WorldWideScience

Sample records for anatomical fugitive sheets

  1. A Catalogue of Anatomical Fugitive Sheets: Cat. 26-48

    OpenAIRE

    1999-01-01

    Images Cat. 26: 1 (a) Cat. 26: 1 (b) Cat. 26: 2 (a) Cat. 26: 2(b) Cat. 27: 1 (a) Cat. 27: 1 (b) Cat. 27: 2 (a) Cat. 27: 2 (b) Cat. 28 Cat. 29: 2 (a) Cat. 29: 2 (b) Cat. 30: 1 Cat. 30: 2 Cat. 30: 3 Cat. 33 Cat. 34: 1 Cat. 34: 2 Cat. 35: 1 Cat. 35: 2 Cat. 35: 3 Cat. 36 Cat. 37 Cat. 38: 1 Cat. 38: 2 Cat. 40 Cat. 42 Cat. 43 Cat. 44 Cat. 45: 1 Cat. 45: 2 Cat. 46 Cat. 47: 1 Cat. 47: 2 Cat. 47: 3 Cat. 48: 1 Cat. 48: 2 Cat. 48: 3

  2. A Catalogue of Anatomical Fugitive Sheets: Cat. 1-10

    OpenAIRE

    1999-01-01

    Images Cat. 1 Cat. 2 (a) Cat. 2 (b) Cat. 2 (c) Cat. 2 (d) Cat. 2 (e) Cat. 2 (f) Cat. 3: 1 (a) Cat. 3: 1 (b) Cat. 3: 2 (a) Cat. 3: 2 (b) Cat. 4: 1 Cat. 4: 2 Cat. 6: 1 (a) Cat. 6: 1 (b) Cat. 6: 2 (a) Cat. 6: 2 (b) Cat. 7: 1 (a) Cat. 7: 1 (b) Cat. 7: 2 (a) Cat. 7: 2 (b) Cat. 8: 1 Cat. 9: 1 Cat. 9: 2 Cat. 10: 1 Cat. 10: 2

  3. A Catalogue of Anatomical Fugitive Sheets: Cat. 11-25

    OpenAIRE

    1999-01-01

    Images Cat. 11 (a) Cat. 11 (b) Cat. 11 (c) Cat. 11 (d) Cat. 12: 1 (a) Cat. 12: 1 (b) Cat. 12: 2 (a) Cat. 12: 2 (b) Cat. 13 Cat. 14 (a) Cat. 14 (b) Cat. 14 (c) Cat. 15 (a) Cat. 15 (b) Cat. 17: 1 Cat. 17: 2 Cat. 18: 1 Cat. 18: 2 Cat. 19: 1 (a) Cat. 19: 1 (b) Cat. 19: 2 (a) Cat. 19: 2 (b) Cat. 20: 1 Cat. 20: 2 (a) Cat. 20: 2 (b) Cat. 21 (a) Cat. 21 (b) Cat. 21 (c) Cat. 21 (d) Cat. 21 (e) Cat. 22 Cat. 24: 1 and 2 Cat. 25: 1 Cat. 25: 2 Cat. 25: 3 Cat. 25: 4

  4. A Catalogue of Anatomical Fugitive Sheets: Cat. 49-62

    OpenAIRE

    1999-01-01

    Images Cat. 50 Cat. 51 Cat. 53 Cat. 54 Cat. 55 (a) Cat. 55 (b) Cat. 56 Cat. 57: 1 Cat. 57: 2 Cat. 57: 3 Cat. 57: 4 Cat. 59: 1 Cat. 59: 2 Cat. 59: 3 Cat. 59: 4 Cat. 60 Cat. 61 Cat. 62: 1 (a) Cat. 62: 1 (b) Cat. 62: 2 (a) Cat. 62: 2 (b)

  5. Fugitive Felons

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Fugitive Felon Reporting and Tracking System (FRATS) houses fugitive data submitted by reporters (RIDs) and warrant agencies (WAIDs). It also controls and tracks...

  6. Emission Inventory for Fugitive Emissions in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plejdrup, Marlene Schmidt; Nielsen, Ole-Kenneth; Nielsen, Malene

    This report presents the methodology and data used in the Danish inventory of fugitive emissions from fuels for the years until 2007. The inventory of fugitive emissions includes CO2, CH4, N2O, NOx, CO, NMVOC, SO2, dioxin, PAH and particulate matter. In 2007 the total Danish emission of greenhouse...... gasses was 66 641 Gg CO2-eqvivalents. Fugitive emissions from fuels account for 496 Gg CO2-eqvivalents or approximately 1 %. The major part of the fugitive emissions are emitted as CO2 (74 %) due to flaring of oil and gas. The major source of fugitive CH4 emission is extraction of oil and gas...... in the North Sea, refining of oil and loading of oil onto ships both offshore and onshore. The fugitive emissions of NMVOC originate for the major part from extraction, loading of ships, transmission and distribution of oil and to a much lesser degree from natural gas and fugitive emissions from gas stations...

  7. Controlling fugitive emissions from mechanical seals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, W.V.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that enactment of the 1990 Federal Clean Air Amendments will sharply focus efforts in the process industries to reduce fugitive emissions. Moreover, state and local governments may be imposing stricter laws and regulations which will affect allowable fugitive emissions from U.S. refineries and process plants. Plants outside the U.S. have similar concerns. Clearly, mechanical seals for process pumps represent an enormous population and is one category of equipment destined for careful evaluation as a means to control fugitive emissions. Fugitive are unintentional emissions from valves, pumps, flanges, compressors, etc., as opposed to point-source emissions from stacks, vents and flares. Fugitive emissions do not occur as a part of normal plant operations, but result from the effects of: Malfunctions, Age, Lack of proper maintenance, Operator error, Improper equipment specification, Use of inferior technology, and externally caused damage

  8. Fugitive emissions from nanopowder manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trompetter, W. J., E-mail: b.trompetter@gns.cri.nz; Ancelet, T.; Davy, P. K.; Kennedy, J. [GNS Science (New Zealand)

    2016-07-15

    In response to health and safety questions and concerns regarding particulate matter emissions from equipment used for synthesizing NiFe and TiO{sub 2} nanopowders, a study was undertaken to assess their impact on the air quality inside and outside a laboratory where the manufacturing equipment is operated. Elemental concentrations determined by ion beam analysis (IBA) of air particulate matter (PM) samples collected hourly with a Streaker{sup TM} sampler were used to identify possible sources and estimate contributions from nanopowder production and other sources. The fugitive nanopowder emissions were the highest at the indoor sampling location when powders were being manufactured. Average fugitive emissions of 210 ng m{sup −3} (1-h average) (maximum 2163 ng m{sup −3} 1-h average) represented 2 % (maximum 20 %) of the average PM collected (9359 ng m{sup −3} 1-h average). The measured NiFe alloy or TiO{sub 2} PM concentrations were much smaller than the 8-h time-weighted average (TWA) workplace exposure standards (WES) for these materials (≥1,000,000 ng m{sup −3}). Most PM was found to be from infiltrated outdoor ambient sources. This suggests that nanopowder production in the laboratory is not likely to have adverse health effects on individuals using the equipment, although further improvements can be made to further limit exposure.Graphical abstract.

  9. Fugitive methane emissions from an agricultural biodigester

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flesch, Thomas K.; Desjardins, Raymond L.; Worth, Devon

    2011-01-01

    The use of agricultural biodigesters provides a strategy for reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions while generating energy. The GHG reduction associated with a biodigester will be affected by fugitive emissions from the facility. The objective of this study was to measure fugitive methane (CH 4 ) emissions from a Canadian biodigester. The facility uses anaerobic digestion to produce biogas from cattle manure and other organic feedstock, which is burnt to generate electricity (1 MW capacity) and heat. An inverse dispersion technique was used to calculate emissions. Fugitive emissions were related to the operating state of the biodigester, and over four seasonal campaigns the emission rate averaged 3.2, 0.8, and 26.6 kg CH 4 hr -1 for normal operations, maintenance, and flaring periods, respectively. During normal operations the average fugitive emission rate corresponded to 3.1% of the CH 4 gas production rate. -- Highlights: → Biodigesters reduce greenhouse gas emissions. → Net emission reduction affected by fugitive emissions. → Fugitive CH 4 measured at agricultural biodigester (1 MW generating capacity). → Emissions were 3.1% of gas production. → Emissions lower than assumed in carbon credit protocols.

  10. Monitoring of fugitive emissions in petrochemical plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandao, Rozilda F. [Companhia Petroquimica do Nordeste (COPENE), Camacari, BA (Brazil). Div. de Engenharia Ambiental

    1993-12-31

    COPENE (Petroquimica do Nordeste S/A) has been implanting a program of fugitive emissions adapted to its reality, trying to promote a continuous improvement in its employees` working conditions and in environmental protection. This paper presents the methodology for the elaboration of this program and the conclusions of some surveys which were already completed (author). 4 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs.

  11. Emission inventory for fugitive emissions from fuel in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plejdrup, Marlene Schmidt; Nielsen, Ole-Kenneth; Nielsen, Malene

    This report presents the methodology and data used in the Danish inventory of fugitive emissions from fuels for the years until 2013. The inventory of fugitive emissions includes CO2, CH4, N2O, SO2, NOx, NMVOC, CO, particulate matter, Black carbon, heavy metals, dioxin and PAHs. In 2013 the total...... Danish emission of greenhouse gasses was 54 584 Gg CO2 equivalents. Fugitive emissions from fuels account for 387 Gg CO2 equivalents or approximately 1 %. The major part of the fugitive emissions are emitted as CO2 (61 %) mainly from flaring in upstream oil and gas production. The major source...... of fugitive CH4 emission is production of oil and gas in the North Sea, refining of oil and loading of oil onto ships both offshore and onshore. The fugitive emissions of NMVOC originate for the major part from oil and gas production, loading of ships, transmission and distribution of oil, and to a less...

  12. Fugitive Emission Control for the APE 1236 Deactivation Furnace

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-03-01

    at Tooele Army Depot ( TEAD ) to contain fugitive emissions. A monitoring system was designed and installed to measure and record the effects of...door brought the average pressure to negative and the TEAD furnace into compliance with fugitive emissions requirements. DISCLAIMER: The contents...Pollutants NI National Instruments Corporation RCRA Resource Conservation and Recovery Act TEAD Tooele Army Depot UPS uninterrupted power supply

  13. Characterizing and Quantifying Emissions and Transport of Fugitive Dust Emissions Due to Department of Defense Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-19

    hematite. They suggest that this veneer of fine particles are removed, and thus enhance the dust concentration, through abrasion processes between the...FINAL REPORT Characterizing and Quantifying Emissions and Transport of Fugitive Dust Emissions Due to Department of Defense Activities SERDP...Fugitive Dust Emissions Due 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Fugitive Dust Emissions Due to Department of Defense Activities 5b

  14. Review of fugitive dust control for uranium mill tailings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, C.T.; Elmore, M.R.; Hartley, J.N.

    1983-01-01

    An immediate concern associated with the disposal of uranium mill tailings is that wind erosion of the tailings from an impoundment area will subsequently deposit tailings on surrounding areas. Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), under contract to the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, is investigating the current technology for fugitive dust control. Different methods of fugitive dust control, including chemical, physical, and vegetative, have been used or tested on mill tailings piles. This report presents the results of a literature review and discussions with manufacturers and users of available stabilization materials and techniques

  15. Review of fugitive dust control for uranium mill tailings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, C.T.; Elmore, M.R.; Hartley, J.N.

    1983-01-01

    An immediate concern associated with the disposal of uranium mill tailings is that wind erosion of the tailings from an impoundment area will subsequently deposit tailings on surrounding areas. Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), under contract to the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, is investigating the current technology for fugitive dust control. Different methods of fugitive dust control, including chemical, physical, and vegetative, have been used or tested on mill tailings piles. This report presents the results of a literature review and discussions with manufacturers and users of available stabilization materials and techniques.

  16. Puff models for simulation of fugitive radioactive emissions in atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, Camila P. da; Vilhena, Marco T.

    2009-01-01

    A puff model for the dispersion of material from fugitive radioactive emissions is presented. For vertical diffusion the model is based on general techniques for solving time dependent advection-diffusion equation: the ADMM (Advection Diffusion Multilayer Method) and GILTT (Generalized Integral Laplace Transform Technique) techniques. The first one is an analytical solution based on a discretization of the Atmospheric Boundary Layer (ABL) in sub-layers where the advection-diffusion equation is solved by the Laplace transform technique. The solution is given in integral form. The second one is a well-known hybrid method that had solved a wide class of direct and inverse problems mainly in the area of Heat Transfer and Fluid Mechanics and the solution is given in series form. Comparisons between values predicted by the models against experimental ground-level concentrations are shown. (author)

  17. Baselining Fugitive and Vented Emissions Across Canadian Energy Developments

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connell, L.; Risk, D. A.; Fougère, C. R.; Atherton, E.; Baillie, J.; Marshall, A. D.

    2017-12-01

    Nearly half of Alberta's oil and gas related methane emissions are due to fugitives and leaks, which pose significant potential for mitigation. Accurate and spatially-extensive emissions data can help operators and regulators meet reduction targets, and highlight which infrastructure requires immediate attention. This study used a vehicle-based gas monitoring system to detect and quantify methane emissions across large geographic areas in real-time. Our objectives were to quantify methane mixing ratios, determine the drivers of emission variation across several developments, and to evaluate emissions frequency and severity from several thousand wells and facilities. We measured fugitive, un-combusted flaring, and vented emissions within Lloydminster (heavy oil), Peace River (heavy oil), and Medicine Hat (conventional gas), Alberta during fall 2016. During this time, CO2, CH4, H2S, C2H6, and δ13CH4 (Picarro 2210 and Teledyne T101) were recorded from public roads at 1 Hz intervals, collecting over 6.7 million unique measurements in total. Methane anomalies were generally mild (0.2-0.5 ppm) in Peace River and Medicine Hat, but in Lloydminster, CH4 mixing ratios were elevated, and at their worst exceeded 6 ppm over 60 km of driving. We classified oil and gas related plumes based on geochemical emission signatures, and attributed the plumes based on wind direction and proximity to one of the >3200 infrastructural sources we surveyed during the triplicated campaign routes. The relative gas ratios (C1:C2, CO2:CH4) and isotopic signatures of plumes were within expected ranges for each development. Emission frequencies differed amongst developments, but were highest in Lloydminster, where 56% of wells were emitting methane-rich gas above our minimum detection limits. In Medicine Hat and Peace River, 28% and 29% of active wells were tagged as potential emission sources, respectively. Although active wells were the predominant source of emissions, other classes of

  18. Fugitive carbon dioxide: It's not hiding in the ocean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerr, R.A.

    1992-01-01

    The fugitive carbon is the difference between the 7 billion or so tons that spew as carbon dioxide from smokestacks and burning tropical forests and the 3.4 billion tons known to stay in the atmosphere. Finding the other 3 billion or 4 billion tons has frustrated researchers for the past 15 years. The oceans certainly take up some of it. Any forecast of global warming has to be based on how much of the carbon dioxide released by human activity will remain in the atmosphere, and predictions vary by 30% depending on the mix of oceanic and terrestrial processes assumed to be removing the gas. What's more, those predictions assume that the processes at work today will go on operating. But not knowing where all the carbon is going raises the unnerving possibility that whatever processes are removing it may soon fall down on the job without warning, accelerating any warming. Such concerns add urgency to the question of whether the ocean harbors the missing carbon. But there's no simple way to find out. The obvious strategy might seem to be to measure the carbon content of the ocean repeatedly to see how much it increases year by year. The trouble is that several billion tons of added carbon, though impressive on a human scale, are undetectable against the huge swings in ocean carbon that occur from season to season, year to year, and place to place

  19. Highly Stretchable, Biocompatible, Striated Substrate Made from Fugitive Glue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Li

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available We developed a novel substrate made from fugitive glue (styrenic block copolymer that can be used to analyze the effects of large strains on biological samples. The substrate has the following attributes: (1 It is easy to make from inexpensive components; (2 It is transparent and can be used in optical microscopy; (3 It is extremely stretchable as it can be stretched up to 700% strain; (4 It can be micro-molded, for example we created micro-ridges that are 6 μm high and 13 μm wide; (5 It is adhesive to biological fibers (we tested fibrin fibers, and can be used to uniformly stretch those fibers; (6 It is non-toxic to cells (we tested human mammary epithelial cells; (7 It can tolerate various salt concentrations up to 5 M NaCl and low (pH 0 and high (pH 14 pH values. Stretching of this extraordinary stretchable substrate is relatively uniform and thus, can be used to test multiple cells or fibers in parallel under the same conditions.

  20. OPEN PATH TUNABLE DIODE LASER ABSORPTION SPECTROSCOPY FOR ACQUISITION OF FUGITIVE EMISSION FLUX DATA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Air pollutant emission from unconfined sources is an increasingly important environmental issue. The U.S. EPA has developed a gorund-based optical remote sensing method that enables direct measurement of fugitive emission flux from large area sources. Open-path Fourier transfor...

  1. 77 FR 19153 - Nonpayment of Benefits to Fugitive Felons and Probation or Parole Violators

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-30

    ... Nonpayment of Benefits to Fugitive Felons and Probation or Parole Violators AGENCY: Social Security... 21235-6401, (410) 965-7102. For information on eligibility or filing for benefits, call our national toll-free number, 1-800-772-1213 or TTY 1-800-325-0778, or visit our Internet site, Social Security...

  2. Wind barriers suppress fugitive dust and soil-derived airborne particles in arid regions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grantz, D.A.; Vaughn, D.L. [Univ. of California, Parlier, CA (United States). Kearney Agricultural Center; Farber, R.J. [SoCal Edison, Rosemead, CA (United States). Environmental Research Div.; Kim, B. [South Coast Air Quality Management District, Diamond Bar, CA (United States); Ashbaugh, L. [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States). Crocker Nuclear Lab.; Van Curen, T. [California Air Resources Board, Sacramento, CA (United States); Campbell, R. [Antelope Valley Resources Conservation District, Lancaster, CA (United States)

    1998-07-01

    Areas of abandoned agricultural land in the Antelope Valley, western Mojave (high) desert of California have proven in the previous studies to be recalcitrant to conventional tillage and revegetation strategies designed to suppress wind erosion of soil and transport of sediment and fugitive dust. These areas represented a continuing source of drifting sand and of coarse and respirable suspended particulate matter. The traditional techniques failed because furrows collapsed and the water holding capacity of the overburden was too low to support seed germination and transplant survival. In this study a variety of wind barriers were evaluated for suppression of sediment transport. Airborne particles were measured with an array of coarse particle samplers at heights of 0.2, 1.0, and 2.0 m above the soil surface. Discrete artificial wind barriers, consisting of widely spaced roughness elements were effective in suppressing fugitive emissions. Wind fences established along the leeward edge of an area of blowing sand, perpendicular to the prevailing wind, significantly decreased fugitive emissions. Control was greatest and precision of the measurements was highest under high wind conditions. These techniques provide rapid and effective suppression of fugitive emissions of soil-derived particles under conditions that resist conventional tillage and revegetation techniques. A simple, indirect procedure for determining local wind velocity erosion thresholds requiring only sampling of wind run and suspended particulate mass compared favorably with direct measurement of saltation as a function of wind velocity.

  3. CHARACTERIZATION OF THE FUGITIVE MERCURY EMISSIONS AT A CHLOR-ALKALI PLANT. OVERALL STUDY DESIGN

    Science.gov (United States)

    The paper discusses a detailed emissions measurement campaign that was conducted over a 9-day period within a mercury (Hg) cell chlor-alkali plant in the southeastern United States (U.S.). The principal focus of this study was to measure fugitive (non-ducted) airborne Hg emission...

  4. PROBLEMS WITH DETERMINATION OF FUGITIVE EMISSION OF POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS FROM COKE OVEN BATTERY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafał Bigda

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Coke oven battery is complex and multifaceted facility in terms of air pollutant emissions. As far as stack or quenching tower does not cause major difficulties of emission measurement, the fugitive emission measurement from sources such as battery top elements (charging holes, ascension pipes or oven doors is still complicated and not fully solved problem. This article presents the discussion concerning main problems and errors likely to be made in particular stages of procedure of fugitive emissions characterization from coke oven battery (selection of sampling points, sampling itself, measurement of air velocity over battery top and laboratory analyses. In addition, results of concentrations measurements of selected substances characteristic for the coking process (naphthalene, anthracene, 4 PAHs and TSP originating from fugitive sources of coke oven battery and subjected to reporting under the E-PRTR are presented. The measurements were carried out on coke oven battery top in points selected on the basis of the preceding detailed air convection velocity measurements over battery top. Results of the velocity measurements were compared with results of numerical modelling using CFD software. The presented material is an attempt to cross-sectional presentation of issues related to the quantitative evaluation of fugitive emission from coke oven battery, discussed on the example of PAHs emission as a group of substances characteristic for coking of coal.

  5. Monitoring fugitive methane and natural gas emissions, validation of measurement techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Rod; Innocenti, Fabrizio; Gardiner, Tom; Helmore, Jon; Finlayson, Andrew; Connor, Andy

    2017-04-01

    The detection and quantification of fugitive and diffuse methane emissions has become an increasing priority in recent years. As the requirements for routine measurement to support industry initiatives increase there is a growing requirement to assess and validate the performance of fugitive emission measurement technologies. For reported emissions traceability and comparability of measurements is important. This talk will present recent work addressing these needs. Differential Absorption Lidar (DIAL) is a laser based remote sensing technology, able to map the concentration of gases in the atmosphere and determine emission fluxes for fugitive emissions. A description of the technique and its application for determining fugitive emissions of methane from oil and gas operations and waste management sites will be given. As DIAL has gained acceptance as a powerful tool for the measurement and quantification of fugitive emissions, and given the rich data it produces, it is being increasingly used to assess and validate other measurement approaches. In addition, to support the validation of technologies, we have developed a portable controlled release facility able to simulate the emissions from area sources. This has been used to assess and validate techniques which are used to monitor emissions. The development and capabilities of the controlled release facility will be described. This talk will report on recent studies using DIAL and the controlled release facility to validate fugitive emission measurement techniques. This includes side by side comparisons of two DIAL systems, the application of both the DIAL technique and the controlled release facility in a major study carried out in 2015 by South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD) in which a number of optical techniques were assessed and the development of a prototype method validation approach for techniques used to measure methane emissions from shale gas sites. In conclusion the talk will provide an

  6. Center for Corporate Climate Leadership: Direct Fugitive Emissions from Refrigeration, Air Conditioning, Fire Suppression, and Industrial Gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    This guidance document focuses on several fugitive emissions sources that are common for organizations in many sectors: refrigeration and air conditioningsystems, fire suppression systems, and the purchase and release of industrial gases.

  7. Impact of fugitive bitumen on polymer-based flocculation of mature fine tailings

    OpenAIRE

    Klein, C; Harbottle, D; Alagha, L; Xu, Z

    2013-01-01

    In bitumen recovery from oil sands, a percentage of the bitumen is lost to tailings. The effect of fugitive bitumen on fines settling and consolidation in tailings ponds remains controversial. In the current study, the settling performance of mature fine tailings (MFT) in response to flocculant addition was considered by studying MFT of varying bitumen content. Bitumen content in the MFT was adjusted by controlled removal of bitumen using a Denver flotation cell. The initial settling rate of ...

  8. On the source inversion of fugitive surface layer releases. Part II. Complex sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanfélix, V.; Escrig, A.; López-Lilao, A.; Celades, I.; Monfort, E.

    2017-06-01

    The experimental measurement of fugitive emissions of particulate matter entails inherent complexity because they are usually discontinuous, of short duration, may be mobile, and are affected by weather conditions. Owing to this complexity, instead of experimental measurements, emission factors are used to inventory such emissions. Unfortunately, emission factor datasets are still very limited at present and are insufficient to identify problematic operations and appropriately select control measures. To extend these datasets, a source inversion methodology (described in Part I of this work) was applied to field campaigns in which operation-specific fugitive particulate matter emission factors were determined for several complex fugitive sources, some of which were mobile. Mobile sources were treated as a superposition of instantaneous sources. The experimental campaigns were conducted at ports (bulk solids terminals), aggregate quarries, and cement factories, encompassing powder handling operations and vehicle circulation on paved and unpaved roads. Emission factors were derived for the operations and materials involved in these scenarios and compared with those available in the emission factor compilations. Significant differences were observed between the emission factors obtained in the studied handling operations. These differences call into question the use of generic emission factors and highlight the need for more detailed studies in this field.

  9. GASN sheets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-12-01

    This document gathers around 50 detailed sheets which describe and present various aspects, data and information related to the nuclear sector or, more generally to energy. The following items are addressed: natural and artificial radioactive environment, evolution of energy needs in the world, radioactive wastes, which energy for France tomorrow, the consequences in France of the Chernobyl accident, ammunitions containing depleted uranium, processing and recycling of used nuclear fuel, transport of radioactive materials, seismic risk for the basic nuclear installations, radon, the precautionary principle, the issue of low doses, the EPR, the greenhouse effect, the Oklo nuclear reactors, ITER on the way towards fusion reactors, simulation and nuclear deterrence, crisis management in the nuclear field, does nuclear research put a break on the development of renewable energies by monopolizing funding, nuclear safety and security, the plutonium, generation IV reactors, comparison of different modes of electricity production, medical exposure to ionizing radiations, the control of nuclear activities, food preservation by ionization, photovoltaic solar collectors, the Polonium 210, the dismantling of nuclear installations, wind energy, desalination and nuclear reactors, from non-communication to transparency about nuclear safety, the Jules Horowitz reactor, CO 2 capture and storage, hydrogen, solar energy, the radium, the subcontractors of maintenance of the nuclear fleet, biomass, internal radio-contamination, epidemiological studies, submarine nuclear propulsion, sea energy, the Three Mile Island accident, the Chernobyl accident, the Fukushima accident, the nuclear after Fukushima

  10. Anatomical terminology in Ophthalmology

    OpenAIRE

    Abib, Fernando César; Oréfice, Fernando

    2005-01-01

    O objetivo deste artigo é informar à classe oftalmológica a existência da edição em língua portuguesa da Terminologia Anatômica Internacional, editada pela Federation Committee on Anatomical Terminology (FCAT). No Brasil a Terminologia Anatômica Internacional é traduzida pela Comissão de Terminologia Anatômica (CTA) da Sociedade Brasileira de Anatomia (SBA).The purpose of this article is inform ophthalmologists of the International Anatomical Terminology in the Portuguese language edited by t...

  11. Connecting the Plots: The Extension of Return and Korean Ethnic Nationalism in Jane Jeong Trenka’s 'Fugitive Visions'

    OpenAIRE

    Waddell, Ethan

    2017-01-01

    Thousands of overseas Korean adoptees return to Korea temporarily each year in search of their true origin, but few choose to stay permanently. A prominent member of this small community is Jane Jeong Trenka, author of two memoirs: The Language of Blood (2003) and Fugitive Visions: An Adoptee’s Return to Korea (2009). This article analyses Trenka’s literary struggle for permanence in Fugitive Visions through theories on Korean ethnic national identity. Using Marshall McLuhan’s idea of media a...

  12. Soil sample collection and analysis for the Fugitive Dust Characterization Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashbaugh, Lowell L.; Carvacho, Omar F.; Brown, Michael S.; Chow, Judith C.; Watson, John G.; Magliano, Karen C.

    A unique set of soil samples was collected as part of the Fugitive Dust Characterization Study. The study was carried out to establish whether or not source profiles could be constructed using novel analytical methods that could distinguish soil dust sources from each other. The soil sources sampled included fields planted in cotton, almond, tomato, grape, and safflower, dairy and feedlot facilities, paved and unpaved roads (both urban and rural), an agricultural staging area, disturbed land with salt buildup, and construction areas where the topsoil had been removed. The samples were collected using a systematic procedure designed to reduce sampling bias, and were stored frozen to preserve possible organic signatures. For this paper the samples were characterized by particle size (percent sand, silt, and clay), dry silt content (used in EPA-recommended fugitive dust emission factors), carbon and nitrogen content, and potential to emit both PM 10 and PM 2.5. These are not the "novel analytical methods" referred to above; rather, it was the basic characterization of the samples to use in comparing analytical methods by other scientists contracted to the California Air Resources Board. The purpose of this paper is to document the methods used to collect the samples, the collection locations, the analysis of soil type and potential to emit PM 10, and the sample variability, both within field and between fields of the same crop type.

  13. Fugitive emissions control on dry copper tailing with crushed rock armor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haase, E.F.

    1992-01-01

    Four inactive copper tailing impoundments totalling 1,900 acres near Ajo in southwestern Arizona were covered on horizontal surfaces with a 2 in. nominal thickness of crushed rock to control particulate emissions. The tailings are typically dominated by sand-sized particles but may also include significant PM 10 fractions towards the centers of the impoundments. The technology was selected by Phelps Dodge Corporation, after investigation of several alternatives, as a permanent and practical cover that essentially eliminates fugitive emissions. It simulates the natural desert pavement that characterizes this arid area of the Sonoran Desert. Rocky overburden was crushed to minus 3 in. diameter and broadcast on dry surfaces of tailing impoundments with all-terrain, balloon-tired spreaders. Stony residues in the rock armor tend to cement together following rainfall, forming a crust that enhances surface stability and erosion control. Slopes with windblown tailing deposition were covered to a nominal 6 in. thickness by conventional dozer pushing and blading of minus 10 in. rock over the sides. Athel trees, planted extensively since 1970 on two of the four inactive impoundments, provided partial control of fugitives, but were subjected to harsh environmental conditions, including abrasion from saltating particles. The rock armor functions as a mulch which is expected to improve water relations for existing vegetation and areas seeded with native species. New surface microenvironments, and the virtual elimination of surface creep and saltation, are expected to support native plant growth under favorable climatic conditions

  14. Metaphors of pain: the use of metaphors in trauma narrative with reference to Fugitive pieces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Anker

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available This article is a contribution to the recent interdisciplinary discourse between psychoanalysis, trauma theory and narrative by discussing the traumatic experiences of characters in the novel “Fugitive pieces” by Anne Michaels, with a specific focus on the metaphorical style of this novel. The article addresses the role of metaphor in the memory of trauma while comparing the relation between trauma, narrative and memory with reference to the work of Cathy Caruth, Van der Kolk and Margaret Wilkinson. Recent neurobiological research in the working of the brain during trauma and the insights of Borbelly in the role of metaphor during therapy are discussed. Insights of Lacan, Modell and Laplanche are integrated with those of psychologists like Knox, Borbelly and Van der Hart to counter arguments against the criticism brought against some of the metaphorical themes in “Fugitive pieces”. Metaphor is seen as one possible way of saying the inexpressible and the progression in the use of metaphor by patient and character alike is seen as one of the signs of healing from trauma.

  15. Early fetal anatomical sonography.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Donnelly, Jennifer C

    2012-10-01

    Over the past decade, prenatal screening and diagnosis has moved from the second into the first trimester, with aneuploidy screening becoming both feasible and effective. With vast improvements in ultrasound technology, sonologists can now image the fetus in greater detail at all gestational ages. In the hands of experienced sonographers, anatomic surveys between 11 and 14 weeks can be carried out with good visualisation rates of many structures. It is important to be familiar with the normal development of the embryo and fetus, and to be aware of the major anatomical landmarks whose absence or presence may be deemed normal or abnormal depending on the gestational age. Some structural abnormalities will nearly always be detected, some will never be and some are potentially detectable depending on a number of factors.

  16. Reference Man anatomical model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cristy, M.

    1994-10-01

    The 70-kg Standard Man or Reference Man has been used in physiological models since at least the 1920s to represent adult males. It came into use in radiation protection in the late 1940s and was developed extensively during the 1950s and used by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) in its Publication 2 in 1959. The current Reference Man for Purposes of Radiation Protection is a monumental book published in 1975 by the ICRP as ICRP Publication 23. It has a wealth of information useful for radiation dosimetry, including anatomical and physiological data, gross and elemental composition of the body and organs and tissues of the body. The anatomical data includes specified reference values for an adult male and an adult female. Other reference values are primarily for the adult male. The anatomical data include much data on fetuses and children, although reference values are not established. There is an ICRP task group currently working on revising selected parts of the Reference Man document.

  17. 40 CFR 63.1445 - What work practice standards must I meet for my fugitive dust sources?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) Each transfer point in conveying systems used to transport fugitive dust materials. These points include, but are not limited to, transfer of material from one conveyor belt to another and transfer of... other enclosure, installing and operating a local hood capture system over the source and venting the...

  18. Fugitive emission rates assessment of PM2.5 and PM10 from open storage piles in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yiqi; Liu, Tao; He, Jiao

    2018-03-01

    An assessment of the fugitive emission rates of PM2.5 and PM10 from an open static coal and mine storage piles. The experiment was conducted at a large union steel enterprises in the East China region to effectively control the fugitive particulate emissions pollution on daily work and extreme weather conditions. Wind tunnel experiments conducted on the surface of static storage piles, and it generated specific fugitive emission rates (SERs) at ground level of between ca.10-1 and ca.102 (mg/m2·s) for PM2.5 and between ca.101 and ca.103 (mg/m2·s) for PM10 under the u*(wind velocity) between ca.3.0 (m/s) and 10.0 (m/s). Research results show that SERs of different materials differ a lot. Material particulate that has lower surface moisture content generate higher SER and coal material generate higher SER than mine material. For material storage piles with good water infiltrating properties, aspersion is a very effective measure for control fugitive particulate emission.

  19. 40 CFR 63.9891 - What work practice standards must I meet for my fugitive dust sources?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 14 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What work practice standards must I meet for my fugitive dust sources? 63.9891 Section 63.9891 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES (CONTINUED)...

  20. CHARACTERIZATION OF FUGITIVE MERCURY EMISSIONS FROM THE CELL BUILDING AT A U.S. CHLOR-ALKALI PLANT

    Science.gov (United States)

    The paper discusses an extensive measurement campaign that was conducted of the fugitive (non-ducted) airborne elemental mercury [Hg(0)] emissions from the cell building of a chlor-alkali plant (CAP) located in the southeastern United States. The objectives of this study were to ...

  1. Cholera Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... sheets Fact files Questions & answers Features Multimedia Contacts Cholera Fact sheet Updated December 2017 Key facts Cholera ... behaviour and to the control of cholera. Oral cholera vaccines Currently there are three WHO pre-qualified ...

  2. Evaluation of Uncertainties in Measuring Particulate Matter Emission Factors from Atmospheric Fugitive Sources Using Optical Remote Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuen, W.; Ma, Q.; Du, K.; Koloutsou-Vakakis, S.; Rood, M. J.

    2015-12-01

    Measurements of particulate matter (PM) emissions generated from fugitive sources are of interest in air pollution studies, since such emissions vary widely both spatially and temporally. This research focuses on determining the uncertainties in quantifying fugitive PM emission factors (EFs) generated from mobile vehicles using a vertical scanning micro-pulse lidar (MPL). The goal of this research is to identify the greatest sources of uncertainty of the applied lidar technique in determining fugitive PM EFs, and to recommend methods to reduce the uncertainties in this measurement. The MPL detects the PM plume generated by mobile fugitive sources that are carried downwind to the MPL's vertical scanning plane. Range-resolved MPL signals are measured, corrected, and converted to light extinction coefficients, through inversion of the lidar equation and calculation of the lidar ratio. In this research, both the near-end and far-end lidar equation inversion methods are considered. Range-resolved PM mass concentrations are then determined from the extinction coefficient measurements using the measured mass extinction efficiency (MEE) value, which is an intensive PM property. MEE is determined by collocated PM mass concentration and light extinction measurements, provided respectively by a DustTrak and an open-path laser transmissometer. These PM mass concentrations are then integrated with wind information, duration of plume event, and vehicle distance travelled to obtain fugitive PM EFs. To obtain the uncertainty of PM EFs, uncertainties in MPL signals, lidar ratio, MEE, and wind variation are considered. Error propagation method is applied to each of the above intermediate steps to aggregate uncertainty sources. Results include determination of uncertainties in each intermediate step, and comparison of uncertainties between the use of near-end and far-end lidar equation inversion methods.

  3. Anatomical imaging for radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, Philip M

    2008-01-01

    The goal of radiation therapy is to achieve maximal therapeutic benefit expressed in terms of a high probability of local control of disease with minimal side effects. Physically this often equates to the delivery of a high dose of radiation to the tumour or target region whilst maintaining an acceptably low dose to other tissues, particularly those adjacent to the target. Techniques such as intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT), stereotactic radiosurgery and computer planned brachytherapy provide the means to calculate the radiation dose delivery to achieve the desired dose distribution. Imaging is an essential tool in all state of the art planning and delivery techniques: (i) to enable planning of the desired treatment, (ii) to verify the treatment is delivered as planned and (iii) to follow-up treatment outcome to monitor that the treatment has had the desired effect. Clinical imaging techniques can be loosely classified into anatomic methods which measure the basic physical characteristics of tissue such as their density and biological imaging techniques which measure functional characteristics such as metabolism. In this review we consider anatomical imaging techniques. Biological imaging is considered in another article. Anatomical imaging is generally used for goals (i) and (ii) above. Computed tomography (CT) has been the mainstay of anatomical treatment planning for many years, enabling some delineation of soft tissue as well as radiation attenuation estimation for dose prediction. Magnetic resonance imaging is fast becoming widespread alongside CT, enabling superior soft-tissue visualization. Traditionally scanning for treatment planning has relied on the use of a single snapshot scan. Recent years have seen the development of techniques such as 4D CT and adaptive radiotherapy (ART). In 4D CT raw data are encoded with phase information and reconstructed to yield a set of scans detailing motion through the breathing, or cardiac, cycle. In ART a set of

  4. Independent quality assurance of refinery fugitives testing by western states petroleum association. Final audit report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-09-01

    Research Triangle Institute (RTI) undertook this task for the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards to provide third-party Quality Assurance (QA) support to a Western States' Petroleum Association (WSPA) program to measure fugitive emissions at petroleum refineries. The primary objectives of the WSPA study were to determine the correlation between screening values and true mass emission rates and to develop a relationship between liquid and gas composition. EPA's QA effort, however, focused only on the correlation objective because the number of leaking components in the California refineries cannot be expected to be representative of refineries in general. The number of components leaking at a given screening value is used in conjunction with the mass correlations to derive the average emission factors.

  5. Measurements of industrial fugitive emissions by the FTIR Tracer Method (FTM)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mellqvist, J.; Arlander, B.; Galle, B.; Bergqvist, B.

    1996-01-01

    A new method called the FTIR Tracer Method (FTM), has been developed for measuring and quantifying fugitive (diffuse) emissions of hydrocarbons. The method has been evaluated in field experiments which were conducted in the vicinity of several petrochemical plants and an oil refinery during 1993-1995. The technique is based on concentration measurements with infrared remote sensing by Long Path Fourier Transform InfraRed (LPFTIR), combined with tracer releases. The field experiments show the FTM to be very useful for mass flux measurements of both alkanes and alkenes and that the measurements are consistent with the conventional SF 6 method. However, the technique needs to be further validated and a more thorough understanding of the measurement uncertainties have to be achieved

  6. Fugitive halocarbon emissions from working face of municipal solid waste landfills in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yanjun; Lu, Wenjing; Dastyar, Wafa; Liu, Yanting; Guo, Hanwen; Fu, Xindi; Li, Hao; Meng, Ruihong; Zhao, Ming; Wang, Hongtao

    2017-12-01

    Halocarbons are important anthropogenic greenhouse gases (GHGs) due to their long lifetime and large characteristic factors. The present study for the first time assessed the global warming potential (GWP) of fugitive halocarbon emissions from the working face of landfills in China. The national emissions of five major halocarbons (CFC-11, CFC-113, CH 2 Cl 2 , CHCl 3 and CCl 4 ) from the working face of municipal solid waste landfills in China were provided through observation-based estimations. The fluxes of halocarbons from working face of landfills were observed much higher than covered cells in landfills hence representing the hot spots of landfill emissions. The annual emissions of the halocarbons from landfills in China were 0.02-15.6kt·y -1 , and their GWPs were 128-60,948kt-CO 2 -eq·y -1 based on their characteristic factors on a 100-year horizon. CFC-113 was the dominant species owing to its highest releasing rate (i.e. 15.4±19.1g·t -1 ) and largest characteristic factor, resulting in a GWP up to 4036±4855kt-CO 2 -eq·y -1 . The annual emissions of CFC-113 from landfills (i.e. 0.61kt·y -1 ) made up ∼76% of the total national CFC-113 emissions. The GWPs of halocarbons were estimated ∼14.4% of landfill methane emissions. Therefore, fugitive halocarbons emissions from working face are significant sources of GHGs in landfill sites in China, although they comprise a small fraction of total landfill gases. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. A new approach to estimate fugitive methane emissions from coal mining in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ju, Yiwen; Sun, Yue; Sa, Zhanyou; Pan, Jienan; Wang, Jilin; Hou, Quanlin; Li, Qingguang; Yan, Zhifeng; Liu, Jie

    2016-02-01

    Developing a more accurate greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions inventory draws too much attention. Because of its resource endowment and technical status, China has made coal-related GHG emissions a big part of its inventory. Lacking a stoichiometric carbon conversion coefficient and influenced by geological conditions and mining technologies, previous efforts to estimate fugitive methane emissions from coal mining in China has led to disagreeing results. This paper proposes a new calculation methodology to determine fugitive methane emissions from coal mining based on the domestic analysis of gas geology, gas emission features, and the merits and demerits of existing estimation methods. This new approach involves four main parameters: in-situ original gas content, gas remaining post-desorption, raw coal production, and mining influence coefficient. The case studies in Huaibei-Huainan Coalfield and Jincheng Coalfield show that the new method obtains the smallest error, +9.59% and 7.01% respectively compared with other methods, Tier 1 and Tier 2 (with two samples) in this study, which resulted in +140.34%, +138.90%, and -18.67%, in Huaibei-Huainan Coalfield, while +64.36%, +47.07%, and -14.91% in Jincheng Coalfield. Compared with the predominantly used methods, this new one possesses the characteristics of not only being a comparably more simple process and lower uncertainty than the "emission factor method" (IPCC recommended Tier 1 and Tier 2), but also having easier data accessibility, similar uncertainty, and additional post-mining emissions compared to the "absolute gas emission method" (IPCC recommended Tier 3). Therefore, methane emissions dissipated from most of the producing coal mines worldwide could be more accurately and more easily estimated. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Assessing fugitive emissions of CH4 from high-pressure gas pipelines in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boothroyd, Ian M; Almond, Sam; Worrall, Fred; Davies, Rosemary K; Davies, Richard J

    2018-03-16

    Natural gas pipelines are an important source of fugitive methane emissions in lifecycle greenhouse gas assessments but limited monitoring has taken place of UK pipelines to quantify fugitive emissions. This study investigated methane emissions from the UK high-pressure pipeline system (National Transmission System - NTS) for natural gas pipelines. Mobile surveys of CH 4 emissions were conducted across four areas in the UK, with routes bisecting high-pressure pipelines (with a maximum operating pressure of 85bar) and separate control routes away from the pipelines. A manual survey of soil gas measurements was also conducted along one of the high-pressure pipelines using a tunable diode laser. For the pipeline routes, there were 26 peaks above 2.1ppmv CH 4 at 0.23peaks/km, compared with 12 peaks at 0.11peaks/km on control routes. Three distinct thermogenic emissions were identified on the basis of the isotopic signal from these elevated concentrations with a peak rate of 0.03peaks/km. A further three thermogenic emissions on pipeline routes were associated with pipeline infrastructure. Methane fluxes from control routes were statistically significantly lower than the fluxes measured on pipeline routes, with an overall pipeline flux of 627 (241-1123 interquartile range) tonnes CH 4 /km/yr. Soil gas CH 4 measurements indicated a total flux of 62.6ktCH 4 /yr, which equates to 2.9% of total annual CH4 emissions in the UK. We recommend further monitoring of the UK natural gas pipeline network, with assessments of transmission and distribution stations, and distribution pipelines necessary. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Investigation of Natural Gas Fugitive Leak Detection Using an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, S.; Talbot, R. W.; Frish, M. B.; Golston, L.; Aubut, N. F.; Zondlo, M. A.

    2017-12-01

    The U.S is now the world's largest natural gas producer, of which methane (CH4) is the main component. About 2% of the CH4 is lost through fugitive leaks. This research is under the DOE Methane Observation Networks with Innovative Technology to Obtain Reductions (MONITOR) program of ARPA-E. Our sentry measurement system is composed of four state-of-the-art technologies centered around the RMLDTM (Remote Methane Leak Detector). An open path RMLDTM measures column-integrated CH4 concentration that incorporates fluctuations in the vertical CH4 distribution. Based on Backscatter Tunable Diode Laser Absorption Spectroscopy and Small Unmanned Aerial Vehicles, the sentry system can autonomously, consistently and cost-effectively monitor and quantify CH4 leakage from sites associated with natural gas production. This system provides an advanced capability in detecting leaks at hard-to-access sites (e.g., wellheads) compared to traditional manual methods. Automated leak detecting and reporting algorithms combined with wireless data link implement real-time leak information reporting. Early data were gathered to set up and test the prototype system, and to optimize the leak localization and calculation strategies. The flight pattern is based on a raster scan which can generate interpolated CH4 concentration maps. The localization and quantification algorithms can be derived from the plume images combined with wind vectors. Currently, the accuracy of localization algorithm can reach 2 m and the calculation algorithm has a factor of 2 accuracy. This study places particular emphasis on flux quantification. The data collected at Colorado and Houston test fields were processed, and the correlation between flux and other parameters analyzed. Higher wind speeds and lower wind variation are preferred to optimize flux estimation. Eventually, this system will supply an enhanced detection capability to significantly reduce fugitive CH4 emissions in the natural gas industry.

  10. Isotopically constrained lead sources in fugitive dust from unsurfaced roads in the southeast Missouri mining district

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witt, Emitt C.; Pribil, Michael; Hogan, John P; Wronkiewicz, David

    2016-01-01

    The isotopic composition of lead (Pb) in fugitive dust suspended by a vehicle from 13 unsurfaced roads in Missouri was measured to identify the source of Pb within an established long-term mining area. A three end-member model using 207Pb/206Pb and concentration as tracers resulted in fugitive dust samples plotting in the mixing field of well characterized heterogeneous end members. End members selected for this investigation include the 207Pb/206Pb for 1) a Pb-mixture representing mine tailings, 2) aerosol Pb-impacted soils within close proximity to the Buick secondary recycling smelter, and 3) an average of soils, rock cores and drill cuttings representing the background conditions. Aqua regia total concentrations and 207Pb/206Pb of mining area dust suggest that 35.4–84.3% of the source Pb in dust is associated with the mine tailings mixture, 9.1–52.7% is associated with the smelter mixture, and 0–21.6% is associated with background materials. Isotope ratios varied minimally within the operational phases of sequential extraction suggesting that mixing of all three Pb mixtures occurs throughout. Labile forms of Pb were attributed to all three end members. The extractable carbonate phase had as much as 96.6% of the total concentration associated with mine tailings, 51.8% associated with smelter deposition, and 34.2% with background. The next most labile geochemical phase (Fe + Mn Oxides) showed similar results with as much as 85.3% associated with mine tailings, 56.8% associated with smelter deposition, and 4.2% associated with the background soil.

  11. Understanding anatomical terms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, L A; Natrajan, M; Kothari, M L

    1996-01-01

    Words are our masters and words are our slaves, all depending on how we use them. The whole of medical science owes its origin to Greco-Roman culture and is replete with terms whose high sound is not necessarily accompanied by sound meaning. This is even more the case in the initial, pre-clinical years. Anatomical terminology seems bewildering to the initiate; and maybe that is a reason why love of anatomy as a subject does not always spill over through later years. Employing certain classifications of the origin of the anatomical terms, we have prepared an anthology that we hope will ease the student's task and also heighten the student's appreciation of the new terms. This centers on revealing the Kiplingian "how, why, when, where, what, and who" of a given term. This presentation should empower students to independently formulate a wide network of correlations once they understand a particular term. The article thus hopes to stimulate students' analytic and synthetic faculties as well. A small effort can reap large rewards in terms of enjoyment of the study of anatomy and the related subjects of histology, embryology, and genetics. It is helpful to teachers and students alike. This exercise in semantics and etymology does not demand of the student or his teacher any background in linguistics, grammar, Greek, Latin, Sanskrit, anatomy, or medicine.

  12. E12 sheet plastination: Techniques and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ottone, Nicolas Ernesto; Baptista, Carlos A C; Latorre, Rafael; Bianchi, Homero Felipe; Del Sol, Mariano; Fuentes, Ramon

    2017-10-30

    Plastination is an anatomical technique that consists of replacing the liquids and fat of specimens by reactive polymers through forced impregnation in a vacuum. These are then polymerized to achieve the final result. E12 sheet plastination involves epoxy resin impregnation of thin (2-4 mm) and ultra-thin (<2 mm) tissue sheets, producing dry, transparent, odorless, non-toxic and long-lasting sheets. E12 sheet plastination techniques were reviewed using MEDLINE, EMBASE and SciELO databases, and manual searches. After searching, 616 records were found using the online and manual searches (MEDLINE, n: 207; EMBASE, n: 346; SciELO, n: 44; Manual search: 23). Finally, 96 records were included in this review (after duplicates and articles unrelated to the subject were excluded). The aim of this work was to review the E12 sheet plastination technique, searching for articles concerning views of it, identifying the different variants implemented by researchers since its creation by Gunther von Hagens, and to identify its applications from teaching and research in anatomy to morphological sciences. Clin. Anat., 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Connecting the Plots: The Extension of Return and Korean Ethnic Nationalism in Jane Jeong Trenka’s 'Fugitive Visions'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ethan Waddell

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Thousands of overseas Korean adoptees return to Korea temporarily each year in search of their true origin, but few choose to stay permanently. A prominent member of this small community is Jane Jeong Trenka, author of two memoirs: The Language of Blood (2003 and Fugitive Visions: An Adoptee’s Return to Korea (2009. This article analyses Trenka’s literary struggle for permanence in Fugitive Visions through theories on Korean ethnic national identity. Using Marshall McLuhan’s idea of media as the ‘extension of man’, it explores the symbiotic relationship between literary media and identity, connecting colonial-era writings on Korean ethnic nationalism to Trenka’s portrayal of transnational return.

  14. Anthropogenic fugitive, combustion and industrial dust is a significant, underrepresented fine particulate matter source in global atmospheric models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philip, Sajeev; Martin, Randall V.; Snider, Graydon; Weagle, Crystal L.; van Donkelaar, Aaron; Brauer, Michael; Henze, Daven K.; Klimont, Zbigniew; Venkataraman, Chandra; Guttikunda, Sarath K.; Zhang, Qiang

    2017-04-01

    Global measurements of the elemental composition of fine particulate matter across several urban locations by the Surface Particulate Matter Network reveal an enhanced fraction of anthropogenic dust compared to natural dust sources, especially over Asia. We develop a global simulation of anthropogenic fugitive, combustion, and industrial dust which, to our knowledge, is partially missing or strongly underrepresented in global models. We estimate 2-16 μg m-3 increase in fine particulate mass concentration across East and South Asia by including anthropogenic fugitive, combustion, and industrial dust emissions. A simulation including anthropogenic fugitive, combustion, and industrial dust emissions increases the correlation from 0.06 to 0.66 of simulated fine dust in comparison with Surface Particulate Matter Network measurements at 13 globally dispersed locations, and reduces the low bias by 10% in total fine particulate mass in comparison with global in situ observations. Global population-weighted PM2.5 increases by 2.9 μg m-3 (10%). Our assessment ascertains the urgent need of including this underrepresented fine anthropogenic dust source into global bottom-up emission inventories and global models.

  15. Is Optical Gas Imaging Effective for Detecting Fugitive Methane Emissions? - A Technological and Policy Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravikumar, A. P.; Wang, J.; Brandt, A. R.

    2016-12-01

    Mitigating fugitive methane emissions from the oil and gas industry has become an important concern for both businesses and regulators. While recent studies have improved our understanding of emissions from all sectors of the natural gas supply chain, cost-effectively identifying leaks over expansive natural gas infrastructure remains a significant challenge. Recently, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has recommended the use of optical gas imaging (OGI) technologies to be used in industry-wide leak detection and repair (LDAR) programs. However, there has been little to no systematic study of the effectiveness of infrared-camera-based OGI technology for leak detection applications. Here, we develop a physics-based model that simulates a passive infrared camera imaging a methane leak against varying background and ambient conditions. We verify the simulation tool through a series of large-volume controlled release field experiments wherein known quantities of methane were released and imaged from a range of distances. After simulator verification, we analyze the effects of environmental conditions like temperature, wind, and imaging background on the amount of methane detected from a statistically representative survey program. We also examine the effects of LDAR design parameters like imaging distance, leak size distribution, and gas composition. We show that imaging distance strongly affects leak detection - EPA's expectation of a 60% reduction in fugitive emissions based on a semi-annual LDAR survey will be realized only if leaks are imaged at a distance less than 10 m from the source under ideal environmental conditions. Local wind speed is also shown to be important. We show that minimum detection limits are 3 to 4 times higher for wet-gas compositions that contain a significant fraction of ethane and propane, resulting a significantly large leakage rate. We also explore the importance of `super-emitters' on the performance of an OGI-based leak

  16. Monitoring fugitive CH4 and CO2 emissions from a closed landfill at Tenerife, Canary Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asensio-Ramos, María; Tompkins, Mitchell R. K.; Turtle, Lara A. K.; García-Merino, Marta; Amonte, Cecilia; Rodrígez, Fátima; Padrón, Eleazar; Melián, Gladys V.; Padilla, Germán; Barrancos, José; Pérez, Nemesio M.

    2017-04-01

    Solid waste must be managed systematically to ensure environmental best practices. One of the ways to manage this huge problem is to systematic dispose waste materials in locations such as landfills. However, landfills could face possible threats to the environment such as groundwater pollution and the release of landfill gases (CH4, volatile organic compounds, etc.) to the atmosphere. These structures should be carefully filled, monitored and maintained while they are active and for up to 30 years after they are closed. Even after years of being closed, a systematically amount of landfill gas could be released to the atmosphere through its surface in a diffuse and fugitive form. During the period 1999-2016, we have studied the spatial-temporal distribution of the surface fugitive emission of CO2 and CH4 into the atmosphere in a cell in the Arico's municipal landfill (0.3 km2) at Tenerife, Canary Islands, Spain. This cell was operative until 2004, when it was filled and closed. Monitoring these diffuse landfill emissions provides information of how the closed landfill is degassing. To do so, we have performed 9 gas emission surveys during the period 1999-2016. Surface landfill CO2 efflux measurements were carried out at around 450 sampling site by means of a portable non-dispersive infrared spectrophotometer (NDIR) model LICOR Li800 following the accumulation chamber method. Landfill gases taken in the chamber were analyzed using a double channel VARIAN 4900 micro-GC. CH4 efflux measurements were computed combining CO2 efflux measurements and CH4/CO2 ratio in the landfill's surface gas. To quantify the total CH4 emission, CH4 efflux contour map was constructed using sequential Gaussian simulation (sGs) as interpolation method. In general, a decrease in the CO2 emission is observed since the cell was closed (2004) to the present. The total CO2 and CH4 diffuse emissions estimated in the 2016 survey were 4.54 ± 0.14 t d-1 and 268.65 ± 17.99 t d-1, respectively

  17. Ice sheet in peril

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvidberg, Christine Schøtt

    2016-01-01

    Earth's large ice sheets in Greenland and Antarctica are major contributors to sea level change. At present, the Greenland Ice Sheet (see the photo) is losing mass in response to climate warming in Greenland (1), but the present changes also include a long-term response to past climate transitions...

  18. Anatomical adaptations of aquatic mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reidenberg, Joy S

    2007-06-01

    This special issue of the Anatomical Record explores many of the anatomical adaptations exhibited by aquatic mammals that enable life in the water. Anatomical observations on a range of fossil and living marine and freshwater mammals are presented, including sirenians (manatees and dugongs), cetaceans (both baleen whales and toothed whales, including dolphins and porpoises), pinnipeds (seals, sea lions, and walruses), the sea otter, and the pygmy hippopotamus. A range of anatomical systems are covered in this issue, including the external form (integument, tail shape), nervous system (eye, ear, brain), musculoskeletal systems (cranium, mandible, hyoid, vertebral column, flipper/forelimb), digestive tract (teeth/tusks/baleen, tongue, stomach), and respiratory tract (larynx). Emphasis is placed on exploring anatomical function in the context of aquatic life. The following topics are addressed: evolution, sound production, sound reception, feeding, locomotion, buoyancy control, thermoregulation, cognition, and behavior. A variety of approaches and techniques are used to examine and characterize these adaptations, ranging from dissection, to histology, to electron microscopy, to two-dimensional (2D) and 3D computerized tomography, to experimental field tests of function. The articles in this issue are a blend of literature review and new, hypothesis-driven anatomical research, which highlight the special nature of anatomical form and function in aquatic mammals that enables their exquisite adaptation for life in such a challenging environment. 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  19. Fugitive methane emissions from leak-prone natural gas distribution infrastructure in urban environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrick, Margaret F; Ackley, Robert; Sanaie-Movahed, Bahare; Tang, Xiaojing; Phillips, Nathan G

    2016-06-01

    Fugitive emissions from natural gas systems are the largest anthropogenic source of the greenhouse gas methane (CH4) in the U.S. and contribute to the risk of explosions in urban environments. Here, we report on a survey of CH4 emissions from 100 natural gas leaks in cast iron distribution mains in Metro Boston, MA. Direct measures of CH4 flux from individual leaks ranged from 4.0 - 2.3 × 10(4) g CH4•day(-1). The distribution of leak size is positively skewed, with 7% of leaks contributing 50% of total CH4 emissions measured. We identify parallels in the skewed distribution of leak size found in downstream systems with midstream and upstream stages of the gas process chain. Fixing 'superemitter' leaks will disproportionately stem greenhouse gas emissions. Fifteen percent of leaks surveyed qualified as potentially explosive (Grade 1), and we found no difference in CH4 flux between Grade 1 leaks and all remaining leaks surveyed (p = 0.24). All leaks must be addressed, as even small leaks cannot be disregarded as 'safely leaking.' Key methodological impediments to quantifying and addressing the impacts of leaking natural gas distribution infrastructure involve inconsistencies in the manner in which gas leaks are defined, detected, and classified. To address this need, we propose a two-part leak classification system that reflects both the safety and climatic impacts of natural gas leaks. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Fugitive dust control experiments using soil fixatives on vehicle traffic surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winberg, M.R.; Wixom, V.E.

    1992-08-01

    This report presents the results of engineering scale dust control experiments using soil fixative for contamination control during handling of transuranic waste. These experiments focused on controlling dust during retrieval operations of buried waste where waste and soil are intimately mixed. Sources of dust generation during retrieval operations include digging, dumping, and vehicle traffic. Because contaminants are expected to attach to soil particles and move with the generated dust, control of the dust spread may be the key to contamination control. Dust control techniques examined in these experiments include the use of soil fixatives to control generation of fugitive dusts during vehicle traffic operations. Previous experiments conducted in FY 1990 included testing of the soil fixative, ENTAC. These experiments showed that ENTAC was effective in controlling dust generation but had several undesirable properties such as slow cure times and clogged the pumps and application nozzles. Therefore, other products would have to be evaluated to find a suitable candidate. As a result, two soil fixatives were tested in these present experiments, COHEREX-PM, an asphalt emulsion product manufactured by Witco Corporation and FLAMBINDER, a calcium lignosulfonate product manufactured by Flambeau Corporation. The results of the experiments include product performance and recommended application methods for application in a field deployable contamination control unit to be built in FY 1993

  1. Practical Design Guidelines for Fugitive Gas Detection from Unmanned Aerial Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tandy, William D., Jr.

    Simulation, design, and analysis are combined in this effort to realize a UAV-scale instrument for fugitive gas detection. The contributing material to the industry begins by extending and correlating an integrated Gaussian plume model useful for instrument predictions and trade studies, regardless of the instrument type or molecule of interest. A variety of generally applicable plots are produced from this foundation, including receiver operator curves for leak rate detectability vs. wind speed, beam diameter vs. leak rate detectability, and plots for required scan densities. The atmospheric and instrument parameter trade studies are followed by hardware-specific analyses applicable to differential absorption lidar (DIAL) instruments. A synopsis of the lessons learned from hands-on experiences in the lab further define the design space for DIAL sensors. The dissertation culminates in the detailed design and analysis of two DIAL instrument concepts. The conclusion is that a DIAL instrument capable of reliably detecting a 50 SCFH plume in winds speeds up to 7 mph is on the threshold of being achievable on a quadcopter platform. Of special note is that the effort was funded by a Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration grant and performed in collaboration with Ball Aerospace & Technologies.

  2. Assessment for potential radionuclide emissions from stacks and diffuse and fugitive sources on the Hanford Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, W.E.; Schmidt, J.W.; Gleckler, B.P.; Rhoads, K.

    1995-06-01

    By using the six EPA-approved methods, instead of only the original back calculation method for assessing the 84 WHC registered stacks, the number of stacks requiring continuous monitoring was reduced from 32 to 19 stacks. The intercomparison between results showed that no correlation existed between back calculations and release fractions. Also the NDA, upstream air samples, and powder release fraction method results were at least three orders of magnitude lower then the back calculations results. The most surprising results of the assessment came from NDA. NDA was found to be an easy method for assessing potential emissions. For the nine stacks assessed by NDA, all nine of the stacks would have required continuous monitoring when assessed by back calculations. However, when NDA was applied all stacks had potential emissions that would cause an EDE below the > 0.1 mrem/y standard. Apparent DFs for the HEPA filter systems were calculated for eight nondesignated stacks with emissions above the detection limit. These apparent DFs ranged from 0.5 to 250. The EDE dose to the MEI was calculated to be 0.028 mrem/y for diffuse and fugitive emissions from the Hanford Sited. This is well below the > 0.1 mrem/y standard

  3. On the new anatomical nomenclature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marecková, E; Simon, F; Cervený, L

    2001-05-01

    The present paper is concerned with the linguistic aspect of the new anatomical nomenclature (Terminologia Anatomica 1998). Orthographic, morphological, syntactic, lexical, and terminological comments are presented. In the authors' opinion, shortcomings might have been effectively avoided by cooperation with linguists.

  4. Anatomic Preformed Post: Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Lamas Lara, César; Cirujano Dentista, Docente del Área de Operatoria Dental y Endodoncia de la Facultad de OdontoIogía de la UNMSM.; Alvarado Menacho, Sergio; Cirujano Dentista, Especialista en Rehabilitación Oral, Profesor Asociado del Área de Prótesis y Oclusión de la Facultad de Odontología de la UNMSM.; Pari Espinoza, Rosa; Alumna del 5to año de Odontología de la UNMSM.

    2014-01-01

    Nowadays, preformed posts are being used frequently, but they do not follow root canal anatomy. Obtaining a more anatomical form of the root canal and reducing the space of the cement, it would help to reduce the possibility of its eviction. This article details the process of making of an anatomical preformed post and the advantages that would represent its clinical use. En la actualidad los postes preformados se utilizan con mucha frecuencia, pero tienenla dificultad de no seguir la anat...

  5. Anesthesia Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Education About NIGMS NIGMS Home > Science Education > Anesthesia Anesthesia Tagline (Optional) Middle/Main Content Area En español ... Version (464 KB) Other Fact Sheets What is anesthesia? Anesthesia is a medical treatment that prevents patients ...

  6. Global ice sheet modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hughes, T.J.; Fastook, J.L. [Univ. of Maine, Orono, ME (United States). Institute for Quaternary Studies

    1994-05-01

    The University of Maine conducted this study for Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) as part of a global climate modeling task for site characterization of the potential nuclear waste respository site at Yucca Mountain, NV. The purpose of the study was to develop a global ice sheet dynamics model that will forecast the three-dimensional configuration of global ice sheets for specific climate change scenarios. The objective of the third (final) year of the work was to produce ice sheet data for glaciation scenarios covering the next 100,000 years. This was accomplished using both the map-plane and flowband solutions of our time-dependent, finite-element gridpoint model. The theory and equations used to develop the ice sheet models are presented. Three future scenarios were simulated by the model and results are discussed.

  7. Global ice sheet modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hughes, T.J.; Fastook, J.L.

    1994-05-01

    The University of Maine conducted this study for Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) as part of a global climate modeling task for site characterization of the potential nuclear waste respository site at Yucca Mountain, NV. The purpose of the study was to develop a global ice sheet dynamics model that will forecast the three-dimensional configuration of global ice sheets for specific climate change scenarios. The objective of the third (final) year of the work was to produce ice sheet data for glaciation scenarios covering the next 100,000 years. This was accomplished using both the map-plane and flowband solutions of our time-dependent, finite-element gridpoint model. The theory and equations used to develop the ice sheet models are presented. Three future scenarios were simulated by the model and results are discussed

  8. Structural Biology Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... beta sheets (blue; thinner, tangled strands). Credit: RCSB Protein Data Bank. Even though proteins are strings of amino acids, ... structure of more than 122,000 proteins. The Protein Data Bank stores these structures and gives scientists access to ...

  9. Sepsis Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Education About NIGMS NIGMS Home > Science Education > Sepsis Sepsis Tagline (Optional) Middle/Main Content Area PDF Version ( ... KB) En español Other Fact Sheets What is sepsis? Sepsis is a serious medical condition. It is ...

  10. Respirator Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to protect myself, my family, and/or my employees? If available and used correctly, a respirator can ... Respirator Fact Sheet [PDF - 706 KB] Follow NIOSH Facebook Flickr Pinterest Twitter YouTube NIOSH Homepage NIOSH A- ...

  11. Energy information sheets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-07-01

    The National Energy Information Center (NEIC), as part of its mission, provides energy information and referral assistance to Federal, State, and local governments, the academic community, business and industrial organizations, and the public. The Energy Information Sheets was developed to provide general information on various aspects of fuel production, prices, consumption, and capability. Additional information on related subject matter can be found in other Energy Information Administration (EIA) publications as referenced at the end of each sheet.

  12. Study on reinforcement of soil for suppressing fugitive dust by bio-cementitious material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Qiwei; Qian, Chunxiang

    2017-06-01

    Microbial-induced reinforcement of soil, as a new green and environmental-friendly method, is being paid extensive attention to in that it has low cost, simple operation and rapid effects. In this research, reinforcement of soil for suppressing fugitive dust by bio-cementitious material was investigated. Soil cemented by bio-cementitious material had superior mechanical properties, such as hardness, compressive strength, microstructure, wind-erosion resistance, rainfall-erosion resistance and freeze-thaw resistance. The average hardness of sandy soil, floury soil and clay soil is 18.9 º, 25.2 º and 26.1 º, while average compressive strength of samples is 0.43 MPa, 0.54 MPa and 0.69 MPa, respectively; meanwhile, the average calcite content of samples is 6.85 %, 6.09 %, and 5.96 %, respectively. Compared with the original sandy soil, floury soil and clay soil, the porosity decreases by 38.5 %, 33.7 % and 29.2 %. When wind speed is 12 m/s, the mass loss of sandy soil, floury soil and clay soil cemented by bio-cementitious material are all less than 30 g/(m2·h). After three cycles of rainfall erosion of 2.5 mm/h, the mass loss are less than 25 g/(m2·h) and the compressive strength residual ratio are more than 98.0 %. Under 25 cycles of freeze-thaw, the mass loss ratio are less than 3.0 %.

  13. Fugitive emissions of methane from abandoned, decommissioned oil and gas wells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boothroyd, I M; Almond, S; Qassim, S M; Worrall, F; Davies, R J

    2016-03-15

    This study considered the fugitive emissions of methane (CH4) from former oil and gas exploration and production wells drilled to exploit conventional hydrocarbon reservoirs onshore in the UK. This study selected from the 66% of all onshore wells in the UK which appeared to be properly decommissioned (abandoned) that came from 4 different basins and were between 8 and 79 years old. The soil gas above each well was analysed and assessed relative to a nearby control site of similar land use and soil type. The results showed that of the 102 wells considered 30% had soil gas CH4 at the soil surface that was significantly greater than their respective control. Conversely, 39% of well sites had significant lower surface soil gas CH4 concentrations than their respective control. We interpret elevated soil gas CH4 concentrations to be the result of well integrity failure, but do not know the source of the gas nor the route to the surface. Where elevated CH4 was detected it appears to have occurred within a decade of it being drilled. The flux of CH4 from wells was 364 ± 677 kg CO2eq/well/year with a 27% chance that the well would have a negative flux to the atmosphere independent of well age. This flux is low relative to the activity commonly used on decommissioned well sites (e.g. sheep grazing), however, fluxes from wells that have not been appropriately decommissioned would be expected to be higher. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Spatial Variability and Structure of Hydrothermal Ecosystems at the Tempus Fugit Vent on the Galápagos Spreading Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raineault, N.; Smart, C.; Marsh, L.; Shank, T.; Fisher, C. R.; Ballard, R. D.

    2016-02-01

    Our early understanding of hydrothermal vent ecology originated from the historic vent sites along the Galápagos Spreading Center (GSC). In 1977, images of these newly discovered chemosynthetic environments changed the way scientists viewed life at depths beyond which sunlight could penetrate. Since the initial discovery, large-scale disturbances as a result of eruptive and tectonic activity have both destroyed and created vent habitats along the GSC. Four years ago, visual observations during the discovery of the active Tempus Fugit vent site at 86°W revealed a large peripheral field of dead vesicomyid clams, indicative of the persistence of hydrothermal activity at this field, likely for more than 20 years. From our knowledge of succession at these vent communities, the occurrence of juvenile clams amongst mature live clams, bathymodiolus mussels and siboglinid tubeworms indicates that there have been multiple colonization events. Riftia tubeworms only observed in nascent stages of growth in 2011 now have have tubes almost 4 m in length in some cases. In 2015 the E/V Nautilus mapped an area of diffuse flow in the Tempus Fugit field (100 m x 150 m) at centimeter level resolution using the standard ROV Hercules imaging suite, comprised of stereo cameras and a structured light laser sensor. This system, along with ROV HD video, samples, and environmental sensors, documented hydrothermal activity and biological community structure (e.g., Riftia tubeworms only observed in nascent stages of growth in 2011 now, in 2015, have tubes almost 4 m in length). Analysis of the resulting high-resolution photo mosaic and samples will address questions regarding distribution of species surrounding hydrothermal activity. This large-scale cohesive imagery provides us with information about the community structure associated with these ecosystems at a moment in time, while the assessment of fluid flow and associated faunal assemblages will provide a proxy for the temporal and

  15. Anatomical pathology is dead? Long live anatomical pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholls, John M; Francis, Glenn D

    2011-10-01

    The standard diagnostic instrument used for over 150 years by anatomical pathologists has been the optical microscope and glass slide. The advent of immunohistochemistry in the routine laboratory in the 1980s, followed by in situ hybridisation in the 1990s, has increased the armamentaria available to the diagnostic pathologist, and this technology has led to changed patient management in a limited number of neoplastic diseases. The first decade of the 21 century has seen an increasing number of publications using proteomic technologies that promise to change disease diagnosis and management, the traditional role of an anatomical pathologist. Despite the plethora of publications on proteomics and pathology, to date there are actually limited data where proteomic technologies do appear to be of greater diagnostic value than the standard histological slide. Though proteomic techniques will become more prevalent in the future, it will need the expertise of an anatomical pathologist to dissect out and validate this added information.

  16. Determination of releaes from a fugitive or diffuse source using downwind air-monitoring and site-specific meteorological data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Culp, T.; Kovacic, J.; Deola, R. [Sandia National Lab., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1996-12-31

    In order to demonstrate compliance with annual radiological dose limits, air-dispersion modeling is often performed. Many air-dispersion models calculate the effects of radionuclide releases. These models do not determine the actual release; they rely on either measured release data from the source or an estimate of the source release based on process knowledge. The EPA provides clear guidance for the determination of annual radionuclide releases from point sources (i.e. facility stacks and vents). However, clear guidance for the determination of radionuclide releases from diffuse or fugitive sources is not available.

  17. Development of a life-cycle fugitive methane emissions model utilizing device level emissions and activity factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Englander, J.; Brandt, A. R.

    2017-12-01

    There has been numerous studies in quantifying the scale of fugitive emissions from across the natural gas value chain. These studies have typically focused on either specific types of equipment (such as valves) or on a single part of the life-cycle of natural gas production (such as gathering stations).1,2 However it has been demonstrated that average emissions factors are not sufficient for representing leaks in the natural gas system.3 In this work, we develop a robust estimate of fugitive emissions rates by incorporating all publicly available studies done at the component up to the process level. From these known studies, we create a database of leaks with normalized nomenclature from which leak estimates can be drawn from actual leak observations. From this database, and parameterized by meta-data such as location, scale of study, or placement in the life-cycle, we construct stochastic emissions factors specific for each process unit. This will be an integrated tool as part of the Oil production greenhouse gas estimator (OPGEE) as well as the Fugitive Emissions Abatement Simulation Toolkit (FEAST) models to enhances their treatment of venting and fugitive emissions, and will be flexible to include user provided data and input parameters.4,51. Thoma, ED et al. Assessment of Uinta Basin Oil and Natural Gas Well Pad Pneumatic Controller Emissions. J. Environ. Prot. 2017. 2. Marchese, AJ et al. Methane Emissions from United States Natural Gas Gathering and Processing. ES&T 2015. doi:10.1021/acs.est.5b02275 3. Brandt, AR et al. Methane Leaks from Natural Gas Systems Follow Extreme Distributions. ES&T 2016. doi:10.1021/acs.est.6b04303 4. El-Houjeiri, HM et al. An open-source LCA tool estimating greenhouse gas emissions from crude oil production using field characteristics. ES&T 2013. doi: 10.1021/es304570m 5. Kemp, CE et al. Comparing Natural Gas Leakage Detection Technologies Using an Open-Source `Virtual Gas Field' Simulator. ES&T 2016. doi:10.1021/acs.est.5b

  18. Characterization of PM 10 source profiles for fugitive dust in Fushun-a city famous for coal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Shaofei; Ji, Yaqin; Lu, Bing; Chen, Li; Han, Bin; Li, Zhiyong; Bai, Zhipeng

    2011-09-01

    A total of 120 fugitive dust samples were collected to acquire chemical source profiles of PM 10 in Fushun including 27 soil dust samples, 32 road dust samples, 19 construction dust samples, 13 coal storage pile samples, 2 cement production samples, 13 coal-fired power plant fly ash samples, 5 fly ash samples from iron smelt plant and 9 samples from industrial raw material and production piles. The samples were classified as 20 subtypes. The dust samples were dried, sieved, resuspended and sampled through a PM 10 inlet onto filters, and then chemically analyzed. Inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry, ion chromatograph and thermal/optical reflectance methods were adopted for analyzing twenty elements including Na, Mg, Al, Si, S, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Cd, Pb and Hg and nine ions including Na +, NH 4+, K +, Mg 2+, Ca 2+, F -, Cl -, NO 3- and SO 42- as well as OC and EC, respectively. The chemical compositions were compared for 20 subtypes. Si and Ca were the most abundant elements in all the fugitive dust profiles. Enrichment factors of elements in fly ashes compared to raw coal were calculated with Fe as reference element. The highest enriched elements were Ni, Cu, Zn and Pb. Significant difference existed among PM 10 profiles with the coefficient of divergence values ranging from 0.28 to 0.78. Profiles were compared with others. Si exhibited lower content in this study for soil and road dust while EC and Cr showed much higher content compared to others indicating the influence of coal mining and industries activities in Fushun. This was validated by source signatures analysis which indicated almost all the fugitive dust were relative to coal and may also be influenced by metallurgy. The ratios of Mn/V, V/Ni, Zn/Pb and Zn/Cd were calculated for source identification. Elemental ratios may vary widely even for the same source types with different processing courses. Chemical profiles of fugitive dust should be established based

  19. Fugitive emission inventory from Brazilian oil and gas industry (2000-2005) and discussion of mitigation measures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carloni, Flavia A.; D' Avignon, Alexandre; La Rovere, Emilio L. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE). Centro Clima

    2008-07-01

    The objective of this work is to evaluate current emissions of GHGs within the Brazilian oil and gas industry, specifically the fugitive emissions arising from exploration and production. Besides, projects for mitigating these emissions and opportunities for the national industry are investigated. Results show that N{sub 2}O contributes little to fugitive emissions from the oil and gas industry, principally from gas sector. NMVOC emissions are significant, principally from the oil sector. In relation to CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} emissions, the oil sector emits more CO{sub 2} while the gas sector contributes more to CH{sub 4} emissions. In both sectors flaring is the activity that emits most CO{sub 2}. In relation to CH{sub 4} the principal contribution to emissions are from exploration and production onshore, although offshore activities as a whole play a greater part in the national industry. The results make it clear that the use of gas from flaring activity is a great opportunity for emission mitigation projects. From a business point of view, methane emissions could mean lost opportunities in selling natural gas. The Kyoto Protocol mechanisms, as the Clean Development Mechanism and Joint Implementation actions, provide the opportunity to stimulate investments in projects for reducing flaring and venting of associated gas. (author)

  20. Remote sensing of fugitive methane emissions from oil and gas production in North American tight geologic formations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneising, Oliver; Burrows, John P.; Dickerson, Russell R.; Buchwitz, Michael; Reuter, Maximilian; Bovensmann, Heinrich

    2014-10-01

    In the past decade, there has been a massive growth in the horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing of shale gas and tight oil reservoirs to exploit formerly inaccessible or unprofitable energy resources in rock formations with low permeability. In North America, these unconventional domestic sources of natural gas and oil provide an opportunity to achieve energy self-sufficiency and to reduce greenhouse gas emissions when displacing coal as a source of energy in power plants. However, fugitive methane emissions in the production process may counter the benefit over coal with respect to climate change and therefore need to be well quantified. Here we demonstrate that positive methane anomalies associated with the oil and gas industries can be detected from space and that corresponding regional emissions can be constrained using satellite observations. On the basis of a mass-balance approach, we estimate that methane emissions for two of the fastest growing production regions in the United States, the Bakken and Eagle Ford formations, have increased by 990 ± 650 ktCH4 yr-1 and 530 ± 330 ktCH4 yr-1 between the periods 2006-2008 and 2009-2011. Relative to the respective increases in oil and gas production, these emission estimates correspond to leakages of 10.1% ± 7.3% and 9.1% ± 6.2% in terms of energy content, calling immediate climate benefit into question and indicating that current inventories likely underestimate the fugitive emissions from Bakken and Eagle Ford.

  1. Safety advice sheets

    CERN Multimedia

    HSE Unit

    2013-01-01

    You never know when you might be faced with questions such as: when/how should I dispose of a gas canister? Where can I find an inspection report? How should I handle/store/dispose of a chemical substance…?   The SI section of the DGS/SEE Group is primarily responsible for safety inspections, evaluating the safety conditions of equipment items, premises and facilities. On top of this core task, it also regularly issues “Safety Advice Sheets” on various topics, designed to be of assistance to users but also to recall and reinforce safety rules and procedures. These clear and concise sheets, complete with illustrations, are easy to display in the appropriate areas. The following safety advice sheets have been issued so far: Other sheets will be published shortly. Suggestions are welcome and should be sent to the SI section of the DGS/SEE Group. Please send enquiries to general-safety-visits.service@cern.ch.

  2. Deposition and removal of fugitive dust in the arid southwestern United States: measurements and model results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etyemezian, Vic; Ahonen, Sean; Nikolic, Djordje; Gillies, John; Kuhns, Hampden; Gillette, Dale; Veranth, John

    2004-09-01

    This work was motivated by the need to better reconcile emission factors for fugitive dust with the amount of geologic material found on ambient filter samples. The deposition of particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter less than or equal to 10 microm (PM10), generated by travel over an unpaved road, over the first 100 m of transport downwind of the road was examined at Ft. Bliss, near El Paso, TX. The field conditions, typical for warm days in the arid southwestern United States, represented sparsely vegetated terrain under neutral to unstable atmospheric conditions. Emission fluxes of PM10 dust were obtained from towers downwind of the unpaved road at 7, 50, and 100 m. The horizontal flux measurements at the 7 m and 100 m towers indicated that PM10 deposition to the vegetation and ground was too small to measure. The data indicated, with 95% confidence, that the loss of PM10 between the source of emission at the unpaved road, represented by the 7 m tower, and a point 100 m downwind was less than 9.5%. A Gaussian model was used to simulate the plume. Values of the vertical standard deviation sigma(z) and the deposition velocity Vd were similar to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) ISC3 model. For the field conditions, the model predicted that removal of PM10 unpaved road dust by deposition over the distance between the point of emission and 100 m downwind would be less than 5%. However, the model results also indicated that particles larger than 10 microm (aerodynamic diameter) would deposit more appreciably. The model was consistent with changes observed in size distributions between 7 m and 100 m downwind, which were measured with optical particle counters. The Gaussian model predictions were also compared with another study conducted over rough terrain and stable atmospheric conditions. Under such conditions, measured PM10 removal rates over 95 m of downwind transport were reported to be between 86% and 89%, whereas the Gaussian model predicted

  3. Energy information sheets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-12-02

    The National Energy Information Center (NEIC), as part of its mission, provides energy information and referral assistance to Federal, State, and local governments, the academic community, business and industrial organizations, and the general public. Written for the general public, the EIA publication Energy Information Sheets was developed to provide information on various aspects of fuel production, prices, consumption and capability. The information contained herein pertains to energy data as of December 1991. Additional information on related subject matter can be found in other EIA publications as referenced at the end of each sheet.

  4. Multiregional environmental comparison of fossil fuel power generation-Assessment of the contribution of fugitive emissions from conventional and unconventional fossil resources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouman, Evert A.; Ramirez, Andrea; Hertwich, Edgar G.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we investigate the influence of fugitive methane emissions from coal, natural gas, and shale gas extraction on the greenhouse gas (GHG) impacts of fossil fuel power generation through its life cycle. A multiregional hybridized life cycle assessment (LCA) model is used to evaluate

  5. 40 CFR 63.7293 - What work practice standards must I meet for fugitive pushing emissions if I have a non-recovery...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 13 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What work practice standards must I meet for fugitive pushing emissions if I have a non-recovery coke oven battery? 63.7293 Section 63.7293 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR...

  6. 40 CFR 63.7292 - What work practice standards must I meet for fugitive pushing emissions if I have a by-product...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 13 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What work practice standards must I meet for fugitive pushing emissions if I have a by-product coke oven battery with horizontal flues? 63.7292 Section 63.7292 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR...

  7. Ice Sheets & Ice Cores

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Troels Bøgeholm

    Since the discovery of the Ice Ages it has been evident that Earth’s climate is liable to undergo dramatic changes. The previous climatic period known as the Last Glacial saw large oscillations in the extent of ice sheets covering the Northern hemisphere. Understanding these oscillations known...

  8. Pseudomonas - Fact Sheet

    OpenAIRE

    Public Health Agency

    2012-01-01

    Fact sheet on Pseudomonas, including:What is Pseudomonas?What infections does it cause?Who is susceptible to pseudomonas infection?How will I know if I have pseudomonas infection?How can Pseudomonas be prevented from spreading?How can I protect myself from Pseudomonas?How is Pseudomonas infection treated?

  9. Collisionless current sheet equilibria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neukirch, T.; Wilson, F.; Allanson, O.

    2018-01-01

    Current sheets are important for the structure and dynamics of many plasma systems. In space and astrophysical plasmas they play a crucial role in activity processes, for example by facilitating the release of magnetic energy via processes such as magnetic reconnection. In this contribution we will focus on collisionless plasma systems. A sensible first step in any investigation of physical processes involving current sheets is to find appropriate equilibrium solutions. The theory of collisionless plasma equilibria is well established, but over the past few years there has been a renewed interest in finding equilibrium distribution functions for collisionless current sheets with particular properties, for example for cases where the current density is parallel to the magnetic field (force-free current sheets). This interest is due to a combination of scientific curiosity and potential applications to space and astrophysical plasmas. In this paper we will give an overview of some of the recent developments, discuss their potential applications and address a number of open questions.

  10. Ethanol Basics (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2015-01-01

    Ethanol is a widely-used, domestically-produced renewable fuel made from corn and other plant materials. More than 96% of gasoline sold in the United States contains ethanol. Learn more about this alternative fuel in the Ethanol Basics Fact Sheet, produced by the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities program.

  11. Rubella - Fact Sheet for Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and 4 through 6 years Fact Sheet for Parents Color [2 pages] Español: Rubéola The best way ... according to the recommended schedule. Fact Sheets for Parents Diseases and the Vaccines that Prevent Them Chickenpox ...

  12. Effects of Adding Corn Dried Distiller Grains with Solubles (DDGS) to the Dairy Cow Diet and Effects of Bedding in Dairy Cow Slurry on Fugitive Methane Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massé, Daniel I.; Jarret, Guillaume; Benchaar, Chaouki; Hassanat, Fadi

    2014-01-01

    Simple Summary The objectives of this experiment were to investigate the effects of adding corn DDGS to the dairy cow diet as well as the bedding types (wood shavings, straw or peat moss) on manure fugitive CH4 emissions. The incorporation of DDGS in the diet has increased manure methane emission by 15% and the use of peat moss as bedding has increased manure methane emission by 27%. Abstract The specific objectives of this experiment were to investigate the effects of adding 10% or 30% corn dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) to the dairy cow diet and the effects of bedding type (wood shavings, straw or peat moss) in dairy slurry on fugitive CH4 emissions. The addition of DDGS10 to the dairy cow diet significantly increased (29%) the daily amount of fat excreted in slurry compared to the control diet. The inclusion of DDGS30 in the diet increased the daily amounts of excreted DM, volatile solids (VS), fat, neutral detergent fiber (NDF), acid detergent fiber (ADF) and hemicellulose by 18%, 18%, 70%, 30%, 15% and 53%, respectively, compared to the control diet. During the storage experiment, daily fugitive CH4 emissions showed a significant increase of 15% (p < 0.05) for the slurry resulting from the corn DDGS30 diet. The addition of wood shavings and straw did not have a significant effect on daily fugitive CH4 emissions relative to the control diet, whereas the addition of peat moss caused a significant increase of 27% (p < 0.05) in fugitive CH4 emissions. PMID:26479012

  13. Anatomical structure of Polystichum Roth ferns rachises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oksana V. Tyshchenko

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The morpho-anatomical characteristics of rachis cross sections of five Polystichum species is presented. The main and auxiliary anatomical features which help to distinguish investigated species are revealed.

  14. Unification of Sinonasal Anatomical Terminology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voegels, Richard Louis

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The advent of endoscopy and computed tomography at the beginning of the 1980s brought to rhinology a revival of anatomy and physiology study. In 1994, the International Conference of Sinus Disease was conceived because the official “Terminologia Anatomica”[1] had little information on the detailed sinonasal anatomy. In addition, there was a lack of uniformity of terminology and definitions. After 20 years, a new conference has been held. The need to use the same terminology led to the publication by the European Society of Rhinology of the “European Position Paper on the Anatomical Terminology of the Internal Nose and Paranasal Sinuses,” that can be accessed freely at www.rhinologyjournal.com. Professor Valerie Lund et al[2] wrote this document reviewing the anatomical terms, comparing to the “Terminology Anatomica” official order to define the structures without eponyms, while respecting the embryological development and especially universalizing and simplifying the terms. A must-read! The text's purpose lies beyond the review of anatomical terminology to universalize the language used to refer to structures of the nasal and paranasal cavities. Information about the anatomy, based on extensive review of the current literature, is arranged in just over 50 pages, which are direct and to the point. The publication may be pleasant reading for learners and teachers of rhinology. This text can be a starting point and enables searching the universal terminology used in Brazil, seeking to converge with this new European proposal for a nomenclature to help us communicate with our peers in Brazil and the rest of the world. The original text of the European Society of Rhinology provides English terms that avoided the use of Latin, and thus fall beyond several national personal translations. It would be admirable if we created our own cross-cultural adaptation of this new suggested anatomical terminology.

  15. [Cellular subcutaneous tissue. Anatomic observations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquart-Elbaz, C; Varnaison, E; Sick, H; Grosshans, E; Cribier, B

    2001-11-01

    We showed in a companion paper that the definition of the French "subcutaneous cellular tissue" considerably varied from the 18th to the end of the 20th centuries and has not yet reached a consensus. To address the anatomic reality of this "subcutaneous cellular tissue", we investigated the anatomic structures underlying the fat tissue in normal human skin. Sixty specimens were excised from the surface to the deep structures (bone, muscle, cartilage) on different body sites of 3 cadavers from the Institut d'Anatomie Normale de Strasbourg. Samples were paraffin-embedded, stained and analysed with a binocular microscope taking x 1 photographs. Specimens were also excised and fixed after subcutaneous injection of Indian ink, after mechanic tissue splitting and after performing artificial skin folds. The aspects of the deep parts of the skin greatly varied according to their anatomic localisation. Below the adipose tissue, we often found a lamellar fibrous layer which extended from the interlobular septa and contained horizontally distributed fat cells. No specific tissue below the hypodermis was observed. Artificial skin folds concerned either exclusively the dermis, when they were superficial or included the hypodermis, but no specific structure was apparent in the center of the fold. India ink diffused to the adipose tissue, mainly along the septa, but did not localise in a specific subcutaneous compartment. This study shows that the histologic aspects of the deep part of the skin depend mainly on the anatomic localisation. Skin is composed of epidermis, dermis and hypodermis and thus the hypodermis can not be considered as being "subcutaneous". A difficult to individualise, fibrous lamellar structure in continuity with the interlobular septa is often found under the fat lobules. This structure is a cleavage line, as is always the case with loose connective tissues, but belongs to the hypodermis (i.e. fat tissue). No specific tissue nor any virtual space was

  16. Single sheet iron oxides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yin, Zhou

    activity. LDH single sheets have been reported to be effective sorbents, catalysts in electrochemical and photochemical reactions, and building thin films together with other nanomaterials for designing new functionalities. Here we focus on the delamination of FeII-FeIII LDHs into single sheet iron oxide...... was rapid compared to other iron oxides, reaching equilibrium within 60 minutes. Arsenic sorption and acid-base titration data could be successfully described with a 1pk Basic Stern Model (BSM). The point of zero charge was around 8. The intrinsic surface complexation equilibrium constants (log K...... became abundant at low pH. (3) Electrochemical reduction of chlorinated compounds using an SSI modified electrode. Here, the electrochemical reactivity of SSIs coated on indium tin oxide coated glass electrodes was investigated. Iron on the SSI modified electrode showed a typical Cyclic Voltammetry...

  17. Film sheet cassette

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    A novel film sheet cassette is described for handling CAT photographic films under daylight conditions and facilitating their imaging. A detailed description of the design and operation of the cassette is given together with appropriate illustrations. The resulting cassette is a low-cost unit which is easily constructed and yet provides a sure light-tight seal for the interior contents of the cassette. The individual resilient fingers on the light-trap permit the ready removal of the slide plate for taking pictures. The stippled, non-electrostatic surface of the pressure plate ensures an air layer and free slidability of the film for removal and withdrawal of the film sheet. The advantage of the daylight system is that a darkroom need not be used for inserting and removing the film in and out of the cassette resulting in a considerable time saving. (U.K.)

  18. Biomolecular Science (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2012-04-01

    A brief fact sheet about NREL Photobiology and Biomolecular Science. The research goal of NREL's Biomolecular Science is to enable cost-competitive advanced lignocellulosic biofuels production by understanding the science critical for overcoming biomass recalcitrance and developing new product and product intermediate pathways. NREL's Photobiology focuses on understanding the capture of solar energy in photosynthetic systems and its use in converting carbon dioxide and water directly into hydrogen and advanced biofuels.

  19. Information sheets on energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    These sheets, presented by the Cea, bring some information, in the energy domain, on the following topics: the world energy demand and the energy policy in France and in Europe, the part of the nuclear power in the energy of the future, the greenhouse gases emissions and the fight against the greenhouse effect, the carbon dioxide storage cost and the hydrogen economy. (A.L.B.)

  20. Fugitive dust mitigation for PM{sub 10} attainment in the western Mojave Desert: Recommendations on revegetation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grantz, D.A.; Vaughn, D.L. [Univ. of California, Riverside, CA (United States)]|[Kearney Agricultural Center, Parlier, CA (United States); Roberts, E. [RES Environmental Inc., Colton, CA (United States)] [and others

    1997-12-31

    Methods to suppress fugitive dust and associated violations of federal PM{sub 10} standards in the western Mojave Desert, following removal of native vegetation by tillage or overgrazing, have been under investigation by a multi-agency task force for several years. Interim recommendations are now possible for this area of high winds, low rainfall, and mostly arable soil with patchy blowing sand. There can be no guarantee of success in any revegetation program in the desert, but the greatest probability of success in this area can be attained by using the native shrub Atriplex canescens, whether direct seeded or transplanted. No additional nitrogen should be added, and excess nitrogen should be removed if possible, perhaps by a preliminary cropping of barley. This will itself stabilize the soil surface in the short term. Young plants should be protected from herbivory and the harsh elements by using plastic cones. Irrigation is helpful if available. In areas located near native populations of rabbitbrush annual plant cover should be burned but no tillage or other soil disturbance should be imposed, as this facilitates invasion of annual species, including russian thistle, and prevents establishment of rabbitbrush. In sandy areas, seeding with Indian ricegrass may be more effective than with A. canescens. For immediate, short-term, mitigation of blowing dust, furrowing alone and installation of windfences may be effective. Rainfall exhibits high annual variability in arid regions. Absence of fugitive dust emissions in rainy periods, associated with ground cover by annual vegetation, is unlikely to survive several years of low, but normal, rainfall. It is precisely during those periods when rainfall is adequate that long-term revegetation with shrubs has the best chance of success.

  1. Utilization management in anatomic pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewandrowski, Kent; Black-Schaffer, Steven

    2014-01-01

    There is relatively little published literature concerning utilization management in anatomic pathology. Nonetheless there are many utilization management opportunities that currently exist and are well recognized. Some of these impact only the cost structure within the pathology department itself whereas others reduce charges for third party payers. Utilization management may result in medical legal liabilities for breaching the standard of care. For this reason it will be important for pathology professional societies to develop national utilization guidelines to assist individual practices in implementing a medically sound approach to utilization management. © 2013.

  2. Dense sheet Z-pinches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tetsu, Miyamoto

    1999-01-01

    The steady state and quasi-steady processes of infinite- and finite-width sheet z-pinches are studied. The relations corresponding to the Bennett relation and Pease-Braginskii current of cylindrical fiber z-pinches depend on a geometrical factor in the sheet z-pinches. The finite-width sheet z-pinch is approximated by a segment of infinite-width sheet z-pinch, if it is wide enough, and corresponds to a number of (width/thickness) times fiber z-pinch plasmas of the diameter that equals the sheet thickness. If the sheet current equals this number times the fiber current, the plasma created in the sheet z-pinches is as dense as in the fiber z-pinches. The total energy of plasma and magnetic field per unit mass is approximately equal in both pinches. Quasi-static transient processes are different in several aspects from the fiber z-pinch. No radiation collapse occurs in the sheet z-pinch. The stability is improved in the sheet z-pinches. The fusion criterions and the experimental arrangements to produce the sheet z-pinches are also discussed. (author)

  3. Experiments on sheet metal shearing

    OpenAIRE

    Gustafsson, Emil

    2013-01-01

    Within the sheet metal industry, different shear cutting technologies are commonly used in several processing steps, e.g. in cut to length lines, slitting lines, end cropping etc. Shearing has speed and cost advantages over competing cutting methods like laser and plasma cutting, but involves large forces on the equipment and large strains in the sheet material.Numerical models to predict forces and sheared edge geometry for different sheet metal grades and different shear parameter set-ups a...

  4. ANATOMIC STRUCTURE OF CAMPANULA ROTUNDIFOLIA L. GRASS

    OpenAIRE

    V. N. Bubenchikova; E. A. Nikitin

    2017-01-01

    The article present results of the study for a anatomic structure of Campanula rotundifolia grass from Campanulaceae family. Despite its dispersion and application in folk medicine, there are no data about its anatomic structure, therefore to estimate the indices of authenticity and quality of raw materials it is necessary to develop microdiagnostical features in the first place, which could help introducing of thisplant in a medical practice. The purpose of this work is to study anatomical s...

  5. MR urography: Anatomical and quantitative information on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MR urography: Anatomical and quantitative information on congenital malformations in children. Maria Karaveli, Dimitrios Katsanidis, Ioannis Kalaitzoglou, Afroditi Haritanti, Anastasios Sioundas, Athanasios Dimitriadis, Kyriakos Psarrakos ...

  6. Soft Costs Fact Sheet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2016-05-01

    This fact sheet is an overview of the systems integration subprogram at the U.S. Department of Energy SunShot Initiative. Soft costs can vary significantly as a result of a fragmented energy marketplace. In the U.S., there are 18,000 jurisdictions and 3,000 utilities with different rules and regulations for how to go solar. The same solar equipment may vary widely in its final installation price due to process and market variations across jurisdictions, creating barriers to rapid industry growth. SunShot supports the development of innovative solutions that enable communities to build their local economies and establish clean energy initiatives that meet their needs, while at the same time creating sustainable solar market conditions.

  7. Systems Integration Fact Sheet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2016-06-01

    This fact sheet is an overview of the Systems Integration subprogram at the U.S. Department of Energy SunShot Initiative. The Systems Integration subprogram enables the widespread deployment of safe, reliable, and cost-effective solar energy technologies by addressing the associated technical and non-technical challenges. These include timely and cost-effective interconnection procedures, optimal system planning, accurate prediction of solar resources, monitoring and control of solar power, maintaining grid reliability and stability, and many more. To address the challenges associated with interconnecting and integrating hundreds of gigawatts of solar power onto the electricity grid, the Systems Integration program funds research, development, and demonstration projects in four broad, interrelated focus areas: grid performance and reliability, dispatchability, power electronics, and communications.

  8. Photovoltaics Fact Sheet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2016-02-01

    This fact sheet is an overview of the Photovoltaics (PV) subprogram at the U.S. Department of Energy SunShot Initiative. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)’s Solar Energy Technologies Office works with industry, academia, national laboratories, and other government agencies to advance solar PV, which is the direct conversion of sunlight into electricity by a semiconductor, in support of the goals of the SunShot Initiative. SunShot supports research and development to aggressively advance PV technology by improving efficiency and reliability and lowering manufacturing costs. SunShot’s PV portfolio spans work from early-stage solar cell research through technology commercialization, including work on materials, processes, and device structure and characterization techniques.

  9. Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS)

    CERN Document Server

    Lalley, J

    About 250.000 Material Safety Data sheets from the U.S. Government Department of Defense MSDS database, a mirror of data from siri.uvm.edu, MSDS sheets maintained by Cornell University Environmental Health and Safety and other Cornell departments.

  10. Quantifying the relative contribution of natural gas fugitive emissions to total methane emissions in Colorado and Utah using mobile stable isotope (13CH4) analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rella, Chris; Jacobson, Gloria; Crosson, Eric; Karion, Anna; Petron, Gabrielle; Sweeney, Colm

    2013-04-01

    Fugitive emissions of methane into the atmosphere are a major concern facing the natural gas production industry. Because methane is more energy-rich than coal per kg of CO2 emitted into the atmosphere, it represents an attractive alternative to coal for electricity generation. However, given that the global warming potential of methane is many times greater than that of carbon dioxide (Solomon et al. 2007), the importance of quantifying the fugitive emissions of methane throughout the natural gas production and distribution process becomes clear (Howarth et al. 2011). A key step in the process of assessing the emissions arising from natural gas production activities is partitioning the observed methane emissions between natural gas fugitive emissions and other sources of methane, such as from landfills or agricultural activities. One effective method for assessing the contribution of these different sources is stable isotope analysis. In particular, the 13CH4 signature of natural gas (-35 to -40 permil) is significantly different that the signature of other significant sources of methane, such as landfills or ruminants (-45 to -70 permil). In this paper we present measurements of mobile field 13CH4 using a spectroscopic stable isotope analyzer based on cavity ringdown spectroscopy, in two intense natural gas producing regions of the United States: the Denver-Julesburg basin in Colorado, and the Uintah basin in Utah. Mobile isotope measurements in the nocturnal boundary layer have been made, over a total path of 100s of km throughout the regions, allowing spatially resolved measurements of the regional isotope signature. Secondly, this analyzer was used to quantify the isotopic signature of those individual sources (natural gas fugitive emissions, concentrated animal feeding operations, and landfills) that constitute the majority of methane emissions in these regions, by making measurements of the isotope ratio directly in the downwind plume from each source. These

  11. Plasma dynamics in current sheets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogdanov, S.Yu.; Drejden, G.V.; Kirij, N.P.; AN SSSR, Leningrad

    1992-01-01

    Plasma dynamics in successive stages of current sheet evolution is investigated on the base of analysis of time-spatial variations of electron density and electrodynamic force fields. Current sheet formation is realized in a two-dimensional magnetic field with zero line under the action of relatively small initial disturbances (linear regimes). It is established that in the limits of the formed sheet is concentrated dense (N e ∼= 10 16 cm -3 ) (T i ≥ 100 eV, bar-Z i ≥ 2) hot pressure of which is balanced by the magnetic action of electrodynamic forces is carried out both plasma compression in the sheet limits and the acceleration along the sheet surface from a middle to narrow side edges

  12. Anatomical and palynological characteristics of Salvia willeana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, anatomical and palynological features of the roots, stems, petiole and leaves of Salvia willeana (Holmboe) Hedge and Salvia veneris Hedge, Salvia species endemic to Cyprus, were investigated. In the anatomical characteristics of stem structures, it was found that the chlorenchyma composed of 6 or 7 rows of ...

  13. Morphological and anatomical response of Acacia ehrenbergiana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ajl user 3

    2012-02-20

    Feb 20, 2012 ... The response of Acacia ehrenbergiana Hayne and Acacia tortilis (Forssk) Haynes subspp. raddiana seedlings to 100, 50 and 25% field capacity (FC) watering regimes was studied to determine their morphological and anatomical behaviour. Both species responded morphologically as well as anatomically ...

  14. Modelling the Antarctic Ice Sheet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jens Olaf Pepke; Holm, A.

    2015-01-01

    Science) Antarctic Ice Sheet (DAIS) model (Shaffer 2014) is forced by reconstructed time series of Antarctic temperature, global sea level and ocean subsurface temperature over the last two glacial cycles. In this talk a modelling work of the Antarctic ice sheet over most of the Cenozoic era using...... the DAIS model will be presented. G. Shaffer (2014) Formulation, calibration and validation of the DAIS model (version 1), a simple Antarctic ice sheet model sensitive to variations of sea level and ocean subsurface temperature, Geosci. Model Dev., 7, 1803‐1818...

  15. 2007 Swimming Season Fact Sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    To help beachgoers make informed decisions about swimming at U.S. beaches, EPA annually publishes state-by-state data about beach closings and advisories for the previous year's swimming season. These fact sheets summarize that information by state.

  16. 2006 Swimming Season Fact Sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    To help beachgoers make informed decisions about swimming at U.S. beaches, EPA annually publishes state-by-state data about beach closings and advisories for the previous year's swimming season. These fact sheets summarize that information by state.

  17. 2009 Swimming Season Fact Sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    To help beachgoers make informed decisions about swimming at U.S. beaches, EPA annually publishes state-by-state data about beach closings and advisories for the previous year's swimming season. These fact sheets summarize that information by state.

  18. 2008 Swimming Season Fact Sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    To help beachgoers make informed decisions about swimming at U.S. beaches, EPA annually publishes state-by-state data about beach closings and advisories for the previous year's swimming season. These fact sheets summarize that information by state.

  19. 2010 Swimming Season Fact Sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    To help beachgoers make informed decisions about swimming at U.S. beaches, EPA annually publishes state-by-state data about beach closings and advisories for the previous year's swimming season. These fact sheets summarize that information by state.

  20. 2012 Swimming Season Fact Sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    To help beachgoers make informed decisions about swimming at U.S. beaches, EPA annually publishes state-by-state data about beach closings and advisories for the previous year's swimming season. These fact sheets summarize that information by state.

  1. State Fact Sheets on COPD

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Submit Search The CDC Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) Note: Javascript is disabled or is not supported ... message, please visit this page: About CDC.gov . COPD Homepage Data and Statistics Fact Sheets Publications Publications ...

  2. Energy information sheets, July 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-07-01

    The National Energy Information Center (NEIC), as part of its mission, provides energy information and referral assistance to Federal, State, and local governments, the academic community, business and industrial organizations, and the public. The Energy Information Sheets was developed to provide general information on various aspects of fuel production, prices, consumption, and capability. Additional information on related subject matter can be found in other Energy Information Administration (EIA) publications as referenced at the end of each sheet.

  3. Energy information sheets, September 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-09-01

    The National Energy Information Center (NEIC), as part of its mission, provides energy information and referral assistance to Federal, State, and local governments, the academic community, business and industrial organizations, and the public. The Energy Information Sheets was developed to provide general information on various aspects of fuel production, prices, consumption, and capability. Additional information on related subject matter can be found in other Energy Information Administration (EIA) publications as referenced at the end of each sheet.

  4. Impairment of soil health due to fly ash-fugitive dust deposition from coal-fired thermal power plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raja, R; Nayak, A K; Shukla, A K; Rao, K S; Gautam, Priyanka; Lal, B; Tripathi, R; Shahid, M; Panda, B B; Kumar, A; Bhattacharyya, P; Bardhan, G; Gupta, S; Patra, D K

    2015-11-01

    Thermal power stations apart from being source of energy supply are causing soil pollution leading to its degradation in fertility and contamination. Fine particle and trace element emissions from energy production in coal-fired thermal power plants are associated with significant adverse effects on human, animal, and soil health. Contamination of soil with cadmium, nickel, copper, lead, arsenic, chromium, and zinc can be a primary route of human exposure to these potentially toxic elements. The environmental evaluation of surrounding soil of thermal power plants in Odisha may serve a model study to get the insight into hazards they are causing. The study investigates the impact of fly ash-fugitive dust (FAFD) deposition from coal-fired thermal power plant emissions on soil properties including trace element concentration, pH, and soil enzymatic activities. Higher FAFD deposition was found in the close proximity of power plants, which led to high pH and greater accumulation of heavy metals. Among the three power plants, in the vicinity of NALCO, higher concentrations of soil organic carbon and nitrogen was observed whereas, higher phosphorus content was recorded in the proximity of NTPC. Multivariate statistical analysis of different variables and their association indicated that FAFD deposition and soil properties were influenced by the source of emissions and distance from source of emission. Pollution in soil profiles and high risk areas were detected and visualized using surface maps based on Kriging interpolation. The concentrations of chromium and arsenic were higher in the soil where FAFD deposition was more. Observance of relatively high concentration of heavy metals like cadmium, lead, nickel, and arsenic and a low concentration of enzymatic activity in proximity to the emission source indicated a possible link with anthropogenic emissions.

  5. Fugitive coke oven gas emission profile by continuous line averaged open-path Fourier transform infrared monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chitsan; Liou, Naiwei; Chang, Pao-Erh; Yang, Jen-Chin; Sun, Endy

    2007-04-01

    Although most coke oven research is focused on the emission of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, well-known carcinogens, little has been done on the emission of volatile organic compounds, some of which are also thought to be hazardous to workers and the environment. To profile coke oven gas (COG) emissions, we set up an open-path Fourier transform infrared (OP-FTIR) system on top of a battery of coke ovens at a steel mill located in Southern Taiwan and monitored average emissions in a coke processing area for 16.5 hr. Nine COGs were identified, including ammonia, CO, methane, ethane, ethylene, acetylene, propylene, cyclohexane, and O-xylene. Time series plots indicated that the type of pollutants differed over time, suggesting that different emission sources (e.g., coke pushing, quench tower, etc.) were involved at different times over the study period. This observation was confirmed by the low cross-correlation coefficients of the COGs. It was also found that, with the help of meteorological analysis, the data collected by the OP-FTIR system could be analyzed effectively to characterize differences in the location of sources. Although the traditional single-point samplings of emissions involves sampling various sources in a coke processing area at several different times and is a credible profiling of emissions, our findings strongly suggest that they are not nearly as efficient or as cost-effective as the continuous line average method used in this study. This method would make it easier and cheaper for engineers and health risk assessors to identify and to control fugitive volatile organic compound emissions and to improve environmental health.

  6. Graphic products used in the evaluation of traditional and emerging remote sensing technologies for the detection of fugitive contamination at selected superfund hazardous waste sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slonecker, E. Terrence; Fisher, Gary B.

    2011-01-01

    This report presents the overhead imagery and field sampling results used to prepare U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2011-1050, 'Evaluation of Traditional and Emerging Remote Sensing Technologies for the Detection of Fugitive Contamination at Selected Superfund Hazardous Waste Sites'. These graphic products were used in the evaluation of remote sensing technology in postclosure monitoring of hazardous waste sites and represent an ongoing research effort. Soil sampling results presented here were accomplished with field portable x-ray fluoresence (XRF) technology and are used as screening tools only representing the current conditions of metals and other contaminants at selected Superfund hazardous waste sites.

  7. Automobile sheet metal part production with incremental sheet forming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İsmail DURGUN

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, effect of global warming is increasing drastically so it leads to increased interest on energy efficiency and sustainable production methods. As a result of adverse conditions, national and international project platforms, OEMs (Original Equipment Manufacturers, SMEs (Small and Mid-size Manufacturers perform many studies or improve existing methodologies in scope of advanced manufacturing techniques. In this study, advanced manufacturing and sustainable production method "Incremental Sheet Metal Forming (ISF" was used for sheet metal forming process. A vehicle fender was manufactured with or without die by using different toolpath strategies and die sets. At the end of the study, Results have been investigated under the influence of method and parameters used.Keywords: Template incremental sheet metal, Metal forming

  8. Horizontal electromagnetic casting of thin metal sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hull, John R.; Lari, Robert J.; Praeg, Walter F.; Turner, Larry R.

    1987-01-01

    Thin metal sheets are cast by magnetically suspending molten metal deposited within a ferromagnetic yoke and between AC conducting coils and linearly displacing the magnetically levitated liquid metal while it is being cooled to form a solid metal sheet. Magnetic flux increases as the molten metal sheet moves downward and decreases as the molten metal sheet moves upward to stabilize the sheet and maintain it in equilibrium as it is linearly displaced and solidified by cooling gases. A conducting shield is electrically coupled to the molten metal sheet by means of either metal sheet engaging rollers or brushes on the solidified metal, and by means of an electrode in the vessel containing the molten metal thereby providing a return path for the eddy currents induced in the metal sheet by the AC coil generated magnetic flux. Variation in the geometry of the conducting shield allows the magnetic flux between the metal sheet and the conducting shield to be varied and the thickness in surface quality of the metal sheet to be controlled. Side guards provide lateral containment for the molten metal sheet and stabilize and shape the magnetic field while a leader sheet having electromagnetic characteristics similar to those of the metal sheet is used to start the casting process and precedes the molten metal sheet through the magnet and forms a continuous sheet therewith. The magnet may be either U-shaped with a single racetrack coil or may be rectangular with a pair of facing bedstead coils.

  9. Horizontal electromagnetic casting of thin metal sheets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hull, John R. (Hinsdale, IL); Lari, Robert J. (Aurora, IL); Praeg, Walter F. (Palos Park, IL); Turner, Larry R. (Naperville, IL)

    1988-01-01

    Thin metal sheets are cast by magnetically suspending molten metal deposited within a ferromagnetic yoke and between AC conducting coils and linearly displacing the magnetically levitated liquid metal while it is being cooled to form a solid metal sheet. Magnetic flux increases as the molten metal sheet moves downward and decreases as the molten metal sheet moves upward to stabilize the sheet and maintain it in equilibrium as it is linearly displaced and solidified by cooling gases. A conducting shield is electrically coupled to the molten metal sheet by means of either metal sheet engaging rollers or brushes on the solidified metal, and by means of an electrode in the vessel containing the molten metal thereby providing a return path for the eddy currents induced in the metal sheet by the AC coil generated magnetic flux. Variation in the geometry of the conducting shield allows the magnetic flux between the metal sheet and the conducting shield to be varied and the thickness in surface quality of the metal sheet to be controlled. Side guards provide lateral containment for the molten metal sheet and stabilize and shape the magnetic field while a leader sheet having electromagnetic characteristics similar to those of the metal sheet is used to start the casting process and precedes the molten metal sheet through the magnet and forms a continuous sheet therewith. The magnet may be either U-shaped with a single racetrack coil or may be rectangular with a pair of facing bedstead coils.

  10. Soldering sheets using soft solders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan Brožek

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper contains strength tests results of joints soldered using lead and leadless soft solders. For tests lead solders types Pb60Sn40 and Sn60Pb40 and leadless soft solders types Sn95.5Ag3.8Cu0.7 and Sn96Ag4 were used. As basic materials steel sheet, zinc-coated steel sheet, copper sheet and brass sheet 100 x 20 x 1 mm was the test samples size. Always two sheets were cleaned and jointed together. For heating the propane-butane + air flame was used. Then the tested assemblies were loaded using the universal tensile-strength testing machine till to failure. At the tests the force needed for assemblies failure and failure type (in soldered joint, in basic material were recorded. From measured data the solder strength was calculated. From the experiment results it follows that from the point of view of the soldered joints strength as well of the solder strength relatively small differences were found. At the same time it is evident that the joint strength and solder strength depend on soldered material type and on soldered joint lapping length. On the basis of carried out experiments it can be stated that the substitution of lead solders by leadless solders is possible without risk of soldered joints strength decrease.

  11. Uranium mining sites - Thematic sheets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    A first sheet proposes comments, data and key numbers about uranium extraction in France: general overview of uranium mining sites, status of waste rock and tailings after exploitation, site rehabilitation. The second sheet addresses the sources of exposure to ionizing radiations due to ancient uranium mining sites: discussion on the identification of these sources associated with these sites, properly due to mining activities or to tailings, or due to the transfer of radioactive substances towards water and to the contamination of sediments, description of the practice and assessment of radiological control of mining sites. A third sheet addresses the radiological exposure of public to waste rocks, and the dose assessment according to exposure scenarios: main exposure ways to be considered, studied exposure scenarios (passage on backfilled path and grounds, stay in buildings built on waste rocks, keeping mineralogical samples at home). The fourth sheet addresses research programmes of the IRSN on uranium and radon: epidemiological studies (performed on mine workers; on French and on European cohorts, French and European studies on the risk of lung cancer associated with radon in housing), study of the biological effects of chronic exposures. The last sheet addresses studies and expertises performed by the IRSN on ancient uranium mining sites in France: studies commissioned by public authorities, radioactivity control studies performed by the IRSN about mining sites, participation of the IRSN to actions to promote openness to civil society

  12. Non-dissipative shapable sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oppenheimer, Naomi; Witten, Thomas

    2014-03-01

    A sheet of paper that has been crumpled and flattened retains some amount of shapability that a bare, uncrumpled, sheet does not have: when deformed by external forces, it retains the deformed shape after the forces are removed. Using a frustrated two dimensional lattice of springs, we show that such shapability can be attained in a non-dissipative system. Numerical investigations suggest an extensive number of bistable energy minima using several variants of this scheme. The numerical sheet can be bent into a nearly-closed cylinder that holds its shape. We verify that the deformed shape is locally stable and compare its bending modulus in the deformed state with that in the initial flat state. We investigate the threshold for non-elastic deformation using various kinds of forcing.

  13. Root-growth-inhibiting sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Frederick G.; Cataldo, Dominic A.; Cline, John F.; Skiens, W. Eugene; Van Voris, Peter

    1993-01-01

    In accordance with this invention, a porous sheet material is provided at intervals with bodies of a polymer which contain a 2,6-dinitroaniline. The sheet material is made porous to permit free passage of water. It may be either a perforated sheet or a woven or non-woven textile material. A particularly desirable embodiment is a non-woven fabric of non-biodegradable material. This type of material is known as a "geotextile" and is used for weed control, prevention of erosion on slopes, and other landscaping purposes. In order to obtain a root repelling property, a dinitroaniline is blended with a polymer which is attached to the geotextile or other porous material.

  14. Sheet Bending using Soft Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinke, J.

    2011-05-01

    Sheet bending is usually performed by air bending and V-die bending processes. Both processes apply rigid tools. These solid tools facilitate the generation of software for the numerical control of those processes. When the lower rigid die is replaced with a soft or rubber tool, the numerical control becomes much more difficult, since the soft tool deforms too. Compared to other bending processes the rubber backed bending process has some distinct advantages, like large radius-to-thickness ratios, applicability to materials with topcoats, well defined radii, and the feasibility of forming details (ridges, beads). These advantages may give the process exclusive benefits over conventional bending processes, not only for industries related to mechanical engineering and sheet metal forming, but also for other disciplines like Architecture and Industrial Design The largest disadvantage is that also the soft (rubber) tool deforms. Although the tool deformation is elastic and recovers after each process cycle, the applied force during bending is related to the deformation of the metal sheet and the deformation of the rubber. The deformation of the rubber interacts with the process but also with sheet parameters. This makes the numerical control of the process much more complicated. This paper presents a model for the bending of sheet materials using a rubber lower die. This model can be implemented in software in order to control the bending process numerically. The model itself is based on numerical and experimental research. In this research a number of variables related to the tooling and the material have been evaluated. The numerical part of the research was used to investigate the influence of the features of the soft lower tool, like the hardness and dimensions, and the influence of the sheet thickness, which also interacts with the soft tool deformation. The experimental research was focused on the relation between the machine control parameters and the most

  15. Determining customer satisfaction in anatomic pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarbo, Richard J

    2006-05-01

    Measurement of physicians' and patients' satisfaction with laboratory services has become a standard practice in the United States, prompted by national accreditation requirements. Unlike other surveys of hospital-, outpatient care-, or physician-related activities, no ongoing, comprehensive customer satisfaction survey of anatomic pathology services is available for subscription that would allow continual benchmarking against peer laboratories. Pathologists, therefore, must often design their own local assessment tools to determine physician satisfaction in anatomic pathology. To describe satisfaction survey design that would elicit specific information from physician customers about key elements of anatomic pathology services. The author shares his experience in biannually assessing customer satisfaction in anatomic pathology with survey tools designed at the Henry Ford Hospital, Detroit, Mich. Benchmarks for physician satisfaction, opportunities for improvement, and characteristics that correlated with a high level of physician satisfaction were identified nationally from a standardized survey tool used by 94 laboratories in the 2001 College of American Pathologists Q-Probes quality improvement program. In general, physicians are most satisfied with professional diagnostic services and least satisfied with pathology services related to poor communication. A well-designed and conducted customer satisfaction survey is an opportunity for pathologists to periodically educate physician customers about services offered, manage unrealistic expectations, and understand the evolving needs of the physician customer. Armed with current information from physician customers, the pathologist is better able to strategically plan for resources that facilitate performance improvements in anatomic pathology laboratory services that align with evolving clinical needs in health care delivery.

  16. Ice sheet hydrology - a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jansson, Peter; Naeslund, Jens-Ove; Rodhe, Lars

    2007-03-01

    This report summarizes the theoretical knowledge on water flow in and beneath glaciers and ice sheets and how these theories are applied in models to simulate the hydrology of ice sheets. The purpose is to present the state of knowledge and, perhaps more importantly, identify the gaps in our understanding of ice sheet hydrology. Many general concepts in hydrology and hydraulics are applicable to water flow in glaciers. However, the unique situation of having the liquid phase flowing in conduits of the solid phase of the same material, water, is not a commonly occurring phenomena. This situation means that the heat exchange between the phases and the resulting phase changes also have to be accounted for in the analysis. The fact that the solidus in the pressure-temperature dependent phase diagram of water has a negative slope provides further complications. Ice can thus melt or freeze from both temperature and pressure variations or variations in both. In order to provide details of the current understanding of water flow in conjunction with deforming ice and to provide understanding for the development of ideas and models, emphasis has been put on the mathematical treatments, which are reproduced in detail. Qualitative results corroborating theory or, perhaps more often, questioning the simplifications made in theory, are also given. The overarching problem with our knowledge of glacier hydrology is the gap between the local theories of processes and the general flow of water in glaciers and ice sheets. Water is often channelized in non-stationary conduits through the ice, features which due to their minute size relative to the size of glaciers and ice sheets are difficult to incorporate in spatially larger models. Since the dynamic response of ice sheets to global warming is becoming a key issue in, e.g. sea-level change studies, the problems of the coupling between the hydrology of an ice sheet and its dynamics is steadily gaining interest. New work is emerging

  17. Ice sheet hydrology - a review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jansson, Peter; Naeslund, Jens-Ove [Dept. of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology, Stockholm Univ., Stockholm (Sweden); Rodhe, Lars [Geological Survey of Sweden, Uppsala (Sweden)

    2007-03-15

    This report summarizes the theoretical knowledge on water flow in and beneath glaciers and ice sheets and how these theories are applied in models to simulate the hydrology of ice sheets. The purpose is to present the state of knowledge and, perhaps more importantly, identify the gaps in our understanding of ice sheet hydrology. Many general concepts in hydrology and hydraulics are applicable to water flow in glaciers. However, the unique situation of having the liquid phase flowing in conduits of the solid phase of the same material, water, is not a commonly occurring phenomena. This situation means that the heat exchange between the phases and the resulting phase changes also have to be accounted for in the analysis. The fact that the solidus in the pressure-temperature dependent phase diagram of water has a negative slope provides further complications. Ice can thus melt or freeze from both temperature and pressure variations or variations in both. In order to provide details of the current understanding of water flow in conjunction with deforming ice and to provide understanding for the development of ideas and models, emphasis has been put on the mathematical treatments, which are reproduced in detail. Qualitative results corroborating theory or, perhaps more often, questioning the simplifications made in theory, are also given. The overarching problem with our knowledge of glacier hydrology is the gap between the local theories of processes and the general flow of water in glaciers and ice sheets. Water is often channelized in non-stationary conduits through the ice, features which due to their minute size relative to the size of glaciers and ice sheets are difficult to incorporate in spatially larger models. Since the dynamic response of ice sheets to global warming is becoming a key issue in, e.g. sea-level change studies, the problems of the coupling between the hydrology of an ice sheet and its dynamics is steadily gaining interest. New work is emerging

  18. Sheet Beam Klystron Instability Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bane, K.

    2009-01-01

    Using the principle of energy balance we develop a 2D theory for calculating growth rates of instability in a two-cavity model of a sheet beam klystron. An important ingredient is a TE-like mode in the gap that also gives a longitudinal kick to the beam. When compared with a self-consistent particle-in-cell calculation, with sheet beam klystron-type parameters, agreement is quite good up to half the design current, 65 A; at full current, however, other, current-dependent effects come in and the results deviate significantly

  19. Hydrogeological map of Kabo Sheet 80NW topographical sheet 1 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A hydro geological mapping of the Federal Surveys of Nigeria, Kabo Sheet 80 NW, on scale 1:50,000 were made with areal coverage of 729Km2 on the Crystalline Basement Complex, and the hydrogeoogical maps produced are maps of depth to the water table and maps of configuration peak of dry season and wet ...

  20. Anatomic breast coordinate system for mammogram analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karemore, Gopal; Brandt, S.; Karssemeijer, N.

    2011-01-01

    inside the breast. Most of the risk assessment and CAD modules use a breast region in a image centered Cartesian x,y coordinate system. Nevertheless, anatomical structure follows curve-linear trajectories. We examined an anatomical breast coordinate system that preserves the anatomical correspondence...... between the mammograms and allows extracting not only the aligned position but also the orientation aligned with the anatomy of the breast tissue structure. Materials and Methods The coordinate system used the nipple location as the point A and the border of the pectoral muscle as a line BC. The skin air...... interface was identified as a curve passing through A and intersecting the pectoral muscle line. The nipple was defined as the origin of the coordinate system. A family of second order curves were defined through the nipple and intersecting the pectoral line (AD). Every pixel location in mammogram...

  1. Anatomic Eponyms in Neuroradiology: Head and Neck.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunch, Paul M

    2016-10-01

    In medicine, an eponym is a word-typically referring to an anatomic structure, disease, or syndrome-that is derived from a person's name. Medical eponyms are ubiquitous and numerous. They are also at times controversial. Eponyms reflect medicine's rich and colorful history and can be useful for concisely conveying complex concepts. Familiarity with eponyms facilitates correct usage and accurate communication. In this article, 22 eponyms used to describe anatomic structures of the head and neck are discussed. For each structure, the author first provides a biographical account of the individual for whom the structure is named. An anatomic description and brief discussion of the structure's clinical relevance follow. Copyright © 2016 The Association of University Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Lacrimal Gland Pathologies from an Anatomical Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmut Sinan Abit

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Most of the patients in our daily practice have one or more ocular surface disorders including conjucntivitis, keratitis, dry eye disease, meibomian gland dysfunction, contact lens related symptoms, refractive errors,computer vision syndrome. Lacrimal gland has an important role in all above mentioned pathologies due to its major secretory product. An anatomical and physiological knowledge about lacrimal gland is a must in understanding basic and common ophthalmological cases. İn this paper it is aimed to explain the lacrimal gland diseases from an anatomical perspective.

  3. Higher Education Act. Fact Sheet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Council on Disability, 2004

    2004-01-01

    This fact sheet highlights the challenges for students with disabilities in the nation's university system and recommends solutions that would result in better support systems for postsecondary students with disabilities. This document discusses several interrelated issues that impact student preparation and access to postsecondary education. The…

  4. Fact Sheet: Vulnerable Young Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Evelyn, Comp.; Goode, Sue, Comp.

    2008-01-01

    This fact sheet provides data on infants, toddlers and young children who are experiencing high stress as a result of a number of risk factors specifically identified in the Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act of 2004 (IDEA 2004), including substantiated abuse or neglect, foster care placement, homelessness, exposure to family…

  5. Off-Balance Sheet Financing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Matthew C.

    1998-01-01

    Examines off-balance sheet financing, the facilities use of outsourcing for selected needs, as a means of saving operational costs and using facility assets efficiently. Examples of using outside sources for energy supply and food services, as well as partnering with business for facility expansion are provided. Concluding comments address tax…

  6. Learning from Balance Sheet Visualization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanlamai, Uthai; Soongswang, Oranuj

    2011-01-01

    This exploratory study examines alternative visuals and their effect on the level of learning of balance sheet users. Executive and regular classes of graduate students majoring in information technology in business were asked to evaluate the extent of acceptance and enhanced capability of these alternative visuals toward their learning…

  7. Stabilization of Inviscid Vortex Sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Protas, Bartosz; Sakajo, Takashi

    2017-11-01

    In this study we investigate the problem of stabilizing inviscid vortex sheets via feedback control. Such models, expressed in terms of the Birkhoff-Rott equation, are often used to describe the Kevin-Helmholtz instability of shear layers and are known to be strongly unstable to small-scale perturbations. First, we consider the linear stability of a straight vortex sheet in the periodic setting with actuation in the form of an array of point vortices or sources located a certain distance away from the sheet. We establish conditions under which this system is controllable and observable. Next, using methods of the linear control theory, we synthesize a feedback control strategy which stabilizes a straight vortex sheet in the linear regime. Given the poor conditioning of the discretized problem, reliable solution of the resulting algebraic Riccati equation requires the use of high-precision arithmetic. Finally, we demonstrate that this control approach also succeeds in the nonlinear regime, provided the magnitude of the initial perturbation is sufficiently small.

  8. Magnetic Resonance Facility (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2012-03-01

    This fact sheet provides information about Magnetic Resonance Facility capabilities and applications at NREL's National Bioenergy Center. Liquid and solid-state analysis capability for a variety of biomass, photovoltaic, and materials characterization applications across NREL. NREL scientists analyze solid and liquid samples on three nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectrometers as well as an electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectrometer.

  9. Strategic surfaces in sheet metal forming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsson, David Dam; Andreasen, Jan Lasson; Bay, Niels

    Out-line: Introduction to tribology in sheet metal forming Developed strategic surfaces Tribological testing of strategic surfaces Conclusion......Out-line: Introduction to tribology in sheet metal forming Developed strategic surfaces Tribological testing of strategic surfaces Conclusion...

  10. Whooping Cough (Pertussis) - Fact Sheet for Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... months 4 through 6 years Fact Sheet for Parents Color [2 pages] Español: Tosferina (pertussis) The best ... according to the recommended schedule. Fact Sheets for Parents Diseases and the Vaccines that Prevent Them Chickenpox ...

  11. Distant plasma sheet ion distributions during reconnection

    OpenAIRE

    Owen, C. J.; Mist, R. T.

    2001-01-01

    Previous models of the plasma sheet following reconnection and current sheet acceleration predict 'lima-bean' ion distributions. These are inconsistent with observational constraints. We postulate that following initial interaction with the current sheet, a fraction of outflow ions are backscattered and re-encounter the current sheet. Fermi acceleration processes then generate an additional high-energy outflow population. In the backscatter region these ions form a complete shell in velocity ...

  12. Anatomical and palynological characteristics of Salvia willeana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-04-05

    Apr 5, 2010 ... investigated in this study and the findings obtained were compared with other studies conducted on Salvia genus. Metcalfe and Chalk (1950) found the data on the anatomical characteristics of S. species. These researchers revealed that the species belonging to Labiatae family usually have rectangle or ...

  13. Descriptions of anatomical differences between skulls and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The external anatomical differences between the skulls and mandibles of 10 mountain zebras Equus zebra and 10 plains zebras E. burchelli of both sexes were studied. The nomenclature used conforms to Nomina Anatomica Veterinaria (1983). Eleven structural differences are described for the first time and illustrated, viz., ...

  14. HPV Vaccine Effective at Multiple Anatomic Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    A new study from NCI researchers finds that the HPV vaccine protects young women from infection with high-risk HPV types at the three primary anatomic sites where persistent HPV infections can cause cancer. The multi-site protection also was observed at l

  15. Report of a rare anatomic variant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Brucker, Y; Ilsen, B; Muylaert, C

    2015-01-01

    We report the CT findings in a case of partial anomalous pulmonary venous return (PAPVR) from the left upper lobe in an adult. PAPVR is an anatomic variant in which one to three pulmonary veins drain into the right atrium or its tributaries, rather than into the left atrium. This results in a lef...

  16. Morphological and anatomical response of Acacia ehrenbergiana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Both species responded morphologically as well as anatomically to water stress. Water stress caused significant (P=0.05) decrease in relative water content, leaf number and area and leaf water potential, chlorophyll content, and stem height and diameter. Seedlings of both species responded to water stress by the ...

  17. Anatomical characteristics of southern pine stemwood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elaine T. Howard; Floyd G. Manwiller

    1968-01-01

    To obtain a definitive description of the wood and anatomy of all 10 species of southern pine, juvenile, intermediate, and mature wood was sampled at three heights in one tree of each species and examined under a light microscope. Photographs and three-dimensional drawings were made to illustrate the morphology. No significant anatomical differences were found...

  18. TIBIAL LANDMARKS IN ACL ANATOMIC REPAIR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. Demesсhenko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to identify anatomical landmarks on tibial articular surface to serve as reference in preparing tibial canal with respect to the center of ACL footprint during single bundle arthroscopic repair.Materials and methods. Twelve frozen knee joint specimens and 68 unpaired macerated human tibia were studied using anatomical, morphometric, statistical methods as well as graphic simulation.Results. Center of the tibial ACL footprint was located 13,1±1,7 mm anteriorly from posterior border of intercondylar eminence, at 1/3 of the distance along the line connecting apexes of internal and external tubercles and 6,1±0,5 mm anteriorly along the perpendicular raised to this point.Conclusion. Internal and external tubercles, as well as posterior border of intercondylar eminence can be considered as anatomical references to determine the center of the tibial ACL footprint and to prepare bone canals for anatomic ligament repair.

  19. Handbook of anatomical models for radiation dosimetry

    CERN Document Server

    Eckerman, Keith F

    2010-01-01

    Covering the history of human model development, this title presents the major anatomical and physical models that have been developed for human body radiation protection, diagnostic imaging, and nuclear medicine therapy. It explores how these models have evolved and the role that modern technologies have played in this development.

  20. Influences on anatomical knowledge: The complete arguments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergman, E.M.; Verheijen, I.W.; Scherpbier, A.J.J.A.; Vleuten, C.P.M. van der; Bruin, A.B. De

    2014-01-01

    Eight factors are claimed to have a negative influence on anatomical knowledge of medical students: (1) teaching by nonmedically qualified teachers, (2) the absence of a core anatomy curriculum, (3) decreased use of dissection as a teaching tool, (4) lack of teaching anatomy in context, (5)

  1. Anatomical entity mention recognition at literature scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyysalo, Sampo; Ananiadou, Sophia

    2014-03-15

    Anatomical entities ranging from subcellular structures to organ systems are central to biomedical science, and mentions of these entities are essential to understanding the scientific literature. Despite extensive efforts to automatically analyze various aspects of biomedical text, there have been only few studies focusing on anatomical entities, and no dedicated methods for learning to automatically recognize anatomical entity mentions in free-form text have been introduced. We present AnatomyTagger, a machine learning-based system for anatomical entity mention recognition. The system incorporates a broad array of approaches proposed to benefit tagging, including the use of Unified Medical Language System (UMLS)- and Open Biomedical Ontologies (OBO)-based lexical resources, word representations induced from unlabeled text, statistical truecasing and non-local features. We train and evaluate the system on a newly introduced corpus that substantially extends on previously available resources, and apply the resulting tagger to automatically annotate the entire open access scientific domain literature. The resulting analyses have been applied to extend services provided by the Europe PubMed Central literature database. All tools and resources introduced in this work are available from http://nactem.ac.uk/anatomytagger. sophia.ananiadou@manchester.ac.uk Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

  2. Anatomically Plausible Surface Alignment and Reconstruction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paulsen, Rasmus R.; Larsen, Rasmus

    2010-01-01

    With the increasing clinical use of 3D surface scanners, there is a need for accurate and reliable algorithms that can produce anatomically plausible surfaces. In this paper, a combined method for surface alignment and reconstruction is proposed. It is based on an implicit surface representation ...

  3. 21 CFR 880.5180 - Burn sheet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Burn sheet. 880.5180 Section 880.5180 Food and... Burn sheet. (a) Identification. A burn sheet is a device made of a porous material that is wrapped aroung a burn victim to retain body heat, to absorb wound exudate, and to serve as a barrier against...

  4. Simulation of stationary sheet metal cutting processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wisselink, H.H.; Huetink, Han

    1998-01-01

    In stationary sheet metal cutting processes, like guillotining and slitting, the sheet is cut progressively from one end to the other. This in contrary with transient processes (blanking) where the sheet is cut at once. Where transient shearing processes can be modelled in 2-D (plain strain or

  5. Quantifying the relative contribution of natural gas fugitive emissions to total methane emissions in Weld County Colorado using δ13CH4 analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rella, C.; Jacobson, G. A.; Crosson, E.; Sweeney, C.; Karion, A.; Petron, G.

    2012-12-01

    Fugitive emissions of methane into the atmosphere are a major concern facing the natural gas production industry. Given that the global warming potential of methane is many times greater than that of carbon dioxide (Forster et al. 2007), the importance of quantifying methane emissions becomes clear. Companion presentations at this meeting describe efforts to quantify the overall methane emissions in two separate gas producing areas in Colorado and Utah during intensive field campaigns undertaken in 2012. A key step in the process of assessing the emissions arising from natural gas production activities is partitioning the observed methane emissions between natural gas fugitive emissions and other sources of methane, such as from landfills or agricultural activities. One method for assessing the contribution of these different sources is stable isotope analysis. In particular, the δ13CH4 signature of natural gas (-37 permil) is significantly different that the signature of other significant sources of methane, such as landfills or ruminants (-50 to -70 permil). In this paper we present measurements of δ13CH4 in Colorado in Weld County, a region of intense natural gas production, using a mobile δ13CH4¬ analyzer capable of high-precision measurements of the stable isotope ratio of methane at ambient levels. This analyzer was used to make stable isotope measurements at a fixed location near the center of the gas producing region, from which an overall isotope ratio for the regional emissions is determined. In addition, mobile measurements in the nocturnal boundary layer have been made, over a total distance of 150 km throughout Weld County, allowing spatially resolved measurements of this isotope signature. Finally, this analyzer was used to quantify the isotopic signature of those individual sources (natural gas fugitive emissions, concentrated animal feeding operations, and landfills) that constitute the majority of methane emissions in this region, by making

  6. The last British-Irish Ice Sheet: A data-rich environment for ice sheet modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ely, Jeremy; Clark, Chris; Hindmarsh, Richard; Bradley, Sarah

    2017-04-01

    In order to simulate the future dynamics of the Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets, robust numerical models validated by observations of past ice sheet behaviour are required. The extent and dynamics of contemporary ice sheets have been observed at a decadal scale. But a much longer record of ice sheet behaviour (10 ka) can be collated by studying the evidence left behind by palaeo-ice sheets. Extensive geomorphological and geochronological evidence for the past behaviour of the last British-Irish Ice Sheet has been gathered through over 150 years of research and BRITICE-CHRONO, a recent consortium project. This large volume of empirical evidence makes the last British-Irish Ice Sheet one of the best constrained palaeo-ice sheets in the world, and a data-rich environment for ice sheet modelling experiments. Yet, integrating this data and its associated uncertainty and abstraction into ice sheet modelling experiments remains challenging. Here we summarise the available geomorphological and geochronological data and discuss how this will be integrated into ice sheet modelling experiments. Several packages of data, each with its own associated level of interpretation (ranging from raw data to empirically reconstructed ice sheet margins), will be made available to the ice-sheet modelling community. Furthermore, we demonstrate our approach to simulating the empirically reconstructed behaviour of the British-Irish Ice Sheet through a series of ice sheet modelling experiments which account for relative sea level change, and uncertainty in empirically reconstructed ice sheet extent.

  7. ANATOMIC STRUCTURE OF CAMPANULA ROTUNDIFOLIA L. GRASS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Bubenchikova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article present results of the study for a anatomic structure of Campanula rotundifolia grass from Campanulaceae family. Despite its dispersion and application in folk medicine, there are no data about its anatomic structure, therefore to estimate the indices of authenticity and quality of raw materials it is necessary to develop microdiagnostical features in the first place, which could help introducing of thisplant in a medical practice. The purpose of this work is to study anatomical structureof Campanula rotundifolia grass to determine its diagnostic features. Methods. Thestudy for anatomic structure was carried out in accordance with the requirements of State Pharmacopoeia, edition XIII. Micromed laboratory microscope with digital adjutage was used to create microphotoes, Photoshop CC was used for their processing. Result. We have established that stalk epidermis is prosenchymal, slightly winding with straight of splayed end cells. After study for the epidermis cells we established that upper epidermis cells had straight walls and are slightly winding. The cells of lower epidermishave more winding walls with prolong wrinkled cuticule. Presence of simple one-cell, thin wall, rough papillose hair on leaf and stalk epidermis. Cells of epidermis in fauces of corolla are prosenchymal, with winding walls, straight or winding walls in a cup. Papillary excrescences can be found along the cup edges. Stomatal apparatus is anomocytic. Conclusion. As the result of the study we have carried out the research for Campanula rotundifolia grass anatomic structure, and determined microdiagnostic features for determination of raw materials authenticity, which included presence of simple, one-cell, thin-walled, rough papillose hair on both epidermises of a leaf, along the veins, leaf edge, and stalk epidermis, as well as the presence of epidermis cells with papillary excrescences along the edges of leaves and cups. Intercellular canals are situatedalong the

  8. Geometry of thin liquid sheet flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chubb, Donald L.; Calfo, Frederick D.; Mcconley, Marc W.; Mcmaster, Matthew S.; Afjeh, Abdollah A.

    1994-01-01

    Incompresible, thin sheet flows have been of research interest for many years. Those studies were mainly concerned with the stability of the flow in a surrounding gas. Squire was the first to carry out a linear, invicid stability analysis of sheet flow in air and compare the results with experiment. Dombrowski and Fraser did an experimental study of the disintegration of sheet flows using several viscous liquids. They also detected the formulation of holes in their sheet flows. Hagerty and Shea carried out an inviscid stability analysis and calculated growth rates with experimental values. They compared their calculated growth rates with experimental values. Taylor studied extensively the stability of thin liquid sheets both theoretically and experimentally. He showed that thin sheets in a vacuum are stable. Brown experimentally investigated thin liquid sheet flows as a method of application of thin films. Clark and Dumbrowski carried out second-order stability analysis for invicid sheet flows. Lin introduced viscosity into the linear stability analysis of thin sheet flows in a vacuum. Mansour and Chigier conducted an experimental study of the breakup of a sheet flow surrounded by high-speed air. Lin et al. did a linear stability analysis that included viscosity and a surrounding gas. Rangel and Sirignano carried out both a linear and nonlinear invisid stability analysis that applies for any density ratio between the sheet liquid and the surrounding gas. Now there is renewed interest in sheet flows because of their possible application as low mass radiating surfaces. The objective of this study is to investigate the fluid dynamics of sheet flows that are of interest for a space radiator system. Analytical expressions that govern the sheet geometry are compared with experimental results. Since a space radiator will operate in a vacuum, the analysis does not include any drag force on the sheet flow.

  9. Ice sheet hydrology from observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jansson, Peter (Dept. of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology, Stockholm Univ-, Stockholm (Sweden))

    2010-11-15

    The hydrological systems of ice sheets are complex. Our view of the system is split, largely due to the complexity of observing the systems. Our basic knowledge of processes have been obtained from smaller glaciers and although applicable in general to the larger scales of the ice sheets, ice sheets contain features not observable on smaller glaciers due to their size. The generation of water on the ice sheet surface is well understood and can be satisfactorily modeled. The routing of water from the surface down through the ice is not complicated in terms of procat has been problematic is the way in which the couplings between surface and bed has been accomplished through a kilometer of cold ice, but with the studies on crack propagation and lake drainage on Greenland we are beginning to understand also this process and we know water can be routed through thick cold ice. Water generation at the bed is also well understood but the main problem preventing realistic estimates of water generation is lack of detailed information about geothermal heat fluxes and their geographical distribution beneath the ice. Although some average value for geothermal heat flux may suffice, for many purposes it is important that such values are not applied to sub-regions of significantly higher fluxes. Water generated by geothermal heat constitutes a constant supply and will likely maintain a steady system beneath the ice sheet. Such a system may include subglacial lakes as steady features and reconfiguration of the system is tied to time scales on which the ice sheet geometry changes so as to change pressure gradients in the basal system itself. Large scale re-organization of subglacial drainage systems have been observed beneath ice streams. The stability of an entirely subglacially fed drainage system may hence be perturbed by rapid ice flow. In the case of Antarctic ice streams where such behavior has been observed, the ice streams are underlain by deformable sediments. It is

  10. Ohm's law for a current sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, L. R.; Speiser, T. W.

    1985-01-01

    The paper derives an Ohm's law for single-particle motion in a current sheet, where the magnetic field reverses in direction across the sheet. The result is considerably different from the resistive Ohm's law often used in MHD studies of the geomagnetic tail. Single-particle analysis is extended to obtain a self-consistency relation for a current sheet which agrees with previous results. The results are applicable to the concept of reconnection in that the electric field parallel to the current is obtained for a one-dimensional current sheet with constant normal magnetic field. Dissipated energy goes directly into accelerating particles within the current sheet.

  11. Technology to Market Fact Sheet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2016-02-01

    This fact sheet is an overview of the Technology to Market subprogram at the U.S. Department of Energy SunShot Initiative. The SunShot Initiative’s Technology to Market subprogram builds on SunShot’s record of moving groundbreaking and early-stage technologies and business models through developmental phases to commercialization. Technology to Market targets two known funding gaps: those that occur at the prototype commercialization stage and those at the commercial scale-up stage.

  12. An evaluation of traditional and emerging remote sensing technologies for the detection of fugitive contamination at selected Superfund hazardous waste sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slonecker, E. Terrence; Fisher, Gary B.

    2011-01-01

    This report represents a remote sensing research effort conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) for the EPA Office of Inspector General. The objective of this investigation was to explore the efficacy of remote sensing as a technology for postclosure monitoring of hazardous waste sites as defined under the Comprehensive Environmental Response Compensation and Liability Act of 1980 (Public Law 96-510, 42 U.S.C. §9601 et seq.), also known as \\"Superfund.\\" Five delisted Superfund sites in Maryland and Virginia were imaged with a hyperspectral sensor and visited for collection of soil, water, and spectral samples and inspection of general site conditions. This report evaluates traditional and hyperspectral imagery and field spectroscopic measurement techniques in the characterization and analysis of fugitive (anthropogenic, uncontrolled) contamination at previously remediated hazardous waste disposal sites.

  13. Historical evolution of anatomical terminology from ancient to modern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Tatsuo

    2007-06-01

    The historical development of anatomical terminology from the ancient to the modern can be divided into five stages. The initial stage is represented by the oldest extant anatomical treatises by Galen of Pergamon in the Roman Empire. The anatomical descriptions by Galen utilized only a limited number of anatomical terms, which were essentially colloquial words in the Greek of this period. In the second stage, Vesalius in the early 16th century described the anatomical structures in his Fabrica with the help of detailed magnificent illustrations. He coined substantially no anatomical terms, but devised a system that distinguished anatomical structures with ordinal numbers. The third stage of development in the late 16th century was marked by innovation of a large number of specific anatomical terms especially for the muscles, vessels and nerves. The main figures at this stage were Sylvius in Paris and Bauhin in Basel. In the fourth stage between Bauhin and the international anatomical terminology, many anatomical textbooks were written mainly in Latin in the 17th century, and in modern languages in the 18th and 19th centuries. Anatomical terms for the same structure were differently expressed by different authors. The last stage began at the end of the 19th century, when the first international anatomical terminology in Latin was published as Nomina anatomica. The anatomical terminology was revised repeatedly until the current Terminologia anatomica both in Latin and English.

  14. Wind tunnel tests of biodegradable fugitive dust suppressants being considered to reduce soil erosion by wind at radioactive waste construction sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ligotke, M.W.; Dennis, G.W.; Bushaw, L.L.

    1993-10-01

    Wind tunnel tests were performed of three fugitive dust control agents derived from potato and sugar beet products. These materials are being considered for use as dust suppressants to reduce the potential for transport of radioactive materials by wind from radioactive waste construction and remediation sites. Soil and dust control agent type, solution concentrations, application quantities, aging (or drying) conditions, surface disturbance, and wind and saltating sand eolian erosive stresses were selected and controlled to simulate application and exposure of excavated soil surfaces in the field. A description of the tests, results, conclusions, and recommendations are presented in this report. The results of this study indicate that all three dust control agents can protect exposed soil surfaces from extreme eolian stresses. It is also clear that the interaction and performance of each agent with various soil types may differ dramatically. Thus, soils similar to that received from ML should be best protected by high concentration (∼2.5%) solutions of potato starch at low water application levels (∼1 to 2 L/m 2 ). Because the effectiveness of PS on this soil type is degraded after a moderate amount of simulated rainfall, other options or additives should be considered if surfaces are to be protected for long intervals or during periods of intermittent rainfall and hot, windy conditions. On the other hand, XDCA should be considered when excavating sandy soils. It should be noted, however, that because the Hanford soil test results are based on a small number of tests, it would be prudent to perform additional tests prior to selecting a fugitive dust control agent for use at the Hanford Site. While fermented potato waste was not the best fixative used on either soil, it did perform reasonably well on both soil types (better than XDCA on Idaho soil and better than PS on Hanford soil)

  15. Wind tunnel tests of biodegradable fugitive dust suppressants being considered to reduce soil erosion by wind at radioactive waste construction sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ligotke, M.W.; Dennis, G.W.; Bushaw, L.L.

    1993-10-01

    Wind tunnel tests were performed of three fugitive dust control agents derived from potato and sugar beet products. These materials are being considered for use as dust suppressants to reduce the potential for transport of radioactive materials by wind from radioactive waste construction and remediation sites. Soil and dust control agent type, solution concentrations, application quantities, aging (or drying) conditions, surface disturbance, and wind and saltating sand eolian erosive stresses were selected and controlled to simulate application and exposure of excavated soil surfaces in the field. A description of the tests, results, conclusions, and recommendations are presented in this report. The results of this study indicate that all three dust control agents can protect exposed soil surfaces from extreme eolian stresses. It is also clear that the interaction and performance of each agent with various soil types may differ dramatically. Thus, soils similar to that received from ML should be best protected by high concentration ({approximately}2.5%) solutions of potato starch at low water application levels ({approximately}1 to 2 L/m{sup 2}). Because the effectiveness of PS on this soil type is degraded after a moderate amount of simulated rainfall, other options or additives should be considered if surfaces are to be protected for long intervals or during periods of intermittent rainfall and hot, windy conditions. On the other hand, XDCA should be considered when excavating sandy soils. It should be noted, however, that because the Hanford soil test results are based on a small number of tests, it would be prudent to perform additional tests prior to selecting a fugitive dust control agent for use at the Hanford Site. While fermented potato waste was not the best fixative used on either soil, it did perform reasonably well on both soil types (better than XDCA on Idaho soil and better than PS on Hanford soil).

  16. Oriental eyelids. Anatomic difference and surgical consideration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, D; Hsu, W M

    1986-01-01

    Fashions change with time and beauty standards differ in different cultures. In recent years, there has been an increase in the number of immigrants to the United States from the Orient. The creation of an upper eyelid crease has been for the past several decades the most popular cosmetic procedure in many Asian countries. In order to perform this procedure to the satisfaction of an Oriental patient, the surgeon must know what the patient perceives as beautiful and the anatomic differences between the Oriental and the Occidental eyelids. In this paper with data collected from over 3,600 patients, we are presenting important statistics that enables the surgeon to understand better the Oriental mind and facilitate communications. The anatomic difference in the upper eyelid is also discussed.

  17. Accessory mental foramen: a rare anatomical finding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakur, Gagan; Thomas, Shaji; Thayil, Sumeeth Cyriac; Nair, Preeti P

    2011-01-01

    Accessory mental foramen (AMF) is a rare anatomical variation with a prevalence ranging from 1.4 to 10%. Even so, in order to avoid neurovascular complications, particular attention should be paid to the possible occurrence of one or more AMF during surgical procedures involving the mandible. Careful surgical dissection should be performed in the region so that the presence of AMF can be detected and the occurrence of a neurosensory disturbance or haemorrhage can be avoided. Although this anatomical variation is rare, it should be kept in mind that an AMF may exist. Trigeminal neuralgia was diagnosed. On the basis of diagnostic test results, peripheral neurectomy of mental nerve was planned. Failure to do neurectomy of mental nerve branch in the reported case, coming out from AMF, would have resulted in recurrence of pain and eventually failure of the procedure. PMID:22707601

  18. Hamstring tendons insertion - an anatomical study

    OpenAIRE

    Cristiano Antonio Grassi; Vagner Messias Fruheling; Joao Caetano Abdo; Marcio Fernando Aparecido de Moura; Mario Namba; Joao Luiz Vieira da Silva; Luiz Antonio Munhoz da Cunha; Ana Paula Gebert de Oliveira Franco; Isabel Ziesemer Costa; Edmar Stieven Filho

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study the anatomy of the hamstring tendons insertion and anatomical rela-tionships. METHODS: Ten cadaver knees with medial and anterior intact structures were selected. The dissection was performed from anteromedial access to exposure of the insertion of the flexor tendons (FT), tibial plateau (TP) and tibial tuberosity (TT). A needle of 40 × 12 and a caliper were used to measure the distance of the tibial plateau of the knee flexor tendons insertion at 15 mm from the ...

  19. Anatomically corrected transposition of great vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanitskij, A.V.; Sarkisova, T.N.

    1989-01-01

    The paper is concerned with the description of rare congenital heart disease: anatomically corrected malposition of major vessels in a 9-mos 24 day old girl. The diagnosis of this disease was shown on the results of angiocardiography, concomitant congenital heart diseases were descibed. This abnormality is characterized by common atrioventricular and ventriculovascular joints and inversion position of the major vessels, it is always attended by congenital heart diseases. Surgical intervention is aimed at the elimination of concomitant heart dieseases

  20. Exploring brain function from anatomical connectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gorka eZamora-López

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The intrinsic relationship between the architecture of the brain and the range of sensory and behavioral phenomena it produces is a relevant question in neuroscience. Here, we review recent knowledge gained on the architecture of the anatomical connectivity by means of complex network analysis. It has been found that corticocortical networks display a few prominent characteristics: (i modular organization, (ii abundant alternative processing paths and (iii the presence of highly connected hubs. Additionally, we present a novel classification of cortical areas of the cat according to the role they play in multisensory connectivity. All these properties represent an ideal anatomical substrate supporting rich dynamical behaviors, as-well-as facilitating the capacity of the brain to process sensory information of different modalities segregated and to integrate them towards a comprehensive perception of the real world. The result here exposed are mainly based in anatomical data of cats’ brain, but we show how further observations suggest that, from worms to humans, the nervous system of all animals might share fundamental principles of organization.

  1. Anatomic Variations of the Paranasal Sinuses on CT Scan Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AR. Talaiepour

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Statement of Problem: Variation in paranasal sinus anatomy as shown on computed tomographic scans is of potential significance for it may pose risks during surgery or predispose to certain pathologic conditions.Purpose: The aim of this study was to assess the relative frequency and concurrence of variations in paranasal sinus anatomy in a given population and to compare the results with previous investigations conducted on different populations.Materials and Methods: All patients over 16 years of age referred to Valiasr hospital,Tehran, Iran, with paranasal sinus tomographic scans and a clinical diagnosis of chronic sinusitis were considered for this study. After excluding those with altered anatomy(iatrogenic or pathologic, scans of unaltered patients were meticulously analyzed for variations in sinus anatomy. Findings were recorded on the patient’s data sheet. The distance between the maxillary sinus floor and the alveolar ridge at the level of the 1stmolar was recorded. All findings were analyzed, and tested with Chi square, where applicable.Results: Overall 143 patients were analyzed (48.3% male and 51.7% female. The frequency of major sinus variations was: Agger nasi cell in 56.7%, Haller cell in 3.5%,Onodi cell in 7%, nasal septal deviation in 63%, Concha bullosa in 35%, and dental anomalies in 4.9% of the studied cases. The distance between the upper alveolar ridge and maxillary sinus floor was 0-30mm (mean 12.16 on the right, and 0-52mm (mean 12.20 on the left.Conclusion: The frequency of anatomic variations in sinus anatomy may be related to race and heredity. A lower number of cases in addition to the use of low yield imaging may explain the discrepancies observed between our results and other investigations.The findings of the present study were based on computed tomography.

  2. BARLEY BALANCE SHEET IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragoş Mihai MEDELETE

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Barley is one of the most important cereal grown in Romania, after corn and wheat. This is based, at least on considerations of cultivated area (413.4 thousand ha - average 2007-2009, but also because of the multiple uses it may have (Food, feed, industrial raw materials, etc.. Presentation of food balance we consider interesting in terms of supply and demand components: production, imports, stocks, exports, seeds, feed consumption, industrial raw materials, food and other useslosses. On the basis of total volume of supply and demand we could determine the balance sheet at nationa level for the product.

  3. Vietnamese Hurricane Response Fact Sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Các tờ dữ kiện được cung cấp nơi đây mô tả vai trò của EPA trong việc đáp ứng với bão và cách các chương trình cụ thể cung cấp sự hỗ trợ. The Vietnamese fact sheets provided here describe EPA's role in a hurricane response.

  4. Laser welding of sheet metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Jian

    Laser welding of sheet metals is an important application of high power lasers, and has many advantages over conventional welding techniques. Laser welding has a great potential to replace other welding technique in the car-body manufacturing because of high laser weld quality and relatively low manufacturing cost associated with the laser technique. However, a few problems related to the laser welding of sheet metals limit its applications in industries. To have a better understanding of the welding process, laser welding experimental studies and theoretical analysis are necessary. Temperature-dependent absorptivities of various metals are obtained theoretically for COsb2, COIL (Chemical Oxygen-Iodine Laser) and Nd:YAG lasers. It is found that the absorptivities for COIL and Nd:YAG lasers are 2.84 and 3.16 times higher than for the COsb2 laser, and the absorptivity increases with increasing temperature of the metals. Surface roughness and oxide films can enhance the absorption significantly. The reflectivity of as-received steel sheets decreases from 65-80% to 30-40% with surface oxide films for COsb2 lasers. Laser welding experiments show that the tensile strengths of the weld metals are higher than the base metals. For samples with surface oxide films, the oxygen concentration in the weld metals is found to be higher than in the specimens without oxidation, and the toughness of the weld metals is degraded. When steel powders are added to bridge the gap between two sheets, the oxygen content in the weld metals decreases and the toughness increases. A mathematical model is developed for the melt depth due to a stationary laser beam. The model results show that the melt depth increases rapidly with time at the beginning of laser irradiation and then increases slowly. Also, the melt depth is found to increase rapidly with laser intensities and then increases slowly for higher intensity. The average rate of melting and the times to reach the melting and boiling

  5. AI applications in sheet metal forming

    CERN Document Server

    Hussein, Hussein

    2017-01-01

    This book comprises chapters on research work done around the globe in the area of artificial intelligence (AI) applications in sheet metal forming. The first chapter offers an introduction to various AI techniques and sheet metal forming, while subsequent chapters describe traditional procedures/methods used in various sheet metal forming processes, and focus on the automation of those processes by means of AI techniques, such as KBS, ANN, GA, CBR, etc. Feature recognition and the manufacturability assessment of sheet metal parts, process planning, strip-layout design, selecting the type and size of die components, die modeling, and predicting die life are some of the most important aspects of sheet metal work. Traditionally, these activities are highly experience-based, tedious and time consuming. In response, researchers in several countries have applied various AI techniques to automate these activities, which are covered in this book. This book will be useful for engineers working in sheet metal industri...

  6. Steel Sheet Pile Walls in Soft Soil

    OpenAIRE

    Kort, D.A.

    2002-01-01

    For almost a century, steel sheet pile walls are applied worldwide as earth retaining structures for excavations and quay walls. Within the framework of the development of European structural codes for Civil Engineering works, the Eurocodes, Eurocode 3 Part 5 for design of steel sheet pile walls was issued in 1997. This code offers possibilities for cheaper and safer steel sheet piling, in comparison with the existing design criteria used in most countries. Two of these design criteria with w...

  7. Hydraulic structures with defective sheet pile walls

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed, Ashraf A.; Johnston, Harold T.; Oyedele, Lukumon

    2013-01-01

    A sheet pile wall driven to form a barrier wall below the floor of a hydraulic structure is frequently assumed to be watertight. Although the leakage through the interlocks of the sheet piles is usually small, damage and other factors can result in significant leakage. Consequently, this assumption is rarely, if ever, satisfied in reality. The present study used a finite-element model to investigate the effect of leaks through sheet piles driven under the floor of a hydraulic structure on see...

  8. Application of atelocollagen sheet for sellar reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goto, Yuko; Oshino, Satoru; Shimizu, Takeshi; Saitoh, Youichi

    2016-05-01

    We aimed to evaluate combined use of atelocollagen sheet and fibrin glue for sellar reconstruction. Experiment 1: A plastic chamber was prepared with a hydroxyapatite lid with a hole of 10mm in diameter at its center, covered with a Gore-Tex sheet (W.L. Gore & Associates, Tokyo, Japan) 15mm in diameter and sealed with a combination of fibrin glue sealant and either atelocollagen sheet or polyglycolic acid (PGA) sheet. Air was injected into the chamber and the pressure at which air leakage occurred was measured under each situation. Mean (±standard deviation) leakage pressure was 816±162mmH2O for atelocollagen sheet (n=5), significantly higher than the 557±130mmH2O for PGA sheet (n=5, p<0.05, Wilcoxon test). Experiment 2: Bilateral 5mm bone windows were made in the temporal bone in eight rats. The surgical cavities were filled with one of four materials (fibrin glue only; fibrin glue and atelocollagen sheet; PGA sheet; or autologous fat tissue). Histological changes including the status of implanted materials and inflammatory responses were investigated 2 and 5weeks after the procedures. Both atelocollagen and PGA sheets remained at 5weeks after implantation, whereas fibrin glue and fat tissue were absorbed and undetectable at 2weeks. Inflammatory cell accumulation was less around the atelocollagen sheet compared to the PGA sheet. The combination of atelocollagen sheet and fibrin glue sealant showed sufficient adhesion force and favorable tissue affinity, suggesting this combination as a feasible material in sellar reconstruction. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Gadolinium sheet converter for neutron radiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, C.T.S. [Laboratorio de Neutrongrafia em Tempo Real (LNRTR/PEN/COPPE), Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Ilha do Fundao, Caixa Postal 68509, 21941-972 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Crispim, V.R. [Laboratorio de Neutrongrafia em Tempo Real (LNRTR/PEN/COPPE), Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Ilha do Fundao, Caixa Postal 68509, 21941-972 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); PEN/COPPE-DNC/Escola Politecnica CT, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Ilha do Fundao, Caixa Postal 68509, 21941-972 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)], E-mail: verginia@con.ufrj.br; Santos, W.M.S. [Laboratorio de Colisao Atomica e Molecular (LACAM/IF), Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Ilha do Fundao, Caixa Postal 68528, 21941-972 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2007-12-15

    This work describes a methodology developed for the confection of gadolinium sheet converter for neutron radiography using the gadolinium chloride (GdCl{sub 3}) as material converter. Though manufactured at a relatively low cost, they are as good as the sheet converter on the market. Here, we present neutron radiography of the penetrameter, the edge spread function, the modulation transfer function and characteristic curves for each set sheet-AA400 Kodak film.

  10. Mars's magnetotail: Nature's current sheet laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artemyev, A. V.; Angelopoulos, V.; Halekas, J. S.; Runov, A.; Zelenyi, L. M.; McFadden, J. P.

    2017-05-01

    The configuration and stability of an important kinetic plasma structure, the current sheet, determine the efficiency of magnetic energy storage, release, and transport in surrounding plasmas. These properties depend on β (the ratio of plasma pressures to magnetic field pressures) and Mach number M (the ratio of bulk velocities to magnetosonic velocities). For the most investigated current sheet, the near-Earth magnetotail current sheet, these parameters fall within a relatively narrow range of values (high β, low M). To investigate current sheet behavior for a wider range of parameters, we explore current sheets in the magnetotail of Mars using Mars Atmosphere and Volatile Evolution (MAVEN) mission observations. We find that low-β, high-M current sheets are abundant in Mars's magnetotail, but high-β, low-M current sheets can also be found there. Low-β current sheets are nearly force-free, whereas high-M current sheets are balanced by a plasma flow gradient along the tail. We compare current sheet distributions in a (β,M) space for the Martian magnetotail, the near-Earth magnetotail (using Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions during Substorms (THEMIS) mission), and the distant magnetotail (using Acceleration, Reconnection, Turbulence, and Electrodynamics of the Moon's Interaction with the Sun (ARTEMIS) mission). We also find that the pressure balance in the Martian magnetotail current sheet can occur by contributions from a wide range of ion species, or, in low beta cases, from field-aligned currents generation of a force-free magnetic field configuration. The Martian magnetotail is a natural laboratory where current sheet of various types can be found and investigated.

  11. Shape Optimization of Swimming Sheets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilkening, J.; Hosoi, A.E.

    2005-03-01

    The swimming behavior of a flexible sheet which moves by propagating deformation waves along its body was first studied by G. I. Taylor in 1951. In addition to being of theoretical interest, this problem serves as a useful model of the locomotion of gastropods and various micro-organisms. Although the mechanics of swimming via wave propagation has been studied extensively, relatively little work has been done to define or describe optimal swimming by this mechanism.We carry out this objective for a sheet that is separated from a rigid substrate by a thin film of viscous Newtonian fluid. Using a lubrication approximation to model the dynamics, we derive the relevant Euler-Lagrange equations to optimize swimming speed and efficiency. The optimization equations are solved numerically using two different schemes: a limited memory BFGS method that uses cubic splines to represent the wave profile, and a multi-shooting Runge-Kutta approach that uses the Levenberg-Marquardt method to vary the parameters of the equations until the constraints are satisfied. The former approach is less efficient but generalizes nicely to the non-lubrication setting. For each optimization problem we obtain a one parameter family of solutions that becomes singular in a self-similar fashion as the parameter approaches a critical value. We explore the validity of the lubrication approximation near this singular limit by monitoring higher order corrections to the zeroth order theory and by comparing the results with finite element solutions of the full Stokes equations.

  12. Magnetic properties of sheet silicates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballet, O.; Coey, J.M.D.

    1982-01-01

    Susceptibility, magnetisation and Moessbauer measurements are reported for a representative selection of 2:1 layer phyllosilicates. Eight samples from the mica, vermiculite and smectite groups include examples diluted in iron which are paramagnetic at all temperatures, as well as iron-rich silicates which order magnetically below 10 K. Anisotropic susceptibility of crystals of muscovite, biotite and vermiculite is quantitatively explained with a model where the Fe 2+ ions lie in sites of effective trigonal symmetry, the trigonal axis lying normal to the sheets. The ferrous ground state is an orbital singlet. Ferric iron gives an isotropic contribution to the susceptibility. Fe 2+ -Fe 2+ exchange interactions are ferromagnetic with Gapprox. equal to2 K, whereas Fe 3+ -Fe 3+ coupling is antiferromagnetic in the purely ferric minerals. A positive paramagnetic Curie temperature for glauconite may be attributable to Fe 2+ → Fe 3+ charge transfer. Magnetic order was found to set in inhomogeneously for glauconite at 1-7 K. One biotite sample showed an antiferromagnetic transition at Tsub(N) = 7 K marked by a well-defined susceptibility maximum. Its magnetic structure, consisting of ferromagnetic sheets with moments in their planes coupled antiferromagnetically by other, weak interactions, resembles that found earlier for the 1:1 mineral greenalite. (orig.)

  13. Light Sheet Fluorescence Microscopy (LSFM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Michael W; Loftus, Andrew F; Dunn, Sarah E; Joens, Matthew S; Fitzpatrick, James A J

    2015-01-05

    The development of confocal microscopy techniques introduced the ability to optically section fluorescent samples in the axial dimension, perpendicular to the image plane. These approaches, via the placement of a pinhole in the conjugate image plane, provided superior resolution in the axial (z) dimension resulting in nearly isotropic optical sections. However, increased axial resolution, via pinhole optics, comes at the cost of both speed and excitation efficiency. Light sheet fluorescent microscopy (LSFM), a century-old idea made possible with modern developments in both excitation and detection optics, provides sub-cellular resolution and optical sectioning capabilities without compromising speed or excitation efficiency. Over the past decade, several variations of LSFM have been implemented each with its own benefits and deficiencies. Here we discuss LSFM fundamentals and outline the basic principles of several major light-sheet-based imaging modalities (SPIM, inverted SPIM, multi-view SPIM, Bessel beam SPIM, and stimulated emission depletion SPIM) while considering their biological relevance in terms of intrusiveness, temporal resolution, and sample requirements. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  14. Probabilistic anatomical labeling of brain structures using statistical probabilistic anatomical maps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jin Su; Lee, Dong Soo; Lee, Byung Il; Lee, Jae Sung; Shin, Hee Won; Chung, June Key; Lee, Myung Chul

    2002-01-01

    The use of statistical parametric mapping (SPM) program has increased for the analysis of brain PET and SPECT images. Montreal neurological institute (MNI) coordinate is used in SPM program as a standard anatomical framework. While the most researchers look up Talairach atlas to report the localization of the activations detected in SPM program, there is significant disparity between MNI templates and Talairach atlas. That disparity between Talairach and MNI coordinates makes the interpretation of SPM result time consuming, subjective and inaccurate. The purpose of this study was to develop a program to provide objective anatomical information of each x-y-z position in ICBM coordinate. Program was designed to provide the anatomical information for the given x-y-z position in MNI coordinate based on the statistical probabilistic anatomical map (SPAM) images of ICBM. When x-y-z position was given to the program, names of the anatomical structures with non-zero probability and the probabilities that the given position belongs to the structures were tabulated. The program was coded using IDL and JAVA language for the easy transplantation to any operating system or platform. Utility of this program was shown by comparing the results of this program to those of SPM program. Preliminary validation study was performed by applying this program to the analysis of PET brain activation study of human memory in which the anatomical information on the activated areas are previously known. Real time retrieval of probabilistic information with 1 mm spatial resolution was archived using the programs. Validation study showed the relevance of this program: probability that the activated area for memory belonged to hippocampal formation was more than 80%. These programs will be useful for the result interpretation of the image analysis performed on MNI coordinate, as done in SPM program

  15. Thermal rupture of a free liquid sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitavtsev, G.; Fontelos, M. A.; Eggers, J.

    2018-04-01

    We consider a free liquid sheet, taking into account the dependence of surface tension on temperature, or concentration of some pollutant. The sheet dynamics are described within a long-wavelength description. In the presence of viscosity, local thinning of the sheet is driven by a strong temperature gradient across the pinch region, resembling a shock. As a result, for long times the sheet thins exponentially, leading to breakup. We describe the quasi one-dimensional thickness, velocity, and temperature profiles in the pinch region in terms of similarity solutions, which posses a universal structure. Our analytical description agrees quantitatively with numerical simulations.

  16. TOPICAL REVIEW: Anatomical imaging for radiotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Philip M.

    2008-06-01

    The goal of radiation therapy is to achieve maximal therapeutic benefit expressed in terms of a high probability of local control of disease with minimal side effects. Physically this often equates to the delivery of a high dose of radiation to the tumour or target region whilst maintaining an acceptably low dose to other tissues, particularly those adjacent to the target. Techniques such as intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT), stereotactic radiosurgery and computer planned brachytherapy provide the means to calculate the radiation dose delivery to achieve the desired dose distribution. Imaging is an essential tool in all state of the art planning and delivery techniques: (i) to enable planning of the desired treatment, (ii) to verify the treatment is delivered as planned and (iii) to follow-up treatment outcome to monitor that the treatment has had the desired effect. Clinical imaging techniques can be loosely classified into anatomic methods which measure the basic physical characteristics of tissue such as their density and biological imaging techniques which measure functional characteristics such as metabolism. In this review we consider anatomical imaging techniques. Biological imaging is considered in another article. Anatomical imaging is generally used for goals (i) and (ii) above. Computed tomography (CT) has been the mainstay of anatomical treatment planning for many years, enabling some delineation of soft tissue as well as radiation attenuation estimation for dose prediction. Magnetic resonance imaging is fast becoming widespread alongside CT, enabling superior soft-tissue visualization. Traditionally scanning for treatment planning has relied on the use of a single snapshot scan. Recent years have seen the development of techniques such as 4D CT and adaptive radiotherapy (ART). In 4D CT raw data are encoded with phase information and reconstructed to yield a set of scans detailing motion through the breathing, or cardiac, cycle. In ART a set of

  17. Chronic ankle instability: Arthroscopic anatomical repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arroyo-Hernández, M; Mellado-Romero, M; Páramo-Díaz, P; García-Lamas, L; Vilà-Rico, J

    Ankle sprains are one of the most common injuries. Despite appropriate conservative treatment, approximately 20-40% of patients continue to have chronic ankle instability and pain. In 75-80% of cases there is an isolated rupture of the anterior talofibular ligament. A retrospective observational study was conducted on 21 patients surgically treated for chronic ankle instability by means of an arthroscopic anatomical repair, between May 2012 and January 2013. There were 15 men and 6 women, with a mean age of 30.43 years (range 18-48). The mean follow-up was 29 months (range 25-33). All patients were treated by arthroscopic anatomical repair of anterior talofibular ligament. Four (19%) patients were found to have varus hindfoot deformity. Associated injuries were present in 13 (62%) patients. There were 6 cases of osteochondral lesions, 3 cases of posterior ankle impingement syndrome, and 6 cases of peroneal pathology. All these injuries were surgically treated in the same surgical time. A clinical-functional study was performed using the American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society (AOFAS) score. The mean score before surgery was 66.12 (range 60-71), and after surgery it increased up to a mean of 96.95 (range 90-100). All patients were able to return to their previous sport activity within a mean of 21.5 weeks (range 17-28). Complications were found in 3 (14%) patients. Arthroscopic anatomical ligament repair technique has excellent clinical-functional results with a low percentage of complications, and enables patients to return to their previous sport activity within a short period of time. Copyright © 2016 SECOT. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  18. [Anatomical studying of the tear trough area].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ningze; Qiu, Wei; Wang, Zhijun; Su, Xiaowei; Jia, Huafeng; Shi, Heng

    2014-01-01

    To explore the mechanism of the aging deformity of tear trough through the anatomic study of the tear trough region. 13 adult cadaveric heads (26 sides), including 9 male heads (18 sides) and 4 female heads (8 sides), aged 22-78 years old, were used. Anatomic study was performed around the orbital, especially tear trough region, with microsurgery instrument under microscope( x 10 times). The lower orbicularis retaining ligament was dissected and exposed. The anatomic location was recorded and photographed. (1) The anatomic layers of the tear trough region contains skin, subcutaneous tissue, orbicularis oculi muscle, periosteal membrane. There is no subcutaneous fat above the tear trough, while it exists below the tear trough, called malar fat pad. (2) There is a natural boundary between the septal and the orbital portions of the orbicularis oculi muscle of lower eyelid at surface of the orbital bone. The natural boundary, projected on the body surface corresponds to tear trough. The width of boundary is (2.06 +/- 0.15) mm on the vertical line through inner canthus and (3.25 +/- 0.12) mm on the vertical line through the lateral margin of the ala. The septal portion and the orbital portion of the orbicularis oculi muscle began to merge in (16.56 +/- 0.51) mm to inner canthus. (3) There is ligament attachment in the medial, upper and lower orbital and no ligament attachment in the lateral orbital. Orbicularis retaining ligament of lower eyelid is divided into two layers. (4) The medial of the upper layer of the orbicularis retaining ligament in lower eyelid originates from orbital margin and from preorbital walls laterally in (16.10 +/- 0.43) mm to the medial of lateral orbital margin, through orbicularis oculi muscle and ends at the skin. The lower layer of the orbicularis retaining ligament of lower eyelid originates from preorbital walls through orbicularis oculi muscle and its superficial fat, then ends at the skin. The length of tear trough is (16.56 +/- 0.51) mm

  19. [Not Available].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlino, A

    1994-01-01

    Anatomical fugitive sheets are of great interest, as a typographical genre, not only for the history of printing and the history of medicine, but also, more generally, for the history of culture as a whole. They were published as folio woodcuts (more rarely engravings) in Germany, France, Italy, England and the Netherlands from the end of the XVth centkury to the mid XVIIIth century. These sheets contain a figure representing the human body (male and female) and a text describing in a concise and quite rough way the elements of the illustration. What is unusual about these sheets is that the trunk of the figures and some of the internal organs can be lifted up or peeled away, like some contemporary books for children. The figures and some internal parts are very often coloured. Judging from the number of editions (I have found 15 editions published between 1538 and 1540!), anatomical sheets met with a huge commercial success and a very wide circulation indeed. Students of the faculties of medicine and philosophy and barber-surgeons were the more obvious consumers. Students would use them as aids to memory to accompany non-illustrated medical books; barbers to grasp some basic notions of the human body, useful for the practice of phlebotomy. They could be purchased in bookshops, but they were more likely to have been sold in market places or around the University where many colporteurs displayed their cheap prints and booklets. I shall argue, however, that anatomical fugitive sheets have also been produced for and used by a non-professional public, literate but not highly educated, unable to read Latin and more used to learning from images rather than from the written word. A public that was eager to discover the inner secrets of the bodily self, the divine machine that we inhabit. From a scientific point of view anatomical fugitive sheets often reveal errors and differences compared to academic textual and iconographic material on the same subject. The discrepancy

  20. Fast correspondences search in anatomical trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Santos, Thiago R.; Gergel, Ingmar; Meinzer, Hans-Peter; Maier-Hein, Lena

    2010-03-01

    Registration of multiple medical images commonly comprises the steps feature extraction, correspondences search and transformation computation. In this paper, we present a new method for a fast and pose independent search of correspondences using as features anatomical trees such as the bronchial system in the lungs or the vessel system in the liver. Our approach scores the similarities between the trees' nodes (bifurcations) taking into account both, topological properties extracted from their graph representations and anatomical properties extracted from the trees themselves. The node assignment maximizes the global similarity (sum of the scores of each pair of assigned nodes), assuring that the matches are distributed throughout the trees. Furthermore, the proposed method is able to deal with distortions in the data, such as noise, motion, artifacts, and problems associated with the extraction method, such as missing or false branches. According to an evaluation on swine lung data sets, the method requires less than one second on average to compute the matching and yields a high rate of correct matches compared to state of the art work.

  1. Anatomical modeling of the bronchial tree

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hentschel, Gerrit; Klinder, Tobias; Blaffert, Thomas; Bülow, Thomas; Wiemker, Rafael; Lorenz, Cristian

    2010-02-01

    The bronchial tree is of direct clinical importance in the context of respective diseases, such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). It furthermore constitutes a reference structure for object localization in the lungs and it finally provides access to lung tissue in, e.g., bronchoscope based procedures for diagnosis and therapy. This paper presents a comprehensive anatomical model for the bronchial tree, including statistics of position, relative and absolute orientation, length, and radius of 34 bronchial segments, going beyond previously published results. The model has been built from 16 manually annotated CT scans, covering several branching variants. The model is represented as a centerline/tree structure but can also be converted in a surface representation. Possible model applications are either to anatomically label extracted bronchial trees or to improve the tree extraction itself by identifying missing segments or sub-trees, e.g., if located beyond a bronchial stenosis. Bronchial tree labeling is achieved using a naïve Bayesian classifier based on the segment properties contained in the model in combination with tree matching. The tree matching step makes use of branching variations covered by the model. An evaluation of the model has been performed in a leaveone- out manner. In total, 87% of the branches resulting from preceding airway tree segmentation could be correctly labeled. The individualized model enables the detection of missing branches, allowing a targeted search, e.g., a local rerun of the tree-segmentation segmentation.

  2. Sleep Disturbance and Anatomic Shoulder Arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Brent J; Sciascia, Aaron D; Jacobs, Cale A; Edwards, T Bradley

    2017-05-01

    Sleep disturbance is commonly encountered in patients with glenohumeral joint arthritis and can be a factor that drives patients to consider surgery. The prevalence of sleep disturbance before or after anatomic total shoulder arthroplasty has not been reported. The authors identified 232 eligible patients in a prospective shoulder arthroplasty registry following total shoulder arthroplasty for primary glenohumeral joint arthritis with 2- to 5-year follow-up. Sleep disturbance secondary to the affected shoulder was characterized preoperatively and postoperatively as no sleep disturbance, frequent sleep disturbance, or nightly sleep disturbance. A total of 211 patients (91%) reported sleep disturbance prior to surgery. Patients with nightly sleep disturbance had significantly worse (Psleep disturbance, with 186 patients (80%) reporting no sleep disturbance (Psleep disturbance group had significantly greater patient-reported outcome scores and range of motion following surgery compared with the other sleep disturbance groups for nearly all outcome measures (P≤.01). Patients have significant improvements in sleep after anatomic shoulder arthroplasty. There was a high prevalence of sleep disturbance preoperatively (211 patients, 91%) compared with postoperatively (46 patients, 20%). [Orthopedics. 2017; 40(3):e450-e454.]. Copyright 2017, SLACK Incorporated.

  3. Anatomical and roentgenographic features of atlantooccipital instability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, M B; Duval, M J; Davis, J A; Bernini, P M

    1993-02-01

    An anatomical study using six fresh, human cadaveric cervical spine specimens was performed. After the dissection of all soft tissue, flexion-extension radiographs were obtained to verify initial stability. A sagittal plane bone cut was then made, centered on the odontoid and sparing the alar ligaments, the tectorial membrane, and the atlantooccipital (AO) ligaments. Repeat flexion-extension radiographs and photographs were taken to document maintenance of stability of these hemisections. The occipital-atlantoaxial ligaments were then individually and sequentially incised, maintaining all other structures each time. After the sectioning of each ligament, flexion-extension radiographs and photographs were obtained to identify subsequent motion patterns. Both gross anatomical and roentgenographic examinations demonstrated the important stabilizing role of the tectorial membrane in flexion. Additionally, contact between the posterior arch of C1 and the occiput limited hyperextension as a secondary restraint once the tectorial membrane was sectioned. Furthermore, the AO ligaments proved to play an insignificant role in the preservation of AO stability through a flexion-extension arc of motion. Under normal circumstances, the AO articulation is not excessively stressed. However, acute AO injury, as well as the insidious failure of these ligaments, has been documented in several cases involving various pathologies. This study demonstrates a mechanism of instability and highlights the essential role of the tectorial membrane in maintaining upper cervical spine stability.

  4. Numerical modelling of unsteady 2D sheet cavitation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Lange, D.F.; de Bruin, G.J.; van Wijngaarden, L.; van Wijngaarden, L.

    1996-01-01

    Unsteady 2D sheet cavitation has been calculated by a BEM. Cubics are used to represent various quantities like the potential on the wet part of the profile, the normal velocity on the sheet, the geometry of the profile and the sheet. The growing cavity sheet, the re-entrant jet and the sheet

  5. TOMATOES BALANCE SHEET IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragoş Mihai MEDELETE

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Tomatoes are one of the most representative vegetable species cultivated in our country. This allegation is based on the essential elements of tomatoes culture respectively area cultivated, total production and average yield per hectare - indicators for 2007-2009 reached average levels of 48.8 thousand hectares and 736.9 thousand tonnes respectively 15101kg / ha. Presentation of food helps establish balance of the demand and supply component parts total as follows: production, imports, exports (on request food consumption and losses (on request. It is worth noting that in Romania, unlike global and continental do not appear reports for stocks, industrial raw materials, feed consumption, and other uses. Based on the total volume of supply and demand it could be determining the national balance sheet for the product.

  6. Fact Sheets on Pesticides in Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Coalition against the Misuse of Pesticides, Washington, DC.

    This document consists of a collection of fact sheets about the use of pesticides in schools and how to reduce it. The sheets are: (1) "Alternatives to Using Pesticides in Schools: What Is Integrated Pest Management?"; (2) "Health Effects of 48 Commonly Used Pesticides in Schools"; (3) "The Schooling of State Pesticide…

  7. Advanced friction modeling in sheet metal forming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hol, J.; Cid Alfaro, M.V.; Meinders, Vincent T.; Huetink, Han

    2011-01-01

    The Coulomb friction model is frequently used for sheet metal forming simulations. This model incorporates a constant coefficient of friction and does not take the influence of important parameters such as contact pressure or deformation of the sheet material into account. This article presents a

  8. Steel Sheet Pile Walls in Soft Soil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kort, D.A.

    2002-01-01

    For almost a century, steel sheet pile walls are applied worldwide as earth retaining structures for excavations and quay walls. Within the framework of the development of European structural codes for Civil Engineering works, the Eurocodes, Eurocode 3 Part 5 for design of steel sheet pile walls was

  9. Clouds enhance Greenland ice sheet meltwater runoff

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Tricht, K.; Lhermitte, S.; Lenaerts, J. T M; Gorodetskaya, I. V.; L'Ecuyer, T. S.; Noël, B.; Van Den Broeke, M. R.; Turner, D. D.; Van Lipzig, N. P M

    2016-01-01

    The Greenland ice sheet has become one of the main contributors to global sea level rise, predominantly through increased meltwater runoff. The main drivers of Greenland ice sheet runoff, however, remain poorly understood. Here we show that clouds enhance meltwater runoff by about one-third relative

  10. Balance velocities of the Greenland ice sheet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joughin, I.; Fahnestock, M.; Ekholm, Simon

    1997-01-01

    We present a map of balance velocities for the Greenland ice sheet. The resolution of the underlying DEM, which was derived primarily from radar altimetery data, yields far greater detail than earlier balance velocity estimates for Greenland. The velocity contours reveal in striking detail......, the balance map is useful for ice-sheet modelling, mass balance studies, and field planning....

  11. Antibubbles and fine cylindrical sheets of air

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beilharz, D.; Guyon, A.; Li, E.Q.; Thoraval, Marie-Jean; Thoroddsen, S.T.

    2015-01-01

    Drops impacting at low velocities onto a pool surface can stretch out thin hemispherical sheets of air between the drop and the pool. These air sheets can remain intact until they reach submicron thicknesses, at which point they rupture to form a myriad of microbubbles. By impacting a

  12. Ranking beta sheet topologies of proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fonseca, Rasmus; Helles, Glennie; Winter, Pawel

    2010-01-01

    One of the challenges of protein structure prediction is to identify long-range interactions between amino acids. To reliably predict such interactions, we enumerate, score and rank all beta-topologies (partitions of beta-strands into sheets, orderings of strands within sheets and orientations of...

  13. Anatomical study of middle cluneal nerve entrapment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konno T

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Tomoyuki Konno,1 Yoichi Aota,2 Tomoyuki Saito,1 Ning Qu,3 Shogo Hayashi,3 Shinichi Kawata,3 Masahiro Itoh3 1Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Yokohama City University, 2Department of Spine and Spinal Cord, Yokohama Brain and Spine Center, Yokohama City, 3Department of Anatomy, Tokyo Medical University, Tokyo, Japan Object: Entrapment of the middle cluneal nerve (MCN under the long posterior sacroiliac ligament (LPSL is a possible, and underdiagnosed, cause of low-back and/or leg symptoms. To date, detailed anatomical studies of MCN entrapment are few. The purpose of this study was to ascertain, using cadavers, the relationship between the MCN and LPSL and to investigate MCN entrapment. Methods: A total of 30 hemipelves from 20 cadaveric donors (15 female, 5 male designated for education or research, were studied by gross anatomical dissection. The age range of the donors at death was 71–101 years with a mean of 88 years. Branches of the MCN were identified under or over the gluteus maximus fascia caudal to the posterior superior iliac spine (PSIS and traced laterally as far as their finest ramification. Special attention was paid to the relationship between the MCN and LPSL. The distance from the branch of the MCN to the PSIS and to the midline and the diameter of the MCN were measured. Results: A total of 64 MCN branches were identified in the 30 hemipelves. Of 64 branches, 10 (16% penetrated the LPSL. The average cephalocaudal distance from the PSIS to where the MCN penetrated the LPSL was 28.5±11.2 mm (9.1–53.7 mm. The distance from the midline was 36.0±6.4 mm (23.5–45.2 mm. The diameter of the MCN branch traversing the LPSL averaged 1.6±0.5 mm (0.5–3.1 mm. Four of the 10 branches penetrating the LPSL had obvious constriction under the ligament. Conclusion: This is the first anatomical study illustrating MCN entrapment. It is likely that MCN entrapment is not a rare clinical entity. Keywords: middle cluneal nerve, sacroiliac joint

  14. Mistakes in the usage of anatomical terminology in clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kachlik, David; Bozdechova, Ivana; Cech, Pavel; Musil, Vladimir; Baca, Vaclav

    2009-06-01

    Anatomical terminology serves as a basic communication tool in all the medical fields. Therefore Latin anatomical nomenclature has been repetitively issued and revised from 1895 (Basiliensia Nomina Anatomica) until 1998, when the last version was approved and published as the Terminologia Anatomica (International Anatomical Terminology) by the Federative Committee on Anatomical Terminology. A brief history of the terminology and nomenclature development is mentioned, along with the concept and contributions of the Terminologia Anatomica including the employed abbreviations. Examples of obsolete anatomical terms and their current synonyms are listed. Clinicians entered the process of the nomenclature revision and this aspect is demonstrated with several examples of terms used in clinical fields only, some already incorporated in the Terminologia Anatomica and a few obsolete terms still alive in non-theoretical communication. Frequent mistakes in grammar and orthography are stated as well. Authors of the article strongly recommend the use of the recent revision of the Latin anatomical nomenclature both in theoretical and clinical medicine.

  15. Contribution to the anatomical nomenclature concerning lower limb anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kachlik, David; Musil, Vladimir; Baca, Vaclav

    2017-09-18

    The aim of this article is to extend and revise the sections of Terminologia Anatomica (TA) dealing with the lower limb structures and to justify the use of newly proposed anatomical terms in clinical medicine, education, and research. Anatomical terms were gathered during our educational experience from anatomical textbooks and journals and compared with the four previous editions of the official Latin anatomical nomenclature. The authors summarise 270 terms with their definitions and explanations for both constant and variable morphological structures (bones, joints, muscles, vessels, nerves and superficial structures) of the hip, thigh, knee, leg, ankle, and foot completed with several grammatical remarks and some general anatomical terms. The proposed terms should be discussed in wider anatomical community and potentially added to next edition of the TA.

  16. Early Results of Anatomic Double Bundle Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction

    OpenAIRE

    Demet Pepele

    2014-01-01

    Aim: The goal in anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR) is to restore the normal anatomic structure and function of the knee. In the significant proportion of patients after the traditional single-bundle ACLR, complaints of instability still continue. Anatomic double bundle ACLR may provide normal kinematics in knees, much closer to the natural anatomy. The aim of this study is to clinically assess the early outcomes of our anatomical double bundle ACLR. Material and Method: In our ...

  17. Folded Sheet Versus Transparent Sheet Models for Human Symmetry Judgments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacques Ninio

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available As a contribution to the mysteries of human symmetry perception, reaction time data were collected on the detection of symmetry or repetition violations, in the context of short term visual memory studies. The histograms for reaction time distributions are rather narrow in the case of symmetry judgments. Their analysis was performed in terms of a simple kinetic model of a mental process in two steps, a slow one for the construction of the representation of the images to be compared, and a fast one, in the 50 ms range, for the decision. There was no need for an additional ‘mental rotation’ step. Symmetry seems to facilitate the construction step. I also present here original stimuli showing a color equalization effect across a symmetry axis, and its counterpart in periodic patterns. According to a “folded sheet model”, when a shape is perceived, the brain automatically constructs a mirror-image representation of the shape. Based in part on the reaction time analysis, I present here an alternative “transparent sheet” model in which the brain constructs a single representation, which can be accessed from two sides, thus generating simultaneously a pattern and its mirror-symmetric partner. Filtering processes, implied by current models of symmetry perception could intervene at an early stage, by nucleating the propagation of similar perceptual groupings in the two symmetric images.

  18. Internuclear ophthalmoplegia: MR imaging and anatomic correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atlas, S.W.; Grossman, R.I.; Savino, P.J.

    1986-01-01

    Internuclear ophthalmoplegia is a gaze disorder characterized by impaired adduction of the side of a lesion in the medial longitudinal fasciculus (MLF) with dissociated nystagmus of the abducting eye. Eleven patients with internuclear ophthalmoplegia (nine with multiple sclerosis, two with infarction) were examined with spin-echo MR imaging performed at 1.5 T. Nine of the 11 patients also underwent CT. MR imaging was highly sensitive (10 of 11 cases) and CT was of no value (0 of 9 cases) in detecting clinically suspected MLF lesions. These lesions must be distinguished from ''pseudo-MLF hyperintensity,'' which appears as a thin, strictly midline, linear hyperintensity just interior to the fourth ventricle and aqueduct in healthy subjects. True MLF lesions are nodular, more prominent, and slightly off the midline, corresponding to the paramedian anatomic site of the MLF

  19. Anatomic Twist to a Straightforward Ablation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mandeep Singh Randhawa, MD

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Atrioventricular (AV junction ablation for treatment of refractory atrial fibrillation is a well defined, standardized procedure and the simplest of commonly performed radiofrequency ablations in the field of cardiac electrophysiology. We report successful AV junction ablation using an inferior approach in a case of inferior vena cava interruption. Inability during the procedure to initially pass the ablation catheter into the right ventricle, combined with low amplitude electrograms, led to suspicion of an anatomic abnormality. This was determined to be a heterotaxy syndrome with inferior vena cava interruption and azygos continuation, draining in turn into the superior vena cava. Advancing Schwartz right 0 (SRO sheath through the venous abnormality into the right atrium allowed adequate catheter stability to successfully induce complete AV block with radiofrequency energy.

  20. [Antique anatomical collections for contemporary museums].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesi, Gabriella; Santi, Raffaella

    2013-01-01

    Anatomy and Pathology Museum collections display a great biological value and offer unique samples for research purposes. Pathological specimens may be investigated by means of modern radiological and molecular biology techniques in order to provide the etiological background of disease, with relevance to present-day knowledge. Meanwhile, historical resources provide epidemiologic data regarding the socio-economic conditions of the resident populations, the more frequently encountered illnesses and dietary habits. These multidisciplinary approaches lead to more accurate diagnoses also allowing new strategies in cataloguing and musealization of anatomical specimens. Further, once these data are gathered, they may constitute the basis of riedited Museum catalogues feasible to be digitalized and displayed via the Web.

  1. Migration, Masculinity and the Fugitive State of Mind in the Irish Emigrant Footballer Autobiography: the Case of Paul McGrath

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus Free

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The ‘confessional’ autobiography has become a popular variant of professional football autobiography in Britain. Co-written ‘autobiographies’ by prominent former emigrant Irish or Irish descended international footballers have featured prominently in this sub-genre.  Their ‘confessions’ of alcoholism, gambling, infidelity, irresponsibility towards partners or dependents, or underlying ontological insecurity might be seen as an insightful engagement with their lives as male footballers in Britain.  However, focusing on two autobiographies of Paul McGrath, and reading these ‘troubled’ accounts using psychoanalytic perspectives on sport, migration and masculinity, it is argued that they are contradictory texts which embody a peculiar variation on the emigrant “fugitive state of mind” (Davar, 1996, both approximating and deferring mature, reflexive engagement with the social and cultural construction of identity, allowing them to occupy a liminal but discontent imaginary space in which adolescent masculinity can be indefinitely extended.   The homosocial world of men’s professional football is a key factor in this.

  2. Ice sheet margins and ice shelves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, R. H.

    1984-01-01

    The effect of climate warming on the size of ice sheet margins in polar regions is considered. Particular attention is given to the possibility of a rapid response to warming on the order of tens to hundreds of years. It is found that the early response of the polar regions to climate warming would be an increase in the area of summer melt on the ice sheets and ice shelves. For sufficiently large warming (5-10C) the delayed effects would include the breakup of the ice shelves by an increase in ice drainage rates, particularly from the ice sheets. On the basis of published data for periodic changes in the thickness and melting rates of the marine ice sheets and fjord glaciers in Greenland and Antarctica, it is shown that the rate of retreat (or advance) of an ice sheet is primarily determined by: bedrock topography; the basal conditions of the grounded ice sheet; and the ice shelf condition downstream of the grounding line. A program of satellite and ground measurements to monitor the state of ice sheet equilibrium is recommended.

  3. Integer conductance quantization of gold atomic sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurui, Yoshihiko; Oshima, Yoshifumi; Okamoto, Masakuni; Takayanagi, Kunio

    2008-04-01

    Using a transmission electron microscope combined with a scanning tunneling microscope, we find that a gold (111) or (001) atomic sheet is formed between two gold electrodes. Simultaneous conductance measurements indicate a value in the vicinity of G0 ( =2e2/h : conductance quantum), 2G0 , 3G0 , and 4G0 . Each quantum number is equal to the number of atomic strands. First-principle calculations suggest that the atomic sheet should be deformed to explain this rule. It is likely that the gold atomic sheet is stabilized by an increment of the nonlocal bond because of the deformation.

  4. Study of laser welding of copper sheets

    OpenAIRE

    A. Klimpel; A. Rzeźnikiewicz; Ł. Janik

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: Purpose of this research is to study laser autogenous welding process of short seam beads and filletwelds of lap joints of oxygen-free copper sheets 1.0 [mm] thick. On the bases of results of quality assessment itwas proved that high power diode laser (HPDL) welded lap joints of copper sheet provide mechanical propertieson the level of parent material.Design/methodology/approach: Short seam beads and fillet welds of lap joints of oxygen-free copper sheets 1,0[mm] thick were tested, t...

  5. Bifurcation of Jovian magnetotail current sheet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. L. Israelevich

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Multiple crossings of the magnetotail current sheet by a single spacecraft give the possibility to distinguish between two types of electric current density distribution: single-peaked (Harris type current layer and double-peaked (bifurcated current sheet. Magnetic field measurements in the Jovian magnetic tail by Voyager-2 reveal bifurcation of the tail current sheet. The electric current density possesses a minimum at the point of the Bx-component reversal and two maxima at the distance where the magnetic field strength reaches 50% of its value in the tail lobe.

  6. Bifurcation of Jovian magnetotail current sheet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. L. Israelevich

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Multiple crossings of the magnetotail current sheet by a single spacecraft give the possibility to distinguish between two types of electric current density distribution: single-peaked (Harris type current layer and double-peaked (bifurcated current sheet. Magnetic field measurements in the Jovian magnetic tail by Voyager-2 reveal bifurcation of the tail current sheet. The electric current density possesses a minimum at the point of the Bx-component reversal and two maxima at the distance where the magnetic field strength reaches 50% of its value in the tail lobe.

  7. Shapeable sheet without plastic deformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oppenheimer, Naomi; Witten, Thomas A.

    2015-11-01

    Randomly crumpled sheets have shape memory. In order to understand the basis of this form of memory, we simulate triangular lattices of springs whose lengths are altered to create a topography with multiple potential energy minima. We then deform these lattices into different shapes and investigate their ability to retain the imposed shape when the energy is relaxed. The lattices are able to retain a range of curvatures. Under moderate forcing from a state of local equilibrium, the lattices deform by several percent but return to their retained shape when the forces are removed. By increasing the forcing until an irreversible motion occurs, we find that the transitions between remembered shapes show cooperativity among several springs. For fixed lattice structures, the shape memory tends to decrease as the lattice is enlarged; we propose ways to counter this decrease by modifying the lattice geometry. We survey the energy landscape by displacing individual nodes. An extensive fraction of these nodes proves to be bistable; they retain their displaced position when the energy is relaxed. Bending the lattice to a stable curved state alters the pattern of bistable nodes. We discuss this shapeability in the context of other forms of material memory and contrast it with the shapeability of plastic deformation. We outline the prospects for making real materials based on these principles.

  8. Photobiology Research Laboratory (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2012-06-01

    This fact sheet provides information about Photobiology Research Laboratory capabilities and applications at NREL. The photobiology group's research is in four main areas: (1) Comprehensive studies of fuel-producing photosynthetic, fermentative, and chemolithotrophic model microorganisms; (2) Characterization and engineering of redox enzymes and proteins for fuel production; (3) Genetic and pathway engineering of model organisms to improve production of hydrogen and hydrocarbon fuels; and (4) Studies of nanosystems using biological and non-biological materials in hybrid generation. NREL's photobiology research capabilities include: (1) Controlled and automated photobioreactors and fermenters for growing microorganisms under a variety of environmental conditions; (2) High-and medium-throughput screening of H{sub 2}-producing organisms; (3) Homologous and heterologous expression, purification, and biochemical/biophysical characterization of redox enzymes and proteins; (4) Qualitative and quantitative analyses of gases, metabolites, carbohydrates, lipids, and proteins; (5) Genetic and pathway engineering and development of novel genetic toolboxes; and (6) Design and spectroscopic characterization of enzyme-based biofuel cells and energy conversion nanodevices.

  9. Parametric Anatomical Modeling: A method for modeling the anatomical layout of neurons and their projections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin ePyka

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Computational models of neural networks can be based on a variety of different parameters. These parameters include, for example, the 3d shape of neuron layers, the neurons' spatial projection patterns, spiking dynamics and neurotransmitter systems. While many well-developed approaches are available to model, for example, the spiking dynamics, there is a lack of approaches for modeling the anatomical layout of neurons and their projections. We present a new method, called Parametric Anatomical Modeling (PAM, to fill this gap. PAM can be used to derive network connectivities and conduction delays from anatomical data, such as the position and shape of the neuronal layers and the dendritic and axonal projection patterns. Within the PAM framework, several mapping techniques between layers can account for a large variety of connection properties between pre- and post-synaptic neuron layers. PAM is implemented as a Python tool and integrated in the 3d modeling software Blender. We demonstrate on a 3d model of the hippocampal formation how PAM can help reveal complex properties of the synaptic connectivity and conduction delays, properties that might be relevant to uncover the function of the hippocampus. Based on these analyses, two experimentally testable predictions arose: i the number of neurons and the spread of connections is heterogeneously distributed across the main anatomical axes, ii the distribution of connection lengths in CA3-CA1 differ qualitatively from those between DG-CA3 and CA3-CA3. Models created by PAM can also serve as an educational tool to visualize the 3d connectivity of brain regions. The low-dimensional, but yet biologically plausible, parameter space renders PAM suitable to analyse allometric and evolutionary factors in networks and to model the complexity of real networks with comparatively little effort.

  10. Parametric Anatomical Modeling: a method for modeling the anatomical layout of neurons and their projections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyka, Martin; Klatt, Sebastian; Cheng, Sen

    2014-01-01

    Computational models of neural networks can be based on a variety of different parameters. These parameters include, for example, the 3d shape of neuron layers, the neurons' spatial projection patterns, spiking dynamics and neurotransmitter systems. While many well-developed approaches are available to model, for example, the spiking dynamics, there is a lack of approaches for modeling the anatomical layout of neurons and their projections. We present a new method, called Parametric Anatomical Modeling (PAM), to fill this gap. PAM can be used to derive network connectivities and conduction delays from anatomical data, such as the position and shape of the neuronal layers and the dendritic and axonal projection patterns. Within the PAM framework, several mapping techniques between layers can account for a large variety of connection properties between pre- and post-synaptic neuron layers. PAM is implemented as a Python tool and integrated in the 3d modeling software Blender. We demonstrate on a 3d model of the hippocampal formation how PAM can help reveal complex properties of the synaptic connectivity and conduction delays, properties that might be relevant to uncover the function of the hippocampus. Based on these analyses, two experimentally testable predictions arose: (i) the number of neurons and the spread of connections is heterogeneously distributed across the main anatomical axes, (ii) the distribution of connection lengths in CA3-CA1 differ qualitatively from those between DG-CA3 and CA3-CA3. Models created by PAM can also serve as an educational tool to visualize the 3d connectivity of brain regions. The low-dimensional, but yet biologically plausible, parameter space renders PAM suitable to analyse allometric and evolutionary factors in networks and to model the complexity of real networks with comparatively little effort.

  11. [Historical development of modern anatomical education in Japan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Tatsuo

    2008-12-01

    The medical schools in the beginning of Meiji era were diverse both in the founders and in the way of education, frequently employing foreign teachers of various nationalities. In 1871, German teachers were appointed to organized medical education at the medical school of the university of Tokyo. The anatomical education in the school was conducted by German teachers, i.e. Miller (1871-1873), Dönitz (1873-1877), Gierke (1877-1880) and Disse (1880-1885), followed by Koganei who returned from the study in Germany. In 1882 (Meiji 15th), the general rule for medical school was enforced so that the medical schools were practically obliged to employ numbers of graduates of the university of Tokyo. In 1887 (Meiji 20th), the educational system was reformed so that many of the medical schools were closed, and the medical schools were integrated into one university, five national senior high schools and three prefectural ones in addition to four private ones. After that most of anatomical teachers were either graduates of the university of Tokyo or those who studied in the anatomical department of the university. Before 1877 (Meiji 10th), the anatomical books were mainly translated from English books, and foreign teachers of various nationality were employed in many medical schools in Japan. After 1877 (Meiji 10th), the anatomical books based on the lectures by German teachers at the university of Tokyo were published. The anatomical books after 1887 (Meiji 20th) were written based on German books, and the German anatomical terms were utilized. After 1905 (Meiji 38th), the original Japanese anatomical books appeared, employing international anatomical terms. At the first meeting of Japanese Association of Anatomists in 1893 (Meiji 26th), the Japanese anatomical teachers met together and most of them were graduates of the university of Tokyo or fellows of its anatomical department.

  12. Recent advances in standards for collaborative Digital Anatomic Pathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Context Collaborative Digital Anatomic Pathology refers to the use of information technology that supports the creation and sharing or exchange of information, including data and images, during the complex workflow performed in an Anatomic Pathology department from specimen reception to report transmission and exploitation. Collaborative Digital Anatomic Pathology can only be fully achieved using medical informatics standards. The goal of the international integrating the Healthcare Enterprise (IHE) initiative is precisely specifying how medical informatics standards should be implemented to meet specific health care needs and making systems integration more efficient and less expensive. Objective To define the best use of medical informatics standards in order to share and exchange machine-readable structured reports and their evidences (including whole slide images) within hospitals and across healthcare facilities. Methods Specific working groups dedicated to Anatomy Pathology within multiple standards organizations defined standard-based data structures for Anatomic Pathology reports and images as well as informatic transactions in order to integrate Anatomic Pathology information into the electronic healthcare enterprise. Results The DICOM supplements 122 and 145 provide flexible object information definitions dedicated respectively to specimen description and Whole Slide Image acquisition, storage and display. The content profile “Anatomic Pathology Structured Report” (APSR) provides standard templates for structured reports in which textual observations may be bound to digital images or regions of interest. Anatomic Pathology observations are encoded using an international controlled vocabulary defined by the IHE Anatomic Pathology domain that is currently being mapped to SNOMED CT concepts. Conclusion Recent advances in standards for Collaborative Digital Anatomic Pathology are a unique opportunity to share or exchange Anatomic Pathology structured

  13. The anatomical diaspora: evidence of early American anatomical traditions in North Dakota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stubblefield, Phoebe R

    2011-09-01

    The current focus in forensic anthropology on increasing scientific certainty in ancestry determination reinforces the need to examine the ancestry of skeletal remains used for osteology instruction. Human skeletal remains were discovered on the University of North Dakota campus in 2007. After recovery, the osteological examination resulted in a profile for a 33- to 46-year-old woman of African descent with stature ranging from 56.3 to 61.0 in. The pattern of postmortem damage indicated that the remains had been prepared for use as an anatomical teaching specimen. Review of the American history of anatomical teaching revealed a preference for Black subjects, which apparently extended to states like North Dakota despite extremely low resident populations of people of African descent. This study emphasizes the need to examine the ancestry of older teaching specimens that lack provenience, rather than assuming they are derived from typical (i.e., Indian) sources of anatomical material. © 2011 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  14. Anatomical features of renal artery in a black Kenyan population ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Knowledge of anatomical features of the renal artery is important in prediction, management and control of atherosclerotic renal artery stenosis. These features show population variations but data from black African populations are scarce. The aim of this study was therefore to describe the anatomical features of the renal ...

  15. A theoretical ovary position in link with the global anatomical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Generally the position of different organs is determined by simple description following the anatomical elements surrounded them and such description could be developed and applied in surgical anatomy. Here, I present for the first time a theoretical three-dimensional ovary position in link with the global anatomical ...

  16. Role of anatomic variations of paranasal sinuses on the prevalence ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of anatomic variations of the paranasal sinuses and their roles in the development of sinusitis. Materials and Methods: Computed tomography of paranasal sinuses of 350 patients was assessed in terms of anatomic variations and inflammatory sinus pathology.

  17. Evaluation of anatomical and physical properties of Khaya nthotheca

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The anatomical and physical properties of Khaya anthotheca (Welw.) C. DC wood from the transition forest of middle altitude (zone 1) and the humid dense forest of low altitude (zone 2) in the East of the Democratic Republic of Congo were evaluated to ascertain the effect of growth area on the anatomical and physical ...

  18. Anatomical variability of the trunk wood and root tissues of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to investigate the anatomical structure of the trunk wood and the roots of A. nitida and R. racemosa, two mangrove trees from Gabon. The anatomical differences between the trunks and the roots were used to understand their bio-remediating differences through heavy metals. It was found that the ...

  19. Anatomic anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction: reducing anterior tibial subluxation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muller, Bart; Duerr, Eric R. H.; van Dijk, C. Niek; Fu, Freddie H.

    2016-01-01

    To measure and compare the amount of anterior tibial subluxation (ATS) after anatomic ACL reconstruction for both acute and chronic ACL-deficient patients. Fifty-two patients were clinically and radiographically evaluated after primary, unilateral, anatomic ACL reconstruction. Post-operative true

  20. Role of Anatomic Variations of Paranasal Sinuses on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-05-09

    May 9, 2017 ... pathology. The coexistence of anatomic variations with sinusitis was statistically investigated.Results: At least one anatomical variation of paranasal sinuses was detected in 325 patients ... area, hardly evaluated regions of sinonasal pathologies ..... formation. Optic nerve and extraorbital muscle damage.

  1. Advancing Concentrating Solar Power Research (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2014-02-01

    Researchers at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) provide scientific, engineering, and analytical expertise to help advance innovation in concentrating solar power (CSP). This fact sheet summarizes how NREL is advancing CSP research.

  2. Western Abandoned Uranium Mine Region Fact Sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fact sheets related to Western Abandoned Uranium Mine (AUM) Region, more than 100 abandoned uranium mine claims located along the Little Colorado River and Highway 89, ain the Cameron, Coalmine Canyon, Bodaway/Gap, and Leupp Chapters in Northern Arizona.

  3. Drinking Water Fact Sheet: Coliform Bacteria

    OpenAIRE

    Mesner, Nancy; Daniels, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    This fact sheet provides information about coliform bacteria. Including sections about what coliform bacteria is, how it enters drinking water, health concerns from exposure, drinking water standards, and how to treat drinking water that contains coliforms.

  4. Hydrologic Outlets of the Greenland Ice Sheet

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Hydrologic Outlets of the Greenland Ice Sheet data set contains GIS point shapefiles that include 891 observed and potential hydrologic outlets of the Greenland...

  5. HIV/AIDS Clinical Trials Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... AIDS Drugs Clinical Trials Apps skip to content HIV Overview Home Understanding HIV/AIDS Fact Sheets HIV/ ... 4 p.m. ET) Send us an email HIV/AIDS Clinical Trials Last Reviewed: August 25, 2017 ...

  6. Proctor Creek Boone Boulevard Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    This fact sheet provides an overview of the Proctor Creek watershed and community, green infrastructure, the Boone Boulevard Green Street Project Conceptual Design, and the added value and application of Health Impact Assessment (HIA) to the project.

  7. Clean Cities Program Contacts (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2012-03-01

    This fact sheet provides contact information for program staff of the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities program, as well as contact information for the nearly 100 local Clean Cities coalitions across the country.

  8. fibrin–chitosan–sodium alginate composite sheet

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    sodium alginate composite (F–C–SA) in sheet form. F–C–SA composite was prepared and characterized for its physicochemical properties like water absorption capacity, surface morphology, FTIR spectra and mechanical properties.

  9. Matrix Models and String World Sheet Duality

    OpenAIRE

    de Alwis, S. P.

    1997-01-01

    The scaling limit used recently to derive matrix models, and a certain analyticity assumption, are invoked to argue that the agreement between some matrix model calculations and supergravity is a consequence of string world sheet duality.

  10. Nanotechnology for Site Remediation: Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    This fact sheet presents a snapshot of nanotechnology and its current uses in remediation. It presents information to help site project managers understand the potential applications of this group of technologies at their sites.

  11. Greenland Radar Ice Sheet Thickness Measurements

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Two 150-MHz coherent radar depth sounders were developed and flown over the Greenland ice sheet to obtain ice thickness measurements in support of PARCA...

  12. Coordinated Specialty Care Fact Sheet and Checklist

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Checklist Share Coordinated Specialty Care Fact Sheet and Checklist Download PDF Download ePub Order a free hardcopy ... webpage: http://www.nimh.nih.gov/raise . CSC Checklist If you are interested in a CSC program, ...

  13. Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this section Home A-Z Health Topics Polycystic ovary syndrome Polycystic ovary syndrome > A-Z Health Topics Polycystic ovary syndrome fact sheet (PDF, 126 KB) Normal ovary and polycystic ovary The javascript used in this widget is ...

  14. Geometry of Thin Nematic Elastomer Sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aharoni, Hillel; Sharon, Eran; Kupferman, Raz

    2014-12-01

    A thin sheet of nematic elastomer attains 3D configurations depending on the nematic director field upon heating. In this Letter, we describe the intrinsic geometry of such a sheet and derive an expression for the metric induced by general nematic director fields. Furthermore, we investigate the reverse problem of constructing a director field that induces a specified 2D geometry. We provide an explicit recipe for how to construct any surface of revolution using this method. Finally, we show that by inscribing a director field gradient across the sheet's thickness, one can obtain a nontrivial hyperbolic reference curvature tensor, which together with the prescription of a reference metric allows dictation of actual configurations for a thin sheet of nematic elastomer.

  15. Wall Insulation; BTS Technology Fact Sheet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Southface Energy Institute; Tromly, K.

    2000-11-07

    Properly sealed, moisture-protected, and insulated walls help increase comfort, reduce noise, and save on energy costs. This fact sheet addresses these topics plus advanced framing techniques, insulation types, wall sheathings, and steps for effective wall construction and insulation.

  16. Fact Sheet: Early Warning Signs of Psychosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... items) Share Fact Sheet: Early Warning Signs of Psychosis Download PDF Download ePub Order a free hardcopy ... show changes in his or her behaviors before psychosis develops. The list below includes several warning signs ...

  17. Force focusing in confined fibres and sheets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romero, Victor; Cerda, Enrique [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad de Santiago, Av. Ecuador 3493, Santiago (Chile); Witten, T A; Liang Tao [James Franck Institute, University of Chicago, Chicago IL 60637 (United States)], E-mail: t-witten@uchicago.edu

    2008-07-07

    A thin fibre or sheet curled into a circular container has a detached region whose shape and force ratios are independent of material properties and container radius. We compute this shape and compare it with experiments. The discrete forces acting at either end of the detached region have a ratio that depends only on the length of the fibre or sheet relative to the circle radius. We calculate this force ratio in three regimes of circle radius. (fast track communication)

  18. Preparation and transplantation of photoreceptor sheets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, J C; Ishida, M; Hersh, P; Sugino, I K; Zarbin, M A

    1998-06-01

    Photoreceptor (PR) transplantation may be a treatment for blindness secondary to PR degeneration. We studied different technical aspects of PR-sheet preparation. Geographic variation in the thickness of the cat PR layer (from the outer segments to the outer plexiform layer) and inner retina (width of the remainder of the retina) was studied. PR sheets (cat and human) were prepared through gelatin embedding and subsequent vibratoming or excimer laser ablation. Cat PR sheets were evaluated after transplantation. The thickness of the cat PR layer and inner retina varied in different regions. The superior central retina, including the area centralis, was thickest (PR layer: 115-123 microm, entire retina: 225-230 microm, in fixed tissue). The peripheral retina was approximately 40% thinner than the center. Fresh retina was approximately 7.9% thicker than the fixed retina. Both vibratomy and excimer laser ablation removed the inner retina, leaving a PR-layer sheet with good morphology. To produce good quality PR sheets with vibratomy, use of different gelatin concentrations (2% to 35%) at various stages of sheet preparation was crucial. To produce PR sheets of uniform thickness with excimer laser ablation, control of fluid on the retinal surface was critical. Twenty-four hours after PR transplantation surgery, donor PR cells were well oriented and in close contact with host retinal pigment epithelial cells. Gelatin supporting the transplant dissolved as early as 100 min after surgery. We confirmed and expanded the work of previous investigators and showed that cat and human PR sheets can be manufactured using vibratomy or excimer laser ablation. This preparation provides a well oriented and organized PR cell layer after transplantation.

  19. Balance of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    For several decades, measurements of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet showed it to be retreating rapidly. But new data derived from satellite-borne radar sensors show the ice sheet to be growing. Changing Antarctic ice sheets remains an area of high scientific interest, particularly in light of recent global warming concerns. These new findings are significant because scientists estimate that sea level would rise 5-6 meters (16-20 feet) if the ice sheet collapsed into the sea. Do these new measurements signal the end of the ice sheet's 10,000-year retreat? Or, are these new satellite data simply much more accurate than the sparse ice core and surface measurements that produced the previous estimates? Another possibility is that the ice accumulation may simply indicate that the ice sheet naturally expands and retreats in regular cycles. Cryologists will grapple with these questions, and many others, as they examine the new data. The image above depicts the region of West Antarctica where scientists measured ice speed. The fast-moving central ice streams are shown in red. Slower tributaries feeding the ice streams are shown in blue. Green areas depict slow-moving, stable areas. Thick black lines depict the areas that collect snowfall to feed their respective ice streams. Reference: Ian Joughin and Slawek Tulaczyk Science Jan 18 2002: 476-480. Image courtesy RADARSAT Antarctic Mapping Project

  20. Antibubbles and fine cylindrical sheets of air

    KAUST Repository

    Beilharz, D.

    2015-08-14

    Drops impacting at low velocities onto a pool surface can stretch out thin hemispherical sheets of air between the drop and the pool. These air sheets can remain intact until they reach submicron thicknesses, at which point they rupture to form a myriad of microbubbles. By impacting a higher-viscosity drop onto a lower-viscosity pool, we have explored new geometries of such air films. In this way we are able to maintain stable air layers which can wrap around the entire drop to form repeatable antibubbles, i.e. spherical air layers bounded by inner and outer liquid masses. Furthermore, for the most viscous drops they enter the pool trailing a viscous thread reaching all the way to the pinch-off nozzle. The air sheet can also wrap around this thread and remain stable over an extended period of time to form a cylindrical air sheet. We study the parameter regime where these structures appear and their subsequent breakup. The stability of these thin cylindrical air sheets is inconsistent with inviscid stability theory, suggesting stabilization by lubrication forces within the submicron air layer. We use interferometry to measure the air-layer thickness versus depth along the cylindrical air sheet and around the drop. The air film is thickest above the equator of the drop, but thinner below the drop and up along the air cylinder. Based on microbubble volumes, the thickness of the cylindrical air layer becomes less than 100 nm before it ruptures.

  1. Buckling Behavior of Substrate Supported Graphene Sheets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuijian Yang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The buckling of graphene sheets on substrates can significantly degrade their performance in materials and devices. Therefore, a systematic investigation on the buckling behavior of monolayer graphene sheet/substrate systems is carried out in this paper by both molecular mechanics simulations and theoretical analysis. From 70 simulation cases of simple-supported graphene sheets with different sizes under uniaxial compression, two different buckling modes are investigated and revealed to be dominated by the graphene size. Especially, for graphene sheets with length larger than 3 nm and width larger than 1.1 nm, the buckling mode depends only on the length/width ratio. Besides, it is revealed that the existence of graphene substrate can increase the critical buckling stress and strain to 4.39 N/m and 1.58%, respectively, which are about 10 times those for free-standing graphene sheets. Moreover, for graphene sheets with common size (longer than 20 nm, both theoretical and simulation results show that the critical buckling stress and strain are dominated only by the adhesive interactions with substrate and independent of the graphene size. Results in this work provide valuable insight and guidelines for the design and application of graphene-derived materials and nano-electromechanical systems.

  2. Buckling Behavior of Substrate Supported Graphene Sheets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Kuijian; Chen, Yuli; Pan, Fei; Wang, Shengtao; Ma, Yong; Liu, Qijun

    2016-01-07

    The buckling of graphene sheets on substrates can significantly degrade their performance in materials and devices. Therefore, a systematic investigation on the buckling behavior of monolayer graphene sheet/substrate systems is carried out in this paper by both molecular mechanics simulations and theoretical analysis. From 70 simulation cases of simple-supported graphene sheets with different sizes under uniaxial compression, two different buckling modes are investigated and revealed to be dominated by the graphene size. Especially, for graphene sheets with length larger than 3 nm and width larger than 1.1 nm, the buckling mode depends only on the length/width ratio. Besides, it is revealed that the existence of graphene substrate can increase the critical buckling stress and strain to 4.39 N/m and 1.58%, respectively, which are about 10 times those for free-standing graphene sheets. Moreover, for graphene sheets with common size (longer than 20 nm), both theoretical and simulation results show that the critical buckling stress and strain are dominated only by the adhesive interactions with substrate and independent of the graphene size. Results in this work provide valuable insight and guidelines for the design and application of graphene-derived materials and nano-electromechanical systems.

  3. Is the cervical fascia an anatomical proteus?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natale, Gianfranco; Condino, Sara; Stecco, Antonio; Soldani, Paola; Belmonte, Monica Mattioli; Gesi, Marco

    2015-11-01

    The cervical fasciae have always represented a matter of debate. Indeed, in the literature, it is quite impossible to find two authors reporting the same description of the neck fascia. In the present review, a historical background was outlined, confirming that the Malgaigne's definition of the cervical fascia as an anatomical Proteus is widely justified. In an attempt to provide an essential and a more comprehensive classification, a fixed pattern of description of cervical fasciae is proposed. Based on the morphogenetic criteria, two fascial groups have been recognized: (1) fasciae which derive from primitive fibro-muscular laminae (muscular fasciae or myofasciae); (2) fasciae which derive from connective thickening (visceral fasciae). Topographic and comparative approaches allowed to distinguish three different types of fasciae in the neck: the superficial, the deep and the visceral fasciae. The first is most connected to the skin, the second to the muscles and the third to the viscera. The muscular fascia could be further divided into three layers according to the relationship with the different muscles.

  4. Metacarpophalangeal portal safety. An anatomical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limousin, B; Corella, F; Del Campo, B; Fernández, E; Corella, M Á; Ocampos, M; Vázquez, T; Larrainzar-Garijo, R

    2017-12-02

    To quantify the risk of dorsal innervation injury when performing direct metacarpophalangeal joint portals of the second to fifth fingers. An anatomical study of 11 upper limbs of fresh corpses was carried out. After placing them in a traction tower, the metacarpophalangeal portals were developed on both sides of the extensor tendon. The dorsal sensory branches were dissected and the distances between the portal and the nearest nerve were measured by a digital caliper. The portals of all the fingers were compared globally to assess the safest finger and two to two radial and ulnar portals were compared in each of the fingers to assess the safest portal within each finger. The overall comparison of all portals and fingers showed that the third finger is the safest in any of its portals, while the ulnar side of the second and radial of the fourth are the portals with the highest risk of nerve injury (P=8.96·10 -5 ). Comparing two to two of the radial and ulnar portals in each of the fingers showed that the ulnar portal is safer than the radial on the fourth finger (P=.042), while the radial is safer than the ulnar on the fifth finger (P=.003). The third finger was the safest to perform metacarpophalangeal portals, while the ulnar side of the second finger and radial side of the fourth had the highest risk of nerve injury. Copyright © 2017 SECOT. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  5. Hamstring tendons insertion - an anatomical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiano Antonio Grassi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To study the anatomy of the hamstring tendons insertion and anatomical rela-tionships. METHODS: Ten cadaver knees with medial and anterior intact structures were selected. The dissection was performed from anteromedial access to exposure of the insertion of the flexor tendons (FT, tibial plateau (TP and tibial tuberosity (TT. A needle of 40 × 12 and a caliper were used to measure the distance of the tibial plateau of the knee flexor tendons insertion at 15 mm from the medial border of the patellar tendon and tibial tuberosity to the insertion of the flexor tendons of the knee. The angle between tibial plateau and the insertion of the flexor tendons of the knee (A-TP-FT was calculated using Image Pro Plus software. RESULTS: The mean distance TP-FT was 41 ± 4.6 mm. The distance between the TT-FT was 6.88 ± 1 mm. The (A-TP-FT was 20.3 ± 4.9°. CONCLUSION: In the anterior tibial flexor tendons are about 40 mm from the plateau with an average of 20°.

  6. Employing anatomical knowledge in vertebral column labeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Jianhua; Summers, Ronald M.

    2009-02-01

    The spinal column constitutes the central axis of human torso and is often used by radiologists to reference the location of organs in the chest and abdomen. However, visually identifying and labeling vertebrae is not trivial and can be timeconsuming. This paper presents an approach to automatically label vertebrae based on two pieces of anatomical knowledge: one vertebra has at most two attached ribs, and ribs are attached only to thoracic vertebrae. The spinal column is first extracted by a hybrid method using the watershed algorithm, directed acyclic graph search and a four-part vertebra model. Then curved reformations in sagittal and coronal directions are computed and aggregated intensity profiles along the spinal cord are analyzed to partition the spinal column into vertebrae. After that, candidates for rib bones are detected using features such as location, orientation, shape, size and density. Then a correspondence matrix is established to match ribs and vertebrae. The last vertebra (from thoracic to lumbar) with attached ribs is identified and labeled as T12. The rest of vertebrae are labeled accordingly. The method was tested on 50 CT scans and successfully labeled 48 of them. The two failed cases were mainly due to rudimentary ribs.

  7. Do retractile testes have anatomical anomalies?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kleber M. Anderson

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objectives: To assess the incidence of anatomical anomalies in patients with retractile testis. Materials and Methods: We studied prospectively 20 patients (28 testes with truly retractile testis and compared them with 25 human fetuses (50 testes with testis in scrotal position. We analyzed the relations among the testis, epididymis and patency of the processus vaginalis (PV. To analyze the relations between the testis and epididymis, we used a previous classification according to epididymis attachment to the testis and the presence of epididymis atresia. To analyze the structure of the PV, we considered two situations: obliteration of the PV and patency of the PV. We used the Chi-square test for contingency analysis of the populations under study (p <0.05. Results: The fetuses ranged in age from 26 to 35 weeks post-conception (WPC and the 20 patients with retractile testis ranged in ages from 1 to 12 years (average of 5.8. Of the 50 fetal testes, we observed complete patency of the PV in 2 cases (4% and epididymal anomalies (EAs in 1 testis (2%. Of the 28 retractile testes, we observed patency of the PV in 6 cases (21.4% and EA in 4 (14.28%. When we compared the incidence of EAs and PV patency we observed a significantly higher prevalence of these anomalies in retractile testes (p=0.0116. Conclusions: Retractile testis is not a normal variant with a significant risk of patent processus vaginalis and epididymal anomalies.

  8. History of the Greenland Ice Sheet: paleoclimatic insights

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alley, Richard B.; Andrews, John Thomas; Brigham-Grette, Julia

    2010-01-01

    -sheet changes. In contrast, there are no documented major ice-sheet changes that occurred independent of temperature changes. Moreover, snowfall has increased when the climate warmed, but the ice sheet lost mass nonetheless; increased accumulation in the ice sheet's center has not been sufficient to counteract...

  9. 37 CFR 3.31 - Cover sheet content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... the cover sheet must either: (i) Place a symbol comprised of letters, numbers, and/or punctuation... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cover sheet content. 3.31... COMMERCE GENERAL ASSIGNMENT, RECORDING AND RIGHTS OF ASSIGNEE Cover Sheet Requirements § 3.31 Cover sheet...

  10. 17 CFR 210.6-04 - Balance sheets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Balance sheets. 210.6-04... sheets. This rule is applicable to balance sheets filed by registered investment companies except for... of this part. Balance sheets filed under this rule shall comply with the following provisions: Assets...

  11. In vivo posterior cruciate ligament elongation in running activity after anatomic and non-anatomic anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Jing; Thorhauer, Eric; Bowman, Karl; Fu, Freddie H; Tashman, Scott

    2017-04-01

    The goals of this study were to (1) investigate the in vivo elongation behaviour of the posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) during running in the uninjured knee and (2) evaluate changes in PCL elongation during running after anatomic or non-anatomic anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. Seventeen unilateral ACL-injured subjects were recruited after undergoing anatomic (n = 9) or non-anatomic (n = 8) ACL reconstruction. Bilateral high-resolution CT scans were obtained to produce 3D models. Anterolateral (AL) and posteromedial (PM) bundles insertion sites of the PCL were identified on the 3D CT scan reconstructions. Dynamic knee function was assessed during running using a dynamic stereo X-ray (DSX) system. The lengths of the AL and PM bundles were estimated from late swing through mid-stance. The contralateral knees served as normal controls. Control knees demonstrated a slight decrease in AL bundle and a significant decrease in PM bundle length following foot strike. Length and elongation patterns of the both bundles of the PCL in the anatomic ACL reconstruction group were similar to the controls. However, the change in dynamic PCL length was significantly greater in the non-anatomic group than in the anatomic reconstruction group after foot strike (p < 0.05). The AL bundle length decreased slightly, and the PM bundle length significantly decreased after foot strike during running in uninjured knees. Anatomic ACL reconstruction maintained normal PCL elongation patterns more effectively than non-anatomic ACL reconstruction during high-demand, functional loading. These results support the use of anatomic ACL reconstruction to achieve normal knee function in high-demand activities. Case-control study, Level III.

  12. Anatomical basis for the fastigial pressor response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuditta, Marianna; Ruggiero, David A; Del Bo, Alberto

    2003-01-01

    Electrical stimulation of rostromedial portion of cerebellar fastigial nucleus elicits integrated cardiovascular effects, which are neurally and humorally mediated. In this study, we sought to demonstrate the anatomical substrates of the fastigial pressor response (FPR) in the rat. The response was electrophysiologically localized in anesthetized, paralyzed-ventilated rats. Anterograde transport techniques were used to study the efferent projections of the fastigial pressor area; the distribution of efferent projection cells were then mapped by injecting retrograde tracers into anterogradely labeled sites. Electrolytic lesions were then placed bilaterally in selected brainstem areas in the attempt to block the pressor response. Sites of cerebellar stimulation and of brainstem lesions were subsequently histologically identified. The following lesions abolished the FPR: in nine animals lesions involved portions of the nucleus gigantocellularis dorsalis (NGCd), paramedian reticular formation (PMN) and the nucleus tractus solitarii (NTS) (in two animals fairly selectively the caudal NTS); in two other animals lesions destroyed the rostral ventrolateral medulla (C1 area) and in one animal the area encompassing the dorsal convexity of the superior cerebellar peduncle bordering the locus coeruleus-lateral parabrachial complex; partially effective were unilateral lesions of NGCd and NTS (three), bilateral lesions confined to NGCd and PMN (two), to vestibular complex and uncinate fasciculus (UF) (three), to UF and locus coeruleus (three) and to nucleus reticularis ventralis (two). Ineffective lesions involved A1 area, the nucleus gigantocellularis ventralis (NGCv), the spinal trigeminal nucleus and nucleus reticularis parvocellularis, the A5 area of the ventrolateral pons, the central gray and lateral mesencephalic tegmentum. It seems therefore that the pressor response elicited by stimulation of the cerebellar fastigial nucleus utilizes central specific pathways, as

  13. Surface elevation changes of the greenland ice sheet - results from ESA'S ice sheet CCI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fredenslund Levinsen, Joanna; Khvorostovky, Kirill; Meister, Rakia

    2013-01-01

    In order to ensure long-term climate data records for the Greenland Ice Sheet (GIS), ESA have launched the Climate Change Initiative (CCI). This work presents the preliminary steps towards the Ice Sheet CCI's surface elevation change (SEC) derivation using radar altimeter data. In order to find...

  14. Comparison of manufacturing of lightweight corrugated sheet sandwiches by hydroforming and incremental sheet forming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maqbool, Fawad; Elze, Lars; Seidlitz, Holger; Bambach, Markus

    2016-10-01

    Sandwich materials made from corrugated sheet metal provide excellent mechanical properties for lightweight design without using filler material. The increased mechanical properties of these sandwich materials are achieved by the 3-D geometry of the corrugated sheet and the hardening due to pre-forming. In the present study, manufacturing of corrugated sheet metal consisting of hexagonal bulge patterns through hydroforming and incremental forming is analyzed. Double layered corrugated sheet metal sandwiches with hexagonal patterns of free-form bulge geometries are investigated through finite element analysis for the maximum increase in stiffness over the normal flat sheets. The analysis shows that a bending stiffness increase of up to 13 times over flat sheet of the same mass is attainable by corrugated sandwiches. Further, it is proved for these types of corrugation sandwiches that stiffness increases by increasing the height of the corrugation bulge but that hydroforming poses restrictions with respect to bulge height, since it is limited by forming force and formability of the material. Incremental sheet metal forming can be used to produce sheets with a hexagonal bulge pattern with increased height. Hence, a higher increase in stiffness as compared to hydroforming is possible but at the expense of process speed.

  15. Surface elevation changes of the greenland ice sheet - results from ESA'S ice sheet CCI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fredenslund Levinsen, Joanna; Khvorostovky, Kirill; Meister, Rakia

    2013-01-01

    In order to ensure long-term climate data records for the Greenland Ice Sheet (GIS), ESA have launched the Climate Change Initiative (CCI). This work presents the preliminary steps towards the Ice Sheet CCI's surface elevation change (SEC) derivation using radar altimeter data. In order to find t...

  16. Nomina anatomica. Anatomic terminology and the old French terminology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiapas-Gasca, Karla; Passos, Luiz Fernando De Souza; Euzébio Ribeiro, Sandra Lúcia; Villaseñor-Ovies, Pablo

    A surprising finding in our seminars in Latin America and Spain was that approximately half of the participants continued to use the old French anatomical nomenclature. The substance of this paper is a table in which we compare the anatomical names for the items reviewed in our seminar, in a Spanish version of the old French nomenclature and in the Spanish, Portuguese, and English versions of the currently employed anatomical terms. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  17. Monolithic graphene oxide sheets with controllable composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Jae Hwan; Kwak, Jinsung; Kim, Sung-Dae; Lee, Mi Jin; Kim, Jong Jin; Park, Soon-Dong; Choi, Jae-Kyung; Ryu, Gyeong Hee; Park, Kibog; Kim, Sung Youb; Kim, Ji Hyun; Lee, Zonghoon; Kim, Young-Woon; Kwon, Soon-Yong

    2014-02-28

    Graphene oxide potentially has multiple applications and is typically prepared by solution-based chemical means. To date, the synthesis of a monolithic form of graphene oxide that is crucial to the precision assembly of graphene-based devices has not been achieved. Here we report the physical approach to produce monolithic graphene oxide sheets on copper foil using solid carbon, with tunable oxygen-to-carbon composition. Experimental and theoretical studies show that the copper foil provides an effective pathway for carbon diffusion, trapping the oxygen species dissolved in copper and enabling the formation of monolithic graphene oxide sheets. Unlike chemically derived graphene oxide, the as-synthesized graphene oxide sheets are electrically active, and the oxygen-to-carbon composition can be tuned during the synthesis process. As a result, the resulting graphene oxide sheets exhibit tunable bandgap energy and electronic properties. Our solution-free, physical approach may provide a path to a new class of monolithic, two-dimensional chemically modified carbon sheets.

  18. Connections of Trapezoidal Sheets under Fire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Kallerová

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes two different experiments on connections of trapezoidal sheets under elevated temperatures. The first experiments were tensile tests carried out on four sets of tests with screwed connections under ambient and elevated temperatures. One diameter of self-drilling screws and three different thicknesses of trapezoidal sheets were used. The applied screws were without washers, or with sealed or steel washers. The second experiment was performed in a laboratory furnace to check the catenary action of a thin-walled trapezoidal sheet. The basic theory tested in this experiment was that in the first phase of the fire the sheet behaves as a simply supported beam, while in the second phase the load bearing is transferred by a tension membrane. These experiments will be used to develop a design model of connections at high temperatures. High fire resistance of the trapezoidal sheet, dependent on suitable design of the screwed connection to the bearing structure, was confirmed. The experiment with the simple beam also confirmed catenary action. 

  19. Clouds enhance Greenland ice sheet meltwater runoff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Tricht, K; Lhermitte, S; Lenaerts, J T M; Gorodetskaya, I V; L'Ecuyer, T S; Noël, B; van den Broeke, M R; Turner, D D; van Lipzig, N P M

    2016-01-12

    The Greenland ice sheet has become one of the main contributors to global sea level rise, predominantly through increased meltwater runoff. The main drivers of Greenland ice sheet runoff, however, remain poorly understood. Here we show that clouds enhance meltwater runoff by about one-third relative to clear skies, using a unique combination of active satellite observations, climate model data and snow model simulations. This impact results from a cloud radiative effect of 29.5 (±5.2) W m(-2). Contrary to conventional wisdom, however, the Greenland ice sheet responds to this energy through a new pathway by which clouds reduce meltwater refreezing as opposed to increasing surface melt directly, thereby accelerating bare-ice exposure and enhancing meltwater runoff. The high sensitivity of the Greenland ice sheet to both ice-only and liquid-bearing clouds highlights the need for accurate cloud representations in climate models, to better predict future contributions of the Greenland ice sheet to global sea level rise.

  20. Plasmoid Instability in Forming Current Sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comisso, L.; Lingam, M.; Huang, Y.-M.; Bhattacharjee, A.

    2017-12-01

    The plasmoid instability has revolutionized our understanding of magnetic reconnection in astrophysical environments. By preventing the formation of highly elongated reconnection layers, it is crucial in enabling the rapid energy conversion rates that are characteristic of many astrophysical phenomena. Most previous studies have focused on Sweet-Parker current sheets, which are unattainable in typical astrophysical systems. Here we derive a general set of scaling laws for the plasmoid instability in resistive and visco-resistive current sheets that evolve over time. Our method relies on a principle of least time that enables us to determine the properties of the reconnecting current sheet (aspect ratio and elapsed time) and the plasmoid instability (growth rate, wavenumber, inner layer width) at the end of the linear phase. After this phase the reconnecting current sheet is disrupted and fast reconnection can occur. The scaling laws of the plasmoid instability are not simple power laws, and they depend on the Lundquist number (S), the magnetic Prandtl number (P m ), the noise of the system ({\\psi }0), the characteristic rate of current sheet evolution (1/τ ), and the thinning process. We also demonstrate that previous scalings are inapplicable to the vast majority of astrophysical systems. We explore the implications of the new scaling relations in astrophysical systems such as the solar corona and the interstellar medium. In both of these systems, we show that our scaling laws yield values for the growth rate, wavenumber, and aspect ratio that are much smaller than the Sweet-Parker-based scalings.

  1. Ultrasonic imaging of sheet metal forming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keitmann-Curdes, Oliver; Hansen, Christian; Knoll, Patrick; Meier, Horst; Ermert, Helmut

    2004-04-01

    With sheet metal hydroforming, a sheet metal is formed by a liquid medium under high pressure (up to 1000 bar) and a cavity contour (die). As the exact state of forming is of interest, an ultrasonic imaging system is under development. The task is to determine the geometry of a sheet metal contour with respect to the original (before forming) and the final (die) state of the sheet metal. For this purpose, two different contour reconstruction algorithms were designed, tested and compared. With the reconstruction results it will be possible to determine the optimal distribution of transmitters and receivers in the ultrasonic transducer matrix. Experiments were conducted with one pair of transducers (unfocussed, center frequency 2 MHz) and a three axis stepper motor set-up. For each experimental set of data, the contour was reconstructed with both SAFT reconstruction algorithms. Both algorithms incorporate a priori information such as original and final contour and maximal axial dislocation of the sheet metal. The results for both algorithms are compared and the relative mean error in axial direction is 0.30% and 0.48%.

  2. Anatomical influences on internally coupled ears in reptiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Bruce A

    2016-10-01

    Many reptiles, and other vertebrates, have internally coupled ears in which a patent anatomical connection allows pressure waves generated by the displacement of one tympanic membrane to propagate (internally) through the head and, ultimately, influence the displacement of the contralateral tympanic membrane. The pattern of tympanic displacement caused by this internal coupling can give rise to novel sensory cues. The auditory mechanics of reptiles exhibit more anatomical variation than in any other vertebrate group. This variation includes structural features such as diverticula and septa, as well as coverings of the tympanic membrane. Many of these anatomical features would likely influence the functional significance of the internal coupling between the tympanic membranes. Several of the anatomical components of the reptilian internally coupled ear are under active motor control, suggesting that in some reptiles the auditory system may be more dynamic than previously recognized.

  3. Contribution to the anatomical nomenclature concerning upper limb anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kachlik, David; Musil, Vladimir; Baca, Vaclav

    2017-04-01

    The aim of this article is to revise and extend the existing sections of Terminologia Anatomica dealing with the upper limb structures, which nomenclature belongs to its most neglected and not developing parts, and to justify the use of the proposed anatomical terms in the clinical practice, research, and education. A sample collected from own educational and research experience was matched in the main anatomical textbooks as well as old and recent anatomical journals and compared with four versions of the official Latin anatomical nomenclatures. The authors summarize here 145 terms, completed with their definitions or explanations, concerning both constant and variable (inconstant) morphological structures (bones, joints, muscles, vessels, and nerves) of the pectoral girdle, arm, cubital region, forearm, wrist, and hand, completed with some grammar remarks and several general terms. After a broad discussion on this topic, the Terminologia Anatomica should be revised and extend with the listed terms (or their equivalents).

  4. Anatomical terminology and nomenclature: past, present and highlights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kachlik, David; Baca, Vaclav; Bozdechova, Ivana; Cech, Pavel; Musil, Vladimir

    2008-08-01

    The anatomical terminology is a base for medical communication. It is elaborated into a nomenclature in Latin. Its history goes back to 1895, when the first Latin anatomical nomenclature was published as Basiliensia Nomina Anatomica. It was followed by seven revisions (Jenaiensia Nomina Anatomica 1935, Parisiensia Nomina Anatomica 1955, Nomina Anatomica 2nd to 6th edition 1960-1989). The last revision, Terminologia Anatomica, (TA) created by the Federative Committee on Anatomical Terminology and approved by the International Federation of Associations of Anatomists, was published in 1998. Apart from the official Latin anatomical terminology, it includes a list of recommended English equivalents. In this article, major changes and pitfalls of the nomenclature are discussed, as well as the clinical anatomy terms. The last revision (TA) is highly recommended to the attention of not only teachers, students and researchers, but also to clinicians, doctors, translators, editors and publishers to be followed in their activities.

  5. Patterning of Structurally Anisotropic Composite Hydrogel Sheets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prince, Elisabeth; Alizadehgiashi, Moien; Campbell, Melissa; Khuu, Nancy; Albulescu, Alexandra; De France, Kevin; Ratkov, Dimitrije; Li, Yunfeng; Hoare, Todd; Kumacheva, Eugenia

    2018-04-09

    Compositional and structural patterns play a crucial role in the function of many biological tissues. In the present work, for nanofibrillar hydrogels formed by chemically cross-linked cellulose nanocrystals (CNC) and gelatin, we report a microextrusion-based 3D printing method to generate structurally anisotropic hydrogel sheets with CNCs aligned in the direction of extrusion. We prepared hydrogels with a uniform composition, as well as hydrogels with two different types of compositional gradients. In the first type of gradient hydrogel, the composition of the sheet varied parallel to the direction of CNC alignment. In the second hydrogel type, the composition of the sheet changed orthogonally to the direction of CNC alignment. The hydrogels exhibited gradients in structure, mechanical properties, and permeability, all governed by the compositional patterns, as well as cytocompatibility. These hydrogels have promising applications for both fundamental research and for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine.

  6. Dipole-sheet multipole magnets for accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walstrom, P.L.

    1993-01-01

    The dipole-sheet formalism can be used to describe both cylindrical current-sheet multipole magnets and cylindrical-bore magnets made up of permanent magnet blocks. For current sheets, the formalism provides a natural way of finding a finite set of turns that approximate a continuous distribution. The formalism is especially useful In accelerator applications where large-bore, short, high-field-quality magnets that are dominated by fringe fields are needed. A further advantage of the approach is that in systems with either open or cylindrically symmetric magnetic boundaries, analytical expressions for the three-dimensional fields that are suitable for rapid numerical evaluation can be derived. This development is described in some detail. Also, recent developments in higher-order particle-beam optics codes based on the formalism are described briefly

  7. Symmetry breaking bifurcations of a current sheet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parker, R.D.; Dewar, R.L.; Johnson, J.L.

    1988-08-01

    Using a time evolution code with periodic boundary conditions, the viscoresistive hydromagnetic equations describing an initially static, planar current sheet with large Lundquist number have been evolved for times long enough to reach a steady state. A cosh 2 x resistivity model was used. For long periodicity lengths, L p , the resistivity gradient drives flows which cause forced reconnection at X point current sheets. Using L p as a bifurcation parameter, two new symmetry breaking bifurcations were found - a transition to an asymmetric island chain with nonzero, positive or negative phase velocity, and a transition to a static state with alternating large and small islands. These states are reached after a complex transient behavior which involves a competition between secondary current sheet instability and coalescence. 31 refs., 6 figs

  8. Continuous liquid sheet generator for ion stripping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gavin, B.; Batson, P.; Leemann, B.; Rude, B.

    1984-10-01

    Many of the technical problems of generating a large thin liquid sheet from 0.02 to 0.20 μm thick (3 to 40 μgm/cm 2 ) have been solved. It is shown that this perennial sheet is stable and consonant in dimension. Several ion beam species from the SuperHILAC have been used for evaluation; at 0.11 MeV/n. In one of three modes this sheet serves as an equivalent substitute for a carbon foil. The second mode is characterized by a solid-like charge state distribution but with a varying fraction of unstripped ions. The third mode gives stripping performance akin to a vapor stripping medium. 9 references, 7 figures

  9. Evolution of the MHD sheet pinch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matthaeus, W.H.; Montgomery, D.

    1979-01-01

    A magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) problem of recurrent interest for both astrophysical and laboratory plasmas is the evolution of the unstable sheet pinch, a current sheet across which a dc magnetic field reverses sign. The evolution of such a sheet pinch is followed with a spectral-method, incompressible, two-dimensional, MHD turbulence code. Spectral diagnostics are employed, as are contour plots of vector potential (magnetic field lines), electric current density, and velocity stream function (velocity streamlines). The nonlinear effect which seems most important is seen to be current filamentation: the concentration of the current density onto sets of small measure near a mgnetic X point. A great deal of turbulence is apparent in the current distribution, which, for high Reynolds numbers, requires large spatial grids (greater than or equal to (64) 2 ). 11 figures, 1 table

  10. Automatic anatomical segmentation of the liver by separation planes

    OpenAIRE

    Boltcheva , Dobrina; Passat , Nicolas; Agnus , Vincent; Jacob-Da Col , Marie-Andrée; Ronse , Christian; Soler , Luc

    2006-01-01

    International audience; Surgical planning in oncological liver surgery is based on the location of the 8 anatomical segments according to Couinaud’s definition and tumors inside these structures. The detection of the boundaries between the segments is then the first step of the preoperative planning. The proposed method, devoted to binary images of livers segmented from CT-scans, has been designed to delineate these segments. It automatically detects a set of landmarks using a priori anatomic...

  11. Anatomic anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction using an individualized approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carola F. van Eck

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL reconstruction is one of the most commonly performed orthopaedic procedures. Recently, there has been a shift in interest towards reconstruction techniques that more closely restore the native anatomy of the ACL. This review paper discusses our approach to individualized anatomic ACL reconstruction, including the anatomy of the ACL, the physical exam, imaging modalities, the surgical technique for anatomic reconstruction including pre- and intraoperative considerations and our postoperative rehabilitation protocol.

  12. Corona mortis: an anatomical variation with clinical relevance. Case report.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Adrián Rivera-Cardona

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The obturator artery is one of the parietal branches arising from the internal iliac artery, the anatomical variation from which this artery originates is called “The corona mortis”, generally from the external iliac artery or the inferior epigastric artery. This finding was observed bilaterally in a male cadaver during a pelvis dissection. Clinical consideration of the anatomical variation in the obturator artery, during surgical procedures, is of great importance due to the risk of pelvic hemorrhage.

  13. Ultrasound of the rotator cuff with MRI and anatomic correlation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rutten, Matthieu J.C.M. [Department of Radiology, Jeroen Bosch Hospital, Nieuwstraat 34, 5211 NL ' s-Hertogenbosch (Netherlands)]. E-mail: M.Rutten@JBZ.nl; Maresch, Bas J. [Department of Radiology, Hospital Gelderse Vallei, Willy Brandtlaan 10, 6710 HN Ede (Netherlands)]. E-mail: MareschB@zgv.nl; Jager, Gerrit J. [Department of Radiology, Jeroen Bosch Hospital, Nieuwstraat 34, 5211 NL ' s-Hertogenbosch (Netherlands)]. E-mail: G.Jager@JBZ.nl; Blickman, Johan G. [Department of Radiology, University Medical Center Nijmegen, Geert Grooteplein Zuid 18, 6500 HB Nijmegen (Netherlands)]. E-mail: J.Blickman@rad.umcn.nl; Holsbeeck, Marnix T. van [Department of Radiology, Henry Ford Hospital, 2799 W Grand Boulevard, Detroit, MI 48202 (United States)]. E-mail: vanholsbeeck@comcast.net

    2007-06-15

    Magnetic resonance imaging and high-resolution ultrasound (US) are frequently used for the detection of rotator cuff tears. The diagnostic yield of US is influenced by several factors as technique, knowledge of the imaging characteristics of anatomic and pathologic findings and of pitfalls. The purpose of this article is to illustrates that the standardized high-resolution US examination of the shoulder covers the entire rotator cuff and correlates with MR imaging and anatomic sections.

  14. Anatomical knee postero-lateral corner reconstruction: The "Versailles" technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murgier, J; Boisrenoult, P; Steltzlen, C; Beaufils, P; Pujol, N

    2017-11-01

    Postero-lateral knee instability raises surgical challenges. Of the many available reconstruction techniques, few ensure anatomical reconstruction of the postero-lateral corner (PLC). The "Versailles" technique ensures the anatomical reconstruction of the three main PLC stabilisers (lateral collateral ligament, popliteus tendon, and popliteo-fibular ligament) by using either a hamstring autograft or a tendon allograft. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. W-Band Sheet Beam Klystron Design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheitrum, G.; Caryotakis, G.; Burke, A.; Jensen, A.; Jongewaard, E.; Krasnykh, A.; Neubauer, M.; Phillips, R.; Rauenbuehler, K.

    2011-01-01

    Sheet beam devices provide important advantages for very high power, narrow bandwidth RF sources like accelerator klystrons (1). Reduced current density and increased surface area result in increased power capabi1ity, reduced magnetic fields for focusing and reduced cathode loading. These advantages are offset by increased complexity, beam formation and transport issues and potential for mode competition in the ovennoded cavities and drift tube. This paper will describe the design issues encountered in developing a 100 kW peak and 2 kW average power sheet beam k1ystron at W-band including beam formation, beam transport, circuit design, circuit fabrication and mode competition.

  16. Assembly for testing weldability of sheet metal

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, S.A.; Woodhouse, J.J.

    A test assembly for determining the weldability of sheet metal includes (1) a circular plate having an annular groove in one side thereof, a counterbore being formed in the outer wall of said groove and the surface portion of said base circumscribed by the inner wall of said groove being coplanar with the bottom of said counterbore, (2) a test disk of sheet metal the periphery of which is positioned in said counterbore and the outer surface of which is coplanar with said one side of said base, and (3) means for holding the periphery of said test disk against the bottom of said counterbore.

  17. Balance Sheet Capacity and Endogenous Risk

    OpenAIRE

    Jon Danielsson; Hyun Song Shin; Jean-Pierre Zigrand

    2011-01-01

    Banks operating under Value-at-Risk constraints give rise to a well-defined aggregate balance sheet capacity for the banking sector as a whole that depends on total bank capital. Equilibrium risk and market risk premiums can be solved in closed form as functions of aggregate bank capital. We explore the empirical properties of the model in light of recent experience in the financial crisis and highlight the importance of balance sheet capacity as the driver of the financial cycle and market r...

  18. Balance Velocities of the Greenland Ice Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joughin, Ian; Fahnestock, Mark; Ekholm, Simon; Kwok, Ron

    1997-01-01

    We present a map of balance velocities for the Greenland ice sheet. The resolution of the underlying DEM, which was derived primarily from radar altimetry data, yields far greater detail than earlier balance velocity estimates for Greenland. The velocity contours reveal in striking detail the location of an ice stream in northeastern Greenland, which was only recently discovered using satellite imagery. Enhanced flow associated with all of the major outlets is clearly visible, although small errors in the source data result in less accurate estimates of the absolute flow speeds. Nevertheless, the balance map is useful for ice-sheet modelling, mass balance studies, and field planning.

  19. The linguistic roots of Modern English anatomical terminology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turmezei, Tom D

    2012-11-01

    Previous research focusing on Classical Latin and Greek roots has shown that understanding the etymology of English anatomical terms may be beneficial for students of human anatomy. However, not all anatomical terms are derived from Classical origins. This study aims to explore the linguistic roots of the Modern English terminology used in human gross anatomy. By reference to the Oxford English Dictionary, etymologies were determined for a lexicon of 798 Modern English gross anatomical terms from the 40(th) edition of Gray's Anatomy. Earliest traceable language of origin was determined for all 798 terms; language of acquisition was determined for 747 terms. Earliest traceable languages of origin were: Classical Latin (62%), Classical Greek (24%), Old English (7%), Post-Classical Latin (3%), and other (4%). Languages of acquisition were: Classical Latin (42%), Post-Classical Latin (29%), Old English (8%), Modern French (6%), Classical Greek (5%), Middle English (3%), and other (7%). While the roots of Modern English anatomical terminology mostly lie in Classical languages (accounting for the origin of 86% of terms), the anatomical lexicon of Modern English is actually much more diverse. Interesting and perhaps less familiar examples from these languages and the methods by which such terms have been created and absorbed are discussed. The author suggests that awareness of anatomical etymologies may enhance the enjoyment and understanding of human anatomy for students and teachers alike. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Reappraising the functional implications of the primate visual anatomical hierarchy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegdé, Jay; Felleman, Daniel J

    2007-10-01

    The primate visual system has been shown to be organized into an anatomical hierarchy by the application of a few principled criteria. It has been widely assumed that cortical visual processing is also hierarchical, with the anatomical hierarchy providing a defined substrate for clear levels of hierarchical function. A large body of empirical evidence seemed to support this assumption, including the general observations that functional properties of visual neurons grow progressively more complex at progressively higher levels of the anatomical hierarchy. However, a growing body of evidence, including recent direct experimental comparisons of functional properties at two or more levels of the anatomical hierarchy, indicates that visual processing neither is hierarchical nor parallels the anatomical hierarchy. Recent results also indicate that some of the pathways of visual information flow are not hierarchical, so that the anatomical hierarchy cannot be taken as a strict flowchart of visual information either. Thus, while the sustaining strength of the notion of hierarchical processing may be that it is rather simple, its fatal flaw is that it is overly simplistic.

  1. Toledo School of Translators and their influence on anatomical terminology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arráez-Aybar, Luis-Alfonso; Bueno-López, José-L; Raio, Nicolas

    2015-03-01

    Translation facilitates transmission of knowledge between cultures. The fundamental transfer of anatomic terminology from the Ancient Greek and Islamic Golden Age cultures, to medieval Latin Christendom took place in the so-called Toledo School of Translators in the 12th-13th centuries. Translations made in Toledo circulated widely across Europe. They were the foundation of scientific thinking that was born in the boards of first universities. In Toledo, Gerard of Cremona translated Avicenna's Canon of Medicine, the key work of Islamic Golden Age of medicine. Albertus Magnus, Mondino de Luzzi and Guy de Chauliac, the leading authors of anatomical Latin words in the Middle Ages, founded their books on Gerard's translations. The anatomical terms of the Canon retain auctoritas up to the Renaissance. Thus, terms coined by Gerard such as diaphragm, orbit, pupil or sagittal remain relevant in the current official anatomical terminology. The aim of the present paper is to bring new attention to the highly significant influence that the Toledo School of Translators had in anatomical terminology. For this, we shall review here the onomastic origins of a number of anatomical terms (additamentum; coracoid process; coxal; false ribs; femur; panniculus; spondylus; squamous sutures; thorax; xiphoid process, etc.) which are still used today. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  2. [Ten years after the latest revision International Anatomical Terminology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kachlík, D; Bozdechová, I; Cech, P; Musil, V; Báca, V

    2008-01-01

    Ten years ago, the latest revision of the Latin anatomical nomenclature was approved and published as Terminologia Anatomica (International Anatomical Terminology), and is acknowledged by the organization uniting national anatomical societies--International Federation of Associations of Anatomists. The authors concentrate on new terms included in the nomenclature and on the linguistic changes of terminology. The most frequent errors done by medical specialists in the usage of the Latin anatomical terminology are emphasized and the situation of eponyms in contemporary anatomy is discussed in detail as well. The last version of the nomenclature makes its way very slowly in the professional community and it is necessary to refer to positive changes and advantages it has brought. The usage of this Latin anatomical nomenclature version is suggested by the International Federation to follow in theoretical and clinical fields of medicine. The authors of the article strongly recommend using the recent revision of the Latin anatomical nomenclature both in the oral and written forms, when educating and publishing.

  3. A new approach to developing a fugitive road dust emission inventory and emission trend from 2006 to 2010 in the beijing metropolitan area, china.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Shoubin; Tian, Gang; Cheng, Shuiyuan; Qin, Jianping

    2013-07-01

    The USEPA emission factor (AP-42) of fugitive road dust (FRD) is widely used in establishing emission inventories. However, road silt loading sampling for AP-42 is expensive, time consuming, and dangerous. Therefore, a new method for establishing emission inventories based on road dust-fall (DF) monitors is described. Between January 2006 and December 2010, DF was monitored at 40 sites (80 samples), and background dust fall (DF) was monitored at 14 sites in the Beijing metropolitan area. Also during this period, 58 samples of road silt loadings were taken and used in the AP-42 emission factor equation to calculate FRD with particulate matter ≤10 μm in diameter [FRD(PM)] emission from the roads. Simultaneous measurement of FRD(PM) emissions calculated by AP-42 and ΔDF (i.e., the difference between the DF and DF) measured using gauges showed that the FRD(PM) emission for road dust was proportional to the ΔDF ( = 0.92). The FRD(PM) emission (kg km × 30 d) was calculated using the monitored ΔDF (t km × 30 d) by the formulation FRD(PM) = 278.3 × ΔDF - 1151.2. The ΔDF showed a general decline from 2006 to 2010. In particular, there was a sharp decline in August, September, and October 2008 due to strict dust controls enforced during the 2008 Olympic Games. Although there was a small increase in ΔDF after the Games, by the end of 2010 values were still lower than those before the Games. Using the 2006 ΔDF value as a benchmark, ΔDF values declined by 24.7, 33.0, 38.3, and 31.4% in 2007, 2008, 2009, and 2010, respectively. Based on using AP-42 calculations from silt loading and traffic information in 2007, the FRD(PM) emission distribution in the Beijing metropolitan area was mapped, and there were 2.05 × 10 tons of FRD(PM) emitted in 2007. The FRD(PM) from 2006 to 2010 was calculated by the ΔDF values. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  4. Contribution to the anatomical nomenclature concerning general anatomy and anatomical variations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kachlik, David; Musil, Vladimir; Baca, Vaclav

    2016-09-01

    Nomenclature of the general and variant anatomy belongs to the most neglected parts of the Latin anatomical nomenclature in Terminologia Anatomica. Although many important small structures are included in Terminologia Anatomica, when describing and teaching particular anatomy of any part of the human body, the general terms are necessary, such as planes, lines and flexion grooves. Moreover, Terminologia Anatomica contains only 149 terms of variant structures, enlisted in the parentheses to differentiate them from constant ones. They are only a rather representative selection and some more should be added, both from the educational and clinical point of view. The authors present some terms, completed with their definitions or explanations concerning the general and variant anatomy to evoke broader discussion on this topic which should issue in incorporation of proposed terms (or their equivalents) into the Terminologia Anatomica.

  5. Relation between current sheets and vortex sheets in stationary incompressible MHD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. H. Nickeler

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Magnetohydrodynamic configurations with strong localized current concentrations and vortices play an important role in the dissipation of energy in space and astrophysical plasma. Within this work we investigate the relation between current sheets and vortex sheets in incompressible, stationary equilibria. For this approach it is helpful that the similar mathematical structure of magnetohydrostatics and stationary incompressible hydrodynamics allows us to transform static equilibria into stationary ones. The main control function for such a transformation is the profile of the Alfvén-Mach number MA, which is always constant along magnetic field lines, but can change from one field line to another. In the case of a global constant MA, vortices and electric current concentrations are parallel. More interesting is the nonlinear case, where MA varies perpendicular to the field lines. This is a typical situation at boundary layers like the magnetopause, heliopause, the solar wind flowing around helmet streamers and at the boundary of solar coronal holes. The corresponding current and vortex sheets show in some cases also an alignment, but not in every case. For special density distributions in 2-D, it is possible to have current but no vortex sheets. In 2-D, vortex sheets of field aligned-flows can also exist without strong current sheets, taking the limit of small Alfvén Mach numbers into account. The current sheet can vanish if the Alfvén Mach number is (almost constant and the density gradient is large across some boundary layer. It should be emphasized that the used theory is not only valid for small Alfvén Mach numbers MA MA ≲ 1. Connection to other theoretical approaches and observations and physical effects in space plasmas are presented. Differences in the various aspects of theoretical investigations of current sheets and vortex sheets are given.

  6. Laminin-521 Promotes Rat Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cell Sheet Formation on Light-Induced Cell Sheet Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiwei Jiang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Rat bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell sheets (rBMSC sheets are attractive for cell-based tissue engineering. However, methods of culturing rBMSC sheets are critically limited. In order to obtain intact rBMSC sheets, a light-induced cell sheet method was used in this study. TiO2 nanodot films were coated with (TL or without (TN laminin-521. We investigated the effects of laminin-521 on rBMSCs during cell sheet culturing. The fabricated rBMSC sheets were subsequently assessed to study cell sheet viability, reattachment ability, cell sheet thickness, collagen type I deposition, and multilineage potential. The results showed that laminin-521 could promote the formation of rBMSC sheets with good viability under hyperconfluent conditions. Cell sheet thickness increased from an initial 26.7 ± 1.5 μm (day 5 up to 47.7 ± 3.0 μm (day 10. Moreover, rBMSC sheets maintained their potential of osteogenic, adipogenic, and chondrogenic differentiation. This study provides a new strategy to obtain rBMSC sheets using light-induced cell sheet technology.

  7. Nuclear Data Sheets for A=213

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basunia, M.S.

    2007-01-01

    Evaluated spectroscopic data and level schemes from radioactive decay and nuclear reaction studies are presented for all nuclei with mass number A=213. This evaluation for A=213 supersedes the earlier one by Y. A. Akovali (1992Ak01), published in Nuclear Data Sheets 66, 237 (1992)

  8. Solar Technical Assistance Team (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2012-07-01

    The Solar Technical Assistance Team (STAT) is a team of solar technology and deployment experts who ensure that the best information on policies, regulations, financing, and other issues is getting into the hands of state government decision makers whey they need it. This fact sheet provides information about STAT and the STAT webinar series for the summer of 2012.

  9. TSCA Chemical Data Reporting Fact Sheet: Articles

    Science.gov (United States)

    This fact sheet provides guidance on classifying articles under the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) and determining the applicability of EPA’s articles exclusion policy for purposes of the Chemical Data Reporting (CDR) rule. The primary goal of this document is to help the regulated community comply with the requirements of the CDR rule.

  10. Nuclear Data Sheets for A=213

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basunia, M. S.

    2007-03-01

    Evaluated spectroscopic data and level schemes from radioactive decay and nuclear reaction studies are presented for all nuclei with mass number A=213. This evaluation for A=213 supersedes the earlier one by Y. A. Akovali (1992Ak01), published in Nuclear Data Sheets 66, 237 (1992).

  11. Renewable Energy Project Development Assistance (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2013-07-01

    This fact sheet provides information on the Tribes selected to receive assistance from the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Indian Energy 2013 Strategic Technical Assistance Response Team (START) Program, which provides technical expertise to support the development of next-generation energy projects on tribal lands.

  12. Recent Progress in Greenland Ice Sheet Modelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goelzer, Heiko; Robinson, Alexander; Seroussi, Helene; Van De Wal, Roderik S.w.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose of Review This paper reviews the recent literature on numerical modelling of the dynamics of the Greenland ice sheet with the goal of providing an overview of advancements and to highlight important directions of future research. In particular, the review is focused on large-scale modelling

  13. Sheet Membrane Spacesuit Water Membrane Evaporator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bue, Grant; Trevino, Luis; Zapata, Felipe; Dillion, Paul; Castillo, Juan; Vonau, Walter; Wilkes, Robert; Vogel, Matthew; Frodge, Curtis

    2013-01-01

    A document describes a sheet membrane spacesuit water membrane evaporator (SWME), which allows for the use of one common water tank that can supply cooling water to the astronaut and to the evaporator. Test data showed that heat rejection performance dropped only 6 percent after being subjected to highly contaminated water. It also exhibited robustness with respect to freezing and Martian atmospheric simulation testing. Water was allowed to freeze in the water channels during testing that simulated a water loop failure and vapor backpressure valve failure. Upon closing the backpressure valve and energizing the pump, the ice eventually thawed and water began to flow with no apparent damage to the sheet membrane. The membrane evaporator also serves to de-gas the water loop from entrained gases, thereby eliminating the need for special degassing equipment such as is needed by the current spacesuit system. As water flows through the three annular water channels, water evaporates with the vapor flowing across the hydrophobic, porous sheet membrane to the vacuum side of the membrane. The rate at which water evaporates, and therefore, the rate at which the flowing water is cooled, is a function of the difference between the water saturation pressure on the water side of the membrane, and the pressure on the vacuum side of the membrane. The primary theory is that the hydrophobic sheet membrane retains water, but permits vapor pass-through when the vapor side pressure is less than the water saturation pressure. This results in evaporative cooling of the remaining water.

  14. World War II Informational Fact Sheets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Department of Defense, Washington, DC.

    This commemorative book provides numerous fact sheets on various aspects of World War II, both on the fighting front and the homefront. Replicas of posters of the war era, descriptions of battles with maps, contributions of women and minorities to the war effort, even music of the wartime era, add to this collection of resource materials useful to…

  15. Full size testing of sheet pile walls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuilen, J.W.G. van de; Linden, M.L.R. van der; Katsma, H.; Stolle, P.

    1996-01-01

    Azobé (Lophira alata) is widely used in timber sheet pile walls in the Netherlands. The boards in these walls are coupled and therefore load-sharing can be expected. A simulation model based on the finite element method DIANA (DIANA, 1992) was developed and load-sharing could be calculated. To check

  16. Greenland ice sheet mass balance: a review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khan, Shfaqat Abbas; Aschwanden, Andy; Bjørk, Anders A.

    2015-01-01

    Over the past quarter of a century the Arctic has warmed more than any other region on Earth, causing a profound impact on the Greenland ice sheet (GrIS) and its contribution to the rise in global sea level. The loss of ice can be partitioned into processes related to surface mass balance...... realistic future sea-level changes....

  17. The state of the Greenland Ice Sheet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Sebastian Bjerregaard

    Firn is defined as snow that has survived a melt season and provides the link between the high-frequency variability of the atmosphere to the ”slower” reacting ice sheet.In this thesis, firn is described by a theoretical and statistical approach to accommodate the variability in observed firn...

  18. Electronic properties of curved graphene sheets

    OpenAIRE

    Cortijo, Alberto; Vozmediano, Maria A. H.

    2006-01-01

    A model is proposed to study the electronic structure of slightly curved graphene sheets with an arbitrary number of pentagon-heptagon pairs and Stone-Wales defects based on a cosmological analogy. The disorder induced by curvature produces characteristic patterns in the local density of states that can be observed in scanning tunnel and transmission electron microscopy.

  19. Warm Deep Drawing of Aluminium Sheet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bolt, P.J.; Werkhoven, R.J.; van den Boogaard, Antonius H.

    2003-01-01

    Aluminium sheet drawing processes can be improved by manipulating local flow behaviour by means of elevated temperatures and temperature gradients in the tooling. Forming tests showed that a substantial improvement is possible not only for 5xxx but also for 6xxx series alloys. Finite element method

  20. Lubricant failure in sheet metal forming processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Heide, Emile

    2002-01-01

    The application of tribology to sheet metal forming processes (SMF) contributes to a general industrial aim i.e., to make products of high quality at an increasingly competitive way, by enhancing the tool life and maintaining a constant level of friction during forming. Both aspects are served by

  1. Geometry task sheets : grades 3-5

    CERN Document Server

    Rosenberg, Mary

    2009-01-01

    For grades 3-5, our Common Core State Standards-based resource meets the geometry concepts addressed by the NCTM standards and encourages the students to learn and review the concepts in unique ways. Each task sheet is organized around a central problem taken from real-life experiences of the students.

  2. Algebra task sheets : grades pk-2

    CERN Document Server

    Reed, Nat

    2009-01-01

    For grades PK-2, our Common Core State Standards-based resource meets the algebraic concepts addressed by the NCTM standards and encourages the students to learn and review the concepts in unique ways. Each task sheet is organized around a central problem taken from real-life experiences of the students.

  3. Geometry task sheets : grades pk-2

    CERN Document Server

    Rosenberg, Mary

    2009-01-01

    For grades PK-2, our Common Core State Standards-based resource meets the geometry concepts addressed by the NCTM standards and encourages the students to learn and review the concepts in unique ways. Each task sheet is organized around a central problem taken from real-life experiences of the students.

  4. beta-sheet preferences from first principles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rossmeisl, Jan; Bækgaard, Iben Sig Buur; Gregersen, Misha Marie

    2003-01-01

    The natural amino acids have different preferences of occurring in specific types of secondary protein structure. Simulations are performed on periodic model â-sheets of 14 different amino acids, at the level of density functional theory, employing the generalized gradient approximation. We find ...

  5. The stretch zone of automotive steel sheets

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    on steel grade, on the rolling direction as well as on the loading rate. Stretch zones ... This interaction is demonstrated at a fracture surface as a bounded transition between initiatory crack (e.g., fatigue) and either ... The materials examined in this study are three grades of thin automotive steel sheets: XSG,. HR 45 and DP.

  6. French electric power balance sheet 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lartigau, Thierry; Pierron, Helene

    2008-01-01

    The mission of RTE, the French electricity Transportation grid, a public service assignment, is to balance the electricity supply and demand in real time. This report presents RTE's technical results for the year 2007: key figures of the electricity balance sheet, progresses in the implementation of market mechanisms, durable rise of RTE's investment, and RTE's commitment in sustainable development

  7. Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID) Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Search Form Controls Cancel Submit Search the CDC Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID) Note: Javascript is disabled or is not supported ... Twitter STD on Facebook Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs) Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID) - CDC Fact Sheet Language: English (US) Español ( ...

  8. Pure niobium sheet formability limits hydroforming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collard, J.; Daumas, M.T.

    1986-04-01

    Sheets of niobium of 3 different thicknesses (0.1 mm, 1 mm and 2 mm) are deep-drawn by isostatic forming, influence of plane anisotropy and thickness are studied and deformation of the hydroformed niobium is observed. Forming limit curves are determined [fr

  9. Guided bone regeneration using individualized ceramic sheets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malmström, J; Anderud, J; Abrahamsson, P; Wälivaara, D-Å; Isaksson, S G; Adolfsson, E

    2016-10-01

    Guided bone regeneration (GBR) describes the use of membranes to regenerate bony defects. A membrane for GBR needs to be biocompatible, cell-occlusive, non-toxic, and mouldable, and possess space-maintaining properties including stability. The purpose of this pilot study was to describe a new method of GBR using individualized ceramic sheets to perfect bone regeneration prior to implant placement; bone regeneration was assessed using traditional histology and three-dimensional (3D) volumetric changes in the bone and soft tissue. Three patients were included. After full-thickness flap reflection, the individualized ceramic sheets were fixed. The sites were left to heal for 7 months. All patients were evaluated preoperatively and at 7 months postoperative using cone beam computed tomography and 3D optical equipment. Samples of the regenerated bone and soft tissue were collected and analyzed. The bone regenerated in the entire interior volume of all sheets. Bone biopsies revealed newly formed trabecular bone with a lamellar structure. Soft tissue biopsies showed connective tissue with no signs of an inflammatory response. This was considered to be newly formed periosteum. Thus ceramic individualized sheets can be used to regenerate large volumes of bone in both vertical and horizontal directions independent of the bone defect and with good biological acceptance of the material. Copyright © 2016 International Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Global thermodynamics of a polar ice sheet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veen, C.J. van der; Oerlemans, J.

    1984-01-01

    In this paper, the global characteristics of a polar ice sheet are investigated. When looking at a drainage system as a whole, conservation of heat yields a very simple functional relation. Coupling this relation to an equation describing the large-scale dynamics of a drainage system makes it

  11. Laboratory Powder Metallurgy Makes Tough Aluminum Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royster, D. M.; Thomas, J. R.; Singleton, O. R.

    1993-01-01

    Aluminum alloy sheet exhibits high tensile and Kahn tear strengths. Rapid solidification of aluminum alloys in powder form and subsequent consolidation and fabrication processes used to tailor parts made of these alloys to satisfy such specific aerospace design requirements as high strength and toughness.

  12. Validation and Design of Sheet Retrofits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-31

    optimum for utilizing the entire strength of the polypropylene sheet. The amount of bolts used to provide the sample fixity may also be impractical for...consists of fixity , where the top and bottom sections of the wall are prevented from rotation until failure of the wall. With this boundary condition

  13. Chemical Data Reporting Fact Sheet: Basic Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA collects information on the types and quantities of chemicals produced in the U.S under the Chemical Data Reporting (CDR) requirements. This fact sheet outlines key information about CDR, including what data are collected and how the data are used.

  14. Chemical Data Reporting Fact Sheet: Chemicals Snapshot

    Science.gov (United States)

    This fact sheet provides a brief overview of the chemical manufacturing, processing, and use information collected for the 2012 Chemical Data Reporting (CDR) rule. Users do not have access to the complete CDR data set and should draw conclusions with care.

  15. Fatigue Specimens for Sheet and Plate Material

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schijve, J.

    1998-01-01

    The usefulness of simple sheet and plate specimens is discussed for various experimental research purposes. Specimens should be representative as much as possible for the conditions of fatigue problems in practice, which is more difficult to achieve for the fatigue crack initiation phase than for

  16. Primary rhegmatogenous retinal detachment - surgical methods and anatomical outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haugstad, Marta; Moosmayer, Stefan; Bragadόttir, Ragnheiður

    2017-05-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the anatomical success of surgical management of primary rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RRD) and to compare the anatomical outcomes from different surgical techniques. During 2012, 517 consecutive eyes (514 patients) were operated by 11 surgeons at the Department of Ophthalmology, Oslo University Hospital. Patient records were retrospectively analysed with no exclusions. Main outcome measures were primary and final anatomical success. Primary anatomical success was defined as retinal reattachment 6 months after primary surgery with reoperations excluded. Final anatomical success was defined as retinal reattachment 6 months after primary surgery with reoperations included. Incidence of RRD was 18.6 eyes per 100 000 person-years. The macula was detached in 50.5% of the eyes at baseline. Of 517 operated eyes, 317 (61.3%) underwent pars plana vitrectomy (PPV), 23 (4.5%) pars plana vitrectomy together with a scleral buckle (PPV-SB), 175 (33.9%) scleral buckle (SB) surgery and two (0.4%) pneumatic retinopexy (PR). Primary anatomical success was 89.0% in the PPV group, 87.0% in the PPV-SB group and 85.7% in the SB group. Final anatomical success was 98.1% in the PPV group, 100% in the PPV-SB group and 99.4% in the SB group. Factors which were correlated to the redetachment were detachment of more than 6 clock hours (p = 0.003) and visual acuity (VA) on Snellen chart retina were large detachment and low VA. © 2016 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Exposure age and ice-sheet model constraints on Pliocene East Antarctic ice sheet dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamane, Masako; Yokoyama, Yusuke; Abe-Ouchi, Ayako; Obrochta, Stephen; Saito, Fuyuki; Moriwaki, Kiichi; Matsuzaki, Hiroyuki

    2015-04-24

    The Late Pliocene epoch is a potential analogue for future climate in a warming world. Here we reconstruct Plio-Pleistocene East Antarctic Ice Sheet (EAIS) variability using cosmogenic nuclide exposure ages and model simulations to better understand ice sheet behaviour under such warm conditions. New and previously published exposure ages indicate interior-thickening during the Pliocene. An ice sheet model with mid-Pliocene boundary conditions also results in interior thickening and suggests that both the Wilkes Subglacial and Aurora Basins largely melted, offsetting increased ice volume. Considering contributions from West Antarctica and Greenland, this is consistent with the most recent IPCC AR5 estimate, which indicates that the Pliocene sea level likely did not exceed +20 m on Milankovitch timescales. The inception of colder climate since ∼3 Myr has increased the sea ice cover and inhibited active moisture transport to Antarctica, resulting in reduced ice sheet thickness, at least in coastal areas.

  18. Semiconductor Manufacturing Final Air Toxics Rules Fact Sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page contains a February 2003 fact sheet for the final NESHAP for Semiconductor Manufacturing. This page also contains a July 2008 fact sheet with information regarding the final amendments to the 2003 final rule for the NESHAP.

  19. Drinking Water Fact Sheet: Drinking Water Treatment Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Mesner, Nancy; Daniels, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    This fact sheet provides information about drinking water treatment systems. This fact sheet discusses different types of water treatment systems available to homeowners. It includes a table with water contaminants or problems, possible causes of the problem, and solutions.

  20. A Case Study and Balance Sheet Approach to Unemployment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesketh, Beryl; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Describes positive and negative aspects of employment and unemployment in a balance sheet framework. Discusses the value of the balance sheet approach in understanding individual differences in reactions to unemployment. (Author/KS)

  1. [ANATOMICAL PREPARATIONS IN MUSEUMS A SPECIAL CATEGORY OF CULTURAL HERITAGE].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monza, Francesca; Licata, Marta

    2015-01-01

    The international debate on the issue of human remains in museums and on the ethical issues related to their exhibition stimulates reflection on the Italian anatomical collections and on their preparations. A definition of human remains or of anatomical preparation does not exist in the Italian legislation. The anatomical specimens in museums are protected by the laws of Cultural Heritage as part of public collections, but their status is not well defined. By their nature of human material they would in fact be considered as a special category of Cultural Heritage. Because they are part of a cadaver they can be regarded as res nullius, but since treated with special techniques they could also change their meaning and being considered a species nova. Finally, it reflects on the possibility of creating a museum in Italy composed by new anatomical preparations. The article outline the contours of a museological issue that deserves to be investigated in order to better identify the anatomical preparations and their management in museums.

  2. CT following US for possible appendicitis: anatomic coverage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Malley, Martin E. [University of Toronto, Princess Margaret Hospital, 3-920, Joint Department of Medical Imaging, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Alharbi, Fawaz [University of Toronto, Toronto General Hospital, NCSB 1C572, Joint Department of Medical Imaging, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Qassim University, Department of Medical Imaging, Buraydah, Qassim (Saudi Arabia); Chawla, Tanya P. [University of Toronto, Mount Sinai Hospital, Room 567, Joint Department of Medical Imaging, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Moshonov, Hadas [University of Toronto, Joint Department of Medical Imaging, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

    2016-02-15

    To determine superior-inferior anatomic borders for CT following inconclusive/nondiagnostic US for possible appendicitis. Ninety-nine patients with possible appendicitis and inconclusive/nondiagnostic US followed by CT were included in this retrospective study. Two radiologists reviewed CT images and determined superior-inferior anatomic borders required to diagnose or exclude appendicitis and diagnose alternative causes. This ''targeted'' coverage was used to estimate potential reduction in anatomic coverage compared to standard abdominal/pelvic CT. The study group included 83 women and 16 men; mean age 32 (median, 29; range 18-73) years. Final diagnoses were: nonspecific abdominal pain 50/99 (51 %), appendicitis 26/99 (26 %), gynaecological 12/99 (12 %), gastrointestinal 9/99 (10 %), and musculoskeletal 2/99 (2 %). Median dose-length product for standard CT was 890.0 (range, 306.3 - 2493.9) mGy.cm. To confidently diagnose/exclude appendicitis or identify alternative diagnoses, maximum superior-inferior anatomic CT coverage was the superior border of L2-superior border of pubic symphysis, for both reviewers. Targeted CT would reduce anatomic coverage by 30-55 % (mean 39 %, median 40 %) compared to standard CT. When CT is performed for appendicitis following inconclusive/nondiagnostic US, targeted CT from the superior border of L2-superior border of pubic symphysis can be used resulting in significant reduction in exposure to ionizing radiation compared to standard CT. (orig.)

  3. Anatomical success in patients after retinectomy for complex retinal detachment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukhtar, A.; Ishaq, M.; Islam, Q.U.

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of primary and redo retinectomy in eyes with complex retinal detachment. Study Design: Quasi-experimental study. Place and Duration of Study: Armed Forces Institute of Ophthalmology Rawalpindi from Jan 2012 to June 2013. Patients and Methods: Fifty eight eyes (patients) underwent relaxing retinectomies for complex retinal detachment with proliferative vitreoretinopathy or intrinsic retinal shortening. Operative technique included pars plana vitrectomy, proliferative vitreoretinopathy management, use of intraoperative perfluorocarbon liquid, retinectomy, endolaser and intraocular temponade. The main outcome was anatomic success, defined as complete retinal reattachment at four months follow up. Eighteen eyes out of the same primary group underwent second retinectomy because of anatomical failure. Results: Mean age of study population was 53.78 ± 15.11 years, 56.9% of patients were male(s). Anatomic success rate after 1st retinectomy was achieved in 68.96% (40 eyes out of 58). In eighteen eyes that underwent 2nd retinectomy, anatomic success rate was 72.22% (13 eyes out of 18). Overall success rate was 91.3% (53 eyes out of 58) in our study. Conclusions: Relaxing retinectomies for retinal shortening can improve the anatomical success rate in patients with complex RD. (author)

  4. Electromagnetic augmentation for casting of thin metal sheets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hull, John R. (Hinsdale, IL)

    1989-01-01

    Thin metal sheets are cast by magnetically levitating molten metal deposited in a mold within a ferromagnetic yoke and between AC conducting coils and linearly displacing the magnetically levitated liquid metal while it is being cooled by the water-cooled walls of the mold to form a solid metal sheet. A conducting shield is electrically coupled to the molten metal sheet to provide a return path for eddy currents induced in the metal sheet by the current in the AC conducting coils. In another embodiment, a DC conducting coil is coupled to the metal sheet for providing a direct current therein which interacts with the magnetic field to levitate the moving metal sheet. Levitation of the metal sheet in both molten and solid forms reduces its contact pressure with the mold walls while maintaining sufficient engagement therebetween to permit efficient conductive cooling by the mold through which a coolant fluid may be circulated. The magnetic fields associated with the currents in the aforementioned coils levitate the molten metal sheet while the mold provides for its lateral and vertical confinement. A leader sheet having electromagnetic characteristics similar to those of the molten metal sheet is used to start the casing process and precedes the molten metal sheet through the yoke/coil arrangement and mold and forms a continuous sheet therewith. The yoke/coil arrangement may be either U-shaped with a single racetrack coil or may be rectangular with a pair of spaced, facing bedstead coils.

  5. Reducing Test Anxiety while Increasing Learning: The Cheat Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erbe, Brigitte

    2007-01-01

    Student learning is greatly enhanced by studying prior to an exam. Allowing students to prepare a cheat sheet for the exam helps structure this study time and deepens learning. The crib sheet is well defined: one double-sided page of notes. An award for the best and most creative cheat sheet allows the instructor to appreciate the students'…

  6. Crib Sheets and Exam Performance in a Data Structures Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamouda, Sally; Shaffer, Clifford A.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we study the relationship between the use of "crib sheets" or "cheat sheets" and performance on in-class exams. Our extensive survey of the existing literature shows that it is not decisive on the questions of when or whether crib sheets actually help students to either perform better on an exam or better learn…

  7. 49 CFR 1243.2 - Condensed balance sheet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Condensed balance sheet. 1243.2 Section 1243.2... § 1243.2 Condensed balance sheet. Commencing with reports for the 3 months beginning January 1, 1972, and... hereby, required to compile and file quarterly reports of balance sheet items in accordance with...

  8. Analysis of Financial Position Based on the Balance Sheet

    OpenAIRE

    Spineanu-Georgescu Luciana

    2011-01-01

    Analysis of financial position based on the balance sheet is mainly aimed at assessing the extent to which financial structure chosen by the firm, namely, financial resources, covering the needs reflected in the balance sheet financed. This is done through an analysis known as horizontal analysis balance sheet financial imbalances.

  9. The Greenland Ice Sheet Monitoring Network (GLISN)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, K. R.; Beaudoin, B. C.; Butler, R.; Clinton, J. F.; Dahl-Jensen, T.; Ekstrom, G.; Giardini, D.; Govoni, A.; Hanka, W.; Kanao, M.; Larsen, T.; Lasocki, S.; McCormack, D. A.; Mykkeltveit, S.; Nettles, M.; Agostinetti, N. P.; Stutzmann, E.; Tsuboi, S.; Voss, P.

    2010-12-01

    The GreenLand Ice Sheet monitoring Network (GLISN) is an international, broadband seismic capability for Greenland, being installed and implemented through the collaboration of Denmark, Canada, Germany, Italy, Japan, Norway, Poland, Switzerland, and USA. GLISN is a real-time sensor array of seismic stations to enhance and upgrade the performance of the sparse Greenland seismic infrastructure for detecting, locating, and characterizing glacial earthquakes and other cryo-seismic phenomena, and contributing to our understanding of Ice Sheet dynamics. Complementing data from satellites, geodesy, and other sources, and in concert with these technologies, GLISN will provide a powerful tool for detecting change, and will advance new frontiers of research in the glacial systems; the underlying geological and geophysical processes affecting the Greenland Ice Sheet; interactions between oceans, climate, and the cryosphere; and other multidisciplinary areas of interest to geoscience and climate dynamics. The glacial processes that induce seismic events (internal deformation, sliding at the base, disintegration at the calving front, drainage of supra-glacial lakes) are all integral to the overall dynamics of glaciers, and seismic observations of glaciers therefore provide a quantitative means for monitoring changes in their behavior over time. Long-term seismic monitoring of the Greenland Ice Sheet will contribute to identifying possible unsuspected mechanisms and metrics relevant to ice sheet collapse, and will provide new constraints on Ice Sheet dynamic processes and their potential roles in sea-level rise during the coming decades. GLISN will provide a new, fiducial reference network in and around Greenland for monitoring these phenomena in real-time, and for the broad seismological study of Earth and earthquakes. The 2010 summer field season saw the installation or upgrade of 9 stations in the GLISN network. Sites visited under the GLISN project include Station Nord (NOR

  10. Benign anatomical mistakes: the correct anatomical term for the recurrent laryngeal nerve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirilas, Petros; Skandalakis, John E

    2002-01-01

    The term recurrent laryngeal nerve has been adopted by Nomina Anatomica (1989) and Terminologia Anatomica (1998) to describe this vagus branch from its origin, its turn dorsally around the subclavian artery and the aortic arch, and its cranial pathway until it reaches its terminal organs in the neck. However, there is still much confusion, and either the terms inferior and recurrent laryngeal nerve are used interchangeably or inferior laryngeal nerve is considered the terminal branch of the recurrent laryngeal nerve. We hereby feel that it is necessary to reassess the term and we propose the term inferior laryngeal nerve for the entire nerve under consideration, from its origin from the vagus nerve to its destinations, including tracheal, esophageal, and pharyngeal branches. If the term superior laryngeal nerve is a given, standard and accepted term in the anatomical terminology, then logically the term inferior laryngeal nerve should also be accepted, as opposed to it. Of course the upward travel of the inferior laryngeal nerve is "recurrent". When nonrecurrence is encountered together with an arteria lusoria, a retroesophageal right subclavian artery or a right aortic arch, we consider that the term nonrecurrent inferior laryngeal nerve should be used to describe the deviation from the normal.

  11. Morpho-anatomical investigations on Momordica charantia L. (Cucurbitaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İlham Eröz Poyraz

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Momordica charantia L. (Cucurbitaceae used for some medicinal purposes like antidiabetic, anticancer, antiviral and treat to gastritis was investigated. Morphological studies were supported by morphometric measurements and drawings of male and female flowers, fruit and seeds of the species. In anatomical studies, cross sections of stem and leaf, upper and lower surface sections of leaves were evaluated. It was detected that the stem with typical anatomical properties of a climbing dicotyl plant. The leaves were amphistotamic and with lots of cyctoliths on the lower surface of leaves. Stomata are anomocytic and situated much more at the lower surface of leaves. Morpho-anatomical investigations on Momordica charantia L. (Cucurbitaceae*

  12. Lost and found anatomical terms: Crista choanalis vomeris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marusić, Ana; Vinter, Ivan; Krmpotić-Nemanić, Jelena

    2006-05-01

    Pars cuneiformis vomeris and Crista choanalis are morphological structures on the vomer listed in the current official anatomical nomenclature, Terminologia anatomica, but are either not mentioned or incorrectly described in different anatomical books. The term Crista choanalis vomeris was originally proposed by Drago Perović in 1958 to describe the vertical crest beginning at the angle of the alae vomeris, running downwards to the posterior free margin of the vomer. Perović also described the part of the vomer behind this crest was shaped as a cone, and termed it Pars cuneiformis vomeris. Because of their important contributions to the function of the respiratory pathway, Crista choanalis vomeris and Pars cuneiformis vomeris deserve proper definitions in the anatomical terminology.

  13. Orbitofrontal sulcal and gyrus pattern in human: an anatomical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Pereira Rodrigues

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The anatomical characterization of the orbitofrontal cortex in human is limited in literature instead of many functional and clinical studies involving it. Objective Anatomically define the orbitofrontal region aiming to possible neurosurgical treatments and unify the scientific nomenclature as well. Method We analyze eighty four human hemispheres using a surgical microscope. Then we chose four hemispheres and dissect them according to Klinger’ technique. Results We found five main sulcus: olfatory sulcus, orbital medial sulcus, orbital lateral sulcus, orbital transverse sulcus and orbital intermediate sulcus. These sulcus, excluding the intermediate sulcus, delimit five gyrus: rectus gurys, orbital medial gyrus, orbital anterior gyrus, orbital lateral gyrus and orbital posterior gyrus. The main sulcal configuration can be divided on four more frequently patterns. Conclusion Orbitofrontal cortex is associated with many psychiatric disorders. Better anatomical and functional characterization of the orbitofrontal cortex and its connections will improve our knowledge about these diseases.

  14. Dissimilarity-based classification of anatomical tree structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Lauge; Lo, Pechin Chien Pau; Dirksen, Asger

    2011-01-01

    A novel method for classification of abnormality in anatomical tree structures is presented. A tree is classified based on direct comparisons with other trees in a dissimilarity-based classification scheme. The pair-wise dissimilarity measure between two trees is based on a linear assignment...... between the branch feature vectors representing those trees. Hereby, localized information in the branches is collectively used in classification and variations in feature values across the tree are taken into account. An approximate anatomical correspondence between matched branches can be achieved...... by including anatomical features in the branch feature vectors. The proposed approach is applied to classify airway trees in computed tomography images of subjects with and without chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Using the wall area percentage (WA%), a common measure of airway abnormality in COPD...

  15. The stylomastoid artery as an anatomical landmark to the facial nerve during parotid surgery: a clinico-anatomic study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nouraei Seyed

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The identification of the facial nerve can be difficult in a bloody operative field or by an incision that limits exposure; hence anatomical landmarks and adequate operative exposure can aid such identification and preservation. In this clinico-anatomic study, we examined the stylomastoid artery (SMA and its relation to the facial nerve trunk; the origin of the artery was identified on cadavers and its nature was confirmed histologically. Methods The clinical component of the study included prospective reviewing of 100 consecutive routine parotidectomies; while, the anatomical component of the study involved dissecting 50 cadaveric hemifaces. Results We could consistently identify a supplying vessel, stylomastoid artery, which tends to vary less in position than the facial nerve. Following this vessel, a few millimetres inferiorly and medially, we have gone on to identify the facial nerve trunk, which it supplies, with relative ease. The origin of the stylomastoid artery, in our study, was either from the occipital artery or the posterior auricular artery. Conclusion This anatomical aid, the stylomastoid artery, when supplemented by the other more commonly known anatomical landmarks and intra-operative facial nerve monitoring further reduces the risk of iatrogenic facial nerve damage and operative time.

  16. Anatomic mapping of molecular subtypes in diffuse glioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Qisheng; Lian, Yuxi; Yu, Jinhua; Wang, Yuanyuan; Shi, Zhifeng; Chen, Liang

    2017-09-15

    Tumor location served as an important prognostic factor in glioma patients was considered to postulate molecular features according to cell origin theory. However, anatomic distribution of unique molecular subtypes was not widely investigated. The relationship between molecular phenotype and histological subgroup were also vague based on tumor location. Our group focuses on the study of glioma anatomic location of distinctive molecular subgroups and histology subtypes, and explores the possibility of their consistency based on clinical background. We retrospectively reviewed 143 cases with both molecular information (IDH1/TERT/1p19q) and MRI images diagnosed as cerebral diffuse gliomas. The anatomic distribution was analyzed between distinctive molecular subgroups and its relationship with histological subtypes. The influence of tumor location, molecular stratification and histology diagnosis on survival outcome was investigated as well. Anatomic locations of cerebral diffuse glioma indicate varied clinical outcome. Based on that, it can be stratified into five principal molecular subgroups according to IDH1/TERT/1p19q status. Triple-positive (IDH1 and TERT mutation with 1p19q codeletion) glioma tended to be oligodendroglioma present with much better clinical outcome compared to TERT mutation only group who is glioblastoma inclined (median overall survival 39 months VS 18 months). Five molecular subgroups were demonstrated with distinctive locational distribution. This kind of anatomic feature is consistent with its corresponding histological subtypes. Each molecular subgroup in glioma has unique anatomic location which indicates distinctive clinical outcome. Molecular diagnosis can be served as perfect complementary tool for the precise diagnosis. Integration of histomolecular diagnosis will be much more helpful in routine clinical practice in the future.

  17. [Strabismus determined by anatomical changes in the extrinsic ocular muscles].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voinea, L; Samson, M; Glejaru, M; Popa, R

    1995-01-01

    The anatomical primitive strabismus is prenatal and its characteristic is the loose in the elasticity of the muscles of the surrounding tissues. The cause is the deficit of embryogenesis, originating in the first two months of pregnancy. They are presented the clinical cases of anatomical strabismus, investigated and treated in the Ophthalmological Clinic during 10 years, the surgical techniques used and the postoperative functional and obstetrical results the ocular disturbances are intense and the debut is early. The surgery involves both eyes and the results depend on the clinical form, the restant ocular motility and the degree of fibrosis of the affected muscle.

  18. Sonographic and Anatomic Description of the Subtalar Joint

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mandl, Peter; Bong, David; Balint, Peter V

    2018-01-01

    Our study provides a detailed anatomic and sonographic description of the subtalar joint, a single joint that, anatomically, is divided into the anterior subtalar joint (ASTJ) and the posterior subtalar joint (PSTJ). Cadaver specimens of the ankle and foot were examined in detail by ultrasound (US......), and the subtalar joints of all the specimens were injected with colored latex of a contrasting color under US guidance. Compatible with other studies, examination of the sections revealed lack of communication between the ASTJ and the PSTJ and communication between the PSTJ and the posterior recess...

  19. Double auricles of the right atrium: a unique anatomic deformity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lampoura Stefania S

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Anatomic deviations, especially those detected during the course of an operation, are medically intriguing, as they raise concerns about their clinical significance and putative complications. Case presentation We present, to our knowledge, for the first time a case of an anatomic deviation in the form of a second right atrial auricle in a 70 year-old, coronary bypass-operated male Caucasian patient of Greek origin. No complications were noted intra-or postoperatively. Conclusions A second right atrial auricle was found intraoperatively, without causing any clinical complications, or obstructing the normal course of a surgical procedure.

  20. Anatomic Eponyms in Neuroradiology: Brain, Cerebral Vasculature, and Calvarium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunch, Paul M; Zamani, Amir A

    2016-06-01

    Medical eponyms are ubiquitous, numerous, and at times controversial. They are often useful for succinctly conveying complex concepts, and familiarity with eponyms is important for proper usage and appropriate communication. In this historical review, we identify 18 anatomic eponyms used to describe structures of the brain, cerebral vasculature, and calvarium. For each structure, we first offer a biographical sketch of the individual for whom the structure is named. This is followed by a description of the anatomic structure and a brief discussion of its clinical relevance. Copyright © 2016 The Association of University Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. The state of the Greenland Ice Sheet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Sebastian Bjerregaard

    IS and the paleo-temperature reconstructions retrieved from ice cores.The dynamical firn model developed in this thesis explains13 % of the observed volume change of the GrIS from 2003-2008, without contributing to the global sea-level rise. This emphasizes the need for well constraint firn-compaction models. Here...... compaction on ice sheet scales. The modeling objectives are multiple and aim at estimating the contribution from the firn to the observed volume change of the GrIS and to the diffusion of stable water isotopes. The firn modeling then provides crucial information on total mass balance of the Gr......-sheet configurations formed by the variation of both internal-model parameters and external climate forcing. To investigate the importance of the validation, a multi-metric validation approach is applied to the ensemble members. The validation shows that the commonly used validation measures, such as the total ice...

  2. Neutral sheet crossings in the distant magnetotail

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heikkila, W.J.; Slavin, J.A.; Smith, E.J.; Baker, D.N.; Zwickl, R.D.

    1985-01-01

    We have analyzed the magnetic field data from ISEE-3 in the distant magnetotail for 18 crossings of the cross-tail current sheet (or so-called natural sheet) to determine the direction of the normal component B/sub z/. The crossings occurred near the middle of the aberrated magnetotail (0 0.4 nT), consistent with closed field lines connected to the earth. In 3 cases B/sub z/ was very close to zero; in several instances there was structure in B/sub y/, suggesting localized currents with x or z directions. One may have been a magnetopause crossing. The strong preponderance of northward B/sub z/ favors a model of the magnetotail which is dominated by boundary layer plasma, flowing tailward on closed magnetic field lines, which requires the existence of an electric field in the sense from dusk to dawn. 37 refs., 15 figs., 1 tab

  3. Lubricant Test Methods for Sheet Metal Forming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bay, Niels; Olsson, David Dam; Andreasen, Jan Lasson

    2008-01-01

    Sheet metal forming of tribologically difficult materials such as stainless steel, Al-alloys and Ti-alloys or forming in tribologically difficult operations like ironing, punching or deep drawing of thick plate requires often use of environmentally hazardous lubricants such as chlorinated paraffin...... oils in order to avoid galling. The present paper describes a systematic research in the development of new, environmentally harmless lubricants focusing on the lubricant testing aspects. A system of laboratory tests has been developed to study the lubricant performance under the very varied conditions...... appearing in different sheet forming operations such as stretch forming, deep drawing, ironing and punching. The laboratory tests have been especially designed to model the conditions in industrial production. Application of the tests for evaluating new lubricants before introducing them in production has...

  4. Comprehensibility of material safety data sheets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolp, P; Sattler, B; Blayney, M; Sherwood, T

    1993-01-01

    The Hazard Communications Standard, commonly known as the Worker Right to Know law, requires that a chemical information sheet, known as a material safety data sheet (MSDS), be produced for all hazardous chemicals. This study examines the comprehensibility of a sample of MSDSs to a group of about 100 unionized workers in manufacturing industries located in the state of Maryland. Workers were given several MSDSs and performed the equivalent of an open-book test answering questions regarding health and safety information that was provided on the MSDS. On average, the information on the MSDSs was found to be about one-third incomprehensible. This result raises concerns regarding policies and practices for hazard communication. There is a clear indication that MSDSs need to be improved if workers must rely on them for health and safety information.

  5. PRODUCTION OF SHEET FROM PARTICULATE MATERIAL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blainey, A.

    1959-05-12

    A process is presented for forming coherent sheet material from particulate material such as granular or powdered metal, granular or powdered oxide, slurries, pastes, and plastic mixes which cohere under pressure. The primary object is to avoid the use of expensive and/ or short lived pressing tools, that is, dies and specially profiled rolls, and so to reduce the cost of the product and to prcvide in a simple manner for the making of the product in a variety of shapes or sizes. The sheet material is formed when the particulate material is laterally confined in a boundary material deformable in all lateral directions under axial pressure and then axially compressing the layer of particulate material together with the boundary material.

  6. Ranking beta sheet topologies of proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fonseca, Rasmus; Helles, Glennie; Winter, Pawel

    2010-01-01

    One of the challenges of protein structure prediction is to identify long-range interactions between amino acids. To reliably predict such interactions, we enumerate, score and rank all beta-topologies (partitions of beta-strands into sheets, orderings of strands within sheets and orientations...... of paired strands) of a given protein. We show that the beta-topology corresponding to the native structure is, with high probability, among the top-ranked. Since full enumeration is very time-consuming, we also suggest a method to deal with proteins with many beta-strands. The results reported...... in this paper are highly relevant for ab initio protein structure prediction methods based on decoy generation. The top-ranked beta-topologies can be used to find initial conformations from which conformational searches can be started. They can also be used to filter decoys by removing those with poorly...

  7. Positioning and loading apparatus for self-developing film sheets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erikson, H.E.

    1979-01-01

    It is conventional to expose large-format self-processing photographic films, for example those used in x-ray exposures, in individual cassettes, the exposed film sheets being registered in the cassette with image-receiving sheets and transferred to a processor. This invention is concerned with a positioning and loading-device for receiving the cassette superposed on the print sheet and interengaged to permit the transfer of the registering film sheet and print sheet to the processor. (U.K.)

  8. Orientation and Morphology Effects in Rapid Silicon Sheet Solidification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciszek, T. F.

    1984-01-01

    Radial growth anisotropies and equilibrium forms of point nucleated, dislocation free silicon sheets spreading horizontally on the free surface of a silicon melt were measured for (100), (110), (111), and (112) sheet planes. The growth process was recorded. Qualitative Wulff surface free energy polar plots were deduced from the equilibrium shapes for each sheet plane. Predicted geometries for the tip shape of unidirectional, dislocation free, horizontally grown sheets growing in various directions within the planes were analyzed. Polycrystalline sheets and dendrite propagation were analyzed. For dendrites, growth rates on the order of 2.5 m/min and growth rate anisotropies of 25 are measured.

  9. Reflective composite sheet design for LCD backlight recycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Taehyung; Kim, Kibeom; Lee, Eun Soo; Jeong, Won Young; Lim, Dae Young; Choi, Suk-Won

    2014-05-05

    We have designed a reflective composite sheet consisting of a birefringent polymer matrix and isolated isotropic or minimally birefringent fibers. The optical properties of the sheet have been investigated in terms of the width, spacing, and thickness of the individual fibers. Commercial software (FDTD Solution) was used to simulate the reflectance of the proposed sheet, and conventional processes such as cast-film extrusion in combination with solid-state drawing were used to manufacture the multilayer composite sheet. The measured and simulated reflectance spectra confirm the feasibility of employing the sheet as a reflective polarizer.

  10. Fabrication of Carbon Nanotube Polymer Actuator Using Nanofiber Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Hayato; Shimizu, Akikazu; Sato, Taiga; Kushida, Masahito

    2017-11-01

    Carbon nanotube polymer actuators were developed using composite nanofiber sheets fabricated by multi-walled carbon nanotubes(MWCNTs) and poly (vinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene) (PVDF-HFP). Nanofiber sheets were fabricated by electrospinning method. The effect of flow rate and polymer concentration on nanofiber formation were verified for optimum condition for fabricating nanofiber sheets. We examined the properties of MWCNT/PVDF-HFP nanofiber sheets, as follows. Electrical conductivity and mechanical strength increased as the MWCNT weight ratio increased. We fabricated carbon nanotube polymer actuators using MWCNT/PVDF-HFP nanofiber sheets and succeeded in operating of our actuators.

  11. Nuclear Data Sheets for 225Fr

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baglin, Coral M.

    2005-05-16

    Nuclear structure data pertaining to {sup 225}Fr have been evaluated, and incorporated into the ENSDF data file. This evaluation includes literature available by 16 May 2005 and supersedes the previous publication for {sup 225}Fr (Y.A. Akovali, ''Nuclear Data Sheets 60, 617 (1990)'', literature cutoff date 1 June 1989). Data have been incorporated from the following references: 1987Co19, 1997BuO3 and 2003AuO3.

  12. Live Score Following on Sheet Music Images

    OpenAIRE

    Dorfer, Matthias; Arzt, Andreas; Böck, Sebastian; Durand, Amaury; Widmer, Gerhard

    2016-01-01

    In this demo we show a novel approach to score following. Instead of relying on some symbolic representation, we are using a multi-modal convolutional neural network to match the incoming audio stream directly to sheet music images. This approach is in an early stage and should be seen as proof of concept. Nonetheless, the audience will have the opportunity to test our implementation themselves via 3 simple piano pieces.

  13. Quadric Resistive Sheet Profile for Wideband Antennas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Raida

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available A new type of a nonreflecting resistive dipole antenna with quadric continuous resistivity profile is presented in this paper. The antenna is mathematically described and compared with the antenna originally proposed by Wu and King. The verification of a proposed theory and the comparison between Wu-King and quadric profile are carried out by simulation models that were designed for this purpose. The attention is turned to the proper attenuation of a wave excited on the resistive sheet, especially.

  14. Single sheet metal oxides and hydroxides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Lizhi

    The synthesis of layered double hydroxides (LDHs) provides a relatively easy and traditional way to build versatile chemical compounds with a rough control of the bulk structure. The delamination of LDHs to form their single host layers (2D nanosheets) and the capability to reassemble them offer ......) Delamination of the LDHs structure (oxGRC12) with the formation of single sheet iron (hydr)oxide (SSI). (3) Assembly of the new 2D nanosheets layer by layer to achieve desired functionalities....

  15. Laminated multilayer sheet structure and its utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiba, K.; Itoh, K.; Mitani, Y.; Sobajima, S.; Yonemura, U.

    1980-01-01

    A laminated multilayer sheet structure is described comprising (A) an opaque flexible sheet layer, and (B) a flexible layer laminated on the surface of layer (A) and composed of a transparent thermic ray reflecting layer (B 1 ) bonded to a transparent synthetic resin layer (B 2 ), said layer (B 1 ) being a transparent thermic ray reflecting layer composed of (I) a layer of a metal having a thickness of about 50 to about 600 A, said metal being selected from the group consisting of gold, silver, copper, aluminum and a mixture of alloy of at least two of said metals, and (II) a high refractive substance layer having a thickness of about 50 to about 600 A, of an oxide of titanium derived from a layer of an organic titanium compound of the formula Ti 1 O/sub m/R/sub n/, where R is alkyl of 1-20 carbon atoms, l=1-30, m=4+3(1-1), and n=4+2(1-1), and containing the organic residual moiety of the organic titanium compound, the amount of said organic residual moiety being 0.1 to 30% by weight based on the weight of the high refractive substance layer; or said layer (B 1 ) being a transparent semiconductive layer having a thickness of about 500 to about 5,000 a and being composed of a compound selected from the group consisting of indium oxide, tin oxide, cadmium oxide, antimony oxide, copper iodide, and a mixture of at least two of said compounds. A method is described for heat-insulating a room, which comprises applying to the surface of a floor, wall, ceiling or partition in the room a laminated multilayer sheet structure comprising (A) an opaque flexible sheet layer, and (B) a flexible layer laminated on the surface of layer (A) and composed of a transparent thermic ray reflecting layer (B 1 ) bonded to a transparent synthetic resin layer

  16. The stretch zone of automotive steel sheets

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The stretch zone of automotive steel sheets. L' AMBRIŠKO1,∗ and L PEŠEK2. 1Institute of Structural Engineering, Faculty of Civil Engineering,. Technical University of Košice, Vysokoškolská 4, 042 00 Košice, Slovak Republic. 2Department of Materials Science, Faculty of Metallurgy,. Technical University of Košice, Letná 9, ...

  17. 16 CFR 460.13 - Fact sheets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...'s label, you must use that chart. For foamed-in-place insulations, you must show the R-value of your product at 31/2 inches. You can also show R-values at other thicknesses. (2) You can put the charts for... loose-fill insulation in two different bag sizes, you can put both coverage charts on one fact sheet, as...

  18. Laser cutting of sheets for Tailored Blanks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagger, Claus; Olsen, Flemming Ove

    1999-01-01

    Over the past few years there has been an enormous increase in the use of tailored blanks, especially in the automotive industry. Often the sheets for tailored blanks are shear cut, but results have been reported that the allowable sheet gap distance should not exceed 0.1 mm in order to obtain...... sound welds. Laser cutting the sheets may therefore be an alternative to shear cutting, if the cut kerf squareness can be kept below 0.05 mm.In a number of systematic laboratory experiments the effects of the major process parameters in laser cutting have been investigated. Each cut was quantified...... by the squareness, the surface roughness and the burr height. Mild steel as well as high strength steel with and with out galvanisation with thickness' of 0.7(5) and 1.25 were used.In the tests the difference in cut quality between a 5" and a 7.5" focusing lens were tested and the effect of using pulsed mode laser...

  19. Mass balance of the Antarctic ice sheet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wingham, D J; Shepherd, A; Muir, A; Marshall, G J

    2006-07-15

    The Antarctic contribution to sea-level rise has long been uncertain. While regional variability in ice dynamics has been revealed, a picture of mass changes throughout the continental ice sheet is lacking. Here, we use satellite radar altimetry to measure the elevation change of 72% of the grounded ice sheet during the period 1992-2003. Depending on the density of the snow giving rise to the observed elevation fluctuations, the ice sheet mass trend falls in the range -5-+85Gtyr-1. We find that data from climate model reanalyses are not able to characterise the contemporary snowfall fluctuation with useful accuracy and our best estimate of the overall mass trend-growth of 27+/-29Gtyr-1-is based on an assessment of the expected snowfall variability. Mass gains from accumulating snow, particularly on the Antarctic Peninsula and within East Antarctica, exceed the ice dynamic mass loss from West Antarctica. The result exacerbates the difficulty of explaining twentieth century sea-level rise.

  20. 1970-1997 energy balance-sheets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    The aim of this document is to bring together a consistent and harmonized set of statistical data on energy economics in the French territory. The information is based on the global and structural approach of the different energy balance-sheets published between 1970 and 1997. The first chapter gives a general idea of the energy situation of the passed year and outlines the evolution of the main aggregates (production, primary and final consumption etc..) comparatively to those of the general economy. The second chapter is devoted to the history of energy economics. Time series of indicators and diagrams allow to precise the structural modifications that occurred during the last decades. The main transformations in the national energy production and the development of the different energy sources in the industry, the residential and tertiary sectors and in the transportation sector are described too. The third chapter gives numerical data on energy for the last 28 years using the common Mtpe unit (million of tons of petroleum equivalent). These balance sheets are based on new energy keeping methods and use identical equivalence coefficients. The last chapter presents the energy balance sheets for the last three years, using the proper units for coal, petroleum, gas and electricity. (J.S.)

  1. [Analysis and classification of Latin anatomical names of skeletal fossa in Terminologia Anatomica, and comparison with corresponding Japanese anatomical names].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shikano, Shun-ichi; Abe, Tatsuhiko; Terashima, Tatsuo

    2011-10-01

    For a better understanding of the structures comprising the human body and in view of the possible need for future revision of anatomical nomenclature, Latin anatomical names of skeletal fossa in Terminologia Anatomica were analyzed and classified, and compared with the corresponding Japanese anatomical names. The words following Fossa indicated: 1) the form of the fossa, 2) the structure to which the fossa belongs, 3) the position of the fossa, 4) the structure that exists near the fossa, 5) the structure that the fossa contains, 6) the structure attached to the fossa, 7) the structure that transmits the fossa, or 8) the structure with which the fossa articulates. The analysis of Latin names and comparison with Japanese names clarified some characteristics of both names and revealed some problems in them.

  2. [Analysis and classification of Latin anatomical names of skeletal canals in Terminologia anatomica, and comparison with corresponding Japanese anatomical names].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shikano, Shun-ichi; Abe, Tatsuhiko; Terashima, Tatsuo

    2010-10-01

    For a better understanding of the structures comprising the human body and in view of the possible need for future revision of anatomical nomenclature, Latin anatomical names of skeletal canals (including canaliculi) in Terminologia Anatomica were analyzed and classified, and compared with the corresponding Japanese anatomical names. The words following Canalis or Canales indicated: (1) the structure to which the canal belongs, (2) the structure to which the opening of the canal belongs, (3) the position of the canal, (4) the structure to which the canal leads, (5) the structure that exists near the opening of the canal, (6) the structure that transmits the canal, (7) the structure that is a component of the canal, or (8) the function of the canal. The analysis of Latin names and comparison with Japanese names clarified some characteristics of both names and revealed some problems in them.

  3. Sheet production apparatus for removing a crystalline sheet from the surface of a melt using gas jets located above and below the crystalline sheet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kellerman, Peter L.; Thronson, Gregory D.

    2017-06-14

    In one embodiment, a sheet production apparatus comprises a vessel configured to hold a melt of a material. A cooling plate is disposed proximate the melt and is configured to form a sheet of the material on the melt. A first gas jet is configured to direct a gas toward an edge of the vessel. A sheet of a material is translated horizontally on a surface of the melt and the sheet is removed from the melt. The first gas jet may be directed at the meniscus and may stabilize this meniscus or increase local pressure within the meniscus.

  4. Simulations of the Scandinavian ice sheet and its subsurface conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boulton, G.S.; Caban, P.; Hulton, N. [Edinburgh Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept of Geology and Geophysics

    1999-12-01

    An ice sheet model has been applied to an approximate flow line through the area of the Fennoscandian ice sheet. The modelled ice sheet fluctuations have been matched with stratigraphic evidence of Weichselian ice sheet fluctuation in order to simulate ice sheet attributes through time along the flowline. The model predicts extensive melting at the base of the ice sheet. This output has been used as an input to a simplified model of hydrogeology along the southern flank of the ice sheet so as to reconstruct patterns of subglacial groundwater flow. The output from the model is also used to estimate patterns of subglacial stress and strain. Results suggest that large scale subglacial groundwater catchment are formed which were quite differentin extent from modern catchment; that fossil subglacial groundwaters should be found at sampling depths; and much fracturing in shallow bedrock in Sweden could be glacially generated.

  5. Joining of Aluminium Alloy Sheets by Rectangular Mechanical Clinching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abe, Y.; Mori, K.; Kato, T.

    2011-01-01

    A mechanical clinching has the advantage of low running costs. However, the joint strength is not high. To improve the maximum load of the joined sheets by a mechanical clinching, square and rectangular mechanical clinching were introduced. In the mechanical clinching, the two sheets are mechanically joined by forming an interlock between the lower and upper sheets by the punch and die. The joined length with the interlock was increased by the rectangular punch and die. The deforming behaviours of the sheets in the mechanical clinching were investigated, and then the interlock in the sheets had distribution in the circumference of the projection. Although the interlocks were formed in both projection side and diagonal, the interlock in the diagonal was smaller because of the long contact length between the lower sheet and the die cavity surface. The maximum load of the joined sheets by the rectangular mechanical clinching was two times larger than the load by the round mechanical clinching.

  6. [DEVELOPMENT OF CELL SHEET ENGINEERING TECHNOLOGY IN ENGINEERING VASCULARIZED TISSUE].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jia; Ma, Dongyang; Ren, Liling

    2015-03-01

    To review the development of cell sheet engineering technology in engineering vascularized tissue. The literature about cell sheet engineering technology and engineering vascularized tissue was reviewed, analyzed, and summarized. Although there are many methods to engineer vascularized tissue, cell sheet engineering technology provides a promising potential to develop a vascularized tissue. Recently, cell sheet engineering technology has become a hot topic in engineering vascularized tissue. Co-culturing endothelial cells on a cell sheet, endothelial cells are able to form three-dimensional prevascularized networks and microvascular cavities in the cell sheet, which facilitate the formation of functional vascular networks in the transplanted tissue. Cell sheet engineering technology is a promising strategy to engineer vascularized tissue, which is still being studied to explore more potential.

  7. A combined light sheet fluorescence and differential interference contrast microscope for live imaging of multicellular specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, R P; Taormina, M J; Jemielita, M; Parthasarathy, R

    2015-05-01

    We describe a microscope capable of both light sheet fluorescence microscopy and differential interference contrast microscopy (DICM). The two imaging modes, which to the best of our knowledge have not previously been combined, are complementary: light sheet fluorescence microscopy provides three-dimensional imaging of fluorescently labelled components of multicellular systems with high speed, large fields of view, and low phototoxicity, whereas differential interference contrast microscopy reveals the unlabelled neighbourhood of tissues, organs, and other structures with high contrast and inherent optical sectioning. Use of a single Nomarski prism for differential interference contrast microscopy and a shared detection path for both imaging modes enables simple integration of the two techniques in one custom microscope. We provide several examples of the utility of the resulting instrument, focusing especially on the digestive tract of the larval zebrafish, revealing in this complex and heterogeneous environment anatomical features, the behaviour of commensal microbes, immune cell motions, and more. © 2015 The Authors Journal of Microscopy © 2015 Royal Microscopical Society.

  8. Temperature sheets and aspect sensitive radar echoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Luce

    Full Text Available here have been years of discussion and controversy about the existence of very thin and stable temperature sheets and their relationship to the VHF radar aspect sensitivity. It is only recently that very high-resolution in situ temperature observations have brought credence to the reality and ubiquity of these structures in the free atmosphere and to their contribution to radar echo enhancements along the vertical. Indeed, measurements with very high-resolution sensors are still extremely rare and rather difficult to obtain outside of the planetary boundary layer. They have only been carried out up to the lower stratosphere by Service d’A´ eronomie (CNRS, France for about 10 years. The controversy also persisted due to the volume resolution of the (Mesosphere-Stratosphere-Troposphere VHF radars which is coarse with respect to sheet thickness, although widely sufficient for meteorological or mesoscale investigations. The contribution within the range gate of many of these structures, which are advected by the wind, and decay and grow at different instants and could be distorted either by internal gravity waves or turbulence fields, could lead to radar echoes with statistical properties similar to those produced by anisotropic turbulence. Some questions thus remain regarding the manner in which temperature sheets contribute to VHF radar echoes. In particular, the zenithal and azimuthal angular dependence of the echo power may not only be produced by diffuse reflection on stable distorted or corrugated sheets, but also by extra contributions from anisotropic turbulence occurring in the stratified atmosphere. Thus, for several years, efforts have been put forth to improve the radar height resolution in order to better describe thin structures. Frequency interferometric techniques are widely used and have been recently further developed with the implementation of high-resolution data processings. We begin by reviewing briefly some characteristics

  9. Temperature sheets and aspect sensitive radar echoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Luce

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available here have been years of discussion and controversy about the existence of very thin and stable temperature sheets and their relationship to the VHF radar aspect sensitivity. It is only recently that very high-resolution in situ temperature observations have brought credence to the reality and ubiquity of these structures in the free atmosphere and to their contribution to radar echo enhancements along the vertical. Indeed, measurements with very high-resolution sensors are still extremely rare and rather difficult to obtain outside of the planetary boundary layer. They have only been carried out up to the lower stratosphere by Service d’A´ eronomie (CNRS, France for about 10 years. The controversy also persisted due to the volume resolution of the (Mesosphere-Stratosphere-Troposphere VHF radars which is coarse with respect to sheet thickness, although widely sufficient for meteorological or mesoscale investigations. The contribution within the range gate of many of these structures, which are advected by the wind, and decay and grow at different instants and could be distorted either by internal gravity waves or turbulence fields, could lead to radar echoes with statistical properties similar to those produced by anisotropic turbulence. Some questions thus remain regarding the manner in which temperature sheets contribute to VHF radar echoes. In particular, the zenithal and azimuthal angular dependence of the echo power may not only be produced by diffuse reflection on stable distorted or corrugated sheets, but also by extra contributions from anisotropic turbulence occurring in the stratified atmosphere. Thus, for several years, efforts have been put forth to improve the radar height resolution in order to better describe thin structures. Frequency interferometric techniques are widely used and have been recently further developed with the implementation of high-resolution data processings. We begin by reviewing briefly some characteristics

  10. Annual Energy Balance Sheets 2001-2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    During the year 2002 the primary supply of energy reached 629 TWh, which is 7.7 TWh less than 2001. The decrease originates mainly from the reduced electricity production from water power. Also the electricity production in nuclear power plants decreased by 4.5 TWh. If we were to look at the supplied energy for final consumption we will find a slightly rise by 1.8 TWh. The year 2002 was warmer than a 'normal' year and that consequently brings lower energy needs. Compared with 2001, 2002 was not warmer and a net electricity import of 5.4 TWh covered the energy needs. The energy use increased by 3.3 TWh between 2002 and 2001. The industry sector shows the largest rise by 2.9 TWh, nearly 2 per cent. Within that sector, energy from biomass fuel had a rise by 6.7 per cent. The household sector decreases its energy use by 2.7 per cent, and oil and electricity show the largest decrease. The proportionately high electricity price probably had a slowing down effect on the electricity use. The balance sheets of energy sources are showing the total supply and consumption of energy sources expressed in original units, i.e. units recorded in the primary statistics - mainly commercial units. The production of derived energy commodities is recorded on the supply - side of the balance sheets of energy sources, which is not the case in the energy balance sheets. The balance sheets of energy sources also include specifications of input--output and energy consumption in energy conversion industries. The energy balance sheets are based on primary data recorded in the balance sheets of energy sources, here expressed in a common energy unit, TJ. The production of derived energy is recorded in a second flow-step comprising energy turnover in energy conversion and is also specified in complementary input - output tables for energy conversion industries. The following items are shown in the energy balance sheets. 1.1 Inland supply of primary energy; 1.3 Import; 1.4 Export; 1.5 Changes in

  11. Wood anatomical and chemical properties related to the pulpability ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Eucalyptus globulus is one of the most important hardwood species used by the pulp and paper industry due to its high pulp yield, high wood density, excellent fibre quality and good handsheet properties. However, the wood is a highly variable and complex material that has different chemical, physical and anatomical ...

  12. The effects of selected anatomical characteristics on physical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of selected anatomical characteristics on physical properties of Ethiopian Highland Bamboo Arundinaria Alpina K. Schum. (Poaceae) ... In early maturing bamboo, fibers are relatively small in wall thickness. The results of statistical analyses revealed that bamboo portion has significant effects on all variables.

  13. Optimizing conditions for computer-assisted anatomical learning.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luursema, J.M.; Verwey, Willem B.; Kommers, Petrus A.M.; Geelkerken, Robert H.; Vos, Hendrik J.

    2006-01-01

    An experiment evaluated the impact of two typical features of virtual learning environments on anatomical learning for users of differing visuo-spatial ability. The two features studied are computer-implemented stereopsis (the spatial information that is based on differences in visual patterns

  14. Prevalence and anatomical pattern of the median artery among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Knowledge of the anatomy of median arteries is important in the diagnosis and management of carpal tunnel and pronator teres syndromes, reconstructive surgery in the forearm, minimizing inadvertent vascular injury as well as in limiting operative complications due to unexpected bleeding. The anatomical pattern displays ...

  15. An anatomical and functional topography of human auditory cortical areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle eMoerel

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available While advances in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI throughout the last decades have enabled the detailed anatomical and functional inspection of the human brain non-invasively, to date there is no consensus regarding the precise subdivision and topography of the areas forming the human auditory cortex. Here, we propose a topography of the human auditory areas based on insights on the anatomical and functional properties of human auditory areas as revealed by studies of cyto- and myelo-architecture and fMRI investigations at ultra-high magnetic field (7 Tesla. Importantly, we illustrate that - whereas a group-based approach to analyze functional (tonotopic maps is appropriate to highlight the main tonotopic axis - the examination of tonotopic maps at single subject level is required to detail the topography of primary and non-primary areas that may be more variable across subjects. Furthermore, we show that considering multiple maps indicative of anatomical (i.e. myelination as well as of functional properties (e.g. broadness of frequency tuning is helpful in identifying auditory cortical areas in individual human brains. We propose and discuss a topography of areas that is consistent with old and recent anatomical post mortem characterizations of the human auditory cortex and that may serve as a working model for neuroscience studies of auditory functions.

  16. Anatomical Variation in the Wall Thickness of Wood Fibres of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The wall thickness of wood fibres of rubber (Hevea brasiliensis) grown and tapped for latex in south eastern Nigeria were investigated to determine anatomical variation. The rubber trees which were overmature for tapping and keeping were sampled in hierarchical order of plantations, bud classes, trees, discs, cardinal ...

  17. Correlation of clinical data, anatomical site and disease stage in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To evaluate the colorectal cancer clinical data with respect to the anatomical location and stage of disease. Design: Retrospective observational study. Setting: Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH), Nairobi, Kenya. Subjects: Two hundred and fifty three tumours were categorised as right colonic (RCC), left colonic ...

  18. A comparison of some anatomical characteristics of male and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A comparison of some anatomical characteristics of male and female reproductive organs of the white Fulani and west African short horn cattle in Ghana: a ... be due to the confounding effects of the physiological state (follicular or luteal) of the ovaries depending on the oestrus cycle of the cow at the time measurements ...

  19. Anatomical studies of the gastrointestinal tract of the striped sand ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was carried out on the gross anatomical, morphometric features and histology of the gastrointestinal tract of the Striped Sand Snake (Psammophis sibilans). Ten snakes (five males and five females) were euthanized and dissected for the study. The gastrointestinal tract appeared as a straight tubular organ from oral ...

  20. A hierarchical scheme for geodesic anatomical labeling of airway trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feragen, Aasa; Petersen, Jens; Owen, Megan

    2012-01-01

    . In tree-space, the airway tree topology and geometry change continuously, giving a natural way to automatically handle anatomical differences and noise. The algorithm is made efficient using a hierarchical approach, in which labels are assigned from the top down. We only use features of the airway...

  1. Agreement between anatomic and ultrasound measurements of femoral trochlear depth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miles, James Edward; Westrup, Ulrik; Eriksen, Thomas

    and ultrasonographic measurements of trochlear depth using the red fox hind limb as a canine surrogate, dividing the trochlea into five regions from the origin of the caudal cruciate ligament to the proximal aspect of the trochlea. We found reasonable agreement between anatomic and ultrasonographic measurements...

  2. Dissimilarity-based classification of anatomical tree structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Lauge Emil Borch Laurs; Lo, Pechin Chien Pau; Dirksen, Asger

    2011-01-01

    between the branch feature vectors representing those trees. Hereby, localized information in the branches is collectively used in classification and variations in feature values across the tree are taken into account. An approximate anatomical correspondence between matched branches can be achieved...

  3. Anatomical practices of preserving, handling and management of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The result of this review is that an act will be required to address the management of human remains as well the regulation of the anatomical practices of preserving, handling and management of human remains. Human remains as used in this context includes established lifeless or dead whole human body otherwise ...

  4. Anatomical approach for surgery of the male posterior urethra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalpiaz, Orietta; Mitterberger, Michael; Kerschbaumer, Andrea; Pinggera, Germar M; Bartsch, Georg; Strasser, Hannes

    2008-11-01

    To investigate, in a morphological study, the anatomy of the male rhabdosphincter and the relation between the membranous urethra, the rhabdosphincter and the neurovascular bundles (NVBs) to provide the anatomical basis for surgical approach of the posterior urethra as successful outcomes in urethral reconstructive surgery still remain a challenging issue. In all, 11 complete pelves and four tissue blocks of prostate, rectum, membranous urethra and the rhabdosphincter were studied. Besides anatomical preparations, the posterior urethra and their relationship were studied by means of serial histological sections. In the histological cross-sections, the rhabdosphincter forms an omega-shaped loop around the anterior and lateral aspects of the membranous urethra. Ventrally and laterally, it is separated from the membranous urethra by a delicate sheath of connective tissue. Through a midline approach displacing the nerves and vessels laterally, injuries to the NVBs can be avoided. With meticulous dissection of the delicate ventral connective tissue sheath between the ventral wall of the membranous urethra and the rhabdosphincter, the two structures can be separated without damage to either of them. This anatomical approach can be used for dissection of the anterior urethral wall in urethral surgery. Based on precise anatomical knowledge, the ventral wall of the posterior urethra can be dissected and exposed without injuring the rhabdosphincter and the NVBs. This approach provides the basis for sparing of the rhabdosphincter and for successful outcomes in urethral surgery for the treatment of bulbo-membranous urethral strictures.

  5. Gross anatomical syringeal structures of goose (Anser anser domesticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reda Mohamed

    2017-12-01

    Conclusion: There were some similarities and some differences of the anatomical structures of the syrinx of goose and that of other bird species. No differences between male and female syrinx were observed. [J Adv Vet Anim Res 2017; 4(4.000: 343-347

  6. Anatomical variations of the brachial plexus terminal branches in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Anatomical variations are clinically significant, but many are inadequately described or quantified. Variations in anatomy of the brachial plexus are important to surgeons and anesthesiologists performing surgical procedures in the neck, axilla and upper limb regions. It is also important for radiologists who interpret plain and ...

  7. Plastination technology for anatomical studies in Nigeria: Opinion of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-04-09

    Apr 9, 2013 ... Plastination technology for anatomical studies in. Nigeria: Opinion of ... Today, modern techniques used to preserve the human body for didactic purposes are built on methods that began in ... of new techniques and computer science, alternative methods of teaching anatomy have come. Dr. Gunther von ...

  8. Anatomical variability of the trunk wood and root tissues of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    performed with an optic microscope “Motic. 2.0” to a magnification of forty x. The observation was facilitated by a Ken-A-Vision camera connected to a computer. The software. Vision 4 allowed to take pictures and to measure the constituent of the woody plan. The following anatomical characters were measured: the number ...

  9. More about...Anatomical Pathology | Eyal | Continuing Medical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Continuing Medical Education. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 30, No 2 (2012) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register. More about...Anatomical Pathology. P Eyal. Abstract.

  10. Variations in the Anatomical Structures of the Guyon Canal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fadel, Zahir T; Samargandi, Osama A; Tang, David T

    2017-05-01

    Compression neuropathy of the ulnar nerve at the Guyon canal is commonly seen by hand surgeons. Different anatomical variations of structures related to the Guyon canal have been reported in the literature. A thorough knowledge of the normal contents and possible variations is essential during surgery and exploration. To review the recognized anatomical variations within and around the Guyon canal. This study is a narrative review in which relevant papers, clinical studies, and anatomical studies were selected by searching electronic databases (PubMed and EMBASE). Extensive manual review of references of the included studies was performed. We also describe a case report of an aberrant muscle crossing the Guyon canal. This study identified several variations in the anatomical structures of the Guyon canal reported in the literature. Variations of the ulnar nerve involved its course, branching pattern, deep motor branch, superficial sensory branch, dorsal cutaneous branch, and the communication with the median nerve. Ulnar artery variations involved its course, branching pattern, the superficial ulnar artery, and the dorsal perforating artery. Aberrant muscles crossing the Guyon canal were found to originate from the antebrachial fascia, pisiform bone, flexor retinaculum, the tendon of palmaris longus, flexor carpi ulnaris, or flexor carpi radialis; these muscles usually fuse with the hypothenar group. The diverse variations of the contents of the Guyon canal were adequately described in the literature. Taking these variations into consideration is important in preventing clinical misinterpretation and avoiding potential surgical complications.

  11. Gross and morphometric anatomical changes of the thyroid gland in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Gross and morphometric anatomical changes of the thyroid gland in the West African Dwarf Goat ( Capra hircus ) during the foetal and post-natal periods of development. ... The right lobe was more cranially located on the larynx and trachea than the left lobe in all age groups. Thyroid isthmus was absent in few foetal thyroid ...

  12. Assessment of Anatomical Knowledge and Core Trauma Competency Vascular Skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granite, Guinevere; Pugh, Kristy; Chen, Hegang; Longinaker, Nyaradzo; Garofalo, Evan; Shackelford, Stacy; Shalin, Valerie; Puche, Adam; Pasley, Jason; Sarani, Babak; Henry, Sharon; Bowyer, Mark; Mackenzie, Colin

    2018-03-01

    Surgical residents express confidence in performing specific vascular exposures before training, but such self-reported confidence did not correlate with co-located evaluator ratings. This study reports residents' self-confidence evaluated before and after Advanced Surgical Skills for Exposure in Trauma (ASSET) cadaver-based training, and 12-18 mo later. We hypothesize that residents will better judge their own skill after ASSET than before when compared with evaluator ratings. Forty PGY2-7 surgical residents performed four procedures: axillary artery (AA), brachial artery (BA), femoral artery exposure and control (FA), and lower extremity fasciotomy (FAS) at the three evaluations. Using 5-point Likert scales, surgeons self-assessed their confidence in anatomical understanding and procedure performance after each procedure and evaluators rated each surgeon accordingly. For all the three evaluations, residents consistently rated their anatomical understanding (p < 0.04) and surgical performance (p < 0.03) higher than evaluators for both FA and FAS. Residents rated their anatomical understanding and surgical performance higher (p < 0.005) than evaluators for BA after training and up to 18 mo later. Only for third AA evaluation were there no rating differences. Residents overrate their anatomical understanding and performance abilities for BA, FA, and FAS even after performing the procedures and being debriefed three times in 18 mo.

  13. Anatomical factors predicting lower calyceal stone clearance after ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    M. Khan

    2016-02-17

    Feb 17, 2016 ... Curr Opin Urol 2008;18:214–9. [9] Lingeman JE, Siegal YI, Steele B, Nyhus AW, Woods JR. Manage- ment of lower pole nephrolithiasis: a critical analysis. J Urol 1994;151: 663–7. [10] Sampaio FJB, Aragao AHM. Limitations of extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy for lower caliceal stone: anatomic insight.

  14. Ethmomaxillary sinus: a particular anatomic variation of the paranasal sinuses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sirikci, Akif; Bayram, Metin [Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine, Gaziantep University, Kolejtepe, 27310, Gaziantep (Turkey); Bayazit, Y.A.; Kanlikama, Muzaffer [Department of Otorhinolaryngology and Head and Neck Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, Gaziantep University, Kolejtepe, 27310, Gaziantep (Turkey)

    2004-02-01

    We assessed the morphological and radiological characteristics of ethmomaxillary sinus (EMS), which is an enlarged posterior ethmoidal air cell occupying the superior portion of the maxillary sinus while draining into superior meatus. This study is based on 1450 patients submitted to CT examination of the paranasal sinuses between 1998 and 2002. Sequential CT scans were obtained in the coronal plane in all the patients with 2.5- to 5-mm section thickness and were evaluated for EMS. The diagnosis of EMS was made when there was a posterior ethmoidal cell occupying the superior part of the maxillary sinus while draining to the superior meatus. When EMS was diagnosed, the morphology of the septum between the and maxillary sinus, and width of the superior meatus, were noted. The EMS was found in 10 of 1450 (0.7%) patients. The coexisting anatomic variations were concha bullosa (50%), upper concha pneumatization (20%), maxillary sinus hypoplasia (20%), uncinate bulla (10%), hypertrophied inferior concha (10%), paradoxic middle concha (10%), and septate maxillary sinus (10%). There was no relation between EMS and sinus disease. The EMS is a rare anatomic variation and does not appear to be associated with sinusitis. The EMS is not a well-studied anatomic variation, and the literature is lacking adequate information about this anatomic variation. This study performed in a large series of patients will possibly contribute to better understanding of this particular anomaly. (orig.)

  15. An Investigation of How Clinicians use Anatomical Knowledge in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An Investigation of How Clinicians use Anatomical Knowledge in Diagnostic Reasoning: A Grounded Theory Study of Clinicians in Zambia. ... observations, self-administered questionnaires from 168 respondents (140 doctors and 28 medical students at UTH), and unstructured interviews with doctors working in hospitals.

  16. Anatomical site predilections of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma in Human ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Anatomical site predilections of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma in Human Immunodeficiency Virus infection: A report on 54 cases. OW Mwanda, C Whalen, CR Scot, M Lederman, J Orem, C Banura. Abstract. No Abstract Available East African Medical Journal August (Supplement) 2004: S90-S96.

  17. Motor perception and anatomical realism in Classical Greek art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skoyles, J R

    1998-07-01

    The rise of anatomical realism in sculpture with the Classical Greeks puzzles art historians. Recently, it has been discovered that the motor cortex perceives motor actions. I argue that Classical artists discovered a new aesthetic based on using art to stimulate not just, as previously, the visual cortex, but also the motor one.

  18. CAVEman: Standardized Anatomical Context for Biomedical Data Mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turinsky, Andrei L.; Fanea, Elena; Trinh, Quang; Wat, Stephen; Hallgrimsson, Benedikt; Dong, Xiaoli; Shu, Xueling; Stromer, Julie N.; Hill, Jonathan W.; Edwards, Carol; Grosenick, Brenda; Yajima, Masumi; Sensen, Christoph W.

    2008-01-01

    The authors have created a software system called the CAVEman, for the visual integration and exploration of heterogeneous anatomical and biomedical data. The CAVEman can be applied for both education and research tasks. The main component of the system is a three-dimensional digital atlas of the adult male human anatomy, structured according to…

  19. Anatomical features of the sternum in a Kenyan population | El ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Anatomical features of the sternum in a Kenyan population. ... Eighty one dry adult sterna were studied at the Department of Human Anatomy, University of Nairobi, Kenya. Sternal asymmetry was taken as displacement of the ... Further research is needed to correlate these findings. However, careful evaluation of chest ...

  20. Gross Anatomical Variations and Congenital Anomalies of Surgical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results: A wide range of Anatomical variations of surgical importance were noted among the Ugandan cadavers. In 5% of the cases, the common hepatic artery originated from the superior Mesenteric artery. The course of the cystic artery in 61.9% of the cases was anterior to the right hepatic duct, in 31% it passed anterior ...

  1. Adaptation of Museum Specimens for Use in Anatomical Teaching Aids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, P. F.; And Others

    1977-01-01

    Color transparencies are prepared of a re-colored anatomical specimen after placing labels temporarily in position to indicate specific structures. The specimen is also radiographed to show skeletal and soft tissue structures. Cross-reference among the specimen, photographs, and radiographs is supplemented by examination and self-assessment…

  2. Beyond Anatomical Dolls: Professionals' Use of Other Play Therapy Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendall-Tackett, Kathleen A.

    1992-01-01

    Telephone interviews were conducted with 201 Boston-area professionals who work with child victims of sexual abuse. Questions concerned use of anatomical dolls and other techniques and behavioral indicators of sexual abuse. Results indicated that mental health professionals used significantly more techniques than did law enforcement professionals.…

  3. Anatomical and magnetic resonance imaging study of the medial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sally Mahmood Mohamed Hussin Omar

    2015-07-10

    Jul 10, 2015 ... Anatomical and magnetic resonance imaging study of the medial collateral ligament of the ankle joint. Sally Mahmood Mohamed Hussin Omar a. , Fardos Ahmed El-Kalaa a. ,. El Sebai Farag Ali b. , Ali Ali Abd El-Karim c. , Nancy Mohamed El Sekily d,. * a Department of Anatomy and Embryology, Faculty of ...

  4. ORIGINAL ARTICLE Uterine and tubal anatomical abnormalities in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    120 SA JOURNAL OF RADIOLOGY • December 2011. ORIGINAL ARTICLE. Uterine and tubal anatomical abnormalities in infertile women: diagnosis with routine hystero- salpingography prior to selective laparoscopy. M Heis, MD, FRCR, FFRRCSI, CST. Z Amarin, MD, FRCOG, FFPH. A Y Ibrahim, MD. N Obeidat, MD.

  5. Additive Manufacturing of Anatomical Models from Computed Tomography Scan Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gür, Y

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of the study presented here was to investigate the manufacturability of human anatomical models from Computed Tomography (CT) scan data via a 3D desktop printer which uses fused deposition modelling (FDM) technology. First, Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) CT scan data were converted to 3D Standard Triangle Language (STL) format by using In Vaselius digital imaging program. Once this STL file is obtained, a 3D physical version of the anatomical model can be fabricated by a desktop 3D FDM printer. As a case study, a patient's skull CT scan data was considered, and a tangible version of the skull was manufactured by a 3D FDM desktop printer. During the 3D printing process, the skull was built using acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS) co-polymer plastic. The printed model showed that the 3D FDM printing technology is able to fabricate anatomical models with high accuracy. As a result, the skull model can be used for preoperative surgical planning, medical training activities, implant design and simulation to show the potential of the FDM technology in medical field. It will also improve communication between medical stuff and patients. Current result indicates that a 3D desktop printer which uses FDM technology can be used to obtain accurate anatomical models.

  6. Environmental impact on morphological and anatomical structure of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Morphological and anatomical structure of Tansy (Tanacetum vulgare L.) from two specific locations in one town, depending on environmental conditions, were carried out: anthropogenic Ada Huja (polluted zone) and non anthropogenic Topcider park (unpolluted). Study included the diferences in the structure of leaves, ...

  7. The concept of individualized anatomic anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofbauer, M.; Muller, B. [=Bart; Murawski, C. D.; van Eck, C. F.; Fu, F. H.

    2014-01-01

    To describe the concept of individualized anatomic anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. The PubMed/Medline database was searched using keywords pertaining to ACL reconstruction. Relevant articles were reviewed in order to summarize important concepts of individualized surgery in ACL

  8. An anatomically oriented breast coordinate system for mammogram analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Sami; Karemore, Gopal; Karssemeijer, Nico

    2011-01-01

    the breast cancer became visible to a radiologist. The coordinate system provides both the relative position and orientation information on the breast region from which the features are derived. In addition, the coordinate system can be used in temporal studies to pin-point anatomically equivalent locations...

  9. A Methodology for Anatomic Ultrasound Image Diagnostic Quality Assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hemmsen, Martin Christian; Lange, Theis; Brandt, Andreas Hjelm

    2017-01-01

    This paper discusses methods for assessment of ultrasound image quality based on our experiences with evaluating new methods for anatomic imaging. It presents a methodology to ensure a fair assessment between competing imaging methods using clinically relevant evaluations. The methodology...... to properly reveal the clinical value. The paper exemplifies the methodology using recent studies of Synthetic Aperture Sequential Beamforming tissue harmonic imaging....

  10. Comparison of ultrasound-guided versus anatomical landmark ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background Femoral vein cannulation may be required during major surgery in infants and children and may prove to be life saving under certain conditions. This study compared ultrasound (US)-guided cannulation of the femoral vein in infants with the traditional anatomical landmark-guided technique. Methods Eighty ...

  11. Tinkering and the Origins of Heritable Anatomical Variation in Vertebrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan B. L. Bard

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Evolutionary change comes from natural and other forms of selection acting on existing anatomical and physiological variants. While much is known about selection, little is known about the details of how genetic mutation leads to the range of heritable anatomical variants that are present within any population. This paper takes a systems-based view to explore how genomic mutation in vertebrate genomes works its way upwards, though changes to proteins, protein networks, and cell phenotypes to produce variants in anatomical detail. The evidence used in this approach mainly derives from analysing anatomical change in adult vertebrates and the protein networks that drive tissue formation in embryos. The former indicate which processes drive variation—these are mainly patterning, timing, and growth—and the latter their molecular basis. The paper then examines the effects of mutation and genetic drift on these processes, the nature of the resulting heritable phenotypic variation within a population, and the experimental evidence on the speed with which new variants can appear under selection. The discussion considers whether this speed is adequate to explain the observed rate of evolutionary change or whether other non-canonical, adaptive mechanisms of heritable mutation are needed. The evidence to hand suggests that they are not, for vertebrate evolution at least.

  12. Morphology and anatomical structure of the larval salt gland of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), was also determined. The morphology and anatomical structure of the salt gland varied according to the salinity degree. At low salinities, salt gland was small, thin and flat having many shallow canals, while ...

  13. 3 Variation in Leaf Anatomical Characters.cdr

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    Dry and wet season studies of the leaf anatomy of ten plant species in the family Euphorbiaceae from three sites with different pollution levels in Southwestern Nigeria were carried out. This is with a view to establish the response of plant anatomical structures to air pollution. The species investigated were Alchornea laxiflora.

  14. Conventional trans‑tibial versus anatomic medial portal technique ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, we aimed to determine if there is any difference between the clinical outcomes of two most commonly used drilling techniques; which are conventional trans‑tibial (TT) drilling of femoral tunnel and anatomic preparation of femoral tunnel through medial portal (MP), in patients who underwent ACL reconstruction.

  15. Plastination technology for anatomical studies in Nigeria: Opinion of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr. Gunther von Hagens developed plastination as a technique of tissue preservation in 1977. He used a delicate method of forced impregnation with curable polymers like silicone, epoxy or polyester resins for preservation of anatomical specimens. With plastination, every part of a biological tissue is treated, preserving it ...

  16. Anatomic anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction: reducing anterior tibial subluxation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, Bart; Duerr, Eric R H; van Dijk, C Niek; Fu, Freddie H

    2016-09-01

    To measure and compare the amount of anterior tibial subluxation (ATS) after anatomic ACL reconstruction for both acute and chronic ACL-deficient patients. Fifty-two patients were clinically and radiographically evaluated after primary, unilateral, anatomic ACL reconstruction. Post-operative true lateral radiographs were obtained of both knees with the patient in supine position and knees in full passive extension with heels on a standardized bolster. ATS was measured on the radiographs by two independent and blinded observers. ATS was calculated as the side-to-side difference in tibial position relative to the femur. An independent t test was used to compare ATS between those undergoing anatomic reconstruction for an acute versus chronic ACL injury. Chronic ACL deficiency was defined as more than 12 weeks from injury to surgery. Patients averaged 26.4 ± 11.5 years (mean ± SD) of age, 43.6 % were female, and 48.1 % suffered an injury of the left knee. There were 30 and 22 patients in the acute and chronic groups, respectively. The median duration from injury to reconstruction for the acute group was 5 versus 31 weeks for the chronic group. After anatomic ACL reconstruction, the mean ATS was 1.0 ± 2.1 mm. There was no statistical difference in ATS between the acute and chronic groups (1.2 ± 2.0 vs. 0.6 ± 2.3 mm, n.s.). Assessment of inter-tester reliability for radiographic evaluation of ATS revealed an excellent intraclass correlation coefficient of 0.894. Anatomic ACL reconstruction reduces ATS with a mean difference of 1.0 mm from the healthy contralateral limb. This study did not find a statistical difference in ATS between patients after anatomic ACL reconstruction in the acute or chronic phase. These observations suggest that anatomic ACL reconstruction, performed in either the acute or the chronic phase, approaches the normal AP relationship of the tibiofemoral joint. IV.

  17. Sheet-bulk metal forming – forming of functional components from sheet metals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merklein Marion

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper gives an overview on the application of sheet-bulk metal forming operations in both scientific and industrial environment. Beginning with the need for an innovative forming technology, the definition of this new process class is introduced. The rising challenges of the application of bulk metal forming operations on sheet metals are presented and the demand on a holistic investigation of this topic is motivated. With the help of examples from established production processes, the latest state of technology and the lack on fundamental knowledge is shown. Furthermore, perspectives regarding new research topics within sheet-bulk metal forming are presented. These focus on processing strategies to improve the quality of functional components by the application of process-adapted semi-finished products as well as the local adaption of the tribological system.

  18. Feature-based morphometry: discovering group-related anatomical patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toews, Matthew; Wells, William; Collins, D Louis; Arbel, Tal

    2010-02-01

    This paper presents feature-based morphometry (FBM), a new fully data-driven technique for discovering patterns of group-related anatomical structure in volumetric imagery. In contrast to most morphometry methods which assume one-to-one correspondence between subjects, FBM explicitly aims to identify distinctive anatomical patterns that may only be present in subsets of subjects, due to disease or anatomical variability. The image is modeled as a collage of generic, localized image features that need not be present in all subjects. Scale-space theory is applied to analyze image features at the characteristic scale of underlying anatomical structures, instead of at arbitrary scales such as global or voxel-level. A probabilistic model describes features in terms of their appearance, geometry, and relationship to subject groups, and is automatically learned from a set of subject images and group labels. Features resulting from learning correspond to group-related anatomical structures that can potentially be used as image biomarkers of disease or as a basis for computer-aided diagnosis. The relationship between features and groups is quantified by the likelihood of feature occurrence within a specific group vs. the rest of the population, and feature significance is quantified in terms of the false discovery rate. Experiments validate FBM clinically in the analysis of normal (NC) and Alzheimer's (AD) brain images using the freely available OASIS database. FBM automatically identifies known structural differences between NC and AD subjects in a fully data-driven fashion, and an equal error classification rate of 0.80 is achieved for subjects aged 60-80 years exhibiting mild AD (CDR=1). Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. An Ice Sheet Model Validation Framework for the Greenland Ice Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Stephen F.; Hoffman, Matthew J.; Bonin, Jennifer A.; Howat, Ian M.; Neumann, Thomas A.; Saba, Jack; Tezaur, Irina; Guerber, Jeffrey R.; Chambers, Don P.; Evans, Katherine J.; hide

    2017-01-01

    We propose a new ice sheet model validation framework - the Cryospheric Model Comparison Tool (CmCt) - that takes advantage of ice sheet altimetry and gravimetry observations collected over the past several decades and is applied here to modeling of the Greenland ice sheet. We use realistic simulations performed with the Community Ice Sheet Model (CISM) along with two idealized, non-dynamic models to demonstrate the framework and its use. Dynamic simulations with CISM are forced from 1991 to 2013, using combinations of reanalysis-based surface mass balance and observations of outlet glacier flux change. We propose and demonstrate qualitative and quantitative metrics for use in evaluating the different model simulations against the observations. We find that the altimetry observations used here are largely ambiguous in terms of their ability to distinguish one simulation from another. Based on basin-scale and whole-ice-sheet-scale metrics, we find that simulations using both idealized conceptual models and dynamic, numerical models provide an equally reasonable representation of the ice sheet surface (mean elevation differences of less than 1 meter). This is likely due to their short period of record, biases inherent to digital elevation models used for model initial conditions, and biases resulting from firn dynamics, which are not explicitly accounted for in the models or observations. On the other hand, we find that the gravimetry observations used here are able to unambiguously distinguish between simulations of varying complexity, and along with the CmCt, can provide a quantitative score for assessing a particular model and/or simulation. The new framework demonstrates that our proposed metrics can distinguish relatively better from relatively worse simulations and that dynamic ice sheet models, when appropriately initialized and forced with the right boundary conditions, demonstrate a predictive skill with respect to observed dynamic changes that have occurred

  20. Touching Anatomy. : On the Handling of Anatomical Preparations in the Anatomical Cabinets of Frederik Ruysch (1638-1731)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knoeff, Rina

    2015-01-01

    This paper argues that the anatomical Cabinets of Dutch anatomist Frederik Ruysch must be understood as an early modern workshop in which preparations were continuously handled. It is claimed that preparations actively appealed to anatomists and visitors to handle, re-dissect, touch, and even kiss

  1. Network of anatomical texts (NAnaTex), an open-source project for visualizing the interaction between anatomical terms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momota, Ryusuke; Ohtsuka, Aiji

    2018-01-01

    Anatomy is the science and art of understanding the structure of the body and its components in relation to the functions of the whole-body system. Medicine is based on a deep understanding of anatomy, but quite a few introductory-level learners are overwhelmed by the sheer amount of anatomical terminology that must be understood, so they regard anatomy as a dull and dense subject. To help them learn anatomical terms in a more contextual way, we started a new open-source project, the Network of Anatomical Texts (NAnaTex), which visualizes relationships of body components by integrating text-based anatomical information using Cytoscape, a network visualization software platform. Here, we present a network of bones and muscles produced from literature descriptions. As this network is primarily text-based and does not require any programming knowledge, it is easy to implement new functions or provide extra information by making changes to the original text files. To facilitate collaborations, we deposited the source code files for the network into the GitHub repository ( https://github.com/ryusukemomota/nanatex ) so that anybody can participate in the evolution of the network and use it for their own non-profit purposes. This project should help not only introductory-level learners but also professional medical practitioners, who could use it as a quick reference.

  2. Investigations of Anatomical Variations of the Thorax and Heart, and Anatomical Knowledge for First Year Medical Dental and Podiatry Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verenna, Anne-Marie

    2013-01-01

    The universal presence of anatomy in healthcare professions is undeniable. It is a cornerstone to each of the clinical and basic sciences. Therefore, further expansion of current anatomical knowledge and effective methods to teach anatomy is essential. In this work, the relationship of the dorsal scapular artery with the trunks of the brachial…

  3. Deglaciation of the Eurasian ice sheet complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patton, Henry; Hubbard, Alun; Andreassen, Karin; Auriac, Amandine; Whitehouse, Pippa L.; Stroeven, Arjen P.; Shackleton, Calvin; Winsborrow, Monica; Heyman, Jakob; Hall, Adrian M.

    2017-08-01

    The Eurasian ice sheet complex (EISC) was the third largest ice mass during the Last Glacial Maximum with a span of over 4500 km and responsible for around 20 m of eustatic sea-level lowering. Whilst recent terrestrial and marine empirical insights have improved understanding of the chronology, pattern and rates of retreat of this vast ice sheet, a concerted attempt to model the deglaciation of the EISC honouring these new constraints is conspicuously lacking. Here, we apply a first-order, thermomechanical ice sheet model, validated against a diverse suite of empirical data, to investigate the retreat of the EISC after 23 ka BP, directly extending the work of Patton et al. (2016) who modelled the build-up to its maximum extent. Retreat of the ice sheet complex was highly asynchronous, reflecting contrasting regional sensitivities to climate forcing, oceanic influence, and internal dynamics. Most rapid retreat was experienced across the Barents Sea sector after 17.8 ka BP when this marine-based ice sheet disintegrated at a rate of ∼670 gigatonnes per year (Gt a-1) through enhanced calving and interior dynamic thinning, driven by oceanic/atmospheric warming and exacerbated by eustatic sea-level rise. From 14.9 to 12.9 ka BP the EISC lost on average 750 Gt a-1, peaking at rates >3000 Gt a-1, roughly equally partitioned between surface melt and dynamic losses, and potentially contributing up to 2.5 m to global sea-level rise during Meltwater Pulse 1A. Independent glacio-isostatic modelling constrained by an extensive inventory of relative sea-level change corroborates our ice sheet loading history of the Barents Sea sector. Subglacial conditions were predominately temperate during deglaciation, with over 6000 subglacial lakes predicted along with an extensive subglacial drainage network. Moreover, the maximum EISC and its isostatic footprint had a profound impact on the proglacial hydrological network, forming the Fleuve Manche mega-catchment which had an area of

  4. Analysis of groundwater flow beneath ice sheets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boulton, G. S.; Zatsepin, S.; Maillot, B.

    2001-03-01

    The large-scale pattern of subglacial groundwater flow beneath European ice sheets was analysed in a previous report. It was based on a two-dimensional flowline model. In this report, the analysis is extended to three dimensions by exploring the interactions between groundwater and tunnel flow. A theory is developed which suggests that the large-scale geometry of the hydraulic system beneath an ice sheet is a coupled, self-organising system. In this system the pressure distribution along tunnels is a function of discharge derived from basal meltwater delivered to tunnels by groundwater flow, and the pressure along tunnels itself sets the base pressure which determines the geometry of catchments and flow towards the tunnel. The large-scale geometry of tunnel distribution is a product of the pattern of basal meltwater production and the transmissive properties of the bed. The tunnel discharge from the ice margin of the glacier, its seasonal fluctuation and the sedimentary characteristics of eskers are largely determined by the discharge of surface meltwater which penetrates to the bed in the terminal zone. The theory explains many of the characteristics of esker systems and can account for tunnel valleys. It is concluded that the large-scale hydraulic regime beneath ice sheets is largely a consequence of groundwater/tunnel flow interactions and that it is essential similar to non-glacial hydraulic regimes. Experimental data from an Icelandic glacier, which demonstrates measured relationships between subglacial tunnel flow and groundwater flow during the transition from summer to winter seasons for a modern glacier, and which support the general conclusions of the theory is summarised in an appendix

  5. Gauge for measuring a sheet of material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dahlquist, J.A.; Goss, J.D.; Wennerberg, G.

    1986-01-01

    This invention provides a process for measuring the values of a parameter of a sheet of material at various points by a sensor system disposed in a head member, and for correcting the measured vAlues of the parameter to account for variability of the separation of the head member from a reference member. The process comprises: measuring the values of the parameter with the sensor system at several points; determining the separation of the head and reference members; and correcting the measured values according the separation. A distance sensor is coupled to the head member to measure the distance between the head and reference members

  6. BALANCE-SHEET vs. ARBITRAGE CDOs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SILVIU EDUARD DINCA

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available During the past few years, in the recent post-crisis aftermath, global asset managers are constantly searching new ways to optimize their investment portfolios while financial and banking institutions around the world are exploring new alternatives to better secure their financing and refinancing demands altogether with the enhancement of their risk management capabilities. We will exhibit herewith a comparison between the balance-sheet and arbitrage CDO securitizations as financial markets-based funding, investment and risks mitigation techniques, highlighting certain key structuring and implementation specifics on each of them.

  7. SunShot Initiative Fact Sheet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DOE Solar Energy Technologies Office

    2015-04-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) SunShot Initiative is a collaborative national effort launched in 2011 that aggressively drives innovation to make solar energy fully cost competitive with traditional energy sources before the end of the decade. The SunShot fact sheet outlines goals and successes of the program as it works with private companies, universities, non-profit organizations, state and local governments, and national laboratories to drive down the cost of solar electricity to $0.06 per kilowatt-hour, without incentives, by the year 2020.

  8. SOME ASPECTS REGARDING BALANCE SHEET ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ILIE RĂSCOLEAN

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents some aspects of the analysis based on the balance sheet at an economic entity. Attempting to use economic analysis as a support tool in the decision. The case study is performed on the financial accounts of a company, analyzing the structure of the assets using the following rates: the rate of intangible assets; rate of tangible assets; rate financial assets; rate stocks; rate receivables and cash and cash equivalents rate. Liability structure is analyzed using the following rates: the rate of financial stability; global financial autonomy rate; overall borrowing rate; term borrowing rate.

  9. Hydrogen passivation of silicon sheet solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuo, Y.S.; Milstein, J.B.

    1984-01-01

    Significant improvements in the efficiencies of dendritic web and edge-supported-pulling silicon sheet solar cells have been obtained after hydrogen ion beam passivation for a period of ten minutes or less. We have studied the effects of the hydrogen ion beam treatment with respect to silicon material damage, silicon sputter rate, introduction of impurities, and changes in reflectance. The silicon sputter rate for constant ion beam flux of 0.60 +- 0.05 mA/cm 2 exhibits a maximum at approximately 1400-eV ion beam energy

  10. French electric power balance sheet 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Derdevet, Michel; Usatorre, Karine de

    2007-01-01

    The mission of RTE, the French electricity Transportation grid, a public service assignment, is to balance the electricity supply and demand in real time. This report presents RTE's technical results for the year 2006: key figures of the electricity balance sheet, RTE's public utility commitments, efficient market mechanisms and free flow of trades, lessons learnt from the power breakdown of November 4, 2006. The evolution of RTE's infrastructures and production means, the contract with Gaz de France for the improvement of Brittany's security of supply, and the results of RTE's 2006 satisfaction survey are presented in appendixes

  11. Spot welding of aluminium alloy sheets to coated steel sheets. Kakushu mekki koban to arumi gokin no spot yosetsusei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inoue, S.; Fukumura, K.; Soga, S. (Nisshin Steel Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan))

    1994-03-31

    Welding aluminum alloy sheets with coated steel sheets has become used frequently in association with weight reduction in automobiles. This paper describes investigations on the effects of spot welding aluminum alloy sheets with different kinds of coated steel sheets on optimal welding conditions and weld strength. An AC single-phase spot welding machine was used for an experiment using an aluminum alloy(5052)with a thickness of 1 mm(referred to as A)and different coated steel sheets with a thickness of 0.8 mm(referred to as B). The result may be summarized as follows: the weldable value of the electric current is closer to that for between the B steel sheets than the middle of that for between the As and between Bs; while the weldable current range is affected little by the coating materials when a CF electrode is used, it grows greater in aluminum coated steel sheets and hot-dip galvanized steel sheets than in alloyed hot-dip galvanized steel sheets and cold-rolled steel sheets when an R-type electrode is used; influence of the coating materials was observed in tensile shear strength and cross tensile shear strength; and any combination of metals shows fatigue strength lower than that in the A-A combination in a fatigue test of cross tensile system. 5 refs., 12 figs., 6 tabs.

  12. Single Point Incremental Forming using a Dummy Sheet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skjødt, Martin; Silva, Beatriz; Bay, Niels

    2007-01-01

    A new version of single point incremental forming (SPIF) is presented. This version includes a dummy sheet on top of the work piece, thus forming two sheets instead of one. The dummy sheet, which is in contact with the rotating tool pin, is discarded after forming. The new set-up influences...... the process and furthermore offers a number of new possibilities for solving some of the problems appearing in SPIF. Investigations of the influence of dummy sheet on: formability, wear, surface quality and bulging of planar sides is done by forming to test shapes: a hyperboloid and a truncated pyramid....... The possible influence of friction between the two sheets is furthermore investigated. The results show that the use of a dummy sheet reduces wear of the work piece to almost zero, but also causes a decrease in formability. Bulging of the planar sides of the pyramid is reduced and surface roughness...

  13. Autism: General Information. Fact Sheet Number 1 = Autismo: Informacion General. Fact Sheet Number 22.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Interstate Research Associates, McLean, VA.

    This fact sheet on autism is offered in both English and Spanish, and is the same in both languages although numbered differently. It provides a definition, information on incidence, typical characteristics, and educational implications. It notes that autism is listed as a separate category under the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act.…

  14. Global ice sheet/RSL simulations using the higher-order Ice Sheet System Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larour, E. Y.; Ivins, E. R.; Adhikari, S.; Schlegel, N.; Seroussi, H. L.; Morlighem, M.

    2017-12-01

    Relative sea-level rise is driven by processes that are intimately linked to the evolution ofglacial areas and ice sheets in particular. So far, most Earth System models capable of projecting theevolution of RSL on decadal to centennial time scales have relied on offline interactions between RSL andice sheets. In particular, grounding line and calving front dynamics have not been modeled in a way that istightly coupled with Elasto-Static Adjustment (ESA) and/or Glacial-Isostatic Adjustment (GIA). Here, we presenta new simulation of the entire Earth System in which both Greenland and Antarctica ice sheets are tightly coupledto an RSL model that includes both ESA and GIA at resolutions and time scales compatible with processes suchas grounding line dynamics for Antarctica ice shelves and calving front dynamics for Greenland marine-terminatingglaciers. The simulations rely on the Ice Sheet System Model (ISSM) and show the impact of higher-orderice flow dynamics and coupling feedbacks between ice flow and RSL. We quantify the exact impact of ESA andGIA inclusion on grounding line evolution for large ice shelves such as the Ronne and Ross ice shelves, as well asthe Agasea Embayment ice streams, and demonstate how offline vs online RSL simulations diverge in the long run,and the consequences for predictions of sea-level rise.This work was performed at the California Institute of Technology's Jet Propulsion Laboratory undera contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Cryosphere Science Program.

  15. Epilepsy: General Information. Fact Sheet Number 6 = La Epilepsia: Informacion General. Fact Sheet Number 20.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Interstate Research Associates, McLean, VA.

    This fact sheet on epilepsy is offered in both English and Spanish. It provides a definition, information on incidence, typical characteristics, and educational implications. It notes that epilepsy is classified as "other health impaired" under the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act and that students with epilepsy are eligible for special…

  16. Firm Investment and Balance-Sheet Problems in Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Toshitaka Sekine

    1999-01-01

    This paper investigates whether balance-sheet conditions of firms and their main banks matter for firm investment behavior using dynamic corporate panel data in Japan for the period 1985-95. It finds that smaller non-bond issuing firms were facing liquidity constraints; these firms’ balance-sheet conditions (the debt asset ratios) affected their investment from the midst of the bubble era by influencing main banks’ lending to them; and the deterioration of their main banks’ balance-sheet cond...

  17. Residues and world-sheet instantons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beasley, Chris [Joseph Henry Laboratories, Princeton University, New Jersey (United States)]. E-mail: cbeasley@princeton.edu; Witten, Edward [School of Natural Sciences, Institute for Advanced Studies, Princeton, New Jersey (United States)]. E-mail: witten@ias.edu

    2003-10-01

    We reconsider the question of which Calabi-Yau compactifications of the heterotic string are stable under world-sheet instanton corrections to the effective space-time superpotential. For instance, compactifications described by (0; 2) linear sigma models are believed to be stable, suggesting a remarkable cancellation among the instanton effects in these theories. Here, we show that this cancellation follows directly from a residue theorem, whose proof relies only upon the right-moving world-sheet supersymmetries and suitable compactness properties of the (0; 2) linear sigma model. Our residue theorem also extends to a new class of 'half-linear' sigma models. Using these half-linear models, we show that heterotic compactifications on the quintic hypersurface in CP{sup 4} for which the gauge bundle pulls back from a bundle on CP{sup 4} are stable. Finally, we apply similar ideas to compute the superpotential contributions from families of membrane instantons in M-theory compactifications on manifolds of G{sub 2} holonomy. (author)

  18. The manufacture of superplastic magnesium alloy sheet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grimes, R.; Jackson, M.; Moorhouse, B.; Dashwood, R. [Department of Materials, Imperial College London (United Kingdom)

    2008-04-15

    Probably because of their propensity to dynamically recrystallise, superplastic behaviour can be obtained from magnesium alloys considerably more easily than from comparable aluminium alloys. In some cases even as cast magnesium alloys can exhibit reasonable superplasticity and there appears no need for the special alloying additions or complex thermal mechanical treatments required by aluminium alloys such as AA2004 or AA7475. The paper describes the superplastic behaviour (in uniaxial tension) and microstructure of sheet processed from strip cast AZ31 and AZ91. The material was tested in the as-cast condition and after warm rolling to a number of gauges. Industrially useful superplastic capability was demonstrated in strip cast AZ31 and AZ91 in the as cast condition. Furthermore good superplastic capability was also demonstrated in sheet rolled from the cast metal and the ductilities obtained were not significantly influenced by rolling strain. Twin roll strip casting represents a feasible and simple route for the production of superplastic material either for use in the as cast condition or after rolling to the required gauge. (Abstract Copyright [2008], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  19. Annual Energy Balance Sheets 2003-2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    During the year 2004 the supply of primary energy reached 657.6 TWh. That is an increased supply by 16 TWh compared with 2003, The electricity production in hydropower and wind power stations increased by 7 TWh, to 61 TWh during the year 2004. The electricity generated in nuclear power plants was 77.5 TWh, an increase by 10 TWh. During the year 2004 Sweden net exported 2.1 TWh electricity. But in year 2003 we net imported 12.8 TWh electricity. The energy use increased from 406 TWh to 409 TWh between year 2003 and year 2004. The use of coal and coke in manufacturing increased by 22 per cent, and the use of oil products in transport sector increased by 4 per cent. The energy balance sheets are based on data primary recorded in the balance sheets of energy sources, here expressed in a common energy unit, TJ. The production of derived energy is here recorded in a second flow-step comprising energy turnover in energy conversion and is also specified in complementary input-output tables for energy conversion industries

  20. Gastric Anatomic Type Is Associated with Obesity and Gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yu Jen; Hung, Kun-Long; Yang, Jui-Neng; Wang, Tien-Cheng; Chin, Chih-Hui

    2016-01-01

    To enhance our understanding of the associations among gastric anatomy, obesity, and gender. 777 randomly selected participants received health checkups, including a series of radiographs of the upper gastrointestinal tract (UGI); the findings were linked with each corresponding subject's gender and BMI. We measured the length, angle, and different portions of the stomach with the subjects in the standing position using radiographs to classify all individuals into anatomic types 1 through 6 based on gastric morphology. The gastric morphology was identified based on the initial UGI examination: 166 follow-up UGI radiographs at 12 ± 1.5 months to evaluate whether the stability of gastric anatomy persisted over time. There was a significant difference in anatomic types between females and males (p obese (p obese (p obesity and gender. © 2016 The Author(s) Published by S. Karger GmbH, Freiburg.

  1. A hierarchical scheme for geodesic anatomical labeling of airway trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feragen, Aasa; Petersen, Jens; Owen, Megan; Lo, Pechin; Thomsen, Laura H; Wille, Mathilde M W; Dirksen, Asger; de Bruijne, Marleen

    2012-01-01

    We present a fast and robust supervised algorithm for labeling anatomical airway trees, based on geodesic distances in a geometric tree-space. Possible branch label configurations for a given tree are evaluated based on distances to a training set of labeled trees. In tree-space, the tree topology and geometry change continuously, giving a natural way to automatically handle anatomical differences and noise. The algorithm is made efficient using a hierarchical approach, in which labels are assigned from the top down. We only use features of the airway centerline tree, which are relatively unaffected by pathology. A thorough leave-one-patient-out evaluation of the algorithm is made on 40 segmented airway trees from 20 subjects labeled by 2 medical experts. We evaluate accuracy, reproducibility and robustness in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Performance is statistically similar to the inter- and intra-expert agreement, and we found no significant correlation between COPD stage and labeling accuracy.

  2. The current and ideal state of anatomic pathology patient safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raab, Stephen Spencer

    2014-01-01

    An anatomic pathology diagnostic error may be secondary to a number of active and latent technical and/or cognitive components, which may occur anywhere along the total testing process in clinical and/or laboratory domains. For the pathologist interpretive steps of diagnosis, we examine Kahneman's framework of slow and fast thinking to explain different causes of error in precision (agreement) and in accuracy (truth). The pathologist cognitive diagnostic process involves image pattern recognition and a slow thinking error may be caused by the application of different rationally-constructed mental maps of image criteria/patterns by different pathologists. This type of error is partly related to a system failure in standardizing the application of these maps. A fast thinking error involves the flawed leap from image pattern to incorrect diagnosis. In the ideal state, anatomic pathology systems would target these cognitive error causes as well as the technical latent factors that lead to error.

  3. [For an interdisciplinary museology. The particular case of anatomical waxes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirson, Chloé

    2009-01-01

    Nowadays, the anatomical models in three dimensions are often showed in Museums devoted to the History of Medicine. Due to their historical importance and the major role they played as scientific education tool, they are essentials to understand the heritage of the anatomical knowledge. Historically, within all materials used to cast the body, wax has been the most frequently used, so that the ceroplastical collection has become a part of the medical education before leading to a general public pedagogy. This paper has a double purpose. In one hand, it aims to survey the formal evolution and the uses of this production, from his creation on, in the other, to study this cultural heritage within the museology issue.

  4. Elimination of the apposition in Latin anatomical terms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, Paul E

    2017-03-01

    The anatomical nomenclature rules require that terms be as short and simple as possible. One common exception to that rule is Latin terms that contain two nouns in nominative case, for example, Musculus masseter and Os ischium. Although these may appear to speakers of other languages to be compound nouns, they are appositions, grammatical structures in which one noun renames, defines or describes the entity named by the other noun. More than 125 terms in Terminologia Anatomica can be simplified, without loss of clarity, by prohibiting use of more than one noun in nominative case in Latin anatomical terms (e.g., Masseter and Os ischii). Clin. Anat. 30:156-158, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. From medical imaging data to 3D printed anatomical models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bücking, Thore M; Hill, Emma R; Robertson, James L; Maneas, Efthymios; Plumb, Andrew A; Nikitichev, Daniil I

    2017-01-01

    Anatomical models are important training and teaching tools in the clinical environment and are routinely used in medical imaging research. Advances in segmentation algorithms and increased availability of three-dimensional (3D) printers have made it possible to create cost-efficient patient-specific models without expert knowledge. We introduce a general workflow that can be used to convert volumetric medical imaging data (as generated by Computer Tomography (CT)) to 3D printed physical models. This process is broken up into three steps: image segmentation, mesh refinement and 3D printing. To lower the barrier to entry and provide the best options when aiming to 3D print an anatomical model from medical images, we provide an overview of relevant free and open-source image segmentation tools as well as 3D printing technologies. We demonstrate the utility of this streamlined workflow by creating models of ribs, liver, and lung using a Fused Deposition Modelling 3D printer.

  6. Anatomical variations of paranasal sinuses: what to inform the otolaryngologist?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villela, Caroline Laurita Batista Couto; Gomes, Natalia Delage; Gaiotti, Juliana Oggioni; Costa, Ana Maria Doffemond; Ribeiro, Marcelo Almeida; Motta, Emilia Guerra Pinto Coelho; Moreira, Wanderval; Ramos, Laura Filgueiras Mourao; Diniz, Renata Lopes Furletti Caldeira

    2012-01-01

    Anatomic variations of paranasal sinuses are common findings in daily practice. For a radiologist, to know these variations is necessary because of the pathological conditions related to them, and also because they are import for planning a functional endoscopic endonasal surgery, the procedure of choice for diagnosis, biopsy and treatment of various sinonasal diseases. To assure that this surgery is done safely, preventing iatrogenic injuries, it is essential that the surgeon has the mapping of these structures. Thus, a CT is indispensable for preoperative evaluation of paranasal sinuses. Since a general radiologist is expected to know these changes and their relationship to pathological conditions, a literature review and a iconographic essay were conducted with the aim of discussing the importance of major anatomic variations of paranasal sinuses. (author)

  7. Anatomical models for space radiation applications: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atwell, W

    1994-10-01

    Extremely detailed computerized anatomical male (CAM) and female (CAF) models that have been developed for use in space radiation analyses are discussed and reviewed. Recognizing that the level of detail may currently be inadequate for certain radiological applications, one of the purposes of this paper is to elicit specific model improvements or requirements from the scientific user-community. Methods and rationale are presented which describe the approach used in the Space Shuttle program to extrapolate dosimetry measurements (skin doses) to realistic astronaut body organ doses. Several mission scenarios are presented which demonstrate the utility of the anatomical models for obtaining specific body organ exposure estimates and can be used for establishing cancer morbidity and mortality risk assessments. These exposure estimates are based on the trapped Van Allen belt and galactic cosmic radiation environment models and data from the major historical solar particle events.

  8. Analysis of anatomical and micromorphological characteristics of Iva xanthifolia nutt.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krstić Lana N.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Iva xanthifolia is a North American weed species, which was introduced and naturalized in Europe. Anatomical and micromorphological characteristics of this species were investigated, in order to get better knowledge of its biology, which could help in development of strategies for prevention of its spreading. Detailed descriptions of lamina, petiole, stem and inflorescence axis anatomical structures were given, together with micromorphological characteristics of epidermis and indumentum of lamina, petiole, stem, inflorescence axis, involucre and fruit. All vegetative organs had mesomorphic structure, with some xeromorphic adaptations. Mechanical tissue was well developed, which gave those plants additional strength and resistance. Trichomes were the most numerous on lamina and in the region of inflorescence, while rare on petiole and stem epidermis and their distribution varied according to plant organ.

  9. Crib sheets and exam performance in a data structures course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamouda, Sally; Shaffer, Clifford A.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we study the relationship between the use of "crib sheets" or "cheat sheets" and performance on in-class exams. Our extensive survey of the existing literature shows that it is not decisive on the questions of when or whether crib sheets actually help students to either perform better on an exam or better learn the material. We report on our own detailed analysis for a body of crib sheets created for the final exam in a junior-level Data Structures and Algorithms course. We wanted to determine whether there is any feature of the crib sheets that correlates to good exam scores. Exam performance was compared against a number of potential indicators for quality in a crib sheet. We have found that students performed significantly better on questions at the comprehension level of Bloom's taxonomy when their crib sheet contained good information on the topic, while performance on questions at higher levels of the taxonomy did not show correlation to crib sheet contents. We have also seen that students at certain levels of performance on the final exam (specifically, medium-to-high performance) did relatively better on certain questions than other students at that performance level when they had good coverage of that question's topic on their crib sheet.

  10. Magnetic configurations of the tilted current sheets in magnetotail

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Shen

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available In this research, the geometrical structures of tilted current sheet and tail flapping waves have been analysed based on multiple spacecraft measurements and some features of the tilted current sheets have been made clear for the first time. The geometrical features of the tilted current sheet revealed in this investigation are as follows: (1 The magnetic field lines (MFLs in the tilted current sheet are generally plane curves and the osculating planes in which the MFLs lie are about vertical to the equatorial plane, while the normal of the tilted current sheet leans severely to the dawn or dusk side. (2 The tilted current sheet may become very thin, the half thickness of its neutral sheet is generally much less than the minimum radius of the curvature of the MFLs. (3 In the neutral sheet, the field-aligned current density becomes very large and has a maximum value at the center of the current sheet. (4 In some cases, the current density is a bifurcated one, and the two humps of the current density often superpose two peaks in the gradient of magnetic strength, indicating that the magnetic gradient drift current is possibly responsible for the formation of the two humps of the current density in some tilted current sheets. Tilted current sheets often appear along with tail current sheet flapping waves. It is found that, in the tail flapping current sheets, the minimum curvature radius of the MFLs in the current sheet is rather large with values around 1 RE, while the neutral sheet may be very thin, with its half thickness being several tenths of RE. During the flapping waves, the current sheet is tilted substantially, and the maximum tilt angle is generally larger than 45°. The phase velocities of these flapping waves are several tens km/s, while their periods and wavelengths are several tens of minutes, and several earth radii, respectively. These tail flapping events generally last several hours and occur during quiet periods or periods of

  11. Large Fleets Lead in Petroleum Reduction (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Proc, H.

    2011-03-01

    Fact sheet describes Clean Cities' National Petroleum Reduction Partnership, an initiative through which large private fleets can receive support from Clean Cities to reduce petroleum consumption.

  12. Synthesis of nanometre-thick MoO3 sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalantar-Zadeh, Kourosh; Tang, Jianshi; Wang, Minsheng; Wang, Kang L.; Shailos, Alexandros; Galatsis, Kosmas; Kojima, Robert; Strong, Veronica; Lech, Andrew; Wlodarski, Wojtek; Kaner, Richard B.

    2010-03-01

    The formation of MoO3 sheets of nanoscale thickness is described. They are made from several fundamental sheets of orthorhombic α-MoO3, which can be processed in large quantities via a low cost synthesis route that combines thermal evaporation and mechanical exfoliation. These fundamental sheets consist of double-layers of linked distorted MoO6 octahedra. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) measurements show that the minimum resolvable thickness of these sheets is 1.4 nm which is equivalent to the thickness of two double-layers within one unit cell of the α-MoO3 crystal.

  13. The anatomic approach to primary, revision and augmentation anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Eck, Carola F.; Schreiber, Verena M.; Liu, T. Thomas; Fu, Freddie H.

    2010-01-01

    The anatomic approach is gaining popularity in anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. It is predominantly applied during primary ACL reconstruction. However, following the same principles as during primary surgery, the anatomic approach can also be applied during revision and augmentation

  14. Anatomic Aspects of Formation and Growth of the Cape Gooseberry Fruit Physalis peruviana (Solanaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Fernando Mazorra

    2006-01-01

    confirmed that anatomically the Cape gooseberry fruits, ecotipo Colombia, and ruderal type are similar, which demonstrates the absence of appreciable anatomical changes that explain the greater size of the fruits of ecotipo Colombia.

  15. Computational investigation of nonlinear microwave tomography on anatomically realistic breast phantoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, P. D.; Rubæk, Tonny; Mohr, J. J.

    2013-01-01

    The performance of a nonlinear microwave tomography algorithm is tested using simulated data from anatomically realistic breast phantoms. These tests include several different anatomically correct breast models from the University of Wisconsin-Madison repository with and without tumors inserted....

  16. Gastric Anatomic Type Is Associated with Obesity and Gender

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Yu Jen; Hung, Kun-Long; Yang, Jui-Neng; Wang, Tien-Cheng; Chin, Chih-Hui

    2016-01-01

    Objective To enhance our understanding of the associations among gastric anatomy, obesity, and gender. Methods 777 randomly selected participants received health checkups, including a series of radiographs of the upper gastrointestinal tract (UGI); the findings were linked with each corresponding subject's gender and BMI. We measured the length, angle, and different portions of the stomach with the subjects in the standing position using radiographs to classify all individuals into anatomic t...

  17. Anatomical description of the sinus in the alpaca (Vicugna pacos)

    OpenAIRE

    Zárate L., Rosse; Laboratorio de Anatomía Animal y Fauna Silvestre, Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima; Navarrete Z., Miluska; Laboratorio de Anatomía Animal y Fauna Silvestre, Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima; Sato S., Alberto; Laboratorio de Anatomía Animal y Fauna Silvestre, Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima; Díaz C., Diego; Laboratorio de Farmacología y Toxicología, Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima; Huanca L., Wilfredo; Laboratorio de Reproducción Animal, Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to describe the macroscopic anatomy of the sinus in the alpaca. Ten skulls of adult alpacas were prepared by the maceration technique, and the description through longitudinal cuts was done using terminology recommended by the Nomina Anatomica Veterinaria. In addition, X-rays with contrast medium were taken to four adult alpacas to determine the relationships of sinus with other anatomical structures. Results showed that the frontal and maxillary sinus w...

  18. Early Results of Anatomic Double Bundle Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demet Pepele

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The goal in anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR is to restore the normal anatomic structure and function of the knee. In the significant proportion of patients after the traditional single-bundle ACLR, complaints of instability still continue. Anatomic double bundle ACLR may provide normal kinematics in knees, much closer to the natural anatomy. The aim of this study is to clinically assess the early outcomes of our anatomical double bundle ACLR. Material and Method: In our clinic between June 2009 and March 2010, performed the anatomic double bundle ACLR with autogenous hamstring grafts 20 patients were evaluated prospectively with Cincinnati, IKDC and Lysholm scores and in clinically for muscle strength and with Cybex II dynamometer. Results: The mean follow-up is 17.8 months (13-21 months. Patients%u2019 scores of Cincinnati, IKDC and Lysholm were respectively, preoperative 18.1, 39.3 and 39.8, while the post-op increased to 27.2, 76.3 and 86.3. In their last check, 17 percent of the patients according to IKDC scores (85% A (excellent and B (good group and 3 patients took place as C (adequate group. The power measurements of quadriceps and hamstring muscle groups of patients who underwent surgery showed no significant difference compared with the intact knees. Discussion: Double-bundle ACL reconstruction is a satisfactory method. There is a need comparative, long-term studies in large numbers in order to determine improving clinical outcome, preventing degeneration and restoring the knee biomechanics better.

  19. Anatomía genital en los Tenebrionidae (Coleoptera)

    OpenAIRE

    Cartagena, M. Carmen; Viñolas Saborit, Amador

    2001-01-01

    Con el presente trabajo se inicia el estudio de la anatomía genital, tanto masculina como femenina, de los Tenebrionidae. Se explica la metodología de extracción y preparación microscópica, así como los resultados obtenidos hasta el momento en los géneros estudiados, todos ellos presentes en la Península Ibérica.

  20. Immediate Direct-To-Implant Breast Reconstruction Using Anatomical Implants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung-Eun Kim

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundIn 2012, a new anatomic breast implant of form-stable silicone gel was introduced onto the Korean market. The intended use of this implant is in the area of aesthetic breast surgery, and many reports are promising. Thus far, however, there have been no reports on the use of this implant for breast reconstruction in Korea. We used this breast implant in breast reconstruction surgery and report our early experience.MethodsFrom November 2012 to April 2013, the Natrelle Style 410 form-stable anatomically shaped cohesive silicone gel-filled breast implant was used in 31 breasts of 30 patients for implant breast reconstruction with an acellular dermal matrix. Patients were treated with skin-sparing mastectomies followed by immediate breast reconstruction.ResultsThe mean breast resection volume was 240 mL (range, 83-540 mL. The mean size of the breast implants was 217 mL (range, 125-395 mL. Breast shape outcomes were considered acceptable. Infection and skin thinning occurred in one patient each, and hematoma and seroma did not occur. Three cases of wound dehiscence occurred, one requiring surgical intervention, while the others healed with conservative treatment in one month. Rippling did not occur. So far, complications such as capsular contracture and malrotation of breast implant have not yet arisen.ConclusionsBy using anatomic breast implants in breast reconstruction, we achieved satisfactory results with aesthetics better than those obtained with round breast implants. Therefore, we concluded that the anatomical implant is suitable for breast reconstruction.

  1. The brain atlas concordance problem: quantitative comparison of anatomical parcellations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason W Bohland

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Many neuroscientific reports reference discrete macro-anatomical regions of the brain which were delineated according to a brain atlas or parcellation protocol. Currently, however, no widely accepted standards exist for partitioning the cortex and subcortical structures, or for assigning labels to the resulting regions, and many procedures are being actively used. Previous attempts to reconcile neuroanatomical nomenclatures have been largely qualitative, focusing on the development of thesauri or simple semantic mappings between terms. Here we take a fundamentally different approach, discounting the names of regions and instead comparing their definitions as spatial entities in an effort to provide more precise quantitative mappings between anatomical entities as defined by different atlases. We develop an analytical framework for studying this brain atlas concordance problem, and apply these methods in a comparison of eight diverse labeling methods used by the neuroimaging community. These analyses result in conditional probabilities that enable mapping between regions across atlases, which also form the input to graph-based methods for extracting higher-order relationships between sets of regions and to procedures for assessing the global similarity between different parcellations of the same brain. At a global scale, the overall results demonstrate a considerable lack of concordance between available parcellation schemes, falling within chance levels for some atlas pairs. At a finer level, this study reveals spatial relationships between sets of defined regions that are not obviously apparent; these are of high potential interest to researchers faced with the challenge of comparing results that were based on these different anatomical models, particularly when coordinate-based data are not available. The complexity of the spatial overlap patterns revealed points to problems for attempts to reconcile anatomical parcellations and nomenclatures

  2. Age prediction on the basis of brain anatomical measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valizadeh, S A; Hänggi, J; Mérillat, S; Jäncke, L

    2017-02-01

    In this study, we examined whether age can be predicted on the basis of different anatomical features obtained from a large sample of healthy subjects (n = 3,144). From this sample we obtained different anatomical feature sets: (1) 11 larger brain regions (including cortical volume, thickness, area, subcortical volume, cerebellar volume, etc.), (2) 148 cortical compartmental thickness measures, (3) 148 cortical compartmental area measures, (4) 148 cortical compartmental volume measures, and (5) a combination of the above-mentioned measures. With these anatomical feature sets, we predicted age using 6 statistical techniques (multiple linear regression, ridge regression, neural network, k-nearest neighbourhood, support vector machine, and random forest). We obtained very good age prediction accuracies, with the highest accuracy being R 2  = 0.84 (prediction on the basis of a neural network and support vector machine approaches for the entire data set) and the lowest being R 2  = 0.40 (prediction on the basis of a k-nearest neighborhood for cortical surface measures). Interestingly, the easy-to-calculate multiple linear regression approach with the 11 large brain compartments resulted in a very good prediction accuracy (R 2  = 0.73), whereas the application of the neural network approach for this data set revealed very good age prediction accuracy (R 2  = 0.83). Taken together, these results demonstrate that age can be predicted well on the basis of anatomical measures. The neural network approach turned out to be the approach with the best results. In addition, it was evident that good prediction accuracies can be achieved using a small but nevertheless age-representative dataset of brain features. Hum Brain Mapp 38:997-1008, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Learning-based stochastic object models for characterizing anatomical variations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolly, Steven R.; Lou, Yang; Anastasio, Mark A.; Li, Hua

    2018-03-01

    It is widely known that the optimization of imaging systems based on objective, task-based measures of image quality via computer-simulation requires the use of a stochastic object model (SOM). However, the development of computationally tractable SOMs that can accurately model the statistical variations in human anatomy within a specified ensemble of patients remains a challenging task. Previously reported numerical anatomic models lack the ability to accurately model inter-patient and inter-organ variations in human anatomy among a broad patient population, mainly because they are established on image data corresponding to a few of patients and individual anatomic organs. This may introduce phantom-specific bias into computer-simulation studies, where the study result is heavily dependent on which phantom is used. In certain applications, however, databases of high-quality volumetric images and organ contours are available that can facilitate this SOM development. In this work, a novel and tractable methodology for learning a SOM and generating numerical phantoms from a set of volumetric training images is developed. The proposed methodology learns geometric attribute distributions (GAD) of human anatomic organs from a broad patient population, which characterize both centroid relationships between neighboring organs and anatomic shape similarity of individual organs among patients. By randomly sampling the learned centroid and shape GADs with the constraints of the respective principal attribute variations learned from the training data, an ensemble of stochastic objects can be created. The randomness in organ shape and position reflects the learned variability of human anatomy. To demonstrate the methodology, a SOM of an adult male pelvis is computed and examples of corresponding numerical phantoms are created.

  4. Systematic significance of anatomical characterization in some euphorbiaceous species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zahra, N.B.; Shinwari, Z.K.

    2014-01-01

    The study was aimed to explore the systematic potential of anatomical characters for identification and delimitation among Euphorbia species. Eight species of leafy spurges of genus Euphorbia L. (Euphorbiaceae) were evaluated for variations in micro morphological characters of foliar epidermal anatomy. While anatomical observations are of importance in the assessments and appraisals, use of these characters as an effective tool in interpreting phyletic evaluations and systematic delineations has its limitations too. The epidermal cell wall in majority of species was wavy to undulate on both adaxial and abaxial surfaces. The observations made in this study indicate that there is not a single type of stomata which appears as characteristic of the genus Euphorbia. Also their distribution whether epistomatic or hypostomatic is not a genus-characteristic. The trichomes found were simple, unicellular or multicellular, uniseriate. Present investigation revealed the utility of both qualitative and quantitative characters in systematic studies; also the potential influence in the delimitation of species cannot be ignored. Our results show that the micro-morphology of anatomical characters play an important role in definition of taxa at species and sectional levels. (author)

  5. A VRML-based anatomical visualization tool for medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warrick, P A; Funnell, W R

    1998-06-01

    The advent of the Virtual Reality Modeling Language (VRML) as a portable file format for describing three-dimensional (3-D) scenes has enabled researchers, educators, and students to share anatomical models on the World Wide Web (WWW). The implication for medical teaching is that students can interactively examine anatomical structures and their 3-D spatial relationships by using current personal computer (PC) technology. This paper describes the creation of 3-D anatomical models that are accessible on the WWW, using high-resolution middle-ear data as an example. The 3-D models are created by interactive segmentation of the source images (histological and MRI sections) and 3-D surface reconstruction. The resulting models are translated into VRML format. Section images can be superimposed on the model, allowing students to view a section in its 3-D context. To enhance the viewing of these scenes, a VRML browser was modified to support transparent rendering of surfaces. Finally, a WWW interface was designed to allow users to choose the model structures, section images, and associated viewing parameters to build their own 3-D scenes.

  6. Anatomic measures of upper airway structures in obstructive sleep apnea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose E. Barrera

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Determine if anatomic dimensions of airway structures are associated with airway obstruction in obstructive sleep apnea (OSA patients. Methods: Twenty-eight subjects with (n = 14 and without (n = 14 OSA as determined by clinical symptoms and sleep studies; volunteer sample. Skeletal and soft tissue dimensions were measured from radiocephalometry and magnetic resonance imaging. The soft palate thickness, mandibular plane-hyoid (MP-H distance, posterior airway space (PAS diameters and area, and tongue volume were calculated. Results: Compared to controls, the OSA group demonstrated a significantly longer MP-H distance (P = 0.009 and shorter nasal PAS diameter (P = 0.02. The PAS area was smaller (P = 0.002 and tongue volume larger in the OSA group (P = 0.004. The MP-H distance, PAS measurements, and tongue volume are of clinical relevance in OSA patients. Conclusions: A long MP-H distance, and small PAS diameters and area are significant anatomic measures in OSA; however the most substantial parameter found was a large tongue volume. Keywords: Obstructive sleep apnea, Anatomy, Anatomic measurement, Posterior airway space, Tongue volume, Hyoid position

  7. An anatomically realistic temperature phantom for radiofrequency heating measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graedel, Nadine N.; Polimeni, Jonathan R.; Guerin, Bastien; Gagoski, Borjan; Wald, Lawrence L.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose An anthropomorphic phantom with realistic electrical properties allows for a more accurate reproduction of tissue current patterns during excitation. A temperature map can then probe the worst-case heating expected in the un-perfused case. We describe an anatomically realistic human head phantom that allows rapid 3D temperature mapping at 7 T. Methods The phantom was based on hand-labeled anatomical imaging data and consists of four compartments matching the corresponding human tissues in geometry and electrical properties. The increases in temperature resulting from radiofrequency excitation were measured with MR thermometry using a temperature sensitive contrast agent (TmDOTMA−) validated by direct fiber optic temperature measurements. Results Acquisition of 3D temperature maps of the full phantom with a temperature accuracy better than 0.1°C was achieved with an isotropic resolution of 5 mm and acquisition times of 2–4 minutes. Conclusion Our results demonstrate the feasibility of constructing anatomically realistic phantoms with complex geometries incorporating the ability to measure accurate temperature maps in the phantom. The anthropomorphic temperature phantom is expected to provide a useful tool for the evaluation of the heating effects of both conventional and parallel transmit pulses and help validate electromagnetic and temperature simulations. PMID:24549755

  8. Designing learning spaces for interprofessional education in the anatomical sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleveland, Benjamin; Kvan, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    This article explores connections between interprofessional education (IPE) models and the design of learning spaces for undergraduate and graduate education in the anatomical sciences and other professional preparation. The authors argue that for IPE models to be successful and sustained they must be embodied in the environment in which interprofessional learning occurs. To elaborate these arguments, two exemplar tertiary education facilities are discussed: the Charles Perkins Centre at the University of Sydney for science education and research, and Victoria University's Interprofessional Clinic in Wyndham for undergraduate IPE in health care. Backed by well-conceived curriculum and pedagogical models, the architectures of these facilities embody the educational visions, methods, and practices they were designed to support. Subsequently, the article discusses the spatial implications of curriculum and pedagogical change in the teaching of the anatomical sciences and explores how architecture might further the development of IPE models in the field. In conclusion, it is argued that learning spaces should be designed and developed (socially) with the expressed intention of supporting collaborative IPE models in health education settings, including those in the anatomical sciences. © 2015 American Association of Anatomists.

  9. Consensus guidelines for the uniform reporting of study ethics in anatomical research within the framework of the anatomical quality assurance (AQUA) checklist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Brandon Michael; Vikse, Jens; Pekala, Przemyslaw; Loukas, Marios; Tubbs, R Shane; Walocha, Jerzy A; Jones, D Gareth; Tomaszewski, Krzysztof A

    2018-05-01

    Unambiguous reporting of a study's compliance with ethical guidelines in anatomical research is imperative. As such, clear, universal, and uniform reporting guidelines for study ethics are essential. In 2016, the International Evidence-Based Anatomy Working group in collaboration with international partners established reporting guidelines for anatomical studies, the Anatomical Quality Assurance (AQUA) Checklist. In this elaboration of the AQUA Checklist, consensus guidelines for reporting study ethics in anatomical studies are provided with in the framework of the AQUA Checklist. The new guidelines are aimed to be applicable to research across the spectrum of the anatomical sciences, including studies on both living and deceased donors. The authors hope the established guidelines will improve ethical compliance and reporting in anatomical research. Clin. Anat. 31:521-524, 2018. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. The Intermingled History of Occupational Therapy and Anatomical Education: A Retrospective Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Melissa A.; Lawson, Katherine

    2014-01-01

    Few research articles have addressed the anatomical needs of entry-level occupational therapy students. Given this paucity of empirical evidence, there is a lack of knowledge regarding anatomical education in occupational therapy. This article will primarily serve as a retrospective look at the inclusion of anatomical education in the occupational…

  11. Frequency in Usage of FCAT-Approved Anatomical Terms by North American Anatomists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Bradford D.; Thorpe, Donna; Barnes, Richard; DeLeon, Michael; Hill, Douglas

    2009-01-01

    It has been 10 years since the Federative Committee on Anatomical Terminology (FCAT) published Terminologia Anatomica (TA), the current authority on anatomical nomenclature. There exists a perceived lack of unity among anatomists to adopt many FCAT recommended anatomical terms in TA. An e-mail survey was sent to members of the American Association…

  12. Midline fascial plication under continuous digital transrectal control: which factors determine anatomic outcome?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Milani, A.L.; Withagen, M.I.J.; Schweitzer, K.J.; Janszen, E.W.; Vierhout, M.E.

    2010-01-01

    INTRODUCTION AND HYPOTHESIS: The aim of the study was to report anatomic and functional outcome of midline fascial plication under continuous digital transrectal control and to identify predictors of anatomic failure. METHODS: Prospective observational cohort. Anatomic success defined as POP-Q stage

  13. [Analysis and classification of Latin anatomical names of skeletal foramina in Terminologia Anatomica, and comparison with corresponding Japanese anatomical names].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shikano, Shun-ichi; Abe, Tatsuhiko; Terashima, Tatsuo; Yamashita, Yasuo

    2009-10-01

    For better understanding of the structures comprising the human body and in view of the possible need for future revision, Latin anatomical names of skeletal foramina in Terminologia Anatomica were analyzed and classified, and compared with the corresponding Japanese anatomical names. The words following Foramen or Foramina indicated:1) the form of the foramen, 2) the state of the foramen, 3) the absolute size of the foramen, 4) the structure to which the foramen belongs, 5) the position of the foramen in the skeletal system, 6) the part of the human body in which the foramen exists, 7) the structure that transmits the foramen, or 8) the function of the foramen. Analysis of Latin names and comparison with Japanese names clarified some characteristics of both names and revealed some problems in them.

  14. Anatomical Knee Variants in Discoid Lateral Meniscal Tears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xu-Xu; Li, Jian; Wang, Tao; Zhao, Yang; Kang, Hui

    2017-03-05

    Discoid lateral meniscus was a common meniscal dysplasia and was predisposed to tear. There were some anatomical knee variants in patients with discoid lateral meniscus. The aim of this study was to analyze the relationship between anatomical knee variants and discoid lateral meniscal tears. There were totally 125 cases of discoid lateral meniscus enrolled in this study from February 2008 to December 2013. Eighty-seven patients who underwent arthroscopic surgery for right torn discoid lateral meniscus were enrolled in the torn group. An additional 38 patients who were incidentally identified as having intact discoid lateral menisci on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings were included in the control group. All patients were evaluated for anatomical knee variants on plain radiographs, including lateral joint space distance, height of the lateral tibial spine, height of the fibular head, obliquity of the lateral tibial plateau, squaring of the lateral femoral condyle, cupping of the lateral tibial plateau, lateral femoral condylar notch, and condylar cutoff sign. The relationship between anatomical variants and meniscal tear was evaluated. These anatomical variants in cases with complete discoid meniscus were also compared with those in cases with incomplete discoid meniscus. There were no significant differences between the two groups in lateral joint space distance (P = 0.528), height of the lateral tibial spine (P = 0.927), height of the fibular head (P = 0.684), obliquity of the lateral tibial plateau (P = 0.672), and the positive rates of squaring of the lateral femoral condyle (P = 0.665), cupping of the lateral tibial plateau (P = 0.239), and lateral femoral condylar notch (P = 0.624). The condylar cutoff sign was significantly different between the two groups, with the prominence ratio in the torn group being smaller than that in the control group (0.74 ± 0.11 vs. 0.81 ± 0.04, P = 0.049). With the decision value of the prominence ratio (0.78) in

  15. Yearly energy balance sheets 1998-1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    The objective of the presented statistics is to give a total picture of the Swedish energy supply and consumption 1998-1999. Compared to the regularly published energy balance sheets based on short periodic statistics, this publication is more disaggregated in the field of final energy consumption. The data are mainly based on yearly statistics on energy consumption in different sectors. The broad statistical base has made it possible to compile data for consumer categories on a fairly detailed level. In cases where direct statistical information is lacking or is insufficient, indirect calculation methods have been used for estimations or recalculations of basic statistics. Revisions and improvements of statistical sources as well as calculation methods will be performed successively. As a consequence of this, the statistics presented here could be revised in future publications

  16. Yearly energy balance sheets 1996-1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    The objective of the presented statistics is to give a total picture of the Swedish energy supply and consumption 1996-1998. Compared to the regularly published energy balance sheets based on short periodic statistics, this publication is more disaggregated in the field of final energy consumption. The data are mainly based on yearly statistics on energy consumption in different sectors. The broad statistical base has made it possible to compile data for consumer categories on a fairly detailed level. In cases where direct statistical information is lacking or is insufficient, indirect calculation methods have been used for estimations or recalculations of basic statistics. Revisions and improvements of statistical sources as well as calculation methods will be performed successively. As a consequence of this, the statistics presented here could be revised in future publications

  17. The Spot Weldability of Carbon Steel Sheet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Al-Mukhtar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The specimens of thickness 0.8 mm carbon steel number 1.8902 in a strip form were welded. The strips of lap joints and curved peeljoints configurations have been welded. The welding parameters such as weld current and weld time have been investigated. The relation between the weld area and the joint strength properties has been presented. The obtained results were showing that the weld joint strength and the molten area (weld nugget volume highly increase with the increasing of weld current. Therefore, the correlation between the maximum load (joint strength and area has been given. The reliable weldability under the tensile and shearing loading was considered. Therefore, the new limits of weldability have been presented to consider these two types of loading. Moreover, the experimental results were compared with the empirical relations that consider the sheet thickness only.

  18. Graphene: powder, flakes, ribbons, and sheets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Dustin K; Tour, James M

    2013-10-15

    Graphene's unique physical and electrical properties (high tensile strength, Young's modulus, electron mobility, and thermal conductivity) have led to its nickname of "super carbon." Graphene research involves the study of several different physical forms of the material: powders, flakes, ribbons, and sheets and others not yet named or imagined. Within those forms, graphene can include a single layer, two layers, or ≤10 sheets of sp² carbon atoms. The chemistry and applications available with graphene depend on both the physical form of the graphene and the number of layers in the material. Therefore the available permutations of graphene are numerous, and we will discuss a subset of this work, covering some of our research on the synthesis and use of many of the different physical and layered forms of graphene. Initially, we worked with commercially available graphite, with which we extended diazonium chemistry developed to functionalize single-walled carbon nanotubes to produce graphitic materials. These structures were soluble in common organic solvents and were better dispersed in composites. We developed an improved synthesis of graphene oxide (GO) and explored how the workup protocol for the synthesis of GO can change the electronic structure and chemical functionality of the GO product. We also developed a method to remove graphene layers one-by-one from flakes. These powders and sheets of GO can serve as fluid loss prevention additives in drilling fluids for the oil industry. Graphene nanoribbons (GNRs) combine small width with long length, producing valuable electronic and physical properties. We developed two complementary syntheses of GNRs from multiwalled carbon nanotubes: one simple oxidative method that produces GNRs with some defects and one reductive method that produces GNRs that are less defective and more electrically conductive. These GNRs can be used in low-loss, high permittivity composites, as conductive reinforcement coatings on Kevlar

  19. Casimir interactions between graphene sheets and metamaterials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drosdoff, D.; Woods, Lilia M.

    2011-01-01

    The Casimir force between graphene sheets and metamaterials is studied. Theoretical results based on the Lifshitz theory for layered, planar, two-dimensional systems in media are presented. We consider graphene-graphene, graphene-metamaterial, and metal-graphene-metamaterial configurations. We find that quantum effects of the temperature-dependent force are not apparent until the submicron range. In contrast to results with bulk dielectric and bulk metallic materials, no Casimir repulsion is found when graphene is placed on top of a magnetically active metamaterial substrate, regardless of the strength of the low-frequency magnetic response. In the case of the metal-graphene-metamaterial setting, repulsion between the metamaterial and the metal-graphene system is possible only when the dielectric response from the metal contributes significantly.

  20. Saved by a material safety data sheet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ching-Hua; Du, Chung-Li; Chan, Chang-Chuan; Wang, Jung-Der

    2005-12-01

    We present the case of a young female laboratory worker who developed acute hepatic encephalopathy. To show that knowledge of occupational exposures to causative agents can alter therapeutic management. Although the patient was in a deep coma, her family members examined the workplace material safety data sheet, revealing exposure to chloroform. Since most chemical-induced hepatitis is self-limiting, a scheduled liver transplantation was postponed. The patient recovered. Subsequent air sampling suggested that the patient had been exposed to chloroform at a concentration of more than 15 ppm for 2 weeks. Our case report demonstrates the importance of obtaining an occupational history and how the patient's family can be important in this process.