WorldWideScience

Sample records for anatomical models

  1. Reference Man anatomical model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cristy, M.

    1994-10-01

    The 70-kg Standard Man or Reference Man has been used in physiological models since at least the 1920s to represent adult males. It came into use in radiation protection in the late 1940s and was developed extensively during the 1950s and used by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) in its Publication 2 in 1959. The current Reference Man for Purposes of Radiation Protection is a monumental book published in 1975 by the ICRP as ICRP Publication 23. It has a wealth of information useful for radiation dosimetry, including anatomical and physiological data, gross and elemental composition of the body and organs and tissues of the body. The anatomical data includes specified reference values for an adult male and an adult female. Other reference values are primarily for the adult male. The anatomical data include much data on fetuses and children, although reference values are not established. There is an ICRP task group currently working on revising selected parts of the Reference Man document.

  2. Handbook of anatomical models for radiation dosimetry

    CERN Document Server

    Eckerman, Keith F

    2010-01-01

    Covering the history of human model development, this title presents the major anatomical and physical models that have been developed for human body radiation protection, diagnostic imaging, and nuclear medicine therapy. It explores how these models have evolved and the role that modern technologies have played in this development.

  3. Parametric Anatomical Modeling: A method for modeling the anatomical layout of neurons and their projections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin ePyka

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Computational models of neural networks can be based on a variety of different parameters. These parameters include, for example, the 3d shape of neuron layers, the neurons' spatial projection patterns, spiking dynamics and neurotransmitter systems. While many well-developed approaches are available to model, for example, the spiking dynamics, there is a lack of approaches for modeling the anatomical layout of neurons and their projections. We present a new method, called Parametric Anatomical Modeling (PAM, to fill this gap. PAM can be used to derive network connectivities and conduction delays from anatomical data, such as the position and shape of the neuronal layers and the dendritic and axonal projection patterns. Within the PAM framework, several mapping techniques between layers can account for a large variety of connection properties between pre- and post-synaptic neuron layers. PAM is implemented as a Python tool and integrated in the 3d modeling software Blender. We demonstrate on a 3d model of the hippocampal formation how PAM can help reveal complex properties of the synaptic connectivity and conduction delays, properties that might be relevant to uncover the function of the hippocampus. Based on these analyses, two experimentally testable predictions arose: i the number of neurons and the spread of connections is heterogeneously distributed across the main anatomical axes, ii the distribution of connection lengths in CA3-CA1 differ qualitatively from those between DG-CA3 and CA3-CA3. Models created by PAM can also serve as an educational tool to visualize the 3d connectivity of brain regions. The low-dimensional, but yet biologically plausible, parameter space renders PAM suitable to analyse allometric and evolutionary factors in networks and to model the complexity of real networks with comparatively little effort.

  4. An anatomically oriented breast model for MRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutra, Dominik; Bergtholdt, Martin; Sabczynski, Jörg; Dössel, Olaf; Buelow, Thomas

    2015-03-01

    Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women in the western world. In the breast cancer care-cycle, MRIis e.g. employed in lesion characterization and therapy assessment. Reading of a single three dimensional image or comparing a multitude of such images in a time series is a time consuming task. Radiological reporting is done manually by translating the spatial position of a finding in an image to a generic representation in the form of a breast diagram, outlining quadrants or clock positions. Currently, registration algorithms are employed to aid with the reading and interpretation of longitudinal studies by providing positional correspondence. To aid with the reporting of findings, knowledge about the breast anatomy has to be introduced to translate from patient specific positions to a generic representation. In our approach we fit a geometric primitive, the semi-super-ellipsoid to patient data. Anatomical knowledge is incorporated by fixing the tip of the super-ellipsoid to the mammilla position and constraining its center-point to a reference plane defined by landmarks on the sternum. A coordinate system is then constructed by linearly scaling the fitted super-ellipsoid, defining a unique set of parameters to each point in the image volume. By fitting such a coordinate system to a different image of the same patient, positional correspondence can be generated. We have validated our method on eight pairs of baseline and follow-up scans (16 breasts) that were acquired for the assessment of neo-adjuvant chemotherapy. On average, the location predicted and the actual location of manually set landmarks are within a distance of 5.6 mm. Our proposed method allows for automatic reporting simply by uniformly dividing the super-ellipsoid around its main axis.

  5. A time dependent anatomically detailed model of cardiac conduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxberg, B. E.; Grumbach, M. P.; Cohen, R. J.

    1985-01-01

    In order to understand the determinants of transitions in cardiac electrical activity from normal patterns to dysrhythmias such as ventricular fibrillation, we are constructing an anatomically and physiologically detailed finite element simulation of myocardial electrical propagation. A healthy human heart embedded in paraffin was sectioned to provide a detailed anatomical substrate for model calculations. The simulation of propagation includes anisotropy in conduction velocity due to fiber orientation as well as gradients in conduction velocities, absolute and relative refractory periods, action potential duration and electrotonic influence of nearest neighbors. The model also includes changes in the behaviour of myocardial tissue as a function of the past local activity. With this model, we can examine the significance of fiber orientation and time dependence of local propagation parameters on dysrhythmogenesis.

  6. Plastinated nasal model: a new concept of anatomically realistic cast.

    OpenAIRE

    Durand, Marc; Pourchez, Jérémie; Louis, Bruno; Pouget, Jean-François; Isabey, Daniel; Coste, André; Prades, Jean-Michel; Rusch, Philippe; Cottier, Michèle

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: For many years, researchers have been interested in investigating airflow and aerosol deposition in the nasal cavities. The nasal airways appear to be a complex geometrical system. Thus, in vitro experimental studies are frequently conducted with a more or less biomimetic nasal replica. AIM: This study is devoted to the development of an anatomically realistic nose model with bilateral nasal cavities, i.e. nasal anatomy, airway geometry and aerodynamic properties as close as possi...

  7. An anatomical and functional model of the human tracheobronchial tree.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florens, M; Sapoval, B; Filoche, M

    2011-03-01

    The human tracheobronchial tree is a complex branched distribution system in charge of renewing the air inside the acini, which are the gas exchange units. We present here a systematic geometrical model of this system described as a self-similar assembly of rigid pipes. It includes the specific geometry of the upper bronchial tree and a self-similar intermediary tree with a systematic branching asymmetry. It ends by the terminal bronchioles whose generations range from 8 to 22. Unlike classical models, it does not rely on a simple scaling law. With a limited number of parameters, this model reproduces the morphometric data from various sources (Horsfield K, Dart G, Olson DE, Filley GF, Cumming G. J Appl Physiol 31: 207-217, 1971; Weibel ER. Morphometry of the Human Lung. New York: Academic Press, 1963) and the main characteristics of the ventilation. Studying various types of random variations of the airway sizes, we show that strong correlations are needed to reproduce the measured distributions. Moreover, the ventilation performances are observed to be robust against anatomical variability. The same methodology applied to the rat also permits building a geometrical model that reproduces the anatomical and ventilation characteristics of this animal. This simple model can be directly used as a common description of the entire tree in analytical or numerical studies such as the computation of air flow distribution or aerosol transport. PMID:21183626

  8. Sparse decomposition and modeling of anatomical shape variation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sjöstrand, Karl; Rostrup, Egill; Ryberg, Charlotte;

    2007-01-01

    counterparts if constructed carefully. In most medical applications, models are required to have both good statistical performance and a relevant clinical interpretation to be of value. Morphometry of the corpus callosum is one illustrative example. This paper presents a method for relating spatial features to...... anatomical variation related to clinical outcome. In the present application, landmark-based shape data of the corpus callosum is analyzed in relation to age, gender, and clinical tests of walking speed and verbal fluency. To put the data-driven sparse principal component method into perspective, we consider...

  9. Sparse Decomposition and Modeling of Anatomical Shape Variation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sjöstrand, Karl; Rostrup, Egill; Ryberg, Charlotte;

    2007-01-01

    counterparts if constructed carefully. In most medical applications, models are required to have both good statistical performance and a relevant clinical interpretation to be of value. Morphometry of the corpus callosum is one illustrative example. This paper presents a method for relating spatial features to...... anatomical variation related to clinical outcome. In the present application, landmark-based shape data of the corpus callosum is analyzed in relation to age, gender, and clinical tests of walking speed and verbal fluency. To put the data-driven sparse principal component method into perspective, we consider...

  10. Anatomically based lower limb nerve model for electrical stimulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soboleva Tanya K

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Functional Electrical Stimulation (FES is a technique that aims to rehabilitate or restore functionality of skeletal muscles using external electrical stimulation. Despite the success achieved within the field of FES, there are still a number of questions that remain unanswered. One way of providing input to the answers is through the use of computational models. Methods This paper describes the development of an anatomically based computer model of the motor neurons in the lower limb of the human leg and shows how it can be used to simulate electrical signal propagation from the beginning of the sciatic nerve to a skeletal muscle. One-dimensional cubic Hermite finite elements were used to represent the major portions of the lower limb nerves. These elements were fit to data that had been digitised using images from the Visible Man project. Nerves smaller than approximately 1 mm could not be seen in the images, and thus a tree-branching algorithm was used to connect the ends of the fitted nerve model to the respective skeletal muscle. To simulate electrical propagation, a previously published mammalian nerve model was implemented and solved on the anatomically based nerve mesh using a finite difference method. The grid points for the finite difference method were derived from the fitted finite element mesh. By adjusting the tree-branching algorithm, it is possible to represent different levels of motor-unit recruitment. Results To illustrate the process of a propagating nerve stimulus to a muscle in detail, the above method was applied to the nerve tree that connects to the human semitendinosus muscle. A conduction velocity of 89.8 m/s was obtained for a 15 μm diameter nerve fibre. This signal was successfully propagated down the motor neurons to a selected group of motor units in the muscle. Conclusion An anatomically and physiologically based model of the posterior motor neurons in the human lower limb was developed. This

  11. Feasibility of Subxiphoid Anatomic Pulmonary Lobectomy in a Canine Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Ming-Ju; Yen-Chu; Wu, Yi-Cheng; Yeh, Chi-Ju; Liu, Chieng-Ying; Liu, Chia-Chuan; Ko, Po-Jen; Liu, Yun-Hen

    2016-06-01

    Purpose Transthoracic thoracoscopic approach is the gold standard in surgical treatment for thoracic disease. However, it is associated with significant chronic postoperative wound discomfort. Currently, limited data are available regarding the subxiphoid approach to the thoracic cavity. The present study is aimed to evaluate the performance of a subxiphoid anatomic pulmonary lobectomy (SAPL) in a canine model. Methods The SAPL procedure was performed in 10 beagle dogs using a 3-cm incision over the xiphoid process. After thoracic exploration, SAPL was performed under flexible bronchoscopy guidance. The pulmonary vessel was divided with Ligasure and secured with a suture ligature. The bronchus was divided with endostapler. Surgical outcomes were evaluated by the success of SAPL and operative complications. Results SAPL was successfully completed in 9 animals. One animal required conventional thoracotomy to resuture the pulmonary artery stump. Another animal encountered small middle lobe laceration after SAPL and died at 8 days postoperation due to respiratory distress. Conclusion Subxiphoid anatomic pulmonary lobectomy is technically feasible. Refinement of endoscopic instruments combined with more research evidences may facilitate the development of subxiphoid platform in thoracic surgery. PMID:26546368

  12. Suction-generated noise in an anatomic silicon ear model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luxenberger, Wolfgang; Lahousen, T; Walch, C

    2012-10-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate noise levels generated during micro-suction aural toilet using an anatomic silicon ear model. It is an experimental study. In an anatomic ear model made of silicone, the eardrum was replaced by a 1-cm diameter microphone of a calibrated sound-level measuring device. Ear wax was removed using the sucker of a standard ENT treatment unit (Atmos Servant 5(®)). Mean and peak sound levels during the suction procedure were recorded with suckers of various diameters (Fergusson-Frazier 2.7-4 mm as well as Rosen 1.4-2.5 mm). Average noise levels during normal suction in a distance of 1 cm in front of the eardrum ranged between 97 and 103.5 dB(A) (broadband noise). Peak noise levels reached 118 dB(A). During partial obstruction of the sucker by cerumen or dermal flakes, peak noise levels reached 146 dB(A). Peak noise levels observed during the so-called clarinet phenomena were independent of the diameter or type of suckers used. Although micro-suction aural toilet is regarded as an established, widespread and usually safe method to clean the external auditory canal, some caution seems advisable. The performance of long-lasting suction periods straight in front of the eardrum without sound-protecting earwax between sucker and eardrum should be avoided. In particular, when clarinet phenomena are occurring (as described above), the suction procedure should be aborted immediately. In the presence of dermal flakes blocking the auditory canal, cleaning with micro-forceps or other non-suctioning instruments might represent a reasonable alternative. PMID:22740154

  13. Functionalized anatomical models for EM-neuron Interaction modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neufeld, Esra; Cassará, Antonino Mario; Montanaro, Hazael; Kuster, Niels; Kainz, Wolfgang

    2016-06-01

    The understanding of interactions between electromagnetic (EM) fields and nerves are crucial in contexts ranging from therapeutic neurostimulation to low frequency EM exposure safety. To properly consider the impact of in vivo induced field inhomogeneity on non-linear neuronal dynamics, coupled EM-neuronal dynamics modeling is required. For that purpose, novel functionalized computable human phantoms have been developed. Their implementation and the systematic verification of the integrated anisotropic quasi-static EM solver and neuronal dynamics modeling functionality, based on the method of manufactured solutions and numerical reference data, is described. Electric and magnetic stimulation of the ulnar and sciatic nerve were modeled to help understanding a range of controversial issues related to the magnitude and optimal determination of strength-duration (SD) time constants. The results indicate the importance of considering the stimulation-specific inhomogeneous field distributions (especially at tissue interfaces), realistic models of non-linear neuronal dynamics, very short pulses, and suitable SD extrapolation models. These results and the functionalized computable phantom will influence and support the development of safe and effective neuroprosthetic devices and novel electroceuticals. Furthermore they will assist the evaluation of existing low frequency exposure standards for the entire population under all exposure conditions.

  14. Functionalized anatomical models for EM-neuron Interaction modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neufeld, Esra; Cassará, Antonino Mario; Montanaro, Hazael; Kuster, Niels; Kainz, Wolfgang

    2016-06-21

    The understanding of interactions between electromagnetic (EM) fields and nerves are crucial in contexts ranging from therapeutic neurostimulation to low frequency EM exposure safety. To properly consider the impact of in vivo induced field inhomogeneity on non-linear neuronal dynamics, coupled EM-neuronal dynamics modeling is required. For that purpose, novel functionalized computable human phantoms have been developed. Their implementation and the systematic verification of the integrated anisotropic quasi-static EM solver and neuronal dynamics modeling functionality, based on the method of manufactured solutions and numerical reference data, is described. Electric and magnetic stimulation of the ulnar and sciatic nerve were modeled to help understanding a range of controversial issues related to the magnitude and optimal determination of strength-duration (SD) time constants. The results indicate the importance of considering the stimulation-specific inhomogeneous field distributions (especially at tissue interfaces), realistic models of non-linear neuronal dynamics, very short pulses, and suitable SD extrapolation models. These results and the functionalized computable phantom will influence and support the development of safe and effective neuroprosthetic devices and novel electroceuticals. Furthermore they will assist the evaluation of existing low frequency exposure standards for the entire population under all exposure conditions. PMID:27224508

  15. Computerised 3-D anatomical modelling using plastinates: an example utilising the human heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tunali, S; Kawamoto, K; Farrell, M L; Labrash, S; Tamura, K; Lozanoff, S

    2011-08-01

    Computerised modelling methods have become highly useful for generating electronic representations of anatomical structures. These methods rely on crosssectional tissue slices in databases such as the Visible Human Male and Female, the Visible Korean Human, and the Visible Chinese Human. However, these databases are time consuming to generate and require labour-intensive manual digitisation while the number of specimens is very limited. Plastinated anatomical material could provide a possible alternative to data collection, requiring less time to prepare and enabling the use of virtually any anatomical or pathological structure routinely obtained in a gross anatomy laboratory. The purpose of this study was to establish an approach utilising plastinated anatomical material, specifically human hearts, for the purpose computerised 3-D modelling. Human hearts were collected following gross anatomical dissection and subjected to routine plastination procedures including dehydration (-25(o)C), defatting, forced impregnation, and curing at room temperature. A graphics pipeline was established comprising data collection with a hand-held scanner, 3-D modelling, model polishing, file conversion, and final rendering. Representative models were viewed and qualitatively assessed for accuracy and detail. The results showed that the heart model provided detailed surface information necessary for gross anatomical instructional purposes. Rendering tools facilitated optional model manipulation for further structural clarification if selected by the user. The use of plastinated material for generating 3-D computerised models has distinct advantages compared to cross-sectional tissue images. PMID:21866531

  16. Anatomical models and wax Venuses: art masterpieces or scientific craft works?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballestriero, R

    2010-02-01

    The art of wax modelling has an ancient origin but rose to prominence in 14th century Italy with the cult of votive artefacts. With the advent of Neoclassicism this art, now deemed repulsive, continued to survive in a scientific environment, where it flourished in the study of normal and pathological anatomy, obstetrics, zoology and botany. The achievement of having originated the creation of anatomical models in coloured wax must be ascribed to a joint effort undertaken by the Sicilian wax modeller Gaetano Giulio Zumbo and the French surgeon Guillaume Desnoues in the late 17th century. Interest in anatomical wax models spread throughout Europe during the 18th century, first in Bologna with Ercole Lelli, Giovanni Manzolini and Anna Morandi, and then in Florence with Felice Fontana and Clemente Susini. In England, the art of anatomical ceroplastics was brought to London from Florence by the sculptor Joseph Towne. Throughout the centuries many anatomical artists preferred this material due to the remarkable mimetic likeness obtained, far surpassing any other material. Independent of the material used, whether wood, wax or clay, anatomical models were always considered merely craft works confined to hospitals or faculties of medicine and have survived to this day only because of their scientific interest. Italian and English waxes are stylistically different but the remarkable results obtained by Susini and Towne, and the fact that some contemporary artists are again representing anatomical wax bodies in their works, makes the border that formerly separated art and craft indistinguishable. PMID:20002228

  17. Particle Image Velocimetry Measurements in an Anatomically-Accurate Scaled Model of the Mammalian Nasal Cavity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumple, Christopher; Krane, Michael; Richter, Joseph; Craven, Brent

    2013-11-01

    The mammalian nose is a multi-purpose organ that houses a convoluted airway labyrinth responsible for respiratory air conditioning, filtering of environmental contaminants, and chemical sensing. Because of the complexity of the nasal cavity, the anatomy and function of these upper airways remain poorly understood in most mammals. However, recent advances in high-resolution medical imaging, computational modeling, and experimental flow measurement techniques are now permitting the study of respiratory airflow and olfactory transport phenomena in anatomically-accurate reconstructions of the nasal cavity. Here, we focus on efforts to manufacture an anatomically-accurate transparent model for stereoscopic particle image velocimetry (SPIV) measurements. Challenges in the design and manufacture of an index-matched anatomical model are addressed. PIV measurements are presented, which are used to validate concurrent computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations of mammalian nasal airflow. Supported by the National Science Foundation.

  18. Chinese adult anatomical models and the application in evaluation of RF exposures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Tongning; Tan, Liwen; Shao, Qing; Zhang, Chen; Zhao, Chen; Li, Ying; Conil, Emmanuelle; Hadjem, Abdelhamid; Wiart, Joe; Lu, Bingsong; Xiao, Li; Wang, Nan; Xie, Yi; Zhang, Shaoxiang

    2011-04-01

    This paper presents the work of constructing Chinese adult anatomical models and their application in evaluation of radio frequency (RF) electromagnetic field exposures. The original dataset was obtained from photos of the sliced frozen cadavers from the Chinese Visible Human Project. Details of preparing the cadaver for slicing procedures which may influence the anatomical structures are discussed. Segmentation and reconstruction were performed mainly manually by experienced anatomists. The reconstructed models represent the average Chinese in their twenties and thirties. The finest resolution for the models is 1 × 1 × 1 mm3 with 90 identified tissues/organs for the female and 87 identified tissues/organs for the male. Tiny anatomical structures such as blood vessels with diameters of 1 mm, various glands and nerves were identified. Whole-body-averaged specific absorption rate (WBSAR) from 20 MHz to 5.8 GHz was calculated with the finite-difference time-domain method for different RF exposure configurations. The WBSAR results are consistent with those from other available models. Finally, some details about the anatomical models are discussed.

  19. Chinese adult anatomical models and the application in evaluation of RF exposures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu Tongning; Shao Qing; Zhang Chen; Zhao Chen; Lu Bingsong; Xiao Li; Wang Nan; Xie Yi [China Academy of Telecommunication Research of Ministry of Industry and Information Technology, No. 52, Huayuanbei Road, Beijing, 100191 (China); Tan Liwen; Li Ying; Zhang Shaoxiang [Department of Anatomy (Computing Medical Institute of Chongqing), College of Basic Medical Sciences, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing, 400038 (China); Conil, Emmanuelle; Hadjem, Abdelhamid; Wiart, Joe, E-mail: wutongning@emcite.com, E-mail: zhangcvh@yahoo.com.cn [WHIST Joint Laboratory between INSTITUT TELECOM and Orange Labs, 38-40, rue du General Leclerc, 92794 Issy-les-Moulineaux, Cedex 9 (France)

    2011-04-07

    This paper presents the work of constructing Chinese adult anatomical models and their application in evaluation of radio frequency (RF) electromagnetic field exposures. The original dataset was obtained from photos of the sliced frozen cadavers from the Chinese Visible Human Project. Details of preparing the cadaver for slicing procedures which may influence the anatomical structures are discussed. Segmentation and reconstruction were performed mainly manually by experienced anatomists. The reconstructed models represent the average Chinese in their twenties and thirties. The finest resolution for the models is 1 x 1 x 1 mm{sup 3} with 90 identified tissues/organs for the female and 87 identified tissues/organs for the male. Tiny anatomical structures such as blood vessels with diameters of 1 mm, various glands and nerves were identified. Whole-body-averaged specific absorption rate (WBSAR) from 20 MHz to 5.8 GHz was calculated with the finite-difference time-domain method for different RF exposure configurations. The WBSAR results are consistent with those from other available models. Finally, some details about the anatomical models are discussed.

  20. Fabrication and Assessment of 3D Printed Anatomical Models of the Lower Limb for Anatomical Teaching and Femoral Vessel Access Training in Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Reilly, Michael K.; Reese, Sven; Herlihy, Therese; Geoghegan, Tony; Cantwell, Colin P.; Feeney, Robin N. M.; Jones, James F. X.

    2016-01-01

    For centuries, cadaveric dissection has been the touchstone of anatomy education. It offers a medical student intimate access to his or her first patient. In contrast to idealized artisan anatomical models, it presents the natural variation of anatomy in fine detail. However, a new teaching construct has appeared recently in which artificial…

  1. Short Term Evaluation of an Anatomically Shaped Polycarbonate Urethane Total Meniscus Replacement in a Goat Model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vrancken, A.C.T.; Madej, W.; Hannink, G.; Verdonschot, N.J.; Tienen, T.G. van; Buma, P.

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: Since the treatment options for symptomatic total meniscectomy patients are still limited, an anatomically shaped, polycarbonate urethane (PCU), total meniscus replacement was developed. This study evaluates the in vivo performance of the implant in a goat model, with a specific focus on th

  2. A small-scale anatomical dosimetry model of the liver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radionuclide therapy is a growing and promising approach for treating and prolonging the lives of patients with cancer. For therapies where high activities are administered, the liver can become a dose-limiting organ; often with a complex, non-uniform activity distribution and resulting non-uniform absorbed-dose distribution. This paper therefore presents a small-scale dosimetry model for various source–target combinations within the human liver microarchitecture. Using Monte Carlo simulations, Medical Internal Radiation Dose formalism-compatible specific absorbed fractions were calculated for monoenergetic electrons; photons; alpha particles; and 125I, 90Y, 211At, 99mTc, 111In, 177Lu, 131I and 18F. S values and the ratio of local absorbed dose to the whole-organ average absorbed dose was calculated, enabling a transformation of dosimetry calculations from macro- to microstructure level. For heterogeneous activity distributions, for example uptake in Kupffer cells of radionuclides emitting low-energy electrons (125I) or high-LET alpha particles (211At) the target absorbed dose for the part of the space of Disse, closest to the source, was more than eight- and five-fold the average absorbed dose to the liver, respectively. With the increasing interest in radionuclide therapy of the liver, the presented model is an applicable tool for small-scale liver dosimetry in order to study detailed dose–effect relationships in the liver. (paper)

  3. Florentine anatomical models and the challenge of medical authority in late-eighteenth-century Vienna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maerker, Anna

    2012-09-01

    This paper investigates the reception of a set of Florentine anatomical wax models on display at the medico-surgical academy Josephinum in late-eighteenth-century Vienna. Celebrated in Florence as tools of public enlightenment, in the Habsburg capital the models were criticised by physicians, who regarded the Josephinum and its surgeons as a threat to their medical authority. The controversy surrounding these models from the empire's periphery temporarily destabilised the relationship between surgeons and physicians in the Austrian capital. The debate on the utility of the Tuscan anatomical models in Vienna highlights the fact that the centre of the Habsburg empire was by no means medically homogeneous, and that the implementation of reforms could be as difficult to achieve in the capital as in the provinces. PMID:22580019

  4. Selection of an animal model for implant fixation studies: anatomical aspects.

    OpenAIRE

    Goel, V. K.; Drinker, H.; Panjabi, M. M.; Strongwater, A.

    1982-01-01

    A number of different animal models have been employed by investigators to study the biology of the bone-cement interface as it relates to the problem of hip implant loosening in humans. This study compares to the human three species (baboon, dog, and sheep) currently under use as experimental animal models from an anatomical point of view. A number of parameters, important for the dimensional design of a femoral prosthesis, loads at the hip joint and its subsequent performance, were used for...

  5. Anatomically realistic multiscale models of normal and abnormal gastrointestinal electrical activity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Leo K Cheng; Rie Komuro; Travis M Austin; Martin L Buist; Andrew J Pullan

    2007-01-01

    One of the major aims of the Tnternational Union of Physiological Sciences (IUPS) Physiome Project is to develop multiscale mathematical and computer models that can be used to help understand human health.We present here a small facet of this broad plan that applies to the gastrointestinal system. Specifically,we present an anatomically and physiologically based modelling framework that is capable of simulating normal and pathological electrical activity within the stomach and small intestine. The continuum models used within this framework have been created using anatomical information derived from common medical imaging modalities and data from the Visible Human Project. These models explicitly incorporate the various smooth muscle layers and networks of interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) that are known to exist within the walls of the stomach and small bowel. Electrical activity within individual ICCs and smooth muscle cells is simulated using a previously published simplified representation of the cell level electrical activity. This simulated cell level activity is incorporated into a bidomain representation of the tissue, allowing electrical activity of the entire stomach or intestine to be simulated in the anatomically derived models. This electrical modelling framework successfully replicates many of the qualitative features of the slow wave activity within the stomach and intestine and has also been used to investigate activity associated with functional uncoupling of the stomach.

  6. Anatomical database generation for radiation transport modeling from computed tomography (CT) scan data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geometric models of the anatomy are used routinely in calculations of the radiation dose in organs and tissues of the body. Development of such models has been hampered by lack of detailed anatomical information on children, and models themselves have been limited to quadratic conic sections. This summary reviews the development of an image processing workstation used to extract anatomical information from routine diagnostic CT procedure. A standard IBM PC/AT microcomputer has been augmented with an automatically loading 9-track magnetic tape drive, an 8-bit 1024 x 1024 pixel graphics adapter/monitor/film recording package, a mouse/trackball assembly, dual 20 MB removable cartridge media, a 72 MB disk drive, and a printer. Software utilized by the workstation includes a Geographic Information System (modified for manipulation of CT images), CAD software, imaging software, and various modules to ease data transfer among the software packages. 5 refs., 3 figs

  7. Anatomical database generation for radiation transport modeling from computed tomography (CT) scan data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Margle, S.M.; Tinnel, E.P.; Till, L.E.; Eckerman, K.F.; Durfee, R.C.

    1989-01-01

    Geometric models of the anatomy are used routinely in calculations of the radiation dose in organs and tissues of the body. Development of such models has been hampered by lack of detailed anatomical information on children, and models themselves have been limited to quadratic conic sections. This summary reviews the development of an image processing workstation used to extract anatomical information from routine diagnostic CT procedure. A standard IBM PC/AT microcomputer has been augmented with an automatically loading 9-track magnetic tape drive, an 8-bit 1024 {times} 1024 pixel graphics adapter/monitor/film recording package, a mouse/trackball assembly, dual 20 MB removable cartridge media, a 72 MB disk drive, and a printer. Software utilized by the workstation includes a Geographic Information System (modified for manipulation of CT images), CAD software, imaging software, and various modules to ease data transfer among the software packages. 5 refs., 3 figs.

  8. A Topographically and anatomically unified phantom model for organ dose determination in radiation hygiene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effective dose equivalent is used as a risk-related factor for assessing radiation impact on patients. In order to assess the effective dose equivalent, data on organ doses in several organs are needed. For calculation of the collective effective dose equivalent, data on the sex and size distribution of the exposed population are also needed. A realistic phantom model based on the Alderson-Rando anatomical phantom has been developed for these purposes. The phantom model includes 22 organs and takes into account the deflections due to sex, height, weight and other anatomical features. Coordinates of the outer contours of inner organs are given in different slabs of the phantom. The images of cross sections of different slabs realistically depict the distribution of the organs in the phantom. Statistics about height and weight distribution as a function of the age of the Finnish population are also given. (orig.)

  9. Automatic Segmentation Framework of Building Anatomical Mouse Model for Bioluminescence Tomography

    OpenAIRE

    Abdullah Alali

    2013-01-01

    Bioluminescence tomography is known as a highly ill-posed inverse problem. To improve the reconstruction performance by introducing anatomical structures as a priori knowledge, an automatic segmentation framework has been proposed in this paper to extract the mouse whole-body organs and tissues, which enables to build up a heterogeneous mouse model for reconstruction of bioluminescence tomography. Finally, an in vivo mouse experiment has been conducted to evaluate this framework by using an X...

  10. Creation of Anatomically Accurate Computer-Aided Design (CAD) Solid Models from Medical Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, John E.; Graham, R. Scott; Samareh, Jamshid A.; Oberlander, Eric J.; Broaddus, William C.

    1999-01-01

    Most surgical instrumentation and implants used in the world today are designed with sophisticated Computer-Aided Design (CAD)/Computer-Aided Manufacturing (CAM) software. This software automates the mechanical development of a product from its conceptual design through manufacturing. CAD software also provides a means of manipulating solid models prior to Finite Element Modeling (FEM). Few surgical products are designed in conjunction with accurate CAD models of human anatomy because of the difficulty with which these models are created. We have developed a novel technique that creates anatomically accurate, patient specific CAD solids from medical images in a matter of minutes.

  11. Particle Image Velocimetry Measurements in Anatomically-Accurate Models of the Mammalian Nasal Cavity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumple, C.; Richter, J.; Craven, B. A.; Krane, M.

    2012-11-01

    A summary of the research being carried out by our multidisciplinary team to better understand the form and function of the nose in different mammalian species that include humans, carnivores, ungulates, rodents, and marine animals will be presented. The mammalian nose houses a convoluted airway labyrinth, where two hallmark features of mammals occur, endothermy and olfaction. Because of the complexity of the nasal cavity, the anatomy and function of these upper airways remain poorly understood in most mammals. However, recent advances in high-resolution medical imaging, computational modeling, and experimental flow measurement techniques are now permitting the study of airflow and respiratory and olfactory transport phenomena in anatomically-accurate reconstructions of the nasal cavity. Here, we focus on efforts to manufacture transparent, anatomically-accurate models for stereo particle image velocimetry (SPIV) measurements of nasal airflow. Challenges in the design and manufacture of index-matched anatomical models are addressed and preliminary SPIV measurements are presented. Such measurements will constitute a validation database for concurrent computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations of mammalian respiration and olfaction. Supported by the National Science Foundation.

  12. SU-C-BRF-03: PCA Modeling of Anatomical Changes During Head and Neck Radiation Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chetvertkov, M; Kim, J; Siddiqui, F; Kumarasiri, A; Chetty, I; Gordon, J [Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, MI (United States)

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: To develop principal component analysis (PCA) models from daily cone beam CTs (CBCTs) of head and neck (H and N) patients that could be used prospectively in adaptive radiation therapy (ART). Methods: : For 7 H and N patients, Pinnacle Treatment Planning System (Philips Healthcare) was used to retrospectively deformably register daily CBCTs to the planning CT. The number N of CBCTs per treatment course ranged from 14 to 22. For each patient a PCA model was built from the deformation vector fields (DVFs), after first subtracting the mean DVF, producing N eigen-DVFs (EDVFs). It was hypothesized that EDVFs with large eigenvalues represent the major anatomical deformations during the course of treatment, and that it is feasible to relate each EDVF to a clinically meaningful systematic or random change in anatomy, such as weight loss, neck flexion, etc. Results: DVFs contained on the order of 3×87×87×58=1.3 million scalar values (3 times the number of voxels in the registered volume). The top 3 eigenvalues accounted for ∼90% of variance. Anatomical changes corresponding to an EDVF were evaluated by generating a synthetic DVF, and applying that DVF to the CT to produce a synthetic CBCT. For all patients, the EDVF for the largest eigenvalue was interpreted to model weight loss. The EDVF for other eigenvalues appeared to represented quasi-random fraction-to-fraction changes. Conclusion: The leading EDVFs from single-patient PCA models have tentatively been identified with weight loss changes during treatment. Other EDVFs are tentatively identified as quasi-random inter-fraction changes. Clean separation of systematic and random components may require further work. This work is expected to facilitate development of population-based PCA models that can be used to prospectively identify significant anatomical changes, such as weight loss, early in treatment, triggering replanning where beneficial.

  13. SU-C-BRF-03: PCA Modeling of Anatomical Changes During Head and Neck Radiation Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To develop principal component analysis (PCA) models from daily cone beam CTs (CBCTs) of head and neck (H and N) patients that could be used prospectively in adaptive radiation therapy (ART). Methods: : For 7 H and N patients, Pinnacle Treatment Planning System (Philips Healthcare) was used to retrospectively deformably register daily CBCTs to the planning CT. The number N of CBCTs per treatment course ranged from 14 to 22. For each patient a PCA model was built from the deformation vector fields (DVFs), after first subtracting the mean DVF, producing N eigen-DVFs (EDVFs). It was hypothesized that EDVFs with large eigenvalues represent the major anatomical deformations during the course of treatment, and that it is feasible to relate each EDVF to a clinically meaningful systematic or random change in anatomy, such as weight loss, neck flexion, etc. Results: DVFs contained on the order of 3×87×87×58=1.3 million scalar values (3 times the number of voxels in the registered volume). The top 3 eigenvalues accounted for ∼90% of variance. Anatomical changes corresponding to an EDVF were evaluated by generating a synthetic DVF, and applying that DVF to the CT to produce a synthetic CBCT. For all patients, the EDVF for the largest eigenvalue was interpreted to model weight loss. The EDVF for other eigenvalues appeared to represented quasi-random fraction-to-fraction changes. Conclusion: The leading EDVFs from single-patient PCA models have tentatively been identified with weight loss changes during treatment. Other EDVFs are tentatively identified as quasi-random inter-fraction changes. Clean separation of systematic and random components may require further work. This work is expected to facilitate development of population-based PCA models that can be used to prospectively identify significant anatomical changes, such as weight loss, early in treatment, triggering replanning where beneficial

  14. Accounting for anatomical noise in search-capable model observers for planar nuclear imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, Anando; Gifford, Howard C

    2016-01-01

    Model observers intended to predict the diagnostic performance of human observers should account for the effects of both quantum and anatomical noise. We compared the abilities of several visual-search (VS) and scanning Hotelling-type models to account for anatomical noise in a localization receiver operating characteristic (LROC) study involving simulated nuclear medicine images. Our VS observer invoked a two-stage process of search and analysis. The images featured lesions in the prostate and pelvic lymph nodes. Lesion contrast and the geometric resolution and sensitivity of the imaging collimator were the study variables. A set of anthropomorphic mathematical phantoms was imaged with an analytic projector based on eight parallel-hole collimators with different sensitivity and resolution properties. The LROC study was conducted with human observers and the channelized nonprewhitening, channelized Hotelling (CH) and VS model observers. The CH observer was applied in a "background-known-statistically" protocol while the VS observer performed a quasi-background-known-exactly task. Both of these models were applied with and without internal noise in the decision variables. A perceptual search threshold was also tested with the VS observer. The model observers without inefficiencies failed to mimic the average performance trend for the humans. The CH and VS observers with internal noise matched the humans primarily at low collimator sensitivities. With both internal noise and the search threshold, the VS observer attained quantitative agreement with the human observers. Computational efficiency is an important advantage of the VS observer. PMID:26835503

  15. Assessment of induced radio-frequency electromagnetic fields in various anatomical human body models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The reference levels for testing compliance of human exposure with radio-frequency (RF) safety limits have been derived from very simplified models of the human. In order to validate these findings for anatomical models, we investigated the absorption characteristics for various anatomies ranging from 6 year old child to large adult male by numerical modeling. We address the exposure to plane-waves incident from all major six sides of the humans with two orthogonal polarizations each. Worst-case scattered field exposure scenarios have been constructed in order to test the implemented procedures of current in situ compliance measurement standards (spatial averaging versus peak search). Our findings suggest that the reference levels of current electromagnetic (EM) safety guidelines for demonstrating compliance as well as some of the current measurement standards are not consistent with the basic restrictions and need to be revised.

  16. A guide to modelling cardiac electrical activity in anatomically detailed ventricles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clayton, R H; Panfilov, A V

    2008-01-01

    One of the most recent trends in cardiac electrophysiology is the development of integrative anatomically accurate models of the heart, which include description of cardiac activity from sub-cellular and cellular level to the level of the whole organ. In order to construct this type of model, a researcher needs to collect a wide range of information from books and journal articles on various aspects of biology, physiology, electrophysiology, numerical mathematics and computer programming. The aim of this methodological article is to survey recent developments in integrative modelling of electrical activity in the ventricles of the heart, and to provide a practical guide to the resources and tools that are available for work in this exciting and challenging area. PMID:17825362

  17. Construction of a computational anatomical model of the peripheral cardiac conduction system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebastian, Rafael; Zimmerman, Viviana; Romero, Daniel; Frangi, Alejandro F

    2011-12-01

    A methodology is presented here for automatic construction of a ventricular model of the cardiac conduction system (CCS), which is currently a missing block in many multiscale cardiac electromechanic models. It includes the His bundle, left bundle branches, and the peripheral CCS. The algorithm is fundamentally an enhancement of a rule-based method known as the Lindenmayer systems (L-systems). The generative procedure has been divided into three consecutive independent stages, which subsequently build the CCS from proximal to distal sections. Each stage is governed by a set of user parameters together with anatomical and physiological constrains to direct the generation process and adhere to the structural observations derived from histology studies. Several parameters are defined using statistical distributions to introduce stochastic variability in the models. The CCS built with this approach can generate electrical activation sequences with physiological characteristics. PMID:21896384

  18. Sub-micrometer anatomical models of the sarcolemma of cardiac myocytes based on confocal imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachse, Frank B; Savio-Galimberti, Eleonora; Goldhaber, Joshua I; Bridge, John H B

    2008-01-01

    We describe an approach to develop anatomical models of cardiac cells. The approach is based on confocal imaging of living ventricular myocytes with submicrometer resolution, digital image processing of three-dimensional stacks with high data volume, and generation of dense triangular surface meshes representing the sarcolemma including the transverse tubular system. The image processing includes methods for deconvolution, filtering and segmentation. We introduce and visualize models of the sarcolemma of whole ventricular myocytes and single transversal tubules. These models can be applied for computational studies of cell and sub-cellular physical behavior and physiology, in particular cell signaling. Furthermore, the approach is applicable for studying effects of cardiac development, aging and diseases, which are associated with changes of cell anatomy and protein distributions. PMID:18229702

  19. Actor-critic models of the basal ganglia: new anatomical and computational perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joel, Daphna; Niv, Yael; Ruppin, Eytan

    2002-01-01

    A large number of computational models of information processing in the basal ganglia have been developed in recent years. Prominent in these are actor-critic models of basal ganglia functioning, which build on the strong resemblance between dopamine neuron activity and the temporal difference prediction error signal in the critic, and between dopamine-dependent long-term synaptic plasticity in the striatum and learning guided by a prediction error signal in the actor. We selectively review several actor-critic models of the basal ganglia with an emphasis on two important aspects: the way in which models of the critic reproduce the temporal dynamics of dopamine firing, and the extent to which models of the actor take into account known basal ganglia anatomy and physiology. To complement the efforts to relate basal ganglia mechanisms to reinforcement learning (RL), we introduce an alternative approach to modeling a critic network, which uses Evolutionary Computation techniques to 'evolve' an optimal RL mechanism, and relate the evolved mechanism to the basic model of the critic. We conclude our discussion of models of the critic by a critical discussion of the anatomical plausibility of implementations of a critic in basal ganglia circuitry, and conclude that such implementations build on assumptions that are inconsistent with the known anatomy of the basal ganglia. We return to the actor component of the actor-critic model, which is usually modeled at the striatal level with very little detail. We describe an alternative model of the basal ganglia which takes into account several important, and previously neglected, anatomical and physiological characteristics of basal ganglia-thalamocortical connectivity and suggests that the basal ganglia performs reinforcement-biased dimensionality reduction of cortical inputs. We further suggest that since such selective encoding may bias the representation at the level of the frontal cortex towards the selection of rewarded

  20. An anatomically shaped lower body model for CT scanning of cadaver femurs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bone specific, CT-based finite element (FE) analyses have great potential to accurately predict the fracture risk of deteriorated bones. However, it has been shown that differences exist between FE-models of femora scanned in a water basin or scanned in situ within the human body, as caused by differences in measured bone mineral densities (BMD). In this study we hypothesized that these differences can be reduced by re-creating the patient CT-conditions by using an anatomically shaped physical model of the lower body. BMD distributions were obtained from four different femora that were scanned under three conditions: (1) in situ within the cadaver body, (2) in a water basin and (3) in the body model. The BMD of the three scanning protocols were compared at two locations: proximally, in the trabecular bone of the femoral head, and in the cortical bone of the femoral shaft. Proximally, no significant differences in BMD were found between the in situ scans and the scans in the body model, whereas the densities from the water basin scans were on average 10.8% lower than in situ. In the femoral shaft the differences between the three scanning protocols were insignificant. In conclusion, the body model better approached the in situ situation than a water basin. Future studies can use this body model to mimic patient situations and to develop protocols to improve the performance of the FE-models in actual patients. (note)

  1. An anatomically shaped lower body model for CT scanning of cadaver femurs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanck, Esther; Deenen, J C W; Verdonschot, Nico [Orthopaedic Research Laboratory, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Center, PO Box 9101, 6500 HB Nijmegen (Netherlands); Huisman, Henk Jan [Department of Radiology, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Center, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Kooloos, Jan G [Department of Anatomy, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Center, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Huizenga, Henk [Department of Radiotherapy, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Center, Nijmegen (Netherlands)], E-mail: e.tanck@orthop.umcn.nl

    2010-01-21

    Bone specific, CT-based finite element (FE) analyses have great potential to accurately predict the fracture risk of deteriorated bones. However, it has been shown that differences exist between FE-models of femora scanned in a water basin or scanned in situ within the human body, as caused by differences in measured bone mineral densities (BMD). In this study we hypothesized that these differences can be reduced by re-creating the patient CT-conditions by using an anatomically shaped physical model of the lower body. BMD distributions were obtained from four different femora that were scanned under three conditions: (1) in situ within the cadaver body, (2) in a water basin and (3) in the body model. The BMD of the three scanning protocols were compared at two locations: proximally, in the trabecular bone of the femoral head, and in the cortical bone of the femoral shaft. Proximally, no significant differences in BMD were found between the in situ scans and the scans in the body model, whereas the densities from the water basin scans were on average 10.8% lower than in situ. In the femoral shaft the differences between the three scanning protocols were insignificant. In conclusion, the body model better approached the in situ situation than a water basin. Future studies can use this body model to mimic patient situations and to develop protocols to improve the performance of the FE-models in actual patients. (note)

  2. Understanding complex systems: lessons from Auzoux's and von Hagens's anatomical models

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Antonio G Valdecasas; Ana M Correas; Carmen R Guerrero; Jesús Juez

    2009-12-01

    Animal and human anatomy is among the most complex systems known, and suitable teaching methods have been of great importance in the progress of knowledge. Examining the human body is part of the process by which medical students come to understand living forms. However, the need to preserve cadavers has led to the development of various techniques to manufacture models for teaching purposes. A variety of materials, such as wax, wood, papier-mâché, or glass, have long been used to construct animal and plant models. In the case of the human body, the most innovative, yet controversial, method of preservation has been plastination, invented by the German physician Gunther von Hagens, by which actual human bodies are preserved as odourless and aesthetic models for teaching and exhibitions. We point out in our study that the ‘hands-on’ approach that some anatomical models allow, namely, the (clastic) disassembly and reassembly of the parts of complex systems and their models, is not only a crucial tool for learning, but is far superior to the simple passive observation that rigid, single-piece models allow. And what is valid for the learning of anatomy can be generalized to the acquisition of knowledge of other complex physical systems.

  3. Understanding complex systems: lessons from Auzoux's and von Hagens's anatomical models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdecasas, Antonio G; Correas, Ana M; Guerrero, Carmen R; Juez, Jesús

    2009-12-01

    Animal and human anatomy is among the most complex systems known, and suitable teaching methods have been of great importance in the progress of knowledge. Examining the human body is part of the process by which medical students come to understand living forms. However, the need to preserve cadavers has led to the development of various techniques to manufacture models for teaching purposes. A variety of materials, such as wax, wood, papier-mache, or glass, have long been used to construct animal and plant models. In the case of the human body, the most innovative, yet controversial, method of preservation has been plastination, invented by the German physician Gunther von Hagens, by which actual human bodies are preserved as odourless and aesthetic models for teaching and exhibitions. We point out in our study that the 'hands-on' approach that some anatomical models allow, namely, the (clastic) disassembly and reassembly of the parts of complex systems and their models, is not only a crucial tool for learning, but is far superior to the simple passive observation that rigid, single-piece models allow. And what is valid for the learning of anatomy can be generalized to the acquisition of knowledge of other complex physical systems. PMID:20093736

  4. Explorable Three-Dimensional Digital Model of the Female Pelvis, Pelvic Contents, and Perineum for Anatomical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sergovich, Aimee; Johnson, Marjorie; Wilson, Timothy D.

    2010-01-01

    The anatomy of the pelvis is complex, multilayered, and its three-dimensional organization is conceptually difficult for students to grasp. The aim of this project was to create an explorable and projectable stereoscopic, three-dimensional (3D) model of the female pelvis and pelvic contents for anatomical education. The model was created using…

  5. CFD simulation of aerosol deposition in an anatomically based human large-medium airway model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Baoshun; Lutchen, Kenneth R

    2009-02-01

    Quantitative data on aerosol deposition in the human respiratory tract are useful for understanding the causes of certain lung diseases and for designing efficient drug delivery systems via inhalation. In this study, aerosol deposition in a 3D anatomically based human large-medium airway model was simulated using computational fluid dynamics (CFD). The model extended from mouth to generation 10 and included two-thirds of the airways obtained by multi-detector row computed tomography (MDCT) imaging on normal healthy human subjects. Steady oral inhalation (15, 30, and 60 L/min) and aerosol (1-30 micrometer) deposition were computed by CFD using the realizable k-epsilon turbulence model. Based on the mean turbulence flow field, the computed extrathoracic deposition, ratio of left to right lung deposition, and deposition efficiency at each generation compared favorably with existing in vivo and in vitro experiments. The significant deposition in the large-medium airway model showed that the total tracheobronchial deposition is dominated by the large-medium airways for micrometer-sized aerosol particles. These quantitative data and the methods developed in this study provided valuable means toward subject-specific modeling of aerosol deposition in the human lung based on realistic lung geometry. PMID:19082892

  6. Short Term Evaluation of an Anatomically Shaped Polycarbonate Urethane Total Meniscus Replacement in a Goat Model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A C T Vrancken

    Full Text Available Since the treatment options for symptomatic total meniscectomy patients are still limited, an anatomically shaped, polycarbonate urethane (PCU, total meniscus replacement was developed. This study evaluates the in vivo performance of the implant in a goat model, with a specific focus on the implant location in the joint, geometrical integrity of the implant and the effect of the implant on synovial membrane and articular cartilage histopathological condition.The right medial meniscus of seven Saanen goats was replaced by the implant. Sham surgery (transection of the MCL, arthrotomy and MCL suturing was performed in six animals. The contralateral knee joints of both groups served as control groups. After three months follow-up the following aspects of implant performance were evaluated: implant position, implant deformation and the histopathological condition of the synovium and cartilage.Implant geometry was well maintained during the three month implantation period. No signs of PCU wear were found and the implant did not induce an inflammatory response in the knee joint. In all animals, implant fixation was compromised due to suture breakage, wear or elongation, likely causing the increase in extrusion observed in the implant group. Both the femoral cartilage and tibial cartilage in direct contact with the implant showed increased damage compared to the sham and sham-control groups.This study demonstrates that the novel, anatomically shaped PCU total meniscal replacement is biocompatible and resistant to three months of physiological loading. Failure of the fixation sutures may have increased implant mobility, which probably induced implant extrusion and potentially stimulated cartilage degeneration. Evidently, redesigning the fixation method is necessary. Future animal studies should evaluate the improved fixation method and compare implant performance to current treatment standards, such as allografts.

  7. Sharing and reusing cardiovascular anatomical models over the Web: a step towards the implementation of the virtual physiological human project

    OpenAIRE

    Gianni D.; Mckeever S.; Yu T; Britten R.; Delingette H.; Frangi A.; Hunter P.; Smith N

    2010-01-01

    Sharing and reusing anatomical models over the Web offers a significant opportunity to progress the investigation of cardiovascular diseases. However, the current sharing methodology suffers from the limitations of static model delivery (i.e. embedding static links to the models within Web pages) and of a disaggregated view of the model metadata produced by publications and cardiac simulations in isolation. In the context of euHeart-- a research project targeting the description and representa...

  8. Transcranial magnetic stimulation of mouse brain using high-resolution anatomical models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowther, L. J.; Hadimani, R. L.; Kanthasamy, A. G.; Jiles, D. C.

    2014-05-01

    Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) offers the possibility of non-invasive treatment of brain disorders in humans. Studies on animals can allow rapid progress of the research including exploring a variety of different treatment conditions. Numerical calculations using animal models are needed to help design suitable TMS coils for use in animal experiments, in particular, to estimate the electric field induced in animal brains. In this paper, we have implemented a high-resolution anatomical MRI-derived mouse model consisting of 50 tissue types to accurately calculate induced electric field in the mouse brain. Magnetic field measurements have been performed on the surface of the coil and compared with the calculations in order to validate the calculated magnetic and induced electric fields in the brain. Results show how the induced electric field is distributed in a mouse brain and allow investigation of how this could be improved for TMS studies using mice. The findings have important implications in further preclinical development of TMS for treatment of human diseases.

  9. Model observer design for detecting multiple abnormalities in anatomical background images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Gezheng; Markey, Mia K.; Park, Subok

    2016-03-01

    As psychophysical studies are resource-intensive to conduct, model observers are commonly used to assess and optimize medical imaging quality. Existing model observers were typically designed to detect at most one signal. However, in clinical practice, there may be multiple abnormalities in a single image set (e.g., multifocal and multicentric breast cancers (MMBC)), which can impact treatment planning. Prevalence of signals can be different across anatomical regions, and human observers do not know the number or location of signals a priori. As new imaging techniques have the potential to improve multiple-signal detection (e.g., digital breast tomosynthesis may be more effective for diagnosis of MMBC than planar mammography), image quality assessment approaches addressing such tasks are needed. In this study, we present a model-observer mechanism to detect multiple signals in the same image dataset. To handle the high dimensionality of images, a novel implementation of partial least squares (PLS) was developed to estimate different sets of efficient channels directly from the images. Without any prior knowledge of the background or the signals, the PLS channels capture interactions between signals and the background which provide discriminant image information. Corresponding linear decision templates are employed to generate both image-level and location-specific scores on the presence of signals. Our preliminary results show that the model observer using PLS channels, compared to our first attempts with Laguerre-Gauss channels, can achieve high performance with a reasonably small number of channels, and the optimal design of the model observer may vary as the tasks of clinical interest change.

  10. An Image-Based Model of the Whole Human Heart with Detailed Anatomical Structure and Fiber Orientation

    OpenAIRE

    Dongdong Deng; Peifeng Jiao; Xuesong Ye; Ling Xia

    2012-01-01

    Many heart anatomy models have been developed to study the electrophysiological properties of the human heart. However, none of them includes the geometry of the whole human heart. In this study, an anatomically detailed mathematical model of the human heart was firstly reconstructed from the computed tomography images. In the reconstructed model, the atria consisted of atrial muscles, sinoatrial node, crista terminalis, pectinate muscles, Bachmann’s bundle, intercaval bundles, and limbus of ...

  11. Building Spatiotemporal Anatomical Models using Joint 4-D Segmentation, Registration, and Subject-Specific Atlas Estimation

    OpenAIRE

    Prastawa, Marcel; Awate, Suyash P.; Gerig, Guido

    2012-01-01

    Longitudinal analysis of anatomical changes is a vital component in many personalized-medicine applications for predicting disease onset, determining growth/atrophy patterns, evaluating disease progression, and monitoring recovery. Estimating anatomical changes in longitudinal studies, especially through magnetic resonance (MR) images, is challenging because of temporal variability in shape (e.g. from growth/atrophy) and appearance (e.g. due to imaging parameters and tissue properties affecti...

  12. Intraosseous rotation of the scaphoid: assessment by using a 3D CT model - an anatomic study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidle, Gernot; Gabl, Markus [Medical University Innsbruck, Department of Trauma Surgery, Innsbruck (Austria); Rieger, Michael [Regional Hospital Hall, Department of Radiology, Hall in Tirol (Austria); Klauser, Andrea Sabine; Thauerer, Michael [Medical University Innsbruck, Department of Radiology, Innsbruck (Austria); Hoermann, Romed [Medical University Innsbruck, Department of Anatomy, Histology and Embryology-Division of Clinical and Functional Anatomy, Innsbruck (Austria)

    2014-06-15

    The purpose of this study was to assess intraosseous rotation as the third dimension of scaphoid anatomy on a 3D CT model using common volume rendering software to impact anatomical reconstruction of scaphoid fractures. CT images of 13 cadaver wrist pairs were acquired. Reference axes for the alignment of distal and proximal scaphoid poles were defined three-dimensionally. Two methods for rotation measurement - the reference axis method (RAM) and the scapho-trapezio-trapezoidal joint method (STTM) - were developed and compared by three independent observers. Rotation measured by the RAM averaged 66.9 ± 7 for the right and 67.2 ± 5.8 for the left wrists. Using the STTM there was a mean rotation of 68.6 ± 6.6 for the right and 68.6 ± 6.8 for the left wrists. The overall results showed a significant variability of the measured values between different specimens (P < 0.05). There was no significant difference between left and right wrists of the same specimen, neither for the RAM (P = 0.268) nor for the STTM (P = 0.774). Repeatability coefficients between the observers were low, indicating good repeatability. The presented methods are practical tools to quantify intraosseous rotation between distal and proximal scaphoid poles using common volume rendering software. For clinical application the opposite side provides the best reference values to assess malrotation in scaphoid fracture cases. (orig.)

  13. Development of a rabbit's urethral sphincter deficiency animal model for anatomical-functional evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Skaff

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to develop a new durable animal model (using rabbits for anatomical-functional evaluation of urethral sphincter deficiency. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 40 New Zealand male rabbits, weighting 2.500 kg to 3.100 kg, were evaluated to develop an incontinent animal model. Thirty-two animals underwent urethrolysis and 8 animals received sham operation. Before and at 2, 4, 8 and 12 weeks after urethrolysis or sham operation, it was performed cystometry and leak point pressure (LPP evaluation with different bladder distension volumes (10, 20, 30 mL. In each time point, 10 animals (8 from the study group and 2 from the sham group were sacrificed to harvest the bladder and urethra. The samples were evaluated by H&E and Masson's Trichrome to determine urethral morphology and collagen/smooth muscle density. RESULTS: Twelve weeks after urethrolysis, it was observed a significant decrease in LPP regardless the bladder volume (from 33.7 ± 6.6 to 12.8 ± 2.2 cmH2O. The histological analysis evidenced a decrease of 22% in smooth muscle density with a proportional increase in the collagen, vessels and elastin density (p < 0.01. CONCLUSIONS: Transabdominal urethrolysis develops urethral sphincter insufficiency in rabbits, with significant decrease in LPP associated with decrease of smooth muscle fibers and increase of collagen density. This animal model can be used to test autologous cell therapy for stress urinary incontinence treatment.

  14. Model-based dose calculations for COMS eye plaque brachytherapy using an anatomically realistic eye phantom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lesperance, Marielle; Inglis-Whalen, M.; Thomson, R. M., E-mail: rthomson@physics.carleton.ca [Carleton Laboratory for Radiotherapy Physics, Department of Physics, Carleton University, Ottawa K1S 5B6 (Canada)

    2014-02-15

    Purpose : To investigate the effects of the composition and geometry of ocular media and tissues surrounding the eye on dose distributions for COMS eye plaque brachytherapy with{sup 125}I, {sup 103}Pd, or {sup 131}Cs seeds, and to investigate doses to ocular structures. Methods : An anatomically and compositionally realistic voxelized eye model with a medial tumor is developed based on a literature review. Mass energy absorption and attenuation coefficients for ocular media are calculated. Radiation transport and dose deposition are simulated using the EGSnrc Monte Carlo user-code BrachyDose for a fully loaded COMS eye plaque within a water phantom and our full eye model for the three radionuclides. A TG-43 simulation with the same seed configuration in a water phantom neglecting the plaque and interseed effects is also performed. The impact on dose distributions of varying tumor position, as well as tumor and surrounding tissue media is investigated. Each simulation and radionuclide is compared using isodose contours, dose volume histograms for the lens and tumor, maximum, minimum, and average doses to structures of interest, and doses to voxels of interest within the eye. Results : Mass energy absorption and attenuation coefficients of the ocular media differ from those of water by as much as 12% within the 20–30 keV photon energy range. For all radionuclides studied, average doses to the tumor and lens regions in the full eye model differ from those for the plaque in water by 8%–10% and 13%–14%, respectively; the average doses to the tumor and lens regions differ between the full eye model and the TG-43 simulation by 2%–17% and 29%–34%, respectively. Replacing the surrounding tissues in the eye model with water increases the maximum and average doses to the lens by 2% and 3%, respectively. Substituting the tumor medium in the eye model for water, soft tissue, or an alternate melanoma composition affects tumor dose compared to the default eye model

  15. Model-based dose calculations for COMS eye plaque brachytherapy using an anatomically realistic eye phantom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose : To investigate the effects of the composition and geometry of ocular media and tissues surrounding the eye on dose distributions for COMS eye plaque brachytherapy with125I, 103Pd, or 131Cs seeds, and to investigate doses to ocular structures. Methods : An anatomically and compositionally realistic voxelized eye model with a medial tumor is developed based on a literature review. Mass energy absorption and attenuation coefficients for ocular media are calculated. Radiation transport and dose deposition are simulated using the EGSnrc Monte Carlo user-code BrachyDose for a fully loaded COMS eye plaque within a water phantom and our full eye model for the three radionuclides. A TG-43 simulation with the same seed configuration in a water phantom neglecting the plaque and interseed effects is also performed. The impact on dose distributions of varying tumor position, as well as tumor and surrounding tissue media is investigated. Each simulation and radionuclide is compared using isodose contours, dose volume histograms for the lens and tumor, maximum, minimum, and average doses to structures of interest, and doses to voxels of interest within the eye. Results : Mass energy absorption and attenuation coefficients of the ocular media differ from those of water by as much as 12% within the 20–30 keV photon energy range. For all radionuclides studied, average doses to the tumor and lens regions in the full eye model differ from those for the plaque in water by 8%–10% and 13%–14%, respectively; the average doses to the tumor and lens regions differ between the full eye model and the TG-43 simulation by 2%–17% and 29%–34%, respectively. Replacing the surrounding tissues in the eye model with water increases the maximum and average doses to the lens by 2% and 3%, respectively. Substituting the tumor medium in the eye model for water, soft tissue, or an alternate melanoma composition affects tumor dose compared to the default eye model simulation by up to 16

  16. Building generic anatomical models using virtual model cutting and iterative registration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hallgrímsson Benedikt

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Using 3D generic models to statistically analyze trends in biological structure changes is an important tool in morphometrics research. Therefore, 3D generic models built for a range of populations are in high demand. However, due to the complexity of biological structures and the limited views of them that medical images can offer, it is still an exceptionally difficult task to quickly and accurately create 3D generic models (a model is a 3D graphical representation of a biological structure based on medical image stacks (a stack is an ordered collection of 2D images. We show that the creation of a generic model that captures spatial information exploitable in statistical analyses is facilitated by coupling our generalized segmentation method to existing automatic image registration algorithms. Methods The method of creating generic 3D models consists of the following processing steps: (i scanning subjects to obtain image stacks; (ii creating individual 3D models from the stacks; (iii interactively extracting sub-volume by cutting each model to generate the sub-model of interest; (iv creating image stacks that contain only the information pertaining to the sub-models; (v iteratively registering the corresponding new 2D image stacks; (vi averaging the newly created sub-models based on intensity to produce the generic model from all the individual sub-models. Results After several registration procedures are applied to the image stacks, we can create averaged image stacks with sharp boundaries. The averaged 3D model created from those image stacks is very close to the average representation of the population. The image registration time varies depending on the image size and the desired accuracy of the registration. Both volumetric data and surface model for the generic 3D model are created at the final step. Conclusions Our method is very flexible and easy to use such that anyone can use image stacks to create models and

  17. Computed tomography of the vesicular glands: anatomical animal model (Oryctolagus cuniculus)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spiral CT is a non-invasive imaging method of choice for animal anatomical studies. The aim of the study was to establish the imaging anatomical features of the vesicular glands in the rabbit. Eight sexually mature healthy clinically male New Zealand rabbits of 18 months of age with body weight from 2.8 kg to 3.2 kg were used. The animals were anesthetized. As contrast medium Opti-ray350 was administrated. The computed tomography scan was complied with certain bone and soft tissue markers. For this purpose, a whole body multi-slice spiral computed tomography scanner was used. The both soft tissue glands were heterogeneous and relatively hyperdense structures, and defined in detail from the adjacent soft tissues. The urinary bladder neck was ventrally to the glands. Both vesicular glands were better differentiated each other when the rabbit is examined in abdominal recumbence. In dorsal recumbence the shape of the transversal image of the glandular finding was oval. In abdominal recumbence both the left and right soft tissue vesicular gland were defined. Transversal anatomical computed tomographic investigation of the rabbit vesicular gland is a detailed and definitive method, to study the normal morphology of these glands. Key words: Vesicular Gland. Helical Computed Tomography. Anatomy. Rabbit

  18. The Virtual Family-development of surface-based anatomical models of two adults and two children for dosimetric simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this study was to develop anatomically correct whole body human models of an adult male (34 years old), an adult female (26 years old) and two children (an 11-year-old girl and a six-year-old boy) for the optimized evaluation of electromagnetic exposure. These four models are referred to as the Virtual Family. They are based on high resolution magnetic resonance (MR) images of healthy volunteers. More than 80 different tissue types were distinguished during the segmentation. To improve the accuracy and the effectiveness of the segmentation, a novel semi-automated tool was used to analyze and segment the data. All tissues and organs were reconstructed as three-dimensional (3D) unstructured triangulated surface objects, yielding high precision images of individual features of the body. This greatly enhances the meshing flexibility and the accuracy with respect to thin tissue layers and small organs in comparison with the traditional voxel-based representation of anatomical models. Conformal computational techniques were also applied. The techniques and tools developed in this study can be used to more effectively develop future models and further improve the accuracy of the models for various applications. For research purposes, the four models are provided for free to the scientific community. (note)

  19. Basic Restriction and Reference Level in Anatomically-based Japanese Models for Low-Frequency Electric and Magnetic Field Exposures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takano, Yukinori; Hirata, Akimasa; Fujiwara, Osamu

    Human exposed to electric and/or magnetic fields at low frequencies may cause direct effect such as nerve stimulation and excitation. Therefore, basic restriction is regulated in terms of induced current density in the ICNIRP guidelines and in-situ electric field in the IEEE standard. External electric or magnetic field which does not produce induced quantities exceeding the basic restriction is used as a reference level. The relationship between the basic restriction and reference level for low-frequency electric and magnetic fields has been investigated using European anatomic models, while limited for Japanese model, especially for electric field exposures. In addition, that relationship has not well been discussed. In the present study, we calculated the induced quantities in anatomic Japanese male and female models exposed to electric and magnetic fields at reference level. A quasi static finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method was applied to analyze this problem. As a result, spatially averaged induced current density was found to be more sensitive to averaging algorithms than that of in-situ electric field. For electric and magnetic field exposure at the ICNIRP reference level, the maximum values of the induced current density for different averaging algorithm were smaller than the basic restriction for most cases. For exposures at the reference level in the IEEE standard, the maximum electric fields in the brain were larger than the basic restriction in the brain while smaller for the spinal cord and heart.

  20. Quantitative modeling of the accuracy in registering preoperative patient-specific anatomic models into left atrial cardiac ablation procedures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rettmann, Maryam E., E-mail: rettmann.maryam@mayo.edu; Holmes, David R.; Camp, Jon J.; Cameron, Bruce M.; Robb, Richard A. [Biomedical Imaging Resource, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, Rochester, Minnesota 55905 (United States); Kwartowitz, David M. [Department of Bioengineering, Clemson University, Clemson, South Carolina 29634 (United States); Gunawan, Mia [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular and Cellular Biology, Georgetown University, Washington D.C. 20057 (United States); Johnson, Susan B.; Packer, Douglas L. [Division of Cardiovascular Diseases, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota 55905 (United States); Dalegrave, Charles [Clinical Cardiac Electrophysiology, Cardiology Division Hospital Sao Paulo, Federal University of Sao Paulo, 04024-002 Brazil (Brazil); Kolasa, Mark W. [David Grant Medical Center, Fairfield, California 94535 (United States)

    2014-02-15

    Purpose: In cardiac ablation therapy, accurate anatomic guidance is necessary to create effective tissue lesions for elimination of left atrial fibrillation. While fluoroscopy, ultrasound, and electroanatomic maps are important guidance tools, they lack information regarding detailed patient anatomy which can be obtained from high resolution imaging techniques. For this reason, there has been significant effort in incorporating detailed, patient-specific models generated from preoperative imaging datasets into the procedure. Both clinical and animal studies have investigated registration and targeting accuracy when using preoperative models; however, the effect of various error sources on registration accuracy has not been quantitatively evaluated. Methods: Data from phantom, canine, and patient studies are used to model and evaluate registration accuracy. In the phantom studies, data are collected using a magnetically tracked catheter on a static phantom model. Monte Carlo simulation studies were run to evaluate both baseline errors as well as the effect of different sources of error that would be present in a dynamicin vivo setting. Error is simulated by varying the variance parameters on the landmark fiducial, physical target, and surface point locations in the phantom simulation studies. In vivo validation studies were undertaken in six canines in which metal clips were placed in the left atrium to serve as ground truth points. A small clinical evaluation was completed in three patients. Landmark-based and combined landmark and surface-based registration algorithms were evaluated in all studies. In the phantom and canine studies, both target registration error and point-to-surface error are used to assess accuracy. In the patient studies, no ground truth is available and registration accuracy is quantified using point-to-surface error only. Results: The phantom simulation studies demonstrated that combined landmark and surface-based registration improved

  1. Quantitative modeling of the accuracy in registering preoperative patient-specific anatomic models into left atrial cardiac ablation procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: In cardiac ablation therapy, accurate anatomic guidance is necessary to create effective tissue lesions for elimination of left atrial fibrillation. While fluoroscopy, ultrasound, and electroanatomic maps are important guidance tools, they lack information regarding detailed patient anatomy which can be obtained from high resolution imaging techniques. For this reason, there has been significant effort in incorporating detailed, patient-specific models generated from preoperative imaging datasets into the procedure. Both clinical and animal studies have investigated registration and targeting accuracy when using preoperative models; however, the effect of various error sources on registration accuracy has not been quantitatively evaluated. Methods: Data from phantom, canine, and patient studies are used to model and evaluate registration accuracy. In the phantom studies, data are collected using a magnetically tracked catheter on a static phantom model. Monte Carlo simulation studies were run to evaluate both baseline errors as well as the effect of different sources of error that would be present in a dynamicin vivo setting. Error is simulated by varying the variance parameters on the landmark fiducial, physical target, and surface point locations in the phantom simulation studies. In vivo validation studies were undertaken in six canines in which metal clips were placed in the left atrium to serve as ground truth points. A small clinical evaluation was completed in three patients. Landmark-based and combined landmark and surface-based registration algorithms were evaluated in all studies. In the phantom and canine studies, both target registration error and point-to-surface error are used to assess accuracy. In the patient studies, no ground truth is available and registration accuracy is quantified using point-to-surface error only. Results: The phantom simulation studies demonstrated that combined landmark and surface-based registration improved

  2. Towards anatomic scale agent-based modeling with a massively parallel spatially explicit general-purpose model of enteric tissue (SEGMEnT_HPC.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Chase Cockrell

    Full Text Available Perhaps the greatest challenge currently facing the biomedical research community is the ability to integrate highly detailed cellular and molecular mechanisms to represent clinical disease states as a pathway to engineer effective therapeutics. This is particularly evident in the representation of organ-level pathophysiology in terms of abnormal tissue structure, which, through histology, remains a mainstay in disease diagnosis and staging. As such, being able to generate anatomic scale simulations is a highly desirable goal. While computational limitations have previously constrained the size and scope of multi-scale computational models, advances in the capacity and availability of high-performance computing (HPC resources have greatly expanded the ability of computational models of biological systems to achieve anatomic, clinically relevant scale. Diseases of the intestinal tract are exemplary examples of pathophysiological processes that manifest at multiple scales of spatial resolution, with structural abnormalities present at the microscopic, macroscopic and organ-levels. In this paper, we describe a novel, massively parallel computational model of the gut, the Spatially Explicitly General-purpose Model of Enteric Tissue_HPC (SEGMEnT_HPC, which extends an existing model of the gut epithelium, SEGMEnT, in order to create cell-for-cell anatomic scale simulations. We present an example implementation of SEGMEnT_HPC that simulates the pathogenesis of ileal pouchitis, and important clinical entity that affects patients following remedial surgery for ulcerative colitis.

  3. Automatic anatomical labeling of the complete cerebral vasculature in mouse models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghanavati, Sahar; Lerch, Jason P; Sled, John G

    2014-07-15

    Study of cerebral vascular structure broadens our understanding of underlying variations, such as pathologies that can lead to cerebrovascular disorders. The development of high resolution 3D imaging modalities has provided us with the raw material to study the blood vessels in small animals such as mice. However, the high complexity and 3D nature of the cerebral vasculature make comparison and analysis of the vessels difficult, time-consuming and laborious. Here we present a framework for automated segmentation and recognition of the cerebral vessels in high resolution 3D images that addresses this need. The vasculature is segmented by following vessel center lines starting from automatically generated seeds and the vascular structure is represented as a graph. Each vessel segment is represented as an edge in the graph and has local features such as length, diameter, and direction, and relational features representing the connectivity of the vessel segments. Using these features, each edge in the graph is automatically labeled with its anatomical name using a stochastic relaxation algorithm. We have validated our method on micro-CT images of C57Bl/6J mice. A leave-one-out test performed on the labeled data set demonstrated the recognition rate for all vessels including major named vessels and their minor branches to be >75%. This automatic segmentation and recognition methods facilitate the comparison of blood vessels in large populations of subjects and allow us to study cerebrovascular variations. PMID:24680868

  4. Dosimetric comparison of the specific anthropomorphic mannequin (SAM) to 14 anatomical head models using a novel definition for the mobile phone positioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents new definitions for obtaining reproducible results in numerical phone dosimetry. Numerous numerical dosimetric studies have been published about the exposure of mobile phone users which concluded with conflicting results. However, many of these studies lack reproducibility due to shortcomings in the description of the phone positioning. The new approach was tested by two groups applying two different numerical program packages to compare the specific anthropomorphic mannequin (SAM) to 14 anatomically correct head models. A novel definition for the positioning of mobile phones next to anatomically correct head models is given along with other essential parameters to be reported. The definition is solely based on anatomical characteristics of the head. A simple up-to-date phone model was used to determine the peak spatial specific absorption rate (SAR) of mobile phones in SAM and in the anatomically correct head models. The results were validated by measurements. The study clearly shows that SAM gives a conservative estimate of the exposure in anatomically correct head models for head only tissue. Depending on frequency, phone position and head size the numerically calculated 10 g averaged SAR in the pinna can be up to 2.1 times greater than the peak spatial SAR in SAM. Measurements in small structures, such as the pinna, will significantly increase the uncertainty; therefore SAM was designed for SAR assessment in the head only. Whether SAM will provide a conservative value for the pinna depends on the pinna SAR limit of the safety standard considered

  5. Effect of Anatomically Realistic Full-Head Model on Activation of Cortical Neurons in Subdural Cortical Stimulation—A Computational Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Hyeon; Kim, Donghyeon; Jun, Sung Chan

    2016-06-01

    Electrical brain stimulation (EBS) is an emerging therapy for the treatment of neurological disorders, and computational modeling studies of EBS have been used to determine the optimal parameters for highly cost-effective electrotherapy. Recent notable growth in computing capability has enabled researchers to consider an anatomically realistic head model that represents the full head and complex geometry of the brain rather than the previous simplified partial head model (extruded slab) that represents only the precentral gyrus. In this work, subdural cortical stimulation (SuCS) was found to offer a better understanding of the differential activation of cortical neurons in the anatomically realistic full-head model than in the simplified partial-head models. We observed that layer 3 pyramidal neurons had comparable stimulation thresholds in both head models, while layer 5 pyramidal neurons showed a notable discrepancy between the models; in particular, layer 5 pyramidal neurons demonstrated asymmetry in the thresholds and action potential initiation sites in the anatomically realistic full-head model. Overall, the anatomically realistic full-head model may offer a better understanding of layer 5 pyramidal neuronal responses. Accordingly, the effects of using the realistic full-head model in SuCS are compelling in computational modeling studies, even though this modeling requires substantially more effort.

  6. Physical and anatomical data, and part of physiological and metabolic data for normal Japanese with special reference to establishing Reference Asian Man model for the anatomical characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studies on the physical, anatomical, and partial metabolic as well as physiological characteristics on Reference Japanese Man were undertaken to establish reference values for use in internal dose assessment and to assign annual limits on intakes of radionuclides for Japanese workers and members of the general public. Secular trends in, and/or probable influences of nutritional conditions on the organ mass were examined by comparing the present results with the other normal Japanese data. The average height of male and female adults (20-50 y) were 168 and 155 cm, respectively. The body weights for males and females, 20-50 y, were - 64 and 52 kg. The data on the weight and size of twelve organs in normal males and eleven in normal females were obtained from autopsy, 12 to 24 h after sudden death. The per caput intake of foodstuffs and principal nutrients were taken from the annual report of the National nutrition Survey for households in the urban and rural areas in all districts of Japan. Determination of elemental intake was made by collecting, one full day of meals for adult males from 31 prefectures in practically all districts of Japan. Pulmonary function parameters studied include total lung capacity, vital capacity, minute volume and 8 h working volume at various levels of exertion - resting, light and heavy activity. The subjects were healthy, normal Japanese males and females. Water balance data were obtained for 9 males and 6 females in Tokyo, under conditions of controlled energy and salt intake. The lengths of the study period were 6 and 10 days, respectively. Daily intakes of energy and salt were determined for the male student athletes for whom an indoor physical training was assigned. (author)

  7. Anatomically accurate high resolution modeling of human whole heart electromechanics: A strongly scalable algebraic multigrid solver method for nonlinear deformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augustin, Christoph M.; Neic, Aurel; Liebmann, Manfred; Prassl, Anton J.; Niederer, Steven A.; Haase, Gundolf; Plank, Gernot

    2016-01-01

    Electromechanical (EM) models of the heart have been used successfully to study fundamental mechanisms underlying a heart beat in health and disease. However, in all modeling studies reported so far numerous simplifications were made in terms of representing biophysical details of cellular function and its heterogeneity, gross anatomy and tissue microstructure, as well as the bidirectional coupling between electrophysiology (EP) and tissue distension. One limiting factor is the employed spatial discretization methods which are not sufficiently flexible to accommodate complex geometries or resolve heterogeneities, but, even more importantly, the limited efficiency of the prevailing solver techniques which is not sufficiently scalable to deal with the incurring increase in degrees of freedom (DOF) when modeling cardiac electromechanics at high spatio-temporal resolution. This study reports on the development of a novel methodology for solving the nonlinear equation of finite elasticity using human whole organ models of cardiac electromechanics, discretized at a high para-cellular resolution. Three patient-specific, anatomically accurate, whole heart EM models were reconstructed from magnetic resonance (MR) scans at resolutions of 220 μm, 440 μm and 880 μm, yielding meshes of approximately 184.6, 24.4 and 3.7 million tetrahedral elements and 95.9, 13.2 and 2.1 million displacement DOF, respectively. The same mesh was used for discretizing the governing equations of both electrophysiology (EP) and nonlinear elasticity. A novel algebraic multigrid (AMG) preconditioner for an iterative Krylov solver was developed to deal with the resulting computational load. The AMG preconditioner was designed under the primary objective of achieving favorable strong scaling characteristics for both setup and solution runtimes, as this is key for exploiting current high performance computing hardware. Benchmark results using the 220 μm, 440 μm and 880 μm meshes demonstrate

  8. A patient-specific respiratory model of anatomical motion for radiation treatment planning

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Qinghui; Pevsner, Alex; Hertanto, Agung; Hu, Yu-Chi; Rosenzweig, Kenneth E.; Ling, C. Clifton; Mageras, Gig S.

    2007-01-01

    Modeling of respiratory motion is important for a more accurate understanding and accounting of its effect on dose to cancers in the thorax and abdomen by radiotherapy. We have developed a model of respiration-induced organ motion in the thorax, without the commonly adopted assumption of repeatable breath cycles. The model describes the motion of a volume of interest within the patient, based on a reference 3-dimensional image (at end-expiration), and the diaphragm positions at different time...

  9. Development of a new generation of high-resolution anatomical models for medical device evaluation: the Virtual Population 3.0

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosselin, Marie-Christine; Neufeld, Esra; Moser, Heidi; Huber, Eveline; Farcito, Silvia; Gerber, Livia; Jedensjö, Maria; Hilber, Isabel; Di Gennaro, Fabienne; Lloyd, Bryn; Cherubini, Emilio; Szczerba, Dominik; Kainz, Wolfgang; Kuster, Niels

    2014-09-01

    The Virtual Family computational whole-body anatomical human models were originally developed for electromagnetic (EM) exposure evaluations, in particular to study how absorption of radiofrequency radiation from external sources depends on anatomy. However, the models immediately garnered much broader interest and are now applied by over 300 research groups, many from medical applications research fields. In a first step, the Virtual Family was expanded to the Virtual Population to provide considerably broader population coverage with the inclusion of models of both sexes ranging in age from 5 to 84 years old. Although these models have proven to be invaluable for EM dosimetry, it became evident that significantly enhanced models are needed for reliable effectiveness and safety evaluations of diagnostic and therapeutic applications, including medical implants safety. This paper describes the research and development performed to obtain anatomical models that meet the requirements necessary for medical implant safety assessment applications. These include implementation of quality control procedures, re-segmentation at higher resolution, more-consistent tissue assignments, enhanced surface processing and numerous anatomical refinements. Several tools were developed to enhance the functionality of the models, including discretization tools, posing tools to expand the posture space covered, and multiple morphing tools, e.g., to develop pathological models or variations of existing ones. A comprehensive tissue properties database was compiled to complement the library of models. The results are a set of anatomically independent, accurate, and detailed models with smooth, yet feature-rich and topologically conforming surfaces. The models are therefore suited for the creation of unstructured meshes, and the possible applications of the models are extended to a wider range of solvers and physics. The impact of these improvements is shown for the MRI exposure of an adult

  10. Experimental investigation of the flow field past a bileaflet mechanical heart valve in pulsatile flow within an anatomical aorta model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Laura; Tavoularis, Stavros

    2011-11-01

    A bileaflet mechanical heart valve (BMHV) has been mounted at the inlet of an anatomical model of the human aorta, and placed within a mock circulation loop that simulates physiological flow conditions. The working fluid matches the refractive index of silicone, from which the aorta model and other parts of the test section are made, and the viscosity of blood. Flow characteristics past the BMHV are measured using stereoscopic and planar particle image velocimetry and laser Doppler velocimetry. In contrast to previous experiments, in which heart valves have been tested in simplified aortic geometries, this arrangement permits the study of the dependence of flow past the valve upon recirculation in the sinuses of Valsalva, the flow rate through the coronary arteries, and the aorta curvature. The effect of valve orientation will also be investigated with the objective to determine a hemodynamically optimal configuration with potential benefits to implantation procedures. The measured viscous shear stress distribution will be analyzed towards predicting the initiation of thrombosis in patients and identifying regions of stagnation, which could facilitate thrombus attachment.

  11. Continuous modelling study of numerical volumes - Applications to the visualization of anatomical structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several technics of imaging (IRM, image scanners, tomoscintigraphy, echography) give numerical informations presented by means of a stack of parallel cross-sectional images. Since many years, 3-D mathematical tools have been developed and allow the 3 D images synthesis of surfaces. In first part, we give the technics of numerical volume exploitation and their medical applications to diagnosis and therapy. The second part is about a continuous modelling of the volume with a tensor product of cubic splines. We study the characteristics of this representation and its clinical validation. Finally, we treat of the problem of surface visualization of objects contained in the volume. The results show the interest of this model and allow to propose specifications for 3-D workstation realization

  12. A patient-specific respiratory model of anatomical motion for radiation treatment planning

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Qinghui; Hertanto, Agung; Hu, Yu-Chi; Rosenzweig, Kenneth E; Ling, C Clifton; Mageras, Gig S

    2007-01-01

    Modeling of respiratory motion is important for a more accurate understanding and accounting of its effect on dose to cancers in the thorax and abdomen by radiotherapy. We have developed a model of respiration-induced organ motion in the thorax, without the commonly adopted assumption of repeatable breath cycles. The model describes the motion of a volume of interest within the patient, based on a reference 3-dimensional image (at end-expiration), and the diaphragm positions at different time points. The input data are respiration-correlated CT images of patients treated for nonsmall cell lung cancer, consisting of 3D images, including the diaphragm positions, at 10 phases of the respiratory cycle. A deformable image registration algorithm calculates the deformation field that maps each 3D image to the reference 3D image. A principle component analysis is performed to parameterize the 3D deformation field in terms of the diaphragm motion. We show that the first two principal components are adequate to accurat...

  13. Effect of anatomical variability on electric field characteristics of electroconvulsive therapy and magnetic seizure therapy: a parametric modeling study

    OpenAIRE

    Deng, Zhi-De; Lisanby, Sarah H.; Peterchev, Angel V.

    2014-01-01

    Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) and magnetic seizure therapy (MST) are conventionally applied with a fixed stimulus current amplitude, which may result in differences in the neural stimulation strength and focality across patients due to interindividual anatomical variability. The objective of this study is to quantify the effect of head anatomical variability associated with age, sex, and individual differences on the induced electric field characteristics in ECT and MST. Six stimulation mod...

  14. Flow dynamics in anatomical models of abdominal aortic aneurysms: computational analysis of pulsatile flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finol, Ender A; Amon, Cristina H

    2003-01-01

    Blood flow in human arteries is dominated by time-dependent transport phenomena. In particular, in the abdominal segment of the aorta under a patient's average resting conditions, blood exhibits laminar flow patterns that are influenced by secondary flows induced by adjacent branches and in irregular vessel geometries. The flow dynamics becomes more complex when there is a pathological condition that causes changes in the normal structural composition of the vessel wall, for example, in the presence of an aneurysm. An aneurysm is an irreversible dilation of a blood vessel accompanied by weakening of the vessel wall. This work examines the importance of hemodynamics in the characterization of pulsatile blood flow patterns in individual Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm (AAA) models. These patient-specific computational models have been developed for the numerical simulation of the momentum transport equations utilizing the Finite Element Method (FEM) for the spatial and temporal discretization. We characterize pulsatile flow dynamics in AAAs for average resting conditions by means of identifying regions of disturbed flow and quantifying the disturbance by evaluating wall pressure and wall shear stresses at the aneurysm wall. PMID:14515766

  15. Anatomic Total Shoulder System

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available GLOBAL AP ANATOMIC TOTAL SHOULDER SYSTEM METHODIST HOSPITAL PHILADELPHIA, PA April 17, 2008 00:00:10 ANNOUNCER: ... you'll be able to watch a live global AP anatomic total shoulder surgery from Methodist Hospital ...

  16. A review of US anthropometric reference data (1971-2000) with comparisons to both stylized and tomographic anatomic models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two classes of anatomic models currently exist for use in both radiation protection and radiation dose reconstruction: stylized mathematical models and tomographic voxel models. The former utilize 3D surface equations to represent internal organ structure and external body shape, while the latter are based on segmented CT or MR images of a single individual. While tomographic models are clearly more anthropomorphic than stylized models, a given model's characterization as being anthropometric is dependent upon the reference human to which the model is compared. In the present study, data on total body mass, standing/sitting heights and body mass index are collected and reviewed for the US population covering the time interval from 1971 to 2000. These same anthropometric parameters are then assembled for the ORNL series of stylized models, the GSF series of tomographic models (Golem, Helga, Donna, etc), the adult male Zubal tomographic model and the UF newborn tomographic model. The stylized ORNL models of the adult male and female are found to be fairly representative of present-day average US males and females, respectively, in terms of both standing and sitting heights for ages between 20 and 60-80 years. While the ORNL adult male model provides a reasonably close match to the total body mass of the average US 21-year-old male (within ∼5%), present-day 40-year-old males have an average total body mass that is ∼16% higher. For radiation protection purposes, the use of the larger 73.7 kg adult ORNL stylized hermaphrodite model provides a much closer representation of average present-day US females at ages ranging from 20 to 70 years. In terms of the adult tomographic models from the GSF series, only Donna (40-year-old F) closely matches her age-matched US counterpart in terms of average body mass. Regarding standing heights, the better matches to US age-correlated averages belong to Irene (32-year-old F) for the females and Golem (38-year-old M) for the males

  17. A unified anatomical theory and computational model of cognitive information processing in the mammalian brain and the introduction of DNA reco codes

    OpenAIRE

    Solari, Soren

    2009-01-01

    This dissertation presents a comprehensive unified anatomical theory in conjunction with computational models that serve to provide a complete working explanatory framework for cognitive information processing in the mammalian brain. Our model provides sufficient detail such that we are able to hypothesize the function of individual populations of neurons as they correlate to psychological observation. We first introduce our working hypothesis, confabulation theory, on the fundamental cortica...

  18. Digital 3D anatomical modeling of the mandible with full teeth%数字化全牙列下颌骨三维解剖建模

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱赴东; 石珏; 宋恩; 葛巍立; 廖胜辉

    2014-01-01

    Objective To study and establish a high quality digital 3D anatomical modeling of the mandible with full teeth.Methods A set of accurate digital models of standard anatomical specimens of mandibular teeth were obtained by laser scanning, and the 3D mandible model was reconstructed by CT scan data;then, a registration deformation method based on the geometry and image anatomical landmark was employed to do the registration of each tooth to the mandible model, and finally the tooth enamel , dentin, periodontal ligament were generated .Results A high quality digital 3D anatomical modeling of the mandible with full teeth was built , each tooth had detail crown and whole root , the distinction between the enamel , dentin, periodontal ligament , and any anatomical regions can be zoomed and rotately displayed . Conclusion The digital 3D anatomical modeling of the mandible with full teeth has realistic 3D imaging view and convenient teaching-learning function , and has tremendous apllication futures in the stomatology , maxillofacial and other medical departments .%目的:探讨建立具有高质量牙列的下颌骨三维数字化解剖模型。方法用激光扫描获取1套标准下颌牙列解剖标本的精确三维模型,用CT扫描数据重建下颌骨三维模型,使用基于几何和图像解剖标志的配准变形方法将每颗牙齿模型对齐融合到下颌骨模型,进一步生成牙齿的牙釉质、牙本质、牙周膜。结果成功建立了具有高质量牙列的下颌骨三维数字化解剖模型,每颗牙齿具有牙冠细节和完整的牙根,区分牙釉质、牙本质、牙周膜,可以对任意解剖区域放大和旋转观察,显示解剖标志。结论高质量牙列的下颌骨三维数字化解剖模型具有逼真的三维显象和方便的教学学习功能,可用于口腔、颌面、解剖等多个学科。

  19. A probabilistic approach using deformable organ models for automatic definition of normal anatomical structures for 3D treatment planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose/Objective : Current clinical methods for defining normal anatomical structures on tomographic images are time consuming and subject to intra- and inter-user variability. With the widespread implementation of 3D RTP, conformal radiotherapy, and dose escalation the implications of imprecise object definition have assumed a much higher level of importance. Object definition and volume-weighted metrics for normal anatomy, such as DVHs and NTCPs, play critical roles in aiming, shaping, and weighting beams. Improvements in object definition, including computer automation, are essential to yield reliable volume-weighted metrics and gains in human efficiency. The purpose of this study was to investigate a probabilistic approach using deformable models to automatically recognize and extract normal anatomy in tomographic images. Materials and Methods: Object models were created from normal organs that were segmented by an interactive method which involved placing a cursor near the center of the object on a slice and clicking a mouse button to initiate computation of structures called cores. Cores describe the skeletal and boundary shape of image objects in a manner that, in 2D, associates a location on the skeleton with the width of the object at that location. A significant advantage of cores is stability against image disturbances such as noise and blur. The model was composed of a relatively small set of extracted points on the skeleton and boundary. The points were carefully chosen to summarize the shape information captured by the cores. Neighborhood relationships between points were represented mathematically by energy functions that penalize, due to warping of the model, the ''goodness'' of match between the model and the image data at any stage during the segmentation process. The model was matched against the image data using a probabilistic approach based on Bayes theorem, which provides a means for computing a posteriori (posterior) probability from 1) a

  20. Slice-based supine-to-standing posture deformation for chinese anatomical models and the dosimetric results with wide band frequency electromagnetic field exposure: Simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Standing Chinese adult anatomical models are obtained from supine-postured cadaver slices. This paper presents the dosimetric differences between the supine and the standing postures over wide band frequencies and various incident configurations. Both the body level and the tissue/organ level differences are reported for plane wave and the 3T magnetic resonance imaging radiofrequency electromagnetic field exposure. The influence of posture on the whole body specific absorption rate and tissue specified specific absorption rate values is discussed. . (authors)

  1. Effect of Anatomical Modeling on Space Radiation Dose Estimates: A Comparison of Doses for NASA Phantoms and 5th, 50th, and 95th Percentile UF Hybrid Phantoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahadori, A.; VanBaalen, M.; Shavers, M.; Semones, E.; Dodge, C.; Bolch, W.

    2010-01-01

    The estimate of absorbed dose to individual organs of a space crewmember is affected by the geometry of the anatomical model of the astronaut used in the radiation transport calculation. For astronaut dosimetry, NASA currently uses the computerized anatomical male (CAM) and computerized anatomical female (CAF) stylized phantoms to represent astronauts in its operational radiation dose analyses. These phantoms are available in one size and in two body positions. In contrast, the UF Hybrid Adult Male and Female (UFHADM and UFHADF) phantoms have organ shapes based on actual CT data. The surfaces of these phantoms are defined by non-uniform rational B-spline surfaces, and are thus flexible in terms of body morphometry and extremity positioning. In this study, UFHADM and UFHADF are scaled to dimensions corresponding to 5th, 50th, and 95th percentile (PCTL) male and female astronauts. A ray-tracing program is written in Visual Basic 2008, which is then used to create areal density maps for dose points corresponding to various organs within the phantoms. The areal density maps, along with appropriate space radiation spectra, are input into the NASA program couplet HZETRN/BRYNTRN, and organ doses are calculated. The areal density maps selected tissues and organs of the 5th, 50th, and 95th PCTL male and female phantoms are presented and compared. In addition, the organ doses for the 5th, 50th, and 95th PCTL male and female phantoms are presented and compared to organ doses for CAM and CAF.

  2. Anatomic Total Shoulder System

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available GLOBAL AP ANATOMIC TOTAL SHOULDER SYSTEM METHODIST HOSPITAL PHILADELPHIA, PA April 17, 2008 00:00:10 ANNOUNCER: DePuy Orthopedics is continually advancing the standard of orthopedic patient care. In a few ...

  3. Anatomic Total Shoulder System

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Orthopedics is continually advancing the standard of orthopedic patient care. In a few moments, you'll be ... and version variability which allows adaptability to a patient's unique anatomical makeup. Dr. Gerald R. Williams, Jr., ...

  4. Anatomic Total Shoulder System

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to a patient's unique anatomical makeup. Dr. Gerald R. Williams, Jr., a shoulder specialist from the Rothman ... That might help. Could you raise the O.R. table, please? 00:28:35 WOMAN: Can you ...

  5. Anatomic Total Shoulder System

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available GLOBAL AP ANATOMIC TOTAL SHOULDER SYSTEM METHODIST HOSPITAL PHILADELPHIA, PA April 17, 2008 00:00:10 ANNOUNCER: DePuy Orthopedics is continually advancing the standard of orthopedic patient ...

  6. Slice-based supine to standing postured deformation for chinese anatomical models and the dosimetric results by wide band frequency electromagnetic field exposure: Morphing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Digital human models are frequently obtained from supine-postured medical images or cadaver slices, but many applications require standing models. This paper presents the work of reconstructing standing Chinese adult anatomical models from supine postured slices. Apart from the previous studies, the deformation works on 2-D segmented slices. The surface profile of the standing posture is adjusted by population measurement data. A non-uniform texture amplification approach is applied on the 2-D slices to recover the skin contour and to redistribute the internal tissues. Internal organ shift due to postures is taken into account. The feet are modified by matrix rotation. Then, the supine and standing models are utilised for the evaluation of electromagnetic field exposure over wide band frequency and different incident directions. . (authors)

  7. Dosimetric data for the fetus derived from an anatomical model of its mother at the end of the first trimester

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We discuss a study of the radiation transport of monoenergetic photons within a mathematical phantom of the pregnant female at the end of the first trimester. This phantom was developed from the adult female member of the ORNL phantom series with modifications reflecting anatomical changes at this stage of pregnancy. This geometry was incorporated into the ALGAMP Monte Carlo radiation transport code used at ORNL with the phantom series. For internal sources of radiation the emission of 60,000 monoenergetic photons at each of 12 energies within 30 organs of the body was simulated. Energy deposition within 158 regions of the body, including uterine wall, uterine contents, and 12 subregions within the contents, was tabulated. The results are presented in terms of the specific absorbed fraction, i.e., the fraction of the photon energy emitted within a source organ that is absorbed per unit mass of the target region. The specific absorbed fraction data are commonly used to evaluate the dose associated with internal emitters, e.g., from administered radiopharmaceuticals. Additional calculations have been performed for a uniform, isotropic field of photons incident on the surface of the phantom; these data provide information on the shielding of the fetus by the mother and are of interest in evaluation of doses from external radiation fields. In this study we have provided dosimetric information useful in making quantitative risk estimates for the developing fetus. Our investigations demonstrate that even at this early stage in pregnancy the effective dose equivalent to the mother cannot be used as an index of the dose equivalent to the fetus. Further efforts will be directed to consideration of later stages in fetal development and consideration of irradiation by external neutron fields

  8. Anatomic Total Shoulder System

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... AP ANATOMIC TOTAL SHOULDER SYSTEM METHODIST HOSPITAL PHILADELPHIA, PA April 17, 2008 00:00:10 ANNOUNCER: DePuy ... you don't make a bunch of small passes at the lesser tuberosity and make it a ...

  9. Anatomic Total Shoulder System

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Anatomic Total Shoulder surgery, which featured the latest innovation in shoulder surgery from DePuy Orthopedics. OR-Live makes it easy for you to learn more. Just click on the "Request Information" button on your webcast screen and open the door to informed medical care. 01:21: ...

  10. Anatomic Total Shoulder System

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... advancing the standard of orthopedic patient care. In a few moments, you'll be able to watch a live global AP anatomic total shoulder surgery from Methodist Hospital in Philadelphia. A revolution in shoulder orthopedics, the Global AP gives ...

  11. Anatomic Total Shoulder System

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    Full Text Available ... by almost ten years, is shoulders. So by definition, the average shoulder-replacement patient is almost ten ... Anatomic Total Shoulder surgery, which featured the latest innovation in shoulder surgery from DePuy Orthopedics. OR-Live ...

  12. Structural and micro-anatomical changes in vertebrae associated with idiopathic-type spinal curvature in the curveback guppy model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wallis Rob

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The curveback lineage of guppy is characterized by heritable idiopathic-type spinal curvature that develops during growth. Prior work has revealed several important developmental similarities to the human idiopathic scoliosis (IS syndrome. In this study we investigate structural and histological aspects of the vertebrae that are associated with spinal curvature in the curveback guppy and test for sexual dimorphism that might explain a female bias for severe curve magnitudes in the population. Methods Vertebrae were studied from whole-mount skeletal specimens of curved and non-curved adult males and females. A series of ratios were used to characterize structural aspects of each vertebra. A three-way analysis of variance tested for effects of sex, curvature, vertebral position along the spine, and all 2-way interactions (i.e., sex and curvature, sex and vertebra position, and vertebra position and curvature. Histological analyses were used to characterize micro-architectural changes in affected vertebrae and the intervertebral region. Results In curveback, vertebrae that are associated with curvature demonstrate asymmetric shape distortion, migration of the intervertebral ligament, and vertebral thickening on the concave side of curvature. There is sexual dimorphism among curved individuals such that for several vertebrae, females have more slender vertebrae than do males. Also, in the region of the spine where lordosis typically occurs, curved and non-curved females have a reduced width at the middle of their vertebrae, relative to males. Conclusions Based on similarities to human spinal curvatures and to animals with induced curves, the concave-convex biases described in the guppy suggest that there is a mechanical component to curve pathogenesis in curveback. Because idiopathic-type curvature in curveback is primarily a sagittal deformity, it is structurally more similar to Scheuermann kyphosis than IS. Anatomical

  13. Study on the Construction of a High-definition Whole-body Voxel Model based on Cadaver's Color Photographic Anatomical Slice Images and Monte Carlo Dose Calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ajou University School of Medicine made the serially sectioned anatomical images from the Visible Korean Human (VKH) Project in Korea. The VKH images, which are the high-resolution color photographic images, show the organs and tissues in the human body very clearly at 0.2 mm intervals. In this study, we constructed a high-quality voxel model (VKH-Man) with a total of 30 organs and tissues by manual and automatic segmentation method using the serially sectioned anatomical image data from the Visible Korean Human (VKH) project in Korea. The height and weight of VKH-Man voxel model is 164 cm and 57.6 kg, respectively, and the voxel resolution is 1.875 x 1.875 x 2 mm3. However, this voxel phantom can be used to calculate the organ and tissue doses of only one person. Therefore, in this study, we adjusted the voxel phantom to the 'Reference Korean' data to construct the voxel phantom that represents the radiation workers in Korea. The height and weight of the voxel model (HDRK-Man) that is finally developed are 171 cm and 68 kg, respectively, and the voxel resolution is 1.981 x 1.981 x 2.0854 mm3. VKH-Man and HDRK-Man voxel model were implemented in a Monte Carlo particle transport simulation code for calculation of the organ and tissue doses in various irradiation geometries. The calculated values were compared with each other to see the effect of the adjustment and also compared with other computational models (KTMAN-2, ICRP-74 and VIP-Man). According to the results, the adjustment of the voxel model was found hardly affect the dose calculations and most of the organ and tissue equivalent doses showed some differences among the models. These results shows that the difference in figure, and organ topology affects the organ doses more than the organ size. The calculated values of the effective dose from VKH-Man and HDRK-Man according to the ICRP-60 and upcoming ICRP recommendation were compared. For the other radiation geometries (AP, LLAT, RLAT) except for PA

  14. Early fetal anatomical sonography.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Donnelly, Jennifer C

    2012-10-01

    Over the past decade, prenatal screening and diagnosis has moved from the second into the first trimester, with aneuploidy screening becoming both feasible and effective. With vast improvements in ultrasound technology, sonologists can now image the fetus in greater detail at all gestational ages. In the hands of experienced sonographers, anatomic surveys between 11 and 14 weeks can be carried out with good visualisation rates of many structures. It is important to be familiar with the normal development of the embryo and fetus, and to be aware of the major anatomical landmarks whose absence or presence may be deemed normal or abnormal depending on the gestational age. Some structural abnormalities will nearly always be detected, some will never be and some are potentially detectable depending on a number of factors.

  15. Assessment of organ doses from exposure to neutrons using the Monte Carlo technique and an image-based anatomical model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozkurt, Ahmet

    The distribution of absorbed doses in the body can be computationally determined using mathematical or tomographic representations of human anatomy. A whole- body model was developed from the color images of the National Library of Medicine's Visible Human Project® for simulating the transport of radiation in the human body. The model, called Visible Photographic Man (VIP-Man), has sixty-one organs and tissues represented in the Monte Carlo code MCNPX at 4-mm voxel resolution. Organ dose calculations from external neutron sources were carried out using VIP-man and MCNPX to determine a new set of dose conversion coefficients to be used in radiation protection. Monoenergetic neutron beams between 10-9 MeV and 10 GeV were studied under six different irradiation geometries: anterior-posterior, posterior-anterior, right lateral, left lateral, rotational and isotropic. The results for absorbed doses in twenty-four organs and the effective doses based on twelve critical organs are presented in tabular form. A comprehensive comparison of the results with those from the mathematical models show discrepancies that can be attributed to the variations in body modeling (size, location and shape of the individual organs) and the use of different nuclear datasets or models to derive the reaction cross sections, as well as the use of different transport packages for simulation radiation effects. The organ dose results based on the realistic VIP-Man body model allow the existing radiation protection dosimetry on neutrons to be re-evaluated and improved.

  16. Anatomical imaging for radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, Philip M [Joint Physics Department, Institute of Cancer Research and Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust, Downs Road, Sutton, Surrey SM2 5PT (United Kingdom)], E-mail: phil.evans@icr.ac.uk

    2008-06-21

    The goal of radiation therapy is to achieve maximal therapeutic benefit expressed in terms of a high probability of local control of disease with minimal side effects. Physically this often equates to the delivery of a high dose of radiation to the tumour or target region whilst maintaining an acceptably low dose to other tissues, particularly those adjacent to the target. Techniques such as intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT), stereotactic radiosurgery and computer planned brachytherapy provide the means to calculate the radiation dose delivery to achieve the desired dose distribution. Imaging is an essential tool in all state of the art planning and delivery techniques: (i) to enable planning of the desired treatment, (ii) to verify the treatment is delivered as planned and (iii) to follow-up treatment outcome to monitor that the treatment has had the desired effect. Clinical imaging techniques can be loosely classified into anatomic methods which measure the basic physical characteristics of tissue such as their density and biological imaging techniques which measure functional characteristics such as metabolism. In this review we consider anatomical imaging techniques. Biological imaging is considered in another article. Anatomical imaging is generally used for goals (i) and (ii) above. Computed tomography (CT) has been the mainstay of anatomical treatment planning for many years, enabling some delineation of soft tissue as well as radiation attenuation estimation for dose prediction. Magnetic resonance imaging is fast becoming widespread alongside CT, enabling superior soft-tissue visualization. Traditionally scanning for treatment planning has relied on the use of a single snapshot scan. Recent years have seen the development of techniques such as 4D CT and adaptive radiotherapy (ART). In 4D CT raw data are encoded with phase information and reconstructed to yield a set of scans detailing motion through the breathing, or cardiac, cycle. In ART a set of

  17. Anatomical imaging for radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The goal of radiation therapy is to achieve maximal therapeutic benefit expressed in terms of a high probability of local control of disease with minimal side effects. Physically this often equates to the delivery of a high dose of radiation to the tumour or target region whilst maintaining an acceptably low dose to other tissues, particularly those adjacent to the target. Techniques such as intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT), stereotactic radiosurgery and computer planned brachytherapy provide the means to calculate the radiation dose delivery to achieve the desired dose distribution. Imaging is an essential tool in all state of the art planning and delivery techniques: (i) to enable planning of the desired treatment, (ii) to verify the treatment is delivered as planned and (iii) to follow-up treatment outcome to monitor that the treatment has had the desired effect. Clinical imaging techniques can be loosely classified into anatomic methods which measure the basic physical characteristics of tissue such as their density and biological imaging techniques which measure functional characteristics such as metabolism. In this review we consider anatomical imaging techniques. Biological imaging is considered in another article. Anatomical imaging is generally used for goals (i) and (ii) above. Computed tomography (CT) has been the mainstay of anatomical treatment planning for many years, enabling some delineation of soft tissue as well as radiation attenuation estimation for dose prediction. Magnetic resonance imaging is fast becoming widespread alongside CT, enabling superior soft-tissue visualization. Traditionally scanning for treatment planning has relied on the use of a single snapshot scan. Recent years have seen the development of techniques such as 4D CT and adaptive radiotherapy (ART). In 4D CT raw data are encoded with phase information and reconstructed to yield a set of scans detailing motion through the breathing, or cardiac, cycle. In ART a set of

  18. Development of a rate model to investigate contributions of anatomic and physiologic determinants of in vivo skin permeation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fleischer, N.M.

    1991-01-01

    The skin is a heterogeneous, bi-directional impediment to chemical flux, in which the stratum corneum is a major, though not the sole, rate-limiting barrier layer to permeation. Systemic toxicity following dermal exposure to environmental chemicals and use of skin as a portal for systemic administration of drugs have led to extensive investigations of the inward flux of xenobiotics applied to the outer surface of skin. Those investigations mainly utilized in vitro experimental systems that were limited by the absence of normal physiologic functions. The objective of the present research was to investigate an in vivo skin permeation model system that was sensitive to perturbations of skin capillary physiology and stratum corneum. A [open quotes]fuzzy[close quotes] rat model system was devised that employed outward cutaneous migration of a systemically administered permeation probe, isoflurane. Specially devised, transdermal vapor collection devices were used to capture the outward flux of isoflurane through the skin. Isoflurane flux measurements, coupled with blood isoflurane concentrations, were used to calculate cutaneous permeability coefficients (K[sub p]) of isolflurane, as an index of permeation, under various conditions of normal or perturbed cutaneous physiologic states. Physiologic perturbations were performed to test the sensitivity of the model system to detect effects of minoxidil-mediated vasodilation, phenylephrine-mediated vasoconstriction, and leukotriene D[sub 4]-mediated increased capillary permeability on the outward flux of isoflurane. Tape stripping and topical ether-ethanol application produced either physical removal or chemical disruption of the stratum corneum, respectively. Minoxidil, leukotriene D[sub 4], tape stripping of stratum corneum, and topical ether-ethanol experiments produced statistically significant increases (52 to 193%) in the K[sub p's], while phenylephrine had no significant effect on isoflurane permeation.

  19. Dental moulages and anatomic wax models from the collections of the Dental Institute of the Berlin University (1884-1945)

    OpenAIRE

    Werner, Nina

    2015-01-01

    In the early 20th century the Dental Institute of the Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universität zu Berlin possessed a large collection of moulages and wax models. They were mainly produced and used up to the 1920s. Today there are only 50 pieces still existing, which are located at the Berlin Medical Historical Museum of the Charité. The objective was to find out all the missing information such as people involved, the origin, historic use, the shown disease patterns and the historical and today’s t...

  20. Comparative Analysis of Transpetrosal Approaches to the Internal Acoustic Meatus Using Three-Dimensional Radio-Anatomical Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zador, Zsolt; de Carpentier, John

    2015-08-01

    Background The transcrusal approach that involves partial removal of the labyrinth was recently described to approach lesions of the cerebellopontine angle. It carries the benefit of hearing preservation and was suggested to have equivalent exposure of the petroclival surface compared with the transcochlear/transotic approaches. The current study was designed to assess if the transcrusal approach could achieve as good access to the internal auditory meatus (IAM) as the more destructive translabyrinthine exposure. Methods Fifty disease-free high-resolution computed tomography scans of the temporal bone were reviewed. Surgical freedom, angle of attack, and angle of trajectory to the internal acoustic canal were measured in three-dimensional models. Results Surgical freedom and angles of attack showed steady increments with the progression of petrous bone resection from the retrolabyrinthine-transcrusal-translabyrinthine approaches. The angle of access to the IAM axis was dramatically reduced in the translabyrinthine approach compared with the transcrusal and retrolabyrinthine approaches (37.51 ± 5.7, 24.56 ± 4.6, and 3.17 ± 2.85 degrees, respectively; n = 50; average plus or minus standard deviation, p advantage of the translabyrinthine approach to the axis of the internal auditory canal. The transcrusal approach lags behind the translabyrinthine corridor and should be considered alongside the subtemporal and retrosigmoid approaches designed to spare hearing. PMID:26225322

  1. Transoral Surgery: An Anatomic Study

    OpenAIRE

    Rock, Jack P.; Tomecek, Frank J.; Ross, Lawrence

    1993-01-01

    The transoral approaches have become commonplace in modern neurosurgical practice for treatment of ventral midline lesions of the clivus and upper cervical spine. Although the standard technique of transoral surgery is conceptually simple, anatomic relationships are not so readily appreciated. The present study was undertaken in an effort to define more clearly the midline anatomic relationships as they pertain to the standard transoral and transpalatine operations. The anatomic relationships...

  2. [BODIES ARTIFACTS AND ANATOMICAL MODELS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aruta, Alessandro

    2015-01-01

    Through three different museological approaches, diachronically arranged, the essay intends to introduce some pertinent questions related to the topic of the conference "Bodies and Anatomy: the corpses in the museums from Ruysch to Von Hagens. The first item analyzes a recent line of British museological studies, treating mainly medical British museums of the XVIII and XIX century, with intriguing developments arriving up to nowadays. A second point illustrates several aspects with regards to the donation and the arrangement of the morbid specimina Luigi Gedda collection, coming from the CSS Mendel of Rome to the Museum of Pathological Anatomy of Sapienza University of Rome. Finally, in a crossover between the previous points, it will be presented some recent studies regarding the employment of new communication technologies in the scientific and medical museology. PMID:26946593

  3. Correction of dental artifacts within the anatomical surface in PET/MRI using Active Shape Models and k-Nearest-Neighbors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ladefoged, Claes N.; Andersen, Flemming L.; Keller, Sune H.;

    2014-01-01

    vector, and fill the artifact voxels with a value representing soft tissue. We tested the method using fourteen patients without artifacts, and eighteen patients with dental artifacts of varying sizes within the anatomical surface of the head/neck region. Though the method wrongly filled a small volume...

  4. Computational investigation of nonlinear microwave tomography on anatomically realistic breast phantoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, P. D.; Rubæk, Tonny; Mohr, J. J.

    2013-01-01

    The performance of a nonlinear microwave tomography algorithm is tested using simulated data from anatomically realistic breast phantoms. These tests include several different anatomically correct breast models from the University of Wisconsin-Madison repository with and without tumors inserted....

  5. Tracking in anatomic pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantanowitz, Liron; Mackinnon, Alexander C; Sinard, John H

    2013-12-01

    Bar code-based tracking solutions, long present in clinical pathology laboratories, have recently made an appearance in anatomic pathology (AP) laboratories. Tracking of AP "assets" (specimens, blocks, slides) can enhance laboratory efficiency, promote patient safety, and improve patient care. Routing of excess clinical material into research laboratories and biorepositories are other avenues that can benefit from tracking of AP assets. Implementing tracking is not as simple as installing software and turning it on. Not all tracking solutions are alike. Careful analysis of laboratory workflow is needed before implementing tracking to assure that this solution will meet the needs of the laboratory. Such analysis will likely uncover practices that may need to be modified before a tracking system can be deployed. Costs that go beyond simply that of purchasing software will be incurred and need to be considered in the budgeting process. Finally, people, not technology, are the key to assuring quality. Tracking will require significant changes in workflow and an overall change in the culture of the laboratory. Preparation, training, buy-in, and accountability of the people involved are crucial to the success of this process. This article reviews the benefits, available technology, underlying principles, and implementation of tracking solutions for the AP and research laboratory. PMID:23634908

  6. ANATOMICAL PROPERTIES OF PLANTAGO ARENARIA

    OpenAIRE

    Nicoleta IANOVICI; SINITEAN, Adrian; Aurel FAUR

    2011-01-01

    Psammophytes are marked by a number of adaptations that enable them to exist in the hard environmental conditions of the sand habitats. In this study, the anatomical characteristics of Plantago arenaria were examined. Studies were conducted to assess the diversity of anatomical adaptations of vegetative organs in this taxa. Results are presented with original photographs. The analysis of leaf anatomy in P. arenaria showed that the leaves contained a contained xeromorphic traits. Arbuscular my...

  7. Integrating anatomical pathology to the healthcare enterprise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel-Le Bozec, Christel; Henin, Dominique; Fabiani, Bettina; Bourquard, Karima; Ouagne, David; Degoulet, Patrice; Jaulent, Marie-Christine

    2006-01-01

    For medical decisions, healthcare professionals need that all required information is both correct and easily available. We address the issue of integrating anatomical pathology department to the healthcare enterprise. The pathology workflow from order to report, including specimen process and image acquisition was modeled. Corresponding integration profiles were addressed by expansion of the IHE (Integrating the Healthcare Enterprise) initiative. Implementation using respectively DICOM Structured Report (SR) and DICOM Slide-Coordinate Microscopy (SM) was tested. The two main integration profiles--pathology general workflow and pathology image workflow--rely on 13 transactions based on HL7 or DICOM standard. We propose a model of the case in anatomical pathology and of other information entities (orders, image folders and reports) and real-world objects (specimen, tissue samples, slides, etc). Cases representation in XML schemas, based on DICOM specification, allows producing DICOM image files and reports to be stored into a PACS (Picture Archiving and Communication System. PMID:17108550

  8. Quantifying anatomical shape variations in neurological disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Nikhil; Fletcher, P Thomas; Preston, J Samuel; King, Richard D; Marron, J S; Weiner, Michael W; Joshi, Sarang

    2014-04-01

    We develop a multivariate analysis of brain anatomy to identify the relevant shape deformation patterns and quantify the shape changes that explain corresponding variations in clinical neuropsychological measures. We use kernel Partial Least Squares (PLS) and formulate a regression model in the tangent space of the manifold of diffeomorphisms characterized by deformation momenta. The scalar deformation momenta completely encode the diffeomorphic changes in anatomical shape. In this model, the clinical measures are the response variables, while the anatomical variability is treated as the independent variable. To better understand the "shape-clinical response" relationship, we also control for demographic confounders, such as age, gender, and years of education in our regression model. We evaluate the proposed methodology on the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) database using baseline structural MR imaging data and neuropsychological evaluation test scores. We demonstrate the ability of our model to quantify the anatomical deformations in units of clinical response. Our results also demonstrate that the proposed method is generic and generates reliable shape deformations both in terms of the extracted patterns and the amount of shape changes. We found that while the hippocampus and amygdala emerge as mainly responsible for changes in test scores for global measures of dementia and memory function, they are not a determinant factor for executive function. Another critical finding was the appearance of thalamus and putamen as most important regions that relate to executive function. These resulting anatomical regions were consistent with very high confidence irrespective of the size of the population used in the study. This data-driven global analysis of brain anatomy was able to reach similar conclusions as other studies in Alzheimer's disease based on predefined ROIs, together with the identification of other new patterns of deformation. The

  9. Anatomically Correct Surface Recovery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Rasmus Ramsbøl; Nielsen, Jannik Boll; Larsen, Rasmus;

    2015-01-01

    We present a method for 3D surface recovery in partial surface scans. The method is based on an Active Shape Model, which is used to predict missing data. The model is constructed using a bootstrap framework, where an initially small collection of hand-annotated samples is used to fit to and...

  10. ANATOMICAL PROPERTIES OF PLANTAGO ARENARIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicoleta IANOVICI

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Psammophytes are marked by a number of adaptations that enable them to exist in the hard environmental conditions of the sand habitats. In this study, the anatomical characteristics of Plantago arenaria were examined. Studies were conducted to assess the diversity of anatomical adaptations of vegetative organs in this taxa. Results are presented with original photographs. The analysis of leaf anatomy in P. arenaria showed that the leaves contained a contained xeromorphic traits. Arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis seems to be critical for their survival.

  11. ["Left hemicranium, the cranial nerves" by Tramond: An anatomical model in wax from the Delmas, Orfila and Rouvière's Museum in Paris: description and tri-dimensional photographic reconstruction (TDPR)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paravey, S; Le Floch-Prigent, P

    2011-06-01

    An anatomical model in wax made by Tramond (middle of the 19th century) represented the cranial nerves of a left hemicranium. The aim of the study was to verify its anatomical veracity, to realize a tri-dimensional visualization by computer, and finally to numerize and to diffuse it to the general public in the purpose of culture on the internet. The model belonged to the Delmas, Orfila and Rouvière Museum (Paris Descartes university). It represented the cranial nerves especially the facial and the trigeminal nerves and their branches. To perform the photographic rotation every 5° along 360°, we used a special device made of two identical superimposed marble disks linked by a ball bearing. A digital camera and the Quick Time Virtual Reality software were used. Seventy-two pictures were shot. This wax was realized with a great morphological accuracy from a true cranium as a support for the cranial nerves. The work of numerization and its free diffusion on the Internet permitted to deliver to everybody the images of this sample of the collection of the Orfila Museum, the pieces of which were evacuated on December 2009 after its closure. PMID:21493118

  12. 数字化肺动脉三维模型的建立及解剖学测量%Establishment of Three Dimensional Model of Pulmonary Artery and Its Anatomical Measurement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周仁鹏; 陶晓晓; 赵琦峰

    2011-01-01

    Objective To offer the personal three - dimensional anatomical information for clinic with digital pulmonary artery( PA)model based on the data of spiral CT strengthening scanning data.Methods Thoracic arterial phase enhanced CT daia were acquired.Three - dimensional model of the pulmonary artery with MIMICS10.01 software was reconstruct.Then anatomic index of PA waa observed and measured on 3 D model.Results The three - dimensional model displayed accurately morphology structure of PA and relevant indicators, offered the precise anatomical parameters such as length, area, volume.Conclusion The 3D reconstruction model can clearly show the geometric and local details to offer a considerable method for the study of morphological characteristics of human pulmonary artery.Acquired pulmonary artery measurements can provide information for clinical diagnose and therapy.%目的 以螺旋CT数据三维重建数字化肺动脉模型,在此基础上进行相关的解剖学测量,为临床提供个体化的立体解剖信息.方法 将螺旋CT动脉期扫描的DICOM格式数据导入Mimics10.01软件中,然后三维重建肺动脉模型,并在此基础上利用软件自带功能进行各种解剖学测量.结果 数字化肺动脉模型能够准确地反映其形态学结构,全方位观测相关解剖学指标,可获得长度、面积、体积等精确的解剖参数.结论 数字化肺动脉模型能反映肺动脉的几何特征及局部细节,为研究人体肺动脉的形态特点提供新的途径;获得的肺动脉测量数据,可为临床提供诊断信息和治疗依据.

  13. Digital photography in anatomical pathology

    OpenAIRE

    Leong F; Leong A

    2004-01-01

    Digital imaging has made major inroads into the routine practice of anatomical pathology and replaces photographic prints and Kodachromes for reporting and conference purposes. More advanced systems coupled to computers allow greater versatility and speed of turnaround as well as lower costs of incorporating macroscopic and microscopic pictures into pathology reports and publications. Digital images allow transmission to remote sites via the Internet for consultation, quality assurance and ed...

  14. Anatomic Optical Coherence Tomography of Upper Airways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin Loy, Anthony; Jing, Joseph; Zhang, Jun; Wang, Yong; Elghobashi, Said; Chen, Zhongping; Wong, Brian J. F.

    The upper airway is a complex and intricate system responsible for respiration, phonation, and deglutition. Obstruction of the upper airways afflicts an estimated 12-18 million Americans. Pharyngeal size and shape are important factors in the pathogenesis of airway obstructions. In addition, nocturnal loss in pharyngeal muscular tone combined with high pharyngeal resistance can lead to collapse of the airway and periodic partial or complete upper airway obstruction. Anatomical optical coherence tomography (OCT) has the potential to provide high-speed three-dimensional tomographic images of the airway lumen without the use of ionizing radiation. In this chapter we describe the methods behind endoscopic OCT imaging and processing to generate full three dimensional anatomical models of the human airway which can be used in conjunction with numerical simulation methods to assess areas of airway obstruction. Combining this structural information with flow dynamic simulations, we can better estimate the site and causes of airway obstruction and better select and design surgery for patients with obstructive sleep apnea.

  15. Digital imaging in anatomic pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, M J; Sotnikov, A V

    1996-10-01

    Advances in computer technology continue to bring new innovations to departments of anatomic pathology. This article briefly reviews the present status of digital optical imaging, and explores the directions that this technology may lead over the next several years. Technical requirements for digital microscopic and gross imaging, and the available options for image archival and retrieval are summarized. The advantages of digital images over conventional photography in the conference room, and the usefulness of digital imaging in the frozen section suite and gross room, as an adjunct to surgical signout and as a resource for training and education, are discussed. An approach to the future construction of digital histologic sections and the computer as microscope is described. The digital technologic applications that are now available as components of the surgical pathologist's workstation are enumerated. These include laboratory information systems, computerized voice recognition, and on-line or CD-based literature searching, texts and atlases and, in some departments, on-line image databases. The authors suggest that, in addition to these resources that are already available, tomorrow's surgical pathology workstation will include network-linked digital histologic databases, on-line software for image analysis and 3-D image enhancement, expert systems, and ultimately, advanced pattern recognition capabilities. In conclusion, the authors submit that digital optical imaging is likely to have a significant and positive impact on the future development of anatomic pathology. PMID:8853053

  16. Dosimetric accuracy of a deterministic radiation transport based 192Ir brachytherapy treatment planning system. Part III. Comparison to Monte Carlo simulation in voxelized anatomical computational models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To compare TG43-based and Acuros deterministic radiation transport-based calculations of the BrachyVision treatment planning system (TPS) with corresponding Monte Carlo (MC) simulation results in heterogeneous patient geometries, in order to validate Acuros and quantify the accuracy improvement it marks relative to TG43. Methods: Dosimetric comparisons in the form of isodose lines, percentage dose difference maps, and dose volume histogram results were performed for two voxelized mathematical models resembling an esophageal and a breast brachytherapy patient, as well as an actual breast brachytherapy patient model. The mathematical models were converted to digital imaging and communications in medicine (DICOM) image series for input to the TPS. The MCNP5 v.1.40 general-purpose simulation code input files for each model were prepared using information derived from the corresponding DICOM RT exports from the TPS. Results: Comparisons of MC and TG43 results in all models showed significant differences, as reported previously in the literature and expected from the inability of the TG43 based algorithm to account for heterogeneities and model specific scatter conditions. A close agreement was observed between MC and Acuros results in all models except for a limited number of points that lay in the penumbra of perfectly shaped structures in the esophageal model, or at distances very close to the catheters in all models. Conclusions: Acuros marks a significant dosimetry improvement relative to TG43. The assessment of the clinical significance of this accuracy improvement requires further work. Mathematical patient equivalent models and models prepared from actual patient CT series are useful complementary tools in the methodology outlined in this series of works for the benchmarking of any advanced dose calculation algorithm beyond TG43.

  17. Deformable meshes for medical image segmentation accurate automatic segmentation of anatomical structures

    CERN Document Server

    Kainmueller, Dagmar

    2014-01-01

    ? Segmentation of anatomical structures in medical image data is an essential task in clinical practice. Dagmar Kainmueller introduces methods for accurate fully automatic segmentation of anatomical structures in 3D medical image data. The author's core methodological contribution is a novel deformation model that overcomes limitations of state-of-the-art Deformable Surface approaches, hence allowing for accurate segmentation of tip- and ridge-shaped features of anatomical structures. As for practical contributions, she proposes application-specific segmentation pipelines for a range of anatom

  18. Anatomically accurate high resolution modeling of human whole heart electromechanics:A strongly scalable algebraic multigrid solver method for nonlinear deformation

    OpenAIRE

    Augustin, Christoph M.; Neic, Aurel; Liebmann, Manfred; Prassl, Anton J.; Niederer, Steven A.; Haase, Gundolf; Plank, Gernot

    2016-01-01

    Electromechanical (EM) models of the heart have been used successfully to study fundamental mechanisms underlying a heart beat in health and disease. However, in all modeling studies reported so far numerous simplifications were made in terms of representing biophysical details of cellular function and its heterogeneity, gross anatomy and tissue microstructure, as well as the bidirectional coupling between electrophysiology (EP) and tissue distension. One limiting factor is the employed spati...

  19. Anatomic consideration for preventive implantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denissen, H W; Kalk, W; Veldhuis, H A; van Waas, M A

    1993-01-01

    The aim of preventive implant therapy is to prevent or delay loss of alveolar ridge bone mass. For use in an anatomic study of 60 mandibles, resorption of the alveolar ridge was classified into four preventive stages: (1) after extraction of teeth; (2) after initial resorption; (3) when the ridge has atrophied to a knife-edge shape; and (4) when only basal bone remains. Implantation in stage 3 necessitates removal of the knife-edge ridge to create space for cylindrical implants. Therefore, implantation in stage 2 is advocated to prevent the development of stage 3. The aim of implantation in stage 4 is to prevent total loss of function of the atrophic mandible. PMID:8359876

  20. Anatomical and morphological adaptation of the leaves of Eragrostis minor Host (Poaceae in different ecological conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataliia A. Pashkevych

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available A study of the variability of the anatomical features of the leaf of Eragrostis minor Host from model cenopopulations, different by their affinity coenotic, environmental features and the degree of influence of the recreation has been carried out. The significant correlation between leaf characteristics was established, and estimated similarity of cenopopulations was analyzed on the base of leaf anatomical features.

  1. Anatomical and morphological adaptation of the leaves of Eragrostis minor Host (Poaceae) in different ecological conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Nataliia A. Pashkevych

    2014-01-01

    A study of the variability of the anatomical features of the leaf of Eragrostis minor Host from model cenopopulations, different by their affinity coenotic, environmental features and the degree of influence of the recreation has been carried out. The significant correlation between leaf characteristics was established, and estimated similarity of cenopopulations was analyzed on the base of leaf anatomical features.

  2. Anatomical features and sequence of modeling the human head sculpture in the classroom for stu-dents with “Fine Arts” direction

    OpenAIRE

    Gennady Sofronov; Sofronova Nadezhda

    2015-01-01

    The paper deals with the importance of implementation of sculptural modeling of the human head; the main goals and objectives, focusing on knowledge of plastic anatomy, finding a proportional relationship of all parts and elements of the head, on a phased maintenance of work, on the study of sculptural volume plas-tics, transmission and creation of professional artistic image.

  3. Brain Morphometry Using Anatomical Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansal, Ravi; Gerber, Andrew J.; Peterson, Bradley S.

    2008-01-01

    The efficacy of anatomical magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in studying the morphological features of various regions of the brain is described, also providing the steps used in the processing and studying of the images. The ability to correlate these features with several clinical and psychological measures can help in using anatomical MRI to…

  4. Analysis of the local worst-case SAR exposure caused by an MRI multi-transmit body coil in anatomical models of the human body

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Multi-transmit coils are increasingly being employed in high-field magnetic resonance imaging, along with a growing interest in multi-transmit body coils. However, they can lead to an increase in whole-body and local specific absorption rate (SAR) compared to conventional body coils excited in circular polarization for the same total incident input power. In this study, the maximum increase of SAR for three significantly different human anatomies is investigated for a large 3 T (128 MHz) multi-transmit body coil using numerical simulations and a (generalized) eigenvalue-based approach. The results demonstrate that the increase of SAR strongly depends on the anatomy. For the three models and normalization to the sum of the rung currents squared, the whole-body averaged SAR increases by up to a factor of 1.6 compared to conventional excitation and the peak spatial SAR (averaged over any 10 cm3 of tissue) by up to 13.4. For some locations the local averaged SAR goes up as much as 800 times (130 when looking only at regions where it is above 1% of the peak spatial SAR). The ratio of the peak spatial SAR to the whole-body SAR increases by a factor of up to 47 and can reach values above 800. Due to the potentially much larger power deposition, additional, preferably patient-specific, considerations are necessary to avoid injuries by such systems.

  5. Analysis of the local worst-case SAR exposure caused by an MRI multi-transmit body coil in anatomical models of the human body

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neufeld, Esra; Gosselin, Marie-Christine; Murbach, Manuel; Christ, Andreas; Cabot, Eugenia; Kuster, Niels, E-mail: neufeld@itis.ethz.ch [Foundation for Research on Information Technologies in Society (IT' IS), Zeughausstr. 43, 8004 Zuerich (Switzerland)

    2011-08-07

    Multi-transmit coils are increasingly being employed in high-field magnetic resonance imaging, along with a growing interest in multi-transmit body coils. However, they can lead to an increase in whole-body and local specific absorption rate (SAR) compared to conventional body coils excited in circular polarization for the same total incident input power. In this study, the maximum increase of SAR for three significantly different human anatomies is investigated for a large 3 T (128 MHz) multi-transmit body coil using numerical simulations and a (generalized) eigenvalue-based approach. The results demonstrate that the increase of SAR strongly depends on the anatomy. For the three models and normalization to the sum of the rung currents squared, the whole-body averaged SAR increases by up to a factor of 1.6 compared to conventional excitation and the peak spatial SAR (averaged over any 10 cm{sup 3} of tissue) by up to 13.4. For some locations the local averaged SAR goes up as much as 800 times (130 when looking only at regions where it is above 1% of the peak spatial SAR). The ratio of the peak spatial SAR to the whole-body SAR increases by a factor of up to 47 and can reach values above 800. Due to the potentially much larger power deposition, additional, preferably patient-specific, considerations are necessary to avoid injuries by such systems.

  6. Analysis of the local worst-case SAR exposure caused by an MRI multi-transmit body coil in anatomical models of the human body

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neufeld, Esra; Gosselin, Marie-Christine; Murbach, Manuel; Christ, Andreas; Cabot, Eugenia; Kuster, Niels

    2011-08-01

    Multi-transmit coils are increasingly being employed in high-field magnetic resonance imaging, along with a growing interest in multi-transmit body coils. However, they can lead to an increase in whole-body and local specific absorption rate (SAR) compared to conventional body coils excited in circular polarization for the same total incident input power. In this study, the maximum increase of SAR for three significantly different human anatomies is investigated for a large 3 T (128 MHz) multi-transmit body coil using numerical simulations and a (generalized) eigenvalue-based approach. The results demonstrate that the increase of SAR strongly depends on the anatomy. For the three models and normalization to the sum of the rung currents squared, the whole-body averaged SAR increases by up to a factor of 1.6 compared to conventional excitation and the peak spatial SAR (averaged over any 10 cm3 of tissue) by up to 13.4. For some locations the local averaged SAR goes up as much as 800 times (130 when looking only at regions where it is above 1% of the peak spatial SAR). The ratio of the peak spatial SAR to the whole-body SAR increases by a factor of up to 47 and can reach values above 800. Due to the potentially much larger power deposition, additional, preferably patient-specific, considerations are necessary to avoid injuries by such systems.

  7. Long-term Cost-Effectiveness of Diagnostic Tests for Assessing Stable Chest Pain: Modeled Analysis of Anatomical and Functional Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertoldi, Eduardo G; Stella, Steffan F; Rohde, Luis E; Polanczyk, Carisi A

    2016-05-01

    Several tests exist for diagnosing coronary artery disease, with varying accuracy and cost. We sought to provide cost-effectiveness information to aid physicians and decision-makers in selecting the most appropriate testing strategy. We used the state-transitions (Markov) model from the Brazilian public health system perspective with a lifetime horizon. Diagnostic strategies were based on exercise electrocardiography (Ex-ECG), stress echocardiography (ECHO), single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), computed tomography coronary angiography (CTA), or stress cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (C-MRI) as the initial test. Systematic review provided input data for test accuracy and long-term prognosis. Cost data were derived from the Brazilian public health system. Diagnostic test strategy had a small but measurable impact in quality-adjusted life-years gained. Switching from Ex-ECG to CTA-based strategies improved outcomes at an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of 3100 international dollars per quality-adjusted life-year. ECHO-based strategies resulted in cost and effectiveness almost identical to CTA, and SPECT-based strategies were dominated because of their much higher cost. Strategies based on stress C-MRI were most effective, but the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio vs CTA was higher than the proposed willingness-to-pay threshold. Invasive strategies were dominant in the high pretest probability setting. Sensitivity analysis showed that results were sensitive to costs of CTA, ECHO, and C-MRI. Coronary CT is cost-effective for the diagnosis of coronary artery disease and should be included in the Brazilian public health system. Stress ECHO has a similar performance and is an acceptable alternative for most patients, but invasive strategies should be reserved for patients at high risk. PMID:27080921

  8. Three-dimensional modeling of human hands based on hand anatomical structures%基于解剖结构可视化手模型的构建

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白桂有; 张正治; 杨博贵; 孙华; 贾卫斗

    2007-01-01

    确显示手掌部主要解剖结构.%BACKGROUND:The anatomic structures and kinetic characteristics are the bases to establish hand model, and the kinetic characteristics of hand are determined by the anatomic structure. So, numerous scholars have paid close attention to virtual hand models based on the anatomic structures of hand.OBJECTIVE: To construct visible hand model based on anatomic structure.DESIGN: Single sample trial.SETTING: Center Laboratory, Third Military Medical University of Chinese PLA.MATERIALS: This trial was carried out in the Center Laboratory, Third Military Medical University of Chinese PLA in October 2003. Two fresh adult hands, which involved wrist joint, provided by the Department of Anatomy, Third Military Medical University of Chinese PLA, were employed. The two hands had no organic damage by naked observation.METHODS: The specimens were embedded and mill-cut (mill-cut layer thinness 0.2 mm). Cannon (ESO 1OD) digital camera (6.3 million pixel) was used for image collection. Each image was 31.5 MB, Data of 1 200 images were obtained.Adobe Photoshop 7.0 software was used for image treatment and then two-dimensional cross-section images were collected. The bone, flexor tendon and the outline of hand was three-dimensionally reconstructed by using the software,which was developed by the Department of Computer Science and Technology,Tsinghua University and Institute of Computer Medicine, Department of Anatomy, Third Military Medical University of Chinese PLA.MATN OUTCOME MEASURES: Three-dimensional reconstruction of the bone, flexor tendon and outline of hand.RESULTS: ①The outline of hand: After being reconstructed, the outline, which consisted of all fingers and nails, was well displayed, and observed from many directions.② Three-dimensional reconstruction of the bone of hand: The reconstructed bones of hands involved digital bones, metacarpal bones, carpal bones and all joints, and they could be displayed solely or in groups with other

  9. The effect of anatomical modeling on space radiation dose estimates: a comparison of doses for NASA phantoms and the 5th, 50th, and 95th percentile male and female astronauts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bahadori, Amir A; Bolch, Wesley E [Department of Nuclear and Radiological Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States); Van Baalen, Mary; Semones, Edward J [NASA Johnson Space Center, Houston, TX 77058 (United States); Shavers, Mark R [Wyle Integrated Science and Engineering, Houston, TX 77058 (United States); Dodge, Charles, E-mail: wbolch@ufl.edu [University of Houston-Downtown, Houston, TX 77002 (United States)

    2011-03-21

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) performs organ dosimetry and risk assessment for astronauts using model-normalized measurements of the radiation fields encountered in space. To determine the radiation fields in an organ or tissue of interest, particle transport calculations are performed using self-shielding distributions generated with the computer program CAMERA to represent the human body. CAMERA mathematically traces linear rays (or path lengths) through the computerized anatomical man (CAM) phantom, a computational stylized model developed in the early 1970s with organ and body profiles modeled using solid shapes and scaled to represent the body morphometry of the 1950 50th percentile (PCTL) Air Force male. With the increasing use of voxel phantoms in medical and health physics, a conversion from a mathematical-based to a voxel-based ray-tracing algorithm is warranted. In this study, the voxel-based ray tracer (VoBRaT) is introduced to ray trace voxel phantoms using a modified version of the algorithm first proposed by Siddon (1985 Med. Phys. 12 252-5). After validation, VoBRAT is used to evaluate variations in body self-shielding distributions for NASA phantoms and six University of Florida (UF) hybrid phantoms, scaled to represent the 5th, 50th, and 95th PCTL male and female astronaut body morphometries, which have changed considerably since the inception of CAM. These body self-shielding distributions are used to generate organ dose equivalents and effective doses for five commonly evaluated space radiation environments. It is found that dosimetric differences among the phantoms are greatest for soft radiation spectra and light vehicular shielding.

  10. Sensitivity of predicted muscle forces during gait to anatomical variability in musculotendon geometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosmans, Lode; Valente, Giordano; Wesseling, Mariska; Van Campen, Anke; De Groote, Friedl; De Schutter, Joris; Jonkers, Ilse

    2015-07-16

    Scaled generic musculoskeletal models are commonly used to drive dynamic simulations of motions. It is however, acknowledged that not accounting for variability in musculoskeletal geometry and musculotendon parameters may confound the simulation results, even when analysing control subjects. This study documents the three-dimensional anatomical variability of musculotendon origins and insertions of 33 lower limb muscles determined based on magnetic resonance imaging in six subjects. This anatomical variability was compared to the musculotendon point location in a generic musculoskeletal model. Furthermore, the sensitivity of muscle forces during gait, calculated using static optimization, to perturbations of the musculotendon point location was analyzed with a generic model. More specific, a probabilistic approach was used: for each analyzed musculotendon point, the three-dimensional location was re-sampled with a uniform Latin hypercube method within the anatomical variability and the static optimization problem was then re-solved for all perturbations. We found that musculotendon point locations in the generic model showed only variable correspondences with the anatomical variability. The anatomical variability of musculotendon point location did affect the calculated muscle forces: muscles most sensitive to perturbations within the anatomical variability are iliacus and psoas. Perturbation of the gluteus medius anterior, iliacus and psoas induces the largest concomitant changes in muscle forces of the unperturbed muscles. Therefore, when creating subject-specific musculoskeletal models, these attachment points should be defined accurately. In addition, the size of the anatomical variability of the musculotendon point location was not related to the sensitivity of the calculated muscle forces. PMID:25979383

  11. An anatomical and functional topography of human auditory cortical areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle eMoerel

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available While advances in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI throughout the last decades have enabled the detailed anatomical and functional inspection of the human brain non-invasively, to date there is no consensus regarding the precise subdivision and topography of the areas forming the human auditory cortex. Here, we propose a topography of the human auditory areas based on insights on the anatomical and functional properties of human auditory areas as revealed by studies of cyto- and myelo-architecture and fMRI investigations at ultra-high magnetic field (7 Tesla. Importantly, we illustrate that - whereas a group-based approach to analyze functional (tonotopic maps is appropriate to highlight the main tonotopic axis - the examination of tonotopic maps at single subject level is required to detail the topography of primary and non-primary areas that may be more variable across subjects. Furthermore, we show that considering multiple maps indicative of anatomical (i.e. myelination as well as of functional properties (e.g. broadness of frequency tuning is helpful in identifying auditory cortical areas in individual human brains. We propose and discuss a topography of areas that is consistent with old and recent anatomical post mortem characterizations of the human auditory cortex and that may serve as a working model for neuroscience studies of auditory functions.

  12. Ultrasound Anatomical Visualization of the rabbit liver

    OpenAIRE

    Kamelia Dimcheva Stamatova-Yovcheva; Rosen Dimitrov; David Yovchev; Krassimira Uzunova; Rumen Binev

    2014-01-01

    The topic was to investigate the anatomical features of the rabbit liver by two- and three-dimensional ultrasonography. Eighteen sexually mature healthy clinically New Zealand rabbits aged eight months were studied. Two-dimensional ultarsonographic anatomical image of the rabbit liver presented it in the cranial abdominal region as a relatively hypoechoic finding. Its contours were regular and in close contact with the hyperechoic diaphragm. Liver parenchyma was heterogeneous. The gall bladde...

  13. [Establishment of anatomical terminology in Japan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimada, Kazuyuki

    2008-12-01

    The history of anatomical terminology in Japan began with the publication of Waran Naikei Ihan-teimŏ in 1805 and Chŏtei Kaitai Shinsho in 1826. Although the establishment of Japanese anatomical terminology became necessary during the Meiji era when many western anatomy books imported into Janan were translated, such terminology was not unified during this period and varied among translators. In 1871, Tsukumo Ono's Kaibŏgaku Gosen was published by the Ministry of Education. Although this book is considered to be the first anatomical glossary terms in Japan, its contents were incomplete. Overseas, the German Anatomical Society established a unified anatomical terminology in 1895 called the Basle Nomina Anatomica (B.N.A.). Based on this development, Kaibŏgaku Meishŭ which follows the BNA, by Buntarŏ Suzuki was published in 1905. With the subsequent establishment in 1935 of Jena Nomina Anatomica (J.N.A.), the unification of anatomical terminology was also accelerated in Japan, leading to the further development of terminology. PMID:19108488

  14. Anatomical imbalance between cortical networks in autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Takamitsu; Rees, Geraint

    2016-01-01

    Influential psychological models of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have proposed that this prevalent developmental disorder results from impairment of global (integrative) information processing and overload of local (sensory) information. However, little neuroanatomical evidence consistent with this account has been reported. Here, we examined relative grey matter volumes (rGMVs) between three cortical networks, how they changed with age, and their relationship with core symptomatology. Using public neuroimaging data of high-functioning ASD males and age-/sex-/IQ-matched controls, we first identified age-associated atypical increases in rGMVs of the regions of two sensory systems (auditory and visual networks), and an age-related aberrant decrease in rGMV of a task-control system (fronto-parietal network, FPN) in ASD children. While the enlarged rGMV of the auditory network in ASD adults was associated with the severity of autistic socio-communicational core symptom, that of the visual network was instead correlated with the severity of restricted and repetitive behaviours in ASD. Notably, the atypically decreased rGMV of FPN predicted both of the two core symptoms. These findings suggest that disproportionate undergrowth of a task-control system (FPN) may be a common anatomical basis for the two ASD core symptoms, and relative overgrowth of the two different sensory systems selectively compounds the distinct symptoms. PMID:27484308

  15. Anatomical imbalance between cortical networks in autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Takamitsu; Rees, Geraint

    2016-01-01

    Influential psychological models of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have proposed that this prevalent developmental disorder results from impairment of global (integrative) information processing and overload of local (sensory) information. However, little neuroanatomical evidence consistent with this account has been reported. Here, we examined relative grey matter volumes (rGMVs) between three cortical networks, how they changed with age, and their relationship with core symptomatology. Using public neuroimaging data of high-functioning ASD males and age-/sex-/IQ-matched controls, we first identified age-associated atypical increases in rGMVs of the regions of two sensory systems (auditory and visual networks), and an age-related aberrant decrease in rGMV of a task-control system (fronto-parietal network, FPN) in ASD children. While the enlarged rGMV of the auditory network in ASD adults was associated with the severity of autistic socio-communicational core symptom, that of the visual network was instead correlated with the severity of restricted and repetitive behaviours in ASD. Notably, the atypically decreased rGMV of FPN predicted both of the two core symptoms. These findings suggest that disproportionate undergrowth of a task-control system (FPN) may be a common anatomical basis for the two ASD core symptoms, and relative overgrowth of the two different sensory systems selectively compounds the distinct symptoms. PMID:27484308

  16. Lateral laryngopharyngeal diverticulum: anatomical and videofluoroscopic study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Milton Melciades Barbosa [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro ICB/CCS/UFRJ, Laboratorio de Motilidade Digestiva e Imagem, S. F1-008, Departamento de Anatomia, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Koch, Hilton Augusto [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro ICB/CCS/UFRJ, Departamento de Radiologia, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

    2005-07-01

    The aims were to characterize the anatomical region where the lateral laryngopharyngeal protrusion occurs and to define if this protrusion is a normal or a pathological entity. This protrusion was observed on frontal contrasted radiographs as an addition image on the upper portion of the laryngopharynx. We carried out a plane-by-plane qualitative anatomical study through macroscopic and mesoscopic surgical dissection on 12 pieces and analyzed through a videofluoroscopic method on frontal incidence the pharyngeal phase of the swallowing process of 33 patients who had a lateral laryngopharyngeal protrusion. The anatomical study allowed us to identify the morphological characteristics that configure the high portion of the piriform recess as a weak anatomical point. The videofluoroscopic study allowed us to observe the laryngopharyngeal protrusion and its relation to pharyngeal repletion of the contrast medium. All kinds of the observed protrusions could be classified as ''lateral laryngopharyngeal diverticula.'' The lateral diverticula were more frequent in older people. These lateral protrusions can be found on one or both sides, usually with a small volume, without sex or side prevalence. This formation is probably a sign of a pharyngeal transference difficulty associated with a deficient tissue resistance in the weak anatomical point of the high portion of the piriform recess. (orig.)

  17. Standardized anatomic space for abdominal fat quantification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Yubing; Udupa, Jayaram K.; Torigian, Drew A.

    2014-03-01

    The ability to accurately measure subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) and visceral adipose tissue (VAT) from images is important for improved assessment and management of patients with various conditions such as obesity, diabetes mellitus, obstructive sleep apnea, cardiovascular disease, kidney disease, and degenerative disease. Although imaging and analysis methods to measure the volume of these tissue components have been developed [1, 2], in clinical practice, an estimate of the amount of fat is obtained from just one transverse abdominal CT slice typically acquired at the level of the L4-L5 vertebrae for various reasons including decreased radiation exposure and cost [3-5]. It is generally assumed that such an estimate reliably depicts the burden of fat in the body. This paper sets out to answer two questions related to this issue which have not been addressed in the literature. How does one ensure that the slices used for correlation calculation from different subjects are at the same anatomic location? At what anatomic location do the volumes of SAT and VAT correlate maximally with the corresponding single-slice area measures? To answer these questions, we propose two approaches for slice localization: linear mapping and non-linear mapping which is a novel learning based strategy for mapping slice locations to a standardized anatomic space so that same anatomic slice locations are identified in different subjects. We then study the volume-to-area correlations and determine where they become maximal. We demonstrate on 50 abdominal CT data sets that this mapping achieves significantly improved consistency of anatomic localization compared to current practice. Our results also indicate that maximum correlations are achieved at different anatomic locations for SAT and VAT which are both different from the L4-L5 junction commonly utilized.

  18. Congenital neck masses: embryological and anatomical perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahida Rasool

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Neck masses are a common problem in paediatric age group. They tend to occur frequently and pose a diagnostic dilemma to the ENT surgeons. Although the midline and lateral neck masses differ considerably in their texture and presentation but the embryological perspective of these masses is not mostly understood along with the fundamental anatomical knowledge. The article tries to correlate the embryological, anatomical and clinical perspectives for the same. [Int J Res Med Sci 2013; 1(4.000: 329-332

  19. The glenohumeral joint of hominoid primates: locomotor correlates, anatomical variation and evolution

    OpenAIRE

    Arias Martorell, Júlia

    2014-01-01

    The Doctoral Thesis entitled "the glenohumeral joint of hominoid primates: locomotor Correlates, anatomical variation and evolution" is about the anatomical adaptations in the shoulder joint (glenohumeral joint) of hominoid primates. The action of the forces exerted during locomotion model the shape of the joint determining the range of motion animals can achieve. The hominoid primates stand out as having very mobile joints, with the ability to raise the arm above the shoulder enabling the us...

  20. Anatomical and Functional Plasticity in Early Blind Individuals and the Mixture of Experts Architecture

    OpenAIRE

    Bock, Andrew S.

    2014-01-01

    As described elsewhere in this special issue, recent advances in neuroimaging over the last decade have led to a rapid expansion in our knowledge of anatomical and functional correlations within the normal and abnormal human brain. Here, we review how early blindness has been used as a model system for examining the role of visual experience in the development of anatomical connections and functional responses. We discuss how lack of power in group comparisons may provide a potential explanat...

  1. Biofabrication of multi-material anatomically shaped tissue constructs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Additive manufacturing in the field of regenerative medicine aims to fabricate organized tissue-equivalents. However, the control over shape and composition of biofabricated constructs is still a challenge and needs to be improved. The current research aims to improve shape, by converging a number of biocompatible, quality construction materials into a single three-dimensional fiber deposition process. To demonstrate this, several models of complex anatomically shaped constructs were fabricated by combined deposition of poly(vinyl alcohol), poly(ε-caprolactone), gelatin methacrylamide/gellan gum and alginate hydrogel. Sacrificial components were co-deposited as temporary support for overhang geometries and were removed after fabrication by immersion in aqueous solutions. Embedding of chondrocytes in the gelatin methacrylamide/gellan component demonstrated that the fabrication and the sacrificing procedure did not affect cell viability. Further, it was shown that anatomically shaped constructs can be successfully fabricated, yielding advanced porous thermoplastic polymer scaffolds, layered porous hydrogel constructs, as well as reinforced cell-laden hydrogel structures. In conclusion, anatomically shaped tissue constructs of clinically relevant sizes can be generated when employing multiple building and sacrificial materials in a single biofabrication session. The current techniques offer improved control over both internal and external construct architecture underscoring its potential to generate customized implants for human tissue regeneration. (paper)

  2. Report of a rare anatomic variant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Brucker, Y; Ilsen, B; Muylaert, C;

    2015-01-01

    We report the CT findings in a case of partial anomalous pulmonary venous return (PAPVR) from the left upper lobe in an adult. PAPVR is an anatomic variant in which one to three pulmonary veins drain into the right atrium or its tributaries, rather than into the left atrium. This results in a lef...

  3. Evolution of the Anatomical Theatre in Padova

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macchi, Veronica; Porzionato, Andrea; Stecco, Carla; Caro, Raffaele

    2014-01-01

    The anatomical theatre played a pivotal role in the evolution of medical education, allowing students to directly observe and participate in the process of dissection. Due to the increase of training programs in clinical anatomy, the Institute of Human Anatomy at the University of Padova has renovated its dissecting room. The main guidelines in…

  4. Magnetic resonance angiography: infrequent anatomic variants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We studied through RM angiography (3D TOF) with high magnetic field equipment (1.5 T) different infrequent intracerebral vascular anatomic variants. For their detection we emphasise the value of post-processed images obtained after conventional angiographic sequences. These post-processed images should be included in routine protocols for evaluation of the intracerebral vascular structures. (author)

  5. HPV Vaccine Effective at Multiple Anatomic Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    A new study from NCI researchers finds that the HPV vaccine protects young women from infection with high-risk HPV types at the three primary anatomic sites where persistent HPV infections can cause cancer. The multi-site protection also was observed at l

  6. Anatomical and Functional Plasticity in Early Blind Individuals and the Mixture of Experts Architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew S Bock

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available As described elsewhere in this special issue, recent advances in neuroimaging over the last decade have led to a rapid expansion in our knowledge of anatomical and functional correlations within the normal and abnormal human brain. Here, we review how early blindness has been used as a model system for examining the role of visual experience in the development of anatomical connections and functional responses. We discuss how lack of power in group comparisons may provide a potential explanation for why extensive anatomical changes in cortico-cortical connectivity are not observed. Finally we suggest a framework – cortical specialization via hierarchical mixtures of experts – which offers some promise in reconciling a wide range of functional and anatomical data.

  7. Historical evolution of anatomical terminology from ancient to modern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Tatsuo

    2007-06-01

    The historical development of anatomical terminology from the ancient to the modern can be divided into five stages. The initial stage is represented by the oldest extant anatomical treatises by Galen of Pergamon in the Roman Empire. The anatomical descriptions by Galen utilized only a limited number of anatomical terms, which were essentially colloquial words in the Greek of this period. In the second stage, Vesalius in the early 16th century described the anatomical structures in his Fabrica with the help of detailed magnificent illustrations. He coined substantially no anatomical terms, but devised a system that distinguished anatomical structures with ordinal numbers. The third stage of development in the late 16th century was marked by innovation of a large number of specific anatomical terms especially for the muscles, vessels and nerves. The main figures at this stage were Sylvius in Paris and Bauhin in Basel. In the fourth stage between Bauhin and the international anatomical terminology, many anatomical textbooks were written mainly in Latin in the 17th century, and in modern languages in the 18th and 19th centuries. Anatomical terms for the same structure were differently expressed by different authors. The last stage began at the end of the 19th century, when the first international anatomical terminology in Latin was published as Nomina anatomica. The anatomical terminology was revised repeatedly until the current Terminologia anatomica both in Latin and English. PMID:17585563

  8. ANATOMIC RESEARCH OF SUPERIOR CLUNIAL NERVE TRAUMA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    In order to find the mechanism of superior clunial nerve (SCN) trauma, we dissected and revealed SCN from 12 corpses (24 sides). Combining 100 sides of SCN trauma, we inspected the course of SCN, the relation between SCN and it's neighbour tissues with the situation of SCN when being subjected to force. We found that the following special anatomic characteristics and mechanical elements such as the course of SCN, it's turning angles, the bony fibrous tube at the iliac crest, the posterior layer of the lumbodorsal fascia and SCN neighbour adipose tissue, are the causes of external force inducing SCN trauma. The anatomic revealment is the guidance of SCN trauma treatment with edged needle.

  9. Anatomical variations of the circle of Willis and cerebrovascular accidents in transitional Albania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edlira Harizi (Shemsi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The purpose of this study was twofold: i in a case-control design, to determine the relationship between anatomical variations of the circle of Willis and cerebrovascular accidents; ii to assess the association between anatomical variations of the circle of Willis and aneurisms among patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage. Methods: A case-control study was conducted in Albania in 2013-2014, including 100 patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage and 100 controls (individuals without cerebrovascular accidents. Patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage underwent a CT angiography procedure, whereas individuals in the control group underwent a magnetic resonance angiography procedure. Binary logistic regression was used to assess the association between cerebrovascular accidents and the anatomical variations of the circle of Willis. Conversely, Fisher’s exact test was used to compare the prevalence of aneurisms between subarachnoid hemorrhage patients with and without anatomical variations of the circle of Willis. Results: Among patients, there were 22 (22% cases with anatomical variations of the circle of Willis compared with 10 (10% individuals in the control group (P=0.033. There was no evidence of a statistically significant difference in the types of the anatomical variations of the circle of Willis between patients and controls (P=0.402. In age- and-sex adjusted logistic regression models, there was evidence of a significant positive association between cerebrovascular accidents and the anatomical variations of the circle of Willis (OR=1.87, 95%CI=1.03-4.68, P=0.048. Within the patients’ group, of the 52 cases with aneurisms, there were 22 (42.3% individuals with anatomical variations of the circle of Willis compared with no individuals with anatomical variations among the 48 patients without aneurisms (P<0.001. Conclusion: This study provides useful evidence on the association between anatomical variations of the circle of Willis and

  10. Anatomical basis for impotence following haemorrhoid sclerotherapy.

    OpenAIRE

    Pilkington, S. A.; Bateman, A C; Wombwell, S.; Miller, R

    2000-01-01

    Impotence has been reported as a rare but important complication of sclerotherapy for haemorrhoids. The relationship between the anterior wall of the rectum and the periprostatic parasympathetic nerves responsible for penile erection was studied to investigate a potential anatomical explanation for this therapeutic complication. A tissue block containing the anal canal, rectum and prostate was removed from each of six male cadaveric subjects. The dimensions of the components of the rectal wal...

  11. Identification of anatomical terminology in medical text.

    OpenAIRE

    Sneiderman, C. A.; Rindflesch, T. C.; Bean, C. A.

    1998-01-01

    We report on an experiment to use the natural language processing tools being developed in the SPECIALIST system to accurately identify terminology associated with the coronary arteries as expressed in coronary catheterization reports. The ultimate goal is to map from any anatomically-oriented medical text to online images, using the UMLS as an intermediate knowledge source. We describe some of the problems encountered when processing coronary artery terminology and report on the results of a...

  12. Anatomically Plausible Surface Alignment and Reconstruction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paulsen, Rasmus R.; Larsen, Rasmus

    2010-01-01

    With the increasing clinical use of 3D surface scanners, there is a need for accurate and reliable algorithms that can produce anatomically plausible surfaces. In this paper, a combined method for surface alignment and reconstruction is proposed. It is based on an implicit surface representation...... energy that has earlier proved to be particularly well suited for human surface scans. The method has been tested on full cranial scans of ten test subjects and on several scans of the outer human ear....

  13. Anatomic Landmarks for the First Dorsal Compartment

    OpenAIRE

    Hazani, Ron; Engineer, Nitin J.; Cooney, Damon; Wilhelmi, Bradon J.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Knowledge of anatomic landmarks for the first dorsal compartment can assist clinicians with management of de Quervain's disease. The radial styloid, the scaphoid tubercle, and Lister's tubercle can be used as superficial landmarks for the first dorsal compartment. Methods: Thirty-two cadaveric wrists were dissected, and measurements were taken from the predetermined landmarks to the extensor retinaculum. The compartments were also inspected for variability of the abductor pollicis ...

  14. Microstructure and Anatomical Characteristics of Daemonorops margaritae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Daemonorops margaritae is among the most important commercial rattan in South China. Its microstructure and basic anatomical characteristics as well as variation were investigated. Results show that: 1)The variation along the height is small, while the variation along the radial direction is significant; 2) The fibre length, fibre ratio and distribution density of the vascular bundles in the cross section decrease from cortex to core, while the fibre width, vessel element length and width, parenchyma ratio,...

  15. Pure endoscopic endonasal odontoidectomy: anatomical study

    OpenAIRE

    Messina, Andrea; Bruno, Maria Carmela; Decq, Philippe; Coste, Andre; Cavallo, Luigi Maria; de Divittis, Enrico; Cappabianca, Paolo; Tschabitscher, Manfred

    2007-01-01

    Different disorders may produce irreducible atlanto-axial dislocation with compression of the ventral spinal cord. Among the surgical approaches available for a such condition, the transoral resection of the odontoid process is the most often used. The aim of this anatomical study is to demonstrate the possibility of an anterior cervico-medullary decompression through an endoscopic endonasal approach. Three fresh cadaver heads were used. A modified endonasal endoscopic approach was made in al...

  16. ACCESSORY SPLEEN: A CLINICALLY RELEVANT ANATOMIC ANOMALY

    OpenAIRE

    Prachi Saffar; Amit Kumar; Ankur

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of our study is to emphasize on the clinical relevance of the presence of accessory spleen. It is not only a well-documented anatomic anomaly, it holds special significance in the differential diagnosis of intra-abdominal tumours and lymphadenopathy. MATERIALS AND METHODS Thirty male cadavers from North Indian population above the age of 60 yrs. were dissected in the Anatomy Department of FMHS, SGT University, Gurgaon, over a period of 5 yrs. (Sep 2010-Aug 2015) and presence...

  17. Exploring brain function from anatomical connectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gorka Zamora-López

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The intrinsic relationship between the architecture of the brain and the range of sensory and behavioral phenomena it produces is a relevant question in neuroscience. Here, we review recent knowledge gained on the architecture of the anatomical connectivity by means of complex network analysis. It has been found that corticocortical networks display a few prominent characteristics: (i modular organization, (ii abundant alternative processing paths and (iii the presence of highly connected hubs. Additionally, we present a novel classification of cortical areas of the cat according to the role they play in multisensory connectivity. All these properties represent an ideal anatomical substrate supporting rich dynamical behaviors, as-well-as facilitating the capacity of the brain to process sensory information of different modalities segregated and to integrate them towards a comprehensive perception of the real world. The result here exposed are mainly based in anatomical data of cats’ brain, but we show how further observations suggest that, from worms to humans, the nervous system of all animals might share fundamental principles of organization.

  18. Anatomical MRI with an atomic magnetometer

    CERN Document Server

    Savukov, I

    2012-01-01

    Ultra-low field (ULF) MRI is a promising method for inexpensive medical imaging with various additional advantages over conventional instruments such as low weight, low power, portability, absence of artifacts from metals, and high contrast. Anatomical ULF MRI has been successfully implemented with SQUIDs, but SQUIDs have the drawback of cryogen requirement. Atomic magnetometers have sensitivity comparable to SQUIDs and can be in principle used for ULF MRI to replace SQUIDs. Unfortunately some problems exist due to the sensitivity of atomic magnetometers to magnetic field and gradients. At low frequency, noise is also substantial and a shielded room is needed for improving sensitivity. In this paper, we show that at 85 kHz, the atomic magnetometer can be used to obtain anatomical images. This is the first demonstration of any use of atomic magnetometers for anatomical MRI. The demonstrated resolution is 1.1x1.4 mm2 in about six minutes of acquisition with SNR of 10. Some applications of the method are discuss...

  19. Anatomic variation of cranial parasympathetic ganglia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selma Siéssere

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Having broad knowledge of anatomy is essential for practicing dentistry. Certain anatomical structures call for detailed studies due to their anatomical and functional importance. Nevertheless, some structures are difficult to visualize and identify due to their small volume and complicated access. Such is the case of the parasympathetic ganglia located in the cranial part of the autonomic nervous system, which include: the ciliary ganglion (located deeply in the orbit, laterally to the optic nerve, the pterygopalatine ganglion (located in the pterygopalatine fossa, the submandibular ganglion (located laterally to the hyoglossus muscle, below the lingual nerve, and the otic ganglion (located medially to the mandibular nerve, right beneath the oval foramen. The aim of this study was to present these structures in dissected anatomic specimens and perform a comparative analysis regarding location and morphology. The proximity of the ganglia and associated nerves were also analyzed, as well as the number and volume of fibers connected to them. Human heads were dissected by planes, partially removing the adjacent structures to the point we could reach the parasympathetic ganglia. With this study, we concluded that there was no significant variation regarding the location of the studied ganglia. Morphologically, our observations concur with previous classical descriptions of the parasympathetic ganglia, but we observed variations regarding the proximity of the otic ganglion to the mandibular nerve. We also observed that there were variations regarding the number and volume of fiber bundles connected to the submandibular, otic, and pterygopalatine ganglia.

  20. Piriformis Fossa – An Anatomical and Orthopedics Consideration

    OpenAIRE

    Lakhwani, O. P.; Mittal, P.S.; D. C. Naik

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Piriformis fossa is an important anatomical landmark having significant clinical value in orthopedic surgery; but its location and anatomical relationship with surrounding structures are not clearly defined. Hence it is necessary to clearly describe it in respect to anatomical and orthopedic aspect.

  1. Establishing better biological models to understand occlusion.I:TM joint anatomic relationships%建立更好的生物模型以深入了解咬合

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PULLINGER(综述); 张晗(译); 徐珂(译)

    2015-01-01

    are a common basis to reject any useful prediction value.Notwithstanding,a relationship of form with function is a basic tenet of biology.These are multifactor problems,but the questions mostly have not been analysed as such.This review moves the question forward by focusing on TMjoint anatomic organisation as the multifactor system it is expected to be in a closed system like a synovial joint.Multifactor analysis allows the data to speak for itself and reduces bias.Classification tree analysis revealed useful prediction values and usable clinical models which are illustrated,backed up by stepwise logistic regression.Explained vari-ance,R2 ,predicting normals from pooled TMJ patients was 32.6%,sensitivity 67.9%,specificity 85.7%;37% versus disc displacement with reduction;and 28.8% versus disc displacement without reduction.Significant osseous organisational differences between TMjoints with clicking and locking suggest that this is not necessarily a single disease continuum.However,a subset of joints with clicking contained char-acteristics of joints with locking that might contribute to symptom progression versus resistance.Moderately strong models confirm there is a relationship between TMJ osseous organisation and function,but it should not be overstated.More than one model of normals and of TMde-rangement organisation is revealed.The implications to clinical decision-making are discussed.

  2. Anatomical versus Non-Anatomical Single Bundle Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction: A Cadaveric Study of Comparison of Knee Stability

    OpenAIRE

    Lim, Hong-Chul; Yoon, Yong-Cheol; Wang, Joon-Ho; Bae, Ji-Hoon

    2012-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to compare the initial stability of anatomical and non-anatomical single bundle anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction and to determine which would better restore intact knee kinematics. Our hypothesis was that the initial stability of anatomical single bundle ACL reconstruction would be superior to that of non-anatomical single bundle ACL reconstruction. Methods Anterior tibial translation (ATT) and internal rotation of the tibia were measure...

  3. Radiofrequency Ablation for Laparoscopic Anatomical Hepatectomy in Porcine Model%射频消融技术在腹腔镜解剖性肝切除动物模型中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张煊; 王宏光; 纪文斌; 顾万清; 董家鸿

    2013-01-01

    Objective To assess the feasibility, efficacy and safety of laparoscopic anatomical hepatectomy in a porcine model by using radiofrequency ablation to determine the surgical area, occlude the inflow, and assist the division of liver parenchyma. Methods Totally 20 pigs were enrolled into this study for two experiments. In the first experiment, the animals were randomly divided into radiofrequency ablation and conventional laparoscopy groups with 10 in each. In the radiofrequency ablation group, under ultrasound guidance, we positioned the lower hepatic portal vein, and then performed hepatic segmentectomy with the assistance by radiofrequency ablation for liver inflow occlusion. While in the conventional laparoscopy group, hepatic segmentectomy was carried out with a routine laparoscopic procedure. In the second experiment, the pigs were re-divided into two groups randomly to receive hepatic lobectomy with radiofrequency ablation-assisted laparoscopy or conventional laparoscopy respectively ( radiofrequency ablation and conventional laparoscopy groups, 10 in each). In both the experiments, the results of the two procedures were compared. Results In the first experiment, the segmentectomy was completed in the 9 pigs from the radiofrequency ablation group and 10 from the conventional laparoscopy group. The operation time was (74 ± 16) min and (104 ±28) min, respectively (t = -2. 821, P =0.012) , and intraoperative blood loss was (84 ± 20) ml and ( 114 ± 32) ml, respectively (t = - 2. 416, P = 0. 027). In the second experiment, hepatic lobectomy was completed in all the animals of both the groups, and significant difference was detected in intraoperative blood loss but not operation time between the two groups [ (110 ± 36) ml vs. (164 ± 50) ml, t = - 2.772, P = 0. 013 , and (136 ±26) min vs. (124 ± 18) min, t = 1. 200, P = 0. 246].Conclusions Under ultrasound guidance, it is effective for reducing operation time and intraoperative blood loss to employ

  4. Probabilistic anatomical labeling of brain structures using statistical probabilistic anatomical maps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of statistical parametric mapping (SPM) program has increased for the analysis of brain PET and SPECT images. Montreal neurological institute (MNI) coordinate is used in SPM program as a standard anatomical framework. While the most researchers look up Talairach atlas to report the localization of the activations detected in SPM program, there is significant disparity between MNI templates and Talairach atlas. That disparity between Talairach and MNI coordinates makes the interpretation of SPM result time consuming, subjective and inaccurate. The purpose of this study was to develop a program to provide objective anatomical information of each x-y-z position in ICBM coordinate. Program was designed to provide the anatomical information for the given x-y-z position in MNI coordinate based on the statistical probabilistic anatomical map (SPAM) images of ICBM. When x-y-z position was given to the program, names of the anatomical structures with non-zero probability and the probabilities that the given position belongs to the structures were tabulated. The program was coded using IDL and JAVA language for the easy transplantation to any operating system or platform. Utility of this program was shown by comparing the results of this program to those of SPM program. Preliminary validation study was performed by applying this program to the analysis of PET brain activation study of human memory in which the anatomical information on the activated areas are previously known. Real time retrieval of probabilistic information with 1 mm spatial resolution was archived using the programs. Validation study showed the relevance of this program: probability that the activated area for memory belonged to hippocampal formation was more than 80%. These programs will be useful for the result interpretation of the image analysis performed on MNI coordinate, as done in SPM program

  5. TOPICAL REVIEW: Anatomical imaging for radiotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Philip M.

    2008-06-01

    The goal of radiation therapy is to achieve maximal therapeutic benefit expressed in terms of a high probability of local control of disease with minimal side effects. Physically this often equates to the delivery of a high dose of radiation to the tumour or target region whilst maintaining an acceptably low dose to other tissues, particularly those adjacent to the target. Techniques such as intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT), stereotactic radiosurgery and computer planned brachytherapy provide the means to calculate the radiation dose delivery to achieve the desired dose distribution. Imaging is an essential tool in all state of the art planning and delivery techniques: (i) to enable planning of the desired treatment, (ii) to verify the treatment is delivered as planned and (iii) to follow-up treatment outcome to monitor that the treatment has had the desired effect. Clinical imaging techniques can be loosely classified into anatomic methods which measure the basic physical characteristics of tissue such as their density and biological imaging techniques which measure functional characteristics such as metabolism. In this review we consider anatomical imaging techniques. Biological imaging is considered in another article. Anatomical imaging is generally used for goals (i) and (ii) above. Computed tomography (CT) has been the mainstay of anatomical treatment planning for many years, enabling some delineation of soft tissue as well as radiation attenuation estimation for dose prediction. Magnetic resonance imaging is fast becoming widespread alongside CT, enabling superior soft-tissue visualization. Traditionally scanning for treatment planning has relied on the use of a single snapshot scan. Recent years have seen the development of techniques such as 4D CT and adaptive radiotherapy (ART). In 4D CT raw data are encoded with phase information and reconstructed to yield a set of scans detailing motion through the breathing, or cardiac, cycle. In ART a set of

  6. [Sigismund Laskowski and his anatomical preparations technique].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gryglewski, Ryszard W

    2015-01-01

    Fixation of the entire bodies or individual organs, and later as well tissues and cellular structures, was and still is often a challenge for anatomists and histologists. Technique that combines extensive knowledge of natural sciences, as well as technical skills, was by those best researchers as Frederik Ruysch, brought to perfection. Preparations, if done with care and talent, are really propelling progress in anatomical studies and determining the quality of education for medical students and young physicians. And as it is true for many of today's medical disciplines and natural sciences, the nineteenth century was in many ways a breaking point for preparatory techniques in the realm of anatomy and histology. Among those who have achieved success, earning notoriety during their lifetime and often going into the annals of European most distinguished scholars were some Polish names: Louis Maurice Hirschfeld, whose preparations of the nervous system earned him well-deserved, international fame, Louis Charles Teichmann, who was the very first so precisely describing the lymphatic system and a creator of unique injection mass, Henry Kadyi, known for his outstanding preparations, especially of vascular system. Henry Frederick Hoyer sen., who was one of the first to use formalin regularly for accurate microscopic preparations, is seen by many as the founder of the Polish histology. In this group of innovators and precursors of modern preparation techniques place should be reserved for Zygmunt (Sigismund) Laskowski, Polish patriot, fighting in January Uprising, later an immigrant, a professor at the university sequentially Paris and Geneva. Acclaimed author of anatomical tables and certainly creator of one of the groundbreaking techniques in anatomical preparations. Based after many years of research on the simple glycerine-phenol mixture achieved excellent results both in fixation of entire bodies and organs or tissues. Quality of those preparations was as high and

  7. Constitutional and Anatomical Characteristics of Mature Women

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Vladimir NNikolenko; DmitryBNikityuk; SvetlanaVKlochkova; AnastasiaABahmet

    2015-01-01

    Objective To identify the constitutional and anatomical peculiarities of constitution of women of mature age.Methods There was completed comprehensive anthropometric and bio-electrical survey of 651 mature women ( relative norm) living in the Moscow region .Results The quantitative distribution of women by somatotypological affiliation was revealed;anthropometric and body component composition in representatives of different somatotypes were defined .Conclusion Thus, the performed study revealed and quantiely character-ised the distribution of women according to their constitutional types in the studied population of mature age women living in Moscow region under the relative norm conditions .

  8. Fusing Simultaneous EEG and fMRI Using Functional and Anatomical Information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Sofie Therese; Winkler, Irene; Hansen, Lars Kai;

    2015-01-01

    SPoC), to not only use functional but also anatomical information. The goal is to extract correlated source components from electroencephalography (EEG) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Anatomical information enters our proposed extension to mSPoC via the forward model, which relates the activity...... on cortex level to the EEG sensors. The augmented mSPoC is shown to outperform the original version in realistic simulations where the signal to noise ratio is low or where training epochs are scarce....

  9. Leaf morphological and anatomical traits from tropical to temperate coniferous forests: Mechanisms and influencing factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Miao; Yu, Guirui; He, Nianpeng; Hou, Jihua

    2016-01-01

    Leaf traits may reflect the adaptation mechanisms of plants to the environment. In this study, we investigated leaf morphological and anatomical traits in nine cold-temperate to tropical forests along a 4,200-km transect to test how they vary across latitudinal gradients. The results showed that leaf dry weight decreased (P dry weight, leaf thickness and palisade mesophyll thickness, but negative correlations between stomatal length and stomatal density (all P < 0.01). The observed negative correlations represented the adaptive mechanisms of leaves through their morphological and anatomical traits. These findings provided new insights into the responses of leaf morphological and anatomical traits to climate changes and important parameters for future model optimization. PMID:26796339

  10. Assistance to planning in deep brain stimulation: data fusion method for locating anatomical targets in MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villéger, Alice; Ouchchane, Lemlih; Lemaire, Jean-Jacques; Boire, Jean-Yves

    2006-01-01

    Symptoms of Parkinson's disease can be relieved through deep brain stimulation. This neurosurgical technique relies on high precision positioning of electrodes in specific areas of the basal ganglia and the thalamus. In order to identify these anatomical targets, which are located deep within the brain, we developed a semi-automated method of image analysis, based on data fusion. Information provided by both anatomical magnetic resonance images and expert knowledge is managed in a common possibilistic frame, using a fuzzy logic approach. More specifically, a graph-based virtual atlas modeling theoretical anatomical knowledge is matched to the image data from each patient, through a research algorithm (or strategy) which simultaneously computes an estimation of the location of every structures, thus assisting the neurosurgeon in defining the optimal target. The method was tested on 10 images, with promising results. Location and segmentation results were statistically assessed, opening perspectives for enhancements. PMID:17946793

  11. Nomina anatomica. Anatomic terminology and the old French terminology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiapas-Gasca, Karla; Passos, Luiz Fernando De Souza; Euzébio Ribeiro, Sandra Lúcia; Villaseñor-Ovies, Pablo

    A surprising finding in our seminars in Latin America and Spain was that approximately half of the participants continued to use the old French anatomical nomenclature. The substance of this paper is a table in which we compare the anatomical names for the items reviewed in our seminar, in a Spanish version of the old French nomenclature and in the Spanish, Portuguese, and English versions of the currently employed anatomical terms. PMID:23228528

  12. Effectiveness of Plastinated Anatomical Specimens Depicting Common Sports Injuries to Enhance Musculoskeletal Injury Evaluation Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamura, Kaori; Stickley, Christopher D.; Labrash, Steven J.; Lozanoff, Scott

    2014-01-01

    Context: Plastination techniques have emerged as effective methods for preserving human tissue and enabling human specimens to be utilized in a fashion similar to anatomical models with much greater accuracy. Opportunities to observe and experience human specimens in classroom settings should be beneficial to undergraduate and graduate students in…

  13. Normal anatomical measurements in cervical computerized tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiodiagnostically relevant normal values and variations for measurements of the cervical region, the arithmetical average and the standard deviation were determined from adequate computer tomograms on 60 healthy women and men, aged 20 to 83 years. The sagittal diameter of the prevertebral soft tissue and the lumina of the upper respiratory tract were evaluated at exactly defined levels between the hyoid bone and the incisura jugularis sterni. - The thickness of the aryepiglottic folds, the maximal sagittal and transverse diameters of the thyroid gland and the calibre of the great cervical vessels were defined. - To assess information about laryngeal function in computerized tomography, measurements of distances between the cervical spine and anatomical fixed points of the larynx and hypopharynx were made as well as of the degree of vocal cord movement during normal respiration and phonation. (orig.)

  14. [Antique anatomical collections for contemporary museums].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesi, Gabriella; Santi, Raffaella

    2013-01-01

    Anatomy and Pathology Museum collections display a great biological value and offer unique samples for research purposes. Pathological specimens may be investigated by means of modern radiological and molecular biology techniques in order to provide the etiological background of disease, with relevance to present-day knowledge. Meanwhile, historical resources provide epidemiologic data regarding the socio-economic conditions of the resident populations, the more frequently encountered illnesses and dietary habits. These multidisciplinary approaches lead to more accurate diagnoses also allowing new strategies in cataloguing and musealization of anatomical specimens. Further, once these data are gathered, they may constitute the basis of riedited Museum catalogues feasible to be digitalized and displayed via the Web. PMID:25807710

  15. Normal anatomical measurements in cervical computerized tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaunbauer, W.; Daepp, S.; Haertel, M.

    1985-11-01

    Radiodiagnostically relevant normal values and variations for measurements of the cervical region, the arithmetical average and the standard deviation were determined from adequate computer tomograms on 60 healthy women and men, aged 20 to 83 years. The sagittal diameter of the prevertebral soft tissue and the lumina of the upper respiratory tract were evaluated at exactly defined levels between the hyoid bone and the incisura jugularis sterni. - The thickness of the aryepiglottic folds, the maximal sagittal and transverse diameters of the thyroid gland and the calibre of the great cervical vessels were defined. - To assess information about laryngeal function in computerized tomography, measurements of distances between the cervical spine and anatomical fixed points of the larynx and hypopharynx were made as well as of the degree of vocal cord movement during normal respiration and phonation.

  16. Anatomic correlations in radiogallium imaging of the peritoneum and retroperitoneum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiogallium (67Ga) imaging of the abdomen and pelvis has been useful not only in detecting inflammations in these regions, but in pointing out their precise anatomic localization. Once the anatomic site is determined, it is often possible to infer the source of origin of the problem (such as ruptured viscus or pancreatitis). Interpretation of the images depends on recognition of patterns that define known anatomic boundaries such as the transverse mesocolon, root of the small mesentery, perirenal space, and pararenal space, or else show diffuse peritoneal uptake. The anatomic patterns may have continued usefulness in future studies, such as when radiolabeled leukocytes are employed to localize inflammations

  17. MRI anatomical variants of mammillary bodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tagliamonte, Micaela; Sestieri, Carlo; Romani, Gian Luca; Gallucci, Massimo; Caulo, Massimo

    2015-01-01

    The mammillary bodies (MBs) are classically defined as a pair of small round structures located on the undersurface of the diencephalon. The systematic observation of MR brain images of patients with neurological diseases, but also of healthy subjects enrolled in research protocols, reveals, however, a greater anatomical variability. The aim of the present study was to define the spectrum of such variability using spatial normalized 3D TFE T1-weighted MR images in a group of 151 healthy right-handed young subjects (78 females, age range 16-39 years). The MBs were identified on reformatted coronal and axial images and classified according to morphological, positional and numerical criteria. On the basis of coronal images, MBs were first divided into symmetrical (86.1 %) and asymmetrical (13.9 %), depending on their respective height. Symmetrical MBs were further subdivided into three variants [type A (2.7 %), B (76.2 %), C (7.3 %)] according to the depth of the intermammillary sulcus. Two morphological variants were defined on axial images, depending on whether the MBs were circular (63.6 %) or elliptic (36.4 %). This latter group was further divided in two subgroups, depending on whether the MBs were parallel (21.9 %) or convergent (14.6 %). Finally, two subjects (1.3 %) presented a supernumeral MB. The transverse size of the third ventricle was greater in the type A compared to the type B and C groups. Gender did not significantly affect the frequency of MBs variants, except for the three symmetrical subgroups in which the variants A and C were more frequent in males than in females. These findings suggest the presence of an anatomical variability of the MBs, in contrast to their classical definition. Therefore, atypical presentation of MBs can be the expression of this variability rather than a marker of neurological disorders (i.e. cerebral malformation, mesial temporal sclerosis, Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome). PMID:24072163

  18. Anatomical decomposition in dual energy chest digital tomosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Donghoon; Kim, Ye-seul; Choi, Sunghoon; Lee, Haenghwa; Choi, Seungyeon; Kim, Hee-Joung

    2016-03-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death worldwide and the early diagnosis of lung cancer has recently become more important. For early screening lung cancer, computed tomography (CT) has been used as a gold standard for early diagnosis of lung cancer [1]. The major advantage of CT is that it is not susceptible to the problem of misdiagnosis caused by anatomical overlapping while CT has extremely high radiation dose and cost compared to chest radiography. Chest digital tomosynthesis (CDT) is a recently introduced new modality for lung cancer screening with relatively low radiation dose compared to CT [2] and also showing high sensitivity and specificity to prevent anatomical overlapping occurred in chest radiography. Dual energy material decomposition method has been proposed for better detection of pulmonary nodules as means of reducing the anatomical noise [3]. In this study, possibility of material decomposition in CDT was tested by simulation study and actual experiment using prototype CDT. Furthermore organ absorbed dose and effective dose were compared with single energy CDT. The Gate v6 (Geant4 application for tomographic emission), and TASMIP (Tungsten anode spectral model using the interpolating polynomial) code were used for simulation study and simulated cylinder shape phantom consisted of 4 inner beads which were filled with spine, rib, muscle and lung equivalent materials. The patient dose was estimated by PCXMC 1.5 Monte Carlo simulation tool [4]. The tomosynthesis scan was performed with a linear movement and 21 projection images were obtained over 30 degree of angular range with 1.5° degree of angular interval. The proto type CDT system has same geometry with simulation study and composed of E7869X (Toshiba, Japan) x-ray tube and FDX3543RPW (Toshiba, Japan) detector. The result images showed that reconstructed with dual energy clearly visualize lung filed by removing unnecessary bony structure. Furthermore, dual energy CDT could enhance

  19. The Use of Anatomical Information for Molecular Image Reconstruction Algorithms: Attenuation/Scatter Correction, Motion Compensation, and Noise Reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chun, Se Young

    2016-03-01

    PET and SPECT are important tools for providing valuable molecular information about patients to clinicians. Advances in nuclear medicine hardware technologies and statistical image reconstruction algorithms enabled significantly improved image quality. Sequentially or simultaneously acquired anatomical images such as CT and MRI from hybrid scanners are also important ingredients for improving the image quality of PET or SPECT further. High-quality anatomical information has been used and investigated for attenuation and scatter corrections, motion compensation, and noise reduction via post-reconstruction filtering and regularization in inverse problems. In this article, we will review works using anatomical information for molecular image reconstruction algorithms for better image quality by describing mathematical models, discussing sources of anatomical information for different cases, and showing some examples. PMID:26941855

  20. An Investigation of Anatomical Competence in Junior Medical Doctors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorstenbosch, Marc A. T. M.; Kooloos, Jan G. M.; Bolhuis, Sanneke M.; Laan, Roland F. J. M.

    2016-01-01

    Because of a decrease of the time available for anatomy education, decisions need to be made to reduce the relevant content of the anatomy curriculum. Several expert consensus initiatives resulted in lists of structures, lacking analysis of anatomical competence. This study aims to explore the use of anatomical knowledge by medical doctors in an…

  1. PC Assisted Anatomical Measurements in 3D Using CT Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvidtfeldt, Mogens; Pedersen, Steen

    1999-01-01

    To assess facilities and applications of a programme for a PC based CT measurements in 3D of anatomical angelse in the skeleton.......To assess facilities and applications of a programme for a PC based CT measurements in 3D of anatomical angelse in the skeleton....

  2. Prostatome: A combined anatomical and disease based MRI atlas of the prostate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rusu, Mirabela; Madabhushi, Anant, E-mail: anant.madabhushi@case.edu [Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio 44106 (United States); Bloch, B. Nicolas; Jaffe, Carl C. [Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts 02118 (United States); Genega, Elizabeth M. [Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts 02215 (United States); Lenkinski, Robert E.; Rofsky, Neil M. [UT Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas 75235 (United States); Feleppa, Ernest [Riverside Research Institute, New York, New York 10038 (United States)

    2014-07-15

    yielded a central gland Dice similarity coefficient (DSC) of 90%, and prostate DSC of 88%, while the misalignment of the urethra and verumontanum was found to be 3.45 mm, and 4.73 mm, respectively, which were measured to be significantly smaller compared to the alternative strategies. As might have been anticipated from our limited cohort of biopsy confirmed cancers, the disease atlas showed that most of the tumor extent was limited to the peripheral zone. Moreover, central gland tumors were typically larger in size, possibly because they are only discernible at a much later stage. Conclusions: The authors presented the AnCoR framework to explicitly model anatomic constraints for the construction of a fused anatomic imaging-disease atlas. The framework was applied to constructing a preliminary version of an anatomic-disease atlas of the prostate, the prostatome. The prostatome could facilitate the quantitative characterization of gland morphology and imaging features of prostate cancer. These techniques, may be applied on a large sample size data set to create a fully developed prostatome that could serve as a spatial prior for targeted biopsies by urologists. Additionally, the AnCoR framework could allow for incorporation of complementary imaging and molecular data, thereby enabling their careful correlation for population based radio-omics studies.

  3. Swept-source anatomic optical coherence elastography of porcine trachea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bu, Ruofei; Price, Hillel; Mitran, Sorin; Zdanski, Carlton; Oldenburg, Amy L.

    2016-02-01

    Quantitative endoscopic imaging is at the vanguard of novel techniques in the assessment upper airway obstruction. Anatomic optical coherence tomography (aOCT) has the potential to provide the geometry of the airway lumen with high-resolution and in 4 dimensions. By coupling aOCT with measurements of pressure, optical coherence elastography (OCE) can be performed to characterize airway wall stiffness. This can aid in identifying regions of dynamic collapse as well as informing computational fluid dynamics modeling to aid in surgical decision-making. Toward this end, here we report on an anatomic optical coherence tomography (aOCT) system powered by a wavelength-swept laser source. The system employs a fiber-optic catheter with outer diameter of 0.82 mm deployed via the bore of a commercial, flexible bronchoscope. Helical scans are performed to measure the airway geometry and to quantify the cross-sectional-area (CSA) of the airway. We report on a preliminary validation of aOCT for elastography, in which aOCT-derived CSA was obtained as a function of pressure to estimate airway wall compliance. Experiments performed on a Latex rubber tube resulted in a compliance measurement of 0.68+/-0.02 mm2/cmH2O, with R2=0.98 over the pressure range from 10 to 40 cmH2O. Next, ex vivo porcine trachea was studied, resulting in a measured compliance from 1.06+/-0.12 to 3.34+/-0.44 mm2/cmH2O, (R2>0.81). The linearity of the data confirms the elastic nature of the airway. The compliance values are within the same order-of-magnitude as previous measurements of human upper airways, suggesting that this system is capable of assessing airway wall compliance in future human studies.

  4. The teleost anatomy ontology: anatomical representation for the genomics age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahdul, Wasila M; Lundberg, John G; Midford, Peter E; Balhoff, James P; Lapp, Hilmar; Vision, Todd J; Haendel, Melissa A; Westerfield, Monte; Mabee, Paula M

    2010-07-01

    The rich knowledge of morphological variation among organisms reported in the systematic literature has remained in free-text format, impractical for use in large-scale synthetic phylogenetic work. This noncomputable format has also precluded linkage to the large knowledgebase of genomic, genetic, developmental, and phenotype data in model organism databases. We have undertaken an effort to prototype a curated, ontology-based evolutionary morphology database that maps to these genetic databases (http://kb.phenoscape.org) to facilitate investigation into the mechanistic basis and evolution of phenotypic diversity. Among the first requirements in establishing this database was the development of a multispecies anatomy ontology with the goal of capturing anatomical data in a systematic and computable manner. An ontology is a formal representation of a set of concepts with defined relationships between those concepts. Multispecies anatomy ontologies in particular are an efficient way to represent the diversity of morphological structures in a clade of organisms, but they present challenges in their development relative to single-species anatomy ontologies. Here, we describe the Teleost Anatomy Ontology (TAO), a multispecies anatomy ontology for teleost fishes derived from the Zebrafish Anatomical Ontology (ZFA) for the purpose of annotating varying morphological features across species. To facilitate interoperability with other anatomy ontologies, TAO uses the Common Anatomy Reference Ontology as a template for its upper level nodes, and TAO and ZFA are synchronized, with zebrafish terms specified as subtypes of teleost terms. We found that the details of ontology architecture have ramifications for querying, and we present general challenges in developing a multispecies anatomy ontology, including refinement of definitions, taxon-specific relationships among terms, and representation of taxonomically variable developmental pathways. PMID:20547776

  5. Review of the Historical Evolution of Anatomical Terms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Algieri, Rubén D.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Most of the medical terms of Greek origin are traditionally attributed to Hippocrates (460-370 BC. Claudius Galen of Pergamum (130-200 BC developed a classification of bones and joints and described different brain areas. His teachings have remained unchanged for over a thousand years. Andreas Vesalius of Brussels (1514-1564, through the systematic study of human body structure, changed many concepts. He published his work in his production "De humani corporis fabrica libri septem", where a special attention is evident to the discovery and description of new anatomical facts. From here there is a revolution in the morphological sciences, where the same anatomical structure passed to receive different names. In the nineteenth century, the different anatomists in the world decide to meet in order to unify criteria regarding the anatomical structures and determine a only one universal language in the anatomical sciences. In 1895, in Basel (Switzerland it’s approved a list of 5.573 terms, called Basle Nomina Anatomica (BNA and was written in Latin. Eponyms were deleted. In 1903, he founded the International Federation of Associations of anatomists (IFAA. In 1935, in Jena (Germany, approving the Jena Nomina Anatomica (JNA. In 1950, in Oxford, formed the Committee of the International Anatomical Nomenclature (IANC. In 1955, in Paris (France it is agreed to adopt a Latin nomenclature based on the BNA, the Paris Nomina Anatomica (PNA. In 1980, for the first time in Latin America, takes place on the 11th International Congress of Anatomists, Mexico. In 1989, the International Committee of Anatomical Nomenclature, published the sixth edition of the Nomina Anatomica, without review by the IFAA. The same year, the latter established a Federative International Committee of Anatomical Terminology (FICAT. In 1998, he published a new list FICAT: International Anatomical Terminology (TAI, with the structures named in Latin language and their equivalence in

  6. Lateral femoral cutaneous neuralgia: an anatomical insight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias Filho, L C; Valença, M M; Guimarães Filho, F A V; Medeiros, R C; Silva, R A M; Morais, M G V; Valente, F P; França, S M L

    2003-07-01

    A detailed anatomic study was carried out on the lateral femoral cutaneous nerve to better understand the etiology and treatment of lateral femoral cutaneous neuralgia. As it passed from the pelvis into the thigh, the lateral femoral cutaneous nerve ran through an "aponeuroticofascial tunnel," beginning at the iliopubic tract and ending at the inguinal ligament; as it passed through the tunnel, an enlargement in its side-to-side diameter was observed, suggesting that the fascial structures proximal to the inguinal ligament may be implicated in the genesis of lateral femoral cutaneous neuralgia. The finding of pseudoneuromas at this location, distant from the inguinal ligament, supports this hypothesis. The anterior superior iliac spine is located approximately 0.7 cm from the lateral femoral cutaneous nerve and serves as the bony landmark for nerve localization. Within the first 3 cm of leaving the pelvis, the lateral femoral cutaneous nerve was observed deep to the fascia lata; therefore, surgical dissection within the subcutaneous fascia may be conducted with relative impunity near the anterior superior iliac spine just inferior to the inguinal ligament. In 36% of cases there was no posterior branch of the nerve, which is correlated to lateral femoral cutaneous neuralgia symptoms often being limited to the anterior branch region. An accessory nerve was found in 30% of cases. PMID:12794914

  7. Anatomical challenges for transcatheter mitral valve intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DE Backer, Ole; Luk, Ngai H; Søndergaard, Lars

    2016-06-01

    Following the success of transcatheter aortic and pulmonary valve implantation, there is a large interest in transcatheter mitral valve interventions to treat severe mitral regurgitation (MR). With the exception for the MitraClipTM (Abbott, Abbott Park, IL, USA) edge-to-edge leaflet plication system, most of these transcatheter mitral valve interventions are still in their early clinical or preclinical development phase. Challenges arising from the complex anatomy of the mitral valve and the interplay of the mitral apparatus with the left ventricle (LV) have contributed to a more difficult development process and mixed clinical results with these novel technologies. This review aims to discuss the several anatomical aspects and challenges related to transcatheter mitral valve intervention - the relevant anatomy will be reviewed in relation to specific requirements for device design and procedural aspects of transcatheter mitral valve interventions. To date, experience with these novel therapeutic modalities are still limited and resolution of many challenges are pending. Future studies have to evaluate for whom the transcatheter approach is a feasible and preferred treatment and which patients will benefit from either transcatheter mitral valve repair or replacement. Nevertheless, technological developments are anticipated to drive the transcatheter approach forward into a clinically feasible alternative to surgery for selected patients with severe MR. PMID:27028333

  8. Simultaneous anatomical sketching as learning by doing method of teaching human anatomy

    OpenAIRE

    Noorafshan, Ali; Hoseini, Leila; AMINI, MITRA; Dehghani, Mohammad-Reza; Kojuri, Javad; Bazrafkan, Leila

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Learning by lecture is a passive experience. Many innovative techniques have been presented to stimulate students to assume a more active attitude toward learning. In this study, simultaneous sketch drawing, as an interactive learning technique was applied to teach anatomy to the medical students. Materials and Methods: We reconstructed a fun interactive model of teaching anatomy as simultaneous anatomic sketching. To test the model's instruction effectiveness, we conducted a quasi...

  9. Embryologic and anatomic basis of duodenal surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Androulakis, J; Colborn, G L; Skandalakis, P N; Skandalakis, L J; Skandalakis, J E

    2000-02-01

    The following points should be remembered by surgeons (Table 1). In writing about the head of the pancreas, the common bile duct, and the duodenum in 1979, the authors stated that Embryologically, anatomically and surgically these three entities form an inseparable unit. Their relations and blood supply make it impossible for the surgeon to remove completely the head of the pancreas without removing the duodenum and the distal part of the common bile duct. Here embryology and anatomy conspire to produce some of the most difficult surgery of the abdominal cavity. The only alternative procedure, the so-called 95% pancreatectomy, leaves a rim of pancreas along the medial border of the duodenum to preserve the duodenal blood supply. The authors had several conversations with Child, one of the pioneers of this procedure, whose constant message was to always be careful with the blood supply of the duodenum (personal communication, 1970). Beger et al popularized duodenum-preserving resection of the pancreatic head, emphasizing preservation of endocrine pancreatic function. They reported that ampullectomy (removal of the papilla and ampulla of Vater) carries a mortality rate of less than 0.4% and a morbidity rate of less than 10.0%. Surgeons should not ligate the superior and inferior pancreaticoduodenal arteries because such ligation may cause necrosis of the head of the pancreas and of much of the duodenum. The accessory pancreatic duct of Santorini passes under the gastrointestinal artery. For safety, surgeons should ligate the artery away from the anterior medial duodenal wall, where the papilla is located, thereby avoiding injury to or ligation of the duct. "Water under the bridge" applies not only to the relationship of the uterine artery and ureter but also to the gastroduodenal artery and the accessory pancreatic duct. In 10% of cases, the duct of Santorini is the only duct draining the pancreas, so ligation of the gastroduodenal artery with accidental inclusion of

  10. Anatomic atlas for computed tomography in the mesaticephalic dog: head and neck

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study was to produce a comprehensive anatomic atlas of CT anatomy of the dog for use by veterinary radiologists, clinicians, and surgeons. Whole-body CT images of two mature beagle dogs were made with the dogs supported in sternal recumbency and using a slice thickness of 13 mm. The head was scanned using high-resolution imaging with a slice thickness of 8 mm. At the end of the CT session, each dog was euthanized, and while carefully maintaining the same position, the body was placed in a walk-in freezer until completely frozen. The body was then sectioned at 13-mm (head at 8-mm) intervals, with the cuts matched as closely as possible to the CT slices. The forzen sections were cleaned, photographed, and radiographed using xeroradiography. Each CT image was studied and compared with its corresponding xeroradiograph and anatomic section to assist in the accurate identification of specific structures. Intact, sagittally sectioned, and disarticulated dog skulls were used as reference models. Clinically relevant anatomic structures were identified and labeled in the three corresponding photographs (CT image, xeroradiograph, and anatomic section). In this paper, the CT anatomy of the head and neck of the mesaticephalic dog is presented

  11. An anatomically driven anisotropic diffusion filtering method for 3D SPECT reconstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, we aim to reconstruct single-photon emission computed tomography images using anatomical information from magnetic resonance imaging as a priori knowledge about the activity distribution. The trade-off between anatomical and emission data is one of the main concerns for such studies. In this work, we propose an anatomically driven anisotropic diffusion filter (ADADF) as a penalized maximum likelihood expectation maximization optimization framework. The ADADF method has improved edge-preserving denoising characteristics compared to other smoothing penalty terms based on quadratic and non-quadratic functions. The proposed method has an important ability to retain information which is absent in the anatomy. To make our approach more stable to the noise-edge classification problem, robust statistics have been employed. Comparison of the ADADF method is performed with a successful anatomically driven technique, namely, the Bowsher prior (BP). Quantitative assessment using simulated and clinical neuroreceptor volumetric data show the advantage of the ADADF over the BP. For the modelled data, the overall image resolution, the contrast, the signal-to-noise ratio and the ability to preserve important features in the data are all improved by using the proposed method. For clinical data, the contrast in the region of interest is significantly improved using the ADADF compared to the BP, while successfully eliminating noise. (paper)

  12. Population of anatomically variable 4D XCAT adult phantoms for imaging research and optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: The authors previously developed the 4D extended cardiac-torso (XCAT) phantom for multimodality imaging research. The XCAT consisted of highly detailed whole-body models for the standard male and female adult, including the cardiac and respiratory motions. In this work, the authors extend the XCAT beyond these reference anatomies by developing a series of anatomically variable 4D XCAT adult phantoms for imaging research, the first library of 4D computational phantoms. Methods: The initial anatomy of each phantom was based on chest–abdomen–pelvis computed tomography data from normal patients obtained from the Duke University database. The major organs and structures for each phantom were segmented from the corresponding data and defined using nonuniform rational B-spline surfaces. To complete the body, the authors manually added on the head, arms, and legs using the original XCAT adult male and female anatomies. The structures were scaled to best match the age and anatomy of the patient. A multichannel large deformation diffeomorphic metric mapping algorithm was then used to calculate the transform from the template XCAT phantom (male or female) to the target patient model. The transform was applied to the template XCAT to fill in any unsegmented structures within the target phantom and to implement the 4D cardiac and respiratory models in the new anatomy. Each new phantom was refined by checking for anatomical accuracy via inspection of the models. Results: Using these methods, the authors created a series of computerized phantoms with thousands of anatomical structures and modeling cardiac and respiratory motions. The database consists of 58 (35 male and 23 female) anatomically variable phantoms in total. Like the original XCAT, these phantoms can be combined with existing simulation packages to simulate realistic imaging data. Each new phantom contains parameterized models for the anatomy and the cardiac and respiratory motions and can, therefore

  13. Population of anatomically variable 4D XCAT adult phantoms for imaging research and optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Segars, W. P.; Bond, Jason; Frush, Jack; Hon, Sylvia; Eckersley, Chris; Samei, E. [Carl E. Ravin Advanced Imaging Laboratories, Department of Radiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27705 (United States); Williams, Cameron H.; Frush, D. [Department of Radiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710 (United States); Feng Jianqiao; Tward, Daniel J.; Ratnanather, J. T.; Miller, M. I. [Center for Imaging Science, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 21218 (United States)

    2013-04-15

    Purpose: The authors previously developed the 4D extended cardiac-torso (XCAT) phantom for multimodality imaging research. The XCAT consisted of highly detailed whole-body models for the standard male and female adult, including the cardiac and respiratory motions. In this work, the authors extend the XCAT beyond these reference anatomies by developing a series of anatomically variable 4D XCAT adult phantoms for imaging research, the first library of 4D computational phantoms. Methods: The initial anatomy of each phantom was based on chest-abdomen-pelvis computed tomography data from normal patients obtained from the Duke University database. The major organs and structures for each phantom were segmented from the corresponding data and defined using nonuniform rational B-spline surfaces. To complete the body, the authors manually added on the head, arms, and legs using the original XCAT adult male and female anatomies. The structures were scaled to best match the age and anatomy of the patient. A multichannel large deformation diffeomorphic metric mapping algorithm was then used to calculate the transform from the template XCAT phantom (male or female) to the target patient model. The transform was applied to the template XCAT to fill in any unsegmented structures within the target phantom and to implement the 4D cardiac and respiratory models in the new anatomy. Each new phantom was refined by checking for anatomical accuracy via inspection of the models. Results: Using these methods, the authors created a series of computerized phantoms with thousands of anatomical structures and modeling cardiac and respiratory motions. The database consists of 58 (35 male and 23 female) anatomically variable phantoms in total. Like the original XCAT, these phantoms can be combined with existing simulation packages to simulate realistic imaging data. Each new phantom contains parameterized models for the anatomy and the cardiac and respiratory motions and can, therefore, serve

  14. ACCESSORY SPLEEN: A CLINICALLY RELEVANT ANATOMIC ANOMALY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prachi Saffar

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of our study is to emphasize on the clinical relevance of the presence of accessory spleen. It is not only a well-documented anatomic anomaly, it holds special significance in the differential diagnosis of intra-abdominal tumours and lymphadenopathy. MATERIALS AND METHODS Thirty male cadavers from North Indian population above the age of 60 yrs. were dissected in the Anatomy Department of FMHS, SGT University, Gurgaon, over a period of 5 yrs. (Sep 2010-Aug 2015 and presence of accessory spleen recorded. Tissue from the accessory spleen was also subjected to routine histological processing and slide prepared by haematoxylin and eosin staining. RESULTS Accessory spleen was present in two cadavers near the splenic hilum. One was 3.9 cm in the long axis and weighed about 48.4 grams, while the other was 1.2 cm in long axis and weighed about 12.5 grams. One had a separate arterial branch from the main splenic artery; that it was splenic tissue was confirmed histologically. DISCUSSION The presence of accessory spleen is considered to be due to embryonic non-fusion of the splenic aggregate with the main mass. CONCLUSION Though accessory spleen in itself pose no clinical problems, its significance cannot be undermined. Surgeons and radiologists are advised to look for and rule out the presence of accessory spleen, especially while evaluating a case of abdominal and perineal pathology, else it may be wrongly diagnosed as malignant tumour or enlarged lymph node leading to grave consequences.

  15. Collaborative regression-based anatomical landmark detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yaozong; Shen, Dinggang

    2015-12-01

    Anatomical landmark detection plays an important role in medical image analysis, e.g. for registration, segmentation and quantitative analysis. Among the various existing methods for landmark detection, regression-based methods have recently attracted much attention due to their robustness and efficiency. In these methods, landmarks are localised through voting from all image voxels, which is completely different from the classification-based methods that use voxel-wise classification to detect landmarks. Despite their robustness, the accuracy of regression-based landmark detection methods is often limited due to (1) the inclusion of uninformative image voxels in the voting procedure, and (2) the lack of effective ways to incorporate inter-landmark spatial dependency into the detection step. In this paper, we propose a collaborative landmark detection framework to address these limitations. The concept of collaboration is reflected in two aspects. (1) Multi-resolution collaboration. A multi-resolution strategy is proposed to hierarchically localise landmarks by gradually excluding uninformative votes from faraway voxels. Moreover, for informative voxels near the landmark, a spherical sampling strategy is also designed at the training stage to improve their prediction accuracy. (2) Inter-landmark collaboration. A confidence-based landmark detection strategy is proposed to improve the detection accuracy of ‘difficult-to-detect’ landmarks by using spatial guidance from ‘easy-to-detect’ landmarks. To evaluate our method, we conducted experiments extensively on three datasets for detecting prostate landmarks and head & neck landmarks in computed tomography images, and also dental landmarks in cone beam computed tomography images. The results show the effectiveness of our collaborative landmark detection framework in improving landmark detection accuracy, compared to other state-of-the-art methods.

  16. ANATOMICAL LANDMARKS FOR ROBOTIC NERVE SPARING RADICAL PROSTATECTOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. N. Moiseenko

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A detailed anatomical study of the prostate and pelvic organs has been recently relevant. Their anatomical knowledge is directly associated with the improved procedure of nerve-sparing robot-assisted radical prostatectomy, which contributes to the preservation of the anatomical structures responsible for postsurgical erection and urinary continence. The main tasks of radical prostatectomy are effective cancer control, early recovery of urinary continence, and recovery of erectile function.The literature on the anatomy of the prostate and its adjacent structures is analyzed in the context of nerve-sparing robot-assisted radical prostatectomy.

  17. Anatomic Double-Bundle Posterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chahla, Jorge; Nitri, Marco; Civitarese, David; Dean, Chase S; Moulton, Samuel G; LaPrade, Robert F

    2016-02-01

    The posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) is known to be the main posterior stabilizer of the knee. Anatomic single-bundle PCL reconstruction, focusing on reconstruction of the larger anterolateral bundle, is the most commonly performed procedure. Because of the residual posterior and rotational tibial instability after the single-bundle procedure and the inability to restore the normal knee kinematics, an anatomic double-bundle PCL reconstruction has been proposed in an effort to re-create the native PCL footprint more closely and to restore normal knee kinematics. We detail our technique for an anatomic double-bundle PCL reconstruction using Achilles and anterior tibialis tendon allografts. PMID:27284530

  18. Anatomical features and clinical relevance of a persistent trigeminal artery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcalá-Cerra, Gabriel; Tubbs, R S; Niño-Hernández, Lucía M

    2012-01-01

    Background: Although persistent trigeminal artery (PTA) is uncommonly identified, knowledge of this structure is essential for clinicians who interpret cranial imaging, perform invasive studies of the cerebral vasculature, and operate this region. Methods: A review of the medical literature using standard search engines was performed to locate articles regarding the PTA, with special attention with anatomical descriptions. Results: Although anatomical reports of PTA anatomy are very scarce, those were analyzed to describe in detail the current knowledge about its anatomical relationships and variants. Additionally, the embryology, classification, clinical implications, and imaging modalities of this vessel are extensively discussed. Conclusions: Through a comprehensive review of isolated reports of the PTA, the clinician can better understand and treat patients with such an anatomical derailment. PMID:23087827

  19. Anatomical terminology and nomenclature: past, present and highlights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kachlik, David; Baca, Vaclav; Bozdechova, Ivana; Cech, Pavel; Musil, Vladimir

    2008-08-01

    The anatomical terminology is a base for medical communication. It is elaborated into a nomenclature in Latin. Its history goes back to 1895, when the first Latin anatomical nomenclature was published as Basiliensia Nomina Anatomica. It was followed by seven revisions (Jenaiensia Nomina Anatomica 1935, Parisiensia Nomina Anatomica 1955, Nomina Anatomica 2nd to 6th edition 1960-1989). The last revision, Terminologia Anatomica, (TA) created by the Federative Committee on Anatomical Terminology and approved by the International Federation of Associations of Anatomists, was published in 1998. Apart from the official Latin anatomical terminology, it includes a list of recommended English equivalents. In this article, major changes and pitfalls of the nomenclature are discussed, as well as the clinical anatomy terms. The last revision (TA) is highly recommended to the attention of not only teachers, students and researchers, but also to clinicians, doctors, translators, editors and publishers to be followed in their activities. PMID:18488135

  20. Dissimilarity-based classification of anatomical tree structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Lauge Emil Borch Laurs; Lo, Pechin Chien Pau; Dirksen, Asger; Petersen, Jens; de Bruijne, Marleen

    between the branch feature vectors representing those trees. Hereby, localized information in the branches is collectively used in classification and variations in feature values across the tree are taken into account. An approximate anatomical correspondence between matched branches can be achieved by......, as well as anatomical features to characterize each branch, an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.912 is achieved. This is significantly better than computing the average WA%....

  1. Dissimilarity-based classification of anatomical tree structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Lauge Emil Borch Laurs; Lo, Pechin Chien Pau; Dirksen, Asger; Petersen, Jens; de Bruijne, Marleen

    2011-01-01

    between the branch feature vectors representing those trees. Hereby, localized information in the branches is collectively used in classification and variations in feature values across the tree are taken into account. An approximate anatomical correspondence between matched branches can be achieved by......, as well as anatomical features to characterize each branch, an area under the receiver operating characteristic curveof 0.912 is achieved. This is significantly better than computing the average WA%....

  2. Ultrasound of the rotator cuff with MRI and anatomic correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnetic resonance imaging and high-resolution ultrasound (US) are frequently used for the detection of rotator cuff tears. The diagnostic yield of US is influenced by several factors as technique, knowledge of the imaging characteristics of anatomic and pathologic findings and of pitfalls. The purpose of this article is to illustrates that the standardized high-resolution US examination of the shoulder covers the entire rotator cuff and correlates with MR imaging and anatomic sections

  3. Identification of Salicornia population: Anatomical characterization and RAPD fingerprinting

    OpenAIRE

    Milić Dubravka; Luković Jadranka; Đan Mihajla; Zorić Lana; Obreht Dragana; Veselić Sanja; Anačkov G.; Petanidou Theodora

    2011-01-01

    Anatomical and Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis of two typical populations of Salicornia europaea from Montenegro and Greece (Lesvos), one typical population of S. ramosissima from Spain and one population that belongs to the Salicornia genus from Serbia, was undertaken to develop a new strategy for identifying Salicornia plants. Anatomical variability and differentiation were examined using Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Multivariate Discriminant Function Analys...

  4. Anatomic Dead Space Cannot Be Predicted by Body Weight

    OpenAIRE

    Brewer, Lara M.; Orr, Joseph A.

    2007-01-01

    Anatomic, airway, or tracheal, dead space is the part of the tidal volume that does not participate in gas exchange. Knowledge of the size of the dead space is important for proper mechanical ventilation, especially if small tidal volumes are used. Respiratory and medical textbooks state that anatomic dead space can be estimated from the patient’s body weight. Specifically, these references suggest dead space can be predicted using a relationship of one milliliter per pound of body weight. Us...

  5. Anatomic Double-Bundle Posterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction

    OpenAIRE

    Chahla, Jorge; Nitri, Marco; Civitarese, David; Dean, Chase S.; Moulton, Samuel G.; LaPrade, Robert F.

    2016-01-01

    The posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) is known to be the main posterior stabilizer of the knee. Anatomic single-bundle PCL reconstruction, focusing on reconstruction of the larger anterolateral bundle, is the most commonly performed procedure. Because of the residual posterior and rotational tibial instability after the single-bundle procedure and the inability to restore the normal knee kinematics, an anatomic double-bundle PCL reconstruction has been proposed in an effort to re-create the n...

  6. Detection and Analysis of Statistical Differences in Anatomical Shape

    OpenAIRE

    Golland, Polina; Grimson, W. Eric L.; Martha E. Shenton; Kikinis, Ron

    2005-01-01

    We present a computational framework for image-based analysis and interpretation of statistical differences in anatomical shape between populations. Applications of such analysis include understanding developmental and anatomical aspects of disorders when comparing patients vs. normal controls, studying morphological changes caused by aging, or even differences in normal anatomy, for example, differences between genders. Once a quantitative description of organ shape is extracted from input i...

  7. Anatomic anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction using an individualized approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carola F. van Eck

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL reconstruction is one of the most commonly performed orthopaedic procedures. Recently, there has been a shift in interest towards reconstruction techniques that more closely restore the native anatomy of the ACL. This review paper discusses our approach to individualized anatomic ACL reconstruction, including the anatomy of the ACL, the physical exam, imaging modalities, the surgical technique for anatomic reconstruction including pre- and intraoperative considerations and our postoperative rehabilitation protocol.

  8. The linguistic roots of Modern English anatomical terminology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turmezei, Tom D

    2012-11-01

    Previous research focusing on Classical Latin and Greek roots has shown that understanding the etymology of English anatomical terms may be beneficial for students of human anatomy. However, not all anatomical terms are derived from Classical origins. This study aims to explore the linguistic roots of the Modern English terminology used in human gross anatomy. By reference to the Oxford English Dictionary, etymologies were determined for a lexicon of 798 Modern English gross anatomical terms from the 40(th) edition of Gray's Anatomy. Earliest traceable language of origin was determined for all 798 terms; language of acquisition was determined for 747 terms. Earliest traceable languages of origin were: Classical Latin (62%), Classical Greek (24%), Old English (7%), Post-Classical Latin (3%), and other (4%). Languages of acquisition were: Classical Latin (42%), Post-Classical Latin (29%), Old English (8%), Modern French (6%), Classical Greek (5%), Middle English (3%), and other (7%). While the roots of Modern English anatomical terminology mostly lie in Classical languages (accounting for the origin of 86% of terms), the anatomical lexicon of Modern English is actually much more diverse. Interesting and perhaps less familiar examples from these languages and the methods by which such terms have been created and absorbed are discussed. The author suggests that awareness of anatomical etymologies may enhance the enjoyment and understanding of human anatomy for students and teachers alike. PMID:22461143

  9. Anatomical characterization of central, apical and minimal corneal thickness

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Federico; Saenz-Frances; Martha; Cecilia; Bermúdez-Vallecilla; Lara; Borrego-Sanz; Luis; Jaez; J; osé; Marìa; Martinez-de-la-Casa; Laura; Morales-Fernandez; Enrique; Santos-Bueso; Julián; Garcia-Sanchez; Julián; Garcia-Feijoo

    2014-01-01

    ·AIM: To anatomically locate the points of minimum corneal thickness and central corneal thickness(pupil center) in relation to the corneal apex.·METHODS: Observational, cross-sectional study, 299 healthy volunteers. Thickness at the corneal apex(AT),minimum corneal thickness(MT) and corneal thickness at the pupil center(PT) were determined using the pentacam. Distances from the corneal apex to MT(MD)and PT(PD) were calculated and their quadrant position(taking the corneal apex as the reference) determined:point of minimum thickness(MC) and point of central thickness(PC) depending on the quadrant position. Two multivariate linear regression models were constructed to examine the influence of age, gender, power of the flattest and steepest corneal axes, position of the flattest axis, corneal volume(determined using the Pentacam)and PT on MD and PD. The effects of these variables on MC and PC were also determined in two multinomial regression models.·RESULTS: MT was located at a mean distance of 0.909 mm from the apex(79.4% in the inferior-temporal quadrant). PT was located at a mean distance of 0.156 mm from the apex. The linear regression model for MD indicated it was significantly influenced by corneal volume(B =-0.024; 95% CI:-0.043 to-0.004). No significant relations were identified in the linear regression model for PD or the multinomial logisticregressions for MC and PC.·CONCLUSION: MT was typically located at the inferiortemporal quadrant of the cornea and its distance to the corneal apex tended to decrease with the increment of corneal volume.

  10. GBM heterogeneity characterization by radiomic analysis of phenotype anatomical planes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaddad, Ahmad; Desrosiers, Christian; Toews, Matthew

    2016-03-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most common malignant primary tumor of the central nervous system, characterized among other traits by rapid metastatis. Three tissue phenotypes closely associated with GBMs, namely, necrosis (N), contrast enhancement (CE), and edema/invasion (E), exhibit characteristic patterns of texture heterogeneity in magnetic resonance images (MRI). In this study, we propose a novel model to characterize GBM tissue phenotypes using gray level co-occurrence matrices (GLCM) in three anatomical planes. The GLCM encodes local image patches in terms of informative, orientation-invariant texture descriptors, which are used here to sub-classify GBM tissue phenotypes. Experiments demonstrate the model on MRI data of 41 GBM patients, obtained from the cancer genome atlas (TCGA). Intensity-based automatic image registration is applied to align corresponding pairs of fixed T1˗weighted (T1˗WI) post-contrast and fluid attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) images. GBM tissue regions are then segmented using the 3D Slicer tool. Texture features are computed from 12 quantifier functions operating on GLCM descriptors, that are generated from MRI intensities within segmented GBM tissue regions. Various classifier models are used to evaluate the effectiveness of texture features for discriminating between GBM phenotypes. Results based on T1-WI scans showed a phenotype classification accuracy of over 88.14%, a sensitivity of 85.37% and a specificity of 96.1%, using the linear discriminant analysis (LDA) classifier. This model has the potential to provide important characteristics of tumors, which can be used for the sub-classification of GBM phenotypes.

  11. [The nerves of the face: anatomical sample in wax in the Delmas-Orfila-Rouvière Museum in Paris].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drifi, F; Le Floch-Prigent, P

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the study was to check the anatomical veracity of the model of wax no. 262, from the Delmas, Orfila and Rouvière museums, 45, rue des Saints Pères, Paris 6th, made by Tramond M.D., entitled "nerves of the face". We successively took several numerical photographs with several view angles; anatomically described the nerves of the face as they were represented on this model; correlated the anatomical veracity of this representation with the classical, textbooks' data; approached the technical bases of fabrication; and collected successive photographs of the model every 5 degrees , all along 180 degrees , thus allowing an animated rotation on computer, using the QuickTime Virtual Reality program. The oversize of the model excluded a set on a real human skeleton. The building technique of the model was deduced from known data but could not be completely reported. The anatomical veracity of the sample was excellent. The difficulties of realization in wax of an oversized model of the nerves of the human face were solved in the late 19th century, in Paris by Tramond's factory. They remained unequalled. PMID:19819177

  12. Disrupted anatomic networks in the 22q11.2 deletion syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, J Eric; Yi, James; Calkins, Monica E; Ruparel, Kosha; Roalf, David R; Cassidy, Amy; Souders, Margaret C; Satterthwaite, Theodore D; McDonald-McGinn, Donna M; Zackai, Elaine H; Gur, Ruben C; Emanuel, Beverly S; Gur, Raquel E

    2016-01-01

    The 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS) is an uncommon genetic disorder with an increased risk of psychosis. Although the neural substrates of psychosis and schizophrenia are not well understood, aberrations in cortical networks represent intriguing potential mechanisms. Investigations of anatomic networks within 22q11DS are sparse. We investigated group differences in anatomic network structure in 48 individuals with 22q11DS and 370 typically developing controls by analyzing covariance patterns in cortical thickness among 68 regions of interest using graph theoretical models. Subjects with 22q11DS had less robust geographic organization relative to the control group, particularly in the occipital and parietal lobes. Multiple global graph theoretical statistics were decreased in 22q11DS. These results are consistent with prior studies demonstrating decreased connectivity in 22q11DS using other neuroimaging methodologies. PMID:27622139

  13. Anatomical Disregard as a Risk Factor in Thoracic Surgery.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arribalzaga, Eduardo B.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The anatomy plays a significant role in medical education, allowing a progressive appropriate professional development. Because of different factors adverse events (AE occur, where patient’s safety is achieved by surgical knowledge, prevention and elimination of risk factors. Absence or incorrect knowledge of the anatomical basis at the beginning of the graduate studies specialization are factors that alter the surgical patient’s safety, risking his life. The safety checklist in surgery is used to reduce avoidable risks for the patient in the operating room.Objectives: 1. Analyze the anatomic disregard as a risk factor in surgical anatomical processes of the thorax. 2. Evaluate actions to provide greater safety for the patient with thoracic surgical pathology. 3. Evaluate the importance of implementing register systems to improve the quality of care and patient’s safety with thoracic surgical pathology.Retrospective statistical analysis of anatomic disregard as a risk factor contributing to adverse events (AEs in anatomical and surgical procedures of the thorax was performed in the General Surgery Service of the Hospital Aeronáutico Central of Buenos Aires Air (HAC, from October 2009 to April 2011; and a case of anatomical disregard and its clinical-surgical implications was reported, in General Surgery Service of Hospital de Clínicas of Buenos Aires.In the General Surgery Service of HAC, 21 patients (17.64% had AE all (100% preventable. 100% were due to human factors, corresponding to 12 (57.14%, because of ignorance of anatomical region and the rest by other factors: absence of checklist in 7 (58.33% of which 5 (71.43% correspond to the first 9 months of the studied period and 2 (28.57% in the next 9 months. A case of anatomical disregard was reported in the surgical practice of General Surgery Service of Hospital de Clínicas, Buenos Aires where it was because of complications that endangered the patient’s life.The registration

  14. CT following US for possible appendicitis: anatomic coverage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Malley, Martin E. [University of Toronto, Princess Margaret Hospital, 3-920, Joint Department of Medical Imaging, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Alharbi, Fawaz [University of Toronto, Toronto General Hospital, NCSB 1C572, Joint Department of Medical Imaging, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Qassim University, Department of Medical Imaging, Buraydah, Qassim (Saudi Arabia); Chawla, Tanya P. [University of Toronto, Mount Sinai Hospital, Room 567, Joint Department of Medical Imaging, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Moshonov, Hadas [University of Toronto, Joint Department of Medical Imaging, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

    2016-02-15

    To determine superior-inferior anatomic borders for CT following inconclusive/nondiagnostic US for possible appendicitis. Ninety-nine patients with possible appendicitis and inconclusive/nondiagnostic US followed by CT were included in this retrospective study. Two radiologists reviewed CT images and determined superior-inferior anatomic borders required to diagnose or exclude appendicitis and diagnose alternative causes. This ''targeted'' coverage was used to estimate potential reduction in anatomic coverage compared to standard abdominal/pelvic CT. The study group included 83 women and 16 men; mean age 32 (median, 29; range 18-73) years. Final diagnoses were: nonspecific abdominal pain 50/99 (51 %), appendicitis 26/99 (26 %), gynaecological 12/99 (12 %), gastrointestinal 9/99 (10 %), and musculoskeletal 2/99 (2 %). Median dose-length product for standard CT was 890.0 (range, 306.3 - 2493.9) mGy.cm. To confidently diagnose/exclude appendicitis or identify alternative diagnoses, maximum superior-inferior anatomic CT coverage was the superior border of L2-superior border of pubic symphysis, for both reviewers. Targeted CT would reduce anatomic coverage by 30-55 % (mean 39 %, median 40 %) compared to standard CT. When CT is performed for appendicitis following inconclusive/nondiagnostic US, targeted CT from the superior border of L2-superior border of pubic symphysis can be used resulting in significant reduction in exposure to ionizing radiation compared to standard CT. (orig.)

  15. CT following US for possible appendicitis: anatomic coverage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To determine superior-inferior anatomic borders for CT following inconclusive/nondiagnostic US for possible appendicitis. Ninety-nine patients with possible appendicitis and inconclusive/nondiagnostic US followed by CT were included in this retrospective study. Two radiologists reviewed CT images and determined superior-inferior anatomic borders required to diagnose or exclude appendicitis and diagnose alternative causes. This ''targeted'' coverage was used to estimate potential reduction in anatomic coverage compared to standard abdominal/pelvic CT. The study group included 83 women and 16 men; mean age 32 (median, 29; range 18-73) years. Final diagnoses were: nonspecific abdominal pain 50/99 (51 %), appendicitis 26/99 (26 %), gynaecological 12/99 (12 %), gastrointestinal 9/99 (10 %), and musculoskeletal 2/99 (2 %). Median dose-length product for standard CT was 890.0 (range, 306.3 - 2493.9) mGy.cm. To confidently diagnose/exclude appendicitis or identify alternative diagnoses, maximum superior-inferior anatomic CT coverage was the superior border of L2-superior border of pubic symphysis, for both reviewers. Targeted CT would reduce anatomic coverage by 30-55 % (mean 39 %, median 40 %) compared to standard CT. When CT is performed for appendicitis following inconclusive/nondiagnostic US, targeted CT from the superior border of L2-superior border of pubic symphysis can be used resulting in significant reduction in exposure to ionizing radiation compared to standard CT. (orig.)

  16. Anatomic Mesenchymal Stem Cell-Based Engineered Cartilage Constructs for Biologic Total Joint Replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, Vishal; Kim, Minwook; Keah, Niobra M; Neuwirth, Alexander L; Stoeckl, Brendan D; Bickard, Kevin; Restle, David J; Salowe, Rebecca; Wang, Margaret Ye; Steinberg, David R; Mauck, Robert L

    2016-02-01

    Cartilage has a poor healing response, and few viable options exist for repair of extensive damage. Hyaluronic acid (HA) hydrogels seeded with mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) polymerized through UV crosslinking can generate functional tissue, but this crosslinking is not compatible with indirect rapid prototyping utilizing opaque anatomic molds. Methacrylate-modified polymers can also be chemically crosslinked in a cytocompatible manner using ammonium persulfate (APS) and N,N,N',N'-tetramethylethylenediamine (TEMED). The objectives of this study were to (1) compare APS/TEMED crosslinking with UV crosslinking in terms of functional maturation of MSC-seeded HA hydrogels; (2) generate an anatomic mold of a complex joint surface through rapid prototyping; and (3) grow anatomic MSC-seeded HA hydrogel constructs using this alternative crosslinking method. Juvenile bovine MSCs were suspended in methacrylated HA (MeHA) and crosslinked either through UV polymerization or chemically with APS/TEMED to generate cylindrical constructs. Minipig porcine femoral heads were imaged using microCT, and anatomic negative molds were generated by three-dimensional printing using fused deposition modeling. Molded HA constructs were produced using the APS/TEMED method. All constructs were cultured for up to 12 weeks in a chemically defined medium supplemented with TGF-β3 and characterized by mechanical testing, biochemical assays, and histologic analysis. Both UV- and APS/TEMED-polymerized constructs showed increasing mechanical properties and robust proteoglycan and collagen deposition over time. At 12 weeks, APS/TEMED-polymerized constructs had higher equilibrium and dynamic moduli than UV-polymerized constructs, with no differences in proteoglycan or collagen content. Molded HA constructs retained their hemispherical shape in culture and demonstrated increasing mechanical properties and proteoglycan and collagen deposition, especially at the edges compared to the center of these larger

  17. Identification of Salicornia population: Anatomical characterization and RAPD fingerprinting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milić Dubravka

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Anatomical and Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD analysis of two typical populations of Salicornia europaea from Montenegro and Greece (Lesvos, one typical population of S. ramosissima from Spain and one population that belongs to the Salicornia genus from Serbia, was undertaken to develop a new strategy for identifying Salicornia plants. Anatomical variability and differentiation were examined using Principal Component Analysis (PCA and Multivariate Discriminant Function Analysis (MDA. On the basis of the anatomical measurements, the four populations were classified into three groups: one joining the plants from Serbia and Spain, one comprising the Montenegrin group and one comprising the Lesvos group. RAPD analysis indicated that populations from Spain and Serbia were closely related to each other and the Lesvos group was quite different from all the other investigated populations. These results opened up the possibility that the specimens from Serbia belonged to S. ramosissima and not to S. europaea, as reported previously.

  18. Anatomic landmarks for localization of the spinal accessory nerve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durazzo, Marcelo D; Furlan, Julio C; Teixeira, Gilberto V; Friguglietti, Celso U M; Kulcsar, Marco A V; Magalhães, Roberto P; Ferraz, Alberto R; Brandão, Lenine G

    2009-05-01

    This anatomical study examines the anatomic topography and landmarks for localization of the spinal accessory nerve (SAN) during surgical dissections in 40 fresh human cadavers (2 females and 38 males; ages from 22 to 89 years with a mean of 60 years). In the submandibular region, the SAN was found anteriorly to the transverse process of the atlas in 77.5% of the dissections. When the SAN crossed the posterior belly of the digastric muscle, the mean distance from the point of crossing to the tendon of the muscle was 1.75 +/- 0.54 cm. Distally, the SAN crossed between the two heads of the SCM muscle in 45% of the dissections and deep to the muscle in 55%. The SAN exited the posterior border of the sternocleidomastoid muscle in a point superior to the nerve point with a mean distance between these two anatomic parameters of 0.97 +/- 0.46 cm. The mean overall extracranial length of the SAN was 12.02 +/- 2.32 cm, whereas the mean length of the SAN in the posterior triangle was 5.27 +/- 1.52 cm. There were 2-10 lymph nodes in the SAN chain. In conclusion, the nerve point is one of the most reliable anatomic landmarks for localization of the SAN in surgical neck dissections. Although other anatomic parameters including the transverse process of the atlas and the digastric muscle can also be used to localize the SAN, the surgeon should be aware of the possibility of anatomic variations of those parameters. Similar to previous investigations, our results suggest that the number of lymph nodes of the SAN chain greatly varies. PMID:19373901

  19. Free-form image registration of human cochlear μCT data using skeleton similarity as anatomical prior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjer, Hans Martin; Fagertun, Jens; Vera, Sergio;

    2016-01-01

    Better understanding of the anatomical variability of the human cochlear is important for the design and function of Cochlear Implants. Proper non-rigid alignment of high-resolution cochlear μCT data is a challenge for the typical cubic B-spline registration model. In this paper we study one way ...

  20. The role of Long-Range Connectivity for the Characterization of the Functional-Anatomical Organization of the Cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas R Knösche

    2011-07-01

    We conclude that the use of non-invasively acquired connectivity estimates to characterize the functional-anatomical organization of the brain is a valid, relevant and necessary endeavor. Current and future developments in dMRI technology, tractography algorithms and models of the similarity structure hold great potential for a substantial improvement and enrichment of the results of the technique.

  1. Reply to “Introducing International Journal of Anatomical Variations”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Potu BK

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available To the Editor, International Journal of Anatomical Variations:Please accept my heartiest congratulations on your recent opening of International Journal of Anatomical Variations Journal. I have already gone through the articles of first volume. It was surprised to read some of the unique variations published in it. Reading of these variations by vascular surgeons and angiologist will certainly boost their knowledge for better diagnosis and I hope you will continue publishing these types of rare variations. It would be great, if you encourage authors to submit research related articles. It is obvious that you have a wide-open future ahead of you.

  2. Double auricles of the right atrium: a unique anatomic deformity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lampoura Stefania S

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Anatomic deviations, especially those detected during the course of an operation, are medically intriguing, as they raise concerns about their clinical significance and putative complications. Case presentation We present, to our knowledge, for the first time a case of an anatomic deviation in the form of a second right atrial auricle in a 70 year-old, coronary bypass-operated male Caucasian patient of Greek origin. No complications were noted intra-or postoperatively. Conclusions A second right atrial auricle was found intraoperatively, without causing any clinical complications, or obstructing the normal course of a surgical procedure.

  3. Anatomical eponyms, Part 2: The other side of the coin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olry, Regis

    2014-11-01

    Over a century after they were removed, at least officially, from anatomical terminology, eponyms remain an obviously controversial topic. In the first part of this paper we acted as their defense counsel, aiming to demonstrate that the 1895 first edition of the Nomina Anatomica and subsequently the Federative Committee on Anatomical Terminology (FCAT) probably put the cart before the horse. However, their authors advanced arguments supporting their decision, and it is now time to develop these arguments. Let us now become the public prosecutor of eponyms. PMID:25067796

  4. Development of an Interactive Anatomical Three-Dimensional Eye Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Lauren K.; Bhattacharyya, Siddhartha; Wilson, Timothy D.

    2015-01-01

    The discrete anatomy of the eye's intricate oculomotor system is conceptually difficult for novice students to grasp. This is problematic given that this group of muscles represents one of the most common sites of clinical intervention in the treatment of ocular motility disorders and other eye disorders. This project was designed to develop a…

  5. Fabrication and perfusion culture of anatomically shaped artificial bone using stereolithography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Because patient bone defects are usually varied and complicated in geometry, it would be preferred to fabricate custom-made artificial bone grafts that are anatomically specific to individual patient defects. Using a rabbit femoral segment as a bone reconstruction model, we successfully produced customized ceramic scaffolds by stereolithography, which not only had an anatomically correct external shape according to computed tomography data but also contained an interconnecting internal network of channels designed for perfusion culture. Rabbit bone marrow stromal cells were isolated and cultured with these scaffolds using a novel oscillatory perfusion system that was stereolithographically fabricated to fit well to the unique scaffold shapes. After five days of three-dimensional culture with oscillatory perfusion, the cells attached and proliferated homogenously in the scaffolds. However, control cells inside the scaffolds cultured under static conditions were dead after prolonged in vitro culture. Cellular DNA content and alkaline phosphatase activities were significantly higher in the perfusion group versus the static group. Therefore, anatomically correct artificial bone can be successfully constructed using stereolithography and oscillatory culture technology, and could be useful for bone engraftment and defect repair. (paper)

  6. Thalamic pain: anatomical and physiological indices of prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vartiainen, Nuutti; Perchet, Caroline; Magnin, Michel; Creac'h, Christelle; Convers, Philippe; Nighoghossian, Norbert; Mauguière, François; Peyron, Roland; Garcia-Larrea, Luis

    2016-03-01

    Thalamic pain is a severe and treatment-resistant type of central pain that may develop after thalamic stroke. Lesions within the ventrocaudal regions of the thalamus carry the highest risk to develop pain, but its emergence in individual patients remains impossible to predict. Because damage to the spino-thalamo-cortical system is a crucial factor in the development of central pain, in this study we combined detailed anatomical atlas-based mapping of thalamic lesions and assessment of spinothalamic integrity using quantitative sensory analysis and laser-evoked potentials in 42 thalamic stroke patients, of whom 31 had developed thalamic pain. More than 97% of lesions involved an area between 2 and 7 mm above the anterior-posterior commissural plane. Although most thalamic lesions affected several nuclei, patients with central pain showed maximal lesion convergence on the anterior pulvinar nucleus (a major spinothalamic target) while the convergence area lay within the ventral posterior lateral nucleus in pain-free patients. Both involvement of the anterior pulvinar nucleus and spinothalamic dysfunction (nociceptive thresholds, laser-evoked potentials) were significantly associated with the development of thalamic pain, whereas involvement of ventral posterior lateral nucleus and lemniscal dysfunction (position sense, graphaesthesia, pallaesthesia, stereognosis, standard somatosensory potentials) were similarly distributed in patients with or without pain. A logistic regression model combining spinothalamic dysfunction and anterior pulvinar nucleus involvement as regressors had 93% sensitivity and 87% positive predictive value for thalamic pain. Lesion of spinothalamic afferents to the posterior thalamus appears therefore determinant to the development of central pain after thalamic stroke. Sorting out of patients at different risks of developing thalamic pain may be achievable at the individual level by combining lesion localization and functional investigation of

  7. [Anatomic and functional features of venous valves].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griton, P; Vanet, P; Cloarec, M

    1997-05-01

    The comparison of the venous system in the human organism, and in particular the venous valves of the lower limbs, with studies conducted in animal models helped us to understand better the mechanisms involved in adapting to the upright position and walking. We examined work conducted in several species from the horse to the dog, especially in animals who often take on an upright position such as the chimpanzee and the kangouroo, in search for structures comparable to those in man. Different types of valves can be described in man: flotting valves (bicuspid, pigeon nest valves); reinforced valves (mid-thigh); reinforcing valves (periarticular zone in the knee); finally, "flat" valves which are highly resistant formations but with little anti-back flow action. We also describe valvular structures with muscle cells found in the plantar aspect of the foot and the veins of the quadriceps muscle, these valves may have an active hematopropulsive action (Bassi). These results allowed us to identify certain common points between the structures observed in the posterior legs of certain animals and to propose models for investigating venous diseases. PMID:9480339

  8. Anatomical, neurophysiological and perceptual issues of tactile perception

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cheung, B.; Erp, J.B.F. van; Cholewiak, R.W.

    2008-01-01

    In this chapter, we are concerned with what our touch receptors and the associated central nervous structures do. Our description begins with the anatomical and physiological characteristics of the touch receptors followed by a comprehensive psychophysical overview of touch sensation and perception.

  9. ANATOMICAL PRINCIPLES BEHIND PRESERVATION OF LARYNGEAL NERVES DURING THYROIDECTOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Fabian

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the anatomical principles behind preservation of inferior laryngeal nerve and of the external branch of superior laryngeal nerve during thyroidectomy. The embryological development of thyroid and recurrent laryngeal nerves explains the constant relationship between Zuckerkandl’s tuberculum and the recurrent laryngeal nerve, while anomalies in development of the aortic arches explain the presence of rare anatomical variants, with a high risk of nerve injury, of non-recurrent course of the inferior laryngeal nerve. Good knowledge of the relationship between the external branch of superior laryngeal nerve and the superior thyroid artery makes possible to avoid transection of this branch during ligature around superior thyroid artery and vein. Anatomical landmarks used to identify the recurrent laryngeal nerve (tracheo-oesophageal sulcus, the cross-over with the inferior thyroid artery, Berry’s ligament, Zuckerkandl’s tuberculum and variations in the extra-laryngeal branching of the nerve are discussed based on data from the literature. The anatomical variants when the inferior laryngeal nerve doesn’t have a recurrent course are also discussed

  10. Pattern recognition of anatomical shapes in CT scans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In medical image processing pattern recognition has become of major value in anatomical analysis and in computer aided information processing. Specifically, pattern recognition techniques simplify software development by means of which clinicians can manipulate anatomical relationships. As part of an overall CT pattern recognition system, a sequential edge tracking routine was devised together with a normalized Fourier descriptor analysis of identified shapes. A collection of shapes were extracted from CT scans of two patients and entered into an anatomic shape dictionary. This dictionary was employed in pattern matching experiments and in three-dimensional anatomical reconstruction. A sequential-edge tracking algorithm of high reliability, consistency, and image invariance, capable of utilizing heuristic and statistical rules, was demonstrated. Tests of pattern matching algorithms based on Fourier descriptors provided rapid and accurate body organ recognition of shapes extracted from de novo images using the shape dictionary. Results indicate that automated contour extraction and object recognition from cross-sectional images of human anatomy can be performed effectively, reliably, and rapidly. This abstract discusses an image processing environment that circumvents manual and subjective shape extraction, by substituting automatic and quantitative shape extraction, pattern matching and object recognition

  11. Ankle Joint Fusion With an Anatomically Preshaped Anterior Locking Plate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiewiorski, Martin; Barg, Alexej; Schlemmer, Thomas; Valderrabano, Victor

    2016-01-01

    We present a novel fixation plate for primary ankle joint fusion. A single anatomically preshaped angular stable plate was used with an anterior approach. An excellent result with good bone consolidation was present at the 1-year follow-up examination. PMID:25998475

  12. The Contribution of Dynamic Exploration to Virtual Anatomical Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan-Maarten Luursema

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Virtual Learning Environments are increasingly becoming part of the medical curriculum. In a previous study we (luursema et al., 2006 found that a combination of computer-implemented stereopsis (visual depth through seeing with both eyes and dynamic exploration (being able to continuously change one's viewpoint relative to the studied objects in real time is beneficial to anatomical learning, especially for subjects of low visuo spatial ability (the ability to form, retrieve, and manipulate mental representations of a visuo-spatial nature. A follow-up study (luursema et al., 2008 found the contribution of computer-implemented stereopsis to this effect to be small but significant. The present experiment investigated the contribution of dynamic exploration to anatomical learning by means of a virtual learning environment. Seventy participants were tested for visuo-spatial ability and were grouped in pairs matched for this ability. One individual of the pair actively manipulated a 3D reconstruction of the human abdomen; the other individual passively watched the interactions of the first individual on a separate screen. Learning was assessed by two anatomical learning tests. Dynamic exploration provided a small but significant benefit to anatomical learning.

  13. Optimizing conditions for computer-assisted anatomical learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luursema, Jan-Maarten; Verwey, Willem B.; Kommers, Piet A.M.; Geelkerken, Robert H.; Vos, Hans J.

    2006-01-01

    An experiment evaluated the impact of two typical features of virtual learning environments on anatomical learning for users of differing visuo-spatial ability. The two features studied are computer-implemented stereopsis (the spatial information that is based on differences in visual patterns proje

  14. The role of stereopsis in virtual anatomical learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luursema, Jan-Maarten; Verwey, Willem B.; Kommers, Piet A.M.; Annema, Jan-Henk

    2008-01-01

    The use of virtual learning environments in the medical field is on the rise. An earlier experiment [Luursema, J.-M., Verwey, W.B., Kommers, P.A.M., Geelkerken, R.H., Vos, H.J., 2006. Optimizing conditions for computer-assisted anatomical learning. Interacting with Computers, 18, 1123–1138.] found t

  15. Surface anatomy and anatomical planes in the adult turkish population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzun, C; Atman, E D; Ustuner, E; Mirjalili, S A; Oztuna, D; Esmer, T S

    2016-03-01

    Surface anatomy and anatomical planes are widely used in education and clinical practice. The planes are largely derived from cadaveric studies and their projections on the skin show discrepancies between and within anatomical reference textbooks. In this study, we reassessed the accuracy of common thoracic and abdominopelvic anatomical planes using computed tomography (CT) imaging in the live adult Turkish population. After patients with distorting pathologies had been excluded, CT images of 150 supine patients at the end tidal inspiration were analyzed. Sternal angle, transpyloric, subcostal, supracristal and pubic crest planes and their relationships to anatomical structures were established by dual consensus. The tracheal bifurcation, azygos vein/superior vena cava (SVC) junction and pulmonary bifurcation were usually below the sternal angle while the concavity of the aortic arch was generally within the plane. The tip of the tenth rib, the superior mesenteric artery and the portal vein were usually within the transpyloric plane while the renal hila and the fundus of the gallbladder were below it. The inferior mesenteric artery was below the subcostal plane and the aortic bifurcation was below the supracristal plane in most adults. Projectional surface anatomy is fundamental to medical education and clinical practice. Modern cross-sectional imaging techniques allow large groups of live patients to be examined. Classic textbook information regarding anatomy needs to be reviewed and updated using the data gathered from these recent studies, taking ethnic differences into consideration. Clin. Anat. 29:183-190, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26403267

  16. Anatomical Modifications in two Juncus Species under Salt Stress Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Al HASSAN

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The anatomic structure of roots and culms of two Juncus species with different degrees of salt tolerance was analysed in plants grown for two months under salt stress (NaCl treatments and in control, non-treated plants. The aim of the study was not only to compare the anatomical structures of a halophyte (J. acutus and a related glycophyte (J. articulatus, but mostly to assess whether salt stress induced anatomical modifications, by identifying differences between control and treated plants. Several slight differences have been indeed detected, in terms of endodermis type, development of aerenchyma and extent of sclerenchyma in perivascular sheaths. The role of Casparian endodermis was here discussed in relation to its complex implications in controlling salt influx at the root level that is an efficient mechanism involved in halophytes. Aerenchyma is a common feature found in marshy halophytes, allowing them to survive naturally under flooding conditions; however, when occurring in non-waterlogged plants, as is the case of this study, it should be regarded as a genetically, constitutive adaptation rather than an inducible one. Nevertheless, such anatomic modifications should be regarded as mere alterations due to stress – that is, as stress responses – and not as truly adaptations to salinity. In this context, the nature of these modifications – either considered as adaptations or damage indicators of salt stress – should be further reconsidered.

  17. Multiple variations of the tendons of the anatomical snuffbox

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thwin, San San; Zaini, Fazlin; Than, Myo

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Multiple tendons of the abductor pollicis longus (APL) in the anatomical snuffbox of the wrist can lead to the development of de Quervain's syndrome, which is caused by stenosing tenosynovitis. A cadaveric study was performed to establish the variations present in the tendons of the anatomical snuffbox in a Malaysian population, in the hope that this knowledge would aid clinical investigation and surgical treatment of de Quervain's tenosynovitis. METHODS Routine dissection of ten upper limbs was performed to determine the variations in the tendons of the anatomical snuffbox of the wrist. RESULTS In all the dissected upper limbs, the APL tendon of the first extensor compartment was found to have several (3–14) tendon slips. The insertion of the APL tendon slips in all upper limbs were at the base of the first metacarpal bone, trapezium and fascia of the opponens pollicis muscle; however, in seven specimens, they were also found to be attached to the fleshy belly of the abductor pollicis brevis muscle. In two specimens, double tendons of the extensor pollicis longus located in the third extensor compartment were inserted into the capsule of the proximal interphalangeal joints before being joined to the extensor expansion. In two other specimens, the first extensor compartment had two osseofibrous tunnels divided by a septum that separated the APL tendon from the extensor pollicis brevis tendon. CONCLUSION Multiple variations were found in the anatomical snuffbox region of the dissected upper limbs. Knowledge of these variations would be useful in interventional radiology and orthopaedic surgery. PMID:24452976

  18. Anatomical noise in contrast-enhanced digital mammography. Part I. Single-energy imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hill, Melissa L.; Yaffe, Martin J. [Sunnybrook Research Institute, 2075 Bayview Avenue, Toronto, Ontario M4N 3M5 (Canada); Department of Medical Biophysics, University of Toronto, 2075 Bayview Avenue, Toronto, Ontario M4N 3M5 (Canada); Mainprize, James G. [Sunnybrook Research Institute, 2075 Bayview Avenue, Toronto, Ontario M4N 3M5 (Canada); Carton, Ann-Katherine; Muller, Serge [GE Healthcare, 283 rue de la Miniere, Buc 78530 (France); Ebrahimi, Mehran [Faculty of Science, University of Ontario Institute of Technology, 2000 Simcoe Street North, Oshawa, Ontario L1H 7K4 (Canada); Jong, Roberta A. [Breast Imaging, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, 2075 Bayview Avenue, Toronto, Ontario M4N 3M5 (Canada); Dromain, Clarisse [Department of Radiology, Institut Gustave Roussy, 39 rue Camille Desmoulin, Villejuif 94805 (France)

    2013-05-15

    Purpose: The use of an intravenously injected iodinated contrast agent could help increase the sensitivity of digital mammography by adding information on tumor angiogenesis. Two approaches have been made for clinical implementation of contrast-enhanced digital mammography (CEDM), namely, single-energy (SE) and dual-energy (DE) imaging. In each technique, pairs of mammograms are acquired, which are then subtracted with the intent to cancel the appearance of healthy breast tissue to permit sensitive detection and specific characterization of lesions. Patterns of contrast agent uptake in the healthy parenchyma, and uncanceled signal from background tissue create a 'clutter' that can mask or mimic an enhancing lesion. This type of 'anatomical noise' is often the limiting factor in lesion detection tasks, and thus, noise quantification may be useful for cascaded systems analysis of CEDM and for phantom development. In this work, the authors characterize the anatomical noise in CEDM clinical images and the authors evaluate the influence of the x-ray energy used for acquisition, the presence of iodine in the breast, and the timing of imaging postcontrast administration on anatomical noise. The results are presented in a two-part report, with SE CEDM described here, and DE CEDM in Part II. Methods: A power law is used to model anatomical noise in CEDM images. The exponent, {beta}, which describes the anatomical structure, and the constant {alpha}, which represents the magnitude of the noise, are determined from Wiener spectra (WS) measurements on images. A total of 42 SE CEDM cases from two previous clinical pilot studies are assessed. The parameters {alpha} and {beta} are measured both from unprocessed images and from subtracted images. Results: Consistent results were found between the two SE CEDM pilot studies, where a significant decrease in {beta} from a value of approximately 3.1 in the unprocessed images to between about 1.1 and 1.8 in the

  19. Anatomical noise in contrast-enhanced digital mammography. Part II. Dual-energy imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hill, Melissa L.; Yaffe, Martin J. [Sunnybrook Research Institute, 2075 Bayview Avenue, Toronto, Ontario M4N 3M5, Canada and Department of Medical Biophysics, University of Toronto, 2075 Bayview Avenue, Toronto, Ontario M4N 3M5 (Canada); Mainprize, James G. [Sunnybrook Research Institute, 2075 Bayview Avenue, Toronto, Ontario M4N 3M5 (Canada); Carton, Ann-Katherine; Saab-Puong, Sylvie; Iordache, Răzvan; Muller, Serge [GE Healthcare, 283 rue de la Minière, Buc 78530 (France); Jong, Roberta A. [Breast Imaging, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, 2075 Bayview Avenue, Toronto, Ontario M4N 3M5 (Canada); Dromain, Clarisse [Department of Radiology, Institut Gustave Roussy, 39 rue Camille Desmoulin, Villejuif 94805 (France)

    2013-08-15

    Purpose: Dual-energy (DE) contrast-enhanced digital mammography (CEDM) uses an iodinated contrast agent in combination with digital mammography (DM) to evaluate lesions on the basis of tumor angiogenesis. In DE imaging, low-energy (LE) and high-energy (HE) images are acquired after contrast administration and their logarithms are subtracted to cancel the appearance of normal breast tissue. Often there is incomplete signal cancellation in the subtracted images, creating a background “clutter” that can impair lesion detection. This is the second component of a two-part report on anatomical noise in CEDM. In Part I the authors characterized the anatomical noise for single-energy (SE) temporal subtraction CEDM by a power law, with model parameters α and β. In this work the authors quantify the anatomical noise in DE CEDM clinical images and compare this with the noise in SE CEDM. The influence on the anatomical noise of the presence of iodine in the breast, the timing of imaging postcontrast administration, and the x-ray energy used for acquisition are each evaluated.Methods: The power law parameters, α and β, were measured from unprocessed LE and HE images and from DE subtracted images to quantify the anatomical noise. A total of 98 DE CEDM cases acquired in a previous clinical pilot study were assessed. Conventional DM images from 75 of the women were evaluated for comparison with DE CEDM. The influence of the imaging technique on anatomical noise was determined from an analysis of differences between the power law parameters as measured in DM, LE, HE, and DE subtracted images for each subject.Results: In DE CEDM, weighted image subtraction lowers β to about 1.1 from 3.2 and 3.1 in LE and HE unprocessed images, respectively. The presence of iodine has a small but significant effect in LE images, reducing β by about 0.07 compared to DM, with α unchanged. Increasing the x-ray energy, from that typical in DM to a HE beam, significantly decreases α by about 2

  20. An anatomical evaluation of the serratus anterior plane block.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayes, J; Davison, E; Panahi, P; Patten, D; Eljelani, F; Womack, J; Varma, M

    2016-09-01

    The serratus anterior plane block has been described for analgesia of the hemithorax. This study was conducted to determine the spread of injectate and investigate the anatomical basis of the block. Ultrasound-guided serratus anterior plane block was performed on six soft-fix embalmed cadavers. All cadavers received bilateral injections, on one side performed with 20 ml latex and on the other with 20 ml methylene blue. Subsequent dissection explored the extent of spread and nerve involvement. Photographs were taken throughout dissection. The intercostal nerves were involved on three occasions with dye, but not with latex. The lateral cutaneous branches of the intercostal nerve contained dye and latex on all occasions. The serratus plane block appears to be mediated through blockade of the lateral cutaneous branches of the intercostal nerves. Anatomically, serratus plane block does not appear to be equivalent to paravertebral block for rib fracture analgesia. PMID:27440171

  1. Anatomical variations of paranasal sinuses: what to inform the otolaryngologist?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anatomic variations of paranasal sinuses are common findings in daily practice. For a radiologist, to know these variations is necessary because of the pathological conditions related to them, and also because they are import for planning a functional endoscopic endonasal surgery, the procedure of choice for diagnosis, biopsy and treatment of various sinonasal diseases. To assure that this surgery is done safely, preventing iatrogenic injuries, it is essential that the surgeon has the mapping of these structures. Thus, a CT is indispensable for preoperative evaluation of paranasal sinuses. Since a general radiologist is expected to know these changes and their relationship to pathological conditions, a literature review and a iconographic essay were conducted with the aim of discussing the importance of major anatomic variations of paranasal sinuses. (author)

  2. Analysis of anatomic variability in children with low mathematical skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Zhaoying; Fuchs, Lynn; Davis, Nikki; Cannistraci, Christopher J.; Anderson, Adam W.; Gore, John C.; Dawant, Benoit M.

    2008-03-01

    Mathematical difficulty affects approximately 5-9% of the population. Studies on individuals with dyscalculia, a neurologically based math disorder, provide important insight into the neural correlates of mathematical ability. For example, cognitive theories, neuropsychological studies, and functional neuroimaging studies in individuals with dyscalculia suggest that the bilateral parietal lobes and intraparietal sulcus are central to mathematical performance. The purpose of the present study was to investigate morphological differences in a group of third grade children with poor math skills. We compare population averages of children with low math skill (MD) to gender and age matched controls with average math ability. Anatomical data were gathered with high resolution MRI and four different population averaging methods were used to study the effect of the normalization technique on the results. Statistical results based on the deformation fields between the two groups show anatomical differences in the bilateral parietal lobes, right frontal lobe, and left occipital/parietal lobe.

  3. Generalized metrics induced anatomical prior for MAP PET image reconstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Information theoretic metrics, including mutual information (MI) and joint entropy (JE), have been investigated as priors to incorporate anatomical information in ill-posed positron emission tomography (PET) image reconstruction. These metrics are generally based on the Shannon entropy. Meanwhile, in this paper, we proposed a generalized metrics induced anatomical prior for maximum a posteriori (MAP) PET reconstruction based on the generalized Shannon entropy metrics or Tsallis entropy. For the presented prior computation, a non-parametric method was used to estimate the joint probability density of the PET and MR image. Furthermore, we also developed an one-step-advance (OSA) MAP algorithm for PET image reconstruction with the presented prior regularization. Simulation results show that the presented novel prior has significantly improved the reconstructed PET image quality. (orig.)

  4. Characterization of Capsicum species using anatomical and molecular data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, G B; Gomes, V M; Moraes, T M S; Zottich, U P; Rabelo, G R; Carvalho, A O; Moulin, M; Gonçalves, L S A; Rodrigues, R; Da Cunha, M

    2013-01-01

    Capsicum species are frequently described in terms of genetic divergence, considering morphological, agronomic, and molecular databases. However, descriptions of genetic differences based on anatomical characters are rare. We examined the anatomy and the micromorphology of vegetative and reproductive organs of several Capsicum species. Four Capsicum accessions representing the species C. annuum var. annuum, C. baccatum var. pendulum, C. chinense, and C. frutescens were cultivated in a greenhouse; leaves, fruits and seeds were sampled and their organ structure analyzed by light and scanning electronic microscopy. Molecular accession characterization was made using ISSR markers. Polymorphism was observed among tector trichomes and also in fruit color and shape. High variability among accessions was detected by ISSR markers. Despite the species studied present a wide morphological and molecular variability that was not reflected by anatomical features. PMID:23479174

  5. Anatomical structure of moss leaves and their photosynthetic activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Krupa

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The photosynthetic activity of the leaf area unit increases depending on the degree of differentiation of the anatomical structure of the leaves of six chosen moss species. There is a correlation between the leaf area and the degree of differentiation of the anatomical structure resulting in enlargement of the area of contact of the assimilating cells with air. The leaves of Catharinea undulata having a one-layer blade and provided with several lamellae show a higher photosynthesis per 1 cm2 of their surface than the one-layer leaves of Mniurnm or Funaria. Aloina leaves are the smallest in area among those of the moss species discussed, however, their photosynthetic rate is almost 4.5 times higher than in Funaria leaves. By analogy to the structure of leaves and their function in vascular, plants, these changes and correlations may be considered as attempts of primeval adaptation of mosses to terrestrial conditions of living.

  6. [Anatomical rationale for lingual nerve injury prevention during mandibular block].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semkin, V A; Dydikin, S S; Kuzin, A V; Sogacheva, V V

    2015-01-01

    The topographic and anatomical study of lingual nerve structural features was done. It was revealed that during mandibular anesthesia possible lingual nerve injury can occur if puncture needle is lower than 1 cm. of molars occlusal surface level. The position of the lingual nerve varies withmandible movements. At the maximum open mouth lingual nerve is not mobile and is pressed against the inner surface of the mandibular ramus by the medial pterygoid muscle and the temporal muscle tendon. When closing the mouth to 1.25±0.2 cmfrom the physiological maximum, lingual nerve is displaced posteriorly from the internal oblique line of the mandible and gets mobile. On the basis of topographic and anatomic features of the lingual nervestructure the authors recommend the re-do of inferior alveolar nerve block, a semi-closed mouth position or the use the "high block techniques" (Torus anesthesia, Gow-Gates, Vazirani-Akinozi). PMID:26271698

  7. Using Computers for Assessment of Facial Features and Recognition of Anatomical Variants that Result in Unfavorable Rhinoplasty Outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarik Ozkul

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Rhinoplasty and facial plastic surgery are among the most frequently performed surgical procedures in the world. Although the underlying anatomical features of nose and face are very well known, performing a successful facial surgery requires not only surgical skills but also aesthetical talent from surgeon. Sculpting facial features surgically in correct proportions to end up with an aesthetically pleasing result is highly difficult. To further complicate the matter, some patients may have some anatomical features which affect rhinoplasty operation outcome negatively. If goes undetected, these anatomical variants jeopardize the surgery causing unexpected rhinoplasty outcomes. In this study, a model is developed with the aid of artificial intelligence tools, which analyses facial features of the patient from photograph, and generates an index of "appropriateness" of the facial features and an index of existence of anatomical variants that effect rhinoplasty negatively. The software tool developed is intended to detect the variants and warn the surgeon before the surgery. Another purpose of the tool is to generate an objective score to assess the outcome of the surgery.

  8. Anatomic double-bundle anterior cruciate ligament recon-struction

    OpenAIRE

    Dai, Xue-Song

    2012-01-01

    【Abstract】Objective: To retrospectively evaluate the early results of anatomic double-bundle anterior cruci-ate ligament (ACL) reconstruction and compare with the results of native ACL of the contralateral knee. Methods: The results of a consecutive series of 118 patients receiving arthroscopic ACL reconstruction were evaluated. Eight patients were lost to the latest follow-up, leaving a total of 110 patients available for study within at least 3 years’ clinical fol...

  9. MAPPING BRAIN ANATOMICAL CONNECTIVITY USING WHITE MATTER TRACTOGRAPHY

    OpenAIRE

    Lazar, Mariana

    2010-01-01

    Integration of the neural processes in the human brain is realized through interconnections that exist between different neural centers. These interconnections take place through white matter pathways. White matter tractography is currently the only available technique for reconstructing the anatomical connectivity in the human brain non-invasively and in-vivo. The trajectory and terminations of white matter pathways are estimated from local orientations of nerve bundles. These orientations a...

  10. Anatomical and biochemical investigation of primary brain tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cancerous transformation entails major biochemical changes including modifications of the energy metabolism of the cell, e.g. utilisation of glucose and other substrates, protein synthesis, and expression of receptors and antigens. Tumour growth also leads to heterogeneity in blood flow owing to focal necrosis, angiogenesis and metabolic demands, as well as disruption of transport mechanisms of substrates across cell membranes and other physiological boundaries such as the blood-brain barrier. All these biochemical, histological and anatomical changes can be assessed with emission tomography, X-ray computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS). Whereas anatomical imaging is aimed at the diagnosis of brain tumours, biochemical imaging is better suited for tissue characterisation. The identification of a tumoural mass and the assessment of its size and vascularisation are best achieved with X-ray CT and MRI, while biochemical imaging can provide additional information that is crucial for tumour classification, differential diagnosis and follow-up. As the assessment of variables such as water content, appearance of cystic lesions and location of the tumour are largely irrelevant for tissue characterisation, a number of probes have been employed for the assessment of the biochemical features of tumours. Since biochemical changes may be related to the growth rate of cancer cells, they can be thought of as markers of tumour cell proliferation. Biochemical imaging with radionuclides of processes that occur at a cellular level provides information that complements findings obtained by anatomical imaging aimed at depicting structural, vascular and histological changes. This review focusses on the clinical application of anatomical brain imaging and biochemical assessment with positron emission tomography, single-photon emission tomography and MRS in the diagnosis of primary brain tumours, as well as in follow-up. (orig.)

  11. Anatomical and Physiological Considerations in Vestibular Dysfunction and Compensation

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, Sherri M.; Jones, Timothy A.; Mills, Kristal N.; Gaines, G. Christopher

    2009-01-01

    Sensory information from the vestibular, visual, and somatosensory/proprioceptive systems are integrated in the brain in complex ways to produce a final motor output to muscle groups for maintaining gaze, head and body posture, and controlling static and dynamic balance. The balance system is complex, which can make differential diagnosis of dizziness quite challenging. On the other hand, this complex system is organized anatomically in a variety of pathways and some of these pathways have be...

  12. Anatomic Variation of the Common Palmar Digital Nerves and Arteries

    OpenAIRE

    Tian, Dong; Fu, Maoyong

    2015-01-01

    Variations in the course and distribution of common palmar digital nerves and arteries are rare. A classic common palmar digital nerves and arteries are defined as concomitant. During routine dissection classes to undergraduate medical students we observed formation of each common palmar digital nerve divided into 2 or 3 branches and formed a ring enclosing the corresponding common palmar digital artery. Knowledge of the anatomical variations of the common palmar digital nerves and arteries i...

  13. Anatomical basis for sciatic nerve block at the knee level

    OpenAIRE

    Fabiano Timbó Barbosa; Tatiana Rosa Bezerra Wanderley Barbosa; Rafael Martins da Cunha; Amanda Karine Barros Rodrigues; Fernando Wagner da Silva Ramos; Célio Fernando de Sousa-Rodrigues

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Recently, administration of sciatic nerve block has been revised due to the potential benefit for postoperative analgesia and patient satisfaction after the advent of ultrasound. The aim of this study was to describe the anatomical relations of the sciatic nerve in the popliteal fossa to determine the optimal distance the needle must be positioned in order to realize the sciatic nerve block anterior to its bifurcation into the tibial and common fibular nerve. METHOD...

  14. Anatomical Atlas-Guided Diffuse Optical Tomography of Brain Activation

    OpenAIRE

    Custo, Anna; Boas, David A.; Tsuzuki, Daisuke; Dan, Ippeita; Mesquita, Rickson; Fischl, Bruce; Grimson, W. Eric L.; Wells, Williams

    2009-01-01

    We describe a neuro imaging protocol that utilizes an anatomical atlas of the human head to guide Diffuse optical tomography of human brain activation. The protocol is demonstrated by imaging the hemodynamic response to median nerve stimulation in three healthy subjects, and comparing the images obtained using a head atlas with the images obtained using the subject-specific head anatomy. The results indicate that using the head atlas anatomy it is possible to reconstruct the location of the b...

  15. A hierarchical scheme for geodesic anatomical labeling of airway trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feragen, Aasa; Petersen, Jens; Owen, Megan; Lo, Pechin Chien Pau; Thomsen, Laura; Wille, Mathilde; Dirksen, Asger; de Bruijne, Marleen

    We present a fast and robust supervised algorithm for label- ing anatomical airway trees, based on geodesic distances in a geometric tree-space. Possible branch label configurations for a given unlabeled air- way tree are evaluated based on the distances to a training set of labeled airway trees....... Disease (COPD). Performance is statis- tically similar to the inter- and intra-expert agreement, and we found no significant correlation between COPD stage and labeling accuracy....

  16. The anatomical, surgical and orthopedic importance of gastrocnemius

    OpenAIRE

    Ashfaq U. Hassan; Zahida Rasool; Nasir Muzzaffar

    2013-01-01

    Gastrocnemius is one of the most important muscles of lower limb. It belongs to the superficial compartment of calf muscles. They belong to group of superficial flexors. Gastrocnemius, plantaris and soleus form the bulk of the calf. Gastrocnemius forms the belly of the calf. It arises by two distinct heads, connected to the condyles of the femur by strong, flat tendons. It has an immense anatomic, medical, orthopedic and physiological importance and is attributed in a variety of medical and s...

  17. A review of 155 extra-anatomic bypass grafts.

    OpenAIRE

    Foster, M.C.; Mikulin, T; Hopkinson, B R; Makin, G. S.

    1986-01-01

    Extra-anatomic bypass grafting has been used as treatment for patients with aorto-iliac disease who were considered unfit for aortic surgery. Eighty five percent of the patients had ischaemic pain at rest or skin necrosis. One hundred and three femorofemoral (FF) grafts, 40 axillounifemoral and 12 axillobifemoral grafts were performed. Femoropopliteal extension grafts were performed in 39 cases. The three year cumulative graft patency rate was 69% for FF grafts and 48% for both types of axill...

  18. MORPHOLOGICAL ANATOMICAL AND PHITOCHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF SOME ALGAE

    OpenAIRE

    N. S. Kaysheva; M. N. Arkhipova; A. S. Kayshev

    2014-01-01

    Morphological and anatomical features of thalluses of brown (Laminaria saccharina, Fucus vesiculosus) and red (Ahnfeltia plicata) algae, procured at a coastal strip of the Northern basin in gulfs of Ura-Guba and Palkina-Guba at different depths. Compliance of Fucus and Ahnfeltia with pharmacopoeial norms and merchandising indices for Laminaria was established, except for high concentration of sand in Ahnfeltia thalluses. The identity of algae between each other was shown based on the results ...

  19. The aspects regarding Chrysanthemum vitro- and exvitroplantlets anatomical structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana PETRUS-VANCEA

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available This study was consecrate to observe the histoanatomical structure of roots stems and leafs of Chrysanthemum vitroplantlets, in their vitroculture period and of exvitroplantlets, at 30 days from their septic medium transfer. The registered observations were compared with those realized at similar organs level of greenhouse plants (control lot. The noted differences between vitroplantlets anatomical structure and that greenhouse plants had, in special, ontogenetic bases.

  20. Agreement between anatomic and ultrasound measurements of femoral trochlear depth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miles, James Edward; Westrup, Ulrik; Eriksen, Thomas

    Assessments of trochlear depth for patients with medial patellar luxation have traditionally been estimated from skyline radiographs or visually during surgery. Ultrasound offers a non-invasive evaluation method which could avoid the need for arthrotomy. We compared anatomic, radiographic and ult...... respective DICOM files which restricts ultrasonographic landmark resolution. Further work on quantifying interobserver variation and repeat measurement variation is required to ensure confidence in this technique....

  1. Agreement between anatomic and ultrasound measurements of femoral trochlear depth

    OpenAIRE

    Miles, James Edward; Westrup, Ulrik; Eriksen, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Assessments of trochlear depth for patients with medial patellar luxation have traditionally been estimated from skyline radiographs or visually during surgery. Ultrasound offers a non-invasive evaluation method which could avoid the need for arthrotomy. We compared anatomic, radiographic and ultrasonographic measurements of trochlear depth using the red fox hind limb as a canine surrogate, dividing the trochlea into five regions from the origin of the caudal cruciate ligament to the proximal...

  2. Anatomical and functional assemblies of brain BOLD oscillations

    OpenAIRE

    Baria, Alexis T.; Baliki, Marwan N; Parrish, Todd; Apkarian, A. Vania

    2011-01-01

    Brain oscillatory activity has long been thought to have spatial properties, the details of which are unresolved. Here we examine spatial organizational rules for the human brain oscillatory activity as measured by blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD). Resting state BOLD signal was transformed into frequency space (Welch’s method), averaged across subjects, and its spatial distribution studied as a function of four frequency bands, spanning the full bandwidth of BOLD. The brain showed anatomic...

  3. An anatomic gene expression atlas of the adult mouse brain

    OpenAIRE

    Ng, Lydia; Bernard, Amy; Lau, Chris; Overly, Caroline C.; Dong, Hong-Wei; Kuan, Chihchau; Pathak, Sayan; Sunkin, Susan M.; Dang, Chinh; Bohland, Jason W.; Bokil, Hemant; Mitra, Partha P.; Puelles, Luis; Hohmann, John; Anderson, David J.

    2009-01-01

    Studying gene expression provides a powerful means of understanding structure-function relationships in the nervous system. The availability of genome-scale in situ hybridization datasets enables new possibilities for understanding brain organization based on gene expression patterns. The Anatomic Gene Expression Atlas (AGEA) is a new relational atlas revealing the genetic architecture of the adult C57Bl/6J mouse brain based on spatial correlations across expression data for thousands of gene...

  4. Variability of acorn anatomical characteristics in Quercus robur L. genotypes

    OpenAIRE

    Nikolić Nataša P.; Merkulov Ljiljana S.; Krstić Borivoj Đ.; Pajević Slobodanka P.; Borišev Milan K.; Orlović Saša S.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine variability of acorn anatomical characteristics in seventeen Quercus robur L. genotypes. Acorns were collected in clonal seed orchard Banov Brod (Srem, Vojvodina, Serbia). Microscopic measurements were done for pericarp (total thickness, thickness of exocarp and mesocarp), seed coat (total thickness, thickness of outer epidermis, parenchyma, and inner epidermis), and embryo axis (diameter, thickness of cortical region, and diameter of stellar zone). Obtain...

  5. The Essential Anatomical Subunit Approximation Unilateral Cleft Lip Repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, David K; Swanson, Jordan W

    2016-07-01

    The anatomical subunit approximation cleft lip repair advantageously achieves a balanced lip contour, with the line of repair hidden along seams of aesthetic subunits. Dr. David Fisher's original description of the repair reflects the considerable thought that went into the evolution of his design. As his technique has gained acceptance in the intervening 10 years, the authors note several key principles embodied in it that represent a shift in the cleft lip repair paradigm. The authors believe understanding these principles is important to mastery of the anatomical subunit technique, and facilitate its teaching. First, design a plan that adheres to anatomical subunits and perform measurements precisely. Second, identify and adequately release each cleft tissue layer from the lip and nose to enable restoration of balance. Third, drive surgical approximation through inset of the lateral muscle into the superiorly backcut medial orbicularis muscle, followed by skin closure with inferior triangle interposition above the white roll. In this article, the authors present essential components of the technique, and identify several principles that enable its successful execution. PMID:27348690

  6. Testing anatomically specified hypotheses in functional imaging using cytoarchitectonic maps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eickhoff, Simon B; Heim, Stefan; Zilles, Karl; Amunts, Katrin

    2006-08-15

    The statistical inference on functional imaging data is severely complicated by the embedded multiple testing problem. Defining a region of interest (ROI) where the activation is hypothesized a priori helps to circumvent this problem, since in this case the inference is restricted to fewer simultaneous tests, rendering it more sensitive. Cytoarchitectonic maps obtained from postmortem brains provide objective, a priori ROIs that can be used to test anatomically specified hypotheses about the localization of functional activations. We here analyzed three methods for the definition of ROIs based on probabilistic cytoarchitectonic maps. (1) ROIs defined by the volume assigned to a cytoarchitectonic area in the summary map of all areas (maximum probability map, MPM), (2) ROIs based on thresholding the individual probabilistic maps and (3) spherical ROIs build around the cytoarchitectonic center of gravity. The quality with which the thus defined ROIs represented the respective cytoarchitectonic areas as well as their sensitivity for detecting functional activations was subsequently statistically evaluated. Our data showed that the MPM method yields ROIs, which reflect most adequately the underlying anatomical hypotheses. These maps also show a high degree of sensitivity in the statistical analysis. We thus propose the use of MPMs for the definition of ROIs. In combination with thresholding based on the Gaussian random field theory, these ROIs can then be applied to test anatomically specified hypotheses in functional neuroimaging studies. PMID:16781166

  7. A Comparative Study of Radiographic Images on Normal Anatomical Structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To compare radiographic images of Digora system and Ektaspeed Plus film obtained from normal adults. Storage phosphor plate (SPP) was placed in a film holder behind Ektaspeed Plus film package without lead foil. The effect of film on SPP was studied in a separate in vitro experiment. Forty-seven sets of images were prepared for the evaluation. The regions of interest (ROI) for evaluation were designated at seven sites including normal anatomical structures. The image quality for each ROI was evaluated on enhanced and unenhanced storage phosphor (SP) images and Ektaspeed Plus film. Two film-SPP configurations showed significantly different grey levels at each step of the aluminum step wedge (p<0.05). The contrasts were comparable. Enhanced SP images were significantly superior to unenhanced images and film in all anatomical structures (p<0.01). The differences between unenhanced SP images and film were significant (p<0.05) except root canal and cortical bone on alveolar crest. For anatomical items, there were statistically significant difference among five observers (p<0.05). The image quality of enhanced SP images were superior to Ektaspeed Plus film, and Digora system is potentially applicable to clinical diagnosis.

  8. Anatomic variations of anterior cerebral artery cortical branches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefani, M A; Schneider, F L; Marrone, A C; Severino, A G; Jackowski, A P; Wallace, M C

    2000-01-01

    The anterior cerebral artery (ACA) is a major vessel responsible for the blood supply to the interhemispheric region. The ACA segment after the anterior communicating artery (AComA) origin is called the distal ACA and has central and cortical branches. The cortical branches are distributed in the different regions of the orbital and medial part of the brain. The objects of this study are the anatomical variations found in the distal ACA. In 76 hemispheres the ACA distal branches were injected with latex and dissected under microscope magnification. Vessel diameters and distances between vessel origins and anterior communicating artery were recorded and analyzed. Microsurgical dissection was carried out to demonstrate anatomic variations of these vessels. Average diameter of ACA at origin was 2.61 +/- 0.34 mm and average diameter of cortical branches diameter ranged from 0.79 +/- 0.27 mm to 1.84 +/- 0.3 mm. Distances between vessel origin and AComA ranged from 7.68 +/- 3.91 mm (orbitofrontal) to 112.6 +/- 11.63 mm (inferior internal parietal). This study found anatomical variations: a single (azygos) ACA was present in one case and three in three cases. Crossing branches of the distal ACA to the contralateral hemisphere were present in 26% of the cases. In some cases a single ACA may supply the posterior hemispheric region through crossing branches. This calls attention to potential bilateral brain infarcts due to a single unilateral ACA occlusion. PMID:10873213

  9. Detection and analysis of statistical differences in anatomical shape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golland, Polina; Grimson, W Eric L; Shenton, Martha E; Kikinis, Ron

    2005-02-01

    We present a computational framework for image-based analysis and interpretation of statistical differences in anatomical shape between populations. Applications of such analysis include understanding developmental and anatomical aspects of disorders when comparing patients versus normal controls, studying morphological changes caused by aging, or even differences in normal anatomy, for example, differences between genders. Once a quantitative description of organ shape is extracted from input images, the problem of identifying differences between the two groups can be reduced to one of the classical questions in machine learning of constructing a classifier function for assigning new examples to one of the two groups while making as few misclassifications as possible. The resulting classifier must be interpreted in terms of shape differences between the two groups back in the image domain. We demonstrate a novel approach to such interpretation that allows us to argue about the identified shape differences in anatomically meaningful terms of organ deformation. Given a classifier function in the feature space, we derive a deformation that corresponds to the differences between the two classes while ignoring shape variability within each class. Based on this approach, we present a system for statistical shape analysis using distance transforms for shape representation and the support vector machines learning algorithm for the optimal classifier estimation and demonstrate it on artificially generated data sets, as well as real medical studies. PMID:15581813

  10. The Intermingled History of Occupational Therapy and Anatomical Education: A Retrospective Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Melissa A.; Lawson, Katherine

    2014-01-01

    Few research articles have addressed the anatomical needs of entry-level occupational therapy students. Given this paucity of empirical evidence, there is a lack of knowledge regarding anatomical education in occupational therapy. This article will primarily serve as a retrospective look at the inclusion of anatomical education in the occupational…

  11. The anatomical and clinical research for lumbosacral region disc heniation treated with osteotemes nerval root shape model Fenestration%骨刀沿神经根走形开窗减压髓核切除术治疗腰骶部椎间盘突出症的应用解剖与临床研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张玉坤; 黄卫民; 沙吾提江·卡斯木; 刘新军; 李磊; 田慧中

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the anatomic basis of osteotemes nerval root shape model fenestration for treatment of lumbosacral region disc herniation by osteotomes in order to improve the treating result. Methods Anatomic structures,including verterbral plate,ligamentum flavum and intervertebral disk on 35 adult cadaver spine specimens were observed and measured.Osteotome nerval root shape fenestration were made to remove nucleus pulposus for 68 cases.Results (1)The lamina′s thickness of inferior margin of L3 ~L5 were (6.21±1.21),(5.93±1.22),and (5.65±1.19)mm respectively.(2)The distance between the attachment point of ligamentum flavum to vertebral lamina and the inferior border of vertebral lamina of L3 ~ L5 were (13.21 ± 2.33),(12.71 ± 1.41),and(9.72 ± 2.13)mm respectively.(3)The vertical dimension between the inferior border of L3 ~L5 vertebral lamina and the superior of L3 ~L5 intervertebral disc were (12.02±1.61),(10.18±1.26),and(-0.12±3.53)mm respectively.(4)The distance between the lateral border of inferior articular process and the root of spinous process of L3 ~ L5 were (12.14 ±1.33),(15.21±1.82),and(20.12 ± 1.73)mm respectively.Preoperative JOA score and VAS score were statistically decreased at 2 year and final follow-up.There was no significant difference between 2 year and final follow-up.Conclusion It is valuable to master the skill of low lumbar vertebrate discectomy through fenestration.Osteotemes nerval root shape model fenestration is a safe and effective method in the treat-ment of lumbosacral region disc herniation and is worth of popularization.%目的:为骨刀沿神经根走形开窗治疗腰骶部椎间盘突出症提供解剖学基础,并提高其手术效果。方法35具成人腰椎标本,观测椎板、黄韧带、椎间盘之间的解剖关系。对68例腰椎间盘突出症患者用不同型号的骨刀沿神经根走形在椎板间开窗摘除间盘髓核组织。结果(1)L3~L5椎板下缘厚度分别为(6

  12. Morphological and anatomical characteristics of Scots pine needles under industrial pollution impact of Krasnoyarsk city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. N. Skripal’shchikova

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The changes of morphological and anatomical characteristics of Scots pine needles as well as their fluctuating asymmetry (FA were studied in pine stands under the influence of industrial emissions of Krasnoyarsk. Observations were made in forest-steppe zone on windward pine forest edges in the conditions of long-term anthropogenic effect. Background site was pine stand 100 km from the city outside the direction of wind pollution. The investigations were carried out in 2013–2014 in pure pine stands of grass type, V–VI class of age. For every model tree the needle lengths in pairs were measured, as well as the cross section area of needle, area of central cylinder and conducting bindles areas and the number of resin canals. Indices of fluctuating asymmetry were calculated by method of Palmer and Strobeck (1986. The content of copper, nickel, zinc, cobalt, aluminum, cadmium, lead, fluorine and sulfur were analyzed in needle samples in parallel. The dimensions of needles and its internal structure elements showed the tendency to decrease under the influence of urban industrial emissions in comparison with background sites. On the other hand, there were adaptations of morphological and anatomical parameters of physiologically active needles to the changing environment through a compensatory mechanism. Fluctuating asymmetry indices of needles parameters were found to vary both in technogenic conditions and background ones. The variations were caused by abiotic factors of habitats and levels of technogenic loadings in these stands. Correlation analysis revealed relations between concentrations of heavy metals, aluminum and fluorine and morphological and anatomical characteristics of needles and FA indices. The most unfavorable effects were produced by high concentrations of lead and fluorine.

  13. Anatomical Studies on Several Species of Heliotropium L. in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam ABBASI

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Heliotropium spp. is distributed worldwide mainly in tropical and subtropical regions, with dry and warm temperate to semi-arid regions so that Southwest and center of Asia have considered as the main centre of origin and diversity of Heliotropium genus. Iran, with 32 species and 14 (sub endemic species, has the highest diversity in the world followed by Pakistan and Turkey with 15 species and only one endemic species and the Arabian Peninsula with 15 species and three endemic species are in the next ranks. In order to anatomical studies on Heliotropium, twelve species of this genus were selected from different regions of Iran. The selected species included: H. bacciferum Forssk., H. ramossisimum BGE., H. brevilimb Boiss., H. transoxanum BGE., H. dasycarpum Ledeb, H. dyginum Forssk., H. aucheri Dc., H. carmanicum BGE. As perennial group and H. ellipticum Ledeb., H. lasiocarpum Fisch., H. suaveolens M.B. as annual group. In order to add more data to leaf anatomy characters, evaluating of systematic relevance and/or adaptive value of the morphological and anatomical diversity we have studied 24 anatomical characters in theses 12 species. For example shape and vascular bundles of main midrib, type of parenchyma cells located under lower epidermis of midrib, distance between vascular bundles and lower or upper epidermis, angle of between two parts of blade, number of cellular layers in lower or upper mesophylla, length of upper and lower mesophylla, type of cell wall in lower and upper mesophylla and thickness of lamina were investigated in this study. In order to this present obtained H. aucheri can be separated from H. carmanicum in H. aucheri subsp. carmanicum. It can be conclude that two species H. aucheri and H. carmanicum are independent species and can accept H. transoxanum as a sub group of H. dasycarpum.

  14. Anatomical reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament: a logical approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Cesar Gali

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT We describe the surgical approach that we have used over the last years for anterior cruciate ligament (ACL reconstruction, highlighting the importance of arthroscopic viewing through the anteromedial portal (AMP and femoral tunnel drilling through an accessory anteromedial portal (AMP. The AMP allows direct view of the ACL femoral insertion site on the medial aspect of the lateral femoral condyle, does not require guides for anatomic femoral tunnel reaming, prevents an additional lateral incision in the distal third of the thigh (as would be unavoidable when the outside-intechnique is used and also can be used for double-bundle ACL reconstruction.

  15. The investigate of ultrasonography integration into anatomical curriculum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Wenyuan; Wang Ying; Liu Xing; Liu Yaoguang; Teng Chenyi; Ma Yanwen; Wang Yu

    2015-01-01

    As a complementary teaching way, ultrasonography is considered an important teaching tools and methods to improving medical students’ skills and understanding the real time human anatomy . We success-fully integrated ultrasound into anatomy teaching by using portable ultrasound and interactive panel discussion ses-sions. The integrated curriculum not only allows medical students to see the complexity real-time three-dimension-al human anatomy, but also can improve medical students’ interest in anatomy teaching. Integrated ultrasound into anatomy teaching established close ties between basic medical science and its clinical application, and overcome the phase difficulties of anatomical knowledge application from preclinical to clinical.

  16. Correlative CT and anatomic study of the sciatic nerve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sciatica can be caused by numerous processes affecting the sciatic nerve or its components within the pelvis including tumors, infectious diseases, aneurysms, fractures, and endometriosis. The CT diagnosis of these causes of sciatica has not been emphasized. This study identified the course and appearance of the normal sciatic nerve in the pelvis by correlating CT and anatomic slices in cadavers. For purposes of discussion, the sciatic nerve complex is conveniently divided into three parts: presacral, muscular, and ischial. Each part is illustrated here by two cryosections with corresponding CT images

  17. Etymology of homeric anatomical terms for the head and neck

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleni KONSOLAKI, Panagiotis AGGOURIDAKIS, Georgia FRAGAKI, Georgios ROMANOS,

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available SUMMARY: The search for the origin of medical terms used in every day practice has started since the distant past. Words that refer to the head and the neck can be found as early as in the Homeric epics; many of these have survived in some form in modern languages. Both doctors and philosophers have been concerned with the etymology of medical terminology in studies and dictionaries. This paper presents etymological suggestions for the anatomical terminology of the head and the neck as a useful aid to the oral and maxillofacial surgeon.

  18. Pneumomediastinum: Elucidation of the anatomic pathway by liquid ventilation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jamadar, D.A.; Kazerooni, E.A.; Hirschl, R.B. [Univ. of Michigan Hospitals, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    1996-03-01

    Partial liquid ventilation is a new technique to improve oxygenation in patients with severe acute respiratory distress syndrome. In a patient with status asthmaticus and tension pneumothorax treated with subsequent liquid ventilation, radiopaque perfluorocarbon was identified along bronchovascular structures, in the mediastinum, and in the retroperitoneum. Perfluorocarbon outlined on CT and chest radiography the anatomic pathway by which spontaneous pneumomediastinum develops following alveolar rupture, as described earlier by histopathologic study in animals. This represents the radiopaque equivalent of radiolucent pneumomediastinum. Perfluorocarbon remained in the pulmonary interstitium on radiography 30 days after beginning liquid ventilation, without sequelae. 9 refs., 3 figs.

  19. Anatomical and Histological Factors Affecting Intranasal Drug and Vaccine Delivery

    OpenAIRE

    Gizurarson, Sveinbjörn

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this review is to provide an understanding of the anatomical and histological structure of the nasal cavity, which is important for nasal drug and vaccine delivery as well as the development of new devices. The surface area of the nasal cavity is about 160 cm2, or 96 m2 if the microvilli are included. The olfactory region, however, is only about 5 cm2 (0.3 m2 including the microvilli). There are 6 arterial branches that serve the nasal cavity, making this region a very attractive r...

  20. MORPHOLOGICAL AND ANATOMICAL RESEARCH OF LEAVES OF FEIJOA SELLOWIANA BERG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. N. Vdovenko-Martynova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Feijoa leaves gathered from Feijoa sellowiana Berg. of Myrtaceae family on the Black Sea coast of the Caucasus were the object of this research. Establishment of morphological and anatomical features for diagnosis of feijoa leaves was the purpose of this work. Using macro- and microscopic analysis methods we have determined external and microdiagnostic features which can be used for development of authenticity of the feijoa leaves active parts.

  1. MR anatomic and flow imaging in peripheral vascular disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MR imaging has been used to identify atherosclerotic plaques and assess their effect on flow in a phantom, in six normal subjects, and in 13 patients with documented peripheral vascular disease. Spin-echo images were acquired in transaxial and oblique planes through the abdominal aorta and iliac arteries, and the findings were compared with those of angiography. MR phase mapping was used to produce velocity profiles and to measure blood flow. Plaques were consistently detected on anatomic images, and luminal narrowing could be assessed by changes in the velocity profiles, MR imaging is a nonivasive method that is of potential importance in the study of atheroma

  2. Tracheal Atresia with Segmental Esophageal Duplication: An Unusual Anatomic Arrangement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaerty, Kirsten; Thomas, Joseph T; Petersen, Scott; Tan, Edwin; Kumar, Sailesh; Gardener, Glenn; Armes, Jane

    2016-01-01

    An unusual anatomic configuration of segmental tracheal agenesis/atresia with esophageal duplication on autopsy in a fetus that demised in utero at 29 weeks is reported. The mother was scanned initially for a cardiac anomaly at 20 weeks and on follow-up scan at 27 weeks had polyhydramnios and underwent amnioreduction. The final autopsy diagnosis was vertebral, ano-rectal, cardiac, tracheoesophageal, renal, and limb malformations (VACTERL). We discuss the autopsy findings along with the embryological mechanisms and compare the configuration with Floyd's classification for tracheal agenesis. The difficulties in prenatal diagnosis are discussed. PMID:26367770

  3. Anatomical eponyms, part 1: to look on the bright side.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olry, Regis

    2014-11-01

    The use of eponyms in medical sciences generally, and in anatomy specifically, remains controversial. In principle, this discussion should have been concluded as far back as 1895 (publication of the first Nomina anatomica): all eponyms should have been removed from the anatomical vocabulary then. In practice, what was believed to be a mere formality proved much more difficult to apply. Most eponyms remain in current use; moreover, their number goes on increasing. Assuming that there's no smoke without fire, we wondered why it seems impossible to get rid of a specific kind of term. The aim of this article and its successor is to weigh up the pros and cons. PMID:24953603

  4. Geodesic atlas-based labeling of anatomical trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feragen, Aasa; Petersen, Jens; Owen, Megan; Lo, Pechin; Thomsen, Laura Hohwu; Wille, Mathilde Marie Winkler; Dirksen, Asger; de Bruijne, Marleen

    2015-01-01

    We present a fast and robust atlas-based algorithm for labeling airway trees, using geodesic distances in a geometric tree-space. Possible branch label configurations for an unlabeled airway tree are evaluated using distances to a training set of labeled airway trees. In tree-space, airway tree...... topology and geometry change continuously, giving a natural automatic handling of anatomical differences and noise. A hierarchical approach makes the algorithm efficient, assigning labels from the trachea and downwards. Only the airway centerline tree is used, which is relatively unaffected by pathology...

  5. Nervous Plexopathies in oncologic patients: Anatomical, clinical and radiological Considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lumbosacral or brachial plexopathies are lesions of two or more roots of the same plexus. They are very frequent in cancer patients and are usually due to extra spinal involvement of these roots, by a primary or secondary neoplasm. The CT scan is very useful in the evaluation of patients with this disease. In the article anatomic al aspects, the main clinical symptoms and signs, and the performance of CT scan are reviewed with all these elements it is possible to make a diagnosis

  6. Experimental Characterization of the Anatomical Structures of the Lumbar Spine Under Dynamic Sagittal Bending.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradfield, C A; Demetropoulos, C K; Luongo, M E; Pyles, C O; Armiger, R S; Merkle, A C

    2015-01-01

    Underbody blast (UBB) events transmit high-rate vertical loads through the seated occupant’s lumbar spine and have a high probability of inducing severe injury. While previous studies have characterized the lumbar spine under quasi-static loading, additional work should focus on the complex kinetic and kinematic response under high loading rates. To discern the biomechanical influence of the lumbar spine’s anatomical structures during dynamic loading, the axial force, flexion-extension moments and range of motion for lumbar motion segments (n=18) were measured during different states of progressive dissection. Pre-compression was applied using a static mass while dynamic bending was applied using an offset drop mass. Dynamic loading resulted in peak axial loads of 4,224±133 N, while maximum peak extension and flexion moments were 19.6±12.5 and -44.8±8.6 Nm in the pre-dissected state, respectively. Upon dissection, transection of the interspinous ligament, ligamentum flavum and facet capsules resulted in significantly larger flexion angles, while the removal of the posterior elements increased the total peak angular displacement in extension from 3.3±1.5 to 5.0±1.7 degrees (p=0.002). This study provides insight on the contribution of individual anatomical components on overall lumbar response under high-rate loading, as well as validation data for numerical models. PMID:25996712

  7. Anatomically constrained dipole adjustment (ANACONDA) for accurate MEG/EEG focal source localizations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper proposes an alternative approach to enhance localization accuracy of MEG and EEG focal sources. The proposed approach assumes anatomically constrained spatio-temporal dipoles, initial positions of which are estimated from local peak positions of distributed sources obtained from a pre-execution of distributed source reconstruction. The positions of the dipoles are then adjusted on the cortical surface using a novel updating scheme named cortical surface scanning. The proposed approach has many advantages over the conventional ones: (1) as the cortical surface scanning algorithm uses spatio-temporal dipoles, it is robust with respect to noise; (2) it requires no a priori information on the numbers and initial locations of the activations; (3) as the locations of dipoles are restricted only on a tessellated cortical surface, it is physiologically more plausible than the conventional ECD model. To verify the proposed approach, it was applied to several realistic MEG/EEG simulations and practical experiments. From the several case studies, it is concluded that the anatomically constrained dipole adjustment (ANACONDA) approach will be a very promising technique to enhance accuracy of focal source localization which is essential in many clinical and neurological applications of MEG and EEG

  8. Anatomical Computed Tomographic Study of the Heart and some Mediastinal Vessels of the Rabbit - Oryctolagus cuniculus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anatomical computed tomographic study of the heart and some mediastinal vessels of the rabbit - Oryctolagus cuniculus. Bulg. J. Agric. Sci., 18: 784-788 The aim of the study is to utilize the computed tomography the anatomical study of the rabbit heart and some of its mediastinal vessels. We investigated seven sexually mature, healthy male white New Zealand rabbits, aged 12 months. The animals were anesthetized. The bodies of the thoracic vertebrae were used as bone markers when performing the imaging. At the level of the third and fourth thoracic segment were found only vascular structures. At the fifth thoracic vertebrae a partial heart silhouette was observed, and the complete one – at the seventh. At the third, fourth and fifth thoracic vertebrae an image of the ascending aorta was found, at the third and fourth one – aortic arch, at the fifth segment – the beginning of the descending aorta. The results confirm the thesis, that the rabbit is a suitable biological model for morphological and functional studies of the heart

  9. Discovering anatomical patterns with pathological meaning by clustering of visual primitives in structural brain MRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leon, Juan; Pulido, Andrea; Romero, Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    Computational anatomy is a subdiscipline of the anatomy that studies macroscopic details of the human body structure using a set of automatic techniques. Different reference systems have been developed for brain mapping and morphometry in functional and structural studies. Several models integrate particular anatomical regions to highlight pathological patterns in structural brain MRI, a really challenging task due to the complexity, variability, and nonlinearity of the human brain anatomy. In this paper, we present a strategy that aims to find anatomical regions with pathological meaning by using a probabilistic analysis. Our method starts by extracting visual primitives from brain MRI that are partitioned into small patches and which are then softly clustered, forming different regions not necessarily connected. Each of these regions is described by a co- occurrence histogram of visual features, upon which a probabilistic semantic analysis is used to find the underlying structure of the information, i.e., separated regions by their low level similarity. The proposed approach was tested with the OASIS data set which includes 69 Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients and 65 healthy subjects (NC).

  10. Anatomical reconstructions of the human cardiac venous system using contrast-computed tomography of perfusion-fixed specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Julianne; Fitch, Emily; Iaizzo, Paul A

    2013-01-01

    A detailed understanding of the complexity and relative variability within the human cardiac venous system is crucial for the development of cardiac devices that require access to these vessels. For example, cardiac venous anatomy is known to be one of the key limitations for the proper delivery of cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT)(1) Therefore, the development of a database of anatomical parameters for human cardiac venous systems can aid in the design of CRT delivery devices to overcome such a limitation. In this research project, the anatomical parameters were obtained from 3D reconstructions of the venous system using contrast-computed tomography (CT) imaging and modeling software (Materialise, Leuven, Belgium). The following parameters were assessed for each vein: arc length, tortuousity, branching angle, distance to the coronary sinus ostium, and vessel diameter. CRT is a potential treatment for patients with electromechanical dyssynchrony. Approximately 10-20% of heart failure patients may benefit from CRT(2). Electromechanical dyssynchrony implies that parts of the myocardium activate and contract earlier or later than the normal conduction pathway of the heart. In CRT, dyssynchronous areas of the myocardium are treated with electrical stimulation. CRT pacing typically involves pacing leads that stimulate the right atrium (RA), right ventricle (RV), and left ventricle (LV) to produce more resynchronized rhythms. The LV lead is typically implanted within a cardiac vein, with the aim to overlay it within the site of latest myocardial activation. We believe that the models obtained and the analyses thereof will promote the anatomical education for patients, students, clinicians, and medical device designers. The methodologies employed here can also be utilized to study other anatomical features of our human heart specimens, such as the coronary arteries. To further encourage the educational value of this research, we have shared the venous models on our

  11. Reconstruction of anatomical shapes from scattered data using deformable Bezier surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knopf, George K.; Sangole, Archana

    2001-10-01

    An important task in reverse engineering and computer-aided- design applications is to create a mathematical model of surface geometry based on coordinate measurements. A two- step techniques that fits parametric surfaces to partial or whole human body measurements for free-form surface reconstruction is described in this paper. The first step of the proposed technique employs a self-organizing feature map to adaptively parameterize non-uniformly spaced coordinate points. The second step uses a Bernstein Basis Function (BBF) network to fit a deformable Bezier surface to the parameterized data. Once the adaption phase is compete, the weights of the BBF network can be utilized by a variety of commercially available geometric modeling and CAD/CAM packages for shape reconstruction. An experimental study is presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of the BBF network for generating smooth Bezier surfaces of complex anatomical shapes.

  12. Anatomical, Clinical and Electrical Observations in Piriformis Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Assoum Hani A

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We provided clinical and electrical descriptions of the piriformis syndrome, contributing to better understanding of the pathogenesis and further diagnostic criteria. Methods Between 3550 patients complaining of sciatica, we concluded 26 cases of piriformis syndrome, 15 females, 11 males, mean age 35.37 year-old. We operated 9 patients, 2 to 19 years after the onset of symptoms, 5 had piriformis steroids injection. A dorsolumbar MRI were performed in all cases and a pelvic MRI in 7 patients. The electro-diagnostic test was performed in 13 cases, between them the H reflex of the peroneal nerve was tested 7 times. Results After a followup 1 to 11 years, for the 17 non operated patients, 3 patients responded to conservative treatment. 6 of the operated had an excellent result, 2 residual minor pain and one failed. 3 new anatomical observations were described with atypical compression of the sciatic nerve by the piriformis muscle. Conclusion While the H reflex test of the tibial nerve did not give common satisfaction in the literature for diagnosis, the H reflex of the peroneal nerve should be given more importance, because it demonstrated in our study more specific sign, with six clinical criteria it contributed to improve the method of diagnosis. The cause of this particular syndrome does not only depend on the relation sciatic nerve-piriformis muscle, but the environmental conditions should be considered with the series of the anatomical anomalies to explain the real cause of this pain.

  13. The anatomical and functional specialization of the fusiform gyrus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiner, Kevin S; Zilles, Karl

    2016-03-01

    The fusiform gyrus (FG) is commonly included in anatomical atlases and is considered a key structure for functionally-specialized computations of high-level vision such as face perception, object recognition, and reading. However, it is not widely known that the FG has a contentious history. In this review, we first provide a historical analysis of the discovery of the FG and why certain features, such as the mid-fusiform sulcus, were discovered and then forgotten. We then discuss how observer-independent methods for identifying cytoarchitectonical boundaries of the cortex revolutionized our understanding of cytoarchitecture and the correspondence between those boundaries and cortical folding patterns of the FG. We further explain that the co-occurrence between cortical folding patterns and cytoarchitectonical boundaries are more common than classically thought and also, are functionally meaningful especially on the FG and probably in high-level visual cortex more generally. We conclude by proposing a series of alternatives for how the anatomical organization of the FG can accommodate seemingly different theoretical aspects of functional processing, such as domain specificity and perceptual expertise. PMID:26119921

  14. Variations in meniscofemoral ligaments at anatomical study and MR imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, J.M.; Suh, J.S. [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Na, J.B. [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Kyungsang National University, College of Medicine, Jinju (Korea, Republic of); Cho, J.H. [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Ajou University College of Medicine, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Y.; Yoo, W.K. [Department of Rehabilitation, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, H.Y.; Chung, I.H. [Department of Anatomy, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-04-01

    Purpose To demonstrate variations in the meniscofemoral ligaments (ligaments of Wrisberg and Humphrey) at anatomical study and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. Design Twenty-eight cadaveric knees were partially dissected for the examination of the meniscofemoral ligaments. One hundred knee MR examinations were reviewed by two experienced musculoskeletal radiologists. Proximal variations in the meniscofemoral ligaments at MR imaging were classified into three types according to the attachment site: type I, medial femoral condyle; type II, proximal half of the posterior cruciate ligament (PCL); type III, distal half of the PCL. Distal variations were classified into vertical or oblique types according to the orientation of the intermediate signal at the interface of the ligament and lateral meniscus. Results At anatomical study, six cases showed variations in the proximal insertion site of the meniscofemoral ligaments. At MR imaging 93 cases had one or more meniscofemoral ligaments, giving a total of 107 ligaments: 90 ligaments of Wrisberg and 17 ligaments of Humphrey. Forty-one ligaments of Wrisberg were type I, 28 type II, 19 type III, and with two indeterminate type, while 6 ligaments of Humphrey were type I and the remaining 11 were indeterminate. Seven cases showed no meniscofemoral ligament. Of the 107 meniscofemoral ligaments, the distal insertion orientation was of vertical type in 10 ligaments, oblique type in 70 and unidentified in 27. Conclusion An understanding of the high incidence of meniscofemoral ligament variations may help in the interpretation of knee MR studies. (orig.) With 7 figs., 1 tab., 16 refs.

  15. Patellar calcar: MRI appearance of a previously undescribed anatomical entity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The femoral calcar is a constant anatomical structure within the proximal femur representing a condensation of bone trabeculae. It is our impression that a similar structure is present within the patella. The purpose of this retrospective study was to define the prevalence, appearance, location, and configuration of the patellar calcar on MRI examinations. One hundred consecutive unenhanced knee MRIs were retrospectively reviewed by two readers who were blinded to the clinical indication. The patellar calcar was defined as a dark signaling, linear or curvilinear structure subjacent to the patellar articular surface. If present, the patellar calcar was assigned to a ''well seen,'' ''moderately well seen,'' or ''faintly seen'' category. Location of the calcar within the patella, orientation, configuration, and thickness were recorded. Confounding variables, such as marrow edema, patellar chondromalacia, bipartite patella, or postoperative changes were also recorded. The patellar calcar was visualized in 81 out of 100 (81 %) MRIs. When detected, the calcar was well seen in 20 out of 81 (25 %), moderately well seen in 35 out of 81 (43 %), and faintly seen in 26 out of 81 (32 %). The anteroposterior width of the calcar measured at its thickest segment was: 1 mm in 10 out of 81 (12 %). The patellar calcar was seen in the majority of knee MRIs and had a consistent imaging appearance. The calcar may be obscured by degenerative arthrosis of the patella and rarely may mimic patellar stress fracture or osteochondritis dissecans. Radiologists and clinicians should be familiar with this normal anatomical structure. (orig.)

  16. Anatomic MRI study of a small muscle: the masseter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) provides functional information in an anatomic presentation allowing to distinguish soft tissues with high sensitivity. The goal of this study was to investigate the normal anatomy of the major masticatory muscle, the masseter, both at rest or during contraction by using three dimensional (3D) MRI. Eighteen subjects aged from 19 to 28 years, all in good health, were studied. Several experiments were first realized on phantoms to test the 3D-MRI technique. After reconstruction and segmentation processing, 3D acquisition, enabled obtaining data on the masseter anatomy. The normal anatomical position of the masseter was reported to the skin plan as the mean internal distance (7.9±0.42 mm) and external distance (15.2±0.41 mm). While there was no difference between internal distance, for sex or side, the external distance was significantly (p = 0.02) shorter in male (7.7±0.5 mm) than in female (8.8±0.4 mm) for both sides. The mean volume for all subjects and both sides (20.3±1.1 cm3) did not change significantly between rest and exercise. The masseter volume was significantly (p 3) than in female (16.4±3.6 cm3) groups. These physiological references may be useful for further MRI investigations of masticatory system pathologies. (authors)

  17. Variability of acorn anatomical characteristics in Quercus robur L. genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolić Nataša P.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine variability of acorn anatomical characteristics in seventeen Quercus robur L. genotypes. Acorns were collected in clonal seed orchard Banov Brod (Srem, Vojvodina, Serbia. Microscopic measurements were done for pericarp (total thickness, thickness of exocarp and mesocarp, seed coat (total thickness, thickness of outer epidermis, parenchyma, and inner epidermis, and embryo axis (diameter, thickness of cortical region, and diameter of stellar zone. Obtained results revealed certain divergence between genotypes. The thickness of pericarp varied from 418 to 559 mm (genotypes 20 and 22, respectively. On average, the participation of exocarp in the total thickness of pericarp was 36.3%, of mesocarp 61.0%, while of endocarp 2.6%. The thickness of seed coat for individual genotypes ranged from 71 mm (genotype 28 to 157 mm (genotype 38. In addition, anatomic parameters of embryo axis varied among studied genotypes. The lowest cortical zone thickness and stellar zone diameter were measured in genotype 40, while the highest values in genotype 33.

  18. Major intraoperative complications during video-assisted thoracoscopic anatomical lung resections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Decaluwe, Herbert; Petersen, René Horsleben; Hansen, Henrik;

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: A multicentre evaluation of the frequency and nature of major intraoperative complications during video-assisted thoracoscopic (VATS) anatomical resections. METHODS: Six European centres submitted their series of consecutive anatomical lung resections with the intention to treat by VATS...... complication. Surgeon's experience was related to non-oncological conversions, but not to vascular injuries or major complications in a multivariable logistic regression analysis. CONCLUSION: Major intraoperative complications during VATS anatomical lung resections are infrequent, seem not to be related to...

  19. Medial portal technique for single-bundle anatomical Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL) reconstruction

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, Charles H.; Spalding, Tim; Robb, Curtis

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the paper is to describe the medial portal technique for anatomical single-bundle anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. Placement of an ACL graft within the anatomical femoral and tibial attachment sites is critical to the success and clinical outcome of ACL reconstruction. Non-anatomical ACL graft placement is the most common technical error leading to recurrent instability following ACL reconstruction. ACL reconstruction has commonly been performed using a transtibial ...

  20. APPLICABILITY ANALYSIS OF ADDITIVE MANUFACTURING PROCESSES IN THE FABRICATION OF ANATOMICALLY SHAPED LATTICE SCAFFOLDS

    OpenAIRE

    Jelena Milovanović; Miloš Stojković; Miroslav Trajanović

    2015-01-01

    Manufacturing of anatomically shaped scaffolds for bonе tissue recovery as well as other similar anatomically shaped implants represents a major challenge for modern manufacturing technologies. The complexity of anatomically shaped lattice scaffolds for bone tissue recovery requires involvement of so-called additive manufacturing processes.This paper brings out the criterial matrix for the assessment of additive manufacturing processes applicability in the case of bone tissue scaffold manufac...

  1. Anatomical variations of paranasal sinuses at multislice computed tomography: what to look for

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miranda, Christiana Maia Nobre Rocha de; Maranhao, Carol Pontes de Miranda [Clinica de Medicina Nuclear e Radiologia de Maceio (Medradius), Maceio, AL (Brazil). Setor de Tomografia Computadorizada; Arraes, Fabiana Maia Nobre Rocha [Clinica Sinus, Maceio, AL (Brazil); Padilha, Igor Gomes; Farias, Lucas de Padua Gomes de; Jatoba, Mayara Stephanie de Araujo; Andrade, Anna Carolina Mendonca de; Padilha, Bruno Gomes [Universidade Federal de Alagoas (UFAL), Maceio, AL (Brazil)

    2011-07-15

    Multislice computed tomography is currently the imaging modality of choice for evaluating paranasal sinuses and adjacent structures. Such a method has been increasingly utilized in the assessment of anatomical variations, allowing their accurate identification with high anatomical details. Some anatomical variations may predispose to sinusal diseases, constituting areas of high risk for injuries and complications during surgical procedures. Therefore, the recognition of such variations is critical in the preoperative evaluation for endoscopic surgery. (author)

  2. Factors Affecting Dimensional Accuracy of 3-D Printed Anatomical Structures Derived from CT Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogden, Kent M; Aslan, Can; Ordway, Nathaniel; Diallo, Dalanda; Tillapaugh-Fay, Gwen; Soman, Pranav

    2015-12-01

    Additive manufacturing and bio-printing, with the potential for direct fabrication of complex patient-specific anatomies derived from medical scan data, are having an ever-increasing impact on the practice of medicine. Anatomic structures are typically derived from CT or MRI scans, and there are multiple steps in the model derivation process that influence the geometric accuracy of the printed constructs. In this work, we compare the dimensional accuracy of 3-D printed constructs of an L1 vertebra derived from CT data for an ex vivo cadaver T-L spine with the original vertebra. Processing of segmented structures using binary median filters and various surface extraction algorithms is evaluated for the effect on model dimensions. We investigate the effects of changing CT reconstruction kernels by scanning simple geometric objects and measuring the impact on the derived model dimensions. We also investigate if there are significant differences between physical and virtual model measurements. The 3-D models were printed using a commercial 3-D printer, the Replicator 2 (MakerBot, Brooklyn, NY) using polylactic acid (PLA) filament. We found that changing parameters during the scan reconstruction, segmentation, filtering, and surface extraction steps will have an effect on the dimensions of the final model. These effects need to be quantified for specific situations that rely on the accuracy of 3-D printed models used in medicine or tissue engineering applications. PMID:25982877

  3. Foundations of Intonational Meaning: Anatomical and Physiological Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gussenhoven, Carlos

    2016-04-01

    Like non-verbal communication, paralinguistic communication is rooted in anatomical and physiological factors. Paralinguistic form-meaning relations arise from the way these affect speech production, with some fine-tuning by the cultural and linguistic context. The effects have been classified as "biological codes," following the terminological lead of John Ohala's Frequency Code. Intonational morphemes, though arguably non-arbitrary in principle, are in fact heavily biased toward these paralinguistic meanings. Paralinguistic and linguistic meanings for four biological codes are illustrated. In addition to the Frequency Code, the Effort Code, and the Respiratory Code, the Sirenic Code is introduced here, which is based on the use of whispery phonation, widely seen as being responsible for the signaling and perception of feminine attractiveness and sometimes used to express interrogativity in language. In the context of the evolution of language, the relations between physiological conditions and the resulting paralinguistic and linguistic meanings will need to be clarified. PMID:27016315

  4. Algorithms to automatically quantify the geometric similarity of anatomical surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Boyer, D; Clair, E St; Puente, J; Funkhouser, T; Patel, B; Jernvall, J; Daubechies, I

    2011-01-01

    We describe new approaches for distances between pairs of 2-dimensional surfaces (embedded in 3-dimensional space) that use local structures and global information contained in inter-structure geometric relationships. We present algorithms to automatically determine these distances as well as geometric correspondences. This is motivated by the aspiration of students of natural science to understand the continuity of form that unites the diversity of life. At present, scientists using physical traits to study evolutionary relationships among living and extinct animals analyze data extracted from carefully defined anatomical correspondence points (landmarks). Identifying and recording these landmarks is time consuming and can be done accurately only by trained morphologists. This renders these studies inaccessible to non-morphologists, and causes phenomics to lag behind genomics in elucidating evolutionary patterns. Unlike other algorithms presented for morphological correspondences our approach does not requir...

  5. Anatomical study of spinal accessory nerve using ultrasonography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canella, Clarissa [Service de Radiologie et d’Imagerie Musculosquelettique, Centre de Consultations et d’Imagerie de l’Appareil Locomoteur, CHRU, 59037, Lille (France); Serviço de Radiologia e Diagnostico por Imagem, Universitadade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de janeiro (Brazil); Demondion, Xavier [Service de Radiologie et d’Imagerie Musculosquelettique, Centre de Consultations et d’Imagerie de l’Appareil Locomoteur, CHRU, 59037, Lille (France); Laboratoire d’Anatomie, Faculté de Médecine de Lille, 59037, Lille (France); Abreu, Evandro [Service de Radiologie et d’Imagerie Musculosquelettique, Centre de Consultations et d’Imagerie de l’Appareil Locomoteur, CHRU, 59037, Lille (France); Marchiori, Edson [Serviço de Radiologia e Diagnostico por Imagem, Universitadade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de janeiro (Brazil); Cotten, Hervé [Anatomie et cytologie pathologiques, Bd de la Liberté, 59000, Lille (France); Cotten, Anne, E-mail: anne.cotten@chru-lille.fr [Service de Radiologie et d’Imagerie Musculosquelettique, Centre de Consultations et d’Imagerie de l’Appareil Locomoteur, CHRU, 59037, Lille (France)

    2013-01-15

    Objective: The purpose of our study was to demonstrate that ultrasonography may allow a precise assessment of the course and relationships of the spinal accessory nerve (SAN). Material and methods: This study, initially undertaken in 7 cadavers, was followed by high-resolution ultrasonographic study in 15 volunteers (30 nerves) by two radiologists in consensus. The location, course and relations to the adjacent anatomic structures of the SAN were analyzed. Results: The precise course of the SAN between the lateroposterior border of the sternocleidomastoid muscle and the anterior border of the trapezius muscle could be identified by high-resolution ultrasonography. In contrast, clinical bone landmarks were not found helpful for the identification of the nerve. Conclusion: The SAN can be clearly depicted by means of ultrasonography. Knowledge of the nerve's precise location, which may evidence individual variations, may have useful clinical applications.

  6. Anatomical study of spinal accessory nerve using ultrasonography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: The purpose of our study was to demonstrate that ultrasonography may allow a precise assessment of the course and relationships of the spinal accessory nerve (SAN). Material and methods: This study, initially undertaken in 7 cadavers, was followed by high-resolution ultrasonographic study in 15 volunteers (30 nerves) by two radiologists in consensus. The location, course and relations to the adjacent anatomic structures of the SAN were analyzed. Results: The precise course of the SAN between the lateroposterior border of the sternocleidomastoid muscle and the anterior border of the trapezius muscle could be identified by high-resolution ultrasonography. In contrast, clinical bone landmarks were not found helpful for the identification of the nerve. Conclusion: The SAN can be clearly depicted by means of ultrasonography. Knowledge of the nerve's precise location, which may evidence individual variations, may have useful clinical applications

  7. Evaluation of an anatomical compensation filter for chest radiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manninen, H.; Rytkoenen, H.; Soimakallio, S.; Terho, E.O.; Hentunen, J.

    1986-11-01

    An anatomical compensation filter for improving the radiographic demonstration of the mediastinal and retrocardiac areas of a chest radiograph has been evaluated. The filter, made of a transparent, light-weight lead-plastic material was attached to the X-ray collimator housing. The device reliably improved the visibility of normally underpenetrated areas without producing detectable artefacts, provided the patient was correctly positioned. Hilar structures were also slightly better visualised. At the same time there was no statistically significant deterioration in visualisation of peripheral pulmonary vessels or parenchymal structures. Rib details and pleural calcifications were less well seen, however, a result that was to be expected because of the X-ray beam hardening.

  8. Anatomical patterns of dermatitis in adult filaggrin mutation carriers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heede, Nina G; Thyssen, Jacob P; Thuesen, Betina H; Linneberg, Allan; Johansen, Jeanne D

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Common filaggrin (FLG) null mutations are associated with severe and early onset of atopic dermatitis (AD). To date, few studies have investigated anatomical patterns of dermatitis and none has been conducted in the general population. OBJECTIVE: We evaluated patterns of dermatitis in...... obtained by use of questionnaires. Participants were genotyped for common FLG mutations. A history of AD was defined by the United Kingdom Working Party's diagnostic criteria. RESULTS: The frequency of foot dermatitis in the general population was associated with FLG genotype (P = .014). However, when...... stratification of FLG genotype and AD was performed, we found that FLG mutations increased the prevalence (odds ratios) of foot dermatitis (odds ratio 10.41; 95% confidence interval 5.27-20.60) and persistent hand dermatitis (odds ratio 17.57; 95% confidence interval 8.60-35.89) only in participants with AD...

  9. Anatomical investigation on Cactaceae Juss.: a historical retrospect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galina V. Kalashnyk

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Cactaceae consists of perennial stem succulents with diverse morphology. Due the distinctive structure and form the interest of researchers to this group of plants is increasing nowadays. The present paper provides an overview of published data concerning anatomical studies on the family Cactaceae since the mid-nineteenth century to our days. It is important to consider that recent interest in this field does not reduce, while the number of studies dealing with the structure and features of seedlings, the effect of various environmental factors on them is uprising. Such studies have a great practical importance for introduction and reintroduction of cacti, as well as for determination of their adaptive characteristics to environmental conditions.

  10. Primary empty sella turcica: a radiological-anatomical correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The anatomical basis of the primary empty sella turcica is illustrated to emphasize that it represents a normal variant and not pathology. Unlike CT, the suprasellar structures including the visual system are clearly demonstrated by MRI. Intrasellar herniation of the superior visual system into a primary or secondary empty sella is well delineated by MR. Such herniation is said to be uncommon in primary empty sellae but not uncommon with secondary empty sellae. In the absence of herniation, on sagittal sections, the optic chiasm and optic nerves form a straight line with the optic canal while the floor of the third ventricle continues as a straight line to the mamillary bodies. Copyright (2000) Blackwell Science Pty Ltd

  11. Anatomic Study of Female Sterility of Pinus tabulaeformis Carr.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cheng Pengjun; Li Fenglan; Zheng Caixia

    2003-01-01

    The anatomic research on the mutant clone of Pinus tabulaeformis Carr. in the seed orchard in Xingcheng, LiaoningProvince was carried out. The female cone of the mutant clone looked like normal, but its ovules degenerated in the early stage. Thispaper tries to find out the reason and time of ovule abortion. It seems that the ovule abortion is probably caused by female sterilitybecause the microspores of this mutant clone were normal. Through the serial observations on the one-year-old macrosporangiatesand the ovules of two-year-old female cones of mutant and normal clone, it is found that the reason of ovule abortion in mutant cloneis the failure of the mitosis of free nuclei in the female gametophyte, and the time is about in the early April.

  12. The anatomical, surgical and orthopedic importance of gastrocnemius

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashfaq U. Hassan

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Gastrocnemius is one of the most important muscles of lower limb. It belongs to the superficial compartment of calf muscles. They belong to group of superficial flexors. Gastrocnemius, plantaris and soleus form the bulk of the calf. Gastrocnemius forms the belly of the calf. It arises by two distinct heads, connected to the condyles of the femur by strong, flat tendons. It has an immense anatomic, medical, orthopedic and physiological importance and is attributed in a variety of medical and surgical problems. A profound knowledge of this muscle is of great importance to any surgeon or orthopedicians or any clinician. [Int J Res Med Sci 2013; 1(4.000: 326-328

  13. ANATOMICAL STUDIES ON SCOPOLIA CARNIOLICA JACQ. VEGETATIVE ORGANS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina STEFANESCU

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Scopolia carniolica Jacq. is a medicinal species of Solanaceae, harvested from the Romanian spontaneous flora for its atropine and scopolamine content. We have analyzed the anatomical structure of the vegetative organs (rhizome, root, stem and leaf and the biometrical parameters of the leaf blade (vascular islet, stomatal index and palisade ratio, in order to establish the main specific characters and differential elements useful for the correct identification and for avoiding the impurification of medicinal products. The characteristic structures for the rhizome and root are the secondary ones, mainly with parenchyma elements and lacking in mechanical fibres; the stem has a primary becoming secondary structure, bicolateral vascular bundles with cambium in the interior and between them and endoderma as starch layer. The sand cells are characteristic for rhizome, root and stem structures. On the leaf surface were identified protector multicellular trichomes and specific secretory and glandular ones.

  14. Tridimensional Regression for Comparing and Mapping 3D Anatomical Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kendra K. Schmid

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Shape analysis is useful for a wide variety of disciplines and has many applications. There are many approaches to shape analysis, one of which focuses on the analysis of shapes that are represented by the coordinates of predefined landmarks on the object. This paper discusses Tridimensional Regression, a technique that can be used for mapping images and shapes that are represented by sets of three-dimensional landmark coordinates, for comparing and mapping 3D anatomical structures. The degree of similarity between shapes can be quantified using the tridimensional coefficient of determination (2. An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of this technique to correctly match the image of a face with another image of the same face. These results were compared to the 2 values obtained when only two dimensions are used and show that using three dimensions increases the ability to correctly match and discriminate between faces.

  15. Anatomic Basis for Penis Transplantation: Cadaveric Microdissection of Penile Structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiftikcioglu, Yigit Ozer; Erenoglu, Cagil Meric; Lineaweaver, William C; Bilge, Okan; Celik, Servet; Ozek, Cuneyt

    2016-06-01

    We present a cadaveric dissection study to investigate the anatomic feasibility of penile transplantation. Seventeen male cadavers were dissected to reveal detailed anatomy of the dorsal neurovascular structures including dorsal arteries, superficial and deep dorsal veins, and dorsal nerves of the penis. Dorsal artery diameters showed a significant decrease from proximal to distal shaft. Dominance was observed in one side. Deep dorsal vein showed a straight course and less decrease in diameter compared to artery. Dorsal nerves showed proximal branching pattern. In a possible penile transplantation, level of harvest should be determined according to the patient and the defect, where a transgender patient will receive a total allograft and a male patient with a proximal penile defect will receive a partial shaft allograft. We designed an algorithm for different levels of penile defect and described the technique for harvest of partial and total penile transplants. PMID:27070689

  16. Design and use of numerical anatomical atlases for radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main objective of this thesis is to provide radio-oncology specialists with automatic tools for delineating organs at risk of a patient undergoing a radiotherapy treatment of cerebral or head and neck tumors. To achieve this goal, we use an anatomical atlas, i.e. a representative anatomy associated to a clinical image representing it. The registration of this atlas allows us to segment automatically the patient structures and to accelerate this process. Contributions in this method are presented on three axes. First, we want to obtain a registration method which is as independent as possible from the setting of its parameters. This setting, done by the clinician, indeed needs to be minimal while guaranteeing a robust result. We therefore propose registration methods allowing a better control of the obtained transformation, using rejection techniques of inadequate matching or locally affine transformations. The second axis is dedicated to the consideration of structures associated with the presence of the tumor. These structures, not present in the atlas, indeed lead to local errors in the atlas-based segmentation. We therefore propose methods to delineate these structures and take them into account in the registration. Finally, we present the construction of an anatomical atlas of the head and neck region and its evaluation on a database of patients. We show in this part the feasibility of the use of an atlas for this region, as well as a simple method to evaluate the registration methods used to build an atlas. All this research work has been implemented in a commercial software (Imago from DOSIsoft), allowing us to validate our results in clinical conditions. (author)

  17. TissueCypher™: A systems biology approach to anatomic pathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey W Prichard

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Current histologic methods for diagnosis are limited by intra- and inter-observer variability. Immunohistochemistry (IHC methods are frequently used to assess biomarkers to aid diagnoses, however, IHC staining is variable and nonlinear and the manual interpretation is subjective. Furthermore, the biomarkers assessed clinically are typically biomarkers of epithelial cell processes. Tumors and premalignant tissues are not composed only of epithelial cells but are interacting systems of multiple cell types, including various stromal cell types that are involved in cancer development. The complex network of the tissue system highlights the need for a systems biology approach to anatomic pathology, in which quantification of system processes is combined with informatics tools to produce actionable scores to aid clinical decision-making. Aims: Here, we describe a quantitative, multiplexed biomarker imaging approach termed TissueCypher™ that applies systems biology to anatomic pathology. Applications of TissueCypher™ in understanding the tissue system of Barrett's esophagus (BE and the potential use as an adjunctive tool in the diagnosis of BE are described. Patients and Methods: The TissueCypher™ Image Analysis Platform was used to assess 14 epithelial and stromal biomarkers with known diagnostic significance in BE in a set of BE biopsies with nondysplastic BE with reactive atypia (RA, n = 22 and Barrett's with high-grade dysplasia (HGD, n = 17. Biomarker and morphology features were extracted and evaluated in the confirmed BE HGD cases versus the nondysplastic BE cases with RA. Results: Multiple image analysis features derived from epithelial and stromal biomarkers, including immune biomarkers and morphology, showed significant differences between HGD and RA. Conclusions: The assessment of epithelial cell abnormalities combined with an assessment of cellular changes in the lamina propria may serve as an adjunct to conventional

  18. Patellar calcar: MRI appearance of a previously undescribed anatomical entity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collins, Mark S.; Tiegs-Heiden, Christin A. [Department of Radiology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota (United States); Stuart, Michael J. [Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota (United States)

    2014-02-15

    The femoral calcar is a constant anatomical structure within the proximal femur representing a condensation of bone trabeculae. It is our impression that a similar structure is present within the patella. The purpose of this retrospective study was to define the prevalence, appearance, location, and configuration of the patellar calcar on MRI examinations. One hundred consecutive unenhanced knee MRIs were retrospectively reviewed by two readers who were blinded to the clinical indication. The patellar calcar was defined as a dark signaling, linear or curvilinear structure subjacent to the patellar articular surface. If present, the patellar calcar was assigned to a ''well seen,'' ''moderately well seen,'' or ''faintly seen'' category. Location of the calcar within the patella, orientation, configuration, and thickness were recorded. Confounding variables, such as marrow edema, patellar chondromalacia, bipartite patella, or postoperative changes were also recorded. The patellar calcar was visualized in 81 out of 100 (81 %) MRIs. When detected, the calcar was well seen in 20 out of 81 (25 %), moderately well seen in 35 out of 81 (43 %), and faintly seen in 26 out of 81 (32 %). The anteroposterior width of the calcar measured at its thickest segment was: < 1 mm in 43 out of 81 (53 %), 1 mm in 28 out of 81 (35 %), and >1 mm in 10 out of 81 (12 %). The patellar calcar was seen in the majority of knee MRIs and had a consistent imaging appearance. The calcar may be obscured by degenerative arthrosis of the patella and rarely may mimic patellar stress fracture or osteochondritis dissecans. Radiologists and clinicians should be familiar with this normal anatomical structure. (orig.)

  19. An anatomically realistic brain phantom for quantification with positron tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phantom studies are useful in assessing and maximizing the accuracy and precision of quantification of absolute activity, assessing errors associated with patient positioning, and dosimetry. Most phantoms are limited by the use of simple shapes, which do not adequately reflect real anatomy. The authors have constructed an anatomically realistic life-size brain phantom for positron tomography studies. The phantom consists of separately fillable R + L caudates, R + L putamens, R + L globus passidus and cerebellum. These structures are contained in proper anatomic orientation within a fillable cerebrum. Solid ventricles are also present. The entire clear vinyl cerebrum is placed in a human skull. The internal brain structures were fabricated from polyester resin, with dimensions, shapes and sizes of the structures obtained from digitized contours of brain slices in the U.C.S.D. computerized brain atlas. The structures were filled with known concentrations of Ga-68 in water and scanned with our NeuroECAT. The phantom was aligned in the scanner for each structure, such that the tomographic slice passed through that structure's center. After calibration of the scanner with a standard phantom for counts/pixel uCi/cc conversion, the measured activity concentrations were compared with the actual concentrations. The ratio of measured to actual activity concentration (''recovery coefficient'') for the caudate was 0.33; for the putamen 0.42. For comparison, the ratio for spheres of diameters 9.5, 16,19 and 25.4 mm was 0.23, 0.54, 0.81, and 0.93. This phantom provides more realistic assessment of performance and allows calculation of correction factors

  20. Anatomical Correlates of Non-Verbal Perception in Dementia Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Pin-Hsuan; Chen, Hsiu-Hui; Chen, Nai-Ching; Chang, Wen-Neng; Huang, Chi-Wei; Chang, Ya-Ting; Hsu, Shih-Wei; Hsu, Che-Wei; Chang, Chiung-Chih

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Patients with dementia who have dissociations in verbal and non-verbal sound processing may offer insights into the anatomic basis for highly related auditory modes. Methods: To determine the neuronal networks on non-verbal perception, 16 patients with Alzheimer’s dementia (AD), 15 with behavior variant fronto-temporal dementia (bv-FTD), 14 with semantic dementia (SD) were evaluated and compared with 15 age-matched controls. Neuropsychological and auditory perceptive tasks were included to test the ability to compare pitch changes, scale-violated melody and for naming and associating with environmental sound. The brain 3D T1 images were acquired and voxel-based morphometry (VBM) was used to compare and correlated the volumetric measures with task scores. Results: The SD group scored the lowest among 3 groups in pitch or scale-violated melody tasks. In the environmental sound test, the SD group also showed impairment in naming and also in associating sound with pictures. The AD and bv-FTD groups, compared with the controls, showed no differences in all tests. VBM with task score correlation showed that atrophy in the right supra-marginal and superior temporal gyri was strongly related to deficits in detecting violated scales, while atrophy in the bilateral anterior temporal poles and left medial temporal structures was related to deficits in environmental sound recognition. Conclusions: Auditory perception of pitch, scale-violated melody or environmental sound reflects anatomical degeneration in dementia patients and the processing of non-verbal sounds are mediated by distinct neural circuits.

  1. Clinical repercussions of Martin-Gruber anastomosis: anatomical study☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavalheiro, Cristina Schmitt; Filho, Mauro Razuk; Pedro, Gabriel; Caetano, Maurício Ferreira; Vieira, Luiz Angelo; Caetano, Edie Benedito

    2016-01-01

    Objective The main objective of this study was to describe Martin-Gruber anastomosis anatomically and to recognize its clinical repercussions. Method 100 forearms of 50 adult cadavers were dissected in an anatomy laboratory. The dissection was performed by means of a midline incision along the entire forearm and the lower third of the upper arm. Two flaps including skin and subcutaneous tissue were folded back on the radial and ulnar sides, respectively. Results Nerve communication between the median and ulnar nerves in the forearm (Martin-Gruber anastomosis) was found in 27 forearms. The anastomosis was classified into six types: type I: anastomosis between the anterior interosseous nerve and the ulnar nerve (n = 9); type II: anastomosis between the anterior interosseous nerve and the ulnar nerve at two points (double anastomosis) (n = 2); type III: anastomosis between the median nerve and the ulnar nerve (n = 4); type IV: anastomosis between branches of the median nerve and ulnar nerve heading toward the flexor digitorum profundus muscle of the fingers; these fascicles form a loop with distal convexity (n = 5); type V: intramuscular anastomosis (n = 5); and type VI: anastomosis between a branch of the median nerve to the flexor digitorum superficialis muscle and the ulnar nerve (n = 2). Conclusion Knowledge of the anatomical variations relating to the innervation of the hand has great importance, especially with regard to physical examination, diagnosis, prognosis and surgical treatment. If these variations are not given due regard, errors and other consequences will be inevitable. PMID:27069892

  2. Anatomical delineation of congenital heart disease using 3D magnetic resonance imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams Bornemeier, Renee; Fellows, Kenneth E.; Fogel, Mark A.; Weinberg, Paul M.

    1994-05-01

    Anatomic delineation of the heart and great vessels is a necessity when managing children with congenital heart disease. Spatial orientation of the vessels and chambers in the heart and the heart itself may be quite abnormal. Though magnetic resonance imaging provides a noninvasive means for determining the anatomy, the intricate interrelationships between many structures are difficult to conceptualize from a 2-D format. Taking the 2-D images and using a volumetric analysis package allows for a 3-D replica of the heart to be created. This model can then be used to view the anatomy and spatial arrangement of the cardiac structures. This information may be utilized by the physicians to assist in the clinical management of these children.

  3. Evaluation of contrast reproduction method based on the anatomical guidance of the cerebral images reconstruction in positron emission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Positron emission tomography is a medical imaging modality providing in-vivo volumetric images of functional processes of the human body, which is used for the diagnosis and the following of neuro degenerative diseases. PET efficiency is however limited by its poor spatial resolution, which generates a decrease of the image local contrast and leads to an under-estimation of small cerebral structures involved in the degenerative mechanism of those diseases. This so-called partial volume effect degradation is usually corrected in a post-reconstruction processing framework through the use of anatomical information, whose spatial resolution allows a better discrimination between functional tissues. However, this kind of method has the major drawback of being very sensitive to the residual mismatches on the anatomical information processing. We developed in this thesis an alternative methodology to compensate for the degradation, by incorporating in the reconstruction process both a model of the system impulse response and an anatomically-based image prior constraint. This methodology was validated by comparison with a post-reconstruction correction strategy, using data from an anthropomorphic phantom acquisition and then we evaluated its robustness to the residual mismatches through a realistic Monte Carlo simulation corresponding to a cerebral exam. The proposed algorithm was finally applied to clinical data reconstruction. (author)

  4. Automatic extraction analysis of the anatomical functional area for normal brain 18F-FDG PET imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using self-designed automatic extraction software of brain functional area, the grey scale distribution of 18F-FDG imaging and the relationship between the 18F-FDG accumulation of brain anatomic function area and the 18F-FDG injected dose, the level of glucose, the age, etc., were studied. According to the Talairach coordinate system, after rotation, drift and plastic deformation, the 18F-FDG PET imaging was registered into the Talairach coordinate atlas, and then the average gray value scale ratios between individual brain anatomic functional area and whole brain area was calculated. Further more the statistics of the relationship between the 18F-FDG accumulation of every brain anatomic function area and the 18F-FDG injected dose, the level of glucose and the age were tested by using multiple stepwise regression model. After images' registration, smoothing and extraction, main cerebral cortex of the 18F-FDG PET brain imaging can be successfully localized and extracted, such as frontal lobe, parietal lobe, occipital lobe, temporal lobe, cerebellum, brain ventricle, thalamus and hippocampus. The average ratios to the inner reference of every brain anatomic functional area were 1.01 ± 0.15. By multiple stepwise regression with the exception of thalamus and hippocampus, the grey scale of all the brain functional area was negatively correlated to the ages, but with no correlation to blood sugar and dose in all areas. To the 18F-FDG PET imaging, the brain functional area extraction program could automatically delineate most of the cerebral cortical area, and also successfully reflect the brain blood and metabolic study, but extraction of the more detailed area needs further investigation

  5. Anatomic Illustrations of Cranial Ultrasound Images Through the Posterior Fontanelle in Neonates: Objective Analysis of Oblique Sonographic Scans using MRI and a Reconstruction Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Sang Young; Lee, Young Seok; Yoo, Dong Soo; Chang, Young Pyo [Dankook University Hospital, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-09-15

    Neonatal cranial sonography through the posterior fontanelle is more useful than through the anterior approach for the evaluation of posterior brain structures. The aims of this study were to determine the appropriate neonatal cranial sonography scan planes through the posterior fontanelle, and to objectively evaluate the anatomy of neonatal cranial sonographic images. Neonates who underwent cranial sonography and MRI including 3D-SPGR axial scans and showed normal features on both modalities were enrolled. We reconstructed MR images corresponding to sonographic planes, then constructed anatomic models of the neonatal cranial sonographic images using axial MRI as the standard reference on the same screen. We successfully created anatomic atlas that represents 8 oblique coronal and 4 oblique sagittal scans and planes that corresponded to the neonatal cranial sonographic images through the posterior fontanelle. The objective manner of this anatomic research provided standardized sonographic scan planes and created anatomic model through the posterior fontanelle. Cranial sonographic models through the posterior fontanelle using MRI and multi-planar reconstruction program will be helpful in the evaluation of sonographic anatomy and detection of abnormalities in the basal ganglia, thalamus and posterior part of the brain

  6. Depuration and anatomical distribution of domoic acid in the surf clam Mesodesma donacium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez, Gonzalo; Uribe, Eduardo; Regueiro, Jorge; Martin, Helena; Gajardo, Teresa; Jara, Lorena; Blanco, Juan

    2015-08-01

    In northern Chile, domoic acid (DA) has been detected in several bivalve species. In Mesodesma donacium, one of the most important commercial species for local fishermen, no information is available on depuration, or on the anatomical distribution of this toxin and its potential use as a palliative measure to minimize the consequences of ASP outbreaks. Deputation of DA is very fast in M. donacium, and can be adequately described by means of a two-compartment model. The estimated rates for the first and second compartments were 1.27 d(-1) and 0.24 d(-1), respectively, with a transfer rate between compartments of 0.75. Having high depuration rates protects this species from being affected by Pseudo-nitzschia blooms for an extended period of time. Taking this into account, the time in which the bivalves are unsafe for consumers is very short, and therefore the economic losses that could result by the DA outbreaks in local fisheries should be moderate. In relation to anatomical distribution, at least during the uptake phase, the toxin was evenly distributed within the soft tissues, with a total toxin burden corresponding to 27%, 32% and 41% for Digestive Gland (DG), Foot (FT) and Other Body Fractions (OBF), respectively. Since the contribution of each organ to the toxin concentration is a function of both weight contribution and toxin burden, the pattern of toxin distribution showed the following trend: "all other body fractions" (OBF) > Foot (FT) > Digestive Gland (DG). Thus, the highest concentration of DA, with a contribution close to 72%, corresponds to the edible tissues (OBF + FT), while the DG (non-edible tissue) only contributes the remaining 28%. Consequently, in view of the anatomical distribution of domoic acid in M. donacium, the elimination of the digestive gland does not substantially reduce the toxicity of the final product and therefore selective evisceration would not improve their quality for human consumption. PMID:26003793

  7. Altered anatomical network in early blindness revealed by diffusion tensor tractography.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ni Shu

    Full Text Available The topological architecture of the cerebral anatomical network reflects the structural organization of the human brain. Recently, topological measures based on graph theory have provided new approaches for quantifying large-scale anatomical networks. Diffusion MRI studies have revealed the efficient small-world properties and modular structure of the anatomical network in normal subjects. However, no previous study has used diffusion MRI to reveal changes in the brain anatomical network in early blindness. Here, we utilized diffusion tensor imaging to construct binary anatomical networks for 17 early blind subjects and 17 age- and gender-matched sighted controls. We established the existence of structural connections between any pair of the 90 cortical and sub-cortical regions using deterministic tractography. Compared with controls, early blind subjects showed a decreased degree of connectivity, a reduced global efficiency, and an increased characteristic path length in their brain anatomical network, especially in the visual cortex. Moreover, we revealed some regions with motor or somatosensory function have increased connections with other brain regions in the early blind, which suggested experience-dependent compensatory plasticity. This study is the first to show alterations in the topological properties of the anatomical network in early blindness. From the results, we suggest that analyzing the brain's anatomical network obtained using diffusion MRI data provides new insights into the understanding of the brain's re-organization in the specific population with early visual deprivation.

  8. "Anatomizing" Reversed: Use of Examination Questions that Foster Use of Higher Order Learning Skills by Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, E. Robert

    2010-01-01

    "Anatomizing" is a new verb some use to describe the breaking apart of a complex entity such as the human body, into isolated tidbits of information for study, which can never equal the complex, integrated whole. Although popular with first-year medical students, this practice of "tidbitting" anatomical information into easy to memorize facts or…

  9. Living AnatoME: Teaching and Learning Musculoskeletal Anatomy through Yoga and Pilates

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCulloch, Carrie; Marango, Stephanie Pieczenik; Friedman, Erica S.; Laitman, Jeffrey T.

    2010-01-01

    Living AnatoME, a program designed in 2004 by two medical students in conjunction with the Director of Anatomy, teaches musculoskeletal anatomy through yoga and Pilates. Previously offered as an adjunct to the Gross Anatomy course in 2007, Living AnatoME became an official part of the curriculum. Previous research conducted on the program…

  10. Anatomical Dolls: Their Use in Assessment of Children Who May Have Been Sexually Abused

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faller, Kathleen Coulborn

    2005-01-01

    This article examines anatomical dolls in interviews of children who may have been sexually abused from three perspectives. The article summarizes research findings on anatomical dolls, discusses advantages and disadvantages of using them, and describes endorsed doll uses. Although additional, ecologically-valid research is needed on anatomical…

  11. Anatomist on the dissecting table? Dutch anatomical professionals' views on body donation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bolt, Sophie; Venbrux, Eric; Eisinga, Rob; Gerrits, Peter O.

    2012-01-01

    Anatomical professionals know better than anyone else that donated bodies are a valuable asset to anatomical science and medical education. They highly value voluntary donations, since a dearth of bodies negatively affects their profession. With this in mind, we conducted a survey (n = 54) at the 17

  12. Anatomist on the dissecting table? Dutch anatomical professionals' views on body donation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bolt, S.H.; Venbrux, H.J.M.; Eisinga, R.N.; Gerrits, P.O.

    2012-01-01

    Anatomical professionals know better than anyone else that donated bodies are a valuable asset to anatomical science and medical education. They highly value voluntary donations, since a dearth of bodies negatively affects their profession. With this in mind, we conducted a survey (n ¼ 54) at the 17

  13. TECHNIQUE AND SURGICAL OUTCOMES OF ANATOMICAL LIVER RESECTIONS FOR COLORECTAL CANCER LIVER METASTASES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. V. Sidorov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Technique and surgical outcomes of anatomical liver resections using ERBEJET2® water-jet dissector were described. Overall 98 patients with colorectal cancer liver metastases were included in this study. In 43 patients resections were performed using water-jet dissection technique. Water-jet dissection seems to be safe and effective technique for anatomical liver resections.

  14. Peculiarities of leaves morpho-anatomical parameters of Salvia L. species under the conditions of introduction

    OpenAIRE

    Oksana V. Tyshchenko; Tatyana V. Multjan; Galyna O. Rudik

    2012-01-01

    The comparison of morpho-anatomical parameters of the leaves of three Salvia L. species of different biomorphes, which are grown under the introduction in O.V. Fomin Botanical Garden, is considered. The morpho-anatomical features, which allow to discover structural adaptation possibilities of Salvia species ex situ , are established.

  15. Mapping function in the human brain with magnetoencephalography, anatomical magnetic resonance imaging, and functional magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, J S; Aine, C J; Mosher, J C; Schmidt, D M; Ranken, D M; Schlitt, H A; Wood, C C; Lewine, J D; Sanders, J A; Belliveau, J W

    1995-09-01

    Integrated analyses of human anatomical and functional measurements offer a powerful paradigm for human brain mapping. Magnetoencephalography (MEG) and EEG provide excellent temporal resolution of neural population dynamics as well as capabilities for source localization. Anatomical magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) provides excellent spatial resolution of head and brain anatomy, whereas functional MRI (fMRI) techniques provide an alternative measure of neural activation based on associated hemodynamic changes. These methodologies constrain and complement each other and can thereby improve our interpretation of functional neural organization. We have developed a number of computational tools and techniques for the visualization, comparison, and integrated analysis of multiple neuroimaging techniques. Construction of geometric anatomical models from volumetric MRI data allows improved models of the head volume conductor and can provide powerful constraints for neural electromagnetic source modeling. These approaches, coupled to enhanced algorithmic strategies for the inverse problem, can significantly enhance the accuracy of source-localization procedures. We have begun to apply these techniques for studies of the functional organization of the human visual system. Such studies have demonstrated multiple, functionally distinct visual areas that can be resolved on the basis of their locations, temporal dynamics, and differential sensitivity to stimulus parameters. Our studies have also produced evidence of internal retinotopic organization in both striate and extrastriate visual areas but have disclosed organizational departures from classical models. Comparative studies of MEG and fMRI suggest a reasonable but imperfect correlation between electrophysiological and hemodynamic responses. We have demonstrated a method for the integrated analysis of fMRI and MEG, and we outline strategies for improvement of these methods. By combining multiple measurement techniques, we

  16. Microscopic and endoscopic anatomical study of the extended transsphenoidal approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HUANG Xin-tao

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background Traditional transsphenoidal approach has less treatment effect in invasive pituitary adenoma. To remove tumors growing outside the sella become one of the challenges in neurosurgery. This study aims to study anatomical characteristics of the extended transsphenoidal approach for clinical operation. Methods A mimetic surgery was performed on 10 adult cadaver heads through extended transsphenoidal approach by endoscopy. The study data of related anatomic structures were measured. Results The distance from sphenoidal ostium to anterior nasal spine is (59.68 ± 4.28 mm (52.62-63.16 mm, to posterior nasal aperture is (12.88 ± 1.46 mm (10.47-15.61 mm. The incidence of optic nerve and internal carotid artery protuberance in the lateral wall of sphenoidal sinus is 11/20 and 17/20, respectivly. The medial wall of the cavernous sinus is comprised of one dural layer. The incidence of anterior intercavernous sinus, posterior intercavernous sinus, inferior intercavernous sinus and basilar sinus is 17/20, 12/20, 11/20 and 20/20, respectively. The distance between the bilateral hidden segment of internal carotid artery is (15.30 ± 1.25 mm (12.42-21.76 mm, between the bilateral inferior horizontal segment midpoint is (14.03 ± 1.19 mm (10.42-18.43 mm, between the bilateral anterior vertical segment is (18.87 ± 1.44 mm (16.75-24.88 mm, and between the bilateral inner edge of tuberculum sellae is (12.73 ± 0.94 mm (9.97-16.18 mm. In 7 cases (7/20, the intracavernous carotid is in direct contact with the sellar part of the medial wall; in all cases (20/20, the venous plexus extends into the space between the intracavernous carotid and the sphenoidal part of the medial wall. The incidence of the intracavernous carotid coursing along the inferior one third of the pituitary gland is 9/20, along the inferior two thirds of the pituitary gland is 7/20, along the all the thirds of the pituitary gland is 3/20, while below the level of the sellar floor is

  17. The functional and anatomical dissection of somatosensory subpopulations using mouse genetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire E Le Pichon

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The word somatosensation comes from joining the Greek word for body (soma with a word for perception (sensation. Somatosensory neurons comprise the largest sensory system in mammals and have nerve endings coursing throughout the skin, viscera, muscle, and bone. Their cell bodies reside in a chain of ganglia adjacent to the dorsal spinal cord (the dorsal root ganglia and at the base of the skull (the trigeminal ganglia. While the neuronal cell bodies are intermingled within the ganglia, the somatosensory system is in reality composed of numerous sub-systems, each specialized to detect distinct stimuli, such as temperature and touch. Historically, somatosensory neurons have been classified using a diverse host of anatomical and physiological parameters, such as the size of the cell body, degree of myelination, histological labeling with markers, specialization of the nerve endings, projection patterns in the spinal cord and brainstem, receptive tuning, and conduction velocity of their action potentials. While useful, the picture that emerged was one of heterogeneity, with many markers at least partially overlapping. More recently, by capitalizing on advances in molecular techniques, researchers have identified specific ion channels and sensory receptors expressed in subsets of sensory neurons. These studies have proved invaluable as they allow genetic access to small subsets of neurons for further molecular dissection. Data being generated from transgenic mice favor the model whereby an array of dedicated neurons is responsible for selectively encoding different modalities. Here we review the current knowledge of the different sensory neuron subtypes in the mouse, the markers used to study them, and the neurogenetic strategies used to define their anatomical projections and functional roles.

  18. A feasibility study for anatomical noise reduction in dual-energy chest digital tomosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, D.; Kim, Y.-s.; Choi, S.; Lee, H.; Choi, S.; Kim, H.-J.

    2016-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death worldwide. Thus, early diagnosis is of considerable importance. For early screening of lung cancer, computed tomography (CT) has been used as the gold standard. Chest digital tomosynthesis (CDT) is a recently introduced modality for lung cancer screening with a relatively low radiation dose compared to CT. The dual energy material decomposition method has been proposed for better detection of pulmonary nodules by means of reducing anatomical noise. In this study, the possibility of material decomposition in CDT was tested by both a simulation study and an experimental study using a CDT prototype. The Geant4 application for tomographic emission (GATE) v6 and tungsten anode spectral model using interpolating polynomials (TASMIP) codes were used for the simulation study to create simulated phantom shapes consisting of five inner cylinders filled with different densities of bone and airequivalent materials. Furthermore, the CDT prototype system and human phantom chest were used for the experimental study. CDT scan in both the simulation and experimental studies was performed with linear movement and 21 projection images were obtained over a 30 degree angular range with a 1.5 degree angular interval. To obtain materialselective images, a projectionbased energy subtraction technique was applied to high and low energy images. The resultant simulation images showed that dual-energy reconstruction could achieve an approximately 32% higher contrast to noise ratio (CNR) in images and the difference in CNR value according to bone density was significant compared to single energy CDT. Additionally, image artifacts were effectively corrected in dual energy CDT simulation studies. Likewise the experimental study with dual energy produced clear images of lung fields and bone structure by removing unnecessary anatomical structures. Dual energy tomosynthesis is a new technique; therefore, there is little guidance regarding its

  19. Anatomical likelihood estimation meta-analysis of grey and white matter anomalies in autism spectrum disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas P. DeRamus

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Autism spectrum disorders (ASD are characterized by impairments in social communication and restrictive, repetitive behaviors. While behavioral symptoms are well-documented, investigations into the neurobiological underpinnings of ASD have not resulted in firm biomarkers. Variability in findings across structural neuroimaging studies has contributed to difficulty in reliably characterizing the brain morphology of individuals with ASD. These inconsistencies may also arise from the heterogeneity of ASD, and wider age-range of participants included in MRI studies and in previous meta-analyses. To address this, the current study used coordinate-based anatomical likelihood estimation (ALE analysis of 21 voxel-based morphometry (VBM studies examining high-functioning individuals with ASD, resulting in a meta-analysis of 1055 participants (506 ASD, and 549 typically developing individuals. Results consisted of grey, white, and global differences in cortical matter between the groups. Modeled anatomical maps consisting of concentration, thickness, and volume metrics of grey and white matter revealed clusters suggesting age-related decreases in grey and white matter in parietal and inferior temporal regions of the brain in ASD, and age-related increases in grey matter in frontal and anterior-temporal regions. White matter alterations included fiber tracts thought to play key roles in information processing and sensory integration. Many current theories of pathobiology ASD suggest that the brains of individuals with ASD may have less-functional long-range (anterior-to-posterior connections. Our findings of decreased cortical matter in parietal–temporal and occipital regions, and thickening in frontal cortices in older adults with ASD may entail altered cortical anatomy, and neurodevelopmental adaptations.

  20. Age-Dependent Effects of Haptoglobin Deletion in Neurobehavioral and Anatomical Outcomes Following Traumatic Brain Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glushakov, Alexander V.; Arias, Rodrigo A.; Tolosano, Emanuela; Doré, Sylvain

    2016-01-01

    Cerebral hemorrhages are common features of traumatic brain injury (TBI) and their presence is associated with chronic disabilities. Recent clinical and experimental evidence suggests that haptoglobin (Hp), an endogenous hemoglobin-binding protein most abundant in blood plasma, is involved in the intrinsic molecular defensive mechanism, though its role in TBI is poorly understood. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of Hp deletion on the anatomical and behavioral outcomes in the controlled cortical impact model using wildtype (WT) C57BL/6 mice and genetically modified mice lacking the Hp gene (Hp−∕−) in two age cohorts [2–4 mo-old (young adult) and 7–8 mo-old (older adult)]. The data obtained suggest age-dependent significant effects on behavioral and anatomical TBI outcomes and recovery from injury. Moreover, in the adult cohort, neurological deficits in Hp−∕− mice at 24 h were significantly improved compared to WT, whereas there were no significant differences in brain pathology between these genotypes. In contrast, in the older adult cohort, Hp−∕− mice had significantly larger lesion volumes compared to WT, but neurological deficits were not significantly different. Immunohistochemistry for ionized calcium-binding adapter molecule 1 (Iba1) and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) revealed significant differences in microglial and astrocytic reactivity between Hp−∕− and WT in selected brain regions of the adult but not the older adult-aged cohort. In conclusion, the data obtained in the study provide clarification on the age-dependent aspects of the intrinsic defensive mechanisms involving Hp that might be involved in complex pathways differentially affecting acute brain trauma outcomes. PMID:27486583

  1. Anatomical changes within the medullary dorsal horn in chronic temporomandibular disorder pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcox, S L; Gustin, S M; Macey, P M; Peck, C C; Murray, G M; Henderson, L A

    2015-08-15

    Accumulated evidence from experimental animal models suggests that neuroplastic changes at the dorsal horn are critical for the maintenance of various chronic musculoskeletal pain conditions. However, to date, no study has specifically investigated whether neuroplastic changes also occur at this level in humans. Using brain imaging techniques, we sought to determine whether anatomical changes were present in the medullary dorsal horn (spinal trigeminal nucleus caudalis) in subjects with the chronic musculoskeletal pain. In twenty-two subjects with painful temporomandibular disorders (TMDs) and forty pain-free controls voxel based morphometry of T1-weighted anatomical images and diffusion tensor images were used to assess regional grey matter volume and microstructural changes within the brainstem and, in addition, the integrity of ascending pain pathways. Voxel based morphometry revealed significant regional grey matter volume decreases in the medullary dorsal horn, in conjunction with alterations in diffusivity properties, namely an increase in mean diffusivity, in TMD subjects. Volumetric and mean diffusivity changes also occurred in TMD subjects in regions of the descending pain modulation system, including the midbrain periaqueductal grey matter and nucleus raphe magnus. Finally, tractography revealed altered diffusivity properties, namely decreased fractional anisotropy, in the root entry zone of the trigeminal nerve, the spinal trigeminal tract and the ventral trigeminothalamic tracts of TMD subjects. These data reveal that chronic musculoskeletal pain in humans is associated with discrete alterations in the anatomy of the medullary dorsal horn, as well as its afferent and efferent projections. These neural changes may be critical for the maintenance of pathological pain. PMID:25979666

  2. Why can't rodents vomit? A comparative behavioral, anatomical, and physiological study.

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    Charles C Horn

    Full Text Available The vomiting (emetic reflex is documented in numerous mammalian species, including primates and carnivores, yet laboratory rats and mice appear to lack this response. It is unclear whether these rodents do not vomit because of anatomical constraints (e.g., a relatively long abdominal esophagus or lack of key neural circuits. Moreover, it is unknown whether laboratory rodents are representative of Rodentia with regards to this reflex. Here we conducted behavioral testing of members of all three major groups of Rodentia; mouse-related (rat, mouse, vole, beaver, Ctenohystrica (guinea pig, nutria, and squirrel-related (mountain beaver species. Prototypical emetic agents, apomorphine (sc, veratrine (sc, and copper sulfate (ig, failed to produce either retching or vomiting in these species (although other behavioral effects, e.g., locomotion, were noted. These rodents also had anatomical constraints, which could limit the efficiency of vomiting should it be attempted, including reduced muscularity of the diaphragm and stomach geometry that is not well structured for moving contents towards the esophagus compared to species that can vomit (cat, ferret, and musk shrew. Lastly, an in situ brainstem preparation was used to make sensitive measures of mouth, esophagus, and shoulder muscular movements, and phrenic nerve activity-key features of emetic episodes. Laboratory mice and rats failed to display any of the common coordinated actions of these indices after typical emetic stimulation (resiniferatoxin and vagal afferent stimulation compared to musk shrews. Overall the results suggest that the inability to vomit is a general property of Rodentia and that an absent brainstem neurological component is the most likely cause. The implications of these findings for the utility of rodents as models in the area of emesis research are discussed.

  3. Some anatomical variation of paranasal sinuses using sinus endoscopic approach on "cadaver" in Isfahan, Iran

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    Nezamoddin Berjis

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Due to the anatomical variations of the paranasal sinuses and its great importance in sinus surgery, as this area is in very close proximity to vital structures including the optic nerve, carotid artery, and skull base, anatomical knowledge of this area is of high importance. The purpose of this study is defining a full and clear impression of paranasal sinus anatomy and its variations as a model for the human population of the country. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted on 45 cadavers in Isfahan forensic Medicine center during 2010 to 2011. Nasal and paranasal sinuses endoscopic dissection was done with (zero and 30 o lenses (Olympus. The methods of performed dissection were via the Stamberger technique. Results: This study showed that 88.9% (40 cases of middle turbinates were in a typical form, while 6.7% (3 cases were in medial and only 4.4% (2 cases were in the lateral form. We also observed 88.9% (40 cases with Agger nasi cells, 37.8% (17 cases with Onodi cells, 28.9% cases with accessory Ostia of maxillary sinus (13 cases, and 15.6% of the cases (7 cases with concha bullosa. The position of the maxillary sinus ostium was as follows. The inferior 1/3 of hiatus semilunaris in 38 (84.5%, superior 1/3 of hiatus semilunaris in 4 (4.4%, middle 1/3 of hiatus semilunaris in 5 (11.1%. The sphenoid ostia in 53.3% (24 cases were slit shape, 28.9% (13 cases oval, and 17.8% (18 cases were round shape. Conclusion : Our survey showed that the distance between anterior nasal spine and anterior wall of the sphenoid sinus was within 7.6 ± 0.2 cm SD.

  4. A feasibility study for anatomical noise reduction in dual-energy chest digital tomosynthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death worldwide. Thus, early diagnosis is of considerable importance. For early screening of lung cancer, computed tomography (CT) has been used as the gold standard. Chest digital tomosynthesis (CDT) is a recently introduced modality for lung cancer screening with a relatively low radiation dose compared to CT. The dual energy material decomposition method has been proposed for better detection of pulmonary nodules by means of reducing anatomical noise. In this study, the possibility of material decomposition in CDT was tested by both a simulation study and an experimental study using a CDT prototype. The Geant4 application for tomographic emission (GATE) v6 and tungsten anode spectral model using interpolating polynomials (TASMIP) codes were used for the simulation study to create simulated phantom shapes consisting of five inner cylinders filled with different densities of bone and airequivalent materials. Furthermore, the CDT prototype system and human phantom chest were used for the experimental study. CDT scan in both the simulation and experimental studies was performed with linear movement and 21 projection images were obtained over a 30 degree angular range with a 1.5 degree angular interval. To obtain materialselective images, a projectionbased energy subtraction technique was applied to high and low energy images. The resultant simulation images showed that dual-energy reconstruction could achieve an approximately 32% higher contrast to noise ratio (CNR) in images and the difference in CNR value according to bone density was significant compared to single energy CDT. Additionally, image artifacts were effectively corrected in dual energy CDT simulation studies. Likewise the experimental study with dual energy produced clear images of lung fields and bone structure by removing unnecessary anatomical structures. Dual energy tomosynthesis is a new technique; therefore, there is little guidance regarding its

  5. Anatomic Illustrations of Cranial Ultrasound Images Obtained Through the Mastoid Fontanelle in Neonates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Bong Man; Lee, Young Seok [Dankook University Hospital, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-09-15

    Neonatal cranial sonography performed through the mastoid fontanelle is more useful to evaluate the peripheral structures at the convexity of the cerebral hemispheres and brainstem rather than that performed through the anterior fontanelle. The purpose of this study is to demonstrate the anatomy of the extracerebral CSF space and brainstem and to suggest appropriate scan planes for performing neonatal cranial sonography through the mastoid fontanelle using MRI and multiplanar reconstruction programs. A neonate with normal features on ultrasonography and good image quality on MRI, including the 3D-SPGR axial scans, was selected. We made the reconstructed MR images corresponding to the sonongraphic planes and the anatomic models of the neonatal cranial sonographic images by using axial MRI as the standard reference on the same screen. We demonstrated the sonographic images at the levels of the body of the caudate nucleus and lentiform nucleus, the head of the caudate nucleus and thalamus, the third ventricle and midbrain, and the midbrain and cerebellar vermis on the oblique axial scans. Four oblique coronal images at the levels of the periventricular white matter, basal ganglia, thalamus and tentorium were also obtained. We illustrated the anatomic atlas with including four oblique axial scans and four oblique coronal scans that corresponded to the neonatal cranial sonographic images through the mastoid fontanelle. We objectively analyzed the anatomy of the extracerebral CSF space and brainstem by using MRI and multiplanar reconstruction programs and we provided the standardized sonographic scan planes through the mastoid fontanelle. This study will be very helpful for evaluating the abnormalities of the peripheral structures at the convexity of the cerebral hemispheres and brainstem

  6. Cerebral functional connectivity periodically (de)synchronizes with anatomical constraints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liégeois, Raphaël; Ziegler, Erik; Phillips, Christophe; Geurts, Pierre; Gómez, Francisco; Bahri, Mohamed Ali; Yeo, B T Thomas; Soddu, Andrea; Vanhaudenhuyse, Audrey; Laureys, Steven; Sepulchre, Rodolphe

    2016-07-01

    This paper studies the link between resting-state functional connectivity (FC), measured by the correlations of fMRI BOLD time courses, and structural connectivity (SC), estimated through fiber tractography. Instead of a static analysis based on the correlation between SC and FC averaged over the entire fMRI time series, we propose a dynamic analysis, based on the time evolution of the correlation between SC and a suitably windowed FC. Assessing the statistical significance of the time series against random phase permutations, our data show a pronounced peak of significance for time window widths around 20-30 TR (40-60 s). Using the appropriate window width, we show that FC patterns oscillate between phases of high modularity, primarily shaped by anatomy, and phases of low modularity, primarily shaped by inter-network connectivity. Building upon recent results in dynamic FC, this emphasizes the potential role of SC as a transitory architecture between different highly connected resting-state FC patterns. Finally, we show that the regions contributing the most to these whole-brain level fluctuations of FC on the supporting anatomical architecture belong to the default mode and the executive control networks suggesting that they could be capturing consciousness-related processes such as mind wandering. PMID:26197763

  7. Mandibular Ramus Fracture: An Overview of Rare Anatomical Subsite

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    Anendd Jadhav

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. The present study aims at exemplifying the incidence, and aetiology and analyses the outcomes of open reduction internal fixation (ORIF over closed treatment of mandibular ramus fractures. Patients and Method. In the present retrospective analysis of mandibular fracture patients, variables analysed were age, sex, cause of injury, pretreatment occlusion, treatment given, period of maxillo-mandibular fixation (MMF, and posttreatment occlusion. Results. Out of 388 mandibular fractures treated, ramus fractures were 12 (3.09%. In the present study, predominant cause of mandibular ramus fracture was road traffic accident (RTA n = 07 (58.33% followed by fall n = 04 (33.33% and assault n = 1 (8.33%. The average age was 35.9 years with a male predilection. Of these, 9 patients were treated with ORIF while remaining 3 with closed treatment. The average MMF after closed treatment was 21 days and 3 to 5 days after ORIF. There was improvement in occlusion in all 12 patients posttreatment with no major complication except for reduced mouth opening in cases treated with ORIF which recovered with physiotherapy and muscle relaxants. Conclusion. Mandibular ramus fractures accounted for 3.09% with RTA as a common aetiology. ORIF of ramus fractures facilitated adequate functional and anatomic reduction with early return of function.

  8. Anatomic and functional imaging of tagged molecules in animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisenberger, Andrew G.; Majewski, Stanislaw; Paulus, Michael J.; Gleason, Shaun S.

    2007-04-24

    A novel functional imaging system for use in the imaging of unrestrained and non-anesthetized small animals or other subjects and a method for acquiring such images and further registering them with anatomical X-ray images previously or subsequently acquired. The apparatus comprises a combination of an IR laser profilometry system and gamma, PET and/or SPECT, imaging system, all mounted on a rotating gantry, that permits simultaneous acquisition of positional and orientational information and functional images of an unrestrained subject that are registered, i.e. integrated, using image processing software to produce a functional image of the subject without the use of restraints or anesthesia. The functional image thus obtained can be registered with a previously or subsequently obtained X-ray CT image of the subject. The use of the system described herein permits functional imaging of a subject in an unrestrained/non-anesthetized condition thereby reducing the stress on the subject and eliminating any potential interference with the functional testing that such stress might induce.

  9. Image-anatomic research of the alar ligament

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To detect position and morphous as well as coursing of the alar ligament, and to further investigate the sectional anatomy and CT and MRI imaging of the alar ligament. Methods: Twelve formalin fixed specimens including head and neck utilized, three of the twelve were observed in gross anatomy, nine of them were dissectioned. Fifty- one healthy volunteers from each group were selected to perform CT and MRI examination respectively. By combining gross and sectional anatomy. CT and MRI manifestations of the alar ligament were analyzed, the alar ligament width was measured. Results: Location and shape, as well as coursing of the alar ligament could be demonstrated clearly in gross and sectional anatomy. The transverse plane across the upper dens and the coronal plane by the middle dens were the optimal planes for demonstrating the alar ligament. The display ratio of the alar ligament was even 100% (51/51) in both images of CT and MRI. MRI had better advantages than CT in respect of demonstrating the alar ligament, PDWI (proton density weighted imaging, PDWI) is the most optimal sequence for the alar ligament. There were no significant differences of the alar ligament width between male and female and between the right and the left side (P>0.05). Conclusion: In combination with gross and sectional anatomy. CT and MRI could both provide an imageo-anatomic basis for diagnosis of the alar ligament trauma and malformation as well as infection. (authors)

  10. Anatomic Localization of Thrombi in Our Cases of Pulmonary Thromboembolism

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    Cantürk Taþçý

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Pulmonary thromboembolism (PTE, known to be diagnosed with the disease requiring immediate treatment. Pulmonary angiography as the gold standard among the methods being used in the diagnosis of pulmonary CT angiography, ventilation perfusion scan, is located within the lower extremity venous Doppler ultrasound diagnostic algorithms. Scintigraphy and CT angiography in the diagnosis of PTE according to the conditions of the hospital may gain priority. In recent years, close to the accuracy of CT angiography results were obtained with the invasive angiography. Radiologists subsegment branches of pulmonary artery thrombus, a fact that they are looking forced. CT angiographic images of patients with pulmonary thromboembolism with thrombus in our study by examining the distribution profile were revealed. Radiologists and clinicians aimed to give information on this issue. Material and Method: Within one year period at our outpatient clinic of Chest Diseases and pulmonary CT angiography images of 37 patients diagnosed with PTE were reviewed retrospectively. Results: Determined the distribution and frequency of thrombi. Thrombus in the pulmonaryarteries are most commonly seen in all the branches to the lower lobes. The thrombus inthe left upper lobe was the least anatomical localisation. Discussion: Today, close to the results seen that BTPA invasive pulmonary angiography. Thrombioften seen as places for Clinicians and radiologists believe that information about the donor.

  11. Anatomical distribution of estrogen target neurons in turtle brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Autoradiographic studies with [3H]estradiol-17β in red-eared turtle (Pseudemys scripta elegans) show concentration and retention of radioactivity in nuclei of neurons in certain regions. Accumulations of estrogen target neurons exist in the periventricular brain with relationships to ventral extensions of the forebrain ventricles, including parolfactory, amygdaloid, septal, preoptic, hypothalamic and thalamic areas, as well as the dorsal ventricular ridge, the piriform cortex, and midbrain-pontine periaqueductal structures. The general anatomical pattern of distribution of estrogen target neurons corresponds to those observed not only in another reptile (Anolis carolinensis), but also in birds and mammals, as well as in teleosts and cyclostomes. In Pseudemys, which appears to display an intermediate degree of phylogenetic differentiation, the amygdaloid-septal-preoptic groups of estrogen target neurons constitute a continuum. In phylogenetic ascendency, e.g. in mammals, these cell populations are increasingly separated and distinct, while in phylogenetic descendency, e.g. in teleosts and cyclostomes, an amygdaloid group appears to be absent or contained within the septal-preoptic target cell population. (Auth.)

  12. Anatomical study on the innervation of the elbow capsule☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavalheiro, Cristina Schmitt; Filho, Mauro Razuk; Rozas, João; Wey, João; de Andrade, Antonio Marcos; Caetano, Edie Benedito

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To put forward an anatomical description of the innervation of the elbow capsule, illustrated through morphological analysis on dissections. Methods Thirty elbows from fresh fixed adult cadavers aged 32–74 years, of both sexes, were dissected. Results Among the dissected arms, we observed that the median nerve did not have any branches in two arms, while it had one branch in five arms, two branches in two arms, three branches in ten arms, four branches in nine arms and five branches in two arms. The radial nerve did not have any branches in two arms, while it had one branch in two arms, two branches in nine arms, three branches in ten arms, four branches in five arms and five branches in two arms. The ulnar nerve did not have any branches in three arms, while it had one branch in six arms, two branches in four arms, three branches in five arms, four branches in seven arms, five branches in four arms and six branches in one arm. Conclusions We observed branches of the radial, ulnar and medial nerves in the elbow joint, and a close relationship between their capsular and motor branches.

  13. Determinants of alveolar ridge preservation differ by anatomic location

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leblebicioglu, Binnaz; Salas, Mabel; Ort, Yirae; Johnson, Ashley; Yildiz, Vedat O.; Kim, Do-Gyoon; Agarwal, Sudha; Tatakis, Dimitris N.

    2016-01-01

    Aim To investigate and compare outcomes following alveolar ridge preservation (ARP) in posterior maxilla and mandible. Methods Twenty-four patients (54 ± 3 years) with single posterior tooth extraction were included. ARP was performed with freeze-dried bone allograft and collagen membrane. Clinical parameters were recorded at extraction and re-entry. Harvested bone cores were analysed by microcomputed tomography (micro-CT), histomorphometry and immunohistochemistry. Results In both jaws, ARP prevented ridge height loss, but ridge width was significantly reduced by approximately 2.5 mm. Healing time, initial clinical attachment loss and amount of keratinized tissue at extraction site were identified as determinants of ridge height outcome. Buccal plate thickness and tooth root length were identified as determinants of ridge width outcome. In addition, initial ridge width was positively correlated with ridge width loss. Micro-CT revealed greater mineralization per unit volume in new bone compared with existing bone in mandible (p < 0.001). Distributions of residual graft, new cellular bone and immature tissue were similar in both jaws. Conclusion Within the limitations of this study, the results indicate that in different anatomic locations different factors may determine ARP outcomes. Further studies are needed to better understand determinants of ARP outcomes. PMID:23432761

  14. Anatomic Reconstruction Technique for a Plantar Calcaneonavicular (Spring) Ligament Tear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmanovich, Ezequiel; Shabat, Shay; Brin, Yaron S; Feldman, Viktor; Kish, Benny; Nyska, Meir

    2015-01-01

    Acquired flatfoot deformity in adults is usually due to partial or complete tearing of the posterior tibial tendon, with secondary failure of other structures such as the plantar calcaneonavicular (spring) ligament (SL), which maintain the medial longitudinal arch. In flexible cases, the tibialis posterior can be replaced with the flexor digitorum longus. It is common practice to suture the SL directly in the case of a tear; however, if the tear is complete, suturing directly to the ligament alone will not be possible. Reconstruction of the ligament is needed; however, no validated methods are available to reconstruct this ligament. The operative technique of SL reconstruction described in this report as a part of acquired flatfoot deformity reconstruction consists of augmenting remnants of the spring from the navicularis to the sustentaculum tali and suspending it to the medial malleolus using 2-mm-wide, long-chain polyethylene suture tape. This technique results in the firm anatomic reconstruction of the SL, in addition to "classic" medial arch reconstruction. We recommend SL reconstruction for medial arch reconstruction when the SL is torn. PMID:26253476

  15. Retromolar foramen: an anatomical study with clinical considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamieldien, M Y; Van Schoor, A

    2016-09-01

    The retromolar canal and foramen, an anatomical variation in the mandibular retromolar area, houses and transmits neurovascular elements that may innervate the mandibular third molar and associated tissues. These structures have been implicated in local anaesthetic failure, loss of sensation in the normal distribution of the buccal nerve, and local haemorrhage during surgery. Examination of 885 dry mandibles showed that 70 had a retromolar foramen (8%). There were no significant differences between groups according to age, sex, or ancestry. The mean (SD) distance from molar to retromolar foramen was 16.8 (5.6) mm for the mandibular second molar and 10.5 (3.8) mm for the mandibular third molar. The link between these structures and failure of local anaesthesia seems tenuous at best. Bleeding may not represent a serious complication. Although there may be a possibility of perineural spread of infective and invasive pathology, we know of no reported cases. The only clear evidence of complications associated with a confirmed retromolar foramen seems to be loss of sensation in the normal distribution of the buccal nerve. Even though the retromolar foramen does not seem to be of great clinical importance, it could be a source of anxiety for the inexperienced practitioner. PMID:27354332

  16. Anatomical Study an the Development of Strawberry Fruit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    The development of strawberry fruit, two cultivars-Gelila and Xiaoshi, was systematically studied by anatomical and embryological methods. The growth dynamics of fruit showed that the two cultivars performed similar changes with their fresh weight volume and structure, it included the first slow growth stage, the rapid growth stage and the second solw growth stage. The fruit was a typical polyachene with a ovule which belonged to a Poligonum type, the growth process of pollen tube from stigma to embryo sac was clearly observed by flourescence microscopy. Embryo development was similar to that of most dicotyls, and the mature embryo was orthotropous; Endosperm development was a nuclear type, and gradually disappeared with development:Seed coat consisted of 3~4 layer cells, and pericarp was composed of 6~8 layer cells which differentiated from ovary wall cell; The structure of receptacle was a typical stem which consisted of epidermis ,cortex and vascular cylinder. With development, the cortex and pith of fruit contained plentiful parenchyma tissue, and they were mainly edible sections.

  17. An anatomic gene expression atlas of the adult mouse brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Lydia; Bernard, Amy; Lau, Chris; Overly, Caroline C; Dong, Hong-Wei; Kuan, Chihchau; Pathak, Sayan; Sunkin, Susan M; Dang, Chinh; Bohland, Jason W; Bokil, Hemant; Mitra, Partha P; Puelles, Luis; Hohmann, John; Anderson, David J; Lein, Ed S; Jones, Allan R; Hawrylycz, Michael

    2009-03-01

    Studying gene expression provides a powerful means of understanding structure-function relationships in the nervous system. The availability of genome-scale in situ hybridization datasets enables new possibilities for understanding brain organization based on gene expression patterns. The Anatomic Gene Expression Atlas (AGEA) is a new relational atlas revealing the genetic architecture of the adult C57Bl/6J mouse brain based on spatial correlations across expression data for thousands of genes in the Allen Brain Atlas (ABA). The AGEA includes three discovery tools for examining neuroanatomical relationships and boundaries: (1) three-dimensional expression-based correlation maps, (2) a hierarchical transcriptome-based parcellation of the brain and (3) a facility to retrieve from the ABA specific genes showing enriched expression in local correlated domains. The utility of this atlas is illustrated by analysis of genetic organization in the thalamus, striatum and cerebral cortex. The AGEA is a publicly accessible online computational tool integrated with the ABA (http://mouse.brain-map.org/agea). PMID:19219037

  18. Anatomical correlates of cognitive functions in early Parkinson's disease patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Biundo

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cognitive deficits may occur early in Parkinson's disease (PD but the extent of cortical involvement associated with cognitive dysfunction needs additional investigations. The aim of our study is to identify the anatomical pattern of cortical thickness alterations in patients with early stage PD and its relationship with cognitive disability. METHODS: We recruited 29 PD patients and 21 healthy controls. All PD patients performed an extensive neuropsychological examination and 14 were diagnosed with mild cognitive impairment (PD-MCI. Surface-based cortical thickness analysis was applied to investigate the topographical distribution of cortical and subcortical alterations in early PD compared with controls and to assess the relationship between cognition and regional cortical changes in PD-MCI. RESULTS: Overall PD patients showed focal cortical (occipital-parietal areas, orbito-frontal and olfactory areas and subcortical thinning when compared with controls. PD-MCI showed a wide spectrum of cognitive deficits and related significant regional thickening in the right parietal-frontal as well as in the left temporal-occipital areas. CONCLUSION: Our results confirm the presence of changes in grey matter thickness at relatively early PD stage and support previous studies showing thinning and atrophy in the neocortex and subcortical regions. Relative cortical thickening in PD-MCI may instead express compensatory neuroplasticity. Brain reserve mechanisms might first modulate cognitive decline during the initial stages of PD.

  19. 3D harmonic phase tracking with anatomical regularization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yitian; Bernard, Olivier; Saloux, Eric; Manrique, Alain; Allain, Pascal; Makram-Ebeid, Sherif; De Craene, Mathieu

    2015-12-01

    This paper presents a novel algorithm that extends HARP to handle 3D tagged MRI images. HARP results were regularized by an original regularization framework defined in an anatomical space of coordinates. In the meantime, myocardium incompressibility was integrated in order to correct the radial strain which is reported to be more challenging to recover. Both the tracking and regularization of LV displacements were done on a volumetric mesh to be computationally efficient. Also, a window-weighted regression method was extended to cardiac motion tracking which helps maintain a low complexity even at finer scales. On healthy volunteers, the tracking accuracy was found to be as accurate as the best candidates of a recent benchmark. Strain accuracy was evaluated on synthetic data, showing low bias and strain errors under 5% (excluding outliers) for longitudinal and circumferential strains, while the second and third quartiles of the radial strain errors are in the (-5%,5%) range. In clinical data, strain dispersion was shown to correlate with the extent of transmural fibrosis. Also, reduced deformation values were found inside infarcted segments. PMID:26363844

  20. Biomechanical comparison of conventional and anatomical calcaneal plates for the treatment of intraarticular calcaneal fractures - a finite element study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Bin; Chen, Wen-Chuan; Lee, Pei-Yuan; Lin, Kang-Ping; Lin, Kun-Jhih; Tsai, Cheng-Lun; Wei, Hung-Wen

    2016-10-01

    Initial stability is essential for open reduction internal fixation of intraarticular calcaneal fractures. Geometrical feature of a calcaneal plate is influential to its endurance under physiological load. It is unclear if conventional and pre-contoured anatomical calcaneal plates may exhibit differently in biomechanical perspective. A Sanders' Type II-B intraarticular calcaneal fracture model was reconstructed to evaluate the effectiveness of calcaneal plates using finite element methods. Incremental vertical joint loads up to 450 N were exerted on the subtalar joint to evaluate the stability and safety of the calcaneal plates and bony structure. Results revealed that the anatomical calcaneal plate model had greater average structural stiffness (585.7 N/mm) and lower von Mises stress on the plate (774.5 MPa) compared to those observed in the conventional calcaneal plate model (stiffness: 430.9 N/mm; stress on plate: 867.1 MPa). Although both maximal compressive and maximal tensile stress and strain were lower in the anatomical calcaneal plate group, greater loads on fixation screws were found (average 172.7 MPa compared to 82.18 MPa in the conventional calcaneal plate). It was noted that high magnitude stress concentrations would occur where the bone plate bridges the fracture line on the lateral side of the calcaneus bone. Sufficient fixation strength at the posterolateral calcaneus bone is important for maintaining subtalar joint load after reduction and fixation of a Sanders' Type II-B calcaneal fracture. In addition, geometrical design of a calcaneal plate should worth considering for the mechanical safety in practical usage. PMID:26813403

  1. The Anatomical Institute at the University of Greifswald during National Socialism: The procurement of bodies and their use for anatomical purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvermann, Dirk; Mittenzwei, Jan

    2016-05-01

    This is the first comprehensive account of body procurement at the Anatomical Institute at Greifswald University during National Socialism (NS). As in all other German anatomical departments, the bodies received during this period included increasing numbers of victims of the NS regime. Prior to 1939, 90% of all bodies came from hospitals, state nursing homes and mental institutions (Heil- und Pflegeanstalten), but dropped to less than 30% after 1941. While the total catchment area for body procurement decreased, the number of suppliers increased and included prisons, POW camps, Gestapo offices and military jurisdiction authorities. Among the 432 documented bodies delivered to the institute, 132 came from state nursing homes and mental institutions, mainly from Ueckermünde. These were bodies of persons, who probably were victims of "euthanasia" crimes. The Anatomical Institute also procured 46 bodies of forced laborers, of whom at least twelve had been executed. Other groups of victims included 21 bodies of executed Wehrmacht soldiers and 16 Russian prisoners of war from the camp Stalag II C in Greifswald, who had died of starvation and exhaustion. From 1941 onwards, the number of bodies delivered from prisons and penitentiaries greatly increased. In total, 60 bodies of prisoners, mainly from the penitentiary in Gollnow, were delivered to the Anatomical Institute. Greifswald Anatomical Institute was not just a passive recipient of bodies from all of these sources, but the anatomists actively lobbied with the authorities for an increased body supply for teaching and research purposes. PMID:26970502

  2. Anatomical studies of timber and EPMA analysis of brass artefacts collected from steam engine shipwreck of Minicoy Island, Lakshadweep, India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Tripati, S.; Shukla, S.R.; Som, V.; Sundaresh; Khedekar, V.; Shashikala, S.; Sharma, S.K.

    to understand the species of timber and mineralogy of brass, anatomical analysis of timber and EPMA analysis of brass carried out. This paper details the state of the shipwrecks, mineralogy of brass and anatomical analysis of timber collected from Minicoy...

  3. Anatomical Mercury: Changing Understandings of Quicksilver, Blood, and the Lymphatic System, 1650-1800.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendriksen, Marieke M A

    2015-10-01

    The use of mercury as an injection mass in anatomical experiments and preparations was common throughout Europe in the long eighteenth century, and refined mercury-injected preparations as well as plates of anatomical mercury remain today. The use and meaning of mercury in related disciplines such as medicine and chemistry in the same period have been studied, but our knowledge of anatomical mercury is sparse and tends to focus on technicalities. This article argues that mercury had a distinct meaning in anatomy, which was initially influenced by alchemical and classical understandings of mercury. Moreover, it demonstrates that the choice of mercury as an anatomical injection mass was deliberate and informed by an intricate cultural understanding of its materiality, and that its use in anatomical preparations and its perception as an anatomical material evolved with the understanding of the circulatory and lymphatic systems. By using the material culture of anatomical mercury as a starting point, I seek to provide a new, object-driven interpretation of complex and strongly interrelated historiographical categories such as mechanism, vitalism, chemistry, anatomy, and physiology, which are difficult to understand through a historiography that focuses exclusively on ideas. PMID:25324429

  4. Economically affordable anatomical kidney phantom with calyxes for puncture and drainage training in interventional urology and radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trends in interventional radiology and urology training are orientated towards reducing costs and increasing efficiency. In order to comply with the trends, we propose training on inexpensive patient-specific kidney phantoms. To develop a new kidney phantom for puncture and drainage training in interventional urology and radiology, and to evaluate their anatomical correctness and suitability for training compared to the traditional way of training on home-made phantoms. A case study for validation of kidney phantoms was conducted with nine radiology students divided into two groups: one trained on standard home-made training phantom (n = 4) and the other on our kidney phantoms (n = 5). Another test phantom was used to evaluate the effectiveness of the training of the two groups. The tests were video recorded and analyzed. Duration of the procedure was used as the primary indicator of procedure’s quality. Comparison tests were also conducted with professional radiologists. Anatomical correctness of the kidney phantom was evaluated by comparing the post mortem kidney scans with reconstructed models from CT scans. Subjective feedback was also collected from the participants. Wider use of kidney phantoms was analyzed. The average volumetric difference between post mortem kidney scans and reconstructed CT kidney models was 4.70 ± 3.25%. All five students practicing on the kidney phantom improved their performance and the results were almost equal to the results of the professional radiologist while in the other group two students out of four trained on standard home-made training phantoms failed to improve their performance. However, the small number of test subjects prevents us from drawing general conclusions about the efficiency of the new practice. The kidney phantoms were found usable also for nephrostomy catheter placement training under fluoroscopy. The feedback from radiologists showed that the anatomically correct features of the phantom is an added value

  5. AN ANATOMIC STUDY OF ADIPOFASCIAL FLAP OF THE LEG

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Objective To investigate the vascular anatomy of the subcutaneous tissues and fascias of the leg. Methods Four fresh cadaver legs which had been injected with colored latex were dissected under magnification to identify the origin, course an distribution of vessels from the subfascial level to the skin. The adipofascial flap was harvested from the whole medial side of the leg and fascial flap from other leg of the same cadaver. The posterior tibial artery and its first and second supra-malleolus septal arteries were retained in these flaps. Selective injection of China ink through posterior tibial artery was carried out, and dimension of ink- stained areas was recorded. Results Three main trunk vessels of the leg gave off branches to deep fascia and subcutaneous tissues, forming a large vascular plexus in the subcutaneous tissues on the deep fascia and a deli- cate, but dense and well anastomosed vascular plexus beneath the deep fascia. The vascular plexus in the subcu- taneous tissues ran deeper than the superficial venous system. The areas stained by selective injection in adipo- fascial flaps were larger than those in the fascial flaps. Conclusion Subcutaneous tissues and deep fascia can be considered as an anatomic entity nourished by two very well developed vascular networks which lie on both sides of deep fascia. Incorporation of the deep fascia can not only protect the subcutaneous tissue from being lacerated during raising of the flap, but also enhance vascularity of the adipofascial flap. Leaving superficial veins intact while raising the skin flap does not jeopardize the vascular plexus in the subcutaneous tissues and can preserve the superficial lymnphatic vessels, so that postoperative edema of the flap or the leg could be avoided.

  6. Distal Ulna Reconstruction using the Second Metatarsal: Anatomical Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavadas, Pedro C; Thione, Alessandro; Martinez, Isabel Elía

    2016-05-01

    Background The ulnar head is a key stabilizer of the wrist and forearm. The authors investigated the possibility of using the second metatarsal bone to replace the distal ulna in an anatomical study. Methods The morphology of the distal ulna and the head of the second metatarsal (MT2) were studied using three-dimensional computerized tomographic (CT) scans of the wrist and foot in 52 patients without pathology related to these two areas, and 11 cadaveric specimens. The radius and height of the best-fit cylinder for both epiphyses were measured in the CT scans and compared. In the cadaveric specimens an osteotomy of the metatarsal neck was performed to rotate 90 degrees the head of the MT2 to match the shape of the distal ulna. Results The osseous morphology of the distal ulna and the head of the MT2 are roughly cylindrical, but differently oriented relative to the diaphyseal axes. In the osteotomized cadaveric MT2specimens, the overall morphology was relatively similar that of the distal ulna. The mean length of the MT2 after the osteotomy was 65 mm. Conclusion The head of the MT2 was found to have a similar cylindrical morphology to that of the ulnar head, with a different orientation. The radius of the cylinder was similar, although the height was bigger for the MT2. After a rotation osteotomy of the neck of the MT2 the overall shape and orientation of the epiphysis was more similar to the distal ulna. A vascularized transfer of an osteotomized MT2 would be an option for autologous reconstruction of the distal ulna in selected patients, but further study is needed in terms of the vascular supply, ligamentous reconstruction, and reconstruction of the sigmoid notch. Level of Evidence Therapeutic, level IV. PMID:27104084

  7. Near and far space neglect: task sensitivity and anatomical substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aimola, Lina; Schindler, Igor; Simone, Anna Maria; Venneri, Annalena

    2012-05-01

    Most group studies which have investigated neglect for near and far space have found an increased severity of symptoms in far space compared to near space. However, the majority of these studies used relatively small samples and based their findings almost exclusively on line bisection performance. The aim of the present study was, therefore, to explore the occurrence of neglect for near and far space in a larger group of unselected right brain damaged patients and to evaluate whether neglect specific to near and far space is a task-related deficit or generalises across distance irrespective of task. In addition, a lesion overlap analysis was carried out to identify critical lesion sites associated with distance specific neglect deficits. Thirty-eight right hemisphere damaged patients carried out a line bisection and a cancellation task by using a pen in near space (40 cm) and a laser pointer in far space (320 cm). The results showed that both the number of left-sided omissions and rightward bisection errors were significantly increased in near compared to far space. Distance specific dissociations, albeit less common, were more frequently observed for cancellation than line bisection. These results suggest that space representation in neglect is more severely impaired in near than in far space. In addition, distance related dissociations in neglect may depend on task demands. Although the anatomical findings were broadly consistent with a dorsal and ventral stream dichotomy for near and far space processing, they also suggest the involvement of intermediate structures in distance related neglect phenomena. PMID:22306826

  8. MORPHOLOGICAL ANATOMICAL AND PHITOCHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF SOME ALGAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. S. Kaysheva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Morphological and anatomical features of thalluses of brown (Laminaria saccharina, Fucus vesiculosus and red (Ahnfeltia plicata algae, procured at a coastal strip of the Northern basin in gulfs of Ura-Guba and Palkina-Guba at different depths. Compliance of Fucus and Ahnfeltia with pharmacopoeial norms and merchandising indices for Laminaria was established, except for high concentration of sand in Ahnfeltia thalluses. The identity of algae between each other was shown based on the results of qualitative analysis on polysaccharides, alginic acids, reducing sugars, iodine, mannitol, amino acids presence. Quantitative content of polysaccharides, alginic acids, reducing sugars, pentosans, iodine, cellulose, mannitol, proteins, lipids, agar was determined. In comparison with Fucus and Ahnfeltia higher concentration of the following content was noted in Laminaria: alginic acids (1.4 and 5.75 times higher, polysaccharides (1.3 and 1.4 times, iodine (4.5 and 1.8 times, mannatol (1.5 and 2.5 times (data received is statistically reliable. Impropriety of storm algae for processing was shown as law quality raw material. The highest concentration of active substances was revealed in Laminaria thalluses which were procured at the depth of 10 m in a period from September to October. Active accumulation of sodium, potassium, calcium, iron, magnesium, manganese corresponding to similar sea water composition was established in algae. Mathematical equations of regression between protein and manganese, protein and iron content in algae were deduced. Under proper conditions of drying and storage high quality of the materials can be preserved during 3 years. Based on the findings of photochemical researches, taking into account squares of plantations and possible exploitation stocks, the possibility and prospectivity of industrial processing of Fucus vesiculosus and Ahnfeltia plicata together with Laminaria saccharina as plant sources of polysaccharides (mainly

  9. Anatomical and histological factors affecting intranasal drug and vaccine delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gizurarson, Sveinbjörn

    2012-11-01

    The aim of this review is to provide an understanding of the anatomical and histological structure of the nasal cavity, which is important for nasal drug and vaccine delivery as well as the development of new devices. The surface area of the nasal cavity is about 160 cm2, or 96 m2 if the microvilli are included. The olfactory region, however, is only about 5 cm2 (0.3 m2 including the microvilli). There are 6 arterial branches that serve the nasal cavity, making this region a very attractive route for drug administration. The blood flow into the nasal region is slightly more than reabsorbed back into the nasal veins, but the excess will drain into the lymph vessels, making this region a very attractive route for vaccine delivery. Many of the side effects seen following intranasal administration are caused by some of the 6 nerves that serve the nasal cavity. The 5th cranial nerve (trigeminus nerve) is responsible for sensing pain and irritation following nasal administration but the 7th cranial nerve (facial nerve) will respond to such irritation by stimulating glands and cause facial expressions in the subject. The first cranial nerve (olfactory nerve), however, is the target when direct absorption into the brain is the goal, since this is the only site in our body where the central nervous system is directly expressed on the mucosal surface. The nasal mucosa contains 7 cell types and 4 types of glands. Four types of cells and 2 types of glands are located in the respiratory region but 6 cell types and 2 types of glands are found in the olfactory region. PMID:22788696

  10. Breast augmentation with reduced-height anatomic implants: the pros and cons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spear, S L

    2001-07-01

    The reduced-height anatomic saline-filled implant has certain advantages. It has a distinct footprint and profile that allows the creation of a breast with relatively exaggerated width and abbreviated height. This creation suits certain anatomic situations and often is preferred by women seeking a more natural-looking augmentation, without excessive upper pole fullness. The use of any anatomic design implant requires some dimensional planning and more precise pocket dissection. Although the risk for rotational deformities could be expected to be increased, clinically significant rotational deformities have not been a major problem. PMID:11471961

  11. Computer tomographic imaging and anatomic correlation of the human brain: A comparative atlas of thin CT-scan sections and correlated neuro-anatomic preparations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is of the greatest importance to the radiologist, the neurologist and the neurosurgeon to be able to localize topographically a pathological brain process on the CT scan as precisely as possible. For that purpose, the identification of as many anatomical structures as possible on the CT scan image are necessary and indispensable. In this atlas a great number of detailed anatomical data on frontal horizontal CT scan sections, each being only 2 mm thick, are indicated, e.g. the cortical gyri, the basal ganglia, details of the white matter, extracranial muscles and blood vessels, parts of the base and the vault of the skull, etc. The very precise topographical description of the numerous CT scan images was realized by the author by confrontation of these images with the corresponding anatomical sections of the same brain specimen, performed by an original technique

  12. Lung segmentation in chest radiographs using anatomical atlases with nonrigid registration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candemir, Sema; Jaeger, Stefan; Palaniappan, Kannappan; Musco, Jonathan P; Singh, Rahul K; Zhiyun Xue; Karargyris, Alexandros; Antani, Sameer; Thoma, George; McDonald, Clement J

    2014-02-01

    The National Library of Medicine (NLM) is developing a digital chest X-ray (CXR) screening system for deployment in resource constrained communities and developing countries worldwide with a focus on early detection of tuberculosis. A critical component in the computer-aided diagnosis of digital CXRs is the automatic detection of the lung regions. In this paper, we present a nonrigid registration-driven robust lung segmentation method using image retrieval-based patient specific adaptive lung models that detects lung boundaries, surpassing state-of-the-art performance. The method consists of three main stages: 1) a content-based image retrieval approach for identifying training images (with masks) most similar to the patient CXR using a partial Radon transform and Bhattacharyya shape similarity measure, 2) creating the initial patient-specific anatomical model of lung shape using SIFT-flow for deformable registration of training masks to the patient CXR, and 3) extracting refined lung boundaries using a graph cuts optimization approach with a customized energy function. Our average accuracy of 95.4% on the public JSRT database is the highest among published results. A similar degree of accuracy of 94.1% and 91.7% on two new CXR datasets from Montgomery County, MD, USA, and India, respectively, demonstrates the robustness of our lung segmentation approach. PMID:24239990

  13. Use of contextual inquiry to understand anatomic pathology workflow: Implications for digital pathology adoption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonhan Ho

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: For decades anatomic pathology (AP workflow have been a highly manual process based on the use of an optical microscope and glass slides. Recent innovations in scanning and digitizing of entire glass slides are accelerating a move toward widespread adoption and implementation of a workflow based on digital slides and their supporting information management software. To support the design of digital pathology systems and ensure their adoption into pathology practice, the needs of the main users within the AP workflow, the pathologists, should be identified. Contextual inquiry is a qualitative, user-centered, social method designed to identify and understand users′ needs and is utilized for collecting, interpreting, and aggregating in-detail aspects of work. Objective: Contextual inquiry was utilized to document current AP workflow, identify processes that may benefit from the introduction of digital pathology systems, and establish design requirements for digital pathology systems that will meet pathologists′ needs. Materials and Methods: Pathologists were observed and interviewed at a large academic medical center according to contextual inquiry guidelines established by Holtzblatt et al. 1998. Notes representing user-provided data were documented during observation sessions. An affinity diagram, a hierarchal organization of the notes based on common themes in the data, was created. Five graphical models were developed to help visualize the data including sequence, flow, artifact, physical, and cultural models. Results: A total of six pathologists were observed by a team of two researchers. A total of 254 affinity notes were documented and organized using a system based on topical hierarchy, including 75 third-level, 24 second-level, and five main-level categories, including technology, communication, synthesis/preparation, organization, and workflow. Current AP workflow was labor intensive and lacked scalability. A large number

  14. Anatomical Features of the Scots Pine Stem Phloem After Forest FireAnatomical Features of the Scots Pine Stem Phloem After Forest Fire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Stasova

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to study changes in anatomical structure of phloem tissue in pine (Pinus sylvestris L. stems influenced by creeping forest fires of various rates. The experiments were carried out in the Lower Angara river region of the Angara provenance, Krasnoyarsk Krai, Central Siberia. The trees with green crowns and different fire damaged butts were chosen as models. Control (undamaged trees were taken from stands adjacent to experimental plots. The changes of inner bark thickness, number of phloem annual layers between cambium and periderm and number of cells in conductive phloem were found in the stem side opposite to fire scars. The structure fluctuations of phloem tissue were detected: disturbances of sieve cell arrangement, phloem ray enlargements, resin canal overgrowth and formation of great resin ducts. The lignin accumulation was observed in inner bark and a large amount of callusing was detected between conductive and nonconductive phloem. Over the course of time, repairing of tissues occurred and the normal inner bark structure and chemistry (without lignin were restored. The creeping fire of low intensity caused the maximal changes of phloem quantitative characteristics in trees with bark charring and these tendencies were stored after eight years. After creeping fire of high intensity the tendency for phloem thickening in trees with one fire scar and to thinning in strongly damaged trees were revealed. Also tendencies to decrease of the number of phloem annual layers, number of sieve cells in conductive phloem and ray frequency with increasing of stem injury degree were observed, besides axial parenchyma percentage trended to increase. Eight years after fire these tendencies were often not visible.

  15. Design and implementation of an anatomical web interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The Internet, and in particular, the World-Wide Web, has provided tremendous opportunities for enabling access and transfer of information. Traditionally, Internet services have relied on textual methods for delivery of information. The World-Wide Web (WWW) in its current (and ever-changing form) is primarily a method of communication which includes both graphical and textual information. The easy-to-use graphical interface, developed as part of the WWW, is based on the Hypertext Mark-up Language (HTML). More advanced interfaces can be developed by incorporating interactive documents, which can be updated depending upon the wishes of the user. The Common Gateway Interface (CGI) can be utilised to transfer information b y utilising various programming and scripting languages (eg. C, Perl). This paper describes the development of a WWW interface for the viewing of anatomical and radiographic information in the form of two-dimensional cross-sectional images and three-dimensional reconstruction images. HTML documents were prepared using a commercial software program (HotDog, Sausage Software Co., Australia). Forms were used to control user-selection parameters such as imaging modality and cross-sectional slice number. All documents were developed and tested using Netscape 2.0. Visual and radiographic images were processed using ANALYZETM Version 7.5 (Biomedical Imaging Resource, Mayo Foundation, Rochester, USA). Perl scripting was used to process all requests passed to the WWW server. ANSI 'C' programming was used to implement image processing operations which are performed in response to user-selected options. The interface which has been developed is easy to use, is independent of browsing software, is accessible by multiple users, and provides an example of how easily medical imaging data can be distributed amongst interested parties. Various imaging datasets, including the Visible Human ProjectTM (National Library of Medicine, USA.) have been prepared

  16. Making anatomical dynamic film using the principle of linear motion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sun Guosheng

    2015-01-01

    :Making anatomical dynamic film using the principle of linear motion is an innovative technology and provides the dynamic aid for anat omy teaching.

  17. [The anatomical and functional origin of the first bipedalism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coppens, Y

    1991-10-01

    This communication is the synthesis of ten years of researchers of comparative anatomy done by the author or under his control on fossil Hominids, three million years old, found by his expeditions in Eastern Ethiopia. It brings, for the first time, the odd picture of a skeleton adapted to arboricolism and bipedalism together. The rachis has already the curves of an erect being but with at least a thoraco-lumbar cyphosis a bit more elongated than in our own rachis; the pelvis is wide and shallow like the pelvis of a biped but with many particular features like the width of the iliac wings, a great biacetabular diameter, the small size of the coxo-femoral joints; the femur is short with a special long neck, a very oblique diaphysis like in Man and an intercondylar fossa, deep and wide like in chimp; the tibia is also short, its spines very tight in such a way that the knee shows a great laxity. The foot is short and flat, with an abducted hallux and long curved toes; the scapular, elbow and wrist joints show, at the opposite of the knee joint, a great solidity, but both characteristics of the hind and fore-limb joints are not in contradiction: they are, as in chimpanzees again, functionally adapted to climbing and moving in the trees where are needed firm grip of the hands as well as mobility of the knee and of the foot. It seems that the early Australopithecine' bipedalism was original, different from ours and quite instable: short steps were necessary to maintain equilibrium as well as a strong rotation of the pelvis around the vertebral axis (50 to 60 degrees on each side). This analysis is then demonstrating a real evolution of bipedalism which was not at all, at once, the bipedalism of Homo sapiens, as it has been claimed. This paper is also showing that bipedalism anatomic organization is taking place from the pelvis to the foot and not the other way round. At last, as we have found, also in Ethiopia, stone-tools more than three million years old in association

  18. Naming the Soft Tissue Layers of the Temporoparietal Region: Unifying Anatomic Terminology Across Surgical Disciplines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K.M. Davidge; W.R. van Furth; A. Agur; M. Cusimano

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The complexity of temporoparietal anatomy is compounded by inconsistent nomenclature. OBJECTIVE: To provide a comprehensive review of the variations in terminology and anatomic descriptions of the temporoparietal soft tissue layers, with the aim of improving learning and communication ac

  19. Three-Dimensional Display Technologies for Anatomical Education: A Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackett, Matthew; Proctor, Michael

    2016-04-01

    Anatomy is a foundational component of biological sciences and medical education and is important for a variety of clinical tasks. To augment current curriculum and improve students' spatial knowledge of anatomy, many educators, anatomists, and researchers use three-dimensional (3D) visualization technologies. This article reviews 3D display technologies and their associated assessments for anatomical education. In the first segment, the review covers the general function of displays employing 3D techniques. The second segment of the review highlights the use and assessment of 3D technology in anatomical education, focusing on factors such as knowledge gains, student perceptions, and cognitive load. The review found 32 articles on the use of 3D displays in anatomical education and another 38 articles on the assessment of 3D displays. The review shows that the majority (74 %) of studies indicate that the use of 3D is beneficial for many tasks in anatomical education, and that student perceptions are positive toward the technology.

  20. Phylogenetic and phytogeographical relationships in Maloideae (Rosaceae) based on morphological and anatomical characters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aldasoro, J.J.; Aedo, C.; Navarro, C.

    2005-01-01

    Phylogenetic relationships among 24 genera of Rosaceae subfam. Maloideae and Spiraeoideae are explored by means of a cladistic analysis; 16 morphological and anatomical characters were included in the analysis. Published suprageneric classifications and characters used in these classifications are b

  1. Three-Dimensional Display Technologies for Anatomical Education: A Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackett, Matthew; Proctor, Michael

    2016-08-01

    Anatomy is a foundational component of biological sciences and medical education and is important for a variety of clinical tasks. To augment current curriculum and improve students' spatial knowledge of anatomy, many educators, anatomists, and researchers use three-dimensional (3D) visualization technologies. This article reviews 3D display technologies and their associated assessments for anatomical education. In the first segment, the review covers the general function of displays employing 3D techniques. The second segment of the review highlights the use and assessment of 3D technology in anatomical education, focusing on factors such as knowledge gains, student perceptions, and cognitive load. The review found 32 articles on the use of 3D displays in anatomical education and another 38 articles on the assessment of 3D displays. The review shows that the majority (74 %) of studies indicate that the use of 3D is beneficial for many tasks in anatomical education, and that student perceptions are positive toward the technology.

  2. Anatomic adaptation of seedlings of woody plants to various levels of soil water supply

    OpenAIRE

    I. P. Grigoryuk; V. I. Tkachov; P. P. Yavorivskyi

    2005-01-01

    Tree seedlings anatomical parameters adaptation to different soil water supply levels were studied. Differences in stomata number and shape and fiber length for leaf-bearing species and central cylinder area for coniferous species have been determined.

  3. Enhancing our understanding of anatomical diversity in Tomentella ectomycorrhizas: characterization of six new morphotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakucs, Erzsébet; Erős-Honti, Zsolt; Seress, Diána; Kovács, Gábor M

    2015-08-01

    Ectomycorrhizas (ECM) formed by Tomentella species (Thelephorales, Basidiomycota) were collected in beech forests of Hungary and studied using anatomical and molecular phylogenetic methods. The mycobionts were identified by analysing the sequences of nuclear ribosomal DNA (nrDNA) internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions together with sequences obtained from public databases. At the sampling plots, we found the occurrence of 11 Tomentella morphotypes. Among these, six morphotypes (four identified, Tomentella atroarenicolor, Tomentella bryophila, Tomentella lapida, Tomentella subclavigera, and two unidentified) were morpho-anatomically characterized for the first time. Although the six morphotypes differed anatomically from each other and from Tomentella ectomycorrhizas described previously, they shared anatomical features common to tomentelloid ectomycorrhizas fungi. These results expand our understanding of the diversity of this widely distributed ectomycorrhizal genus. PMID:25564437

  4. Functional Versus Anatomic Imaging of CAD: Lessons Learned from Recent Clinical Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gewirtz, Henry

    2016-01-01

    Recent clinical trials directed at imaging of coronary artery disease (CAD) have demonstrated a paradigm shift away from endpoints related to detection of CAD in favor of those related to clinical outcomes. The objective of such trials has been to determine whether physiological metrics are superior to anatomical ones for guiding therapy and improving outcomes in patients with known or suspected CAD. The present review focuses on selected trials in this area in particular DEFER, FAME 1 and 2, a meta-analysis comparing FFR to anatomically guided treatment outcomes and COURAGE SPECT MPI sub study. The rationale for using physiological as opposed to anatomical endpoints to optimize patient management, in particular coronary revascularization decisions, is emphasized. The results of the FFR-based trials are concordant and indicate physiological metrics are superior to anatomical ones for guiding therapy and improving clinical outcomes in patients with known or suspected CAD. PMID:26699631

  5. Anatomical mapping of the nasal muscles and application to cosmetic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konschake, Marko; Fritsch, Helga

    2014-11-01

    We present an anatomical mapping of the most important muscles influencing the nose, incorporating constant anatomical structures, and their spatial correlations. At our disposal were the midfaces of 18 bodies of both sexes, obtained by informed consent from body donors aged between 60 and 80 years. Macroscopically, we dissected the nasal regions of eight corpses, six midfaces were prepared according to plastination histology, four by creating plastinated slices. On their way from their periosteal origin to the edge of the skin, the muscles of the nose cross the subcutaneous adipose tissue, dividing it into superficial and deep layers. The individual muscle fibers insert into the skin directly at the reticular corium. Sometimes, they reach the border of the epidermis which represents a special arrangement of corial muscle attachments. The course of the anatomical fibers of individual nasal muscles presented macroscopically and microscopically in this study offers surgeons a detailed overview of the anatomically important muscular landmarks of the midface. PMID:24863980

  6. Anatomical exploration of a dicephalous goat kid using sheet plastination (E12).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elnady, Fawzy; Sora, Mircea-Constantin

    2009-06-01

    A dicephalous, 1-day-old, female goat kid was presented for anatomical study. Epoxy plastination slices (E12) were used successfully to explore this condition. They provided excellent anatomic and bone detail, demonstrating organ position, shared structures, and vascular anatomy. Sheet plastination (E12) was used as an optimal method to clarify how the two heads were united, especially the neuroanatomy. The plastinated transparent slices allowed detailed study of the anatomical structures, in a non-collapsed and non-dislocated state. Thus, we anatomically explored this rare condition without traditional dissection. The advantages of plastination extended to the preservation at room temperature of this case for further topographical investigation. To the authors' best knowledge, this is the first published report of plastination of a dicephalous goat. PMID:19489957

  7. Proximal Femoral Morphology and the Relevance to Design of Anatomically Precontoured Plates: A Study of the Chinese Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kun-Jhih Lin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Adequately shaped femoral plate is critical for the fixation of fracture in the pertrochanteric regions. Lateral aspect of greater trochanter is an important region where the proximal femoral plate anchored. However, little is known regarding the morphology of greater trochanter. The objective of this study was to measure main dimensions of greater trochanter and other regions in the proximal end of the femur to provide an anatomical basis for the design of the proximal femoral plate. Anthropometric data on the proximal femur were performed utilizing three-dimensional computational modeling. Computed tomography images of healthy femurs in 53 women and 47 men were contributed to three-dimensional femur modeling. All data were compared between male and female femora. The results showed that mean values for male group were found to be greater in most of measured femoral dimensions. Oppositely, females demonstrated higher neck-shaft angle on anteroposterior view and femoral anteversion angle. The anthropometric data can be used for the anatomical shape design of femoral plates for osteosynthesis of fractures in the trochanteric regions. A distinct plate design may be necessary to accommodate differences between the genders.

  8. An interactive three dimensional approach to anatomical description—the jaw musculature of the Australian laughing kookaburra (Dacelo novaeguineae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle R. Quayle

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The investigation of form-function relationships requires a detailed understanding of anatomical systems. Here we document the 3-dimensional morphology of the cranial musculoskeletal anatomy in the Australian Laughing Kookaburra Dacelo novaeguineae, with a focus upon the geometry and attachments of the jaw muscles in this species. The head of a deceased specimen was CT scanned, and an accurate 3D representation of the skull and jaw muscles was generated through manual segmentation of the CT scan images, and augmented by dissection of the specimen. We identified 14 major jaw muscles: 6 in the temporal group (M. adductor mandibulae and M. pseudotemporalis, 7 in the pterygoid group (M. pterygoideus dorsalis and M. pterygoideus ventralis, and the single jaw abductor M. depressor mandibulae. Previous descriptions of avian jaw musculature are hindered by limited visual representation and inconsistency in the nomenclature. To address these issues, we: (1 present the 3D model produced from the segmentation process as a digital, fully interactive model in the form of an embedded 3D image, which can be viewed from any angle, and within which major components can be set as opaque, transparent, or hidden, allowing the anatomy to be visualised as required to provide a detailed understanding of the jaw anatomy; (2 provide a summary of the nomenclature used throughout the avian jaw muscle literature. The approach presented here provides considerable advantages for the documentation and communication of detailed anatomical structures in a wide range of taxa.

  9. Graph analysis of the anatomical network organization of the hippocampal formation and parahippocampal region in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binicewicz, F Z M; van Strien, N M; Wadman, W J; van den Heuvel, M P; Cappaert, N L M

    2016-04-01

    Graph theory was used to analyze the anatomical network of the rat hippocampal formation and the parahippocampal region (van Strien et al., Nat Rev Neurosci 10(4):272-282, 2009). For this analysis, the full network was decomposed along the three anatomical axes, resulting in three networks that describe the connectivity within the rostrocaudal, dorsoventral and laminar dimensions. The rostrocaudal network had a connection density of 12 % and a path length of 2.4. The dorsoventral network had a high cluster coefficient (0.53), a relatively high path length (1.62) and a rich club was identified. The modularity analysis revealed three modules in the dorsoventral network. The laminar network contained most information. The laminar dimension revealed a network with high clustering coefficient (0.47), a relatively high path length (2.11) and four significantly increased characteristic network building blocks (structural motifs). Thirteen rich club nodes were identified, almost all of them situated in the parahippocampal region. Six connector hubs were detected and all of them were located in the entorhinal cortex. Three large modules were revealed, indicating a close relationship between the perirhinal and postrhinal cortex as well as between the lateral and medial entorhinal cortex. These results confirmed the central position of the entorhinal cortex in the (para)hippocampal network and this possibly explains why pathology in this region has such profound impact on cognitive function, as seen in several brain diseases. The results also have implications for the idea of strict separation of the "spatial" and the "non-spatial" information stream into the hippocampus. This two-stream memory model suggests that the information influx from, respectively, the postrhinal-medial entorhinal cortex and the perirhinal-lateral entorhinal cortex is separate, but the current analysis shows that this apparent separation is not determined by anatomical constraints. PMID:25618022

  10. A Mathematical Framework for Incorporating Anatomical Knowledge in DT-MRI Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Maddah, Mahnaz; Zöllei, Lilla; Grimson, W. Eric L.; Westin, Carl-Fredrik; Wells, William M.

    2008-01-01

    We propose a Bayesian approach to incorporate anatomical information in the clustering of fiber trajectories. An expectation-maximization (EM) algorithm is used to cluster the trajectories, in which an atlas serves as the prior on the labels. The atlas guides the clustering algorithm and makes the resulting bundles anatomically meaningful. In addition, it provides the seed points for the tractography and initial settings of the EM algorithm. The proposed approach provides a robust and automat...

  11. Heterogeneity and Matching of Ventilation and Perfusion within Anatomical Lung Units in Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Glenny, Robb W.; Bauer, Christian; Hofmanninger, Johannes; Lamm, Wayne J.; Krueger, Melissa A.; Beichel, Reinhard R.

    2013-01-01

    Prior studies exploring the spatial distributions of ventilation and perfusion have partitioned the lung into discrete regions not constrained by anatomical boundaries and may blur regional differences in perfusion and ventilation. To characterize the anatomical heterogeneity of regional ventilation and perfusion, we administered fluorescent microspheres to mark regional ventilation and perfusion in 5 Sprague-Dawley rats and then using highly automated computer algorithms, partitioned the lun...

  12. Multivariate pattern analysis reveals anatomical connectivity differences between the left and right mesial temporal lobe epilepsy

    OpenAIRE

    Peng Fang; Jie An; Ling-Li Zeng; Hui Shen; Fanglin (Frank)Chen; Wensheng Wang; Shijun Qiu; Dewen Hu

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated differences of clinical signs and functional brain network organizations between the left and right mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (mTLE), but the anatomical connectivity differences underlying functional variance between the left and right mTLE remain uncharacterized. We examined 43 (22 left, 21 right) mTLE patients with hippocampal sclerosis and 39 healthy controls using diffusion tensor imaging. After the whole-brain anatomical networks were constructed fo...

  13. Root anatomical phenes predict root penetration ability and biomechanical properties in maize (Zea Mays)

    OpenAIRE

    Chimungu, Joseph G.; Loades, Kenneth W.; Lynch, Jonathan P.

    2015-01-01

    The ability of roots to penetrate hard soil is important for crop productivity but specific root phenes contributing to this ability are poorly understood. Root penetrability and biomechanical properties are likely to vary in the root system dependent on anatomical structure. No information is available to date on the influence of root anatomical phenes on root penetrability and biomechanics. Root penetration ability was evaluated using a wax layer system. Root tensile and bending strength we...

  14. ANATOMIC STUDY OF THE PROXIMAL THIRD OF THE FEMUR: FEMOROACETABULAR IMPACT AND THE CAM EFFECT

    OpenAIRE

    Labronici, Pedro José; Alves, Sergio Delmonte; da Silva, Anselmo Fernandes; Giuberti, Gilberto Ribeiro; de Azevedo Neto, Justino Nóbrega; Mezzalira Penedo, Jorge Luiz

    2015-01-01

    To analyze anatomical variations of the proximal end of femur that could cause a femoroacetabular impact. Methods: 199 skeletically mature anatomical specimens of femurs were used. The femurs were measured in order to determine the anteversion angle of the femoral neck, neckshaft angle, sphericity of the femoral head at anteroposterior and superoinferior, angle between epiphysis and the anterior femoral neck, angle between epiphysis and the neck at lateral plane, anteroposterior distance at 5...

  15. Asymmetry and structural system analysis of the proximal femur meta-epiphysis: osteoarticular anatomical pathology

    OpenAIRE

    Baydoun Safaa; Kolesnik Alexander I; Haddad John J; Ivanov Alexander V; Samaha Ali A; Arabi Maher R; Yashina Irena N; Samaha Rana A; Ivanov Dimetry A

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background The human femur is commonly considered as a subsystem of the locomotor apparatus with four conspicuous levels of organization. This phenomenon is the result of the evolution of the locomotor apparatus, which encompasses both constitutional and individual variability. The work therein reported, therefore, underlies the significance of observing anatomical system analysis of the proximal femur meta-epiphysis in normal conditions, according to the anatomic positioning with re...

  16. An Anatomically Validated Brachial Plexus Contouring Method for Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy Planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van de Velde, Joris, E-mail: joris.vandevelde@ugent.be [Department of Anatomy, Ghent University, Ghent (Belgium); Department of Radiotherapy, Ghent University, Ghent (Belgium); Audenaert, Emmanuel [Department of Physical Medicine and Orthopedic Surgery, Ghent University, Ghent (Belgium); Speleers, Bruno; Vercauteren, Tom; Mulliez, Thomas [Department of Radiotherapy, Ghent University, Ghent (Belgium); Vandemaele, Pieter; Achten, Eric [Department of Radiology, Ghent University, Ghent (Belgium); Kerckaert, Ingrid; D' Herde, Katharina [Department of Anatomy, Ghent University, Ghent (Belgium); De Neve, Wilfried [Department of Radiotherapy, Ghent University, Ghent (Belgium); Van Hoof, Tom [Department of Anatomy, Ghent University, Ghent (Belgium)

    2013-11-15

    Purpose: To develop contouring guidelines for the brachial plexus (BP) using anatomically validated cadaver datasets. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography (CT) were used to obtain detailed visualizations of the BP region, with the goal of achieving maximal inclusion of the actual BP in a small contoured volume while also accommodating for anatomic variations. Methods and Materials: CT and MRI were obtained for 8 cadavers positioned for intensity modulated radiation therapy. 3-dimensional reconstructions of soft tissue (from MRI) and bone (from CT) were combined to create 8 separate enhanced CT project files. Dissection of the corresponding cadavers anatomically validated the reconstructions created. Seven enhanced CT project files were then automatically fitted, separately in different regions, to obtain a single dataset of superimposed BP regions that incorporated anatomic variations. From this dataset, improved BP contouring guidelines were developed. These guidelines were then applied to the 7 original CT project files and also to 1 additional file, left out from the superimposing procedure. The percentage of BP inclusion was compared with the published guidelines. Results: The anatomic validation procedure showed a high level of conformity for the BP regions examined between the 3-dimensional reconstructions generated and the dissected counterparts. Accurate and detailed BP contouring guidelines were developed, which provided corresponding guidance for each level in a clinical dataset. An average margin of 4.7 mm around the anatomically validated BP contour is sufficient to accommodate for anatomic variations. Using the new guidelines, 100% inclusion of the BP was achieved, compared with a mean inclusion of 37.75% when published guidelines were applied. Conclusion: Improved guidelines for BP delineation were developed using combined MRI and CT imaging with validation by anatomic dissection.

  17. An Anatomically Validated Brachial Plexus Contouring Method for Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy Planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To develop contouring guidelines for the brachial plexus (BP) using anatomically validated cadaver datasets. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography (CT) were used to obtain detailed visualizations of the BP region, with the goal of achieving maximal inclusion of the actual BP in a small contoured volume while also accommodating for anatomic variations. Methods and Materials: CT and MRI were obtained for 8 cadavers positioned for intensity modulated radiation therapy. 3-dimensional reconstructions of soft tissue (from MRI) and bone (from CT) were combined to create 8 separate enhanced CT project files. Dissection of the corresponding cadavers anatomically validated the reconstructions created. Seven enhanced CT project files were then automatically fitted, separately in different regions, to obtain a single dataset of superimposed BP regions that incorporated anatomic variations. From this dataset, improved BP contouring guidelines were developed. These guidelines were then applied to the 7 original CT project files and also to 1 additional file, left out from the superimposing procedure. The percentage of BP inclusion was compared with the published guidelines. Results: The anatomic validation procedure showed a high level of conformity for the BP regions examined between the 3-dimensional reconstructions generated and the dissected counterparts. Accurate and detailed BP contouring guidelines were developed, which provided corresponding guidance for each level in a clinical dataset. An average margin of 4.7 mm around the anatomically validated BP contour is sufficient to accommodate for anatomic variations. Using the new guidelines, 100% inclusion of the BP was achieved, compared with a mean inclusion of 37.75% when published guidelines were applied. Conclusion: Improved guidelines for BP delineation were developed using combined MRI and CT imaging with validation by anatomic dissection

  18. Evaluation of predictors for anatomical success in macular hole surgery in Indian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atul Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim was to evaluate outcomes and predictors for anatomical success in macular hole (MH surgery. Materials and Methods: This was a prospective cohort study of patients operated for idiopathic MH with stages II, III or IV. Patients underwent pars plana vitrectomy with internal limiting membrane (ILM peeling, internal gas tamponade, and postoperative face down positioning. The primary outcome measure was anatomical closure of MH, while secondary outcome measure was postoperative external limiting membrane (ELM continuity. Effect of MH size, duration of MH, size of ILM peel, type of gas tamponade (SF6 vs. C3F8 and macular hole index (MHI on anatomical MH closure was also evaluated. Results: Of the 62 eyes operated, anatomical closure of MH was achieved in 55 eyes (88.7%. The median duration of follow-up was 8 months (range: 6-15 months. Mean BVCA improved from 0.94 ± 0.26 at baseline to 0.40 ± 0.23 logMAR at last follow-up (P = 0.01. There was a statistically significant association between size of ILM peel and anatomical closure of MH (P = 0.04. Duration of symptoms, size of MH, type of gas tamponade, MHI had no effect on anatomical closure (P = 0.22, 0.28, 0.40 respectively, Chi-square test. Postoperative continuity of the ELM was significantly associated with a shorter symptom duration (<6 months before surgery. Conclusion: Acceptable anatomical closure could be attained with the defined technique. Size of ILM peel is a new predictor of anatomical success while symptom duration affects postoperative ELM continuity.

  19. Morphological and Histo-Anatomical Study of Bryonia alba L. (Cucurbitaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Rus, Lavinia; Ielciu, Irina-Ioana; Ramona PĂLTINEAN; Vlase, Laurian; Ştefănescu, Cristina; Crişan, Gianina

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study consisted in the identification of the macroscopic and microscopic characters of the vegetative and reproductive organs of Bryonia alba L., by the analysis of vegetal material, both integral and as powder. Optical microscopy was used to reveal the anatomical structure of the vegetative (root, stem, tendrils, leaves) and reproductive (ovary, male flower petals) organs. Histo-anatomical details were highlighted by coloration with an original combination of rea...

  20. Morphological and Histo-Anatomical Study of Bryonia alba L. (Cucurbitaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Lavinia M. RUS; Irina I. IELCIU; Ramona PĂLTINEAN; Vlase, Laurian; Ştefănescu, Cristina; Gianina C. CRIŞAN

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study consisted in the identification of the macroscopic and microscopic characters of the vegetative and reproductive organs of Bryonia alba L., by the analysis of vegetal material, both integral and as powder. Optical microscopy was used to reveal the anatomical structure of the vegetative (root, stem, tendrils, leaves) and reproductive (ovary, male flower petals) organs. Histo-anatomical details were highlighted by coloration with an original combination of reagents for...

  1. Marginal space learning for medical image analysis efficient detection and segmentation of anatomical structures

    CERN Document Server

    Zheng, Yefeng

    2014-01-01

    Presents an award winning image analysis technology (Thomas Edison Patent Award, MICCAI Young Investigator Award) that achieves object detection and segmentation with state-of-the-art accuracy and efficiency Flexible, machine learning-based framework, applicable across multiple anatomical structures and imaging modalities Thirty five clinical applications on detecting and segmenting anatomical structures such as heart chambers and valves, blood vessels, liver, kidney, prostate, lymph nodes, and sub-cortical brain structures, in CT, MRI, X-Ray and Ultrasound.

  2. Anatomics Knowledges of Aortic Root in the Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation.

    OpenAIRE

    Marcelo Cerezo; Omar Bertani; Gisela Panciroli; Sebastián Duhalde; Karina Ferreira; Luciano Honaine

    2010-01-01

    The Aortic Valve is a valvular system that bears different high pressure forces. It takes part of a complex structure called Aortic Root. Nowadays, anatomic knowledge has taken a preponderant role, due to the use of the Transcatether Aortic Valve Implant (TAVI). To describe the patient´s characteristics which exclude them of the TAVI for anatomic reasons in cadaveric dissections and transthoracic echocardiograms. A descriptive retrospective analysis of 67 individuals was performed and divided...

  3. Innate lymphoid cells promote anatomical containment of lymphoid-resident commensal bacteria

    OpenAIRE

    Sonnenberg, Gregory F.; Monticelli, Laurel A.; Alenghat, Theresa; Fung, Thomas C.; Hutnick, Natalie A.; Kunisawa, Jun; Shibata, Naoko; Grunberg, Stephanie; Sinha, Rohini; Zahm, Adam M.; Mélanie R Tardif; Sathaliyawala, Taheri; Kubota, Masaru; Farber, Donna L.; Collman, Ronald G.

    2012-01-01

    The mammalian intestinal tract is colonized by trillions of beneficial commensal bacteria that are anatomically restricted to specific niches. However, the mechanisms that regulate anatomical containment remain unclear. Here we identify that interleukin (IL)-22-producing innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) are present in intestinal tissues of healthy mammals. Depletion of ILCs resulted in peripheral dissemination of commensal bacteria and systemic inflammation, which was prevented by administration ...

  4. Anatomical, chemical and physical characterization of candeia wood (Eremanthus erythropappus (DC.) Macleish)

    OpenAIRE

    Cláudia Lopes Selvati de Oliveira Mori; Fábio Akira Mori; Lourival Marin Mendes

    2010-01-01

    This study determined the anatomical, chemical and physics characteristics of candeia wood (Eremanthus erythropappus (DC.) Macleish). Five trees were collected from Carrancas-MG, and disks were obtained at the breast high (DBH) to sample preparation. The description and mensuration were performed at the principal anatomical structures (fibers, vessel and radial parenchyma). For chemical analysis, the extractives content, hollocelulose, lignin and inorganic components were determined. The phys...

  5. MR urography: Anatomical and quantitative information on congenital malformations in children

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Karaveli; Dimitrios Katsanidis; Ioannis Kalaitzoglou; Afroditi Haritanti; Anastasios Sioundas; Athanasios Dimitriadis; Kyriakos Psarrakos

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aim: Magnetic resonance urography (MRU) is considered to be the next step in uroradiology. This technique combines superb anatomical images and functional information in a single test. In this article, we aim to present the topic of MRU in children and how it has been implemented in Northern Greece so far. The purpose of this study is to demonstrate the potential of MRU in clinical practice. We focus both on the anatomical and the quantitative information this technique can off...

  6. The AEO, an Ontology of Anatomical Entities for Classifying Animal Tissues and Organs

    OpenAIRE

    Bard, Jonathan B. L.

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes the AEO, an ontology of anatomical entities that expands the common anatomy reference ontology (CARO) and whose major novel feature is a type hierarchy of ~160 anatomical terms. The breadth of the AEO is wider than CARO as it includes both developmental and gender-specific classes, while the granularity of the AEO terms is at a level adequate to classify simple-tissues (~70 classes) characterized by their containing a predominantly single cell-type. For convenience and to...

  7. Anatomical characteristics of Turkish steno-endemic Origanum leptocladum Boiss. (Lamiaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Süleyman Doğu; Muhittin Dinç

    2013-01-01

    Origanum leptocladum Boiss. is an endemic East Mediterranean element, naturally growing only in Ermenek district of Karaman province in Turkey. The aim of this study is to determine anatomical features of the species. The study materials were collected from Karaman-Ermenek in 2009 and then preserved in 70 % alcohol. O. leptocladum generally exhibits the anatomical feaures of the family Lamiaceae. Hovewer, herbaceaus stem is weakly-rectangle shaped or tends to be circular, the collenchymatic t...

  8. Anatomical characteristics of Turkish endemic Stachys rupestrıs Montbret et Aucher ex Bentham (Lamiaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Baştürk Kaya; Muhittin Dinç; Süleyman Doğu

    2015-01-01

    Stachys rupestris Montbret et Aucher ex Bentham, is an endemic species that show deploying at Middle Taurus and Amanos mountains in Turkey. In this study, the stem and leaf anatomy of the individuals that were collected from Mersin-Aslanköy were investigated. The obtained data from the anatomical studies shows that S. rupestris represents the anatomical characteristics of Lamiaceae family. The stem in primer structure is quadrangular, with a vascular bundle at each corner and it has collenchy...

  9. Increased cortical-limbic anatomical network connectivity in major depression revealed by diffusion tensor imaging.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Fang

    Full Text Available Magnetic resonance imaging studies have reported significant functional and structural differences between depressed patients and controls. Little attention has been given, however, to the abnormalities in anatomical connectivity in depressed patients. In the present study, we aim to investigate the alterations in connectivity of whole-brain anatomical networks in those suffering from major depression by using machine learning approaches. Brain anatomical networks were extracted from diffusion magnetic resonance images obtained from both 22 first-episode, treatment-naive adults with major depressive disorder and 26 matched healthy controls. Using machine learning approaches, we differentiated depressed patients from healthy controls based on their whole-brain anatomical connectivity patterns and identified the most discriminating features that represent between-group differences. Classification results showed that 91.7% (patients=86.4%, controls=96.2%; permutation test, p<0.0001 of subjects were correctly classified via leave-one-out cross-validation. Moreover, the strengths of all the most discriminating connections were increased in depressed patients relative to the controls, and these connections were primarily located within the cortical-limbic network, especially the frontal-limbic network. These results not only provide initial steps toward the development of neurobiological diagnostic markers for major depressive disorder, but also suggest that abnormal cortical-limbic anatomical networks may contribute to the anatomical basis of emotional dysregulation and cognitive impairments associated with this disease.

  10. Anatomic variation and orgasm: Could variations in anatomy explain differences in orgasmic success?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emhardt, E; Siegel, J; Hoffman, L

    2016-07-01

    Though the public consciousness is typically focused on factors such as psychology, penis size, and the presence of the "G-spot," there are other anatomical and neuro-anatomic differences that could play an equal, or more important, role in the frequency and intensity of orgasms. Discovering these variations could direct further medical or procedural management to improve sexual satisfaction. The aim of this study is to review the available literature of anatomical sexual variation and to explain why this variation may predispose some patients toward a particular sexual experience. In this review, we explored the available literature on sexual anatomy and neuro-anatomy. We used PubMed and OVID Medline for search terms, including orgasm, penile size variation, clitoral variation, Grafenberg spot, and benefits of orgasm. First we review the basic anatomy and innervation of the reproductive organs. Then we describe several anatomical variations that likely play a superior role to popular known variation (penis size, presence of g-spot, etc). For males, the delicate play between the parasympathetic and sympathetic nervous systems is vital to achieve orgasm. For females, the autonomic component is more complex. The clitoris is the primary anatomical feature for female orgasm, including its migration toward the anterior vaginal wall. In conclusions, orgasms are complex phenomena involving psychological, physiological, and anatomic variation. While these variations predispose people to certain sexual function, future research should explore how to surgically or medically alter these. Clin. Anat. 29:665-672, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26916103

  11. Strong links between genomic and anatomical diversity in both mammalian olfactory chemosensory systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrett, Eva C; Steiper, Michael E

    2014-05-22

    Mammalian olfaction comprises two chemosensory systems: the odorant-detecting main olfactory system (MOS) and the pheromone-detecting vomeronasal system (VNS). Mammals are diverse in their anatomical and genomic emphases on olfactory chemosensation, including the loss or reduction of these systems in some orders. Despite qualitative evidence linking the genomic evolution of the olfactory systems to specific functions and phenotypes, little work has quantitatively tested whether the genomic aspects of the mammalian olfactory chemosensory systems are correlated to anatomical diversity. We show that the genomic and anatomical variation in these systems is tightly linked in both the VNS and the MOS, though the signature of selection is different in each system. Specifically, the MOS appears to vary based on absolute organ and gene family size while the VNS appears to vary according to the relative proportion of functional genes and relative anatomical size and complexity. Furthermore, there is little evidence that these two systems are evolving in a linked fashion. The relationships between genomic and anatomical diversity strongly support a role for natural selection in shaping both the anatomical and genomic evolution of the olfactory chemosensory systems in mammals. PMID:24718758

  12. Segmented images and 3D images for studying the anatomical structures in MRIs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yong Sook; Chung, Min Suk; Cho, Jae Hyun

    2004-05-01

    For identifying the pathological findings in MRIs, the anatomical structures in MRIs should be identified in advance. For studying the anatomical structures in MRIs, an education al tool that includes the horizontal, coronal, sagittal MRIs of entire body, corresponding segmented images, 3D images, and browsing software is necessary. Such an educational tool, however, is hard to obtain. Therefore, in this research, such an educational tool which helps medical students and doctors study the anatomical structures in MRIs was made as follows. A healthy, young Korean male adult with standard body shape was selected. Six hundred thirteen horizontal MRIs of the entire body were scanned and inputted to the personal computer. Sixty anatomical structures in the horizontal MRIs were segmented to make horizontal segmented images. Coronal, sagittal MRIs and coronal, sagittal segmented images were made. 3D images of anatomical structures in the segmented images were reconstructed by surface rendering method. Browsing software of the MRIs, segmented images, and 3D images was composed. This educational tool that includes horizontal, coronal, sagittal MRIs of entire body, corresponding segmented images, 3D images, and browsing software is expected to help medical students and doctors study anatomical structures in MRIs.

  13. The effects of anatomical information and observer expertise on abnormality detection task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, L.; Cavaro-Ménard, C.; Le Callet, P.; Cooper, L. H. K.; Hunault, G.; Tanguy, J.-Y.

    2011-03-01

    This paper presents a novel study investigating the influences of Magnetic Resonance (MR) image anatomical information and observer expertise on an abnormality detection task. MRI is exquisitely sensitive for detecting brain abnormalities, particularly in the evaluation of white matter diseases, e.g. multiple sclerosis (MS). For this reason, MS lesions are simulated as the target stimuli for detection in the present study. Two different image backgrounds are used in the following experiments: a) homogeneous region of white matter tissue, and b) one slice of a healthy brain MR image. One expert radiologist (more than 10 years' experience), three radiologists (less than 5 years' experience) and eight naïve observers (without any prior medical knowledge) have performed these experiments, during which they have been asked different questions dependent upon level of experience; the three radiologists and eight naïve observers were asked if they were aware of any hyper-signal, likely to represent an MS lesion, while the most experienced consultant was asked if a clinically significant sign was present. With the percentages of response "yes" displayed on the y-axis and the lesion intensity contrasts on the x-axis, psychometric function is generated from the observer' responses. Results of psychometric functions and calculated thresholds indicate that radiologists have better hyper-signal detection ability than naïve observers, which is intuitively shown by the lower simple visibility thresholds of radiologists. However, when radiologists perform a task with clinical implications, e.g. to detect a clinically significant sign, their detection thresholds are elevated. Moreover, the study indicates that for the radiologists, the simple visibility thresholds remain the same with and without the anatomical information, which reduces the threshold for the clinically significant sign detection task. Findings provide further insight into human visual system processing for this

  14. Three-Dimensional Assessment of Bilateral Symmetry of the Scaphoid: An Anatomic Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul W. L. ten Berg

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Preoperative 3D CT imaging techniques provide displacement analysis of the distal scaphoid fragment in 3D space, using the matched opposite scaphoid as reference. Its accuracy depends on the presence of anatomical bilateral symmetry, which has not been investigated yet using similar techniques. Our purpose was to investigate symmetry by comparing the relative positions of distal and proximal poles between sides. We used bilateral CT scans of 19 adult healthy volunteers to obtain 3D scaphoid models. Left proximal and distal poles were matched to corresponding mirrored right sides. The left-to-right positional differences between poles were quantified in terms of three translational and three rotational parameters. The mean (SD of ulnar, dorsal, and distal translational differences of distal poles relative to proximal poles was 0.1 (0.6; 0.4 (1.2; 0.2 (0.6 mm and that of palmar rotation, ulnar deviation, and pronation differences was −1.1 (4.9; −1.5 (3.3; 1.0 (3.7°, respectively. These differences did not significantly differ from zero and thus were not biased to left or right side. We proved that, on average, the articular surfaces of scaphoid poles were symmetrically aligned in 3D space. This suggests that the contralateral scaphoid can serve as reference in corrective surgery. No level of evidence is available.

  15. Anatomical and physiological basis for the allometric scaling of cisplatin clearance in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achanta, S; Sewell, A; Ritchey, J W; Broaddus, K; Bourne, D W A; Clarke, C R; Maxwell, L K

    2016-06-01

    Cisplatin is a platinum-containing cytotoxic drug indicated for the treatment of solid tumors in veterinary and human patients. Several of the algorithms used to standardize the doses of cytotoxic drugs utilize allometry, or the nonproportional relationships between anatomical and physiological variables, but the underlying basis for these relationships is poorly understood. The objective of this proof of concept study was to determine whether allometric equations explain the relationships between body weight, kidney weight, renal physiology, and clearance of a model, renally cleared anticancer agent in dogs. Postmortem body, kidney, and heart weights were collected from 364 dogs (127 juveniles and 237 adults, including 51 dogs ≥ 8 years of age). Renal physiological and cisplatin pharmacokinetic studies were conducted in ten intact male dogs including two juvenile and eight adult dogs (4-55 kg). Glomerular filtration rate (GFR), effective renal plasma flow, effective renal blood flow, renal cisplatin clearance, and total cisplatin clearance were allometrically related to body weight with powers of 0.75, 0.59, 0.61, 0.71, and 0.70, respectively. The similar values of these diverse mass exponents suggest a common underlying basis for the allometry of kidney size, renal physiology, and renal drug handling. PMID:26440900

  16. Advances of Molecular Imaging for Monitoring the Anatomical and Functional Architecture of the Olfactory System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xintong; Bi, Anyao; Gao, Quansheng; Zhang, Shuai; Huang, Kunzhu; Liu, Zhiguo; Gao, Tang; Zeng, Wenbin

    2016-01-20

    The olfactory system of organisms serves as a genetically and anatomically model for studying how sensory input can be translated into behavior output. Some neurologic diseases are considered to be related to olfactory disturbance, especially Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, multiple sclerosis, and so forth. However, it is still unclear how the olfactory system affects disease generation processes and olfaction delivery processes. Molecular imaging, a modern multidisciplinary technology, can provide valid tools for the early detection and characterization of diseases, evaluation of treatment, and study of biological processes in living subjects, since molecular imaging applies specific molecular probes as a novel approach to produce special data to study biological processes in cellular and subcellular levels. Recently, molecular imaging plays a key role in studying the activation of olfactory system, thus it could help to prevent or delay some diseases. Herein, we present a comprehensive review on the research progress of the imaging probes for visualizing olfactory system, which is classified on different imaging modalities, including PET, MRI, and optical imaging. Additionally, the probes' design, sensing mechanism, and biological application are discussed. Finally, we provide an outlook for future studies in this field. PMID:26616533

  17. Anatomical Study of Somatic Embryogenesis in Glycine max (L. Merrill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Aparecida Fernando

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available A comparative anatomical analysis of somatic embryogenesis in two soybean (Glycine max (L. Merrill genotypes was carried out. The somatic embryos were originated from cotyledonary explants obtained from immature zygotic embryos. The medium used for somatic embryogenesis induction was Murashige and Skoog, 1962, salts and Gamborg et al., 1968, vitamins (MSB supplemented with 0.8 mg.L-1 of 2,4-D for genotype PI 123439 and 40 mg.L-1 of 2,4-D for ‘Williams 82’. Globular structures, constituted by meristematic cells, originated from subepidermal cell divisions of the cotyledonary mesophyll. In PI 123439, the globular structures presented tracheary differentiation among meristematic cells and they could follow distinct morphogenetic process depending on their location along the explant. For ‘Williams 82’ it was observed globular structures along the cotyledonary explant surface. They gave rise to somatic embryos. These embryos showed different morphologies and they were classified based on their shape and number of cotyledons. The ability of these morphological types to convert to plantlets was discussed.Realizou-se uma análise anatômica comparativa da embriogênese somática em dois genótipos de soja (Glycine max (L. Merrill. Os embriões somáticos foram obtidos a partir de explantes cotiledonares excisados de embriões zigóticos imaturos do genótipo PI 123439, adaptado às condições tropicais, e ‘Williams 82’. O meio utilizado para indução da embriogênese somática constituiu-se de sais de Murashige e Skoog,1962, e vitaminas de Gamborg et al., 1968 (MSB suplementado com 0,8 mg.L-1 de 2,4-D (PI 123439 e 40 mg.L-1 (‘Williams 82’. Estruturas globulares originaram-se a partir de divisões celulares nas camadas subepidérmicas do mesofilo cotiledonar e foram constituídas por células meristemáticas. No genótipo PI 123439, as estruturas globulares apresentaram diferenciação traqueal entre as células meristemáticas e

  18. Three-dimensional in vivo imaging of the murine liver: a micro-computed tomography-based anatomical study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Fiebig

    Full Text Available Various murine models are currently used to study acute and chronic pathological processes of the liver, and the efficacy of novel therapeutic regimens. The increasing availability of high-resolution small animal imaging modalities presents researchers with the opportunity to precisely identify and describe pathological processes of the liver. To meet the demands, the objective of this study was to provide a three-dimensional illustration of the macroscopic anatomical location of the murine liver lobes and hepatic vessels using small animal imaging modalities. We analysed micro-CT images of the murine liver by integrating additional information from the published literature to develop comprehensive illustrations of the macroscopic anatomical features of the murine liver and hepatic vasculature. As a result, we provide updated three-dimensional illustrations of the macroscopic anatomy of the murine liver and hepatic vessels using micro-CT. The information presented here provides researchers working in the field of experimental liver disease with a comprehensive, easily accessable overview of the macroscopic anatomy of the murine liver.

  19. Gross anatomical features of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) of blue-and-yellow macaws (Ara ararauna) - oesophagus to cloaca.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aizawa, J; Tivane, C; Rodrigues, M N; Wagner, P G; Campos, D B; Guerra, R R; Miglino, M A

    2013-12-01

    Morphological studies of the gastrointestinal tract of blue-and-yellow macaws (Ara ararauna) are scarce. In view of the paucity of information regarding the digestive tract of macaws, this study aims to describe the gross anatomical features (oesophagus to cloaca) as part of a broad study of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) of these birds. Three animals (two males and one female) adult macaws were anatomically dissected from the oropharynx to the cloaca to expose the GIT. The oesophagus was identified as a muscle-membranous tube continuous with the crop, which was intimately attached to the skin. The internal longitudinal folds of the cervical oesophagus were sparser cranial to the crop and less evident compared to the portion caudal to the crop. The duodenum began in the pylorus and was grey-coloured exhibiting a large lumen. The jejunum was formed by loops in a spiral-fashion model supported by mesojejunum. The ileum was also composed by small loops and was continuous with the colo-rectum forming the large intestine, because the caeca were absent. The large intestine was short, median in position, suspended in the dorsal wall of the abdominal cavity by mesentery and ended in the cloaca. The GIT was similar to the basic patterns in birds, in general, and also presented new unreported morphological data that might be important when studying nutrition and health of the macaws. PMID:23414512

  20. Chronology of Ksar Akil (Lebanon and implications for the colonization of Europe by anatomically modern humans.

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    Katerina Douka

    Full Text Available The Out-of-Africa model holds that anatomically modern humans (AMH evolved and dispersed from Africa into Asia, and later Europe. Palaeoanthropological evidence from the Near East assumes great importance, but AMH remains from the region are extremely scarce. 'Egbert', a now-lost AMH fossil from the key site of Ksar Akil (Lebanon and 'Ethelruda', a recently re-discovered fragmentary maxilla from the same site, are two rare examples where human fossils are directly linked with early Upper Palaeolithic archaeological assemblages. Here we radiocarbon date the contexts from which Egbert and Ethelruda were recovered, as well as the levels above and below the findspots. In the absence of well-preserved organic materials, we primarily used marine shell beads, often regarded as indicative of behavioural modernity. Bayesian modelling allows for the construction of a chronostratigraphic framework for Ksar Akil, which supports several conclusions. The model-generated age estimates place Egbert between 40.8-39.2 ka cal BP (68.2% prob. and Ethelruda between 42.4-41.7 ka cal BP (68.2% prob.. This indicates that Egbert is of an age comparable to that of the oldest directly-dated European AMH (Peştera cu Oase. Ethelruda is older, but on current estimates not older than the modern human teeth from Cavallo in Italy. The dating of the so-called "transitional" or Initial Upper Palaeolithic layers of the site may indicate that the passage from the Middle to Upper Palaeolithic at Ksar Akil, and possibly in the wider northern Levant, occurred later than previously estimated, casting some doubts on the assumed singular role of the region as a locus for human dispersals into Europe. Finally, tentative interpretations of the fossil's taxonomy, combined with the chronometric dating of Ethelruda's context, provides evidence that the transitional/IUP industries of Europe and the Levant, or at least some of them, may be the result of early modern human migration(s.

  1. Anatomical Details of the Rabbit Nasal Passages and Their Implications in Breathing, Air Conditioning, and Olfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, Jinxiang; Si, Xiuhua A; Kim, Jongwon; Zhang, Yu; Jacob, Richard E; Kabilan, Senthil; Corley, Richard A

    2016-07-01

    The rabbit is commonly used as a laboratory animal for inhalation toxicology tests and detail knowledge of the rabbit airway morphometry is needed for outcome analysis or theoretical modeling. The objective of this study is to quantify the morphometric dimension of the nasal airway of a New Zealand white rabbit and to relate the morphology and functions through analytical and computational methods. Images of high-resolution MRI scans of the rabbit were processed to measure the axial distribution of the cross-sectional areas, perimeter, and complexity level. The lateral recess, which has functions other than respiration or olfaction, was isolated from the nasal airway and its dimension was quantified separately. A low Reynolds number turbulence model was implemented to simulate the airflow, heat transfer, vapor transport, and wall shear stress. Results of this study provide detailed morphological information of the rabbit that can be used in the studies of olfaction, inhalation toxicology, drug delivery, and physiology-based pharmacokinetics modeling. For the first time, we reported a spiral nasal vestibule that splits into three paths leading to the dorsal meatus, maxilloturbinate, and ventral meatus, respectively. Both non-dimensional functional analysis and CFD simulations suggested that the airflow in the rabbit nose is laminar and the unsteady effect is only significantly during sniffing. Due to the large surface-to-volume ratio, the maxilloturbinate is highly effective in warming and moistening the inhaled air to body conditions. The unique anatomical structure and respiratory airflow pattern may have important implications for designing new odorant detectors or electronic noses. Anat Rec, 299:853-868, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27145450

  2. Morphological and Histo-Anatomical Study of Bryonia alba L. (Cucurbitaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lavinia M. RUS

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study consisted in the identification of the macroscopic and microscopic characters of the vegetative and reproductive organs of Bryonia alba L., by the analysis of vegetal material, both integral and as powder. Optical microscopy was used to reveal the anatomical structure of the vegetative (root, stem, tendrils, leaves and reproductive (ovary, male flower petals organs. Histo-anatomical details were highlighted by coloration with an original combination of reagents for the double coloration of cellulose and lignin. Scanning electronic microscopy (SEM and stereomicroscopy led to the elucidation of the structure of tector and secretory trichomes on the inferior epidermis of the leaf. Micrographic analysis of the powder obtained from aerial parts revealed segments of each organ (e.g. stomata, trichomes and confirmed furthermore the results obtained by the histo-anatomical studies. Sections achieved through vegetative organs reveal typical anatomical structures: a transition to the secondary structure for the root, a typical dicotyledons’ structure with bicollateral vascular bundles for the stem, a bifacial structure of the leaf and stem-like structures for the tendrils and petioles, which prove they are metamorphosis of the stem. Anatomical structure of reproductive organs was performed hereby for the first time and revealed a typical anatomical structure for the 3-lodged ovary and a leaf-like structure of the male flower petal. Some of the results obtained confirm existing data from the scientific literature and additional information have been provided, outlining features that were not previously reported, such as SEM analysis of the leaf trichomes and histo-anatomical structure of the reproductive organs.

  3. Image-based dose planning of intracavitary brachytherapy: registration of serial-imaging studies using deformable anatomic templates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To demonstrate that high-dimensional voxel-to-voxel transformations, derived from continuum mechanics models of the underlying pelvic tissues, can be used to register computed tomography (CT) serial examinations into a single anatomic frame of reference for cumulative dose calculations. Methods and Materials: Three patients with locally advanced cervix cancer were treated with CT-compatible intracavitary (ICT) applicators. Each patient underwent five volumetric CT examinations: before initiating treatment, and immediately before and after the first and second ICT insertions, respectively. Each serial examination was rigidly registered to the patient's first ICT examination by aligning the bony anatomy. Detailed nonrigid alignment for organs (or targets) of interest was subsequently achieved by deforming the CT exams as a viscous-fluid, described by the Navier-Stokes equation, until the coincidence with the corresponding targets on CT image was maximized. In cases where ICT insertion induced very large and topologically complex rearrangements of pelvic organs, e.g., extreme uterine canal reorientation following tandem insertion, a viscous-fluid-landmark transformation was used to produce an initial registration. Results: For all three patients, reasonable registrations for organs (or targets) of interest were achieved. Fluid-landmark initialization was required in 4 of the 11 registrations. Relative to the best rigid bony landmark alignment, the viscous-fluid registration resulted in average soft-tissue displacements from 2.8 to 28.1 mm, and improved organ coincidence from the range of 5.2% to 72.2% to the range of 90.6% to 100%. Compared to the viscous-fluid transformation, global registration of bony anatomy mismatched 5% or more of the contoured organ volumes by 15-25 mm. Conclusion: Pelvic soft-tissue structures undergo large deformations and displacements during the external-beam and multiple-ICT course of radiation therapy for locally advanced cervix

  4. A transparent oversight policy for human anatomical specimen management: the University of California, Davis experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Brandi; Wacker, Charlotte; Ikemoto, Lisa; Meyers, Frederick J; Pomeroy, Claire

    2014-03-01

    The authors describe the development and implementation of a University of California (UC) system of oversight, education, tracking, and accountability for human anatomical specimen use in education and research activities. This program was created and initially implemented at UC Davis in 2005. Several incidents arising out of the handling of human anatomical specimens at UC campuses revealed significant challenges in the system for maintaining control of human anatomical specimens used in education and research. These events combined to undermine the public perception for research and educational endeavors involving anatomical materials at public institutions. Risks associated with the acquisition, maintenance, and disposal of these specimens were not fully understood by the faculty, staff, and students who used them. Laws governing sources of specimens are grouped with those that govern organ procurement and tissue banking, and sometimes are found in cemetery and funeral regulations. These variables complicate interpretations and may hinder compliance. To regain confidence in the system, the need to set appropriate and realistic guidelines that mitigate risk and facilitate an institution's research and educational mission was identified. This article chronicles a multiyear process in which diverse stakeholders developed (1) a regulatory policy for oversight, (2) a policy education program, (3) procedures for tracking and accountability, and (4) a reporting and enforcement mechanism for appropriate and ethical use of human anatomical specimens in university education and research. PMID:24448034

  5. Sinonasal Anatomical Variants: CT and Endoscopy Study and Its Correlation with Extent of Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendiratta, Vandana; Baisakhiya, Nitish; Singh, Dalbir; Datta, Ginni; Mittal, Amit; Mendiratta, Parveen

    2016-09-01

    To evaluate the incidence of anatomical variations in sinonasal area by nasal endoscopy and CT scan paranasal sinuses and to correlate the anatomical variations in sinonasal area with extent of disease. The present study was conducted on 40 patients of chronic sinusitis. All the patients underwent CT scan paranasal sinus axial and coronal view and nasal endoscopy. The most common anatomical variations were agger nasi cells (80 %), deviated nasal septum (72.5 %) and concha bullosa (47.5 %). Other anatomical variations seen in sinonasal region were uncinate process variations, paradoxical middle turbinate, haller cells, accessory ostia of maxillary sinus, multiseptated sphenoid. Osteomeatal unit (87.5 %) and maxillary sinuses (87.5 %) were the most commonly involved which was followed by anterior ethmoids (70 %), posterior ethmoids (50 %), frontal sinuses (32.5 %) and the sphenoids (20 %). Considering the results obtained, we believe that anatomical variations may increase the risk of sinus mucosal disease. We therefore, emphasize the importance of a careful evaluation of CT study in patients with persistent symptoms of chronic rhinosinusitis. PMID:27508139

  6. Comparison of leaf anatomical characteristics of hibiscus rosa-sinensis grown in faisalabad region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The genetic potential of different plant species to different environmental conditions differ in relation to different physiological, biochemical and anatomical characteristics. Of these varying attributes leaf anatomical characteristics play most important role for the establishment of that cultivar in varied environmental conditions. So, the present study was conducted to assess the inter-cultivar genetic potential of Hibiscus in relation to leaf anatomical characteristics. To fulfill the study requirements Hibiscus rosa-sinensis and its six cultivars (were well adapted to their specific natural habitat) were collected from different locations of district Faisalabad Pakistan that have great environmental changes round the year. Results showed significant variability among cultivars in relation to analyzed anatomical characteristics. Cultivars Lemon shiffon and Wilder's white emerge more promising among others by possessing more epidermal thickness, increased epidermal cell area, high cortical cell area and incremented stomatal density as compared with other cultivars. On the other hand, cultivars Cooperi alba, Mrs. George Davis and Frank green possessed least cortex cell area, lowest xylem region thickness and minimum phloem region thickness respectively. Overall, it can be concluded that anatomical genetic potential has endorsed cultivars Lemon chiffon and Wilder's white with enormous capability to grow well under variable environments. (author)

  7. On the Variations of the Muscle Flexor Digitorum Brevis: Anatomical Insight Variaciones del Músculo Flexor Corto de los Dedos: Experiencias de Anatomía

    OpenAIRE

    Isurani Ilayperuma

    2012-01-01

    Flexor digitorum brevis, an intrinsic muscle of the sole of the foot, is stated as one of the muscles that shows frequent anatomical variations. Its most commonly reported anomaly is the absence of tendon to the little toe. From a clinical standpoint of view, flexor digitorum brevis musculocutanous flap is used in the reconstruction of the heel pad and flexor digitorum brevis tendon transfer is employed in the correction of flexible claw and hammer toe deformities. Despite its significance li...

  8. Effect of anatomical and chemical structure in the permeability of "Amapá" wood

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    Edy Eime Pereira Baraúna

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper aimed to study the permeability to air and liquid, in the longitudinal direction of "amapá" wood (Brosimum parinarioides Ducke, originating from the Amazon Forest. Furthermore, the influence of anatomical and chemical characteristics in the permeability of the wood was investigated. For this study, samples were collected from three trees, in the state of Pará, Brazil, and submitted to permeability test, anatomical characterization, and chemical analyses. The permeability to the air of the "amapá" wood was estimated at 63.7.10-9 m3.[m.(N.m-2.s]-1 and to the liquid was 2.07.10-9 m3.[m.(N.m-2.s]-1. There were low correlations between air and liquid permeability and the anatomical features.

  9. Medial depression with bony dehiscence of lamina papyracea as an anatomic variation: CT evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate the incidence and CT findings of the medial depression and bony dehiscence of lamina papyracea as an anatomic variation. 1472 PNS CTs of the patients with symptoms of chronic sinusitis were retrospectively evaluated. The total incidence of depressed lamina papyracea as an anatomic variation was 3.5%(52/1472) on PNS CT. There was a statistically significant correlation between the increasing age and the incidence of depressed lamina papyracea. Depression of lamina papyracea anterior to the basal lamella were more common than those of the posterior depression. Associated findings were herniation of adjacent fatty tissue in all cases and the medial bowing and hypertrophied configuration of the medial rectus muscle without significant herniation in 19 cases(34%). Nontraumatic, asymptomatic depression with bony dehiscence of lamina papyracea as an anatomic variation is not uncommon with the incidence of 3.5%. Recognition of its existence and degree may be helpful in avoiding various ocular complication during ethmoid surgery

  10. Pericarp anatomical study of some lamiaceae nutlets in saudi arabia and its taxonomic significance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The nutlets transverse sections of 23 selected taxa belonging to 12 genera of Saudi Arabia Lamiaceae were examined using light microscope and detailed description of the pericarp anatomical characteristics were provided. Nutlets have shown obvious differences in the presence or absence of hairs, papillae, mucilage, endosperm and crystals, also, in thickness of pericarp layers, parenchymatous and sclerenchymataus layers. The relationships between the studied taxa were presented as phenogram. This study confirms the usefulness of the nutlet anatomical features as additional characters in taxonomical studies of the Lamiaceae especially mucilage production (myxocarpy) and the sclerenchymatous layer (shape, pigment, and cavity) of the endocarp. They are diagnostic at the generic and subfamily levels. The anatomical studies indicate the family is polymorphic in pericarp characters. (author)

  11. Endoscopic expand transnasal approach to the suprasellar region :anatomical study and clinical considerations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Xiao-jie; CHEN Kai-lai; WANG Qin; JI Wei-yang; LI Bing; SUN Ji-yong; LI Jiang-an

    2009-01-01

    Backgroud The expanded endonasal approach (EEA) is used sparingly by surgeons for resection of lesions in the ventrocranial base. Herein, we examined the anatomy of the ventrocranial base by endoscopy and comment on the use of EEA in clinical practice.Methods Twenty artery-injected adult cadaveric heads were studied under surgical conditions using the endoscopic EEA. The extent of the surgical exposure, the endoscopic anatomic view and the maneuverability of surgical instruments about the suprasellar region were studied by the endoscopic EEA.Results The EEA by endoscope can reach the suprasellar region. In this approach, the optocarotid recess, supra and infra-optic chiasm interspace, the ophthalmic artery and others were important anatomical landmarks for identification of the suprasellar region.Conclusions The endoscopic EEA can be used to remove many types of lesions in the ventrocranial base. The microanatorny observed using the endoscope provides important anatomical information on the suprasellar region for neurosurgeons.

  12. Extractive and anatomical wood structure effects on mechanical properties of Caoba wood (Swietenia macrophylla King)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The compression tangential to grain of samples of mahogany wood from Peru was examined at different relative humidity levels at 25 Celsius degrade to determine the influence of both extractives and anatomical structure. Matched samples were used to assess the percentage of extractive components by extraction with solvents of increasing polarity: cyclohexane, dichloromethane, acetone, methanol and hot water. Additionally, fourteen anatomical parameters were determined by image analysis. Stepwise regression analysis concluded that mainly anatomical features, such as rays and vessels, rather than extractives, affect the mechanical behaviour of mahogany. These findings are agree with earlier results showing a negative effect of large and multiseriate rays on the mechanical properties of wood when loaded perpendicularly to their long axis. The influence of lumen located extracts soluble in dichloromethane might disallow deformations. Finally, it is postulated that hot water extracts may play a plasticizing role in this species.

  13. Anatomical characteristics of Turkish steno-endemic Origanum leptocladum Boiss. (Lamiaceae

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    Süleyman Doğu

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Origanum leptocladum Boiss. is an endemic East Mediterranean element, naturally growing only in Ermenek district of Karaman province in Turkey. The aim of this study is to determine anatomical features of the species. The study materials were collected from Karaman-Ermenek in 2009 and then preserved in 70 % alcohol. O. leptocladum generally exhibits the anatomical feaures of the family Lamiaceae. Hovewer, herbaceaus stem is weakly-rectangle shaped or tends to be circular, the collenchymatic tissue at the corner of the stem and scleranchymatic pericycle around the vascular tissue are weakly-developed. The most striking anatomical feature is that leaf lamina is dorsiventral in the region near to midvein, but equifacial out of the midvein. According to the results, while the stomata are of mesomorphic type on the leaf surfaces, O. leptocladum has xeromorphic characters such as palisade richness in mesophyll, the occurrence of rich scleranchymatic tissue in midvein and cuticle thickness on leaf surface.

  14. Radial force distribution changes associated with tangential force production in cylindrical grasping, and the importance of anatomical registration

    OpenAIRE

    Pataky, Todd C.; Slota, Gregory P.; Latash, Mark L.; Zatsiorsky, Vladimir M.

    2011-01-01

    Radial force (Fr) distributions describe grip force coordination about a cylindrical object. Recent studies have employed only explicit Fr tasks, and have not normalized for anatomical variance when considering Fr distributions. The goals of the present study were (i) to explore Fr during tangential force production tasks, and (ii) to examine the extent to which anatomical registration (i.e. spatial normalization of anatomically analogous structures) could improve signal detectability in Fr d...

  15. LEAF ANATOMICAL VARIATION IN RELATION TO STRESS TOLERANCE AMONG SOME WOODY SPECIES ON THE ACCRA PLAINS OF GHANA

    OpenAIRE

    DZOMEKU BELOVED MENSAH

    2012-01-01

    Leaf anatomical study was conducted on some woody species on the Accra Plains of Ghana. Leaf epidermal strips and transverse sections were mounted in Canada balsam and studied. The anatomical studies revealed numerous stomata on the lower epidermis of Azadirachta indica. The anatomical studies revealed the presence of thick cuticles, double-layered palisade mesophyll in most species and the presence of epidermal hairs in some species. Ficus capensis showed the presence of cystolith in the low...

  16. Anatomical background noise power spectrum in differential phase contrast breast images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrett, John; Ge, Yongshuai; Li, Ke; Chen, Guang-Hong

    2015-03-01

    In x-ray breast imaging, the anatomical noise background of the breast has a significant impact on the detection of lesions and other features of interest. This anatomical noise is typically characterized by a parameter, β, which describes a power law dependence of anatomical noise on spatial frequency (the shape of the anatomical noise power spectrum). Large values of β have been shown to reduce human detection performance, and in conventional mammography typical values of β are around 3.2. Recently, x-ray differential phase contrast (DPC) and the associated dark field imaging methods have received considerable attention as possible supplements to absorption imaging for breast cancer diagnosis. However, the impact of these additional contrast mechanisms on lesion detection is not yet well understood. In order to better understand the utility of these new methods, we measured the β indices for absorption, DPC, and dark field images in 15 cadaver breast specimens using a benchtop DPC imaging system. We found that the measured β value for absorption was consistent with the literature for mammographic acquisitions (β = 3.61±0.49), but that both DPC and dark field images had much lower values of β (β = 2.54±0.75 for DPC and β = 1.44±0.49 for dark field). In addition, visual inspection showed greatly reduced anatomical background in both DPC and dark field images. These promising results suggest that DPC and dark field imaging may help provide improved lesion detection in breast imaging, particularly for those patients with dense breasts, in whom anatomical noise is a major limiting factor in identifying malignancies.

  17. Multivariate pattern analysis reveals anatomical connectivity differences between the left and right mesial temporal lobe epilepsy

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    Peng Fang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have demonstrated differences of clinical signs and functional brain network organizations between the left and right mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (mTLE, but the anatomical connectivity differences underlying functional variance between the left and right mTLE remain uncharacterized. We examined 43 (22 left, 21 right mTLE patients with hippocampal sclerosis and 39 healthy controls using diffusion tensor imaging. After the whole-brain anatomical networks were constructed for each subject, multivariate pattern analysis was applied to classify the left mTLE from the right mTLE and extract the anatomical connectivity differences between the left and right mTLE patients. The classification results reveal 93.0% accuracy for the left mTLE versus the right mTLE, 93.4% accuracy for the left mTLE versus controls and 90.0% accuracy for the right mTLE versus controls. Compared with the right mTLE, the left mTLE exhibited a different connectivity pattern in the cortical-limbic network and cerebellum. The majority of the most discriminating anatomical connections were located within or across the cortical-limbic network and cerebellum, thereby indicating that these disease-related anatomical network alterations may give rise to a portion of the complex of emotional and memory deficit between the left and right mTLE. Moreover, the orbitofrontal gyrus, cingulate cortex, hippocampus and parahippocampal gyrus, which exhibit high discriminative power in classification, may play critical roles in the pathophysiology of mTLE. The current study demonstrated that anatomical connectivity differences between the left mTLE and the right mTLE may have the potential to serve as a neuroimaging biomarker to guide personalized diagnosis of the left and right mTLE.

  18. The Application of an Anatomical Database for Fetal Congenital Heart Disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Yang; Qiu-Yan Pei; Yun-Tao Li; Zhen-Juan Yang

    2015-01-01

    Background:Fetal congenital heart anomalies are the most common congenital anomalies in live births.Fetal echocardiography (FECG) is the only prenatal diagnostic approach used to detect fetal congenital heart disease (CHD).FECG is not widely used,and the antenatal diagnosis rate of CHD varies considerably.Thus,mastering the anatomical characteristics of different kinds of CHD is critical for ultrasound physicians to improve FECG technology.The aim of this study is to investigate the applications of a fetal CHD anatomic database in FECG teaching and training program.Methods:We evaluated 60 transverse section databases including 27 types of fetal CHD built in the Prenatal Diagnosis Center in Peking University People's Hospital.Each original database contained 400-700 cross-sectional digital images with a resolution of 3744 pixels × 5616 pixels.We imported the database into Amira 5.3.1 (Australia Visage Imaging Company,Australia) three-dimensional (3D) software.The database functions use a series of 3D software visual operations.The features of the fetal CHD anatomical database were analyzed to determine its applications in FECG continuing education and training.Results:The database was rebuilt using the 3D software.The original and rebuilt databases can be displayed dynamically,continuously,and synchronically and can be rotated at arbitrary angles.The sections from the dynamic displays and rotating angles are consistent with the sections in FECG.The database successfully reproduced the anatomic structures and spatial relationship features of different fetal CHDs.We established a fetal CHD anatomy training database and a standardized training database for FECG.Ultrasound physicians and students can learn the anatomical features of fetal CHD and FECG through either centralized training or distance education.Conclusions:The database of fetal CHD successfully reproduced the anatomic structures and spatial relationship of different kinds of fetal CHD.This database can be

  19. The diaphragm as an anatomic surrogate for lung tumor motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerviño, Laura I.; Chao, Alvin K. Y.; Sandhu, Ajay; Jiang, Steve B.

    2009-06-01

    Lung tumor motion due to respiration poses a challenge in the application of modern three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy. Direct tracking of the lung tumor during radiation therapy is very difficult without implanted fiducial markers. Indirect tracking relies on the correlation of the tumor's motion and the surrogate's motion. The present paper presents an analysis of the correlation between tumor motion and diaphragm motion in order to evaluate the potential use of diaphragm as a surrogate for tumor motion. We have analyzed the correlation between diaphragm motion and superior-inferior lung tumor motion in 32 fluoroscopic image sequences from ten lung cancer patients. A simple linear model and a more complex linear model that accounts for phase delays between the two motions have been used. Results show that the diaphragm is a good surrogate for tumor motion prediction for most patients, resulting in an average correlation factor of 0.94 and 0.98 with each model respectively. The model that accounts for delays leads to an average localization prediction error of 0.8 mm and an error at the 95% confidence level of 2.1 mm. However, for one patient studied, the correlation is much weaker compared to other patients. This indicates that, before using diaphragm for lung tumor prediction, the correlation should be examined on a patient-by-patient basis.

  20. Diaphragm as an anatomic surrogate for lung tumor motion

    CERN Document Server

    Cervino, Laura I; Sandhu, Ajay; Jiang, Steve B

    2009-01-01

    Lung tumor motion due to respiration poses a challenge in the application of modern three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy. Direct tracking of the lung tumor during radiation therapy is very difficult without implanted fiducial markers. Indirect tracking relies on the correlation of the tumor's motion and the surrogate's motion. The present paper presents an analysis of the correlation between the tumor motion and the diaphragm motion in order to evaluate the potential use of diaphragm as a surrogate for tumor motion. We have analyzed the correlation between diaphragm motion and superior-inferior lung tumor motion in 32 fluoroscopic image sequences from 10 lung cancer patients. A simple linear model and a more complex linear model that accounts for phase delays between the two motions have been used. Results show that the diaphragm is a good surrogate for tumor motion prediction for most patients, resulting in an average correlation factor of 0.94 and 0.98 with each model respectively. The model that accoun...

  1. Understanding the current anatomical competence landscape: Comparing perceptions of program directors, residents, and fourth-year medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fillmore, Erin P; Brokaw, James J; Kochhar, Komal; Nalin, Peter M

    2016-07-01

    A mixed methods survey of fourth-year medical students, resident physicians, and residency program directors at the Indiana University School of Medicine gathered perceptions of anatomical competence-defined as the anatomical education necessary for effective clinical practice. The survey items explored numerous aspects of anatomical competence, including the most effective modes of instruction, perceptions of readiness for clinical practice, and specific suggestions for improving anatomical education during medical school and residency. The response rate was 46% for fourth-year medical students, 47% for residents (as graduates from 137 medical schools), and 71% for program directors. A majority of students and residents reported that their course in Gross Anatomy prepared them well for clinical practice; that cadaveric dissection was important in the early development of their anatomical competence; and that placing a greater emphasis on clinical relevance in medical school would have improved their anatomical competence even further. However, in terms of anatomical preparedness upon entering residency, the program directors rated their residents less prepared than the residents rated themselves. All three groups agreed that there is need for additional opportunities for anatomical educational during medical school and residency. Suggestions for improving anatomical education included the following: providing more opportunities for cadaveric dissection during medical school and residency; more consistent teaching of anatomy for clinical practice; more workshops that review anatomy; and better integration of anatomy with the teaching of other subjects during medical school. Anat Sci Educ 9: 307-318. © 2015 American Association of Anatomists. PMID:26632977

  2. Ossification in the cephalic attachment of the ligamentum flavum: an anatomical and CT study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A review of 50 anatomical specimens and 100 routine CT scans of the chest and abdomen demonstrated that ossification in the cephalic attachment of the ligamentum flavum is a common anatomical finding, but not as common on CT. Examination of hospital charts and plain radiographs of 26 patients with such ossification suggests that it is probably a normal variant; there was no evidence that it is related to diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis (DISH) or inflammatory arthropathy. Marked ossification may cause or contribute to neurological symptoms

  3. Ossification in the caudal attachments of the ligamentum flavum: an anatomic and computed tomographic study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A review of anatomic specimens and routine computed tomographic (CT) scans of the chest and abdomen demonstrated that ossification in the caudal attachments of the ligamentum flavum is a common anatomic finding, but a much less common CT finding. Its characteristic location should help prevent confusion with other entities. The present study was prompted by a case of thoracic spine trauma, reported here, in which areas of bone density in the spinal canal simulated fracture fragments. The true nature of these bony projections, namely ossification in the ligamentum flavum, was established by computer reconstruction of axial CT images

  4. La anatomía comparada: su vigencia como programa de investigación

    OpenAIRE

    Abdala, Virginia

    2006-01-01

    En los círculos científicos actuales predomina la idea de que la anatomía es casi un anacronismo victoriano, salvo en el contexto de proveedora de caracteres para análisis filogenéticos. Esta estimación del rol de la anatomía como una actividad subordinada lleva implícita la idea de que no se trata más de una disciplina científica. Que probablemente lo haya sido, pero que no merece más ese status.

  5. La anatomía comparada: su vigencia como programa de investigación

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdala, Virginia

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available En los círculos científicos actuales predomina la idea de que la anatomía es casi un anacronismo victoriano, salvo en el contexto de proveedora de caracteres para análisis filogenéticos. Esta estimación del rol de la anatomía como una actividad subordinada lleva implícita la idea de que no se trata más de una disciplina científica. Que probablemente lo haya sido, pero que no merece más ese status.

  6. DETERMINATION OF ANATOMICAL TYPE OF HEAD AND FACE IN CHILDREN UNDER 6 YEARS IN AHWAZ

    OpenAIRE

    Z. Safikhani; N. Afzali H. Bordbar

    2007-01-01

    Cephalometry is an important branch of anthropology in which the dimensions of head and face can be determined. These dimensions are used to show indexes for studying brain growth and formation of all types of head and face. Indexes are vary from 65 to 95 for head and 65 to105 for face, which are used to determine 4 international anatomic types of head and 5 international anatomic types of face. The present study was carried out to determine all types of head and face among subjects aged less...

  7. Validation of Setaria (L. P. Beauv Species based on Palyonological and Anatomical Techniques.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul nazir

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In present study external morphology, leaf epidermal anatomy and pollen structureof three species of genus Setaria(Poaceaeviz., S. glauca, S. verticillata and S. viridiswere studied. The major emphasis was on the importance of palyno-anatomical characters used as an aid in plant systematics. Light microscopy (LM and scanning electron microscopy (SEMwere used to study leaf epidermal anatomy and pollen structure.Palyno-anatomical analysis of genus Setaria shows variations within the species. It is stated that the study based on classical and modern approaches is very useful for systematic delimitation of problematic taxa like Setaria.

  8. Sensitivity of lumbar spine loading to anatomical parameters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Putzer, Michael; Ehrlich, Ingo; Rasmussen, John;

    2016-01-01

    models for four different postures. The in uence of the dimensions of vertebral body, disc, posterior parts of the vertebrae as well as the curvature of the lumbar spine were studied. Additionally, simulations with combinations of selected parameters were conducted. Changes in L4/L5 resultant joint force...... were used as outcome variable. Variations of the vertebral body height, disc height, transverse process width and the curvature of the lumbar spine were the most in uential. The results indicated that measuring these parameters from X-rays would be most important to morph an existing musculoskeletal...... lumbar spine model for a subject-specic approach with respect to bone geometry. Furthermore, degeneration processes could lead to computational problems and it is advised that stiffness properties of discs and ligaments should be individualized....

  9. Anatomical explorations of mind: Studies with modern imaging techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    From studies of patients with various lesions affecting areas of the brain thought to be important in language processing, two general theories have emerged; a serial model that posits information flow in an obligatory, stepwise fashion from perception to speech, and a parallel model that posits a flexible modular organization governed by specific information processing requirements that can vary under particular circumstances. The processing of single words has been studied in normal adult humans using positron emission tomography to determine whether either of these theories best explains the manner in which single words are processed by the human brain. Results indicate that the processing of single words is accomplished in a highly modular, parallel fashion that is flexibly determined by specific task requirements and the familiarity of the subject with the task

  10. [Anatomical parameters of emmetropic and varyingly myopic eyes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deev, L A; Nivenitsyn, E L; Tret'yakov, A N; Lopashinov, P M; Volosenkova, M V

    2015-01-01

    This article summarizes the results of a study on ocular anatomy in emmetropia and different degrees of myopia conducted in the Smolensk State Medical Academy. Data of 233 patients (408 eyes) is presented. Five size parameters were measured in all cases. A mathematical model of an emmetropic eye has been developed. The results obtained allow to judge the dimensions of a normal eyeball and their changes in case of myopia progression. PMID:26845870

  11. Anatomical Origins of Ocular Dominance in Mouse Primary Visual Cortex

    OpenAIRE

    Coleman, Jason E.; Law, Karen; Bear, Mark F.

    2009-01-01

    Ocular dominance (OD) plasticity is a classic paradigm for studying the effect of experience and deprivation on cortical development, and is manifested as shifts in the relative strength of binocular inputs to primary visual cortex (V1). The mouse has become an increasingly popular model for mechanistic studies of OD plasticity and, consequently, it is important that we understand how binocularity is constructed in this species. One puzzling feature of the mouse visual system is the gross dis...

  12. Anatomical limits on interaural time differences: An ecological perspective

    OpenAIRE

    WILLIAMMORRISHARTMANN

    2014-01-01

    Human listeners, and other animals too, use interaural time differences (ITD)to localize sounds. If the sounds are pure tones, a simple frequency factorrelates the ITD to the interaural phase difference (IPD), for which there areknown iso-IPD boundaries, 90$^\\circ$, 180$^\\circ$~\\ldots defining regions ofspatial perception. In this article, iso-IPD boundaries for humans aretranslated into azimuths using a spherical head model, and the calculationsare checked by free-field measurements. The tra...

  13. Adaptive algorithms to map how brain trauma affects anatomical connectivity in children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennis, Emily L.; Prasad, Gautam; Babikian, Talin; Kernan, Claudia; Mink, Richard; Babbitt, Christopher; Johnson, Jeffrey; Giza, Christopher C.; Asarnow, Robert F.; Thompson, Paul M.

    2015-12-01

    Deficits in white matter (WM) integrity occur following traumatic brain injury (TBI), and often persist long after the visible scars have healed. Heterogeneity in injury types and locations can complicate analyses, making it harder to discover common biomarkers for tracking recovery. Here we apply a newly developed adaptive connectivity method, EPIC (evolving partitions to improve connectomics) to identify differences in structural connectivity that persist longitudinally. This data comes from a longitudinal study, in which we scanned participants (aged 8-19 years) with anatomical and diffusion MRI in both the post-acute and chronic phases (1-6 months and 13-19 months post-injury). To identify patterns of abnormal connectivity, we trained a model on data from 32 TBI patients in the post-acute phase and 45 well-matched healthy controls, reducing an initial 68x68 connectivity matrix to a 14x14 matrix. We then applied this reduced parcellation to the chronic data in participants who had returned for their chronic assessment (21 TBI and 26 healthy controls) and tested for group differences. We found significant differences in two connections, comprising callosal fibers and long anterior-posterior fibers, with the TBI group showing increased fiber density relative to controls. Longitudinal analysis revealed that these were connections that were decreasing over time in the healthy controls, as is a common developmental phenomenon, but they were increasing in the TBI group. While we cannot definitively tell why this may occur with our current data, this study provides targets for longitudinal tracking, and poses questions for future investigation.

  14. Anatomical substrates and neurocognitive predictors of daily numerical abilities in mild cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benavides-Varela, Silvia; Burgio, Francesca; Meneghello, Francesca; De Marco, Matteo; Arcara, Giorgio; Rigon, Jessica; Pilosio, Cristina; Butterworth, Brian; Venneri, Annalena; Semenza, Carlo

    2015-10-01

    Patients with mild cognitive impairment experience difficulties in mathematics that affect their functioning in the activities of everyday life. What are the associated anatomical brain changes and the cognitive correlates underlying such deficits? In the present study, 33 patients with Mild Cognitive Impairments (MCI) and 29 cognitively normal controls underwent volumetric MRI, and completed the standardized battery of Numerical Activities of Daily Living (NADL) along with a comprehensive clinical neuropsychological assessment. Group differences were examined on the numerical tasks and volumetric brain measures. The gray (GM) and white matter (WM) volume correlates were also evaluated. The results showed that relative to controls, the MCI group had impairments in number comprehension, transcoding, written operations, and in daily activities involving time estimation and money usage. In the volumetric measures, group differences emerged for the transcoding subtask in the left insula and left superior temporal gyrus. Among MCI patients, number comprehension and formal numerical performance were correlated with volumetric variability in the right middle occipital areas and right frontal gyrus. Money-usage scores showed significant correlations with left mesial frontal cortex, right superior frontal and right superior temporal cortex. Regression models revealed that neuropsychological measures of long-term memory, language, visuo-spatial abilities, and abstract reasoning were predictive of the patients' decline in daily activities. The present findings suggest that early neuropathology in distributed cortical regions of the brain including frontal, temporal and occipital areas leads to a breakdown of cognitive abilities in MCI that impacts on numerical daily functioning. The findings have implications for diagnosis, clinical and domestic care of patients with MCI. PMID:26159324

  15. A nose that roars: anatomical specializations and behavioural features of rutting male saiga.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frey, Roland; Volodin, Ilya; Volodina, Elena

    2007-12-01

    The involvement of the unique saiga nose in vocal production has been neglected so far. Rutting male saigas produce loud nasal roars. Prior to roaring, they tense and extend their noses in a highly stereotypic manner. This change of nose configuration includes dorsal folding and convex curving of the nasal vestibulum and is maintained until the roar ends. Red and fallow deer males that orally roar achieve a temporary increase of vocal tract length (vtl) by larynx retraction. Saiga males attain a similar effect by pulling their flexible nasal vestibulum rostrally, allowing for a temporary elongation of the nasal vocal tract by about 20%. Decrease of formant frequencies and formant dispersion, as acoustic effects of an increase of vtl, are assumed to convey important information on the quality of a dominant male to conspecifics, e.g. on body size and fighting ability. Nasal roaring in saiga may equally serve to deter rival males and to attract females. Anatomical constraints might have set a limit to the rostral pulling of the nasal vestibulum. It seems likely that the sexual dimorphism of the saiga nose was induced by sexual selection. Adult males of many mammalian species, after sniffing or licking female urine or genital secretions, raise their head and strongly retract their upper lip and small nasal vestibulum while inhalating orally. This flehmen behaviour is assumed to promote transport of non-volatile substances via the incisive ducts into the vomeronasal organs for pheromone detection. The flehmen aspect in saiga involves the extensive flexible walls of the greatly enlarged nasal vestibulum and is characterized by a distinctly concave configuration of the nose region, the reverse of that observed in nasal roaring. A step-by-step model for the gradual evolution of the saiga nose is presented here. PMID:17971116

  16. The dosimetric consequences of anatomic changes in head and neck radiotherapy patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: To investigate anatomical response-related changes in the head and neck region during a course of radical radiotherapy and their impact on the planned dosimetry. Methods: The study consisted of 10 patients with primary mucosal carcinoma, Patients' nutritional requirements were managed as per departmental protocol to minimise weight loss during treatment. Kilovoltage computed tomography (CT) scans were acquired once 40 to 50 Gy had been delivered. Gross tumour volumes (GTV) and organs at risk were delineated and the initial optimised treatment plan was overlaid on the repeat CT. Comparisons were made between scans and absolute volume variations, centres of structures, dice similarity coefficients and the subsequent dosimetric impact were assessed. Results: Median weight loss at second scan was 3%. Primary and lymph node GTVs reduced by 49.9% (range 21.3-82%) and 73.7% (range 61.7-88.6%), respectively, yet continued to receive the prescribed dose. Maximum dose to spinal cord and brainstem changed minimally. Spared and un-spared parotid gland volumes reduced by median 23.5% and 20.5%, respectively, with no consistent translational displacement direction and minimal change in the mean dose. Conclusions: Despite some significant geometric changes, nutritional management ensured patient size and shape was maintained in these consecutively selected patients and subsequently there was no apparent under-dosing of targets or over-dosing of normal structures with this technique. Further investigations which model gradual change and allow cumulative dosimetry are required to better characterise what occurs during the treatment course.

  17. Shared pattern of endocranial shape asymmetries among great apes, anatomically modern humans, and fossil hominins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoine Balzeau

    Full Text Available Anatomical asymmetries of the human brain are a topic of major interest because of their link with handedness and cognitive functions. Their emergence and occurrence have been extensively explored in human fossil records to document the evolution of brain capacities and behaviour. We quantified for the first time antero-posterior endocranial shape asymmetries in large samples of great apes, modern humans and fossil hominins through analysis of "virtual" 3D models of skull and endocranial cavity and we statistically test for departures from symmetry. Once based on continuous variables, we show that the analysis of these brain asymmetries gives original results that build upon previous analysis based on discrete traits. In particular, it emerges that the degree of petalial asymmetries differs between great apes and hominins without modification of their pattern. We indeed demonstrate the presence of shape asymmetries in great apes, with a pattern similar to modern humans but with a lower variation and a lower degree of fluctuating asymmetry. More importantly, variations in the position of the frontal and occipital poles on the right and left hemispheres would be expected to show some degree of antisymmetry when population distribution is considered, but the observed pattern of variation among the samples is related to fluctuating asymmetry for most of the components of the petalias. Moreover, the presence of a common pattern of significant directional asymmetry for two components of the petalias in hominids implicates that the observed traits were probably inherited from the last common ancestor of extant African great apes and Homo sapiens.These results also have important implications for the possible relationships between endocranial shape asymmetries and functional capacities in hominins. It emphasizes the uncoupling between lateralized activities, some of them well probably distinctive to Homo, and large-scale cerebral lateralization itself

  18. Plastination technology for anatomical studies in Nigeria: Opinion of teachers at medical institutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onyemaechi O. Azu

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Dr. Gunther von Hagens developed plastination as a technique of tissue preservation in 1977. He used a delicate method of forced impregnation with curable polymers like silicone, epoxy or polyester resins for preservation of anatomical specimens. With plastination, every part of a biological tissue is treated, preserving it for educational purposes. Hence, there are vast applications in the medical field. We set out to survey the knowledge and opinion of lecturers of anatomy about plastinated specimen use in medical schools through the administration of questionnaires to respondents who participated at the Society of Experimental and Clinical Anatomists of Nigeria (SECAN conference in 2011. It was found that 50.0%and 23.75%of respondents respectively, had their masters and doctorate degrees in Anatomy. Less than 8.0% utilised plastination as a tool for teaching as against 40%(plastic models, 36.25%(cadavers and 15.0%(pathology pots. Conventional methods such as fixation by immersion (15.0% and embalming (52.5% with formaldehyde were commonly used for long term preservation of tissues in their various institutions. These methods were found to be less costly (25.0%, easy to use (56.25% and the only method (12.25% available, even though they posed some health hazards (96.0%. Whilst only 6.25%of the respondents did not know anything about plastination, 93.75%were aware of it. The advocacy for preservation of tissues by plastination has been gradual in developed countries. We recommend the use of plastinates in medical schools in Nigeria.

  19. Development of anatomically and dielectrically accurate breast phantoms for microwave imaging applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Halloran, M.; Lohfeld, S.; Ruvio, G.; Browne, J.; Krewer, F.; Ribeiro, C. O.; Inacio Pita, V. C.; Conceicao, R. C.; Jones, E.; Glavin, M.

    2014-05-01

    Breast cancer is one of the most common cancers in women. In the United States alone, it accounts for 31% of new cancer cases, and is second only to lung cancer as the leading cause of deaths in American women. More than 184,000 new cases of breast cancer are diagnosed each year resulting in approximately 41,000 deaths. Early detection and intervention is one of the most significant factors in improving the survival rates and quality of life experienced by breast cancer sufferers, since this is the time when treatment is most effective. One of the most promising breast imaging modalities is microwave imaging. The physical basis of active microwave imaging is the dielectric contrast between normal and malignant breast tissue that exists at microwave frequencies. The dielectric contrast is mainly due to the increased water content present in the cancerous tissue. Microwave imaging is non-ionizing, does not require breast compression, is less invasive than X-ray mammography, and is potentially low cost. While several prototype microwave breast imaging systems are currently in various stages of development, the design and fabrication of anatomically and dielectrically representative breast phantoms to evaluate these systems is often problematic. While some existing phantoms are composed of dielectrically representative materials, they rarely accurately represent the shape and size of a typical breast. Conversely, several phantoms have been developed to accurately model the shape of the human breast, but have inappropriate dielectric properties. This study will brie y review existing phantoms before describing the development of a more accurate and practical breast phantom for the evaluation of microwave breast imaging systems.

  20. Printed Three-dimensional Anatomic Templates for Virtual Preoperative Planning Before Reconstruction of Old Pelvic Injuries: Initial Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin-Bao Wu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Old pelvis fractures are among the most challenging fractures to treat because of their complex anatomy, difficult-to-access surgical sites, and the relatively low incidence of such cases. Proper evaluation and surgical planning are necessary to achieve the pelvic ring symmetry and stable fixation of the fracture. The goal of this study was to assess the use of three-dimensional (3D printing techniques for surgical management of old pelvic fractures. Methods: First, 16 dried human cadaveric pelvises were used to confirm the anatomical accuracy of the 3D models printed based on radiographic data. Next, nine clinical cases between January 2009 and April 2013 were used to evaluate the surgical reconstruction based on the 3D printed models. The pelvic injuries were all type C, and the average time from injury to reconstruction was 11 weeks (range: 8-17 weeks. The workflow consisted of: (1 Printing patient-specific bone models based on preoperative computed tomography (CT scans, (2 virtual fracture reduction using the printed 3D anatomic template, (3 virtual fracture fixation using Kirschner wires, and (4 preoperatively measuring the osteotomy and implant position relative to landmarks using the virtually defined deformation. These models aided communication between surgical team members during the procedure. This technique was validated by comparing the preoperative planning to the intraoperative procedure. Results: The accuracy of the 3D printed models was within specification. Production of a model from standard CT DICOM data took 7 hours (range: 6-9 hours. Preoperative planning using the 3D printed models was feasible in all cases. Good correlation was found between the preoperative planning and postoperative follow-up X-ray in all nine cases. The patients were followed for 3-29 months (median: 5 months. The fracture healing time was 9-17 weeks (mean: 10 weeks. No delayed incision healing, wound infection, or nonunions occurred. The

  1. Printed Three-dimensional Anatomic Templates for Virtual Preoperative Planning Before Reconstruction of Old Pelvic Injuries: Initial Results

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xin-Bao Wu; Jun-Qiang Wang; Chun-Peng Zhao; Xu Sun; Yin Shi; Zi-An Zhang; Yu-Neng Li

    2015-01-01

    Background:Old pelvis fractures are among the most challenging fractures to treat because of their complex anatomy,difficult-to-access surgical sites,and the relatively low incidence of such cases.Proper evaluation and surgical planning are necessary to achieve the pelvic ring symmetry and stable fixation of the fracture.The goal of this study was to assess the use of three-dimensional (3D) printing techniques for surgical management of old pelvic fractures.Methods:First,16 dried human cadaveric pelvises were used to confirm the anatomical accuracy of the 3D models printed based on radiographic data.Next,nine clinical cases between January 2009 and April 2013 were used to evaluate the surgical reconstruction based on the 3D printed models.The pelvic injuries were all type C,and the average time from injury to reconstruction was 11 weeks (range:8-17 weeks).The workflow consisted of.:(1) Printing patient-specific bone models based on preoperative computed tomography (CT) scans,(2) virtual fracture reduction using the printed 3D anatomic template,(3) virtual fracture fixation using Kirschner wires,and (4) preoperatively measuring the osteotomy and implant position relative to landmarks using the virtually defined deformation.These models aided communication between surgical team members during the procedure.This technique was validated by comparing the preoperative planning to the intraoperative procedure.Results:The accuracy of the 3D printed models was within specification.Production of a model from standard CT DICOM data took 7 hours (range:6-9 hours).Preoperative planning using the 3D printed models was feasible in all cases.Good correlation was found between the preoperative planning and postoperative follow-up X-ray in all nine cases.The patients were followed for 3-29 months (median:5 months).The fracture healing time was 9-17 weeks (mean:l0 weeks).No delayed incision healing,wound infection,or nonunions occurred.The results were excellent in two cases,good in

  2. Anatomical limits on interaural time differences: an ecological perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Hartmann, William M.; Macaulay, Eric J.

    2014-01-01

    Human listeners, and other animals too, use interaural time differences (ITD) to localize sounds. If the sounds are pure tones, a simple frequency factor relates the ITD to the interaural phase difference (IPD), for which there are known iso-IPD boundaries, 90°, 180°… defining regions of spatial perception. In this article, iso-IPD boundaries for humans are translated into azimuths using a spherical head model (SHM), and the calculations are checked by free-field measurements. The translated ...

  3. The spatial rhetoric of Gustav Zeiller's popular anatomical museum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fakiner, Nike

    2016-01-01

    This article focuses on the public experience of science by studying the exhibition practice of a small popular anatomy museum. The owner, Gustav Zeiller, a little-known German model maker and entrepreneur, opened his private collection in Dresden in 1888 with the aim of providing experts and laymen alike with a scientific education on bodily matters and health care. The spatial configuration of his museum environment turned the wax models into didactic instruments. Relying on the possible connexion between material culture studies and history of the emotions, this article highlights how Zeiller choreographed the encounter between the museum objects and its visitors. I argue that the spatial set up of his museum objects entailed rhetorical choices that did not simply address the social utility of his museum. Moreover, it fulfilled the aim of modifying the emotional disposition of his intended spectatorship. I hope to show that studying the emotional responses toward artefacts can offer a fruitful approach to examine the public experience of medicine. PMID:27363244

  4. BIOMONITORING OF URBAN HABITAT QUALITY BY ANATOMICAL LEAF PARAMETERS IN TIMIŞOARA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NICOLETA IANOVICI

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of anatomical features from the leaf has been evaluated in solving different kind of problems.The interactions between different plant species and urban habitat quality were extensively investigated by different authors. Studies concerning the anatomy of the vegetative organs under conditions of pollution have been carried out. The necessity of studying the capacity of plant species for bioindication of anthropogenic pollution defines the aim of this study: to analyze some anatomical leaf characteristics in urban area. The photos were taken with an Cannon photo camera, using an Optika research microscope. In the mesophyll and epidermis of the plants from polluted sites isolate dark spots or massive deposits of polyphenolic compounds could be observed. We conclude that Plantago is a suitable bioindicator of urban habitat quality as it is a commonly distributed species, which is easy to sample and shows a clear anatomical response to differences in habitat quality. The thickness of the foliar lamina has decreased. The stomatal density was higher at the abaxial side in comparison with the adaxial side. The present study provides a good basis for further research on impact of the environment to anatomical structure of the plants.

  5. Curricular response to increase recall and transfer of anatomical knowledge into the obstetrics/gynecology clerkship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurjus, Rosalyn A; Brown, Kirsten; Goldman, Ellen; Galoosian, Artin; Butera, Gisela; Krapf, Jill M

    2016-07-01

    Deficits in retention of anatomy knowledge from the preclinical years to clinical application on the wards have been well documented in the medical education literature. We developed and evaluated a web and laboratory-based curriculum to address deficits in anatomy knowledge retention and to increase anatomy knowledge recall through repetition and application of clinical concepts during the obstetrics and gynecology (Ob/Gyn) core clinical clerkship. Using principles of adult learning and instructional design, a curriculum was designed consisting of (1) interactive, case-based e-modules reviewing clinically relevant anatomical topics and (2) a hands-on laboratory session reinforcing the content of the e-modules, with the practice of clinical techniques using anatomical cadaveric dissections. The curriculum's effectiveness was evaluated by using multiple choice testing and comparing baseline and final test scores. For questions testing content directly covered in this curriculum, mean final scores increased by 14.3% (P improvement, P = 0.002). A curriculum with web-based preparatory material and a hands-on gross anatomy laboratory session effectively addresses deficits in anatomy retention and improves anatomical knowledge recall for medical students on a clinical clerkship. In the future, the authors plan to conduct a multicenter study to further evaluate the ability of this curriculum to improve clinically relevant anatomical knowledge. Anat Sci Educ 9: 337-343. © 2015 American Association of Anatomists. PMID:26588426

  6. SOME HISTO-ANATOMICAL ASPECTS CONCERNING THE LEAF STRUCTURE OF BASELLA ALBA AND BASELLA RUBRA

    OpenAIRE

    BUSUIOC GABRIELA; IFRIM CAMELIA

    2004-01-01

    We analyze the histo-anatomical peculiarities leaf of two Basella species cultivated in the Botanical Garden of Iasi (Romania). The aim of the papers is to identifying their leaf characteristics which is tipically for Basellaceae family and the differences between this two species who was observed on the studied material.

  7. SOME HISTO-ANATOMICAL ASPECTS CONCERNING THE LEAF STRUCTURE OF BASELLA ALBA AND BASELLA RUBRA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BUSUIOC GABRIELA

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available We analyze the histo-anatomical peculiarities leaf of two Basella species cultivated in the Botanical Garden of Iasi (Romania. The aim of the papers is to identifying their leaf characteristics which is tipically for Basellaceae family and the differences between this two species who was observed on the studied material.

  8. Anatomical characterisation of the cricothyroid membrane in females of childbearing age using computed tomography.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Long, N

    2014-02-01

    In the event of failure to secure the airway by conventional means, it may be necessary to perform invasive airway access via the cricothyroid membrane. No studies have addressed anatomy of this structure in the obstetric population. We aimed to review the anatomical variation of this structure in a population of childbearing age.

  9. Anatomic atlas for computed tomography in the mesaticephalic dog: caudal abdomen and pelvis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study was to produce a comprehensive anatomic atlas of CT anatomy of the dog for use by veterinary radiologists, clinicians, and surgeons. Whole-body CT images of two mature beagle dogs were made with the dogs supported in sternal recumbency and using a slice thickness of 13 mm. At the end of the CT session, each dog was euthanized, and while carefully maintaining the same position, the body was frozen. The body was then sectioned at 13-mm intervals, with the cuts matched as closely as possible to the CT slices. The frozen sections were cleaned, photographed, and radiographed using xeroradiography. Each CT image was studied and compared with its corresponding xeroradiograph and anatomic section to assist in the accurate identification of specific structures. Clinically relevant anatomic structures were identified and labeled in the three corresponding photographs (CT image, xeroradiograph, and anatomic section). In previous papers, the head and neck, and the thorax and cranial abdomen of the mesaticephalic (beagle) dog were presented. In this paper, the caudal part of the abdomen and pelvis of the bitch and male dog are presented

  10. Insight and Psychosis : Functional and Anatomical Brain Connectivity and Self-Reflection in Schizophrenia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Curcic-Blake, Branisalava; van der Meer, Lisette; Pijnenborg, Gerdina H. M.; David, Anthony S.; Aleman, Andre

    2015-01-01

    Impaired insight into illness, associated with worse treatment outcome, is common in schizophrenia. Insight has been related to the self-reflective processing, centred on the medial frontal cortex. We hypothesized that anatomical and functional routes to and from the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (

  11. Assessment of vinyl polysiloxane as an innovative injection material for the anatomical study of vasculature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dargaud, Jacques; Chalvet, Laurane; Del Corso, Marco; Cerboni, Elsa; Feugier, Patrick; Mertens, Patrick; Simon, Emile

    2016-04-01

    There are numerous injection materials for the study of vasculature in anatomical specimens, each having its own advantages and disadvantages. Latex and resins are the most widely used injection materials but need several days to set. The development of new materials taking shorter time to polymerize might be very useful to improve anatomic specimen study conditions. The aim of the present study was to evaluate vinyl polysiloxane (VPS), a silicon material widely used for dental impressions with the advantage to set very rapidly, as an injection material. We assessed the preparation, use, diffusion and setting time of the product in different anatomical regions (central nervous system, external carotid/jugular, lower limb) to observe its behavior in variably sized vessels. Our results suggest that VPS might be of interest for the study of vessels in anatomical specimens. The main strengths of the product are represented by (1) simplicity of use, as it is a ready-to-use material, (2) very rapid polymerization, (3) availability in a range of viscosities making easier the exploration of small vessels, (4) its better elasticity compared to resines, (5) and finally its availability in a range of colors making it a material of choice for vascular system dissections including those with very small caliber vessels. PMID:26464303

  12. Feasibility of using anatomical surrogates for predicting the position of lung tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We studied the use of internal anatomical surrogates (carina and diaphragm) for the purpose of predicting the 3D position of lung tumours in 41 patients, in whom repeat 4DCT scans were available. Despite using two surrogates, significant prediction errors were observed, which varied depending on tumour position, baseline tumour motion and respiratory phase.

  13. Anatomic brain disease in hemodialysis patients: a cross-sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although dialysis patients are at high risk of stroke and have a high burden of cognitive impairment, there are few reports of anatomic brain findings in the hemodialysis population. Using magnetic resonance imaging of the brain, we compared the prevalence of brain abnormalities in hemodialysis pati...

  14. Prevalence and anatomical location of muscle tenderness in adults with nonspecific neck/shoulder pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lars L; Hansen, Klaus; Mortensen, Ole S; Zebis, Mette K

    2011-01-01

    Many adults experience bothersome neck/shoulder pain. While research and treatment strategies often focus on the upper trapezius, other neck/shoulder muscles may be affected as well. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the prevalence and anatomical location of muscle tenderness in adults...

  15. The Oldest Anatomically Modern Humans from Far Southeast Europe : Direct Dating, Culture and Behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prat, Sandrine; Pean, Stephane C.; Crepin, Laurent; Drucker, Dorothee G.; Puaud, Simon J.; Valladas, Helene; Laznickova-Galetova, Martina; van der Plicht, Johannes; Yanevich, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    Background: Anatomically Modern Humans (AMHs) are known to have spread across Europe during the period coinciding with the Middle to Upper Paleolithic transition. Whereas their dispersal into Western Europe is relatively well established, evidence of an early settlement of Eastern Europe by modern h

  16. Anatomical relationship between the optic nerve and posterior paranasal sinuses on ostiomeatal unit CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To determine the anatomic variations that can lead to optic nerve damage during the sugical treatment of posterior paranasal sinus lesions two hundred optic nerves of 100 persons were examined using ostiomeatal unit CT(OMU CT). The anatomical features of this nerve and posterior paranasal sinuses were classified into four types:the optic nerve adjacent to the sphenoid sinus without indentation of the sinus wall (type 1);the optic nerve adjacent to the sphenoid sinus, causing indentation of the sinus wall (type 2);the optic nerve passing through the sphenoid sinus (type 3);and the optic nerve adjacent to the sphenoid sinus and posterior ethmoid sinus (type 4). Bony dehiscence around the optic nerve and pneumatization of the anterior clinoid process were also evaluated. The anatomical classification of the optic nerve and posterior paranasal sinuses was as follows:type 1, 1326(66%); type 2, 60(30%); type 3, 6(3%), and type 4, 2(1%). Bony dehiscence around the optic nerve had developed in 58 cases (29%) and pneumatization of the anterior clinoid process in 13(6.5%). These conditions were most common in type 3 optic nerve, and second most common in type 2. The 2 and 3 optic nerves, bony dehiscence around the optic nerve and pneumatization of the anterior clinoid process are the anatomic variations that can lead to optic nerve damage during the surgical treatment of posterior paranasal sinus lesions. To prevent optic nerve damage, these factors should be carefully evaluated by OMU CT

  17. Computerized Tomographic Study on the Anatomic Variation of the Paranasal Sinus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate the anatomic variations of the paranasal sinuses on computed tomographs. The author examined the CT images of the paranasal sinuses retrospectively in 500 patients who visited Chonbuk National University Hospital between January 1996 and December 1997. The highest incidence of anatomic variation of the paranasal sinuses in bilateral structures was agger nasi cell (73.2%), followed by concha bullosa (31.1%), Onodi cell (24.0%), Haller cell (19.8%), maxillary sinus septum (13.0%), paradoxical middle turbinate (2.5%), pneumatized uncinate process (2.0%), and bent uncinate process. The highest incidence of anatomic variation in midline structures was nasal septum deviation(53.2%), followed by nasal septumaerated (29.4%), bulla galli (24.7%) asymmetric intersphenoid septum (22.3%), and nasal septum spur (13.8%). The correlation between anatomic variation and paranasal sinusitis was not found. The results of this study will aid in the diagnosis and treatment of paranasal sinus diseases, especially in the treatment planning before functional endoscopic surgery.

  18. An Improved Medical Image Fusion Algorithm for Anatomical and Functional Medical Images

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Mei-ling; TAO Ling; QIAN Zhi-yu

    2009-01-01

    In recent years,many medical image fusion methods had been exploited to derive useful information from multimodality medical image data,but,not an appropriate fusion algorithm for anatomical and functional medical images.In this paper,the traditional method of wavelet fusion is improved and a new fusion algorithm of anatomical and functional medical images,in which high-frequency and low-frequency coefficients are studied respectively.When choosing high-frequency coefficients,the global gradient of each sub-image is calculated to realize adaptive fusion,so that the fused image can reserve the functional information;while choosing the low coefficients is based on the analysis of the neighborbood region energy,so that the fused image can reserve the anatomical image's edge and texture feature.Experimental results and the quality evaluation parameters show that the improved fusion algorithm can enhance the edge and texture feature and retain the function information and anatomical information effectively.

  19. A detailed systematic anatomical study of monocephalic conjoined symmetric twin lambs

    OpenAIRE

    Kamali, Y.; Z. Khaksar; A.R. Sharaki; B. Rasouli; Kajbafi, M.

    2014-01-01

    A case of conjoined twins with monocephalus, thoracopagus, partial abdominopagus, tetrabrachius and tetrascelus in lambs complicated with several defects of skeletal, cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, and urogenital systems is reported. The twins were dead and delivered by cesarean section. This case report highlights the detailed anatomical study of defects in different systems due to an abnormal birth defect.

  20. Lead tolerance of water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes Mart. - Pontederiaceae) as defined by anatomical and physiological traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Fabricio J; Castro, Evaristo M de; Oliveira, Cynthia de; Pires, Marinês F; Pereira, Marcio P; Ramos, Silvio J; Faquin, Valdemar

    2014-09-01

    This study aimed at verifying the lead tolerance of water hyacinth and at looking at consequent anatomical and physiological modifications. Water hyacinth plants were grown on nutrient solutions with five different lead concentrations: 0.00, 0.50, 1.00, 2.00 and 4.00 mg L-1 by 20 days. Photosynthesis, transpiration, stomatal conductance and the Ci/Ca rate were measured at the end of 15 days of experiment. At the end of the experiment, the anatomical modifications in the roots and leaves, and the activity of antioxidant system enzymes, were evaluated. Photosynthetic and Ci/Ca rates were both increased under all lead treatments. Leaf anatomy did not exhibit any evidence of toxicity effects, but showed modifications of the stomata and in the thickness of the palisade and spongy parenchyma in the presence of lead. Likewise, root anatomy did not exhibit any toxicity effects, but the xylem and phloem exhibited favorable modifications as well as increased apoplastic barriers. All antioxidant system enzymes exhibited increased activity in the leaves, and some modifications in roots, in the presence of lead. It is likely, therefore, that water hyacinth tolerance to lead is related to anatomical and physiological modifications such as increased photosynthesis and enhanced anatomical capacity for CO2 assimilation and water conductance. PMID:25211112

  1. Topographic-anatomical peculiarities of the larynx in fetal period of embryogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popelyuk O.-M.V.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The dynamics of morphogenesis and syntopia of human larynx in connection with organization of adjacent structures was studied. The development and changes of topographic-anatomical correlation of larynx with adjacent structures was researched successively, the formation of its shape, structural organization, the influence of blood vessels and nerves on mentioned area was determined during the fetal period of human ontogenesis.

  2. Anatomical characterization of cytoglobin and neuroglobin mRNA and protein expression in the mouse brain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hundahl, Christian Ansgar; Allen, Gregg C; Hannibal, Jens;

    2010-01-01

    The present study aimed at characterizing the anatomical and subcellular localization of cytoglobin (Cygb) and neuroglobin (Ngb) in the mouse brain by use of in situ hybridisation, immunohistochemistry and immunoelectron microscopy. Cygb and Ngb were only found in distinct brain areas and often in...

  3. Anatomical Variations of Anterior Osteomeatal Complex in Patients With Chronic Sinusitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarafraz

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background Identifying predisposing factors for chronic sinusitis is very important. Objectives Anatomical variation of the lateral nasal wall has been investigated in several studies and it has been suggested as a predisposing factor for sinusitis. Patients and Methods In this case-control study, 74 patients who were diagnosed with chronic sinusitis (the case group based on clinical criteria and CT scan were entered into the study and 74 patients without chronic sinusitis were considered as the control group. CT scans of all patients were reviewed by a radiologist to interpret and evaluate anatomic variations of anterior osteomeatal complex including nasal deviation, concha bullosa, agger nasi, lateralized uncinate, Haller’s cells, paradoxical middle turbinate, and maxillary hypoplasia. Data were analyzed using the chi-squared test and Fisher’s exact test with SPSS software version 18. P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results Results showed that the most common sinus involved was maxillary sinus. Among anatomic variations, septal deviation and concha bullosa were associated with chronic sinusitis (P < 0.01 and P < 0.032, respectively. Conclusions Among anatomic variations, septal deviation and concha bullosa are predisposing factors for chronic sinusitis and we recommend that patients with chronic sinusitis be treated by surgical procedures.

  4. Anatomical Distribution and Genetic Relatedness of Antimicrobial Resistant E. coli from Healthy Companion Animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aims: Escherichia coli have been targeted for studying antimicrobial resistance in companion animals due to opportunistic infections and as a surrogate for resistance patterns in zoonotic organisms. The aim of our study examined antimicrobial resistance in E. coli isolated from various anatomical ...

  5. Variation in anatomical characteristics in leaves of pecan seedstocks from Mexico and the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leaf anatomical traits of Mexican and U.S. pecan [Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh.) K. Koch] seedstocks grown in a single location were studied to determine patterns of ecogeographic variation within the natural range. Stomatal density (SD) was uniform among open-pollinated seedlings of a common mater...

  6. ANATOMICAL RECONSTRUCTION OF ANTERIOR CRUCIATE LIGAMENT OF THE KNEE: DOUBLE BAND OR SINGLE BAND?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanella, Luiz Antonio Zanotelli; Junior, Adair Bervig; Badotti, Augusto Alves; Michelin, Alexandre Froes; Algarve, Rodrigo Ilha; de Quadros Martins, Cesar Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the double-band and single-band techniques for anatomical reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament of the knee and demonstrate that the double-band technique not only provides greater anterior stability but also causes less pain and a better subjective patient response. Methods: We selected 42 patients who underwent anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction, by means of either the single-band anatomical reconstruction technique, using flexor tendon grafts with two tunnels, or the double-band anatomical reconstruction technique, using four tunnels and grafts from the semitendinosus and gracilis tendons. All fixations were performed using interference screws. There was no variation in the sample. Before the operation, the objective and subjective IKDC scores, Lysholm score and length of time with the injury were evaluated. All these variables were reassessed six months later, and the KT-1000 correlation with the contralateral knee was also evaluated. Results: There was no significant difference between the two groups in subjective evaluations, but the single-band group showed better results in relation to range of motion and objective evaluations including KT-1000 (with statistical significance). Conclusion: Our study demonstrated that there was no difference between the two groups in subjective evaluations, but better results were found using the single-band anatomical technique, in relation to objective evaluations. PMID:27042621

  7. A "Second Life" for Gross Anatomy: Applications for Multiuser Virtual Environments in Teaching the Anatomical Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, April; Hazzard, Matthew; Challman, Sandra D.; Morgenstein, Aaron M.; Brueckner, Jennifer K.

    2011-01-01

    This article describes the emerging role of educational multiuser virtual environments, specifically Second Life[TM], in anatomical sciences education. Virtual worlds promote inquiry-based learning and conceptual understanding, potentially making them applicable for teaching and learning gross anatomy. A short introduction to Second Life as an…

  8. The wood anatomical range in Ilex (Aquifoliaceae) and its ecological and phylogenetic significance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baas, P.

    1973-01-01

    The wood anatomy of 81 species of Ilex is described in detail. The wood anatomical range encountered is presented in a generic description (p. 196). Data on ontogenetic changes in vessel member length and number of bars per perforation are given for three species. The great amount of variation in ma

  9. A detailed systematic anatomical study of monocephalic conjoined symmetric twin lambs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamali, Y.; Khaksar, Z.; Sharaki, A.R.; Rasouli, B.; Kajbafi, M.

    2014-01-01

    A case of conjoined twins with monocephalus, thoracopagus, partial abdominopagus, tetrabrachius and tetrascelus in lambs complicated with several defects of skeletal, cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, and urogenital systems is reported. The twins were dead and delivered by cesarean section. This case report highlights the detailed anatomical study of defects in different systems due to an abnormal birth defect. PMID:26623352

  10. An Anatomical Study on the Foramen Ovale and the Foramen Spinosum

    OpenAIRE

    Khairnar, Karan Bhagwawan; Bhusari, Prashant Amanrao

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: An anatomical study was undertaken to note the shape of the foramen ovale(FO), foramen spinosum (FS) & presence or absence of canalis innominatus. FO is present in the posterior part of the greater wing of sphenoid. FS is located posterolareral to foramen ovale.

  11. Effects of anatomical position on esophageal transit time: A biomagnetic diagnostic technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Teodoro Cordova-Fraga; Modesto Sosa; Cados Wiechers; Jose Maria De la Roca-Chiapas; Alejandro Maldonado Moreles; Jesus BernaI-Alvarado; Raquel Huerta-Franco

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To study the esophageal transit time (ETT)and compare its mean value among three anatomical inclinations of the body; and to analyze the correlation of ETT to body mass index (BMI).METHODS: A biomagnetic technique was implemented to perform this study: (1) The transit time of a magnetic marker (MM) through the esophagus was measured using two fluxgate sensors placed over the chest of 14 healthy subjects; (2) the ETT was assessed in three anatomical positions (at upright,fowler,and supine positions; 90°,45° and 0°,respectively).RESULTS: ANOVA and Tuckey post-hoc tests demonstrated significant differences between ETT mean of the different positions.The ETT means were 5.2 ±1.1 s,6.1±1.5 s,and 23.6 ± 9.2 s for 90°,45° and 0°,respectively.Pearson correlation results were r = -0.716 and P < 0.001 by subjects' anatomical position,and r =-0.024 and P > 0.05 according the subject's BHI.CONCLUSION: We demonstrated that using this biomagnetic technique,it is possible to measure the ETT and the effects of the anatomical position on the ETT.

  12. A Need for Logical and Consistent Anatomical Nomenclature for Cutaneous Nerves of the Limbs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gest, Thomas R.; Burkel, William E.; Cortright, Gerald W.

    2009-01-01

    The system of anatomical nomenclature needs to be logical and consistent. However, variations in translation to English of the Latin and Greek terminology used in Nomina Anatomica and Terminologia Anatomica have led to some inconsistency in the nomenclature of cutaneous nerves in the limbs. An historical review of cutaneous nerve nomenclature…

  13. The anatomic basis for the superior acetabular roof notch 'superior acetabular notch'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiographic discontinuity of the acetabulum is a frequently encountered entity which has been described by various authors. We have been unable to find an explanation of the nature of this discontinuity in the literature. By correlating dried skeletal specimens with their radiographic appearances, we found the anatomic basis for this phenomenon was an accessory fossa in the apex of the acetabulum. (orig.)

  14. Lead tolerance of water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes Mart. - Pontederiaceae as defined by anatomical and physiological traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FABRICIO J. PEREIRA

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at verifying the lead tolerance of water hyacinth and at looking at consequent anatomical and physiological modifications. Water hyacinth plants were grown on nutrient solutions with five different lead concentrations: 0.00, 0.50, 1.00, 2.00 and 4.00 mg L–1 by 20 days. Photosynthesis, transpiration, stomatal conductance and the Ci/Ca rate were measured at the end of 15 days of experiment. At the end of the experiment, the anatomical modifications in the roots and leaves, and the activity of antioxidant system enzymes, were evaluated. Photosynthetic and Ci/Ca rates were both increased under all lead treatments. Leaf anatomy did not exhibit any evidence of toxicity effects, but showed modifications of the stomata and in the thickness of the palisade and spongy parenchyma in the presence of lead. Likewise, root anatomy did not exhibit any toxicity effects, but the xylem and phloem exhibited favorable modifications as well as increased apoplastic barriers. All antioxidant system enzymes exhibited increased activity in the leaves, and some modifications in roots, in the presence of lead. It is likely, therefore, that water hyacinth tolerance to lead is related to anatomical and physiological modifications such as increased photosynthesis and enhanced anatomical capacity for CO2 assimilation and water conductance.

  15. A detailed systematic anatomical study of monocephalic conjoined symmetric twin lambs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Kamali

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A case of conjoined twins with monocephalus, thoracopagus, partial abdominopagus, tetrabrachius and tetrascelus in lambs complicated with several defects of skeletal, cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, and urogenital systems is reported. The twins were dead and delivered by cesarean section. This case report highlights the detailed anatomical study of defects in different systems due to an abnormal birth defect.

  16. An Update on the Status of Anatomical Sciences Education in United States Medical Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, Richard L.; McBride, Jennifer M.; Pawlina, Wojciech

    2014-01-01

    Curricular changes continue at United States medical schools and directors of gross anatomy, microscopic anatomy, neuroscience/neuroanatomy, and embryology courses continue to adjust and modify their offerings. Developing and supplying data related to current trends in anatomical sciences education is important if informed decisions are going to…

  17. Medical Education in the Anatomical Sciences: The Winds of Change Continue to Blow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, Richard L.; McBride, Jennifer M.; Lachman, Nirusha; Pawlina, Wojciech

    2009-01-01

    At most institutions, education in the anatomical sciences has undergone several changes over the last decade. To identify the changes that have occurred in gross anatomy, microscopic anatomy, neuroscience/neuroanatomy, and embryology courses, directors of these courses were asked to respond to a survey with questions pertaining to total course…

  18. A novel method to quantify and compare anatomical shape: application in cervix cancer radiotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Seungjong; Jaffray, David; Cho, Young-Bin

    2014-06-01

    Adaptive radiation therapy (ART) had been proposed to restore dosimetric deficiencies during treatment delivery. In this paper, we developed a technique of Geometric reLocation for analyzing anatomical OBjects' Evolution (GLOBE) for a numerical model of tumor evolution under radiation therapy and characterized geometric changes of the target using GLOBE. A total of 174 clinical target volumes (CTVs) obtained from 32 cervical cancer patients were analyzed. GLOBE consists of three main steps; step (1) deforming a 3D surface object to a sphere by parametric active contour (PAC), step (2) sampling a deformed PAC on 642 nodes of icosahedron geodesic dome for reference frame, and step (3) unfolding 3D data to 2D plane for convenient visualization and analysis. The performance was evaluated with respect to (1) convergence of deformation (iteration number and computation time) and (2) accuracy of deformation (residual deformation). Based on deformation vectors from planning CTV to weekly CTVs, target specific (TS) margins were calculated on each sampled node of GLOBE and the systematic (Σ) and random (σ) variations of the vectors were calculated. Population based anisotropic (PBA) margins were generated using van Herk's margin recipe. GLOBE successfully modeled 152 CTVs from 28 patients. Fast convergence was observed for most cases (137/152) with the iteration number of 65 ± 74 (average ± STD) and the computation time of 13.7 ± 18.6 min. Residual deformation of PAC was 0.9 ± 0.7 mm and more than 97% was less than 3 mm. Margin analysis showed random nature of TS-margin. As a consequence, PBA-margins perform similarly to ISO-margins. For example, PBA-margins for 90% patients' coverage with 95% dose level is close to 13 mm ISO-margins in the aspect of target coverage and OAR sparing. GLOBE demonstrates a systematic analysis of tumor motion and deformation of patients with cervix cancer during radiation therapy and numerical modeling of PBA-margin on 642 locations of CTV

  19. Automated hexahedral meshing of anatomic structures using deformable registration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosland, Nicole M; Bafna, Ritesh; Magnotta, Vincent A

    2009-02-01

    This work introduces a novel method of automating the process of patient-specific finite element (FE) model development using a mapped mesh technique. The objective is to map a predefined mesh (template) of high quality directly onto a new bony surface (target) definition, thereby yielding a similar mesh with minimal user interaction. To bring the template mesh into correspondence with the target surface, a deformable registration technique based on the FE method has been adopted. The procedure has been made hierarchical allowing several levels of mesh refinement to be used, thus reducing the time required to achieve a solution. Our initial efforts have focused on the phalanx bones of the human hand. Mesh quality metrics, such as element volume and distortion were evaluated. Furthermore, the distance between the target surface and the final mapped mesh were measured. The results have satisfactorily proven the applicability of the proposed method. PMID:18688764

  20. Radiological analysis on femoral tunnel positioning between isometric and anatomical reconstructions of the anterior cruciate ligament,

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Barreiros Vieira

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: the aim of this study was to radiologically evaluate the femoral tunnel position in anterior cruciate ligament (ACL reconstructions using the isometric and anatomical techniques.METHODS: a prospective analytical study was conducted on patients undergoing ACL reconstruction by means of the isometric and anatomical techniques, using grafts from the knee flexor tendons or patellar tendon. Twenty-eight patients were recruited during the immediate postoperative period, at the knee surgery outpatient clinic of FCMMG-HUSJ. Radiographs of the operated knee were produced in anteroposterior (AP view with the patient standing on both feet and in lateral view with 30◦ of flexion. The lines were traced out and the distances and angles were measured on the lateral radiograph to evaluate the sagittal plane. The distance from the center of the screw to the posterior cortical bone of the lateral condyle was measured and divided by the Blumensaat line. In relation to the height of the screw, the distance from the center of the screw to the joint surface of the lateral condyle of the knee was measured. On the AP radiograph, evaluating the coronal plane, the angle between the anatomical axis of the femur and a line traced at the center of the screw was measured.RESULTS: with regard to the pmeasurement (posteriorization of the interference screw, the tests showed that the p-value (0.4213 was greater than the significance level used (0.05; the null hypothesis was not rejected and it could be stated that there was no statistically significant difference between the anatomical and isometric techniques. With regard to the H measurement (height of the screw in relation to the lower cortical bone of the knee, the p-value observed (0.0006 was less than the significance level used (0.05; the null hypothesis was rejected and it could be stated that there was a statistically significant difference between the anatomical and isometric techniques. It can be