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Sample records for anatolia extended terrane

  1. Cenozoic extensional tectonics of the Western Anatolia Extended Terrane, Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cemen, I; Catlos, E J; Gogus, O; Diniz, E; Hancer, M

    2008-01-01

    The Western Anatolia Extended Terrane in Turkey is located on the eastern side of the Aegean Extended Terrane and contains one of the largest metamorphic core complexes in the world, the Menderes massif. It has experienced a series of continental collisions from the Late Cretaceous to the Eocene during the formation of the Izmir-Ankara-Erzincan suture zone. Based our field work and monazite ages, we suggest that the north-directed postcollisional Cenozoic extension in the region is the product of three consecutive stages, triggered by three different mechanisms. The first stage was initiated about 30 Ma ago, in the Oligocene by the Orogenic Collapse the thermally weakened continental crust along the north-dipping Southwest Anatolian shear zone. The shear zone was formed as an extensional simple-shear zone with listric geometry at depth and exhibits predominantly normal-slip along its southwestern end. But, it becomes a high-angle oblique-slip shear zone along its northeastern termination. Evidence for the presence of the shear zone includes (1) the dominant top to the north-northeast shear sense indicators throughout the Menderes massif, such as stretching lineations trending N10E to N30E; and (2) a series of Oligocene extensional basins located adjacent to the shear zone that contain only carbonate and ophiolitic rock fragments, but no high grade metamorphic rock fragments. During this stage, erosion and extensional unroofing brought high-grade metamorphic rocks of the Central Menderes massif to the surface by the early Miocene. The second stage of the extension was triggered by subduction roll-back and associated back-arc extension in the early Miocene and produced the north-dipping Alasehir and the south-dipping Bueyuek Menderes detachments of the central Menderes massif and the north-dipping Simav detachment of the northern Menderes massif. The detachments control the Miocene sedimentation in the Alasehir, Bueyuek Menderes, and Simav grabens, containing high

  2. Cenozoic extensional tectonics of the Western Anatolia Extended Terrane, Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cemen, I; Catlos, E J [Boone Pickens School of Geology, Oklahoma State University, 105 Noble Research Center, Stillwater OK 74078 (United States); Gogus, O [University of Toronto, Department of Geology, Earth Sciences Centre, 22 Russell St. Toronto, Ontario, M5S 3B1 (Canada); Diniz, E [Occidental Oil and Gas Corporation, PO Box 22757, Houston TX 77227 (United States); Hancer, M [Pamukkale Universitesi, Muhendislik Fakultesi, Jeoloji Muh. Bolmu, Denizli, 20070 Turkey (Turkey)], E-mail: icemen@okstate.edu

    2008-07-01

    The Western Anatolia Extended Terrane in Turkey is located on the eastern side of the Aegean Extended Terrane and contains one of the largest metamorphic core complexes in the world, the Menderes massif. It has experienced a series of continental collisions from the Late Cretaceous to the Eocene during the formation of the Izmir-Ankara-Erzincan suture zone. Based our field work and monazite ages, we suggest that the north-directed postcollisional Cenozoic extension in the region is the product of three consecutive stages, triggered by three different mechanisms. The first stage was initiated about 30 Ma ago, in the Oligocene by the Orogenic Collapse the thermally weakened continental crust along the north-dipping Southwest Anatolian shear zone. The shear zone was formed as an extensional simple-shear zone with listric geometry at depth and exhibits predominantly normal-slip along its southwestern end. But, it becomes a high-angle oblique-slip shear zone along its northeastern termination. Evidence for the presence of the shear zone includes (1) the dominant top to the north-northeast shear sense indicators throughout the Menderes massif, such as stretching lineations trending N10E to N30E; and (2) a series of Oligocene extensional basins located adjacent to the shear zone that contain only carbonate and ophiolitic rock fragments, but no high grade metamorphic rock fragments. During this stage, erosion and extensional unroofing brought high-grade metamorphic rocks of the Central Menderes massif to the surface by the early Miocene. The second stage of the extension was triggered by subduction roll-back and associated back-arc extension in the early Miocene and produced the north-dipping Alasehir and the south-dipping Bueyuek Menderes detachments of the central Menderes massif and the north-dipping Simav detachment of the northern Menderes massif. The detachments control the Miocene sedimentation in the Alasehir, Bueyuek Menderes, and Simav grabens, containing high

  3. Cenozoic extensional tectonics of the Western Anatolia Extended Terrane, Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çemen, I.; Catlos, E. J.; Gogus, O.; Diniz, E.; Hancer, M.

    2008-07-01

    The Western Anatolia Extended Terrane in Turkey is located on the eastern side of the Aegean Extended Terrane and contains one of the largest metamorphic core complexes in the world, the Menderes massif. It has experienced a series of continental collisions from the Late Cretaceous to the Eocene during the formation of the Izmir-Ankara-Erzincan suture zone. Based our field work and monazite ages, we suggest that the north-directed postcollisional Cenozoic extension in the region is the product of three consecutive stages, triggered by three different mechanisms. The first stage was initiated about 30 Ma ago, in the Oligocene by the Orogenic Collapse the thermally weakened continental crust along the north-dipping Southwest Anatolian shear zone. The shear zone was formed as an extensional simple-shear zone with listric geometry at depth and exhibits predominantly normal-slip along its southwestern end. But, it becomes a high-angle oblique-slip shear zone along its northeastern termination. Evidence for the presence of the shear zone includes (1) the dominant top to the north-northeast shear sense indicators throughout the Menderes massif, such as stretching lineations trending N10E to N30E; and (2) a series of Oligocene extensional basins located adjacent to the shear zone that contain only carbonate and ophiolitic rock fragments, but no high grade metamorphic rock fragments. During this stage, erosion and extensional unroofing brought high-grade metamorphic rocks of the Central Menderes massif to the surface by the early Miocene. The second stage of the extension was triggered by subduction roll-back and associated back-arc extension in the early Miocene and produced the north-dipping Alaşehir and the south-dipping Büyük Menderes detachments of the central Menderes massif and the north-dipping Simav detachment of the northern Menderes massif. The detachments control the Miocene sedimentation in the Alaşehir, Büyük Menderes, and Simav grabens, containing high

  4. Kinematics of Post-Collisional Extensional Tectonics and Exhumation of the Menderes Massif in the Western Anatolia Extended Terrane, Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cemen, I.; Catlos, E. J.; Diniz, E.; Gogus, O.; Ozerdem, C.; Baker, C.; Kohn, M. J.; Goncuoglu, C.; Hancer, M.

    2006-12-01

    The Western Anatolia Extended Terrane in Turkey is one of the best-developed examples of post-collisional extended terranes and contains one of the largest metamorphic core complexes in the world, the Menderes massif. It has experienced a series of continental collisions from the Late Cretaceous to the Eocene as the Neotethys Ocean closed and the Izmir-Ankara-Erzincan suture zone was formed. Based our field work and monazite ages, we suggest that the north-directed postcollisional Cenozoic extension in the region is the product of three consecutive, uninterrupted stages, triggered by three different mechanisms. The first stage was initiated about 30 Ma ago, in the Oligocene by the Orogenic Collapse the thermally weakened continental crust along the north-dipping Southwest Anatolian shear zone. The shear zone was formed as an extensional simple-shear zone with listric geometry at depth and exhibits predominantly normal- slip along its southwestern end. But, it becomes a high-angle oblique-slip shear zone along its northeastern termination. Evidence for the presence of the shear zone includes (1) the dominant top to the north-northeast shear sense indicators throughout the Menderes massif, such as stretching lineations trending N10E to N30E; and (2) a series of Oligocene extensional basins located adjacent to the shear zone that contain only carbonate and ophiolitic rock fragments, but no high grade metamorphic rock fragments. During this stage, erosion and extensional unroofing brought high-grade metamorphic rocks of the central Menderes massif to the surface by the early Miocene. The second stage of the extension was triggered by subduction roll-back and associated back-arc extension in the early Miocene and produced the north-dipping Alasehir and the south-dipping Buyuk Menderes detachments of the central Menderes massif and the north-dipping Simav detachment of the northern Menderes massif. The detachments control the Miocene sedimentation in the Alasehir, Buyuk

  5. Are turtleback fault surfaces common structural elements of highly extended terranes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çemen, Ibrahim; Tekeli, Okan; Seyitoğlu, Gűrol; Isik, Veysel

    2005-12-01

    The Death Valley region of the U.S.A. contains three topographic surfaces resembling the carapace of a turtle. These three surfaces are well exposed along the Black Mountain front and are named the Badwater, Copper Canyon, and Mormon Point Turtlebacks. It is widely accepted that the turtlebacks are also detachment surfaces that separate brittlely deformed Cenozoic volcanic and sedimentary rocks of the hanging wall from the strongly mylonitic, ductilely deformed pre-Cenozoic rocks of the footwall. We have found a turtleback-like detachment surface along the southern margin of the Alasehir (Gediz) Graben in western Anatolia, Turkey. This surface qualifies as a turtleback fault surface because it (a) is overall convex-upward and (b) separates brittlely deformed hanging wall Cenozoic sedimentary rocks from the ductilely to brittlely deformed, strongly mylonitic pre-Cenozoic footwall rocks. The surface, named here Horzum Turtleback, contains striations that overprint mylonitic stretching lineations indicating top to the NE sense of shear. This suggests that the northeasterly directed Cenozoic extension in the region resulted in a ductile deformation at depth and as the crust isostatically adjusted to the removal of the rocks in the hanging wall of the detachment fault, the ductilely deformed mylonitic rocks of the footwall were brought to shallower depths where they were brittlely deformed. The turtleback surfaces have been considered unique to the Death Valley region, although detachment surfaces, rollover folds, and other extensional structures have been well observed in other extended terranes of the world. The presence of a turtleback fault surface in western Anatolia, Turkey, suggests that the turtleback faults may be common structural features of highly extended terranes.

  6. Role of the Western Anatolia Shear Zone (WASZ) in Neotectonics Evolution of the Western Anatolia Extended Terrain, Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cemen, I.; Gogus, O. H.; Hancer, M.

    2013-12-01

    The Neotectonics period in western Anatolia Extended Terrain, Turkey (WAET) may have initiated in late Oligocene following the Eocene Alpine collision which produced the Izmir-Ankara suture zone. The Western Anatolia Shear Zone (WASZ) bounds the WAET to the east. The shear zone contains mostly normal faults in the vicinity of the Gulf of Gokova. However, its movement is mostly oblique slip from the vicinity of Tavas towards the Lake of Acigol where it makes a northward bend and possibly joins the Eskisehir fault zone to the north of the town of Afyon. The shear zone forms the southern and eastern margins of the Kale-Tavas, Denizli and Acigol basins. The shear zone is similar in its structural/tectonics setting to the Eastern California Shear zone (ECSZ) of the Basins and Ranges of North America Extended terrain which is also composed of many normal to oblique-slip faults and separates two extended terrains with different rates of extension. Western Anatolia experienced many devastating earthquakes within the last 2000 years. Many of the ancient Greek/Roman city states, including Ephesus, Troy, and Hierapolis were destroyed by large historical earthquakes. During the second half of the 20th century, the region experienced two major large earthquake giving normal fault focal mechanism solutions. They are the 1969, M=6.9 Alasehir and the 1970, M=7.1 Gediz earthquakes. These earthquakes had caused substantial damage and loss of life in the region. Therefore, a comprehensive understanding of the kinematics of the Cenozoic extensional tectonics and earthquake potential of the WASZ in the region, is very important, especially since the fault zone is very close to the major towns in eastern part of western Turkey, such as Mugla, Denizli, Sandikli, Dinar and Afyon.

  7. Interpretation and tectonic implications of cooling histories: An example from the Black Mountains, Death Valley extended terrane, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holm, Daniel K.; Dokka, Roy K.

    1993-04-01

    In the Death Valley extended terrane of California, the Black Mountains have long been considered unique because they largely lack the miogeoclinal cover rocks characteristic of the surrounding ranges. Fission-track ages presented here are combined with published 40Ar/ 39Ar ages and used to construct cooling path envelopes for samples of Precambrian crystalline basement and Miocene plutonic rocks collected across the entire range. The cooling history reconstructions are used to differentiate between contrasting Miocene unroofing histories proposed for this range. Apatite and zircon fission-track ages from the southeastern portion of the range suggest unroofing occurred there at ˜ 13-8.5 Ma from temperatures well below 300°C. Cooling age data from the central Black Mountains indicate major unroofing at 8.5-6.0 Ma from temperatures greater than 300°C. Old cooling ages from directly beneath the highly extended Amargosa chaos rocks are consistent with the chaos rocks being part of an allochthonous slice that was tectonically transported from high crustal levels onto deeper crustal levels. Scenarios for the Miocene unroofing history of this range rely heavily on interpretations of the depth of emplacement of Miocene plutons in the core of the range. Thermochronologic and geobarometric data and thermal modeling of intrusion cooling suggest emplacement of an 11.6 Ma pluton into the crystalline core at a depth of 10-15 km. Both the cooling-age data and considerations of the local geology seem to preclude an unroofing history dominated by erosion of the overlying miogeoclinal section. The morphology of the cooling path envelopes constructed here are similar to those constructed for detachment fault terranes. The data are most consistent with unroofing involving tectonic denudation (10-15 km) along a single, westerly dipping detachment zone. Diachronous rapid cooling from southeast to northwest within the range is interpreted as a result of the lower plate undergoing

  8. Trouble in Anatolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nick R Anthonisen

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In this issue of the Canadian Respiratory Journal, Gulmez et al (pages 287-290 review the presentation, management and outcome of malignant mesothelioma in central Anatolia, Turkey. There is nothing particularly new about the disease here; it presents with chest pain, dyspnea and pleural effusion, is diagnosed by biopsy and has a miserable outcome whatever is done for it, just like malignant mesothelioma in Canada. Mesothelioma in Anatolia is unusual in that it is very common, with an approximately equal sex distribution, and frequently occurs in relatively young people. The reasons for this are not a mystery. Anatolia is a volcanic area; there is a lot of asbestos on or near the surface, and it is widely used as construction material, in painting, and as insulation (pages 287-290! Asbestos related disease is due to environmental, not occupational exposure, and exposure is more intense and occurs at an earlier age than in Canada. Not only that, but some areas of Anatolia are rich in erionite, and people build homes in and on erionite-bearing rocks. Erionite is apparently something like asbestos but worse in terms of carcinogenicity (1, perhaps because its crystals have large surface areas, and areas with erionite have an even higher incidence of mesothelioma.

  9. Contrasting melt equilibration conditions across Anatolia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Mary; Delph, Jonathan; Schleiffarth, W. Kirk; Cosca, Michael

    2017-04-01

    The widespread mafic volcanism, elevated crustal temperatures, and plateau-type topography in Central Anatolia, Turkey, could collectively be the result of lithospheric delamination, mantle upwelling, and tectonic escape in response to Arabian-Anatolian plate collision. We used the results from basalt geochemistry and a passive-source broadband seismic experiment obtained as part of an international collaborative effort (Continental Dynamics - Central Anatolia Tectonics) to investigate the crust-mantle structure and melting conditions associated with the Quaternary Hasandag Monogenic Cluster (HMC) south and west of Hasandag volcano. The HMC is unusually mafic, not only for Central Anatolia but globally, enabling meaningful comparisons between geochemical and seismic interpretations of mantle conditions. HMC basalts are characterized by orogenic signatures that could have originated (1) in mantle wedge that, after stagnating because of collision, was remobilized south and upward as a result of rollback of the African slab or, alternatively (2) by piecemeal foundering of residual mantle lithosphere into convecting upper mantle, producing small-scale convection and associated decompression melting. Melt equilibration conditions for the HMC are hot (TP ˜1335-1250˚ C, assuming 1-4 wt.% H2O) and shallow (P = 1.1 to 1.6 GPa), approaching those for MORB. Shear wave velocities are relatively constant at ˜4.1 km/s between the Moho and a depth of ˜45-50 km (˜1.4 GPa; Fig. 6), below which Vs increases with increasing depth. We infer that a melt-perfused mantle lid could be locally present between 40 and 55 km. In contrast to Central Anatolia, estimated equilibration conditions for Western Anatolia and Eastern Anatolia (east of the Inner Tauride Suture) mantle melts are hotter (by ≥60˚ C) and deeper (mostly by 0.6-1.0 GPa). They also have chemical signatures that, unlike Central Anatolia, are similar to those of intraplate basalts. These differences are likely related

  10. A new classification of the Turkish terranes and sutures and its implication for the paleotectonic history of the region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moix, Patrice; Beccaletto, Laurent; Kozur, Heinz W.; Hochard, Cyril; Rosselet, François; Stampfli, Gérard M.

    2008-04-01

    The Turkish part of the Tethyan realm is represented by a series of terranes juxtaposed through Alpine convergent movements and separated by complex suture zones. Different terranes can be defined and characterized by their dominant geological background. The Pontides domain represents a segment of the former active margin of Eurasia, where back-arc basins opened in the Triassic and separated the Sakarya terrane from neighbouring regions. Sakarya was re-accreted to Laurasia through the Balkanic mid-Cretaceous orogenic event that also affected the Rhodope and Strandja zones. The whole region from the Balkans to the Caucasus was then affected by a reversal of subduction and creation of a Late Cretaceous arc before collision with the Anatolian domain in the Eocene. If the Anatolian terrane underwent an evolution similar to Sakarya during the Late Paleozoic and Early Triassic times, both terranes had a diverging history during and after the Eo-Cimmerian collision. North of Sakarya, the Küre back-arc was closed during the Jurassic, whereas north of the Anatolian domain, the back-arc type oceans did not close before the Late Cretaceous. During the Cretaceous, both domains were affected by ophiolite obduction, but in very different ways: north directed diachronous Middle to Late Cretaceous mélange obduction on the Jurassic Sakarya passive margin; Senonian synchronous southward obduction on the Triassic passive margin of Anatolia. From this, it appears that the Izmir-Ankara suture, currently separating both terranes, is composite, and that the passive margin of Sakarya is not the conjugate margin of Anatolia. To the south, the Cimmerian Taurus domain together with the Beydağları domain (part of the larger Greater Apulian terrane), were detached from north Gondwana in the Permian during the opening of the Neotethys (East-Mediterranean basin). The drifting Cimmerian blocks entered into a soft collision with the Anatolian and related terranes in the Eo-Cimmerian orogenic

  11. The effects of subduction termination on the continental lithosphere: Linking volcanism, deformation, surface uplift, and slab tearing in central Anatolia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delph, Jonathan R.; Abgarmi, Bijan; Ward, Kevin M.; Beck, Susan L.; Arda Ozacar, A.; Zandt, George; Sandvol, Eric; Turkelli, Niyazi; Kalafat, Dogan

    2017-04-01

    The lithospheric evolution of Anatolia is largely defined by processes associated with the terminal stages of subduction along its southern margin. Central Anatolia represents the transition from the subduction of oceanic lithosphere at the Aegean trench in the west to the Arabian - Eurasian continental collision in the east. In the overriding plate, this complicated transition is contemporaneous with uplift along the southern margin of central Anatolia (2 km in 6 Myr), voluminous felsic-intermediate ignimbrite eruptions (>1000 km3), extension, and tectonic deformation reflected by abundant low-magnitude seismic activity. The addition of 72 seismic stations as part of the Continental Dynamics - Central Anatolian Tectonics project, along with development of a new approach to the joint inversion of receiver functions and dispersion data, enables us obtain a high-resolution 3D shear wave velocity model of central Anatolia down to 150 km. This new velocity model has important implications for the complex interactions between the downgoing, segmenting African lithosphere and the overriding Anatolian Plate. These results reveal that the lithosphere of central Anatolia and the northern Arabian Plate is thin (4.5 km/s), indicating the presence of the Cyprean slab beneath central Anatolia. Thus, uplift of the Central Taurus Mountains may be due to slab rebound after the detachment of the oceanic portion of the Cyprean slab beneath Anatolia rather than the presence of shallow asthenospheric material. These fast velocities extend to the northern margin of the Central Taurus Mountains, giving way to a NE-SW trend of very slow upper mantle shear wave velocities (interpreted to be shallow, warm asthenosphere in which melt is present. The combination of a shallow asthenosphere and lithospheric-scale weaknesses associated with relict tectonic structures formed during the assembly of Anatolia are responsible for the spatial distribution of volcanism in the Central Anatolian

  12. Ordovician graptolites from the basal part of the Palaeozoic transgressive sequence in the Karadere area, Zonguldak Terrane, NW Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Cemal Göncüoglu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The Karadere area to the east of Safranbolu in NW Anatolia is one of the very few localities in Turkey where the contact between the Cadomian basement and the Lower Palaeozoic transgressive succession is well exposed. The Ordovician graptolite Rhabdinopora flabelliformis (Eichwald ssp. was found in the basal part of the Bakacak Formation, indicating an Early to early Late Tremadocian age for the beginning of the Palaeozoic transgression in the Zonguldak terrane. A few metres above this occurrence, another horizon contains Paradelograptus cf. antiquus (T. S. Hall, which mainly ranges into the Late Tremadocian. Higher up in the Ordovician succession, a new graptolite bed confirms an early Darriwilian (Dw1 age for the middle part of the Karadere Formation with the occurrence of the biozonal index Levisograptus austrodentatus (Harris & Keble and the first record of Tetragraptus cor (Strandmark in the area. The palaeobiogeographic distribution of these Karadere fossils is in agreement with a peri-Gondwanan affinity of the Zonguldak Terrane of the Pontides, NW Anatolia, during the Early–Middle Ordovician.

  13. WOMEN’S HEADDRESSES USED IN ANATOLIA

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    Başak BOĞDAY SAYĞILI

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In history, Anatolia has long been known to have a complex composition, due to its unique geographical location and its role as host to many cultures. Clothes and accessories have been influenced by this cultural diversity. Headdresses used in harmony with clothing and thought to complement it, have been important and indispensable accessories, varying in color, shape and texture according to the clothing worn. These could differ in simplicity or grandeur, and vary according to cultural diffe rences or those in socio - economic levels. No matter their social class, women never ceased wearing th ese complementary accessories. Visual sources on Anatolian clothing culture revealed that although headdresses are accessories complementing clothing, their attributes were never studied with a scientific approach, which has been influential in the choice of the subject matter of this study. The aim of this study is to identify and classify the attributes of traditional women’s headdresses used in Anatol ia and to specify that the examples recorded and photographed are used in Anatolia. Historical and review methods were used in the research. Sources were studied with help of the observation form used as a data collection tool to examine women’s headdresse s used in Anatolia.

  14. The Oldest Medical Center of the Anatolia : Gevher Nesibe Darussifa and Medical School

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    Bedri Selim Benek

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Turks started a diverse array of reconstruction activities following their settlement in Anatolia- Asia’s extended arm towards the Europe-. Within a short period, Turks built too many types of artifacts such as; madrasahs, mosques, darüssifas. In the   Turkish-Islamic darussifas (hospitals were established between India and Spain between 8th-17th centuries, medical subjects were taught according to researches and scientific principles, and surgeons were educated at medical madrasahs as well. Medical health care service was provided in those places. The pioneering artifacts in the treatment of several diseases in the quality of today’s clinics in terms of medicine, psychiatry and architecture. Gevher Nesibe Darussifa, built in Kayseri, is one of the oldest hospital and school of medicine in Anatolia.

  15. Circum-North Pacific tectonostratigraphic terrane map

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nokleberg, Warren J.; Parfenov, Leonid M.; Monger, James W.H.; Baranov, Boris B.; Byalobzhesky, Stanislav G.; Bundtzen, Thomas K.; Feeney, Tracey D.; Fujita, Kazuya; Gordey, Steven P.; Grantz, Arthur; Khanchuk, Alexander I.; Natal'in, Boris A.; Natapov, Lev M.; Norton, Ian O.; Patton, William W.; Plafker, George; Scholl, David W.; Sokolov, Sergei D.; Sosunov, Gleb M.; Stone, David B.; Tabor, Rowland W.; Tsukanov, Nickolai V.; Vallier, Tracy L.; Wakita, Koji

    1994-01-01

    The companion tectonostratigraphic terrane and overlap assemblage of map the Circum-North Pacific presents a modern description of the major geologic and tectonic units of the region. The map illustrates both the onshore terranes and overlap volcanic assemblages of the region, and the major offshore geologic features. The map is the first collaborative compilation of the geology of the region at a scale of 1:5,000,000 by geologists of the Russian Far East, Japanese, Alaskan, Canadian, and U.S.A. Pacific Northwest. The map is designed to be a source of geologic information for all scientists interested in the region, and is designed to be used for several purposes, including regional tectonic analyses, mineral resource and metallogenic analyses (Nokleberg and others, 1993, 1994a), petroleum analyses, neotectonic analyses, and analyses of seismic hazards and volcanic hazards. This text contains an introduction, tectonic definitions, acknowledgments, descriptions of postaccretion stratified rock units, descriptions and stratigraphic columns for tectonostratigraphic terranes in onshore areas, and references for the companion map (Sheets 1 to 5). This map is the result of extensive geologic mapping and associated tectonic studies in the Russian Far East, Hokkaido Island of Japan, Alaska, the Canadian Cordillera, and the U.S.A. Pacific Northwest in the last few decades. Geologic mapping suggests that most of this region can be interpreted as a collage of fault-bounded tectonostratigraphic terranes that were accreted onto continental margins around the Circum-

  16. Genetic characterisation of 19 autosomal STR loci in a population sample from the Southeastern Anatolia Region of Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozman, Nazli; Gurkan, Cemal; Sevay, Huseyin; Demirdov, Damla Kanliada; Ozbas-Gerceker, Filiz

    2018-03-14

    Southeastern Anatolia is the smallest, yet the most densely populated region among the seven major geographic constituents of Turkey. Situated in the Upper Mesopotamia, Southeastern Anatolia was also the northernmost extension of the Fertile Crescent, which is often considered as the earliest cradle of civilisation. To investigate the autosomal STR polymorphisms associated with a truly representative population sample pool from Southeastern Anatolia. Samples from a total of 257 volunteers were analysed by 19-loci autosomal STRs using the commercially available COrDIS Plus Kit. Allele frequencies, statistical parameters of forensic interest and Nei's D A distances with respect to the nearby and distant populations were calculated, besides performing exact tests of population differentiation with the same populations. A combined matching probability of 1.49978 × 10 -23 and a combined power of exclusion of 0.999999961 were obtained for the novel Southeastern Anatolian autosomal STR dataset. Furthermore, the Southeastern Anatolia population was found to have close genetic affinities with the other regional populations from Turkey, along with those from an apparent genetic continuum extending from the Near East to Southeastern Europe. The novel Southeastern Anatolian dataset is expected to be useful in regional forensic genetics investigations and molecular anthropology applications.

  17. An Investigation of Seismicity for Western Anatolia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sayil, N.

    2007-01-01

    In order to determine the seismicity of western Anatolia limited with the coordinates of 36degree-40degreeN, 26degree-32degreeE, Gutenberg-Richter magnitude-frequency relation, seismic risk and recurrence period have been computed. The data belonging to both the historical period before 1900 (I0 3 6.0 corresponding to MS 3 5.0) and the instrumental period until 2005 (MS 3 4.0) have been used in the analysis. The study area has been divided into 13 sub-regions due to certain seismotectonic characteristics, plate tectonic models and geology of the region. Computations from a and b parameters and seismic risk and recurrence period for each sub-regions have showed that subregions 1 and 8 (Balikesir and Izmir-Sakiz Island), where have the lowest b values, have the highest risks and the shortest recurrence periods

  18. Lithospheric electrical structure of the middle Lhasa terrane in the south Tibetan plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Hongda; Jin, Sheng; Wei, Wenbo; Gao, Rui; Ye, Gaofeng; Zhang, Letian; Yin, Yaotian; Lu, Zhanwu

    2018-04-01

    The Lhasa terrane in southern Tibetan plateau is a huge tectono-magmatic belt and an important metallogenic belt. Its formation evolution process and mineralization are affected by the subduction of oceanic plate and subsequent continental collision. However, the evolution of Lhasa terrane has been a subject of much debate for a long time. The Lithospheric structure records the deep processes of the subduction of oceanic plate and continental collision. The magnetotelluric (MT) method can probe the sub-surface electrical conductivity, newly dense broadband and long period magnetotelluric data were collected along a south-north trending profile that across the Lhasa terrane at 88°-89°E. Dimensionality analyses demonstrated that the MT data can be interpreted using two-dimensional approaches, and the regional strike direction was determined as N110°E.Based on data analysis results, a two-dimensional (2-D) resistivity model of crust and upper mantle was derived from inversion of the transverse electric mode, transverse magnetic mode and vertical magnetic field data. Inversion model shows a large north-dipping resistor that extended from the upper crust to upper mantle beneath the Himalaya and the south of Lhasa Terrane, which may represent the subducting Indian continental lithosphere. The 31°N may be an important boundary in the Lhasa Terrane, the south performs a prominent high-conductivity anomaly from the lower crust to upper mantle which indicates the existence of asthenosphere upwelling, while the north performs a higher resistivity and may have a reworking ancient basement. The formation of the ore deposits in the study area may be related to the upwelling of the mantle material triggered by slab tearing and/or breaking off of the Indian lithosphere, and the mantle material input also contributed the total thickness of the present-day Tibetan crust. The results provide helpful constrains to understand the mechanism of the continent-continent collision and

  19. The Geoelectrical Structure of Northwestern Anatolia, Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulugergerli, E. U.; Seyitoğlu, G.; Başokur, A. T.; Kaya, C.; Dikmen, U.; Candansayar, M. E.

    2007-05-01

    The magnetotelluric method has been employed to generate a geoelectrical model that will reveal the rich geological pattern and dynamic character of western and northwestern Anatolia, Turkey. Magnetotelluric data were collected from 53 sites along a profile of 290 km from the Dardanelles to the Alaşehir Graben. Magnetotelluric data were in the range of 0.00055 Hz to 320 Hz. The models were obtained through 2-D joint inversion of transverse electric and transverse magnetic modes. Lateral changes in geoelectrical models are verified by using gravity and magnetic data. In addition, some of the seismological data presented here agree with proposed models that suggest a brittle-ductile structure boundary at a depth of 20 km. Generally speaking, a regional extensional regime caused reduction in the thickness of the crust and consequent uplift towards the south. The constructed model delineates the western part of the North Anatolian Fault Zone along the Biga Peninsula. The current patterns of volcanic activity on the Biga Peninsula and at Kula are related to conductive spots presented in the models. The border of the Gördes Basin, located between the Izmir - Ankara suture zone and the Menderes Massif, is also well delineated. The North Anatolian Fault Zone presents a pattern in which density and susceptibility anomalies attain relatively high values. Fillings covering most of the surface have lower density and susceptibility values than those of underlying structures.

  20. Mafic rocks from Erinpura gneiss terrane in the Sirohi region ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    (2011). (b) Lithostratigraphic map (adapted from Roy and Sharma 1999) showing occurrence of the Daba mafic body within Erinpura granite terrane around Sirohi (SW Rajasthan). Sampled section along NW–SE traverse is also shown. sector of the Delhi Fold Belt (DFB) represents a. Grenvillian age (∼1 Ga) arc terrane ...

  1. Toxic gas emissions from the Kayseri peat deposit, central Anatolia ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Toxic gas emissions from the Kayseri peat deposit, central Anatolia, Turkey ... The main volatile species detected are methane (CH4), hydrogen sulphide (H2S) and carbon dioxide (CO2), all of which are highly toxic. The primary means of ... Environmental Engineering Department, Nigde University, 51245 Nigde, Turkey.

  2. Late Miocene Sciuridae (Mammalia, Rodentia) from Anatolia, Turkey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosma, A.A.; de Bruijn, H.; Wessels, W.

    Isolated cheek teeth of Sciuridae (Rodentia, Mammalia) from nine late Miocene localities in central Anatolia (Turkey) are described. The teeth represent at least 12 different species, five of which belong to the ground squirrel genus Tamias, two to the ground squirrel genus Spermophilinus, one to

  3. Hyurterianum (Asteraceae, Inuleae), a new species from NE Anatolia, Turkey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gemici, Y.; Tan, K.; Yidirim, H.

    2008-01-01

    Helichrysum yurterianum Y. Gemici, Kit Tan, H. Yildirim & M. Gemici (Asteraceae, Inuleae) is described and illustrated. It is a serpentine endemic restricted to the province of Erzincan in NE Anatolia, Turkey. Its affinities are with H. arenarium and H. noeanum, which both have a wider distribution...

  4. Saponaria emineana (Caryophyllaceae), a new species from inner Anatolia, Turkey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gemici, Yusuf; Tan, Kit; Yildirim, H.

    2011-01-01

    Saponaria emineana (Caryophyllaceae) is illustrated and described as a new species endemic to the inner part of West Anatolia, Turkey. It is related to S. pamphylica and differs from that species in having a densely tufted habit with compact and much-branched woody base, subfleshy, narrowly...

  5. Heliotropium thermophilum (Boraginaceae), a new taxon from SW Anatolia, Turkey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tan, Kit; Celik, Ali; Gemici, Yusuf

    2008-01-01

    Heliotropium thermophilum Kit Tan, A. Çelik & Y. Gemici (Boraginaceae), is described as a species new to science and illustrated. Its diploid chromosome number of 2n = 16 is a first report. It is restricted to the province of Aydin bordering on Denizli in SW Anatolia and is of interest on account...

  6. Verbascum lindae (Scrophulariaceae), a new species from SW Anatolia, Turkey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parolly, Gerald; Tan, Kit

    2007-01-01

    Verbascum lindae, a taxonomically isolated limestone chasmophyte from the vilayet of Isparta in SW Anatolia is described as a species new to science and illustrated. Its affinities with other Anatolian Verbascum species, which have either a chasmophytic habit or at least a woody base, are discussed....

  7. A new species of Marrubium (Lamiaceae) from Central Anatolia, Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    AYTAÇ, Zeki; AKGÜL, Gencay; EKİCİ, Murat

    2014-01-01

    Marrubium sivasense Aytaç, Akgül & Ekici sp. nova (Lamiaceae) is described and illustrated from Central Anatolia, Turkey. The new species most resembles Marrubium depauperatum, but it differs by 3-10 flowered verticillasters, crenate to crenulated leaf margins, and unequal calyx teeth. The ecology and phenology of the new species as well as its etymology, conservation status, and diagnostic features are discussed.

  8. Recognition of the Kaweka Terrane in northern South Island, New Zealand : preliminary evidence from Rb-Sr metamorphic and U-Pb detrital zircon ages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, C.J.; Mortimer, N.; Campbell, H.J.; Griffin, W.L.

    2011-01-01

    Detrital zircon U-Pb ages and Rb-Sr metamorphic ages from low-grade Torlesse Supergroup metasedimentary rocks from North Canterbury and Marlborough provide preliminary evidence for a continuation of the Kaweka Terrane of the central North Island into the Torlesse Composite Terrane of the South Island. This would extend from the south side of the Wairau Fault in the upper Wairau River valley southwards to the Lake Tennyson and Lake Sumner areas, and as far as Hawarden. Rb-Sr ages indicate Jurassic metamorphism, 170±24 Ma, with initial 87 Sr/ 86 Sr ratios at that time 0.7073 ± 0.0007 i.e. similar to their North Island counterparts. These Kaweka Terrane rocks have detrital zircon ages that follow the distinctive pattern of the Torlesse rocks in general, i.e. substantial (>30%) Permian-Triassic and Precambrian-Early Palaeozoic groupings, but they also have minor youngest age components c. 175-165 Ma which constrain a maximum Early-Middle Jurassic depositional age. In detail, significant, older zircon components are Late Permian-Early Triassic (260-240 Ma) and Late Triassic (220-210 Ma), but the Precambrian-Early Palaeozoic detrital zircon ages are more scattered. The Kaweka Terrane thus forms a linear belt (c. 500 km) along the length of the Torlesse Composite Terrane in both North and South Islands. In the South Island it coincides with the Esk Head Belt, i.e. east of the Rakaia Terrane (Triassic-Late Permian) and west of the Pahau Terrane (Early Cretaceous-Late Jurassic). (author). 61 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  9. Post-Paleogene Deformation in central Anatolia, South of Ankara (Turkey)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojay, Bora

    2014-05-01

    The closure of the northern Neo-Tethys took place between Eurasia in the north and northern edge of Afro- Arabian plate in the south since the Early Cretaceous is documented in central Anatolia. It is mated by Cretaceous ophiolitic mélanges thrusted over southwards on to the upper Cretaceous-Paleogene fore-arc and foreland sequences along the northern margins of Haymana and Tuzgölü basins, respectively. Two main deformation episodes are recognized in the region. These include post-Cretaceous-pre Miocene compressional regime and Miocene to mid-Pliocene transcurrent regime dominated extensional deformation. The first regime is characterize by NW-SE directed compressional and contractional deformation dominated by south vergent, large wave length, asymmetric to overturned folds and associated thrust/reverse faults. Some of these reverse faults were reactivated as strike-slip faults with reverse components as evidenced by cross-cutting relationships and overprinting slickensides observed extensively in the field. Along these reactivated faults, echelon calcite veins, fault parallel meter thick silica walls with repeated phases of deformation are very common. Following the Miocene, the region is affected by a NNE-SSW to NE-SW directed extension, possibly resulted from the interaction of Tuzgölü Fault with the northwards convex splays of dextral North Anatolian Fault extending into the region. As a conclusion, the Paleogene sequences with ophiolitic mélanges are deformed under NNE-SSW directed compression related to the development of dextral strike slip tectonics during post-Paleogene-pre-Miocene period. Keywords:fault plane slip data, transcurrent regime, post-Paleogene, central Anatolia.

  10. The Dilaridae of the Balkan Peninsula and of Anatolia (Insecta, Neuropterida, Neuroptera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrike Aspöck

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Basing upon all available information on type material of Dilar turcicus Hagen, 1858, Dilar syriacus Navás, 1909, and Dilar lineolatus Navás, 1909, together with a large number of dilarid specimens, the pleasing lacewings of Anatolia and Southeast Europe are revised. The current taxonomic concept of D. turcicus is confirmed, and a lectotype is designated. Dilar turcicus is widely distributed in the southeast of Europe (being the only representative of Dilaridae in this region, in Anatolia, and, most probably, in the Caucasus region. Dilar syriacus and D. lineolatus remain nomina dubia. Dilar syriacus might occur in Anatolia, while D. lineolatus is a species occurring in western Central Asia. Two new species, Dilar anatolicus sp. n. and Dilar fuscus sp. n. are described from Anatolia. Wings and genital segments of the three species occurring in Anatolia are illustrated, and a map documenting the known distribution of these species is provided.

  11. Emplacement kinematics of nepheline syenites from the Terrane ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    Nepheline syenite plutons emplaced within the Terrane Boundary Shear Zone of the Eastern Ghats. Mobile Belt west of Khariar in northwestern Orissa are marked by a well-developed magmatic fabric including magmatic foliation, mineral lineations, folds and S-C fabrics. The minerals in the plutons, namely microcline ...

  12. Geophysical modeling of the northern Appalachian Brompton-Cameron, Central Maine, and Avalon terranes under the New Jersey Coastal Plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maguire, T.J.; Sheridan, R.E.; Volkert, R.A.

    2004-01-01

    A regional terrane map of the New Jersey Coastal Plain basement was constructed using seismic, drilling, gravity and magnetic data. The Brompton-Cameron and Central Maine terranes were coalesced as one volcanic island arc terrane before obducting onto Laurentian, Grenville age, continental crust in the Taconian orogeny [Rankin, D.W., 1994. Continental margin of the eastern United States: past and present. In: Speed, R.C., (Ed.), Phanerozoic Evolution of North American Continent-Ocean Transitions. DNAG Continent-Ocean Transect Volume. Geological Society of America, Boulder, Colorado, pp. 129-218]. Volcanic island-arc rocks of the Avalon terrane are in contact with Central Maine terrane rocks in southern Connecticut where the latter are overthrust onto the Brompton-Cameron terrane, which is thrust over Laurentian basement. Similarities of these allochthonous island arc terranes (Brompton-Cameron, Central Maine, Avalon) in lithology, fauna and age suggest that they are faulted segments of the margin of one major late Precambrian to early Paleozoic, high latitude peri-Gondwana island arc designated as "Avalonia", which collided with Laurentia in the early to middle Paleozoic. The Brompton Cameron, Central Maine, and Avalon terranes are projected as the basement under the eastern New Jersey Coastal Plain based on drill core samples of metamorphic rocks of active margin/magmatic arc origin. A seismic reflection profile across the New York Bight traces the gentle dipping (approximately 20 degrees) Cameron's Line Taconian suture southeast beneath allochthonous Avalon and other terranes to a 4 sec TWTT depth (approximately 9 km) where the Avalonian rocks are over Laurentian crust. Gentle up-plunge (approximately 5 degrees) projections to the southwest bring the Laurentian Grenville age basement and the drift-stage early Paleozoic cover rocks to windows in Burlington Co. at approximately 1 km depth and Cape May Co. at approximately 2 km depths. The antiformal Shellburne

  13. Tectonostratigraphic Terranes of the Circum-Pacific Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van der Voo, Rob

    Have you always wondered where the Tujunga, Baldy, and Cortez terranes might be located today, let alone during the Cretaceous or early Tertiary? This book may provide the answer, because in a little less than 600 pages for $32, which includes a marvelously produced color map of the entire Circum-Pacific region, one can read almost everything one wants to know about Earth's “ring of fire” and its displaced or suspect terranes. The printing, proofreading, illustrations, and references are all of the highest caliber, and the book is handsomely produced indeed. In page-by-page reading, I found maybe five typographical errors, but I will spare you the details.The contents of the book are divided into five parts, comprising principles or applications of terrane analysis and four unequally long parts on the four quadrants of the Pacific coasts. The northeast quadrant includes Alaska, the Canadian Cordillera, the U.S. coastal and Rocky Mountain belts, and Mexico; the northwest includes Kamchatka, northeast Asia, China, Japan, Taiwan, and the Philippines; the southwest section has articles on Australia, Malaya, Indonesia, New Zealand, and Antarctica; and the southeast comprises the Andes from Colombia to southern Chile. The book offers introductory text for beginning students of terrane analysis, as well as plenty of useful details and data for the expert who needs a handy reference volume. Subject matter or emphasis ranges from hydrocarbon generation in marginal basins, biogeography, paleomagnetism, geochronology, and structural and metamorphic aspects to stratigraphy and shows how the entire discipline of geological sciences is contributing to terrane analysis. There is literally something here for everyone in solid Earth science.

  14. Constraints of detrital zircon U-Pb ages and Hf isotopes on the provenance of the Triassic Yidun Group and tectonic evolution of the Yidun Terrane, Eastern Tibet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bai-Qiu; Wang, Wei; Chen, Wei Terry; Gao, Jian-Feng; Zhao, Xin-Fu; Yan, Dan-Ping; Zhou, Mei-Fu

    2013-05-01

    Eastern Tibet to the west of the Yangtze Block consists of the Yidun and Songpan-Ganzi Terranes, separated by the Ganzi-Litang suture zone. The Yidun Terrane includes the Zhongza Massif to the west, but the eastern part of the Yidun terrane is covered by the Yidun Group extending from the south (Shangri-La region) to the north (Changtai region). The Yidun Group, from the base upward, includes the Lieyi, Qugasi, Tumugou and Lanashan formations, which are mainly composed of volcanic-flysch successions. Based on the ages of volcanic interlayers and plutonic intrusions, depositional ages of the Qugasi and Tumugou formations are considered to be slightly older than 230 Ma and ca. 220-230 Ma respectively, which are prominently older than the previous estimates. The Yidun Group in the Changtai region has two prominent detrital zircon age peaks at 400-480 and 880-980 Ma and a minor peak at 2.45-2.50 Ga. This pattern suggests a detritus source from the Zhongza Massif, which was a micro-continent separated from the western Yangtze Block. In contrast, the Yidun Group in the Shangri-La region has various zircon age spectra among different formations. The Qugasi Formation in this region has detrital zircon age patterns similar to the Yidun Group in the Changtai region. However, the overlying Tumugou Formation shows distinct age peaks at Triassic (220-240 Ma), Neoproterozoic (~ 720-880 Ma), and Paleoproterozoic (~ 1.75-1.90 Ga). This age pattern is similar to that of the Xikang Group of the Songpan-Ganzi Terrane to the east. The detrital zircon age difference between the Qugasi and Tumugou formations in this region indicates a transition of sedimentary sources from the Zhongza Massif to locally distributed Triassic magmatic rocks at ~ 230 Ma. It is thus suggested that the Songpan-Ganzi Terrane may have been connected to or collided with the southern part of the Yidun Terrane during the Late Triassic, whereas the Songpan-Ganzi Terrane and the northern part of the Yidun Terrane

  15. ASSESSMENT OF IRRIGATION EFFICIENCIES UNDER CENTRAL ANATOLIA CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuf Ersoy Yildirim

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Turkey is located within semi-arid climate zone and large portion of the country experience water deficits. Thus, efficient water use has become a significand issue in agricultural practices. Current global warming and climate change have aggravated such deficiencies. Konya province is located right at the center of Central Anatolia region and mostly groundwater is used in irrigations. Excessive groundwater withdrawals drop groundwaters levels and also increase energy costs. Although farmers pay quite high sums for energy, they were not using water efficiently and thus were not able to get desired benefits from the irrigations. In this study, irrigation practices of an irrigation cooperative were assessed and compared with optimum irrigation programs created through IRSIS irrigation scheduling software. It was concluded that all irrigation practices of the region were wrong and way behind the optimum ones.

  16. Neutron activation analysis of Urartian pottery from eastern Anatolia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Speakman, R.J.; Glascock, M.D.; Stone, E.C.; Cilingiroglu, A.; Zimansky, P.; Neff, H.

    2004-01-01

    A total of 275 pottery and clay samples from Urartian period sites in eastern Anatolia were analyzed by INAA. The pottery sample originates primarily from the fortress and Outer Town at Ayanis and also includes samples from nearby sites in the Lake Van basin. A small sample of pottery from Bastam, a contemporary Urartian fortress in northwest Iran, and Kef Kalesi, a site on the north shore of Lake Van were also analyzed. Ten distinct compositional groups were identified during the course of the analysis suggesting that pottery was produced at multiple locations throughout the Urartian kingdom. In addition to identifying multiple production locales, the long-distance movement of pottery from the sites of Kef Kalesi and Bastam into the Van Basin and the movement of pottery from Ayanis to Bastam were documented. (author)

  17. Astragalus friederikeanus Kit Tan & Zeitlinger (Fabaceae), a new species from south Anatolia, Turkey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tan, Kit; Zeitlinger, Jörg

    2007-01-01

    A new species from south Anatolia, Turkey, Astragalus friederikeanus Kit Tan & Zeitlinger (Fabaceae), is described and illustrated. The diagnostic morphological characters separating it from other members of sect. Onobrychium Boiss. are listed.......A new species from south Anatolia, Turkey, Astragalus friederikeanus Kit Tan & Zeitlinger (Fabaceae), is described and illustrated. The diagnostic morphological characters separating it from other members of sect. Onobrychium Boiss. are listed....

  18. Gondwanan/peri-Gondwanan origin for the Uchee terrane, Alabama and georgia: Carolina zone or Suwannee terrane(?) and its suture with Grenvillian basement of the Pine Mountain window

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steltenpohl, M.G.; Mueller, P.M.; Heatherington, A.L.; Hanley, T.B.; Wooden, J.L.

    2008-01-01

    The poorly known, suspect, Uchee terrane occupies a critical tectonic position with regard to how and when peri-Gondwanan (Carolina) and Gondwanan (Suwannee) terranes were sutured to Laurentia. It lies sandwiched between Laurentian(?) continental basement exposed in the Pine Mountain window and adjacent buried Gondwanan crust of the Suwannee terrane. The Uchee terrane has been proposed as both a septum of Piedmont rocks that once was continuous across the erosionally breached Pine Mountain window or part of the Carolina zone. To help resolve this issue, we conducted U-Pb (SHRIMP-RG) (sensitive high-resolution ion microprobe-reverse geometry) zircon studies and whole-rock isotopic analyses of principal metasedimentary and metaplutonic units. U-Pb ages for zircons from the Phenix City Gneiss suggest igneous crystallization at ca. 620 Ma, inheritance ca. 1000 to ca. 1700 Ma, and a ca. 300 Ma (Alleghanian) overprint recorded by zircon rims. Zircons from the metasedimentary/metavolcaniclastic Moffits Mill Schist yield bimodal dates at ca. 620 and 640 Ma. The 620 to 640 Ma dates make these rocks age-equivalent to the oldest parts of the Carolina slate belt (Virgilina and Savannah River) and strongly suggest a Gondwanan (Pan-African and/or Trans-Brasiliano) origin for the Uchee terrane. Alternatively, the Uchee terrane may be correlative with metamorphic basement of the Suwannee terrane. The ca. 300 Ma overgrowths on zircons are compatible with previously reported 295 to 288 Ma 40Ar/39Ar hornblende dates on Uchee terrane rocks, which were interpreted to indicate deep tectonic burial of the Uchee terrane contemporaneous with the Alleghanian orogeny recorded in the foreland. Temperature-time paths for the Uchee terrane are similar to that of the Pine Mountain terrane, indicating a minimum age of ca. 295 Ma for docking. In terms of tectono-metamorphic history of the Uchee terrane, it is important to note that no evidence for intermediate "Appalachian" dates (e.g, Acadian or

  19. The prevalence of Behçet's disease in a city in Central Anatolia in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çölgeçen, Emine; Özyurt, Kemal; Ferahbaş, Ayten; Borlu, Murat; Kulluk, Pınar; Öztürk, Ahmet; Öner, Ayşe Öztürk; Gün, İskender; Aşçıoğlu, Özcan

    2015-03-01

    The prevalence of Behçet's disease (BD) is much higher in countries along the ancient Silk Route, extending from Japan to Mediterranean countries including Turkey, than in northern Europe and the USA. The present study aimed to investigate the prevalence of BD in Kayseri, a city in Central Anatolia in Turkey. This study investigated cross-sectional prevalences of BD in individuals aged >10 years in Kayseri, Turkey, in two stages. The first stage aimed to identify individuals with recurrent oral ulcers (ROUs) through home visits, and the second stage aimed to further examine those with ROUs for the presence of other BD-related manifestations under hospital conditions. The study was conducted using the criteria defined by the International Study Group for Behçet's Disease. The sample size was determined to be 4697 with an expected sampling error of 5.5 per 10,000, with a 95% confidence interval. A standard questionnaire was administered to a total of 5218 individuals. A history of ROU was recorded in 470 (9.0%) of the 5218 residents, and a previous diagnosis of BD was recorded in nine individuals. The prevalence rate of BD was estimated as 17 cases per 10,000 population in Kayseri, Turkey. The present study contributes towards estimations of prevalences of BD in Turkey and towards raising public awareness about the disease. It also supports previous studies that have reported the world's highest prevalences of BD in Turkey. © 2014 The International Society of Dermatology.

  20. Chronologic constraints on the tectonic evolution of the Wilson Lake terrane of the Grenville Province, Canada

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reno II, Barry Len; Korhonen, F.J.; Stout, J.H.

    the Grenville Orogen in North America. Many of these terranes record evidence of two orogenies: the Labradorian Orogeny at ca. 1710-1600 Ma, and the Grenville Orogeny at ca. 1080-980 Ma. The rocks in the Wilson Lake terrane are interpreted to have been subjected to peak pressures of ~0.95 GPa...... and ~930°C during the Labradorian Orogeny (Korhonen et al., in prep., Stability of sapphirine + quartz in the Wilson Lake terrane: calculated equilibria in NCKFMASHTO). The final amalgamation of the Wilson Lake terrane over the underlying Parautochthonous Belt is interpreted to have occurred during...... the Grenville Orogeny, when the terrane was subjected to a lower-T (500-350°C) overprinting. However, petrologic and chronologic evidence for the Grenville orogeny is limited in the Wilson Lake terrane. Here we present results from a monazite chemical (U-Th)-Pb chronologic study in order to provide constraints...

  1. Climate stability in Central Anatolia during the Messinian Salinity Crisis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meijers, Maud J.M.; Peynircioğlu, Ahmet A; Cosca, Michael A.; Brocard, Gilles Y.; Whitney, Donna L.; Langereis, Cor G.; Mulch, Andreas

    2018-01-01

    Deposition of large amounts of evaporites and erosion of deep canyons within the Mediterranean Basin as a result of reduced basin connectivity with the Atlantic Ocean and the epicontinental Paratethys Sea characterized the Messinian Salinity Crisis (MSC, 5.97–5.33 Ma). The influence of the MSC on Mediterranean environmental conditions within the basin itself has been intensely studied from marine records, but reconstructing the impact of the MSC on circum-Mediterranean continental climate has been hampered by the absence of continuous sedimentary archives that span the duration of the event.Here, we report results of a continental record of carbon (δ13C) and oxygen (δ18O) isotopes from lake carbonates framed by new magnetostratigraphic and 40Ar/39Ar dating, as well as by existing mammal stratigraphy (Kangal Basin, central Anatolia). The sampled section records continuous fluvio-lacustrine sedimentation from ~6.6 Ma to 4.9 Ma, which spans the MSC and the Miocene-Pliocene boundary. This dataset so far represents the only continuous continental paleoenvironmental record of the MSC in the circum-Mediterranean realm.The Kangal Basin isotope record indicates a low degree of evaporation. Furthermore, covariance between δ13C and δ18O suggests a coupling between lake water balance and biologic productivity. Variations in δ13C and δ18O therefore likely reflect changes in the amount of incoming precipitation, rather than changes in δ18O values of incoming precipitation. The most prominent spike in δ13C and δ18O occurs during the acme of the MSC and is therefore interpreted to have resulted from a decrease in the amount of incoming moisture correlative to a period of vigorous erosion and sea level lowering in the Mediterranean Basin. Major sea level lowering of Mediterranean basin waters during the acme of the MSC could have therefore led to slightly dryer conditions over Anatolia, which is also suggested by modeling studies. Overall, changes in δ13C and

  2. Drought Analysis in the Tuz Lake Basin, Central Anatolia, Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ustaoglu, Beyza; Akın, Burcu

    2017-04-01

    The research area, Tuz Lake Basin is located in Central Anatolia Region in Turkey. The drought is observed in this area with the result of the meteorological data analysis, satellite imagery and field research. The aim of this study is to determine temporal and spatial characterists of the drought, frequency and extreme droughtness possibilities, drought period, amplitude of the drought and its severity which is observed in Tuz Lake within the context of climate change process effects in Turkey, by using Standart Precipitation Index (SPI) Palmer Drought Harshness Index, De Martonne and Erinç Method. Since the indexes which are used in the study have different parameters, not only meteorological results but also agricultural and hydrological drought results can be inferred. For this purpose, measurements of 12 meteorological stations in the basin between the years 1975-2015 will be studied applying the aforementioned methods in MATLAB. SRTM satellite images used in the study is provided by American Geological Survey (USGS). The findings from satellite imagery and meteorological data integrated into Geographic Information Systems Software ArcMap 10.1, then the effects of the drought to the Tuz Lake were analyzed. The findings of the analysis will be interpreted with the support of the field studies.

  3. Geoarchaeological research at Barcın Höyük: implications for the Neolithisation of northwest Anatolia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenhuijzen, M.R.; Kluiving, S.J.; Gerritsen, F.A.; Künzel, M.

    2015-01-01

    Landscape archaeological research has been undertaken on the mound of Barcin Höyük in northwest Anatolia, Turkey. It is the oldest Neolithic site in the region, making it of particular interest in regard to the spread of farming from the regions of origin (southeast and central Anatolia) to

  4. Paleobiogeographic affinities of emsian (late early devonian) gastropods from farewell terrane (west-central Alaska)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fryda, J.; Blodgett, R.B.

    2008-01-01

    The vast majority of Emsian gastropods from Limestone Mountain, Medfra B-4 quadrangle, west-central Alaska (Farewell terrane) belong to species with lecithotrophic larval strategy. The present data show that there is no significant difference in the paleobiogeo-graphic distribution of Emsian gastropod genera with lecithotrophic and planktotrophic larval strategies. Numerical analysis of the faunal affinities of the Emsian gastropod fauna from the Farewell terrane reveals that this terrane has much stronger faunal connections to regions like Variscan Europe, eastern Australia, and the Alexander terrane of southeast Alaska than to cratonic North America (Laurentia). The Canadian Arctic Islands is the only region of cratonic North America (Laurentia) that shows significant faunal affinities to the Emsian gastropod faunas of the Farewell terrane. The analysis also indicates a close faunal link between the Farewell and Alexander terranes. Published paleontological and geological data suggest that the Farewell and Alexander terranes represents tectonic entities that have been rifted away from the Siberia, Baltica, or the paleo-Pacific margin of Australia. The results of the present numerical analysis are not in conflict with any of these possibilities. However, the principle of spatial continuity of the wandering path prefers Siberia as the most probable "parental" paleocontinent for the derivation of both the Farewell and Alexander terranes. ?? 2008 The Geological Society of America.

  5. Diachronous demise of the Neotethys Ocean as driver for non-cylindrical orogenesis in Anatolia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hinsbergen, D. J. J.; Gurer, D.

    2017-12-01

    Continent-continent collision drives crustal deformation, topographic rise, and geodynamic change. Africa-Eurasia convergence accommodated in the Eastern Mediterranean involved subduction of the Neotethyan oceanic lithosphere in Anatolia. Subduction was followed by collision of Greater Adria continental crust with Eurasia forming the Izmir-Ankara-Erzincan suture zone. Discerning the effects of this collision from pre-collisional ophiolite obduction-related orogeny of Greater Adria is notoriously difficult, and estimates from Central Anatolia based on a forearc-to-foreland basin transition along the Eurasian margin suggest a 60 Ma initial collision. Here we assess whether this age is also representative for collision in eastern Anatolia across the Cenozoic Sivas basin that straddles the Greater Adria-Europe suture by retro-deforming regional block rotations in the Pontides, Kırşehir and Taurides, building a first-order regional `block circuit' around the Sivas basin. We show that up to 700 km of convergence must have been accommodated after central Anatolian Kırşehir-Pontide collision at 65-60 Ma across the Sivas Basin - an order of magnitude more than estimated crustal shortening. We consequently infer that oceanic subduction continued much longer in eastern Anatolia, perhaps into the Oligocene or beyond, demonstrating the a recently postulated greater paleogeographic width of the Neotethys in eastern Anatolia. Prolonged oceanic subduction likely resulted from a paleogeography with a sharp kink in the former Kırşehir-Tauride passive margin. The strong non-cylindricity of the Anatolian collisional orogen is explained continued slab pull during ongoing oceanic subduction in eastern Anatolia following central Anatolian collision.

  6. Case study: Examples of Wooden Vernacular Architecture - Turkish Houses in Western Anatolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yilmaz Karaman Özgül

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Wooden material is described as the oldest construction material along with stone. In the historical process, especially for the buildings of shelter, timber construction components are seen to be used as primary and indispensable structural system components in different geographies of the world as well as Anatolia. This paper focuses on timber-frame structures of four different settlements from Western Anatolia. It is aimed to analyze the traditional techniques, in order to transmit our cultural heritage to the next generations, as well as obtaining some data on construction techniqes to be used for creating alternative solutions to the house production of today.

  7. Natural radioactivity releases from lignite power plants in Southwestern Anatolia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yaprak, G.; Guer, F.; Cam, F.; Candan, O.

    2006-01-01

    The Mugla basin is one of the most productive lignite basins in Southwestern Anatolia, Turkey. Mining activities started in 1979 and total reserves were estimated during exploration at 767.5 million tonnes. Total mean annual lignite production of the Mugla basin is estimated at about 10 million tonnes per year. Most of the lignite production supplies three thermal power plants (Yatagan 630 MW, Yenikoey 420 MW, Kemerkoey 630 MW) with a total capacity of 1680 MW. It is well known that the lignite contains naturally occurring primordial radionuclides arising from the uranium and thorium series as well as from 4 0K. Lignite burning is, therefore, one of the sources of technologically enhanced exposure to humans from natural radionuclides. The investigation reported here deals with the determination of the 2 26Ra, 2 32Th and 4 0K concentrations in the lignite feeding 3 thermal power plants in Mugla region and in the product ash. Samples of lignite feeding the power plants and fly and bottom ashes produced in the same power plants were collected over a period of 1 year and therefore systematic sampling allowed for the determination of mean representative values for the natural radioactivity content of above materials and also estimation of the radioactivity releases to the environment. Furthermore, grid soil sampling within 10-15 km around the power plants allowed for the mapping of the surface soil activity of natural radionuclides. Dosimetric calculations from terrestrial gamma radiation for the population living around the power plants were performed based on the guidance of UNSCEAR 2000 report

  8. Thermal structure of the crust in Inner East Anatolia from aeromagnetic and gravity data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bektaş, Özcan

    2013-08-01

    Inner East Anatolia has many hot spring outcomes. In this study, the relationship between the thermal structure and hot spring outcomes is investigated. The residual aeromagnetic and gravity anomalies of the Inner East Anatolia, surveyed by the Mineral Research and Exploration (MTA) of Turkey, show complexities. The magnetic data were analyzed to produce Curie point depth estimates. The depth of magnetic dipole was calculated by azimuthally averaged power spectrum method for the whole area. The Curie point depth (CPD) map covering the Inner East Anatolia has been produced. The Curie point depths of the region between Sivas and Malatya vary from 16.5 to 18.7 km. Values of heat flow were calculated according to continental geotherm from the model. The heat flow values vary between 89 and 99 mW m-2. Heat flow values are incorporated with surface heat flow values. Gravity anomalies were modeled by means of a three-dimensional method. The deepest part of the basin (12-14 km), determined from the 3D model, are located below the settlement of Hafik and to the south of Zara towns. Two-dimensional cross sections produced from the basin depths, Curie values and MOHO depths. Based on the analysis of magnetic, gravity anomalies, thermal structures and geology, it seems likely that the hot springs are not related to rising asthenosphere, in the regions of shallow CPDs (∼16.5 km), and mostly hot springs are related to faulting systems in Inner East Anatolia.

  9. A new species of Hesperis (Brassicaceae) from SW Anatolia, Turkey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parolly, G.; Tan, Kit

    2006-01-01

    Hesperis kuerschneri, from the vilayet of Denizli in the Western Taurus is described as a species new to science and illustrated. Its affinities are with H. theophrasti, which has several infraspecific taxa in the Balkans and Anatolia. The new species occurs on steep serpentine scree slopes...... together with other serpentine plants of the Western Taurus and is rather local in distribution....

  10. Clematis austroanatolica (Ranunculaceae), an unusual new species from southern Anatolia, Turkey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zielinski, Jerzy; Tan, Kit

    2011-01-01

    Clematis austroanatolica (Ranunculaceae) is illustrated and described as a new species endemic to southern Anatolia, Turkey. It is related to C. vitalba and differs from the latter in having leaves with narrowly ovate, dentate-serrate leaflets, trifoliolate lowermost pinnae as well as small, pale...

  11. Helichrysum yurterianum (Asteraceae, Inuleae), a new species from NE Anatolia, Turkey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gemici, Yusuf; Tan, Kit; Yildirim, Hasan

    2008-01-01

    Helichrysum yurterianum Y. Gemici, Kit Tan, H. Yildirim & M. Gemici (Asteraceae, Inuleae) is described and illustrated. It is a serpentine endemic restricted to the province of Erzincan in NE Anatolia, Turkey. Its affinities are with H. arenarium and H. noeanum, which both have a wider distribution...

  12. Chaenorhinum semispeluncarum sp. nov. and C. yildirimlii sp. nov. (Scrophulariaceae) from east Anatolia, Turkey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yildirim, Hasan; Tan, Kit; Senol, Serdar

    2010-01-01

    Chaenorhinum semispeluncarum H. Yildirim, Kit Tan, S. Senol & A. Pirhan sp. nov. and C. yildirimlii Kit Tan, H. Yildirim, S. Senol & A. Pirhan sp. nov. (Scrophulariaceae, C. sect. Microrrhinum) from east Anatolia are described and illustrated. They are both narrow endemics related to the rare C...

  13. Mineral and whole-rock geochemistry of the Topuk Granitoid (Bursa, Western Anatolia, Turkey)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orhan, Ayşe; Demirbilek, Mehmet; Mutlu, Halim

    2014-05-01

    The Eocene aged Topuk Granitoid exposing in the Tavşanlı Zone at south of the Izmir-Ankara Suture Zone is one of the granitoids which were formed as a result of collision of the Anatolide-Tauride block with the Sakarya continent in the late Cretaceous. Nearly east-west extending, elliptical shaped Topuk Granitoid was intruded into the Paleozoic and Mesozoic metamorphites and upper Cretaceous ophiolitic rocks. The intrusion is in granodiorite composition and contains spherical/ellipsoidal mafic microgranular enclaves (MME) with composition of monzodiorite to monzogabbro. The granitoid which contains xenoliths is frequently cut by porphyritic granodiorite, granite aplite and quartz dikes at the margins. Topuk Granitoid is represented by an I-type pluton with medium to high K calc-alkaline affinity and metaluminous melt composition. Ocean ridge granite (ORG) normalized element distributions show that the granitoid, dikes and MME's have similar patterns. A significant enrichment of LIL (Rb, Ba, K, Th and Sr) elements and relatively depletion of HFS (Ta, Nb, Ce, Hf, Y, Zr and Ti) elements are indicative of formation from hybrid magma in a subduction environment. In tectonic discrimination diagrams (Ta -Yb and Rb-Y+Nb), samples of the Topuk Granitoid are plotted into the volcanic arc granite (VAG) field which is characteristic for the post collision granites. The results of mineral chemistry show that plagioclases are in oligoclase-andesine (An20-49) composition, amphiboles are of magnesio-hornblende and biotites are of Fe-Mg-biotite composition. In the Al2O3-FeO-MgO diagram biotite minerals are accompanied by amphibole and other ferromagnesian minerals and represent biotites of calc-alkaline orogenic zones. Calculations based on the hornblende-barometer indicate that the calc-alkaline magma was crystallized under pressure of 2-6 kbars (mean=4 kbars) and at depth of 7-20 km (mean=12 km). The whole-rock and mineral chemistry data show that the Topuk Granitoid was formed

  14. Neogene Uplift and Magmatism of Anatolia: New Insights from Drainage Analysis and Basalt Geochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNab, F.; Ball, P.; Hoggard, M.; White, N.

    2017-12-01

    The origin of Anatolia's high elevation and low relief plateaux has been the subject of much recent debate. Marine sedimentary rocks distributed across Central and Eastern Anatolia require significant regional uplift in Neogene times. This uplift cannot be explained by the present-day pattern of crustal deformation which, particularly across Central and Western Anatolia, is dominanted by strike-slip and extensional faulting. Positive long wavelength free-air gravity anomalies combined with slow upper mantle seismic wave speeds suggest that the sub-lithospheric mantle provides substantial topographic support. A range of geodynamic processes have been invoked, including complex slab fragmentation and lithospheric delamination. The temporal and spatial evolution of the Anatolian landscape should be recorded by drainage networks. Indeed, major catchments contain prominent knickzones with heights of hundreds of meters and length scales of several hundred kilometers. The stream power formulation for fluvial erosion permits these knickzones to be interpreted in terms of uplift history along a river's length. Here, we jointly invert an inventory of 1,844 river profiles to determine a spatial and temporal uplift rate history. When calibrated against independent observations of uplift rate, the resultant history provides significant new constraints for the evolution of Anatolian topography. In our model, the bulk of this topography appears to grow in Neogene times. Uplift initiates in Eastern Anatolia and propagates westward at uplift rates of up to 0.5 mm/yr. Coeval with this phase of uplift, abundant basaltic magmatism has occurred throughout Anatolia. We have compiled an extensive database of published geochemical analyses. Using this database, we analyse spatial and temporal patterns of basaltic compositions to discriminate between different modes of melt generation. Two independent techniques for estimating asthenospheric potential temperatures from the compositions of

  15. Elements for a Comparative Study of Textile Production and Use in Hittite Anatolia and Neighbouring Areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vigo, Matteo; Bellucci, Benedetta; Baccelli, Giulia

    2014-01-01

    to confirm the information provided by philologists. Over the last fifty years, many scholars have specifically investigated the textile terminology. Their results mainly consist of single corpus terminology. Looking at the Hittite Anatolia (XIX-XIII century BC) the scientific production does not seem so...... different. There are indeed specific monographs dealing with some aspects of Assyrian trade in Anatolia during the XIX-XVIII centuries BC, through which we are inform on trade routes, ‘textile topography’ (i.e. the provenance and the final destination of particular fabrics), costs of production and selling...... not currently exist. The aim of this paper is to present several key elements for a comparative study on the Hittite textile production and consumption. Starting from the textile production we will try to join the aforementioned results of archaeological analyses with the data provided by the Hittite textual...

  16. Diversity and homogeneity among the early farming communities of Western Anatolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eylem Özdoğan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Our knowledge of the Neolithisation of Western Anatolia has increased considerably in recent years. Being located beyond, but on the border of the formative zone of Neolithisation, the region has acted as a buffer in the dispersal of the Neolithic way of life farther to the west. Recent research in Western Anatolia has shown that Neolithic sites appeared in the second quarter of the 7th millennium BC and had become widespread by the second half of the same millennium. There is now adequate data available on both the distribution of sites and the material culture in some subregions. In this context, this article will focus not on the Neolithisation process, but on the characteristic features of the sub-regions and the interaction between them.

  17. Block-like plate movements in eastern Anatolia observed by InSAR

    KAUST Repository

    Cavalie, Olivier

    2014-01-16

    The question whether continental plates deform internally or move as rigid blocks has been debated for several decades. To further address this question, we use large-scale interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) data sets to study how eastern Anatolia and its surrounding plates deform. We find that most of the deformation is focused at the North and East Anatolian faults and little intraplate deformation takes place. Anatolia is therefore moving, at least its eastern part, as a uniform block. We estimate the slip velocity and locking depth of the North Anatolian fault at this location to be 20 mm/yr and ~14 km, respectively. High deformation gradient found near the East Anatolian fault, on the other hand, suggests that little stress is accumulating along the eastern sections of that fault.

  18. Overwintered Hatchlings of Emys orbicularis from Lake Sülüklü (Western Anatolia, Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinçer Ayaz

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available During our monitoring survey of amphibians and Emys orbicularis in Lake Sülüklü (Western Anatolia, Turkey, we observed four overwintered hatchlings of European pond turtle on May 4 and 10, 2010. The average straightline maximum carapace length of the neonates captured was 26.48 mm and their average weight was 4.18 g. This observation is the second record for the Turkish population of Emys orbicularis.

  19. A first record of late Middle Permian actinopterygian fish from Anatolia, Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoşgör, Izzet; Štamberg, Stanislav

    2014-06-01

    The Middle-Upper Permian of the Gomaniibrik Formation, of the Tanin Group, in south-east Anatolia, close to the Iraq border, yielded moderately preserved fish remains. Two species, Palaeoniscum freieslebeni and Pygopterus cf. nielseni, known so far only from the Upper Permian deposits of the Zechstein Basin in western Central Europe, were recognised. This late Middle Permian Anatolian record significantly widens the geographical range of these actinopterygians into the equatorial Palaeotethys Realm.

  20. Investigation on The Blood Cell Counts of Chalcides ocellatus (Sauria: Scincidae) Population in Anatolia

    OpenAIRE

    MERMER, Ahmet

    2014-01-01

    In this investigation, the blood cell counts (erythrocyts and leucocyts) of 136 Chalcides ocellatus specimens (75 females + 61 males), collected from different locations in Anatolia have been investigated from the view point of the effects of geographical distance and altitude factors. The blood cell counts are found to be highest in the population from Gaziantep-Urfa and the cause of this difference is evaluated as due to geographic variation.

  1. An Autecological Study on the Vitex agnus-castus L. (Verbenaceae) Distributed in West Anatolia

    OpenAIRE

    DOĞAN, Yunus; MERT, Hasan Hüseyin

    2014-01-01

    This study covers the investigation of the soil-plant relations of Vitex agnus-castus L. (Verbenaceae), a typical element of Mediteranean macchia vegetation. Soils collected from 38 different localitis in West Anatolia were analysed together with the V. agnus-castus plants from the same localities. This plant was observed to generally prefer loamy-textured, neutral and slightly alka-line soils, poor in calcium carbonate, containing varying amounts of organic matter, being rich or very rich...

  2. Origin and significance of tourmalinites and tourmaline-bearing rocks of Menderes Massif, western Anatolia, Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Yucel-ozturk, Yesim; Helvaci, Cahit; Palmer, Martin R.; Ersoy, E. Yalcin; Freslon, Nicolas

    2015-01-01

    In the western central portion of Anatolia lies the Menderes Massif – a large metamorphic crystalline complex made of Neoproterozoic to Precambrian basement rocks overlain by Palaeozoic to early Tertiary metasedimentary rocks, and with a multistage metamorphic evolution developed from the late Neo-Proterozoic to Eocene. We have undertaken a study of the petrology, geochemistry and boron isotope composition of these tourmaline occurrences aiming to constrain the processes responsible for the e...

  3. Cebollati group, Nico Perez terrane: Definition and age

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaucher, C; Chemale, F.; Bossi, J.; Castiglioni, E.; Castiglioni, E.

    2010-01-01

    The Cebollati Group (Nico Perez Terrane) is formally erected in this work to include a meta sedimentary succession informally known as L as Teta s Complex . It is shown that the stratigraphy of the unit can be reconstructed at a number of sections between Minas and Zapicìn, using sedimentary structures and stromatolites as geo petal indicators. The basement of the group is represented by metamorphic rocks and granitoids of the La China Complex, for which a new U-Pb zircon age of 3.029 ± 54 Ma is presented. The Cebollatií Group comprises, from base to top, three formations: the Arroyo Ma lo Formation (sandstones and petites), Cerro de Valuable Formation (dolostones, partly stromatolitic, and p elites) and the Cerro del Diamant e Formation (p elites, BIF, quartz-pebble conglomerates and sandstones). The mean thickness of the Cebollatií Group is ca. 2 km, being greatest in the south and diminishing to the north. Available ages for the unit suggested a Neoarchean depositional age of 2.75 Ga. However, in this work 12 Nd model ages are presented for sedimentary rocks of the Cebollatí Group, which are mostly younger than 2.75 Ga, the youngest being 1.64 Ga. These ages call into question the Neoarchean age accepted for the unit, suggesting a Meso proterozoic depositional age. The evidence supporting both views is discussed in view of the new data. The minimum age of the Cebollatí Group is 1.3 Ga on the basis of carbon isotope ratios of dolostones and deformational ages consistently around 1.25 Ga

  4. Bathymetric gradients within a Paleozoic Island Arc, southeastern Alaska (Alexander Terrane)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soja, C.M. (Smith College, Northampton, MA (USA))

    1990-05-01

    Early to Late Silurian (Wenlock-Ludlow) limestones belonging to the Heceta Formation reflect bathymetric gradients within the ancient island arc exposed in the Alexander terrane of southeastern Alaska. These rocks record the earliest occurrence of widespread carbonate deposition in the region and represent the earliest foundation for shallow-water platform development within the arc. The excellent preservation of platform, platform margin, and slope deposits contrasts with the poor preservation of many marine sediments that originated within other island arcs. Hence, these limestones provide important insights into the styles, processes, and bathymetry of carbonate deposition in island arcs. Carbonate depositional sites within the arc extended laterally from nearshore intertidal and relatively shallow subtidal zones of a marine platform, to the seaward margins of a rimmed shelf, and into deeper subtidal areas of a slope environment. Fossiliferous deposits that originated on the platform comprise a diversity of shelly benthos, including corals and stromatoporoids in growth position. Dasycladacean algae, oncoids, and Amphipora also indicate shallow-water conditions. Organic buildups and reefs were constructed by cyanobacteria, massive stromatoporoids, corals, and algae at the platform margin. Deposition beyond the seaward edge of the shelf is evident from the carbonate turbidites that consist of skeletal debris of shallow-water derivation and an absence of coarse siliciclastic detritus. Sedimentation and resedimentation along a bathymetric gradient within the arc is especially well illustrated by the carbonate breccias that are enclosed within these deep subtidal sediments. They comprise detached stromatolites and clasts of shallow-water origin that were derived from the platform and its margin during periodic slumping of the shelf edge.

  5. Exhumation of (ultra-high-pressure terranes: concepts and mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. J. Warren

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The formation and exhumation of high and ultra-high-pressure, (UHP, rocks of crustal origin appears to be ubiquitous during Phanerozoic plate subduction and continental collision events. Exhumation of (UHP material has been shown in some orogens to have occurred only once, during a single short-lived event; in other cases exhumation appears to have occurred multiple discrete times or during a single, long-lived, protracted event. It is becoming increasingly clear that no single exhumation mechanism dominates in any particular tectonic environment, and the mechanism may change in time and space within the same subduction zone. Subduction zone style and internal force balance change in both time and space, responding to changes in width, steepness, composition of subducting material and velocity of subduction. In order for continental crust, which is relatively buoyant compared to the mantle even when metamorphosed to (UHP assemblages, to be subducted to (UHP conditions, it must remain attached to a stronger and denser substrate. Buoyancy and external tectonic forces drive exhumation, although the changing spatial and temporal dominance of different driving forces still remains unclear. Exhumation may involve whole-scale detachment of the terrane from the subducting slab followed by exhumation within a subduction channel (perhaps during continued subduction or a reversal in motion of the entire plate (eduction following the removal of a lower part of the subducting slab. Weakening mechanisms that may be responsible for the detachment of deeply subducted crust from its stronger, denser substrate include strain weakening, hydration, melting, grain size reduction and the development of foliation. These may act locally to form narrow high-strain shear zones separating stronger, less-strained crust or may act on the bulk of the subducted material, allowing whole-scale flow. Metamorphic reactions, metastability and the composition of the subducted crust

  6. Relationships between the Brook Street Terrane and Median Tectonic Zone (Median Batholith) : evidence from Jurassic conglomerates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tulloch, A.J.; Kimbrough, D.L.; Landis, C.A.; Mortimer, N.; Johnston, M.R.

    1999-01-01

    U-Pb zircon ages of 237-180 Ma and c. 280 Ma of seven granitoid clasts from the Rainy River Conglomerate which lies within the eastern Median Tectonic Zone (Median Batholith) in Nelson, and the Barretts Formation of the Brook Street Terrane in Southland, constrain the depositional ages of both units to be no older than c. 180-200 Ma (Early Jurassic). The minimum age of the Rainy River Conglomerate is constrained by the 147 +2 -1 Ma (Latest Jurassic) emplacement age of the One Mile Gabbronorite (new name: previously western Buller Diorite). The ages and chemistry of five of the granitoid clasts are broadly compatible with derivation from rocks that are now represented by Triassic plutons of the Median Tectonic Zone (Median Batholith), although ages as young as 180 Ma are slightly outside the range of the latter as currently exposed in New Zealand. The age (273-290 Ma, 237 +/- 3 Ma) and chemistry of the other two clasts (one each from Rainy River Conglomerate and Barretts Formation) suggest derivation from the Brook Street Terrane. Similarity in stratigraphic age, depositional characteristics, granitoid clast ages and composition between Rainy River Conglomerate and Barretts Formation suggests that they are broadly correlative and collectively overlapped a combined Brook Street Terrane - Median Batholith (MTZ) before the Late Jurassic (147 +2 -1 Ma). Sedimentary overlap may also have continued across to Middle Jurassic conglomeratic strata in the Murihiku Terrane to the east of the Brook Street Terrane. A U-Pb zircon age of 261 +/- 2 Ma is reported for Pourakino Trondhjemite of the Brook Street Terrane. (author). 56 refs., 10 figs., 4 tabs

  7. Pb-Nd Isotopes Indicate the Origin of Island Arc Terranes in the Early Paleozoic Pacific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Münker

    2000-03-01

    The Takaka Terrane in New Zealand is one of the best exposed arc fragments of the early Paleozoic Australian-Antarctic convergent margin and constitutes one of the most outboard terranes of this margin in paleogeographic reconstructions. Pb-Nd isotope compositions of clinopyroxenes from the Cambrian Devil River Volcanics of the Takaka Terrane enable identification of the location of the terrane in the Paleo-Pacific Ocean. The Devil River Volcanics, a suite of primitive arc and back-arc rocks, are interbedded with the partly continent-derived Haupiri Group sediments. Extremely radiogenic Pb and unradiogenic Nd compositions in the arc rocks cannot be explained by assimilation of the Haupiri Group sediments or a continental basement of such a composition. Pb isotope compositions of the Takaka Terrane sediments are much less radiogenic and overlap with crustal compositions of the Lachlan Fold Belt in Australia, suggesting that both units are derived from one source, the Australian-Antarctic Pacific margin. Pb-Nd isotope compositions in the Devil River Volcanics reflect contamination of their mantle sources by subducted sediments derived from Archean provinces in either Antarctica or Laurentia. Both provinces show characteristically high 207Pb/204Pb500 and were located at the Pacific rim in the Cambrian. Mixing between mantle and Proterozoic continental material from present western South America or eastern Laurentia cannot explain the high 207Pb/204Pb500 in the New Zealand rocks. As in New Zealand, extreme spreads in Pb-Nd isotope compositions in other Cambrian volcano-sedimentary sequences in southeast Australia and Tasmania can be explained by the same model, suggesting that all these fragments originated along the Australian-Antarctic Gondwana margin. Pb isotope compositions of arc rocks, therefore, provide a new tool for terrane analysis in the early Paleozoic Pacific ocean.

  8. Simultaneous batholith emplacement, terrane/continent collision, and oroclinal bending in the Blue Mountains Province, North American Cordillera

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Žák, J.; Verner, K.; Tomek, Filip; Holub, F. V.; Johnson, K.; Schwartz, J. J.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 34, č. 6 (2015), s. 1107-1128 ISSN 0278-7407 Institutional support: RVO:67985831 Keywords : anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) * North American Cordillera * orocline * pluton emplacement * terrane accretion * terrane/continent collision Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy Impact factor: 3.750, year: 2015

  9. The age and composition of the pre-Cenozoic basement of the Jalisco Block: implications for and relation to the Guerrero composite terrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valencia, Victor A.; Righter, Kevin; Rosas-Elguera, Jose; López-Martínez, Margarita; Grove, Marty

    2013-09-01

    The Jalisco Block is thought to be part of the Guerrero terrane, but the nature and age of the underlying crystalline basement are largely unknown. We have collected a suite of schists, granitoids, and weakly metamorphosed marine sediments from various parts of the Jalisco Block including Atenguillo and Ameca, Mascota and San Sebastián, Cuale, Puerto Vallarta, Punta Mita, Yelapa, and Tomatlán. The schists range in age from 135 to 161 Ma, with many exhibiting Proterozoic and Phanerozoic zircon ages. The granitoids range in age from 65 to 90 Ma, and are calc-alkaline compositionally—similar to granitoids from the Puerto Vallarta and Los Cabos batholiths. The Jalisco granitoids also experienced similar uplift rates to granitoids from the regions to the north and south of the Jalisco Block. The marine sediments yield a maximum depositional age of 131 Ma, and also contain a significant zircon population with ages extending back to the Archean. Granitoids from this study define two age groups, even after the effects of thermal resetting and different closure temperatures are considered. The 66.8-Ma silicic ash flow tuff near Union de Tula significantly expands the extent of this Cretaceous-Paleocene age ash flow tuff unit within the Jalisco Block, and we propose calling the unit "Carmichael silicic ash flow tuff volcanic succession" in honor of Ian Carmichael. The ages of the basement schists in the Jalisco Block fully overlap with the ages of terranes of continental Mexico, and other parts of the Guerrero terrane in the south, confirming the autochthonous origin of the Jalisco Block rather than exotic arc or allochthonous origin. Geologic data, in combination with geochronologic and oxygen isotopic data, suggest the evolution of SW Mexico with an early 200-1,200-Ma passive margin, followed by steep subduction in a continental arc setting at 160-165 Ma, then shallower subduction by 135 Ma, and finally, emplacement of granitoids at 65-90 Ma.

  10. Palaeocology of coal-bearing Eocene sediments in central Anatolia (Turkey) based on quantitative palynological data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akkiraz, M.S.; Kayseri, M.S.; Akgun, F. [Dokuz Eylul University, Izmir (Turkey). Dept. of Geological Engineering

    2008-04-15

    In this study, the lignite-bearing Yoncali formation between Yozgat and Sorgun, in central Anatolia has been palynologically examined. Based on 37 outcrop samples, quantitative palynological studies recognized 64 genera and 136 palynoflora species in the palynological assemblage, which indicated a Middle-Late Eocene age. This paper also presents a quantitative palaeovegetation and palaeoclimate reconstruction for the Middle-Upper Eocene coal occurrences of Central Anatolia on the basis of palynomorph assemblages. The diversified floral and ecological characteristics of the pollen taxa indicates that the Middle-Upper Eocene formations in central Anatolia were characterized by the presence of a complex mangrove swamp with contributions by Nypa, Pelliciera, Avicennia, Diporites tszkaszentgydrgyi and dinoflagellate cysts which reflect warm climatic conditions. Lowland-riparian and montane elements are characterized by the dominance of Myricaceae, Symplocaceae, Icacinaceae, Quercus, Pinus and Castanea. Swamp-freshwater elements are represented by Sparganjaceae, Nymphaceae, Taxodjaceae, Cupressaceae and Nyssa as well as fern spores such as Osmundaceae and Gleicheniaceae. The calculations were performed with the help of the 'Coexistence Approach' method to climatically evaluate palynoflora from the Yozgat-Sorgun area. The obtained results have been compared to data derived from the application of the Coexistence Approach to other, already published Central Anatolian palynofloras of the same age. The results of the climatic inferences suggest that the palaeoclimatic conditions were in the megathermal zone, megatherm/mesotherm intermediate zone whereas mesothermic conditions prevailed in the montane region. Likewise, the results of mean annual range of temperatures indicate the influence of the Indian ocean, which enabled the development of the mangroves.

  11. EASTERN ANATOLIA OBSERVATORY (DAG): RECENT DEVELOPMENTS AND A PROSPECTIVE OBSERVING SITE FOR ROBOTIC TELESCOPES

    OpenAIRE

    C. Yesilyaprak; S.K. Yerli; O. Keskin

    2016-01-01

    El Observatorio del Este de Anatolia (DAG) es el nuevo observatorio de Turqu ́ı a que incluye un nuevo telescopio ́optico e IR (de la clase de 4m) en un robusto emplazamiento. Este proyecto nacional consiste de 3 fases: DAG (telescopio, habit ́aculo, edificios e infraestructuras), FPI (instrumentos de plano focal y ́optica adaptativa) y MCP (planta de recubrimiento de espejos) y est ́a apoyado por el Ministerio de D esarrollo de Turqu ́ıa. La solicitudes de oferta tanto por el telescopio co...

  12. Hide and Seek. Roads, Lookouts and Directional Visibility Cones in Central Anatolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turchetto Jacopo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In Cappadocia (central Turkey, routes that were only of a secondary importance during the Roman age acquired a new relevance starting from the end of the 7th century. In this framework, to what extent did the archaeological evidence match the picture recalled by the written sources? To address this question, the relationship between movement and visibility was considered and view shed analyses were conducted from targeted and strategic spots set along the routes considered. This allowed to better understand the role and the different functions of those axes crossing Cappadocia, and to evaluate the Byzantine/Arab military strategies in central Anatolia.

  13. Post-remagnetisation vertical axis rotation and tilting of the Murihiku Terrane (North Island, New Zealand)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Lagemaat, Suzanna H.A.; Boschman, Lydian M.; Kamp, Peter J.J.; Langereis, Cor G.; van Hinsbergen, Douwe J.J.

    2018-01-01

    We collected palaeomagnetic sample sets from Murihiku Terrane, North Island to constrain its palaeolatitude during the Late Triassic–Jurassic. The majority of the sample host rocks were remagnetised. However, a few samples show a magnetic signal that possibly recorded a primary remanent

  14. Brunovistulian terrane (Bohemian Massif, Central Europe) from late Proterozoic to late Paleozoic: a review

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kalvoda, J.; Bábek, O.; Fatka, O.; Leichmann, J.; Melichar, R.; Nehyba, S.; Špaček, Petr

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 97, č. 3 (2008), s. 497-518 ISSN 1437-3254 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30120515 Keywords : Bohemian Massif * Brunovistulian terrane * Variscan orogeny Subject RIV: DC - Siesmology, Volcanology, Earth Structure Impact factor: 1.970, year: 2008

  15. New Insights from Seismic Imaging over the Youanmi Terrane, Western Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadi, Omid; Juhlin, Christopher

    2014-05-01

    The Youanmi terrane is located in the central parts of the Yilgarn craton, Western Australia, an Archean granite-greenstone unit containing numerous mineral deposits such as gold, base metals, nickel, uranium and gemstones. The terrane is surrounded by the Kalgoorlie and Narryer terranes to the east and west, respectively. To the southwest it is bounded by the South West terrane. In order to study the transitions between the Youanmi terrane and the surrounding terranes, as well as identifying potential mineral rich areas, the Geological Survey of Western Australia acquired three deep crustal 2D seismic profiles with a total length of about 700 km in 2010. Correlated record lengths of 20 seconds allow the deep structure of the crust to be investigated with the data, down to Moho depths and greater. Initial processing using a conventional 2D flow show a highly reflective crust with several interesting features. We have now reprocessed the data following mainly the previous processing flow, but with a focus on the shallower crust, less than 10 seconds (about 27 km). Due to the complex geology in the region, 3D aspects of the structures need to be considered in the data processing. Therefore, we investigated the effect of cross-dip corrections to the data. The cross-dip correction has two advantages; (i) reflections are more coherent and enhanced after the correction and (ii) the orientation and dip angle of the geological structures of the corresponding reflections can be identified in the cross-line direction. Where the profiles intersect each other sparse 3D processing can be performed. First arrival travel-time tomography was also tested on parts of the dataset. Travel-time inversion may provide better velocity models at shallow depths than standard reflection seismic processing provides. Preliminary results show that the travel-time tomography has a depth of investigation of about 1 km, a depth that is of interest for mining purposes. Therefore, the tomography

  16. Origin and tectonic evolution of early Paleozoic arc terranes abutting the northern margin of North China Craton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Hao; Pei, Fu-Ping; Zhang, Ying; Zhou, Zhong-Biao; Xu, Wen-Liang; Wang, Zhi-Wei; Cao, Hua-Hua; Yang, Chuan

    2017-12-01

    The origin and tectonic evolution of the early Paleozoic arc terranes abutting the northern margin of the North China Craton (NCC) are widely debated. This paper presents detrital zircon U-Pb and Hf isotopic data of early Paleozoic strata in the Zhangjiatun arc terrane of central Jilin Province, northeast (NE) China, and compares them with the Bainaimiao and Jiangyu arc terranes abutting the northern margin of the NCC. Detrital zircons from early Paleozoic strata in three arc terranes exhibit comparable age groupings of 539-430, 1250-577, and 2800-1600 Ma. The Paleoproterozoic to Neoarchean ages and Hf isotopic composition of the detrital zircons imply the existence of the Precambrian fragments beneath the arc terranes. Given the evidences from geology, igneous rocks, and detrital zircons, we proposed that the early Paleozoic arc terranes abutting the northern margin of the NCC are a united arc terrane including the exotic Precambrian fragments, and these fragments shared a common evolutionary history from Neoproterozoic to early-middle Paleozoic.

  17. Crustal structure of norther Oaxaca terrane; The Oaxaca and caltepec faults, and the Tehuacan Valley. A gravity study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos-Enriquez, J. O.; Alatorre-Zamora, M. A.; Ramón, V. M.; Belmonte, S.

    2014-12-01

    Northern Oaxaca terrane, southern Mexico, is bound by the Caltepec and Oaxaca faults to the west and east, respectively. These faults juxtapose the Oaxaca terrane against the Mixteca and Juarez terranes, respectively. The Oaxaca Fault also forms the eastern boundary of the Cenozoic Tehuacan depression. Several gravity profiles across these faults and the Oaxaca terrane (including the Tehuacan Valley) enables us to establish the upper crustal structure of this region. Accordingly, the Oaxaca terrane is downward displaced to the east in two steps. First the Santa Lucia Fault puts into contact the granulitic basamental rocks with Phanerozoic volcanic and sedimentary rocks. Finally, the Gavilan Fault puts into contact the Oaxaca terrane basement (Oaxaca Complex) into contact with the volcano-sedimentary infill of the valley. This gravity study reveals that the Oaxaca Fault system gives rise to a series of east tilted basamental blocks (Oaxaca Complex?). A structural high at the western Tehuacan depression accomadates the east dipping faults (Santa Lucia and Gavilan faults) and the west dipping faults of the Oaxaca Fault System. To the west of this high structural we have the depper depocenters. The Oaxaca Complex, the Caltepec and Santa Lucia faults continue northwestwards beneath Phanerozoic rocks. The faults are regional tectonic structures. They seem to continue northwards below the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt. A major E-W to NE-SW discontinuity on the Oaxaca terrane is inferred to exist between profiles 1 and 2. The Tehuacan Valley posses a large groundwater potential.

  18. The Cannery Formation--Devonian to Early Permian arc-marginal deposits within the Alexander Terrane, Southeastern Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karl, Susan M.; Layer, Paul W.; Harris, Anita G.; Haeussler, Peter J.; Murchey, Benita L.

    2011-01-01

    cherts on both Admiralty and Kupreanof Islands contain radiolarians as young as Permian, the age of the Cannery Formation is herein extended to Late Devonian through early Permian, to include the early Permian rocks exposed in its type locality. The Cannery Formation is folded and faulted, and its stratigraphic thickness is unknown but inferred to be several hundred meters. The Cannery Formation represents an extended period of marine deposition in moderately deep water, with slow rates of deposition and limited clastic input during Devonian through Pennsylvanian time and increasing argillaceous, volcaniclastic, and bioclastic input during the Permian. The Cannery Formation comprises upper Paleozoic rocks in the Alexander terrane of southeastern Alaska. In the pre-Permian upper Paleozoic, the tectonic setting of the Alexander terrane consisted of two or more evolved oceanic arcs. The lower Permian section is represented by a distinctive suite of rocks in the Alexander terrane, which includes sedimentary and volcanic rocks containing early Permian fossils, metamorphosed rocks with early Permian cooling ages, and intrusive rocks with early Permian cooling ages, that form discrete northwest-trending belts. After restoration of 180 km of dextral displacement of the Chilkat-Chichagof block on the Chatham Strait Fault, these belts consist, from northeast to southwest, of (1) bedded chert, siliceous argillite, volcaniclastic turbidites, pillow basalt, and limestone of the Cannery Formation and the Porcupine Slate of Gilbert and others (1987); (2) greenschist-facies Paleozoic metasedimentary and metavolcanic rocks that have Permian cooling ages; (3) silty limestone and calcareous argillite interbedded with pillow basalt and volcaniclastic rocks of the Halleck Formation and the William Henry Bay area; and (4) intermediate-composition and syenitic plutons. These belts correspond to components of an accretionary complex, contemporary metamorphic rocks, forearc-basin deposits,

  19. Modulation of Crustal Faulting in the Crescent Terrane by the Volume of Underthrust Accretionary Complex Along the Washington Cascadia Forearc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brocher, T. M.

    2017-12-01

    Amphibious seismic experiments reveal widespread underthrusting of Cascadia accretionary rocks beneath basalts of the Crescent terrane, a large igneous province in the Washington forearc. Along margin variations in the volumes of the underthrust accretionary rocks appear to modulate the faulting within the overlying Crescent terrane, which hosts nearly all of the seismicity in the Washington forearc: the underlying accretionary rocks appear to deform aseismically. The underthrusting and underplating of large volumes of accretionary rocks on the Olympic Peninsula have uplifted and completely eroded a significant volume of the Crescent terrane, affecting the load-bearing strength of the forearc. I propose that as a consequence, the remnant Crescent terrane is actively deforming, as evidenced by the concentrated seismicity within it beneath Puget Lowland. This seismicity, focal mechanisms, fault geometries, and seismic tomography indicate that clockwise rotation and north-south compression of the forearc crust inferred from GPS data are accommodated by numerous thrust and strike slip faults in the remnant Crescent terrane. In addition to the spatial association between the erosion of the Crescent terrane on the Olympic Peninsula and the crustal faulting beneath Puget Lowland, support for the interpretation that the two are related also derives from the temporal coincidence between the mid to late Miocene uplift of the Crescent terrane on the peninsula and the mid-Miocene initiation of the thrust faulting in the lowland. In contrast, the underthrusting and underplating of lower volumes of accretionary rocks in the Washington forearc south of the Olympic Peninsula correlate with lower rates of crustal seismicity. These lower volumes of accretionary rocks have not caused the removal of a significant fraction of the Crescent terrane, resulting in a stronger, more structurally coherent Crescent terrane that deforms at lower rate than to the north.

  20. Geology of the Severnaya Zemlya Archipelago and the North Kara Terrane in the Russian high Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenz, Henning; Männik, Peep; Gee, David; Proskurnin, Vasilij

    2008-05-01

    The Severnaya Zemlya Archipelago is located at 80°N near the continental shelf break, between the Kara and Laptev seas. Sedimentary successions of Neoproterozoic and Palaeozoic age dominate the bedrock geology. Together with Northern Tajmyr, Severnaya Zemlya constitutes the main land areas of the North Kara Terrane (NKT), which is inferred here to have been a part of the Timanide margin of Baltica, i.e. an integral part of Baltica at least since the Vendian. Vendian turbidites derived from the Timanide Orogen are inferred to have been deposited on Neoproterozoic greenschist facies, granite-intruded basement. Shallow-water siliclastic deposition in the Early to Mid-Cambrian was followed by highly organic-rich shales in the Late Cambrian and influx of more turbidites. An episode of folding, the Kan’on River deformation, separates these formations from the overlying Tremadocian conglomerates and sandstones. In the Early Ordovician, rift-related magmatic rocks accompanied the deposition of variegated marls, sandstones, carbonates and evaporites. Dark shales and gypsiferous limestones characterise the Mid-Ordovician. Late Ordovician quartz-sandstones mark a hiatus, followed by carbonate rocks that extend up into and through most of the Silurian. The latter give way upwards into Old Red Sandstones, which are inferred to have been deposited in a Caledonian foreland basin. Deformation, reaching the area in the latest Devonian or earliest Carboniferous and referred to as the Severnaya Zemlya episode, is thought to be Caledonian-related. The dominating E-vergent structure was controlled by décollement zones in Ordovician evaporite-bearing strata; detachment folds and thrusts developed in the west and were apparently impeded by a barrier of Ordovician igneous rocks in the east. Below the décollement zones, the Neoproterozoic to Early Ordovician succession was deformed into open to close folds. The exposed strata in the lower structural level have been juxtaposed with

  1. Infections of Ligula intestinalis on Freshwater Fish in Kars Plateau of North-Eastern Anatolia, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arslan, Mükremin Özkan; Yılmaz, Muhittin; Taşçı, Gencay Taşkın

    2015-09-01

    This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of Ligula intestinalis and infections caused by these on freshwater fish in rivers and streams in the Kars plateau of north-eastern Anatolia, Turkey. This research was conducted between April and July 2011. Fish samples were caught via a casting net and an electro-shocker. The samples were immediately examined to determine the prevalence of L. intestinalis plerocercoids. In this research, 310 stream fishes were studied to determine the prevalence of L. intestinalis plerocercoids. Detected fishes included 55.8% Capoeta capoeta, 24.2% Squalius cephalus, 11.0% Alburnus filippii, 5.8% Barbus plebejus lacerta, and 3.2% Alburnoides bipunctatus. L. intestinalis plerocercoids were found in 2.6% (8/310) of the examined fishes. The percentage of this parasite was found to be 38.9% (7/18) on B. plebejus lacerta and 0.6% (1/173) on C. capoeta. L. intestinalis plerocercoids were not observed on the other three fish species (S. cephalus, A. filippii, and Al. bipunctatus). In this study, L. intestinalis plerocercoids were reported for the first time in the Kars stream and its distributaries on the Kars plateau in north-eastern Anatolia, Turkey.

  2. Frequencies of the Common Mefv Gene Mutations in Adiyaman, Southeast Anatolia, Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korkmaz D. T.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Familial Mediterranean fever (FMF is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by fever and serosal inflammation. The reasons for the disorder are mutations in the Mediterranean fever (MEFV gene; the most common of which are M694V, M680I, M694I and V726A. In this study, we aimed to screen these common mutations of the MEFV gene and then determine the prevalence of FMF according to these mutations in Adıyaman, Southeast Anatolia, Turkey. Seven hundred and sixty-seven healthy individuals from the region of Adıyaman participated in the study. Polymerase chain reaction-amplification refractory mutation system (PCR-ARMS methods were used to determine the common mutations of the MEFV gene. Twenty-six (3.9% individuals had only one mutation in the MEFV gene, 25 individuals were heterozygous and one person was homozygous for the V726A mutation (0.15%. In the present study, the V726A mutation (50.0% was the most frequent, followed by M694V (38.5%, M680I (7.7% and M694I (3.8%. It was seen that the carrier rate was very low and the prevalence of FMF was 0.15%, according to the common mutations of the MEFV gene in Adıyaman, Southeast Anatolia, Turkey.

  3. Reconstructing Early Pleistocene (1.3 Ma) terrestrial environmental change in western Anatolia: Did it drive fluvial terrace formation?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldkamp, A.; Candy, I.; Jongmans, A.G.; Maddy, D.; Demir, T.; Schoorl, J.M.; Schreve, D.; Stemerdink, C.; Schriek, van der T.

    2015-01-01

    A terrestrial environmental reconstruction of an Early Pleistocene landscape from western Anatolia is presented. The basis of this reconstruction is a sedimentary stack comprising fluvial and colluvial slope deposits. Contained within this stack is a sequence comprising two massive laminar calcretes

  4. Paleomagnetic evidence for an inverse rotation history of Western Anatolia during the exhumation of Menderes core complex

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uzel, Bora; Langereis, Cornelis G.; Kaymakçı, Nuretdin; Sözbilir, Hasan; Özkaymak, Çağlar; Özkaptan, Murat

    2015-01-01

    Within the Aegean extensional system, the Izmir-Balikesir Transfer Zone (IBTZ) is a crucial element in the late Cenozoic evolution of western Anatolia since it accommodates the differential deformation between the Cycladic and the Menderes metamorphic core complexes. Here, we determine the

  5. Paleomagnetism of Early Paleozoic Rocks from the de Long Archipelago and Tectonics of the New Siberian Islands Terrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metelkin, D. V.; Chernova, A. I.; Matushkin, N. Y.; Vernikovskiy, V. A.

    2017-12-01

    The De Long archipelago is located to the north of the Anjou archipelago as a part of a large group between the Laptev Sea and the East Siberian Sea - the New Siberian Islands and consists of Jeannette Island, Bennett Island and Henrietta Island. These islands have been shown to be part of a single continental terrane, whose tectonic history was independent of other continental masses at least since the Ordovician. Paleomagnetic and precise geological data for the De Long archipelago were absent until recently. Only in 2013 special international field trips to the De Long Islands could be organized and geological, isotope-geochronological and paleomagnetic studies were carried out.On Jeannette Island a volcanic-sedimentary sequence intruded by mafic dikes was described. The age of these dikes is more likely Early Ordovician, close to 480 Ma, as evidenced by the results of our 40Ar/39Ar and paleomagnetic investigations of the dolerites as well as the result from detrital zircons in the host rocks published before. On Bennett Island, there are widespread Cambrian-Ordovician mainly terrigenous rocks. Paleomagnetic results from these rocks characterize the paleogeographic position of the De Long archipelago at 465 Ma and perhaps at 530 Ma, although there is no evidence for the primary origin of magnetization for the latter. On Henrietta Island the Early Cambrian volcanic-sedimentary section was investigated. A paleomagnetic pole for 520 Ma was obtained and confirmed by new 40Ar/39Ar results. Adding to our previous paleomagnetic data for the Anjou archipelago the extended variant of the apparent polar wander path for the New Siberian Island terrane was created. The established paleolatitudes define its location in the equatorial and subtropical zone no higher than 40 degrees during the Early Paleozoic. Because there are no good confirmations for true polarity and related geographic hemisphere we present two possibilities for tectonic reconstruction. But both these

  6. Unusual central Nevada geologic terranes produced by Late Devonian Antler orogeny and Alamo impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poole, Forrest G.; Sandberg, Charles

    2015-01-01

    This Special Paper is the product of nearly 25 years of geologic investigations. It is an exposition of two small areas, both less than 25 km east of the Mississippian Roberts Mountains allochthon, but each displaying a different, unique geologic terrane, previously undocumented in Nevada and perhaps in North America. One area, the Bisoni-McKay, at the south end of the Fish Creek Range, displays an olistostrome, shed eastward during the late Late Devonian (early Famennian) from a migrating Antler orogenic forebulge. The other, the Warm Springs–Milk Spring, at the south end of the Hot Creek Range, displays a deeper marine terrane affected by the early Late Devonian (middle Frasnian) Alamo impact.

  7. Analysis of Seismic Anisotropy Across Central Anatolia by Shear Wave Splitting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pamir, Dilekcan; Abgarmi, Bizhan; Arda Özacar, A.

    2014-05-01

    Analysis of Seismic Anisotropy Across Central Anatolia by Shear Wave Splitting Dilekcan Pamir, Bizhan Abgarmi, A. Arda Özacar Department of Geological Engineering, Middle East Technical University (METU), Dumlupinar Bulvari 1, 06800 Ankara, Turkey Central Anatolia holds the key to connect the theories about the ongoing tectonic escape, the African Plate subduction along Cyprus Arc and the indenter-style collision of Arabian Plate along Bitlis Suture. However, the shear wave splitting measurements which are needed to characterize seismic anisotropy are very sparse in the region. Recently, seismic data recorded by national seismic networks (KOERI, ERI-DAD) with dense coverage, provided a unique opportunity to analyze the effect of present slab geometry (slab tears, slab break-off) on mantle deformation and test different models of anisotropy forming mechanisms. In this study, the anisotropic structure beneath the Central Anatolia is investigated via splitting of SKS and SKKS phases recorded at 46 broadband seismic stations. Our measurements yielded 1171 well-constrained splitting and 433 null results. Overall, the region displays NE-SW trending fast splitting directions and delay times on the order of 1 sec. On the other hand, a large number of stations which are spatially correlated with Cyprus Slab, Neogene volcanism and major tectonic structures present significant back azimuthal variations on splitting parameters that cannot be explained by one-layered anisotropy with horizontal symmetry. Thus, we have modeled anisotropy for two-layered structures using a forward approach and identified NE-SW trending fast splitting directions with delay times close to 1 sec at the lower layer and N-S, NW-SE trending fast splitting with limited time delays (0.1 - 0.3 sec) at the upper layer. Fast directions and delay times of the lower layer are similar to one-layered anisotropy and parallel or sub-parallel to the absolute plate motions which favors asthenospheric flow model

  8. Multidimensional Mantle Convection Models in Eastern Anatolia, the North Arabian Platform, and Caucasus Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengul Uluocak, E.; Shahnas, H.; Pysklywec, R.; Gogus, O.; Eken, T.

    2017-12-01

    Eastern Anatolia, the North Arabian Platform, and Caucasus regions show many features of collisional tectonics with different convergence rates and shortening from south to north. The volcanism, sediment provenience, and thermochronological data suggest that the shortening and exhumation in the Greater Caucasus started during the Eocene-Oligocene synchronously with the collision between Arabia-Bitlis-Pötürge Massif in the south. Previous works indicate that the uplift (up to 2 km) in Eastern Anatolia related to upwelling mantle following the deformation of the Arabian oceanic lithosphere ( 11 Ma) during the ongoing Greater Caucasus closure is the dominant tectonic processes in the center of the region. However, there is no integrated geodynamic model that explains the deformation mechanisms of the region -and their possible interactions with each other -under the dynamic forces. In this study, we use multidimensional mantle-lithosphere convection/deformation models to quantify the geodynamic processes as constrained by the geological/geophysical observations in the region. For the models, seismic studies provide the high-resolution images of the upwelling mantle beneath Eastern Anatolia and the presence -and the locations- of the seismically fast structures associated with the relic/subducted slabs at varying depths such as the Bitlis slab in the south, and the Pontide and Kura slabs in the north. Fast polarization directions observed from splitting analyses exhibit an overall NE-SW oriented mantle anisotropy and a comparison between Pn and SKS derived fast wave azimuths indicates a crust-mantle coupling most likely implying vertically coherent deformation to the north of the study area. For the geodynamic models, we modify the mantle and lithosphere rheology as well as the thermal state. We interpret the estimated uplift and subsidence anomalies related to lithospheric variations (ranging from 54 km to 211 km) and subducting slab behavior with observed

  9. Fatty acid composition of some walnut ( Juglans regia L. cultivars from east Anatolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akgul, Attila

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the fatty acid composition of different walnut (Juglans regia L. cultivars grown in Adilcevaz in east Anatolia was determined. The total oil content of the walnuts ranged from 65.00 ± 0.06 to 70.00 ± 0.58 %. The oleic acid content of the oils ranged from 22.63 to 27.27 % of the total fatty acids while the linoleic acid and linolenic contents ranged from 49.93 to 54.41 % and 14.32 to 17.82 % respectively. The palmitic acid content of the walnuts ranged from 5.61 % to 5.82 % while there was a trace amount of miristic acid (En este estudio se ha determinado la composición en ácidos grasos de diferentes cultivos de nueces ( Juglans regia L. producidos en Adilcevaz en el Este de Anatolia. El contenido de aceite total de las nueces osciló entre 65.00 ± 0.06 y 70.00 ± 0.58 %. El contenido en ácido oleico varió desde 22.63 a 27.27 % respecto a los ácidos grasos totales mientras que los contenidos en ácido linoleico y linolénico variaron desde 49.93 hasta 54.41 % y desde 14.32 hasta 17.82 % respectivamente. El contenido en ácido palmítico de las muestras de nueces estuvo comprendido entre 5.61 y 5.82 % mientras que de ácido miristico solo se encontraron trazas ( < 0.1 %. Finalmente, los resultados de los ácidos grasos indicaron que los cultivos de nueces del Este de Anatolia son distintos en cuanto a su perfil de ácido linolenico. Estos resultados pueden ser significativos para estudios de selección en orden a identificar mejor las variedades de nueces para dietas saludables.

  10. Mantle accretion evidence during the neoproterozoic of the Pernambuco-Alagoas terrane, and its significance to the evolution of the Borborema Province, NE Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva Filho, A.F.; Guimaraes, I.P; Van Schmus, W.R

    2001-01-01

    The Borborema Province is located in NE Brazil, corresponding to the western part of a major fold belt, which extends from Brazil to West Africa. According to paleogeographic reconstruction, it is located between the Congo, Sao Francisco and West Africa cratons. The Pernambuco-Alagoas Terrane is a major tectonic unit of the Borborema Province and comprises high-grade metamorphic sequences and the greatest granitic batholiths of this province. The granitic batholiths Maribondo-Correntes, Buique-Paulo Afonso and Aguas Belas-Caninde and their ortho derived country rocks show metaluminous and peraluminous compositions, and εNd(0,60 Ga) between +3,2 and -2,0 and T DM between 0,90 Ga and 1,20 Ga. These Nd isotope data favour a crustal evolution hypothesis involving accretion of juvenile material at least during the Brasiliano orogenesis collision and perhaps the formation of a juvenile lithosphere during the end of the Mesoproterozoic (au)

  11. Thermochronology of the Sulu ultrahigh-pressure metamorphic terrane: Implications for continental collision and lithospheric thinning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Li-Ping; Li, Zheng-Xiang; Danišík, Martin; Li, Sanzhong; Evans, Noreen; Jourdan, Fred; Tao, Ni

    2017-08-01

    The thermal history of the Dabie-Sulu orogenic belt provides important constraints on the collision process between the South China and North China blocks during the Mesozoic, and possible lithospheric thinning event(s) in the eastern North China Block. This study reports on the thermal evolution of the Sulu ultrahigh-pressure metamorphic (UHP) terrane using zircon U-Pb geochronology and multiple thermochronology methods such as mica and hornblende 40Ar/39Ar, zircon and apatite fission track, and zircon and apatite (U-Th)/He dating. 40Ar/39Ar and zircon (U-Th)/He data show that the UHP terrane experienced accelerated cooling during 180-160 Ma. This cooling event could be interpreted to have resulted from extensional unroofing of an earlier southward thrusting nappe, or, more likely, an episode of northward thrusting of the UHP rocks as a hanging wall. A subsequent episode of exhumation took place between ca. 125 Ma and 90 Ma as recorded by zircon (U-Th)/He data. This event was more pronounced in the northwest section of the UHP terrane, whereas in the southeast section, the zircon (U-Th)/He system retained Jurassic cooling ages of ca. 180-160 Ma. The mid-Cretaceous episode of exhumation is interpreted to have resulted from crustal extension due to the removal of thickened, enriched mantle. A younger episode of exhumation was recorded by apatite fission track and apatite (U-Th)/He ages at ca. 65-40 Ma. Both latter events were linked to episodic thinning of lithosphere along the Sulu UHP terrane in an extensional environment, likely caused by the roll-back of the Western Pacific subduction system.

  12. Low Angle Contact Between the Oaxaca and Juárez Terranes Deduced From Magnetotelluric Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arzate-Flores, Jorge A.; Molina-Garza, Roberto; Corbo-Camargo, Fernando; Márquez-Ramírez, Víctor

    2016-10-01

    We present the electrical resistivity model along a profile perpendicular to the Middle America trench in southern Mexico that reveals previously unrecognized tectonic features at upper to mid-crustal depths. Our results support the hypotheses that the upper crust of the Oaxaca terrane is a residual ~20 km thick crust composed by an ~10 km thick faulted crustal upper layer and an ~10 km thick hydrated and/or mineralized layer. Oaxaca basement overthrust the younger Juárez (or Cuicateco) terrane. The electrical resistivity model supports the interpretation of a slab subducting at a low angle below Oaxaca. Uplift in the Oaxaca region appears to be related to fault reactivation induced by low angle subduction. In the Juárez terrane, isostatic forces may contribute to uplift because it is largely uncompensated. In the Sierra Madre del Sur, closer to the coast, uplift is facilitated by slab-dehydration driven buoyancy. Both gravity and resistivity models are consistent with a thinned upper crust in the northeast end of the profile.

  13. Pollen analysis of coal-bearing Miocene sedimentary rocks from the Seyitomer basin (Kutahya), western Anatolia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yavuz-Isik, N. [Ondokuz Mayis University, Kurupelit (Turkey). Dept. of Civil Engineering

    2007-09-15

    The late Early-Middle Miocene sequences of the Seyitomer Basin (western Anatolia) were palynologically investigated. Fifty-five taxa belonging to seven gymnospermous and 48 angiospermous pollen genera were identified in the 19 productive samples. Two pollen zones were recognised based on the changing abundance of individual tree taxa. Zone 1 is characterized by predominance of Pinus and Cedrus. Zone 2 is characterized by predominance of deciduous Quercus and evergreen Quercus and a marked reduction in representation of Taxodiaceae. The differences in the pollen spectra between Zone 1 and Zone 2 may reflect the global Middle Miocene cooling. These results are largely comparable to pollen data derived from the neighbouring areas. The vegetation of the Seyitomer Basin was dominated by trees. This palynological analysis reveals the existence of a swamp-forest developed in a subtropical to warm-temperate humid climate.

  14. Estimating the horizontal diffuse solar radiation over the Central Anatolia Region of Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aras, Haydar; Balli, Ozgur; Hepbasli, Arif

    2006-01-01

    The main objective of the present study is to develop new hybrid models to predict the monthly average daily diffuse solar radiation on a horizontal surface over Turkey's Central Anatolia Region (CAR), which covers the 12 provinces (Afyon, Ankara, Cankiri, Corum, Eskisehir, Kayseri, Kirsehir, Konya, Nevsehir, Nigde, Sivas and Yozgat), as an example. The models proposed by many investigators to estimate the diffuse solar radiation were reviewed. Although the global solar radiation and sunshine duration have been measured by the Turkish State Meteorological Service (DMI) over all the country since 1964, the diffuse solar radiation has not been measured. The twelve new hybrid models for estimating the monthly average daily diffuse solar radiation on a horizontal surface in the CAR were validated, and thus, the most accurate model was selected for guiding future projects

  15. Eastern Anatolia Observatory (DAG): Recent developments and a prospective observing site for robotic telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yesilyaprak, C.; Yerli, S. K.; Keskin, O.

    2016-12-01

    This document (Eastern Anatolia Observatory (DAG) is the new observatory of Turkey with the optical and near-infrared largest telescope (4 m class) and its robust observing site infrastructure. This national project consists of three phases with DAG (Telescope, Enclosure, Buildings and Infrastructures), FPI (Focal Plane Instruments and Adaptive Optics) and MCP (Mirror Coating Plant) and is supported by the Ministry of Development of Turkey. The tenders of telescope and enclosure have been made and almost all the infrastructure (roads, geological and atmospherical surveys, electricity, fiber optics, cable car, water, generator, etc.) of DAG site (Erzurum/Turkey, 3,170 m altitude) have been completed. This poster is about the recent developments of DAG and about the future possible collaborations for various robotic telescopes which can be set up in DAG site.

  16. Seroprevalence of brucellosis among children in the Middle Anatolia Region of Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gül, Serdar; Satilmiş, Ozgun Kiriş; Ozturk, Baris; Gökçe, Mehmet Ilker; Kuscu, Ferit

    2014-12-01

    Brucellosis is an important public-health problem in Turkey. Children may constitute 20 to 30% of all brucellosis cases in the world, especially in the endemic regions. Data on the seroprevalence of brucellosis in childhood are very limited. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the seroprevalence of brucellosis among a child population. One thousand one hundred and ten subjects were included in the study. Blood samples were collected and tested with Rose Bengal (RB) and standard tube agglutination test (SAT). RB test results were positive for 6 patients, and SAT was negative for all patients. Our findings suggest that seroprevalence of brucellosis is decreasing in Middle Anatolia due to a new cattle vaccination and eradication programme which was initiated in 2009.

  17. Active optics system for the 4m telescope of the Eastern Anatolia Observatory (DAG)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lousberg, Gregory P.; Mudry, Emeric; Bastin, Christian; Schumacher, Jean-Marc; Gabriel, Eric; Pirnay, Olivier; Flebus, Carlo

    2016-07-01

    An active optics system is being developed by AMOS for the new 4m-class telescope for the Turkish Eastern Anatolia Observatory (DAG). It consists in (a) an adjustable support for the primary mirror and (b) two hexapods supporting M2 and M3. The M1 axial support consists of 66 pneumatic actuators (for mirror shape corrections) associated with 9 hydraulic actuators that are arranged in three independent circuits so as to fix the axial position of the mirror. Both M1 support and the hexapods are actively controlled during regular telescope operations, either with look-up tables (openloop control) or using optical feedback from a wavefront sensor (closed-loop control).

  18. Study of attenuation structure for central Anatolia region, Turkey based on Keskin seismic array data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semin, K. U.; Ozel, N. M.

    2011-12-01

    Central Anatolia is bounded in the north by the well-known north Anatolian fault system (NAFS) and on the south-southwest is bounded by the east Anatolian fault system (EAFS). The central area does not have major faults and acts as a single block moving westward. This region is not considered as seismically active as the NAFS or EAFS but the recent moderate-size Bala earthquakes (Ml=5.7, Ml= 5.5) on 20 and 27 December 2007 near the Tuz golu fault may be an indication of future seismic activity. In order to get a better picture of the crustal structure of this region we applied Coda Normalization method for the measurement of Qs-1 as a function of frequency for the frequencies 1.5, 3, 6, 8 Hz. 20 and 27 December 2007 Bala earthquakes (Ml magnitude 5.6 an 5.5) and their aftershocks recorded by the Keskin seismic array (International Monitoring System code BRTR) is analyzed in this study. Keskin seismic array has a small aperture circular design with 6 vertical short period and 1 broadband borehole seismometers. In addition, Multiple Lapse Time Window Analysis (MLTWA) method was applied to the data for the separation of intrinsic and scattering attenuation inm the region at the same frequencies. MLTWA method allowed a separation between the intrinsic attenuation and scattering attenuation. Preliminary results show a relatively low attenuation compared to western and eastern anatolia regions. This might be explained by the less seismicity in the region. A study of the regional and site attenuation of seismic waves of earthquakes in this area will contribute in predicting earthquake generated ground-motion and becomes vital in making decisions for earthquake regulations, building codes and to monitoring nuclear explosions.

  19. Sedimentary lipid biomarkers in the magnesium rich and highly alkaline Lake Salda (south-western Anatolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jérôme Kaiser

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Lake Salda located in south-western Anatolia is characterized by the presence of living stromatolites and by a low diversity of both phytoplankton and zooplankton due to high pH and magnesium concentration. The most abundant, free sedimentary lipids of the uppermost centimetres of the lake sediments were studied as potential environmental biomarkers, and proxies based on glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (GDGT were tested in this extreme environment. Dinosterol and tetrahymanol are potentially relevant biomarkers for the dinoflagellate Peridinium cinctum and ciliates, respectively. C20:1 and C25:2 highly branched isoprenoid (HBI alkenes, and n-C17 alkane and n-C17:1 alkene are considered as representing, respectively, diatoms and Cyanobacteria involved in the formation of the stromatolites. Isoprenoid GDGT-0 is assumed to be derived mainly from Euryarchaeota (methanogens, and crenarchaeol from Thaumarchaeota. Allochthonous organic material is represented by long-chain n-alkanes and n-alkanols derived from land plant leaf waxes, as well as branched GDGTs produced by soil bacteria. While pH and temperature proxies based on branched GDGTs are likely not applicable in Lake Salda, TEX86 (tetraether index of tetraethers consisting of 86 carbons, a proxy based on isoprenoid GDGTs, potentially allows estimating mean annual lake surface temperature. Interestingly, C23 and C25 1,2 diols, which have a yet unknown origin, were found for the first time in lake sediments. This study represents the first investigation of sedimentary lipid distribution in an alkaline and magnesium-rich lake in Anatolia, and provides a basis for future biomarker-based paleoenvironmental reconstruction of Lake Salda.

  20. Volcano-stratigraphy and Petrography of the Hasandaǧ Volcanites (Central Anatolia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeynep Çalışkanoǧlu, Ayşe; Ünal, Alp; Karadaǧ, Elif; Altunkaynak, Şafak; Görür, Naci

    2016-04-01

    The Hasandaǧ stratovolcano is one of the crucial volcanos within the Cappadocian Volcanic Complex, located in Central Anatolia, Turkey. In Quaternary, it produced various types of volcanic rocks including a variety of lava flows, domes and associated pyroclastic and volcanoclastic rocks. In this study, volcano-stratigraphy and petrography of the volcanic rocks which forms the SE flank of the Hasandaǧ stratovolcano will be presented. The early pyroclastic products associated with plinian-subplinian eruptions cover large areas with different thickness in the region. Felsic pyroclastic rocks are dominant and represented by ash, pumice and pumice-block tuffs and accretionary lapilli tuffs/breccias. Pyroclastic deposits are present as thin layers of reworked tuffs intercalated with sedimentary rocks (mudstone and marl) at the bottom of the volcanic sequence. They interfinger with pyroclastic flow deposits dominated by welded tuff and ignimbrite succession towards the upper parts of the sequence. Andesite- basaltic andesite and basaltic trachy-andesite lavas form the most common lava phase in the region and overlie the pyroclastic succession. At the upper parts of the volcanic succession, basaltic dykes and associated pyroclastic rocks are observed. The youngest member of the volcanic association is represented by andesitic-basaltic andesitic dykes which were injected into basaltic lavas and associated proclastic rocks. The areal distribution of the volcanic rocks in the SE flank of the Hasandaǧ stratovolcano indicates that they were erupted from a number of vents which set parallel to the NW-SE trending major fault systems of Central Anatolia (eg. The Salt Lake Fault). Petrographic investigations indicate that, all lava samples display several textures reflecting disequilibrium crystallization such as different stage of the plagioclase crystallization, sieve texture in plagioclases, clinopyroxene crystals mantled by hornblende (corona texture) and reaction textures

  1. Seismotectonics of the southern boundary of Anatolia, Eastern Mediterranean region: subduction, collision, and arc jumping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rotstein, Y.; Kafka, A.L.

    1982-09-10

    The pattern of seismicity and fault plane solutions of earthquakes are used to outline the tectonic features of the southern boundary of Anatolia in the eastern Mediterranean and southeastern Turkey. The results of this study show that this boundary is composed of two distinct parts. One, in southeastern Turkey and Syria, is a wide and complex zone of continental collision. The other, in the Levantine basin of the eastern Mediterranean, is a zone of oceanic subduction. In the region of continental collision three zones of seismicity are observed. Most of the seismic activity in this region follows the Bitlis zone and is associated with a zone of thrusting and mountain building. This appears to be the zone of most active deformation and plate consumption in the plate boundary region between Arabia and Turkey. A less active zone of seismicity to the north of the Bitlis zone is interpreted to have been more active in the past whereas another active zone of seismicity to the south is interpreted to be a zone which may be more active in the future as the main zone of plate consumption jumps to the south. In the subduction zone of the eastern Mediterranean the depth of the subducted slab and the rate of seismicity generally increease from east to west. The zone of present-day convergence between Africa and Turkey in the Levantine basin can be best outlined by the northern edge of the Mediterranean ridge. Deep seismic activity near the Gulf of Antalya is associated with a detached subducted slab north of the Anaximander Mountains that is distinctly different from the seismic trend which is associated with present-day active subduction. Most of the focal mechanisms of the earthquakes along the entire southern boundary of Anatolia indicate that N to NNW thrusting is the dominant mode of seismic deformation.

  2. Precise U-Pb Zircon Constraints on the Earliest Magmatic History of the Carolina Terrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wortman; Samson; Hibbard

    2000-05-01

    The early magmatic and tectonic history of the Carolina terrane and its possible affinities with other Neoproterozoic circum-Atlantic arc terranes have been poorly understood, in large part because of a lack of reliable geochronological data. Precise U-Pb zircon dates for the Virgilina sequence, the oldest exposed part, constrain the timing of the earliest known stage of magmatism in the terrane and of the Virgilina orogeny. A flow-banded rhyolite sampled from a metavolcanic sequence near Chapel Hill, North Carolina, yielded a U-Pb zircon date of 632.9 +2.6/-1.9 Ma. A granitic unit of the Chapel Hill pluton, which intrudes the metavolcanic sequence, yielded a nearly identical U-Pb zircon date of 633 +2/-1.5 Ma, interpreted as its crystallization age. A felsic gneiss and a dacitic tuff from the Hyco Formation yielded U-Pb zircon dates of 619.9 +4.5/-3 Ma and 615.7 +3.7/-1.9 Ma, respectively. Diorite and granite of the Flat River complex have indistinguishable U-Pb upper-intercept dates of 613.9 +1.6/-1.5 Ma and 613.4 +2.8/-2 Ma. The Osmond biotite-granite gneiss, which intruded the Hyco Formation before the Virgilina orogeny, crystallized at 612.4 +5.2/-1.7 Ma. Granite of the Roxboro pluton, an intrusion that postdated the Virgilina orogeny, yielded a U-Pb upper intercept date of 546.5 +3.0/-2.4 Ma, interpreted as the time of its crystallization. These new dates both provide the first reliable estimates of the age of the Virgilina sequence and document that the earliest known stage of magmatism in the Carolina terrane had begun by 633 +2/-1.5 Ma and continued at least until 612.4 +5.2/-1.7 Ma, an interval of approximately 25 m.yr. Timing of the Virgilina orogeny is bracketed between 612.4 +5.2/-1.7 Ma and 586+/-10 Ma (reported age of the upper Uwharrie Formation). The U-Pb systematics of all units studied in the Virgilina sequence are simple and lack any evidence of an older xenocrystic zircon component, which would indicate the presence of a continental

  3. Rodinian granulites from southern Qiangtang terrane: Implications for tectonic evolution of the Tibetan Plateau

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tingyuan Yuan

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Bordered by the Longmu Co-Shuang Hu-Lancangjiang suture zone in the north and east, as well as the Bangong Nujiang suture zone in the south and west, the southern Qiangtang terrane is one of the least-studied blocks in the Tibetan region. The early tectonic evolution of the southern Qiangtang terrane has remained a controversy for a long time. Here we report granulites from the Tongka high-grade metamorphic complexes in the southern Qiangtang terrane. The mafic granulites occur as small lenses in the felsic granulites and leucogranites with peak mineral assemblage including garnet (core + diopside + low An plagioclase + quartz. The retrograde assemblage is represented by garnet (rim + pargasite + high An plagioclase + quartz. The fine-grained aggregates of feldspar + garnet + aluminosilicates + rutile around reddish-brown biotite relics in the felsic granulites are interpreted as products of partial melting of biotites. Thermobarometric estimates for the peak assemblages of the mafic rocks are P = 17.5 kbar and T = 811 °C, whereas the retrograde assemblages of the mafic rocks experienced decompression to P = 10.4 kbar, at T = 674 °C. Zircon texture and SIMS U-Pb data reveal that the felsic granulites were derived from Achaean to Proterozoic sedimentary rocks that underwent high-temperature metamorphism and transformation to paragneisses or granitoids at 1100 to 1000 Ma. During 950–900 Ma, the crystalline rocks were further buried deeply to be transformed into the felsic granulites. We therefore interpret the Tongka high-grade metamorphic complexes to be a portion of the Rodinian continental collision belt. Evidently some domains of the Rodinian continental crust were thickened during the Grenville events, similar to the more recent processes in the Himalaya and Tibetan plateau. The Tongka high-grade metamorphic complexes which form the basement of the southern Qiangtang terrane was subsequently disrupted and

  4. Isotopic provenance analysis and terrane tectonics: a warning about sediment transport distances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bassett, K.N.

    1999-01-01

    Full text: In the last 10 years the field of provenance analysis has undergone a revolution with the development of single-crystal isotopic dating techniques, the most common being U/Pb zircon and 40Ar/39Ar techniques. These have allowed age determination of single crystals thus providing more detail about probable provenance of each individual grain rather than an averaged population of grains. The usefulness for resolving complex terrane accretion and translation histories was immediately obvious and there have been many studies in many different regions aimed at tracking terrane motions by provenance of individual grains upward through the stratigraphy of a basin. Recent research in the North American Cordilleran terranes and in the New Zealand Torlesse Superterrane show how widely used and powerful these provenance analysis techniques are. However, isotopic provenance analysis has often been presented as key information to resolve controversies around terrane translation histories with very little discussion of the context of sedimentary facies and sediment transport mechanisms. An example is the recent use of U/Pb detrital zircon ages as the supposedly controversy-ending evidence for the amount of lateral translation of the Insular Superterrane in British Columbia (Baja BC) (Mahoney et al., 1999). The zircon grains were separated from fine-grained turbidite deposits and could easily have been transported over very large distances by a variety of mechanisms; yet they were presented as definitively resolving the Baja BC controversy. Modern examples illustrate the problem of using the provenance of fine grained sediment to constrain terrane tectonics. Sediment in the tip of the Bengal submarine fan was transported ∼3000 km from source, first by fluvial processes then by sediment gravity flow in the submarine fan. The detrital isotopic ages of single grains are the same as the depositional ages indicating a very rapid unroofing and transport rate with minimal

  5. Extended Emotions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krueger, Joel; Szanto, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Until recently, philosophers and psychologists conceived of emotions as brain- and body-bound affairs. But researchers have started to challenge this internalist and individualist orthodoxy. A rapidly growing body of work suggests that some emotions incorporate external resources and thus extend...... beyond the neurophysiological confines of organisms; some even argue that emotions can be socially extended and shared by multiple agents. Call this the extended emotions thesis (ExE). In this article, we consider different ways of understanding ExE in philosophy, psychology, and the cognitive sciences....... First, we outline the background of the debate and discuss different argumentative strategies for ExE. In particular, we distinguish ExE from cognate but more moderate claims about the embodied and situated nature of cognition and emotion (Section 1). We then dwell upon two dimensions of ExE: emotions...

  6. Extended thermodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Müller, Ingo

    1993-01-01

    Physicists firmly believe that the differential equations of nature should be hyperbolic so as to exclude action at a distance; yet the equations of irreversible thermodynamics - those of Navier-Stokes and Fourier - are parabolic. This incompatibility between the expectation of physicists and the classical laws of thermodynamics has prompted the formulation of extended thermodynamics. After describing the motifs and early evolution of this new branch of irreversible thermodynamics, the authors apply the theory to mon-atomic gases, mixtures of gases, relativistic gases, and "gases" of phonons and photons. The discussion brings into perspective the various phenomena called second sound, such as heat propagation, propagation of shear stress and concentration, and the second sound in liquid helium. The formal mathematical structure of extended thermodynamics is exposed and the theory is shown to be fully compatible with the kinetic theory of gases. The study closes with the testing of extended thermodynamics thro...

  7. The Svalbard Caledonides - a collage of Laurentian, Timanian and exotic terranes assembled by Silurian - Late (?) Devonian transcurrent faulting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andresen, Arild; Gasser, Deta

    2014-05-01

    New field and geochronological data from NE Greenland and Svalbard indicate that most of the sub-terranes making up the Svalbard Caledonides (Eastern, Northwestern and Southwestern Terranes) are derived from Laurentias eastern margin. The Neoproterozoic deposits of the Eastern Terrane (Nordaustlandet) show an almost one to one correlation with the Late Neoproterozoic Eleonore Bay Supergroup in NE Greenland. Great similarities also exist between the substratum to the Neoproterozoic deposits in the two areas. The "Barentsian plate/continent" is interpreted to be derived from Laurentias eastern margin Lithologic similarities also exist between parts of the Northwestern Terrane and NE Greenland. The geologic evolution of Svalbard`s Southwestern Terrane, with subduction complexes and Late Neoproterozoic intrusives (Timanian ?) is poorly understood. It will, however, be argued that there is no need to invoke considerable right lateral strike-slip movement of the Motalefjellet subduction complex and related rocks from a position in Arctic Canada to their present position within the Southwestern Terrane, as proposed by some authors. The structural grain of the Svalbard Caledonides, oblique to East Greenland and Scandinavian Caledonides, as well as the Ellesmerian Orogen, is interpreted to be due to counter-clockwise rotation (c. 45o) of the Caledonian trend. A counter-clockwise rotation is to be expected when the northward moving terranes reached the E-W trending Franklinian Basin north of Greenland/Laurentia, which in Early Devonian time had not yet started to close. The model predicts that there should be a dramatic change in the Caledonian structural grain somewhere south of Bjørnøya. It is furthermore speculated that the fan-shaped orientation of Late Paleozoic rift basins in the Western Barents Sea is controlled by reactivation of the rotated structural trend (e.g. Billefjorden Fault Zone and Billefjorden Trough).

  8. Provenance analysis of the Late Paleozoic sedimentary rocks in the Xilinhot Terrane, NE China, and their tectonic implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jie; Zhou, Jian-Bo; Wilde, Simon A.; Song, Min-Chun

    2017-08-01

    The Xilinhot Terrane is located in the eastern segment of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt in NE China, and is a key to a hotly debated issue on the Paleozoic tectonic evolution of this giant progenic belt. To constrain the tectonic evolution of the Xilinhot Terrane in the Late Paleozoic, we undertook zircon U-Pb dating and geochemical analyses of the Zhesi and Benbatu formations in the Suolun and Xi Ujimqin areas in the Xilinhot Terrane. Samples of the Benbatu Formation yield detrital zircon U-Pb ages ranging from 2659 Ma to 316 Ma, with four age populations at: 2659-1826 Ma, 1719-963 Ma, 590-402 Ma, and 396-316 Ma, whereas samples from the Zhesi Formation yield detrital zircon U-Pb ages ranging from 1967 Ma to 250 Ma, with four age populations at: 1967-1278 Ma, 971-693 Ma, 561-403 Ma, and 399-250 Ma. The age groups of both the Benbatu and Zhesi formations in the Xilinhot Terrane are similar to those in other parts of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB). This evidence indicates that the Xilinhot Terrane is a microcontinent, and not an accretionary complex as previously thought. Furthermore, the youngest zircon grains in the Benbatu and Zhesi formations yield weighted mean 206Pb/238U ages of 322 ± 12 Ma (MSDW = 0.12, n = 4) and 257 ± 2.8 Ma (MSDW = 1.6, n = 8), respectively. Combined with fossil data, our new data suggest that the Benbatu and Zhesi formations in the Xilinhot Terrane were possibly deposited at ∼322 Ma and ∼257 Ma, respectively. Based on the provenance of the Carboniferous-Permian sandstones came from the blocks of NE China, we speculate that the Xilinhot Terrane is the western part of the Songliao block.

  9. Distribution and Diversity of Carboniferous and Permian Colonial Rugose Coral Faunas in Western North America: Clues for Placement of Allochthonous Terranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calvin H. Stevens

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Colonial rugose corals are common in western cratonal North America and in some of the allochthonous terranes, now amalgamated against its western margin. Throughout the Late Paleozoic, the coral faunas in these two different settings were significantly different. Comparisons of these faunas suggest that during the Mississippian the Alexander terrane probably was southwest of Arctic Alaska and the Stikine terrane probably lay west of the southern part of the North American craton. The Cache Creek terrane lay far out in the Paleopacific Ocean. The Pennsylvanian faunas suggest that the Quesnellia and Eastern Klamath terranes were situated southwest of Arctic Alaska and the Alexander terrane was somewhat farther southwest and farther from cratonal North America. The Stikine terrane continued to be positioned west of the southern part of the North American craton. During the Early Permian, terranes with a cratonal faunal aspect may have lain 2000–3000 km west of cratonal North America and latitudinally generally southwest of their present positions. In the Middle Permian these terranes were carried southward relative to the North American craton. Simultaneously the Tethyan Realm expanded eastward.

  10. Extended ERP

    OpenAIRE

    Müssigmann, Nikolaus

    2005-01-01

    Extended ERP : dynamic strategic supply network development / A. Albani, N. Müssigmann, K. Turowski. - In: ICESAcc 2005 - Second International Conference on Enterprise Systems and Accounting / C. J. Stefanou. - Thessaloniki : Labor. of Enterprise Resources Dep. of Accounting, 2005. - 1 CD-ROM

  11. Tectono-stratigraphy of the Orhaniye Basin, Turkey: Implications for collision chronology and Paleogene biogeography of central Anatolia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Licht, A.; Coster, P.; Ocakoğlu, F.; Campbell, C.; Métais, G.; Mulch, A.; Taylor, M.; Kappelman, John; Beard, K. Christopher

    2017-08-01

    Located along the İzmir-Ankara-Erzincan Suture (IAES), the Maastrichtian - Paleogene Orhaniye Basin has yielded a highly enigmatic -yet poorly dated- Paleogene mammal fauna, the endemic character of which has suggested high faunal provincialism associated with paleogeographic isolation of the Anatolian landmass during the early Cenozoic. Despite its biogeographic significance, the tectono-stratigraphic history of the Orhaniye Basin has been poorly documented. Here, we combine sedimentary, magnetostratigraphic, and geochronological data to infer the chronology and depositional history of the Orhaniye Basin. We then assess how our new data and interpretations for the Orhaniye Basin impact (1) the timing and mechanisms of seaway closure along the IAES and (2) the biogeographic evolution of Anatolia. Our results show that the Orhaniye Basin initially developed as a forearc basin during the Maastrichtian, before shifting to a retroarc foreland basin setting sometime between the early Paleocene and 44 Ma. This chronology supports a two-step scenario for the assemblage of the central Anatolian landmass, with incipient collision during the Paleocene - Early Eocene and final seaway retreat along the IAES during the earliest Late Eocene after the last marine incursion into the foreland basin. Our dating for the Orhaniye mammal fauna (44-43 Ma) indicates the persistence of faunal endemism in northern Anatolia until at least the late Lutetian despite the advanced stage of IAES closure. The tectonic evolution of dispersal corridors linking northern Anatolia with adjacent parts of Eurasia was not directly associated with IAES closure and consecutive uplifts, but rather with the build-up of continental bridges on the margins of Anatolia, in the Alpine and Tibetan-Himalayan orogens.

  12. The Upper Cretaceous to Palaeogene Sedimentary History and Tectonic Evolution of the Bala Basin, Central Anatolia, Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Emre, Mehmet Fahrettin

    1985-01-01

    The study area is situated on the northern extension of the Tuzgolu basin, (Central Anatolia) and contains Upper Cretaceous--Tertiary volcanic, clastic, and carbonate rocks with evaporites deposited on an ophiolitic melange basement, the Ankara Melange. The present structure of the area is the result of tectonism during late Alpine movements. The movements controlled the timing and conditions of sediment accumulation. The Bala basin evolved on the northern continental margin of the Kirsehi...

  13. Measures Taken by the Ottoman State against Shah İsmail's Attempts to Convert Anatolia to Shia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuf Küçükdağ

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Shah Ismail, when he was sheikh of Safevi sect established by Sheikh Safiyuddin, Ismail’s grandfather, established Safevi State in Azerbaijan taking Tebriz as the center at the beginning of XVI th.century. The followers of Safevi Sect were Turcomen originated from Anatolia. They helped Shah Ismail to establish state. Shah Ismail depending on Turcomen followers attempted to annex Anotolia which was under Otoman domination in his new state’s territory. He sent his caliphs to Anatolia to propagandize his sect. They tried to convince Anatolion people about Safevi sect. Ottoman state which understand that the main purpose of Shah Ismail was not the speading of Safevi sect took military, political, economical and cultural measures. In the war between two states, Shah Ismail was defeated by Ottoman army in Caldıran (1514 The relationship of Safevi’s followers with Iran was prevented. In order to prevent economical growth of Safevi State, economical embargo was put. By helping the organization of Halvetiyye which has Safevi sect orijin but accept’ s ottoman state outhority the spread of Safevism was prevented. Turcomen in Anatolia become hopeless when Sheikh Ismail was defeated by I. Selim. Ottoman State does not extinct Safevism

  14. The Status of Woman in Family and Society in 19th Century Anatolia (A Case Study in Ayntab

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bülent Çukurova

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Since the ancient times, in states that have been established in Anatolia (Asia Minor women have had a special place in the family and in the society. Until the acceptance of Islamic traditions by the Anatolian people, women were considered to be equal to men in terms of legal and social standing. Even in the administration of governmental affairs women used to have a say equal to that of men or the khan. Islamic traditions have been shaped by Arab and Iranians more than any other people or culture. Both cultures have had a strong influence on Anatolian people after the acceptance of Islamic traditions. To understand how such influences of Arabic and Iranian cultures are reflected on Anatolia today, one needs to examine the role of women in the family and in the society. In general, when we observe Anatolia in terms of women’s right to inherited property and marital decisions and affairs as well as other socioeconomic rights we see different traditions and rules applied depending on location of living whether women living in rural or urban areas of the country. We also observe differences in terms of society’s treatment of women based on the ethnicity or religious affinity

  15. Lower precambrian of the Keivy Terrane, Northeastern Baltic Shield: A stratigraphic succession or a collage of tectonic sheets?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balagansky, V. V.; Raevsky, A. B.; Mudruk, S. V.

    2011-03-01

    The Keivy Terrane in the northeastern Baltic Shield appreciably differs from the adjacent tectonic blocks. In the northwestern part of this terrane (the Serpovidny Range), an outlier of Paleoproterozoic supracrustal rocks called the Serpovidny structure is surrounded by Archean (?) Keivy high-alumina paraschists. As follows from structural and magnetic data, the Paleoproterozoic rocks are deformed into a tight sheath fold 8 × 2 km in size at the surface and 5 km in length along the sheath axis. Faults parallel to the boundaries of the layers and locally cutting them off at an acute angle are involved in folding as well. The outer boundaries of the Serpovidny structure are tectonic. This structure is complementary to a larger tectonic lens composed of the Keivy mica schists. It is concluded that all of the supracrustal rocks of the Serpovidny Range are in fact tectonic sheets and lenses deformed into sheath folds. The literature data show that kilometer-scale sheath folds occur throughout the Keivy paraschist belt and most likely were formed owing to thrusting of the Murmansk Craton onto the Keivy Terrane in the south-southwestern direction. Foliation and lineation related to thrusting have been established in the Archean silicic metavolcanics and peralkaline granites occupying the most part of the terrane. In contrast, the granitoids and gabbroanorthosites of the Archean basement, which form a block 90 × 20 km in the southwestern Keivy Terrane, were not affected by Paleoproterozoic deformation. In other words, a detached assembly of tectonic sheets composed of the upper and middle crustal rocks that underwent deformation at the initial stage of the Paleoproterozoic Lapland-Kola Orogeny and the Archean basement, which is free of this deformation, are distinguished. The depth of detachment is estimated at 20-25 km. The detachment of the upper and middle crust in the Keivy Terrane and its position in the structure of the Baltic Shield are consistent with a

  16. Two possibilities for New Siberian Islands terrane tectonic history during the Early Paleozoic based on paleomagnetic data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metelkin, Dmitry V.; Chernova, Anna I.; Vernikovsky, Valery A.; Matushkin, Nikolay Yu.

    2017-04-01

    The New Siberian Islands (NSI), located in the East Siberian Sea in the junction region of various structural elements, are a key target for deciphering the tectonic evolution of the Eastern Arctic. In recent years, we went on several expeditions and gathered an extensive geological material for this territory. Among other things, we could prove that the basement of the De Long and Anjou archipelagos structures is Precambrian and the overlying Paleozoic sections formed within the same terrane. The form of the boundaries of the NSI terrane are actively debated and are probably continued from the Lyakhovsky islands in the south-west to the southern parts of the submerged Mendeleev Ridge, for which there is increasing evidence of continental crust. Today there are several models that interpret the Paleozoic-Mesozoic tectonic history and structural affiliation of the NSI terrane. Some propose that the Paleozoic sedimentary section formed in a passive margin setting of the Siberian paleocontinent. Others compare its history with marginal basins of the Baltica and Laurentia continents or consider the NSI terrane as an element of the Chukotka-Alaska microplate. These models are mainly based on results of paleobiogeographical and lithological-facies analyses, including explanations of probable sources for detrital zircons. Our paleomagnetic research on sedimentary, volcanogenic-sedimentary and igneous rocks of the Anjou (Kotelny and Bel'kovsky islands) and De Long (Bennett, Jeannette and Henrietta islands) archipelagos let us calculate an apparent polar wander path for the early Paleozoic interval of geological history, which allows us to conclude that the NSI terrane could not have been a part of the continental plates listed above, but rather had active tectonic boundaries with them. Our paleomagnetic data indicate that the NSI terrane drifted slowly and steadily in the tropical and subtropical regions no higher than 40 degrees. However, the main uncertainty for the

  17. The Apuseni Mountains, Romania, a Variscan Collage of Ordovician Gondwanan Terranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balintoni, I. C.; Balica, C.; Zaharia, L.; Chen, F.; Cliveti, M.; Hann, H. P.; Ghergari, L.

    2007-12-01

    The basement of the Apuseni Mountains, Romania, consists of three pre-Variscan terranes, sutured during an Early Variscan amalgamation around 351 Ma (Balintoni et al., this volume). The northern Someş Terrane (ST) is predominantly gneissic, while the southern Baia de Arieş Terrane (BAT) is dominated by the presence of large carbonate lenses, although metagranites and other types of orthogneisses can be found. These two terranes are sutured through the Biharia terrane, probably an accreted island arc. LA-ICP-MS datings on zircons extracted from orthogneisses and metagranites were performed in order to constrain the age of ST and BAT. A number of previously CL-imaged crystals were ablated at the China's University of Geosciences, Wuhan. From ST we dated an orthogneiss occurring in structurally lowermost position, a metatuff situated in the upper strongly retrogressed part and a twenty detrital crystal population sampled from a metasandstone. The 206Pb/238U apparent ages were projected using the weighted average plots.A magmatic crystallization age of 472.8±5.0 Ma (Upper Early Ordovician) resulted for one of the orthogneiss samples, besides several older ages at 505.7, 566.3 and 708.2 Ma corresponding to inherited cores. Another sample from the same rock appeared strongly affected by lead loss during a later thermotectonic event, most of the apparent ages grouping around 352±14 Ma. This age is similar with the age of the suture between ST and BT (Balintoni et al., this volume). The main zircon population of one metatuff sample furnished an averaged age of 423±7.2 Ma, also found in two additional samples, but their significance is obscure for the moment. Two primary magmatic ages arise at 464.2 and 473.8 Ma, an older value of 758.7 Ma corresponding to an inherited core. Detrital zircon ages range between 534.8 and 2596.8 Ma. The younger value represents an upper age constraint for the protolith age of ST-rocks. From BAT we dated the Lupşa metaporphyroid and the

  18. Predicted velocity and density structure of the exhuming Papua New Guinea (PNG) ultrahigh-pressure (UHP) terrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brownlee, S. J.; Hacker, B. R.; Salisbury, M. H.; Seward, G.; Little, T. A.; Baldwin, S.; Abers, G. A.

    2012-12-01

    The Papua New Guinea (PNG) ultrahigh-pressure (UHP) terrane is the youngest known on Earth, and is actively exhuming, making it the ideal location to study mechanisms of UHP exhumation. Electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) measurements show that the PNG UHP terrane is dominated by rocks with weakly oriented quartz and feldspar and less abundant strongly oriented hornblende, clinopyroxene, and mica. Acoustic velocities measured at high pressures (600 MPa) show that VP is 5.8-6.3 km/s for gneiss samples, 6.5-7.7 km/s for amphibolite, and 7.7-8.2 km/s for eclogite and VS is 3.4-3.9 km/s for gneiss, 4.0-4.4 km/s for amphibolite, and 4.5-4.6 km/s for eclogite. Velocities and anisotropies calculated from mineral crystal preferred orientations (CPOs) are equivalent to within 5% of the measured values. The highest seismic anisotropy for the PNG terrane is calculated for amphibolite at 8% and 7% for VP and VS, respectively. Calculations of seismic velocities at depth based on predicted mineral assemblages indicate that the exhuming UHP terrane is of dominantly mafic composition below ~20 km depth. Anisotropy in the PNG terrane is expected to be quite low and is controlled by foliation orientation. If observable, changes in seismic anisotropy across the exhuming body may be used to differentiate among the different proposed UHP exhumation mechanisms.

  19. SHRIMP zircon U-Pb ages and tectonic implications of igneous events in the Ereendavaa metamorphic terrane in NE Mongolia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Laicheng; Zhang, Fochin; Baatar, Munkhtsengel; Zhu, Mingshuai; Anaad, Chimedtseren

    2017-08-01

    The Ereendavaa metamorphic terrane in NE Mongolia has long been considered as a Pre-Altaid block or a Precambrian cratonic terrane with a Paleoproterozoic basement overlain by Neoproterozoic-Cambrian rocks, but the idea has not been supported by any isotopic dating. Sensitive high resolution ion microprobe (SHRIMP) zircon U-Pb dating on gneisses, amphibolite and schists (mylonites) of the Ereendavaa terrane suggests that the terrane mainly formed during Early Paleozoic (495-464 Ma) and Late Paleozoic-Early Mesozoic (295-172 Ma). A minor amount of Precambrian rocks might have been involved in the formation of the protoliths of these rocks, as shown by Precambrian inherited zircons (1796-794 Ma). The new age data also suggest that the Ereendavaa terrane experienced at least two periods of magmatism: (1) Early Paleozoic (495-464 Ma) and (2) Late Paleozoic-Early Mesozoic (295-172 Ma), which are probably produced by the subduction of the Paleo Asian Ocean in the south and the subduction of the Mongol-Okhotsk Ocean in the north, respectively. The mylonitized granite (172 Ma) and undeformed pegmatite (163 Ma) are interpreted to be syn- and post-kinematic products. The new age data constrain the closure of the Mongol-Okhotsk Ocean at mid-Jurassic.

  20. New paleomagnetic data from Argun terrane. Testing its association with Amuria and the Mongol-Okhotsk Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordienko, I. V.; Metelkin, D. V.; Vetluzhskikh, L. I.; Mikhaltsov, N. E.; Kulakov, E. V.

    2018-02-01

    In this study we present new paleomagnetic and geologic data obtained from Ediacaran and Cambrian sedimentary rocks of Argun terrane, which is traditionally considered a key-element of the hypothetical Amuria composite continent. Since 1990, when Amuria was first proposed in paleogeographic reconstructions, it became one of the key-elements in the global paleotectonic schemes. A scenario when Amuria collision with Siberian margin resulted in formation of the Mongol-Okhotsk Ocean is universally accepted and supported by majority of researchers. However, time of Amuria's final assembly and relative position of the blocks within Amuria before the collision with Siberia is still a topic of debate. Questions about principal allocation of Argun terrane and its relation to Amuria during the late Neoroterozoic — Cambrian are addressed in this study. Paleomagnetic poles for the Ediacaran — early Cambrian rocks of Argun terrane differ within an error from coeval poles from Siberia indicating that Argun terrane could have been located similar to its present day position with respect to Siberia already at 560-525 Ma. This observation calls into question association of Argun terrane with Amuria, which in classic reconstructions is usually placed close to the North China Craton. It also questions our current understanding of the Amuria paleo-continent and consequently, accuracy of global paleogeographic reconstructions for the late Neoproterozoic-Cambrian in general, and those of the eastern part of the Central Asia in particular.

  1. Seismic signatures of the Pan-African orogeny: implications for southern Indian high-grade terranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Abhishek; Gaur, V. K.; Rai, S. S.; Priestley, K.

    2009-02-01

    We present the results of a study designed to investigate and compare the seismic characteristics of the once contiguous terranes of eastern Gondwanaland, now incorporated in five separated continental masses, which, during the Neoproterozoic (~600Ma) Pan-African orogeny, suffered a high degree of thermal stress and deformation. Receiver functions and surface wave data from stations located in East Antarctica, Sri Lanka, the southern-Indian high-grade terranes, Madagascar and the Tanzania-Mozambique belt, were used to determine the shear-wave velocity structure, Moho depth and VP/VS values of the respective crustal segments. This study provides an additional dimension to the otherwise well-documented characteristic petrology of their surface exposures and other geological signatures such as their extensive granulitization and gem formation during the Pan-African event. Analysis of the receiver functions and surface wave data for these seismic stations located on their present day widely distributed continental fragments have been made. It is observed that with the exception of KOD (at Kodaikanal hill), situated on the southern Indian granulites having the thickest crust (~43.5 km), most of the Pan-African granulitic terranes have a crustal thicknesses of ~37 +/- 0.8km, with a transition to higher velocity at mid-crustal depths, and that their bulk composition is felsic. Average crustal VP/VS values (1.704 +/- 0.03) and thicknesses (37.8 +/- 0.8km), for four stations (SYO, PALK, TRV and ABPO), now located in East Antarctica, Sri Lanka, India and Madagascar, respectively, show remarkable similarity, indicating that the Pan-African orogeny was extensive enough to reorder the crustal structure of a wide region with a broadly similar stamp.

  2. Extending Puppet

    CERN Document Server

    Franceschi, Alessandro

    2014-01-01

    This book is a clear, detailed and practical guide to learn about designing and deploying you puppet architecture, with informative examples to highlight and explain concepts in a focused manner. This book is designed for users who already have good experience with Puppet, and will surprise experienced users with innovative topics that explore how to design, implement, adapt, and deploy a Puppet architecture. The key to extending Puppet is the development of types and providers, for which you must be familiar with Ruby.

  3. Seismotectonics of the southern boundary of Anatolia, eastern Mediterranean region: Subduction, collision, and arc jumping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotstein, Yair; Kafka, Alan L.

    1982-09-01

    The pattern of seismicity and fault plane solutions of earthquakes are used to outline the tectonic features of the southern boundary of Anatolia in the eastern Mediterranean and southeastern Turkey. The results of this study show that this boundary is composed of two distinct parts. One, in southeastern Turkey and Syria, is a wide and complex zone of continental collision. The other, in the Levantine basin of the eastern Mediterranean, is a zone of oceanic subduction. In the region of continental collision three zones of seismicity are observed. Most of the seismic activity in this region follows the Bitlis zone and is associated with a zone of thrusting and mountain building. This appears to be the zone of most active deformation and plate consumption in the plate boundary region between Arabia and Turkey. A less active zone of seismicity to the north of the Bitlis zone is interpreted to have been more active in the past whereas another active zone of seismicity to the south is interpreted to be a zone which may be more active in the future as the main zone of plate consumption jumps to the south. In the subduction zone of the eastern Mediterranean the depth of the subducted slab and the rate of seismicity generally increase from east to west. The zone of present-day convergence between Africa and Turkey in the Levantine basin can be best outlined by the northern edge of the Mediterranean ridge. The subduction zone in this area sequentially jumps to the south as small continental fragments collide with existing zones of subduction. Deep seismic activity near the Gulf of Antalya is associated with a detached subducted slab north of the Anaximander Mountains that is distinctly different from the seismic trend which is associated with present-day active subduction. The plate boundary between Africa and Turkey at the center of the Levantine basin appears to have shifted to the south of the Anaximander Mountains and Florence rise. Most of the focal mechanisms of the

  4. Interpretation of gravity profiles across the northern Oaxaca terrane, its boundaries and the Tehuacán Valley, southern Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos-Enríquez, J. O.; Alatorre-Zamora, M. A.; Keppie, J. D.; Belmonte-Jiménez, S. I.; Ramón-Márquez, V. M.

    2014-12-01

    A gravity study was conducted across the northern Oaxaca terrane and its bounding faults: the Caltepec and Oaxaca Faults to the west and east, respectively. These faults juxtapose the Oaxaca terrane against the Mixteca and Juarez terranes, respectively. The Oaxaca Fault also forms the eastern boundary of the Cenozoic Tehuacán depression. On the west, at depth, the Tehuacán valley is limited by the normal buried Tehuacán Fault. This gravity study reveals that the Oaxaca Fault system gives rise to a series of east tilted basamental blocks (Oaxaca Complex). The tectonic depression is filled with Phanerozoic rocks and has a deeper depocenter to the west. The gravity data also indicate that on the west, the Oaxaca Complex, the Caltepec and Santa Lucia faults continue northwestwards beneath Phanerozoic rocks. A major E-W to NE-SW discontinuity is inferred to exist between profiles 1 and 2.

  5. Paleomagnetism of early Tertiary Alaska Peninsula rocks and implications for docking of peninsular terrane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitney, J.W.; Levinson, R.A.; Van Alstine, D.R.

    1985-04-01

    In order to refine the tectonic history of the peninsular terrane, Alaska, 22 sites (averaging 10 samples/site) in Paleogene Tertiary volcanic and sedimentary formations were sampled in the vicinity of Chignik, on the Pacific side of the Alaska Peninsula. Ten of the sites were drilled in the early Oligocene Meshik volcanics, ranging from andesite to basalt, and the other twelve sites were drilled in the late Eocene Tolstoi Formation sediments. Nine of the volcanic sites yielded stable R and/or N characteristic magnetization. Virtually no fine-grained, interbedded sediments occur with the Meshik volcanics at the sample sites, thus making reliable paleohorizontal determinations difficult. Although flow attitudes were tentatively used, it became rapidly apparent that problems of initial dip were insurmountable. As a result, all volcanic sites were considered unreliable for determining a meaningful paleomagnetic inclination. Upon thermal demagnetization, five of the sedimentary sites were judged stable. The mode of the paleomagnetic direction was calculated, D/I = 349.8/75.3(..beta..95 = 8.5), indicating no significant rotation. Uncertainties in structural corrections, however, may render only the inclination meaningful, which, from McFadden statistics yields, I = 75.9, ..cap alpha..95 = 7.9, corresponding to a paleolatitude of 63.3/sup 0/. This paleolatitude agrees with the expected value for the North American craton at 40 m.y. B.P., implying that the peninsular terrane had docked at at least that time.

  6. Cretaceous-Eocene provenance connections between the Palawan Continental Terrane and the northern South China Sea margin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Lei; Cao, Licheng; Qiao, Peijun; Zhang, Xiangtao; Li, Qianyu; van Hinsbergen, Douwe J. J.

    2017-11-01

    The plate kinematic history of the South China Sea opening is key to reconstructing how the Mesozoic configuration of Panthalassa and Tethyan subduction systems evolved into today's complex Southeast Asian tectonic collage. The South China Sea is currently flanked by the Palawan Continental Terrane in the south and South China in the north and the two blocks have long been assumed to be conjugate margins. However, the paleogeographic history of the Palawan Continental Terrane remains an issue of uncertainty and controversy, especially regarding the questions of where and when it was separated from South China. Here we employ detrital zircon U-Pb geochronology and heavy mineral analysis on Cretaceous and Eocene strata from the northern South China Sea and Palawan to constrain the Late Mesozoic-Early Cenozoic provenance and paleogeographic evolution of the region testing possible connection between the Palawan Continental Terrane and the northern South China Sea margin. In addition to a revision of the regional stratigraphic framework using the youngest zircon U-Pb ages, these analyses show that while the Upper Cretaceous strata from the Palawan Continental Terrane are characterized by a dominance of zircon with crystallization ages clustering around the Cretaceous, the Eocene strata feature a large range of zircon ages and a new mineral group of rutile, anatase, and monazite. On the one hand, this change of sediment compositions seems to exclude the possibility of a latest Cretaceous drift of the Palawan Continental Terrane in response to the Proto-South China Sea opening as previously inferred. On the other hand, the zircon age signatures of the Cretaceous-Eocene strata from the Palawan Continental Terrane are largely comparable to those of contemporary samples from the northeastern South China Sea region, suggesting a possible conjugate relationship between the Palawan Continental Terrane and the eastern Pearl River Mouth Basin. Thus, the Palawan Continental

  7. Two-stage terrane assembly in Western Gondwana: Insights from structural geology and geophysical data of central Borborema Province, NE Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Lauro Cézar M. de Lira; Dantas, Elton L.; Vidotti, Roberta M.; Cawood, Peter A.; dos Santos, Edilton J.; Fuck, Reinhadt A.; Lima, Haroldo M.

    2017-10-01

    Combined geophysical and structural data from the Transversal Subprovince of the Borborema Province (NE Brazil) highlight the internal structure of, and interrelationships between, the constituent terranes. Radiometric and magnetic maps show distinctive signatures for the Archean-Paleoproterozoic Alto Moxotó and Meso-to Neoproterozoic Alto Pajeú and Pernambuco-Alagoas terranes. Mapped radiometric and first and second order magnetic lineaments, associated with Euler deconvolution, enable correlation between geophysical data and major structures. In addition to early related deformation of the Alto Moxotó Terrane, combined analysis of late transposition foliations, lineations and kinematic criteria reveal a complex structural evolution marked by two distinct assembly stages. The first phase is characterized by thrust tectonics with top-to-the-south vergence, resulting in the juxtaposition of the allochtonous Alto Pajeú Terrane with the structurally underlying Alto Moxotó Terrane. The terrane boundary is delineated by the Serra de Jabitacá Shear Zone, which is associated with low dipping collisional granitic sheets and ca. 1.0 Ga mafic-ultramafic rocks interpreted as obtudcted ophiolite remnants. Later strike-slip movements strongly folded and obliterated thrust-related markers, and the continental scale E-W Pernambuco Lineament is interpreted as the result of lateral assembly between the composite Alto Pajeú-Alto Moxotó terranes and the Pernambuco-Alagoas Terrane during the metamorphic peak of the Brasiliano orogeny. Evolution of the Borborema Province reflects accretionary processes during the assembly of Western Gondwana.

  8. 500,000 Years of Environmental History in Eastern Anatolia: The PALEOVAN Drilling Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clemens Glombitza, and Jens Kallmeyer

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available International Continental Scientific Drilling Program (ICDP drilled a complete succession of the lacustrine sediment sequence deposited during the last ~500,000 years in Lake Van, Eastern Anatolia (Turkey. Based on a detailed seismic site survey, two sites at a water depth of up to 360 m were drilled in summer 2010, and cores were retrieved from sub-lake-floor depths of 140 m (Northern Basin and 220 m (Ahlat Ridge. To obtain a complete sedimentary section, the two sites were multiple-cored in order to investigate the paleoclimate history of a sensitive semi-arid region between theBlack, Caspian, and Mediterranean seas. Further scientific goals of the PALEOVAN project are the reconstruction of earthquake activity, as well as the temporal, spatial, and compositional evolution of volcanism as reflected in the deposition of tephra layers. The sediments host organic matter from different sources and hence composition, which will be unravelled using biomarkers. Pathways for migration of continental and mantle-derived noble gases will be analyzed in pore waters. Preliminary 40Ar/39Ar single crystal dating of tephra layers and pollen analyses suggest that the AhlatRidge record encompasses more than half a million years of paleoclimate and volcanic/geodynamic history, providing the longest continental record in the entire Near East to date.

  9. Lithospheric flexural strength and effective elastic thicknesses of the Eastern Anatolia (Turkey) and surrounding region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oruç, Bülent; Gomez-Ortiz, David; Petit, Carole

    2017-12-01

    The Lithospheric structure of Eastern Anatolia and the surrounding region, including the northern part of the Arabian platform is investigated via the analysis and modeling of Bouguer anomalies from the Earth Gravitational Model EGM08. The effective elastic thickness of the lithosphere (EET) that corresponds to the mechanical cores of the crust and lithospheric mantle is determined from the spectral coherence between Bouguer anomalies and surface elevation data. Its average value is 18.7 km. From the logarithmic amplitude spectra of Bouguer anomalies, average depths of the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary (LAB), Moho, Conrad and basement in the study area are constrained at 84 km, 39 km, 16 km and 7 km, respectively. The geometries of the LAB and Moho are then estimated using the Parker-Oldenburg inversion algorithm. We also present a lithospheric strength map obtained from the spatial variations of EET determined by Yield Stress Envelopes (YSE). The EET varies in the range of 12-23 km, which is in good agreement with the average value obtained from spectral analysis. Low EET values are interpreted as resulting from thermal and flexural lithospheric weakening. According to the lithospheric strength of the Eastern Anatolian region, the rheology model consists of a strong but brittle upper crust, a weak and ductile lower crust, and a weak lower part of the lithosphere. On the other hand, lithosphere strength corresponds to weak and ductile lower crust, a strong upper crust and a strong uppermost lithospheric mantle for the northern part of the Arabian platform.

  10. 500,000 Years of Environmental History in Eastern Anatolia: The PALEOVAN Drilling Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litt, T.; Anselmetti, F. S.; Baumgarten, H.; Beer, J.; Cagatay, N.; Cukur, D.; Damci, E.; Glombitza, C.; Haug, G.; Heumann, G.; Kallmeyer, H.; Kipfer, R.; Krastel, S.; Kwiecien, O.; Meydan, A. F.; Orcen, S.; Pickarski, N.; Randlett, M.-E.; Schmincke, H.-U.; Schubert, C. J.; Sturm, M.; Sumita, M.; Stockhecke, M.; Tomonaga, Y.; Vigliotti, L.; Wonik, T.; Paleovan Scientific Team

    2012-09-01

    International Continental Scientific Drilling Program (ICDP) drilled a complete succession of the lacustrine sediment sequence deposited during the last ~500,000 years in Lake Van, Eastern Anatolia (Turkey). Based on a detailed seismic site survey, two sites at a water depth of up to 360 m were drilled in summer 2010, and cores were retrieved from sub-lake-floor depths of 140 m (Northern Basin) and 220 m (Ahlat Ridge). To obtain a complete sedimentary section, the two sites were multiple-cored in order to investigate the paleoclimate history of a sensitive semi-arid region between the Black, Caspian, and Mediterranean seas. Further scientific goals of the PALEOVAN project are the reconstruction of earthquake activity, as well as the temporal, spatial, and compositional evolution of volcanism as reflected in the deposition of tephra layers. The sediments host organic matter from different sources and hence composition, which will be unravelled using biomarkers. Pathways for migration of continental and mantle-derived noble gases will be analyzed in pore waters. Preliminary 40Ar/39Ar single crystal dating of tephra layers and pollen analyses suggest that the Ahlat Ridge record encompasses more than half a million years of paleoclimate and volcanic/geodynamic history, providing the longest continental record in the entire Near East to date. doi:10.2204/iodp.sd.14.02.2012

  11. Determination of Selenium and Nickel in Asphaltite from Milli (Sirnak) Deposit in SE Anatolia of Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydin, Isil; Fidan, Celal; Kavak, Orhan; Erek, Figen; Aydin, Firat

    2017-12-01

    Asphaltite is one of the naturally occurring black, solid bitumen’s, which are soluble at heating in carbon disulphide band fuse. Asphaltite is also a solidified hydro carbon compound derived from petroleum [1]. According to the World Energy Council, Turkish National Committee (1998), the total reserve of the asphaltic substances that are found in south eastern Turkey is about 82 million tons, with Silopi and Sirnak reserves to get her comprising the major part of the Asphaltite deposits. Selenium and Nickel are very important elements both environmental and health. Selenium plays an important role in the formation of the enzyme antioxidant effect in the cell. The need for Selenium increases in situations such as pregnancy, menopause, grow than development, air pollution. Nickel is used for preventing iron-poor blood, increasing iron absorption, and treating weak bones. In this study, asphaltites were taken from Milli vein from Sirnak deposit in SE Anatolia of Turkey. A total of 6.500.000 tons of Asphaltite reserves have been identified as asphaltites in Milli (Sirnak). The sample preparation method was developed in Asphaltite by spectroanalytical techniques, wet acid digestion. MW-AD followed by ICP-OES were used for the determination of Selenium and Nickel in Asphaltite. Proximate analysis of Asphaltite fly ash samples was made. It also, Selenium and Nickel element analysis in Asphaltite were made.

  12. Mineralogy, geochemistry and expansion testing of an alkali-reactive basalt from western Anatolia, Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Copuroglu, Oguzhan; Andic-Cakir, Ozge; Broekmans, Maarten A.T.M.; Kuehnel, Radko

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, the alkali-silica reaction performance of a basalt rock from western Anatolia, Turkey is reported. It is observed that the rock causes severe gel formation in the concrete microbar test. It appears that the main source of expansion is the reactive glassy phase of the basalt matrix having approximately 70% of SiO 2 . The study presents the microstructural characteristics of unreacted and reacted basalt aggregate by optical and electron microscopy and discusses the possible reaction mechanism. Microstructural analysis revealed that the dissolution of silica is overwhelming in the matrix of the basalt and it eventually generates four consequences: (1) Formation of alkali-silica reaction gel at the aggregate perimeter, (2) increased porosity and permeability of the basalt matrix, (3) reduction of mechanical properties of the aggregate and (4) additional gel formation within the aggregate. It is concluded that the basalt rock is highly prone to alkali-silica reaction. As an aggregate, this rock is not suitable for concrete production.

  13. Urological recommedations of Hadji Pasha’s, a Turkish aged doctor in Anatolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Yıldırım

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Urinary tract conditions have been an important part of diseases from antiquity until today. Historically, many plants and herbs have been used for the treatment of urinary disorders. Methods: Celâlüddîn Hızır bin Ali el-Konevi (Hadji Pasha is one of the most famous physician who lived in Anatolia between 13th and 14th centuries. He has written one of the most important medical books of that era, "Müntehab-ıŞifa" (solution of wellness in Turkish. General medical information about the diseases in this book, focus on diagnosis and treatment. Results: The herbal solutions for urological disorders such as, urinary incontinence, urinary stones or erection problems are told in this section.   Conclusion: Many of the herbal medicines addressed in this book are being widely used in current medicine, but the usage of these herbals in daily urology practice is limited. In this study, we aimed to share the advices for the urological diseases and therelated herbal medicines that are named in Hadji Pasha’s book, " Müntehab-ıŞifa ", with today's physicians.

  14. Distribution of inhalant allergies in pediatric patients presenting with allergic complaints in the Eastern Anatolia Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilic, Mehmet; Taskin, Erdal

    2016-08-01

    The objective of this study was to define the distribution of inhalant allergens in pediatric patients in whom sensitization was diagnosed with a skin prick test (SPT) who had presented with allergic complaints. In addition, the correlation between the inhalant allergens detected on the SPT and the patients' demographic features, diagnosis, and laboratory findings was defined. A total of 1415 children among the 4056 patients who presented at a clinic in the Eastern Anatolia region with allergic complaints and who had undergone an SPT were included in this study. On the SPT, sensitization to grass pollens was found in 60.1%, cereals pollens in 57.2%, and Dermatophagoides farinae in 21.8% of the patients. Furthermore, on the SPT, incidence of asthma development was 3.96 times higher (odds ratio 3.96, 95% CI: 1.77-6.83; P=0.001) in patients who were allergic to Dermatophagoides farinae. In our study, differences were found in the study region compared to data from around the world and other regions in Turkey in terms of the distribution of allergies and variations in allergens in patients diagnosed due to variations in climate and plants.

  15. Anatomical, morphological and palynological studies of some onosma l. (boraginaceae) taxa endemic to anatolia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teke, H.I.; Binzet, R.

    2017-01-01

    In this study, the morphological, anatomical and palynological characters of Onosma discedens Hausskn. ex. Bornm., O. nana DC. and O. sorgerae var. subglabriflora Teppner were investigated. All the examined species are endemic to Anatolia, Turkey. The root cortex of examined species is multilayered. The raphide crystals are observed in epidermal cells and basal hair cells on both side of epidermis in O. sorgerae var. subglabriflora. Leaves are isobilateral (=equifacial) in O. nana and O. sorgerae var. subglabriflora, whereas leaves are dorsiventral(=bifacial) in O. discedens. Stomatas are observed on both surfaces (=amfistomatic) in all examined species. Stomata index is 9.25 of upper epidermis and 10.71 of lower epidermis in O. discedens, 9.61 of upper epidermis and 10 of lower epidermis in O. nana and 9.67 of upper epidermis and 13.63 of lower epidermis in O. sorgerae var. subglabriflora. The pollen grains are heteropolar, trisyncolporatae and sphaeroidal shape. In O. discedens, sphaeroidal (P/E: 1.13 W) and subprolate in Acetolysis and in O. nana, subprolate in shape and in O. sorgerae var. subglabriflora. Amb is three angular in all examined Onosma species. Sculpture is scabrate-rugulate in all species. Nutlet ornamentation is rugose. (author)

  16. Spatial Prediction of Air Temperature in East Central Anatolia of Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilgili, B. C.; Erşahin, S.; Özyavuz, M.

    2017-11-01

    Air temperature is an essential component of the factors used in landscape planning. At similar topographic conditions, vegetation may show considerable differences depending on air temperature and precipitation. In large areas, measuring temperature is a cost and time-consuming work. Therefore, prediction of climate variables at unmeasured sites at an acceptable accuracy is very important in regional resource planning. In addition, use a more proper prediction method is crucial since many different prediction techniques yield different performance in different landscape and geographical conditions. We compared inverse distance weighted (IDW), ordinary kriging (OK), and ordinary cokriging (OCK) to predict air temperature at unmeasured sites in Malatya region (East Central Anatolia) of Turkey. Malatya region is the most important apricot production area of Turkey and air temperature is the most important factor determining the apricot growing zones in this region. We used mean monthly temperatures from 1975 to 2010 measured at 28 sites in the study area and predicted temperature with IDW, OC, and OCK techniques, mapped temperature in the region, and tested the reliability of these maps. The OCK with elevation as an auxiliary variable occurred the best procedure to predict temperature against the criteria of model efficiency and relative root mean squared error.

  17. SPATIAL PREDICTION OF AIR TEMPERATURE IN EAST CENTRAL ANATOLIA OF TURKEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. C. Bilgili

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Air temperature is an essential component of the factors used in landscape planning. At similar topographic conditions, vegetation may show considerable differences depending on air temperature and precipitation. In large areas, measuring temperature is a cost and time-consuming work. Therefore, prediction of climate variables at unmeasured sites at an acceptable accuracy is very important in regional resource planning. In addition, use a more proper prediction method is crucial since many different prediction techniques yield different performance in different landscape and geographical conditions. We compared inverse distance weighted (IDW, ordinary kriging (OK, and ordinary cokriging (OCK to predict air temperature at unmeasured sites in Malatya region (East Central Anatolia of Turkey. Malatya region is the most important apricot production area of Turkey and air temperature is the most important factor determining the apricot growing zones in this region. We used mean monthly temperatures from 1975 to 2010 measured at 28 sites in the study area and predicted temperature with IDW, OC, and OCK techniques, mapped temperature in the region, and tested the reliability of these maps. The OCK with elevation as an auxiliary variable occurred the best procedure to predict temperature against the criteria of model efficiency and relative root mean squared error.

  18. Anisotropy of Magnetic Susceptibility Studies in Lava Flows of the Eastern Anatolia Region, Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ucar, Hakan; Cengiz Cinku, Mualla

    2017-04-01

    Eastern Anatolia comprises one of the high plateaus of the Alpine-Himalaya mountain belt with an average elevation of 2 km above the sea level. Available geochronologic data indicate that the volcanism started in the south of the region around the north of Lake Van and continued towards the norths in a age interval of 15.0 Ma to 0.4 Ma. The products are exposed as stratovolcanoes like Agri, Tendurek, Suphan and Girekol with the eruption of andesitic to rhyolitic lavas, ignimbrites and basaltic lava flows. In this study, anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility measurements were carried out on different lava flows (Tendurek, Girekol and Suphan) to determine the flow direction of lavas. It has been shown that the direction of maximum susceptibility is associated with magma flow direction in the vertical direction, while a horizontal flow direction is predicted for the volcano structure of Suphan. Anisotropy of magnetic measurements show a trend of lineation towards the center of the projection and shallow-dipping foliations which are largely scattered.

  19. Early Miocene depositional environments in the northern margin of the Mediterranean, southwestern Anatolia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yavuz, H.H.; Oercen, S.

    1988-08-01

    The continental and shallow marine clastics and carbonates exposed around the towns of Kale and Acipayam in southwestern Anatolia were investigated to interpret the depositional environments in the northern margin of the Mediterranean in terms of lithofacies and biozones. These deposits include Miogypsina intermedia and M. irregularis, indicating Burdigalian age when correlated with the same species in the different parts of the Tethys Sea and Indian-Pacific Oceans. The clastic lower part of the succession is characterized by sheet flow and braided-stream deposits of an alluvial-fan/fan-delta complex. Marine carbonates overlie these deposits, but in some places a transgressive lag deposit lies between the unconformity surface and the carbonates. The lag deposit unit corresponds to the Gastropoda biozone, including Ostrea, Terebralia, and Pecten. Four carbonate facies are recognized: (1) Clayey limestones with ahermatypic corals, ostracods, macrofossils, and foraminifers. This facies corresponds to the Textularia-Rotalia biozone. (2) Packstones and grainstones with abundant nearshore and some offshore foraminifers, corresponding to the Miliolidae biozone. (3) Packstones and wackestones with offshore foraminifers. This facies includes the Miogypsina irregularis-Miogypsina intermedia biozone. (4) Boundstones and very poorly sorted reef-talus conglomerates including hermatypic corals, foraminifers, and binding foraminifers. This facies is the coral biozone. These sediments define the northern extent of the Tethys Sea in the investigated area during the Burdigalian. They were deposited in a shallow carbonate platform at the southern margin of the Anatolian mainland, which had a steep coast characterized by an alluvial-fan/fan-delta complex.

  20. Consciousness extended

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carrara-Augustenborg, Claudia

    2012-01-01

    There is no consensus yet regarding a conceptualization of consciousness able to accommodate all the features of such complex phenomenon. Different theoretical and empirical models lend strength to both the occurrence of a non-accessible informational broadcast, and to the mobilization of specific...... brain areas responsible for the emergence of the individual´s explicit and variable access to given segments of such broadcast. Rather than advocating one model over others, this chapter proposes to broaden the conceptualization of consciousness by letting it embrace both mechanisms. Within...... such extended framework, I propose conceptual and functional distinctions between consciousness (global broadcast of information), awareness (individual´s ability to access the content of such broadcast) and unconsciousness (focally isolated neural activations). My hypothesis is that a demarcation in terms...

  1. Extending Experiences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    A computer game's player is experiencing not only the game as a designer-made artefact, but also a multitude of social and cultural practices and contexts of both computer game play and everyday life. As a truly multidisciplinary anthology, Extending Experiences sheds new light on the mesh...... of possibilities and influences the player engages with. Part one, Experiential Structures of Play, considers some of the key concepts commonly used to address the experience of a computer game player. The second part, Bordering Play, discusses conceptual and practical overlaps of games and everyday life...... and the impacts of setting up, crossing and breaking the boundaries of game and non-game. Part three, Interfaces of Play, looks at games as technological and historical artefacts and commodities. The fourth part, Beyond Design, introduces new models for the practical and theoretical dimensions of game design....

  2. A new look at the collision-related volcanism in Eastern Anatolia, Turkey: Volcanic history of the Northern-Van neovolcanic province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keskin, Mehmet; Lebedev, Vladimir; Sharkov, Evgenii; Oyan, Vural; Ünal, Esin

    2010-05-01

    The region including the Eastern Anatolian - Northern Iranian High Plateau and Greater and Lesser Caucasus mountain ranges is one of the best examples of an active continental collision zone in the world, which is thought to have been formed by the closure of the northern branch of the Neotethyan Ocean. It comprises one of the high plateaus of the Alpine-Himalaya mountain belt (i.e. the Eastern Anatolia High Plateau) with an average elevation of ~2 km above the sea level. The volcanic activity initiated immediately after the block uplift of the region (at around 15 Ma as our new isotope-geochronological database indicates) and produced great volumes of volcanic material in a number of countries including Turkey, Russia, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Armenia and Iran. At present, the volcanic province extends from Eastern Anatolia (Turkey) into Caucasus of Southern Russia, spanning a distance of some 1000 km. Perhaps the most striking aspect of the Eastern Anatolian - N Iranian High Plateau and Caucasus is the volume and compositional variability of collision-related volcanic products erupted in a time interval from Neogene to Quaternary. Only in E Turkey, the collision-related volcanic units cover over half of the region (i.e.˜43,000 km2). In order to better understand the spatial and temporal compositional variations in volcanic rocks and their implications on magma genesis and geodynamic evolution of the region, we conducted joint research on this spectacular volcanic province. One of the largest Cenozoic volcanic areas on the EAHP is located in the north of Lake Van as we named "the Northern-Van neovolcanic province". It covers an area of about 6000 km2 starting from the northern cost of Lake Van. It is composed of a series of volcanic edifices (e.g. Girekol, Meydandag and Etrusk volcanoes). Remarkably, these volcanoes sit almost on the culmination of a regional domal structure called "Lake Van dome" in the vertex of the eastern Turkish high plateau. We intentionally

  3. Cretaceous–Eocene provenance connections between the Palawan Continental Terrane and the northern South China Sea margin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shao, Lei; Cao, Licheng; Qiao, Peijun; Zhang, Xiangtao; Li, Qianyu; van Hinsbergen, Douwe J.J.

    2017-01-01

    The plate kinematic history of the South China Sea opening is key to reconstructing how the Mesozoic configuration of Panthalassa and Tethyan subduction systems evolved into today's complex Southeast Asian tectonic collage. The South China Sea is currently flanked by the Palawan Continental Terrane

  4. Mantle to Surface Dynamics Across Subduction-Collision Transitions in Space and Time: Results from the CD-CAT Project in Anatolia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitney, D. L.; Abgarmi, B.; Beck, S. L.; Brocard, G. Y.; Cosca, M. A.; Darin, M. H.; Delph, J. R.; Hui, H.; Kahraman, M.; Kaymakci, N.; Kuscu, G.; Meijers, M. J.; Mulch, A.; Özacar, A.; Portner, D. E.; Reid, M. R.; Rey, P. F.; Rojay, B.; Schlieffarth, W. K.; Sandvol, E. A.; Schoenbohm, L. M.; Tank, B.; Teoman, U.; Teyssier, C. P.; Thomson, S. N.; Turkelli, N.; Umhoefer, P. J.; Uslular, G.; Willenbring, J. K.

    2017-12-01

    From west to east, the southern plate boundary of Anatolia varies from subduction to continental collision; plate dynamics are influenced by the interaction of back-arc extension in the west (Aegean) and convergence in the east (Arabia-Eurasia). Prior to 40 Ma, the entire margin was a subduction zone. The NSF project "Continental Dynamics-Central Anatolian Tectonics (CD-CAT)" has contributed to understanding how the mantle, crust, and surface evolve in subduction-to-collision transitions in time and space. Differences are seen in changes in deformation style as collision proceeded; e.g. from distributed across a broad zone to highly localized on a series of oblique-slip faults, and from transpression to transtension (W of the Central Anatolian fault zone, CAFZ) or strike-slip (E of the CAFZ); age, composition, and sources of magmatism, including a magmatic lull from 40-20 Ma, followed by expansion of magmatism SE-ward in central Anatolia; properties and architecture of the lithosphere and sub-lithospheric mantle (e.g. significant and locally abrupt crustal thickness variations, including thick crust under the Tauride Mts; thin to absent lithospheric mantle; and a torn and disaggregating slab that varies from shallow to steep below central Anatolia); and a topographic gradient from a high eastern plateau (> 2 km) to a central plateau (1-1.5 km) bounded to the N and S by mountain ranges that rose > 2 km from the sea between 11-5 Ma, producing a rain shadow in the Anatolian interior. Thermochronologic and structural studies of exhumed mid-crust and associated basins and fault zones as well as geophysical data for Anatolia today show the extent to which inherited features (suture zones, faults) have affected the tectonic evolution of Anatolia, particularly in the vicinity of the CAFZ/East Anatolian Fault, and mantle properties. Results also show that the Miocene was a dynamic time in the thermal and mechanical evolution of the region, as early Miocene rollback

  5. Effect of the Syrian Civil War on Prevalence of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Southeastern Anatolia, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inci, Rahime; Ozturk, Perihan; Mulayim, Mehmet Kamil; Ozyurt, Kemal; Alatas, Emine Tugba; Inci, Mehmet Fatih

    2015-07-20

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is a vector-mediated skin disease, characterized by chronic wounds on the skin and caused by macrophages in protozoan parasites. It is an endemic disease in the southern and southeastern Anatolia region and is still an important public health problem in Turkey. Because of the civil war in Syria, immigrants to this region in the last 3 years have begun to more frequently present with this disease. The aim of this study was to draw attention to the dramatic increase in new cases with CL after the beginning of the civil war in Syria. In this retrospective study, we evaluated demographic, epidemiological, and clinical features of 110 patients diagnosed with cutaneous leishmaniasis who were admitted to the Department of Dermatology at Kahramanmaras Sutcu Imam University Faculty of Medicine between January 2011 and June 2014. A total of 110 patients included in the study; 50 (45%) were males, and 60 (55%) were females. The age range of the study group was 1-78 years, and the infection was more prevalent in the 0-20 year age group. Of these patients, 76 (69%) were Syrian refugees living in tent camps and 34 (31%) were Turkish citizens. The majority of the cases were diagnosed between October and December. Immigrations to endemic regions of Turkey from neighbouring countries where CL incidence is higher may lead to large increases in case numbers. In order to decrease the risk of exposure, housing conditions of the refugees must be improved, routine health controls must be performed, effective measures must be set in place for vector control, and infected individuals must be diagnosed and treated to prevent spread of the infection.

  6. Yield of bedrock wells in the Nashoba terrane, central and eastern Massachusetts

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeSimone, Leslie A.; Barbaro, Jeffrey R.

    2012-01-01

    The yield of bedrock wells in the fractured-bedrock aquifers of the Nashoba terrane and surrounding area, central and eastern Massachusetts, was investigated with analyses of existing data. Reported well yield was compiled for 7,287 wells from Massachusetts Department of Environmental Protection and U.S. Geological Survey databases. Yield of these wells ranged from 0.04 to 625 gallons per minute. In a comparison with data from 103 supply wells, yield and specific capacity from aquifer tests were well correlated, indicating that reported well yield was a reasonable measure of aquifer characteristics in the study area. Statistically significant relations were determined between well yield and a number of cultural and hydrogeologic factors. Cultural variables included intended water use, well depth, year of construction, and method of yield measurement. Bedrock geology, topography, surficial geology, and proximity to surface waters were statistically significant hydrogeologic factors. Yield of wells was higher in areas of granites, mafic intrusive rocks, and amphibolites than in areas of schists and gneisses or pelitic rocks; higher in valleys and low-slope areas than on hills, ridges, or high slopes; higher in areas overlain by stratified glacial deposits than in areas overlain by till; and higher in close proximity to streams, ponds, and wetlands than at greater distances from these surface-water features. Proximity to mapped faults and to lineaments from aerial photographs also were related to well yield by some measures in three quadrangles in the study area. Although the statistical significance of these relations was high, their predictive power was low, and these relations explained little of the variability in the well-yield data. Similar results were determined from a multivariate regression analysis. Multivariate regression models for the Nashoba terrane and for a three-quadrangle subarea included, as significant variables, many of the cultural and

  7. Microprobe monazite constraints for and early (ca. 790 Ma) Braziliano orogeny: The Embu Terrane, southeastern Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vlach, Silvio R.F

    2001-01-01

    The evolution of the Mantiqueira Orogenetic System, Southeastern Brazil, comprises discrete episodes of tectonic collage and docking of remnants of Rodinia break-up in the borders of the Sao Francisco Craton. This system is related to the closure of the Adamastor ocean and assemblage of the western Gondwana super-continent during Neoproterozoic times (ca. 610-530 Ma, Brito Neves et al., 1999; Campos Neto, 2000). This report presents monazite microprobe dating results for metassediments from the Embu Complex, an important lithological unit from the Ribeira Belt, currently included in the Juiz de Fora terrane, a unit added to the Sao Francisco Craton at ca. 600-580 Ma. (Campos Neto, 2000). The age results unravel a main metamorphic episode and related orogeny at ca. 790 Ma and bring new insights concerning the agglutination of Gondwana in this region during the Neoproterozoic (au)

  8. The basement of the Eastern Cordillera, Colombia: An allochthonous terrane in northwestern South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forero Suarez, A.

    The fault system of the Borde Llanero of Colombia represents the limit between two early Paleozoic geologic provinces: the Guiana Shield (Gondwana) to the east, and an allochthonous terrane — formerly a piece of the North American continent — to the west. The Baudó Range, the Western Cordillera, and the western flank of the Central Cordillera are the result of post-Jurassic accretion. In contrast the pre-Emsian metamorphic rocks of the eastern flank of the Central Cordillera, of the Eastern Cordillera of Colombia, and of the Mérida Andes correspond to an allochthonous terrane that was accreted to the north-western continental border of South America during the collision between North America and Gondwana in Silurian-Early Devonian times. Geochronologic and petrographic data indicate the presence of the Grenvillian granulite belt, represented by the Garzón-Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta belt. This belt is separated from the Guiana Shield by a magmatic tract which is parallel to the Borde Llanero of Venezuela and Colombia. The late Paleozoic regional metamorphism in the Northern Andes of Colombia occurred during Late Silurian-Early Devonian times. Since the late Emsian, a sedimentary cycle was initiated on this allochthonous basement. The faunal records of northwestern South America and the North American continent are indistinguishable for that time. This similarity clearly shows that both northwestern South America and the North American regions of the Appalachians and New Mexico belong to the same paleobiogeographic province. The faunal communication in this case supports the idea of the immediate neighborhood of the two continents.

  9. A comparison of the seismic structure of oceanic island arc crust and continental accreted arc terranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvert, A. J.

    2015-12-01

    Amalgamation of island arcs and their accretion to pre-existing continents is considered to have been one of the primary mechanisms of continental growth over the last 3 Ga, with arc terranes identified within Late Archean, Proterozoic, and Phanerozoic continental crust. Crustal-scale seismic refraction surveys can provide P wave velocity models that can be used as a proxy for crustal composition, and although they indicate some velocity variation in accreted arcs, these terranes have significantly lower velocities, and are hence significantly more felsic, than modern island arcs. Modern oceanic arcs exhibit significant variations in crustal thickness, from as little as 10 km in the Bonin arc to 35 km in the Aleutian and northern Izu arcs. Although globally island arcs appear to have a mafic composition, intermediate composition crust is inferred in central America and parts of the Izu arc. The absence of a sharp velocity contrast at the Moho appears to be a first order characteristic of island arc crust, and indicates the existence of a broad crust-mantle transition zone. Multichannel seismic reflection surveys complement refraction surveys by revealing structures associated with variations in density and seismic velocity at the scale of a few hundred meters or less to depths of 60 km or more. Surveys from the Mariana and Aleutian arcs show that modern middle and lower arc crust is mostly non-reflective, but reflections are observed from depths 5-25 km below the refraction Moho suggesting the localized presence of arc roots that may comprise gabbro, garnet gabbro, and pyroxenite within a broad transition from mafic lower crust to ultramafic mantle. Such reflective, high velocity roots are likely separated from the overlying arc crust prior to, or during arc-continent collision, and seismic reflections within accreted arc crust document the collisional process and final crustal architecture.

  10. Stratigraphic and structural implications of conodont and detrital zircon U—Pb ages from metamorphic rocks of the Coldfoot terrane, Brooks Range, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Thomas E.; Aleinikoff, John N.; Harris, Anita G.

    1997-01-01

    New paleontologic and isotopic data from the Emma Creek and Marion Creek schists of the Coldfoot terrane, Arctic Alaska superterrane, central Brooks Range, suggest Devonian and possibly younger ages of deposition for their sedimentary protoliths. Conodonts from marble of the Emma Creek schist, intruded by a roughly 392 Ma orthogneiss, are late Lochkovian (early Early Devonian, between about 408 and 396 Ma) and Silurian to Devonian at two other locations. Spherical to oblong detrital zircons from quartz-mica schist of the overlying Marion Creek schist yield mostly discordant U—Pb data suggestive of provenance ages of 3.0, 2.0-1.8, and 1.5-1.4 Ga; however, several euhedral grains of zircon from Marion Creek quartz-mica schist have concordant U—Pb ages from 370 to 360 Ma. The Marion Creek schist in our study area therefore is at least 26 m.y. younger than the Emma Creek schist. The age data imply that the protolith of the Emma Creek schist is age correlative with Devonian carbonate rocks in the Hammond and North Slope terranes, whereas the Marion Creek schist is age correlative with Upper Devonian and Lower Mississippian clastic sedimentary rocks of the Endicott Group in the Endicott Mountains terrane and shale and carbonate units in the De Long Mountains and Sheenjek River terranes. Consequently, tectonic models restoring the entire Coldfoot terrane beneath partly or wholly coeval rocks of the Hammond, Endicott Mountains, De Long Mountains, and Sheenjek River terranes of the Arctic Alaska superterrane require revision. Alternative reconstructions, including restoration of the Coldfoot terrane inboard of the Endicott Mountains terrane or outboard of the De Long Mountains and Sheenjek River terranes are plausible but require either larger amounts of shortening than previously suggested or indicate problematic facies relations.

  11. The Use of Herbal Drugs in Organic Animal Production: The Case of Ethnoveterinary Medicine in Central Anatolia Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Çağrı Çağlar Sinmez

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Organic animal production is a natural breeding system in which animal health is protected by giving priority to alternative medicines and treatment as needed by applying appropriate management and feeding methods based on the physiological requirements of animals. Increasing numbers of strains resistant to antibiotics and antiparasitic drugs used in animal breeding have brought about the search for alternative herbal remedies that lead to drug residues in animal products and lead to important health problems in people consuming these products. In this study, it was aimed to evaluate the therapeutic and protective effects of herbal drugs used in organic animal production in ethnoveterinary medicine in the Central Anatolia Region. The material of the study collected as written and declared facts as well as visual data were obtained from animal breeders in the Central Anatolia Region. The results indicated that 30 herbal drugs were used for the treatment of internal diseases, surgical diseases, obstetric and gynecological problems and parasitic diseases in cattle, sheep, horse, poultry, bee, and dog species. Based on the evaluation of the facts that the use of all kinds of synthetic drugs, especially antibiotics, is prohibited or restricted in organic livestock, it can be said that natural herbal drugs instead of artificial substances will provide positive contributions in the protection and treatment of herd health.

  12. Native of the marble in ancient city, Nysa on the Meander of Hellenistic and Roman Period, Aydin- Western Anatolia - Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kadioglu, M [Ankara University Faculty of Letters Archeological Department Ankara (Turkey); Kadioglu, Y K [Ankara University Engineering Faculty Geol. Eng. Department Ankara (Turkey)], E-mail: kadioglu@humanity.ankara.edu.tr, E-mail: kadi@eng.ankara.edu.tr

    2008-07-01

    Nysa, one of the most important cities of Caria in Hellenistic and Roman period, is located on the highway connecting Aydin (ancient name Tralleis) and Denizli, at about three kilometres northwest of Sultanhisar in western Anatolia of Turkey. The archaeological remains of Nysa are located on the slopes on the side of the stream called Tekkecik. The buildings, streets and public squares of the ancient city were supported by vaulted substructures adapted to the topographic conditions. As to the foundation of the city, Strabo relates that three brothers named Athymbros, Athymbrados, and Hydrelos came from Lakedaimon to Caria, and founded there three cities named after themselves. The small rock samples from the building of theatre, stadium, basement of agora and tomb were collected and determined under polarized microscope and confocal Raman spectroscopy to find out the native of these rock sources. The results of these studies reveal that the main rocks of these structures are composed from white colour marble. These marbles have granoblastic texture and are composed of mainly pressure twinned calcite as coarse grain size. The confocal Raman specroscopical studies of reveal that the marble building stone of Nysa city are mainly obtained from Jurassic Cretaceous of Western Anatolia marble.

  13. Palaeomagnetic and geochronological evidence for a major middle miocene unconformity in Söke Basin (western Anatolia) and its tectonic implications for the Aegean region

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uzel, Bora; Sümer, Ökmen; Özkaptan, Murat; Özkaymak, Çağlar; Kuiper, Klaudia; Sözbilir, Hasan; Kaymakci, Nuretdin; İnci, Uğur; Langereis, Cornelis G.

    2017-01-01

    Cenozoic convergence between the Eurasian and African plates and concurrent slab roll-back processes have produced a progressive extension in back-arc areas, such as the Aegean region andwestern Anatolia. There is still a long-standing controversy as to whether this was a continuous or stepwise

  14. A long-lived Late Cretaceous-early Eocene extensional province in Anatolia? Structural evidence from the Ivriz Detachment, southern central Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gürer, Derya; Plunder, Alexis; Kirst, Frederik; Corfu, Fernando; Schmid, Stefan M.; van Hinsbergen, Douwe J. J.

    2018-01-01

    Central Anatolia exposes previously buried and metamorphosed, continent-derived rocks - the Kırşehir and Afyon zones - now covering an area of ∼300 × 400 km. So far, the exhumation history of these rocks has been poorly constrained. We show for the first time that the major, >120 km long, top-NE 'Ivriz' Detachment controlled the exhumation of the HP/LT metamorphic Afyon Zone in southern Central Anatolia. We date its activity at between the latest Cretaceous and early Eocene times. Combined with previously documented isolated extensional detachments found in the Kırşehir Block, our results suggest that a major province governed by extensional exhumation was active throughout Central Anatolia between ∼80 and ∼48 Ma. Although similar in dimension to the Aegean extensional province to the east, the Central Anatolian extensional province is considerably older and was controlled by a different extension direction. From this, we infer that the African slab(s) that subducted below Anatolia must have rolled back relative to the Aegean slab since at least the latest Cretaceous, suggesting that these regions were underlain by a segmented slab. Whether or not these early segments already corresponded to the modern Aegean, Antalya, and Cyprus slab segments remains open for debate, but slab segmentation must have occurred much earlier than previously thought.

  15. Isotopic implications for the origin and the geodynamic nature of the Miocene granitic rocks in the northwest Anatolia (Turkey): comparison with the central Aegean magmatism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasözbek, Altug; Satir, Muharrem; Erdogan, Burhan; Siebel, Wolfgang; Akay, Erhan; Deniz Dogan, Güllü

    2010-05-01

    Central Aegean magmatic belt including the northwestern Anatolia is interpreted in the literature as formed along magmatic arc which has migrated southwardly to its present position. During and after the closure of the Neo-Tethyan Ocean and progressive collision of the Tauride-Anatolide Platform with the Sakarya Continent, widespread magmatism occurred in NW Anatolia. These magmatic associations form a NW trending belt. In NW Anatolia, mostly Miocene I-type, shallow seated Egrigöz, Koyunoba, Alacam plutons expose along the suture zone called İzmir-Ankara Zone. These granitoid rocks intruded into the basement rocks of the region which are from bottom to top consist of Menderes Massif, Afyon Zone and Bornova Flysch Zone. Due to the complex geodynamic evolution, the exact emplacement mode of the Miocene granitoids is still a subject for debate. New results give rise to re-consider the general mode of the Miocene magmatic activity and address the question if the magmatism was triggered by compression or extensional tectonic processes. The new data are also compared to those of the central Aegean granitoids. Initial isotopic signatures of these shallow seated granitoids of NW Anatolian are 87Sr/86Sr(I) = 0.70800-0.70975, ENd(I) = -4.9 to -7.3, δ18O = 9.4-10.6, 206Pb/204Pb = 18.85-18.918. These characteristics indicate an assimilation-dominated crystallization and most probably origin of a metaluminous older meta-sedimentary protolith which is also common in most of the central Aegean magmatic suites. However, the geodynamic scenario for the mode of emplacement of the Miocene granitoids along the NW Anatolia implies remarkable differences when comparing to the central Aegean granitoid suites. These differences can be summarized as: an extension related granitoid emplacement in the central Aegean occurred between 15 Ma to 10 Ma. However, in NW Anatolia, the granitoids emplaced after Eocene collision and continue till 20-22 Ma. Isotopic patterns with suggested mixing

  16. Geochemistry and petrogenesis of basaltic rocks from the Develidağ volcanic complex, Central Anatolia, Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kürkcüoglu, Biltan

    2010-01-01

    The Develidağ volcanic zone (DVZ) is a part of the Middle Miocene-Quaternary Cappadocian Volcanic Province (CVP) in central Anatolia. The DVZ is located at the eastern side of the Plio-Quaternary Sultansazlığı pull-apart basin, that opened along the Ecemiş left-lateral strike-slip fault. Towards the south, the volcanic rocks of the DVZ overlie the Paleozoic metamorphic rocks of the Taurus range. Regional stratigraphic studies indicate that volcanic rocks of the DVZ crop out in a ˜N-S trending rectangular-shaped exposure in the middle of which Middle Miocene andesitic rocks are found surrounded by Upper Miocene basaltic rocks. The purpose of this paper is to present basic geochemical data for the DVZ rocks and discuss possible processes of magma generation. The Develidağ basalts are characterized by low LILE (Rb, K, Ba, Th) and high HFSE (Nb,Zr,Hf,Y) contents, whereas the andesites generally have high LILE and HFSE values except for Nb and Zr. Variable abundances of Pb (3.11-12.09 ppm) and U (0.36-2.64 ppm) are associated with high Ba content within the rock suites. Although low Nb/La (0.6-0.7) and relatively high Ba/Nb ratios indicate crustal involvement for the basalts, high Zr/Ba (0.5), Zr/Hf (42-47) and Th/U (3.13-4.69) values imply contributions from an asthenospheric source component. Furthermore, the high Zr/Hf values (>36) are the diagnostic feature of metasomatized mantle (Dupuy et al., 1992; Rudnick et al., 1993). Moreover, multi-element patterns show that Develidağ basalts have similar trace element signatures to those of the US Cascades tholeiites. The ratios of Zr/Hf, Zr/Ba, Nb/Th and Sr/Ce indicate that basaltic rocks are derived from a MORB-like mantle, and calculated melting model reflects generation from a spinel peridotite source (3-4% melting), but the combined effects of melting and assimilation and fractional crystallization (AFC) processes seem to be partially responsible for the relatively evolved rocks. Typical tholeiitic

  17. [A water-borne tularemia outbreak caused by Francisella tularensis subspecies holarctica in Central Anatolia region].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulu Kılıç, Ayşegül; Kılıç, Selçuk; Sencan, Irfan; Ciçek Şentürk, Gönül; Gürbüz, Yunus; Tütüncü, Emin Ediz; Celebi, Bekir; Kıcıman, Özlem; Ergönül, Önder

    2011-04-01

    In this study, we investigated a waterborne tularemia outbreak occured in Kadiozu, a village of Cerkes county of Cankiri province (located in North-west part of central Anatolia, Turkey) between 18 November 2009-24 December 2009. Active surveillance was conducted to determine clinical characteristics and risk factors of cases after two patients from the same village had been diagnosed as oropharyngeal tularemia. All villagers were examined, and clinical specimens from cases and water samples which may be the source of outbreak in the field investigations were taken. Cases were in the form of oropharyngeal, glandular and pneumonic. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and cultures were conducted from lymph node aspirates, throat swabs taken from cases and samples from water sources of epidemic zone. All serum samples taken from the villagers were screened for F.tularensis antibodies with microagglutination test (MAT). Oropharyngeal tularemia was diagnosed in 11 patients, glandular form in 3 patients and pneumonic form in one patient according to clinical and laboratory results. Age of the patients ranged between 6-75 years old (mean age: 52.5 years) and thirty one of them (54.7%) were female. MAT titers ranged between 1/160 and 1/5120 in cases of tularemia. Causative agent was grown in the cultures of two patients (including a throat swab and a lymph node aspirate). F.tularensis DNA was shown by PCR in a throat swab and four lymph node aspirates. F.tularensis was also detected by PCR in the water sample obtained from one of the spring water commonly used by villagers. Only one of the lymph node samples obtained from two different patients, was positive by direct fluorescent antibody method. Causative agent was defined as F.tularensis subsp. holarctica by conventional and also molecular methods. Patients were treated with aminoglycoside (streptomycin, gentamicin, amikacin) or quinolone (ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin) antibiotics. Treatment failure was observed in five

  18. Physical and microbiological properties of alluvial calcareous Çumra province soils (Central Anatolia, Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Sami Erol

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Alluvial calcareous soils in Central Anatolia (Konya province, Çumra district has a heavy granulometric composition (average clay, low organic carbon content (less than 1%, but stable pore space structure and favorable agrophysical properties. Studies of the water regime in drip irrigation confirm favorable hydrological properties of these soils. It is assumed that the favorable structure of the pore space due to vigorous activity a large and diverse soil biota. Four phyla dominate in soil biota, among which predominate Actinobacteria. The higher (Streptomyces, and lower (three species Rhodococcus actinobacteria are predominant in large amounts as a part of this phyla. Large biodiversity at a sufficiently high bacteria richness formed the structure of the microbial community that contribute to the balanced production of specific metabolites, including gases (CO2, N2, which allows the soil to function actively, preventing compaction of the pore space and maintaining optimal density, porosity, hydrologic properties of the studied silty clay soils. m the uppermost soil horizons. Analyses of heavy mineral fraction show presence of metamorphic and igneous minerals which indicate participation of weathering products from other rock types in the nearby area. The types of heavy minerals in soils depend more on composition of parent rocks and geomorphic position than on climate type. Soils from Nova Lovcha show similar composition, but the quantity of goethite and hematite significantly increase in soil from plain. Typical high-metamorphic minerals as andalusite, kyanite and sillimanite present only in Nova Lovcha, while garnet dominates in Petrovo and opaque minerals - in Dobrostan. Red soils, formed on slopes, where erosion prevails over accumulation, contain more illite, smectite and vermiculite-smectite, and very few or no kaolinite, whereas the kaolinite is dominant in soils formed on plain. The mineralogical composition of clays in different

  19. The Gediz River fluvial archive: A benchmark for Quaternary research in Western Anatolia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddy, D.; Veldkamp, A.; Demir, T.; van Gorp, W.; Wijbrans, J. R.; van Hinsbergen, D. J. J.; Dekkers, M. J.; Schreve, D.; Schoorl, J. M.; Scaife, R.; Stemerdink, C.; van der Schriek, T.; Bridgland, D. R.; Aytaç, A. S.

    2017-06-01

    The Gediz River, one of the principal rivers of Western Anatolia, has an extensive Pleistocene fluvial archive that potentially offers a unique window into fluvial system behaviour on the western margins of Asia during the Quaternary. In this paper we review our work on the Quaternary Gediz River Project (2001-2010) and present new data which leads to a revised stratigraphical model for the Early Pleistocene development of this fluvial system. In previous work we confirmed the preservation of eleven buried Early Pleistocene fluvial terraces of the Gediz River (designated GT11, the oldest and highest, to GT1, the youngest and lowest) which lie beneath the basalt-covered plateaux of the Kula Volcanic Province. Deciphering the information locked in this fluvial archive requires the construction of a robust geochronology. Fortunately, the Gediz archive provides ample opportunity for age-constraint based upon age estimates derived from basaltic lava flows that repeatedly entered the palaeo-Gediz valley floors. In this paper we present, for the first time, our complete dataset of 40Ar/39Ar age estimates and associated palaeomagnetic measurements. These data, which can be directly related to the underlying fluvial deposits, provide age constraints critical to our understanding of this sequence. The new chronology establishes the onset of Quaternary volcanism at ∼1320ka (MIS42). This volcanism, which is associated with GT6, confirms a pre-MIS42 age for terraces GT11-GT7. Evidence from the colluvial sequences directly overlying these early terraces suggests that they formed in response to hydrological and sediment budget changes forced by climate-driven vegetation change. The cyclic formation of terraces and their timing suggests they represent the obliquity-driven climate changes of the Early Pleistocene. By way of contrast the GT5-GT1 terrace sequence, constrained by a lava flow with an age estimate of ∼1247ka, span the time-interval MIS42 - MIS38 and therefore do not

  20. Magnetotelluric Imaging of Hasandaǧ-Karacadaǧ Monogenetic Cluster, Central Anatolia, Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uslular, Göksu; Bülent Tank, Sabri; Özaydın, Sinan; Karaş, Mustafa; Gençalioǧlu-Kuşcu, Gonca; Sandvol, Eric

    2017-04-01

    Hasandaǧ stratovolcano is one of the most devastating volcanic edifices in the Central Anatolia, Turkey. The volcano has been studied for decades but there is still no consensus on its origin. To provide new insight on Hasandaǧ, there is also a need for geophysical explorations (e.g. seismology, magnetotelluric-MT) within the region. As a part of collaborative multidisciplinary project (CD-CAT: Continental Dynamics/Central Anatolian Tectonics) funded by NSF, we conducted 25 MT (360 Hz - 0.0002 Hz) measurements to reveal the electrical conductivity structure of the volcanic region between Hasandaǧ and Karacadaǧ stratovolcanoes. By means of two- and three-dimensional numerical modelling attempts based on several state-of-the-art algorithms, the MT data were utilized to create SW-NE trending profiles that visualize to a depth of 50-km of the subsurface structure. Prior to two-dimensional modelling, dimensionality analyses (i.e. geo-electric strike angle determination following Groom and Bailey decomposition for single-site and multi-site cases, phase tensors and induction vectors) were performed. Preliminary findings lead us to suggest that (i) there is a highly conductive body from 20 km to 40 km depth beneath the monogenetic field (i.e. Eǧrikuyu) between Hasandaǧ and Karacadaǧ. This may correspond to the possible depth at which widespread mildly-alkaline basalts are formed due to the decompression melting of heterogeneous mantle (mixing of mostly subduction-modified lithospheric and partially upwelling asthenospheric). (ii) Relatively low conductive body at shallow depth possibly due to the presence of buried ignimbrite. (iii) One of the maar with a deep source (diatreme-like) may still store hot fluids that result from highly conductive body, and here would be a suitable prospect area for geothermal exploration. (iv) low to high conductivity boundary underneath the Tuz Gölü fault appear as a barrier for fluid flow.

  1. Kinematics of SW Anatolia implications on crustal deformation above slab tear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özkaptan, Murat; Koç, Ayten; Lefebvre, Côme; Gülyüz, Erhan; Uzel, Bora; Kaymakci, Nuretdin; Langereis, Cornelis G.; Özacar, Arda A.; Sözbilir, Hasan

    2014-05-01

    SW Anatolian tectonics are dominated mainly by emplacement of Lycian Nappes from north to south over the Beydaǧları platform during the early to middle Miocene, which followed by the development of the so called Fethiye Burdur Fault Zone (FBFZ). This fault zone is supposed to be a sinistral strike-slip fault zone that accommodated more than 100 km displacement between the Menderes Massif and the Beydaǧları platform during the exhumation of the Menderes Massif, mainly during the late Miocene. In addition, the FBFZ is collinear with the on-land NE continuation of the Pliny Trench along which the north subducting African slab is thought to be torn apart and retreated from somewhere around the apex of Isparta Angle to its present configuration as a STEP fault. In order to test already proposed evolutionary scenarios, and the feasibility of a STEP fault scenario and tectonic evolution of the region, we have conducted a rigorous paleomagnetic and kinematic study in the region containing more than 3000 paleomagnetic samples collected from 88 locations distributed evenly all over SW Anatolia and more than 2000 fault slip data measured mainly along the FBFZ. According to our preliminary results, except for some local insignificant clockwise rotations - the region underwent counter-clockwise rotation during the early to Late Miocene. The rotation senses and amounts are almost the same everywhere implying that rotation took place uniformly everywhere, as a rigid body rotation or the region underwent no internal rotational deformation. Likewise, rotations in the west and the east of FBFZ are similar for the post-late Miocene implying no internal rotational deformation. In addition to paleomagnetic data, the slickenside pitches and constructed paleostress configurations mainly along the FBFZ indicated that the faults within the FBFZ are mainly normal in character although minor lateral components are observed at the fault terminations or intersections. These fault slip

  2. Geodynamic Evolution of Subduction to Collision to Escape in Central Anatolia From Surface to Mantle - Results From the CD-CAT Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darin, Michael

    2017-04-01

    Despite significant progress toward understanding the kinematics of modern tectonic escape in Anatolia, considerable uncertainty remains regarding the dynamics of the transition from collision to escape. Because of the relatively small size of the Anatolia microplate, regional-scale studies spanning the plate margins and interior are well-suited to investigate the driving forces and space-time evolution of this unique tectonic transition in collisional orogens. CD-CAT (Continental Dynamics-Central Anatolia Tectonics) is a five-year (2011-2016) project funded by the National Science Foundation (USA) designed to explore the surface-to-mantle dynamics of Anatolia during the Cenozoic subduction-collision-escape transition in central Anatolia. Our approach integrates results from a diversity of methods including: structural, stratigraphic, and geomorphic analyses; magnetostratigraphy; low-temperature thermochronometry; Ar/Ar geochronology; geochemistry; passive seismic experiments (71 stations over two years); magnetotellurics; and numerical modeling. The principal results from this project include: recognition of a margin-wide magmatic lull from 40-20 Ma, followed by a southwestward migration of the initiation of magmatism toward and within the Central Anatolia Volcanic Province (CAVP); an early Miocene switch from contraction/transpression to extension/transtension in the Kırşehir and Niǧde Massifs, while contraction changed to late Miocene strike-slip deformation east of the Central Anatolian fault zone (CAFZ); rain shadow development due to uplift of the central Taurides 11-5 Ma; thin to absent lithospheric mantle beneath central Anatolia; the lack of an Arabia slab shallower than 800 km depth; and a change in the Cyprus slab from horizontal beneath the central Taurides and apparently fragmented beneath the CAVP, to very steeply dipping beneath the eastern Isparta Angle. The CAFZ lies along part of the Inner Tauride Suture (ITS) and represents a fundamental

  3. Post-Paleogene (post-Middle Eocene-pre-Miocene) Geodynamic evolution of the Upper Cretaceous-Paleogene Basins in Central Anatolia, Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojay, Bora

    2017-04-01

    Central Anatolia is one of the key areas on the evolution of Cretaceous-Paleogene Tethys where stratigraphy of the region is well studied. However not well linked with tectonics. The so-called "Ankara Mélange" belt (AOM) and the basins on top are important elements in the understanding of the İzmir-Ankara-Erzincan suture belt (İAES) evolution in Anatolia (Turkey) and in the evolution of Tethys in minor Asia (Turkey). Some of the basins are directly situated on top of the tectonic slices of the accretionary prism (IAES). However, some are not tectonically well explained as in the case of Haymana basin. The southern continental fragments (eg. Kütahya-Bolkardaǧ and Kırşehir blocks from Gondwana) are approaching to northern continents (Pontides of Lauriasia) where basins like Haymana, Alçı, Kırıkkale and Orhaniye extensional basins are evolved in between the closing margins of two continents. Haymana basin is an extensional basin developed under contractional regime on top of both northward subducting oceanic fragments and an approaching fragments of southern continents. Paleogene (end of Eocene) is the time where the Seas were retreated to S-SE Anatolia leaving a continental setting in Anatolia during Oligocene-Miocene. The slip data gathered from the faults cross-cutting the Paleogene Units and the fabric from Cretaceous mélanges depicts a NNW-SSE to NNE-SSW compressional stress regime operated during post-Eocene-pre-Miocene period. Lately the slip surfaces were overprinted by post-Pliocene normal faulting. Key words: fault slip data, Paleogene, NNW-SSE compression, Anatolia.

  4. The effect of the mineral dissolution and deformation of slope stability on nature terrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, J.; Chae, B.

    2012-12-01

    A landslide on nature terrane is mainly occurred by rainfall, snowmelt, earthquakes and rock/soil weathering process. Especially, the role of rainfall and rock/soil weathering in slope stability is very important because it causes decreased in shear strength by reducing the soil cohesion. Quartz is the most abundant crust-forming mineral on earth. This mineral contributes to the formation of crystalline rocks such as granite, gneiss, and sandstone. Therefore, in case of the slope consisted by granite, gneiss, and sandstone, the slope stability can be affected by the mineral weathering process such as mineral dissolution and deformation because the shear strength, one of the key factors to calculate the slope stability, can be reduced by mineral weathering. That is, mineral weathering including dissolution and deformation between the minerals can reduce the soil cohesion on nature terrane. Many studies have found that quartz exhibits a notably slow rate of dissolution at room temperature. Therefore, to achieve rapid dissolution at room temperature, other methods should be considered, including 1) expanding the surface area of quartz to increase the reaction area and 2) applying high pressure to the contact area of crystals to increase the dissolution rate. However, dissolution of the surface of quartz is difficult to observe when using powdered quartz to maximize the surface area. Therefore, we used beads and single quartz crystals to observe and analyze the dissolution of the surface. The former can be used to maximize the surface area of quartz, and high-pressure conditions can be applied to the latter. A confocal laser scanning microscope (CLSM) was subsequently used to observe the dissolution patterns on the quartz surface. Numerical analyses using the finite element method (FEM) were also performed to quantify the deformation of the contact area. Quartz dissolution was observed in both experiments. This deformation was due to a concentrated compressive stress

  5. Lithospheric discontinuities beneath the U.S. Midcontinent - signatures of Proterozoic terrane accretion and failed rifting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chen; Gilbert, Hersh; Fischer, Karen M.; Andronicos, Christopher L.; Pavlis, Gary L.; Hamburger, Michael W.; Marshak, Stephen; Larson, Timothy; Yang, Xiaotao

    2018-01-01

    Seismic discontinuities between the Moho and the inferred lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary (LAB) are known as mid-lithospheric discontinuities (MLDs) and have been ascribed to a variety of phenomena that are critical to understanding lithospheric growth and evolution. In this study, we used S-to-P converted waves recorded by the USArray Transportable Array and the OIINK (Ozarks-Illinois-Indiana-Kentucky) Flexible Array to investigate lithospheric structure beneath the central U.S. This region, a portion of North America's cratonic platform, provides an opportunity to explore how terrane accretion, cratonization, and subsequent rifting may have influenced lithospheric structure. The 3D common conversion point (CCP) volume produced by stacking back-projected Sp receiver functions reveals a general absence of negative converted phases at the depths of the LAB across much of the central U.S. This observation suggests a gradual velocity decrease between the lithosphere and asthenosphere. Within the lithosphere, the CCP stacks display negative arrivals at depths between 65 km and 125 km. We interpret these as MLDs resulting from the top of a layer of crystallized melts (sill-like igneous intrusions) or otherwise chemically modified lithosphere that is enriched in water and/or hydrous minerals. Chemical modification in this manner would cause a weak layer in the lithosphere that marks the MLDs. The depth and amplitude of negative MLD phases vary significantly both within and between the physiographic provinces of the midcontinent. Double, or overlapping, MLDs can be seen along Precambrian terrane boundaries and appear to result from stacked or imbricated lithospheric blocks. A prominent negative Sp phase can be clearly identified at 80 km depth within the Reelfoot Rift. This arrival aligns with the top of a zone of low shear-wave velocities, which suggests that it marks an unusually shallow seismic LAB for the midcontinent. This boundary would correspond to the top of a

  6. Temperature time evolution of the Assynt Terrane of the Lewisian Gneiss Complex of Northwest Scotland from zircon U-Pb dating and Ti thermometry

    OpenAIRE

    CROWLEY, QUENTIN

    2015-01-01

    The Lewisian Gneiss Complex of Northwest Scotland is a classic Precambrian basement gneiss complex. The Lewisian is divided into a number of terranes on the basis of structural, metamorphic and geochronological evidence. The most well-studied of these is the Assynt Terrane, which forms the central part of the Lewisian outcrop on the Scottish mainland. Field evidence shows that it has a complex tectonothermal history, the early stages of which remain poorly constrained. This paper sets out to ...

  7. Bokan Mountain peralkaline granitic complex, Alexander terrane (southeastern Alaska): evidence for Early Jurassic rifting prior to accretion with North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dostal, Jaroslav; Karl, Susan M.; Keppie, J. Duncan; Kontak, Daniel J.; Shellnutt, J. Gregory

    2013-01-01

    The circular Bokan Mountain complex (BMC) on southern Prince of Wales Island, southernmost Alaska, is a Jurassic peralkaline granitic intrusion about 3 km in diameter that crosscuts igneous and metasedimentary rocks of the Alexander terrane. The BMC hosts significant rare metal (rare earth elements, Y, U, Th, Zr, and Nb) mineralization related to the last stage of BMC emplacement. U–Pb (zircon) and 40Ar/39Ar (amphibole and whole-rock) geochronology indicates the following sequence of intrusive activity: (i) a Paleozoic basement composed mainly of 469 ± 4 Ma granitic rocks; (ii) intrusion of the BMC at 177 ± 1 Ma followed by rapid cooling through ca. 550 °C at 176 ± 1 Ma that was synchronous with mineralization associated with vertical, WNW-trending pegmatites, felsic dikes, and aegirine–fluorite veins and late-stage, sinistral shear deformation; and (iii) intrusion of crosscutting lamprophyre dikes at >150 Ma and again at ca. 105 Ma. The peralkaline nature of the BMC and the WNW trend of associated dikes suggest intrusion during NE–SW rifting that was followed by NE–SW shortening during the waning stages of BMC emplacement. The 177 Ma BMC was synchronous with other magmatic centres in the Alexander terrane, such as (1) the Dora Bay peralkaline stock and (2) the bimodal Moffatt volcanic suite located ∼30 km north and ∼100 km SE of the BMC, respectively. This regional magmatism is interpreted to represent a regional extensional event that precedes deposition of the Late Jurassic – Cretaceous Gravina sequence that oversteps the Wrangellia and Alexander exotic accreted terranes and the Taku and Yukon–Tanana pericratonic terranes of the Canadian–Alaskan Cordillera.

  8. O, Sr and Nd isotopic constraints on Cenozoic granitoids of Northwestern Anatolia, Turkey: Enrichment by subduction zone fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yücel-Öztürk, Yeşim

    2016-05-01

    The oxygen and strontium isotope compositions of Cenozoic granitoids cropping out in the İzmir-Ankara-Erzincan suture zone help constrain the petrological evolution of magmatism in northwest Anatolia. The magmatism was mostly widespread between late Eocene (∼37 Ma) and the middle Miocene (∼14-15 Ma), and is represented by volcanic and plutonic rocks of orogenic affinity, of which Ezine, Eğrigöz, Çataldağ and Kozak are the largest Tertiary granitic plutons exposed in northwest Anatolia. They vary from granite to granodiorite, and are subalkaline, belonging to the high-K calc-alkaline I-type granite series. All these characteristics, combined with major, trace element geochemical data as well as mineralogical and textural evidence, reveal that the Oligocene-Miocene granitoids of NW Anatolia are comparable with volcanic arc granites, formed in a transitional oceanic to continental collisional tectonic setting, from a hybrid source, having crustal and mantle components that underwent further interaction with the upper crust. These plutons have initial 87Sr/86Sr ratios of 0.7072-0.7094, and εNd(t) values ranging from -3.48 to -1.20. These characteristics also indicate that a crustal component played an important role in the petrogenesis of NW Anatolian Oligocene-Miocene granitoids. The moderately evolved Ezine, Eğrigöz, Çataldağ and Kozak granitoids, have δ18O values that are consistent with those of normal I-type granites (6-10‰), but the δ18O relationships among minerals of samples collected from the intrusive contacts which are closest to mineralized zones, indicate a major influence of hydrothermal processes under subsolidus conditions. The oxygen isotope systematics of the samples from these plutons result from the activity of high-δ18O fluids (magmatic water), with major involvement of low-δ18O fluids (meteoric water) evident, near the edge zone of these plutons. This is most evident in δ18O quartz-feldspar pairs from these granitoids, which

  9. North America as an exotic terrane'' and the origin of the Appalachian--Andean Mountain system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dalziel, I.W.D; Gahagan, L.M. (Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States). Inst. for Geophysics); Dalla Salda, L.H. (Univ. Nacional de La Plata, La Plata (Argentina). Centro de Investigaciones Geologicas)

    1992-01-01

    North America was sutured to Gondwana in the terminal Alleghanian event of Appalachian orogenesis, thus completing the late Paleozoic assembly of Pangea. The suggestion that the Pacific margins of East Antarctica-Australia and Laurentia may have been juxtaposed during the Neoproterozoic prompts reevaluation of the widely held assumptions that the ancestral Appalachian margin rifted from northwestern Africa during the earliest Paleozoic opening of Iapetus, and remained juxtaposed to that margin, even though widely separated from it at times, until the assembly of Pangea. The lower Paleozoic carbonate platform of northwestern Argentina has been known for a long time to contain Olenellid trilobites of the Pacific or Columbian realm. Although normally regarded as some kind of far-travelled terrane that originated along the Appalachian margin of Laurentia, it has recently been interpreted as a fragment detached from the Ouachita embayment of Laurentia following Taconic-Famatinian collision with Gondwana during the Ordovician. The Oaxaca terrane of Mexico, on the other hand, contains a Tremadocian trilobite fauna of Argentine-Bolivian affinities, and appears to have been detached from Gondwana following the same collision. The Wilson cycle'' of Iapetus ocean basin opening and closing along the Appalachian and Andean orogens may have involved more than one such continental collision during clockwise drift of Laurentia around South America following late Neoproterozoic to earliest Cambrian separation. Together with the collisions of baltic and smaller terranes with Laurentia, this could explain the protracted Paleozoic orogenic history of both the Appalachian and proto-Andean orogens.

  10. UTE park group and other meso proterozoic units of the Nico Perez terrane: Rodina connecting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaucher, C; Chemale, F.; Bossi, J.; Sial, A.; Chiglino, L.

    2010-01-01

    The Parque UTE Group is a volcano sedimentary succession metamorphosed in green schist facies, comprising (from base to top): the Canada Espinillo Formation (prasinites, pelites, andesite s), the Mina Valencia Formation (dolostones, limestones, marls) and the Cerro del Mast il Formation (black pelites, limestones, acid tuffs). Thickness of the GPU exceeds 2.5 km; base and top are not exposed. U-Pb zircon ages for basic magmatic rocks at the base and rhyolites at the top yielded 1492±4 and 1429±21 Ma, respectively. 13C values of carbonates of the Pug are characterized by a plateau at +1‰ VPDB, bracketed between two negative excursions.These values are consistent with an early Mesoproterozoic depositional age. Detrital zircon age spectra show that the source area of the GPU was the Nico Perez Terrane, being thus native to the Rio de la Plata Craton (Rpc). A Mesoproterozoic tectonic event at 1.25 Ga, recorded at both sides of the Sarandi del Yi mega shear, is discussed. New U-Pb zircon ages are presented for the La China Complex at its type area, where a schistosity N60W cuts the metamorphic banding and is parallel to thrusts dated K-Ar at 1253±32 Ma. The ages obtained are: 3096±45 Ma (main metamorphic event) and 1252 Ma (lower intercept). These data confirm the occurrence of a Grenvillian-aged tectonic event in Uruguay, suggesting that the RPC was part of the super continent Rodinia

  11. Paragneiss zircon geochronology and trace element geochemistry, North Qaidam HP/UHP terrane, western China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattinson, C.G.; Wooden, J.L.; Zhang, J.X.; Bird, D.K.

    2009-01-01

    In the southeastern part of the North Qaidam terrane, near Dulan, paragneiss hosts minor peridotite and UHP eclogite. Zircon geochronology and trace element geochemistry of three paragneiss samples (located within a ???3 km transect) indicates that eclogite-facies metamorphism resulted in variable degrees of zircon growth and recrystallization in the three samples. Inherited zircon core age groups at 1.8 and 2.5 Ga suggest that the protoliths of these rocks may have received sediments from the Yangtze or North China cratons. Mineral inclusions, depletion in HREE, and absence of negative Eu anomalies indicate that zircon U-Pb ages of 431 ?? 5 Ma and 426 ?? 4 Ma reflect eclogite-facies zircon growth in two of the samples. Ti-in-zircon thermometry results are tightly grouped at ???660 and ???600 ??C, respectively. Inclusions of metamorphic minerals, scarcity of inherited cores, and lack of isotopic or trace element inheritance demonstrate that significant new metamorphic zircon growth must have occurred. In contrast, zircon in the third sample is dominated by inherited grains, and rims show isotopic and trace element inheritance, suggesting solid-state recrystallization of detrital zircon with only minor new growth. ?? 2009 Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Post-peak metamorphic evolution of the Sumdo eclogite from the Lhasa terrane of southeast Tibet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Dadi; Cheng, Hao; Zhang, Lingmin; Wang, Ke

    2017-08-01

    A reconstruction of the pressure-temperature-time (P-T-t) path of high-pressure eclogite-facies rocks in subduction zones may reveal important information about the tectono-metamorphic processes that occur at great depths along the plate interface. The majority of studies have focused on prograde to peak metamorphism of these rocks, whereas after-peak metamorphism has received less attention. Herein, we present a detailed petrological, pseudosection modeling and radiometric dating study of a retrograded eclogite sample from the Sumdo ultrahigh pressure belt of the Lhasa terrane, Tibet. Mineral chemical variations, textural discontinuities and thermodynamic modeling suggest that the eclogite underwent an exhumation-heating period. Petrographic observations and phase equilibria modeling suggest that the garnet cores formed at the pressure peak (∼2.5 GPa and ∼520 °C) within the lawsonite eclogite-facies and garnet rims (∼1.5 GPa and spans an interval of ∼7 million years, which is a minimum estimate of the duration of the eclogite-facies metamorphism of the Sumdo eclogite.

  13. Using Multicriteria Decision Making Techniques in Free Zone for Facility Location Selection: An Example for Eastern Anatolia Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gökhan Ağaç

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Free Zones contribute to the prosperity of the region by increasing employment, attracting foreign capital, allowing technology transfer and increasing exports. In this study, an application of location selection was performed for a possible Free Zone established in provinces of Eastern Anatolia Region. For application of the study, AHP, TOPSIS, VIKOR and ELECTRE, which are multi criteria decision making techniques, were used. AHP was used for determine weights of the criteria that influence the Free Zone location selection while TOPSIS, VIKOR and ELECTRE methods were used to rank alternatives. Accordingly; the three most important criteria for the Free Zone location selection were proximity countries, quantity of exports and government incentives while first three provinces were respectively, Iğdır, Hakkâri and Van for Free Zone will be established.

  14. Hydrogeochemistry of the thermal waters from the Yenice Geothermal Field (Denizli Basin, Southwestern Anatolia, Turkey)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alçiçek, Hülya; Bülbül, Ali; Alçiçek, Mehmet Cihat

    2016-01-01

    The chemical and isotopic properties of thermal waters (Kamara and Çizmeli) and cold springs from the Yenice Geothermal Field (YGF), in southwestern Anatolia, Turkey are investigated in order to establish a conceptual hydrogeochemical-hydrogeological model. These thermal waters derive from Menderes metamorphic rocks and emerge along normal faults; they are commonly used for heating of greenhouses and bathing facilities. Discharge temperatures of thermal waters are 32 °C to 57 °C (mean 51 °C) for Kamara and 35 °C to 68 °C (mean 47 °C) for Çizmeli, whereas deep groundwaters are 15 °C to 20.1 °C (mean 17 °C) and shallow groundwaters are 12 to 16 °C (mean 15 °C). Kamara and Çizmeli thermal waters are mostly of Na-Ca-HCO3-SO4 type, whereas deep groundwaters are Ca-Mg-HCO3 and Mg-Ca-HCO3 types and shallow groundwaters are mainly Mg-Ca-SO4-HCO3 and Ca-Mg-HCO3 types. In the reservoir of the geothermal system, dissolution of host rock and ion-exchange reactions changes thermal water types. High correlation in some ionic ratios (e.g. Na vs. Cl, K vs. Cl, HCO3 vs. Cl) and high concentrations of some minor elements (e.g., As, Sr, B, Cl, F) in thermal waters likely derive from enhanced water-rock interaction. Water samples from YGF have not reached complete chemical re-equilibrium, possibly as a result mixing with groundwater during upward flow. Geothermal reservoir temperatures are calculated as 89-102 °C for Kamara and 87-102 °C for Çizmeli fields, based on the retrograde and prograde solubilities of anhydrite and chalcedony. Based on the isotope and chemical data, a conceptual hydrogeochemical-hydrogeological model of the YGF has been constructed. Very negative δ18O and δ2H isotopic ratios (Kamara: mean of - 8.43‰ and - 56.9‰, respectively and Çizmeli: mean of - 7.96‰ and - 53.7‰, respectively) and low tritium values (< 1 TU) reflect a deep circulation pathway and a meteoric origin. Subsequent heating by conduction in the high geothermal gradient

  15. Hydrothermal fluids circulation and travertine deposition in an active tectonic setting: Insights from the Kamara geothermal area (western Anatolia, Turkey)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brogi, Andrea; Alçiçek, M. Cihat; Yalçıner, Cahit Çağlar; Capezzuoli, Enrico; Liotta, Domenico; Meccheri, Marco; Rimondi, Valentina; Ruggieri, Giovanni; Gandin, Anna; Boschi, Chiara; Büyüksaraç, Aydin; Alçiçek, Hülya; Bülbül, Ali; Baykara, Mehmet Oruç; Shen, Chuan-Chou

    2016-06-01

    Coexistence of thermal springs, travertine deposits and tectonic activity is a recurring feature for most geothermal areas. Although such a certainty, their relationships are debated mainly addressing on the role of the tectonic activity in triggering and controlling fluids flow and travertine deposition. In this paper, we present the results of an integrated study carried out in a geothermal area located in western Anatolia (Turkey), nearby the well-known Pamukkale area (Denizli Basin). Our study focused on the relationships among hydrothermal fluids circulation, travertine deposition and tectonic activity, with particular emphasis on the role of faults in controlling fluids upwelling, thermal springs location and deposition of travertine masses. New field mapping and structural/kinematics analyses allowed us to recognize two main faults systems (NW- and NE-trending), framed in the Neogene-Quaternary extensional tectonic evolution of western Anatolia. A geo-radar (GPR) prospection was also provided in a key-area, permitting us to reconstruct a buried fault zone and its relationships with the development of a fissure-ridge travertine deposit (Kamara fissure-ridge). The integration among structural and geophysical studies, fluids inclusion, geochemical, isotopic data and 230 Th/238 U radiometric age determination on travertine deposits, depict the characteristics of the geothermal fluids and their pathway, up to the surface. Hydrological and seismological data have been also taken in account to investigate the relation between local seismicity and fluid upwelling. As a main conclusion we found strict relationships among tectonic activity, earthquakes occurrence, and variation of the physical/chemical features of the hydrothermal fluids, presently exploited at depth, or flowing out in thermal springs. In the same way, we underline the tectonic role in controlling the travertine deposition, making travertine (mainly banded travertine) a useful proxy to reconstruct the

  16. 3-D crustal structure along the North Anatolian Fault Zone in north-central Anatolia revealed by local earthquake tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yolsal-Ćevikbilen, Seda; Biryol, C. Berk; Beck, Susan; Zandt, George; Taymaz, Tuncay; Adıyaman, Hande E.; Özacar, A. Arda

    2012-03-01

    3-D P-wave velocity structure and Vp/Vs variations in the crust along the North Anatolian Fault Zone (NAFZ) in north-central Anatolia were investigated by the inversion of local P- and S-wave traveltimes, to gain a better understanding of the seismological characteristics of the region. The 3-D local earthquake tomography inversions included 5444 P- and 3200 S-wave readings obtained from 168 well-located earthquakes between 2006 January and 2008 May. Dense ray coverage yields good resolution, particularly in the central part of the study area. The 3-D Vp and Vp/Vs tomographic images reveal clear correlations with both the surface geology and significant tectonic units in the region. We observed the lower limit of the seismogenic zone for north-central Anatolia at 15 km depth. Final earthquake locations display a distributed pattern throughout the study area, with most of the earthquakes occurring on the major splays of the NAFZ, rather than its master strand. We identify three major high-velocity blocks in the mid-crust separated by the İzmir-Ankara-Erzincan Suture and interpret these blocks to be continental basement fragments that were accreted onto the margin following the closure of Neo-Tethyan Ocean. These basement blocks may have in part influenced the rupture propagations of the historical 1939, 1942 and 1943 earthquakes. In addition, large variations in the Vp/Vs ratio in the mid-crust were observed and have been correlated with the varying fluid contents of the existing lithologies and related tectonic structures.

  17. A 6-year investigation into types of dental trauma treated in a paediatric dentistry clinic in Eastern Anatolia region, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyuboglu, Ozge; Yilmaz, Yucel; Zehir, Cigdem; Sahin, Hakan

    2009-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the frequency, the effective factors and the applied treatments for dental trauma among children aged 1-15 years from Eastern Anatolia in a 6-year period. The total frequency of trauma in this study was calculated as 4.9% during a 6-year period. The males were found to have more traumatic injury than females (P < 0.05). Also, the permanent teeth were more vulnerable to dental trauma than the primary teeth (P < 0.05). The highest frequency of traumas in the primary teeth was observed at the age of 5, whereas the rate for the permanent teeth was at the age of 10. The teeth mostly influenced by the traumas were the upper central incisors in both primary and permanent teeth. It was in October that traumas were mostly seen for the permanent teeth and in June for the primary teeth. The most frequent source of trauma in both genders and in both primary and permanent teeth were falls. The most common type of trauma in the primary teeth was lateral luxation, while it was enamel-dentin crown fracture in the permanent ones. Soft tissue injuries were observed in 143 of 653 dental traumatized children. The most common method of treatment was examination and follow up for the primary teeth, and only direct restoration for the permanent teeth without any endodontic treatment. 15% of the patients applied for treatment 1 year after injury event. Therefore, it was concluded that the patients, parents and teachers living in Eastern Anatolia should be informed about the necessity of early treatment of dental traumas and the consequence of a delay.

  18. Extensional and compressional regime driven left-lateral shear in southwestern Anatolia (eastern Mediterranean): The Burdur-Fethiye Shear Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elitez, İrem; Yaltırak, Cenk; Aktuğ, Bahadır

    2016-10-01

    The tectonic framework of the eastern Mediterranean presented in this paper is based on an active subduction and small underwater hills/mountains on the oceanic crust moving toward the north. The Hellenic Arc, the Anaximander Mountains, the Rhodes and Finike basins, the compressional southern regions of the Western Taurides, and the extensional western Anatolian graben are the main interrelated tectonic structures that are shaped by the complex tectonic regimes. There are still heated debates regarding the structural properties and tectonic evolution of the southwestern Anatolia. GPS velocities and focal mechanisms of earthquakes demonstrate the absence of a single transform fault across the Burdur-Fethiye region; however, hundreds of small faults showing normal and left-lateral oblique slip indicate the presence of a regionally extensive shear zone in southwestern Turkey, which plays an important role in the eastern Mediterranean tectonics. The 300-km-long, 75-90-km-wide NE-SW-trending Burdur-Fethiye Shear Zone developed during the formation of Aegean back-arc extensional system and the thrusting of Western Taurides. Today, the left-lateral differential motion across the Burdur-Fethiye Shear Zone varies from 3 to 4 mm/yr in the north to 8-10 mm/yr in the south. This finding could be attributed to the fact that while the subduction of the African Plate is relatively fast beneath the western Anatolia at the Hellenic Trench, it is slow or locked beneath the Western Taurides. Therefore, the GPS vectors and their distributions on land indicate remarkable velocity differences and enable us to determine the left-lateral shear zone located between the extensional and compressional blocks. Furthermore, this active tectonic regime creates differences in topography. This study also demonstrates how deep structures, such as the continuation of the subduction transform edge propagator (STEP) fault between the Hellenic and Cyprus arcs in the continental area, can come into play

  19. Geology and Tectonic Evolution of the Kazdaǧ Massif (NW Anatolia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdoğan, B.; Akay, E.; Hasözbek, A.; Satır, M.; Siebel, W.

    2009-04-01

    In the northwestern part of Anatolia along the Izmir-Ankara Suture Zone, the Kazdağ and Uludağ metamorphic massifs form an E-W trending belt between the Sakarya Continent in the north and the Menderes Massif in the south. Internal succession of these two massifs have been described as metamorphic complexes consisting of various kinds of micaschists, quartz mica schist, gneisses, amphibolites and marbles. In the Kazdağ metamorphics, metaophiolites have been described additionally (Okay et al., 1991; Yaltırak and Okay, 1994; Okay et al., 1996; Duru et al., 2004). These metamorphic complexes were considered to form the basement of the Sakarya Continent tectonically overlain by the Early Permian (Topuz et al., 2004) to Late Triassic (Okay and Monie, 1997; Okay et al., 2002) Karakaya Complex. This old basement and the Karakaya Complex were suggested to be unconformably overlain by Liassic and younger platform limestones and detritals (Altıner et al., 1991). In the literature, it has also been suggested that the Kazdağ Massif had experienced polyphase metamorphism, first during Carboniferous time, second during Early Triassic and third during Tertiary (Bingöl, 1971; Okay et al., 1996; Okay and Satır, 2000). In this study we mapped the Kazdağ Massif on 1/25000 scale, studied its internal stratigraphy and structures and performed some petrologic analyses and radiogenic age determinations. Stratigraphically in the lower part of the Kazdağ metamorphic sequence, there is a part of an oceanic crust represented by metaultramafic rocks and gabbroic metacumulates. Geochemistry of these banded metagabbros show a mid-oceanic affinity. This oceanic crust is overlain, along an unconformity, by a platform type marble succession. At the base of the marbles, there is a basal conglomerate, clasts of which derived from the underlying ultramafic sequence. Thick white marble sequence is overlain along a gradational boundary with a metadetrital succession consisting of quartz mica

  20. Combined U-Pb SHRIMP and Hf isotope study of the Late Paleozoic Yaminué Complex, Rio Negro Province, Argentina: Implications for the origin and evolution of the Patagonia composite terrane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos J. Chernicoff

    2013-01-01

    Combining geological and isotope data, as well as geophysical models, we identify the Yaminué Complex within the La Esperanza-Yaminué crustal block flanked by two other, distinct crustal blocks: the Eastern block which forms part of the Patagonia terrane sensu stricto, located in the eastern Patagonian region, and the Western block forming part of the Southern Patagonia terrane. Their origins and timing of amalgamation to form the Patagonia composite terrane are also discussed.

  1. Park Volcanics, Murihiku Terrane, New Zealand : petrology, petrochemistry, and tectonic significance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coombs, D.S.; Cook, N.D.J.; Kawachi, Y.; Johnstone, R.D.; Gibson, I.L.

    1996-01-01

    The Late Triassic to Early Jurassic Park Volcanics Group comprises minor shallow intrusive and extrusive bodies emplaced during mainly marine sedimentation of the Murihiku Terrane, southern New Zealand. Gowan Andesite in western Southland and Glenham Porphyry andesites in eastern Southland are high-K andesites. Glassy examples have commonly lost K during alteration. Orthoclase contents of Or 3.6-3.7 in plagioclase phenocrysts at An 50 confirm the high-K nature of the melts at the time of phenocryst crystallisation. The Gowan andesites have higher Fe/Mg than the Glenham and related differences in minor element chemistry suggesting lower ∫O 2 during fractionation of the parent magma. Pinney Volcanics in western Southland are mostly high-K trachydacites but, like Glenham Porphyry, include minor rhyolite. Barnicoat Andesite in the Nelson area is medium-K olivine andesite, marginally tholeiitic in terms of its FeO*/MgO versus SiO 2 behaviour, but otherwise is typically calc-alkaline, as are the Gowan, Glenham, and Pinney. Analyses of pyroxenes (augites, orthopyroxenes, reaction rim and groundmass pigeonites) reveal xenocrysts recording an early stage of magma fractionation, slight iron enrichment in the andesite stage, and lowered Fe/Mg and increased Ca contents in augites of the most felsic rocks. Titanian tschermakite and titanian magnesio-tschermakite of deep-seated origin participated in fractionation leading to the Pinney Volcanics, and magnesio-hornblende, edenite, and biotite crystallised as minor late stage minerals following high-level emplacement of Gowan Andesite and siliceous Glenham Porphyry members. Low 87 Sr/ 86 Sr ratios (c. 0.7034-0.7037), REE and multi-element distribution patterns, and the mineralogical features collectively suggest fractionation of the andesites from parental basalt originating in an enriched mantle wedge above a subduction zone, with minimal contamination by continental crust. High-K andesites appear to be unknown in clearly

  2. Ultramafic Terranes and Associated Springs as Analogs for Mars and Early Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, David; Schulte, Mitch; Cullings, Ken; DeVincezi, D. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Putative extinct or extant Martian organisms, like their terrestrial counterparts, must adopt metabolic strategies based on the environments in which they live. In order for organisms to derive metabolic energy from the natural environment (Martian or terrestrial), a state of thermodynamic disequilibrium must exist. The most widespread environment of chemical disequilibrium on present-day Earth results from the interaction of mafic rocks of the ocean crust with liquid water. Such environments were even more pervasive and important on the Archean Earth due to increased geothermal heat flow and the absence of widespread continental crust formation. The composition of the lower crust and upper mantle of the Earth is essentially the-same as that of Mars, and the early histories of these two planets are similar. It follows that a knowledge of the mineralogy, water-rock chemistry and microbial ecology of Earth's oceanic crust could be of great value in devising a search strategy for evidence of past or present life on Mars. In some tectonic regimes, cross-sections of lower oceanic crust and upper mantle are exposed on land as so-called "ophiolite suites." Such is the case in the state of California (USA) as a result of its location adjacent to active plate margins. These mafic and ultramafic rocks contain numerous springs that offer an easily accessible field laboratory for studying water/rock interactions and the microbial communities that are supported by the resulting geochemical energy. A preliminary screen of Archaean biodiversity was conducted in a cold spring located in a presently serpentinizing ultramafic terrane. PCR and phylogenetic analysis of partial 16s rRNA, sequences were performed on water and sediment samples. Archaea of recent phylogenetic origin were detected with sequences nearly identical to those of organisms living in ultra-high pH lakes of Africa.

  3. Precambrian Terranes of African affinities in the southeastern part of Brazil and Uruguay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preciozzi, F.; Basei, M.; Siga Junior, H.; Sato, K.; Kaufuss, G.

    2006-01-01

    The interest in correlating terranes at opposite margins of the South Atlantic Ocean reflects a natural curiosity of both researchers who work in the eastern South-America and who study southwestern Africa. On a large scale scenario the geology of this region is characterized by a central portion composed of Neoproterozoic-Cambrian belts (Dom Feliciano, Kao ko, Damara, Gariep, Saldania) having on each side old gneissic-migmatitic terrains on both continents (Luis Alves, Rio de La Plata, Kalahari and Congo). In South America the Neoproterozoic Dom Feliciano Belt (DFB) predominates in the eastern part of the region and is internally organized according to three different crustal segments characterized, from southeast to northwest, by a Granite belt (deformed I-type medium to high calc-alkaline granites and alkaline granitoid rocks; a Schist belt (volcano-sedimentary rocks metamorphosed from green schist to amphibolite facies and intrusive granitoids), and a Fore land basin (anchimetamorphic sedimentary and volcanic rocks), the latter situated between the Schist belt and the Archean-Paleoproterozoic fore land. Despite discontinuously covered by younger sediments, the NS continuity of these three crustal segments is suggested by similar lithotypes, structural characteristics, ages and isotopic signature, as well as by the gravimetric data. The Major Gercino, Cordilheira, and Sierra Ballena shear zones are part of the major NE-SW lineaments that affect all southern Brazilian and Uruguayan Precambrian terrains. They separate the Dom Feliciano Schist Belt (supra crustal rocks of the Brusque-Porongos and Lavalleja groups), to the West, from the granitoids of the Granite belt, to the East. The shear zones are characterized by a regional NE trend and a resultant oblique direction of movement where ductile-brittle structures predominate

  4. A geologic guide to Wrangell-Saint Elias National Park and Preserve, Alaska; a tectonic collage of northbound terranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler, Gary R.; with contributions by MacKevett, E. M.; Plafker, George; Richter, D.H.; Rosenkrans, D.S.; Schmoll, H.R.

    2000-01-01

    Wrangell-Saint Elias National Park and Preserve, the largest unit in the U.S. National Park System, encompasses near 13.2 million acres of geological wonderments. This geologic guide presents history of exploration and Earth-science investigation; describes the complex geologic makeup; characterizes the vast college of accretion geologic terranes in this area of Alaska's continental margin; recapitulates the effects of earthquakes, volcanoes, and glaciers; characterizes the copper and gold resources of the parklands; and describes outstanding locales within the park and preserve area. A glossary of geologic terms and a categorized list of additional sources of information complete this report.

  5. Late Cretaceous tectonothermal evolution of the southern Lhasa terrane, South Tibet: Consequence of a Mesozoic Andean-type orogeny

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Xin; Zhang, Ze-ming; Klemd, Reiner; He, Zhen-yu; Tian, Zuo-lin

    2018-04-01

    The Lhasa terrane of the southern Tibetan Plateau participated in a Mesozoic Andean-type orogeny caused by the northward subduction of the Neo-Tethyan oceanic lithosphere. However, metamorphic rocks, which can unravel details of the geodynamic evolution, are rare and only exposed in the south-eastern part of the Lhasa terrane. Therefore, we conducted a detailed petrological, geochemical and U-Pb zircon geochronological study of the late Cretaceous metamorphic rocks and associated gabbros from the Nyemo inlier of the southern Lhasa terrane. The Nyemo metamorphic rocks including gneisses, schists, marbles and calc-silicate rocks, experienced peak amphibolite-facies contact metamorphism under P-T conditions of 3.5-4.0 kbar and 642-657 °C with a very high geothermal gradient of 45-50 °C/km, revealing a distinct deflection from the steady-state geotherm during low-pressure metamorphism. Inherited magmatic zircon cores from the metamorphic rocks yielded protolith ages of 197-194 Ma, while overgrowth zircon rims yielded metamorphic ages of ca. 86 Ma. Whole-rock chemistry and zircon Hf isotopes suggest that the protoliths of the gneisses and schists are andesites and tuffs of the early Jurassic Sangri Group, which were derived from a depleted mantle source of a continental arc affinity. The coeval intimately-associated gabbro (ca. 86 Ma) crystallized under P-T conditions of 3.5-5.3 kbar and 914-970 °C, supplying the heat flux high enough to cause the contact metamorphism of the Sangri Group rock types. We propose that the intrusion of the gabbro and a simultaneous pressure increase of up to 4.0 kbar, which is related to crustal thickening due to crustal overthrusting and the intrusion of mafic material, resulted in the late Cretaceous metamorphism of the early Jurassic Sangri Group during an Andean-type orogeny. Furthermore the Nyemo metamorphic rocks, which have previously been considered to represent slivers of the Precambrian metamorphic basement of the Lhasa terrane

  6. Silicone chain extender

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    The present invention relates to a silicone chain extender, more particularly a chain extender for silicone polymers and copolymers, to a chain extended silicone polymer or copolymer and to a functionalized chain extended silicone polymer or copolymer, to a method for the preparation thereof...

  7. Comparison of Conventional, Trace Element, and Pseudosection Thermobarometry in UHP Eclogite, North Qaidam Terrane, Western China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattinson, C. G.; Regel, M. E.; Zhang, J.

    2014-12-01

    In the southeastern North Qaidam terrane, near Dulan, felsic host gneisses enclose minor eclogite lenses. A small (~3°C/km) increase in temperatures to the west based on Zr-in-Rt thermometry is supported by a textural trend of zoned garnet with prograde mineral inclusions in the west to unzoned garnet with only peak-stage inclusions in the east. A western eclogite sample contains minor Ep and trace Phe in addition to Grt-Omp-Qtz-Rt; a strong foliation is defined by banding of Grt and Omp. Garnet Ca falls significantly from core (Alm44Prp23Grs32) to rim (Alm48Prp27Grs23). Phengite contains 3.34-3.36 Si pfu. Conventional Grt-Omp-Phe thermobarometry yields 23-27 kbar, 660-730°C, and Zr-in-Rt thermometry yields 671 ± 9°C (n = 37). An isochemical phase diagram (pseudosection) for the system NCKFMASHO calculated with PerpleX indicates that garnet Xgrs decreases with increasing P and T, suggesting that observed garnet zoning reflects prograde growth. Garnet rim compositional isopleths intersect at 23-27 kbar, 580-620°C, depending on choice of effective bulk composition and assumed Fe3+/Fetotal. Garnet rims help define the foliation, suggesting that these P-T conditions apply to this deformation. An eastern eclogite sample contains minor Ep and abundant, coarse-grained Phe in addition to Grt-Omp-Qtz-Rt; foliation is weak. Garnet zoning is weak; compositions are Alm41-43Prp26-28Grs29-32. Phengite cores contain 3.48-3.56 Si pfu. Conventional Grt-Omp-Phe thermobarometry yields 32-36 kbar, 700-750°C, and Zr-in-Rt thermometry yields 691 ± 12°C (n = 34). Conventional thermobarometry and pseudosections yield similar peak P-T conditions, but from different mineral compositions: thermobarometry yields peak P from high-Ca Grt, but the pseudosection yields peak P from intermediate-Ca Grt; maximum Ca in Grt is predicted at lower P and T. Pseudosection-based peak Ts are significantly lower than those from Zr-in-Rt and conventional thermometry. Wide isopleth spacing in the

  8. Record of high-pressure overprint in metamorphic soles of the Tavşanli zone, Western Anatolia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plunder, Alexis; Agard, Philippe; Chopin, Christian; Okay, Aral

    2013-04-01

    Large obducted ophiolites correspond to the emplacement of dense oceanic lithosphere on top of a continent and thereby provide insights into rheological and thermal coupling between plates or fluid budgets. Obducted ophiolites thrust onto the continental margin of the Anatolide-Tauride block (Western Anatolia, south of the Izmir-Ankara suture zone) are dated through their metamorphic sole at ca. 90-95Ma and derive from the same intra-oceanic Neotethyan subduction. We herein focus on the metamorphic soles of the Tavşanlı zone, which show a variable high-pressure low-temperature (HP-LT) overprint of the initial amphibolitic metamorphic conditions (Önen & Hall, 1993; Dilek & Whitney, 1997; Okay et al, 1998). Systematic sampling was done in both the already studied areas as well as new locations. PT conditions were estimated at 8 kbar and 700°C for the amphibolitic stage with the assemblage hornblende + plagioclase ± garnet ± epidote. The HP-LT metamorphic overprint reached incipient blueschist to blueschist facies PT conditions. Development of the characteristic assemblage glaucophane + lawsonite yields PT estimates of >6-7 kbar and 300°C. The high-pressure stage is similar to the one observed for the underlying accretionary-complex unit of the Tavşanlı zone (Plunder et al, this meeting). This HP overprint was not observed in other obduction contexts such as Oman or New Caledonia but was documented in Fransciscan Complex amphibolites (Wakayabashi, 1990). The record of two metamorphic events can be understood as: (1) rapid cooling of the subduction zone after initiation and the exhumation of the metamorphic sole; (2) reburial after or during exhumation of the amphibolite initially welded at the base of the ophiolite. Several observations (i.e., lack of tectonic contact between the ophiolitic body and the metamorphic sole, PT estimates,...) point to cooling as the most likely hypothesis. Metamorphic soles allow to highlight: (1) the dynamics of obducted

  9. Old stories and lost pieces of the Eastern Mediterranean puzzle: a new approach to the tectonic evolution of the Western Anatolia and the Aegean Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaltırak, Cenk; Engin Aksu, Ali; Hall, Jeremy; Elitez, İrem

    2015-04-01

    During the last 20 or so years, the tectonic evolution of Aegean Sea and Western Anatolia has been dominantly explained by back-arc extension and escape tectonics along the North Anatolian Fault. Various datasets have been considered in the construction of general tectonic models, including the geometry of fault patterns, paleomagnetic data, extensional directions of the core complexes, characteristic changes in magmatism and volcanism, the different sense of Miocene rotation between the opposite sides of the Aegean Sea, and the stratigraphy and position of the Miocene and Pliocene-Quaternary basins. In these models, the roles of the Burdur-Fethiye Shear Zone, the Trakya-Eskişehir Fault Zone, the Anaximander Mountains and Isparta Angle have almost never been taken into consideration. The holistic evaluation of numerous land and marine researches in the Aegean Sea and western Anatolia suggest the following evolutionary stages: 1. during the early Miocene, Greece and western Anatolia were deformed under the NE-SW extensional tectonics associated with the back-arc extension, when core complexes and supra-detachment basins developed, 2. following the collision of the Anaximander Mountains and western Anatolia in early Miocene , the Isparta Angle locked this side of the western arc by generating a triangle-shaped compressional structure, 3. while the Isparta Angle penetrated into the Anatolia, the NE-striking Burdur-Fethiye Shear Zone in the west and NW-striking Trakya-Eskişehir Fault Zone in the north developed along the paleo-tectonic zones , 4. the formation of these two tectonic structures allowed the counterclockwise rotation of the western Anatolia in the middle Miocene and this rotation removed the effect of the back-arc extension on the western Anatolian Block, 5. the counterclockwise rotation developed with the early westward escape of the Western Anatolian reached up to 35-40o and Trakya-Eskişehir Fault Zone created a total dextral displacement of about 200

  10. Post-collisional basalts of the Acampamento Velho Formation, Camaquã Basin, São Gabriel Terrane, southernmost Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Alberto Vedana

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The basic volcanic rocks in the Palma region, southern portion of the São Gabriel Terrane, have always been interpreted as generated during the active subduction period of the São Gabriel orogeny (Cryogenian. This terrane was built as the result of the Charrua Ocean closure between 900-680 Ma. The basalts show a subhorizontal igneous flow foliation and porphyritic texture, with plagioclase phenocrysts in a thin matrix composed of plagioclase, augite and magnetite, commonly altered to actinolite, chlorite and epidote. They have amygdales and veinlets reflecting a pervasive hydrothermal phase and are affected by thermal metamorphism related to Jaguari granite intrusion. Two samples were dated by the U-Pb zircon geochronology and yielded crystallization ages of 563±2 Ma and 573±6 Ma. The basalts have transitional composition from tholeiitic to calc-alkaline, metaluminous character, trace elements patterns rich in large-ion lithophile element (LILE with negative anomalies of Nb, P and Ti, slight enrichment in light rare-earth elements (LREE and horizontal pattern of heavy rare earth elements (HREE. The data allow interpreting the basalts as belonging to the Acampamento Velho Formation of the Camaquã Basin, and related to the basalts of the Ramada and Taquarembó plateaus. These associations represent the final evolution of the volcanism generated in the post-collisional period of the Dom Feliciano Belt.

  11. 40Ar/39Ar incremental-release ages of biotite from a progressively remetamorphosed Archean basement terrane in southwestern Labrador

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dallmeyer, R.D.

    1982-01-01

    Gneisses within Archean basement terrane adjacent to the southwestern portion of the Labrador Trough were variably retrograded during a regional metamorphism of Grenville age (ca. 1000 Ma). Bioties from non-retrograded segments of the gneiss terrane record 40 Ar/ 39 Ar plateau and isochron ages which date times of cooling following an episode of the Kenoran orogeny (2376-2391 Ma). A suite of gneiss samples displaying varying degrees of retrograde alteration was collected across the Grenville metamorphic gradient. Bioties in these samples show no petrographic evidence of retrograde alteration, however they do record internally discordant 40 Ar/ 39 Ar age spectra. Although the extent of internal discordance is variable, the overall character of the release patterns is similar with younger apparent ages recorded in intermediate-temperature gas fractions. The total-gas dates range from 2257+-27 Ma (northwest) to 1751+-23 Ma (southeast), suggesting that variable quantities of radiogenic argon were lost from the Archean biotites during Grenville metamorphism. The 'saddle-shaped' nature of the discordant spectra indicates that argon loss was not accomplished through single-stage, volume diffusion processes. (orig./ME)

  12. Development and application of a soil organic matter-based soil quality index in mineralized terrane of the Western US

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blecker, S.W.; Stillings, Lisa L.; Amacher, M.C.; Ippolito, J.A.; DeCrappeo, N.M.

    2013-01-01

    Soil quality indices provide a means of distilling large amounts of data into a single metric that evaluates the soil’s ability to carry out key ecosystem functions. Primarily developed in agroecosytems, then forested ecosystems, an index using the relation between soil organic matter and other key soil properties in more semi-arid systems of the Western US impacted by different geologic mineralization was developed. Three different sites in two different mineralization types, acid sulfate and Cu/Mo porphyry in California and Nevada, were studied. Soil samples were collected from undisturbed soils in both mineralized and nearby unmineralized terrane as well as waste rock and tailings. Eight different microbial parameters (carbon substrate utilization, microbial biomass-C, mineralized-C, mineralized-N and enzyme activities of acid phosphatase, alkaline phosphatase, arylsulfatase, and fluorescein diacetate) along with a number of physicochemical parameters were measured. Multiple linear regression models between these parameters and both total organic carbon and total nitrogen were developed, using the ratio of predicted to measured values as the soil quality index. In most instances, pooling unmineralized and mineralized soil data within a given study site resulted in lower model correlations. Enzyme activity was a consistent explanatory variable in the models across the study sites. Though similar indicators were significant in models across different mineralization types, pooling data across sites inhibited model differentiation of undisturbed and disturbed sites. This procedure could be used to monitor recovery of disturbed systems in mineralized terrane and help link scientific and management disciplines.

  13. The Konya earthquakes of 10–11 September 2009 and soil conditions in Konya, Central Anatolia, Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Aksoy

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Earthquakes registering magnitudes Md = 4.5 and 4.7 struck the city of Konya, Central Anatolia, on 10–11 September 2009, causing very slight damages. The earthquake epicenters were located at the east of Sille District along the Konya Fault Zone, a dip-slip fault. The nature and seismicity of the fault zone indicates that it is capable of producing earthquakes of moderate magnitudes. This paper summarizes the geologic data along the fault zone and documents groundwater conditions and analyzes borehole and geotechnical data of the Konya city. The residential area of the city covers an area of approximately 1150 square kilometers and consists almost entirely of flat land except for a small part of rugged land in the southwestern corner. Groundwater and geotechnical data were collected and analyzed to evaluate the liquefaction potential of deposits under the Konya city. This preliminary investigation indicates that areas for liquefaction are generally limited to the eastern and east central parts of the city.

  14. Naturally occurring arsenic in terrestrial geothermal systems of western Anatolia, Turkey: potential role in contamination of freshwater resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bundschuh, Jochen; Maity, Jyoti Prakash; Nath, Bibhash; Baba, Alper; Gunduz, Orhan; Kulp, Thomas R; Jean, Jiin-Shuh; Kar, Sandeep; Yang, Huai-Jen; Tseng, Yu-Jung; Bhattacharya, Prosun; Chen, Chien-Yen

    2013-11-15

    Arsenic (As) contamination in terrestrial geothermal systems has been identified in many countries worldwide. Concentrations higher than 0.01 mg/L are detrimental to human health. We examined potential consequences for As contamination of freshwater resources based on hydrogeochemical investigations of geothermal waters in deep wells and hot springs collected from western Anatolia, Turkey. We analyzed samples for major ions and trace element concentrations. Temperature of geothermal waters in deep wells showed extreme ranges (40 and 230 °C), while, temperature of hot spring fluids was up to 90 °C. The Piper plot illustrated two dominant water types: Na-HCO3(-) type for geothermal waters in deep wells and Ca-HCO3(-) type for hot spring fluids. Arsenic concentration ranged from 0.03 to 1.5mg/L. Dominance of reduced As species, i.e., As(III), was observed in our samples. The Eh value ranged between -250 and 119 mV, which suggests diverse geochemical conditions. Some of the measured trace elements were found above the World Health Organization guidelines and Turkish national safe drinking water limits. The variation in pH (range: 6.4-9.3) and As in geothermal waters suggest mixing with groundwater. Mixing of geothermal waters is primarily responsible for contamination of freshwater resources and making them unsuitable for drinking or irrigation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. New Geochronology and Radiometric Age Dates Improve the Definition and Continuity of Accreted Tectonic Terranes of Northern Venezuela and the Lesser Antilles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baquero, M.; Mann, P.; Audemard, F. A.

    2017-12-01

    We use new and compiled geochronology and radiometric dates from the area of Venezuela to Tobago to define the following crustal provinces: 1) Guyana shield forms a sub-circular area of Pan-African rocks against which all younger terranes have collided and partially assumed its rounded shape: ages for the Guyana Shield range from >3.4 Ga to 1.8 Ga; 2) accreted Paleozoic rocks form a sub-circular, largely buried province that surround the Guiana Shield to the north and west; the El Pilar strike-slip fault forms the abrupt, northern limit of the Precambrian-Paleozoic craton in Venezuela characterized by crustal thicknesses of 40-50 km; 3) the Early to Late Cretaceous Great Arc of the Caribbean forms a continuous basement high that can be traced from northern Colombia, through the ABC Islands to La Blanquilla Island, and north along the Aves Ridge to the Greater Antilles; ages of the GAC generally are in the range of Late Cretaceous to early Eocene and have geochemistry consistent with intra-oceanic island arcs or oceanic plateau rocks with the exception of La Orchila Island with a Paleozoic intrusive age; the GAC collided from west to east with the passive margin of South America from Paleocene in western Venezuela to Plio-Pleistocene in the Trinidad area and marks the west to east passage of the Caribbean plate past the South American plate; 4) a post-GAC rifting event affected the GAC-South America suture from late Eocene to middle Miocene time in the Falcón Basin of western Venezuela with ages on intrusive and volcanic from 34 to 15.4 Ma; these ages are coeval with intrusive ages from the southernmost Lesser Antilles on Los Frailes and Los Testigos Islands and range from 35.7±2.6 to 36.4±0.5 Ma; the age of the intervening basin, the Bonaire basin, is poorly known but may be coeval with the Oligocene-Miocene extension that extended the suture zone in western Venezuela and extended the Lesser Antilles arc in early Middle Miocene time to form the Lesser Antilles

  16. Extended Enterprise performance Management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bobbink, Maria Lammerdina; Hartmann, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    The allegiance of partnering organisations and their employees to an Extended Enterprise performance is its proverbial sword of Damocles. Literature on Extended Enterprises focuses on collaboration, inter-organizational integration and learning to avoid diminishing or missing allegiance becoming an

  17. Syndrome of extended shadow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ginzburg, M.A.

    1987-01-01

    Syndrome of extended shadow is characterized by large (more than one lobe) or total shadow of the lung area. A detailed roentgenological characteristic and intrasyndrome differential diagnosis of extended shadows is given. Ethiology, pathogenesis and pathomorphology as well as clinical picture and methods of investigation of extended shadows are discussed

  18. Perspectives on extended Deterrence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tertrais, Bruno; Yost, David S.; Bunn, Elaine; Lee, Seok-soo; Levite, Ariel e.; Russell, James A.; Hokayem, Emile; Kibaroglu, Mustafa; Schulte, Paul; Thraenert, Oliver; Kulesa, Lukasz

    2010-05-01

    In November 2009, the Foundation for Strategic Research (Fondation pour la recherche strategique, FRS) convened a workshop on 'The Future of extended Deterrence', which included the participation of some of the best experts of this topic, from the United States, Europe, the Middle East and East Asia, as well as French and NATO officials. This document brings together the papers prepared for this seminar. Several of them were updated after the publication in April 2010 of the US Nuclear Posture Review. The seminar was organized with the support of the French Atomic energy Commission (Commissariat a l'energie atomique - CEA). Content: 1 - The future of extended deterrence: a brainstorming paper (Bruno Tertrais); 2 - US extended deterrence in NATO and North-East Asia (David S. Yost); 3 - The future of US extended deterrence (Elaine Bunn); 4 - The future of extended deterrence: a South Korean perspective (Seok-soo Lee); 5 - Reflections on extended deterrence in the Middle East (Ariel e. Levite); 6 - extended deterrence, security guarantees and nuclear weapons: US strategic and policy conundrums in the Gulf (James A. Russell); 7 - extended deterrence in the Gulf: a bridge too far? (Emile Hokayem); 8 - The future of extended deterrence: the case of Turkey (Mustafa Kibaroglu); 9 - The future of extended deterrence: a UK view (Paul Schulte); 10 - NATO and extended deterrence (Oliver Thraenert); 11 - extended deterrence and assurance in Central Europe (Lukasz Kulesa)

  19. Stratigraphy, geochronology, and accretionary terrane settings of two Bronson Hill arc sequences, northern New England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moench, R.H.; Aleinikoff, J.N.

    2003-01-01

    the southern Laurentian margin, but northwest of the principal Iapetan suture, or Red Indian line. The Boil Mountain-Jim Pond-Hurricane Mountain sequence was ramped northwestward over the Chain Lakes massif at ???475 Ma, on the basal Boil Mountain surface. This obduction probably occurred slightly before obduction on the Baie Vert-Brompton surface (BBL), farther NW, over the Laurentian margin, and was followed by Dead River flysch sedimentation, which ended with the abrupt onset of Ammonoosuc-sequence arc magmatism at ???470 Ma. Ammonoosuc eruptions probably ended at ???460 Ma, when Iapetus closed along the Red Indian line. During a following magmatic hiatus of ???3-5 m.y., now represented by portions of the Partridge Formation that overlie the Ammonoosuc Volcanics, subduction polarity reversed, and subduction resumed below the northwest-dipping Brunswick subduction complex (BSC) of New Brunswick, Canada. Quimby-sequence magmatism (???456-435 Ma) on the newly accreted Laurentian margin occurred above the BSC, whose footwall is now buried to the southeast by mainly Silurian clastic sediments of the Merrimack-Fredericton trough, deposited in the "Fredericton Sea". In Silurian to Early Devonian time, the NW-dipping BSC footwall was paired with a SE-dipping subduction zone that produced arc magmas of the Coastal Volcanic belt, built on the composite Avalon and adjacent peri-Avalonian terranes. Orogen-normal extension produced by rapid rollback of both subduction zones narrowed the Fredericton Sea, produced the Central Maine and Connecticut Valley-Gaspe?? basins, and culminated in the Acadian orogeny when the sea completely closed in Early Devonian time. Published by Elsevier Science Ltd.

  20. Recovery act. Characterizing structural controls of EGS-candidate and conventional geothermal reservoirs in the Great Basin. Developing successful exploration strategies in extended terranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faulds, James [Univ. of Nevada, Reno, NV (United States)

    2015-06-25

    We conducted a comprehensive analysis of the structural controls of geothermal systems within the Great Basin and adjacent regions. Our main objectives were to: 1) Produce a catalogue of favorable structural environments and models for geothermal systems. 2) Improve site-specific targeting of geothermal resources through detailed studies of representative sites, which included innovative techniques of slip tendency analysis of faults and 3D modeling. 3) Compare and contrast the structural controls and models in different tectonic settings. 4) Synthesize data and develop methodologies for enhancement of exploration strategies for conventional and EGS systems, reduction in the risk of drilling non-productive wells, and selecting the best EGS sites.

  1. Latest Paleozoic early Mesozoic structures in the central Oaxaca Terrane of southern Mexico: deformation near a triple junction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Centeno-Garcia, E.; Keppie, J. Duncan

    1999-01-01

    Paleozoic rocks in the Oaxaca Terrane of southern Mexico occur as two outliers (Rio Salinas and Santiago Ixtaltepec) unconformably overlying the 1-Ga Oaxaca Complex. They consist of the Upper Cambrian-Lower Ordovician Tiñu Formation, Mississippian Santiago Formation, lower-middle Pennsylvanian Ixtaltepec Formation and the unfossiliferous Yododeñe Formation of presumed Permian or younger age. These Paleozoic rocks have been deformed by several sets of structures. Three moderately westerly-dipping, bedding-parallel shear zones displaying dextral kinematic indicators (C-S fabrics, curvilinear isoclinal folds, en-echelon boudinage, en-echelon veins, and strained amygdales) occur along the boundaries between the Tiñu and Santiago formations, between the Santiago and Ixtaltepec formations, and within the Ixtaltepec Formation in the Santiago Ixtaltepec outlier. The bedding and these bedding-parallel shear zones are deformed by N-S, upright-asymmetric, subhorizontal folds accompanied by a slaty or spaced cleavage, that are in turn deformed by several sets of kink bands: subhorizontal and steeply dipping E-W, NW-SE and NE-SW. In the northern part of the Santiago Ixtaltepec outlier, the stratigraphy, bedding-parallel shear zones and slaty cleavage are displaced by NW-SE normal faults, all of which are truncated by the angular unconformity at the base of the Cretaceous, which brackets their age as post-Early Permian and pre-Cretaceous. Geometric correlation of the major N-S folds with E-vergent thrusting of the Oaxacan Complex over the Juarez Terrane suggests that they are older than Middle Jurassic. No age constraints are available for the kink and chevron folds; however, most may be related to Laramide structures in the overlying Cretaceous rocks. Unfolding the major structures in the Paleozoic rocks reorients the bedding-parallel shear zones to subhorizontal detachment shear zones or faults with a top-to-the-north sense of displacement. They may be related to either

  2. Pre-Cenozoic History of the Jalisco Block (Guerrero Terrane of West-Central Mexico) From U- Pb Geochronology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valencia, V. A.; Righter, K. O.; Gehrels, G.; Ruiz, J.; Ducea, M.; Rosas-Helguera, J.

    2007-05-01

    The Jalisco Block is a fault-bounded crustal fragment, located along the western edge of the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt of west-central Mexico, and it forms part of the Triassic-Jurassic Guerrero terrane. Because of its extensive Miocene-Quaternary volcanic cover and Early Cretaceous-Tertiary intrusions, little is known about its Pre-Tertiary history. U-Pb (LA-MC-ICPMS) zircon geochronology of metasedimentary (Quartz Feldespathic Schist), marine sedimentary and plutonic rocks from several localities of the Jalisco Block (southern Mexico) were determined to constrain the geological evolution of this region. Results for the metasedimentary rocks, which are present as roof pendants, indicate a depositional age between the Late Triassic and Middle Jurassic. The older depositional sequence (Late Triassic) shows an important continental influence with subordinate clusters from the Carboniferous (297 Ma), Ordovician (446 Ma), Late and Middle Proterozoic (760, 1041, 1200, 1500 Ma) and Archean (~~2700 Ma), whereas the youngest depositional sequence (Middle Jurassic) have mainly Jurassic zircons, indicating sedimentation in a restricted basin. Ages of turbiditic marine sediments reveal a maximum depositional age of ~~130 Ma (Early Cretaceous), comparable to zircon populations from other areas of the Guerrero Terrane, and with minor age peaks at 320, 480-560, 743, 997-1260, and ~~2750 Ma. Magmatic granitic rocks from Atenguillo, Puerto Vallarta, Mascota and Tomatlan have ages of ~~60 Ma, ~~74 Ma and 80-90 Ma. These ages overlap with previously determined ages of granites and rhyolitic ash flow tuffs from the Jalisco Block, Baja California, Sonora and Sinaloa states. On the other hand, a granitic sample of Cuale region yielded a middle Jurassic age. Metasedimentary and sedimentary rocks of the Jalisco Block have a depositional evolution similar to coeval formations in the Guerrero and Alisitos terranes. We conclude that this

  3. Zircon U-Pb ages and geochemistry of granitoids in the Truong Son terrane, Vietnam: Tectonic and metallogenic implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Mei-Feng; Lin, Fang-Cheng; Fan, Wen-Yu; Deng, Qi; Cong, Feng; Tran, My-Dung; Zhu, Hua-Ping; Wang, Hong

    2015-04-01

    Truong Son terrane, one of the most important tectonic and metallogenic terranes in Indochina block, is composed of many volcano-plutonic complexes. Reported here is geochronological and geochemical data obtained from six different volcano-plutonic complexes. The new data reveals that the granite from the Hai Van complex is 438 Ma in age, and shows collision-related geochemical characteristics; whereas another five samples from five volcano-plutonic complexes present consistent emplacement and crystallization ages ranging from 261 to 242 Ma. Dien Bien granodiorite, Phia Bioc monzogranite and Dong Trau rhyolite display typical subduction-related calc-alkaline affinity (e.g., depletion in Nb-Ta and Ti and enrichment in Rb and La), while monzogranite from Song Ma complex displays collision-related shoshoniteseries and granites from Bengiang-Queson complex are related to post-collision calc-alkaline series. Based on these observations, in combination with the previous published geochronological data, we propose that at least four major stages of magmatic activities occurred during the Paleozoic and the Early Mesozoic through the Truong Son terrane: Ordovician-Silurian (420-470 Ma), Late Carboniferous-Early Permian (280-300 Ma), Late Permian to Mid-Triassic (245-270 Ma) and Middle-Late Triassic (200-245 Ma). These magmatic activities are not only attributed to the Tethyan Song Ma ocean southwestward subduction but also related to Paleo Tamky-Phuoc Son oceanic bidirectional subduction. Synthesized with regional metallogenic data, we identified three metallogenic epochs: (1) Late Carboniferous-Early Permian (280-300 Ma) arc-magmatic hydrothermal Cu-Au-Fe polymetallic metallogenic system related to the Tamky-Phuoc Son ocean north-dipping subduction; (2) Late Permian-Middle Triassic (245-280 Ma) arc-magmatic hydrothermal Cu-Au-Fe and orogenic W-Sn-Au polymetallic metallogenic system, which linked to both Paleo-Tethyan Song Ma ocean south-dipping subduction and Tamky

  4. Cenozoic mantle composition evolution of southern Tibet indicated by Paleocene ( 64 Ma) pseudoleucite phonolitic rocks in central Lhasa terrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Yue; Gou, Guo-Ning; Wang, Qiang; Wyman, Derek A.; Jiang, Zi-Qi; Li, Qiu-Li; Zhang, Le

    2018-03-01

    The question of whether continental subduction processes in collisional orogenic belts can trigger wide-spread mantle metesomatism and crustal material recycling remains unresolved. Miocene (25-8 Ma) ultrapotassic rocks in southern Tibet are the only mantle-derived magmatic rocks emplaced after the collision between India and Asia and they have been linked to the onset of east-west extensional stresses as the surface uplift of the Tibetan Plateau reached near-maximum elevation. However, their petrogenesis remains highly controversial, particularly the issue of whether their extremely enriched Sr-Nd isotopic characteristics were related to metasomatism derived from subducted Indian continental materials during the Cenozoic. Here we report on a Paleocene silicate-unsaturated, pseudoleucite phonolitic dike, in the Rongniduo area of central Lhasa terrane. In-situ SIMS (secondary ion mass spectrometry) apatite U-Pb age indicates the dike was generated at 64.1 ± 4.2 Ma, which slightly predates the age of initial India and Asia collision (about 55-50 Ma). This is the oldest age yet reported for ultrapotassic rocks in southern Tibet. Samples from this dike have distinctly more depleted Sr-Nd (whole rock: (87Sr/86Sr)i = 0.7064 to 0.7062, εNd(t) = - 1.5 to 0.4; in situ apitite: (87Sr/86Sr)i = 0.7059 to 0.7060, εNd(t) = - 2.0 to 0.4) isotopic compositions, than those of Miocene (25-8 Ma) ultrapotassic rocks in the central Lhasa terrane ((87Sr/86Sr)i = 0.7106 to 0.7399, εNd(t) = - 10.6 to - 18.5). Our new data provides important constraints on pre-collisional mantle characteristics beneath the Lhasa terrane. We suggest that these 64 Ma pseudoleucite phonolitic rocks were derived from the enriched lithospheric mantle metasomatized by subducted Tethyan oceanic materials in response to Neo-Tethyan slab roll-back. As a consequence, the younger Miocene ultrapotassic rocks, which display different geochemical compositions from the pre-collisional ultrapotassic rocks, were most

  5. Geochronological and geochemical constraints on the origin of the Yunzhug ophiolite in the Shiquanhe-Yunzhug-Namu Tso ophiolite belt, Lhasa Terrane, Tibetan Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Yun-Chuan; Xu, Ji-Feng; Chen, Jian-Lin; Wang, Bao-Di; Kang, Zhi-Qiang; Huang, Feng

    2018-02-01

    The formation of the Shiquanhe-Yunzhug-Namu Tso ophiolite mélange zone (SNMZ) within the Lhasa Terrane, Tibetan Plateau, is key to understanding the Mesozoic tectonic evolution of this terrane, which remains controversial. We show that the Yunzhug ophiolite in the central segment of the SNMZ formed at 150 Ma, based on U-Pb dating of zircons from a gabbroic sample in a well-developed sheeted dike complex. Geochemically, these mafic rocks are dominated by E-MORB-type compositions, along with minor amounts of rocks with P-MORB-type compositions. The samples also exhibit high εNd(t) values and lack negative Nb and Ta anomalies. Data for all the samples plot within the MORB array on a Th/Yb-Nb/Yb diagram. Therefore, these mafic rocks most likely formed in either a slow spreading oceanic setting or an embryonic ocean, and not in a back-arc basin as has been previously assumed. Taking into account the regional geology, we propose that the Yunzhug ophiolite is part of a distinct ophiolitic belt and represents material formed in an embryonic ocean within the Lhasa Terrane, which provides new insights into the Jurassic tectonic evolution of the Lhasa Terrane.

  6. U-Pb detrital zircon geochronology from the basement of the Central Qilian Terrane: implications for tectonic evolution of northeastern Tibetan Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Changfeng; Wu, Chen; Zhou, Zhiguang; Yan, Zhu; Jiang, Tian; Song, Zhijie; Liu, Wencan; Yang, Xin; Zhang, Hongyuan

    2018-03-01

    The Tuolai Group dominates the Central Qilian Terrane, and there are different opinions on the age and tectonic attribute of the Tuolai Group. Based on large-scale geologic mapping and zircon dating, the Tuolai Group is divided into four parts: metamorphic supracrustal rocks, Neoproterozoic acid intrusive rocks, early-middle Ordovician acid intrusive rocks and middle Ordovician basic intrusive rocks. The metamorphic supracrustal rocks are the redefined Tuolai complex-group and include gneiss and schist assemblage by faulting contact. Zircon U-Pb LA-MC-ICP-MS dating was conducted on these samples of gneiss and migmatite from the gneiss assemblage, quartzite, two-mica schist and slate from the schist assemblage. The five detrital samples possess similar age spectra; have detrital zircon U-Pb main peak ages of 1.7 Ga with youngest U-Pb ages of 1150 Ma. They are intruded by Neoproterozoic acid intrusive rocks. Therefore, the Tuolai Group belonging to late Mesoproterozoic and early Neoproterozoic. With this caveat in mind, we believe that U-Pb detrital zircon dating, together with the geologic constraints obtained from this study and early work in the neighboring regions. We suggest that the formation age of the entire crystalline basement rocks of metasedimentary sequence from the Central Qilian Terrane should be constrained between the Late Mesoproterozoic and the Late Neoproterozoic, but not the previous Paleoproterozoic. The basement of the Central Qilian Terrane contains the typical Grenville ages, which indicates the Centre Qilian Terrane have been experienced the Grenville orogeny event.

  7. U-Pb detrital zircon geochronology from the basement of the Central Qilian Terrane: implications for tectonic evolution of northeastern Tibetan Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Changfeng; Wu, Chen; Zhou, Zhiguang; Yan, Zhu; Jiang, Tian; Song, Zhijie; Liu, Wencan; Yang, Xin; Zhang, Hongyuan

    2017-08-01

    The Tuolai Group dominates the Central Qilian Terrane, and there are different opinions on the age and tectonic attribute of the Tuolai Group. Based on large-scale geologic mapping and zircon dating, the Tuolai Group is divided into four parts: metamorphic supracrustal rocks, Neoproterozoic acid intrusive rocks, early-middle Ordovician acid intrusive rocks and middle Ordovician basic intrusive rocks. The metamorphic supracrustal rocks are the redefined Tuolai complex-group and include gneiss and schist assemblage by faulting contact. Zircon U-Pb LA-MC-ICP-MS dating was conducted on these samples of gneiss and migmatite from the gneiss assemblage, quartzite, two-mica schist and slate from the schist assemblage. The five detrital samples possess similar age spectra; have detrital zircon U-Pb main peak ages of 1.7 Ga with youngest U-Pb ages of 1150 Ma. They are intruded by Neoproterozoic acid intrusive rocks. Therefore, the Tuolai Group belonging to late Mesoproterozoic and early Neoproterozoic. With this caveat in mind, we believe that U-Pb detrital zircon dating, together with the geologic constraints obtained from this study and early work in the neighboring regions. We suggest that the formation age of the entire crystalline basement rocks of metasedimentary sequence from the Central Qilian Terrane should be constrained between the Late Mesoproterozoic and the Late Neoproterozoic, but not the previous Paleoproterozoic. The basement of the Central Qilian Terrane contains the typical Grenville ages, which indicates the Centre Qilian Terrane have been experienced the Grenville orogeny event.

  8. A comparison of Y-chromosome variation in Sardinia and Anatolia is more consistent with cultural rather than demic diffusion of agriculture.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Morelli

    Full Text Available Two alternative models have been proposed to explain the spread of agriculture in Europe during the Neolithic period. The demic diffusion model postulates the spreading of farmers from the Middle East along a Southeast to Northeast axis. Conversely, the cultural diffusion model assumes transmission of agricultural techniques without substantial movements of people. Support for the demic model derives largely from the observation of frequency gradients among some genetic variants, in particular haplogroups defined by single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in the Y-chromosome. A recent network analysis of the R-M269 Y chromosome lineage has purportedly corroborated Neolithic expansion from Anatolia, the site of diffusion of agriculture. However, the data are still controversial and the analyses so far performed are prone to a number of biases. In the present study we show that the addition of a single marker, DYSA7.2, dramatically changes the shape of the R-M269 network into a topology showing a clear Western-Eastern dichotomy not consistent with a radial diffusion of people from the Middle East. We have also assessed other Y-chromosome haplogroups proposed to be markers of the Neolithic diffusion of farmers and compared their intra-lineage variation--defined by short tandem repeats (STRs--in Anatolia and in Sardinia, the only Western population where these lineages are present at appreciable frequencies and where there is substantial archaeological and genetic evidence of pre-Neolithic human occupation. The data indicate that Sardinia does not contain a subset of the variability present in Anatolia and that the shared variability between these populations is best explained by an earlier, pre-Neolithic dispersal of haplogroups from a common ancestral gene pool. Overall, these results are consistent with the cultural diffusion and do not support the demic model of agriculture diffusion.

  9. Post-Nevadan deformation along the Bear Mountains fault zone: Implications for the Foothills terrane, central Sierra Nevada, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paterson, Scott R.; Tobisch, Othmar T.; Radloff, Judith K.

    1987-06-01

    Southern parts of the Foothills terrane, Sierra Nevada, California, consist of western and eastern sequences of volcanic rocks and overlying slate-gray wacke units separated by a multiply deformed and lithologically chaotic central belt. Structural and strain studies suggest that the intensity of regional ductile deformation decreased from greater than 50% shortening in the western belt to less than 30% shortening in the eastern belt and that much of this ductile deformation is younger than the timing usually assumed for the Nevadan orogeny. These structures are in turn deformed by a large ductile shear zone representing the southern continuation of the Bear Mountains fault zone. This shear zone separates the western and central belts, has an oblique east-over-west sense of movement, and deforms the western margin of the Guadalupe igneous complex. These observations suggest that the eastern and western volcanic sequences are pieces of arcs amalgamated along the Bear Mountains fault zone during and after Nevadan deformation.

  10. Delineating the major KREEP-bearing terranes on the moon with global measurements of absolute thorium abundances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawrence, D.J.; Feldman, W.C.; Barraclough, B.L.; Elphic, R.C.; Prettyman, T.H. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Binder, A.B. [Lunar Research Inst., Gilroy, CA (United States); Maurice, S. [Observatoire Midi-Pyrenees, Toulouse (France); Miller, M.C. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1999-03-01

    The Lunar Prospector (LP) Gamma-Ray Spectrometer (GRS) has been used to map the global composition of thorium on the lunar surface. Previous LP results of relative thorium abundances demonstrated that thorium is highly concentrated in and around the nearside western maria and less so in the South Pole Aitken (SPA) basin. Using new detector modeling results and a larger data set, the authors present here a global map of absolute thorium abundances on a 2{degree} by 2{degree} equal-area pixel scale. Because thorium is a tracer of KREEP-rich material, these data provide fundamental information regarding the locations and importance of terranes that are rich in KREEP bearing materials.

  11. Petrography and geochemistry of five granitic plutons from south central Uruguay: contribution to the knowledge of the Piedra Alta terrane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preciozzi, F.

    2005-01-01

    Granitoid rocks in south-central Uruguay are largely concentrated in three east-west trending metamorphic belts, known as (from south to north) the Montevideo Belt, the San José Belt and the Arroyo Grande Belt. These belts are separated from one another by intervening bands of gneisses of granitic composition. The whole assemblage, the gneisses as well as the metamorphic belts and their associated granites, collectively constitute the Piedra Alta Terrane. Five of these granite plutons, two from the San José Belt and three from the Arroyo Grande Belt, have been studied in some detail and the chemical composition of 86 samples (major elements as well as a selected suite of trace elements) have been determined. These data, as well as Rb-Sr isotopic data, show that these plutons are typically composite in nature, and that the various units range in age from 1900 Ma to 2500 Ma. The older ages were obtained from the main units of the plutons themselves whereas the younger ages are from late dykes which were emplaced into the plutons and which are clearly not related to them. The plutons are predominantly, but not exclusively, of calc-alkaline affinity and are typically synorogenic whereas the dykes are post-orogenic and are either calc-alkaline or alkaline in composition. These data have been incorporated into a tectonic model for the Piedra Alta Terrane which is considerably different from that heretofore proposed. The essential features of the geological history of the area are: 1) development of an older ''basement'' of granitic gneisses 2) deposition, upon or adjacent to this gneisses basement, of a typical Archean greenstone belt assemblage (no komatiites so far reported) 3) Paleo-proterozoic metamorphism, followed by syn-tectonic to post-tectonic intrusion of the plutonic rocks 4) major tectonic dislocation(s) associated with the Transamazonian orogeny 5) dyke emplacement (post-orogenic to anorogenic) following the Transamazonian orogeny

  12. Bronze Age Archaeointensity data from the Levant and Anatolia: Constraining the Temporal and Geographic Extent of Archaeomagnetic Jerks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Megan; Hill, Mimi; Biggin, Andy; Greaves, Alan; Ertepinar, Pinar

    2014-05-01

    In order to understand the behaviour of the Earth's magnetic field on decadal to millennial timescales and to produce reliable field models, globally distributed archaeointensity data are required. Such well constrained models will also enable us to test hypotheses of geomagnetic-climate coupling during the Holocene. Here, we will present new high quality archaeointensity data spanning the age range 2200 BC to 700 BC from Turkey. Additionally we will present the first archaeointensity data for Cyprus from 2400 BC to 2000 BC. The intensity results and associated rock magnetic data were obtained from unoriented pottery samples and oriented burnt mud bricks from two Bronze Age archaeological sites in Southern Turkey: Tell Atchana and Kilise Tepe and from two Bronze Age sites in Central and Northern Cyprus: Marki Alonia and Bellapais Vounous. Strict criteria were applied to the results of archaeointensity measurements made using microwave and thermal techniques. Archaeointensity experiments followed both the Coe and IZZI Thellier-type protocols. A success rate of 32% from a total of 174 samples was recorded. The results were corrected for cooling rate and the anisotropy of the samples shaped the experiment design. The age of the samples were constrained by site stratigraphy, carbon dating of suitable related material, and pottery typology. For each archaeological context/ age group studied a variety of pottery types were analysed to improve the robustness of the results. In addition, a burnt in situ mud brick wall was analysed. The geographic location of these sites within the Levant and Anatolia enables comparison with the archaeointensity results presented by previous authors who measured exceptionally high ancient fields over the time period presented here. Some of these previous studies have correlated periods of high intensity (so called "archaeomagnetic jerks") with periods of cooling in the North Atlantic and fluctuations in the length of Swiss glaciers. The

  13. Identifying the volcanic eruption depicted in a neolithic painting at Çatalhöyük, Central Anatolia, Turkey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Axel K Schmitt

    Full Text Available A mural excavated at the Neolithic Çatalhöyük site (Central Anatolia, Turkey has been interpreted as the oldest known map. Dating to ∼6600 BCE, it putatively depicts an explosive summit eruption of the Hasan Dağı twin-peaks volcano located ∼130 km northeast of Çatalhöyük, and a birds-eye view of a town plan in the foreground. This interpretation, however, has remained controversial not least because independent evidence for a contemporaneous explosive volcanic eruption of Hasan Dağı has been lacking. Here, we document the presence of andesitic pumice veneer on the summit of Hasan Dağı, which we dated using (U-Th/He zircon geochronology. The (U-Th/He zircon eruption age of 8.97±0.64 ka (or 6960±640 BCE; uncertainties 2σ overlaps closely with (14C ages for cultural strata at Çatalhöyük, including level VII containing the "map" mural. A second pumice sample from a surficial deposit near the base of Hasan Dağı records an older explosive eruption at 28.9±1.5 ka. U-Th zircon crystallization ages in both samples range from near-eruption to secular equilibrium (>380 ka. Collectively, our results reveal protracted intrusive activity at Hasan Dağı punctuated by explosive venting, and provide the first radiometric ages for a Holocene explosive eruption which was most likely witnessed by humans in the area. Geologic and geochronologic lines of evidence thus support previous interpretations that residents of Çatalhöyük artistically represented an explosive eruption of Hasan Dağı volcano. The magmatic longevity recorded by quasi-continuous zircon crystallization coupled with new evidence for late-Pleistocene and Holocene explosive eruptions implicates Hasan Dağı as a potential volcanic hazard.

  14. Seismicity and Seismotectonic Properties of The Sultandağı Fault Zone (Afyonkarahisar-Konya): Western Anatolia,Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalafat, D.; Gunes, Y.; Kekovali, K.; Kara, M.; Gorgun, E.

    2017-12-01

    n this study we investigated seismicity and source characteristics of the Sultandağı Fault Zone (SFZ). As known Western Anatolia is one of the most important seismically active region in Turkey. The relative movement of the African-Arabian plates, it causes the Anatolian Plate to movement to the west-Southwest direction 2.5 cm per year and this result provides N-S direction with extensional regime in the recent tectonic. In this study, especially with the assessment of seismic activity occurring in Afyon and around between 200-2002 years, we have been evaluated to date with seismic activity as well as fault mechanism solution. We analyzed recent seismicity and distribution of earthquakes in this region. In the last century, 3 important earthquakes occurred in the Sultandağı Fault zone (Afyon-Akşehir Graben), this result shown it was seismic active and broken fault segments caused stress balance in the region and it caused to occur with short intervals of earthquakes in 2000 and 2002, triggering each other. The scope of this tudy, we installed new BB stations in the region and we have been done of the fault plane solutions for important earthquakes. The focal mechanisms clearly exhibit the activation of a NE-SW trending normal faulting system along the SFZ region. The results of stress analysis showed that the effective current tectonic evolution of normal faulting in this region. This study is supported by Bogazici University Research Projects Commission under SRP/BAP project No. 12280. Key Words: Sultandağı fault zone, normal faulting, seismicity, fault mechanism

  15. Geothermometry and Geobarometry of Kepsut-Dursunbey Volcanites (NW Anatolia, Turkey): Implications for Magma Chamber Depth and Crystallization Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamaci, O.; Altunkaynak, S.

    2012-04-01

    The Kepsut-Dursunbey volcanic field (NW Turkey) contains various products of the Neogene magmatic activity. Two distinct volcanic suites have been recognized in the study area; Kepsut volcanic suite (KVS) and the Dursunbey volcanic suite (DVS). Both KVS and DVS are Early Miocene in age and representative for the post-collisional magmatism in western Anatolia. Mainly andesites, latites, basaltic andesites and pyroclastic rocks of KVS were formed during the early stage of volcanism in the study area. Without a major interruption in the volcanism, partly contemporanously, KVS followed by felsic volcanic products of DVS. Rhyolithic domes, lavas and extensive pyroclastic units were formed during this felsic volcanic activity. Both DVS and KVS display textural and chemical evidence for interaction of mafic and silicic magmas. This is evidenced by disequilibrium textures such as existence of rounded plagioclase phenocrysts with reaction rims (regrowth), hornblend -mantled clinopyroxenes (corona texture), synneusis, sieve textured plagioclase, patchy zones and oscilatory zoning in plagioclase phenocrysts. Basic lavas of KVS also contains xenocrysts represented by biotite mantled quartz and asidic plagioclase ovoids and glomerocrysts entrained from melt zones near base of the crust. The observed disequilibrium textures in both suites are provide evidence for magma mixing or Assimilation and fractional crystallization (AFC). Calculated pressures and temperatures using the amphibole-plagioclase geothermometer and Al-in-hornblend geobarometer give values of 5.7-7.0 kbar and 927-982 °C for the KVS and 3.7-5.3 kbar and 783-787°C for the DVS, indicating crystallization in magma chambers at deep and mid crustal levels; 21 km and 12 km, respectively. A main deep magma reservoir served as a source for the intermediate to basic lavas of KVS. The existence of similar mixing-compatible (disequilibrium) textures in both KVS and DVS support the establishment and evolution of KDVF magma

  16. Geology and U-Pb Zircon ages of the Kavacik Leucogranite in the Bornova Flysch Zone (Western Anatolia, Turkey)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güngör, Talip; Hasözbek, Altuǧ; Akal, Cüneyt; Mertz-Kraus, Regina; Peştemalci Üregel, Reyhan

    2016-04-01

    The Bornova Flysch Zone comprises an olistostrome-melange situated NE-SW direction between the Izmir Ankara Suture Zone and the Menderes Massif. The Bornova Flysch Zone is mainly composed of slightly deformed Late Cretaceous to Paleocene sandstone and shale with Mesozoic limestone and oceanic crustal associations. These large-scale blocks in the matrix of the Bornova Flysch Zone are mostly defined as limestone, basalt, serpentinite and radiolarian cherts. In this study, granitic bodies, situated in the Bornova Flysch Zone, named as Kavacik leucogranite is examined for the first time, in terms its geological features and its U-Pb zircon crystallization ages. Kavacik leucogranite displays a typical granitic texture and its composition indicates ranging between granitic to granodioritic in composition with lack of mafic minerals. The geochemical features of the granite indicate the I-type and subalkaline nature of the granitic body. The geochemical signatures of the Kavacik granite points out Volcanic Arc Granitoids as similarly seen in Karaburun granite. U-Pb zircon LA ages were also obtained from the Kavacik granite ranging between 224.5 ± 2.0 Ma and 230.0 ± 2.8 Ma. Early Triassic zircon ages are also previously observed in the Karaburun Peninsula (Karaburun Granite) and the Menderes Massif (Odemis-Kiraz Submassif). The initial geological boundary relation of the Kavacik Leucogranite is not clear in the field and likely displays tectonic boundary features in the matrix of the Bornova Flysch Zone. Overall, the geochemical features of the Kavacik leucogranite and similar leucomagmatic bodies in the Western Anatolia points out the subduction-related tectonic setting is favorable during the Triassic time.

  17. Planktonic and benthic foraminiferal biostratigraphy of the Middle Eocene–Lower Miocene successions from the Sivas Basin (Central Anatolia, Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakyemez Aynur

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Planktonic and benthic foraminifera are described from the Middle Eocene-Lower Miocene successions in the Sivas Basin, Central Anatolia. An integrated foraminiferal zonation provides new age assignments in terms of a great number of taxa for the studied sections. Four biostratigraphical intervals are first recorded based on the concurrent ranges of sporadically occurring but well preserved planktonic foraminiferal assemblages. The first interval characterized by the co-occurrences of Acarinina bullbrooki, Truncorotaloides topilensis and Turborotalia cerroazulensis is referable to the E11 Zone of late Lutetian–early Bartonian. An assemblage yielding Paragloborotalia opima accompanied by Globigerinella obesa forms a basis for the late Chattian O5 Zone. The successive interval corresponds to the late Chattian O6 Zone indicated by the presence of Globigerina ciperoensis and Globigerinoides primordius along with the absence of Paragloborotalia opima. The early Aquitanian M1 Zone can be tentatively defined based mainly on the assemblage of Globigerina, Globigerinella, Globoturborotalita and Tenuitella. The biostratigraphical data obtained from the benthic foraminifera assign the studied sections to the SBZ 21–22, SBZ 23 and SBZ 24 ranging in age from Rupelian to Aquitanian. The SBZ 23 and 24 are well constrained biozones by the occurrences of Miogypsinella complanata and Miogypsina gunteri, respectively, whereas the SBZ 21–22 defined by nummulitids and lepidocylinids in the Tethyan Shallow Benthic Zonation is characterized dominantly by peneroplids, soritids and miliolids in the studied sections. Benthic foraminiferal assemblages suggest different paleoenvironments covering lagoon, algal reef and shallow open marine whereas planktonic foraminifera provides evidence for relatively deep marine settings on the basis of assemblages characterized by a mixture of small-sized simple and more complex morphogroups indicative for intermediate depths of

  18. Identifying the Volcanic Eruption Depicted in a Neolithic Painting at Çatalhöyük, Central Anatolia, Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Axel K.; Danišík, Martin; Aydar, Erkan; Şen, Erdal; Ulusoy, İnan; Lovera, Oscar M.

    2014-01-01

    A mural excavated at the Neolithic Çatalhöyük site (Central Anatolia, Turkey) has been interpreted as the oldest known map. Dating to ∼6600 BCE, it putatively depicts an explosive summit eruption of the Hasan Dağı twin-peaks volcano located ∼130 km northeast of Çatalhöyük, and a birds-eye view of a town plan in the foreground. This interpretation, however, has remained controversial not least because independent evidence for a contemporaneous explosive volcanic eruption of Hasan Dağı has been lacking. Here, we document the presence of andesitic pumice veneer on the summit of Hasan Dağı, which we dated using (U-Th)/He zircon geochronology. The (U-Th)/He zircon eruption age of 8.97±0.64 ka (or 6960±640 BCE; uncertainties 2σ) overlaps closely with 14C ages for cultural strata at Çatalhöyük, including level VII containing the “map” mural. A second pumice sample from a surficial deposit near the base of Hasan Dağı records an older explosive eruption at 28.9±1.5 ka. U-Th zircon crystallization ages in both samples range from near-eruption to secular equilibrium (>380 ka). Collectively, our results reveal protracted intrusive activity at Hasan Dağı punctuated by explosive venting, and provide the first radiometric ages for a Holocene explosive eruption which was most likely witnessed by humans in the area. Geologic and geochronologic lines of evidence thus support previous interpretations that residents of Çatalhöyük artistically represented an explosive eruption of Hasan Dağı volcano. The magmatic longevity recorded by quasi-continuous zircon crystallization coupled with new evidence for late-Pleistocene and Holocene explosive eruptions implicates Hasan Dağı as a potential volcanic hazard. PMID:24416270

  19. The Cooking Effect on Two Edible Mushrooms in Anatolia: Fatty Acid Composition, Total Bioactive Compounds, Antioxidant and Anticholinesterase Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Öztürk

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The effects of baking practices on the fatty acid and bioactivity of edible mushrooms; namely, Lactarius delicious and Ramaria flava, naturally growing in Anatolia were investigated. Each mushroom species was divided into two parts and one of the parts was baked. Both baked and unbaked materials were extracted with hexane and methanol, successively. The fatty acid contents of baked and unbaked extracts of both species were carried out by GC and GC-MS analytical techniques. In the unbaked extracts palmitic acid (9.7-14.43%, stearic acid (41.41-6.68%, oleic acid (25.94-47.12% and linoleic acid (22.85-9.78% were identified as major fatty acids, respectively. In the baked extracts, however, palmitic acid (7.92-19.12%, stearic acid (49.94-6.23%, oleic acid (18.07-45.13% and linoleic acid (23.36-9.25% were identified as major fatty acids, as well. The antioxidative effect of the extracts of baked and unbaked mushroom species was also determined by using four complimentary assays. In addition, the extracts and the major fatty acids were also evaluated for anticholinesterase activity against acetylcholinesterase (AChE and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE which are the chief enzymes of Alzheimer’s disease. The baked methanol extract of R. flava showed the highest activity in DPPH scavenging, ABTS scavenging and BChE assays, while the unbaked hexane extract of R. flava exhibited the best lipid peroxidation inhibition activity. In conclusion, baking proved to have influence in nutritional values and bioactivity properties of L. delicious and R. flava. The nutrient concentration and bioactivities of L. delicious were decreased when baked; however, baked R. flava proved to have higher nutrient concentrations and higher bioactivities than unbaked samples.

  20. Hydrogeological, Hydrogeochemical and Isotope Geochemical Features of the Geothermal Waters in Seferihisar and Environs, Western Anatolia, Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özgür, Nevzat; Aras Pala, Ebru; Degirmenci, Saliha

    2017-12-01

    The study area of Seferihisar is located within the Izmir-Ankara suture in the NW of the Menderes Massif in western Anatolia, Turkey. The Paleozoic metamorphic rocks of the Menderes Massif form the basement rocks in the area which are overlain by 760 m thick Izmir-flysch series consisting of metamorphic rocks, limestones and ultrabasic rocks tectonically. The Pliocene Bahçecik formation which consists of an alternation of conglomerates, sandstones, claystones, lignite and limestones and shows a thickness of 300 m overlies the (İzmir) flysch series discordantly. This is overlain by 430 m thick Yeniköy formation composed of conglomerates, sandstones, claystones and clayey limestones discordantly. The Miocene volcanic rocks of Cumaovası overlie the Yeniköy formation concordantly which are overlain by alluvium and travertine deposits. Geothermal waters which are observed in the localities of Tuzla, Cumalı, Doğanbey and Karakoç are associated with NE-SW trending faults in the area. The geothermal waters in the area are considered as Na-Cl or Na-Cl-HCO3 type waters. The geothermal waters of Seferihisar and environs are identified to be Na+K>Ca>Mg dominant cations and Cl>HCO3>SO4 dominant anions. According to the diagram of Na/100-K/100-√Mg, a certainly part of the thermal waters can be considered as equilibrated thermal waters during some waters are of immature waters. According to the results of geochemical thermometers, the reservoir temperatures of thermal waters range from 150 to 240°C. The δ2H values of thermal waters are between -13,3 to -31,9, while δ18O values range from -2,55 to -5,70. The tritium contents of thermal waters are between 13 to 64±10 TU.

  1. Extended icosahedral structures

    CERN Document Server

    Jaric, Marko V

    1989-01-01

    Extended Icosahedral Structures discusses the concepts about crystal structures with extended icosahedral symmetry. This book is organized into six chapters that focus on actual modeling of extended icosahedral crystal structures. This text first presents a tiling approach to the modeling of icosahedral quasiperiodic crystals. It then describes the models for icosahedral alloys based on random connections between icosahedral units, with particular emphasis on diffraction properties. Other chapters examine the glassy structures with only icosahedral orientational order and the extent of tra

  2. Extending Database Integration Technology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Buneman, Peter

    1999-01-01

    Formal approaches to the semantics of databases and database languages can have immediate and practical consequences in extending database integration technologies to include a vastly greater range...

  3. Raman spectroscopy of detrital garnet from the (U)HP terrane of eastern Papua New Guinea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andò, Sergio; Baldwin, Suzanne L.; Fitzgerald, Paul G.; Malusà, Marco G.; Aliatis, Irene; Vezzoli, Giovanni; Garzanti, Eduardo

    2013-04-01

    adjacent to orogenic systems, Raman-assisted heavy-mineral studies allow us to detect the first arrival of eclogitic garnet, and thus to assess the minimum age of exhumation and final unroofing of high-pressure rocks (Malusà et al., 2011; Malusà and Garzanti, 2012). However, in the (U)HP terrane of southeastern Papua New Guinea, sediments derived from the actively exhuming D'Entrecasteaux Island core complexes are still being deposited offshore, are rarely preserved sub-aerially, and as such stratigraphic constraints are limited. Raman analysis of detrital garnets from placer sand thus provides invaluable constraints to compare with mineral assemblages preserved in exhumed eclogites. REFERENCES Andò S., Bersani D., Vignola P., Garzanti E. 2009. Raman spectroscopy as an effective tool for high-resolution heavy-mineral analysis: Examples from major Himalayan and Alpine fluvio-deltaic systems. Spectrochim. Acta A73:450-455. Andò S., Morton A., Garzanti E. 2013. Metamorphic grade of source rocks revealed by chemical fingerprints of detrital amphibole and garnet. Geol. Soc. London Spec. Publ. Sediment Provenance Studies in Hydrocarbon Exploration & Production. Baldwin S.L., Monteleone B., Webb L.E., Fitzgerald P.G., Grove M., Hill E.J. 2004. Pliocene eclogite exhumation at plate tectonic rates in eastern Papua New Guinea. Nature 431:263-267. Baldwin S.L., Webb L.E., Monteleone B.D. 2008. Late Miocene coesite-eclogite exhumed in the Woodlark Rift. Geology 36:735-738 Bersani D., Andò S., Vignola P., Moltifiori G., Marino I.G., Lottici P.P., Diella V., 2009. Micro-Raman spectroscopy as a routine tool for garnet analysis. Spectrochim. Acta A73:484-491. Hill E.J., Baldwin S.L. 1993. Exhumation of high-pressure metamorphic rocks during crustal extension in the D'Entrecasteaux region, Papua New Guinea. J. Metam. Geol. 11:261-277. Malusà M.G., Faccenna C., Garzanti E., Polino R. 2011. Divergence in subduction zones and exhumation of high-pressure rocks (Eocene Western Alps

  4. High resolution crustal structure for the region between the Chilenia and Cuyania terrane above the Pampean flat slab of Argentina from local receiver function and petrological analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammirati, J. B.; Alvarado, P. M.; Pérez, S. B.; Beck, S. L.; Porter, R. C.; Zandt, G.

    2015-12-01

    Jean-Baptiste Ammirati 1,Sofía Perez 1, Patricia Alvarado 1, Susan L. Beck 2, Ryan Porter 3 and George Zandt 2(1) CIGEOBIO-CONICET, Universidad Nacional de San Juan, Argentina (2) The University of Arizona, USA (3) Northern Arizona University, USA At ~31ºS, The subduction of the Nazca plate under the South American plate presents along-strike variations of its dip angle referred to the Chilean-Pampean flat slab. Geological observations suggest that the regional crustal structure is inherited from the accretion of different terranes at Ordovician times and later reactivated during Andean compression since Miocene. Geophysical observations confirmed that the structure is extending in depth with décollement levels that accommodate crustal shortening in the region. In order to get a better insight on the shallow tectonics we computed high frequency local receiver functions from slab seismicity (~100 km depth). Local earthquakes present a higher frequency content that permits a better vertical resolution. Using a common conversion point (CCP) stacking method we obtained cross sections showing high-resolution crustal structure in the western part of the Pampean flat slab region, at the transition between the Precordillera and the Frontal Cordillera. Our results show a well-defined structure and their lateral extent for both units down to 80 km depth. In good agreement with previous studies, our higher resolution images better identify very shallow discontinuities putting more constraints on the relationships with the regional structural geology. Recent petrological analyses combined with RF high-resolution structure also allow us to better understand the regional crustal composition. Interestingly, we are able to observe a shifting structure beneath the Uspallata-Calingasta Valley, highlighting the differences in terms of crustal structure between the Precordillera and the Frontal Cordillera. Previously determined focal mechanisms in the region match well this

  5. Extended Life Coolant Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-06

    military vehicles. Newer vehicles come factory- filled with ELC, while the Army continues to use traditional supplemental coolant additives (SCA)-based...UNCLASSIFIED TABLE OF CONTENTS EXTENDED LIFE COOLANT TESTING INTERIM REPORT TFLRF No. 478 by Gregory A. T. Hansen Edwin A...longer needed. Do not return it to the originator. UNCLASSIFIED UNCLASSIFIED EXTENDED LIFE COOLANT TESTING INTERIM REPORT TFLRF No

  6. Extended Theories of Gravitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatibene Lorenzo

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Extended theories of gravitation are naturally singled out by an analysis inspired by the Ehelers-Pirani-Schild framework. In this framework the structure of spacetime is described by a Weyl geometry which is enforced by dynamics. Standard General Relativity is just one possible theory within the class of extended theories of gravitation. Also all Palatini f(R theories are shown to be extended theories of gravitation. This more general setting allows a more general interpretation scheme and more general possible couplings between gravity and matter. The definitions and constructions of extended theories will be reviewed. A general interpretation scheme will be considered for extended theories and some examples will be considered.

  7. Extended family medicine training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slade, Steve; Ross, Shelley; Lawrence, Kathrine; Archibald, Douglas; Mackay, Maria Palacios; Oandasan, Ivy F.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective To examine trends in family medicine training at a time when substantial pedagogic change is under way, focusing on factors that relate to extended family medicine training. Design Aggregate-level secondary data analysis based on the Canadian Post-MD Education Registry. Setting Canada. Participants All Canadian citizens and permanent residents who were registered in postgraduate family medicine training programs within Canadian faculties of medicine from 1995 to 2013. Main outcome measures Number and proportion of family medicine residents exiting 2-year and extended (third-year and above) family medicine training programs, as well as the types and numbers of extended training programs offered in 2015. Results The proportion of family medicine trainees pursuing extended training almost doubled during the study period, going from 10.9% in 1995 to 21.1% in 2013. Men and Canadian medical graduates were more likely to take extended family medicine training. Among the 5 most recent family medicine exit cohorts (from 2009 to 2013), 25.9% of men completed extended training programs compared with 18.3% of women, and 23.1% of Canadian medical graduates completed extended training compared with 13.6% of international medical graduates. Family medicine programs vary substantially with respect to the proportion of their trainees who undertake extended training, ranging from a low of 12.3% to a high of 35.1% among trainees exiting from 2011 to 2013. Conclusion New initiatives, such as the Triple C Competency-based Curriculum, CanMEDS–Family Medicine, and Certificates of Added Competence, have emerged as part of family medicine education and credentialing. In acknowledgment of the potential effect of these initiatives, it is important that future research examine how pedagogic change and, in particular, extended training shapes the care family physicians offer their patients. As part of that research it will be important to measure the breadth and uptake of

  8. Tectonic evolution of the Cretaceous Ankara Ophiolitic Mélange during the Late Cretaceous to pre-Miocene interval in Central Anatolia, Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojay, Bora

    2013-04-01

    The chaotic tectonic belt, which is distinguished in northern Anatolia, is called the - Ankara Accretionary Complex - in the Ankara region, central Anatolia. The belt is differentiated into three imbricated tectonic subbelts, namely, pre-Triassic metamorphics, Mélange with calcareous blocks and Cretaceous mélange with ophiolitic blocks (Ankara Ophiolitic Mélange). The Ankara Ophiolitic Mélange (AOM) is a chaotic tectono-sedimentary mixture made up of detached blocks of Mesozoic ultramafic rocks, Cretaceous pillow basalts, Cretaceous radiolarites, Upper Jurassic-Cretaceous limestones and closely associated Upper Cretaceous basinal sequences. The detached and dismembered blocks lie within a highly sheared and brecciated ophiolitic detrital matrix or a block-on-block to sheared sedimentary matrix that varies along the mélange belt. Cenomanian-Turonian and Turonian-Santonian trench-linked basin deposits onlap the Cenomanian sedimentary and Cretaceous ophiolitic mélanges. The elements of the ophiolitic mélange were comixed as a result of tectonic recycling in the accretionary wedge. The belt is unconformably overlain by Campanian-Maastrichtian to Paleogene accretionary fore-arc basin deposits. The AOM developed in an accretionary wedge setting in which oceanic leading edge of the Anatolide-Tauride platform subducted toward north during the post-Barremian-pre-Campanian period. The AOM emplaced episodically and progressively as a result of in thrust tectonics with vergence ranging from SSW to SE during the post-Turonian to pre-Miocene in the Ankara terrain.

  9. Timing of the final closure of the Paleo-Asian Ocean in the Alxa Terrane: Constraints from geochronology and geochemistry of Late Carboniferous to Permian gabbros and diorites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qian; Zhao, Guochun

    2017-04-01

    The Alxa Terrane is a crucial place situated between the North China Craton to the east and the Tarim Craton to the west. The Late Paleozoic magmatic record in the Alxa Terrane places important constraints on the timing of the final closure of the middle segment of the Paleo-Asian Ocean (PAO). In this study, new LA-ICPMS zircon U-Pb dating results reveal ca. 300-268 Ma gabbros and diorites in the Bayan Nuru area in the eastern part of the Alxa Terrane. The 300 Ma gabbros show plagioclase accumulations with anorthite compositions (An92-95), arc-like geochemical affinities with relative enrichment in large ionic lithophile elements and depletion in high field strength elements (e.g., Ti, Nb and Ta), as well as negative Hf(t) (-6.01 to -1.75) and Nd(t) (-9.5 to -7.1) values and high initial 87Sr/86Sr ratios (0.707157-0.707220). These features indicate a magma source of an enriched lithospheric mantle metasomatized by high fluid activities. In comparison, the 280-268 Ma gabbros and diorites also have arc-like geochemical affinities but show increasingly evolved isotope compositions, implying more sediment inputs. Compiled zircon ɛHf(t) and whole-rock ɛNd(t) values of the magmatic rocks in the Alxa Terrane decrease from the Late Carboniferous to the Early Permian, and increase from the Middle Permian to the Triassic. The considerably large spread in ɛHf(t) and ɛNd(t) values at ca. 280-265 Ma likely reflects a tectonic switch from a subduction setting to a post-collisional setting, corresponding to the timing of the final closure of the PAO in the Alxa Terrane. Thus, the PAO progressively closed from west to east along the northern margin of the Tarim Craton, the Alxa Terrane, and then the northern margin of the North China Craton during Late Carboniferous to Middle Triassic time. This work was financially supported by a NSFC Project (41190075) entitled "Final Closure of the Paleo-Asian ocean and Reconstruction of East Asian Blocks in Pangea", the fifth

  10. The Extended Enterprise concept

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Lars Bjørn; Vesterager, Johan; Gobbi, Chiara

    1999-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the work that has been done regarding the Extended Enterprise concept in the Common Concept team of Globeman 21 including references to results deliverables concerning the development of the Extended Enterprise concept. The first section presents the basic concept...... picture from Globeman21, which illustrates the Globeman21 way of realising the Extended Enterprise concept. The second section presents the Globeman21 EE concept in a life cycle perspective, which to a large extent is based on the thoughts and ideas behind GERAM (ISO/DIS 15704)....

  11. Building Extended Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKain, Barbara; McKain, Michael

    1970-01-01

    Discusses need for dissolution of the couple" relationship with substitution of the extended family which would permit each member to maintain individuality and to function on own merit. Suggests group living as preferable alternative. (CJ)

  12. Extending mine life

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1984-01-01

    Mine layouts, new machines and techniques, research into problem areas of ground control and so on, are highlighted in this report on extending mine life. The main resources taken into account are coal mining, uranium mining, molybdenum and gold mining

  13. Rational extended thermodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Müller, Ingo

    1998-01-01

    Ordinary thermodynamics provides reliable results when the thermodynamic fields are smooth, in the sense that there are no steep gradients and no rapid changes. In fluids and gases this is the domain of the equations of Navier-Stokes and Fourier. Extended thermodynamics becomes relevant for rapidly varying and strongly inhomogeneous processes. Thus the propagation of high­ frequency waves, and the shape of shock waves, and the regression of small-scale fluctuation are governed by extended thermodynamics. The field equations of ordinary thermodynamics are parabolic while extended thermodynamics is governed by hyperbolic systems. The main ingredients of extended thermodynamics are • field equations of balance type, • constitutive quantities depending on the present local state and • entropy as a concave function of the state variables. This set of assumptions leads to first order quasi-linear symmetric hyperbolic systems of field equations; it guarantees the well-posedness of initial value problems and f...

  14. Origin, evolution and geothermometry of the thermal waters in the Gölemezli Geothermal Field, Denizli Basin (SW Anatolia, Turkey)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alçiçek, Hülya; Bülbül, Ali; Brogi, Andrea; Liotta, Domenico; Ruggieri, Giovanni; Capezzuoli, Enrico; Meccheri, Marco; Yavuzer, İbrahim; Alçiçek, Mehmet Cihat

    2018-01-01

    The Gölemezli Geothermal Field (GGF) is one of the best known geothermal fields in western Anatolia (Turkey). The exploited fluids are of meteoric origin, mixed with deep magmatic fluids, which interacted with the metamorphic rocks of the Menderes Massif. The geothermal fluids are channeled along Quaternary faults belonging to the main normal faults system delimiting the northern side of the Denizli Basin and their associated transfer zones. In this study, hydrochemical and isotopic analyses of the thermal and cold waters allow us to determine water-rock interactions, fluid paths and mixing processes. Two groups of thermal waters have been distinguished: (i) Group 1A, comprising Na-SO4 type and Ca-SO4 type and (ii) Group 1B, only consisting Ca-HCO3 type waters. Differently, two groups were recognized in the cold waters: (i) Group 2A, corresponding to Ca-HCO3 type and (ii) Group 2B, including Mg-HCO3 type. Their geochemical characteristics indicate interactions with the Paleozoic metamorphic rocks of the Menderes Massif and with the Neogene lacustrine sedimentary rocks. Dissolution of host rock and ion-exchange reactions modify thermal water composition in the reservoir of the GGF. High correlation in some ionic ratios and high concentrations of some minor elements suggest an enhanced water-rock interaction. None of the thermal waters has been reached a complete chemical re-equilibrium, possibly as a result of mixing with cold water during their pathways. Geothermal reservoir temperatures are calculated in the range of 130-210°C for the Gölemezli field. Very negative δ18O and δ2H isotopic ratios are respectively between -8.37 and -8.13‰ and -61.09 and -59.34‰ for the SO4-rich thermal waters, and ca. - 8.40 and -8.32‰ and - 57.80 and -57.41‰ for the HCO3-rich thermal waters. Low tritium (rock volumes. Volatile ascent from deep magmatic sources through crustal structures can explain the occurrence of mantle volatiles at shallow depth in the Denizli Basin

  15. Jurassic-Paleogene intra-oceanic magmatic evolution of the Ankara Mélange, North-Central Anatolia, Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarifakioglu, E.; Dilek, Y.; Sevin, M.

    2013-11-01

    Oceanic rocks in the Ankara Mélange along the Izmir-Ankara-Erzincan suture zone (IAESZ) in North-Central Anatolia include locally coherent ophiolite complexes (~179 Ma and ~80 Ma), seamount or oceanic plateau volcanic units with pelagic and reefal limestones (96.6 ± 1.8 Ma), metamorphic rocks with ages of 187.4 ± 3.7 Ma, 158.4 ± 4.2 Ma, and 83.5 ± 1.2 Ma, and subalkaline to alkaline volcanic and plutonic rocks of an island arc origin (~67-63 Ma). All but the arc rocks occur in a shaly-graywacke and/or serpentinite matrix, and are deformed by south-vergent thrust faults and folds that developed in the Middle to Late Eocene due to continental collisions in the region. Ophiolitic volcanic rocks have mid-ocean ridge (MORB) and island arc tholeiite (IAT) affinities showing moderate to significant LILE enrichment and depletion in Nb, Hf, Ti, Y and Yb, which indicate the influence of subduction-derived fluids in their melt evolution. Seamount/oceanic plateau basalts show ocean island basalt (OIB) affinities. The arc-related volcanic rocks, lamprophyric dikes and syeno-dioritic plutons exhibit high-K shoshonitic to medium-to high-K calc-alkaline compositions with strong enrichment in LILE, REE and Pb, and initial ϵNd values between +1.3 and +1.7. Subalkaline arc volcanic units occur in the northern part of the mélange, whereas the younger alkaline volcanic rocks and intrusions (lamprophyre dikes and syeno-dioritic plutons) in the southern part. The Early to Late Jurassic and Late Cretaceous epidote-actinolite, epidote-chlorite and epidote-glaucophane schists represent the metamorphic units formed in a subduction channel in the Northern Neotethys. The Middle to Upper Triassic neritic limestones spatially associated with the seamount volcanic rocks indicate that the Northern Neotethys was an open ocean with its MORB-type oceanic lithosphere by the Early Triassic. The Latest Cretaceous-Early Paleocene island arc volcanic, dike and plutonic rocks with

  16. Jurassic-Paleogene intraoceanic magmatic evolution of the Ankara Mélange, north-central Anatolia, Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarifakioglu, E.; Dilek, Y.; Sevin, M.

    2014-02-01

    Oceanic rocks in the Ankara Mélange along the Izmir-Ankara-Erzincan suture zone (IAESZ) in north-central Anatolia include locally coherent ophiolite complexes (∼ 179 Ma and ∼ 80 Ma), seamount or oceanic plateau volcanic units with pelagic and reefal limestones (96.6 ± 1.8 Ma), metamorphic rocks with ages of 256.9 ± 8.0 Ma, 187.4 ± 3.7 Ma, 158.4 ± 4.2 Ma, and 83.5 ± 1.2 Ma indicating northern Tethys during the late Paleozoic through Cretaceous, and subalkaline to alkaline volcanic and plutonic rocks of an island arc origin (∼ 67-63 Ma). All but the arc rocks occur in a shale-graywacke and/or serpentinite matrix, and are deformed by south-vergent thrust faults and folds that developed in the middle to late Eocene due to continental collisions in the region. Ophiolitic volcanic rocks have mid-ocean ridge (MORB) and island arc tholeiite (IAT) affinities showing moderate to significant large ion lithophile elements (LILE) enrichment and depletion in Nb, Hf, Ti, Y and Yb, which indicate the influence of subduction-derived fluids in their melt evolution. Seamount/oceanic plateau basalts show ocean island basalt (OIB) affinities. The arc-related volcanic rocks, lamprophyric dikes and syenodioritic plutons exhibit high-K shoshonitic to medium- to high-K calc-alkaline compositions with strong enrichment in LILE, rare earth elements (REE) and Pb, and initial ɛNd values between +1.3 and +1.7. Subalkaline arc volcanic units occur in the northern part of the mélange, whereas the younger alkaline volcanic rocks and intrusions (lamprophyre dikes and syenodioritic plutons) in the southern part. The late Permian, Early to Late Jurassic, and Late Cretaceous amphibole-epidote schist, epidote-actinolite, epidote-chlorite and epidote-glaucophane schists represent the metamorphic units formed in a subduction channel in the northern Neotethys. The Middle to Upper Triassic neritic limestones spatially associated with the seamount volcanic rocks indicate that the northern

  17. The structural elements and tectonics of the Lake Van basin (Eastern Anatolia) from multi-channel seismic reflection profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toker, Mustafa; Sengor, A. M. Celal; Demirel Schluter, Filiz; Demirbag, Emin; Cukur, Deniz; Imren, Caner; Niessen, Frank; PaleoVan-Working Group

    2017-05-01

    This study analyzed multi-channel seismic reflection data from Lake Van, Eastern Anatolia, to provide key information on the structural elements, deformational patterns and overall tectonic structure of the Lake Van basin. The seismic data reveal three subbasins (the Tatvan, northern and Ahlat subbasins) separated by structural ridges (the northern and Ahlat ridges). The Tatvan basin is a tilted wedge-block in the west, it is a relatively undeformed and flat-lying deep basin, forming a typical example of strike-slip sedimentation. Seismic sections reveal that the deeper sedimentary sections of the Tatvan basin are locally folded, gently in the south and more intensely further north, suggesting a probable gravitational "wedge-block" instability, oblique to the northern margin. The northern subbasin, bounded by normal oblique faults, forms a basin-margin graben structure that is elongated in a northeast-southwest direction. The east-west trending Ahlat ridge forms a fault-wedged sedimentary ridge and appears to offset by reverse oblique faults forming as a push-up rhomb horst structure. The Ahlat subbasin is a fault-wedged trough fill that is elongated in the west-east direction and appears as a horst-foot graben formed by the normal oblique faults. The northeast-southwest directed northern ridge is a faulted crestal terrace of a sublacustrine basement block. Its step-like morphology, in response to the downfaulting of the Tatvan basin, as well as its backthrusted appearance, indicates the normal oblique nature of the bounding faults. The lacustrine shelf and slope show distinctive stratigraphic features; progradational deltas, submerged fluvial channels, distorted and collapsed beddings and soft sediment deformation structures, characterizing a highly unstable nature of shelf caused by strong oblique faulting and related earthquakes. The faulting caused uplift of the Çarpanak spur zone, together with the northeastern Erek delta, deformation of deltaic structures

  18. Thermal gradient and geochronology of a Paleozoic high-grade terrane in the northeastern Cathaysia block, South China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Lei; Zhai, Mingguo; Zhou, Xiwen; Santosh, M.; Ma, Xudong

    2016-11-01

    The Chencai terrane in the northeastern Cathaysia Block forms part of the northeast extension of the Paleozoic orogeny in South China. Recent field investigations have revealed the occurrence of high grade rocks in this terrane including granulite facies metapelites (khondalites) and orthopyroxene-bearing granulites. However, the thermal gradients and metamorphic history of this region have not been well constrained, thus impeding a better understanding of the geodynamic history of the Paleozoic orogeny in South China. Here we report results from a systematic study on the metamorphic PT conditions and geochronology of the orthopyroxene granulites and metasedimentary rocks (metapelites) from the Chencai area. The orthopyroxene granulites preserve granulite facies peak assemblage of Opx + Grt + Pl + Kfs + Qtz and a retrograde P-T trajectory. Peak PT conditions are 845-860 °C and 0.83-0.86 Gpa, corresponding to a thermal gradient of 30 °C/km which is much hotter than the normal thermal gradient of continental crust. Mineral compositions of the metasedimentary rocks re-equilibrated during retrograde metamorphism so that the peak PT conditions recorded by these rocks are much lower than those obtained from the orthopyroxene granulite. Peak PT conditions are 710-720 °C, 0.57-0.58 Gpa for garnet-biotite gneiss and 760-780 °C, 0.60-0.62 Gpa for biotite garnetite. Zircon U-Pb dating shows that this episode of granulite facies metamorphism occurred at 430-450 Ma and the detrital population shows minor or no contribution from the basement rocks of the Cathaysia Block. The Neoproterozoic rocks occurring along the Jiangnan belt are considered to have provided the sedimentary source as indicated by the two main age peaks of 0.79 Ga and 0.83 Ga from the detrital zircon cores. Lu-Hf isotope data on the zircons indicates extensive alteration and little new zircon growth during the Paleozoic metamorphism. The εHf(t) values and model ages (TDM1) of zircons suggest that the

  19. Early Cretaceous I-type granites in the Tengchong terrane: New constraints on the late Mesozoic tectonic evolution of southwestern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Fang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The Early Cretaceous granitoids that are widespread in the Tengchong terrane of Southwest China play a critical role in understanding the tectonic framework associated with the Tethyan oceans. In this study, we present a detailed description of zircon U–Pb ages, whole-rock geochemistry and Hf isotopes for the Laoxiangkeng pluton in the eastern Tengchong terrane and elucidate their petrogenesis and geodynamic implications. Zircon U–Pb dating of the Laoxiangkeng pluton yields ages of 114 ± 1 Ma and 115 ± 1 Ma, which imply an Early Cretaceous magmatic event. The Laoxiangkeng pluton enriched in Si and Na, is calc-alkaline and metaluminous, and has the characteristics of highly fractionated I-type granites. Zircons from the pluton have calculated εHf(t values of −12.7 to −3.7 and two-stage model ages of 1327–1974 Ma, respectively, indicating a mixed source of partial melting of Paleo-Neoproterozoic crust-derived compositions with some inputs of mantle-derived magmas. By integrating all available data for the regional tectonic evolution of the eastern Tethys tectonic domain, we conclude that the Early Cretaceous magmatism in the Tengchong terrane was produced by the northeastward subduction of the Meso-Tethyan Bangong–Nujiang Ocean.

  20. Petrography and geochronology (U/Pb-Sm/Nd) the Passagem Granite, Pensamiento Granitoid Complex, Paragua Terrane, SW Amazon Craton, Mato Grosso, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jesus, Gisely Carmo de; Sousa, Maria Zelia Aguiar de; Ruiz, Amarildo Salina; Matos, Joao Batista de

    2010-01-01

    The Passagem granite includes stocks, plugs and dikes located in the Ricardo Franco hill - Vila Bela da Santissima Trindade region - state of Mato Grosso, central Brazil. The Passagem Granite is included in the Paragua terrane - SW Amazonian Craton. It consists of isotropic monzogranite, sienogranite and more rarely granodiorites with leucocratic dark gray to white color. These rocks range from hypidomorphic inequigranular to xenomorphic texture, fine to medium grained. Biotite is the only primary mafic present as essential phase and characterize an expanded slightly acid sequence formed by a sub-alkaline magmatism of high-potassium calc-alkaline, slightly peraluminous composition from arc magmatic tectonic environment during a post-collisional period. Mechanism of fractional crystallization of plagioclase, biotite, titanite, apatite and zircon associated with simultaneous crustal assimilation are suggested for the evolution of these rocks. The results support the hypothesis of a post-collisional magmatism in the Paragua terrane at 1284 +- 20 Ma corresponding to the crystallization age of the Passagem granite. This paper propose that Passagem Granite represents as an extension in Brazilian terrane of the Pensamiento Granitoid Complex. (author)

  1. Subduction Zone Configuration of Central and Eastern Anatolia since the Late Cretaceous: Insights from Sedimentary Basins in the Neotethyan Suture Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gürer, D.; Van Hinsbergen, D. J. J.; Matenco, L.; Corfu, F.; Langereis, C. G.; Ozkaptan, M.

    2015-12-01

    Subduction and accretion of continental and Neotethyan oceanic crustal fragments during Africa-Europe convergence since the Mesozoic formed the Anatolian fold-and-thrust belt. Sedimentary basins overlying key locations of the resulting fold-thrust belt that was metamorphosed to varying grades, may help to quantitatively kinematically restore the subduction evolution, and to identify timing, directions and amounts of post-accretionary extension, shortening and strike-slip faulting. The Upper Cretaceous - Oligocene Ulukışla basin straddles ophiolites, underlain by the HT-LP metamorphic Kırşehir Block (KB) to its north, and the HP-LT Bolkardağ/Afyon zone (BA) to its south. At its southern margin a series of small-offset faults consistent with latest Cretaceous-Paleocene N-S extension, was contemporaneous with (presumably extensional) exhumation of BA. Close to the contact with KB, a series of large-offset listric normal faults compatible with E-W extension offsets sediments and the base of newly dated Paleocene volcanics, showing E-W extension simultaneous with N-S extension in the south, prevailing until at least 56 Ma. Subsequently, N-S directed contraction led to E-W striking folds and thrusts and back-thrusting of the BA over the Ulukisla basin, probably in Oligocene time, and coeval left lateral strike-slip motion along the Ecemiş fault (EF) at the eastern basin margin. We explain the interplay between two Late Cretaceous-Paleocene extension directions to result from interplay between N-S and E-W striking subduction segments in central and eastern Anatolia, respectively. The latter can be followed farther east towards the Bitlis. In addition, absence of a Kirsehir block in eastern Anatolia led to a much longer duration of subduction below the Pontides, throughout the Paleogene and perhaps until as young as the Middle Miocene, with a suture below the Sivas basin that covers the contact between the KB, the Pontides and the Taurides. We restore an amount of

  2. Extending quantum mechanics entails extending special relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aravinda, S; Srikanth, R

    2016-01-01

    The complementarity between signaling and randomness in any communicated resource that can simulate singlet statistics is generalized by relaxing the assumption of free will in the choice of measurement settings. We show how to construct an ontological extension for quantum mechanics (QMs) through the oblivious embedding of a sound simulation protocol in a Newtonian spacetime. Minkowski or other intermediate spacetimes are ruled out as the locus of the embedding by virtue of hidden influence inequalities. The complementarity transferred from a simulation to the extension unifies a number of results about quantum non-locality, and implies that special relativity has a different significance for the ontological model and for the operational theory it reproduces. Only the latter, being experimentally accessible, is required to be Lorentz covariant. There may be certain Lorentz non-covariant elements at the ontological level, but they will be inaccessible at the operational level in a valid extension. Certain arguments against the extendability of QM, due to Conway and Kochen (2009) and Colbeck and Renner (2012), are attributed to their assumption that the spacetime at the ontological level has Minkowski causal structure. (paper)

  3. Ancient terrane boundaries as probable seismic hazards: A case study from the northern boundary of the Eastern Ghats Belt, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saibal Gupta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the eastern part of the Indian shield, late Paleozoic–Mesozoic sedimentary rocks of the Talchir Basin lie precisely along a contact of Neoproterozoic age between granulites of the Eastern Ghats Mobile Belt (EGMB and amphibolite facies rocks of the Rengali Province. At present, the northern part of the basin experiences periodic seismicity by reactivation of faults located both within the basin, and in the Rengali Province to the north. Detailed gravity data collected across the basin show that Bouguer anomalies decrease from the EGMB (∼+15 mGal, through the basin (∼−10 mGal, into the Rengali Province (∼−15 mGal. The data are consistent with the reportedly uncompensated nature of the EGMB, and indicate that the crust below the Rengali Province has a cratonic gravity signature. The contact between the two domains with distinct sub-surface structure, inferred from gravity data, coincides with the North Orissa Boundary Fault (NOBF that defines the northern boundary of the Talchir Basin. Post-Gondwana faults are also localized along the northern margin of the basin, and present-day seismic tremors also have epicenters close to the NOBF. This indicates that the NOBF was formed by reactivation of a Neoproterozoic terrane boundary, and continues to be susceptible to seismic activity even at the present-day.

  4. A history of Proterozoic terranes in southern South America: From Rodinia to Gondwana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Casquet

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The role played by Paleoproterozoic cratons in southern South America from the Mesoproterozoic to the Early Cambrian is reconsidered here. This period involved protracted continental amalgamation that led to formation of the supercontinent Rodinia, followed by Neoproterozoic continental break-up, with the consequent opening of Clymene and Iapetus oceans, and finally continental re-assembly as Gondwana through complex oblique collisions in the Late Neoproterozoic to Early Cambrian. The evidence for this is based mainly on a combination of precise U-Pb SHRMP dating and radiogenic isotope data for igneous and metamorphic rocks from a large area extending from the Rio de la Plata craton in the east to the Argentine Precordillera in the west and as far north as Arequipa in Peru. Our interpretation of the paleogeographical and geodynamic evolution invokes a hypothetical Paleoproterozoic block (MARA embracing basement ultimately older than 1.7 Ga in the Western Sierras Pampeanas (Argentina, the Arequipa block (Peru, the Rio Apa block (Brazil, and probably also the Paraguaia block (Bolivia.

  5. Confirmation of the southwest continuation of the Cat Square terrane, southern Appalachian Inner Piedmont, with implications for middle Paleozoic collisional orogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huebner, Matthew T.; Hatcher, Robert D.; Merschat, Arthur J.

    2017-01-01

    Detailed geologic mapping, U-Pb zircon geochronology and whole-rock geochemical analyses were conducted to test the hypothesis that the southwestern extent of the Cat Square terrane continues from the northern Inner Piedmont (western Carolinas) into central Georgia. Geologic mapping revealed the Jackson Lake fault, a ∼15 m-thick, steeply dipping sillimanite-grade fault zone that truncates lithologically distinct granitoids and metasedimentary units, and roughly corresponds with a prominent aeromagnetic lineament hypothesized to represent the southern continuation of the terrane-bounding Brindle Creek fault. Results of U-Pb SHRIMP geochronology indicate Late Ordovician to Silurian granitoids (444–439 Ma) occur exclusively northwest of the fault, whereas Devonian (404–371 Ma) granitoids only occur southeast of the fault. The relatively undeformed Indian Springs granodiorite (three individual bodies dated 317–298 Ma) crosscuts the fault and occurs on both sides, which indicates the Jackson Lake fault is a pre-Alleghanian structure. However, detrital zircon signatures from samples southeast of the Jackson Lake fault reveal dominant Grenville provenance, in contrast to Cat Square terrane detrital zircon samples from the northern Inner Piedmont, which include peri-Gondwanan (600–500 Ma) and a prominent Ordovician-Silurian (∼430 Ma) signature. We interpret the rocks southeast of the Jackson Lake fault to represent the southwestern extension of the Cat Square terrane primarily based on the partitioning of granitoid ages and lithologic distinctions similar to the northern Inner Piedmont.Data suggest Cat Square terrane metasedimentary rocks were initially deposited in a remnant ocean basin setting and developed into an accretionary prism in front of the approaching Carolina superterrane, ultimately overridden by it in Late Devonian to Early Mississippian time. Burial to >20 km resulted in migmatization of lower plate rocks, forming an infrastructure beneath the

  6. An Extended Duopoly Game.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckalbar, John C.

    2002-01-01

    Illustrates how principles and intermediate microeconomic students can gain an understanding for strategic price setting by playing a relatively large oligopoly game. Explains that the game extends to a continuous price space and outlines appropriate applications. Offers the Mathematica code to instructors so that the assumptions of the game can…

  7. Extending Critical Performativity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spicer, André; Alvesson, Mats; Kärreman, Dan

    2016-01-01

    from an undue focus on intra-academic debates; engage in author-itarian theoretical policing; feign relevance through symbolic radicalism; and repackage common sense. We take these critiques as an opportunity to offer an extended model of critical performativity that involves focusing on issues...

  8. Parameterization of extended systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niemann, Hans Henrik

    2006-01-01

    The YJBK parameterization (of all stabilizing controllers) is extended to handle systems with additional sensors and/or actuators. It is shown that the closed loop transfer function is still an affine function in the YJBK parameters in the nominal case. Further, some closed-loop stability results...

  9. Poster Session- Extended Abstracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jack D. Alexander III; Jean Findley; Brenda K. Kury; Jan L. Beyers; Douglas S. Cram; Terrell T. Baker; Jon C. Boren; Carl Edminster; Sue A. Ferguson; Steven McKay; David Nagel; Trent Piepho; Miriam Rorig; Casey Anderson; Jeanne Hoadley; Paulette L. Ford; Mark C. Andersen; Ed L. Fredrickson; Joe Truett; Gary W. Roemer; Brenda K. Kury; Jennifer Vollmer; Christine L. May; Danny C. Lee; James P. Menakis; Robert E. Keane; Zhi-Liang Zhu; Carol Miller; Brett Davis; Katharine Gray; Ken Mix; William P. Kuvlesky Jr.; D. Lynn Drawe; Marcia G. Narog; Roger D. Ottmar; Robert E. Vihnanek; Clinton S. Wright; Timothy E. Paysen; Burton K. Pendleton; Rosemary L. Pendleton; Carleton S. White; John Rogan; Doug Stow; Janet Franklin; Jennifer Miller; Lisa Levien; Chris Fischer; Emma Underwood; Robert Klinger; Peggy Moore; Clinton S. Wright

    2008-01-01

    Titles found within Poster Session-Extended Abstracts include:Assessment of emergency fire rehabilitation of four fires from the 2000 fire season on the Vale, Oregon, BLM district: review of the density sampling materials and methods: p. 329 Growth of regreen, seeded for erosion control, in the...

  10. Detection and identification of cutaneous leishmaniasis isolates by culture, Polymerase chain reaction and sequence analyses in Syrian and Central Anatolia patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyhan, Yunus E; Karakus, Mehmet; Karagoz, Alper; Mungan, Mesut; Ozkan, Aysegul T; Hokelek, Murat

    2017-09-01

    To characterize the cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) isolates of Syrian and Central Anatolia patients at species levels. Methods: Skin scrapings of 3 patients (2 Syrian, 1 Turkish) were taken and examined by direct examination, culture in Novy-MacNeal-Nicole (NNN) medium, internal transcribed spacer polymerase chain reaction and sequence analysis (PCR). Results:According to microscopic examination, culture and PCR methods, 3 samples were detected positive. The sequencing results of all isolates in the study were identified as Leishmania tropica. The same genotypes were detected in the 3 isolates and nucleotide sequence submitted into GenBank with the accession number: KP689599. Conclusion: This finding could give information about the transmission of CL between Turkey and Syria. Because of the Syrian civil war, most of the Syrian citizens circulating in Turkey and different part of Europe, this can be increase the risk of spreading the disease. So, prevention measurements must be taken urgently.

  11. Impact of the ATATÜRK DAM Lake on Agro-Meteorological Aspects of the Southeastern Anatolia Region Using Remote Sensing and GIS Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozcan, O.; Bookhagen, B.; Musaoglu, N.

    2012-07-01

    The Atatürk Dam is the fourth largest clay-cored rock fill dam in the world. It was constructed on the Euphrates River located in semi-arid Southeastern Turkey in the 1980s as the central component of a large-scale regional development project for the Southeastern Anatolia region (referred to as GAP). The construction began in 1983 and was completed in 1990. The dam and the hydroelectric power plant, which went into service after filling up the reservoir was accomplished in 1992. The Atatürk Dam, which has a height of 169 m, a total storage capacity of 48.7 million m3, and a surface area of about 817 km2 plays an important role in the development of Turkey's energy and agriculture sectors. In this study, the spatial and temporal impacts of the Atatürk Dam on agro-meteorological aspects of the Southeastern Anatolia region have been investigated. Change detection and environmental impacts due to water-reserve changes in Atatürk Dam Lake have been determined and evaluated using multi-temporal Landsat satellite imageries and meteorological datasets within a period of 1984 to 2011. These time series have been evaluated for three time periods. Dam construction period constitutes the first part of the study. Land cover/use changes especially on agricultural fields under the Atatürk Dam Lake and its vicinity have been identified between the periods of 1984 to 1992. The second period comprises the 10-year period after the completion of filling up the reservoir in 1992. At this period, Landsat and meteorological time-series analyses are examined to assess the impact of the Atatürk Dam Lake on selected irrigated agricultural areas. For the last 9-year period from 2002 to 2011, the relationships between seasonal water-reserve changes and irrigated plains under changing climatic factors primarily driving vegetation activity (monthly, seasonal, and annual fluctuations of rainfall rate, air temperature, humidity) on the watershed have been investigated using a 30-year

  12. IMPACT OF THE ATATÜRK DAM LAKE ON AGRO-METEOROLOGICAL ASPECTS OF THE SOUTHEASTERN ANATOLIA REGION USING REMOTE SENSING AND GIS ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Ozcan

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The Atatürk Dam is the fourth largest clay-cored rock fill dam in the world. It was constructed on the Euphrates River located in semi-arid Southeastern Turkey in the 1980s as the central component of a large-scale regional development project for the Southeastern Anatolia region (referred to as GAP. The construction began in 1983 and was completed in 1990. The dam and the hydroelectric power plant, which went into service after filling up the reservoir was accomplished in 1992. The Atatürk Dam, which has a height of 169 m, a total storage capacity of 48.7 million m3, and a surface area of about 817 km2 plays an important role in the development of Turkey's energy and agriculture sectors. In this study, the spatial and temporal impacts of the Atatürk Dam on agro-meteorological aspects of the Southeastern Anatolia region have been investigated. Change detection and environmental impacts due to water-reserve changes in Atatürk Dam Lake have been determined and evaluated using multi-temporal Landsat satellite imageries and meteorological datasets within a period of 1984 to 2011. These time series have been evaluated for three time periods. Dam construction period constitutes the first part of the study. Land cover/use changes especially on agricultural fields under the Atatürk Dam Lake and its vicinity have been identified between the periods of 1984 to 1992. The second period comprises the 10-year period after the completion of filling up the reservoir in 1992. At this period, Landsat and meteorological time-series analyses are examined to assess the impact of the Atatürk Dam Lake on selected irrigated agricultural areas. For the last 9-year period from 2002 to 2011, the relationships between seasonal water-reserve changes and irrigated plains under changing climatic factors primarily driving vegetation activity (monthly, seasonal, and annual fluctuations of rainfall rate, air temperature, humidity on the watershed have been investigated

  13. Detection and identification of cutaneous leishmaniasis isolates by culture, Polymerase chain reaction and sequence analyses in Syrian and Central Anatolia patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunus E. Beyhan

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To characterize the cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL isolates of Syrian and Central Anatolia patients at species levels. Methods: Skin scrapings of 3 patients (2 Syrian, 1 Turkish were taken and examined by direct examination, culture in Novy-MacNeal-Nicole (NNN medium, internal transcribed spacer polymerase chain reaction and sequence analysis (PCR. Results:According to microscopic examination, culture and PCR methods, 3 samples were detected positive. The sequencing results of all isolates in the study were identified as Leishmania tropica. The same genotypes were detected in the 3 isolates and nucleotide sequence submitted into GenBank with the accession number: KP689599. Conclusion: This finding could give information about the transmission of CL between Turkey and Syria. Because of the Syrian civil war, most of the Syrian citizens circulating in Turkey and different part of Europe, this can be increase the risk of spreading the disease. So, prevention measurements must be taken urgently.

  14. THE HELPS WHICH WERE MADE BY THE RED CRESCENT IN ANATOLIA AND GREECE TO THE TURKS AND GREEK PRISONERS IN THE PERIOD OF THE NATIONAL STRUGGLE / MILLI MÜCADELE DÖNEMINDE HILAL-I AHMER CEMIYETI’NIN ANADOLU VE YUNANISTAN’DAKI TÜRK VE YUNAN ESIRLERINE YAPTIĞI YARDIMLAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Erol KAYA

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available It became mutually the prisoners of war to the Grek and Turkishunions fighting in Anatolia during the First World War. It was helped in thedifferent was both The Grek prisoners in Anatolia and The Turkish prisonersin Greece by The Red Crescent. These helpings were rather important fromthe point of view of improvement of the positions of The Turkish prisoners inGrece especially.

  15. Jurassic–Paleogene intraoceanic magmatic evolution of the Ankara Mélange, north-central Anatolia, Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Sarifakioglu

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Oceanic rocks in the Ankara Mélange along the Izmir–Ankara–Erzincan suture zone (IAESZ in north-central Anatolia include locally coherent ophiolite complexes (~ 179 Ma and ~ 80 Ma, seamount or oceanic plateau volcanic units with pelagic and reefal limestones (96.6 ± 1.8 Ma, metamorphic rocks with ages of 256.9 ± 8.0 Ma, 187.4 ± 3.7 Ma, 158.4 ± 4.2 Ma, and 83.5 ± 1.2 Ma indicating northern Tethys during the late Paleozoic through Cretaceous, and subalkaline to alkaline volcanic and plutonic rocks of an island arc origin (~ 67–63 Ma. All but the arc rocks occur in a shale–graywacke and/or serpentinite matrix, and are deformed by south-vergent thrust faults and folds that developed in the middle to late Eocene due to continental collisions in the region. Ophiolitic volcanic rocks have mid-ocean ridge (MORB and island arc tholeiite (IAT affinities showing moderate to significant large ion lithophile elements (LILE enrichment and depletion in Nb, Hf, Ti, Y and Yb, which indicate the influence of subduction-derived fluids in their melt evolution. Seamount/oceanic plateau basalts show ocean island basalt (OIB affinities. The arc-related volcanic rocks, lamprophyric dikes and syenodioritic plutons exhibit high-K shoshonitic to medium- to high-K calc-alkaline compositions with strong enrichment in LILE, rare earth elements (REE and Pb, and initial εNd values between +1.3 and +1.7. Subalkaline arc volcanic units occur in the northern part of the mélange, whereas the younger alkaline volcanic rocks and intrusions (lamprophyre dikes and syenodioritic plutons in the southern part. The late Permian, Early to Late Jurassic, and Late Cretaceous amphibole-epidote schist, epidote-actinolite, epidote-chlorite and epidote-glaucophane schists represent the metamorphic units formed in a subduction channel in the northern Neotethys. The Middle to Upper Triassic neritic limestones spatially associated with the

  16. Oxygen and sulfur isotope geochemistry revealing a significant crustal signature in the genesis of the post-collisional granitoids in central Anatolia, Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boztuğ, Durmuş; Arehart, Greg B.

    2007-04-01

    Late Cretaceous granitoid rocks from central Anatolia comprise S-I-A-type plutons derived from the collisional stages of the Neo-Tethyan convergence system in central Turkey. These granitoids intrude the tectonic imbrication zone consisting of blocks of supra-subduction zone-type (SSZ-type) central Anatolian ophiolite and crustal metasediments which are present in the İzmir-Ankara-Erzincan suture zone. The plutons are overlain by Late Palaeocene-Early Eocene or younger detrital sediments. Granitoid formation is thought to be related to magma generation processes occurring in a post-collisional lithospheric detachment-related geodynamic setting that resulted from slab break-off or lithospheric delamination. Whole-rock S and quartz/feldspar O isotope data from these plutons yields a broad range of values, and both parameters indicate a nearly exclusively supracrustal origin for the S-type granites, as well as a significant crustal contribution in the genesis of the hybrid I-type and A-type granitoids. The more mafic I-type and A-type granitoid rocks of any given suite have lower S and O values, indicative of their larger degree of mantle component. The combined stable isotope geochemical compositions, when coupled with major, trace and REE geochemistry and regional geology, provide evidence that the significant crustal contribution originated from a metasomatized mantle layer which was affected by earlier SSZ-derived fluids, and then accreted into the subcontinental lithosphere as collision occurred. The partial melting of such a metasomatized mantle layer in a post-collisional extensional geodynamic setting, supplied either by the slab break-off or lithospheric delamination mechanisms, provided the significant crustal signature in the hybrid magmas of the Late Cretaceous I-type and A-type granitoids in central Anatolia, Turkey.

  17. Aksaray and Ecemis faults - Diapiric salt relationships: relevance to the hydrocarbon exploration in the Tuz Golu (Salt Lake) Basin, Central Anatolia, Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coskun, Bulent [Ankara Univ., Dept. of Geology, Tandogan (Turkey)

    2004-09-15

    Due to activity of the Aksaray and Ecemis Faults, volcanic intrusion and westward movement of the Anatolian plate, diapiric salt structures were occurred in the Tuz Golu (Salt Lake) basin in central Anatolia, Turkey. With the collisions of the Arabian and Anatolian plates during the late Cretaceous and Miocene times, prominent ophiolitic obduction occurred in the Pontides and Taurides along the North Anatolian Fault (NAF) and East Anatolian Fault (EAF). The NAF and EAF intersect each other in the Karliova region, in eastern Turkey. At this point, due to the northward movement of the Arabian plate in SE Turkey, the Anatolian plate shifted toward the west and south along the fault zones. The same geological tectonic model is proposed at the intersection point of the Aksaray Fault (AF) and Ecemis Fault (EF) in central Anatolia. The westward movement of the Anatolian plate between these two faults resulted in the formation of the diapiric salt structures, volcanic intrusions and overpressure zones in the study area. Paleogeological reconstructions of the Tuz Golu basin indicate that the salient positive structures in the basin were formed during late Eocene-Oligocene times. These structures, like the Yeniceoba-Bezirci and Karapinar-Kochisar trends, are oriented in a NW-SE or N-S directions between the Kirsehir and Sivrihisar-Bozdag massifs. The subsidence rate and Paleogeographic evolutions in the basin show that the southeastern sector of the Tuz Golu basin remained shallower relative to the central and northwestern regions. Based on the paleostructural, subsidence and geothermal reconstructions, it has been concluded that the oil generation and migration zones and geothermal trends are oriented in a NW-SE direction in the Tuz Golu basin. (Author)

  18. Extended Irreversible Thermodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Jou, David

    2010-01-01

    This is the 4th edition of the highly acclaimed monograph on Extended Irreversible Thermodynamics, a theory that goes beyond the classical theory of irreversible processes. In contrast to the classical approach, the basic variables describing the system are complemented by non-equilibrium quantities. The claims made for extended thermodynamics are confirmed by the kinetic theory of gases and statistical mechanics. The book covers a wide spectrum of applications, and also contains a thorough discussion of the foundations and the scope of the current theories on non-equilibrium thermodynamics. For this new edition, the authors critically revised existing material while taking into account the most recent developments in fast moving fields such as heat transport in micro- and nanosystems or fast solidification fronts in materials sciences. Several fundamental chapters have been revisited emphasizing physics and applications over mathematical derivations. Also, fundamental questions on the definition of non-equil...

  19. Timing, Controls and Tectonic Context of Gold Mineralisation in the Southern Uplands-Longford-Down Terrane, Caledonides, Scotland and Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Samuel; Cuthbert, Simon; Hursthouse, Andrew

    2017-04-01

    The relationships between regional tectonic, magmatic and metamorphic events and hydrothermal mineralisation in orogenic settings are controversial [1]. The geotectonic development of the Caledonian orogenic belt of the northern British Isles, which hosts some significant gold deposits, is well-constrained and provides an excellent framework for investigating these relationships. Gold mineralisation at two of the best known deposits, Curraghinalt and Cononish, located in the Grampian Terrane, has recently been shown to have occurred between 462.7 and 452.8 Ma, during the Late Ordovician Grampian event of the Caledonian orogeny [2]. In the Southern Uplands-Longford-Down Terrane syn and post-kinnematic intrusions constrain the age of mineralisation to between 418 and 397 Ma. Mineralisation is hosted by late Caledonian transverse D3 structures of Early Devonian age [3]. Fluid inclusion data indicate that the auriferous quartz veins were deposited from a low salinity carbonic mesothermal ( 330°C) fluid of apparently mixed magmatic-metamorphic origin, consistent with a Caledonian orogenic origin [4-6]. Gold mineralisation is associated with contemporaneous minor intrusions at several localities [7-9] exhibiting comparable mineralogy, geochemistry, fluid inclusion types and structural relationships, indicating that coeval regional magmatism may have been a significant factor for all of the deposits. Gold mineralisation in the SULDT occurred during a transition from compression to strike-slip deformation coeval with a regional pulse of orogenic magmatism [10]. The common association between gold deposits in Phanerozoic orogenic settings and intrusions may explain overlapping characteristics between orogenic, intrusion-related and porphyry gold deposits and may reflect the important role of magmatism in conveying the heat to drive hydrothermal systems at shallow crustal levels. Further work will focus on constraining the sources of mineralising fluids and metals. 1

  20. The metallogeny of Late Triassic rifting of the Alexander terrane in southeastern Alaska and northwestern British Columbia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, C.D.; Premo, W.R.; Meier, A.L.; Taggart, J.E.

    2008-01-01

    A belt of unusual volcanogenic massive sulfide (VMS) occurrences is located along the eastern margin of the Alexander terrane throughout southeastern Alaska and northwestern British Columbia and exhibits a range of characteristics consistent with a variety of syngenetic to epigenetic deposit types. Deposits within this belt include Greens Creek and Windy Craggy, the economically most significant VMS deposit in Alaska and the largest in North America, respectively. The occurrences are hosted by a discontinuously exposed, 800-km-long belt of rocks that consist of a 200- to 800-m-thick sequence of conglomerate, limestone, marine elastic sedimentary rocks, and tuff intercalated with and overlain by a distinctive unit of mafic pyroclastic rocks and pillowed flows. Faunal data bracket the age of the host rocks between Anisian (Middle Triassic) and late Norian (late Late Triassic). This metallogenic belt is herein referred to as the Alexander Triassic metallogenic belt. The VMS occurrences show systematic differences in degree of structural control, chemistry, and stratigraphic setting along the Alexander Triassic metallogenic belt that suggest important spatial or temporal changes in the tectonic environment of formation. At the southern end of the belt, felsic volcanic rocks overlain by shallow-water limestones characterize the lower part of the sequence. In the southern and middle portion of the belt, a distinctive pebble conglomerate marks the base of the section and is indicative of high-energy deposition in a near slope or basin margin setting. At the northern end of the belt the conglomerates, limestones, and felsic volcanic rocks are absent and the belt is composed of deep-water sedimentary and mafic volcanic rocks. This northward change in depositional environment and lithofacies is accompanied by a northward transition from epithermal-like structurally controlled, discontinuous, vein- and pod-shaped, Pb-Zn-Ag-Ba-(Cu) occurrences with relatively simple mineralogy

  1. High-precision UPb ages of metamorphic rutile: application to the cooling history of high-grade terranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezger, K.; Hanson, G.N.; Bohlen, S.R.

    1989-01-01

    Metamorphic rutiles occurring in granulite and upper amphibolite facies metapelitic rocks of the Archean Pikwitonei granulite domain (Manitoba) and the Proterozoic Adirondack terrane (New York) give concordant and near concordant UPb ages. The Pb concentrations in rutile range from 2.85 to 168 ppm, U concentrations range from 10.9 to 390 ppm and the measured 206Pb 204Pb ratios range from 182 to 22,100 corresponding to 238U 204Pb ratios of 398-75,100. The proportions of radiogenic 208Pb are very low, ranging from 0.0 to 6.9% of total radiogenic Pb. The habits of the rutile crystals range from stubby to acicular, the physical properties vary from opaque/black to transparent/reddish-brown. Separate batches of black and reddish-brown rutile grains from the same samples have similar U and Pb concentrations, Pb-isotope ratios, and yield the same U Pb ages within analytical uncertainty. No correlation of U concentration and 206Pb 204Pb ratios with morphology or color of the rutiles was observed among the samples analyzed. Most rutiles yield concordant UPb ages which are reproducible within analytical uncertainty, i.e. generally ??2 Ma. The UPb ages for prograde rutile are younger than the time of peak metamorphism given by UPb ages for garnet and zircon, and also younger than UPb ages for sphene and monazite, and 40Ar 39Ar and KAr ages for hornblende but older than 40Ar 39Ar and KAr ages for biotite from the same area. This suggests that the rutile ages reflect cooling below closure temperatures. Within a single hand-specimen, and thus for an identical thermal history, larger rutile grains give older ages than do smaller grains. This suggests that volume diffusion is the most probable mechanism responsible for the ages being younger than the time of peak metamorphism. It also suggests that the dimensions for such diffusion are directly related to the dimensions of the rutile crystal and not to the dimensions of sub-grain domains, as is the case for Ar diffusion in

  2. The dialogically extended mind

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fusaroli, Riccardo; Gangopadhyay, Nivedita; Tylén, Kristian

    2014-01-01

    , we argue that language enhances our cognitive capabilities in a much more radical way: The skilful engagement of public material symbols facilitates evolutionarily unprecedented modes of collective perception, action and reasoning (interpersonal synergies) creating dialogically extended minds. We...... relate our approach to other ideas about collective minds and review a number of empirical studies to identify the mechanisms enabling the constitution of interpersonal cognitive systems....

  3. Extended quantum mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavel Bona

    2000-01-01

    The work can be considered as an essay on mathematical and conceptual structure of nonrelativistic quantum mechanics which is related here to some other (more general, but also to more special and 'approximative') theories. Quantum mechanics is here primarily reformulated in an equivalent form of a Poisson system on the phase space consisting of density matrices, where the 'observables', as well as 'symmetry generators' are represented by a specific type of real valued (densely defined) functions, namely the usual quantum expectations of corresponding selfjoint operators. It is shown in this paper that inclusion of additional ('nonlinear') symmetry generators (i. e. 'Hamiltonians') into this reformulation of (linear) quantum mechanics leads to a considerable extension of the theory: two kinds of quantum 'mixed states' should be distinguished, and operator - valued functions of density matrices should be used in the role of 'nonlinear observables'. A general framework for physical theories is obtained in this way: By different choices of the sets of 'nonlinear observables' we obtain, as special cases, e.g. classical mechanics on homogeneous spaces of kinematical symmetry groups, standard (linear) quantum mechanics, or nonlinear extensions of quantum mechanics; also various 'quasiclassical approximations' to quantum mechanics are all sub theories of the presented extension of quantum mechanics - a version of the extended quantum mechanics. A general interpretation scheme of extended quantum mechanics extending the usual statistical interpretation of quantum mechanics is also proposed. Eventually, extended quantum mechanics is shown to be (included into) a C * -algebraic (hence linear) quantum theory. Mathematical formulation of these theories is presented. The presentation includes an analysis of problems connected with differentiation on infinite-dimensional manifolds, as well as a solution of some problems connected with the work with only densely defined unbounded

  4. Extended Testability Analysis Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melcher, Kevin; Maul, William A.; Fulton, Christopher

    2012-01-01

    The Extended Testability Analysis (ETA) Tool is a software application that supports fault management (FM) by performing testability analyses on the fault propagation model of a given system. Fault management includes the prevention of faults through robust design margins and quality assurance methods, or the mitigation of system failures. Fault management requires an understanding of the system design and operation, potential failure mechanisms within the system, and the propagation of those potential failures through the system. The purpose of the ETA Tool software is to process the testability analysis results from a commercial software program called TEAMS Designer in order to provide a detailed set of diagnostic assessment reports. The ETA Tool is a command-line process with several user-selectable report output options. The ETA Tool also extends the COTS testability analysis and enables variation studies with sensor sensitivity impacts on system diagnostics and component isolation using a single testability output. The ETA Tool can also provide extended analyses from a single set of testability output files. The following analysis reports are available to the user: (1) the Detectability Report provides a breakdown of how each tested failure mode was detected, (2) the Test Utilization Report identifies all the failure modes that each test detects, (3) the Failure Mode Isolation Report demonstrates the system s ability to discriminate between failure modes, (4) the Component Isolation Report demonstrates the system s ability to discriminate between failure modes relative to the components containing the failure modes, (5) the Sensor Sensor Sensitivity Analysis Report shows the diagnostic impact due to loss of sensor information, and (6) the Effect Mapping Report identifies failure modes that result in specified system-level effects.

  5. Classical extended superconformal symmetries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viswanathan, R.R.

    1990-10-01

    Super-covariant differential operators are defined in two dimensions which map supersymmetry doublets to other doublets. The possibility of constructing a closed algebra among the fields appearing in such operators is explored. Such an algebra exists for Grassmann-odd differential operators. A representation for these operators in terms of free-field doublets is constructed. An explicit closed algebra involving fields of spin 2 and 5/2, in addition to the stress tensor and the supersymmetry generator, is constructed from such a free-field representation as an example of a non-linear extended superconformal algebra. (author). 9 refs

  6. The Dom Feliciano belt (Brazil-Uruguay)and its fore land (Rio de la Plata Craton): framework, tectonic evolution and correlations with similar terranes of southwestern Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basei, M.; Siga, O.; Masquelin, H.; Harara, O.; Reis Neto, J.; Preciozzi, F.

    2000-01-01

    The Dom Feliciano Belt (DFB) stretches for ca. 1,200 km along southeastern Brazil and eastern Uruguay, with an average width of 150 km. From its northern limit in Santa Catarina to its termination m Uruguay, DFB is internally organized according three crustal segments characterized, from southeast to northwest, by a Granitoid belt (calci-alkaline to alkaline granitoid rocks deformed to different degrees); a Schist belt (volcano-sedimentary rocks metamorphosed from green schist to amphibolite facies), and a Fore land belt (sedimentary and anchimetamorphic volcanic rocks), the latter situated between the Schist belt and the old western terranes. Despite discontinuously covered by younger sediments, the continuity of these three segments is suggested by the similar lithotypes and structural characteristics, as well as by the gravimetric geophysical signature.In this work, DBF is interpreted as the product of successive subduction s and collisions related to the agglutination of different terranes generated or intensely reworked from the Neoproterozoic to the Cambrian, during the Brasiliano and Rio Doce orogenesis, with maximum time starting at 900 Ma (opening of the Adamastor Ocean) and ending at 530 Ma (deformation of the fore land basins) related to the tecto no-magmatic events associated with the formation of the Western Gondwana.Besides the Neoproterozoic DFB and its fore land, the Rio de la Plata Craton and the Luis Alves Microplate, constituted by Paleoproterozoic gneissic-migmatitic rocks, two other tectonic units can be recognized in southeastern Brazil and eastern Uruguay: the Sao Gabriel Block (RS) where Neoproterozoic juvenile material can be characterized in regional scale (in great part associated with an island are), and the Punta del Este Terrane, which presents, in southern Uruguay, an ortho gneiss basement with ages around 1,000 Ma and a meta sedimentary cover (Rocha Group), which can correspond in the South-American portion, to the Namaqua and Gariep

  7. Draa Sfar, Morocco: A Visean (331 Ma) pyrrhotite-rich, polymetallic volcanogenic massive sulphide deposit in a Hercynian sediment-dominant terrane

    OpenAIRE

    Marcoux , Eric; Belkabir , Abdelhay; Gibson , Harold L.; Lentz , David; Ruffet , Gilles

    2008-01-01

    International audience; Draa Sfar is a Visean, stratabound, volcanogenic massive sulphide ore deposit hosted by a Hercynian carbonaceous, black shale-rich succession of the Jebilet terrane, Morocco. The ore deposit contains 10 Mt grading 5.3 wt.% Zn, 2 wt.% Pb, and 0.3 wt.% Cu within two main massive sulphides orebodies, Tazakourt (Zn-rich) and Sidi M'Barek (Zn–Cu rich). Pyrrhotite is by far the dominant sulphide (70 to 95% of total sulphides), sphalerite is fairly abundant, chalcopyrite and ...

  8. Late Triassic Porphyritic Intrusions And Associated Volcanic Rocks From The Shangri-La Region, Yidun Terrane, Eastern Tibetan Plateau: Implications For Adakitic Magmatism And Porphyry Copper Mineralization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, B.; Zhou, M.; Li, J.; Yan, D.

    2011-12-01

    The Yidun terrane, located on the eastern margin of the Tibetan plateau, has been commonly considered to be a Triassic volcanic arc produced by subduction of the Ganzi-Litang oceanic lithosphere. The Yidun terrane is characterized by numerous arc-affinity granitic intrusions located along a 500-km-long, north-south-trending belt. Among these granitic bodies, several small porphyritic intrusions in the southern segment of the terrane (Shangri-La region) are associated with large porphyry copper deposits. These porphyritc intrusions are composed of diorite and quartz diorite, and spatially associated with andesites and dacites. LA-ICP-MS zircon U-Pb ages of the intrusions range from 230 to 215 Ma. The andesites and dacites are intercalated with slates and sandstones and have ages of around 220 Ma. The intrusive and volcanic rocks have SiO2 contents from 56.6 to 67.1 wt.%, Al2O3 from 14.2 to 17.4 wt.% and MgO from 1.9 to 4.2 wt.%. They show significant negative Nb-Ta anomalies on primitive mantle-normalized spidergrams. They have high La/Yb (13-49) ratios with no prominent Eu anomalies. All the rocks have high Sr (258-1980 ppm), and low Y (13-21 ppm) with high Sr/Y ratios (29-102). The geochemical features indicate that both the volcanic rocks and porphyritic intrusions were derived from adakitic magmas. They have similar initial 87Sr/86Sr ratios (0.7058 to 0.7077) and ɛNd (-1.88 to -4.93) values, but can be further divided into two groups: high silica (HSA) and low silica adakitic rocks (LSA). The HSA, representing an early stage of magmatism (230 to 215 Ma), were derived from oceanic slab melts with limited interaction with the overlying mantle wedge. At 215 Ma, more extensive interaction resulted in the formation of LSA. We propose that HSA were produced by flat subduction leading to melting of oceanic slab, whereas subsequent slab break-off caused the significant interaction between slab melts and the mantle wedge and thus the generation of the LSA. Compared with

  9. Lunar Prospector Extended Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folta, David; Beckman, Mark; Lozier, David; Galal, Ken

    1999-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) selected Lunar Prospector (LP) as one of the discovery missions to conduct solar system exploration science investigations. The mission is NASA's first lunar voyage to investigate key science objectives since Apollo and was launched in January 1998. In keeping with discovery program requirements to reduce total mission cost and utilize new technology, Lunar Prospector's mission design and control focused on the use of innovative and proven trajectory analysis programs. As part of this effort, the Ames Research Center and the Goddard Space Flight Center have become partners in the Lunar Prospector trajectory team to provide the trajectory analysis, maneuver planning, orbit determination support, and product generation. At the end of 1998, Lunar Prospector completed its one-year primary mission at 100 km altitude above the lunar surface. On December 19, 1998, Lunar Prospector entered the extended mission phase. Initially the mission orbit was lowered from 100 km to a mean altitude of 40 km. The altitude of Lunar Prospector varied between 25 and 55 km above the mean lunar geode due to lunar potential effects. After one month, the lunar potential model was updated based upon the new tracking data at 40 km. On January 29, 1999, the altitude was lowered again to a mean altitude of 30 km. This altitude varies between 12 and 48 km above the mean lunar geode. Since the minimum altitude is very close to the mean geode, various approaches were employed to get accurate lunar surface elevation including Clementine altimetry and line of sight analysis. Based upon the best available terrain maps, Lunar Prospector will reach altitudes of 8 km above lunar mountains in the southern polar and far side regions. This extended mission phase of six months will enable LP to obtain science data up to 3 orders of magnitude better than at the mission orbit. This paper details the trajectory design and orbit determination planning and

  10. Stable Isotope Evidence for a Complex Fluid Evolution of the Northwestern British Columbia Coast Ranges Related to Terrane Accretion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moertle, J.; Holk, G. J.

    2015-12-01

    Stable isotope geochemistry reveals a complex fluid evolution for the Western Metamorphic Belt (WMB), Coast Ranges Batholith (CRB), Central Gneiss Complex (CGC) and Coast Ranges Megalineament (CRM). These fluids are a product of a complex tectonic history related to terrane accretion that includes oblique convergence, metamorphism, magmatism, and orogenic collapse. From W-to-E, these fluid systems are as follows. High-pressure greenschist-to-amphibolite facies metasedimentary rocks of the WMB record variable mineral δD (-61 to -104‰) and δ18O (e.g., quartz +9.6 to +13.4‰) values with multiple minerals in apparent isotopic equilibrium (T ~ 450-550°C) suggest a low W/R system dominated by metamorphic fluids. Variable and non-equilibrium δD (-53 to -143‰) and δ18O (e.g., biotite +2.3 to +5.3‰) values from diorites of the Quottoon pluton affected by the ductile CRM suggest a complex evolution that involved both metamorphic and meteoric-hydrothermal fluids in this dextral shear zone; these results differ from those 300 km along strike to the north that documented only metamorphic fluids in the CRM (Goldfarb et al., 1988). Our data and those of Magaritz and Taylor (1976) from granulite facies metasediments of the CGC and plutons of the western CRB reveal homogeneous δD values (-62 to -78‰) and a restricted range of δ18O values (e.g., quartz +8.5 to +11.5‰) with all minerals in equilibrium at T > 570°C indicate a system dominated by magmatic fluids. Calculated whole-rock δ18O values (~ +7‰) for the Quottoon pluton and CRB intrusive rocks suggest a mantle origin for these magmas. Reinterpretation of very low δD (< -150‰) and quartz-feldspar δ18O pairs that display extreme disequilibrium (feldspar δ18O values as low as -5‰) from the Ponder pluton, eastern CRB, and Hazelton Group point reveals that the major meteoric-hydrothermal system that affected these rocks was related to Eocene detachment faulting along the Shames Lake fault system, a

  11. Extended biorthogonal matrix polynomials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayman Shehata

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The pair of biorthogonal matrix polynomials for commutative matrices were first introduced by Varma and Tasdelen in [22]. The main aim of this paper is to extend the properties of the pair of biorthogonal matrix polynomials of Varma and Tasdelen and certain generating matrix functions, finite series, some matrix recurrence relations, several important properties of matrix differential recurrence relations, biorthogonality relations and matrix differential equation for the pair of biorthogonal matrix polynomials J(A,B n (x, k and K(A,B n (x, k are discussed. For the matrix polynomials J(A,B n (x, k, various families of bilinear and bilateral generating matrix functions are constructed in the sequel.

  12. Extending rational maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Gaven J.

    We investigate when a rational endomorphism of the Riemann sphere overline{C} extends to a mapping of the upper half-space {H3 which is rational with respect to some measurable conformal structure. Such an extension has the property that it and all its iterates have uniformly bounded distortion. Such maps are called uniformly quasiregular. We show that, in the space of rational mappings of degree d , such an extension is possible in the structurally stable component where there is a single (attracting) component of the Fatou set and the Julia set is a Cantor set. We show that generally outside of this set no such extension is possible. In particular, polynomials can never admit such an extension.

  13. Extending juvenility in grasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaeppler, Shawn; de Leon Gatti, Natalia; Foerster, Jillian

    2017-04-11

    The present invention relates to compositions and methods for modulating the juvenile to adult developmental growth transition in plants, such as grasses (e.g. maize). In particular, the invention provides methods for enhancing agronomic properties in plants by modulating expression of GRMZM2G362718, GRMZM2G096016, or homologs thereof. Modulation of expression of one or more additional genes which affect juvenile to adult developmental growth transition such as Glossy15 or Cg1, in conjunction with such modulation of expression is also contemplated. Nucleic acid constructs for down-regulation of GRMZM2G362718 and/or GRMZM2G096016 are also contemplated, as are transgenic plants and products produced there from, that demonstrate altered, such as extended juvenile growth, and display associated phenotypes such as enhanced yield, improved digestibility, and increased disease resistance. Plants described herein may be used, for example, as improved forage or feed crops or in biofuel production.

  14. Extended Poisson Exponential Distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anum Fatima

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A new mixture of Modified Exponential (ME and Poisson distribution has been introduced in this paper. Taking the Maximum of Modified Exponential random variable when the sample size follows a zero truncated Poisson distribution we have derived the new distribution, named as Extended Poisson Exponential distribution. This distribution possesses increasing and decreasing failure rates. The Poisson-Exponential, Modified Exponential and Exponential distributions are special cases of this distribution. We have also investigated some mathematical properties of the distribution along with Information entropies and Order statistics of the distribution. The estimation of parameters has been obtained using the Maximum Likelihood Estimation procedure. Finally we have illustrated a real data application of our distribution.

  15. Extending over time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Tanya Karoli; Jensen, Torben Juel; Christensen, Marie Herget

    Studies of general extenders (GEs), such as Eng. and stuff like that, or something, typically find that it is a feature of youth speech, sometimes correlated with sex and class (e.g. Dubois 1992, Stubbe and Holmes 1995, Cheshire 2007, Tagliamonte and Denis 2010, Pichler and Levey 2011), but only...... including pronoun headed phrases, e.g. og (alt) det der ‘and (all) that there’, and clausal variants, e.g. og jeg ved ikke hvad ‘and I don’t know what’. The results indicate that Danish GEs in general are already gram-maticalized to a large extent. Regarding social factors, our data support the general...... finding that GEs are more frequent in youth speech. Adolescents have the highest relative frequency of GEs, and speakers tend to decrease their GE use during their life span, whilst participating in community changes regarding the use of the different GE types. Furthermore, the results suggest...

  16. Full vector archaeomagnetic records from Anatolia between 2400 and 1350 BCE: Implications for geomagnetic field models and the dating of fires in antiquity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ertepinar, P.; Langereis, C. G.; Biggin, A. J.; de Groot, L. V.; Kulakoğlu, F.; Omura, S.; Süel, A.

    2016-01-01

    Anatolia, as one of the busiest crossroads of ancient civilizations, provides an ideal platform for archaeomagnetic studies. Previous results from the Middle East have suggested the occurrence of a strong peak in geomagnetic intensity at ∼1000 BCE associated with dramatic field strength variations that could require a radical rethinking of geodynamo theory. The behavior of the field in the centuries preceding this peak remains poorly constrained, however. Here we present the results of full-vector archaeomagnetic experiments performed on 18 sets of samples from three archaeological sites belonging to Assyrian Trade Colony and Hittite periods. Associated rock magnetic analyses showed that the major magnetic carrier is magnetite chemically stable up to 700 °C and the magnetic mineral assemblage is composed mostly of non-interacting PSD grains. The directional results are compared with existing data and with the most recent global geomagnetic field models pfm9k.1b and SHA.DIF.14k. The directions are in remarkably good agreement with SHA.DIF.14k which is based on archaeomagnetic and lava flow data. Together with our earlier results from Anatolia, we triple the existing database of directions for the 700 year long period 2200-1500 BCE, over a large region from Greece to Azerbaijan, and from Moldavia/Ukraine to Egypt. Three archaeointensity methods: thermal IZZI-Thellier, microwave Thellier and the multi-specimen protocol (MSP) produced virtual axial dipole moment estimates (9.0- 10.9 ×1022 Am2) that are somewhat higher than contemporaneous (regional and global) data and model predictions suggesting that the field was already substantially stronger than today more than 800 years prior to the reported peak. In addition to constraining geomagnetic variability, our data also allow us to assign relative dates to inferred fire events in the Assyrian Trade Colony Period sites. This allows us to conclude that the fire events at the largest site, Kültepe, were not all

  17. Radiographic evaluation of third-molar development in relation to the chronological age of Turkish children in the southwest Eastern Anatolia region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karataş, Orhan H; Öztürk, Fırat; Dedeoğlu, Numan; Çolak, Cemil; Altun, Oğuzhan

    2013-10-10

    To study the chronological age of third-molar mineralisation of Turkish children from the southwest Eastern Anatolia region, the Demirjian staging method was used to determine the stage of the mineralisation of four third molars (18, 28, 38 and 48) and to compare third-molar development by sex and age with the results of previous studies. The study comprised 832 Turkish children from the southwest Eastern Anatolia region aged 6-16 years based on radiological evidence from digital orthopantomograms. The mean age of the 832 patients was 11.03±1.98 years, with 424 males (mean age, 10.97±1.97) and 408 females (mean age, 11.09±2.00). The orthopantomograms were scored by two observers. The Wilcoxon matched-pairs signed-rank test used to assess intra- and inter-observer assessment revealed strong agreement between both observers' measurements. Statistical analysis of the association between sex and age was performed with the Mann-Whitney U-test and the Wilcoxon test. Regression analysis was performed to obtain regression formulae for calculating the dental and the chronological age. The statistical analysis showed a strong correlation between age and third-molar development in males (R(2)=0.61) and females (R(2)=0.63). New equations (age=7.49+0.69, development stage (DS) 38+0.70, DS18) were derived for estimation of the chronological age. The results showed that there was no significant difference in mineralisation between 18 and 28 and 38 and 48 in males or females. For both sexes, the dental age was lower than the chronological age. Males reached the developmental stages earlier than females. In the whole population, the boys' and the girls' dental ages were 0.84 years and 0.16 years earlier, respectively, than their chronological ages. The use of third-molar teeth as a developmental marker is suitable, particularly when comparing the obtained standard deviation with other skeletal-age calculation techniques. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights

  18. Geoarchaeological research of the mid-age Ilyas Bey complex buildings with ground penetrating radar in Miletus, Aydin, Western Anatolia, Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kadioglu, S [Ankara University, Eng. Fac. Geophysical Engineering Department, 06100 Ankara (Turkey); Kadioglu, Y K [Ankara University, Eng. Fac. Geological Engineering Department, 06100 Ankara (Turkey); Akyol, A A [Ankara University, Baskent Vac. High Sch. Prog. of Restoration and Cons., Ankara (Turkey)], E-mail: kadioglu@eng.ankara.edu.tr, E-mail: kadi@eng.ankara.edu.tr, E-mail: akyol@ankara.edu.tr

    2008-07-01

    ) studies reveal that the main bulding rock units of Ilyas Bey Mosque are mainly composed of 4 main units these are marble, metalimestone, mica gneiss and granodiorite. The marble, metalimestone with the mica gneiss were obtained from Menderes Massif in Western Anatolia. The granodiorite columns might be obtained from Kozak Pluton in the north of Bergama-Izmir line of western Anatolia.

  19. Age/isotopic characterisation of the Waipapa Group in Northland and Auckland, New Zealand, and implications for the status of the Waipapa Terrane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, C.J.; Maas, R.

    2004-01-01

    Rb-Sr ages of low-grade metasediments of the Waipapa Group (probable Permian-Jurassic) of Northland and Auckland range from Late Triassic (c. 209-217 Ma) to Middle Jurassic (c. 164-174 Ma), reflecting deformation and metamorphism during the Rangitata Orogeny. K-Ar ages indicate Middle Jurassic (c. 165-175 Ma) uplift and cooling of the western Omahuta-Puketi Forest block, and later, Middle-Late Jurassic (c. 150-160 Ma) cooling of the Helena Bay to Hunua Ranges eastern coastal block. In the intervening Western Bay of Islands block, there is evidence of local Early Cretaceous (c. 135 Ma) metamorphism. Rb-Sr whole-rock isochron age (t) and initial 87 Sr/ 86 Sr ratio (i) data support the assignment of Waipapa Group of the westernmost, Omahuta-Puketi block to the Caples Terrane. The remaining data have a consistent (t)-(i) signature, with (i) values 0.7039-0.7049, unlike Permian-Cretaceous Torlesse Supergroup metasediments with more radiogenic (i) values, typically >0.7060. They thus support the retention of a separate, Waipapa Terrane which continues southwards through central North Island to the Kaimanawa Ranges, and probably to Kapiti Island, and schist equivalents in eastern Marlborough. (author). 62 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs

  20. The basement of the Punta de Este Terrane: A meso proterozoic heritage at the eastern border of Rio de La Plata craton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preciozzi, F.; Peel, E.; Sanchez, L.; Basei, M.

    2005-01-01

    U-Pb zircon ages between 1000 and 900 Ma corresponding to the nuclei of zircon crystals extracted from the basement of the Punta del Este Terrane (Eastern Uruguay) allowed the correlation of the protoliths of this domain with rocks attributed to the Namaqua Belt in Southwestern Africa. SHRIMP ages obtained for the ortho gneissic rocks allowed to place at ca. 750 Ma the generations of gneisses and migmatites. Differently from what occurred in Africa, reworking of this crustal segment during the Brasiliano-Pan african orogenesis was very intense, reaching the granulite facies around 640Ma. Acid volcanic and volcaniclastic rocks (Sierra de Aguirre Formation) with ages around 570 Ma, late sedimentary basins (San Carlos Formation) and post-tectonic granitoids (Santa Teresa and José Ignacio batholith s) mark the end of the events related with the Brasiliano/Pan-African orogenesis. The final collision between the Punta del Este Terrane and the western domains represented by the Dom Feliciano Belt and the Río de La Plata Craton may have occurred at around 535 Ma

  1. Circum-Pacific accretion of oceanic terranes to continental blocks: accretion of the Early Permian Dun Mountain ophiolite to the E Gondwana continental margin, South Island, New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Alastair

    2016-04-01

    Accretionary orogens, in part, grow as a result of the accretion of oceanic terranes to pre-existing continental blocks, as in the circum-Pacific and central Asian regions. However, the accretionary processes involved remain poorly understood. Here, we consider settings in which oceanic crust formed in a supra-subduction zone setting and later accreted to continental terranes (some, themselves of accretionary origin). Good examples include some Late Cretaceous ophiolites in SE Turkey, the Jurassic Coast Range ophiolite, W USA and the Early Permian Dun Mountain ophiolite of South Island, New Zealand. In the last two cases, the ophiolites are depositionally overlain by coarse clastic sedimentary rocks (e.g. Permian Upukerora Formation of South Island, NZ) that then pass upwards into very thick continental margin fore-arc basin sequences (Great Valley sequence, California; Matai sequence, South Island, NZ). Field observations, together with petrographical and geochemical studies in South Island, NZ, summarised here, provide evidence of terrane accretion processes. In a proposed tectonic model, the Early Permian Dun Mountain ophiolite was created by supra-subduction zone spreading above a W-dipping subduction zone (comparable to the present-day Izu-Bonin arc and fore arc, W Pacific). The SSZ oceanic crust in the New Zealand example is inferred to have included an intra-oceanic magmatic arc, which is no longer exposed (other than within a melange unit in Southland), but which is documented by petrographic and geochemical evidence. An additional subduction zone is likely to have dipped westwards beneath the E Gondwana margin during the Permian. As a result, relatively buoyant Early Permian supra-subduction zone oceanic crust was able to dock with the E Gondwana continental margin, terminating intra-oceanic subduction (although the exact timing is debatable). The amalgamation ('soft collision') was accompanied by crustal extension of the newly accreted oceanic slab, and

  2. Extended lactation in dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sorensen, Annette; Muir, D. Donald; Knight, Christopher Harold

    2008-01-01

    Twelve spring-calving and twelve winter-calving cows were managed for extended lactation cycles of 18-months duration, with the former group then completing a second extended lactation. Half of the cows were fed according to standard management practice for the herd; the other half received suppl...... interventions, the results lend support to the economic arguments in favour of extended lactation cycles. The likely welfare benefits of extended lactation are also discussed....

  3. THE ILICA BRANCH OF THE SOUTHEASTERN ESKIŞEHIR FAULT ZONE: AN ACTIVE RIGHT LATERAL STRIKE-SLIP STRUCTURE IN CENTRAL ANATOLIA, TURKEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korhan ESAT

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The Eskişehir Fault Zone is one of the prominent neotectonic structures of Turkey. It separates the west  Anatolian extensional province and the strike-slip induced northwest central Anatolian contractional area in the Anatolian Block. Its southeastern part is generally divided into three branches, namely the Ilıca, Yeniceoba, and Cihanbeyli from north to south, respectively. The right lateral strike-slip Ilıca branch (IB is an approximately 100-km-long fault and it is composed of several segments in a northwest-southeast direction. The slickensides, subsidiary fractures, cataclastic zone, fracture-controlled drainage pattern, right lateral stream deflections, deformation in the Quaternary unit observing in the seismic reflection sections, and seismicity of the region all indicate that the IB is an active right lateral strike-slip fault. The IB has also a regional tectonic importance as a boundary fault between the contractional and the extensional regions in central Anatolia considering that it is the southern limit of the contraction-related structures in the west-southwest of Ankara.

  4. sandflyDST: a dynamic web-based decision support tool for the morphological identification of sandflies present in Anatolia and mainland Europe, and user study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakülah, G; Karakuş, M; Suner, A; Demir, S; Arserim, S K; Töz, S; Özbel, Y

    2016-09-01

    Species identification of sandflies is mainly performed according to morphological characters using classical written identification keys. This study introduces a new web-based decision support tool (sandflyDST) for guiding the morphological identification of sandfly species present in Anatolia and mainland Europe and classified in the Phlebotomus and Sergentomyia genera (both: Diptera: Psychodidae). The current version of the tool consists of 111 questions and 36 drawings obtained from classical written keys, and 107 photographs for the quick and easy identification of 26 species of the genus Phlebotomus and four species of the genus Sergentomyia. The tool guides users through a decision tree using yes/no questions about the morphological characters of the specimen. The tool was applied by 30 individuals, who then completed study questionnaires. The results of subsequent analyses indicated that the usability (x‾SUSScore=75.4) and users' level of appreciation (86.6%) of the tool were quite high; almost all of the participants considered recommending the tool to others. The tool may also be useful in training new entomologists and maintaining their level of expertise. This is a dynamic tool and can be improved or upgraded according to feedback. The tool is now available online at http://parasitology.ege.edu.tr/sandflyDST/index.php. © 2016 The Royal Entomological Society.

  5. An analysis of the murder of women in a 10-year period in Eskişehir Province located in western Anatolia in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karbeyaz, Kenan; Akkaya, Harun; Balci, Yasemin

    2013-08-01

    Murder of women generally occurs as a result of violence by their husbands and relatives. We evaluated the female victims of murder in Eskişehir, located in western Anatolia, where the education level is high in this study. Our aim was to assess and discuss data related to the victims and murderers. A total of 141 women's murder cases were analysed in the study. After a legal process and the results of the autopsies during 2002-2011 in Eskişehir, 715 subjects found to have died as a result of murder were chosen. Cases were evaluated in terms of their age, marital status, education level, relationship to the murderer, reasons for violence, type of action and reasons for death. It was determined that 48.2% (n = 68) of the victims had been killed by the husband and 7.8% (n = 11) by the ex-husband. Murderers generally stated that the reason of murder was the woman's request for divorce or breaking up (n = 40, 28.4%). In compliance with the literature, the women were most commonly killed by their husbands in our study. Enhancing women's status and preventing violence against women will decrease such murders. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. TORCH seroprevalence among patients attending Obstetric Care Clinic of Haydarpasa Training and Research Hospital affiliated to Association of Istanbul Northern Anatolia Public Hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Numan, Onur; Vural, Fisun; Aka, Nurettin; Alpay, Murat; Coskun, Ayse Deniz Erturk

    2015-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii, Rubella, Cytomegalovirus and Herpes simplex viruses are microorganisms that cause congenital infections and they are called briefly as TORCH. There is an ongoing argument for the screening of reproductive age women due to the high cost of tests. For a test to be used in screening, prevalence of disease in this population should be known. The aim of this study was to investigate TORCH seroprevalence among women attending a teaching hospital in Istanbul. A total of 1101 patients attending outpatient clinic of Obstetric Care Clinic of Haydarpasa Training and Research Hospital affiliated to Association of Istanbul Northern Anatolia Public Hospitals between September 2013 to January 2015 and their laboratory data were evaluated retrospectively. We investigated Ig G and M seropositivity rates against TORCH. The age of the patients ranged between 17-47 years with a mean age of 30.3±5.8 years. Pregnant population had 99.5% anti-CMV Ig G (+), 94.2% anti-Rubella Ig G (+), 31% anti-Toxoplasma Ig G (+). Seroprevalence for Anti IgM was 0.5% for CMV, 0.2% for rubella. The screening for Toxoplasma gondii may be suggested since the prevalence is not high in our population. The screening of CMV is not meaningful, due to high seroprevalence. Although seroprevalence of rubella is also high, it may be suggested for preconception vaccination especially in women above 20 years of age born prior to National Vaccination Programme.

  7. Thermo-resistant green microalgae for effective biodiesel production: isolation and characterization of unialgal species from geothermal flora of Central Anatolia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onay, Melih; Sonmez, Cagla; Oktem, Huseyin Avni; Yucel, Ayse Meral

    2014-10-01

    Oil content and composition, biomass productivity and adaptability to different growth conditions are important parameters in selecting a suitable microalgal strain for biodiesel production. Here, we describe isolation and characterization of three green microalgal species from geothermal flora of Central Anatolia. All three isolates, namely, Scenedesmus sp. METUNERGY1402 (Scenedesmus sp. ME02), Hindakia tetrachotoma METUNERGY1403 (H. tetrachotoma ME03) and Micractinium sp. METUNERGY1405 (Micractinium sp. ME05) are adaptable to growth at a wide temperature range (25-50 °C). Micractinium sp. ME05, particularly has superior properties for biodiesel production. Biomass productivity, lipid content and lipid productivity of this isolate are 0.17 g L(-1) d(-1), 22.7% and 0.04 g L(-1) d(-1), respectively. In addition, Micractinium sp. ME05 and Scenedesmus sp. ME03 mainly contain desirable fatty acid methyl esters (i.e. 16:0, 16:1, 18:0 and 18:1) for biodiesel production. All isolates can further be improved via genetic and metabolic engineering strategies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Kyanite Formation and Element Fractionation in the High-Al Eclogites from the Sulu UHP Metamorphic Terrane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yung-Hsin Liu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Eclogite compositions are critical parameters for under standing chemical evolution in the Earth, particularly in subduction zones. A group of eclogites from the Sulu ultra-high pres sure (UHP metamorphic terrane in eastern China shows uncommon petrographic and compositional features. They are characterized by (1 zoisite porphyroblasts coexisting with inclusion-free, inclusion-containing, and net work kyanite, (2 high Al2O3 of 18.4 - 29.2% with high MgO of 8.59 - 11.3%, and (3 intensive HFSE-REE fractionations represented by [Zr/Sm]ch and [Ti/Gd]ch ratios of 0.1 - 3.9 and 1.1 - 9.0, respectively. High-pressure fluids played a major role on developing these features. Kyanite shows two textural varieties. KyI is inclusion-free and in apparent textural equilibrium with gar net and omphacite, implying formation from plagioclase break down. KyII includes kyanite networks and porphyroblasts; the former occurs mostly in gar net, whereas the latter encloses gar net and omphacite grains. KyII were crystallized at the expense of gar net and omphacite during eclogite-fluid interaction. The low [HREE]ch ratios of 1 - 2 indicate that the protoliths were arc cumulates. The well-de fined in verse Al2O3-SiO2 and Al2O3-CaO correlations are not the characteristics of igneous precursors; there fore, must reflect metamorphic modifications. The comparison to mafic cumulates shows that the low-Al samples are compositionally better representatives of protoliths. Mass balance calculations point to anolivine gabbronoritic protolith. The intensive HFSE-REE fractionations reflect compositional differences between two sample groups. Group I samples have superchondritic HFSE-REE ratios [(Nb/La, Zr/Sm, Ti/Gdch = 2 - 7] with depletions in LREE. In contrast, group II samples show HFSE depletions and LREE enrichments. These compositional differences were explained as reflecting element mobility during eclogite-fluid inter action. Released at temperatures > 750°C, the high

  9. Uncertainty in 14C model ages of groundwater: The influence of soil gas in terranes dominated by C3 plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, S.; Hart, R.; Eggett, D.

    2009-12-01

    Groundwater is the largest source of fresh water readily available to humanity and aquifers with long residence times are particularly susceptible to overuse. Thus, it is important to have quantitative estimates of the residence time of water in such aquifers. Many models used to calculate 14C ages of groundwater depend on an estimate of the δ13C value of carbon dioxide in soil at the time of recharge, a value that must be estimated. Other work has suggested that for terranes dominated by C3 plants, -23‰ is an appropriate value, and sensitivity calculations show that the apparent age of a groundwater is strongly dependent on the choice of this parameter. This is especially true where the measured values of δ13C of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) are used to estimate the contribution of “dead” carbon to the DIC load via the dissolution of calcite in the aquifer and soil zones. To better understand the temporal and spatial isotopic and abundance variability of soil carbon dioxide, we established soil gas sampling sites that encompassed a wide variety of settings in terms of season, elevation, climate, and plant community that were sampled monthly throughout regions of the state of Utah where C3 flora dominate. Direct measurements of soil gas suggest a value of -21.8 ± 1.4‰ (1σ) is a good input variable as long as: a) C3 vegetation dominates, and b) extreme aridity does not prevail such that plant densities and soil microbial activities are minimized. If recharge is envisaged to occur during spring and early summer in highly vegetated uplands, a value of -24.0 ± 0.6‰ may be more appropriate as statistical analysis reveals that seasonality and plant density are most clearly correlated to the carbon isotope composition of carbon dioxide in soil gas. Although the two values and ranges cited above values do not diverge strongly from other published estimates, they place fairly narrow limits on the uncertainty of ±500 and ±200 yr., respectively, in

  10. The Punta del Este Suspect Terrane: a possible counterpart in Eastern Uruguay of the Namaqua Complex and Gariep Belt in Western Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preciozzi, F.; Basei, M.; Peel, E.

    2005-01-01

    The geology of the southwestern extreme of the African continent is characterised by a series of mobile belts that delimit the western margin of the block constituted by the Kalahari-Kapvaal cratons. In this context, Panafrican belts predominate, represented in the north-northwestern portion by the Damara, in the western region by the Gariep and, in the southern region by the Saldania. These belts, of Neoproterozoic-Eopaleozoic ages predominantly expose sedimentary covers metamorphosed in the greenschist facies. In the northwestern portion of South Africa and south of Namibia, of major interest for the correlation intended in this work. The basement of the Panafrican cover, in this case the Gariep Group, is largely constituted by medium- to high-grade terranes generated during the Kibarian event (1.2-1.1Ga) responsible for the formation of igneous and metamorphic rocks and attributed to the Metamorphic Namaqua-Natal Complex (Frimmel, 1995). This Complex presents low-pressure granulite facies conditions (Clifford et al., 1981) with polymetamorphic evolution, where old nuclei of Paleoproterozoic age (1800-2000Ma) occur within the terranes generated during the Kibarian orogeny. U-Pb studies in zircons by SHRIMP (Robb et al., 1998) confirmed for Namaqua two rock-generating events with pulses between 1220-1170 Ma (Kibarian) and 1060-1030Ma (Namaqua); with the latter the third regional deformation and important magmatism phases would be associated. In this period granulitic metamorphism and intrusion of granitoids 2 occurred and are presently represented by the Nababeep and Modderfontein gneisses that are cut by the Concordia and Rietberg granitoids. The Panafrican superposition is registered predominantly along the coastal region. The Gariep Group occurs along the coastal region tectonically covering the terranes associated with the Namaqua Metamorphic Complex. It is characterised by a group constituted mainly by rocks of very low to low metamorphic grade distributed in

  11. The relative and absolute chronology of strato-tectonic events in the Gorom-Gorom granitoid terrane and Oudalan-Gorouol belt, northeast Burkina Faso

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tshibubudze, Asinne; Hein, Kim A. A.; McCuaig, T. Campbell

    2015-12-01

    The integration of field mapping and analytical studies of magmatic units of the northeast of Burkina Faso has provided new information on the tectonic and magmatic evolution of the Oudalan-Gorouol belt and the Gorom-Gorom granitoid terrane. Structural, geochemical and geochronological analyses have helped to clarify the geological evolution of the region during the Tangaean Event (D1) and Eburnean Orogeny (D2) through to the Wabo Tampelse Event (D3). Further to this, zircon U-Pb geochronology data have demonstrated that the Oudalan-Gorouol belt and the Gorom-Gorom granitoid terrane represents some of the oldest outcropping geology in the Palaeoproterozoic Baoulé-Mossi domain recognised to date, with the oldest age at 2253 ± 9 Ma. The geochronology and geology suggests that the basement or a pre-Birimian crust to the Birimian Supergroup may be found in the northeast of Burkina Faso. The Eburnean Orogeny in the northeastern Burkina is preceded by the two phases of deformation (D1-x and D1), and two phases of magmatism. D1-x is associated with the emplacement of the Dori Batholith at the onset of D1 (2164-2141 Ma). D1 ductile-brittle deformation formed F1 folds and discrete high-strained mylonite zones that deformed the Oudalan-Gorouol belt and the Gorom-Gorom granitoid terrane during a southwest-directed palaeo-principal transport direction. The pre-Birimian to Birimian supracrustal rocks and intrusions were regionally metamorphosed during D1 to greenschist to amphibolite facies. The Eburnean Orogeny (2130-1980 Ma) is characterised by northwest-southeast shortening; it was followed by north-northwest to south-southeast shortening with development of sinistral strike-slip faults and shears. D2 brittle-(ductile) deformation is manifested by refolding of F1 by northeast-trending F2, and development of a pervasive northeast-trending S2 to S2-C foliation. Metamorphic grade attained greenschist facies during D2 with development of the mineral assemblage of quartz

  12. Map Showing Geologic Terranes of the Hailey 1°x2° Quadrangle and the western part of the Idaho Falls 1°x2° Quadrangle, south-central Idaho

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of the Interior — The paper version of Map Showing Geologic Terranes of the Hailey 1°x2° Quadrangle and the western part of the Idaho Falls 1°x2° Quadrangle, south-central Idaho was...

  13. Irreducibility conditions for extended superfields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sokatchev, E.

    1981-05-01

    The irreducible supermultiplets contained in an extended superfield are presented as sets of covariant derivatives of the superfield. Differential irreducibility constraints are easily obtained from this decomposition. (author)

  14. Regional framework and geology of iron oxide-apatite-rare earth element and iron oxide-copper-gold deposits of the Mesoproterozoic St. Francois Mountains Terrane, southeast Missouri

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Warren C.; Slack, John F.; Ayuso, Robert A.; Seeger, Cheryl M.

    2016-01-01

    This paper provides an overview on the genesis of Mesoproterozoic igneous rocks and associated iron oxide ± apatite (IOA) ± rare earth element, iron oxide-copper-gold (IOCG), and iron-rich sedimentary deposits in the St. Francois Mountains terrane of southeast Missouri, USA. The St. Francois Mountains terrane lies along the southeastern margin of Laurentia as part of the eastern granite-rhyolite province. The province formed during two major pulses of igneous activity: (1) an older early Mesoproterozoic (ca. 1.50–1.44 Ga) episode of volcanism and granite plutonism, and (2) a younger middle Mesoproterozoic (ca. 1.33–1.30 Ga) episode of bimodal gabbro and granite plutonism. The volcanic rocks are predominantly high-silica rhyolite pyroclastic flows, volcanogenic breccias, and associated volcanogenic sediments with lesser amounts of basaltic to andesitic volcanic and associated subvolcanic intrusive rocks. The iron oxide deposits are all hosted in the early Mesoproterozoic volcanic and volcaniclastic sequences. Previous studies have characterized the St. Francois Mountains terrane as a classic, A-type within-plate granitic terrane. However, our new whole-rock geochemical data indicate that the felsic volcanic rocks are effusive derivatives from multicomponent source types, having compositional similarities to A-type within-plate granites as well as to S- and I-type granites generated in an arc setting. In addition, the volcanic-hosted IOA and IOCG deposits occur within bimodal volcanic sequences, some of which have volcanic arc geochemical affinities, suggesting an extensional tectonic setting during volcanism prior to emplacement of the ore-forming systems.The Missouri iron orebodies are magmatic-related hydrothermal deposits that, when considered in aggregate, display a vertical zonation from high-temperature, magmatic ± hydrothermal IOA deposits emplaced at moderate depths (~1–2 km), to magnetite-dominant IOA veins and IOCG deposits emplaced at shallow

  15. Advanced Land Observing Satellite (ALOS) Phased Array Type L-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (PALSAR) mosaic for the Kahiltna terrane, Alaska, 2007-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Christopher J.; Johnson, Michaela R.; Graham, Garth E.

    2015-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has initiated a multi-disciplinary study investigating the applicability of remote sensing technologies for geologic mapping and identification of prospective areas for base and precious metal deposits in remote parts of Alaska. The Kahiltna terrane in southwestern Alaska was selected for investigation because of its known mineral deposits and potential for additional mineral resources. An assortment of technologies is being investigated to aid in remote analysis of terrain, and includes imaging spectroscopy (hyperspectral remote sensing), high spatial resolution electro-optical imagery, and Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR). However, there are significant challenges to applying imaging spectroscopy and electro-optical imagery technologies in this area because of the low solar angle for parts of the year, seasonal periods of darkness and snow cover, and the frequently cloudy weather that characterizes Alaska. Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) was selected because this technology does not rely on solar illumination and has all-weather capability.

  16. A kinematic model for the formation of the Siletz-Crescent forearc terrane by capture of coherent fragments of the Farallon and Resurrection plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCrory, Patricia A.; Wilson, Douglas S.

    2013-01-01

    The volcanic basement of the Oregon and Washington Coast ranges has been proposed to represent a pair of tracks of the Yellowstone hotspot formed at a mid-ocean ridge during the early Cenozoic. This interpretation has been questioned on many grounds, especially that the range of ages does not match the offshore spreading rates and that the presence of continental coarse clastic sediments is difficult to reconcile with fast convergence rates between the oceanic plates and North America. Updates to basement geochronology and plate motion history reveal that these objections are much less serious than when they were first raised. Forward plate kinematic modeling reveals that predicted basement ages can be consistent with the observed range of about 55–49 Ma, and that the entire basement terrane can form within about 300 km of continental sources for clastic sediments. This kinematic model indicates that there is no firm reason to reject the near-ridge hotspot hypothesis on the basis of plate motions. A novel element of the model is the Resurrection plate, previously proposed to exist between the Farallon and Kula plates. By including the defunct Resurrection plate in our reconstruction, we are able to model the Farallon hotspot track as docking against the Oregon subduction margin starting about 53 Ma, followed by docking of the Resurrection track to the north starting about 48 Ma. Accretion of the Farallon plate fragment and partial subduction of the Resurrection fragment complicates the three-dimensional structure of the modern Cascadia forearc. We interpret the so-called “E” layer beneath Vancouver Island to be part of the Resurrection fragment. Our new kinematic model of mobile terranes within the Paleogene North American plate boundary allows reinterpretation of the three-dimensional structure of the Cascadia forearc and its relationship to ongoing seismotectonic processes.

  17. Petrogenesis, U-Pb and Sm-Nd geochronology of the Furna Azul Migmatite: partial melting evidence during the San Ignacio Orogeny, Paragua Terrane, SW Amazon Craton

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nascimento, Newton Diego Couto do; Ruiz, Amarildo Salina; Pierosan, Ronaldo; Lima, Gabrielle Aparecida de; Matos, Joao Batista; Lafon, Jean-Michel; Moura, Candido Augusto Veloso, E-mail: newtongeologia@hotmail.com, E-mail: asruiz@gmail.com, E-mail: ronaldo.pierosan@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: gabilimagel@gmail.com, E-mail: lafonjm@ufpa.br, E-mail: prof.jmatos@gmail.com, E-mail: candido@ufpa.br [Universidade Federal do Para (GEOCIAM/UFPA), Belem, PA (Brazil). Instituto Nacional de Ciencia e Tecnologia de Geociencias da Amazonia

    2016-11-01

    The Furna Azul Migmatite is a ∼10 km{sup 2} complex located in Pontes e Lacerda city, Mato Grosso, Brazil. It belongs to Paragua Terrane, limit with Rio Alegre Terrane, southeast of San Ignacio Province, in Amazon Craton. It consists of transitional metatexites with amphibolite enclaves and dioritic injections. The rocks were divided in residuum rich and leucosome rich; both have three deformation phases marked by folded stromatic layers affected by spaced foliation and metamorphosed in amphibolite facies, represented by garnet, biotite, sillimanite, and by the clinopyroxene in the enclaves. The metamorphic retrograde to greenschist is marked by formation of chlorite, muscovite and prehnite. Residuum-rich metatexites show higher CaO and Na{sub 2}O contents, separating them from K{sub 2}O, Ba and Rb enriched transitional metatexites. U-Pb on zircon and Sm-Nd whole-rocks dating indicates that the residuum-rich metatexite crystallized at 1436 ± 11 Ma, with a T{sub DM} age of 1.90 Ga and ε{sub Nd(1.43)} of -0.54, whereas the dioritic injection crystallized at 1341,7 ± 17 Ma with a T{sub DM} age of 1.47 Ga and ε{sub Nd(1.34)} of 3.39. These results indicate that the Furna Azul Migmatite protolith was formed during the San Ignacio Orogeny and was reworked during the same orogeny, as basement for collisional to post-magmatic granites from Pensamiento Intrusive Suite. (author)

  18. On core stability and extendability

    OpenAIRE

    Shellshear, Evan

    2007-01-01

    This paper investigates conditions under which the core of a TU cooperative game is stable. In particular the author extends the idea of extendability to find new conditions under which the core is stable. It is also shown that these new conditions are not necessary for core stability.

  19. Extending cosmology: the metric approach

    OpenAIRE

    Mendoza, S.

    2012-01-01

    Comment: 2012, Extending Cosmology: The Metric Approach, Open Questions in Cosmology; Review article for an Intech "Open questions in cosmology" book chapter (19 pages, 3 figures). Available from: http://www.intechopen.com/books/open-questions-in-cosmology/extending-cosmology-the-metric-approach

  20. Calcite veining and feeding conduits in a hydrothermal system: Insights from a natural section across the Pleistocene Gölemezli travertine depositional system (western Anatolia, Turkey)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capezzuoli, Enrico; Ruggieri, Giovanni; Rimondi, Valentina; Brogi, Andrea; Liotta, Domenico; Alçiçek, Mehmet Cihat; Alçiçek, Hülya; Bülbül, Ali; Gandin, Anna; Meccheri, Marco; Shen, Chuan-Chou; Baykara, Mehmet Oruç

    2018-02-01

    Linking the architecture of structural conduits with the hydrothermal fluids migrating from the reservoir up to the surface is a key-factor in geothermal research. A contribution to this achievement derives from the study of spring-related travertine deposits, but although travertine depositional systems occur widely, their feeding conduits are only rarely exposed. The integrated study carried out in the geothermal Gölemezli area, nearby the well-known Pamukkale area (Denizli Basin, western Anatolia, Turkey), focused on onyx-like calcite veins (banded travertine) and bedded travertine well exposed in a natural cross-section allowing the reconstruction of the shallower part of a geothermal system. The onyx-like veins represent the thickest vein network (> 150 m) so far known. New field mapping and structural/kinematic analyses allowed to document a partially dismantled travertine complex (bedded travertine) formed by proximal fissure ridges and distal terraced/pools depositional systems. The banded calcite veins, WNW-trending and up to 12 m thick, developed within a > 200 m thick damaged rock volume produced by parallel fault zones. Th/U dating indicates a long lasting (middle-late Pleistocene) fluids circulation in a palaeo-geothermal system that, due to its location and chemical characteristics, can be considered the analogue of the nearby, still active, Pamukkale system. The isotopic characteristics of the calcite veins together with data from fluid inclusions analyses, allow the reconstruction of some properties (i.e. temperature, salinity and isotopic composition) and processes (i.e. temperature variation and intensity of degassing) that characterized the parent fluids and the relation between degassing intensity and specific microfabric of calcite crystals (elongated/microsparite-micrite bands), controlled by changes/fluctuations of the physico-chemical fluid characteristics.

  1. Bandidaje y piratería en la Anatolia meridional. Definición y circunstancias en el marco de las guerras mitridáticas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isaías ARRAYÁS MORALES

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo trata sobre el fenómeno pirático en el mundo greco-romano. Su estudio resulta muy complejo, teniendo en cuenta que el vocabulario y la mentalidad de los autores antiguos interfieren de tal manera que es extremadamente complicado ir más allá y precisar el germen de los procesos históricos que fomentan las actividades piráticas, así como el tipo y la naturaleza de las diferentes acciones descritas. En este sentido, resulta casi imposible diferenciar a los piratas, de corsarios, de mercenarios o incluso de simples mercaderes armados, algo habitual considerando el primigenio vínculo entre piratería y comercio. Tan sólo el análisis del contexto histórico nos va a permitir una aproximación a la realidad descrita y, en muchos casos, maquillada, que nos presentan las fuentes literarias antiguas. En nuestro cometido, la evidencia arqueológica apenas puede ayudarnos, pues las trazas dejadas por una banda de piratas no se diferencian de las generadas por un destacamento de soldados o de mercenarios, revestidos de la oficialidad que los diferencia de los bandidos. Con el objetivo de ahondar en la problemática, abordamos las causas del auge del fenómeno pirático en los territorios de la Anatolia meridional en la primera mitad del s. I a. C., calibrando el impacto que tuvieron las guerras mitridáticas en el proceso.

  2. Thermal Investigation in the Cappadocia Region, Central Anatolia-Turkey, Analyzing Curie Point Depth, Geothermal Gradient, and Heat-Flow Maps from the Aeromagnetic Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilim, Funda; Kosaroglu, Sinan; Aydemir, Attila; Buyuksarac, Aydin

    2017-12-01

    In this study, curie point depth (CPD), heat flow, geothermal gradient, and radiogenic heat production maps of the Cappadocian region in central Anatolia are presented to reveal the thermal structure from the aeromagnetic data. The large, circular pattern in these maps matches with previously determined shallow (2 km in average) depression. Estimated CPDs in this depression filled with loose volcano-clastics and ignimbrite sheets of continental Neogene units vary from 7 to 12 km, while the geothermal gradient increases from 50 to 68 °C/km. Heat flows were calculated using two different conductivity coefficients of 2.3 and 2.7 Wm-1 K-1. The radiogenic heat production was also obtained between 0.45 and 0.70 μW m-3 in this area. Heat-flow maps were compared with the previous, regional heat-flow map of Turkey and significant differences were observed. In contrast to linear heat-flow increment through the northeast in the previous map in the literature, produced maps in this study include a large, caldera-like circular depression between Nevsehir, Aksaray, Nigde, and Yesilhisar cities indicating high geothermal gradient and higher heat-flow values. In addition, active deformation is evident with young magmatism in the Neogene and Quaternary times and a large volcanic cover on the surface. Boundaries of volcanic eruption centers and buried large intrusions are surrounded with the maxspots of the horizontal gradients of magnetic anomalies. Analytic signal (AS) map pointing-out exact locations of causative bodies is also presented in this study. Circular region in the combined map of AS and maxspots apparently indicates a possible caldera.

  3. Extended Active Disturbance Rejection Controller

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Zhiqiang (Inventor); Tian, Gang (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    Multiple designs, systems, methods and processes for controlling a system or plant using an extended active disturbance rejection control (ADRC) based controller are presented. The extended ADRC controller accepts sensor information from the plant. The sensor information is used in conjunction with an extended state observer in combination with a predictor that estimates and predicts the current state of the plant and a co-joined estimate of the system disturbances and system dynamics. The extended state observer estimates and predictions are used in conjunction with a control law that generates an input to the system based in part on the extended state observer estimates and predictions as well as a desired trajectory for the plant to follow.

  4. Scale-invariant extended inflation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holman, R.; Kolb, E.W.; Vadas, S.L.; Wang, Y.

    1991-01-01

    We propose a model of extended inflation which makes use of the nonlinear realization of scale invariance involving the dilaton coupled to an inflaton field whose potential admits a metastable ground state. The resulting theory resembles the Jordan-Brans-Dicke version of extended inflation. However, quantum effects, in the form of the conformal anomaly, generate a mass for the dilaton, thus allowing our model to evade the problems of the original version of extended inflation. We show that extended inflation can occur for a wide range of inflaton potentials with no fine-tuning of dimensionless parameters required. Furthermore, we also find that it is quite natural for the extended-inflation period to be followed by an epoch of slow-rollover inflation as the dilaton settles down to the minimum of its induced potential

  5. Extended asymptotic functions - some examples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Todorov, T.D.

    1981-01-01

    Several examples of extended asymptotic functions of two variables are given. This type of asymptotic functions has been introduced as an extension of continuous ordinary functions. The presented examples are realizations of some Schwartz distributions delta(x), THETA(x), P(1/xsup(n)) and can be multiplied in the class of the asymptotic functions as opposed to the theory of Schwartz distributions. The examples illustrate the method of construction of extended asymptotic functions similar to the distributions. The set formed by the extended asymptotic functions is also considered. It is shown, that this set is not closed with respect to addition and multiplication

  6. Cosmological dynamics of extended chameleons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamanini, Nicola [Institut de Physique Théorique, CEA-Saclay, CNRS UMR 3681, Université Paris-Saclay, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Wright, Matthew, E-mail: nicola.tamanini@cea.fr, E-mail: matthew.wright.13@ucl.ac.uk [Department of Mathematics, University College London, Gower Street, London, WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom)

    2016-04-01

    We investigate the cosmological dynamics of the recently proposed extended chameleon models at both background and linear perturbation levels. Dynamical systems techniques are employed to fully characterize the evolution of the universe at the largest distances, while structure formation is analysed at sub-horizon scales within the quasi-static approximation. The late time dynamical transition from dark matter to dark energy domination can be well described by almost all extended chameleon models considered, with no deviations from ΛCDM results at both background and perturbation levels. The results obtained in this work confirm the cosmological viability of extended chameleons as alternative dark energy models.

  7. Cosmological dynamics of extended chameleons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamanini, Nicola; Wright, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the cosmological dynamics of the recently proposed extended chameleon models at both background and linear perturbation levels. Dynamical systems techniques are employed to fully characterize the evolution of the universe at the largest distances, while structure formation is analysed at sub-horizon scales within the quasi-static approximation. The late time dynamical transition from dark matter to dark energy domination can be well described by almost all extended chameleon models considered, with no deviations from ΛCDM results at both background and perturbation levels. The results obtained in this work confirm the cosmological viability of extended chameleons as alternative dark energy models.

  8. Quasi-extended asymptotic functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Todorov, T.D.

    1979-01-01

    The class F of ''quasi-extended asymptotic functions'' is introduced. It contains all extended asymptotic functions as well as some new asymptotic functions very similar to the Schwartz distributions. On the other hand, every two quasiextended asymptotic functions can be multiplied as opposed to the Schwartz distributions; in particular, the square delta 2 of an asymptotic function delta similar to Dirac's delta-function, is constructed as an example

  9. Topological defects in extended inflation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Copeland, E.J.; Kolb, E.W.; Chicago Univ., IL; Liddle, A.R.

    1990-04-01

    We consider the production of topological defects, especially cosmic strings, in extended inflation models. In extended inflation, the Universe passes through a first-order phase transition via bubble percolation, which naturally allows defects to form at the end of inflation. The correlation length, which determines the number density of the defects, is related to the mean size of bubbles when they collide. This mechanism allows a natural combination of inflation and large-scale structure via cosmic strings. 18 refs

  10. Some problems with extended inflation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weinberg, E.J.

    1989-01-01

    The recently proposed extended inflation scenario is examined. Upper bounds on the Brans-Dicke parameter ω are obtained by requiring that the recovery from the supercooled regime be such that the presently observed Universe could have emerged. These bounds are well below the present-day experimental limits, implying that one must use models which have a potential to fix the present value of the Brans-Dicke-like scalar field. The implications for extended inflation in such models are discussed

  11. Topological defects in extended inflation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Copeland, E.J.; Kolb, E.W.; Liddle, A.R.

    1990-01-01

    We consider the production of topological defects, especially cosmic strings, in extended-inflation models. In extended inflation, the Universe passes through a first-order phase transition via bubble percolation, which naturally allows defects to form at the end of inflation. The correlation length, which determines the number density of the defects, is related to the mean size of the bubbles when they collide. This mechanism allows a natural combination of inflation and large-scale structure via cosmic strings

  12. Geochemical and Sr-Nd-Pb isotope characteristics of the Miocene to Pliocene volcanic rocks from the Kandilli (Erzurum) area, Eastern Anatolia (Turkey): Implications for magma evolution in extension-related origin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaygusuz, Abdullah; Aslan, Zafer; Aydınçakır, Emre; Yücel, Cem; Gücer, Mehmet Ali; Şen, Cüneyt

    2018-01-01

    This paper presents Sr-Nd-Pb isotopic and whole-rock geochemical data of Miocene to Pliocene volcanic rocks in the Eastern Anatolia (Turkey) aiming to unravel their sources and evolutionary history. The wide compositional range of lavas and pyroclastics includes basaltic andesite, basaltic trachyandesite, trachyandesite, andesite and trachydacite. These calc-alkaline volcanics are enriched in large ion lithophile elements and light rare earth elements and depleted in the high field strength elements. Sr-Nd isotope data indicate low values for 87Sr/86Sr(i) (0.70432-0.70464) and high values for 143Nd/144Nd(i) (0.51272-0.51282). Further, these data are within the mantle array of the isotope ratio diagram. The lead (Pb) isotopic compositions (206Pb/204Pb(i) = 18.33 to 18.62, 207Pb/204Pb(i) = 15.51 to 15.60, 208Pb/204Pb(i) = 38.10 to 38.45) reveals the presence of an enriched source. The main petrological processes involved fractional crystallization and the mixing of at least two fractionated magmas having same source characteristics. All evidence supports the findings that the Kandilli volcanic rocks were derived from a partial melting of the both spinel and garnet bearing subcontinental lithospheric mantle, which had been previously metasomatized by mostly fluids derived from subducted slab during the collisional and post-collisional extension-related geodynamic setting in the Eastern Anatolia region of Turkey.

  13. Extended likelihood inference in reliability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martz, H.F. Jr.; Beckman, R.J.; Waller, R.A.

    1978-10-01

    Extended likelihood methods of inference are developed in which subjective information in the form of a prior distribution is combined with sampling results by means of an extended likelihood function. The extended likelihood function is standardized for use in obtaining extended likelihood intervals. Extended likelihood intervals are derived for the mean of a normal distribution with known variance, the failure-rate of an exponential distribution, and the parameter of a binomial distribution. Extended second-order likelihood methods are developed and used to solve several prediction problems associated with the exponential and binomial distributions. In particular, such quantities as the next failure-time, the number of failures in a given time period, and the time required to observe a given number of failures are predicted for the exponential model with a gamma prior distribution on the failure-rate. In addition, six types of life testing experiments are considered. For the binomial model with a beta prior distribution on the probability of nonsurvival, methods are obtained for predicting the number of nonsurvivors in a given sample size and for predicting the required sample size for observing a specified number of nonsurvivors. Examples illustrate each of the methods developed. Finally, comparisons are made with Bayesian intervals in those cases where these are known to exist

  14. Extender for securing a closure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, II, Patrick A.

    2012-10-02

    An apparatus for securing a closure such as door or a window that opens and closes by movement relative to a fixed structure such as a wall or a floor. Many embodiments provide a device for relocating a padlock from its normal location where it secures a fastener (such as a hasp) to a location for the padlock that is more accessible for locking and unlocking the padlock. Typically an extender is provided, where the extender has a hook at a first end that is disposed through the eye of the staple of the hasp, and at an opposing second end the extender has an annulus, such as a hole in the extender or a loop or ring affixed to the extender. The shackle of the padlock may be disposed through the annulus and may be disposed through the eye of a second staple to secure the door or window in a closed or open position. Some embodiments employ a rigid sheath to enclose at least a portion of the extender. Typically the rigid sheath has an open state where the hook is exposed outside the sheath and a closed state where the hook is disposed within the sheath.

  15. Eclogite Facies Relicts and Decompression Assemblages; Evidence for the Exhumation of a Large Coherent Metabasite Block From > 40 km Depth; Central Metamorphic Terrane, Eastern Klamath Mountains, Northern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrow, W. M.; Fairhurst, R. J.; Metcalf, R. V.

    2007-12-01

    Recent exhumation models for eclogite terranes have focused on the exhumation of sialic rocks. Exhumed high pressure terranes are typically > 85% - 90% sialic material with only minor amounts of mafic and ultramafic rock. Most known metabasitic eclogites are blocks in mélange rather than large coherent bodies. The Central Metamorphic terrane (CMt) is a large (~300 km3) coherent, fault-bounded package of metabasites thought to represent a remnant of a downing plate subducted in an intra-oceanic convergent margin. Thermochronology indicates that the CMt was metamorphosed and later accreted to the base of the Trinity ophiolite along the Trinity fault during Early Permian extension (Hbl and Musc 40Ar/39Ar ages of 275 Ma - 294 Ma). Previous work suggested that the peak metamorphic temperatures and pressures were ~650°C and 0.4 to 0.8 GPa (Peacock and Norris, 1989) which is consistent with the amphibolite facies mineral assemblage. Trace element data confirm the NMORB-like composition of CMt metabasite protoliths. Newly discovered relict textures, however, suggest that CMt amphibolites record much deeper subduction burial with subsequent decompression exhumation. A decompression sequence consisting of rutile cores within ilmenite crystals mantled by titanite is observed in CMt amphibolite samples. Zr-in-rutile thermometry (Watson et al., 2006) combined with experimental data for rutile stability in metabasites (Ernst and Lui, 1998) suggests that relict rutile crystals preserve early P-T conditions of ~600°C and > 1.3 GPa consistent with eclogite facies metamorphism. Transition from eclogite facies is further supported by ilmenite-plagioclase-amphibole symplectites suggesting replacement of garnet (Bhowmik and Roy, 2003) during decompression. Amphibole compositions vary significantly and reflect lower grade (low Na, Al, Ti actinolite) overprint of earlier amphibolite facies compositions (high Na, Al, Ti magnesio- hornblende). Application of the Al-Ti hornblende

  16. Two Cenozoic tectonic events of N-S and E-W extension in the Lhasa Terrane: Evidence from geology and geochronology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Feng; Xu, Ji-Feng; Chen, Jian-Lin; Wu, Jian-Bin; Zeng, Yun-Chuan; Xiong, Qiu-Wei; Chen, Xue-Feng; Yu, Hong-Xia

    2016-02-01

    Cenozoic active structures in the Tibetan Plateau are mainly regional N-S trending extensional faults and grabens, and E-W trending extensional tracks that are related to the transition from syn- to post-collision between India and Asia. E-W trending tracks are parallel to the direction of Neo-Tethyan oceanic convergence and consist of extensional volcanic-sedimentary basins and magmatic dykes in the southern Lhasa Terrane, Tibet. N-S trending tracks comprise faults and grabens, which are widely developed in Tibet. It remains unknown how and when the geodynamic transition from E-W to N-S trending tectonic tracks occurred. This study describes both E-W and N-S trending tectonic tracks identified at Dazi area of southern Lhasa Terrane, where E-W trending mafic dykes intruded a granitoid and late-stage N-S trending felsic dykes cut across E-W trending mafic dykes. Zircons from four granitoid samples yield consistent crystallization ages of ca. 60 Ma and positive εHf(t) values (~+ 9). An altered dioritic vein, which cuts the mafic dykes, yields an age of ca. 53 Ma. These new dating results indicate that E-W trending dykes, which formed due to regional N-S extension, were emplaced between 60 and 53 Ma. In addition, two N-S trending monzonitic porphyritic dykes, which cut the mafic dykes, yield U-Pb zircon ages of ca. 17 Ma with moderate positive εHf(t) values (+ 3 to + 9.6), as well as a NNE-SSW trending quartz monzonitic dyke, which cuts all other types of dykes, yields U-Pb ages of ca. 13 Ma. This suggests that E-W extension took place between 17 and 13 Ma. These results, in combination with existing age data for Gangdese granitoids and mafic magmatism, indicate the occurrence of two major extensional events at 60-53 Ma and 17-13 Ma. In turn, this implies that the transition from E-W to N-S trending tectonic and the onset of E-W extension occurred at ca. 17 Ma or slightly earlier. Paleocene granitoids have geochemical characteristics that are indicative of both

  17. Age and duration of intra-oceanic arc volcanism built on a suprasubduction zone type oceanic crust in southern Neotethys, SE Anatolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatih Karaoğlan

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The southeastern Anatolia comprises numbers of tectono-magmatic/stratigraphic units such as the metamorphic massifs, the ophiolites, the volcanic arc units and the granitoid rocks. All of them play important role for the late Cretaceous evolution of the southern Neotethys. The spatial and temporal relations of these units suggest the progressive development of coeval magmatism and thrusting during the late Cretaceous northward subduction/accretion. Our new U-Pb zircon data from the rhyolitic rocks of the wide-spread volcanic arc unit show ages of (83.1 ± 2.2–(74.6 ± 4.4 Ma. Comparison of the ophiolites, the volcanic arc units and the granitoids suggest following late Cretaceous geological evolution. The ophiolites formed in a suprasubduction zone (SSZ setting as a result of northward intra-oceanic subduction. A wide-spread island-arc tholeiitic volcanic unit developed on the top of the SSZ-type crust during 83–75 Ma. Related to regional plate convergence, northward under-thrusting of SSZ-type ophiolites and volcanic arc units was initiated beneath the Tauride platform (Malatya-Keban and followed by the intrusion of I-type calc-alkaline volcanic arc granitoids during 84–82 Ma. New U-Pb ages from the arc-related volcanic-sedimentary unit and granitoids indicate that under-thrusting of ophiolites together with the arc-related units beneath the Malatya-Keban platform took place soon after the initiation of the volcanic arc on the top of the SSZ-type crust. Then the arc-related volcanic-sedimentary unit continued its development and lasted at ∼75 Ma until the deposition of the late Campanian–Maastrichtian shallow marine limestone. The subduction trench eventually collided with the Bitlis-Pütürge massif giving rise to HP-LT metamorphism of the Bitlis massif. Although the development of the volcanic arc units and the granitoids were coeval at the initial stage of the subduction/accretion both tectono-magmatic units were

  18. Superimposed basin formation during Neogene-Quaternary extensional tectonics in SW-Anatolia (Turkey): Insights from the kinematics of the Dinar Fault Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alçiçek, M. Cihat; Brogi, Andrea; Capezzuoli, Enrico; Liotta, Domenico; Meccheri, Marco

    2013-11-01

    In the extensional province of SW-Anatolia, the cross-cutting relationship between the NW- and NE-oriented Neogene and Quaternary basins is an ongoing debate in the understanding of the tectonic evolution of this area. In order to contribute to this issue, we carried out a structural and kinematic study along the seismogenic NW-trending Dinar Fault Zone (DFZ). This structure was initially controlled by the sedimentary and tectonic evolution of the NE-oriented Neogene Baklan, Acıgöl and Burdur basins and, later, by the NW-oriented Quaternary Dinar Basin. On the basis of > 1000 structural and kinematic data, in conjunction with basin stratigraphy, the DFZ can be divided into three almost parallel and continuous bands, that are: (a) the Hangingwall where Quaternary sediments are deformed by normal faults with mechanical striations; (b) the Inner Zone, corresponding to the present Dinar fault scarp, where NW-trending normal faults with mechanical striations are dominant, and (c) the Outer Zone, located in the footwall of the structure comprising the area between the fault scarp and undeformed bedrock, where faults exhibit variable orientation and kinematics, from strike-slip to normal dip-slip. These kinematics are mainly indicated by calcite shear veins and superimposed mechanical striations, respectively. This suggests that the DFZ changed kinematics over time, i.e., the DFZ initiated as dominant dextral strike-slip to oblique-slip fault system and continued with a dominant normal movement. Therefore, we hypothesize that the NW-trending DFZ was initially a transfer zone during the late Miocene-Pliocene, coeval to the sedimentary and structural evolution of the NE-trending Baklan, Acigöl and Burdur basins. During the Quaternary the DFZ, representing an already weakened crustal sector, played the role of a normal fault system providing the accommodation space for the Quaternary Dinar Basin. Hydrothermal circulation and volcanism at NE-/NW-trending faults

  19. Extended Year, Extended Contracts: Increasing Teacher Salary Options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandara, Patricia

    1992-01-01

    Reports on an attempt to raise teacher salaries through an extended contract made possible through year-round school schedules. Teacher satisfaction with the 1987 experiment in three California schools (the Orchard Plan) has been high. Elements that have contributed to job satisfaction are discussed. (SLD)

  20. Extended cognition in science communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludwig, David

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this article is to propose a methodological externalism that takes knowledge about science to be partly constituted by the environment. My starting point is the debate about extended cognition in contemporary philosophy and cognitive science. Externalists claim that human cognition extends beyond the brain and can be partly constituted by external devices. First, I show that most studies of public knowledge about science are based on an internalist framework that excludes the environment we usually utilize to make sense of science and does not allow the possibility of extended knowledge. In a second step, I argue that science communication studies should adopt a methodological externalism and accept that knowledge about science can be partly realized by external information resources such as Wikipedia. © The Author(s) 2013.

  1. Shear rheology of extended nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Matt K.; Lane, J. Matthew D.; Grest, Gary S.

    2010-07-01

    Nonequilibrium molecular-dynamics simulations are presented for the shear rheology of suspensions of extended “jack”-shaped nanoparticles in an explicit solvent. The shear viscosity is measured for two jack-shaped nanoparticle suspensions for volume fractions from 0.01 to 0.15 and compared to spherical nanoparticles of the same mass. Large differences, in some cases, orders of magnitude, are observed for both the equilibrium viscosity and diffusion constant as the shape of the nanoparticle is varied. The source of enhanced viscosity is the very large effective volume swept out by these extended nanoparticles which allows them to become highly entangled even at low volume fraction.

  2. Effective operators and extended symmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Frère, J M; Moreno, J M; Orloff, J

    1994-01-01

    In this note we expand on our previous study of the implications of LEP1 results for future colliders. We extend the effective operator-based analysis of De R\\'ujula et al. to a larger symmetry group, and show at which cost their expectations can be relaxed. Of particular interest to experiment is a rephrasing of our previous results in terms of the Renard et al. parametrization for the gauge boson self-couplings (slightly extended to include $\\delta g_{\\gamma}$). We suggest the use of a ($\\delta g_{\\gamma}$, $\\delta g_{Z}$) plot to confront the expectations of various models.

  3. Adjustable extender for instrument module

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sevec, J.B.; Stein, A.D.

    1975-01-01

    A blank extender module used to mount an instrument module in front of its console for repair or test purposes has been equipped with a rotatable mount and means for locking the mount at various angles of rotation for easy accessibility. The rotatable mount includes a horizontal conduit supported by bearings within the blank module. The conduit is spring-biased in a retracted position within the blank module and in this position a small gear mounted on the conduit periphery is locked by a fixed pawl. The conduit and instrument mount can be pulled into an extended position with the gear clearing the pawl to permit rotation and adjustment of the instrument

  4. Exclusion Bounds for Extended Anyons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Simon; Lundholm, Douglas

    2018-01-01

    We introduce a rigorous approach to the many-body spectral theory of extended anyons, that is quantum particles confined to two dimensions that interact via attached magnetic fluxes of finite extent. Our main results are many-body magnetic Hardy inequalities and local exclusion principles for these particles, leading to estimates for the ground-state energy of the anyon gas over the full range of the parameters. This brings out further non-trivial aspects in the dependence on the anyonic statistics parameter, and also gives improvements in the ideal (non-extended) case.

  5. Late-Proterozoic to Paleozoic history of the peri-Gondwana Calabria-Peloritani Terrane inferred from a review of zircon chronology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fornelli, Annamaria; Micheletti, Francesca; Piccarreta, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    U-Pb analyses of zircon from ten samples of augen gneisses, eight mafic and intermediate metaigneous rocks and six metasediments from some tectonic domains along the Calabria-Peloritani Terrane (Southern Italy) contribute to knowledge of peri-Gondwanan evolution from Late-Proterozoic to Paleozoic times. All samples were equilibrated under amphibolite to granulite facies metamorphism during the Variscan orogeny. The zircon grains of all considered samples preserve a Proterozoic memory suggestive of detrital, metamorphic and igneous origin. The available data fit a frame involving: (1) Neoproterozoic detrital input from cratonic areas of Gondwana; (2) Pan-African/Cadomian assemblage of blocks derived from East and West African Craton; (3) metamorphism and bimodal magmatism between 535 and 579 Ma, within an active margin setting; (4) rifting and opening of Ordovician basins fed by detrital input from the assembled Cadomian blocks. The Paleozoic basins evolved through sedimentation, metamorphism and magmatism during the Variscan orogeny involving Palaeozoic and pre-Paleozoic blocks. The Proterozoic zircon records decidedly decrease in the high grade metamorphic rocks affected by Variscan pervasive partial melting.

  6. Applying and extending Oracle Spatial

    CERN Document Server

    Simon Gerard Greener, Siva Ravada

    2013-01-01

    This book is an advanced practical guide to applying and extending Oracle Spatial.This book is for existing users of Oracle and Oracle Spatial who have, at a minimum, basic operational experience of using Oracle or an equivalent database. Advanced skills are not required.

  7. Ghosts in extended quasidilaton theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golovnev, Alexey; Trukhin, Aleksandr

    2017-11-01

    We report on our independent investigations of the puzzle of cosmological perturbations in extended quasidilaton. We confirm the claims of presence of the Boulware-Deser ghost. We use both the language of cosmological perturbations with broken diffeomorphisms and the Stückelberg approach.

  8. Extended memory management under RTOS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plummer, M.

    1981-01-01

    A technique for extended memory management in ROLM 1666 computers using FORTRAN is presented. A general software system is described for which the technique can be ideally applied. The memory manager interface with the system is described. The protocols by which the manager is invoked are presented, as well as the methods used by the manager.

  9. Extended duration orbiter (EDO) insignia

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    Extended duration orbiter (EDO) insignia incorporates a space shuttle orbiter with payload bay doors (PLBDs) open and a spacelab module inside. Trailing the orbiter are the initials EDO. The EDO-modified Columbia, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 102, will be flown for the first EDO mission, STS-50.

  10. Extended Duration Orbiter Medical Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leach, C. S.; Pool, S. L.; Sawin, C. F.; Nicogossian, A. E.

    1990-01-01

    The Extended Duration Orbiter (EDO) program addresses a need for more time to perform experiments and other tasks during Space Shuttle missions. As a part of this program, the Extended Duration Orbiter Medical Project (EDOMP) has been instituted to obtain information about physiologic effects of extending mission duration and the effectiveness of countermeasures against factors that might compromise crew health, safety, or performance on extended-duration missions. Only those investigations that address and characterize operational problems, develop countermeasures, or evaluate the effectiveness of countermeasures will be pursued. The EDOMP investigations will include flight-associated Detailed Supplementary Objectives as well as ground-based studies simulating the influence of microgravity. Investigator teams have been formed in the following areas: biomedical physiology, cardiovascular and fluid/electrolyte physiology, environmental health, muscle and exercise physiology, and neurophysiology. Major operational questions must be answered in each of these areas, and investigations have been designed to answer them. The EDO program will proceed only after countermeasures have been shown to be effective in preventing or mitigating the adverse changes they have been designed to attenuate. The program is underway and will continue on each Shuttle flight as the manifest builds toward a 16-day orbital flight.

  11. Extended unemployment and UI benefits

    OpenAIRE

    Robert G. Valletta; Katherine Kuang

    2010-01-01

    During the current labor market downturn, unemployment duration has reached levels well above its previous highs. Analysis of unemployment data suggests that extended unemployment insurance benefits have not been important factors in the increase in the duration of unemployment or in the elevated unemployment rate.

  12. Engage, Enhance, and Extend Learning!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keren-Kolb, Liz

    2013-01-01

    Educators often say that technology is more than a gimmick or add-on, and that it should engage, enhance, or extend learning in ways that traditional tools do not. Yet they seldom stop to define these terms, and they can be confusing, especially for teachers and preservice teachers. Recently, while collaborating on an English language arts and…

  13. Departies: conceptualizing extended youth parties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fjær, Eivind Grip; Tutenges, Sébastien

    2017-01-01

    Every year, millions of young people travel away from home to party for days or weeks on end in permissive environments, such as music festivals, dance parties, and nightlife resorts. The studies that have been conducted on these extended youth parties have focused primarily on specific risk......-taking behaviors, such as drug use and violence. Here, we scrutinize the research on extended youth parties to identify general changes that young people undergo at these events. We call these celebrations departies, because they center on the organization and facilitation of momentary departures from...... immoral; (4) stylistically, by altering their stylistic expressions through dress, demeanor, and consumption; and (5) experientially, because the parties generate mood and mind alterations. These are overlapping and intertwined elements, the combination of which amounts to a distinct type of youth party...

  14. Non-invasive extending prosthesis

    OpenAIRE

    Meswania, Jayantilal Mohanlal

    2006-01-01

    Most sarcomas of the bone occur in patients of a relatively young age including skeletally immature patients. Approximately 50 child sarcomas are treated with limb salvage surgery per year in the United Kingdom. These children need an extendible implant that can be lengthened periodically to keep pace with the growth in the opposite limb. Surgically, invasive devices have been used for the past thirty years with intrinsic problems of infection and long-term recurrent trauma to the patient. To...

  15. Black holes from extended inflation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsu, S.D.H.; Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA

    1990-01-01

    It is argued that models of extended inflation, in which modified Einstein gravity allows a graceful exit from the false vacuum, lead to copious production of black holes. The critical temperature of the inflationary phase transition must be >10 8 GeV in order to avoid severe cosmological problems in a universe dominated by black holes. We speculate on the possibility that the interiors of false vacuum regions evolve into baby universes. (orig.)

  16. Locating and extending livelihoods research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prowse, Martin

    2008-01-01

    Much poverty and development research is not explicit about its methodology or philosophical foundations. Based on the extended case method of Burawoy and the epistemological standpoint of critical realism, this paper discusses a methodological approach for reflexive inductive livelihoods researc...... that overcomes the unproductive social science dualism of positivism and social constructivism. The approach is linked to a conceptual framework and a menu of research methods that can be sequenced and iterated in light of research questions....

  17. Extended producer responsibility in oligopoly

    OpenAIRE

    Hiroaki Ino

    2007-01-01

    I investigate the optimal environmental tax under a policy based on extended producer responsibility (EPR) in oligopoly markets. I introduce the recycling market and explicitly consider how these policies affect the incentive for recycling. I derive the optimal tax rule, which depends on the weighted sum of the markup in the product market and the markdown in the recycling market. In contrast to the existing works that emphasize that the optimal tax rate is lower than the marginal external da...

  18. Tectono-metamorphic evolution of the Tavşanli zone, Western Anatolia: implications for mechanical coupling during subduction/obduction processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plunder, Alexis; Agard, Philippe; Chopin, Christian; Okay, Aral

    2013-04-01

    Obduction (i.e., emplacement of a dense oceanic lithosphere on top of a continent) and associated continental subduction provide insights into the rheology of the lithosphere and inter-plate mechanical coupling that usefully complements those inferred from normal oceanic subduction beneath continents. Structural and petrological data from the Tavşanlı zone are herein used to highlight processes occurring along the subduction interface from initial obduction stages (i.e., initiation of intra-oceanic subduction witnessed by metamorphic soles) to continental subduction (represented by high-pressure low-temperature, HP-LT rocks). The Tavşanlı zone (Western Anatolia) belongs to the İzmir-Ankara suture zone, which separates the Pontides and Anatolide-Tauride block. It represents a very well preserved late Cretaceous subduction interface, thanks to only mild, later collision. The Tavşanlı zone is divided in three main tectonic units related to (either continental or oceanic) subduction and obduction, respectively, which are from bottom to top: (i) the distal cover of the subducted north facing continental margin of the Anatolide-Tauride block (Orhaneli unit), which yields one of the lowest thermal gradients on earth (i.e., 5°C/km, with peak T and P of 430°C/22-24 kbar); (ii) an accretionary complex made of low-grade, subducted ocean-derived metamorphic rocks; (iii) the non-metamorphic obducted ophiolite, underlain by a thin metamorphic sole, which is found as klippen south of the İzmir-Ankara suture zone. Systematic sampling and structural work allow us to reappraise the nature, internal structure and P-T conditions of the accretionary complex sandwiched between the lower continental and upper oceanic plates. Two major tectonic units (termed complex 1 and 2) are recognised based on metamorphic grade and structural position with respect to the continental margin. Metamorphic conditions range from incipient HP-LT metamorphism (complex 1) to blueschist facies

  19. Biomarker geochemistry of bituminous shale sequence and crude oil in the Ereǧli-Bor Basin (Konya-Niǧde), Central Anatolia, Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kara-Gulbay, Reyhan; Erdogan, Mert; Korkmaz, Sadettin; Kadinkiz, Gökhan

    2016-04-01

    In the Ereǧli-Bor Basin (Konya-Niǧde), Central Anatolia, bituminous shale sequence with thickness ranging between 72 and 160 m occurs in lacustrine deposits of Upper Miocene-Pliocene age. The live oil has also been observed in this bituminous shale sequence. Rock-Eval/TOC, GC and GC-MS analyses were conducted on selected bituminous shale samples from four borehole (key-12/1, key-12/2, key-12/3 key-12/4) and one crude oil sample from a borehole (key-12/2) in the basin. In this study, organic matter type, maturity and depositional environment of bituminous shale are evaluated and the origin of crude oil is determined by the bituminous shale-crude oil correlation. The total organic carbon (TOC) values of the bituminous shale samples range from 1.21-13.98 wt% with an average TOC value of 4.75wt%. The bituminous shale sequence is characterized by high HI (127-662 mg HC/g TOC) and low OI (7-50 mgCO2/TOC). Tmax varies from 332-419ᵒC. Very low Pr/Ph ratios of bituminous shale (0.09-0.22) are indicative of anoxic depositional conditions. C27 is dominate sterane for bituminous shale and crude oil samples with C27>C29>C28. Normal steranes are more dominant compare to iso- and diasteranes. Ouite high sterane/hopane ratios (1.14-2.70) indicate dominant algal organic matter input for bituminous shale and source rock of crude oil. C31R/hopane ratio for bituminous shale and crude oil samples are very low (0.09-0.13) and these ratio show a lacustrine depositional envirronment for bituminous shale and source rock of crude oil. Sterane and terpane distributions of bituminous shale and crude oil are very similar. A very good correlation in terms of biomarker between bituminous shale and crude oil samples indicate that source rock of crude oil is bituminous shale. The 22S/(22R + 22S) C32 homohopane ratios of bituminous shale and crude oil samples are found to be 0.56 and 0.61, indicating that homohopane isomerization has attained equilibrium and bituminous shale and crude oil are

  20. Hydrogeological Modelling of the Geothermal Waters of Alaşehir in the Continental Rift Zone of the Gediz, Western Anatolia, Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ӧzgür, Nevzat; Bostancı, Yesim; Anilır Yürük, Ezgi

    2017-12-01

    In western Anatolia, Turkey, the continental rift zones of the Büyük Menderes, Küçük Menderes and Gediz were formed by extensional tectonic features striking E-W generally and representing a great number of active geothermal systems, epithermal mineralizations and volcanic rocks from Middle Miocene to recent. The geothermal waters are associated with the faults which strike preferentially NW-SE and NE-SW and locate diagonal to general strike of the rift zones of the Menderes Massif. These NW-SE and NE-SW striking faults were probably generated by compressional tectonic regimes which leads to the deformation of uplift between two extensional rift zones in the Menderes Massif. The one of these rift zones is Gediz which is distinguished by a great number of geothermal waters such as Alaşehir, Kurşunlu, Çamurlu, Pamukkale and Urganlı. The geothermal waters of Alaşehir form the biggest potential in the rift zone of Gediz with a capacity of about 100 to 200 MWe. Geologically, the gneisses from the basement rocks in the study area which are overlain by an Paleozoic to Mesozoic intercalation of mica schists, quartzites and marbles, a Miocene intercalation of conglomerates, sandstones and clay stones and Plio-Quaternary intercalation of conglomerates, sandstones and clay stones discordantly. In the study area, Paleozoic to Mesozoic quartzites and marbles form the reservoir rocks hydrogeologically. The geothermal waters anions with Na+K>Ca>Mg dominant cations and HCO3>Cl> dominant anions are of Na-HCO3 type and can be considered as partial equilibrated waters. According to the results of geochemical thermometers, the reservoir temperatures area of about 185°C in accordance with measured reservoir temperatures. Stabile isotopes of δ18O versus δ2H of geothermal waters of Alaşehir deviate from the meteoric water line showing an intensive water-rock interaction under high temperature conditions. These data are well correlated with the results of the

  1. Implications of Late Cretaceous U-Pb zircon ages of granitic intrusions cutting ophiolitic and volcanogenic rocks for the assembly of the Tauride allochthon in SE Anatolia (Helete area, Kahramanmaraş Region, SE Turkey)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurlu, Nusret; Parlak, Osman; Robertson, Alastair; von Quadt, Albrecht

    2016-01-01

    An assemblage of NE-SW-trending, imbricate thrust slices (c. 26 km E-W long × 6.3 km N-S) of granitic rocks, basic-felsic volcanogenic rocks (Helete volcanics), ophiolitic rocks (Meydan ophiolite) and melange (Meydan melange) is exposed near the Tauride thrust front in SE Anatolia. The volcanogenic rocks were previously assumed to be Eocene because of associated Nummulitic limestones. However, ion probe U-Pb dating of zircons extracted from the intrusive granitic rocks yielded ages of 92.9 ± 2.2-83.1 ± 1.5 Ma (Cenomanian-Campanian). The Helete volcanic unit and the overlying Meydan ophiolitic rocks both are intruded by granitic rocks of similar age and composition. Structurally underlying ophiolite-related melange includes similar-aged, but fragmented granitic intrusions. Major, trace element and rare earth element analyses coupled with electron microprobe analysis of the granitic rocks show that they are metaluminus to peraluminus and calc-alkaline in composition. A magmatic arc setting is inferred from a combination of tectonomagmatic discrimination, ocean ridge granite-normalized multi-element patterns and biotite geochemistry. Sr-Nd-Pb isotope data further suggest that the granitoid rocks were derived from variably mixed mantle and crustal sources. Granitic rocks cutting the intrusive rocks are inferred to have crystallized at ~5-16 km depth. The volcanogenic rocks and granitic rocks originated in a supra-subduction zone setting that was widely developed throughout SE Anatolia. Initial tectonic assembly took place during the Late Cretaceous probably related to northward subduction and accretion beneath the Tauride continent (Keban and Malatya platforms). Initial tectonic assembly was followed by exhumation and then transgression by shelf-depth Nummulitic limestones during Mid-Eocene, as documented in several key outcrops. Final emplacement onto the Arabian continental margin took place during the Early Miocene.

  2. The Park Volcanics Group : field relations of an igneous suite emplaced in the Triassic-Jurassic Murihiku Terrane, South Island, New Zealand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coombs, D.S.; Cook, N.D.J.; Campbell, J.D.

    1992-01-01

    Park Volcanics Group is proposed for igneous rocks, either shallow intrusive or extrusive, emplaced in the Murihiku Terrane during Triassic-Jurassic times. The term replaces Park Intrusives of Mutch, some members of which are shown to be extrusive rather than intrusive. Formation status within the group is given to Gowan Andesite and Pinney Volcanics (new names) in western Southland, Glenham Porphyry in eastern Southland, and Barnicoat Andesite (new) in the Richmond area, Nelson. Gowan Andesite is a porphyritic feldspar two-pyroxene andesite with a glassy or microcrystalline groundmass. A suite of low-grade metavolcanic rocks which forms the main mass of Malakoff Hill and which has formerly been included in the 'Park Intrusives' is here excluded and ascribed to the Takitimu Group; representative chemical data are given. Glenham Porphyry is typically a porphyritic feldspar two-pyroxene andesite texturally similar to the Gowan Andesite but with significant geochemical differences. Two volumetrically minor members are recognised, Habukinini Trachydacite and Kenilworth Rhyolite. In the north of its outcrop area, Glenham Porphyry is emplaced on or into Late Triassic terrestrial beds; in the middle it overlies Kaihikuan (Middle Triassic) and is overlain by Otapirian (latest Triassic) marine beds; and in the southeast it is directly overlain by Ururoan (late Early to early Middle Jurassic) conglomerates and marine sandstones. Pinney Volcanics are restricted to a very few, probably one, massive conglomeratic horizon in the Oretian Stage. The commonest rock type is a two-pyroxene trachydacite, modified by very-low-grade burial metamorphism. Auto-brecciation is characteristic and rock types change over short distances. Hornblende-rich variants occur as well as more felsic varieties including rhyolite ignimbrite. These may have been erupted onto a bouldery floodplain or shallow-marine surface, but alternatively may have been mass-emplaced by debris avalanche resulting from

  3. Clinopyroxene as a key for tracing a history of crystallization and recrystallization of coronitic metagabbro in high-grade metamorphic terranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egorova, Svetlana; Stepanova, Alexandra

    2017-04-01

    The evaluation PT-parameters of magmatic crystallization is usually complicated for metagabbros in high-grade metamorphic terranes. Sometimes intensively metamorphosed coronitic gabbronorites preserve relics of primary magmatic mineral assemblage that could give valuable information on the conditions of melt crystallization. However, to use the composition of this relict minerals one should be sure that relict magmatic minerals in coronotic metagabbros did not change their primary composition despite the fact of high-grade metamorphic overprinting. Clinopyroxene is the most important concentrator of REE in igneous and metamorphic mafic rocks because its trace element composition is a sensitive indicator of physico-chemical conditions of the clinopyroxene-bearing-rocks formation. The Belomorian mobile belt (BMB) of the eastern part of the Fennoscandian Shield is high-garde metamorphic terrane. High-Mg coronitic metagabbronorites are widespread in BMB. In spite of metamorphic alteration at high-pressure amphibolite (to eclogite) facies conditions they often preserve relicts of primary igneous mineral assemblages that consist of olivine, orthopyroxene, clinopyroxene (augite) and plagioclase. Corona textures usually developed between mafic minerals and plagioclase. In general, coronas consist of orthopyroxene, clinopyroxene (Na-rich diopside), hornblende (with or without spinel inclusions) and garnet. Trace element composition of relict (primary-igneous?) and corona-forming (around magmatic orthopyroxene) clinopyroxenes from paleoproterozoic coronitic metagabbronorites of the BMB was studied using SIMS Cameca IMS 4f. Igneous clinopyroxenes from fresh olivine gabbronorites of age ca. 2.45 Ga in the Karelian craton were used as reference composition for igneous clinopyroxenes. The major element contents in relict clinopyroxenes from coronitic metagabbronorites determined using EDS EPMA is very similar to the igneous clinopyroxene from gabbronorites of the Karelian craton

  4. Devonian granitoids and their hosted mafic enclaves in the Gorny Altai terrane, northwestern Central Asian Orogenic Belt: crust-mantle interaction in a continental arc setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ming; Sun, Min

    2016-04-01

    Granitoids are a major component in the upper continental crust and hold key information on how did the continental crust grow and differentiate. This study focuses on the Yaloman intrusive complex from the Gorny Altai terrane, northwestern Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB). The association of granitoids and mafic enclaves can provide important clues on the source nature, petrogenetic processes and geodynamic setting of the Yaloman intrusive complex, which in turn will shed light on the crustal evolution in the northwestern CAOB. Zircon U-Pb dating shows that the granitoids, including quartz diorites and granodiorites, were emplaced in ca. 389-387 Ma. The moderate Na2O + K2O contents and low A/CNK values indicate that these rocks belong to the sub-alkaline series with metaluminous to weakly peraluminous compositions. The granitoids yield two-stage zircon Hf model ages of ca. 0.79-1.07 Ga and whole-rock Nd model ages of ca. 0.90-0.99 Ga, respectively, implying that they were mainly sourced from Neoproterozoic juvenile crustal materials. The mafic enclaves show an almost identical crystallization age of ca. 389 Ma. The identification of coarse-grained xenocrysts and acicular apatites, together with the fine-grained texture, makes us infer that these enclaves are likely to represent magmatic globules commingled with the host magmas. The low SiO2 and high MgO contents of the mafic enclaves further suggest that substantial mantle-derived mafic melts were probably involved in their formation. Importantly, the SiO2 contents of the granitoids and mafic enclaves are well correlated with other major elements and most of the trace elements. Also a broadly negative correlation exists between the SiO2 contents and whole-rock epsilon Nd (390 Ma) values of the granitoids. Given the observation of reversely zoned plagioclases within the granitoids and the common occurrence of igneous mafic enclaves, we propose that magma mixing probably played an important role in the formation

  5. Partial melting and rapid exhumation of a Pliocene UHP terrane: CA-TIMS zircon results from Normanby Island, Papau New Guinea

    Science.gov (United States)

    DesOrmeau, J. W.; Gordon, S. M.; Little, T. A.; Bowring, S. A.

    2012-12-01

    Some ultra-high pressure (UHP) terranes contain eclogite embedded within migmatitic gneisses that preserve evidence for multiple episodes of partial melting. Understanding the mechanisms by which crustal rocks are subducted to mantle depths and subsequently exhumed requires understanding the timing of metamorphism and the timing and role of partial melting. The D'Entrecasteaux Islands of southeastern Papua New Guinea (PNG) expose Pliocene UHP eclogites contained within migmatitic host gneisses. Garnet-whole rock Lu-Hf geochronology suggests UHP metamorphism may have begun by ca. 7 Ma, and Ar-Ar thermochronology indicates that the rocks were exhumed to the surface by ca. 2 Ma; the history between 7 and 2 Ma is crucial for tectonic models of PNG. We have applied U-Pb chemical-abrasion thermal-ionization mass spectrometry (CA-TIMS) geochronology to zircons separated from granitoid intrusions within the host gneisses to better understand the timing and role of melting in the exhumation of the PNG UHP rocks. Three granodiorite intrusions were collected from Normanby Island as it has received far less study in previous investigations than the other D'Entrecasteaux Islands (Goodenough and Fergusson) and exposes the contact of the UHP-HP rocks against the structurally overlying, weakly metamorphosed rocks of the Papuan ultramafic belt (PUB). From the west side of Normanby dome in contact with the PUB, zircons from a foliated protomylonitic granodiorite sill yielded 206Pb/238U dates of ca. 4.1 Ma. In comparison, on the eastern side of Normanby dome, zircons from a weakly foliated, discordant pegmatitic dike yielded a complex array of zircon analyses and the youngest dates are ca. 4.1 Ma. The zircons extracted from these deformed intrusions are interpreted to date melt emplacement, crystallization, and zircon growth, which may be coeval with amphibolite facies (570-730 °C and ~7-12 Kbar) metamorphism recorded from Goodenough and Fergusson Islands. Zircons from a non

  6. Paleoproterozoic (ca. 1.8 Ga) arc magmatism in the Lützow-Holm Complex, East Antarctica: Implications for crustal growth and terrane assembly in erstwhile Gondwana fragments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Kazuki; Tsunogae, Toshiaki; Santosh, M.; Takamura, Yusuke; Tsutsumi, Yukiyasu

    2018-05-01

    The Lützow-Holm Complex (LHC) of East Antarctica forms a part of the latest Neoproterozoic-Cambrian high-grade metamorphic segment of the East African-Antarctic Orogen. Here we present new petrological, geochemical, and zircon U-Pb geochronological data on meta-igneous rocks from four localities (Austhovde, Telen, Skallevikshalsen, and Skallen) in the LHC, and evaluate the regional Paleoproterozoic (ca. 1.8 Ga) arc magmatism in this terrane for the first time. The geochemical features reveal a volcanic-arc affinity for most of the meta-igneous rocks from Austhovde and Telen, suggesting that the protoliths of these rocks were derived from felsic to mafic arc magmatic rocks. The protoliths of two mafic granulites from Austhovde are inferred as non-volcanic-arc basalt such as E-MORB, suggesting the accretion of remnant oceanic lithosphere together with the volcanic-arc components during the subduction-collision events. The weighted mean 206Pb/238U ages of the dominant population of magmatic zircons in felsic orthogneisses from Austhovde and Telen show 1819 ± 19 Ma and 1830 ± 10 Ma, respectively, corresponding to Paleoproterozoic magmatic event. The magmatic zircons in orthogneisses from other two localities yield upper intercept ages of 1837 ± 54 Ma (Skallevikshalsen), and 1856 ± 37 Ma and 1854 ± 45 Ma (Skallen), which also support Paleoproterozoic magmatism. The earlier thermal events during Neoarchean to Early Paleoproterozoic are also traced by 206Pb/238U ages of xenocrystic zircons in the felsic orthogneisses from Austhovde (2517 ± 17 Ma and 2495 ± 15 Ma) and Telen (2126 ± 16 Ma), suggesting partial reworking of the basement of a 2.5 Ga microcontinent during ca. 1.8 Ga continental-arc magmatism. The timing of peak metamorphism is inferred to be in the range of 645.6 ± 10.4 to 521.4 ± 12.0 Ma based on 206Pb/238U weighted mean ages of metamorphic zircon grains. The results of this study, together with the available magmatic ages as well as geophysical and

  7. U-Pb SHRIMP geochronology of zircon in garnet peridotite from the Sulu UHP terrane, China: Implications for mantle metasomatism and subduction-zone UHP metamorphism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, R.Y.; Yang, J.S.; Wooden, J.L.; Liou, J.G.; Li, T.F.

    2005-01-01

    We studied the Zhimafang ultrahigh-pressure metamorphic (UHP) peridotite from pre-pilot drill hole PP-1 of Chinese Continental Scientific Drilling project in the Sulu UHP terrane, eastern China. The peridotite occurs as lens within quartofeldspathic gneiss, and has an assemblage of Ol + Opx + Cpx + Phl + Ti-clinohumite (Ti-Chu) + Grt (or chromite) ?? magnesite (Mgs). Zircons were separated from cores at depths of 152 m (C24, garnet lhezolite), 160 m (C27, strongly retrograded phlogopite-rich peridotite) and 225 m (C50, banded peridotite), and were dated by SHRIMP mass spectrometer. Isometric zircons without inherited cores contain inclusions of olivine (Fo91-92), enstatite (En91-92), Ti-clinohumite, diopside, phlogopite and apatite. The enstatite inclusions have low Al2O3 contents of only 0.04-0.13 wt.%, indicating a UHP metamorphic origin. The weighted mean 206Pb/238U zircon age for garnet lherzolite (C24) is 221 ?? 3 Ma, and a discordia lower intercept age for peridotite (C50) is 220 ?? 2 Ma. These ages are within error and represent the time of subduction-zone UHP metamorphism. A younger lower intercept age of 212 ?? 3 Ma for a foliated wehrlite (C27) was probably caused by Pb loss during retrograde metamorphism. The source of zirconium may be partially attributed to melt/fluid metasomatism within the mantle wedge. Geochronological and geochemical data confirm that the mantle-derived Zhimafang garnet peridotites (probably the most representative type of Sulu garnet peridotites) were tectonically inserted into a subducting crustal slab and subjected to in situ Triassic subduction-zone UHP metamorphism. ?? 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Geology, petrology, U-Pb (SHRIMP) geochronology of the Morrinhos granite - Paragua terrane, SW Amazonian craton: implications for the magmatic evolution of the San Ignacio orogeny

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franca, Ohana; Ruiz, Amarildo Salina; Sousa, Maria Zelia Aguiar de, E-mail: ohana.geo@gmail.com, E-mail: asruiz@gmail.com, E-mail: mzaguiar@terra.com.br [Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso (UFMT), Cuiaba, MT (Brazil). Instituto de Ciencias Exatas e da Terra. Dept. de Geologia Geral; Batata, Maria Elisa Froes, E-mail: elisabatata@bol.com.br [Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso (UFMT), Cuiaba, MT (Brazil). Grupo de Pesquisa em Evolucao Crustal e Tectonica; Lafon, Jean-Michel [Universidade Federal do Para (GEOCIAM/UFPA), Belem, PR (Brazil). Inst. Nacional de Cencia e Tecnologia de Geociencias da Amazonia

    2014-09-15

    Morrinhos granite is a batholith body that is slightly elongated in the NNW direction and approximately 1,140 km{sup 2} long; it is located in the municipality of Vila Bela da Santissima Trindade of the state of Mato Grosso, Brazil, in the Paragua Terrane, Rondonian-San Ignacio Province, in the SW portion of the Amazonian Craton. This intrusion displays a compositional variation from tonalite to monzogranite, has a medium to coarse inequigranular texture and is locally porphyritic; biotite is the predominant mafic in one of the facies, and hornblende is predominant in the other, with both metamorphosed into the green schist facies. The studied rocks characterize an intermediate to acidic sequence that was formed by a subalkaline magmatism; the series is alkali-calcic to metaluminous to slightly peraluminous, and the rocks evolved through fractioned crystallization mechanisms. The structural data show two deformation phases represented by penetrative foliation (S{sub 1}) and open folds (D{sub 2}), and both phases were most likely related to the San Ignacio Orogeny. The geochronological (U-Pb SHRIMP) and isotopic (Sm-Nd) investigations of these rocks indicated a crystallization age of 1350±12Ma, T{sub DM} of approximately 1.77 Ga and εNd{sub (1.35}) with a negative value of -2.57, suggesting that their generation was related to a partial melting process of a Paleoproterozoic (Statherian) continental crust. The results herein indicate that the Morrinhos granite was generated in a continental magmatic arc in a late- to post-orogenic stage of the San Ignacio Orogeny, and it can be recognized as belonging to the Pensamiento Intrusive Suite. (author)

  9. Late Triassic porphyritic intrusions and associated volcanic rocks from the Shangri-La region, Yidun terrane, Eastern Tibetan Plateau: Adakitic magmatism and porphyry copper mineralization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bai-Qiu; Zhou, Mei-Fu; Li, Jian-Wei; Yan, Dan-Ping

    2011-11-01

    Early Mesozoic porphyritic intrusions in the Shangri-La region, southern Yidun terrane, SW China, are spatially associated with andesites and dacites. These intrusions are composed of diorite and quartz diorite, and are closely related to copper mineralization. LA-ICP-MS zircon U-Pb ages of the intrusions range from 230 to 215 Ma. The associated andesites and dacites are interlayered with slates and sandstones and have ages of around 220 Ma. All of the intrusive and extrusive rocks have similar, highly fractionated REE patterns and high La/Yb (13-49) ratios with no prominent Eu anomalies. They display pronounced negative Nb-Ta and Ti anomalies on primitive mantle-normalized spidergrams. Their SiO2 contents range from 56.6 to 67.1 wt.%, Al2O3 from 14.2 to 17.4 wt.% and MgO from1.9 to 4.2 wt.%. All the rocks have high Sr (258-1980 ppm), and low Y (13-21 ppm) with high Sr/Y ratios (29-102). These features suggest that both the volcanic rocks and porphyritic intrusions were derived from adakitic magmas. They have similar initial 87Sr/86Sr ratios (0.7058 to 0.7077) and εNd (- 1.88 to - 4.93) values, but belong to high silica (HSA) and low silica adakitic rocks (LSA). The HSA represent an early stage of magmatism (230 to 215 Ma) and were derived from oceanic slab melts with limited interaction with the overlying mantle wedge during ascent. At 215 Ma, more extensive interaction produced the LSA. We propose that the early adakitic magmas (HSA) formed by flat subduction leading to melting of oceanic slab, whereas subsequent slab break-off caused the significant interaction between slab melts and the mantle wedge and thus the generation of the later adakitic magmas (LSA).

  10. Tracking the exhumation of a Pliocene (U)HP terrane: U-Pb and trace-element constraints from zircon, D'Entrecasteaux Islands, Papua New Guinea

    Science.gov (United States)

    DesOrmeau, Joel W.; Gordon, Stacia M.; Little, Timothy A.; Bowring, Samuel A.

    2014-10-01

    Domal structures within the D'Entrecasteaux Islands of eastern Papua New Guinea expose ultrahigh-pressure (UHP) Pliocene (5.6-4.6 Ma) eclogites and evidence for partial melting. To better interpret the (U)HP exhumation history, U-Pb geochronology and trace-element abundances were determined in zircon from variably deformed host gneiss and crystallized melt (leucosomes, sills, dikes, and plutons) from the Goodenough and Normanby Domes by ID-TIMS (isotope-dilution thermal ionization mass spectrometry) and ICP-MS (inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry), respectively, to constrain the timing of melt crystallization and deformation relative to UHP metamorphism. Zircons extracted from orthogneiss and deformed granodiorite sills of Normanby Dome, located ˜40 km southeast of the UHP eclogite, record HP metamorphism from 5.66 ± 0.02 to 5.04 ± 0.07 Ma, and melt crystallization at ˜4.1 Ma. Strongly deformed, layer-parallel leucosomes from Goodenough Dome, ˜20 km northwest of the UHP eclogite, began to crystallize by 3.85 ± 0.02 Ma. These dates indicate that melt crystallization began in the Goodenough and Normanby Domes within ˜0.75 m.y. of (U)HP metamorphism. The ID-TIMS dates from the orthogneiss and crystallized melt show that exhumation and cooling of the (U)HP rocks in the PNG terrane began first in the east, within Normanby Dome, then to the west, in the Goodenough Dome ˜1 m.y. later, and finally the middle dome rocks, exposed within the Mailolo Dome, cooled ˜2 m.y. after exhumation of Normanby Dome. All domes reveal synchronous crystallization of late, nondeformed melts, and final extension-driven exhumation by 1.82 ± 0.03 Ma.

  11. Extended inflation with induced gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Accetta, F.S.; Trester, J.J.; Department of Physics, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06520)

    1989-01-01

    We consider a recently proposed extended model of inflation which improves upon the original old inflation scenario by achieving a graceful exit from the false-vacuum phase. In this paper extended inflation is generalized to include a potential V(phi) for the Brans-Dicke-type field phi. We find that whereas a graceful exit can still be had, the inclusion of a potential places constraints on the percolation time scale for exiting the inflationary phase. Additional constraints on V(phi) and the false-vacuum energy density rho /sub F/ from density and gravitational-wave perturbations are discussed. For initially small values of phi the false vacuum undergoes power-law inflation, while for initially large values of phi the expansion is exponential. Within true-vacuum regions slow-rolling inflation can occur. As a result, this model generically leads to multiple episodes of inflation. We discuss the significance these multiple episodes of inflation may have on the formation of large-scale structure and the production of voids

  12. Topics in Extended Dynamical Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhagavatula, Ravi S.

    This thesis consists of three chapters. Each chapter is self-contained and is devoted to the investigation of a particular topic in extended dynamical systems. In the first chapter, an approach based on Langevin equations is implemented to understand the non-Gaussian nature of the probability distribution function (PDF) of local diffusive variables in extended dynamical systems, e.g., a passive scalar advected by turbulent velocity fluctuations. Two mechanisms are proposed for the origin of non-Gaussian tails: One relies on the nature of temporal correlations of the fluctuations that couple additively to the diffusive field, leading to exponential and stretched exponential tails in the PDF; the other depends on multiplicative coupling between the diffusive field and the fluctuations, producing algebraic tails in the PDF. The mechanisms are illustrated using models for a passive scalar and also a current driven Josephson junction array. This study indicates that shapes of local PDFs in turbulent states are non-universal and crucially depend on local couplings and time scales. The second chapter establishes the existence of a class of locally conserving chaotic (deterministic) systems that exhibit Generic Scale Invariance--algebraic decay of spatial and temporal correlations without tuning parameters. This study also reveals the similarity between noise and chaos in extended systems as far as long-wavelength and long -time behavior is concerned. Specifically, a two dimensional coupled-map lattice model with a conserved density is numerically shown to exhibit, in agreement with heuristic arguments, algebraic decay of spatio-temporal correlations in chaotic states with simple predictable exponents. The third chapter investigates scaling behavior of earthquakes in seismic zone models in which an earthquake is modeled by a quasi-static description that ignores short -time dynamics during an earthquake. The models incorporate the essential feature of long-ranged stress

  13. Detrital zircon ages in Korean mid-Paleozoic meta-sandstones (Imjingang Belt and Taean Formation): Constraints on tectonic and depositional setting, source regions and possible affinity with Chinese terranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Seokyoung; de Jong, Koen; Yi, Keewook

    2017-08-01

    Sensitive High-Resolution Ion Microprobe (SHRIMP) U-Th-Pb isotopic data of detrital zircons from mature, quartz-rich meta-sandstones are used to constrain possible tectonic affinities and source regions of the rhythmically layered and graded-bedded series in the Yeoncheon Complex (Imjingang Belt) and the correlative Taean Formation. These metamorphic marine turbidite sequences presently occur along the Paleoproterozoic (1.93-1.83 Ga) Gyeonggi Massif, central Korea's main high-grade metamorphic gneiss terrane. Yet, detrital zircons yielded highly similar multimodal age spectra with peaks that do not match the age repartition in these basement rocks, as late (1.9-1.8 Ga) and earliest (∼ 2.5 Ga) Paleoproterozoic detrital modes are subordinate but, in contrast, Paleozoic (440-425 Ma) and Neoproterozoic (980-920 Ma) spikes are prominent, yet the basement essentially lacks lithologies with such ages. The youngest concordant zircon ages in each sample are: 378, 394 and 423 Ma. The maturity of the meta-sandstones and the general roundness of zircons of magmatic signature, irrespective of their age, suggest that sediments underwent considerable transport from source to sink, and possibly important weathering and recycling, which may have filtered out irradiation-weakened metamorphic zircon grains. In combination with these isotopic data, presence of a low-angle ductile fault contact between the Yeoncheon Complex and the Taean Formation and the underlying mylonitized Precambrian basement implies that they are in tectonic contact and do not have a stratigraphic relationship, as often assumed. Consequently, in all likelihood, both meta-sedimentary formations: (1) are at least of early Late Devonian age, (2) received much of their detritus from distant (reworked) Silurian-Devonian and Early Neoproterozoic magmatic sources, not present in the Gyeonggi Massif, (3) and not from Paleoproterozoic crystalline rocks of this massif, or other Korean Precambrian basement terranes, and

  14. Extended uncertainty from first principles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa Filho, Raimundo N., E-mail: rai@fisica.ufc.br [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal do Ceará, Caixa Postal 6030, Campus do Pici, 60455-760 Fortaleza, Ceará (Brazil); Braga, João P.M., E-mail: philipe@fisica.ufc.br [Instituto de Ciências Exatas e da Natureza-ICEN, Universidade da Integração Internacional da Lusofonia Afro-Brasileira-UNILAB, Campus dos Palmares, 62785-000 Acarape, Ceará (Brazil); Lira, Jorge H.S., E-mail: jorge.lira@mat.ufc.br [Departamento de Matemática, Universidade Federal do Ceará, Caixa Postal 6030, Campus do Pici, 60455-760 Fortaleza, Ceará (Brazil); Andrade, José S., E-mail: soares@fisica.ufc.br [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal do Ceará, Caixa Postal 6030, Campus do Pici, 60455-760 Fortaleza, Ceará (Brazil)

    2016-04-10

    A translation operator acting in a space with a diagonal metric is introduced to describe the motion of a particle in a quantum system. We show that the momentum operator and, as a consequence, the uncertainty relation now depend on the metric. It is also shown that, for any metric expanded up to second order, this formalism naturally leads to an extended uncertainty principle (EUP) with a minimum momentum dispersion. The Ehrenfest theorem is modified to include an additional term related to a tidal force arriving from the space curvature introduced by the metric. For one-dimensional systems, we show how to map a harmonic potential to an effective potential in Euclidean space using different metrics.

  15. Learning Extended Finite State Machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassel, Sofia; Howar, Falk; Jonsson, Bengt; Steffen, Bernhard

    2014-01-01

    We present an active learning algorithm for inferring extended finite state machines (EFSM)s, combining data flow and control behavior. Key to our learning technique is a novel learning model based on so-called tree queries. The learning algorithm uses the tree queries to infer symbolic data constraints on parameters, e.g., sequence numbers, time stamps, identifiers, or even simple arithmetic. We describe sufficient conditions for the properties that the symbolic constraints provided by a tree query in general must have to be usable in our learning model. We have evaluated our algorithm in a black-box scenario, where tree queries are realized through (black-box) testing. Our case studies include connection establishment in TCP and a priority queue from the Java Class Library.

  16. Harmonic superspaces of extended supersymmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, E.; Kalitzin, S.; Nguyen Ai Viet; Ogievetsky, V.

    1984-01-01

    The main technical apparatus of the harmonic superspace approach to extended SUSY, the calculus of harmonic variables on homogeneous spaces of the SUSY automorphism groups, is presented in detail for N=2, 3, 4. The basic harmonics for the coset manifolds G/H with G=SU(2), H=U(1); G=SU(3), H=SU(2)xU(1) and H=U(1)xU(1); G=SU(4), H=SU(3)xU(1), H=SU(2)xSU(2)xU(1), H=SU(2)xU(1)xU(1) and H=U(1)xU(1)xU(1); G=USp(2), H=SU(2)xSU(2), H=SU(2)xU(1) and H=U(1)xU(1) are tabulated a number of useful relations among them

  17. Extended mission life support systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quattrone, P. D.

    1985-01-01

    Extended manned space missions which include interplanetary missions require regenerative life support systems. Manned mission life support considerations are placed in perspective and previous manned space life support system technology, activities and accomplishments in current supporting research and technology (SR&T) programs are reviewed. The life support subsystem/system technologies required for an enhanced duration orbiter (EDO) and a space operations center (SOC), regenerative life support functions and technology required for manned interplanetary flight vehicles, and future development requirements are outlined. The Space Shuttle Orbiters (space transportation system) is space cabin atmosphere is maintained at Earth ambient pressure of 14.7 psia (20% O2 and 80% N2). The early Shuttle flights will be seven-day flights, and the life support system flight hardware will still utilize expendables.

  18. Extended uncertainty from first principles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa Filho, Raimundo N.; Braga, João P.M.; Lira, Jorge H.S.; Andrade, José S.

    2016-01-01

    A translation operator acting in a space with a diagonal metric is introduced to describe the motion of a particle in a quantum system. We show that the momentum operator and, as a consequence, the uncertainty relation now depend on the metric. It is also shown that, for any metric expanded up to second order, this formalism naturally leads to an extended uncertainty principle (EUP) with a minimum momentum dispersion. The Ehrenfest theorem is modified to include an additional term related to a tidal force arriving from the space curvature introduced by the metric. For one-dimensional systems, we show how to map a harmonic potential to an effective potential in Euclidean space using different metrics.

  19. Hamiltonian dynamics of extended objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capovilla, R; Guven, J; Rojas, E

    2004-01-01

    We consider relativistic extended objects described by a reparametrization-invariant local action that depends on the extrinsic curvature of the worldvolume swept out by the object as it evolves. We provide a Hamiltonian formulation of the dynamics of such higher derivative models which is motivated by the ADM formulation of general relativity. The canonical momenta are identified by looking at boundary behaviour under small deformations of the action; the relationship between the momentum conjugate to the embedding functions and the conserved momentum density is established. The canonical Hamiltonian is constructed explicitly; the constraints on the phase space, both primary and secondary, are identified and the role they play in the theory is described. The multipliers implementing the primary constraints are identified in terms of the ADM lapse and shift variables and Hamilton's equations are shown to be consistent with the Euler-Lagrange equations

  20. Hamiltonian dynamics of extended objects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Capovilla, R [Departamento de FIsica, Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados del IPN, Apdo Postal 14-740, 07000 Mexico, DF (Mexico); Guven, J [School of Theoretical Physics, Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies, 10 Burlington Road, Dublin 4 (Ireland); Rojas, E [Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Apdo Postal 70-543, 04510 Mexico, DF (Mexico)

    2004-12-07

    We consider relativistic extended objects described by a reparametrization-invariant local action that depends on the extrinsic curvature of the worldvolume swept out by the object as it evolves. We provide a Hamiltonian formulation of the dynamics of such higher derivative models which is motivated by the ADM formulation of general relativity. The canonical momenta are identified by looking at boundary behaviour under small deformations of the action; the relationship between the momentum conjugate to the embedding functions and the conserved momentum density is established. The canonical Hamiltonian is constructed explicitly; the constraints on the phase space, both primary and secondary, are identified and the role they play in the theory is described. The multipliers implementing the primary constraints are identified in terms of the ADM lapse and shift variables and Hamilton's equations are shown to be consistent with the Euler-Lagrange equations.

  1. The Extended Virgo Cluster Catalog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey, Soo-Chang

    2015-08-01

    We present a new catalog of galaxies in the wider region of the Virgo cluster, based on the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Data Release 7. The Extended Virgo Cluster Catalog (EVCC) covers an area of 725 deg2 or 60.1 Mpc2. It is 5.2 times larger than the footprint of the classical Virgo Cluster Catalog (VCC) and reaches out to 3.5 times the virial radius of the Virgo cluster. We selected 1324 spectroscopically targeted galaxies with radial velocities less than 3000 km s-1. In addition, 265 galaxies that have been overlooked in the SDSS spectroscopic survey but have available redshifts in the NASA Extragalactic Database are also included. Our selection process secured a total of 1589 galaxies, 676 of which are not included in the VCC. The certain and possible cluster members are defined by means of redshift comparison with a cluster infall model. We employed two independent and complementary galaxy classification schemes: the traditional morphological classification based on the visual inspection of optical images and a characterization of galaxies from their spectroscopic features. SDSS u, g, r, i, and z passband photometry of all EVCC galaxies was performed using Source Extractor. We compare the EVCC galaxies with the VCC in terms of morphology, spatial distribution, and luminosity function. The EVCC defines a comprehensive galaxy sample covering a wider range in galaxy density that is significantly different from the inner region of the Virgo cluster. It will be the foundation for forthcoming galaxy evolution studies in the extended Virgo cluster region, complementing ongoing and planned Virgo cluster surveys at various wavelengths.

  2. Oral hydromorphone extended-release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guay, David R P

    2010-12-01

    To review the chemistry, pharmacodynamics, pharmacokinetics, efficacy, tolerability, dosing, and role of the Osmotic-controlled Release Oral delivery System (OROS) hydromorphone extended-release (ER) tablets. A MEDLINE/PUBMED search (1986-August 2010) was conducted to identify studies in the English language, with additional references being obtained from their bibliographies. All studies of hydromorphone ER were reviewed. This is the second long-acting hydromorphone formulation to receive approval by the Food and Drug Administration (a twice-daily formulation was approved in September 2004, but was subsequently withdrawn in July 2005). Hydromorphone is a semi-synthetic mu-opioid receptor agonist structurally similar to morphine, hydrocodone, and oxymorphone. OROS ER technology allows once-daily dosing. Clinical trials have focused on the convertibility of (an) other opioid(s) to hydromorphone ER in chronic malignant and nonmalignant pain. This product displays the expected opioid side effects, being comparable to oxycodone controlled-release. Coadministration with ethanol does not produce the degree of "dose-dumping" seen with the former hydromorphone twice-daily product or oxymorphone ER. Hydromorphone ER is indicated for the management of moderate-to-severe pain in opioidtolerant patients requiring continuous, around-the-clock opioid analgesia for an extended period of time. Dosage adjustment is recommended in patients with moderate hepatic impairment (Child-Pugh class B) and moderate renal impairment (creatinine clearance of 30-60 mL/min). Hydromorphone ER is the newest oral opioid to enter a crowded marketplace now totaling 15 different Schedule 2 opioids (including tapentadol), and tramadol, available in oral, parenteral, rectal, transdermal, transmucosal, and intranasal formulations. It does not appear to have any unique assets or liabilities and should be considered as one of many oral opioids available for the management of persistent pain of moderate

  3. THE EXTENDED VIRGO CLUSTER CATALOG

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Suk; Rey, Soo-Chang; Lee, Youngdae; Chung, Jiwon; Pak, Mina; Yi, Wonhyeong; Lee, Woong; Jerjen, Helmut; Lisker, Thorsten; Sung, Eon-Chang

    2014-01-01

    We present a new catalog of galaxies in the wider region of the Virgo cluster, based on the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Data Release 7. The Extended Virgo Cluster Catalog (EVCC) covers an area of 725 deg 2 or 60.1 Mpc 2 . It is 5.2 times larger than the footprint of the classical Virgo Cluster Catalog (VCC) and reaches out to 3.5 times the virial radius of the Virgo cluster. We selected 1324 spectroscopically targeted galaxies with radial velocities less than 3000 km s –1 . In addition, 265 galaxies that have been overlooked in the SDSS spectroscopic survey but have available redshifts in the NASA Extragalactic Database are also included. Our selection process secured a total of 1589 galaxies, 676 of which are not included in the VCC. The certain and possible cluster members are defined by means of redshift comparison with a cluster infall model. We employed two independent and complementary galaxy classification schemes: the traditional morphological classification based on the visual inspection of optical images and a characterization of galaxies from their spectroscopic features. SDSS u, g, r, i, and z passband photometry of all EVCC galaxies was performed using Source Extractor. We compare the EVCC galaxies with the VCC in terms of morphology, spatial distribution, and luminosity function. The EVCC defines a comprehensive galaxy sample covering a wider range in galaxy density that is significantly different from the inner region of the Virgo cluster. It will be the foundation for forthcoming galaxy evolution studies in the extended Virgo cluster region, complementing ongoing and planned Virgo cluster surveys at various wavelengths

  4. Extended Power Up-rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jon Ball

    2006-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: Nuclear energy is a reliable and cost-competitive global source of power. With rising oil and gas prices, nuclear continues to provide economic and environmental benefits. Extended Power Up-rate (EPU) provides a means for existing nuclear assets to generate increased power and substantially reduce electrical generation costs. GE Energy's Nuclear Business is the global leader in boiling water reactor (BWR) technology. The experience-base of plants that have successfully achieved EPU includes Spain, Switzerland, Sweden, Germany and the United States. The GE experience-base includes fourteen BWRs with over fifty-eight reactor-years of operating experience at EPU conditions. Other than the expected plant modifications needed to accommodate higher steam flows, flow-induced vibration (FIV) has been identified as the major area of concern when up-rating. Two plants have experienced damage to their steam dryers that has lead to an extensive program to improve the understanding of the effects of up-rates. This program includes extensive in-plant data collection, the development of a scale model test facility to study components susceptible to FIV and improvements in analytical techniques for evaluating loading on reactor internals. As global energy demands increase, oil and gas prices escalate, and environmental concerns over greenhouse effects challenge us to find environmentally friendly sources of energy, Nuclear is the most viable and economical source of power in the world. With a focused effort on plant reliability, existing plants can undergo Extended Power Up-rate, and continue to meet the ever-increasing energy demands in the world. (author)

  5. THE EXTENDED VIRGO CLUSTER CATALOG

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Suk; Rey, Soo-Chang; Lee, Youngdae; Chung, Jiwon; Pak, Mina; Yi, Wonhyeong; Lee, Woong [Department of Astronomy and Space Science, Chungnam National University, 99 Daehak-ro, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of); Jerjen, Helmut [Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The Australian National University, Cotter Road, Weston, ACT 2611 (Australia); Lisker, Thorsten [Astronomisches Rechen-Institut, Zentrum für Astronomie der Universität Heidelberg (ZAH), Mönchhofstraße 12-14, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Sung, Eon-Chang [Korea Astronomy and Space Science institute, 776 Daedeokdae-ro, Daejeon 305-348 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-01-01

    We present a new catalog of galaxies in the wider region of the Virgo cluster, based on the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Data Release 7. The Extended Virgo Cluster Catalog (EVCC) covers an area of 725 deg{sup 2} or 60.1 Mpc{sup 2}. It is 5.2 times larger than the footprint of the classical Virgo Cluster Catalog (VCC) and reaches out to 3.5 times the virial radius of the Virgo cluster. We selected 1324 spectroscopically targeted galaxies with radial velocities less than 3000 km s{sup –1}. In addition, 265 galaxies that have been overlooked in the SDSS spectroscopic survey but have available redshifts in the NASA Extragalactic Database are also included. Our selection process secured a total of 1589 galaxies, 676 of which are not included in the VCC. The certain and possible cluster members are defined by means of redshift comparison with a cluster infall model. We employed two independent and complementary galaxy classification schemes: the traditional morphological classification based on the visual inspection of optical images and a characterization of galaxies from their spectroscopic features. SDSS u, g, r, i, and z passband photometry of all EVCC galaxies was performed using Source Extractor. We compare the EVCC galaxies with the VCC in terms of morphology, spatial distribution, and luminosity function. The EVCC defines a comprehensive galaxy sample covering a wider range in galaxy density that is significantly different from the inner region of the Virgo cluster. It will be the foundation for forthcoming galaxy evolution studies in the extended Virgo cluster region, complementing ongoing and planned Virgo cluster surveys at various wavelengths.

  6. U-Pb SHRIMP zircon dating of high-grade rocks from the Upper Allochthonous Terrane of Bragança and Morais Massifs (NE Portugal); geodynamic consequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mateus, A.; Munhá, J.; Ribeiro, A.; Tassinari, C. C. G.; Sato, K.; Pereira, E.; Santos, J. F.

    2016-04-01

    Bragança and Morais Massifs are part of the mega-klippen ensemble of NW Iberia, comprising a tectonic pile of four allochthonous units stacked above the Central-Iberian Zone autochthon. On top of this pile, the Upper Allochthonous Terrane (UAT) includes different high-grade metamorphic series whose age and geodynamic meaning are controversial. Mafic granulites provided U-Pb zircon ages at 399 ± 7 Ma, dating the Variscan emplacement of UAT. In contrast, U-Pb zircon ages of ky- and hb-eclogites, felsic/intermediate HP/HT-granulites and orthogneisses (ca. 500-480 Ma) are identical to those of gabbros (488 ± 10 Ma) and Grt-pyroxenites (495 ± 8 Ma) belonging to a mafic/ultramafic igneous suite that records upper mantle melting and mafic magma crustal underplating at these times. Gabbros intrude the high-grade units of UAT and did not underwent the HP metamorphic event experienced by eclogites and granulites. These features and the zircon dates resemblance among different lithologies, suggest that extensive age resetting of older events may have been correlative with the igneous suite emplacement/crystallisation. Accordingly, reconciliation of structural, petrological and geochronological evidence implies that the development and early deformation of UAT high-grade rocks should be ascribed to an orogenic cycle prior to ≈ 500 Ma. Undisputable dating of this cycle is impossible, but the sporadic vestiges of Cadomian ages cannot be disregarded. The ca. 500-480 Ma time-window harmonises well with the Lower Palaeozoic continental rifting that trace the Variscan Wilson Cycle onset and the Rheic Ocean opening. Subsequent preservation of the high heat-flow regime, possibly related to the Palaeotethys back-arc basin development (ca. 450-420 Ma), would explain the 461 ± 10 Ma age yielded by some zircon domains in felsic granulites, conceivably reflecting zircon dissolution/recrystallisation till Ordovician times, long before the Variscan paroxysm (ca. 400-390 Ma). This

  7. A quantum extended Kalman filter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emzir, Muhammad F; Woolley, Matthew J; Petersen, Ian R

    2017-01-01

    In quantum physics, a stochastic master equation (SME) estimates the state (density operator) of a quantum system in the Schrödinger picture based on a record of measurements made on the system. In the Heisenberg picture, the SME is a quantum filter. For a linear quantum system subject to linear measurements and Gaussian noise, the dynamics may be described by quantum stochastic differential equations (QSDEs), also known as quantum Langevin equations, and the quantum filter reduces to a so-called quantum Kalman filter. In this article, we introduce a quantum extended Kalman filter (quantum EKF), which applies a commutative approximation and a time-varying linearization to systems of nonlinear QSDEs. We will show that there are conditions under which a filter similar to a classical EKF can be implemented for quantum systems. The boundedness of estimation errors and the filtering problem with ‘state-dependent’ covariances for process and measurement noises are also discussed. We demonstrate the effectiveness of the quantum EKF by applying it to systems that involve multiple modes, nonlinear Hamiltonians, and simultaneous jump-diffusive measurements. (paper)

  8. The Extended Mission Rover (EMR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, W.; Halecki, Anthony; Chung, Manh; Clarke, Ken; Frankle, Kevin; Kassemkhani, Fariba; Kuhlhoff, John; Lenzini, Josh; Lobdell, David; Morgan, Sam

    A key component in ensuring America's status as a leader in the global community is its active pursuit of space exploration. On the twentieth anniversary of Apollo 11, President George Bush challenged the nation to place a man on the moon permanently and to conduct human exploration of Mars in the 21st century. The students of the FAMU/FSU College of Engineering hope to make a significant contribution to this challenge, America's Space Exploration Initiative (SEI), with their participation in the NASA/USRA Advanced Design Program. The project selected by the 1991/1992 Aerospace Design group is the design of an Extended Mission Rover (EMR) for use on the lunar surface. This vehicle will serve as a mobile base to provide future astronauts with a 'shirt-sleeve' living and working environment. Some of the proposed missions are planetary surface exploration, construction and maintenance, hardware setup, and in situ resource experimentation. This vehicle will be put into use in the 2010-2030 time frame.

  9. Extended attention span training system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, Alan T.; Bogart, Edward H.

    1991-01-01

    Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD) is a behavioral disorder characterized by the inability to sustain attention long enough to perform activities such as schoolwork or organized play. Treatments for this disorder include medication and brainwave biofeedback training. Brainwave biofeedback training systems feed back information to the trainee showing him how well he is producing the brainwave pattern that indicates attention. The Extended Attention Span Training (EAST) system takes the concept a step further by making a video game more difficult as the player's brainwaves indicate that attention is waning. The trainee can succeed at the game only by maintaining an adequate level of attention. The EAST system is a modification of a biocybernetic system that is currently being used to assess the extent to which automated flight management systems maintain pilot engagement. This biocybernetic system is a product of a program aimed at developing methods to evaluate automated flight deck designs for compatibility with human capabilities. The EAST technology can make a contribution in the fields of medical neuropsychology and neurology, where the emphasis is on cautious, conservative treatment of youngsters with attention disorders.

  10. Cold-pressed pumpkin seed (Cucurbita pepo L. oils from the central Anatolia region of Turkey: Characterization of phytosterols, squalene, tocols, phenolic acids, carotenoids and fatty acid bioactive compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Akin

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available There is a growing interest in cold-pressed oils because they present high contents of bioactive compounds. These oils have the characteristic properties of seeds and are specific products of their regions. The aim of this study was to determine the compositions and contents of fatty acids, phytosterols, squalene, tocols, phenolic acids, carotenoids and phenolic bioactives, and the free radical scavenging as well as antioxidant activities of cold-pressed pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo L. seed oils. Oil samples from raw pumpkin seeds cultivated in four different central Anatolia regions of Turkey were prepared using a laboratory screw-pressing machine. The results indicate that cold-pressed pumpkin seed oils (PSO have excellent quality with high contents of polyunsaturated fatty acids (%ΣPUFAs (53.60 ±0.06-53.73 ±0.05, total phytosterols (782.1±9.7–805.2 ±11.3 mg/100 g oil, squalene (591.3±10.6–632.5±11.4 mg/100 g oil, tocols (97.79 ±0.76?94.29 ±0.34 mg/100 g oil, phenolic acids (22.73 ±0.41–23.98 ±0.46 mg/100 g oil, carotenoids (6.95 ±0.03–7.60 ±0.03 mg/100 g oil, total phenolics (3.96 ±0.13 –5.82±0.15 mg GAE/100 g, free radical-scavenging activity (5.70 ±0.13?7.35 ±0.15 mg GAE/100 g and total antioxidant activity (26.67±0.97-38.89±1.41 mg GAE/100 g values. Thus, this study demonstrates that the cold- pressed PSOs from the central Anatolia regions of Turkey are an excellent source of natural bioactive compounds, free of chemical contaminants and nutritious.

  11. Origin of the mafic microgranular enclaves (MMEs) and their host granitoids from the Tagong pluton in Songpan-Ganze terrane: An igneous response to the closure of the Paleo-Tethys ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qiong; Sun, Min; Zhao, Guochun; Yang, Fengli; Long, Xiaoping; Li, Jianhua; Wang, Jun; Yu, Yang

    2017-10-01

    The Songpan-Ganze terrane is mainly composed of a Triassic sedimentary sequence and late Triassic-Jurassic igneous rocks. A large number of plutons were emplaced as a result of tectono-magmatic activity related to the late stages of Paleo-Tethys ocean closure and ensuing collision. Granitoids and their hosted mafic enclaves can provide important constraints on the crust-mantle interaction and continental crustal growth. Mesozoic magmatism of Songpan-Ganze remains enigmatic with regard to their magma generation and geodynamic evolution. The Tagong pluton (209 Ma), in the eastern part of the Songpan-Ganze terrane, consists mainly of monzogranite and granodiorite with abundant coeval mafic microgranular enclaves (MMEs) (ca. 208-209 Ma). The pluton comprises I-type granitoid that possesses intermediate to acidic compositions (SiO2 = 61.6-65.8 wt.%), high potassium (K2O = 3.2-4.1 wt.%), and high Mg# (51-54). They are also characterized by arc-type enrichment of LREEs and LILEs, depletion of HFSEs (e.g. Nb, Ta, Ti) and moderate Eu depletions (Eu/Eu* = 0.46-0.63). Their evolved zircon Hf and whole-rock Nd isotopic compositions indicate that their precursor magmas were likely generated by melting of old lower continental crust. Comparatively, the MMEs have lower SiO2 (53.4-58.2 wt.%), higher Mg# (54-67) and show covariation of major and trace elements, coupled with field and petrographic observations, such as the disequilibrium textures of plagioclase and amphibole, indicating that the MMEs and host granitoids were originated from different magma sources but underwent mafic-felsic magma mixing process. Geochemical and isotopic data further suggest that the precursor magma of the MMEs was formed in the continental arc setting, mainly derived from an ancient metasomatized lithospheric mantle wedge. The Triassic granitoids from the Songpan-Ganze terrane show remarkable temporal-spatial-petrogenetic affinities to the counterparts of subduction zones in the Yidun and Kunlun arc

  12. Extended genomes: symbiosis and evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurst, Gregory D D

    2017-10-06

    Many aspects of an individual's biology derive from its interaction with symbiotic microbes, which further define many aspects of the ecology and evolution of the host species. The centrality of microbes in the function of individual organisms has given rise to the concept of the holobiont-that an individual's biology is best understood as a composite of the 'host organism' and symbionts within. This concept has been further elaborated to posit the holobiont as a unit of selection. In this review, I critically examine whether it is useful to consider holobionts as a unit of selection. I argue that microbial heredity-the direct passage of microbes from parent to offspring-is a key factor determining the degree to which the holobiont can usefully be considered a level of selection. Where direct vertical transmission (VT) is common, microbes form part of extended genomes whose dynamics can be modelled with simple population genetics, but that nevertheless have subtle quantitative distinctions from the classic mutation/selection model for nuclear genes. Without direct VT, the correlation between microbial fitness and host individual fitness erodes, and microbe fitness becomes associated with host survival only (rather than reproduction). Furthermore, turnover of microbes within a host may lessen associations between microbial fitness with host survival, and in polymicrobial communities, microbial fitness may derive largely from the ability to outcompete other microbes, to avoid host immune clearance and to minimize mortality through phage infection. These competing selection pressures make holobiont fitness a very minor consideration in determining symbiont evolution. Nevertheless, the importance of non-heritable microbes in organismal function is undoubted-and as such the evolutionary and ecological processes giving rise to variation and evolution of the microbes within and between host individuals represent a key research area in biology.

  13. Paleomagnetic constraints on early collisional deformation along the eastern margin of the Qiantang terrane (Tibetan plateau) at 50 and 37 Ma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roperch, Pierrick; Dupont-Nivet, Guillaume; Guillot, Stéphane; Goussin, Fanny; Huang, Wentao; Replumaz, Anne; Yang, Zhang; Guo, Zhaojie; Song, Bowen

    2017-04-01

    Ongoing controversies on the timing and latitude of the India-Asia collision with associated formation of the Tibetan plateau have major implications on geodynamic, climatic and biotic models. Rock paleomagnetic inclinations and declinations enable in principle to quantify respectively paleolatitudes and tectonic rotations. However, shallow paleomagnetic inclinations observed for most of the Cenozoic rocks across the active belts of Central Asia have been controversially interpreted as resulting from non dipolar geomagnetic fields, inclination flattening in the sedimentary data or large scale continental deformation. In addition tectonic rotations from the Eastern margin of Tibet may result from extrusion or dextral shear associated with implication on the early collision. We present new paleomagnetic results from two Cenozoic basins of the Eastern part of the Qiantang block characterized by two short-lived volcanic fields at 37-38Ma (Nangqian area) and 49-51Ma (Xialaxiu area). In the Xialaxiu area, we sampled the volcanic field near the town of Xialaxiu and red beds filling the Sangalaxiu basin 10 to 20km farther north. Results from the red beds after tilt correction (D=328.3°, I=34.3°, α95=7.6°) confirm the result (D=322.0°, I=32.3°, α95=9.5°) previously obtained by Cogne et al., (1999) but the age and nature of the characteristic magnetization are uncertain. The mean direction calculated from 21 sites in volcanic rocks provides a more reliable paleofield (D=11.9°, I=41.6°, α95=8.0°). Comparison with the expected direction for stable Eurasia suggest no rotation but significant post 50 Ma shortening north of the Qiantang block in agreement with results from the Lhasa terrane at the same age (56-47 Ma) (van Hinsbergen et al., 2012). In the Nangqian basin, paleomagnetic sites have been collected in red beds sediments, sills and dikes intruding the red bed sequence and in extrusive volcanic rocks mainly found on top of the sedimentary sequence. A well

  14. Resetting of Neoarchaean hornblendes from the Murmansk Terrane (Kola Peninsula, Russia) revealed by a combined 40Ar/39Ar and Rb-Sr analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jong, K.; Timmerman, M. J.; Cliff, R. A.; Wijbrans, J. R.; Daly, J. S.; Balagansky, V. V.

    2003-04-01

    We present isotope data from amphiboles from the 2.6--2.8 Ga Murmansk Terrane in the northern foreland of the 1.9 Ga Lapland-Kola Orogen of northern Fennoscandia. Most amphiboles are zoned with tschermakitic cores that progressively change to actinolite in 5--10 μm wide areas in rims, defect zones or adjacent to biotite. Biotite chiefly occurs along cleavages, fractures and grain boundaries of amphibole, showing that its hydration and fluid ingress are confined to lattice imperfections. Furnace step heating of hornblende separate MT-11 gave spectra with increasing apparent ages and Ca/K ratios (a proxy for 37ArCa/39Ar_K). Hornblende is intergrown with biotite that also occurs in the matrix. Yet, laser step heating of single hornblende grain MT-11 yielded flat spectra with Neoarchaean apparent ages and constant Ca/K ratios. This suggests that the hornblende grain that was drilled from a thin section and which was not affected by biotite growth retained its Neoarchaean age. In contrast, the hornblende separate with intergrown biotite from this sample has a partially reset Neoarchaean isotope system. Hornblende MT-27 has Neoarchaean apparent ages and lacks low Ca/K ratios in both single grain and mineral separate spectra; it is not affected by biotite growth and this mineral is also absent from the matrix. Age spectra of other hornblende separates have increasing apparent ages to 2.56--2.65 Ga during final 39Ar release; their Ca/K ratio spectra similarly increase. Low Ca/K ratios for gas release below 950^oC imply degassing of included biotite. Apparent ages of the first heating increments may be as young as 1.8 Ga, comparable to the K-Ar and 40Ar/39Ar ages of the youngest biotites. Hornblende-plagioclase pairs from aliquots used for 40Ar/39Ar furnace step heating yielded sharply discordant Rb-Sr ages. MT-11 yielded an 1881 ± 23 Ma Rb-Sr age that compares well with the K-Ar and 40Ar/39Ar ages of biotite in the sample. In contrast, hornblende of sample MT-27 has a

  15. Survival of the Lhasa Terrane during its collision with Asia due to crust-mantle coupling revealed by ca. 114 Ma intrusive rocks in western Tibet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qing; Zhu, Di-Cheng; Liu, An-Lin; Cawood, Peter A.; Liu, Sheng-Ao; Xia, Ying; Chen, Yue; Wang, Hao; Zhang, Liang-Liang; Zhao, Zhi-Dan

    2018-04-01

    Survival of the Lhasa Terrane during its drift across the Tethyan Ocean and subsequent collision with Asia was likely maintained by mechanical coupling between its ancient lithospheric mantle and the overlying crust. Evidence for this coupling is provided by geochronological and geochemical data from high-Mg dioritic porphyrite dikes that intruded into granodiorites with dioritic enclaves within the Nixiong Batholith in the western segment of the central Lhasa subterrane, southern Tibet. Zircon LA-ICP-MS U-Pb dating indicates synchronous emplacement of dioritic porphyrite dikes (113.9 ± 2 Ma), dioritic enclaves (113.9 ± 1 Ma), and host granodiorites (113.1 ± 2 Ma). The hornblende-bearing granodiorites are metaluminous to weakly peraluminous (A/CNK = 0.95-1.05) and belong to high-K calc-alkaline I-type granite. These rocks are characterized by low Mg# (37-43), negative zircon εHf(t) values (-6.8 to -1.2), and negative whole-rock εNd(t) values (-8.1 to -5.4), suggestive of derivation through anatexis of ancient lower crust. The two least-mixed or contaminated dioritic porphyrite dike samples have high MgO (8.46-8.74 wt%), high Mg# (69-70), and high abundances of compatible elements (e.g., Cr = 673-646 ppm, Ni = 177-189 ppm), which are close to those of primitive magma. They are high-K calc-alkaline and show negative whole-rock εNd(t) values (-1.9 to -1.2), indicating that these samples are most likely derived from the partial melting of ancient lithospheric mantle that was metasomatized by slab-derived fluids. The dioritic enclave samples are metaluminous high-K calc-alkaline and have varying negative whole-rock εNd(t) values (-7.8 to -3.7), which are interpreted as the result of magma mixing between the ancient lower crust-derived melts and asthenospheric mantle- (rather than lithospheric mantle-) derived melts. The Nd isotope mantle model ages of the least-mixed or contaminated high-Mg dioritic porphyrite dike samples (1.1-1.4 Ga) are close to the Nd isotope

  16. Cryogenian alkaline magmatism in the Southern Granulite Terrane, India: Petrology, geochemistry, zircon U-Pb ages and Lu-Hf isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santosh, M.; Yang, Qiong-Yan; Ram Mohan, M.; Tsunogae, T.; Shaji, E.; Satyanarayanan, M.

    2014-11-01

    The Southern Granulite Terrane (SGT) in India preserves the records of the formation and recycling of continental crust from Mesoarchean through Paleoproterozoic to Neoproterozoic and Cambrian, involving multiple subduction-accretion-collision associated with major orogenic cycles. A chain of unmetamorphosed and undeformed alkaline magmatic intrusions occurs along the northern margin of the SGT aligned along paleo-suture zones. Here we investigate two representative plutons from this suite, the Angadimogar syenite (AM) and the Peralimala alkali granite (PM) through field, petrological, geochemical, zircon U-Pb and Lu-Hf studies. Magma mixing and mingling textures and mineral assemblages typical of alkaline rocks are displayed by these plutons. The whole-rock major and trace element data characterize their alkaline nature. In trace element discrimination diagrams, the AM rocks straddle between the VAG (volcanic-arc granites) and WPG (within plate granites) fields with most of the samples confined to the VAG field, whereas the PM rocks are essentially confined to the WPG field. The diversity in some of the geochemical features between the two plutons is interpreted to be the reflection of source heterogeneities. Most zircon grains from the AM and PM plutons display oscillatory zoning typical of magmatic crystallization although some grains, particularly those from the PM pluton, show core-rim structures with dark patchy zoned cores surrounded by irregular thin rims resulting from fluid alteration. The weighted mean 206Pb/238U ages of the magmatic zircons from three samples of the AM syenite are in the range of 781.8 ± 3.8 Ma to 798 ± 3.6 Ma and those from two samples of the PM alkali granite yield ages of 797.5 ± 3.7 Ma and 799 ± 6.2 Ma. A mafic magmatic enclave from the AM pluton shows weighted mean 206Pb/238U age of 795 ± 3.3 Ma. The AM and PM plutons also carry rare xeneocrystic zircons which define upper intercept concordia ages of 3293 ± 13 Ma and 2530

  17. On the Paleotectonic Evolution of the Pacific Margin of Southern Mexico, the Maya and Juchatengo Terranes and Chochal Formation Guatemala:Insights from Paleomagnetic and Isotopic Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrero Garcia, J. C.; Herrero-Bervera, E.

    2009-05-01

    In the paleogeographic reconstruction of Mexico and northern Central America, evidence shows that the entire region is a collage of suspect terranes transported from abroad, whose timing and sense of motion are now beginning to be understood. Among these, the Chortis block and the Baja California Peninsula have been proposed as pieces of continent separated from the Pacific coast of southwestern Mexico, that have moved either southeastward by the Farallon plate or northwestward by the Kula plate. Isotopic mineral ages from coastal granites along the coast from Puerto Vallarta, Jalisco (80 Ma) to Puerto Angel, Oaxaca (11 Ma) record systematic decrease of cooling ages from NW to SE. These results also constrain the position of the Kula- Farallon spreading axis north of Puerto Vallarta. Previous studies mainly confined to the northern margin of the Chortis block, confirmed a left-lateral displacement of 130 km in Neogene time. Further studies suggested times of detachment increased to 30 Ma, 40 Ma, and 66 Ma. We conclude that several indicators, namely: (a) the truncated nature of the Pacific coast of SW Mexico; (b) the genesis of the Kula-Farallon ridge at 85 Ma; (c) the 2,600 km of northward transport of Baja British Columbia from the present-day latitude of the Baja California Peninsula, beginning at 85 Ma; (d) the paleomagnetic counterclockwise rotations of areas both in the Chortis block and along the Mexican coast, during Late Cretaceous-Paleogene time, and (e) the systematic NW-SE decrease of radiometric dates beginning at 85 Ma in Puerto Vallarta and ending at approximately 11 Ma in Puerto Angel, Oaxaca , point to this time and region for the onset of strike-slip drifting of the Chortis block toward its current position. On the other hand, in the reconstruction of past movements of tectonic plates, the determination of reliable paleomagnetic poles is of utmost importance. To achieve accurate results, a full knowledge of the rock magnetic properties of the

  18. Recycling of Amazonian detrital zircons in the Mixteco terrane, southern Mexico: Paleogeographic implications during Jurassic-Early Cretaceous and Paleogene times

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva-Romo, Gilberto; Mendoza-Rosales, Claudia Cristina; Campos-Madrigal, Emiliano; Morales-Yáñez, Axél; de la Torre-González, Alam Israel; Nápoles-Valenzuela, Juan Ivan

    2018-04-01

    In the northeastern Mixteco terrane of southern Mexico, in the Ixcaquixtla-Atzumba region, the recycling of Amazonian detrital zircons records the paleogeography during the Mesozoic period in the context of the breakup of Pangea, a phenomenon that disarticulated the Sanozama-La Mora paleo-river. The clastic units of southern Mexico in the Ayuquila, Otlaltepec and Zapotitlán Mesozoic basins, as well as in the Atzumba Cenozoic basin, are characterized by detrital zircon contents with ages specific to the Amazonian craton, ranging between 3040 and 1278 Ma. The presence of zircons of Amazonian affinity suggests a provenance by recycling from carrier units such as the La Mora Formation or the Ayú Complex. In the area, the Ayú and Acatlán complexes form the Cosoltepec block, a paleogeographic element that during Early Cretaceous time acted as the divide between the slopes of the paleo-Gulf of Mexico and the paleo-Pacific Ocean. The sedimentological characteristics of the Jurassic-Cenozoic clastic successions in the Ixcaquixtla-Atzumba region denote relatively short transport in braided fluvial systems and alluvial fans. In this way, several basins are recognized around the Cosoltepec block. At the southeastern edge of the Cosoltepec block, the Ayuquila and Tecomazúchil formations accumulated in the Ayuquila continental basin on the paleo-Pacific Ocean slope. On the other hand, within the paleo-Gulf of Mexico slope, in the Otlaltepec continental basin, the Piedra Hueca and the Otlaltepec formations accumulated. The upper member of the Santa Lucía Formation accumulated in a transitional environment on the southwestern shoulder of the Zapotitlán basin, as well as on the paleo-Gulf of Mexico slope. In the Ayuquila basin, a marine transgression is recognized that advanced from south to north during the Late Jurassic. At the northeastern edge of the Cosoltepec block, we propose that the Santa Lucía formation attests to a transgression from the paleo-Gulf of Mexico

  19. Azerbaycan Türkçesi İle Doğu Anadolu Ağızlarındaki Ortaklıklar Üzerine On The Common Traits Of The Azerbaijan Turkish And The Eastern Anatolia Dialects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Engin GÖKÇÜR

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available We call Oghuz Turkish spoken from Central Asia to Baghdad, the capital of the Abbasid Empire, since 11th century, as the Western Turkic. This period is divided into two branches in time. One of them is the Eastern Oghuz branch covering Eastern Anatolia and Azerbaijani and the other one is the Western Oghuz branch covering Ottoman field. The Eastern Oghuz branch covering Eastern Anatolia and Azerbaijani, and the Western Oghuz branch covering Ottoman field are represented by a single written language named as “Western Turkish” till 16thCentury. Azerbaijan and the Ottoman writing languages separated fromeach other in the 16th century as a result of the fact that the Azerbaijanterritory was dominated by Karakoyunlu and Akkoyunlu in the 15thCentury and Safavid Empire in the 16th century. For that reason,Western Turkic reaches the present day from the 16th century with twowriting languages including some phonetic and morphologic differences.Although the East Anatolian dialects have been in the Western Oghuzbranch, they still have the traits of the Eastern Oghuz branch in termsof phonetics and morphology.In studies of language products in the provinces of EasternAnatolia it is seen that the dialects of the region are in the domain ofAzerbaijan Turkish. So in this article, the studies of the dialects of theEastern Anatolia Region (Erzurum, Elazığ, Erzincan, Kars, Iğdır,Ardahan, Muş, Bitlis ve Van are examined; and the phonetic andmorphological similarities of this studies with Azerbaijani Turkic areidentified. 11. yüzyıldan itibaren Orta Asya’dan Abbasi Devleti'nin başkenti Bağdat’a kadar olan bölgede konuşulan Oğuz Türkçesine Batı Türkçesi denilmektedir. Bu dönem zamanla iki kola ayrılmıştır. Bunlardan biri Azerbaycan ve Doğu Anadolu sahasını içine alan Doğu Oğuz kolu, diğeri Osmanlı sahasını içine alan Batı Oğuz koludur. Azerbaycan ve Doğu Anadolu sahasının içinde bulunduğu Doğu Oğuz kolu ile Osmanl

  20. Ecosystem health in mineralized terrane; data from podiform chromite (Chinese Camp mining district, California), quartz alunite (Castle Peak and Masonic mining districts, Nevada/California), and Mo/Cu porphyry (Battle Mountain mining district, Nevada) deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blecker, Steve W.; Stillings, Lisa L.; Amacher, Michael C.; Ippolito, James A.; DeCrappeo, Nicole M.

    2010-01-01

    within various mineralized terranes. We were also interested in examining these relations in the context of determining appropriate reference conditions with which to compare reclamation efforts.The purpose of this report is to present the data used to develop indices of soil and ecosystem quality associated with mineralized terranes (areas enriched in metal-bearing minerals), specifically podiform chromite, quartz alunite, and Mo/Cu porphyry systems. Within each of these mineralized terranes, a nearby unmineralized counterpart was chosen for comparison. The data consist of soil biological, chemical, and physical parameters, along with vegetation measurements for each of the sites described below. Synthesis of these data and index development will be the subject of future publications.

  1. Extended Producer Responsibility in the Aviation Sector

    OpenAIRE

    Brito, Marisa; Laan, Erwin; Irion, B.D.

    2007-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper we investigate recent initiatives with respect to extended producer responsibility in the aviation sector. We compare those with the existing practices in the automobile sector and the emerging regulations in the shipping sector. We describe the challenges and the lessons to be learned from the evolution and state of extended producer responsibility in these two industries.

  2. Extended, Embodied Cognition and Second Language Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, Dwight

    2010-01-01

    A "cognitivist" approach to cognition has traditionally dominated second language acquisition (SLA) studies. In this article, I examine two alternative approaches--"extended cognition" and "embodied cognition"--for how they might help us conceptualize SLA. More specifically, I present: (i) summaries of extended and embodied cognition, followed by…

  3. Geochemistry, petrography, and zircon U-Pb geochronology of Paleozoic metaigneous rocks in the Mount Veta area of east-central Alaska: implications for the evolution of the westernmost part of the Yukon-Tanana terrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dusel-Bacon, Cynthia; Day, Warren C.; Aleinikoff, John N.

    2013-01-01

    We report the results of new mapping, whole-rock major, minor, and trace-element geochemistry, and petrography for metaigneous rocks from the Mount Veta area in the westernmost part of the allochthonous Yukon–Tanana terrane (YTT) in east-central Alaska. These rocks include tonalitic mylonite gneiss and mafic metaigneous rocks from the Chicken metamorphic complex and the Nasina and Fortymile River assemblages. Whole-rock trace-element data from the tonalitic gneiss, whose igneous protolith was dated by SHRIMP U–Pb zircon geochronology at 332.6 ± 5.6 Ma, indicate derivation from tholeiitic arc basalt. Whole-rock analyses of the mafic rocks suggest that greenschist-facies rocks from the Chicken metamorphic complex, a mafic metavolcanic rock from the Nasina assemblage, and an amphibolite from the Fortymile River assemblage formed as island-arc tholeiite in a back-arc setting; another Nasina assemblage greenschist has MORB geochemical characteristics, and another mafic metaigneous rock from the Fortymile River assemblage has geochemical characteristics of calc-alkaline basalt. Our geochemical results imply derivation in an arc and back-arc spreading region within the allochthonous YTT crustal fragment, as previously proposed for correlative units in other parts of the terrane. We also describe the petrography and geochemistry of a newly discovered tectonic lens of Alpine-type metaharzburgite. The metaharzburgite is interpreted to be a sliver of lithospheric mantle from beneath the Seventymile ocean basin or from sub-continental mantle lithosphere of the allochthonous YTT or the western margin of Laurentia that was tectonically emplaced within crustal rocks during closure of the Seventymile ocean basin and subsequently displaced and fragmented by faults.

  4. Flux and genesis of CO2 degassing from volcanic-geothermal fields of Gulu-Yadong rift in the Lhasa terrane, South Tibet: Constraints on characteristics of deep carbon cycle in the India-Asia continent subduction zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lihong; Guo, Zhengfu; Sano, Yuji; Zhang, Maoliang; Sun, Yutao; Cheng, Zhihui; Yang, Tsanyao Frank

    2017-11-01

    Gulu-Yadong rift (GYR) is the longest extensional, NE-SW-trending rift in the Himalayas and Lhasa terrane of South Tibet. Many volcanic-geothermal fields (VGFs), which comprise intense hot springs, steaming fissures, geysers and soil micro-seepage, are distributed in the GYR, making it ideal area for studying deep carbon emissions in the India-Asia continent subduction zone. As for the northern segment of GYR in the Lhasa terrane, its total flux and genesis of CO2 emissions are poorly understood. Following accumulation chamber method, soil CO2 flux survey has been carried out in VGFs (i.e., Jidaguo, Ningzhong, Sanglai, Tuoma and Yuzhai from south to north) of the northern segment of GYR. Total soil CO2 output of the northern GYR is about 1.50 × 107 t a-1, which is attributed to biogenic and volcanic-geothermal source. Geochemical characteristics of the volcanic-geothermal gases (including CO2 and He) of the northern GYR indicate their significant mantle-derived affinities. Combined with previous petrogeochemical and geophysical data, our He-C isotope modeling calculation results show that (1) excess mantle-derived 3He reflects degassing of volatiles related with partial melts from enriched mantle wedge induced by northward subduction of the Indian lithosphere, and (2) the crust-mantle interaction can provide continuous heat and materials for the overlying volcanic-geothermal system, in which magma-derived volatiles are inferred to experience significant crustal contamination during their migration to the surface.

  5. Extended cycle hormonal contraception in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sucato, Gina S; Gerschultz, Kelly L

    2005-10-01

    There is increasing interest in the use of extended cycles of hormonal contraception to manage menstrual cycle-related complaints in adolescents and to accommodate the menstrual preferences of patients using hormonal contraception. This review summarizes recent findings related to the use of extended cycles and highlights their relevance to adolescents. Many adolescents would prefer to menstruate less frequently. Among health care providers who prescribe hormonal contraceptives, the majority believe suppressing withdrawal bleeding is well tolerated and prescribe extended cycling regimens to their patients. Shortening or eliminating the hormone-free interval results in greater ovarian suppression and thus may increase contraceptive efficacy. Studies in adult women have not identified changes in metabolic parameters beyond what would be expected from traditional cyclic use. New endometrial biopsy data have found no pathologic changes; most women using an extended cycle had atrophic endometriums. Extended cycling is frequently associated with breakthrough bleeding. In some women, this can be managed with a brief hormone-free interval. Recent findings demonstrate high levels of interest in extended cycling among adolescents and providers, and continue to add to the growing body of literature supporting the safety and improved contraceptive efficacy of extended regimens. Further research is warranted to focus on issues including cancer, thrombotic disease and fertility, and should enroll a sufficient adolescent sample.

  6. The symmetric extendibility of quantum states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nowakowski, Marcin L

    2016-01-01

    Studies on the symmetric extendibility of quantum states have become particularly important in the context of the analysis of one-way quantum measures of entanglement, and the distillability and security of quantum protocols. In this paper we analyze composite systems containing a symmetric extendible part, with particular attention devoted to the one-way security of such systems. Further, we introduce a new one-way entanglement monotone based on the best symmetric approximation of a quantum state and the extendible number of a quantum state. We underpin these results with geometric observations about the structures of multi-party settings which posses substantial symmetric extendible components in their subspaces. The impossibility of reducing the maximal symmetric extendibility by means of the one-way local operations and classical communication method is pointed out on multiple copies. Finally, we state a conjecture linking symmetric extendibility with the one-way distillability and security of all quantum states, analyzing the behavior of a private key in the neighborhood of symmetric extendible states. (paper)

  7. Extended Cognitive System and Epistemic Subject

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trybulec Barbara

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The concept of an extended cognitive system is central to contemporary studies of cognition. In the paper I analyze the place of the epistemic subject within the extended cognitive system. Is it extended as well? In answering this question I focus on the differences between the first and the second wave of arguments for the extended mind thesis. I argue that the position of Cognitive Integration represented by Richard Menary is much more intuitive and fruitful in analyses of cognition and knowledge than the early argument formulated by Andy Clark and David Chalmers. Cognitive Integration is compatible with virtue epistemology of John Greco’s agent reliabilism. The epistemic subject is constituted by its cognitive character composed of an integrated set of cognitive abilities and processes. Some of these processes are extended, they are a manipulation of external informational structures and, as such, they constitute epistemic practices. Epistemic practices are normative; to conduct them correctly the epistemic subject needs to obey epistemic norms embedded in the cultural context. The epistemic subject is not extended because of the casual coupling with external informational artifacts which extend his mind from inside the head and into the world. Rather, cognitive practices constitute the subject’s mind, they transform his cognitive abilities, and this is what makes the mind and epistemic subject “extended”.

  8. Slip along the Sultanhanı Fault in Central Anatolia from deformed Pleistocene shorelines of palaeo-lake Konya and implications for seismic hazards in low-strain regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melnick, Daniel; Yıldırım, Cengiz; Hillemann, Christian; Garcin, Yannick; Çiner, Attila; Pérez-Gussinyé, Marta; Strecker, Manfred R.

    2017-06-01

    Central Anatolia is a low-relief, high-elevation region where decadal-scale deformation rates estimated from space geodesy suggest low strain rates within a stiff microplate. However, numerous Quaternary faults have been mapped within this low-strain region and estimating their slip rate and seismic potential is important for hazard assessments in an area of increasing infrastructural development. Here we focus on the Sultanhanı Fault (SF), which constitutes an integral part of the Eskişehir-Cihanbeyli Fault System, and use deformed maximum highstand shorelines of palaeo-lake Konya to estimate tectonic slip rates at millennial scale. Some of these shorelines were previously interpreted as fault scarps, but we provide conclusive evidence for their erosional origin. We found that shoreline-angle elevations estimated from differential GPS profiles record vertical displacements of 10.2 m across the SF. New radiocarbon ages of lacustrine molluscs suggest 22.4 m of relative lake-level fall between 22.1 ± 0.3 and 21.7 ± 0.4 cal. ka BP, constraining the timing of abrupt abandonment of the highstand shoreline. Models of lithospheric rebound associated with regressions of the Tuz Gölü and Konya palaeo-lakes predict only ∼1 m of regional-scale uplift across the Konya Basin. Dislocation models of displaced shorelines suggest fault-slip rates of 1.5 and 1.8 mm yr-1 for planar and listric fault geometries, respectively, providing reasonable results for the latter. We found fault scarps in the Nasuhpınar mudflat that likely represent the most recent ground-breaking rupture of the SF, with an average vertical displacement of 1.2 ± 0.5 m estimated from 54 topographic profiles, equivalent to a M ∼ 6.5-6.9 earthquake based on empirical scaling laws. If such events were characteristic during the ultimate 21 ka, a relatively short recurrence time of ∼800-900 yr would be needed to account for the millennial slip rate. Alternatively, the fault scarp at Nasuhpınar might

  9. Preventing catastrophes in spatially extended systems through ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2015-01-29

    Scientific Reports (Nature) 4, 4308] on taming explosive growth in spatially extended systems. Specifically, we consider collections of relaxation oscillators, which are relevant to modelling phenomena ranging from ...

  10. PREVALENCE OF EXTENDED SPECTRUM β-LACTAMASES ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    ABSTRACT. Confirmed variants of enterobacteriaceae isolated from 143 patients that attended Murtala. Mohammed Specialist Hospital Kano, were screened for extended spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) production using Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) breakpoint. Suspected ESBLs producers were ...

  11. Extended Adjuvant Therapy for Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    An NCI Cancer Currents blog on findings from a recent clinical trial which showed that extending adjuvant therapy with an aromatase inhibitor can have important benefits for some women with early-stage cancer.

  12. Some results for extended Jacobi polynomials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, I.A.

    1991-06-01

    In this paper, some contiguous function relations and generating functions have been established for extended Jacobi polynomials. The results obtained here, are of very general nature. (author). 5 refs

  13. Musical Manipulations and the Emotionally Extended Mind

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel Krueger

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available I respond to Kersten's criticism in his article "Music and Cognitive Extension" of my approach to the musically extended emotional mind in Krueger (2014. I specify how we manipulate—and in so doing, integrate with—music when, as active listeners, we become part of a musically extended cognitive system. I also indicate how Kersten's account might be enriched by paying closer attention to the way that music functions as an environmental artifact for emotion regulation.

  14. Possibility of extending space-time coordinates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yongcheng.

    1993-11-01

    It has been shown that one coordinate system can describe a whole space-time region except some supersurfaces on which there are coordinate singularities. The conditions of extending a coordinate from real field to complex field are studied. It has been shown that many-valued coordinate transformations may help us to extend space-time regions and many-valued metric functions may make one coordinate region to describe more than one space-time regions. (author). 11 refs

  15. Extended Access List untuk Mengendalikan Trafik Jaringan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hari Antoni Musril

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Keamana jaringan komputer saat ini menjadi hal penting untuk diterapkan. Banyak organisasi yang telah menjadikan teknologi informasi sebagai bahagian penting dalam menunjang aktivitasnya. Akses pengguna yang tidak dibatasi menjadi ancaman bagi sebuah organisasi, karena banyak data dan informasi penting yang tersebar dalam perangkat jaringan komputer di organisasi tersebut dapat disusupi oleh pihak yang tidak berwenang. Salah satu usaha yang dapat dilakukan adalah dengan menerapkan extended access list yang merupakan salah satu bagian dari metode access control list. Extended access list dapat menyaring lalu lintas data suatu jaringan dengan mengontrol apakah paket-paket tersebut dilewatkan atau dihentikan. Extended access list juga dapat menjamin keamanan untuk setiap komputer sehingga jalur komunikasi serta hak akses setiap komputer dapat berjalan dengan baik. Extended access list memungkinkan penyaringan berdasarkan sumber atau alamat tujuan, protokol yang dipilih, port yang digunakan, dan apakah koneksi sudah ditetapkan. Tulisan ini membahas penerapan extended access list dalam jaringan supaya dapat melakukan filter terhadap paket data yang melewati jaringan. Penerapannya menggunakan software Packet Tracer 6.1.1 untuk membuat prototipe jaringan dan mensimulasikannya. Sehingga nanti dapat diterapkan pada jaringan yang sebenarnya. List yang dibangun pada penelitian ini diterapkan untuk protokol antara lain : TCP (WWW, FTP, Telnet, SMTP, POP3, UDP (DNS, dan ICMP (Ping. Hasilnya didapatkan extended access list yang dikonfigurasi pada router dalam topologi penelitian ini mampu melakukan filter terhadap paket yang melewati jaringan. Hasil konfigurasinya sangat spesifik, sehingga penerapan hak akses permit dan deny dapat dilakukan sesuai dengan aturan dan skenario yang dirancang.

  16. Factors Associated With Extended Breastfeeding in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Arpit R; Panneer, Sigamani; Ghosh-Jerath, Suparna; Racine, Elizabeth F

    2017-02-01

    Extended breastfeeding duration is common in India. Extended breastfeeding protects the infant from infectious disease and promotes child spacing. In the 1990s, the median breastfeeding duration in India was 24 months. Research aim: This study aimed to investigate the median duration of breastfeeding in India and to identify the factors associated with extended breastfeeding to 24 months as recommended by the World Health Organization. This cross-sectional data analysis used nationally representative data from the 2011-2012 Indian Human Development Survey II. The outcome in this study was extended breastfeeding defined as breastfeeding to 24 months or more. Multivariate logistic regression was used to identify the factors associated with extended breastfeeding. The median duration of breastfeeding was 12 months; approximately 25% of women breastfed 24 months or more. Women were at greater odds of breastfeeding 24 months or more if the infant was a boy compared with a girl, if the women lived in a rural area compared with an urban area, if the women were married at a young age (marriage), and if the delivery was assisted by a friend or relative compared with a doctor. The median duration of breastfeeding has decreased by 50% from 1992-1993 to 2011-2012. The women who continue to breastfeed 24 months or more tend to be more traditional (i.e., living in rural areas, marrying young, and having family/friends as birth attendants). Further research to study the health effect of decreased breastfeeding duration is warranted.

  17. İlhanlı Hâkimiyeti Altında Anadolu’da Siyasetin Temel Dinamiği: Göçebe Moğol-Türkmen Çatışması The Basic Dynamic Of Politics In Anatolia Under The Ilkhanid Rule: The Struggle Of Nomad Turcomans And Mongols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halil ÇETİN

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The nomad Mongols established their hegemony in Anatolia after the Kosedagh War in 1243. When the Hülagü destroyed Bagdad in 1258 and Ilkhanids took the leadership in the Middle East, the Mongols, thus, became the policy makers in Anatolia. Not sooner, however, they were confronted with the alliance of the states of Mamluks, Seljukids and nomads of Anatolia, the Turcomans. Among them the Turcomansconstituted the most decisive point of resistance against the politicalaims and military operations of the Mongols. The opposition, involvedreligious motifs like gaza, holy war, was, indeed, the result ofTurcomans’ efforts to make Anatolia their homeland. In fact, there wasno any choice for the Turcomans who intensively populated the frontierzones of Anatolia since the political and geographical frontiers of thepeninsula prevented them from migrating to another region. For thisreason the attitudes of making Anatolia their homeland decisively andopposing to the Mongols persistently balanced each other. Thus thelong lasting struggles between the Mongol and Turcoman nomads wereresulted in the collapse of both the Seljukid and Ilkhanid rules inAnatolia. The Turcomans, in turn, becoming the leading political actorsconsequently adopted the Political Turcoman Identity. It seems thatpolitical and social groups who established the Turcoman Beyliks in thefrontier zones of Anatolia at the beginning of the fourteenth centurywere under the influence of this identity. For example, Osman Bey,founder of the Ottoman Beylik, used the political methods, argumentsand tools produced as a result of the struggle between Mongol andTurcoman nomads under the Ilkhanid rule. Göçebe Moğollar, 1243 Kösedağ Bozgunu ile Anadolu’da hâkimiyet tesis etmişlerdir. Hülagü 1258’de Bağdad’ı yıktığında ve İlhanlı Devleti Ortadoğu’da liderliği ele geçirdiğinde, Moğollar Anadolu’da siyasetin aktörü haline geldiler. Fakat çok geçmeden karşılarında Meml

  18. The validity of the extended energy principle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chance, M.S.; Johnson, J.L.; Kulsrud, R.M.

    1994-04-01

    A recent analysis of plasma stability based on modifications of the extended energy principle for magnetohydrodynamic stability led to conclusions that are too optimistic. The original interpretation of this principle is indeed applicable. The present analysis demonstrates explicitly the fallacy of using the wrong functional for δW in the extended energy principle. It then shows that the original energy principle functional δW B is also obtained for a model in which a surface mass is incorporated to provide pressure balance. This work therefore indicates, but does not prove, that the eigenfunctions that are obtained from a minimization of the extended energy principle with the proper kinetic energy norm provide a good representation of what would be achieved with an exact treatment

  19. Extending Double Optical Gating to the Midinfrared

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorman, Timothy; Camper, Antoine; Agostini, Pierre; Dimauro, Louis

    2015-05-01

    In the past decade there has been great interest in creating broadband isolated attosecond pulses (IAPs). Primarily these IAPs have been generated using Ti:Sapphire 800nm short pulses, namely through spatiotemporal gating with the attosecond lighthouse technique, amplitude gating, polarization gating, and double optical gating (DOG). Here we present theoretical calculations and experimental investigations into extending DOG to using a 2 μm driving wavelength, the benefits of which include extended harmonic cutoff and longer input driving pulse durations. It is proposed that broadband IAPs with cutoffs extending up to 250 eV can be generated in Argon by using >30 fs pulses from the passively-CEP stabilized 2 μm idler out of an optical parametric amplifier combined with a collinear DOG experimental setup.

  20. Extended inflation from higher-dimensional theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holman, R.; Kolb, E.W.; Vadas, S.L.; Wang, Y.

    1991-01-01

    We consider the possibility that higher-dimensional theories may, upon reduction to four dimensions, allow extended inflation to occur. We analyze two separate models. One is a very simple toy model consisting of higher-dimensional gravity coupled to a scalar field whose potential allows for a first-order phase transition. The other is a more sophisticated model incorporating the effects of nontrivial field configurations (monopole, Casimir, and fermion bilinear condensate effects) that yield a nontrivial potential for the radius of the internal space. We find that extended inflation does not occur in these models. We also find that the bubble nucleation rate in these theories is time dependent unlike the case in the original version of extended inflation

  1. Extended inflation from higher dimensional theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holman, R.; Kolb, E.W.; Vadas, S.L.; Wang, Yun.

    1990-04-01

    The possibility is considered that higher dimensional theories may, upon reduction to four dimensions, allow extended inflation to occur. Two separate models are analayzed. One is a very simple toy model consisting of higher dimensional gravity coupled to a scalar field whose potential allows for a first-order phase transition. The other is a more sophisticated model incorporating the effects of non-trivial field configurations (monopole, Casimir, and fermion bilinear condensate effects) that yield a non-trivial potential for the radius of the internal space. It was found that extended inflation does not occur in these models. It was also found that the bubble nucleation rate in these theories is time dependent unlike the case in the original version of extended inflation

  2. An extended range neutron rem counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birattari, C.; Nuccetelli, C.; Pelliccioni, M.; Silari, M.

    1990-01-01

    Extensive Monte Carlo calculations have been carried out to assess the possibility of extending the sensitivity of a neutron rem counter of the Andersson-Braun type up to several hundred MeV. The validity of the model adopted has first been checked by comparing with experimental data the calculated response curve and the angular dependence of the sensitivity for a well known commercial rem counter. Next, a number of modifications to the configuration of the moderator-attenuator have been investigated. The response functions and angular distributions produced by two simple solutions yielding an instrument with a sensitivity extended up to 400 MeV are presented. The response of the original rem counter and of its two modified versions to nine test spectra has also been calculated. The resulting instrument is transportable rather than portable, but the availability of an extended range neutron survey meter would be of great advantage at medium and high energy particle accelerator facilities. (orig.)

  3. Remarkable connections between extended magnetohydrodynamics models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lingam, M., E-mail: manasvi@physics.utexas.edu; Morrison, P. J., E-mail: morrison@physics.utexas.edu; Miloshevich, G., E-mail: gmilosh@physics.utexas.edu [Department of Physics and Institute for Fusion Studies, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States)

    2015-07-15

    Through the use of suitable variable transformations, the commonality of all extended magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) models is established. Remarkable correspondences between the Poisson brackets of inertialess Hall MHD and inertial MHD (which has electron inertia, but not the Hall drift) and extended MHD (which has both effects) are established. The helicities (two in all) for each of these models are obtained through these correspondences. The commonality of all the extended MHD models is traced to the existence of two Lie-dragged 2-forms, which are closely associated with the canonical momenta of the two underlying species. The Lie-dragging of these 2-forms by suitable velocities also leads to the correct equations of motion. The Hall MHD Poisson bracket is analyzed in detail, the Jacobi identity is verified through a detailed proof, and this proof ensures the Jacobi identity for the Poisson brackets of all the models.

  4. Market Diffusion of Extended Cycle Hormonal Contraceptives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megen Leeds Schumacher

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Extended cycle hormonal contraceptives (e.g. Seasonale, Seasonique when introduced in 2003 were considered a very novel approach to contraception. The idea of manipulating the menstrual cycle so that women would experience just four menstruations a year was radical and was assumed to be responsible for the slow acceptance rate among the general public. Objective: This report analyzes two different aspects of the acceptance of this unique idea in the population. The first was the level of usage of extended cycle hormonal contraceptives in the general population, which was measured by a review of sales figures over time in the United States. The second was an examination of market diffusion as it relates to consumer perceptions regarding the characteristics of these products. Methods: To determine the degree of usage of extended cycle hormonal contraceptives the yearly sales, in terms of units sold, were compared with that of other leading methods of hormonal contraception. Along with the data, survey answers were obtained from 65 women who volunteered to participate in the study. Participants were selected randomly to represent the target population to assess the level of awareness about the benefits, risks, and any other concerns regarding the use of extended cycle hormonal contraceptives. Results: The yearly sales data of units sold showed a definitive increase in the sales of extended cycle hormonal contraceptives since their release on the market. The survey results showed an overwhelming awareness in the study population about the extended regimen. However, only about half of the women in the survey group were aware of its benefits. The main concern reported was the perceived significant side effect profile. Conclusion: Though awareness about the extended cycle hormonal contraception regimen was widespread, the survey population was not well informed about the advantages and the disadvantages regarding the degree of severity of

  5. Extending Symfony 2 web application framework

    CERN Document Server

    Armand, Sébastien

    2014-01-01

    Symfony is a high performance PHP framework for developing MVC web applications. Symfony1 allowed for ease of use but its shortcoming was the difficulty of extending it. However, this difficulty has now been eradicated by the more powerful and extensible Symfony2. Information on more advanced techniques for extending Symfony can be difficult to find, so you need one resource that contains the advanced features in a way you can understand. This tutorial offers solutions to all your Symfony extension problems. You will get to grips with all the extension points that Symfony, Twig, and Doctrine o

  6. Extended Interneuronal Network of the Dentate Gyrus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gergely G. Szabo

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Local interneurons control principal cells within individual brain areas, but anecdotal observations indicate that interneuronal axons sometimes extend beyond strict anatomical boundaries. Here, we use the case of the dentate gyrus (DG to show that boundary-crossing interneurons with cell bodies in CA3 and CA1 constitute a numerically significant and diverse population that relays patterns of activity generated within the CA regions back to granule cells. These results reveal the existence of a sophisticated retrograde GABAergic circuit that fundamentally extends the canonical interneuronal network.

  7. Socially extended intentions-in-action

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blomberg, Olle

    2011-01-01

    as an unconditional constraint on the contents of intentions-in-action: one may intend to perform a basic action that belongs both to oneself and to another agent. Based on the phenomenology of tool use, I first argue that intentions-in-action of one’s basic actions may be technologically extended, meaning...... that their contents are not restricted to concern the agent’s bodily movements. In analogy with this, I then argue that the phenomenology of some skillful joint activities supports the idea that one’s basic intentions-in-action may be socially extended, in violation of the widely accepted exclusivity constraint...

  8. Focus point supersymmetry in extended gauge mediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ding, Ran [School of Physics, Nankai University,Tianjin 300071 (China); Li, Tianjun [State Key Laboratory of Theoretical Physics and Kavli Institute for Theoretical Physics (KITPC),Institute of Theoretical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); School of Physical Electronics, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China,Chengdu 610054 (China); Staub, Florian [Bethe Center for Theoretical Physics & Physikalisches Institut der Universität Bonn,Nußallee 12, 53115 Bonn (Germany); Zhu, Bin [School of Physics, Nankai University,Tianjin 300071 (China)

    2014-03-27

    We propose a small extension of the minimal gauge mediation through the combination of extended gauge mediation and conformal sequestering. We show that the focus point supersymmetry can be realized naturally, and the fine tuning is significantly reduced compared to the minimal gauge mediation and extended gauge mediation without focus point. The Higgs boson mass is around 125 GeV, the gauginos remain light, and the gluino is likely to be detected at the next run of the LHC. However, the multi-TeV squarks is out of the reach of the LHC. The numerical calculation for fine-tuning shows that this model remains natural.

  9. Focus point supersymmetry in extended gauge mediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding, Ran; Li, Tianjun; Staub, Florian; Zhu, Bin

    2014-01-01

    We propose a small extension of the minimal gauge mediation through the combination of extended gauge mediation and conformal sequestering. We show that the focus point supersymmetry can be realized naturally, and the fine tuning is significantly reduced compared to the minimal gauge mediation and extended gauge mediation without focus point. The Higgs boson mass is around 125 GeV, the gauginos remain light, and the gluino is likely to be detected at the next run of the LHC. However, the multi-TeV squarks is out of the reach of the LHC. The numerical calculation for fine-tuning shows that this model remains natural

  10. Novel Functional Extended Solids at Extreme Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-01

    distance of 1.9 (±.1) Å. Above 70 GPa, it further transforms into a black 3D fluorite -like structure (Fmmm) of a first observed eight-fold metallic...graphite-like 2D extended phase (Pnnm-2, middle) at 52 GPa, and metallic fluorite -like 3D extended phase (Fmmm, right) at 70 GPa. 4 from that of C...photoluminescence of nanodiamonds, Surface Science 601, 3866 (2007). 16 16. C. Mailhiot, L. H. Yang, and A. K. McMahan, Polymeric nitrogen, Phys. Rev

  11. Lost Terranes of Zealandia: possible development of late Paleozoic and early Mesozoic sedimentary basins at the southwest Pacific margin of Gondwanaland, and their destination as terranes in southern South America Terrenos perdidos de Zealandia: posible desarrollo de cuencas sedimentarias del Paleozoico tardío y Mesozoico temprano en el margen suroccidental del Pacífico de Gondwana y su destino como terrenos en el sur de América del Sur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher J Adams

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Latest Precambrian to Ordovician metasedimentary successions and Cambrian-Ordovician and Devonian-Carboniferous granitoids form the major part of the basement of southern Zealandia and adjacent sectors of Antarctica and southeast Australia. Uplift/cooling ages of these rocks, and local Devonian shallow-water cover sequences suggest that final consolidation of the basement occurred through Late Paleozoic time. A necessary consequence of this process would have been contemporaneous erosion and the substantial development of marine sedimentary basins at the Pacific margin of Zealandia. These are found nowhere at the present day, suggesting that the basins have been lost by tectonic erosion, perhaps in a margin-parallel dextral translation similar to late Paleozoic-Mesozoic suspect terranes of New Zealand. Aprobable detrital zircon age pattern is assembled for these lost Zealandia sediments, and then compared with those of pre-Jurassic (probable Triassic to Devonian metasedimentary rocks in the Chilean archipelago. Significant Mesoproterozoic, latest Neoproterozoic-Cambrian and Devonian-Carboniferous detrital zircon age components are common to both, thus supporting a possible Chilean terrane destination for these 'lost terranes of Zealandia'.Las sucesiones metasedimentarias del Precámbrico tardío al Ordovícico y granitoides del Cámbrico-Ordovícico y Devónico-Carbonífero constituyen la mayor parte del basamento del sur de Zealandia y sectores adyacentes de la Antartica y el sudeste de Australia. Las edades de enfriamiento/alzamiento de estas rocas y la cobertura local de secuencias de aguas someras del Devónico, sugieren que la consolidación definitiva del basamento se produjo durante el Paleozoico tardío. Una consecuencia necesaria de este proceso habría sido la erosion contemporánea y el desarrollo sustancial de cuencas sedimentarias marinas en el margen del Pacífico de Zealandia. Estas no se encuentran en ninguna parte en la

  12. The case study in the applicability of the improvements in the treatment of urinary system stone diseases in Anatolia: the last ten years with the sample of Western Black Sea region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turkan, Sadi; İrkılata, Lokman; Ekmekçioğlu, Ozan; Canat, Halil Lütfi; Dilmen, Cem; Özkaya, Muharrem

    2015-09-01

    The prevalence of stone diseases is high in Turkey. Thanks to the technological improvements and to the increase in the number of qualified and experienced specialists in the last thirty years, there has been an increase in the application of minimally invasive methods in the stone disease surgery. This study, with a sample survey of Western Black Sea region, aims at revealing the changes and improvements in the treatment of stone diseases in different centers in Anatolia within the last ten years. Six centers in 4 of the provinces of the Western Black Sea Region were selected and the patients' files were retrospectively analyzed. The treatment methods that were recommended for and/or applied to the patients diagnosed with urinary stone diseases were recorded by years. The urinary stone diseases were divided into three separate groups; kidney, ureters and bladder. Treatment options were recorded into categories as open surgery, percutaneous nephrolithotripsy, retrograde intrarenal surgery, semirigid ureterorenoscopy, flexible ureterorenoscopy, and ESWL. A total of 26044 patients with stone diseases have been treated in the above-mentioned centers for the last 10 years. The distributions of the stone diseases in relation to their localization were as follows: - kidney stones: 9040 (34.7%), ureter stones: 15264 (58.6%), and bladder stones: 1740 (6.7%). As for the distribution of the treatment in relation to the treatment methods, it was seen that open surgery for 1032 (4%) patients, endoscopic surgery for 15038 (58%) patients, and ESWL for 9974 (38%) patients had been applied. While URS and PCNL are currently the commonly used treatment methods in the Western Black Sea Region, RIRS has begun to be used in a limited number of patients for the last 3 years. Though being a little late, the advances in endrourology offer practical applications in the Western Black Sea region as well. Although this study suggests implications for the evaluating of the periphery outcomes

  13. 40Ar/39Ar geochronology, elemental and Sr-Nd-Pb isotope geochemistry of the Neogene bimodal volcanism in the Yükselen area, NW Konya (Central Anatolia, Turkey)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gençoğlu Korkmaz, Gülin; Asan, Kürşad; Kurt, Hüseyin; Morgan, Ganerød

    2017-05-01

    Bimodal volcanic suites occur in both orogenic and anorogenic geotectonic settings. Although their formation can be attributed to either fractional crystallization from basaltic parents to felsic derivatives or partial melting of different sources, the origin of bimodal suites is still unclear. By reporting mineral chemistry, 40Ar/39Ar geochronology, elemental and Sr-Nd-Pb isotope geochemistry data, this study aims to investigate the genesis of bimodal basalt-dacite association from the Yükselen area located on the northern end of the Sulutas Volcanic Complex (Konya, Central Anatolia). The Yükselen area volcanic rocks are represented by basaltic lava flows, and dacitic dome with enclaves and pyroclastics. Basaltic flows and pyroclastic rocks are interlayered with the Neogene fluvio-lacustrine sedimentary units, while dacitic rocks cut the pre-Neogene basement in the area. A biotite separation from dacites yielded 40Ar/39Ar plateau age of 16.11 ± 0.18 Ma. On the other hand, a whole rock sample from basalts gave two plateau ages of 16.45 ± 0.76 Ma and 22.37 ± 0.65 Ma for the first steps and next steps, respectively. The investigated basalts are sodic alkaline, and characterized by ocean island basalt (OIB)-like anorogenic geochemical signatures. However, dacites are calc-alkaline and metaluminous, and carry geochemical signatures of orogenic adakites. Sr-Nd-Pb isotopic systematics suggest that the basalts were derived from an asthenospheric mantle source enriched by recycled crustal rocks. The dacites show more enriched Sr and Pb ratios and more depleted Nd ones relative to the basalts, which at the first glance might be attributed to crustal contamination of the associated basalts. However, trace element features of the dacites rule out cogenetic relationship between the two rock types, and point to an origin by melting of lower crust. On the other hand, enclaves share several elemental and isotopic characteristics with the dacites, and appear to be fragments

  14. Alternate Derivation of Geometric Extended Kalman Filter by MEKF Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Chang, Lubin

    2017-01-01

    This note is devoted to deriving the measurement update of the geometric extended Kalman filter using the multiplicative extended Kalman filtering approach, resulting in the attitude estimator referred as geometric multiplicative extended Kalman filter. The equivalence of the derived geometric multiplicative extended Kalman filter and geometric extended Kalman filter is also demonstrated in this note.

  15. Harbour Geotechnics. Book of extended abstracts.

    OpenAIRE

    Kikuchi, Yoshiaki; Pinto, Alexandre; Cerejeira, José

    2016-01-01

    Book of extended abstracts in correspondence to Workshop 2 "Harbour Geotechnics", held in 4th September 2016 at the University of Minho, in Guimarães, Portugal. The event was part of the 3rd ICTG 2016 - International Conference on Transportation Geotechnics (http://www.civil.uminho.pt/3rd-ICTG2016/).

  16. Validating foundry technologies for extended mission profiles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijk, K.; Volf, P.; Detcheverry, C.; Yau, A.; Ngan, P.; Liang, Z.; Kuper, F.G.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a process qualification and characterization strategy that can extend the foundry process reliability potential to meet specific automotive mission profile requirements. In this case study, data and analyses are provided that lead to sufficient confidence for pushing the allowed

  17. Unsymmetrical extended -conjugated zinc phthalocyanine for ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We have designed and synthesized a new unsymmetrical zinc phthalocyanine based on `push-pull' and extended -conjugation concept, PCH008. The new sensitizer was fully characterized by CHN anlysis, UV-Vis., fluorescence spectroscopies and cyclic voltammetry. The new sensitizer which upon anchoring onto ...

  18. Resonant phenomena in compact and extended systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mullen, K.; Loss, D.; Stoof, H.T.C.

    1993-01-01

    We consider the dynamics of Josephson junctions in two formulations: one where the phase is defined on a compact interval [0,2π], and a second where it is defined on an extended interval (-∞,∞). We find that in general the two approaches are not equivalent: they have different sets of allowable

  19. Simulation and analysis of shared extended mind

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosse, T.; Jonker, C.M.; Schut, M.C.; Treur, J.

    Some types of animals exploit patterns created in the environment as external mental states, thus obtaining an extension of their mind. In the case of social animals the creation and exploitation of such patterns can be shared, which supports a form of shared extended mind or collective

  20. 17. IAEA fusion energy conference. Extended synopses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    Book of extended synopses of the papers, accepted by a international programme committee for presentation at the 17th IAEA Fusion Energy Conference in Yokohama, Japan. The subjects covered are magnetic confinement experiments, plasma heating and current drive, ITER EDA, inertial fusion energy, innovative concepts, fusion technology and theory

  1. Technological Packages Extended To Farmers by Non ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper investigated technological packages extended to farmers by Non Governmental Organizations in the Niger Delta area of Nigeria. Data for the study was collected with the aid of structured questionnaire from 450 respondents in the study area. Findings revealed that yam minisett technology, hybrid cassava ...

  2. Q-Method Extended Kalman Filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanetti, Renato; Ainscough, Thomas; Christian, John; Spanos, Pol D.

    2012-01-01

    A new algorithm is proposed that smoothly integrates non-linear estimation of the attitude quaternion using Davenport s q-method and estimation of non-attitude states through an extended Kalman filter. The new method is compared to a similar existing algorithm showing its similarities and differences. The validity of the proposed approach is confirmed through numerical simulations.

  3. Extending the Agricultural Extension Model. Preliminary Draft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Everett M.; And Others

    The purposes of this report are: to describe the main elements of the U.S. agricultural extension model and its effects on the agricultural revolution; to analyze attempts to extend this model to non-agricultural technology and/or to less developed countries; and to draw general conclusions about the diffusion of technological innovations, with…

  4. Extended plate and beam demonstration home

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patricia Gunderson; Vladimir Kochkin; Xiping Wang

    2018-01-01

    An extended plate and beam (EP&B) design was developed at Home Innovation Research Labs (Upper Marlboro, Maryland) in an effort to provide traditional light-frame wall construction details that are compatible with continuous insulating sheathing. This would encourage wide-spread adoption of high-R walls and promote greater energy efficiency in new houses. The...

  5. The Extended Family and Children's Educational Success

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jæger, Mads Meier

    2012-01-01

    characteristics of grandparents and aunts and uncles have few direct effects on educational success, resources in the extended family compensate lacking resources in low-SES families, which in turn promote children’s educational success. The main conclusion is that the total effect of family background...

  6. Extending and embedding the Python interpreter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G. van Rossum (Guido)

    1995-01-01

    textabstractPython is an interpreted, object-oriented programming language. This document describes how to write modules in C or C++ to extend the Python interpreter with new modules. Those modules can define new functions but also new object types and their methods. The document also describes

  7. Extendable linearised adjustment model for deformation analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hiddo Velsink

    2015-01-01

    Author supplied: "This paper gives a linearised adjustment model for the affine, similarity and congruence transformations in 3D that is easily extendable with other parameters to describe deformations. The model considers all coordinates stochastic. Full positive semi-definite covariance matrices

  8. Extendable linearised adjustment model for deformation analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velsink, H.

    2015-01-01

    This paper gives a linearised adjustment model for the affine, similarity and congruence transformations in 3D that is easily extendable with other parameters to describe deformations. The model considers all coordinates stochastic. Full positive semi-definite covariance matrices and correlation

  9. Prevalence and Susceptibility of extended spectrum beta ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Extended spectrum beta – lactamases (ESBLs) are on the rise in hospital settings across the globe. The presence of ESBLs significantly affects the outcome of an infection and poses a challenge to the management of infection worldwide. Therefore, the aim of the present study is to determine the prevalence and ...

  10. CALL FOR EXTENDED CONCEPT NOTES ECOHEALTH CHAIRS ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Marie-Isabelle Beyer

    CALL FOR EXTENDED CONCEPT NOTES. Page 1 of 1. ECOHEALTH CHAIRS in HEALTH and GLOBAL ENVIRONMENTAL CHANGE in. SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA. Eligible countries. Organizations and researchers based in the eligible country list below can apply as team to this Call. Within limits of. Canadian law and ...

  11. The Extended Mind Thesis and Mechanistic Explanations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fazekas, Peter

    2013-01-01

    The Extended Mind Thesis (EMT) is traditionally formulated against the bedrock of functionalism, and ongoing debates are typically bogged down with questions concerning the exact relationship between EMT and different versions of functionalism. In this paper, I offer a novel ally for EMT: the new...

  12. [Combined hormonal contraception in cycles artificially extended].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bustillos-Alamilla, Edgardo; Zepeda-Zaragoza, J; Hernández-Ruiz, M A; Briones-Landa, Carlos Humberto

    2010-01-01

    To compare the bleeding patterns, satisfaction and tolerability of 3 different contraceptive in an extended regimens in the service of Family Planning of the North Central Hospital of PEMEX. Healthy, adult women with desire of contraception for one year (N 120) were randomly assigned to receive oral contraceptive drospirenone/ethinyl E2 (group1), the norelgestromin/ethinyl E2 transdermal patch (group 2) and vaginal ring etonogestrel/ ethinyl E2 (group 3) in an extended regimen (42 consecutive days, 1 hormone-free week). Study assessments were conducted at scheduled visits at the time of initial screening, at baseline after 1, 3, 6, and 12 months. Subjects recorded menstrual associated symptoms bleeding data and completed satisfaction questionnaires. Subjects and investigators provided overall assessments of the regimens. Extended use of 3 different contraceptive resulted in fewer bleeding days in every group (66.6%, 55% and 58.3% P 0.0024), and less mastalgia and menstrual pain. Subjects were highly satisfied with three regimens (93.3%, 96.6% and 91.6% P 0.00421). Although not mayor adverse events were reported with this regimen, there was an increase in spotting days; it decreased with each successive cycle of therapy. Efficacy and safety were similar to those reported for traditional cycle. Extended-contraceptive regimen delays menses and reduces bleeding, a profile that may be preferred by women who seek flexibility with their contraceptive method.

  13. Observational constraints on extended Chaplygin gas cosmologies

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We investigate cosmological models with extended Chaplygin gas (ECG) as a candidate for dark energy and determine the equation of state parameters using observed data namely, observed Hubble data, baryon acousticoscillation data and cosmic microwave background shift data. Cosmological models are investigated ...

  14. Short Communication: Production of extended spectrum beta ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Multidrug resistant strains of Klebsiella pneumoniae and Escherichia coli constitute a problem in many hospitals. The antibiotic susceptibility profile and the Production of Extended Spetrum Beta-Lactamase (ESBL) of the strains of Klebsiella pneumoniae and Escherichia coli were assessed by the Kirby-Bauer technique and ...

  15. Extended Resin Composite Restorations: Techniques and Procedures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loomans, B.A.C.; Hilton, T.

    2016-01-01

    This article gives an overview of the state of the art of different restorative treatment procedures and techniques needed for placing extended posterior resin composite restorations. Clinical aspects related to the procedure are discussed and reviewed based on the current literature, such as the

  16. antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of extended spectrum

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    JAMILU

    ABSTRACT. The emergence of resistant strains of urogenital extended spectrum beta-lactamase producing isolates has presented a serious set back in the treatment option for urogenital tract infection. Emergence and spread of these strains resulted in treatment failure and disease complications. This study was aimed to ...

  17. The inflation sector of extended inflation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolb, E.W.

    1990-11-01

    In extended inflation the inflationary era is brought to a close by the process of percolation of true vacuum bubbles produced in a first-order phase transition. In this paper I discuss several effects that might obtain if the Universe undergoes an inflationary first-order phase transition. 17 refs

  18. Turbo Codes Extended with Outer BCH Code

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jakob Dahl

    1996-01-01

    The "error floor" observed in several simulations with the turbo codes is verified by calculation of an upper bound to the bit error rate for the ensemble of all interleavers. Also an easy way to calculate the weight enumerator used in this bound is presented. An extended coding scheme is proposed...

  19. Hamiltonian structure of linearly extended Virasoro algebra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arakelyan, T.A.; Savvidi, G.K.

    1991-01-01

    The Hamiltonian structure of linearly extended Virasoro algebra which admits free bosonic field representation is described. An example of a non-trivial extension is found. The hierarchy of integrable non-linear equations corresponding to this Hamiltonian structure is constructed. This hierarchy admits the Lax representation by matrix Lax operator of second order

  20. Consistent spectroscopy for a extended gauge model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira Neto, G. de.

    1990-11-01

    The consistent spectroscopy was obtained with a Lagrangian constructed with vector fields with a U(1) group extended symmetry. As consistent spectroscopy is understood the determination of quantum physical properties described by the model in an manner independent from the possible parametrizations adopted in their description. (L.C.J.A.)

  1. Diagrammar in an extended theory of gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunbar, David C.; Godwin, John H.; Jehu, Guy R.; Perkins, Warren B.

    2017-08-01

    We show how the S-matrix of an extended theory of gravity defined by its three-point amplitudes can be constructed by demanding factorisation. The resultant S-matrix has tree amplitudes obeying the same soft singularity theorems as Einstein gravity including the sub-sub-leading terms.

  2. Features of the extended-release metformin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T O Yalochkina

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Реферат по материалам статьи Ali S, Fonseca V. Overview of metformin: special focus on metformin extended release. Expert Opin Pharmacother. 2012 Aug;13(12:1797-805.

  3. Venus: No Breaks from an Extended Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, W. B.; Kankanamge, D. G. J.

    2017-05-01

    High surface temperatures lead to lower heat flow and lower stress as planets transition out of the heat-pipe mode into subsolidus convection. This causes Venus to miss the window for plate tectonics due to an extended heat-pipe childhood.

  4. Petrography and geochronology (U/Pb-Sm/Nd) the Passagem Granite, Pensamiento Granitoid Complex, Paragua Terrane, SW Amazon Craton, Mato Grosso, Brazil; Petrologia e geocronologia (U/Pb-Sm/Nd) do Granito Passagem, Complexo Granitoide Pensamiento, SW do Craton Amazonico (MT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jesus, Gisely Carmo de, E-mail: giselycarmo@hotmail.co [Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso (ICET/UFMT), Cuiaba, MT (Brazil). Inst. de Ciencias Exatas e da Terra. Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Geociencias; Sousa, Maria Zelia Aguiar de, E-mail: mzaguiar@terra.com.b [Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso(ICET/UFMT), Cuiaba, MT (Brazil). Inst. de Ciencias Exatas e da Terra. Dept. de Recursos Minerais; Ruiz, Amarildo Salina; Matos, Joao Batista de, E-mail: asruiz@gmail.co, E-mail: jmatos@cpd.ufmt.b [Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso (ICET/UFMT), Cuiaba, MT (Brazil). Inst. de Ciencias Exatas e da Terra. Dept. de Geologia Geral

    2010-09-15

    The Passagem granite includes stocks, plugs and dikes located in the Ricardo Franco hill - Vila Bela da Santissima Trindade region - state of Mato Grosso, central Brazil. The Passagem Granite is included in the Paragua terrane - SW Amazonian Craton. It consists of isotropic monzogranite, sienogranite and more rarely granodiorites with leucocratic dark gray to white color. These rocks range from hypidomorphic inequigranular to xenomorphic texture, fine to medium grained. Biotite is the only primary mafic present as essential phase and characterize an expanded slightly acid sequence formed by a sub-alkaline magmatism of high-potassium calc-alkaline, slightly peraluminous composition from arc magmatic tectonic environment during a post-collisional period. Mechanism of fractional crystallization of plagioclase, biotite, titanite, apatite and zircon associated with simultaneous crustal assimilation are suggested for the evolution of these rocks. The results support the hypothesis of a post-collisional magmatism in the Paragua terrane at 1284 +- 20 Ma corresponding to the crystallization age of the Passagem granite. This paper propose that Passagem Granite represents as an extension in Brazilian terrane of the Pensamiento Granitoid Complex. (author)

  5. Extended KN algebras and extended conformal field theories over higher genus Riemann surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ceresole, A.; Huang Chaoshang

    1990-01-01

    A global operator formalism for extended conformal field theories over higher genus Riemann surfaces is introduced and extended KN algebra are obtained by means of the KN bases. The BBSS construction of the spin-3 operator is carried out for Kac-Moody algebra A 2 over a Riemann surface of arbitrary genus. (orig.)

  6. Elaborated Odor Test for Extended Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchanan, Vanessa D.; Henry, Emily J.; Mast, Dion J.; Harper, Susana A.; Beeson, Harold D.; Tapia, Alma S.

    2016-01-01

    Concerns were raised when incidental exposure to a proprietary bonding material revealed the material had an irritating odor. The NASA-STD-6001B document describes a supplemental test method option for programs to evaluate materials with odor concerns (Test 6, Odor Assessment). In addition to the supplemental standard odor assessment with less than 10 seconds of exposure, the NASA White Sands Test Facility (WSTF) Materials Flight Acceptance Testing section was requested to perform an odor test with an extended duration to evaluate effects of an extended exposure and to more closely simulate realistic exposure scenarios. With approval from the NASA Johnson Space Center Industrial Hygienist, WSTF developed a 15-minute odor test method. WSTF performed this extended-duration odor test to evaluate the odor and physical effects of the bonding material configured between two aluminum plates, after the safety of the gas was verified via toxicity analysis per NASA-STD-6001B Test 7, Determination of Offgassed Products. During extended-duration testing, odor panel members were arranged near the test material in a small room with the air handlers and doors closed to minimize dilution. The odor panel members wafted gas toward themselves and recorded their individual assessments of odor and physical effects at various intervals during the 15-minute exposure and posttest. A posttest interview was conducted to obtain further information. Testing was effective in providing data for comparison and selection of an optimal offgassing and odor containment configuration. The developed test method for extended exposure is proposed as a useful tool for further evaluating materials with identified odors of concern if continued use of the material is anticipated.

  7. Optimizing Extender Code for NCSX Analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richman, M.; Ethier, S.; Pomphrey, N.

    2008-01-01

    Extender is a parallel C++ code for calculating the magnetic field in the vacuum region of a stellarator. The code was optimized for speed and augmented with tools to maintain a specialized NetCDF database. Two parallel algorithms were examined. An even-block work-distribution scheme was comparable in performance to a master-slave scheme. Large speedup factors were achieved by representing the plasma surface with a spline rather than Fourier series. The accuracy of this representation and the resulting calculations relied on the density of the spline mesh. The Fortran 90 module db access was written to make it easy to store Extender output in a manageable database. New or updated data can be added to existing databases. A generalized PBS job script handles the generation of a database from scratch

  8. Extended Target Recognition in Cognitive Radar Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiqin Wang

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available We address the problem of adaptive waveform design for extended target recognition in cognitive radar networks. A closed-loop active target recognition radar system is extended to the case of a centralized cognitive radar network, in which a generalized likelihood ratio (GLR based sequential hypothesis testing (SHT framework is employed. Using Doppler velocities measured by multiple radars, the target aspect angle for each radar is calculated. The joint probability of each target hypothesis is then updated using observations from different radar line of sights (LOS. Based on these probabilities, a minimum correlation algorithm is proposed to adaptively design the transmit waveform for each radar in an amplitude fluctuation situation. Simulation results demonstrate performance improvements due to the cognitive radar network and adaptive waveform design. Our minimum correlation algorithm outperforms the eigen-waveform solution and other non-cognitive waveform design approaches.

  9. Junction conditions in extended Teleparallel gravities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De la Cruz-Dombriz, Álvaro [Departamento de Física Teórica I, Ciudad Universitaria, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, E-28040 Madrid (Spain); Dunsby, Peter K.S.; Sáez-Gómez, Diego, E-mail: dombriz@fis.ucm.es, E-mail: peter.dunsby@uct.ac.za, E-mail: diego.saezgomez@uct.ac.za [Astrophysics, Cosmology and Gravity Centre (ACGC), Department of Mathematics and Applied Mathematics, University of Cape Town, Rondebosch 7701, Cape Town (South Africa)

    2014-12-01

    In the context of extended Teleparallel gravity theories, we address the issue of junction conditions required to guarantee the correct matching of different regions of spacetime. In the absence of shells/branes, these conditions turn out to be more restrictive than their counterparts in General Relativity as in other extended theories of gravity. In fact, the general junction conditions on the matching hypersurfaces depend on the underlying theory and a new condition on the induced tetrads in order to avoid delta-like distributions in the field equations. This result imposes strict consequences on the viability of standard solutions such as the Einstein-Straus-like construction. We find that the continuity of the scalar torsion is required in order to recover the usual General Relativity results.

  10. Extending applicability of bimetric theory: chameleon bigravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Felice, Antonio; Mukohyama, Shinji; Uzan, Jean-Philippe

    2018-02-01

    This article extends bimetric formulations of massive gravity to make the mass of the graviton to depend on its environment. This minimal extension offers a novel way to reconcile massive gravity with local tests of general relativity without invoking the Vainshtein mechanism. On cosmological scales, it is argued that the model is stable and that it circumvents the Higuchi bound, hence relaxing the constraints on the parameter space. Moreover, with this extension the strong coupling scale is also environmentally dependent in such a way that it is kept sufficiently higher than the expansion rate all the way up to the very early universe, while the present graviton mass is low enough to be phenomenologically interesting. In this sense the extended bigravity theory serves as a partial UV completion of the standard bigravity theory. This extension is very generic and robust and a simple specific example is described.

  11. Does string theory lead to extended inflation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Bruce A.; Linde, Andrei; Olive, Keith A.

    1991-05-01

    We consider the relationship between string theory and currently proposed models of extended inflation. In doing so, we discuss the conformal actions in string theory and in Jordan-Brans-Dicke gravity. We show explicitly the equivalence of pictures in which either gauge or gravitational couplings are changing with time. We demonstrate that the existence of the dilation in string theory does not naturally lead to extended inflation as currently discussed. We also discuss the resolution of the graceful exit problem of old inflation in Einstein gravity using either power-law inflation, or exponential inflation with a changing bubble formation rate. On leave of absence from School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455, USA.

  12. Extended Josephson Relation and Abrikosov lattice deformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matlock, Peter

    2012-01-01

    From the point of view of time-dependent Ginzburg Landau (TDGL) theory, a Josephson-like relation is derived for an Abrikosov vortex lattice accelerated and deformed by applied fields. Beginning with a review of the Josephson Relation derived from the two ingredients of a lattice-kinematics assumption in TDGL theory and gauge invariance, we extend the construction to accommodate a time-dependent applied magnetic field, a Floating-Kernel formulation of normal current, and finally lattice deformation due to the electric field and inertial effects of vortex-lattice motion. The resulting Josephson-like relation, which we call an Extended Josephson Relation, applies to a much wider set of experimental conditions than the original Josephson Relation, and is explicitly compatible with the considerations of TDGL theory.

  13. Application of electron closures in extended MHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Held, Eric; Adair, Brett; Taylor, Trevor

    2017-10-01

    Rigorous closure of the extended MHD equations in plasma fluid codes includes the effects of electron heat conduction along perturbed magnetic fields and contributions of the electron collisional friction and stress to the extended Ohms law. In this work we discuss application of a continuum numerical solution to the Chapman-Enskog-like electron drift kinetic equation using the NIMROD code. The implementation is a tightly-coupled fluid/kinetic system that carefully addresses time-centering in the advance of the fluid variables with their kinetically-computed closures. Comparisons of spatial accuracy, computational efficiency and required velocity space resolution are presented for applications involving growing magnetic islands in cylindrical and toroidal geometry. The reduction in parallel heat conduction due to particle trapping in toroidal geometry is emphasized. Work supported by DOE under Grant Nos. DE-FC02-08ER54973 and DE-FG02-04ER54746.

  14. Optimizing Extender Code for NCSX Analyses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. Richman, S. Ethier, and N. Pomphrey

    2008-01-22

    Extender is a parallel C++ code for calculating the magnetic field in the vacuum region of a stellarator. The code was optimized for speed and augmented with tools to maintain a specialized NetCDF database. Two parallel algorithms were examined. An even-block work-distribution scheme was comparable in performance to a master-slave scheme. Large speedup factors were achieved by representing the plasma surface with a spline rather than Fourier series. The accuracy of this representation and the resulting calculations relied on the density of the spline mesh. The Fortran 90 module db access was written to make it easy to store Extender output in a manageable database. New or updated data can be added to existing databases. A generalized PBS job script handles the generation of a database from scratch

  15. Extended Deterministic Mean-Field Games

    KAUST Repository

    Gomes, Diogo A.

    2016-04-21

    In this paper, we consider mean-field games where the interaction of each player with the mean field takes into account not only the states of the players but also their collective behavior. To do so, we develop a random variable framework that is particularly convenient for these problems. We prove an existence result for extended mean-field games and establish uniqueness conditions. In the last section, we consider the Master Equation and discuss properties of its solutions.

  16. Extending The Shelf Life Of Blood Platelets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surgenor, Douglas M.

    1988-01-01

    New method of storing human blood platelets extends vitality for transfusions. Packaged as suspension in sterile liquid in plastic blood bags. Each bag placed between pair of plastic grids, and rubberbands placed around sandwich thus formed to hold together. Stored upright in open air or in container through which air pumped at rate of at least 45 L/min. Ensures that platelets receive ample oxygen and expiratory carbon dioxide form platelets removed before pH drops to harmful levels.

  17. Extended obstruction tensors and renormalized volume coefficients

    OpenAIRE

    Graham, C. Robin

    2009-01-01

    The behavior under conformal change of the renormalized volume coefficients associated to a pseudo-Riemannian metric is investigated. It is shown that they define second order fully nonlinear operators in the conformal factor whose algebraic structure is elucidated via the introduction of "extended obstruction tensors". These together with the Schouten tensor constitute building blocks for the coefficients in the ambient metric expansion. The renormalized volume coefficients have recently bee...

  18. An extended Henon-Heiles system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hone, A.N.W.; Novikov, V.; Verhoeven, C.

    2008-01-01

    We consider an integrable system of partial differential equations possessing a Lax pair with an energy-dependent Lax operator of second order, of the type described by Antonowicz and Fordy. By taking the travelling wave reduction of this system we show that the integrable case (ii) Henon-Heiles system can be extended by adding an arbitrary number of non-polynomial (rational) terms to the potential

  19. The renewable tradition (extended play remix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Amerika

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Drawing from a network of appropriation artists, process philosophers, performance poets, pla(ygiarists, and other remix provocateurs, this experimental artist essay investigates the act of remixologically inhabiting the body language of others and, in the process, devises an aesthetic theory that situates the contemporary artist as a "postproduction medium" whose methodologies further extend avant-garde practice into the 21st century.

  20. Behaviour of the extended Toda lattice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wattis, Jonathan A. D.; Gordoa, Pilar R.; Pickering, Andrew

    2015-11-01

    We consider the first member of an extended Toda lattice hierarchy. This system of equations is differential with respect to one independent variable and differential-delay with respect to a second independent variable. We use asymptotic analysis to consider the long wavelength limits of the system. By considering various magnitudes for the parameters involved, we derive reduced equations related to the Korteweg-de Vries and potential Boussinesq equations.

  1. Lepton flavor violation in an extended MSSM

    CERN Document Server

    Espinosa-Castañeda, R.; Gómez-Bock, M.; Mondragón, M.

    2016-01-01

    In this work we explore a lepton flavor violation effect induced at one loop for a flavor structure in an extended minimal standard supersymmetric model, considering an ansatz for the trilinear term. In particular we find a finite expression which will show the impact of this phenomena in the $h\\to \\mu \\tau$ decay, produced by a mixing in the trilinear coupling of the soft supersymmetric Lagrangian.

  2. Deterministic automata for extended regular expressions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syzdykov Mirzakhmet

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this work we present the algorithms to produce deterministic finite automaton (DFA for extended operators in regular expressions like intersection, subtraction and complement. The method like “overriding” of the source NFA(NFA not defined with subset construction rules is used. The past work described only the algorithm for AND-operator (or intersection of regular languages; in this paper the construction for the MINUS-operator (and complement is shown.

  3. Why an extended evolutionary synthesis is necessary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Gerd B

    2017-10-06

    Since the last major theoretical integration in evolutionary biology-the modern synthesis (MS) of the 1940s-the biosciences have made significant advances. The rise of molecular biology and evolutionary developmental biology, the recognition of ecological development, niche construction and multiple inheritance systems, the '-omics' revolution and the science of systems biology, among other developments, have provided a wealth of new knowledge about the factors responsible for evolutionary change. Some of these results are in agreement with the standard theory and others reveal different properties of the evolutionary process. A renewed and extended theoretical synthesis, advocated by several authors in this issue, aims to unite pertinent concepts that emerge from the novel fields with elements of the standard theory. The resulting theoretical framework differs from the latter in its core logic and predictive capacities. Whereas the MS theory and its various amendments concentrate on genetic and adaptive variation in populations, the extended framework emphasizes the role of constructive processes, ecological interactions and systems dynamics in the evolution of organismal complexity as well as its social and cultural conditions. Single-level and unilinear causation is replaced by multilevel and reciprocal causation. Among other consequences, the extended framework overcomes many of the limitations of traditional gene-centric explanation and entails a revised understanding of the role of natural selection in the evolutionary process. All these features stimulate research into new areas of evolutionary biology.

  4. Thermodynamic volume and the extended Smarr relation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hyun, Seungjoon; Jeong, Jaehoon; Park, Sang-A; Yi, Sang-Heon [Department of Physics, College of Science, Yonsei University,Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-04-10

    We continue to explore the scaling transformation in the reduced action formalism of gravity models. As an extension of our construction, we consider the extended forms of the Smarr relation for various black holes, adopting the cosmological constant as the bulk pressure as in some literatures on black holes. Firstly, by using the quasi-local formalism for charges, we show that, in a general theory of gravity, the volume in the black hole thermodynamics could be defined as the thermodynamic conjugate variable to the bulk pressure in such a way that the first law can be extended consistently. This, so called, thermodynamic volume can be expressed explicitly in terms of the metric and field variables. Then, by using the scaling transformation allowed in the reduced action formulation, we obtain the extended Smarr relation involving the bulk pressure and the thermodynamic volume. In our approach, we do not resort to Euler’s homogeneous scaling of charges while incorporating the would-be hairy contribution without any difficulty.

  5. Origin of density fluctuations in extended inflation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolb, E.W.; Salopek, D.S.; Turner, M.S.

    1990-01-01

    We calculate both the curvature and isocurvature density fluctuations that arise due to quantum fluctuations in a simple model of extended inflation based upon the Jordan-Brans-Dicke theory. The curvature fluctuations that arise due to quantum fluctuations in the Brans-Dicke field in general have a non-scale-invariant spectrum and an amplitude that is cosmologically acceptable and interesting without having to tune any coupling constant to a very small value. The curvature perturbations that arise due to the Higgs field are subdominant. If there are other massless fields in the theory, e.g., an axion or an ilion, then isocurvature fluctuations arise in these fields too. Production of gravitational waves and the massless particles associated with excitations of the Brans-Dicke field are also discussed. Several attempts at more realistic models of extended inflation are also analyzed. The importance of the Einstein conformal frame in calculating curvature fluctuations is emphasized. When viewed in this frame, extended inflation closely resembles slow-rollover inflation with an exponential potential, and the usual formula for the amplitude of curvature perturbations applies directly

  6. Origin of density fluctuations in extended inflation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolb, E.W.; Salopek, D.S.; Turner, M.S.

    1990-05-01

    The density fluctuations (both curvature and isocurvature) that arise due to quantum fluctuations in a simple model of extended inflation based upon the Jordan-Brans-Dicke theory are calculated. Curvature fluctuations arise due to quantum fluctuations in the Brans-Dicke field, in general have a nonscale-invariant spectrum, and can have an amplitude that is cosmologically acceptable and interesting without having to tune any coupling constant to a very small value. The density perturbations that arise due to the inflation field are subdominant. If there are other massless fields in the theory, e.g., an axion or an ilion, then isocurvature fluctuations arise in these fields too. Production of gravitational waves and the massless particles associated with excitations of the Brans-Dicke field are also discussed. Several attempts at more realistic models of extended inflation are also analyzed. The importance of the Einstein conformal frame in calculating curvature fluctuations is emphasized. When viewed in this frame, extended inflation closely resembles slow-rollover inflation with an exponential potential and the usual formula for the amplitude of curvature perturbations applies

  7. Resonance regions of extended Mathieu equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semyonov, V. P.; Timofeev, A. V.

    2016-02-01

    One of the mechanisms of energy transfer between degrees of freedom of dusty plasma system is based on parametric resonance. Initial stage of this process can de described by equation similar to Mathieu equation. Such equation is studied by analytical and numerical approach. The numerical solution of the extended Mathieu equation is obtained for a wide range of parameter values. Boundaries of resonance regions, growth rates of amplitudes and times of onset are obtained. The energy transfer between the degrees of freedom of dusty plasma system can occur over a wide range of frequencies.

  8. The eighth national electromagnetics meeting. Extended abstracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eloranta, E.; Jokela, K. [eds.

    1998-09-01

    The National Electromagnetics Meeting has been arranged annually since 1991 in Finland. The purpose of the meeting is to convene the persons working with problems of electromagnetics and to enhance the interaction between different research groups in different disciplines. The eighth meeting was held at the Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK) August 27, 1998. The meeting is also the national meeting of the URSI (L`Union Radio-Scientifique Internationals)(Commission B: Fields and Waves) and the IEEE MTT/AP/ED Finland Chapter (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc.). The report includes the extended abstracts of the presentations given in the National Electromagnetics Meeting at STUK. (orig.)

  9. Exploring Social Structures in Extended Team Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zahedi, Mansooreh; Ali Babar, Muhammad

    2013-01-01

    generation of GSD technologies, we are exploring the role of social structures to support collaboration. This paper reports some details of our research design and initial findings about the mechanisms to support social structures and their impact on collaboration in an ETM.......Extended Team Model (ETM) as a type of offshore outsourcing is increasingly becoming popular mode of Global Software Development (GSD). There is little knowledge about the social structures in ETM and their impact on collaboration. Within a large interdisciplinary project to develop the next...

  10. Equilibrium double layers in extended Pierce diodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciubotariu-Jassy, C.I.

    1992-01-01

    The extended Pierce diode is similar to the standard (or classical) Pierce diode, but has passive circuit elements in place of the short circuit between the electrodes. This device is important as an approximation to real bounded plasma systems. It consists of two parallel plane electrodes (an emitter located at x=0 and a collector located at x=l) and a collisionless cold electron beam travelling between them. The electrons are neutralized by a background of comoving massive ions. This situation is analysed in this paper and new equilibrium double layer (DL) plasma structures are obtained. (author) 6 refs., 3 figs

  11. Criticality implications of extended fuel burnup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eng, R.

    1985-01-01

    The advantages (and disadvantages) of extended fuel burnup to the operating nuclear utility are well documented. Niagara Mohawk found that increasing the refueling interval from 12 months to 24 months led to a 60% increase in full power days per refueling outage day. Today's incentives include decreasing spent fuel accumulation, increasing plant capacity factors through longer cycles, reducing uranium ore requirements, reducing radiation exposures of workers during refueling, reduced disposal requirements, reduced number of heat-up and cooldown transients, reduced plant security burden (during refueling outages), and reduced manpower time for regulatory review

  12. Extended Stromgren Photoelectric Photometry in NGC 752

    OpenAIRE

    Anthony-Twarog, Barbara J.; Twarog, Bruce A.

    2005-01-01

    Photoelectric photometry on the extended Stromgren system (uvbyCa) is presented for 7 giants and 21 main sequence stars in the old open cluster, NGC 752. Analysis of the hk data for the turnoff stars yields a new determination of the cluster mean metallicity. From 10 single-star members, [Fe/H] = -0.06 +/- 0.03, where the error quoted is the standard error of the mean and the Hyades abundance is set at [Fe/H] = +0.12. This result is unchanged if all 20 stars within the limits of the hk metall...

  13. Extended micro objects as dark matter particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belotsky, K.; Rubin, S.; Svadkovsky, I.

    2017-05-01

    Models of various forms of composite dark matter (DM) predicted by particle theory and the DM constituents formed by gravity that are not reduced to new elementary particle candidates are discussed. Main attention is paid to a gravitational origin of the DM. The influence of extended mass spectrum of primordial black holes on observational limits is considered. It is shown that non-uniformly deformed extra space can be considered as point-like masses which possess only gravitational interaction with each other and with the ordinary particles. The recently discussed six-dimensional stable wormholes could contribute to the DM. The contribution of dark atoms is also considered.

  14. Exploring Social Structures in Extended Team Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zahedi, Mansooreh; Ali Babar, Muhammad

    2013-01-01

    Extended Team Model (ETM) as a type of offshore outsourcing is increasingly becoming popular mode of Global Software Development (GSD). There is little knowledge about the social structures in ETM and their impact on collaboration. Within a large interdisciplinary project to develop the next...... generation of GSD technologies, we are exploring the role of social structures to support collaboration. This paper reports some details of our research design and initial findings about the mechanisms to support social structures and their impact on collaboration in an ETM....

  15. libgapmis: extending short-read alignments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alachiotis, Nikolaos; Berger, Simon; Flouri, Tomáš; Pissis, Solon P; Stamatakis, Alexandros

    2013-01-01

    A wide variety of short-read alignment programmes have been published recently to tackle the problem of mapping millions of short reads to a reference genome, focusing on different aspects of the procedure such as time and memory efficiency, sensitivity, and accuracy. These tools allow for a small number of mismatches in the alignment; however, their ability to allow for gaps varies greatly, with many performing poorly or not allowing them at all. The seed-and-extend strategy is applied in most short-read alignment programmes. After aligning a substring of the reference sequence against the high-quality prefix of a short read--the seed--an important problem is to find the best possible alignment between a substring of the reference sequence succeeding and the remaining suffix of low quality of the read--extend. The fact that the reads are rather short and that the gap occurrence frequency observed in various studies is rather low suggest that aligning (parts of) those reads with a single gap is in fact desirable. In this article, we present libgapmis, a library for extending pairwise short-read alignments. Apart from the standard CPU version, it includes ultrafast SSE- and GPU-based implementations. libgapmis is based on an algorithm computing a modified version of the traditional dynamic-programming matrix for sequence alignment. Extensive experimental results demonstrate that the functions of the CPU version provided in this library accelerate the computations by a factor of 20 compared to other programmes. The analogous SSE- and GPU-based implementations accelerate the computations by a factor of 6 and 11, respectively, compared to the CPU version. The library also provides the user the flexibility to split the read into fragments, based on the observed gap occurrence frequency and the length of the read, thereby allowing for a variable, but bounded, number of gaps in the alignment. We present libgapmis, a library for extending pairwise short-read alignments. We

  16. Relic gravitational waves and extended inflation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, M.S.; Wilczek, F.

    1990-01-01

    In extended inflation, a new version of inflation where the transition from an inflationary to a radiation-dominated Universe is accomplished by bubble nucleation, bubble collisions supply a potent---and potentially detectable---source of gravitational waves. The energy density in relic gravitons from bubble collisions is expected to be about 10 -5 of closure density. Their characteristic wavelength depends upon the reheating temperature T RH: λ∼(10 4 cm)[(10 14 GeV)/T RH ]. If black holes are produced by bubble collisions, they will evaporate producing shorter-wavelength gravitons

  17. Extended Chain of Domination Parameters in Graphs

    OpenAIRE

    Hamid, I. Sahul; Balamurugan, S.

    2013-01-01

    A subset S of the vertex set V(G) of a graph G is called an isolate set if the subgraph induced by S has an isolated vertex. The subset S is called an isolate dominating set if it is both isolate and dominating. Also, S is called an isolate irredundant set if it is both isolate and irredundant. In this paper, we establish a chain connecting various isolate parameters with the existing domination parameters and discuss equality among the parameters in the extended chain.

  18. Multipole moments using extended coupled cluster method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Sayali P.; Vaval, Nayana

    2013-05-01

    Using analytic extended coupled cluster (ECC) response approach quadrupole moments, dipole-quadrupole polarizabilities and dipole polarizabilities are studied. In the current implementation of the functional we have included all the double linked terms within (CCSD) approximation. These terms will be important for the accurate description of properties at the stretched geometries. We report the properties for carbon monoxide and hydrogen fluoride molecules, as a function of bond distance and compare our results for carbon monoxide with the full CI results. We have also reported the properties of methane, tetrafluoromethane, acetylene, difluoroacetylene, water and ammonia.

  19. Extended tree-level gauge mediation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Monaco, M.; Nardecchia, M.; Romanino, A.

    2011-01-01

    Tree-level gauge mediation (TGM) is a scenario of SUSY breaking in which the tree-level exchange of heavy (possibly GUT) vector fields generates flavor-universal sfermion masses. In this work we extend this framework to the case of E(6) that is the natural extension of the minimal case studied so...... if the gauge group does not contain SU(5). If SUSY breaking is mediated purely by the U(1) generator that commutes with SO(10) we obtain universal sfermion masses and thus can derive the CMSSM boundary conditions in a novel scenario....

  20. Pseudo-extended Markov chain Monte Carlo

    OpenAIRE

    Nemeth, Christopher; Lindsten, Fredrik; Filippone, Maurizio; Hensman, James

    2017-01-01

    Sampling from the posterior distribution using Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) methods can require an exhaustive number of iterations to fully explore the correct posterior. This is often the case when the posterior of interest is multi-modal, as the MCMC sampler can become trapped in a local mode for a large number of iterations. In this paper, we introduce the pseudo-extended MCMC method as an approach for improving the mixing of the MCMC sampler in complex posterior distributions. The pseu...

  1. Cambridge IGCSE mathematics core and extended

    CERN Document Server

    Pimentel, Ric

    2013-01-01

    The most cost effective and straightforward way to teach the revised syllabus, with all the core and extended content covered by a single book and accompanying free digital resources.  . This title has been written for the revised Cambridge IGCSE Mathematics (0580) syllabus, for first teaching from 2013.  . ·         Gives students the practice they require to deepen their understanding through plenty of questions. ·         Consolidates learning with unique digital resources on the CD, included free with every Student's Book.  . We are working with Cambridge International Examinations to gain

  2. Extending the Body for Interaction with Reality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feuchtner, Tiare; Müller, Jörg

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we explore how users can control remote devices with a virtual long arm, while preserving the perception that the artificial arm is actually part of their own body. Instead of using pointing, speech, or a remote control, the users’ arm is extended in augmented reality, allowing...... access to devices that are out of reach. Thus, we allow users to directly manipulate real-world objects from a distance using their bare hands. A core difficulty we focus on is how to maintain ownership for the unnaturally long virtual arm, which is the strong feeling that one’s limbs are actually part...

  3. Geology, petrology, U-Pb (shrimp geochronology of the Morrinhos granite -Paraguá terrane, SW Amazonian craton: implications for the magmatic evolution of the San Ignácio orogeny

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ohana França

    Full Text Available Morrinhos granite is a batholith body that is slightly elongated in the NNW direction and approximately 1,140 km2 long; it is located in the municipality of Vila Bela da Santíssima Trindade of the state of Mato Grosso, Brazil, in the Paraguá Terrane, Rondonian-San Ignácio Province, in the SW portion of the Amazonian Craton. This intrusion displays a compositional variation from tonalite to monzogranite, has a medium to coarse inequigranular texture and is locally porphyritic; biotite is the predominant mafic in one of the facies, and hornblende is predominant in the other, with both metamorphosed into the greenschist facies. The studied rocks characterize an intermediate to acidic sequence that was formed by a subalkaline magmatism; the series is alkali-calcic to metaluminous to slightly peraluminous, and the rocks evolved through fractioned crystallization mechanisms. The structural data show two deformation phases represented by penetrative foliation (S1 and open folds (D2, and both phases were most likely related to the San Ignácio Orogeny. The geochronological (U-Pb SHRIMP and isotopic (Sm-Nd investigations of these rocks indicated a crystallization age of 1350 ± 12 Ma, TDMof approximately 1.77 Ga and εNd(1.35with a negative value of -2.57, suggesting that their generation was related to a partial melting process of a Paleoproterozoic (Statherian continental crust. The results herein indicate that the Morrinhos granite was generated in a continental magmatic arc in a late- to post-orogenic stage of the San Ignácio Orogeny, and it can be recognized as belonging to the Pensamiento Intrusive Suite.

  4. Evolution of the Archean continental crust in the nucleus of the Yangtze block: Evidence from geochemistry of 3.0 Ga TTG gneisses in the Kongling high-grade metamorphic terrane, South China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Xiao-Fei; Ling, Wen-Li; Liu, Xiao-Ming; Lu, Shan-Song; Jiang, Tuo; Wei, Yun-Xu; Peng, Lian-Hong; Tan, Juan-Juan

    2018-04-01

    Archean Tonalite-Trondhjemite-Granodiorite (TTG) rocks are scattered within the Kongling high-grade metamorphic terrane (KHMT) in the northern South China block. A comprehensive geochronological and geochemical study is carried out on the Taoyuan granitic gneisses, a newly recognized TTG suite in the northwestern KHMT. This suite has long been regarded as a Mesoproterozoic magmatic pluton, but U-Pb zircon ages of 2994 ± 22 Ma and 2970 ± 15 Ma are obtained by LA-ICP-MS method in this study. The Taoyuan gneiss suite is trondhjemitic in composition, and has high SiO2 (67.80-74.93 wt.%), Na2O (5.11-5.81 wt.%) contents with Na2O/K2O ratios greater than unity, and low Ni (2.56-7.61 ppm), Cr (1.26-7.67 ppm), Yb (0.32-0.82 ppm) and Y (4.48-11.5 ppm) contents. Plots show large variation in La/Yb and Sr/Y ratios and pronounced depletion in Nb, Ta and Ti in the primitive mantle-normalized spiderdiagram. The gneiss suite also displays two-stage Nd model ages close to its crystallization age with corresponding εNd(t) values of -2.5 to +3.5. It is thus suggested that the Taoyuan gneisses, in fact, is part of the Archean Kongling basement complex. Geochemical evidence implies that the TTG rocks may be derived from partial melting of subducted oceanic crust from a garnetiferous amphibolite source with residual assemblage of garnet + amphibole + plagioclase. Our study further indicates that the nucleus of the Yangtze block might experience a juvenile continental crustal growth during Mesoarchean. We also suggest that the Yangtze block may have its own crustal evolutionary history independent from the North China craton and the Tarim block before Paleoproterozoic.

  5. Extended parental care in communal social groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen H. Forbes

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available Recent developments in social insect research have challenged the need for close kinship as a prerequisite for the evolution of stable group living. In a model communal bee species, Lasioglossum (Chilalictus hemichalceum, previous allozyme work indicated that groups of cooperating adult females are not relatives. Yet at any given time, not all group members perform the risky task of foraging. We previously hypothesized that tolerance for non-foragers was a component of extended parental care, previously known only for kin based social systems. DNA microsatellites were used to study colony genetic structure in order to test this hypothesis. Microsatellite polymorphism was substantial (He = 0.775. Overall intracolony relatedness, mainly of immatures, was low but significant in nine, late season nests (r = 0.136 plus or minus0.023, indicating that broods contain five to six unrelated sib ships. Detailed analyses of kinship between pairs of individuals revealed that most pairs were unrelated and most related pairs were siblings. Mothers are absent for 89-91% of the developing immature females, and 97% of developing males. Alternatively, 46% of adult females had neither sibs nor offspring in their nests. These findings indicate that the extended parental care model applies broadly to both kin based and nonkin based social systems in the Hymenoptera.

  6. Intramuscular extended-release naltrexone: current evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gastfriend, David R

    2011-01-01

    Extended-release naltrexone (XR-NTX; Vivitrol), developed to address poor adherence in addictive disorders, is approved for use in alcohol and opioid-dependence disorders. In alcohol-dependent adults with ≥ 4-day initial abstinence, XR-NTX increased initial and 6-month abstinence. An fMRI study found that XR-NTX attenuated the salience of alcohol visual and olfactory cues in the absence of alcohol, and post hoc analyses demonstrated efficacy even during high cue-exposure holiday periods. Safety and tolerability have generally been good, without adverse hepatic impact or intractable acute pain management. XR-NTX use appears feasible in primary care and public systems, and retrospective claims analyses have found cost savings and decreased intensive service utilization relative to oral agents. In opioid dependence, following detoxification, XR-NTX shows efficacy for maintaining abstinence, improving retention, decreasing craving, and preventing relapse. Trials are also exploring its use for the treatment of stimulant dependence. XR-NTX appears compatible with counseling and self-help attendance. While more research is needed, current findings suggest that a formulation of naltrexone that was sought beginning over three decades ago is fulfilling its promise as an extended-release pharmacotherapeutic. © 2011 New York Academy of Sciences.

  7. An extended synthesis for evolutionary biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pigliucci, Massimo

    2009-06-01

    Evolutionary theory is undergoing an intense period of discussion and reevaluation. This, contrary to the misleading claims of creationists and other pseudoscientists, is no harbinger of a crisis but rather the opposite: the field is expanding dramatically in terms of both empirical discoveries and new ideas. In this essay I briefly trace the conceptual history of evolutionary theory from Darwinism to neo-Darwinism, and from the Modern Synthesis to what I refer to as the Extended Synthesis, a more inclusive conceptual framework containing among others evo-devo, an expanded theory of heredity, elements of complexity theory, ideas about evolvability, and a reevaluation of levels of selection. I argue that evolutionary biology has never seen a paradigm shift, in the philosophical sense of the term, except when it moved from natural theology to empirical science in the middle of the 19th century. The Extended Synthesis, accordingly, is an expansion of the Modern Synthesis of the 1930s and 1940s, and one that--like its predecessor--will probably take decades to complete.

  8. Extended sequence diagram for human system interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Jong Rok; Choi, Sun Woo; Ko, Hee Ran; Kim, Jong Hyun

    2012-01-01

    Unified Modeling Language (UML) is a modeling language in the field of object oriented software engineering. The sequence diagram is a kind of interaction diagram that shows how processes operate with one another and in what order. It is a construct of a message sequence chart. It depicts the objects and classes involved in the scenario and the sequence of messages exchanged between the objects needed to carry out the functionality of the scenario. This paper proposes the Extended Sequence Diagram (ESD), which is capable of depicting human system interaction for nuclear power plants, as well as cognitive process of operators analysis. In the conventional sequence diagram, there is a limit to only identify the activities of human and systems interactions. The ESD is extended to describe operators' cognitive process in more detail. The ESD is expected to be used as a task analysis method for describing human system interaction. The ESD can also present key steps causing abnormal operations or failures and diverse human errors based on cognitive condition

  9. Extended release formulations for local anaesthetic agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiniger, C F; Golovanevski, L; Domb, A J; Ickowicz, D

    2012-08-01

    Systemic toxicity through overdose of local anaesthetic agents is a real concern. By encapsulating local anaesthetics in biodegradable carriers to produce a system for prolonged release, their duration of action can be extended. This encapsulation should also improve the safety profile of the local anaesthetic as it is released at a slower rate. Work with naturally occurring local anaestheticss has also shown promise in the area of reducing systemic and neurotoxicity. Extended duration local anaesthetic formulations in current development or clinical use include liposomes, hydrophobic based polymer particles such as Poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) microspheres, pasty injectable and solid polymers like Poly(sebacic-co-ricinoleic acid) P(SA:RA) and their combination with synthetic and natural local anaesthetic. Their duration of action, rationale and limitations are reviewed. Direct comparison of the different agents is limited by their chemical properties, the drug doses encapsulated and the details of in vivo models described. Anaesthesia © 2012 The Association of Anaesthetists of Great Britain and Ireland.

  10. Extended life aluminide fuel. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, L.G.; Beeston, J.M.

    1986-06-01

    As the price of fuel fabrication, shipment of both new and spent fuel, and fuel reprocessing continue to rise at a rapid rate, researchers look for alternate methods to keep reactor fuel costs within their limited funding. Extended fuel element lifetimes, without jeopardizing reactor safety, can reduce fuel costs by up to a factor of two. The Extended Life Aluminide (ELAF) program was started at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) as a joint project of the United States Department of Energy (DOE), the University of Missouri, and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology research reactors. Fuel plates of Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) type construction were fabricated at Atomics International and irradiated in the ATR at the INEL. Four fuel matrix compositions were tested (i.e., 50 vol% UAl/sub x/ cores for reference, and 40, 45 and 50 vol% UAl 2 cores). The 50 vol% UAl 2 cores contained up to 3 grams U-235 per cm 3 of core. Three plates of each composition were irradiated to peak burnup levels of 3 x 10 21 fission/cm 3 of core. The only observed damage was due to external corrosion at similar rates experienced by UAl/sub x/ fuel elements in test reactors

  11. Extending Conceptual Schemas with Business Process Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Brambilla

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The specification of business processes is becoming a more and more critical aspect for organizations. Such processes are specified as workflow models expressing the logical precedence among the different business activities (i.e., the units of work. Typically, workflow models are managed through specific subsystems, called workflow management systems, to ensure a consistent behavior of the applications with respect to the organization business process. However, for small organizations and/or simple business processes, the complexity and capabilities of these dedicated workflow engines may be overwhelming. In this paper, we therefore, advocate for a different and lightweight approach, consisting in the integration of the business process specification within the system conceptual schema. We show how a workflow-extended conceptual schema can be automatically obtained, which serves both to enforce the organization business process and to manage all its relevant domain data in a unified way. This extended model can be directly processed with current CASE tools, for instance, to generate an implementation of the system (including its business process in any technological platform.

  12. Bilateral thoracoscopic extended thymectomy versus sternotomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorelli, Alfonso; Mazzella, Antonio; Cascone, Roberto; Caronia, Francesco Paolo; Arrigo, Ettore; Santini, Mario

    2016-07-01

    Complete open surgical resection is the standard treatment for thymoma and myasthenia gravis. We evaluated the feasibility of bilateral video-assisted thoracoscopic extended thymectomy, and compared it to surgery via sternotomy. From 2011 to 2014, 43 patients undergoing thymectomy were divided into 2 groups: 23 underwent video-assisted thoracoscopic extended thymectomy, and 20 had thymectomy via sternotomy. The primary outcomes were postoperative pain score (visual analog scale) at 6, 12, 24, 48, and 72 h, and 1-month postoperatively, and morphine consumption in the first 48 h. Secondary outcomes were surgical and clinical results. There were no significant differences between the 2 groups in terms of demographics and preoperative clinical data. Compared to the sternotomy group, the video-assisted thoracoscopic thymectomy group had lower pain scores and morphine consumption at all time points, significantly less operative blood loss and chest drainage volume, and shorter hospital stay. The rates of improvement in myasthenia gravis were 85% and 86% in the video-assisted thoracoscopic thymectomy and sternotomy groups, respectively. No recurrence of thymoma was found in either group (median follow-up 27 months). Our results seem to confirm that in selected cases, video-assisted thoracoscopic thymectomy allows complete resection of thymus and perithymic tissue, similar to sternotomy but with the known advantages of minimally invasive surgery including less pain and a good cosmetic result. © The Author(s) 2016.

  13. Extending Teach and Repeat to Pivoting Wheelchairs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Del Castillo

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper extends the teach-and-repeat paradigm that has been successful for the control of holonomic robots to nonholonomic wheelchairs which may undergo pivoting action over the course of their taught movement. Due to the nonholonomic nature of the vehicle kinematics, estimation is required -- in the example given herein, based upon video detection of wall-mounted cues -- both in the teaching and the tracking events. In order to accommodate motion that approaches pivoting action as well as motion that approaches straight-line action, the estimation equations of the Extended Kalman Filter and the control equations are formulated using two different definitions of a nontemporal independent variable. The paper motivates the need for pivoting action in real-life settings by reporting extensively on the abilities and limitations of estimation-based teach-and-repeat action where pivoting and near-pivoting action is disallowed. Following formulation of the equations in the near-pivot mode, the paper reports upon experiments where taught trajectories which entail a seamless mix of near-straight and near-pivot action are tracked.

  14. Thyroid Cancer in Children of Eastern Anatolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Kaya

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The incidence of thyroid cancer has been increasing in recent years. In this study, the clinical and laboratory findings of 14 patients with thyroid cancer were analysed retrospectively. They were admitted to our clinic with complaints of swelling of the neck. Methods: This study was performed in the Paediatric Endocrinology Polyclinics of Ataturk University Faculty of Medicine between 2008 and 2013. Patients with a diagnosis of thyroid cancer/hyperplasia were included. Patients’ age and gender, a family history of goitre and thyroid cancer, and exposure to radiation were elicited. Free thyroxine (T4, thyroid stimulating hormone, thyroglobulin and urinary iodine levels were measured. Ultrasonographic characteristics of nodules were determined. Fine-needle aspiration biopsy was performed if nodules were ≥ 10 mm in diameter. Results: The number of males and females was equal. There was no history of neck radiation. Grade 4 and grade 3 goitres were detected in four (28.5% and 10 (71.4% of 14 patients, respectively. The use of rock and iodized salt was determined in nine (64.2% and three (21.4% patients, respectively, while two (14.2% patients have been using both forms of salt. According to biopsy findings, benign thyroid tissue was present in three (21.4% patients, while papillary cancer, follicular carcinoma and hyperplasia were determined in six (42.8%, three (21.4% and five (35.7% patients, respectively. Conclusion: Even if the biopsy findings are normal, surgery must be done in the presence of a history of bleeding in a nodule, fixation of a nodule and cervical lymphadenopathy. Iodine deficiency is an important risk factor for thyroid cancer. People should be informed about iodine deficiency and iodized products should be provided to those who live in areas with endemic iodine deficiency.

  15. A Novel Biped Pattern Generator Based on Extended ZMP and Extended Cart-Table Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangbin Sun

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on planning patterns for biped walking on complex terrains. Two problems are solved: ZMP (zero moment point cannot be used on uneven terrain, and the conventional cart-table model does not allow vertical CM (centre of mass motion. For the ZMP definition problem, we propose the extended ZMP (EZMP concept as an extension of ZMP to uneven terrains. It can be used to judge dynamic balance on universal terrains. We achieve a deeper insight into the connection and difference between ZMP and EZMP by adding different constraints. For the model problem, we extend the cart-table model by using a dynamic constraint instead of constant height constraint, which results in a mathematically symmetric set of three equations. In this way, the vertical motion is enabled and the resultant equations are still linear. Based on the extended ZMP concept and extended cart-table model, a biped pattern generator using triple preview controllers is constructed and implemented simultaneously to three dimensions. Using the proposed pattern generator, the Atlas robot is simulated. The simulation results show the robot can walk stably on rather complex terrains by accurately tracking extended ZMP.

  16. Inclusive distributions in extended leading logarithms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwa, R.C.; Wosiek, J.

    1978-08-01

    The transverse momentum distribution of the partons is first studied in perturbative QCD in the leading logarithms approximation. The connection of the parton ksub(T) with scaling violation is clarified. The inclusive cross sections for deep inelastic scattering and lepton pair production are then investigated in an extended leading logarithms approximation in which the relevant gluons are allowed to be emitted at arbitrary angles. In that way general expressions are obtained for the inclusive distributions that are valid for any detected transverse moment qsub(T). The result for lepton-pair production is in a nonfactorizable form. However, upon investigation over qsub(T) is leads to dσ/dM 2 given by the factorizable Drell-Yan formula. For large q 2 sub(T) it also has the usual parton model interpretation. Phenomenological implication of the results is also discussed. (author)

  17. Optical flow computation using extended constraints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Bimbo, A; Nesi, P; Sanz, J C

    1996-01-01

    Several approaches for optical flow estimation use partial differential equations to model changes in image brightness throughout time. A commonly used equation is the so-called optical flow constraint (OFC), which assumes that the image brightness is stationary with respect to time. More recently, a different constraint referred to as the extended optical flow constraint (EOFC) has been introduced, which also contains the divergence of the flow field of image brightness. There is no agreement in the literature about which of these constraints provides the best estimation of the velocity field. Two new solutions for optical flow computation are proposed, which are based on an approximation of the constraint equations. The two techniques have been used with both EOFC and OFC constraint equations. Results achieved by using these solutions have been compared with several well-known computational methods for optical flow estimation in different motion conditions. Estimation errors have also been measured and compared for different types of motion.

  18. Extended equal areas criterion: foundations and applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yusheng, Xue [Nanjim Automation Research Institute, Nanjim (China)

    1994-12-31

    The extended equal area criterion (EEAC) provides analytical expressions for ultra fast transient stability assessment, flexible sensitivity analysis, and means to preventive and emergency controls. Its outstanding performances have been demonstrated by thousands upon thousands simulations on more than 50 real power systems and by on-line operation records in an EMS environment of Northeast China Power System since September 1992. However, the researchers have mainly based on heuristics and simulations. This paper lays a theoretical foundation of EEAC and brings to light the mechanism of transient stability. It proves true that the dynamic EEAC furnishes a necessary and sufficient condition for stability of multi machine systems with any detailed models, in the sense of the integration accuracy. This establishes a new platform for further advancing EEAC and better understanding of problems. An overview of EEAC applications in China is also given in this paper. (author) 30 refs.

  19. Angle-resolved photoemission extended fine structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barton, J.J.

    1985-03-01

    Measurements of the Angle-Resolved Photoemission Extended Fine Structure (ARPEFS) from the S(1s) core level of a c(2 x 2)S/Ni(001) are analyzed to determine the spacing between the S overlayer and the first and second Ni layers. ARPEFS is a type of photoelectron diffraction measurement in which the photoelectron kinetic energy is swept typically from 100 to 600 eV. By using this wide range of intermediate energies we add high precision and theoretical simplification to the advantages of the photoelectron diffraction technique for determining surface structures. We report developments in the theory of photoelectron scattering in the intermediate energy range, measurement of the experimental photoemission spectra, their reduction to ARPEFS, and the surface structure determination from the ARPEFS by combined Fourier and multiple-scattering analyses. 202 refs., 67 figs., 2 tabs

  20. Extended constitutive laws for lamellar phases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Deuk Yoo

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Classically, stress and strain rate in linear viscoelastic materials are related by a constitutive relationship involving the viscoelastic modulus G(t. The same constitutive law, within Linear Response Theory, relates currents of conserved quantities and gradients of existing conjugate variables, and it involves the autocorrelation functions of the currents in equilibrium. We explore the consequences of the latter relationship in the case of a mesoscale model of a block copolymer, and derive the resulting relationship between viscous friction and order parameter diffusion that would result in a lamellar phase. We also explicitly consider in our derivation the fact that the dissipative part of the stress tensor must be consistent with the uniaxial symmetry of the phase. We then obtain a relationship between the stress and order parameter autocorrelation functions that can be interpreted as an extended constitutive law, one that offers a way to determine them from microscopic experiment or numerical simulation.