomical basis of emotional dysregulation and cognitive impairments associated with this disease.

  3. Modeling Exposure to Electromagnetic Fields with Realistic Anatomical Models: The Brooks Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) (United States)


    Both versions of Brooks FDTD are parallelized for Beowulf clusters and have run on more than one hundred processors. In addition to code, a number of...rewritten in C. Both versions of Brooks FDTD are parallelized for Beowulf clusters and have run on more than one hundred processors. In addition to...have made significant contributions include: Aldon Lyssy, who volunteered to scavenge and build the first Beowulf : Peter Gajsek who lead the first

  4. Can the Misinterpretation Amendment Rate Be Used as a Measure of Interpretive Error in Anatomic Pathology?: Implications of a Survey of the Directors of Anatomic and Surgical Pathology. (United States)

    Parkash, Vinita; Fadare, Oluwole; Dewar, Rajan; Nakhleh, Raouf; Cooper, Kumarasen


    A repeat survey of the Association of the Directors of Anatomic and Surgical Pathology, done 10 years after the original was used to assess trends and variability in classifying scenarios as errors, and the preferred post signout report modification for correcting error by the membership of the Association of the Directors of Anatomic and Surgical Pathology. The results were analyzed to inform on whether interpretive amendment rates might act as surrogate measures of interpretive error in pathology. An analyses of the responses indicated that primary level misinterpretations (benign to malignant and vice versa) were universally qualified as error; secondary-level misinterpretations or misclassifications were inconsistently labeled error. There was added variability in the preferred post signout report modification used to correct report alterations. The classification of a scenario as error appeared to correlate with severity of potential harm of the missed call, the perceived subjectivity of the diagnosis, and ambiguity of reporting terminology. Substantial differences in policies for error detection and optimal reporting format were documented between departments. In conclusion, the inconsistency in labeling scenarios as error, disagreement about the optimal post signout report modification for the correction of the error, and variability in error detection policies preclude the use of the misinterpretation amendment rate as a surrogate measure for error in anatomic pathology. There is little change in uniformity of definition, attitudes and perception of interpretive error in anatomic pathology in the last 10 years.

  5. Maximizing Modern Distribution of Complex Anatomical Spatial Information: 3D Reconstruction and Rapid Prototype Production of Anatomical Corrosion Casts of Human Specimens (United States)

    Li, Jianyi; Nie, Lanying; Li, Zeyu; Lin, Lijun; Tang, Lei; Ouyang, Jun


    Anatomical corrosion casts of human specimens are useful teaching aids. However, their use is limited due to ethical dilemmas associated with their production, their lack of perfect reproducibility, and their consumption of original specimens in the process of casting. In this study, new approaches with modern distribution of complex anatomical…

  6. Anatomical basis of a passive mechanism for ovum retention at the ampulloisthmic junction. (United States)

    Halbert, S A; Szal, S E; Broderson, S H


    The unexplained behavior of egg retention at the ampulloisthmic junction (AIJ) is a mechanical phenomenon; therefore the key to this process must lie in the anatomy of the oviduct. To investigate the concept that simple anatomical differences between ampulla and isthmus cause AIJ retention, we quantified, in these two regions of the rabbit oviduct, the structural characteristics of the tubal wall that show marked differences: wall thickness and luminal caliber. The oviductal wall greatly increases in thickness and decreases in luminal caliber abruptly at the transition from ampulla to isthmus. These passive mechanical factors predict a dramatically reduced distensibility of the isthmic wall compared to that of the ampulla, and these factors provide us with a simple model to account for the apparent sphincteric activity of the AIJ. Actual measurements of tubal distensibility confirmed our prediction. In addition, egg transport studies following microsurgical removal of the AIJ showed normal transport, an indication that no special structure need exist at the AIJ. We conclude that the contrasting morphology of the ampulla and isthmus may suffice to explain AIJ retention, and no special active mechanism need be postulated.

  7. Automatic recognition of surface landmarks of anatomical structures of back and posture (United States)

    Michoński, Jakub; Glinkowski, Wojciech; Witkowski, Marcin; Sitnik, Robert


    Faulty postures, scoliosis and sagittal plane deformities should be detected as early as possible to apply preventive and treatment measures against major clinical consequences. To support documentation of the severity of deformity and diminish x-ray exposures, several solutions utilizing analysis of back surface topography data were introduced. A novel approach to automatic recognition and localization of anatomical landmarks of the human back is presented that may provide more repeatable results and speed up the whole procedure. The algorithm was designed as a two-step process involving a statistical model built upon expert knowledge and analysis of three-dimensional back surface shape data. Voronoi diagram is used to connect mean geometric relations, which provide a first approximation of the positions, with surface curvature distribution, which further guides the recognition process and gives final locations of landmarks. Positions obtained using the developed algorithms are validated with respect to accuracy of manual landmark indication by experts. Preliminary validation proved that the landmarks were localized correctly, with accuracy depending mostly on the characteristics of a given structure. It was concluded that recognition should mainly take into account the shape of the back surface, putting as little emphasis on the statistical approximation as possible.

  8. An automatic framework for quantitative validation of voxel based morphometry measures of anatomical brain asymmetry. (United States)

    Pepe, Antonietta; Dinov, Ivo; Tohka, Jussi


    The study of anatomical brain asymmetries has been a topic of great interest in the neuroimaging community in the past decades. However, the accuracy of brain asymmetry measurements has been rarely investigated. In this study, we propose a fully automatic methodology for the quantitative validation of brain tissue asymmetries as measured by Voxel Based Morphometry (VBM) from structural magnetic resonance (MR) images. Starting from a real MR image, the methodology generates simulated 3D MR images with a known and realistic pattern of inter-hemispheric asymmetry that models the left-occipital right-frontal petalia of a normal brain and the related rightward bending of the inter-hemispheric fissure. As an example, we generated a dataset of 64 simulated MR images and applied this dataset for the quantitative validation of optimized VBM measures of asymmetries in brain tissue composition. Our results suggested that VBM analysis strongly depended on the spatial normalization of the individual brain images, the selected template space, and the amount of spatial smoothing applied. The most accurate asymmetry detections were achieved by 9-degrees of freedom registration to the symmetrical template space with 4 to 8mm spatial smoothing.

  9. Three-Dimensional Assessment of Bilateral Symmetry of the Scaphoid: An Anatomic Study

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    Paul W. L. ten Berg


    Full Text Available Preoperative 3D CT imaging techniques provide displacement analysis of the distal scaphoid fragment in 3D space, using the matched opposite scaphoid as reference. Its accuracy depends on the presence of anatomical bilateral symmetry, which has not been investigated yet using similar techniques. Our purpose was to investigate symmetry by comparing the relative positions of distal and proximal poles between sides. We used bilateral CT scans of 19 adult healthy volunteers to obtain 3D scaphoid models. Left proximal and distal poles were matched to corresponding mirrored right sides. The left-to-right positional differences between poles were quantified in terms of three translational and three rotational parameters. The mean (SD of ulnar, dorsal, and distal translational differences of distal poles relative to proximal poles was 0.1 (0.6; 0.4 (1.2; 0.2 (0.6 mm and that of palmar rotation, ulnar deviation, and pronation differences was −1.1 (4.9; −1.5 (3.3; 1.0 (3.7°, respectively. These differences did not significantly differ from zero and thus were not biased to left or right side. We proved that, on average, the articular surfaces of scaphoid poles were symmetrically aligned in 3D space. This suggests that the contralateral scaphoid can serve as reference in corrective surgery. No level of evidence is available.

  10. Horner syndrome after carotid sheath surgery in a pig: anatomic study of cervical sympathetic chain. (United States)

    Ding, Peng; Tufano, Ralph P; Campbell-Malone, Regina; Feng, Wallace; Kim, Sang Jun; German, Rebecca Z


    In an experimental model, iatrogenic Horner syndrome developed after a right carotid sheath surgery in an infant pig (Sus scrofa). Horner syndrome is a classic clinical triad consisting of ipsilateral eyelid ptosis, pupil miosis, and facial anhydrosis. This syndrome results from cervical sympathetic chain (CSC) paresis and usually is acquired in humans. To determine whether the development of Horner syndrome in this situation could be attributed to pig anatomy, we compared the anatomy of the CSC in pigs and humans, by using 10 infant (age, 1 to 3 wk) pig cadavers. The CSC and cranial cervical sympathetic ganglion (CCG) were dissected bilaterally under a surgical microscope. These structures were consistently within the carotid sheaths of the pigs. In contrast, the CSC and CCG are outside the carotid sheath in humans. Awareness of the anatomic variation of the CSC and CCG within the carotid sheath in the pig and the possibility of the same variation in humans may help surgeons to identify and preserve important structures while performing cervical surgery in pigs and humans. Furthermore, this knowledge can aid in the diagnosis and prognosis of schwannoma.

  11. Advances of Molecular Imaging for Monitoring the Anatomical and Functional Architecture of the Olfactory System. (United States)

    Zhang, Xintong; Bi, Anyao; Gao, Quansheng; Zhang, Shuai; Huang, Kunzhu; Liu, Zhiguo; Gao, Tang; Zeng, Wenbin


    The olfactory system of organisms serves as a genetically and anatomically model for studying how sensory input can be translated into behavior output. Some neurologic diseases are considered to be related to olfactory disturbance, especially Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, multiple sclerosis, and so forth. However, it is still unclear how the olfactory system affects disease generation processes and olfaction delivery processes. Molecular imaging, a modern multidisciplinary technology, can provide valid tools for the early detection and characterization of diseases, evaluation of treatment, and study of biological processes in living subjects, since molecular imaging applies specific molecular probes as a novel approach to produce special data to study biological processes in cellular and subcellular levels. Recently, molecular imaging plays a key role in studying the activation of olfactory system, thus it could help to prevent or delay some diseases. Herein, we present a comprehensive review on the research progress of the imaging probes for visualizing olfactory system, which is classified on different imaging modalities, including PET, MRI, and optical imaging. Additionally, the probes' design, sensing mechanism, and biological application are discussed. Finally, we provide an outlook for future studies in this field.

  12. Three-Dimensional Analysis of the Characteristics of the Femoral Canal Isthmus: An Anatomical Study

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    Xiu-yun Su


    Full Text Available Purpose. To establish a new approach for measuring and locating the femoral intramedullary canal isthmus in 3-dimensional (3D space. Methods. Based on the computed tomography data from 204 Chinese patients, 3D models of the whole femur and the corresponding femoral isthmus tube were reconstructed using Mimics software (Materialise, Haasrode, Belgium. The anatomical parameters of the femur and the isthmus, including the femur length and radius, and the isthmus diameter and height, were measured accordingly. Results. The mean ratio of the isthmus height versus the femoral height was 55 ± 4.8%. The mean diameter of the isthmus was 10.49 ± 1.52 mm. The femoral length, the isthmus diameter, and the isthmus tube length were significantly larger in the male group. Significant correlations were observed between the femoral length and the isthmus diameter (r=0.24, p<0.01 and between the femoral length and the isthmus height (r=0.6, p<0.01. Stepwise linear regression analyses demonstrated that the femoral length and radius were the most important factors influencing the location and dimension of the femoral canal isthmus. Conclusion. The current study developed a new approach for measuring the femoral canal and for optimization of customer-specific femoral implants.

  13. Brain mapping in stereotactic surgery: a brief overview from the probabilistic targeting to the patient-based anatomic mapping. (United States)

    Lemaire, Jean-Jacques; Coste, Jérôme; Ouchchane, Lemlih; Caire, François; Nuti, Christophe; Derost, Philippe; Cristini, Vittorio; Gabrillargues, Jean; Hemm, Simone; Durif, Franck; Chazal, Jean


    In this article, we briefly review the concept of brain mapping in stereotactic surgery taking into account recent advances in stereotactic imaging. The gold standard continues to rely on probabilistic and indirect targeting, relative to a stereotactic reference, i.e., mostly the anterior (AC) and the posterior (PC) commissures. The theoretical position of a target defined on an atlas is transposed into the stereotactic space of a patient's brain; final positioning depends on electrophysiological analysis. The method is also used to analyze final electrode or lesion position for a patient or group of patients, by projection on an atlas. Limitations are precision of definition of the AC-PC line, probabilistic location and reliability of the electrophysiological guidance. Advances in MR imaging, as from 1.5-T machines, make stereotactic references no longer mandatory and allow an anatomic mapping based on an individual patient's brain. Direct targeting is enabled by high-quality images, an advanced anatomic knowledge and dedicated surgical software. Labeling associated with manual segmentation can help for the position analysis along non-conventional, interpolated planes. Analysis of final electrode or lesion position, for a patient or group of patients, could benefit from the concept of membership, the attribution of a weighted membership degree to a contact or a structure according to its level of involvement. In the future, more powerful MRI machines, diffusion tensor imaging, tractography and computational modeling will further the understanding of anatomy and deep brain stimulation effects.

  14. Anatomical Study of Somatic Embryogenesis in Glycine max (L. Merrill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Aparecida Fernando


    Full Text Available A comparative anatomical analysis of somatic embryogenesis in two soybean (Glycine max (L. Merrill genotypes was carried out. The somatic embryos were originated from cotyledonary explants obtained from immature zygotic embryos. The medium used for somatic embryogenesis induction was Murashige and Skoog, 1962, salts and Gamborg et al., 1968, vitamins (MSB supplemented with 0.8 mg.L-1 of 2,4-D for genotype PI 123439 and 40 mg.L-1 of 2,4-D for ‘Williams 82’. Globular structures, constituted by meristematic cells, originated from subepidermal cell divisions of the cotyledonary mesophyll. In PI 123439, the globular structures presented tracheary differentiation among meristematic cells and they could follow distinct morphogenetic process depending on their location along the explant. For ‘Williams 82’ it was observed globular structures along the cotyledonary explant surface. They gave rise to somatic embryos. These embryos showed different morphologies and they were classified based on their shape and number of cotyledons. The ability of these morphological types to convert to plantlets was discussed.Realizou-se uma análise anatômica comparativa da embriogênese somática em dois genótipos de soja (Glycine max (L. Merrill. Os embriões somáticos foram obtidos a partir de explantes cotiledonares excisados de embriões zigóticos imaturos do genótipo PI 123439, adaptado às condições tropicais, e ‘Williams 82’. O meio utilizado para indução da embriogênese somática constituiu-se de sais de Murashige e Skoog,1962, e vitaminas de Gamborg et al., 1968 (MSB suplementado com 0,8 mg.L-1 de 2,4-D (PI 123439 e 40 mg.L-1 (‘Williams 82’. Estruturas globulares originaram-se a partir de divisões celulares nas camadas subepidérmicas do mesofilo cotiledonar e foram constituídas por células meristemáticas. No genótipo PI 123439, as estruturas globulares apresentaram diferenciação traqueal entre as células meristemáticas e

  15. Anatomical Details of the Rabbit Nasal Passages and Their Implications in Breathing, Air Conditioning, and Olfaction. (United States)

    Xi, Jinxiang; Si, Xiuhua A; Kim, Jongwon; Zhang, Yu; Jacob, Richard E; Kabilan, Senthil; Corley, Richard A


    The rabbit is commonly used as a laboratory animal for inhalation toxicology tests and detail knowledge of the rabbit airway morphometry is needed for outcome analysis or theoretical modeling. The objective of this study is to quantify the morphometric dimension of the nasal airway of a New Zealand white rabbit and to relate the morphology and functions through analytical and computational methods. Images of high-resolution MRI scans of the rabbit were processed to measure the axial distribution of the cross-sectional areas, perimeter, and complexity level. The lateral recess, which has functions other than respiration or olfaction, was isolated from the nasal airway and its dimension was quantified separately. A low Reynolds number turbulence model was implemented to simulate the airflow, heat transfer, vapor transport, and wall shear stress. Results of this study provide detailed morphological information of the rabbit that can be used in the studies of olfaction, inhalation toxicology, drug delivery, and physiology-based pharmacokinetics modeling. For the first time, we reported a spiral nasal vestibule that splits into three paths leading to the dorsal meatus, maxilloturbinate, and ventral meatus, respectively. Both non-dimensional functional analysis and CFD simulations suggested that the airflow in the rabbit nose is laminar and the unsteady effect is only significantly during sniffing. Due to the large surface-to-volume ratio, the maxilloturbinate is highly effective in warming and moistening the inhaled air to body conditions. The unique anatomical structure and respiratory airflow pattern may have important implications for designing new odorant detectors or electronic noses. Anat Rec, 299:853-868, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Inferring ultraviolet anatomical exposure patterns while distinguishing the relative contribution of radiation components

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    Vuilleumier, Laurent [Federal Office of Meteorology and Climatology, MeteoSwiss, Payerne (Switzerland); Milon, Antoine; Vernez, David [Institute of Work and Health, University of Lausanne and Geneva, Lausanne (Switzerland); Bulliard, Jean-Luc [Cancer Epidemiology Unit, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vaudois and University of Lausanne, Lausanne (Switzerland); Moccozet, Laurent [Institute of Services Science, University of Geneva (Switzerland)


    Exposure to solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation is the main causative factor for skin cancer. UV exposure depends on environmental and individual factors, but individual exposure data remain scarce. While ground UV irradiance is monitored via different techniques, it is difficult to translate such observations into human UV exposure or dose because of confounding factors. A multi-disciplinary collaboration developed a model predicting the dose and distribution of UV exposure on the basis of ground irradiation and morphological data. Standard 3D computer graphics techniques were adapted to develop a simulation tool that estimates solar exposure of a virtual manikin depicted as a triangle mesh surface. The amount of solar energy received by various body locations is computed for direct, diffuse and reflected radiation separately. Dosimetric measurements obtained in field conditions were used to assess the model performance. The model predicted exposure to solar UV adequately with a symmetric mean absolute percentage error of 13% and half of the predictions within 17% range of the measurements. Using this tool, solar UV exposure patterns were investigated with respect to the relative contribution of the direct, diffuse and reflected radiation. Exposure doses for various body parts and exposure scenarios of a standing individual were assessed using erythemally-weighted UV ground irradiance data measured in 2009 at Payerne, Switzerland as input. For most anatomical sites, mean daily doses were high (typically 6.2-14.6 Standard Erythemal Dose, SED) and exceeded recommended exposure values. Direct exposure was important during specific periods (e.g. midday during summer), but contributed moderately to the annual dose, ranging from 15 to 24% for vertical and horizontal body parts, respectively. Diffuse irradiation explained about 80% of the cumulative annual exposure dose.

  17. A novel approach to an anatomical adapted stent design for the percutaneous therapy of tricuspid valve diseases: preliminary experiences from an engineering point of view. (United States)

    Pott, Desiree; Malasa, Margarita; Urban, Ute; Kütting, Maximilian; Safi, Yara; Roggenkamp, Jan; Steinseifer, Ulrich; Hatam, Nima; Autschbach, Rüdiger; Spillner, Jan; Amerini, Andrea


    Tricuspid valve regurgitation mostly occurs as result of dilation of the right ventricle, secondary to left heart valve diseases. Until recently, little attention has been given to the development of percutaneous therapeutic tools exclusively designed for tricuspid valve disease. A new approach to the interventional therapy of tricuspid regurgitation, in particular, the design of a conceptual new valve-bearing, self-expansible stent, is presented here. A three-dimensional computer model of a right porcine heart was developed to gain a realistic anatomical geometry. The new design consists of two tubular stent elements, one inside the superior vena cava and the other inside the tricuspid valve annulus after being eventually equipped with a biological valve prosthesis, which are connected by struts. Anchoring to the heart structure is provided primarily by the vena cava stent, strengthened by the struts. The stents are designed to be cut from a 10 mm tube and later expanded to their designated diameter. Simulation software analyzing the expansion process with respect to the intended geometrical design is used in an iterative process. A validation of the anatomical geometry and function of the stent design inside a silicone model within in vitro tests and a random porcine heart shows an accurate anatomical fitting.

  18. Pure Laparoscopic Liver Resection for Malignant Liver Tumor: Anatomic Resection Versus Nonanatomic Resection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ya-Xi Chen; Dian-Rong Xiu; Chun-Hui Yuan; Bin Jiang; Zhao-Lai Ma


    Background: Laparoscopic liver resection (LLR) has been considered to be safe and feasible.However, few studies focused on the comparison between the anatomic and nonanatomic LLR.Therefore, the purpose of this study was to compare the perioperative factors and outcomes of the anatomic and nonanatomic LLR, especially the area of liver parenchymal transection and blood loss per unit area.Methods: In this study, surgical and oncological data of patients underwent pure LLR procedures for malignant liver tumor were prospectively collected.Blood loss per unit area of liver parenchymal transection was measured and considered as an important parameter.All procedures were conducted by a single surgeon.Results: During nearly 5 years, 84 patients with malignant liver tumor received a pure LLR procedure were included.Among them, 34 patients received anatomic LLR and 50 received nonanatomic LLR, respectively.Patients of the two groups were similar in terms of demographic features and tumor characteristics, despite the tumor size was significantly larger in the anatomic LLR group than that in the nonanatomic LLR group (4.77 ± 2.57 vs.2.87 ± 2.10 cm, P =0.001).Patients who underwent anatomic resection had longer operation time (364.09 ± 131.22 vs.252.00 ± 135.21 min, P < 0.001) but less blood loss per unit area (7.85 ± 7.17 vs.14.17 ± 10.43 ml/cm2,P =0.018).Nonanatomic LLR was associated with more blood loss when the area of parenchymal transection was equal to the anatomic LLR.No mortality occurred during the hospital stay and 30 days after the operation.Moreover, there was no difference in the incidence of postoperative complications.The disease-free and overall survival rates showed no significant differences between the anatomic LLR and nonanatomic LLR groups.Conclusions: Both anatomic and nonanatomic pure LLR are safe and feasible.Measuring the area ofparenchymal transection is a simple and effective method to estimate the outcomes of the liver resection surgery

  19. Associations among Inflammatory Biomarkers in the Circulating, Plasmatic, Salivary and Intraluminal Anatomical Compartments in Apparently Healthy Preschool Children from the Western Highlands of Guatemala.

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    María José Soto-Méndez

    Full Text Available Undernutrition and inflammation are related in many ways; for instance, non-hygienic environments are associated with both poor growth and immunostimulation in children.To describe any existing interaction among different inflammation biomarkers measured in the distinct anatomical compartments of whole blood, feces, plasma and saliva.In this descriptive, cross-sectional study, samples of whole blood, feces, plasma and saliva were collected on the 8th and last week of observation among 87 attendees (42 girls and 45 boys of 3 daycare centers offering a common 40-day rotating menu in Guatemala's Western Highlands. Analyses included white blood cell count (WBC, fecal calprotectin, and plasmatic and salivary cytokines including IL-1B, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10 and TNF-α. Associations were assessed using Spearman rank-order and goodness-of-fit correlations, as indicated, followed by backwards-elimination multiple regression analyses to determine predictor variables for IL-10 in both anatomical compartments.Of a total of 66 cross-tabulations in the Spearman hemi-matrix, 22 (33% were significantly associated. All 10 paired associations among the salivary cytokines had a significant r value, whereas 7 of 10 possible associations among plasma cytokines were significant. Associations across anatomical compartments, however, were rarely significant. IL-10 in both biological fluids were higher than corresponding reference values. When a multiple regression model was run in order to determine independent predictors for IL-10 in each anatomical compartment separately, IL-6, IL-8 and TNF-α emerged as predictors in plasma (r2 = 0.514 and IL-1B, IL-8 and TNF-α remained as independent predictors in saliva (r2 = 0.762. Significant cross-interactions were seen with WBC, but not with fecal calprotectin.Interactions ranged from robust within the same anatomical compartment to limited to nil across distinct anatomical compartments. The prominence of the anti

  20. Functional, But Not Anatomical, Separation of “What” and “When” in Prefrontal Cortex (United States)

    Romo, Ranulfo; Brody, Carlos D.


    How does the brain store information over a short period of time? Typically, the short-term memory of items or values is thought to be stored in the persistent activity of neurons in higher cortical areas. However, the activity of these neurons often varies strongly in time, even if time is unimportant for whether or not rewards are received. To elucidate this interaction of time and memory, we reexamined the activity of neurons in the prefrontal cortex of monkeys performing a working memory task. As often observed in higher cortical areas, different neurons have highly heterogeneous patterns of activity, making interpretation of the data difficult. To overcome these problems, we developed a method that finds a new representation of the data in which heterogeneity is much reduced, and time- and memory-related activities became separate and easily interpretable. This new representation consists of a few fundamental activity components that capture 95% of the firing rate variance of >800 neurons. Surprisingly, the memory-related activity components account for <20% of this firing rate variance. The observed heterogeneity of neural responses results from random combinations of these fundamental components. Based on these components, we constructed a generative linear model of the network activity. The model suggests that the representations of time and memory are maintained by separate mechanisms, even while sharing a common anatomical substrate. Testable predictions of this hypothesis are proposed. We suggest that our method may be applied to data from other tasks in which neural responses are highly heterogeneous across neurons, and dependent on more than one variable. PMID:20053916

  1. Topographic anatomical study of the sciatic nerve relationship to the posterior portal in hip arthroscopy

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    Berliet Assad Gomes


    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the anatomic topographic relation between the sciatic nerve in relation to the piriform muscle and the posterior portal for the establishment of hip arthroscopy. Methods: We dissected 40 hips of 20 corpses of adult Brazilians, 17 male and three female, six black, six brown and eight white. We studied the anatomical relationship between the sciatic nerve and the piriform muscle with their variations and the distance between the lateral edge of the sciatic nerve and the posterior portal used in hip arthroscopy. We then classified the anatomical alterations found in the path of the sciatic nerve on the piriform muscle. Results: Seventeen corpses had bilateral relationship between the sciatic nerve and the piriform muscle, i.e., type A. We found the following anatomical variations: 12.5% of variant type B; and an average distance between the sciatic nerve and the portal for arthroscopy of 2.98cm. One body had type B anatomical variation on the left hip and type A on the right. Conclusion: the making of the posterior arthroscopic portal to the hip joint must be done with careful marking of the trochanter massive; should there be difficult to find it, a small surgical access is recommended. The access point to the portal should not exceed two centimeters towards the posterior superior aspect of the greater trochanter, and must be made with the limb in internal rotation of 15 degrees.

  2. Anatomical sciences: A foundation for a solid learning experience in dental technology and dental prosthetics. (United States)

    Bakr, Mahmoud M; Thompson, C Mark; Massadiq, Magdalena


    Basic science courses are extremely important as a foundation for scaffolding knowledge and then applying it in future courses, clinical situations as well as in a professional career. Anatomical sciences, which include tooth morphology, oral histology, oral embryology, and head and neck anatomy form a core part of the preclinical courses in dental technology programs. In this article, the importance and relevance of anatomical sciences to dental personnel with no direct contact with patients (dental technicians) and limited discipline related contact with patients (dental prosthetists) is highlighted. Some light is shed on the role of anatomical sciences in the pedagogical framework and its significance in the educational process and interprofessional learning of dental technicians and prosthetists using oral biology as an example in the dental curriculum. To conclude, anatomical sciences allow dental technicians and prosthetists to a gain a better insight of how tissues function, leading to a better understanding of diagnosis, comprehensive treatment planning and referrals if needed. Patient communication and satisfaction also increases as a result of this deep understanding of oral tissues. Anatomical sciences bridge the gap between basic science, preclinical, and clinical courses, which leads to a holistic approach in patient management. Finally, treatment outcomes are positively affected due to the appreciation of the macro and micro structure of oral tissues. Anat Sci Educ. © 2016 American Association of Anatomists.

  3. [Uterosacral ligament and hypogastric nerve anatomical relationship. Application to deep endometriotic nodules surgery]. (United States)

    Azaïs, H; Collinet, P; Delmas, V; Rubod, C


    Endometriosis is a concern for 10 to 15% of women of childbearing age. The uterosacral ligament is the most frequent localization of deep infiltrating endometriosis. Laparoscopic excision of endometriotic nodules may lead to functional consequences due to potential hypogastric nerve lesion. Our aim is to study the anatomical relationship between the hypogastric nerve and the uterosacral ligament in order to reduce the occurrence of such nerve lesions during pelvic surgeries. We based our study on an anatomical and surgical literature review and on the anatomical dissection of a 56-year-old fresh female subject. The hypogastric nerves cross the uterosacral ligament approximately 30mm from the torus. They go through the pararectal space, 20mm below the ureter and join the inferior hypogastric plexus at the level of the intersection between the ureter and the posterior wall of the uterine artery, at approximately 20mm from the torus. No anatomical variation has been described to date in the path of the nerve, but in its presentation which may be polymorphous. Laparoscopy and robot-assisted laparoscopic surgery facilitate the pelvic nerves visualization and are the best approach for uterosacral endometriotic nodule nerve-sparing excision. Precise knowledge by the surgeon of the anatomical relationship between the hypogastric nerve and the uterosacral ligament is essential in order to decrease the risk of complication and postoperative morbidity for patient surgically treated for deep infiltrating endometriosis involving uterosacral ligament.

  4. [Japanese anatomical terminology (nomina anatomica japonica) from the educational view point (1)--sune and nezumi]. (United States)

    Hojo, T


    A few considerations on two Japanese anatomical terms, sune (the anterior part of the leg or the shin in medical terminology) and nezumi (the rat) from the anatomical point of view are made. Japanese words generally have two readings. For example, sune which means the anterior part of the leg, may be read as sune and kei. But kei has two other meanings, the neck and the road. Sune is used more for the anterior part of the leg than kei, especially in classes for beginners of the anatomical course. Nezumi means rat, but is also read as so. Because kei means road, and kan means canal, sokeikan means the rat's tubular passageway, namely, the descent of testis (Descensus testis). In Japanese anatomical terminology the passage of the testis through the inguinal canal is considered similar to a rat going through a passageway. The work sokeikan is better than the English anatomical term inguinal canal which means only the canal in the root of the groin. In Japanese, two words, fukurahagi and komura are used for the posterior part of the leg.

  5. Extra-anatomical bypass: a surgical option for recurrent aortic coarctation. (United States)

    Malaj, Alban; Martinelli, Ombretta; Irace, Francesco Giosue'; Jabbour, Jihad; Gossetti, Bruno; Mazzesi, Giuseppe


    Background. Balloon aortoplasty with or without stenting is a less invasive alternative to open surgery for the management of recurrent isthmic coarctation. However, in patients with previous small size tube graft, an open surgical correction is mandatory and, in most cases, an anatomical aortic reconstruction is carried out. Methods. We present the case of a 48-year-old woman with recurrent aortic coarctation and systemic hypertension with systolic value around 190-200 mmHg and preoperative systolic pressure gradient 70 mmHg, submitted to an extra-anatomical bypass. Through a median sternotomy, an extra-anatomical bypass from ascending to descending aorta was performed. Results. No intra- or postoperative complications were observed. The postoperative pressure gradient was 10 mmHg and the systolic pressure ranged from 130 to 140 mmHg. Conclusion. The extra-anatomical bypass can be considered an effective and safe alternative to the anatomical aortic reconstruction in the cases with recurrent aortic coarctation unfit for endovascular treatment.

  6. Extra-Anatomical Bypass: A Surgical Option for Recurrent Aortic Coarctation

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    Alban Malaj


    Full Text Available Background. Balloon aortoplasty with or without stenting is a less invasive alternative to open surgery for the management of recurrent isthmic coarctation. However, in patients with previous small size tube graft, an open surgical correction is mandatory and, in most cases, an anatomical aortic reconstruction is carried out. Methods. We present the case of a 48-year-old woman with recurrent aortic coarctation and systemic hypertension with systolic value around 190–200 mmHg and preoperative systolic pressure gradient 70 mmHg, submitted to an extra-anatomical bypass. Through a median sternotomy, an extra-anatomical bypass from ascending to descending aorta was performed. Results. No intra- or postoperative complications were observed. The postoperative pressure gradient was 10 mmHg and the systolic pressure ranged from 130 to 140 mmHg. Conclusion. The extra-anatomical bypass can be considered an effective and safe alternative to the anatomical aortic reconstruction in the cases with recurrent aortic coarctation unfit for endovascular treatment.

  7. Comparative radiographic analysis on the anatomical axis in knee osteoarthritis cases: inter and intraobserver evaluation

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    Luiz Felipe Matos


    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To make a comparative inter and intraobserver analysis on measurements of the anatomical axis between panoramic radiographs of the lower limbs in anteroposterior (AP view with bipedal weight-bearing, on short film.METHODS: An accuracy study comparing radiographic measurements on 47 knees of patients attending the knee surgery outpatient clinic due to osteoarthritis. The radiographic evaluation used was as standardized for the total knee arthroplasty program, including panoramic AP views of the lower limbs and short radiographs of the knees in AP and lateral views, all with bipedal weight-bearing. Following this, the anatomical axis of the lower limbs or the femorotibial angle was measured by five independent examiners on the panoramic and short AP radiographs; three of the examiners were considered to be more experienced and two, less experienced. All the measurements were made again by the same examiners after an interval of not less than 15 days. The statistical analysis was performed using the intraclass correlation coefficient, in order to evaluate the inter and intraobserver concordance of the anatomical axis measurements.RESULTS: From the statistical analysis, it was observed that there was strongly significant concordance between the anatomical axis measurements on the panoramic and short radiographs, for all the five examiners and for both measurements.CONCLUSIONS: Under the conditions studied, short radiographs were equivalent to panoramic radiographs for evaluating the anatomical axis of the lower limbs in patients with advanced osteoarthritis. The measurements used also showed high rates of inter and intraobserver concordance and reproducibility.

  8. Identification keys on rattans (Calamus spp. from Central Sulawesi based on anatomical structure of stems

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    Full Text Available This study was conducted to obtain information the anatomical characteristics of 20 rattan species from Central Sulawesi and to use it for anatomical identification of rattan species. The rattan comprised 16 Calamus species, three Daemonorops species and one Korthalsia species. For anatomical observation 10-15 mm pieces of the mature stem from shares of tip do not have frond were processed with polyethilene glycol 2000, cut at 18-32 µm and stained with a combination of acridin-cryzoidin red and astrablue. Cleared preparation were used to observe stegmata, and macerated material was used to measure the length of fibers and vessel elements. Anilin sulfate was used to confirm the existence of lignin. Anatomical characteristics used in identification were shape and will thickening of epidermal cells and the position stomata at epidermal; the arrangement of sub epidermal parenchyma; composition of vascular bundles and their distribution; the shape and arrangement of central ground parenchyma and the occurrence of fiber bundles. The research result indicated that the anatomical character can be compiled to a key identify the rattan at genus and species level.


    Corradini, Elena


    The interest for the study of Anatomy in Modena was particularly developed since the second half of eighteenth century, when the Duke Francesco III of Este promoted the reformation of the University and Antonio Scarpa was called from Padua to teach Anatomy. Scarpa promoted the building of the Anatomical Theatre, near the Grande Spedale, that was inaugurated in 1776. On the same year, the School of Obstetrics opened and determined the constitution of a first Cabinet or Obstetric Museum in a room next to the Theatre. After the Restoration, between 1817 and 1818, the Archduke Francesco IV of Austria Este promoted the realization of an Anatomical Museum: a big organized room in a new floor built on the Theatre. Two more rooms were added in, 1839 and a fourth one in 1853, under the direction of Paolo Gaddi. Furthermore Gaddi's interest for ethnographic studies determined the opening of the Ethnographic Anthropological Museum in 1866.

  10. Non-anatomical implantation of supra-aortic branches for customizing the standard form of Thoraflex™ hybrid prosthesis to a patient's anatomical requirements. (United States)

    Urbanski, Paul P; Irimie, Vadim; Zembala, Michal


    Frozen elephant trunk technique represents a valuable therapeutic option for patients with extensive pathology of thoracic aorta. Thoraflex™ hybrid prosthesis (Vascutek, Terumo, Inchinnan, UK) is one of the commercially available devices in which a stent graft is combined with branched vascular tube mimicking the aortic arch anatomy. Owing to the sewing collar between the stented and unstented portions, this hybrid prosthesis offers a valuable addition to the surgical armamentarium for patients with huge thoracic aorta aneurysms, in whom the aortic diameter exceeds the diameter of available stent grafts. However, the standard factory form of the quadrifurcated arch prosthesis does not always fit to the patient's anatomy and demands a deviation from the anatomical anastomosing of the branches with the respective supra-aortic arteries. A technique of non-anatomical implantation of supra-aortic arteries for customizing the standard form of the Thoraflex prosthesis is described, which facilitates the surgery without limiting the functionality of this hybrid prosthesis.

  11. Anatomical characteristics of Turkish steno-endemic Origanum leptocladum Boiss. (Lamiaceae

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    Süleyman Doğu


    Full Text Available Origanum leptocladum Boiss. is an endemic East Mediterranean element, naturally growing only in Ermenek district of Karaman province in Turkey. The aim of this study is to determine anatomical features of the species. The study materials were collected from Karaman-Ermenek in 2009 and then preserved in 70 % alcohol. O. leptocladum generally exhibits the anatomical feaures of the family Lamiaceae. Hovewer, herbaceaus stem is weakly-rectangle shaped or tends to be circular, the collenchymatic tissue at the corner of the stem and scleranchymatic pericycle around the vascular tissue are weakly-developed. The most striking anatomical feature is that leaf lamina is dorsiventral in the region near to midvein, but equifacial out of the midvein. According to the results, while the stomata are of mesomorphic type on the leaf surfaces, O. leptocladum has xeromorphic characters such as palisade richness in mesophyll, the occurrence of rich scleranchymatic tissue in midvein and cuticle thickness on leaf surface.

  12. Focal pontine lesions provide evidence that intrinsic functional connectivity reflects polysynaptic anatomical pathways. (United States)

    Lu, Jie; Liu, Hesheng; Zhang, Miao; Wang, Danhong; Cao, Yanxiang; Ma, Qingfeng; Rong, Dongdong; Wang, Xiaoyi; Buckner, Randy L; Li, Kuncheng


    Intrinsic functional connectivity detected by functional MRI (fMRI) provides a useful but indirect approach to study the organization of human brain systems. An unresolved question is whether functional connectivity measured by resting-state fMRI reflects anatomical connections. In this study, we used the well-characterized anatomy of cerebrocerebellar circuits to directly test whether intrinsic functional connectivity is associated with an anatomic pathway. Eleven first-episode stroke patients were scanned five times during a period of 6 months, and 11 healthy control subjects were scanned three times within 1 month. In patients with right pontine strokes, the functional connectivity between the right motor cortex and the left cerebellum was selectively reduced. This connectivity pattern was reversed in patients with left pontine strokes. Although factors beyond anatomical connectivity contribute to fMRI measures of functional correlation, these results provide direct evidence that functional connectivity depends on intact connections within a specific polysynaptic pathway.

  13. Major intraoperative complications during video-assisted thoracoscopic anatomical lung resections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Decaluwe, Herbert; Petersen, René Horsleben; Hansen, Henrik


    OBJECTIVES: A multicentre evaluation of the frequency and nature of major intraoperative complications during video-assisted thoracoscopic (VATS) anatomical resections. METHODS: Six European centres submitted their series of consecutive anatomical lung resections with the intention to treat by VATS....... Conversions to thoracotomy, vascular injuries and major intraoperative complications were studied in relation to surgeons' experience. Major complications included immediate life-threatening complications (i.e. blood loss of more than 2 l), injury to proximal airway or other organs or those leading...... complication. Surgeon's experience was related to non-oncological conversions, but not to vascular injuries or major complications in a multivariable logistic regression analysis. CONCLUSION: Major intraoperative complications during VATS anatomical lung resections are infrequent, seem not to be related...

  14. Tree-space statistics and approximations for large-scale analysis of anatomical trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feragen, Aasa; Owen, Megan; Petersen, Jens


    onto tree-space is not available. Using tree-space and its shortest paths, a variety of statistical properties, such as mean, principal component, hypothesis testing and linear discriminant analysis can be defined. For some of these properties it is still an open problem how to compute them; others......Statistical analysis of anatomical trees is hard to perform due to differences in the topological structure of the trees. In this paper we define statistical properties of leaf-labeled anatomical trees with geometric edge attributes by considering the anatomical trees as points in the geometric...... space of leaf-labeled trees. This tree-space is a geodesic metric space where any two trees are connected by a unique shortest path, which corresponds to a tree deformation. However, tree-space is not a manifold, and the usual strategy of performing statistical analysis in a tangent space and projecting...


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    Fernando José Fabrowski


    Full Text Available The main objective of this research was to compare anatomical wood characteristics of the popular varieties of Mimosa scabrella Bentham known as bracatinga-branca, bracatinga-vermelha and bracatinga-argentina. The material  used in this work was collected from 6 to 7 years old trees of the popular varieties from areas located in Colombo municipality, State of Paraná, owned by Embrapa Florestas. Botanic for anatomical characterization of wood material was identified and described. Results did not show differences of anatomical characteristics between the bracatinga-branca and bracatinga-vermelha. The bracatinga-branca and bracatinga-vermelha showed statistically differences in relation to bracatinga-argentina to average values in pores tangential diameter, pores quantity per square mm, vessel elements individual length, axial parenchyma cells diameter, unisseriate and multisseriate rays width. In conclusion, the observations contribute to a better understanding of the differences showed by the popular varieties.

  16. Effect of anatomical and chemical structure in the permeability of "Amapá" wood

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    Edy Eime Pereira Baraúna


    Full Text Available This paper aimed to study the permeability to air and liquid, in the longitudinal direction of "amapá" wood (Brosimum parinarioides Ducke, originating from the Amazon Forest. Furthermore, the influence of anatomical and chemical characteristics in the permeability of the wood was investigated. For this study, samples were collected from three trees, in the state of Pará, Brazil, and submitted to permeability test, anatomical characterization, and chemical analyses. The permeability to the air of the "amapá" wood was estimated at 63.7.10-9 m3.[m.(N.m-2.s]-1 and to the liquid was 2.07.10-9 m3.[m.(N.m-2.s]-1. There were low correlations between air and liquid permeability and the anatomical features.

  17. Endoscopic expand transnasal approach to the suprasellar region :anatomical study and clinical considerations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Xiao-jie; CHEN Kai-lai; WANG Qin; JI Wei-yang; LI Bing; SUN Ji-yong; LI Jiang-an


    Backgroud The expanded endonasal approach (EEA) is used sparingly by surgeons for resection of lesions in the ventrocranial base. Herein, we examined the anatomy of the ventrocranial base by endoscopy and comment on the use of EEA in clinical practice.Methods Twenty artery-injected adult cadaveric heads were studied under surgical conditions using the endoscopic EEA. The extent of the surgical exposure, the endoscopic anatomic view and the maneuverability of surgical instruments about the suprasellar region were studied by the endoscopic EEA.Results The EEA by endoscope can reach the suprasellar region. In this approach, the optocarotid recess, supra and infra-optic chiasm interspace, the ophthalmic artery and others were important anatomical landmarks for identification of the suprasellar region.Conclusions The endoscopic EEA can be used to remove many types of lesions in the ventrocranial base. The microanatorny observed using the endoscope provides important anatomical information on the suprasellar region for neurosurgeons.

  18. Combined anterolateral ligament and anatomic anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction of the knee. (United States)

    Smith, James O; Yasen, Sam K; Lord, Breck; Wilson, Adrian J


    Although anatomic anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction is established for the surgical treatment of anterolateral knee instability, there remains a significant cohort of patients who continue to experience post-operative instability. Recent advances in our understanding of the anatomic, biomechanical and radiological characteristics of the native anterolateral ligament (ALL) of the knee have led to a resurgent interest in reconstruction of this structure as part of the management of knee instability. This technical note describes our readily reproducible combined minimally invasive technique to reconstruct both the ACL and ALL anatomically using autologous semitendinosus and gracilis grafts. This method of ALL reconstruction can be easily integrated with all-inside ACL reconstruction, requiring minimal additional operative time, equipment and expertise. Level of evidence V.


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    Arun Kumar


    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Sinus headache secondary to Chronic Rhinosinusitis refers to episode of pain over the sinus area of the face and is often associated with nasal congestion, rhinorrhea, facial pressure, lacrimation, nausea and sensory sensitivity. Any small lesions or anatomical variations over lateral wall of nose may giv e rise to sinus headache. CT scan play a vital role in accurate assessment of osteomeatal complex area and anatomical variations at this site. AIM: To study anatomical variations of osteomeatal complex area and deviated septum in cases of chronic sinus hea dache secondary to Chronic Rhinosinusitis. MATERIALS AND METHODS : This study was conducted in Jhalawar Medical College, ENT Department between Sept. 2012 to Dec. 2014. In this study 75 patients withchronic sinus headache was selected who had chronic headac he for more than 3 months duration not responding to medical line of treatment and who were willing to undergo function endoscopic sinus surgery. All patients underwent for CT scan para nasal sinus. RESULT: In this study deviated nasal septum was found in 77.33% patients, apart from that it was observed that 54.66% of the sinus headache cases had two or more anatomical variations and 28% had single anatomical variations, out of them commonest finding is concha bullosa followed by enlarge bulla ethmoid, para doxical middle turbinate, medialiseduncinate process, lateraliseduncinate process, prominent aggar nasi cells, haller cells and onodi cells in decreasing order . CONCLUSION: The study of CT scan PNS conclude that Deviated Nasal Septum and anatomical variati ons at lateral wall of nose causes narrowing of osteomeatal complex area which predisposed patients to sino nasal disease and sinus headache

  20. The Application of an Anatomical Database for Fetal Congenital Heart Disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Yang; Qiu-Yan Pei; Yun-Tao Li; Zhen-Juan Yang


    Background:Fetal congenital heart anomalies are the most common congenital anomalies in live births.Fetal echocardiography (FECG) is the only prenatal diagnostic approach used to detect fetal congenital heart disease (CHD).FECG is not widely used,and the antenatal diagnosis rate of CHD varies considerably.Thus,mastering the anatomical characteristics of different kinds of CHD is critical for ultrasound physicians to improve FECG technology.The aim of this study is to investigate the applications of a fetal CHD anatomic database in FECG teaching and training program.Methods:We evaluated 60 transverse section databases including 27 types of fetal CHD built in the Prenatal Diagnosis Center in Peking University People's Hospital.Each original database contained 400-700 cross-sectional digital images with a resolution of 3744 pixels × 5616 pixels.We imported the database into Amira 5.3.1 (Australia Visage Imaging Company,Australia) three-dimensional (3D) software.The database functions use a series of 3D software visual operations.The features of the fetal CHD anatomical database were analyzed to determine its applications in FECG continuing education and training.Results:The database was rebuilt using the 3D software.The original and rebuilt databases can be displayed dynamically,continuously,and synchronically and can be rotated at arbitrary angles.The sections from the dynamic displays and rotating angles are consistent with the sections in FECG.The database successfully reproduced the anatomic structures and spatial relationship features of different fetal CHDs.We established a fetal CHD anatomy training database and a standardized training database for FECG.Ultrasound physicians and students can learn the anatomical features of fetal CHD and FECG through either centralized training or distance education.Conclusions:The database of fetal CHD successfully reproduced the anatomic structures and spatial relationship of different kinds of fetal CHD.This database can be