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Sample records for anatolia chemical characterisation

  1. Regional Geothermal Characterisation of East Anatolia from Aeromagnetic, Heat Flow and Gravity Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bektaş, Özcan; Ravat, Dhananjay; Büyüksaraç, Aydin; Bilim, Funda; Ateş, Abdullah

    2007-05-01

    East Anatolia is a region of high topography made up of a 2-km high plateau and Neogene and Quaternary volcanics overlying the subduction-accretion complex formed by the process of collision. The aeromagnetic and gravity data surveyed by the Mineral Research and Exploration (MTA) of Turkey have been used to interpret qualitatively the characteristics of the near-surface geology of the region. The residual aeromagnetic data were low-pass filtered and analyzed to produce the estimates of magnetic bottom using the centroid method and by forward modelling of spectra to evaluate the uncertainties in such estimates. The magnetic bottom estimates can be indicative of temperatures in the crust because magnetic minerals lose their spontaneous magnetization at the Curie temperature of the dominant magnetic minerals in the rocks and, thus, also are called Curie point depths (CPDs). The Curie point depths over the region of Eastern Anatolia vary from 12.9 to 22.6 km. Depths computed from forward modelling of spectra with 200 600 km window sizes suggest that the bottom depths from East Anatolia from the magnetic data may have errors exceeding 5 km; however, most of the obtained depths appear to lie in the above range and indicate that the lower crust is either demagnetized or non-magnetic. In the interpretation of the magnetic map, we also used reduction-to-pole (RTP) and amplitude of total gradient of high-pass filtered anomalies, which reduced dipolar orientation effects of induced aeromagnetic anomalies. However, the features of the RTP and the total gradient of the high-pass filtered aeromagnetic anomalies are not highly correlated to the hot spring water locations. On the other hand, many high-amplitude features seen on the total gradient map can be correlated with the ophiolitic rocks observed on the surface. This interpretation is supported by Bouguer gravity data. In this paper, we recommend that the sources of the widespread thermal activity seen in East Anatolia must

  2. SOME PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF THE RICE GROWN SOILS OF CENTRAL ANATOLIA REGION

    OpenAIRE

    TABAN, SÜleyman; Alpaslan, Mehmet; HASHEMI, Aioub G.; EKEN, Dürdane

    1997-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the fertility status of the rice grown soils of Central Anatolia region. For this purpose, 40 soil samples were taken and analyzed for some physical and chemical properties. In general, the experimental soils were clay and loamy clay in texture, medium alkaline in reaction (pH) and moderately calcareous. 60, 25, 30 and 95 % of the soils studied were found to be deficient in total-N, plant available phosphorus, zinc and manganese, respectively. On the ot...

  3. Microscopic characterisation of suspended graphene grown by chemical vapour deposition

    OpenAIRE

    Bignardi, Luca; van Dorp, Willem F; Gottardi, Stefano; Ivashenko, Oleksii; Dudin, Pavel; Barinov, Alexei; de Hosson, Jeff Th. M.; Stöhr, Meike; Rudolf, Petra

    2013-01-01

    We present a multi-technique characterisation of graphene grown by chemical vapour deposition (CVD) and thereafter transferred to and suspended on a grid for transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The properties of the electronic band structure are investigated by angle-resolved photoelectron spectromicroscopy, while the structural and crystalline properties are studied by TEM and Raman spectroscopy. We demonstrate that the suspended graphene membrane locally shows electronic properties comp...

  4. Thermoluminescence characterisation of chemical vapour deposited diamond films

    CERN Document Server

    Mazzocchi, S; Bucciolini, M; Cuttone, G; Pini, S; Sabini, M G; Sciortino, S

    2002-01-01

    The thermoluminescence (TL) characteristics of a set of six chemical vapour deposited diamond films have been studied with regard to their use as off-line dosimeters in radiotherapy. The structural characterisation has been performed by means of Raman spectroscopy. Their TL responses have been tested with radiotherapy beams ( sup 6 sup 0 Co photons, photons and electrons from a linear accelerator (Linac), 26 MeV protons from a TANDEM accelerator) in the dose range 0.1-7 Gy. The dosimetric characterisation has yielded a very good reproducibility, a very low dependence of the TL response on the type of particle and independence of the radiation energy. The TL signal is not influenced by the dose rate and exhibits a very low thermal fading. Moreover, the sensitivity of the diamond samples compares favourably with that of standard TLD100 dosimeters.

  5. Microscopic characterisation of suspended graphene grown by chemical vapour deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bignardi, Luca; van Dorp, Willem F.; Gottardi, Stefano; Ivashenko, Oleksii; Dudin, Pavel; Barinov, Alexei; de Hosson, Jeff Th. M.; Stöhr, Meike; Rudolf, Petra

    2013-09-01

    We present a multi-technique characterisation of graphene grown by chemical vapour deposition (CVD) and thereafter transferred to and suspended on a grid for transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The properties of the electronic band structure are investigated by angle-resolved photoelectron spectromicroscopy, while the structural and crystalline properties are studied by TEM and Raman spectroscopy. We demonstrate that the suspended graphene membrane locally shows electronic properties comparable with those of samples prepared by micromechanical cleaving of graphite. Measurements show that the area of high quality suspended graphene is limited by the folding of the graphene during the transfer.

  6. Microscopic characterisation of suspended graphene grown by chemical vapour deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bignardi, Luca; van Dorp, Willem F; Gottardi, Stefano; Ivashenko, Oleksii; Dudin, Pavel; Barinov, Alexei; De Hosson, Jeff Th M; Stöhr, Meike; Rudolf, Petra

    2013-10-01

    We present a multi-technique characterisation of graphene grown by chemical vapour deposition (CVD) and thereafter transferred to and suspended on a grid for transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The properties of the electronic band structure are investigated by angle-resolved photoelectron spectromicroscopy, while the structural and crystalline properties are studied by TEM and Raman spectroscopy. We demonstrate that the suspended graphene membrane locally shows electronic properties comparable with those of samples prepared by micromechanical cleaving of graphite. Measurements show that the area of high quality suspended graphene is limited by the folding of the graphene during the transfer. PMID:23945527

  7. Chemical characterisation of fine particles from biomass burning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saarnio, K.

    2013-10-15

    Biomass burning has lately started to attract attention because there is a need to decrease the carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emissions from the combustion of fossil fuels. Biomass is considered as CO{sub 2} neutral fuel. However, the burning of biomass is one of the major sources of fine particles both at the local and global scale. In addition to the use of biomass as a fuel for heat energy production, biomass burning emissions can be caused, e.g. by slash-and-burn agriculture and wild open-land fires. Indeed, the emissions from biomass burning are crucially important for the assessment of the potential impacts on global climate and local air quality and hence on human health. The chemical composition of fine particles has a notable influence on these impacts. The overall object of this thesis was to gain knowledge on the chemistry of fine particles that originate from biomass burning as well as on the contribution of biomass burning emissions to the ambient fine particle concentrations. For this purpose novel analytical methods were developed and tested in this thesis. Moreover, the thesis is based on ambient aerosol measurements that were carried out in six European countries at 12 measurement sites during 2002-2011. Additionally, wood combustion experiments were conducted in a laboratory. The measurements included a wide range of techniques: filter and impactor samplings, offline chemical analyses (chromatographic and mass spectrometric techniques, thermal-optical method), and online measurements of particles' physical properties and chemical composition (incl. particle number and mass concentrations and size distributions, concentrations of carbonaceous components, water-soluble ions, and tracer compounds). This thesis presents main results of different studies aimed towards chemical characterisation of fine particle emissions from biomass burning. It was found that wood combustion had a significant influence on atmospheric fine particle concentrations in

  8. Trouble in Anatolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nick R Anthonisen

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In this issue of the Canadian Respiratory Journal, Gulmez et al (pages 287-290 review the presentation, management and outcome of malignant mesothelioma in central Anatolia, Turkey. There is nothing particularly new about the disease here; it presents with chest pain, dyspnea and pleural effusion, is diagnosed by biopsy and has a miserable outcome whatever is done for it, just like malignant mesothelioma in Canada. Mesothelioma in Anatolia is unusual in that it is very common, with an approximately equal sex distribution, and frequently occurs in relatively young people. The reasons for this are not a mystery. Anatolia is a volcanic area; there is a lot of asbestos on or near the surface, and it is widely used as construction material, in painting, and as insulation (pages 287-290! Asbestos related disease is due to environmental, not occupational exposure, and exposure is more intense and occurs at an earlier age than in Canada. Not only that, but some areas of Anatolia are rich in erionite, and people build homes in and on erionite-bearing rocks. Erionite is apparently something like asbestos but worse in terms of carcinogenicity (1, perhaps because its crystals have large surface areas, and areas with erionite have an even higher incidence of mesothelioma.

  9. Characterisation of gaharu hydrosol: Physical, chemical and microbiological properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaharu hydrosol is produced during the hydro distillation of resinous wood part of Aquilaria sp. This aromatic water is being considered as a by-product in the industry. There is interest to turn this aromatic by-product into aroma therapy products. The present study is carried out in order to understand the properties of gaharu hydrosol, physically, chemically and microbiologically. Gaharu hydrosol from two different extraction facilities for example at Kedaik Agar wood Sdn. Bhd. and Malaysian Nuclear Agency were characterised in this study. All the gaharu hydrosol samples displayed acidic nature, with pH in the range of 3.62 - 4.53. Four antioxidant assays were carried out to ascertain the antioxidant capabilities of two gaharu hydrosol samples through the total phenolic content assay, ABTS+ radical scavenging activity, DPPH· radical scavenging activity and ferric reducing activity (FRAP). The results revealed that the samples exhibited lower antioxidant capabilities as compared to the positive control. For microbial population study, fungi was not present in the samples as there was no growth observed on the Plate Sabouraud Dextrose Agar (SDA) using membrane filtration technique. The antibacterial activity of the gaharu hydrosol against Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa was determined using agar dilution method and disk diffusion method. The results showed that the gaharu hydrosol did not inhibit the growth of both the bacteria. The results obtained from this study will be further evaluated for the development of new products using this aromatic gaharu by-product. (author)

  10. Physico-chemical characterisation of material fractions in household waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Götze, Ramona; Boldrin, Alessio; Scheutz, Charlotte;

    2016-01-01

    to the data selection from literature. Overall, 97 publications were reviewed with respect to employed characterisation method, regional origin of the waste, number of investigated parameters and material fractions and other qualitative aspects. Descriptive statistical analysis of the reported physico...

  11. Chemical characterisation of african dust transported to Canary Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelado, M. D.; López, P.; Prieto, S.; Collado, C.; Hernández, J. J.

    2009-04-01

    African dust pulses have important effects on the climate conditions and the marine biogeochemistry in the Canary Region. Aerosol samples have been collected at three stations on Gran Canaria Island (Taliarte at sea level, Tafira 269 m a.s.l. and Pico de la Gorra 1930 m a.s.l.) during 2000-2008. Elemental characterisation of the collected mineral aerosol and back trajectories of the air masses are used to distinguish regional African sources of dust. Dust aerosol samples from North Sahara (Morocco, North Algeria and Tunisia), West and Central Sahara (20°-30°N, 18°W-50°E) and Sahel (0°-20°N, 18°W-50°E) have shown different Ca/Ti, Al/Ti and Fe/Al ratios. Ti appears as a better tracer element of specific source of dust than Fe, probably due to a less mineral alteration during the atmospheric transport.

  12. Chemical characterisation and application of acid whey in fermented milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lievore, Paolla; Simões, Deise R S; Silva, Karolline M; Drunkler, Northon L; Barana, Ana C; Nogueira, Alessandro; Demiate, Ivo M

    2015-04-01

    Acid whey is a by-product from cheese processing that can be employed in beverage formulations due to its high nutritional quality. The objective of the present work was to study the physicochemical characterisation of acid whey from Petit Suisse-type cheese production and use this by-product in the formulation of fermented milk, substituting water. In addition, a reduction in the fermentation period was tested. Both the final product and the acid whey were analysed considering physicochemical determinations, and the fermented milk was evaluated by means of sensory analysis, including multiple comparison and acceptance tests, as well as purchase intention. The results of the physicochemical analyses showed that whey which was produced during both winter and summer presented higher values of protein (1.22 and 0.97 %, w/v, respectively), but there were no differences in lactose content. During the autumn, the highest solid extract was found in whey (6.00 %, w/v), with larger amounts of lactose (4.73 %, w/v) and ash (0.83 %, w/v). When analysing the fermented milk produced with added acid whey, the acceptance test resulted in 90 % of acceptance; the purchase intention showed that 54 % of the consumers would 'certainly buy' and 38 % would 'probably buy' the product. Using acid whey in a fermented milk formulation was technically viable, allowing by-product value aggregation, avoiding discharge, lowering water consumption and shortening the fermentation period. PMID:25829588

  13. Physical, microscopic and chemical characterisation of industrial rye and wheat brans from the Nordic countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamal-Eldin, A; Lærke, Helle Nygaard; Bach Knudsen, Knud Erik;

    2009-01-01

    Background: Epidemiological studies show inverse relationship between intake of wholegrain cereals and several chronic diseases. Components and mechanisms behind possible protective effects of wholegrain cereals are poorly understood. Objective: To characterise commercial rye bran preparations, c...... variation in the chemical composition of industrially produced rye brans calls for the need of standardisation of this commodity, especially when used as a functional ingredient in foods....

  14. Chemical-mineralogical characterisation of coarse recycled concrete aggregate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limbachiya, M C; Marrocchino, E; Koulouris, A

    2007-01-01

    The construction industry is now putting greater emphasis than ever before on increasing recycling and promoting more sustainable waste management practices. In keeping with this approach, many sectors of the industry have actively sought to encourage the use of recycled concrete aggregate (RCA) as an alternative to primary aggregates in concrete production. The results of a laboratory experimental programme aimed at establishing chemical and mineralogical characteristics of coarse RCA and its likely influence on concrete performance are reported in this paper. Commercially produced coarse RCA and natural aggregates (16-4 mm size fraction) were tested. Results of X-ray fluorescence (XRF) analyses showed that original source of RCA had a negligible effect on the major elements and a comparable chemical composition between recycled and natural aggregates. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses results indicated the presence of calcite, portlandite and minor peaks of muscovite/illite in recycled aggregates, although they were directly proportioned to their original composition. The influence of 30%, 50%, and 100% coarse RCA on the chemical composition of equal design strength concrete has been established, and its suitability for use in a concrete application has been assessed. In this work, coarse RCA was used as a direct replacement for natural gravel in concrete production. Test results indicated that up to 30% coarse RCA had no effect on the main three oxides (SiO2, Al2O3 and CaO) of concrete, but thereafter there was a marginal decrease in SiO2 and increase in Al2O3 and CaO contents with increase in RCA content in the mix, reflecting the original constituent's composition.

  15. Chemical-mineralogical characterisation of coarse recycled concrete aggregate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limbachiya, M C; Marrocchino, E; Koulouris, A

    2007-01-01

    The construction industry is now putting greater emphasis than ever before on increasing recycling and promoting more sustainable waste management practices. In keeping with this approach, many sectors of the industry have actively sought to encourage the use of recycled concrete aggregate (RCA) as an alternative to primary aggregates in concrete production. The results of a laboratory experimental programme aimed at establishing chemical and mineralogical characteristics of coarse RCA and its likely influence on concrete performance are reported in this paper. Commercially produced coarse RCA and natural aggregates (16-4 mm size fraction) were tested. Results of X-ray fluorescence (XRF) analyses showed that original source of RCA had a negligible effect on the major elements and a comparable chemical composition between recycled and natural aggregates. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses results indicated the presence of calcite, portlandite and minor peaks of muscovite/illite in recycled aggregates, although they were directly proportioned to their original composition. The influence of 30%, 50%, and 100% coarse RCA on the chemical composition of equal design strength concrete has been established, and its suitability for use in a concrete application has been assessed. In this work, coarse RCA was used as a direct replacement for natural gravel in concrete production. Test results indicated that up to 30% coarse RCA had no effect on the main three oxides (SiO2, Al2O3 and CaO) of concrete, but thereafter there was a marginal decrease in SiO2 and increase in Al2O3 and CaO contents with increase in RCA content in the mix, reflecting the original constituent's composition. PMID:16574393

  16. An improved technique for the rapid chemical characterisation of bacterial terpene cyclases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickschat, Jeroen S; Pahirulzaman, Khomaizon A K; Rabe, Patrick; Klapschinski, Tim A

    2014-04-14

    A derivative of the pET28c(+) expression vector was constructed. It contains a yeast replication system (2μ origin of replication) and a yeast selectable marker (URA3), and can be used for gene cloning in yeast by efficient homologous recombination, and for heterologous expression in E. coli. The vector was used for the expression and chemical characterisation of three bacterial terpene cyclases. PMID:24573945

  17. A Study on the Autecology of Reseda lutea L. (Resedaceae) Distributed in Western Anatolia

    OpenAIRE

    Doğan, Yunus

    2001-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the autecological characteristics of Reseda lutea L. (Resedaceae) distributed in Western Anatolia. The chemical and physical analysis was carried out on soil and plant samples collected from 54 different localities in Western Anatolia. The results show that the plant generally prefers sandy-loam and sandy-clayey-loam textural soils, with a slightly alkaline or medium alkaline pH. They prefer non-saline, calcareous soils which are poor in potassium and ph...

  18. Chemical and physical characterisation of biomass-based pyrolysis oils. Literature view

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fagernaes, L. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland). Energy Production Technologies

    1995-12-31

    Biomass-based pyrolysis oils are complex mixtures of mainly organic compounds and water. The determination of their physical and chemical properties and chemical composition is a challenge for researchers. Characterisation of biomass pyrolysis oils has been studied at many universities in North America and Europe in the 1980s and 1990s. The existing literature on the analytical methods used for these oils is reviewed in this report. For characterising the chemical composition, the bio-oils have first been mainly fractionated into different classes. Solvent extraction and adsorption chromatography are the most general methods used. In adsorption chromatography, the oils have been fractionated into different hydrocarbon and polar fractions. The fractions obtained have been analysed with various chromatographic and spectroscopic methods. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) technique is the analytical method most widely used and well adaptable for the fractions. For high-molecular-mass and highly polar compounds liquid chromatographic (LC) techniques as well as infrared (FT-IR) and nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR and 13C NMR) spectroscopies are more suitable due to the low volatility of pyrolysis oils. For whole pyrolysis oils, LC techniques, primarily size exclusion chromatography and FT-IR and FT-NMR spectroscopies have proved to be useful methods

  19. Chemical and toxicological characterisation of water accommodated fractions relevant for oil spill situations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The laboratory methodology and preliminary findings from an ongoing characterisation study of Water Accommodated Fraction solutions (WAF) (water systems with dissolved oil components, which is essentially free of dispersed oil droplets) derived from standardised low energy mixing of oils in seawater is presented. The study emphasises a tight connection between chemical characterisation and toxicological testing of WAF, and aims at obtaining improved and realistic data on potential environmental effects in the water column after an oil spill situation. Various oil types and the aspect of weathering (evaporative loss and photolysis) of oil is incorporated in the study. Preliminary results have identified large variation in the composition and toxicity of WAFs depending on the type of crude, oil loading rate (oil:water ratio) and weathering degree of the oils. Data from the study will be used for improving algorithms in present fate and effect models, which again will be used as quantitative tools in future damage assessment studies and in Net Environmental Benefit Analysis of response alternatives in various spill scenarios. (author)

  20. Characterisation of waste derived biochar added biocomposites: chemical and thermal modifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Oisik; Sarmah, Ajit K; Zujovic, Zoran; Bhattacharyya, Debes

    2016-04-15

    A step towards sustainability was taken by incorporating waste based pyrolysed biochar in wood and polypropylene biocomposites. The effect of biochar particles on the chemistry and thermal makeup of the composites was determined by characterising them through an array of characterisation techniques such as 3D optical profiling, X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, electron spin/nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and differential scanning calorimetry. It was observed that addition of biochar increased the presence of free radicals in the composite while also improving its thermal conductivity. Biochar particles did not interfere with the melting behaviour of polymer in the thermal regime. However, wood and biochar acted as nucleation agents consequently increasing the crystallisation temperature. The crystal structure of polypropylene was not disrupted by biochar inclusion in composite. Transmission electron microscopy images illustrated the aggregated nature of the biochar particles at higher loading levels. Nuclear magnetic resonance studies revealed the aromatic nature of biochar and the broadening of peak intensities of composites with increasing biochar levels due to its amorphous nature and presence of free radicals. Thus, this insight into the chemical and thermal modification of biochar added composites would allow effective engineering to optimise their properties while simultaneously utilising wastes. PMID:26808404

  1. [New biological active derivatives of indomethacin and acetylsalicylic acid. Synthesis, physico-chemical characterisation and structure validation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stan, Catalina; Stefanache, Alina; Dumitrache, M

    2006-01-01

    It is well known that niflumic acid glycinamide has a good antiinflammatory action useful in gum inflammatory diseases. The objective of this study was to obtain new glycinamides of acetylsalicylic acid and indomethacin, which could have a better antiinflammatory action than niflumic acid glycinamide. The study presents the synthesis, physico-chemical characterisation and structure validation of these glycinamides.

  2. Low-pressure Chemical Vapour Deposition of Silicon Nanoparticles:Synthesis and Characterisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Kumar

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available emiconductor nanostructures such as quantum wells, quantum wires or quantum dots exhibit superior properties in comparison to their bulk forms. Quantum dots are described aszero-dimensional electron gas system, as carriers are confined in all the three directions. Densityof states is discrete function of energy. Allowed energy spectrum is discrete like in an atom.Energy band gap is broadened due to carriers confinement. Semiconductor quantum dots exhibittypical coulomb blockade characteristic which is exploited for development of new generationof nanoelectronic devices namely single-electron transistor, memories, etc, whose operationdepends on quantum mechanical tunneling of carriers through energy barriers. Thesesemiconductor nanostructures emit light in visible range upon excitation by optical means. Inrecent years,  research  has been focused on different nano-scale materials; metals (Au, Ag, Fe,Mn, Ni, metal oxides (SnO2, ZnO2, compound semiconductors (GaAs, GaAlAs, CdSe, CdS,GaN, and elemental semiconductors (silicon and germanium. As silicon is the most favouredmaterial in the established integrated circuits manufacturing technology, research is being donefor controlled synthesis and characterisation of Si nanoparticles. The Si nanoparticles havebeen synthesised on oxide and nitride layers over  Si substrate by IC technology compatiblelow-pressure chemical vapour deposition technique. Atomic force microscopy (AFMcharacterisation has been extensively carried out on the samples. It is shown that the tip radiusand shape of tip lead to less accurate estimate of the actual size. The AFM images have been evaluated based on the real surface topography and shape of the tip. Photolumine scence (PL studies have been performed to characterise the samples. The PL measurements showed visiblelight emission from synthesised silicon nanoparticles.Defence Science Journal, 2008, 58(4, pp.550-558, DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.14429/dsj.58.1676

  3. Pilot installation for the thermo-chemical characterisation of solid wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marculescu, C; Antonini, G; Badea, A; Apostol, T

    2007-01-01

    The increasing production and the large variety of wastes require operators of thermal treatment units to continuously adapt the installations or the functioning parameters to the different physical and chemical properties of the wastes. Usually, the treated waste is encountered in the form of heterogeneous mixtures. The classical tests such as thermogravimetry and calorimetric bomb operate component by component, separately. In addition to this, they can analyse only small quantities of waste at a time (a few grams). These common tests are necessary but insufficient in the global waste analysis in the view further thermal treatment. This paper presents an experimental installation, which was designed and built at the CNRS Science Division, Department of Industrial Methods, Compiègne University of Technology, France. It allows the determination of waste thermal and chemical properties by means of thermal treatment. Also, it is capable of continuously analysing significant quantities of waste (up to 50kg/h) as compared to the classical tests and it can work under various conditions: The installation reproduces the process conditions from incinerators or pyrolysis reactors. It also provides complete information on the kinetics of the waste thermal degradation and on the pollutant emissions. Using different mixtures of components present in the municipal solid waste and also in the reconstituted MSW samples, we defined a series of criteria for characterising waste behaviour during the stages of the main treatment process such as: feeding, devolatilisation/oxidation, advancement, solid residue evacuation, and pollutants emission. PMID:16617012

  4. Agronomical and chemical characterisation of Thymbra capitata (L.) Cav. biotypes from Sicily, Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuttolomondo, Teresa; Dugo, Giacomo; Leto, Claudio; Cicero, Nicola; Tropea, Alessia; Virga, Giuseppe; Leone, Raffaele; Licata, Mario; La Bella, Salvatore

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the agronomical and chemical characterisation of 13 Sicilian biotypes of Thymbra capitata (L.) Cav., grown under the same agricultural and environmental condition, are reported. The main morpho-productive parameters and quali-quantitative profile of essential oils (EOs) were determined. The EOs were analysed by gas chromatography-flame ionisation detector and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Hierarchical cluster analysis and principal component analysis statistical methods were used to group biotypes according to the EOs chemical composition. The EO yield ranged between 4.6 and 8.1 (v/w). A total of 38 EO compounds have been identified. The compounds mostly represented were α-pinene, myrcene, α-terpinene, p-cymene, γ-terpinene, borneol, carvacrol and β-caryophyllene. In all biotypes, the carvacrol (67.4-79.5%) was the main compound, confirming that T. capitata is a carvacrol chemotype. The results showed that all Sicilian Thymbra biotypes have a good adaptation to the climatic conditions of the test environment. PMID:25600887

  5. SU-8 cantilevers for bio/chemical sensing; Fabrication, characterisation and development of novel read-out methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordström, M.; Keller, Stephan Urs; Lillemose, Michael;

    2008-01-01

    Here, we present the activities within our research group over the last five years with cantilevers fabricated in the polymer SU-8. We believe that SU-8 is an interesting polymer for fabrication of cantilevers for bio/chemical sensing due to its simple processing and low Young's modulus. We show...... examples of different integrated read-out methods and their characterisation. We also show that SU-8 cantilevers have a reduced sensitivity to changes in the environmental temperature and pH of the buffer solution. Moreover, we show that the SU-8 cantilever surface can be functionalised directly...

  6. Seismic Structure of Eastern Anatolia Crust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Regional crustal structure, which is mainly, affected by the collision of the Eurasian and the Arabian Plates beneath Eastern Anatolia plateau has been investigated using seismological data. P-wave first arrivals and P-S waveforms of the earthquakes recorded by ETSE (1999-2001) and KOERI (Kandilli) stations were simulated. The crust has an average depth of 38 - 42 km and low velocity zones due to the partially melting were modeled

  7. WOMEN’S HEADDRESSES USED IN ANATOLIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Başak BOĞDAY SAYĞILI

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In history, Anatolia has long been known to have a complex composition, due to its unique geographical location and its role as host to many cultures. Clothes and accessories have been influenced by this cultural diversity. Headdresses used in harmony with clothing and thought to complement it, have been important and indispensable accessories, varying in color, shape and texture according to the clothing worn. These could differ in simplicity or grandeur, and vary according to cultural diffe rences or those in socio - economic levels. No matter their social class, women never ceased wearing th ese complementary accessories. Visual sources on Anatolian clothing culture revealed that although headdresses are accessories complementing clothing, their attributes were never studied with a scientific approach, which has been influential in the choice of the subject matter of this study. The aim of this study is to identify and classify the attributes of traditional women’s headdresses used in Anatol ia and to specify that the examples recorded and photographed are used in Anatolia. Historical and review methods were used in the research. Sources were studied with help of the observation form used as a data collection tool to examine women’s headdresse s used in Anatolia.

  8. Chitosan-lignosulfonates sono-chemically prepared nanoparticles: characterisation and potential applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Suyeon; Fernandes, Margarida M; Matamá, Teresa; Loureiro, Ana; Gomes, Andreia C; Cavaco-Paulo, Artur

    2013-03-01

    Due to their recognised properties of biocompatibility, biodegradability and sustainability, chitosan nanocarriers have been successfully used as new delivery systems. In this work, nanoparticles combining chitosan and lignosulfonates were developed for the first time for cosmetic and biomedical applications. The ability of lignosulfonates to act as a counter polyion for stabilisation of chitosan particles, generated using high intensity ultrasound, was investigated. Several conditions for particles preparation were tested and optimised and the resulting nanoparticles were comprehensively characterised by measuring particle size, zeta potential and polydispersity index. The pH of chitosan solution, sonication time and the presence of an adequate surfactant, poloxamer 407, were determinant factors on the development of smaller particles with low polydispersity index (an average particle size of 230 nm was obtained at pH 5 after 8 min of sonication). The beneficial effects of lignosulfonates complex on chitosan nanoparticles were further characterised. Greater stability to lysozyme degradation, biocompatibility with human cells and antimicrobial activity was found upon lignosulfonates incorporation into chitosan nanoparticles. Furthermore, these particles were able to incorporate a hydrophilic model protein - RNase A. A burst release was observed when nanoparticles were loaded with low amount of protein while with high protein content, a sustained release was found, suggesting that the protein cargo maybe loaded both at the surface as in the bulk of the particle, depending on the concentration of drug incorporated.

  9. Cephalaria anamurensis (Caprifoliaceae), a new species from south Anatolia, Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    GÖKTÜRK, Ramazan Süleyman; Sümbül, Hüseyin

    2016-01-01

    A new species, Cephalaria anamurensis (Caprifoliaceae) is described and illustrated from south Anatolia, Turkey. The species grows on steppe and stony places in Anamur (C4 Mersin province) in south Anatolia. Diagnostic morphological characters from closely similar taxa are discussed. The geographical distribution of the new species and two closely related species in Turkey are mapped.

  10. Chemical and physicochemical characterisation of co-products from the vegetable food and agro industries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Serena, Anja; Bach Knudsen, Knud Erik

    2007-01-01

    Six co-products from the vegetable food and agro industres in Denmark - brewer's spent grain, pea hull, seed residue (rye grass), potato pulp, sugar beet pulp and pectin residue - were collected eight times during two seasons (four samples from each season) (n = 8; N = 48). The samples were......) and protein (61-116 g/kg DM) content and a high content of non-starch polysaccharide (430-743 g/kg DM). Exceptions, however, were seed residue and pea hull which had a DM content of 896-923 g/kg as is, and brewer's spent grain which had a EE and protein content of 117 and 215 g/kg DM, respectively. The sugar...... was responsible for the relatively low EDOM. There was a variation from year to year in the concentration of ash (Pindustries are characterised by a high...

  11. Simplified fate modelling in respect to ecotoxicological and human toxicological characterisation of emissions of chemical compounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birkved, Morten; Heijungs, Reinout

    2011-01-01

    The impact assessment of chemical compounds in Life Cycle Impact Assessment (LCIA) and Environmental Risk Assessment (ERA) requires a vast amount of data on the properties of the chemical compounds being assessed. The purpose of the present study is to explore statistical options for reduction of...

  12. SU-8 Cantilevers for Bio/chemical Sensing; Fabrication, Characterisation and Development of Novel Read-out Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anja Boisen

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Here, we present the activities within our research group over the last five yearswith cantilevers fabricated in the polymer SU-8. We believe that SU-8 is an interestingpolymer for fabrication of cantilevers for bio/chemical sensing due to its simple processingand low Young’s modulus. We show examples of different integrated read-out methodsand their characterisation. We also show that SU-8 cantilevers have a reduced sensitivity tochanges in the environmental temperature and pH of the buffer solution. Moreover, weshow that the SU-8 cantilever surface can be functionalised directly with receptormolecules for analyte detection, thereby avoiding gold-thiol chemistry.

  13. Chemical characterisation and bioactive properties of Prunus avium L.: the widely studied fruits and the unexplored stems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastos, Claudete; Barros, Lillian; Dueñas, Montserrat; Calhelha, Ricardo C; Queiroz, Maria João R P; Santos-Buelga, Celestino; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2015-04-15

    The aim of this study was to characterise sweet cherry regarding nutritional composition of the fruits, and individual phytochemicals and bioactive properties of fruits and stems. The chromatographic profiles in sugars, organic acids, fatty acids, tocopherols and phenolic compounds were established. All the preparations (extracts, infusions and decoctions) obtained using stems revealed higher antioxidant potential than the fruits extract, which is certainly related with its higher phenolic compounds (phenolic acids and flavonoids) concentration. The fruits extract was the only one showing antitumor potential, revealing selectivity against HCT-15 (colon carcinoma) (GI50∼74 μg/mL). This could be related with anthocyanins that were only found in fruits and not in stems. None of the preparations have shown hepatotoxicity against normal primary cells. Overall, this study reports innovative results regarding chemical and bioactive properties of sweet cherry stems, and confirmed the nutritional and antioxidant characteristics of their fruits. PMID:25466123

  14. Physico-chemical characterisation of material fractions in residual and source-segregated household waste in Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Götze, R; Pivnenko, K; Boldrin, A; Scheutz, C; Astrup, T Fruergaard

    2016-08-01

    Physico-chemical waste composition data are paramount for the assessment and planning of waste management systems. However, the applicability of data is limited by the regional, temporal and technical scope of waste characterisation studies. As Danish and European legislation aims for higher recycling rates evaluation of source-segregation and recycling chains gain importance. This paper provides a consistent up-to-date dataset for 74 physico-chemical parameters in 49 material fractions from residual and 24 material fractions from source-segregated Danish household waste. Significant differences in the physico-chemical properties of residual and source-segregated waste fractions were found for many parameters related to organic matter, but also for elements of environmental concern. Considerable differences in potentially toxic metal concentrations between the individual recyclable fractions within one material type were observed. This indicates that careful planning and performance evaluation of recycling schemes are important to ensure a high quality of collected recyclables. Rare earth elements (REE) were quantified in all waste fractions analysed, with the highest concentrations of REE found in fractions with high content of mineral raw materials, soil materials and dust. The observed REE concentrations represent the background concentration level in non-hazardous waste materials that may serve as a reference point for future investigations related to hazardous waste management. The detailed dataset provided here can be used for assessments of waste management solutions in Denmark and for the evaluation of the quality of recyclable materials in waste. PMID:27216729

  15. Physical, chemical and mineralogical characterisation of hydraulically disposed fine coal ash from SASOL Synfuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jabulani S. Mahlaba; Elsabe P. Kearsley; Richard A. Kruger [University of Pretoria, Pretoria (South Africa). Civil Engineering

    2011-07-15

    Coal serves as the primary energy source in most parts of the world. It is a fact that coal combustion yields enormous quantities of fly ash some of which are either hydraulically placed or dry dumped. The current study attempts to provide a comprehensive characterisation of a disused alkaline fine coal ash dam (FCAD) towards assessing environmental impact, rehabilitation and utilisation potential. Fine coal ash refers to a combination of approximately 83% power station fly ash and 17% gasification and bottom ash fines (particles {lt}250 {mu}m) at SASOL Synfuels. The hydration products found in Weathered Fine Coal Ash (WFCA) using X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) are analcime, calcite, C-S-H gel, ettringite, hydrated gehlenite (Strtlingite), magnetite, periclase, pyrrhotite and sillimanite. High resolution Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) results provide additional proof that hydration products are present in WFCA. No indication of appreciable leaching was given by X-ray Fluorescence (XRF) results except calcium and silicon. Thus evidence exists that pollutants from saline brines are immobilised in WFCA and an insight of reaction kinetics was obtained. High content of amorphous phase and lack of alteration in some geotechnical properties suggest that WFCA can be reutilised with lime addition to increase alkalinity and activate pozzolanic reactions. 48 refs., 18 figs., 4 tabs.

  16. Potential of Palm Olein as Green Lubricant Source: Lubrication Analysis and Chemical Characterisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palm olein (POo) is widely used as edible oil in tropical countries. The lubrication properties and chemical compositions of POo being considered to be used as renewable raw material for bio lubricant synthesis. POo is suitable to be used directly as bio lubricant for medium temperature industrial applications. Palm olein has good viscosity index, oxidative stability, flash and fire point as a lubricant source. POo contains unsaturated triacylglycerols (TAG): Palmitin-Olein-Olein, POO (33.3 %), Palmitin-Olein-Palmitin, POP (29.6 %), which are very important to produce good lubricant properties. This unsaturated bond is preferable in chemical modification to produce bio lubricant. The chemical compositions of POo were tested by using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and gas chromatography (GC) techniques. (author)

  17. Lifetimes of organic photovoltaics: Combining chemical and physical characterisation techniques to study degradation mechanisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norrman, K.; Larsen, N.B.; Krebs, Frederik C

    2006-01-01

    Degradation mechanisms of a photovoltaic device with an Al/C-60/C-12-PSV/PEDOT:PSS/ITO/glass geometry was studied using a combination of in-plane physical and chemical analysis techniques: TOF-SIMS, AFM, SEM, interference microscopy and fluorescence microscopy. A comparison was made between...

  18. Acid-Base Chemistry of White Wine: Analytical Characterisation and Chemical Modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrico Prenesti

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A chemical model of the acid-base properties is optimized for each white wine under study, together with the calculation of their ionic strength, taking into account the contributions of all significant ionic species (strong electrolytes and weak one sensitive to the chemical equilibria. Coupling the HPLC-IEC and HPLC-RP methods, we are able to quantify up to 12 carboxylic acids, the most relevant substances responsible of the acid-base equilibria of wine. The analytical concentration of carboxylic acids and of other acid-base active substances was used as input, with the total acidity, for the chemical modelling step of the study based on the contemporary treatment of overlapped protonation equilibria. New protonation constants were refined (L-lactic and succinic acids with respect to our previous investigation on red wines. Attention was paid for mixed solvent (ethanol-water mixture, ionic strength, and temperature to ensure a thermodynamic level to the study. Validation of the chemical model optimized is achieved by way of conductometric measurements and using a synthetic “wine” especially adapted for testing.

  19. Chemical synthesis, characterisation, analytical method development and control to promote exposure assessments and toxicological testing. Highlights from COMPARE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergman, Aa.; Malmberg, T.; Weiss, J. [Stockholm Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Environmental Chemistry

    2004-09-15

    The issue of endocrine disruptor effects in wildlife and humans grow increasingly important during the 1990s'. As part of the focus on endocrine disruptors new contaminants and their metabolites were put forward for studies with endpoints related to hormone disruption. One such large group of chemicals and/or metabolites of neutral semi-persistent or persistent compounds was the substituted phenols, particularly the halogenated phenolic compounds (HPCs). Polychlorobiphenylols (OHPCBs) were reported to be strongly retained in human blood plasma in 1995 and this article was the first study to point out the general retention of several OH-PCBs in the plasma. The metabolic formation of OH-PCBs was well known and the specific blood retention had been reported for at least one PCB congener, 3,3',4,4'-tetrachlorobiphenyl (CB-77) in some previous studies. The identification of OH-PCBs being retained in blood and their specific binding to transthyretin (TTR) has formed much of the basis for two EU R and D programs, first RENCO and now COMPARE. The present report is aimed to highlight some of the results obtained within the COMPARE program mainly dealing with the chemical synthesis, characterisation and analytical aspects of HPCs.

  20. Chemical-analytical and sensory characterisation of kettle hoppy aroma of beer

    OpenAIRE

    Praet, Tatiana

    2016-01-01

    Hops constitute an indispensable raw material for beer production. The hop essential oil (-derived) volatiles are at the origin of the highly desired hoppy aroma of beer. (Bio)chemical transformations and losses during the brewing process alter the hop oil volatile fingerprint, resulting in hoppy aroma in beer that is clearly different from the aroma of the hops. Nevertheless, the nature of hoppy aroma is up-to-date far from understood. Especially ‘noble kettle hop’ aroma, which is a typical ...

  1. Properties and limits of some essential oils: chemical characterisation, antimicrobial activity, interaction with antibiotics and cytotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scazzocchio, Francesca; Garzoli, Stefania; Conti, Cinzia; Leone, Claudia; Renaioli, Clio; Pepi, Federico; Angiolella, Letizia

    2016-09-01

    Because of the emergence of multi-drug resistance bacteria and fungi, alternatives to conventional antimicrobial therapy are needed. This study aims to evaluate in vitro the antimicrobial activity of: Mirtus communis, Coriandrum sativum, Pelargonium capitatum, Cuminum cyminum, Ocimum basilicum, Citrus aurantium amara, Cymbopogon. winterianus, Cymbopogon martini, Salvia sclarea, Melaleuca alternifolia and Mentha suaveolens essential oils on bacteria and fungi, in relation to their chemical composition. The potential interaction of M. alternifolia (TTO), C. sativum (CDO) and M. suaveolens (EOMS) essential oils when used in combination with gentamicin and fluconazole has been evaluated. The results obtained showed a synergic effect on some bacteria and fungi, with FICI values ≤5. The cytotoxicity of TTO, CDO and EOMS was investigated towards HeLa cells. Only EOMS did not result cytotoxic at the active concentrations on micro-organisms. Further studies are necessary to obtain optimal ratios and dosing regimens for higher therapeutic efficacy and to decrease toxicological profiles. PMID:26395247

  2. An experimental design approach to the chemical characterisation of pectin polysaccharides extracted from Cucumis melo Inodorus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denman, Laura J; Morris, Gordon A

    2015-03-01

    Extracted pectins have been utilised in a number of applications in both the food and pharmaceutical industries where they are generally used as gelling agents, thickeners and stabilisers, although a number of pectins have been shown to be bioactive. These functional properties will depend upon extraction conditions. A statistical experimental design approach was used to study the effects of extraction conditions pH, time and temperature on pectins extracted from Cucumis melo Inodorus. The results show that the chemical composition is very sensitive to these conditions and that this has a great influence on for example the degree of branching. Higher temperatures, lower pHs and longer extraction times lead to a loss of the more acid labile arabinofuranose residues present on the pectin side chain. The fitting of regression equations relating yield and composition to extraction conditions can therefore lead to tailor-made pectins for specific properties and/or applications.

  3. Large chemical characterisation of PM10 emitted from graphite material production: Application in source apportionment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golly, B; Brulfert, G; Berlioux, G; Jaffrezo, J-L; Besombes, J-L

    2015-12-15

    This work focuses on emissions from industrial sources that are still poorly understood in Europe, especially the "carbon industry". The study is based on two intensive sampling campaigns performed in a graphite material production plant for 2weeks in July 2013 and November 2013 in alpine valleys. The chemical characterization of PM10 was conducted at three sampling sites (outdoor and indoor sites) located inside one industrial area, which is considered as the highest emissions source of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the Arve valley. The identification of specific tracers among metals and trace elements is commonly used to characterize industrial emissions. In our study, original enrichment factors relative to the "rural exposed background" have been calculated, and the metallic fraction was not affected by this industrial source. In contrast, the organic fraction of PM10 has a number of features, providing a complete organic source profile and referred to as the "carbon industry". In particular, polycyclic aromatic sulfur heterocycles (PASH) have been largely detected from fugitive emissions with rather large concentrations. The average concentrations of benzo(b)naphtho(2,1-d)thiophene (BNT(2,1)) reached 2.35-6.56ng·m(-3) and 60.5-376ng·m(-3) for outdoor and indoor sites, respectively. The use of this reference profile in the chemical mass balance model (CMB) applied to samples collected in two sites near industrial areas shows that this source had an average contribution of 6% of the organic matter (OM) mass during the sampling period during the winter of 2013.

  4. Characterisation of TiO 2 deposited by photo-induced chemical vapour deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaliwoh, Never; Zhang, Jun-Ying; Boyd, Ian W.

    2002-01-01

    We report the deposition of thin TiO 2 films on crystalline Si and quartz by photo-induced chemical vapour deposition (CVD) using UV excimer lamps employing a dielectric barrier discharge in krypton chloride (KrCl ∗) to provide intense narrow band radiation at λ=222 nm. The precursor used was titanium isopropoxide (TTIP). Films from around 20-510 nm in thickness with refractive indices from 2.20 to 2.54 were grown at temperatures between 50 and 350 °C. The higher refractive index values compare favourably with the value of 2.58 recorded for the bulk material. The measured deposition rate was around 50 nm/min at 350 °C. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) revealed the presence of TiO 2 through the observation of a Ti-O absorption peak and the absence of OH in films deposited at 250-350 °C indicated relatively good quality films. The phase of films deposited at 200-350 °C was anatase as determined by X-ray diffraction.

  5. Characterisation of chemical composition and energy content of green waste and municipal solid waste from Greater Brisbane, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hla, San Shwe; Roberts, Daniel

    2015-07-01

    The development and deployment of thermochemical waste-to-energy systems requires an understanding of the fundamental characteristics of waste streams. Despite Australia's growing interest in gasification of waste streams, no data are available on their thermochemical properties. This work presents, for the first time, a characterisation of green waste and municipal solid waste in terms of chemistry and energy content. The study took place in Brisbane, the capital city of Queensland. The municipal solid waste was hand-sorted and classified into ten groups, including non-combustibles. The chemical properties of the combustible portion of municipal solid waste were measured directly and compared with calculations made based on their weight ratios in the overall municipal solid waste. The results obtained from both methods were in good agreement. The moisture content of green waste ranged from 29% to 46%. This variability - and the tendency for soil material to contaminate the samples - was the main contributor to the variation of samples' energy content, which ranged between 7.8 and 10.7MJ/kg. The total moisture content of food wastes and garden wastes was as high as 70% and 60%, respectively, while the total moisture content of non-packaging plastics was as low as 2.2%. The overall energy content (lower heating value on a wet basis, LHVwb) of the municipal solid waste was 7.9MJ/kg, which is well above the World Bank-recommended value for utilisation in thermochemical conversion processes. PMID:25882791

  6. Characterising the physical and chemical properties of a young Class 0 protostellar core embedded in the Orion B9 filament

    CERN Document Server

    Miettinen, Oskari

    2016-01-01

    The present study aims to characterise the physical and chemical properties of the protostellar core Orion B9-SMM3. The APEX telescope was used to perform a follow-up molecular line survey of SMM3. The following species were identified from the frequency range 218.2-222.2 GHz: $^{13}$CO, C$^{18}$O, SO, para-H$_2$CO, and E$_1$-type CH$_3$OH. The on-the-fly mapping observations at 215.1-219.1 GHz revealed that SMM3 is associated with a dense gas core as traced by DCO$^+$ and p-H$_2$CO. Altogether three different p-H$_2$CO transitions were detected with clearly broadened linewidths (8.2-11 km s$^{-1}$ in FWHM). The derived p-H$_2$CO rotational temperature, $64\\pm15$ K, indicates the presence of warm gas. We also detected a narrow p-H$_2$CO line (FWHM=0.42 km s$^{-1}$) at the systemic velocity. The p-H$_2$CO abundance for the broad component appears to be enhanced by two orders of magnitude with respect to the narrow line value ($\\sim3\\times10^{-9}$ versus $\\sim2\\times10^{-11}$). The detected methanol line shows ...

  7. Chemical characterisation of old cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. var. acephala) seed oil by liquid chromatography and different spectroscopic detection systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cacciola, Francesco; Beccaria, Marco; Oteri, Marianna; Utczas, Margita; Giuffrida, Daniele; Cicero, Nicola; Dugo, Giacomo; Dugo, Paola; Mondello, Luigi

    2016-07-01

    We report an extensive chemical characterisation of fatty acids, triacylglycerols, tocopherols, carotenoids and polyphenols contained in the oil extracted from old cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. var. acephala) by cold-pressing of the seeds. Analyses were performed by GC-FID combined with mass spectrometry, HPLC with photodiode array, fluorescence and mass spectrometry detection. The 94% of the total fatty acids were unsaturated, rappresented by erucic acid (more than 50%) followed by linoleic, linolenic and oleic acids accounting for approximately 10% each. The most abundant triacylglycerols (>13%) were represented by erucic-gadolenic-linoleic, erucic-eruci-linoleic and erucic-erucic-oleic. Among tocopherols, γ-tocopherol accounted for over 70% of the total content. Thirteen carotenoids and 11 polyphenols were identified and measured. In particular, the total content in carotenoids was 10.9 ppm and all-E-lutein was the main component (7.7 ppm); among polyphenols, six hydroxycinnamic acids and five flavonoids, were identified by combining information from retention times, PDA and MS data. PMID:27314571

  8. Physio-chemical, microbiological properties of tempoyak and molecular characterisation of lactic acid bacteria isolated from tempoyak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuah, Li-Oon; Shamila-Syuhada, Ahamed Kamal; Liong, Min Tze; Rosma, Ahmad; Thong, Kwai Lin; Rusul, Gulam

    2016-09-01

    This study aims to determine physio-chemical properties of tempoyak, characterise the various indigenous species of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) present at different stages of fermentation and also to determine the survival of selected foodborne pathogens in tempoyak. The predominant microorganisms present in tempoyak were LAB (8.88-10.42 log CFU/g). Fructobacillus durionis and Lactobacillus plantarum were the dominant members of LAB. Other LAB species detected for the first time in tempoyak were a fructophilic strain of Lactobacillus fructivorans, Leuconostoc dextranicum, Lactobacillus collinoides and Lactobacillus paracasei. Heterofermentative Leuconostoc mesenteroides and F. durionis were predominant in the initial stage of fermentation, and as fermentation proceeded, F. durionis remained predominant, but towards the end of fermentation, homofermentative Lb. plantarum became the predominant species. Lactic, acetic and propionic acids were present in concentrations ranging from 0.30 to 9.65, 0.51 to 7.14 and 3.90 to 7.31 mg/g, respectively. Genotyping showed a high degree of diversity among F. durionis and Lb. plantarum isolates, suggesting different sources of LAB. All tested Lb. plantarum and F. durionis (except for one isolate) isolates were multidrug resistant. Salmonella spp., Listeria monocytogenes and Staphylococcus aureus were not detected. However, survival study showed that these pathogens could survive up to 8-12 days. The results aiming at improving the quality and safety of tempoyak. PMID:27217364

  9. A comprehensive characterisation of Asian dust storm particles: chemical composition, reactivity to SO2, and hygroscopic property

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. He

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Mineral dust comprises of a significant fraction of the globe's aerosol loading. Yet it remains the largest uncertainty in future climate predictions due to the complexity in its components and physico-chemical properties. Multi-analysis methods, including SEM-EDX, FTIR, BET, TPD/mass, and Knudsen cell/mass, were used in the present study to characterise Asian dust storm particles. The morphology, element fraction, source distribution, true uptake coefficient of SO2 and hygroscopic behaviour were studied. The major components of Asian dust storm particles were found to consist of aluminosilicate, SiO2, and CaCO3, which were coated with organic compounds and inorganic nitrate. The dust storm particles have a low reactivity to SO2 (true uptake coefficient of 5.767×10−6 which limits the conversion of SO2 to sulfate during a dust storm period. The low reactivity also demonstrated that the heterogeneous reaction of SO2, in both dry and humid air conditions, had little effect on the hygroscopic behaviour of the dust particles. These results indicate that the impact of dust storms on atmospheric SO2 removal should not be overestimated.

  10. Physical characterisation and chemical composition of densified biomass fuels with regard to their combustion behaviour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    as well as of the heavy metals Cd, Pb, Zn, Cr, Cu, As and Hg. These parameters have been chosen following the Austrian, German, Swiss and Swedish standards for densified biomass fuels. The results showed that a majority of the participating producers produce fuels of high quality. However, wood pellets of some producers show a high abrasion, one of the most important quality parameters for pellets. An increased amount of fines often causes failures in the feeding systems used in the residential heating sector. In order to decrease abrasion, the addition of small amounts of biological binding agents (e.g. maize or rye) is possible. This kind of additive is most common in Austria. Moreover, some producers obviously use not only chemically untreated raw materials or additives, which increase the content of pollutants. Such fuels cause problems regarding emissions, deposit formation and corrosion. Emission problems are expected due to increased contents of N, Cl, S as well as heavy metals. Increased concentrations of heavy metals additionally contaminate the ash, increased Cl concentrations raise the risk of corrosion. Moreover, an increased content of K has a negative effect on the ash melting behaviour and causes higher aerosol formation, which enhances deposit formation and particulate emissions. (Author)

  11. Physical and chemical characterisation of PM emissions from two ships operating in European Emission Control Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Moldanová

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Emissions of particulate matter (PM from shipping contribute significantly to the anthropogenic burden of PM. The environmental effects of PM from shipping include negative impact on human health through increased concentrations of particles in many coastal areas and harbour cities and the climate impact. The PM emitted by ship engines consists of organic carbon (OC, elemental or black carbon (EC/BC, sulphate, inorganic compounds containing V, Ni, Ca, Zn and other metals and associated water. The chemical composition and physical properties of PM vary with type of fuel burned, type of engine and engine operation mode. While primary PM emissions of species like V, Ni and Ca are supposed to be determined by composition of fuel and lubricant oil, emissions of particulate OC, EC and sulphate are affected both by fuel quality and by operation mode of the engine. In this paper a number of parameters describing emission factors (EFs of gases and of particulate matter from ship engines were investigated during 2 on-board measurement campaigns for 3 different engines and 3 different types of fuels. The measured EFs for PM mass were in the range 0.3 to 2.7 g/kg-fuel with lowest values for emissions from combustion of marine gas oil (MGO and the highest for heavy fuel oil (HFO. Emission factors for particle numbers EF(PN in the range 5 × 1015–1 × 1017 #/kg-fuel were found, the number concentration was dominated by particles in the ultrafine mode and ca. 2/3 of particles were non-volatile. The PM mass was dominated by particles in accumulation mode. Main metal elements in case of HFO exhaust PM were V, Ni, Fe, Ca and Zn, in case of MGO Ca, Zn and P. V and Ni were typical tracers of HFO while Ca, Zn and P are tracers of the lubricant oil. EC makes up 10–38% of the PM mass, there were not found large differences between HFO and MGO fuels. EC and ash elements make up 23–40% of the PM mass. Organic matter makes up 25–60% of the PM. The measured EF

  12. Chemical and structural characterisation of DGEBA-based epoxies by time of flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) as a preliminary to polymer interphase characterisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passlack, Sven; Brodyanski, Alexander; Bock, Wolfgang; Kopnarski, Michael; Presser, Melanie; Geiss, Paul Ludwig; Possart, Gunnar; Steinmann, Paul

    2009-04-01

    Time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) has become a powerful tool in the field of surface analysis since it provides information about the top few monolayers of a sample, i.e. on the chemical composition of the sample surface. Thus, the general question arises whether a surface-sensitive technique like ToF-SIMS would be appropriate to detect systematic chemical and/or structural changes in organic bulk polymers caused by varying a chemical content of the initial components or by tracking, e.g. curing processes in such materials. It is shown that careful sample preparation and the use of multivariate methods permit the quantitative acquisition of chemical and structural information about bulk polymers from the secondary ion signals. The hardener concentration and a cross-linking coefficient in diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A based epoxies were determined by ToF-SIMS measurements on samples with different resin to hardener ratio and varying curing time. In future work, we will use the developed method to investigate the local composition of adhesively bonded joints. In particular, the mapping of the chemical and structural properties in the so-called interphase will then be of interest.

  13. Physical-chemical characterisation of the particulate matter inside two road tunnels in the São Paulo Metropolitan Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brito, J.; Rizzo, L. V.; Herckes, P.; Vasconcellos, P. C.; Caumo, S. E. S.; Fornaro, A.; Ynoue, R. Y.; Artaxo, P.; Andrade, M. F.

    2013-12-01

    The notable increase in biofuel usage by the road transportation sector in Brazil during recent years has significantly altered the vehicular fuel composition. Consequently, many uncertainties are currently found in particulate matter vehicular emission profiles. In an effort to better characterise the emitted particulate matter, measurements of aerosol physical and chemical properties were undertaken inside two tunnels located in the São Paulo Metropolitan Area (SPMA). The tunnels show very distinct fleet profiles: in the Jânio Quadros (JQ) tunnel, the vast majority of the circulating fleet are light duty vehicles (LDVs), fuelled on average with the same amount of ethanol as gasoline. In the Rodoanel (RA) tunnel, the particulate emission is dominated by heavy duty vehicles (HDVs) fuelled with diesel (5% biodiesel). In the JQ tunnel, PM2.5 concentration was on average 52 μg m-3, with the largest contribution of organic mass (OM, 42%), followed by elemental carbon (EC, 17%) and crustal elements (13%). Sulphate accounted for 7% of PM2.5 and the sum of other trace elements was 10%. In the RA tunnel, PM2.5 was on average 233 μg m-3, mostly composed of EC (52%) and OM (39%). Sulphate, crustal and the trace elements showed a minor contribution with 5%, 1%, and 1%, respectively. The average OC : EC ratio in the JQ tunnel was 1.59 ± 0.09, indicating an important contribution of EC despite the high ethanol fraction in the fuel composition. In the RA tunnel, the OC : EC ratio was 0.49 ± 0.12, consistent with previous measurements of diesel-fuelled HDVs. Besides bulk carbonaceous aerosol measurement, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were quantified. The sum of the PAHs concentration was 56 ± 5 ng m-3 and 45 ± 9 ng m-3 in the RA and JQ tunnel, respectively. In the JQ tunnel, benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) ranged from 0.9 to 6.7 ng m-3 (0.02-0.1‰ of PM2.5) whereas in the RA tunnel BaP ranged from 0.9 to 4.9 ng m-3 (0.004-0. 02‰ of PM2.5), indicating an important

  14. A GENERAL SURVEY OF THE VEGETATION OF NORTH - EASTERN ANATOLIA

    OpenAIRE

    ATALAY, İbrahim

    1983-01-01

    The study area named NE Anatolia which is bounded by the Erzurum-Rize line on the west, the Erzurum-Tuzluca line or the Aras river valley on the south, comprises the subregion of the Eastern Black Sea and the subregion of Erzurum- Kars in Eastern Anatolia. From the vegetational point of view, the lower part of the Eastern Black Sea Mountains was covered by broad-leaved forests, and the upper section was occupied by pine forests. The southern slopes of the East Black Sea Mountains were covered...

  15. Porewater Chemistry in Compacted Re-Saturated MX-80 Bentonite: Physico-Chemical Characterisation and Geochemical Modelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradbury, M.H.; Baeyens, B

    2002-06-01

    sites present as =SOH, = SOH{sub 2} and =SO{sup -}. In the report it is explained how this speciation is determined by the preparation process in the 'as received' powder. As a consequence of the high cation exchange capacity of montmorillonite, the large mass of montmorillonite in relation to the small pore water volumes in a highly compacted re-saturated bentonite, the major ion composition in the pore water will be controlled by the montmorillonite and the other solid phases present and will be very strongly buffered. The above considerations are used in conjunction with detailed physico-chemical characterisation studies on MX-80 (Appendix) to calculate initial pore water compositions in compacted bentonites. For the MX-80 material specified, the pore waters calculated for initial dry densities between 1200 and 1600 kg m{sup -3} had relatively high ionic strengths (0.3 to 0.33 M), similar cation concentrations and a pH equal to 8.0. The pore waters changed from being Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} rich at 1200 kg m{sup -3} to a NaCI/Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} type water at 1600 kg m{sup -3}. (author)

  16. Characterising the physical and chemical properties of a young Class 0 protostellar core embedded in the Orion B9 filament

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miettinen, O.

    2016-08-01

    Deeply embedded low-mass protostars can be used as testbeds to study the early formation stages of solar-type stars, and the prevailing chemistry before the formation of a planetary system. The present study aims to characterise further the physical and chemical properties of the protostellar core Orion B9-SMM3. The Atacama Pathfinder EXperiment (APEX) telescope was used to perform a follow-up molecular line survey of SMM3. The observations were done using the single pointing (frequency range 218.2-222.2 GHz) and on-the-fly mapping methods (215.1-219.1 GHz). These new data were used in conjunction with our previous data taken by the APEX and Effelsberg 100 m telescopes. The following species were identified from the frequency range 218.2-222.2 GHz: ^{13}CO, C^{18}O, SO, para-H2CO, and E1-type CH3OH. The mapping observations revealed that SMM3 is associated with a dense gas core as traced by DCO+ and p-H2CO. Altogether three different p-H2CO transitions were detected with clearly broadened linewidths (Δ v˜8.2-11 km s^{-1} in FWHM). The derived p-H2CO rotational temperature, 64±15 K, indicates the presence of warm gas. We also detected a narrow p-H2CO line (Δ v=0.42 km s^{-1}) at the systemic velocity. The p-H2CO abundance for the broad component appears to be enhanced by two orders of magnitude with respect to the narrow line value ({˜}3×10^{-9} versus {˜}2×10^{-11}). The detected methanol line shows a linewidth similar to those of the broad p-H2CO lines, which indicates their coexistence. The CO isotopologue data suggest that the CO depletion factor decreases from {˜}27±2 towards the core centre to a value of {˜}8±1 towards the core edge. In the latter position, the N2D+/N2H+ ratio is revised down to 0.14±0.06. The origin of the subfragments inside the SMM3 core we found previously can be understood in terms of the Jeans instability if non-thermal motions are taken into account. The estimated fragmentation timescale, and the derived chemical abundances

  17. The earliest securely-dated hominin artefact in Anatolia?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maddy, D.; Schreve, D.; Demir, T.; Veldkamp, A.; Wijbrans, J.R.; Gorp, van W.; Hinsbergen, van D.J.J.; Dekkers, M.J.; Scaife, R.; Schoorl, J.M.; Stemerdink, C.; Schriek, van der T.

    2015-01-01

    Anatolia lies at the gateway from Asia into Europe and has frequently been favoured as a route for Early Pleistocene hominin dispersal. Although early hominins are known to have occupied Turkey, with numerous finds of Lower Palaeolithic artefacts documented, the chronology of their dispersal has lit

  18. Heliotropium thermophilum (Boraginaceae), a new taxon from SW Anatolia, Turkey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tan, Kit; Celik, Ali; Gemici, Yusuf;

    2008-01-01

    Heliotropium thermophilum Kit Tan, A. Çelik & Y. Gemici (Boraginaceae), is described as a species new to science and illustrated. Its diploid chromosome number of 2n = 16 is a first report. It is restricted to the province of Aydin bordering on Denizli in SW Anatolia and is of interest on account...

  19. Hyurterianum (Asteraceae, Inuleae), a new species from NE Anatolia, Turkey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gemici, Y.; Tan, K.; Yidirim, H.;

    2008-01-01

    Helichrysum yurterianum Y. Gemici, Kit Tan, H. Yildirim & M. Gemici (Asteraceae, Inuleae) is described and illustrated. It is a serpentine endemic restricted to the province of Erzincan in NE Anatolia, Turkey. Its affinities are with H. arenarium and H. noeanum, which both have a wider distribution...

  20. Saponaria emineana (Caryophyllaceae), a new species from inner Anatolia, Turkey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gemici, Yusuf; Tan, Kit; Yildirim, H.;

    2011-01-01

    Saponaria emineana (Caryophyllaceae) is illustrated and described as a new species endemic to the inner part of West Anatolia, Turkey. It is related to S. pamphylica and differs from that species in having a densely tufted habit with compact and much-branched woody base, subfleshy, narrowly...

  1. A new species of Hesperis (Brassicaceae) from SW Anatolia, Turkey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parolly, G.; Tan, Kit

    2006-01-01

    Hesperis kuerschneri, from the vilayet of Denizli in the Western Taurus is described as a species new to science and illustrated. Its affinities are with H. theophrasti, which has several infraspecific taxa in the Balkans and Anatolia. The new species occurs on steep serpentine scree slopes toget...

  2. Verbascum lindae (Scrophulariaceae), a new species from SW Anatolia, Turkey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parolly, Gerald; Tan, Kit

    2007-01-01

    Verbascum lindae, a taxonomically isolated limestone chasmophyte from the vilayet of Isparta in SW Anatolia is described as a species new to science and illustrated. Its affinities with other Anatolian Verbascum species, which have either a chasmophytic habit or at least a woody base, are discussed....

  3. Upper-Mantle Flow Driven Dynamic Topography in Eastern Anatolia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengul Uluocak, Ebru; Pysklywec, Russell; Eken, Tuna; Hakan Gogus, Oguz

    2016-04-01

    Eastern Anatolia is characterized by 2 km plateau uplift -in the last 10 Myrs-, high surface heat flow distribution, shallow Curie-point depth, anomalous gravity field. Seismological observations indicate relatively high Pn and Sn attenuation and significant low seismic velocity anomalies in the region. Moreover, the surface geology is associated predominantly with volcanic rocks in which melt production through mantle upwelling (following lithospheric delamination) has been suggested. It has been long known that the topographic loading in the region cannot be supported by crustal thickness (~45 km) based on the principle of Airy isostasy. Recent global geodynamic studies carried out for evaluating the post-collisional processes imply that there is an explicit dynamic uplift in Eastern Anatolia and its adjacent regions. In this study we investigate the instantaneous dynamic topography driven by 3-D upper-mantle flow in Eastern Anatolia. For this purpose we conducted numerous thermo-mechanical models using a 2-D Arbitrary Lagrangian Eulerian (ALE) finite element method. The available P-wave tomography data extracted along 10 profiles were used to obtain depth-dependent density anomalies in the region. We present resulting dynamic topography maps and estimated 3D mantle flow velocity vectors along these 2-D cross sections for each profile. The residual topography based on crustal thickness and observed topography was calculated and compared with other independent datasets concerning geological deformation and dynamic topography predictions. The results indicate an upper mantle driven dynamic uplift correlated with the under-compensated characteristic in Eastern Anatolia. We discuss our results combined with 3D mantle flow by considering seismic anisotropy studies in the region. Initial results indicate that high dynamic uplift and the localized low Pn velocities in concurrence with Pn anisotropy structures show nearly spatial coherence in Eastern Anatolia.

  4. Lifetimes of organic photovoltaics: Using TOF-SIMS and 18O2 isotopic labelling to characterise chemical degradation mechanisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norrman, K.; Krebs, Frederik C

    2006-01-01

    The lifetimes of organic photovoltaic cells based on conjugated polymer materials were studied. The device geometry was glass:ITO:PEDOT:PSS:C-12-PSV:C-60:aluminium. To characterise and elucidate the parts of the degradation mechanisms induced by molecular oxygen, 1802 isotopic labelling...... throughout the active layer with the largest concentration towards the aluminium electrode. For devices that had been kept in the dark oxygen species were only observed at the immediate interface between the aluminium and the organic layer. The isotopic labelling allowed us to demonstrate that the oxygen...

  5. Ceramic workshops in Hellenistic and Roman Anatolia : production characteristics and regional comparisons

    OpenAIRE

    Sökeli, Heves

    2013-01-01

    This thesis aims to study local ceramic productions in Anatolia during the Hellenistic and the Roman periods. It analyzes the ceramic productions of Phocaea, Magnesia ad Maeandrum and Cnidus in the western coast, Sagalassos in the inner Anatolia, and Sinope in the southern Black sea region. The aim of the thesis is to examine whether it is possible to group shape production geographically in Anatolia and to detect whether local centers influenced each other or if external influ...

  6. Biological Studies on groundwater Crustaceans in Southwest Anatolia, Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Könemann, Stefan

    1997-01-01

    In 1987 a major biospeleogical expedition, ‘Speleo Nederland’, was carried out along the coastal Taurus mountains in southwest Anatolia (Turkey). ‘Speleo Nederland’ was focused on collecting the fauna of caves, wells, subterranean waterflows, and the interstices of marine gravel beaches. The special yield of stygobiont crustaceans, predominantly amphipods of the genus Bogidiella, promised to serve as an interesting case study to the colonization of inland groundwater by marine organisms. Now,...

  7. A new species of Marrubium (Lamiaceae) from Central Anatolia, Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    AYTAÇ, Zeki; AKGÜL, Gencay; EKİCİ, Murat

    2012-01-01

    Marrubium sivasense Aytaç, Akgül & Ekici sp. nova (Lamiaceae) is described and illustrated from Central Anatolia, Turkey. The new species most resembles Marrubium depauperatum, but it differs by 3-10 flowered verticillasters, crenate to crenulated leaf margins, and unequal calyx teeth. The ecology and phenology of the new species as well as its etymology, conservation status, and diagnostic features are discussed.

  8. Seed Germination of Some Crocus Species of Western Anatolia

    OpenAIRE

    HASPOLAT, Gülden; ÖZZAMBAK, M. Ercan; ŞIK, Levent

    2013-01-01

    In this study, germination studies were carried out on some Crocus species such as Crocus olivieri ssp. balansae, Crocus chrysanthus, Crocus baytopiorum, Crocus pallasii ssp. pallasii spreading at western Anatolia. Seed viability was determined by using tetrazolium test. Testa, endosperm, embryo bed of seeds were examined at stereo binocular. The pretreatments for germination were; waiting seeds in moist sand at 5oC for 4 weeks, keeping seeds for 24 hours in water and in 200400 mg/l GA3 solut...

  9. Neotethyan closure history of western Anatolia: a geodynamic discussion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pourteau, Amaury; Oberhänsli, Roland; Candan, Osman; Barrier, Eric; Vrielynck, Bruno

    2016-01-01

    This paper addresses the lithosphere-scale subduction-collision history of the eastern termination of the Aegean retreating subduction system, i.e. western Anatolia. Although there is some general consensus on the protracted subduction evolution of the Aegean since the early Cenozoic at least, correlation with western Anatolia has been widely debated for more than several decades. In western Anatolia, three main tectonic configurations have been envisaged in the past years to reconstruct slab dynamics during the closure of the Neotethyan oceanic realm since the Late Cretaceous. Some authors have suggested an Aegean-type scenario, with the continuous subduction of a single lithospheric slab, punctuated by episodic slab roll-back and trench retreat, whereas others assumed a discontinuous subduction history marked by intermittent slab break-off during either the Campanian (ca. 75 Ma) or the Early Eocene (ca. 55-50 Ma). The third view implies three partly contemporaneous subduction zones. Our review of these models points to key debated aspects that can be re-evaluated in the light of multidisciplinary constraints from the literature. Our discussion leads us to address the timing of subduction initiation, the existence of hypothetical ocean basins, the number of intervening subduction zones between the Taurides and the Pontides, the palaeogeographic origin of tectonic units and the possibility for slab break-off during either the Campanian or the Early Eocene. Thence, we put forward a favoured tectonic scenario featuring two successive phases of subduction of a single lithospheric slab and episodic accretion of two continental domains separated by a continental trough, representing the eastern end of the Cycladic Ocean of the Aegean. The lack of univocal evidence for slab break-off in western Anatolia and southward-younging HP/LT metamorphism in continental tectonic units (from ~85, 70 to 50 Ma) in the Late Cretaceous-Palaeogene period suggests continuous subduction

  10. Effect of Grain Size and Reaction Time in Characterisation of Aggregates for Alkali Silica Reaction Using Chemical Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.P. Pathak

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Concrete can deteriorate as a result of alkali aggregate reaction, an interaction between alkalis present in alkaline pore solution originating from the Portland cement and reactive minerals in certain types of aggregates. Potential reactivity of aggregates with regard to alkalis present in concrete mix can be determined by Mortar Bar method, Chemical Method and Petrographic analysis. Of these the chemical method though is quick and does not require a large quantity of material for testing yet have its own inherent limitations. It does not ensure completion of reaction as the observations are limited to 24hour only and also does not assess the effect of varying the combination of coarse and fine aggregates. A study on chemical method by allowing the reaction for a prolonged time up to 96 hours and also on different grain size ranged matrix was carried at Central Soil and Materials Research Station, New Delhi. Simultaneously the test results of the modified method are compared to the existing Mortar Bar method, Chemical Method and Petrographic analysis The outcome of the studies clearly reflects that the grain size play an important role in the reaction, the reaction time has a demarked impact on reactivity, in the cases having a high value of silica release the choice of reduction in alkalinity as an indicator of degree of reaction is not reliable, instead measuring remaining Na2O concentration in Sodium hydroxide solution after the reaction seems to be much more meaningful in justifying the silica release.

  11. Physico-chemical characterisation of material fractions in residual and source-segregated household waste in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Götze, Ramona; Pivnenko, Kostyantyn; Boldrin, Alessio;

    2016-01-01

    recycling rates evaluation of source-segregation and recycling chains gain importance. This paper provides a consistent up-to-date dataset for 74 physico-chemical parameters in 49 material fractions from residual and 24 material fractions from source-segregated Danish household waste. Significant...... differences in the physico-chemical properties of residual and source-segregated waste fractions were found for many parameters related to organic matter, but also for elements of environmental concern. Considerable differences in potentially toxic metal concentrations between the individual recyclable...... fractions within one material type were observed. This indicates that careful planning and performance evaluation of recycling schemes are important to ensure a high quality of collected recyclables. Rare earth elements (REE) were quantified in all waste fractions analysed, with the highest concentrations...

  12. Drainage Evolution during the Uplift of the Central Anatolia Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brocard, G. Y.; Meijers, M. J.; Willenbring, J. K.; Kaymakci, N.; Whitney, D. L.

    2015-12-01

    The Central Anatolian plateau formed in the past 8-6 Myrs, associated to a change in tectonic regime, from contraction to extensional escape tectonics. We have examined the response of the river drainage of Central Anatolia to the rise of the plateau uplift and to the formation of the Anatolian microplate, tracking changes in drainage organization. Anatolia experienced widespread rock uplift and erosion in the Late Oligocene, generating a narrow, steep, and quickly eroding mountain range above the future southern plateau margin. A regionally widespread marine transgression resulted from wholesale foundering of this orogen in Early Miocene time. Widespread planation surfaces overlapped by Miocene marine carbonates bevel this topography, indicating that relief had been reduced to a low elevation pedimented landscape by the end of the Middle Miocene. Plateau uplift initiated around 11 My ago in Eastern Anatolia; it was echoed in Central Anatolia by a short-lived phase of contraction and localized uplifts that predate escape tectonics and mark the beginning of the current topographic differentiation of the southern plateau margin. The through-going drainage network inherited disintegrated, and a vast zone of inward drainage formed at the location of the future plateau interior. Between 8 and 6 My, the southern plateau margin (i.e. the Tauride Mountains) emerged. δ18O analyses on lacustrine and pedogenic carbonates show that the southern plateau margin, if not the plateau interior, had experienced enough uplift by 5 My to generate a substantial rain shadow over the plateau interior. Being disconnected from the regional base level from the start, the plateau interior was able to rise without experiencing substantial dissection. It reconnected to all surrounding sediment sinks (Mediterranean Sea, Black Sea and Persian Gulf) over the past 5 My. We discuss the mechanisms that have driven this reconnection. Bottom-up processes of integration such as drainage divide retreat

  13. The soils of the Upper Kura watershed area (NE Anatolia)

    OpenAIRE

    KOÇMAN, Asaf

    1984-01-01

    The study area is located in the northeastern part of the Anatolia. This area is belong to the Upper Kura drainage basin and from hydrographic point o f view it is connected to the Aras river basin. As a whole, the given area was composed of volcanic material, volcano-sedimentary and Plio-Quatcmary terrains. The Volcanic rocks are common on the northern, western and eastern part of the area. The volcano- sedimentary formations occur the central parts, and Quaternary alluvions occupy the tecto...

  14. Pliocene Basaltic Volcanism in The East Anatolia Region (EAR), Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyan, Vural; Özdemir, Yavuz; Keskin, Mehmet

    2016-04-01

    East Anatolia Region (EAR) is one of the high Plateau which is occurred with north-south compressional regime formed depending on continent-continent collision between Eurasia and Arabia plates (Şengör and Kidd, 1979). Recent studies have revealed that last oceanic lithosphere in the EAR have completely depleted to 20 million years ago based on fission track ages (Okay et al. 2010). Our initial studies suggest that extensively volcanic activity in the EAR peaked in the Pliocene and continued in the same productivity throughout Quaternary. Voluminous basaltic lava plateaus and basaltic lavas from local eruption centers occurred as a result of high production level of volcanism during the Pliocene time interval. In order to better understand the spatial and temporal variations in Pliocene basaltic volcanism and to reveal isotopic composition, age and petrologic evolution of the basaltic volcanism, we have started to study basaltic volcanism in the East Anatolia within the framework of a TUBITAK project (project number:113Y406). Petrologic and geochemical studies carried out on the Pliocene basaltic lavas indicate the presence of subduction component in the mantle source, changing the character of basaltic volcanism from alkaline to subalkaline and increasing the amount of spinel peridotitic melts (contributions of lithospheric mantle?) in the mantle source between 5.5-3.5 Ma. FC, AFC and EC-AFC modelings reveal that the while basaltic lavas were no or slightly influenced by crustal contamination and fractional crystallization, to more evolved lavas such as bazaltictrachyandesite, basalticandesite, trachybasalt might have been important processes. Results of our melting models and isotopic analysis data (Sr, Nd, Pb, Hf, 18O) indicate that the Pliocene basaltic rocks were derived from both shallow and deep mantle sources with different melting degrees ranging between 0.1 - 4 %. The percentage of spinel seems to have increased in the mantle source of the basaltic

  15. Chemical-physical and ecological characterisation in the environmental project of a polluted coastal area: the Bagnoli case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. BERGAMIN

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The Bagnoli Bay (southern Tyrrhenian Sea, Naples, Italy has been impacted for about one century by heavy anthropogenic pollution due to an important steel plant. A multidisciplinary environmental research, aimed at the reclamation of the marine contaminated area, was planned in order to evaluate, through quantitative data, the chemical-physical and ecological characteristics of marine sediments; the latter ones are strictly related to the composition and structure of benthic foraminiferal assemblages. A comprehensive statistical approach, considering all data, was attempted in order to single out the influence of pollutants on the single species distribution. The results show strong heavy metal pollution (Fe, Mn, Pb and Zn in the vicinity of the industrial plant. Many foraminiferal species (Haynesina germanica, Miliolinella subrotunda,Quinqueloculina parvula, have a good tolerance to some trace metals while, Bulimina sublimbata, Elphidiummacellum and Miliolinella dilatata show a good tolerance to PAHs pollution.

  16. TEXTURAL AND CHEMICAL CHARACTERISATION OF ACTIVATED CARBONS PREPARED FROM RICE HUSK (ORYZA SATIVA USING A TWO- STAGE ACTIVATION PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JOSEPH G. COLLIN

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Activated carbons from agro-industrial wastes; rice husk; were prepared by physical and chemical activation using phosphoric acid as the dehydrating agent. A two-stage activation process method was used; with semi-carbonisation stage at 200oC for 15 minutes as the first stage followed by an activation stage at 500oC for 45 minutes as the second stage. The precursor material with the impregnation agent was exposed straightaway to semi-carbonization and activation temperature unlike the specific temperature progression as reported in the literature. All experiments were conducted in a laboratory scale muffle furnace under static conditions in a self generated atmosphere covering process parameters such as impregnation ratios. We found that by using this method, the AC5 had the highest iodine number and methylene blue adsorption capacity which was 506.6 mg/g and 319.0 mg/g respectively.

  17. Physico-chemical characterisation of 99mTc-SnF2 colloid agent used for labelling white cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: For more than fifteen years, Tc-stannous fluoride (SnF2) has been used to successfully label patient whole blood for the clinical diagnosis of inflammatory bowel disease. The physico-chemical characteristics of this radiocolloid are still poorly understood. Using filters of specific composition, the particle size distribution (PSD) of SnF2 was found to be 6.1% >5μm, 5.2% 1-5μm, 0% 0.2-1μm and 88.7% 5μm, 14.1% 1-5μm, 0% 0.2-1μm and 85.9% 99mTc-SnF2 was found to be 0.8% >5μm, 96.7% 1 -5mm, 2.3% 0.2-1 μm and 0.4% 2 is used in colloidal particle formation, and of the radioactivity added, all Tc is associated with the 1-5μm diameter particles. The growth of these colloidal particles depends upon the surface chemistry of SnF2. There is a slow initial rate of accretion of SnF2 during colloid formation, which is a slow hydrolysis reaction in water, to yield fewer yet larger particles. Subsequently, reduction of 99mTc-pertechnetate by Sn2+ present, yields [Tc3+] that binds to the growing colloid surface. The chemical units comprising the colloidal surface are probably SnO-SnF2 or Sn2O2F2 or SnF3- and Sn2F5-. Copyright (2002) The Australian and New Zealand Society of Nuclear Medicine Inc

  18. Characterisation of samarium and nitrogen co-doped TiO2 films prepared by chemical spray pyrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► The TiO2:N:Sm thin films deposited by chemical spray pyrolysis have anatase structure. ► According to XPS, N is incorporated into the TiO2 matrix. ► N-doping increases and Sm-doping reduces the crystallite size of the TiO2:N:Sm films. ► Incorporation of N strongly suppresses the Sm3+ PL emission. - Abstract: The sol–gel chemical spray pyrolysis method was used to deposit samarium and nitrogen co-doped TiO2 films onto a quartz substrate at a growth temperature of 450 °C using pulsed spray solution feed, followed by annealing at 500 °C for 2 h in air. The obtained films exhibited anatase structure independent of the doping level. According to XRD analysis, the mean crystallite size of the undoped TiO2, TiO2:N(25) and TiO2:N(5):Sm(5) films was 32, 38 and 20 nm, respectively. According to AFM, the undoped TiO2 film consisted of agglomerates with a size of 30–200 nm. N-doping (25 at%) transformed the agglomerates into individually distinctive grains with a size of ca. 30 nm, while Sm doping (5 at%) caused a significant decrease in the average diameter of the agglomerates to ca. 100 nm. The RMS roughness of the undoped TiO2 film was 1.7 nm; doping resulted in the formation of smoother films with RMS roughness of 0.9–1.4 nm. XPS data indicated that the Sm and N dopants were incorporated into the TiO2 crystal lattice and/or adsorbed on the surface of the film. An increasing nitrogen concentration in the spray solution correlates to a systematic suppressing of the photoluminescence intensity of Sm3+.

  19. Characterisation of polymers, 1

    CERN Document Server

    Crompton, Roy

    2008-01-01

    This essential guide to Polymer Characterisation is a complete compendium of methodologies that have evolved for the determination of the chemical composition of polymers. This 478-page book gives an up-to-date and thorough exposition of the state-of-the-art theories and availability of instrumentation needed to effect chemical and physical analysis of polymers. This is supported by approximately 1200 references. Volume 1 covers the methodology used for the determination of metals, non-metals and organic functional groups in polymers, and for the determination of the ratio in which different m

  20. Preparation and textural characterisation of activated carbon from vine shoots ( Vitis vinifera) by H 3PO 4—Chemical activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corcho-Corral, B.; Olivares-Marín, M.; Fernández-González, C.; Gómez-Serrano, V.; Macías-García, A.

    2006-06-01

    An abundant and low-cost agricultural waste as vine shoots ( Vitis vinifera) (VS), which is generated by the annual pruning of vineyards, has been used as raw material in the preparation of powder activated carbon (AC) by the method of chemical activation with phosphoric acid. After size reduction, VS were impregnated for 2 h with 60 wt.% H 3PO 4 solution at room temperature, 50 and 85 °C. The three impregnated products were carbonised at 400 °C. The product impregnated at 50 °C was heated either first at 150-250 °C and then at 400 °C or simply at 350-550 °C in N 2 atmosphere. The time of isothermal treatment after each dynamic heating was 2 h. The carbons were texturally characterised by gas adsorption (N 2, -196 °C), mercury porosimetry, and density measurements. FT-IR spectroscopy was also applied. Better developments of surface area and microporosity are obtained when the impregnation of VS with the H 3PO 4 solution is effected at 50 °C and for the products heated isothermally at 200 and 450 °C. The mesopore volume is also usually higher for the products impregnated and heated at intermediate temperatures.

  1. Chemical and aerosol characterisation of the troposphere over West Africa during the monsoon period as part of AMMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. E. Reeves

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available During June, July and August 2006 five aircraft took part in a campaign over West Africa to observe the aerosol content and chemical composition of the troposphere and lower stratosphere as part of the African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Analysis (AMMA project. These are the first such measurements in this region during the monsoon period. In addition to providing an overview of the tropospheric composition, this paper provides a description of the measurement strategy (flights performed, instrumental payloads, wing-tip to wing-tip comparisons and points to some of the important findings discussed in more detailed in other papers in this special issue.

    The ozone data exhibits an "S" shaped vertical profile which appears to result from significant losses in the lower troposphere due to rapid deposition to forested areas and photochemical destruction in the moist monsoon air, and convective uplift of O3-poor air to the upper troposphere. This profile is disturbed, particularly in the south of the region, by the intrusions in the lower and middle troposphere of air from the Southern Hemisphere impacted by biomass burning. Comparisons with longer term data sets suggest the impact of these intrusions on West Africa in 2006 was greater than in other recent wet seasons. There is evidence for net photochemical production of ozone in these biomass burning plumes as well as in urban plumes, in particular that from Lagos, convective outflow in the upper troposphere and in boundary layer air affected by nitrogen oxide emissions from recently wetted soils. This latter effect, along with enhanced deposition to the forested areas, contributes to a latitudinal gradient of ozone in the lower troposphere. Biogenic volatile organic compounds are also important in defining the composition both for the boundary layer and upper tropospheric convective outflow.

    Mineral dust was found to be the most abundant and ubiquitous aerosol type in the

  2. Chemical and aerosol characterisation of the troposphere over West Africa during the monsoon period as part of AMMA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeves, C. E.; Formenti, P.; Afif, C.; Ancellet, G.; Attié, J.-L.; Bechara, J.; Borbon, A.; Cairo, F.; Coe, H.; Crumeyrolle, S.; Fierli, F.; Flamant, C.; Gomes, L.; Hamburger, T.; Jambert, C.; Law, K. S.; Mari, C.; Jones, R. L.; Matsuki, A.; Mead, M. I.; Methven, J.; Mills, G. P.; Minikin, A.; Murphy, J. G.; Nielsen, J. K.; Oram, D. E.; Parker, D. J.; Richter, A.; Schlager, H.; Schwarzenboeck, A.; Thouret, V.

    2010-08-01

    During June, July and August 2006 five aircraft took part in a campaign over West Africa to observe the aerosol content and chemical composition of the troposphere and lower stratosphere as part of the African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Analysis (AMMA) project. These are the first such measurements in this region during the monsoon period. In addition to providing an overview of the tropospheric composition, this paper provides a description of the measurement strategy (flights performed, instrumental payloads, wing-tip to wing-tip comparisons) and points to some of the important findings discussed in more detail in other papers in this special issue. The ozone data exhibits an "S" shaped vertical profile which appears to result from significant losses in the lower troposphere due to rapid deposition to forested areas and photochemical destruction in the moist monsoon air, and convective uplift of ozone-poor air to the upper troposphere. This profile is disturbed, particularly in the south of the region, by the intrusions in the lower and middle troposphere of air from the southern hemisphere impacted by biomass burning. Comparisons with longer term data sets suggest the impact of these intrusions on West Africa in 2006 was greater than in other recent wet seasons. There is evidence for net photochemical production of ozone in these biomass burning plumes as well as in urban plumes, in particular that from Lagos, convective outflow in the upper troposphere and in boundary layer air affected by nitrogen oxide emissions from recently wetted soils. This latter effect, along with enhanced deposition to the forested areas, contributes to a latitudinal gradient of ozone in the lower troposphere. Biogenic volatile organic compounds are also important in defining the composition both for the boundary layer and upper tropospheric convective outflow. Mineral dust was found to be the most abundant and ubiquitous aerosol type in the atmosphere over Western Africa. Data

  3. Chemical and aerosol characterisation of the troposphere over West Africa during the monsoon period as part of AMMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. E. Reeves

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available During June, July and August 2006 five aircraft took part in a campaign over West Africa to observe the aerosol content and chemical composition of the troposphere and lower stratosphere as part of the African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Analysis (AMMA project. These are the first such measurements in this region during the monsoon period. In addition to providing an overview of the tropospheric composition, this paper provides a description of the measurement strategy (flights performed, instrumental payloads, wing-tip to wing-tip comparisons and points to some of the important findings discussed in more detail in other papers in this special issue.

    The ozone data exhibits an "S" shaped vertical profile which appears to result from significant losses in the lower troposphere due to rapid deposition to forested areas and photochemical destruction in the moist monsoon air, and convective uplift of ozone-poor air to the upper troposphere. This profile is disturbed, particularly in the south of the region, by the intrusions in the lower and middle troposphere of air from the southern hemisphere impacted by biomass burning. Comparisons with longer term data sets suggest the impact of these intrusions on West Africa in 2006 was greater than in other recent wet seasons. There is evidence for net photochemical production of ozone in these biomass burning plumes as well as in urban plumes, in particular that from Lagos, convective outflow in the upper troposphere and in boundary layer air affected by nitrogen oxide emissions from recently wetted soils. This latter effect, along with enhanced deposition to the forested areas, contributes to a latitudinal gradient of ozone in the lower troposphere. Biogenic volatile organic compounds are also important in defining the composition both for the boundary layer and upper tropospheric convective outflow.

    Mineral dust was found to be the most abundant and ubiquitous aerosol type in the

  4. Late Cenozoic extension in Anatolia and its implication for the tectonic escape model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhont, D.

    2009-04-01

    The westward motion of Anatolia is often used as a classic example of indentation-escape tectonics. In this model, the collision between Arabia and Eurasia is responsible for lateral extrusion of Anatolia toward the Aegean basin forming a free boundary. Anatolia is considered a rigid lithospheric block guided by the active right-lateral North Anatolian Fault (NAF) in the north and by the left-lateral East Anatolian Fault (EAF) in the southeast. Available GPS data show that the present-day movement of Anatolia can be described as a coherent counterclockwise rotation, favoring the model of a rigid westward tectonic extrusion of the Anatolian plate at a first approximation. However, the velocity field increases from East Anatolia to the Aegean region, which seems contradictory with the hypotheses that (1) Anatolia as a whole behaves as a rigid block and (2) the engine for Anatolian westward motion is indentation of Arabia. From our interpretation of remote sensing data and structural analysis in the field, we show that during the late Cenozoic Anatolia has been in large part subjected to extensional tectonics involving separate crustal blocks. Deformation is not localized along the NAF but distributed in triangular wedges bounded by the NAF and NE-trending adjacent fault systems cutting the Anatolian block. The eastern boundary of Anatolia seems to have migrated by successive jumps from west to east, creating fault zones parallel to the EAF. Compression is limited to the eastern Taurus belt and to a north-south elongate region running from the northern tip of the Amanos mountain belt to the Sivas basin, in relation with forced subduction of the African plate south of the Africa-Arabia-Anatolia triple junction. Here we develop the idea that crustal thickening and related uplift of the Anatolian orogen are not related to the Arabia-Eurasia collision. We propose that the Anatolian crustal thickness increased during a major shortening event that occurred in the Eocene

  5. Long term corrosion of iron and non alloy or low alloy steels in clay soils. Physico-chemical characterisation and electrochemical study of archaeological analogues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Archaeological objects of Gallo-Roman and Merovingian time, and from a battlefield of World War 1, were studied to better understand long term corrosion phenomena of iron in clay soils. This study is part of the French national program about nuclear waste deep repository, conducted by the ANDRA (French national Agency for Radioactive Waste Management). Iron archaeological analogues make a valuable contribution to the specifying of containers for long lived and high level wastes (HLWs), because they provide access to the considered time scale. The experimental issue is divided into two major parts: - a physico-chemical characterisation of corrosion products, by Raman spectroscopy; - an electrochemical study of the behaviour of the different corrosion layers. Although the metallic material is different between ancient artefacts (ferrite) and 1914-1918 remains (hypo-eutectoid steels), the same stable phases are identified in their corrosion products: mainly iron oxides and oxi-hydroxides. From a macroscopic point of view, these products are staggered into two layers: an internal one, and an external one, which contains soil markers. Under the microscope, a complex composite structure appears. Goethite a-FeOOH, which was identified on each object, is frequently in contact with the metal core. The average corrosion rate in the burial environment, deduced from the layers thickness, highlights a significant slowdown of corrosion after the first burial time, about one century. The electrochemical study showed the predominant role of transport phenomena in the pores of corrosion layers. The behaviour of the metal - internal layer system is well explained by a model of porous electrode (De Levie theory). Despite its porosity, the internal layer is protective, as it leads to a significant decrease of the corrosion rate (about ten time). (author)

  6. Friedrich Sarre and the discovery of Seljuk Anatolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Blessing

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The German art historian Friedrich Sarre (1865-1945 is best known as the director, from 1925-31, of the Islamic collection of the Berlin Museums, and for his collaboration with Ernst Herzfeld on the excavation of the Abbasid palaces of Samarra, Iraq, just before the onset of the 1914-18 war. From a historiographical point of view, however, Sarre also deserves attention for his work on the Seljuk architecture of Anatolia, a subject that had been barely studied within the context of Islamic art when he ventured into it. Crucially, Sarre’s study of Seljuk architecture is rooted in the late nineteenth-century appreciation of Persian art, rather in the later focus on a unified Turkish identity that became pervasive in the late 1920s, following ideological shifts after the foundation of the Republic of Turkey.

  7. Neutron activation analysis of Urartian pottery from eastern Anatolia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A total of 275 pottery and clay samples from Urartian period sites in eastern Anatolia were analyzed by INAA. The pottery sample originates primarily from the fortress and Outer Town at Ayanis and also includes samples from nearby sites in the Lake Van basin. A small sample of pottery from Bastam, a contemporary Urartian fortress in northwest Iran, and Kef Kalesi, a site on the north shore of Lake Van were also analyzed. Ten distinct compositional groups were identified during the course of the analysis suggesting that pottery was produced at multiple locations throughout the Urartian kingdom. In addition to identifying multiple production locales, the long-distance movement of pottery from the sites of Kef Kalesi and Bastam into the Van Basin and the movement of pottery from Ayanis to Bastam were documented. (author)

  8. A new Pseudophoxinus (Teleostei, Cyprinidae species from Southwestern Anatolia, with remarks on the distribution of the genus in western Anatolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahrettin Küçük

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Pseudophoxinus burduricus sp. n. is described from drainages of Salda and Burdur lakes, southwestern Turkey. It is distinguished from other Anatolian Pseudophoxinus by a combination of characters: lateral line incomplete, with 21–39 (commonly 26–37 perforated scales and 47–57+1-2 scales in lateral series; 10½–12½ scale rows between lateral line and dorsal fin origin, 3–4(5 scale rows between lateral line and the pelvic fin origin; dorsal fin commonly with 7½ branched rays; anal fin commonly with 6½ branched rays; 7–8(9 gill rakers on the first branchial arch; a faint and diffuse epidermal black stripe from eye to caudal fin base in alive and preserved individuals; mouth slightly subterminal, tip of mouth cleft on about level of lower margin of eye; snout rounded, its length greater than eye diameter. Comparison is given with all Pseudophoxinus species from western Anatolia.

  9. Chemical and physical characterisation of water in an alpine permafrost area (Col d'Olen LTER site, Italian NW-Alps)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giardino, Marco; Colombo, Nicola; Fratianni, Simona; Guenzi, Diego; Acquaotta, Fiorella; Perotti, Luigi; Freppaz, Michele; Godone, Danilo; Said Pullicino, Daniel; Martin, Maria; Viglietti, Davide; Gorra, Roberta; Mania, Ilaria; Viviano, Gaetano; Salerno, Franco; Balestrini, Raffaella

    2015-04-01

    High altitude areas in the Alps are characterised by the permafrost environment, which reacts sensitively to climate change. During the last decades several studies on alpine permafrost-related hazards have been performed, but few studies have focused on the geochemical content of the water that drains permafrost areas or outflow from rock glaciers (Williams et al., 2006; Thies et al., 2007; Krainer et al., 2011). Rock glaciers have physical and chemical influences on interflowing waters and their discharge can be highly enriched in solutes. For example, unexpected high nickel and manganese concentrations exceeding the EU limits for drinking water have been recently reported in some studies investigating rock glacier discharges (Ilyashuk et al., 2014). The present study aims to evaluate rock glacier solute fluxes into a high altitude lake in the Italian NW-Alps (Col d'Olen LTER site, Aosta Valley) in order to understand the impact of climate parameters on alpine permafrost, in particular the effects of permafrost ice melt on the water quality of mountain headwaters. This objective has been achieved through an integrated-multidisciplinary research programme involving climate analysis, rock glacier ground surface temperature investigation, water physiochemical and microbiological analyses. Nine automatic and three manned weather stations located in the surrounding areas of the rock glacier (radius: 12 km) have been used to study the relationships between climatic parameters and permafrost dynamics. Moreover, meteorological data have been collected by installing portable instruments in situ, integrated in a Mini Automatic Weather Station. To investigate the correlations between physiochemical features of water and the thermal state of the rock glacier surface, the ground temperature monitoring has been conducted. Temperature dataloggers have been buried 5/10 cm into the ground, regularly distributed on the rockglacier surface and in few surrounding sites. Total

  10. The characterisation of precipitated magnetites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Methods are described for the preparation of magnetite by precipitation from aqueous solutions of iron(II) and iron(III) salts. The magnetites have been characterised by transmission electron microscopy, chemical analysis and X-ray diffraction. Transmission Moessbauer spectroscopy has also been used to characterise precipitated magnetites and a comparison of the spectra has been made with those obtained from nickel ferrite and hydrated ferric oxides. The hydrothermal stability of magnetite at 573 K has also been investigated. This work is relevant to corrosion processes that can occur in the water coolant circuits of nuclear reactors. (author)

  11. [Evaluation of tularemia cases originated from Central Anatolia, Turkey].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akıncı, Esragül; Ulgen, Fatmanur; Kılıç, Selçuk; Yılmaz, Sevim; Yıldız, Sümeyye; Ozdemir, Burcu; Alıravcı, Deniz; Celebi, Bekir; Eren, Selim Sırrı; But, Ayşe; Ongürü, Pınar; Yetkin, M Arzu; Bodur, Hürrem

    2011-10-01

    Tularemia is an infection caused by Francisella tularensis with a worldwide distribution and diverse clinical manifestations. In recent years, tularemia cases are increasing in Turkey, with a special attention to Marmara, western Blacksea and Central Anatolia regions. The aim of this study was to evaluate tularemia cases admitted to our hospital during an outbreak emerged at Central Anatolia between December 2009 and September 2010, making a point for the disease. A total of 32 patients (17 female, 15 male; age range: 15-80 years, mean age: 41 ± 16 years) with fever, sore throat, cervical mass and failure to respond to beta-lactam antibiotics, were followed up with the preliminary diagnosis of tularemia. The diagnosis was confirmed by specific laboratory tests. Serum samples were obtained from 25 patients and in 17 (68%) of them microagglutination test yielded positive result (≥ 1/160) in their first serum samples. All of the 8 patients who had negative results in their first samples (< 1/160), revealed seroconversion in their second samples. In 10 (91%) of the 11 patients from whom lymph node aspirates were obtained, PCR performed with species specific (tul4) primers yielded positivity and subspecies differentiation done by RD1 primers identified the agent as F.tularensis subspecies holarctica. F.tularensis growth was not detected in the cultures of lymph aspirates and/or throat swabs of the cases (n= 16). All the patients had oropharyngeal tularemia and eight of them also had oculoglandular form. The mean duration of the symptoms were 25.6 ± 17.2 (2-60) days. They had a history of oral intake of contaminated water. Cervical or submandibular lymphadenopathy were detected in all patients. One patient had cervical abscess and the other one had erythema nodosum. Elevated sedimentation rate was found in 26 (81.3%) patients and elevated CRP in 24 (75%) patients. Spontaneous drainage was detected in nine cases during follow-up. Lymph node aspiration was performed in

  12. Present-day dynamic and residual topography in Central Anatolia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Şengül Uluocak, Ebru; Pysklywec, Russell; Göǧüş, Oǧuz H.

    2016-09-01

    The Central Anatolian orogenic plateau is represented by young volcanism, rapid plateau uplift and distinctive (past and active) tectonic deformation. In this study, we consider observational data in terms of regional present-day geodynamics in the region. The residual topography of Central Anatolia was derived to define the regional isostatic conditions according to Airy isostasy and infer the potential role of `dynamic topography'. 2-D thermomechanical forward models for coupled mantle-lithosphere flow/deformation were conducted along an N-S directional profile through the region (e.g. northern/Pontides, interior and southern/Taurides). These models were based on seismic tomography data that provide estimates about the present-day mantle thermal structure beneath the Anatolian plate. We compare the modelling results with calculated residual topography and independent data sets of geological deformation, gravity and high surface heat flow/widespread geothermal activity. Model results suggest that there is ˜1 km of mantle flow induced dynamic topography associated with the sublithospheric flow driven by the seismically inferred mantle structure. The uprising mantle may have also driven the asthenospheric source of volcanism in the north (e.g. Galatia volcanic province) and the Cappadocia volcanic province in the south while elevating the surface in the last 10 Myr. Our dynamic topography calculations emphasize the role of vertical forcing under other orogenic plateaux underlain by relatively thin crust and low-density asthenospheric mantle.

  13. Present-day dynamic and residual topography in central Anatolia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uluocak, Ebru Şengül; Pysklywec, Russell; Göğüş, Oğuz H.

    2016-06-01

    The Central Anatolian orogenic plateau is represented by young volcanism, rapid plateau uplift, and distinctive (past and active) tectonic deformation. In this study, we consider observational data in terms of regional present-day geodynamics in the region. The residual topography of Central Anatolia was derived to define the regional isostatic conditions according to Airy isostasy and infer the potential role of "dynamic topography". Two-dimensional thermo-mechanical forward models for coupled mantle-lithosphere flow/deformation were conducted along a N-S directional profile through the region (e.g. northern/Pontides, interior, and southern/Taurides). These models were based on seismic tomography data that provide estimates about the present-day mantle thermal structure beneath the Anatolian plate. We compare the modelling results with calculated residual topography and independent data sets of geological deformation, gravity, and high surface heat flow/widespread geothermal activity. Model results suggest that there is ˜1 km of mantle flow induced dynamic topography associated with the sub-lithospheric flow driven by the seismically-inferred mantle structure. The uprising mantle may have also driven the asthenospheric source of volcanism in the north (e.g. Galatia volcanic province) and the Cappadocia volcanic province in the south while elevating the surface in the last 10 Myrs. Our dynamic topography calculations emphasize the role of vertical forcing under other orogenic plateaux underlain by relatively thin crust and low-density asthenospheric mantle.

  14. Hydrothermal fluids circulation and travertine deposition in an active tectonic setting: Insights from the Kamara geothermal area (western Anatolia, Turkey)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brogi, Andrea; Alçiçek, M. Cihat; Yalçıner, Cahit Çağlar; Capezzuoli, Enrico; Liotta, Domenico; Meccheri, Marco; Rimondi, Valentina; Ruggieri, Giovanni; Gandin, Anna; Boschi, Chiara; Büyüksaraç, Aydin; Alçiçek, Hülya; Bülbül, Ali; Baykara, Mehmet Oruç; Shen, Chuan-Chou

    2016-06-01

    Coexistence of thermal springs, travertine deposits and tectonic activity is a recurring feature for most geothermal areas. Although such a certainty, their relationships are debated mainly addressing on the role of the tectonic activity in triggering and controlling fluids flow and travertine deposition. In this paper, we present the results of an integrated study carried out in a geothermal area located in western Anatolia (Turkey), nearby the well-known Pamukkale area (Denizli Basin). Our study focused on the relationships among hydrothermal fluids circulation, travertine deposition and tectonic activity, with particular emphasis on the role of faults in controlling fluids upwelling, thermal springs location and deposition of travertine masses. New field mapping and structural/kinematics analyses allowed us to recognize two main faults systems (NW- and NE-trending), framed in the Neogene-Quaternary extensional tectonic evolution of western Anatolia. A geo-radar (GPR) prospection was also provided in a key-area, permitting us to reconstruct a buried fault zone and its relationships with the development of a fissure-ridge travertine deposit (Kamara fissure-ridge). The integration among structural and geophysical studies, fluids inclusion, geochemical, isotopic data and 230 Th/238 U radiometric age determination on travertine deposits, depict the characteristics of the geothermal fluids and their pathway, up to the surface. Hydrological and seismological data have been also taken in account to investigate the relation between local seismicity and fluid upwelling. As a main conclusion we found strict relationships among tectonic activity, earthquakes occurrence, and variation of the physical/chemical features of the hydrothermal fluids, presently exploited at depth, or flowing out in thermal springs. In the same way, we underline the tectonic role in controlling the travertine deposition, making travertine (mainly banded travertine) a useful proxy to reconstruct the

  15. Miocene transgression in the central and eastern parts of the Sivas Basin (Central Anatolia, Turkey) and the Cenozoic palaeogeographical evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poisson, André; Vrielynck, Bruno; Wernli, Roland; Negri, Alessandra; Bassetti, Maria-Angela; Büyükmeriç, Yesim; Özer, Sacit; Guillou, Hervé; Kavak, Kaan S.; Temiz, Haluk; Orszag-Sperber, Fabienne

    2016-01-01

    We present here a reappraisal of the tectonic setting, stratigraphy and palaeogeography of the central part of the Sivas Basin from Palaeocene to late Miocene. The Sivas Basin is located in the collision zone between the Pontides (southern Eurasia) and Anatolia (a continental block rifted from Gondwana). The basin overlies ophiolites that were obducted onto Anatolia from Tethys to the north. The Central Anatolian Crystalline Complex (CACC) experienced similar ophiolite obduction during Campanian time, followed by exhumation and thrusting onto previously emplaced units during Maastrichtian time. To the east, crustal extension related to exhumation of the CACC created grabens during the early Tertiary, including the Sivas Basin. The Sivas Basin underwent several tectonic events during Paleogene-Neogene. The basin fill varies, with several sub-basins, each being characterised by a distinctive sequence, especially during Oligocene and Miocene. Evaporite deposition in the central part of the basin during early Oligocene was followed by mid-late Oligocene fluvio-lacustrine deposition. The weight of overlying fluvial sediments triggered salt tectonics and salt diapir formation. Lacustrine layers that are interbedded within the fluviatile sediments have locally yielded charophytes of late Oligocene age. Emergent areas including the pre-existing Sivas Basin and neighbouring areas were then flooded from the east by a shallow sea, giving rise to a range of open-marine sub-basins, coralgal reef barriers and subsiding, restricted-marine sub-basins. Utilising new data from foraminifera, molluscs, corals and nannoplankton, the age of the marine transgression is reassessed as Aquitanian. Specifically, age-diagnostic nannoplankton assemblages of classical type occur at the base of the transgressive sequence. However, classical stratigraphic markers have not been found within the planktic foraminiferal assemblages, even in the open-marine settings. In the restricted-marine sediments

  16. Additional records of Suncus etruscus (Savi, 1822) (Mammalia: Soricidae) from Southeastern Anatolia, Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Coşkun, Yüksel; Kaya, Alaettin

    2014-01-01

      The Pygmy white-toothed shrew,Suncus etruscus, was reported from especially west and south of Anatolia.Owl pellets obtained from  Asio otus, Athene noctua, Bubo bubo and Tyto alba were collected in differentlocalities from south eastern Anatolia and were analysed. Results show that  Suncus etruscus had been found at a rate of 1.03 % in mammal remains. In addition, a live sample was captured from Karacadağ nearDiyarbakır. These findings are substantially new records for the south eastern par...

  17. Case study: Examples of Wooden Vernacular Architecture - Turkish Houses in Western Anatolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yilmaz Karaman Özgül

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Wooden material is described as the oldest construction material along with stone. In the historical process, especially for the buildings of shelter, timber construction components are seen to be used as primary and indispensable structural system components in different geographies of the world as well as Anatolia. This paper focuses on timber-frame structures of four different settlements from Western Anatolia. It is aimed to analyze the traditional techniques, in order to transmit our cultural heritage to the next generations, as well as obtaining some data on construction techniqes to be used for creating alternative solutions to the house production of today.

  18. Helichrysum yurterianum (Asteraceae, Inuleae), a new species from NE Anatolia, Turkey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gemici, Yusuf; Tan, Kit; Yildirim, Hasan;

    2008-01-01

    Helichrysum yurterianum Y. Gemici, Kit Tan, H. Yildirim & M. Gemici (Asteraceae, Inuleae) is described and illustrated. It is a serpentine endemic restricted to the province of Erzincan in NE Anatolia, Turkey. Its affinities are with H. arenarium and H. noeanum, which both have a wider distribution...

  19. Clematis austroanatolica (Ranunculaceae), an unusual new species from southern Anatolia, Turkey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zielinski, Jerzy; Tan, Kit

    2011-01-01

    Clematis austroanatolica (Ranunculaceae) is illustrated and described as a new species endemic to southern Anatolia, Turkey. It is related to C. vitalba and differs from the latter in having leaves with narrowly ovate, dentate-serrate leaflets, trifoliolate lowermost pinnae as well as small, pale...

  20. Chaenorhinum semispeluncarum sp. nov. and C. yildirimlii sp. nov. (Scrophulariaceae) from east Anatolia, Turkey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yildirim, Hasan; Tan, Kit; Senol, Serdar;

    2010-01-01

    Chaenorhinum semispeluncarum H. Yildirim, Kit Tan, S. Senol & A. Pirhan sp. nov. and C. yildirimlii Kit Tan, H. Yildirim, S. Senol & A. Pirhan sp. nov. (Scrophulariaceae, C. sect. Microrrhinum) from east Anatolia are described and illustrated. They are both narrow endemics related to the rare C. ...

  1. The interaction between Aegean back-arc extension and Anatolia escape since Middle Miocene

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Philippon, M.; Brun, J.-P.; Gueydan, F.; Sokoutis, D.

    2014-01-01

    The Aegean domain is a key area for understanding the processes of back-arc extension. Observed deformation pattern and present day kinematics result from the interaction between the southward retreat of the Hellenic trench and the westward escape of Anatolia. Lithosphere-scale analogue models were

  2. Clematis austroanatolica (Ranunculaceae), an unusual new species from southern Anatolia, Turkey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zielinski, Jerzy; Tan, Kit

    2011-01-01

    Clematis austroanatolica (Ranunculaceae) is illustrated and described as a new species endemic to southern Anatolia, Turkey. It is related to C. vitalba and differs from the latter in having leaves with narrowly ovate, dentate-serrate leaflets, trifoliolate lowermost pinnae as well as small, pale...... pink flowers with orange-brown filaments. A key to the Turkish taxa of Clematis is provided....

  3. Particle related fractionation and characterisation of municipal wastewater

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieuwenhuijzen, van A.F.; Graaf, van der J.H.J.M.; Kampschreur, M.J.; Mels, A.R.

    2004-01-01

    Several studies show that a more detailed characterisation of the particulate matter in municipal wastewater gives a better understanding and prediction of removal efficiencies of physical-chemical treatment techniques and the application of optimal chemical dosages. Such a characterisation should i

  4. Dental age assessment: The applicability of Demirjian method in southwestern of eastern Anatolia region Turkish children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oğuzhan Altun

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available

    Objectives: Age estimation plays an important role in forensic medicine and orthodontics. Many methods of age estimation have been suggested. Demirjian method is the most frequently used one of these. In the literature, there is a little known about applicability of this method in Turkish children. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the reliability of Demirjian method of dental age estimaiton and for description of mandibular permanent tooth formation in Turkish children from the southwest Eastern Anatolia region.

    Materials and Methods: A retrospective study was performed on 1015 panoramic radiographs and 5-15 years of age South western of Eastern Anatolia Regionof Turkish children. The stages of dental maturity of the mandibular left seven permanent teeth for each subject using the eight radiographic dental maturity stages demonstrated by Demirjian’s method were evaluated. A pired t-test was used for statistical analysis.

    Results: The mean difference between the chronological and dental ages ranged 0,28 to 1,10 years in boys and from 0,18 to 0,68 years in girls. South western of Eastern Anatolia Region ofTurkish children were generally delayed in dental maturity compared with children in Demirjian sample. The differences between the chronological and dental ages were statistically significant in 6-6.9, 8-8.9, 9-9.9, 10-10.9, 11-11.9 years in boys and in 8-8.9, 9-9.9,11-11.9 years in girls.

    Conclusions: Turkish children from the southwest Eastern Anatolia region are significantly more delayed in dental maturity compared to Demirjian’s French-Canadian sample. The applicability of Demirjian data is not suitable for Southwestern of Eastern Anatolia Region of Turkish children.

  5. Active Tectonics in crossroads of an evolving orogen and morphological consequences: Anatolia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koral, Hayrettin

    2016-04-01

    Anatolia lies in a curved setting of the active Alpine Mountain Range and is located in crossroads of the European and Asian terrains. It is one of the fastest deforming land in the world, manifested by seismicity, characteristic landforms and GPS measurements. Active tectonics in Anatolia provides not only a comparable geological model for the past orogens, but also a laboratory case for morphological consequences of an orogenic processes. Anatolia comprise different tectonic subsettings with its own characteristics. Northern part is influenced by tectonic characteristics of the Black Sea Basin, the Pontides and the Caucasian Range; northwestern part by the Balkanides; eastern-southeastern part by the Bitlis-Zagros suture; and south-southwestern part by the eastern Mediterranean subduction setting. Much of its present tectonic complexity was inherited from the convergence dominant plate tectonic setting of the platelets prior to the Middle-Neogene. Beginning about 11 Ma ago, the deformed and uplifted landmass unable to accommodate further deformation in Anatolia and ongoing tectonic activity gave rise to rearrangement of tectonic forces and westerly translational movements. Formation of major strike-slip faults in Anatolia including the North and East Anatolian Faults and a new platelet called the Anatolian Plate are the consequences of this episode. Such change in the tectonic regime has led to modification of previously-formed landscape, modification and sometimes termination of previously-formed basins. Evidence is present in the Plio-Quaternary stratigraphy, tectonic characteristics and morphology of the well-studied areas. This presentation will discuss active tectonic features of the northwestern, southwestern and eastern Anatolian subsettings and their influence on morphology that is closely related to sites of pre-historical human settlement.

  6. Depositional conditions of the coal-bearing Hirka Formation beneath Late Miocene explosive volcanic products in NW central Anatolia, Turkey

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Mehmet Şener

    2007-04-01

    This work focuses on the relationship between the coal deposition and explosive volcanism of the Miocene basin, NW central Anatolia, Turkey. The coal-bearing Hirka Formation was deposited over the Galatian Andesitic Complex and/or massive lagoonal environments during the Miocene. The investigated lignite is a high ash (from 32 to 58%) and sulphur (from 1.43 to 3.03%) lignite which is petrographically characterised by a high humunite content. The mineral matter of the studied lignite samples is made up of mainly clay minerals (illite–smectite and kaolinite), plagioclase and quartz in Bolu coal field, clay minerals (illite–smectite, smectite and illite), quartz, calcite, plagioclase and gypsum in Seben coal field, quartz, K-feldspar, plagioclase and clay minerals (kaolinite and illite) in Kıbrıscık, and dolomite, quartz, clinoptilolite, opal CT and gypsum in C¸ amlıdere coal field. The differences in these four types of lignite with specific mineralogical patterns may be due to the explosive volcanic events and depositional conditions which changed from one coal field to the others. There is a zonation from SW to SE in the studied area for zeolites such as Opal CT+smectite-clinoptilolite-analcime-K-feldspar. Carbonate minerals are commonly calcite in Seben and Kıbrıscık coal fields. In Bolu, coal samples are devoid of calcite and dolomite. These analyses show that there is an increase in the amount of Mg and a decrease in the amount of Na from the northwestern part to the southern part in the study area.

  7. Geochemical Constraints on Collision-related Intrusive Rocks in Central, Northwestern and Western Anatolia (Turkey)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilbeyli, Nurdane

    2010-05-01

    The intrusive rocks in Anatolia occupy a broad petrological range from I- to A- type granitoids. Thus, Turkey is a natural laboratory to study collision-related magmatism, its geochemical characteristic, source region and also tectono-magmatic evolution. The central, northwestern and western Anatolian magmatic provinces are defined by a large number of Late Mesozoic to Late Cenozoic collision-related granitoids (Ilbeyli and Kibici 2009). Calc-alkaline, subalkaline and alkaline intrusive rocks in central Anatolia are mainly metaluminous, high-K and I- to A-types. They cover a petrological range from monzodiorite through quartz monzonite to granite/syenite. All these intrusive rocks are enriched in LILE and are also radiogenic in terms of Sr, and unradiogenic in terms of Nd, isotope ratios. Their geochemical characteristics show that the intrusive rocks originated from a mantle source containing large subduction components, and have experienced crustal assimilation and fractional crystallization. Delamination of a thermal boundary layer, and/or slab breakoff is the likely mechanisms for the initiation of the diverse magmatism in the complex (Ilbeyli et al. 2009). Calc-alkaline plutonic rocks in northwestern Anatolia are mainly metaluminous, medium- to high-K and I-types. They are monzonite to granite, and all are enriched in LILE and depleted in HFSE, showing features of arc-related intrusive rocks. Geochemical data reveal that these plutons were derived from partial melting of mafic lower crustal sources. These rocks are related to subduction of the northern branch of the Neo-Tethyan ocean beneath the Sakarya microcontinent during Cretaceous-Paleocene times (Kibici et al. 2008). Calc-alkaline intrusive rocks in western Anatolia are metaluminous, high-K and I-types. They have a compositional range from granodiorite to granite, and are enriched in LILE and depleted in HFSE. Geochemical characteristics of these intrusive rocks indicate that they could have originated

  8. Origin of postcollisional intrusions in NW Anatolia, Turkey: Implications for magma chamber processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aysal, Namık

    2013-04-01

    Post-collisional magmatic activities of NW Anatolia are represented by a series of granitic intrusions and volcanic successions in the Biga Peninsula, NW Turkey. These plutonic rocks have distinct textures, chemical compositions and Sr-Nd isotope characteristics. They consist of coarse grained, equigranular and/or hypidiomorphic textured granite, gronodiorite, monzogranite, quartz-monzonite, pyroxene-monzonite and leucocratic alkali feldspar granites. These intrusions are composed of quartz, K-feldspar, plagioclase, hornblende, pyroxene and biotite. However, leucocratic facies rocks contain tourmaline with minor amount of mafic minerals. Accessory phases are represented by zircon, apatite, monozite, magnetite, sphene and rarely allanite. ASI values of the plutonic rocks vary between 0.7 and 1.24. These intrusive rocks are therefore classified as metaluminous-peraluminous with I-type affinity. K2O contents show that the intrusive rock samples show calc-alkaline, high K-calc-alkaline and shoshonitic character. Initial 87Sr/86Sr(t) (0.69980-0.70835), 143Nd/144Nd(t) (0.51238-0.51247) isotope ratios and negative ɛNd(t) (-4.4 - -2.6) values imply that these intrusive rocks could have been derived from enriched mantle sources. N-MORB normalized spidergrams of NW Anatolian plutonic rocks display enrichments in large ion lithophile elements (LILE), light rare earth elements (LREE) and depletion in high field strength elements (HFSE) indicating hydrous melting of a mantle wedge in a subduction zone and/or enrichment of the mantle source with an inherited subduction component from an ancient arc magmatism. Chondrite-normalized Rare Earth Element spidergrams are indicative of the importance of plagioclase and amphibole fractionation. On tectonic discrimination diagrams, all granite samples fall into the volcanic arc granite, syn and post-collisional granite fields. The geochemical data also indicate that a number of magma chamber processes involving magma mixing, fractional

  9. Block-like plate movements in eastern Anatolia observed by InSAR

    KAUST Repository

    Cavalie, Olivier

    2014-01-16

    The question whether continental plates deform internally or move as rigid blocks has been debated for several decades. To further address this question, we use large-scale interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) data sets to study how eastern Anatolia and its surrounding plates deform. We find that most of the deformation is focused at the North and East Anatolian faults and little intraplate deformation takes place. Anatolia is therefore moving, at least its eastern part, as a uniform block. We estimate the slip velocity and locking depth of the North Anatolian fault at this location to be 20 mm/yr and ~14 km, respectively. High deformation gradient found near the East Anatolian fault, on the other hand, suggests that little stress is accumulating along the eastern sections of that fault.

  10. New seismological evidence for fragmentation of the Tethys slab beneath Anatolia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govers, R. M. A.; Fichtner, A.

    2015-12-01

    When oceanic basins close after a long period of convergence and subduction, continental collision and mountain building is a common consequence. The eastern Mediterranean basin is the last remainder of a once hemispherical neo-Tethys ocean that has nearly disappeared due to convergence of the India and Africa/Arabia plates with the Eurasia plate. New results from full waveform inversion for Anatolia give an unprecedented view on the crust and the upper mantle of the region. Based on highly accurate spectral-element simulations of seismic wave propagation in heterogeneous Earth models, full waveform inversion exploits complete seismograms - including body and surface waves - for the benefit of improved resolution. Furthermore, 3D structure in both crust and mantle is constrained jointly, thereby avoiding contamination from commonly applied crustal corrections. Second-order adjoint techniques provide quantitative estimates of direction- and position-dependent resolution length, which is essential for the interpretation of the model. The images connect major structures in the crust as documented in the geology, to features in the upper mantle that reflect the remnants of the convergence and collision. The results show a major discontinuity between western Anatolia lithosphere and the region to the east of it. It is the imprint of syn-collisional segmentation of the neo-Tethys slab, and separates the Aegean and west Anatolia regions from central and east Anatolia. While convergence between Africa and Europe continued, this initiated a period of lithospheric extension in the west and flat slab subduction in the east that set the stage for earthquake and volcanic activity in the region today. Slab segmentation is expected to have been relatively common just prior to closure of other oceans in the geological past, and may explain some of the complexity that geologists have documented in, for instance, the Tibetan plateau also.

  11. Physical and microbiological properties of alluvial calcareous Çumra province soils (Central Anatolia, Turkey)

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmet Sami Erol; Evgeny Shein; Evgeny Milanovskiy; Fariz Mikailsoy; Fatih Er; Sabit Ersahin

    2015-01-01

    Alluvial calcareous soils in Central Anatolia (Konya province, Çumra district) has a heavy granulometric composition (average clay), low organic carbon content (less than 1%), but stable pore space structure and favorable agrophysical properties. Studies of the water regime in drip irrigation confirm favorable hydrological properties of these soils. It is assumed that the favorable structure of the pore space due to vigorous activity a large and diverse soil biota. Four phyla dominate in soil...

  12. A survey on the factors causing delayed diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer in southeastern Anatolia

    OpenAIRE

    Eyüp Öner; Sadullah Girgin; Ömer Uslukaya; Zübeyir Bozdağ; Hatice Gümüş; Zuhat Urakçı; Metehan Gümüş

    2015-01-01

    Objective: This survey aims to elucidate patient and health system related factors leading to delayed diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer in Southeastern Anatolia.Methods: Hundred patients admitted to Department of General Surgery at Dicle University between December 2012 and July 2014, and diagnosed with breast cancer in preceding 6 months were included in the survey after their consent. The survey has 4 chapters (patient and health system related factors, demographic data, and assessme...

  13. Origin and significance of tourmalinites and tourmaline-bearing rocks of Menderes Massif, western Anatolia, Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Yucel-ozturk, Yesim; HELVACI, Cahit; Palmer, Martin R.; Ersoy, E. Yalcin; Freslon, Nicolas

    2015-01-01

    In the western central portion of Anatolia lies the Menderes Massif – a large metamorphic crystalline complex made of Neoproterozoic to Precambrian basement rocks overlain by Palaeozoic to early Tertiary metasedimentary rocks, and with a multistage metamorphic evolution developed from the late Neo-Proterozoic to Eocene. We have undertaken a study of the petrology, geochemistry and boron isotope composition of these tourmaline occurrences aiming to constrain the processes responsible for the e...

  14. Signature of slab fragmentation beneath Anatolia from full-waveform tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govers, Rob; Fichtner, Andreas

    2016-09-01

    When oceanic basins close after a long period of convergence and subduction, continental collision and mountain building is a common consequence. Slab segmentation is expected to have been relatively common just prior to closure of other oceans in the geological past, and may explain some of the complexity that geologists have documented in the Tibetan plateau also. We focus on the eastern Mediterranean basin, which is the last remainder of a once hemispherical neo-Tethys ocean that has nearly disappeared due to convergence of the India and Africa/Arabia plates with the Eurasia plate. We present new results of full-waveform tomography that allow us to image both the crust and upper mantle in great detail. We show that a major discontinuity exists between western Anatolia lithosphere and the region to the east of it. Also, the correlation of geological features and the crustal velocities is substantially stronger in the west than in the east. We interpret these observations as the imprint in the overriding plate of fragmentation of the neo-Tethys slab below it. This north-dipping slab may have fragmented following the Eocene (about 35 million years ago) arrival of a continental promontory (Central Anatolian Core Complex) at the subduction contact. From the Eocene through the Miocene, slab roll-back ensued in the Aegean and west Anatolia, while the Cyprus-Bitlis slab subducted horizontally beneath central and east Anatolia. Following collision of Arabia (about 16 million years ago), the Cyprus-Bitlis slab steepened, exposing the crust of central and east Anatolia to high temperature, and resulting in the velocity structure that we image today. Slab fragmentation thus was a major driver of the evolution of the overriding plate as collision unfolded.

  15. Studies on fungal diseases of protected vegetable areas in central Anatolia region.

    OpenAIRE

    Ozan, S.; Aşkın, A.

    2009-01-01

    Fungi are important pest groups causing important economic losses in protected vegetable areas. There are important lacks in both growing technique and greenhouse conditions in central Anatolia provinces. Vegetables grown in greenhouses are affected by the fungal pathogens that cause economic losses. Ror that, a study has been performed in 2003-2004 in Ankara, Çankırı, Zonguldak and Bartın provinces to detect the fungal pathogens and their prevelance in seedling, flower and fruit stage...

  16. Overwintered Hatchlings of Emys orbicularis from Lake Sülüklü (Western Anatolia, Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinçer Ayaz

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available During our monitoring survey of amphibians and Emys orbicularis in Lake Sülüklü (Western Anatolia, Turkey, we observed four overwintered hatchlings of European pond turtle on May 4 and 10, 2010. The average straightline maximum carapace length of the neonates captured was 26.48 mm and their average weight was 4.18 g. This observation is the second record for the Turkish population of Emys orbicularis.

  17. The Classification of the Salvia L. (Labiatae) Species Distributed in West Anatolia According to Phenolic Compounds

    OpenAIRE

    NAKİBOĞLU, Mahmure

    2002-01-01

    The seven species of Salvia L. growing naturally in West Anatolia (Salvia tomentosa Mill., Salvia fruticosa Mill., Salvia smyrnaea Boiss., Salvia argentea L., Salvia horminum L., Salvia verbenaca L., and Salvia virgata Jacq.) and a cultivated form (Salvia officinalis L.) were selected as the study materials. The phenolic compounds extracted from the leaves of the species were separated by two- dimensional thin-layer chromatography. On the basis of the distribution of phenolic spots in the spe...

  18. Bottom ash from fluidising bed boilers as filler material in district heating pipe culverts. Chemical and geotechnical characterisation; Pannsand som kringfyllnadsmaterial foer fjaerrvaermeroergravar. Kemisk och geoteknisk karaktaerisering av fluidbaeddsand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pettersson, Roger; Rogbeck, Jan; Suer, Pascal

    2004-01-01

    Bottom ashes from fluid bed boilers have been characterised, both geotechnically and chemically, in order to investigate the possibility to use them as filler material in district heating pipe culverts. Bottom ashes from both biofuel boilers and waste boilers are represented in this project. The companies which ashes have been characterised are Sundsvall Energi AB, Sydkraft OestVaerme AB, Sydkraft MaelarVaerme AB, Eskilstuna Miljoe och Energi, Stora Enso Fors, Soederenergi and Fortum Vaerme. A total of ten ashes have been analysed where three ashes originates from Sundsvall Energi AB, two from Sydkraft OestVaerme AB and one from the each of the remaining companies. The chemical analyses have been performed both on fresh ashes and on ashes aged for three months. The geotechnical analyses performed are grain size distribution, packing abilities and permeability. Chemical analyses performed are total content, available content, leaching tests (leaching both by shaking method and column procedure) and organic analyses (PAH, EOX, TOC, dioxin and fenol). The geotechnical analyses show that the ashes fulfils the demands that are put on the filler material used in district heating pipe culverts. When using the ashes in applications, light compaction should be performed due to the risk of crushing the material which may cause an increased amount of fine material. The leachability of fine material is larger than for coarse material. The ashes are relatively insensitive to precipitation. Bio fuel based bottom ashes have a lower content of environmental affecting substances than waste fuel based ashes. This is also shown in the leaching analyses. The leaching water from fresh ashes contains a higher concentration of leachable components than aged ashes. When aged the pH in the ashes decreases due to carbon uptake and hydration and this makes metals as Pb, Cu, Cr and Zn less mobile. On the other hand, an increase in leachability of Sb, Mo and SO{sub 4} is shown when the ashes

  19. Chemical characterisation of atmospheric aerosols during a 2007 summer field campaign at Brasschaat, Belgium: sources and source processes of biogenic secondary organic aerosol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Gómez-González

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Measurements of organic marker compounds and inorganic species were performed on PM2.5 aerosols from a Belgian forest site that is severely impacted by urban pollution ("De Inslag", Brasschaat, Belgium during a 2007 summer period within the framework of the "Formation mechanisms, marker compounds, and source apportionment for biogenic atmospheric aerosols (BIOSOL" project. The measured organic species included (i low-molecular weight (MW dicarboxylic acids (LMW DCAs, (ii methanesulfonate (MSA, (iii terpenoic acids originating from the oxidation of α-pinene, β-pinene, d-limonene and Δ3-carene, and (iv organosulfates related to secondary organic aerosol from the oxidation of isoprene and α-pinene. The organic tracers explained, on average, 5.3 % of the organic carbon (OC, of which 0.7 % was due to MSA, 3.4 % to LMW DCAs, 0.6 % to organosulfates, and 0.6 % to terpenoic acids. The highest atmospheric concentrations of most species were observed during the first five days of the campaign, which were characterised by maximum day-time temperatures >22 °C. Most of the terpenoic acids and the organosulfates peaked during day-time, consistent with their local photochemical origin. High concentrations of 3-methyl-1,2,3-butanetricarboxylic acid (MBTCA and low concentrations of cis-pinonic acid were noted during the first five days of the campaign, indicative of an aged biogenic aerosol. Several correlations between organic species were very high (r>0.85, high (0.7<r<0.85, or substantial (0.5<r<0.7, suggesting that they are generated through similar formation pathways. Substantial correlations with temperature were found for OC, water-soluble OC, MBTCA, and several other organic species. MBTCA and terebic acid were highly correlated with the temperature (r>0.7 and showed an Arrhenius-type relationship, consistent with their formation through OH radical chemistry.

  20. Plate tectonics and biogeographical patterns of the Pseudophoxinus (Pisces: Cypriniformes) species complex of central Anatolia, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hrbek, Tomas; Stölting, Kai N; Bardakci, Fevzi; Küçük, Fahrettin; Wildekamp, Rudolf H; Meyer, Axel

    2004-07-01

    We investigated the phylogenetic relationships of Pseudophoxinus (Cyprinidae: Leuciscinae) species from central Anatolia, Turkey to test the hypothesis of geographic speciation driven by early Pliocene orogenic events. We analyzed 1141 aligned base pairs of the complete cytochrome b mitochondrial gene. Phylogenetic relationships reconstructed by maximum likelihood, Bayesian likelihood, and maximum parsimony methods are identical, and generally well supported. Species and clades are restricted to geologically well-defined units, and are deeply divergent from each other. The basal diversification of central Anatolian Pseudophoxinus is estimated to have occurred approximately 15 million years ago. Our results are in agreement with a previous study of the Anatolian fish genus Aphanius that also shows a diversification pattern driven by the Pliocene orogenic events. The distribution of clades of Aphanius and Pseudophoxinus overlap, and areas of distribution comprise the same geological units. The geological history of Anatolia is likely to have had a major impact on the diversification history of many taxa occupying central Anatolia; many of these taxa are likely to be still unrecognized as distinct.

  1. Scanning Electron Microscopy and X-Ray Microanalysis for Chemical and Morphological Characterisation of the Inorganic Component of Gunshot Residue: Selected Problems

    OpenAIRE

    Zuzanna Brożek-Mucha

    2014-01-01

    Chosen aspects of examinations of inorganic gunshot particles by means of scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry technique are presented. The research methodology of particles was worked out, which included a precise and repeatable procedure of the automatic detection and identification of particles as well as the representation of the obtained analytical data in the form of the frequencies of occurrence of particles of certain chemical or morphological class wi...

  2. Chemical and physical-hydric characterisation of a red latosol after five years of management during the summer between-crop season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Fausto Guimarães Silva

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural production systems that include the production of mulch for no-tillage farming and structural improvement of the soil can be considered key measures for agricultural activity in the Cerrado region without causing environmental degradation. In this respect, our work aimed to evaluate the chemical and physical-hydric properties of a dystrophic Red Latosol (Oxisol in the municipality of Rio Verde, Goias, Brazil, under different soil management systems in the between-crop season of soybean cultivation five years after first planting. The following conditions were evaluated: Brachiaria brizantha cv. Marandu as a cover crop during the between-crop season; Second crop of maize intercropped with Brachiaria ruziziensis; Second crop of grain alone in a no-tillage system; Fallow soil after the soybean harvest; and Forest (natural vegetation located in an adjacent area. Soil samples up to a depth of 40 cm were taken and used in the assessment of chemical properties and soil structure diagnostics. The results demonstrated that the conversion of native vegetation areas into agricultural fields altered the chemical and physical-hydric properties of the soil at all the depths evaluated, especially up to 10 cm, due to the activity of root systems in the soil structure. Cultivation of B. brizantha as a cover crop during the summer between-crop season increased soil water availability, which is important for agricultural activities in the region under study.

  3. A one-year comprehensive chemical characterisation of fine aerosol (PM2.5) at urban, suburban and rural background sites in the region of Paris (France)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bressi, M.; Sciare, J.; Ghersi, V.; Bonnaire, N.; Nicolas, J. B.; Petit, J.-E.; Moukhtar, S.; Rosso, A.; Mihalopoulos, N.; Féron, A.

    2013-08-01

    Studies describing the chemical composition of fine aerosol (PM2.5) in urban areas are often conducted for a few weeks only and at one sole site, giving thus a narrow view of their temporal and spatial characteristics. This paper presents a one-year (11 September 2009-10 September 2010) survey of the daily chemical composition of PM2.5 in the region of Paris, which is the second most populated "Larger Urban Zone" in Europe. Five sampling sites representative of suburban (SUB), urban (URB), northeast (NER), northwest (NWR) and south (SOR) rural backgrounds were implemented. The major chemical components of PM2.5 were determined including elemental carbon (EC), organic carbon (OC), and the major ions. OC was converted to organic matter (OM) using the chemical mass closure methodology, which leads to conversion factors of 1.95 for the SUB and URB sites, and 2.05 for the three rural ones. On average, gravimetrically determined PM2.5 annual mass concentrations are 15.2, 14.8, 12.6, 11.7 and 10.8 μg m-3 for SUB, URB, NER, NWR and SOR sites, respectively. The chemical composition of fine aerosol is very homogeneous at the five sites and is composed of OM (38-47%), nitrate (17-22%), non-sea-salt sulfate (13-16%), ammonium (10-12%), EC (4-10%), mineral dust (2-5%) and sea salt (3-4%). This chemical composition is in agreement with those reported in the literature for most European environments. On an annual scale, Paris (URB and SUB sites) exhibits its highest PM2.5 concentrations during late autumn, winter and early spring (higher than 15 μg m-3 on average, from December to April), intermediates during late spring and early autumn (between 10 and 15 μg m-3 during May, June, September, October, and November) and the lowest during summer (below 10 μg m-3 during July and August). PM levels are mostly homogeneous on a regional scale, during the whole project (e.g. for URB plotted against NER sites: slope = 1.06, r2=0.84, n=330), suggesting the importance of mid- or long

  4. Source identification and airborne chemical characterisation of aerosol pollution from long-range transport over Greenland during POLARCAT summer campaign 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Schmale

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available We deployed an aerosol mass spectrometer during the POLARCAT (Polar Study using Aircraft, Remote Sensing, Surface Measurements and Models, of Climate, Chemistry, Aerosols, and Transport summer campaign in Greenland in June/July 2008 on the research aircraft ATR-42. Online size resolved chemical composition data of submicron aerosol were collected up to 7.6 km altitude in the region 60 to 71° N and 40 to 60° W. Biomass burning (BB and fossil fuel combustion (FF plumes originating from North America, Asia, Siberia and Europe were sampled. Transport pathways of detected plumes included advection below 700 hPa, air mass uplifting in warm conveyor belts, and high altitude transport in the upper troposphere. By means of the Lagrangian particle dispersion model FLEXPART, trace gas analysis of O3 and CO, particle size distributions and aerosol chemical composition 48 pollution events were identified and classified into five chemically distinct categories. Aerosol from North American BB consisted of 22% particulate sulphate, while with increasing anthropogenic and Asian influence aerosol was composed of up to 37% sulphate category mean value. Overall, it was found that the organic matter fraction was larger (85% in pollution plumes than for background conditions (71%. Despite different source regions and emission types the particle oxygen to carbon ratio of all plume classes was around 1 indicating low-volatile highly oxygenated aerosol. Also the volume size distributions were rather similar for all sampled plume categories. This can be explained by the relatively long transport times of roughly one week from North America and two weeks from Asia/Siberia. The derived aerosol lifetime for North American emissions was about 9 ± 2 days.

  5. Soils from the Jabal Al-Akhdar region of North East Libya: Characterisation of the iron using chemical methods and Mössbauer spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Younis, A. M.; Kilcoyne, S. H.; Yacob, M.; Goodman, B. A.

    1999-11-01

    Soils from North East Libya have been investigated by X-ray diffraction, chemical analysis and Mössbauer spectroscopy. Quartz, kaolinite and illite were the main components identified by XRD in all specimens. Total and poorly ordered iron oxides were estimated using dithionite-citrate-bicarbonate (DCB) and oxalate extraction methods, respectively; in all cases, the oxalate-extractable iron represents a relatively minor fraction. Mössbauer spectroscopy showed the presence of substantial quantities of haematite and goethite, both in microcrystalline forms, but there was no systematic relationship between the relative proportions of these phases and the geographical origins of the soils.

  6. Chemical characterisation of atmospheric aerosols during a 2007 summer field campaign at Brasschaat, Belgium: sources and source processes, time series, diel variations, and temperature dependencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Gómez-González

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Measurements of organic marker compounds and inorganic species were performed on PM2.5 aerosols from a Belgian forest site that is severely impacted by urban pollution ("De Inslag", Brasschaat, Belgium during a 2007 summer period within the framework of the "Formation mechanisms, marker compounds, and source apportionment for biogenic atmospheric aerosols (BIOSOL" project. The objectives of this study were to determine sources, source processes, time series, and diel variations of the organic species, and to explore the relationships between their concentrations and those of trace gases (O3, NO2, SO2, and CO2 or meteorological parameters (temperature, relative humidity, wind speed, and rain fall. The measured organic species included (i low-molecular weight (MW dicarboxylic acids (LMW DCAs, (ii methanesulfonate (MSA, and (iii terpenoic acids originating from the oxidation of α-pinene, β-pinene, d-limonene and Δ3-carene, and (iv organosulfates related to secondary organic aerosol (SOA from the oxidation of isoprene and α-pinene. The measurements of MSA, the LMW DCAs and selected inorganic species were done with ion chromatography (IC, while those of the terpenoic acids and organosulfates were performed using liquid chromatography with negative ion electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry [LC/(−ESI-MS]. The organic tracers explained, on average, 5.3 % of the organic carbon (OC, of which 0.7 % was due to MSA, 3.4 % to LMW DCAs, and 1.2 % to organosulfates and terpenoic acids. The highest atmospheric concentrations of most species were observed during the first five days of the campaign, which were characterised by maximum day-time temperatures >22 °C. Most of the terpenoic acids and the organosulfates peaked during day-time, consistent with their photochemical origin, except the MW 295 α-pinene-related nitrooxy organosulfates and the terpenoic acids,

  7. Detection and characterisation of frauds in bovine meat in natura by non-meat ingredient additions using data fusion of chemical parameters and ATR-FTIR spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, Karen M; Andrade, Marcus Vinícius O; Santos Filho, Antônio M P; Lasmar, Marcelo C; Sena, Marcelo M

    2016-08-15

    Concerns about meat authenticity are increasing recently, due to great fraud scandals. This paper analysed real samples (43 adulterated and 12 controls) originated from criminal networks dismantled by the Brazilian Police. This fraud consisted of injecting solutions of non-meat ingredients (NaCl, phosphates, carrageenan, maltodextrin) in bovine meat, aiming to increase its water holding capacity. Five physico-chemical variables were determined, protein, ash, chloride, sodium, phosphate. Additionally, infrared spectra were recorded. Supervised classification PLS-DA models were built with each data set individually, but the best model was obtained with data fusion, correctly detecting 91% of the adulterated samples. From this model, a variable selection based on the highest VIPscores was performed and a new data fusion model was built with only one chemical variable, providing slightly lower predictions, but a good cost/performance ratio. Finally, some of the selected infrared bands were specifically associated to the presence of adulterants NaCl, tripolyphosphate and carrageenan. PMID:27006208

  8. Scanning Electron Microscopy and X-Ray Microanalysis for Chemical and Morphological Characterisation of the Inorganic Component of Gunshot Residue: Selected Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuzanna Brożek-Mucha

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Chosen aspects of examinations of inorganic gunshot particles by means of scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry technique are presented. The research methodology of particles was worked out, which included a precise and repeatable procedure of the automatic detection and identification of particles as well as the representation of the obtained analytical data in the form of the frequencies of occurrence of particles of certain chemical or morphological class within the whole population of particles revealed in a specimen. On this basis, there were established relationships between the chemical and morphological properties of populations of particles and factors, such as the type of ammunition, the distance from the gun muzzle to the target, the type of a substrate the particles sediment on, and the time between shooting and collecting the specimens. Each of these aspects of examinations of particles revealed a great potential of being utilised in casework, while establishing various circumstances of shooting incidents leads to the reconstruction of the course of the studied incident.

  9. Scanning Electron Microscopy and X-Ray Microanalysis for Chemical and Morphological Characterisation of the Inorganic Component of Gunshot Residue: Selected Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brożek-Mucha, Zuzanna

    2014-01-01

    Chosen aspects of examinations of inorganic gunshot particles by means of scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry technique are presented. The research methodology of particles was worked out, which included a precise and repeatable procedure of the automatic detection and identification of particles as well as the representation of the obtained analytical data in the form of the frequencies of occurrence of particles of certain chemical or morphological class within the whole population of particles revealed in a specimen. On this basis, there were established relationships between the chemical and morphological properties of populations of particles and factors, such as the type of ammunition, the distance from the gun muzzle to the target, the type of a substrate the particles sediment on, and the time between shooting and collecting the specimens. Each of these aspects of examinations of particles revealed a great potential of being utilised in casework, while establishing various circumstances of shooting incidents leads to the reconstruction of the course of the studied incident. PMID:25025050

  10. Scanning electron microscopy and X-ray microanalysis for chemical and morphological characterisation of the inorganic component of gunshot residue: selected problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brożek-Mucha, Zuzanna

    2014-01-01

    Chosen aspects of examinations of inorganic gunshot particles by means of scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry technique are presented. The research methodology of particles was worked out, which included a precise and repeatable procedure of the automatic detection and identification of particles as well as the representation of the obtained analytical data in the form of the frequencies of occurrence of particles of certain chemical or morphological class within the whole population of particles revealed in a specimen. On this basis, there were established relationships between the chemical and morphological properties of populations of particles and factors, such as the type of ammunition, the distance from the gun muzzle to the target, the type of a substrate the particles sediment on, and the time between shooting and collecting the specimens. Each of these aspects of examinations of particles revealed a great potential of being utilised in casework, while establishing various circumstances of shooting incidents leads to the reconstruction of the course of the studied incident. PMID:25025050

  11. Catalytic reforming feed characterisation technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larraz Mora, R.; Arvelo Alvarez, R. [Univ. of La Laguna, Chemical Engineering Dept., La Laguna (Spain)

    2002-09-01

    The catalytic reforming of naphtha is one of the major refinery processes, designed to increase the octane number of naphtha or to produce aromatics. The naphtha used as catalytic reformer feedstock usually contains a mixture of paraffins, naphthenes, and aromatics in the carbon number range C{sub 6} to C{sub 10}. The detailed chemical composition of the feed is necessary to predict the aromatics and hydrogen production as well as the operation severity. The analysis of feed naphtha is usually reported in terms of its ASTM distillation curve and API or specific gravity. Since reforming reactions are described in terms of lumped chemical species (paraffins, naphthenes and aromatics), a feed characterisation technique should be useful in order to predict reforming operating conditions and detect feed quality changes. Unfortunately online analyzer applications as cromatography or recently introduced naphtha NMR [1] are scarce in most of refineries. This work proposes an algorithmic characterisation method focusing on its main steps description. The method could help on the subjects previously described, finally a calculation example is shown. (orig.)

  12. Synthetic oil and chemicals from coal: use of a thermogravimetric analyser for proximate analysis of coal and for characterisation of coal-derived products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fredrickson, P.W. (ACIRL)

    1978-06-01

    The work described in this report forms part of ACIRL's investigations into the production of synthetic oil and chemicals from Australian coals. Techniques based on thermal analysis provide a range of useful experimental data to assist a better understanding of the fundamentals of various reaction systems. Thermogravimetric analysis in particular has special relevance to coal processing studies since it enables the weight change of a substance to be measured as the substance is heated under different environmental conditions. Describes the use of a thermo gravimetric analyser to determine moisture percent, ash percent, and volatile matter percent (i.e. proximate analysis) of coal, and to analyse various coal derived products. The usefulness of this technique as an aid in operational and quality control in the bench scale studies is indicated.

  13. Primidone - An antiepileptic drug - characterisation by quantum chemical and spectroscopic (FTIR, FT-Raman, 1H, 13C NMR and UV-Visible) investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arjunan, V.; Santhanam, R.; Subramanian, S.; Mohan, S.

    2013-05-01

    The solid phase FTIR and FT-Raman spectra of primidone were recorded in the regions 4000-400 cm-1 and 4000-100 cm-1, respectively. The vibrational spectra were analysed and the observed fundamentals were assigned and analysed. The experimental wavenumbers were compared with the theoretical scaled vibrational wavenumbers determined by DFT methods. The Raman intensities were also determined with B3LYP/6-31G(d,p) method. The total electron density and molecular electrostatic potential surface of the molecule were constructed by using B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p) method to display electrostatic potential (electron + nuclei) distribution. The HOMO and LUMO energies were measured. Natural bond orbital analysis of primidone has been performed to indicate the presence of intramolecular charge transfer. The 1H and 13C NMR spectra were recorded and the chemical shifts of the molecule were calculated.

  14. Characterisation, phase stability and surface chemical properties of photocatalytic active Zr and Y co-doped anatase TiO2 nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattsson, Andreas; Lejon, Christian; Bakardjieva, Snejana; Štengl, Vaclav; Österlund, Lars

    2013-03-01

    We report on the characterization, phase stability, surface chemical and photocatalytic properties of Zr and Y co-doped anatase TiO2 nanoparticles prepared by homogenous hydrolysis methods using urea as precipitating agent. The materials were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, BET isotherm and BJH pore size distribution measurements. It is shown that Y and Zr ions replace Ti ions in the anatase TiO2 structures up to a critical total dopant concentration of approximately 13 wt%. The co-doped particles show increased phase stability compared to pure anatase TiO2 nanoparticles. The anatase to rutile phase transformation is shown to be preceded by cation segregation and dissolution with concomitant precipitation of Y2Ti2-xZrxO7 and ZrTiO4. Co-doping modifies the optical absorption edge with a resulting attenuation of the Urbach tail. The band gap is slightly blue-shifted at high doping concentrations, and red shifted at lower doping concentrations. Formic acid adsorption was used as a probe molecule to investigate surface chemical properties and adsorbate structures. It was found that the relative abundance of monodentate formate compared to bidentate coordinated formate decreases with increasing doping concentration. This is attributed to an increased surface acidity with increasing dopant concentration. Photodegradation of formic acid occurred on all samples. With mode-resolved in situ FTIR spectroscopy it is shown that the rate of photodegradation of monodentate formate species are higher than for bidentate formate species. Thus our results show that the trend of decreasing photo-degradation rate with increasing dopant concentration can be explained by the adsorbate structure, which is controlled by the acidity of the surface.

  15. Hydrogeochemistry of the thermal waters from the Yenice Geothermal Field (Denizli Basin, Southwestern Anatolia, Turkey)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alçiçek, Hülya; Bülbül, Ali; Alçiçek, Mehmet Cihat

    2016-01-01

    The chemical and isotopic properties of thermal waters (Kamara and Çizmeli) and cold springs from the Yenice Geothermal Field (YGF), in southwestern Anatolia, Turkey are investigated in order to establish a conceptual hydrogeochemical-hydrogeological model. These thermal waters derive from Menderes metamorphic rocks and emerge along normal faults; they are commonly used for heating of greenhouses and bathing facilities. Discharge temperatures of thermal waters are 32 °C to 57 °C (mean 51 °C) for Kamara and 35 °C to 68 °C (mean 47 °C) for Çizmeli, whereas deep groundwaters are 15 °C to 20.1 °C (mean 17 °C) and shallow groundwaters are 12 to 16 °C (mean 15 °C). Kamara and Çizmeli thermal waters are mostly of Na-Ca-HCO3-SO4 type, whereas deep groundwaters are Ca-Mg-HCO3 and Mg-Ca-HCO3 types and shallow groundwaters are mainly Mg-Ca-SO4-HCO3 and Ca-Mg-HCO3 types. In the reservoir of the geothermal system, dissolution of host rock and ion-exchange reactions changes thermal water types. High correlation in some ionic ratios (e.g. Na vs. Cl, K vs. Cl, HCO3 vs. Cl) and high concentrations of some minor elements (e.g., As, Sr, B, Cl, F) in thermal waters likely derive from enhanced water-rock interaction. Water samples from YGF have not reached complete chemical re-equilibrium, possibly as a result mixing with groundwater during upward flow. Geothermal reservoir temperatures are calculated as 89-102 °C for Kamara and 87-102 °C for Çizmeli fields, based on the retrograde and prograde solubilities of anhydrite and chalcedony. Based on the isotope and chemical data, a conceptual hydrogeochemical-hydrogeological model of the YGF has been constructed. Very negative δ18O and δ2H isotopic ratios (Kamara: mean of - 8.43‰ and - 56.9‰, respectively and Çizmeli: mean of - 7.96‰ and - 53.7‰, respectively) and low tritium values (< 1 TU) reflect a deep circulation pathway and a meteoric origin. Subsequent heating by conduction in the high geothermal gradient

  16. Physico-chemical characterisation data and sorption measurements of Cs, Ni, Eu, Th, U, Cl, I and Se on MX-80 bentonite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradbury, M. H.; Baeyens, B.

    2011-12-15

    The Laboratory for Waste Management of the Nuclear Energy and Safety Research Department at the Paul Scherrer Institute is performing work to develop and test models as well as to acquire specific data relevant to performance assessments of Swiss radioactive waste repositories. These investigations are undertaken in close co-operation with, and with the financial support of, the National Cooperative for the Disposal of Radioactive Waste (Nagra). The present report describes the work carried out on MX-80 bentonite in support of Swiss radioactive waste performance assessment studies. With particular regard to Stage 2 of the Sectoral Plan for deep geological disposal, it was considered to be important to bring together in one document the information and results that have accrued over the years from both 'in house' studies and associated relevant literature data. The report gives a brief overview of the physico-chemical characteristics and porewater chemistry determined for MX-80 bentonite followed by the results of an extensive experimental sorption programme on the uptake of Cs(I), Ni(II), Eu(III), Th(IV), U(VI), CI(-I), I(-I) and Se(IV) on the same material. Sorption values are also given for K(I), Ca(II) and Sr(II) which were deduced from porewater chemistry modelling studies. The main aim of this work is to provide a compilation of experimental data on sorption isotherms for key radionuclides on MX-80 bentonite in the frame of the Swiss radioactive waste disposal programme. However, they also provide basic data sets to test the predictive capacity of mechanistic sorption models. In the first part of this work the mineralogy and physico-chemical characteristics of the MX-80 bentonite used in this work are presented: mineralogy, surface areas, sulphate and chloride inventories, CEC, cation occupancies, selectivity coefficients for K-Na, Mg-Na and Ca-Na exchange equilibria, amphoteric edge site capacities and protolysis constants and whole rock analyses

  17. Pseudomorphs of Neotethyan Evaporites in Anatolia's HP/LT belts - Aptian basin-wide pelagic gypsum deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheffler, Franziska; Oberhänsli, Roland; Pourteau, Amaury; Immenhauser, Adrian; Candan, Osman

    2015-04-01

    Rosetta Marble was defined in SW Anatolia as 3D-radiating textures of dm-to-m-long calcite rods in the HP/LT metamorphosed Mid-Cretaceous pelagic carbonate sequence of the Ören Unit. Rosetta Marble in the type locality are interbedded with meta-chert beds, and may constitute entire carbonate beds. Rare aragonite relicts and Sr-rich, fibrous calcite pseudomorphs after aragonite witness the HP metamorphic imprint of this sequence during the closure of a Neotethyan oceanic domain during latest Cretaceous-Palaeocene times. We investigated the Rosetta Marble of the Ören Unit, as well as other known and newly found localities in the Tavşanlı and Afyon zones, and the Alanya Massif and Malatya area, to decipher the metamorphic, diagenetic and sedimentologic significance of these uncommon textures. Based on field, petrographic and geochemical investigations, we document a wide variety of Rosetta-type textures. A striking resemblance with well-known gypsum morphologies (e.g. shallow-tail, palm-tree textures) leads us to argue that Rosetta Marble was initially composed of giant gypsum crystals (selenite). The absence of anhydrite relicts of pseudomorphs indicate that gypsum transformed into calcite soon after the deposition by the mean of a sulphate reduction reaction. The gypsum-to-calcite transformation requires that organic matter intervened as a reactant phase. Mid Cretaceous oceanic domains in the Tethyan realm are characterised by overall anoxic conditions that allowed the preservation of organic material. Rosetta Marble exposures are widely distributed over 600 km along the Neotethyan suture zone. During deepening of the Neotethyan ocean in Mid Cretaceous times, basin-wide and cyclic sedimentation of gypsum and radiolarite occurred. The origin of high-salinity waters needed for gypsum precipitation was located at shelf levels. Density and gravity effects forced the brines to cascade downwards into the deep ocean. Favorable climatic conditions trigger the formation

  18. CRITICAL THINKING TENDENCIES OF THE STUDENT-TEACHERS WHO ATTEND TO THE UNIVERSITIES OF THE EASTERN ANATOLIA REGION

    OpenAIRE

    SEMERCİ, Nuriye

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study to determine critical thinking tendencies of the student-teachers who attend to the Universities of the Eastern Anatolia Region. Survey method was used in this research. Population of the study is senior class student-teachers who attend education departments of the universities in the Eastern Anatolia Region. Sample is 1086 senior class student-teachers who attend to the education faculty of the A?ry Ybrahim Çeçen, Erzincan, Fyrat, Ynönü ve Kafkas Universities. The dat...

  19. Palaeocology of coal-bearing Eocene sediments in central Anatolia (Turkey) based on quantitative palynological data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akkiraz, M.S.; Kayseri, M.S.; Akgun, F. [Dokuz Eylul University, Izmir (Turkey). Dept. of Geological Engineering

    2008-04-15

    In this study, the lignite-bearing Yoncali formation between Yozgat and Sorgun, in central Anatolia has been palynologically examined. Based on 37 outcrop samples, quantitative palynological studies recognized 64 genera and 136 palynoflora species in the palynological assemblage, which indicated a Middle-Late Eocene age. This paper also presents a quantitative palaeovegetation and palaeoclimate reconstruction for the Middle-Upper Eocene coal occurrences of Central Anatolia on the basis of palynomorph assemblages. The diversified floral and ecological characteristics of the pollen taxa indicates that the Middle-Upper Eocene formations in central Anatolia were characterized by the presence of a complex mangrove swamp with contributions by Nypa, Pelliciera, Avicennia, Diporites tszkaszentgydrgyi and dinoflagellate cysts which reflect warm climatic conditions. Lowland-riparian and montane elements are characterized by the dominance of Myricaceae, Symplocaceae, Icacinaceae, Quercus, Pinus and Castanea. Swamp-freshwater elements are represented by Sparganjaceae, Nymphaceae, Taxodjaceae, Cupressaceae and Nyssa as well as fern spores such as Osmundaceae and Gleicheniaceae. The calculations were performed with the help of the 'Coexistence Approach' method to climatically evaluate palynoflora from the Yozgat-Sorgun area. The obtained results have been compared to data derived from the application of the Coexistence Approach to other, already published Central Anatolian palynofloras of the same age. The results of the climatic inferences suggest that the palaeoclimatic conditions were in the megathermal zone, megatherm/mesotherm intermediate zone whereas mesothermic conditions prevailed in the montane region. Likewise, the results of mean annual range of temperatures indicate the influence of the Indian ocean, which enabled the development of the mangroves.

  20. Abrupt climate variability of eastern Anatolia vegetation during the last glacial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Pickarski

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Detailed analyses of the Lake Van pollen and stable oxygen isotope record allow the identification of millennial-scale vegetation and environmental changes in eastern Anatolia throughout the last glacial. The climate within the last glacial period (∼75–15 ka BP was cold and dry, with low arboreal pollen (AP levels. The driest and coldest period corresponds to Marine Isotope Stage (MIS 2 (∼28–14.5 ka BP dominated by the highest values of xerophytic steppe vegetation. Our high-resolution multi proxy record shows rapid expansions and contractions that mimic the stadial-interstadial pattern of the Dansgaard–Oeschger (DO events as recorded in the Greenland ice cores, and thus, provide a linkage to North Atlantic climate oscillations. Periods of reduced moisture availability characterized at Lake Van by enhanced xerophytic species correlates well with increase in ice-rafted debris (IRD and a decrease of sea surface temperature (SST in the North Atlantic. Furthermore, comparison with the marine realm reveals that the complex atmosphere–ocean interaction can be recognized by the strength and position of the westerlies in eastern Anatolia. Influenced by rough topography at Lake Van, the expansion of temperate species (e.g. deciduous Quercus was stronger during interstadials DO 19, 17–16, 14, 12 and 8. However, Heinrich events (HE, characterized by highest concentrations of ice-rafted debris in marine sediments, are identified in eastern Anatolia by AP values not lower and high steppe components not more abundant than during DO stadials. In addition, this work is a first attempt to establish a continuous microscopic charcoal record over the last glacial in the Near East, which documents an initial immediate response to millennial-scale climate and environmental variability and enables the shed light on the history of fire activity during the last glacial.

  1. A new species of Dianthus (Caryophyllaceae) from Antalya, South Anatolia, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deniz, İsmail Gökhan; Aykurt, Candan; Genç, İlker; Aksoy, Ahmet

    2016-01-01

    Dianthus multiflorus from Gazipaşa (Antalya), south Anatolia (Turkey), is described as a new annual species with verrucose calyx. The morphological differences from the species within the same group with Dianthus multiflorus, which are Dianthus aydogdui, Dianthus cyri and Dianthus tripunctatus, are discussed. The International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) threat category and observations on the ecology of the populations are noted. The karyology and seed micromorphology of Dianthus multiflorus and Dianthus tripunctatus were examined by light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy.

  2. G- and C-Banded Karyotype of Cricetulus migratorius Pallas, 1773 (Mammalia: Rodentia) in Central Anatolia

    OpenAIRE

    ARSLAN, Atilla; AKAN, Şükrüye

    2008-01-01

    The present study reports the banding patterns (G- and C-banding) of chromosomes of Cricetulus migratorius from Central Anatolia. Karyotype of C. migratorius comprised (2n) 22 chromosomes. The number of chromosomal arms (FN) was 44 and the number of autosomal arms (FNa) was 40. Subtelocentric X and Y chromosomes were very similar in size, but they differed on G- and C-banding patterns. Most autosomes in this species were C-negative. Pair no. 4 had very small centromeric C-bands, autosome no. ...

  3. Characterisation of Chemical Degradation of Polymers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjellander, Carina Koch

    2008-01-01

    Arbejdet har fokuseret på kemisk især hydrolytisk nedbrydning af industrielt vigtige polymerer eksponeret i forskellige aggressive men industrielt realistiske miljøer. Hovedvægten har ligget på eksponeringer af uforstærket polyamid 66 i 10% vandig NaOH ved 60 oC og i 5% NaOCl ved 20 oC i variende...

  4. House-related practices as markers of the Neolithic expansion from Anatolia to the Balkans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maxime N. Brami

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Following the assumption that the Neolithic witnessed the first widespread appearance of permanent houses and households, in line with the adoption of sedentism, this article examines the relevance of residential and construction practices to our understanding of the process of Neolithic expansion from Anatolia to the Balkans. Three practices, with a broad spatial distribution, are reviewed: house burning, the vertical superimposition of houses and intra-settlement burial. The article first outlines the basis of a contextual method to retrieve practices from material patterning left in the record, such as burnt houses for the practice of intentional house burning. The next section delves into the similarities in practices between Neolithic communities in Anatolia, Thrace and Greece, during the 7th and 6th millennia BC cal. to suggest that: 1 house burning was a key strategy to bring houses to ‘closure’ at the end of their use-lives; 2 people took advantage of the stability of extant houses to build new houses atop; and 3 this practice was closely connected with the burial of the dead in, or in close proximity to, houses. Common attitudes to residence and construction across a vast array of sites underpin similarities in house form and house use patterns. To conclude, the discussion highlights the need for a dynamic approach, based on comparative time-lines of practices, to determine the direction of spread.

  5. Evaluation of the No-Till Demonstration Studies in South East Anatolia Region of Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Gürsoy

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The practice of no-till in crop production has gained popularity in recent years because it is a superior soil conservation practice and offers reduction in fuel and labor requirements. But, its adaption is very slow in many countries because of lack of knowledge, experience and machines. A series of demonstration studies was conducted to observe the performance of the no-till systems in farmers’ conditions in South East Anatolia region of Turkey. Four demonstration sites were established, each of which was also planted with farmers’ application for wheat (Triticum Aestivum L. after wheat, wheat after lentil (Lens Culinaris, L, wheat after cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L. and lentil after wheat in 2009-2010 growing season. Yield was higher under no-till planting (1.50 t ha-1 than farmers’ application (1.10 t ha-1 for lentil production after wheat. The no- till planting had similar yield to farmers’ application for wheat production after wheat and lentil. The yield performance of wheat following cotton for no-till ridge planting and farmers’ application was not consistent at three demonstration sites. In conclusion, the studies of the demonstration showed that no-till planting may be used in lentil and wheat production following wheat and lentil under these weather and soil conditions in South East Anatolia Region of Turkey.

  6. Surface and Interface Characterisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Chiffre, Leonardo

    2006-01-01

    Surface physical analysis, i.e. topography characterisation, encompasses measurement, visualisation, and quantification. This is critical for both component form and for surface finish at macro-, micro- and nano-scales. The principal methods of surface topography measurement are stylus profilometry...... representing some average property of the surface under examination. Measurement methods, as well as their application and limitations, are briefly reviewed, including standardisation and traceability issues....

  7. Soil Radiological Characterisation Methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents the general methodology and best practice approaches which combine proven existing techniques for sampling and characterisation to assess the contamination of soils prior to remediation. It is based on feedback of projects conducted by main French nuclear stakeholders involved in the field of remediation and dismantling (EDF, CEA, AREVA and IRSN). The application of this methodology will enable the project managers to obtain the elements necessary for the drawing up of files associated with remediation operations, as required by the regulatory authorities. It is applicable to each of the steps necessary for the piloting of remediation work-sites, depending on the objectives targeted (release into the public domain, re-use, etc.). The main part describes the applied statistical methodology with the exploratory analysis and variogram data, identification of singular points and their location. The results obtained permit assessment of a mapping to identify the contaminated surface and subsurface areas. It stakes the way for radiological site characterisation since the initial investigations from historical and functional analysis to check that the remediation objectives have been met. It follows an example application from the feedback of the remediation of a contaminated site on the Fontenay aux Roses facility. It is supplemented by a glossary of main terms used in the field from different publications or international standards. This technical report is a support of the ISO Standard ISO ISO/TC 85/SC 5 N 18557 'Sampling and characterisation principles for soils, buildings and infrastructures contaminated by radionuclides for remediation purposes'. (authors)

  8. CHEMICALS

    CERN Multimedia

    Medical Service

    2002-01-01

    It is reminded that all persons who use chemicals must inform CERN's Chemistry Service (TIS-GS-GC) and the CERN Medical Service (TIS-ME). Information concerning their toxicity or other hazards as well as the necessary individual and collective protection measures will be provided by these two services. Users must be in possession of a material safety data sheet (MSDS) for each chemical used. These can be obtained by one of several means : the manufacturer of the chemical (legally obliged to supply an MSDS for each chemical delivered) ; CERN's Chemistry Service of the General Safety Group of TIS ; for chemicals and gases available in the CERN Stores the MSDS has been made available via EDH either in pdf format or else via a link to the supplier's web site. Training courses in chemical safety are available for registration via HR-TD. CERN Medical Service : TIS-ME :73186 or service.medical@cern.ch Chemistry Service : TIS-GS-GC : 78546

  9. Analysis of Seismic Anisotropy Across Central Anatolia by Shear Wave Splitting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pamir, Dilekcan; Abgarmi, Bizhan; Arda Özacar, A.

    2014-05-01

    Analysis of Seismic Anisotropy Across Central Anatolia by Shear Wave Splitting Dilekcan Pamir, Bizhan Abgarmi, A. Arda Özacar Department of Geological Engineering, Middle East Technical University (METU), Dumlupinar Bulvari 1, 06800 Ankara, Turkey Central Anatolia holds the key to connect the theories about the ongoing tectonic escape, the African Plate subduction along Cyprus Arc and the indenter-style collision of Arabian Plate along Bitlis Suture. However, the shear wave splitting measurements which are needed to characterize seismic anisotropy are very sparse in the region. Recently, seismic data recorded by national seismic networks (KOERI, ERI-DAD) with dense coverage, provided a unique opportunity to analyze the effect of present slab geometry (slab tears, slab break-off) on mantle deformation and test different models of anisotropy forming mechanisms. In this study, the anisotropic structure beneath the Central Anatolia is investigated via splitting of SKS and SKKS phases recorded at 46 broadband seismic stations. Our measurements yielded 1171 well-constrained splitting and 433 null results. Overall, the region displays NE-SW trending fast splitting directions and delay times on the order of 1 sec. On the other hand, a large number of stations which are spatially correlated with Cyprus Slab, Neogene volcanism and major tectonic structures present significant back azimuthal variations on splitting parameters that cannot be explained by one-layered anisotropy with horizontal symmetry. Thus, we have modeled anisotropy for two-layered structures using a forward approach and identified NE-SW trending fast splitting directions with delay times close to 1 sec at the lower layer and N-S, NW-SE trending fast splitting with limited time delays (0.1 - 0.3 sec) at the upper layer. Fast directions and delay times of the lower layer are similar to one-layered anisotropy and parallel or sub-parallel to the absolute plate motions which favors asthenospheric flow model

  10. Geodynamic evolution of the lithosphere beneath the Eastern Anatolia region: Constraints from geodynamic modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Memis, Caner; Hakan Gogus, Oguz; Pysklywec, Russell; Keskin, Mehmet; Celal Sengor, A. M.; Topuz, Gultekin

    2016-04-01

    The east Anatolian orogenic plateau is characterized by an average elevation of 2 km, and is delimited by the Bitlis-Zagros collision zone to the south and the Pontide arc to the north. Stratigraphic evidence suggests that the high plateau attained its current elevation since the Serravallian (about 12 million years ago), but probably did not reach its present height until at least the latest Pliocene. While the crustal shortening following the Arabia-Eurasia collision in the south enabled its relatively rapid rise and regional tectonic evolution, the presumed removal of the downgoing slab beneath east Anatolia has potentially played a significant role in this geodynamic configuration. According to the proposed scenario, the northward subducting slab of Neo-Tethys peels away from the overlying crust similar to the lithospheric delamination model. In this work, we performed a series of lithospheric removal models by varying rheological, physical and mechanical properties by using 2D numerical geodynamic experiments, (e.g. plate convergence rate, crustal thickness, mantle lithosphere yield-stress). Our model results show that the average amount of delamination hinge motion is maximum (18 km/my) when the lower crustal rheology is felsic granulite. The slab break-off only occurs at lower convergence rates (≤ 2 cm/yr), and is imposed on the margin of delaminating mantle lithosphere. The surface uplift takes place above the asthenospheric column (or plateau gap) through isostatic and thermal support of asthenospheric upwelling, and varies dependent on the width of the asthenospheric column. However; with higher plate convergence rates (≥3 cm/yr), the asthenospheric column does not widen enough and the continental collision occurs rather than delamination/peeling away. In this case, the average uplift appears in the central section of the crust, and this exceeds a surface elevation of 3 km. All model results are consistent with the observations from the Eastern

  11. Emission factors and chemical characterisation of fine particulate emissions from modern and old residential biomass heating systems determined for typical load cycles; Emissionsfaktoren und chemische Charakterisierung von Feinstaubemissionen moderner und alter Biomasse-Kleinfeuerungen ueber typische Tageslastverlaeufe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelz, Joachim [BIOENERGY 2020+ GmbH, Graz (Austria); Brunner, Thomas; Obernberger, Ingwald [BIOENERGY 2020+ GmbH, Graz (Austria); Technische Universitaet Graz, Institut fuer Prozess- und Partikeltechnik, Graz (Austria); BIOS BIOENERGIESYSTEME GmbH, Graz (Austria)

    2012-12-15

    It is already well known that there are significant differences regarding the emissions, especially particulate matter (PM) emissions, of old and modern as well as automatically and not automatically controlled biomass based residential heating systems. This concerns their magnitude as well as their chemical composition. In order to investigate emission factors for particulate emissions and the chemical compositions of the PM emissions over typical whole day operation cycles, a project on the determination and characterisation of PM emissions from the most relevant small-scale biomass combustion systems was performed at the BIOENERGY 2020+ GmbH, Graz, Austria, in cooperation with the Institute for Process and Particle Engineering, Graz University of Technology. The project was based on test stand measurements, during which relevant operation parameters (gaseous emissions, boiler load, flue gas temperature, combustion chamber temperature etc.) as well as PM emissions have been measured and PM samples have been taken and forwarded to chemical analyses. Firstly, typical whole day operation cycles for residential biomass combustion systems were specified for the test runs. Thereby automatically fed and automatically controlled boilers, manually fed and automatically controlled boilers as well as manually fed stoves were distinguished. The results show a clear correlation between the gaseous emissions (CO and OGC) and the PM{sub 1} emissions. It is indicated that modern biomass combustion systems emit significantly less gaseous and PM emissions than older technologies (up to a factor of 100). Moreover, automatically fed systems emit much less gaseous and PM emissions than manually fed batch-combustion systems. PM emissions from modern and automatically controlled systems mainly consist of alkaline metal salts, while organic aerosols and soot dominate the composition of aerosols from old and not automatically controlled systems. As an important result comprehensive data

  12. Estimating the horizontal diffuse solar radiation over the Central Anatolia Region of Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main objective of the present study is to develop new hybrid models to predict the monthly average daily diffuse solar radiation on a horizontal surface over Turkey's Central Anatolia Region (CAR), which covers the 12 provinces (Afyon, Ankara, Cankiri, Corum, Eskisehir, Kayseri, Kirsehir, Konya, Nevsehir, Nigde, Sivas and Yozgat), as an example. The models proposed by many investigators to estimate the diffuse solar radiation were reviewed. Although the global solar radiation and sunshine duration have been measured by the Turkish State Meteorological Service (DMI) over all the country since 1964, the diffuse solar radiation has not been measured. The twelve new hybrid models for estimating the monthly average daily diffuse solar radiation on a horizontal surface in the CAR were validated, and thus, the most accurate model was selected for guiding future projects

  13. Risk of hypertension in Yozgat Province, Central Anatolia: application of Framingham Hypertension Prediction Risk Score.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilic, M; Ede, H; Kilic, A I

    2016-07-10

    The aim of this cross-sectional study was to estimate the risk of hypertension in 1106 Caucasian individuals aged 20-69 years in Yozgat Province, using the Framingham Hypertension Risk Prediction Score (FHRPS). According to FHRPS, average risk of developing hypertension over 4 years was 6.2%. The participants were classified into low- (10%) risk groups. The percentage of participants that fell into these groups was 59.4%, 19.8% and 20.8% respectively. The proportion of participants in the high-risk group was similar to the 4-year incidence of hypertension (21.3%) in the Turkish population. Regression analysis showed that high salt consumption and low educational level significantly increased the risk of hypertension. Economic level, fat consumption, life satisfaction, physical activity, and fruit and vegetable consumption were not correlated with risk of hypertension. This study shows that FHRPS can also be used for predicting risk of hypertension in Central Anatolia.

  14. Seroprevalence of brucellosis among children in the Middle Anatolia Region of Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gül, Serdar; Satilmiş, Ozgun Kiriş; Ozturk, Baris; Gökçe, Mehmet Ilker; Kuscu, Ferit

    2014-12-01

    Brucellosis is an important public-health problem in Turkey. Children may constitute 20 to 30% of all brucellosis cases in the world, especially in the endemic regions. Data on the seroprevalence of brucellosis in childhood are very limited. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the seroprevalence of brucellosis among a child population. One thousand one hundred and ten subjects were included in the study. Blood samples were collected and tested with Rose Bengal (RB) and standard tube agglutination test (SAT). RB test results were positive for 6 patients, and SAT was negative for all patients. Our findings suggest that seroprevalence of brucellosis is decreasing in Middle Anatolia due to a new cattle vaccination and eradication programme which was initiated in 2009.

  15. Risk of hypertension in Yozgat Province, Central Anatolia: application of Framingham Hypertension Prediction Risk Score.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilic, M; Ede, H; Kilic, A I

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this cross-sectional study was to estimate the risk of hypertension in 1106 Caucasian individuals aged 20-69 years in Yozgat Province, using the Framingham Hypertension Risk Prediction Score (FHRPS). According to FHRPS, average risk of developing hypertension over 4 years was 6.2%. The participants were classified into low- (10%) risk groups. The percentage of participants that fell into these groups was 59.4%, 19.8% and 20.8% respectively. The proportion of participants in the high-risk group was similar to the 4-year incidence of hypertension (21.3%) in the Turkish population. Regression analysis showed that high salt consumption and low educational level significantly increased the risk of hypertension. Economic level, fat consumption, life satisfaction, physical activity, and fruit and vegetable consumption were not correlated with risk of hypertension. This study shows that FHRPS can also be used for predicting risk of hypertension in Central Anatolia. PMID:27432406

  16. Demographic Factors Influencing Consumer Preferences of Seafood Consumption: Central Anatolia Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osman Orkan Özer

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out in order to analyze seafood consumption level of consumers in Central Anatolia Region (Province Ankara and their consumption behavior. Proportional sampling method was used in determining sample size and sample size was determined as 167. Data were collected from randomly chosen individuals with face-to-face interviews. As a result of study, in order to determine possible effects of socio-economic properties of consumers on seafood consumption, CHAID analysis which is one of the decision tree analyses was used. According to the results of analysis; it can be said that dependent variables of income, education and age have effect on attitude and behavior of consumers while gender have no effect on consumption behaviors.

  17. Detection of Lineaments in Denizli Basin of Western Anatolia Region Using Bouguer Gravity Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altinoğlu, Figen F.; Sari, Murat; Aydin, Ali

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the geostructural boundaries of the eastern part of Western Anatolia. To achieve this, three methods, horizontal gradient, analytic signal, and tilt angle, were used. With the application of each method to the Bouguer gravity data, the common lineaments were determined using maximum values of the horizontal gradient, analytic signal maps, and zero contours of the tilt angle maps. The basement topography was also produced using the Parker-Oldenburg algorithm. Then, the produced lineaments were compared with the active fault map of the region. The results suggested that although a good agreement between the current work and earlier work exists, the new four lineament regions were also detected. We concluded that this work will lead to better understanding of Anatolian geostructural and its impact on the larger scale geological processes.

  18. IAEA Perspectives on Radiological Characterisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Requirements for characterization of radiological and other hazards in nuclear facilities are reflected in the IAEA Safety Standards. WS-R-5, Safety Requirements for Decommissioning of Facilities using Radioactive Material, includes a requirement that 'During the preparation of the final decommissioning plan, the extent and type of radioactive material (irradiated and contaminated structures and components) at the facility shall be determined by means of a detailed characterization survey and on the basis of records collected during the operational period'. The subsidiary Safety Guide WS-G-2.1, Decommissioning of Nuclear Power Plants and Research Reactors, further elaborates that 'A survey of radiological and non-radiological hazards provides an important input for the safety assessment and for implementing a safe approach during the work'. Although the characterisation requirements addressed in the Safety Standards relate primarily to the detailed survey activities undertaken following the shutdown of the facility, it is evident that radiological characterization is of relevance to all major phases of the lifetime of a nuclear facility, including: - the siting phase - baseline surveys are undertaken to determine background radiation levels; - the construction phase - construction materials are retained to support future calculations of radioactivity distributions; - the operational phase - surveys are done regularly, with additional surveys being required following incidents involving plant contamination; - the transition phase - detailed radiological surveys are required to support the development of the final decommissioning plan; and - the closure phase - a final survey of the site and any remaining structures will be needed to support an application for release of the site from regulatory control. In the case of facilities that are already shut down, the main purpose of radiological characterisation is to provide a reliable database of information on the

  19. Full vector archaeomagnetic records from Anatolia between 2400 and 1350 BCE: Implications for geomagnetic field models and the dating of fires in antiquity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ertepinar, P.; Langereis, C. G.; Biggin, A. J.; de Groot, L. V.; Kulakoğlu, F.; Omura, S.; Süel, A.

    2016-01-01

    Anatolia, as one of the busiest crossroads of ancient civilizations, provides an ideal platform for archaeomagnetic studies. Previous results from the Middle East have suggested the occurrence of a strong peak in geomagnetic intensity at ˜1000 BCE associated with dramatic field strength variations that could require a radical rethinking of geodynamo theory. The behavior of the field in the centuries preceding this peak remains poorly constrained, however. Here we present the results of full-vector archaeomagnetic experiments performed on 18 sets of samples from three archaeological sites belonging to Assyrian Trade Colony and Hittite periods. Associated rock magnetic analyses showed that the major magnetic carrier is magnetite chemically stable up to 700 °C and the magnetic mineral assemblage is composed mostly of non-interacting PSD grains. The directional results are compared with existing data and with the most recent global geomagnetic field models pfm9k.1b and SHA.DIF.14k. The directions are in remarkably good agreement with SHA.DIF.14k which is based on archaeomagnetic and lava flow data. Together with our earlier results from Anatolia, we triple the existing database of directions for the 700 year long period 2200-1500 BCE, over a large region from Greece to Azerbaijan, and from Moldavia/Ukraine to Egypt. Three archaeointensity methods: thermal IZZI-Thellier, microwave Thellier and the multi-specimen protocol (MSP) produced virtual axial dipole moment estimates (9.0- 10.9 ×1022 Am2) that are somewhat higher than contemporaneous (regional and global) data and model predictions suggesting that the field was already substantially stronger than today more than 800 years prior to the reported peak. In addition to constraining geomagnetic variability, our data also allow us to assign relative dates to inferred fire events in the Assyrian Trade Colony Period sites. This allows us to conclude that the fire events at the largest site, Kültepe, were not all

  20. Longhorned Beetles Collection of the Entomology Museum of Central Anatolia Forestry Research Directorship, Ankara, Turkey (Coleoptera,Cerambycidae)

    OpenAIRE

    ÖZDİKMEN, Hüseyin; ŞAHİN, Özlem

    2010-01-01

    In the present paper, specimens of Cerambycidae were examined in the Entomology Museum of Central Anatolia Forestry Research Directorship, Ankara, Turkey. As a result of identification of these specimens, thirty-eight species and two subspecies belonging to twenty-eight genera of five subfamilies were determined. With this paper, new faunistic data and some zoogeographical evaluations were presented on longhorned beetles fauna (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae) of Turkey. The faunistic data in the pr...

  1. Problem Identification and Priority Setting in Agricultural Research: The Case of The Eastern Margin of Central Anatolia

    OpenAIRE

    UZUNLU, Vedat

    1999-01-01

    Since the resources available to research institutes are scarce, and experimentation is the most costly phase of a research program, researchers must make sure that the possible solutions to identified problems have a high chance of success. Consequently, problems should be carefully prioritized for experimentation. Factors limiting increased productivity in crop production in the Eastern Margin of Central Anatolia (EMCA) along with agro-ecological factors, apart from political concern, are a...

  2. Deindustrialisation and re-industrialisation in the Middle East: Reflections on the cotton industry in Egypt and western Anatolia

    OpenAIRE

    Laura Panza

    2012-01-01

    This paper undertakes an investigation of the process of decline and rebirth of textile manufacturing in two Middle Eastern regions, Egypt and western Anatolia during the first wave of globalisation (1850-1914). Through the application of the “Dutch Disease” model we explore the linkages between terms of trade and industrialisation. These are further related to the evolution of price transmission between domestic and global raw cotton markets. We find that different levels of market integrati...

  3. Rock-Forming Nannofossils in Uppermost Jurassic-Lower Cretaceous Rock Units of Northwest Anatolia: Nannoconusand Its Resived Taxonomy

    OpenAIRE

    ÖZKAN-ALTINER, Sevinç

    1999-01-01

    Nannoconids have been recorded in a rock-forming quantity in the uppermost Jurassic-Lower Cretaceous rock units in Northwest Anatolia, Turkey. Samples were collected from seventeen stratigraphic sections spanning the calciturbidities of the Yosunlukbayiri Formation and pelagic micrites of the Sogukçam Limestone. Because of rareness and difficulties for extracting of calcareous nannofossil species particularly zone markers in these type lithologies, nannoconids have particular attention in ter...

  4. Resettlement of the Circassians and Nogay Immigration in Anatolia in 19th Century And Çankırı

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galip ÇAĞ

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available 19th century was a disaster year for the Ottoman State. The causes and consequences of wars in this century has been a great destruction. The migrations were the most important of this destruction. Migrations in the Balkans and the Caucasus have brought a huge housing problem. In order to overcome these difficulties immigrants quickly directed into the interior of Anatolia by Ottoman administration. In this study will focus on in particular Cankiri resettlements of Nogai immigrants which mentioned above.

  5. Late Paleogene terrestrial fauna and paleoenvironments in Eastern Anatolia: New insights from the Kağızman-Tuzluca Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Métais, Grégoire; Sen, Sevket; Sözeri, Koray; Peigné, Stéphane; Varol, Baki

    2015-08-01

    In Eastern Turkey, relatively little work has been undertaken to characterize the sedimentologic and stratigraphical context of the Kağızman-Tuzluca Basin until now. Extending across the Turkey-Armenian border, this basin documents the syn- and post-collisional evolution of Eastern Anatolia, resulting from the closure of the Neotethyan Seaways and the final collision of the Afro-Arabian and Eurasian plates. From detailed sedimentological and paleontological studies, we propose an interpretation of the lithology and depositional environment of the Late Paleogene Alhan Formation located on the western bank of the Aras River. This sequence of terrestrial clastics rests directly and unconformably onto the ophiolitic mélange, and it documents several depositional sequences deposited in alluvial plain and lacustrine environments. At this stage, the age of the Alhan Formation can only be calibrated by fossil evidence. Several stratigraphic levels yielding fossil data along the section have been identified, but these poor assemblages of fauna and flora hamper extensive comparisons with roughly contemporaneous localities of Central and Southern Asia. Carnivorous and ruminant mammal remains are reported for the first time from the supposed Late Oligocene Güngörmez Formation. The identified fossil mammal taxa reveal biogeographic affinities between Central Anatolia and southern Asia, thus suggesting dispersal between these areas during the Oligocene or earlier. Further studies of the fossil assemblages from the Kağızman-Tuzluca Basin and other basins of Eastern Anatolia and lesser Caucasus regions are needed to better constrain the paleobiogeographic models.

  6. InSAR observations and modeling of plate behavior involved in the eastern Anatolia deformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavalié, Olivier; Jonsson, Sigurjon

    2013-04-01

    The eastern Mediterranean area is a zone of complex tectonics associated with interactions between three major plates, Eurasia, Africa, and Arabia, as well as the smaller Anatolian plate. The collision of Arabia into Eurasia in eastern Turkey, the Caucasus and the Zagros and a westward movement of the Anatolian plate dominate the deformation in this region. Major right-lateral transform motion along the North Anatolian Fault (NAF) and a left-lateral transform motion along the East Anatolian Fault (EAF) result from this setting. In this study, we focus on the deformation of the eastern part of Anatolia, around the triple junction where the EAF and the NAF meet. We use InSAR data to obtain higher spatial resolution of the deformation than is currently available by GPS. In particular, we are interested in mapping in details of how the Anatolian plate behaves at the triple junction where it is clamped between Arabia and Eurasia. For this purpose, we used SAR data from three adjacent descending tracks and two ascending tracks of the Envisat archive, which at this location includes about 30 acquisitions for each descending track, but only about 10 images for the ascending tracks. The main limitation of using InSAR in this region is phase decorrelation due to temporal changes of the ground scattering, in particular due to winter snow cover. To reduce the phase coherence loss, we adopt a small baseline approach in limiting both the spatial and temporal baseline of the interferograms, and we also exclude images acquired in winter. Moreover, we correct produced interferograms for the stratified part of the atmospheric delay using the global atmospheric model, ECMWF. Corrected interferograms are then combined together to infer the time series of the ground surface displacement via a least square method. In order to model the Anatolian plate movement, we assume a constant velocity during the observation period. We use an interseismic back-slip model in a homogeneous, elastic

  7. Tectonics of the Central Anatolia Plateau between the Black Sea and the East Mediterranean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertotti, Giovanni; Fernandez-Blanco, David; Willett, Sean D.

    2013-04-01

    The Central Anatolia Plateau, focus point of the TopoEurope Vertical Anatolia Movement Project, is an elevated area (ca. 1.5km) with fairly smooth topography bounded to the N and to the S by mountain ranges (Pontides and Taurus) and flanked by marine domains (Black Sea and Cilicia Basin-Eastern Mediterranean). Towards the south the Cilicia Basin passes to the Island of Cyprus and eventually to the Cyprus subduction zone and African plate. To constrain the evolution of the CAP from its birth in the Miocene to present, we present the evolution of an upper crustal section stretching from the Black Sea to Cyprus with particular focus on a 350km long segment from the central part of the Plateau (Tüz Gölü) to the Cilicia Basin. This entire area occupies an upper plate position with respect to the Cyprus subduction zone. Tectonics from Early to Late Miocene times were fairly simple and characterized by a gently southward dipping basement experiencing generalized subsidence. Depositional environments gradually changed from continental in the north to shallow marine in the south. The overall tectonic regime during this stage is poorly constrained. In the Late Miocene the entire area of the future CAP began moving upward. At the same time, subsidence continued in the Cilicia basin. Uplift above sea level in the south is nicely recorded by the termination of marine sedimentation and the onset of erosion. Dominant tectonic structures during this stage are associated with N-S shortening. The largest structures caused the formation of the large S-dipping monocline characteristics of S Turkey. The coexistence of upward and downward movements (in the CAP and in the Cilicia basin respectively) as well as the dominant contractional regime suggest that the development of the CAP is related to dynamic changes in the Cyprus subduction zone. We validate this hypothesis with 2D thermo-mechanically coupled models. We demonstrate that the growth of the upper plate forearc basin system

  8. Intraplate Deformation of the Anatolian Micro Plate on the Amasya Branch Fault in Central Anatolia, Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okumura, K.

    2010-12-01

    The discrepancy between geologic and geodetic slip rate along the North Anatolian fault has been more evident as solid incremental (Kondo et al. 2010) and cumulative (Kozaci et al. 2009, Okumura et al. 2010) slip rate data are accumulated. The strain transient effect (Kozaci et al. 2009) could be a plausible cause for the discrepancy. At the same time, the seismicity, crustal deformation, and active structures indicate significant amount of distributed tectonic strain far inside the Anatolian micro plate. The accumulation and release of the distributed strain may affect the seismic cycle of the plate boundary. However, there is almost no quantitative information on the earthquakes and faults in central Anatolia. Considering the magnitude of the discrepancy, it is important to understand the intra-plate tectonics and to prepare for the seismic hazard in less active intra-plate areas. For this purpose, the author carried out detailed survey of the Amasya fault. Amasya fault is the only major branch of the North Anatolian fault in Central Anatolia. While the main strand of the North Anatolian fault steps at the Niksar basin, the Amasya fault is the westward continuation of the North Anatolian fault along the Kerkit river valley in the east. The fault extends to southwest over 250 km into the Anatolian micro plate. In 1939 about 100 km long eastern portion of the Amasya fault ruptured together with the 200 km long main strand between Niksar and Erzincan. The location and slip distribution of the 1939 ruptures, as well as slip-rate and paleoseismicity on the Amasya fault have been studied very little. Preliminary fault mapping between 36° E and 37° E was done with Google-Earth satellite photos and 1939 rupture locations were confirmed on site by interviews to aged local people. Cumulative slip measurement and slip-rate estimation were conducted in east of Canbolat (37.6228° E) and east of Findicak (36.4572° E). At Canbolat, 11.4 m cumulative offset was measured on

  9. Investigation of lithospheric deformation and mantle anisotropy beneath Central Anatolia from Shear Wave Splitting Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teoman, U.; Polat, G.; Sandvol, E. A.; Turkelli, N.; Kahraman, M.; Özacar, A.; Beck, S. L.; Delph, J. R.

    2015-12-01

    With the primary objective of investigating the upper mantle anisotropy beneath central Anatolia-Turkey, we have performed shear wave splitting analysis and calculated the fast polarization directions and time-delays benefiting from teleseismic earthquakes recorded by a dense temporary seismic network consisting of 65 broadband sensors that were deployed in early May 2013 and operated for two years as a part of CD-CAT project (Continental Dynamics Central Anatolian Tectonics, funded by NSF with instruments supplied by PASSCAL depository). To further enhance the station coverage in the region, we also included data from 45 permanent broadband stations of Kandilli Observatory and Earthquake Research Institute (KOERI). During the analysis, we have used the SplitLab software to determine splitting parameters of the records from only SKS and SKKS phases. Our initial results were derived from teleseismic earthquakes (with magnitudes greater than 5.8) that occurred within the time period from May-2013 to 2014. The average fast polarization directions obtained from stations located in the vicinity of the East Anatolia Fault Zone are well aligned with the fault trend indicating NE-SW orientations. Furthermore, we did not observe significant variations in the polarization directions and the delay times along the fault zone. Stations deployed in the vicinity of Central Anatolian fault zone exhibit N-S fast directions in good agreement with the fault trend. The average delay time for the whole study area is slightly higher than 1 second. Rapid spatial variations in splitting parameters are observed only in Adana region and the surrounding area. This probably suggests that the contribution of crustal anisotropy to mantle anisotropy is quite high. This observation is also consistent with the known tectonic structure of this region, which is presumably related to fabrics within deep crustal rocks preserving a record of deformation. This point should also need to be supported with

  10. Characterising Super-Earths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valencia D.

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The era of Super-Earths has formally begun with the detection of transiting low-mass exoplanets CoRoT-7b and GJ 1214b. In the path of characterising super-Earths, the first step is to infer their composition. While the discovery data for CoRoT-7b, in combination with the high atmospheric mass loss rate inferred from the high insolation, suggested that it was a rocky planet, the new proposed mass values have widened the possibilities. The combined mass range 1−10 M⊕ allows for a volatile-rich (and requires it if the mass is less than 4 M⊕ , an Earth-like or a super-Mercury-like composition. In contrast, the radius of GJ 1214b is too large to admit a solid composition, thus it necessarily to have a substantial gas layer. Some evidence suggests that within this gas layer H/He is a small but non-negligible component. These two planets are the first of many transiting low-mass exoplanets expected to be detected and they exemplify the limitations faced when inferring composition, which come from the degenerate character of the problem and the large error bars in the data.

  11. Characterisation of bacteria by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation and electrospray mass spectrometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baar, B.L.M. van

    2000-01-01

    Chemical analysis for the characterisation of micro-organisms is rapidly evolving, after the recent advent of new ionisation methods in mass spectrometry (MS): electrospray (ES) and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation (MALDI). These methods allow quick characterisation of micro-organisms, ei

  12. Characterisation of areal surface texture

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    This book presents the areal framework that is being adopted by the international community, concentrating on characterisation methods, and presenting case studies highlighting use of areal methods in applications from automobile manufacturing to archaeology.

  13. The Frequency of Exfoliation Syndrome in the Central Anatolia Region of Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raşit Kılıç

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. The aim of this study was to investigate the frequency of exfoliation syndrome in the Central Anatolia region of Turkey and to evaluate its relationship with cardiovascular and ocular diseases. Methods. Patients over the age of 45 years who presented to the clinic were included in the study. All cases underwent a comprehensive ophthalmology examination. Exfoliation syndrome was diagnosed with the presence of exfoliative material on the lens anterior capsule or iris on slit lamp examination. The patients were divided into two groups as the exfoliation syndrome group and nonexfoliation syndrome group according to the presence of exfoliative material. Results. Exfoliative material was found in one or both eyes of 212 of the 2103 patients (10.1% evaluated within the scope of the study. A significant relationship was found between exfoliation syndrome and increasing age and male gender. A significant relationship was found between exfoliation syndrome and glaucoma, cataracts, age-related macular degeneration, and phacodonesis. While no relationship was found between exfoliation syndrome and hypertension or diabetes mellitus, a significant relationship was found with coronary artery disease. Conclusion. The unilateral or bilateral exfoliation syndrome frequency was 10.1% in this hospital-based study. A statistically significant relationship was found between exfoliation syndrome and advancing age, gender, and coronary artery disease.

  14. 500,000 Years of Environmental History in Eastern Anatolia: The PALEOVAN Drilling Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clemens Glombitza, and Jens Kallmeyer

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available International Continental Scientific Drilling Program (ICDP drilled a complete succession of the lacustrine sediment sequence deposited during the last ~500,000 years in Lake Van, Eastern Anatolia (Turkey. Based on a detailed seismic site survey, two sites at a water depth of up to 360 m were drilled in summer 2010, and cores were retrieved from sub-lake-floor depths of 140 m (Northern Basin and 220 m (Ahlat Ridge. To obtain a complete sedimentary section, the two sites were multiple-cored in order to investigate the paleoclimate history of a sensitive semi-arid region between theBlack, Caspian, and Mediterranean seas. Further scientific goals of the PALEOVAN project are the reconstruction of earthquake activity, as well as the temporal, spatial, and compositional evolution of volcanism as reflected in the deposition of tephra layers. The sediments host organic matter from different sources and hence composition, which will be unravelled using biomarkers. Pathways for migration of continental and mantle-derived noble gases will be analyzed in pore waters. Preliminary 40Ar/39Ar single crystal dating of tephra layers and pollen analyses suggest that the AhlatRidge record encompasses more than half a million years of paleoclimate and volcanic/geodynamic history, providing the longest continental record in the entire Near East to date.

  15. Evaluation of Milking Facilities and Machinery in Dairy Operations of Central Anatolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cevdet Sağlam

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to investigate the recent changes in dairy operations of Central Anatolia and to evaluate the milking facilities and machinery capacities of the facilities.The basic objective is to put forward the recent changes through the state supports provided to dairy facilities of the Central Anatolian Provinces. While investigating and evaluating the recent changes, milking parlors, milking machinery and livestock inventories of the facilities were taken into consideration. The relevant data were gathered from the recent records of Turkish Institute of Statistics (TUIK, Agriculture and Rural Development Support Institution (TKDK and the Ministry of Economy.As a result, in this study while in determining the recent changes in dairy facilities of the Central Anatolian Provinces, the number of milking machinery, milking parlors and livestock inventories were taken into consideration as well as milk yields per animal and number of animals per machine. According to TUIK records for last six years; 384 milking parlors were built, 8877 milking machinery were bought, the increment in the number of livestock inventories and milk yields per animal were taken place as 62.9% and 9.5% respectively. It is thought that supports provided to dairy operations had a great effect on the recent developments. Such supports should also be provided in the future to furnish entire dairy operations with modern machinery and equipment, thus to improve yields and product qualities.

  16. GIS based geothermal potential assessment: A case study from Western Anatolia, Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potential geothermal areas are identified through investigation of spatial relations between geothermal occurrences and their surrounding geological phenomena in western Anatolia, Turkey. The identification is based on only publicly available data. It is expected that the study will guide further preliminary investigations performed for large areas having limited information. Magnetic anomaly, Bouger gravity anomaly, earthquake epicenter and lineament datasets are used for the analysis. The first is used without any modification whereas the rest are utilized to extract three evidence maps; distance to major grabens, Gutenberg-Richter b-value and distance to lineaments, respectively. Predictor maps are produced from these evidence maps as well as from the unprocessed magnetic anomaly map by applying two different binarization procedures. From each binarization procedure a favorability map is produced separately using Index Overlay (IO) and Weights of Evidence (WofE) methods. The findings reveal that weighting predictor maps according to spatial association between evidence maps and training points lead to more accurate prediction in both WofE and IO methods. The potential areas in the final maps are Aydin, Denizli, Manisa, Balikesir and Kutahya of which first two have been explored and exploited, and thus found to be favorable, while the rest are nearly unexplored.

  17. GPS Velocity and Strain Rate Fields in Southwest Anatolia from Repeated GPS Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saffet Erdoğan

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Southwestern Turkey is a tectonically active area. To determine kinematics and strain distribution in this region, a GPS network of sixteen stations was established. We have used GPS velocity field data for southwest Anatolia from continuous measurements covering the period 2003 to 2006 to estimate current crustal deformation of this tectonically active region. GPS data were processed using GAMIT/GLOBK software and velocity and strain rate fields were estimated in the study area. The measurements showed velocities of 15-30 mm/yr toward the southwest and strain values up to 0.28-8.23x10-8. Results showed that extension has been determined in the Burdur-Isparta region. In this study, all of strain data reveal an extensional neotectonic regime through the northeast edge of the Isparta Angle despite the previously reported compressional neotectonic regime. Meanwhile, results showed some small differences relatively with the 2006 model of Reilinger et al. As a result, active tectonic movements, in agreement with earthquake fault plane solutions showed important activity.

  18. GPS Velocity and Strain Rate Fields in Southwest Anatolia from Repeated GPS Measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdoğan, Saffet; Sahin, Muhammed; Tiryakioğlu, Ibrahim; Gülal, Engin; Telli, Ali Kazım

    2009-01-01

    Southwestern Turkey is a tectonically active area. To determine kinematics and strain distribution in this region, a GPS network of sixteen stations was established. We have used GPS velocity field data for southwest Anatolia from continuous measurements covering the period 2003 to 2006 to estimate current crustal deformation of this tectonically active region. GPS data were processed using GAMIT/GLOBK software and velocity and strain rate fields were estimated in the study area. The measurements showed velocities of 15-30 mm/yr toward the southwest and strain values up to 0.28-8.23×10(-8). Results showed that extension has been determined in the Burdur-Isparta region. In this study, all of strain data reveal an extensional neotectonic regime through the northeast edge of the Isparta Angle despite the previously reported compressional neotectonic regime. Meanwhile, results showed some small differences relatively with the 2006 model of Reilinger et al. As a result, active tectonic movements, in agreement with earthquake fault plane solutions showed important activity. PMID:22573998

  19. Determination of hydrocarbon prospective areas in the Tuzgolu (Saltlake) Basin, central Anatolia, by using geophysical data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aydemir, Attila [Turkiye Petrolleri A.O. Mustafa Kemal Mah. 2.Cad. No: 86, 06100 Sogutozu, Ankara (Turkey); Ates, Abdullah [Ankara University, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Geophysical Engineering, 06100, Besevler, Ankara (Turkey)

    2008-09-15

    Tuzgolu Basin is the largest interior basin in Central Anatolia, Turkey, with significant hydrocarbon indications in outcrops and exploration wells. However, there is no commercial discovery since 1959 which is the beginning year of exploration activities. Because of the poor seismic quality, all available geological-geophysical data and methods should be used in integration with each other to carry out exploration activities. In previous studies, the basin was modeled three dimensionally (3D) using gravity data by the authors of this paper and results of the modeling study were published recently. The model results can be evaluated to determine probable hydrocarbon generation zones. Gravity anomalies in this region exhibit many inflections that could be prospective locations for hydrocarbons. In this study, the gravity data were subjected to the vertical derivative in order to isolate inflections and to determine concealed structurally high areas in the subsurface that could have hydrocarbon potential. These potential subsurface structures were also compared with the Analytical Signal map produced from the aeromagnetic anomalies to reveal if they are originated from a magmatic intrusion. Finally, it was determined that all exploration wells were drilled off-structure and none of these potential subsurface structures was tested. According to correlation of the previous well locations and determined subsurface structures in or around the hydrocarbon generation zones, it is possible to claim that the Tuzgolu Basin with no previous discovery remains prospective for hydrocarbon exploration activities in the future. (author)

  20. The Tethyan Upper Cretaceous in northwestern Turkey - an integrated study of pelagic sections in northwestern Anatolia and the southern Black Sea coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfgring, Erik; Böhm, Katharina; Ömer Yilmaz, Ismael; Tüysüz, Okan; Dinarès-Turell, Jaume; Wagreich, Michael

    2016-04-01

    Upper Cretaceous sections in northwestern Turkey record pelagic depositional environments that are characterised by frequent volcanic events. The aim of the ongoing project is to cover a continuous cyclostratigraphic record of the Tethyan Campanian and to date palaeoenvironmental changes and volcanic events. Cyclic successions of pelagic deposits depicting shales and marl-marly limestone alternations with inter bedded tuff and turbidite layers were logged. Deposits alongside the southern Black Sea coast (in the western Pontide orogen) and in northwestern Anatolia (Göynük and Nallihan area) were examined for geochemistry and mineralogy of tuff beds, as well as for biostratigraphy and palaeoecology. Three formations of Turonian to Campanian age in the western Pontide area are present; Dereköy, Unaz and Cambu Formation are reflecting different geodynamic phases, i.e. subduction of the Neotethys as well formation of the Western Black Sea basin, overlain by the late Campanian-Maastrichtian Akveren Formation. Planktonic foraminiferal data suggest an age of upper Turonian Marginotruncana sigali -Dicarinella primitiva to lower Campanian Globotruncanita elevata Zone bracketing the first major phase of volcanism (Dereköy Fm.). The second volcanic unit (Cambu Fm.) is of early Campanian age, when spreading in the western Black Sea basin started. Geochemistry of tuff layers confirms magmatic activity of the Pontide volcanic arc from Turonian to Campanian. Discrimination diagrams using immobile elements classify calc-alkaline magma series and balsaltic-andesite and basalt rock types. Northwestern Anatolian sections are located in the Central Sakyrya region's Mudurnu-Göynük basin. Upper Cretaceous deposits of Turonian to Campanian age are recorded in pelagic limestones of the Yenipazar Formation. The cyclic pelagic Göynük section covers the Santonian-Campanian boundary, followed by a lower Campanian volcano-clastic unit and overlying turbidites and pelagic shales of late

  1. A Study on the Soil-Plant Interactions of Some Cistus L. Species Distributed in West Anatolia

    OpenAIRE

    BAŞLAR, Süleyman; Doğan, Yunus; MERT, Hasan Hüseyin

    2002-01-01

    This study was undertaken with the aim of examining the soil-plant interactions of Cistus creticus L. and Cistus salviifolius L. in West Anatolia. The soil analysis data showed that these plants grow in different kinds of soils with sandy-clayey-loam, clayey-loam and loamy texture. The soils in general are not saline but are moderately and slightly alkaline, being rich in nitrogen and having a low level of phosphorus and potassium. They are unaffected by the calcium carbonate content in so...

  2. C-Banded Karyotype and Nucleolar Organizer Regions (NORs) of Wild Boar, Sus scrofa (Artiodactyla: Suidae) from Anatolia

    OpenAIRE

    ARSLAN, Atilla; İrfan ALBAYRAK

    2009-01-01

    The present study reports the karyotype, C-banding, and nucleolar organizer regions (NORs) of 6 Sus scrofa (Linnaeus, 1758) males from Anatolia. The karyotype of S. scrofa comprised (2n) 38 chromosomes, the number of chromosomal arms (FN) was 64, and the number of autosomal arms (FNa) was 60. C-positive regions appeared to be restricted to the centromeric regions of autosomes 1, and 13-18, and the entire long arm of the Y chromosome. Some autosomes had very slight C-bands. The X chromosome ap...

  3. Characterisation of plastic packaging waste for recycling: problems related to current approaches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Götze, Ramona; Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard

    2013-01-01

    criteria of recycling processes. A lack of information in current waste characterisation practise on polymer resin composition, black coloured material content and the influence of surface adherent material on physico-chemical characteristics of plastic packaging waste were identified. These shortcomings......Informed decisions regarding new recycling schemes require waste characterisation studies which provide in addition to data on waste amounts and the share of recyclable fractions, accurate data on physico-chemical characteristics of the waste materials considering the material specific input...

  4. A 500,000-Year-Long Sediment Archive of Lake Van in Eastern Anatolia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litt, T.; Anselmetti, F. S.; Cagatay, M. N.; Kipfer, R.; Krastel, S.; Schmincke, H.-U.; Sturm, M.

    2012-04-01

    Lake Van, a large terminal lake in eastern Anatolia (Turkey), holds a key position within a sensitive climate region between the Black Sea, Caspian Sea and Mediterranean Sea. Lake Van extends over 130 kilometers on a high plateau; lake level at present is 1665 meters above sea level. The lake water, up to 450 meters deep, is alkaline (pH ~9.8) and saline (~21.4‰). Its long and partly annually laminated sedimentary record provides an excellent paleoclimate archive because it yields a long and continuous continental sequence that covers several glacial-interglacial cycles spanning more than 500,000 years. Lake Van is therefore a key site to reconstruct Quaternary climate evolution in the near east. Moreover, being located in a tectonically active area bordered by two historically active volcanoes, it holds a unique paleoseismic and volcanic archive. As a closed and saline lake, Lake Van reacts very sensitively to lake level changes caused by any alterations in the hydrological regime in response to climate change. Because the lake is the deepest lake in Anatolia, which, in contrast to other more shallow lakes, likely never dried out in its history, it was identified as the most promising candidate to contain a long and continuous sediment archive. The drilling campaign, supported by the International Continental Scientific Drilling Program (ICDP), operated by the U.S.-based company Drilling, Observation and Sampling of the Earths Continental Crust (DOSECC), was carried on in July and August 2010. DOSECC developed and assembled a new Deep Lake Drilling System (DLDS) that was specifically designed for coring sediments from deep lakes and that was first operated in Lake Van. The DLDS worked at water depths of up to 360 meters. Cores from 140 meters (Northern Basin site) and 220 meters (AhlatRridge site) below the lake bed depth were retrieved. To obtain a complete sedimentary section, the two sites were cored multiple times. Total length of all parallel cores

  5. Water Management For Drip Irrigated Corn In The Arid Southeastern Anatolia Project Area In Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazar, A.; Gencel, B.

    Microirrigation has the potential to minimize application losses to evaporation, runoff and deep percolation; improve irrigation control with smaller, frequent applications; supply nutrients to the crop as needed; and improve crop yields. The Southeastern Anatolia Project (GAP), when completed, 1.7 million ha of land will be irrigated. Wa- ter supplies are limited, and traditional irrigation practices result in high losses and low irrigation efficiences. This study was conducted to evaluate surface drip irrigation on crop performance. The effect of irrigation frequency and amount on crop yield, yield components, water use, and water use efficiency of corn (Zea mays L., PIO- 3267) were investigated in the Harran Plain in the arid Southeastern Turkey on a clay textured Harran Soil Series. Irrigation frequencies were once in three-day, and once in six-day; irrigation levels varied from full (I-100), medium (I-67; 2/3rd of full), and low (I-33; 1/3rd of full). The full irrigation treatment received 100% of the cumula- tive evaporation within the irrigation interval. Liquid nitrogen was injected into the irrigation water throughout the growing season. Treatments received the same amount of fertilizers. Highest average corn grain yield (11920 kg/ha) was obtained from the full irrigation treatment (I-100) with six-day irrigation interval. Irrigation intervals did not affect corn yields; however, deficit irrigation affected crop yields by reducing seed mass, and the seed number. Maximum water use efficiency (WUE) was found as 2.27 kg/m3 in the I-33 treatment plots with three-day irrigation interval. On the clay soil at Harran, irrigation frequencies are less critical than proper irrigation management for drip irrigation systems to avoid water deficits that have a greater effect on corn yields. The results revealed that about 40% water saving is possible with drip irrigation as compared to traditional surface irrigation methods in the region.

  6. Crustal heat flow measurements in western Anatolia from borehole equilibrium temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erkan, K.

    2014-01-01

    Results of a crustal heat flow analysis in western Anatolia based on borehole equilibrium temperatures and rock thermal conductivity data are reported. The dataset comprises 113 borehole sites that were collected in Southern Marmara and Aegean regions of Turkey in 1995-1999. The measurements are from abandoned water wells with depths of 100-150 m. Data were first classed in terms of quality, and the low quality data, including data showing effects of hydrologic disturbances on temperatures, were eliminated. For the remaining 34 sites, one meter resolution temperature-depth curves were carefully analyzed for determination of the background geothermal gradients, and any effects of terrain topography and intra-borehole fluid flow were corrected when necessary. Thermal conductivities were determined either by direct measurements on representative surface outcrop or estimated from the borehole lithologic records. The calculated heat flow values are 85-90 mW m-2 in the northern and central parts of the Menderes horst-graben system. Within the system, the highest heat flow values (> 100 mW m-2) are observed in the northeastern part of Gediz Graben, near Kula active volcanic center. The calculated heat flow values are also in agreement with the results of studies on the maximum depth of seismicity in the region. In the Menderes horst-graben system, surface heat flow is expected to show significant variations as a result of active sedimentation and thermal refraction in grabens, and active erosion on horst detachment zones. High heat flow values (90-100 mW m-2) are also observed in the peninsular (western) part of Çanakkale province. The heat flow anomaly here may be an extension of the high heat flow zone previously observed in the northern Aegean Sea. Moderate heat flow values (60-70 mW m-2) are observed in eastern part of Çanakkale and central part of Balıkesir provinces.

  7. Crustal heat flow measurements in western Anatolia from borehole equilibrium temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Erkan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Results of a crustal heat flow analysis in western Anatolia based on borehole equilibrium temperatures and rock thermal conductivity data are reported. The dataset comprises 113 borehole sites that were collected in Southern Marmara and Aegean regions of Turkey in 1995–1999. The measurements are from abandoned water wells with depths of 100–150 m. Data were first classed in terms of quality, and the low quality data, including data showing effects of hydrologic disturbances on temperatures, were eliminated. For the remaining 34 sites, one meter resolution temperature-depth curves were carefully analyzed for determination of the background geothermal gradients, and any effects of terrain topography and intra-borehole fluid flow were corrected when necessary. Thermal conductivities were determined either by direct measurements on representative surface outcrop or estimated from the borehole lithologic records. The calculated heat flow values are 85–90 mW m−2 in the northern and central parts of the Menderes horst-graben system. Within the system, the highest heat flow values (> 100 mW m−2 are observed in the northeastern part of Gediz Graben, near Kula active volcanic center. The calculated heat flow values are also in agreement with the results of studies on the maximum depth of seismicity in the region. In the Menderes horst-graben system, surface heat flow is expected to show significant variations as a result of active sedimentation and thermal refraction in grabens, and active erosion on horst detachment zones. High heat flow values (90–100 mW m−2 are also observed in the peninsular (western part of Çanakkale province. The heat flow anomaly here may be an extension of the high heat flow zone previously observed in the northern Aegean Sea. Moderate heat flow values (60–70 mW m−2 are observed in eastern part of Çanakkale and central part of Balıkesir provinces.

  8. Structural Geology and Exhumation of the Paleogene Southern Sivas Fold and Thrust Belt, Central Anatolia, Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darin, M. H.; Umhoefer, P. J.; Lefebvre, C.; Thomson, S. N.

    2015-12-01

    The Anatolian plate (Turkey) was formed during the late Miocene-Pliocene transition from contractional strain in central and eastern Anatolia (collision) to localized strike-slip faulting along inherited collisional structures (escape tectonics). Structural inheritance undoubtedly played a role in this major plate boundary reorganization, although its significance is not well understood. Considerable uncertainty also exists regarding the timing and kinematics of Tauride-Eurasia collision, initial Arabia-Eurasia collision, and the terminal closure of the Neotethys Ocean. The Sivas Basin is a ~E-W-elongate collisional forearc basin located between the Tauride micro-continent in the south and the Pontide Arc along the southern Eurasian margin in the north. Well-exposed contractional structures in Paleocene-Eocene marine strata of the Southern Sivas fold and thrust belt (SSFTB) provide an excellent opportunity to investigate the timing and kinematics of both Tauride and Arabian collisions and their potential roles in localizing strain and facilitating tectonic escape. We use detailed geologic mapping, structural analysis and detrital geo/thermochronology to investigate the magnitude, style, and timing of collision-related crustal shortening across the SSFTB. The structural geology of the SSFTB is characterized by ENE- to ESE-trending, gently plunging fault propagation folds with slight asymmetry towards the north. Vergence on thrust faults is mainly towards the north, although a few previously unmapped faults are south-vergent. Detrital apatite fission track data from Paleocene-Eocene strata reveal a single phase of rapid exhumation ca. ~36-31 Ma, which may be related to either Tauride or initial Arabian collision. We propose that structural growth of the SSFTB at this time played a major role in marine basin isolation and early Oligocene evaporite deposition. In the central and northern Sivas Basin where salt was likely thickest, salt tectonics was initiated by

  9. Identifying the volcanic eruption depicted in a neolithic painting at Catalhoyuk, Central Anatolia, Turkey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Axel K Schmitt

    Full Text Available A mural excavated at the Neolithic Çatalhöyük site (Central Anatolia, Turkey has been interpreted as the oldest known map. Dating to ∼6600 BCE, it putatively depicts an explosive summit eruption of the Hasan Dağı twin-peaks volcano located ∼130 km northeast of Çatalhöyük, and a birds-eye view of a town plan in the foreground. This interpretation, however, has remained controversial not least because independent evidence for a contemporaneous explosive volcanic eruption of Hasan Dağı has been lacking. Here, we document the presence of andesitic pumice veneer on the summit of Hasan Dağı, which we dated using (U-Th/He zircon geochronology. The (U-Th/He zircon eruption age of 8.97±0.64 ka (or 6960±640 BCE; uncertainties 2σ overlaps closely with (14C ages for cultural strata at Çatalhöyük, including level VII containing the "map" mural. A second pumice sample from a surficial deposit near the base of Hasan Dağı records an older explosive eruption at 28.9±1.5 ka. U-Th zircon crystallization ages in both samples range from near-eruption to secular equilibrium (>380 ka. Collectively, our results reveal protracted intrusive activity at Hasan Dağı punctuated by explosive venting, and provide the first radiometric ages for a Holocene explosive eruption which was most likely witnessed by humans in the area. Geologic and geochronologic lines of evidence thus support previous interpretations that residents of Çatalhöyük artistically represented an explosive eruption of Hasan Dağı volcano. The magmatic longevity recorded by quasi-continuous zircon crystallization coupled with new evidence for late-Pleistocene and Holocene explosive eruptions implicates Hasan Dağı as a potential volcanic hazard.

  10. Database characterisation of HEP applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piorkowski, Mariusz; Grancher, Eric; Topurov, Anton

    2012-12-01

    Oracle-based database applications underpin many key aspects of operations for both the LHC accelerator and the LHC experiments. In addition to the overall performance, the predictability of the response is a key requirement to ensure smooth operations and delivering predictability requires understanding the applications from the ground up. Fortunately, database management systems provide several tools to check, measure, analyse and gather useful information. We present our experiences characterising the performance of several typical HEP database applications performance characterisations that were used to deliver improved predictability and scalability as well as for optimising the hardware platform choice as we migrated to new hardware and Oracle 11g.

  11. Database characterisation of HEP applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oracle-based database applications underpin many key aspects of operations for both the LHC accelerator and the LHC experiments. In addition to the overall performance, the predictability of the response is a key requirement to ensure smooth operations and delivering predictability requires understanding the applications from the ground up. Fortunately, database management systems provide several tools to check, measure, analyse and gather useful information. We present our experiences characterising the performance of several typical HEP database applications performance characterisations that were used to deliver improved predictability and scalability as well as for optimising the hardware platform choice as we migrated to new hardware and Oracle 11g.

  12. Quantitative Characterisation of Surface Texture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Chiffre, Leonardo; Lonardo, P.M.; Trumpold, H.;

    2000-01-01

    This paper reviews the different methods used to give a quantitative characterisation of surface texture. The paper contains a review of conventional 2D as well as 3D roughness parameters, with particular emphasis on recent international standards and developments. It presents new texture...... characterisation methods, such as fractals, wavelets, change trees and others, including for each method a short review, the parameters that the new methods calculate, and applications of the methods to solve surface problems. The paper contains a discussion on the relevance of the different parameters...

  13. A Study on the Determination of the Routes of Trekking in Anatolia in the Frame of Nature Based Tourism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Arslan

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Anatolia is rich in both natural and cultural source values due to its geografical location where various civilizations were founded in thousands of years. In this concept, many types of tourism are hosted one of which is a type depended on nature. This paper includes a model of determination of new routes of trekking which will alternate the existy ones in Anatolia in the context of nature tourism. The case is the Safranbolu, Yörükköyü which is located on the Silk Road and announced as World Heritage with its architectural texture. Within this study; the answers of these questions: “Is it suitable to implicate the nature depended tourism to everywhere?” “What kind of places should be selected for tourism and how should the seperation be doen?” are searched. Within the study, places suitable for nature based tourism are designated by using SWOT analysis and the suitability analysis which is formed by specialist and literature based evaluation criteria. As the conclusion, different trekking routes for different purposes are designated for local people and the visitors and the suggestions are presented.

  14. Native of the marble in ancient city, Nysa on the Meander of Hellenistic and Roman Period, Aydin- Western Anatolia - Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadioğlu, M.; Kadioğlu, Y. K.

    2008-07-01

    Nysa, one of the most important cities of Caria in Hellenistic and Roman period, is located on the highway connecting Aydin (ancient name Tralleis) and Denizli, at about three kilometres northwest of Sultanhisar in western Anatolia of Turkey. The archaeological remains of Nysa are located on the slopes on the side of the stream called Tekkecik. The buildings, streets and public squares of the ancient city were supported by vaulted substructures adapted to the topographic conditions. As to the foundation of the city, Strabo relates that three brothers named Athymbros, Athymbrados, and Hydrelos came from Lakedaimon to Caria, and founded there three cities named after themselves. The small rock samples from the building of theatre, stadium, basement of agora and tomb were collected and determined under polarized microscope and confocal Raman spectroscopy to find out the native of these rock sources. The results of these studies reveal that the main rocks of these structures are composed from white colour marble. These marbles have granoblastic texture and are composed of mainly pressure twinned calcite as coarse grain size. The confocal Raman specroscopical studies of reveal that the marble building stone of Nysa city are mainly obtained from Jurassic Cretaceous of Western Anatolia marble.

  15. Native of the marble in ancient city, Nysa on the Meander of Hellenistic and Roman Period, Aydin- Western Anatolia - Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nysa, one of the most important cities of Caria in Hellenistic and Roman period, is located on the highway connecting Aydin (ancient name Tralleis) and Denizli, at about three kilometres northwest of Sultanhisar in western Anatolia of Turkey. The archaeological remains of Nysa are located on the slopes on the side of the stream called Tekkecik. The buildings, streets and public squares of the ancient city were supported by vaulted substructures adapted to the topographic conditions. As to the foundation of the city, Strabo relates that three brothers named Athymbros, Athymbrados, and Hydrelos came from Lakedaimon to Caria, and founded there three cities named after themselves. The small rock samples from the building of theatre, stadium, basement of agora and tomb were collected and determined under polarized microscope and confocal Raman spectroscopy to find out the native of these rock sources. The results of these studies reveal that the main rocks of these structures are composed from white colour marble. These marbles have granoblastic texture and are composed of mainly pressure twinned calcite as coarse grain size. The confocal Raman specroscopical studies of reveal that the marble building stone of Nysa city are mainly obtained from Jurassic Cretaceous of Western Anatolia marble

  16. Characterising agrammatism in Standard Indonesian

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anjarningsih, Harwintha Yuhria; Haryadi-Soebadi, Ratna D.; Gofir, Abdul; Bastiaanse, Roelien

    2012-01-01

    Background: The spontaneous speech of speakers of Standard Indonesian (SI) with agrammatic Broca's aphasia has not yet been characterised, although there are features of SI that are relevant for the discussion of agrammatic speech. Aims: The purpose of this study was to find the characteristic featu

  17. [A water-borne tularemia outbreak caused by Francisella tularensis subspecies holarctica in Central Anatolia region].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulu Kılıç, Ayşegül; Kılıç, Selçuk; Sencan, Irfan; Ciçek Şentürk, Gönül; Gürbüz, Yunus; Tütüncü, Emin Ediz; Celebi, Bekir; Kıcıman, Özlem; Ergönül, Önder

    2011-04-01

    In this study, we investigated a waterborne tularemia outbreak occured in Kadiozu, a village of Cerkes county of Cankiri province (located in North-west part of central Anatolia, Turkey) between 18 November 2009-24 December 2009. Active surveillance was conducted to determine clinical characteristics and risk factors of cases after two patients from the same village had been diagnosed as oropharyngeal tularemia. All villagers were examined, and clinical specimens from cases and water samples which may be the source of outbreak in the field investigations were taken. Cases were in the form of oropharyngeal, glandular and pneumonic. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and cultures were conducted from lymph node aspirates, throat swabs taken from cases and samples from water sources of epidemic zone. All serum samples taken from the villagers were screened for F.tularensis antibodies with microagglutination test (MAT). Oropharyngeal tularemia was diagnosed in 11 patients, glandular form in 3 patients and pneumonic form in one patient according to clinical and laboratory results. Age of the patients ranged between 6-75 years old (mean age: 52.5 years) and thirty one of them (54.7%) were female. MAT titers ranged between 1/160 and 1/5120 in cases of tularemia. Causative agent was grown in the cultures of two patients (including a throat swab and a lymph node aspirate). F.tularensis DNA was shown by PCR in a throat swab and four lymph node aspirates. F.tularensis was also detected by PCR in the water sample obtained from one of the spring water commonly used by villagers. Only one of the lymph node samples obtained from two different patients, was positive by direct fluorescent antibody method. Causative agent was defined as F.tularensis subsp. holarctica by conventional and also molecular methods. Patients were treated with aminoglycoside (streptomycin, gentamicin, amikacin) or quinolone (ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin) antibiotics. Treatment failure was observed in five

  18. Physical and microbiological properties of alluvial calcareous Çumra province soils (Central Anatolia, Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Sami Erol

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Alluvial calcareous soils in Central Anatolia (Konya province, Çumra district has a heavy granulometric composition (average clay, low organic carbon content (less than 1%, but stable pore space structure and favorable agrophysical properties. Studies of the water regime in drip irrigation confirm favorable hydrological properties of these soils. It is assumed that the favorable structure of the pore space due to vigorous activity a large and diverse soil biota. Four phyla dominate in soil biota, among which predominate Actinobacteria. The higher (Streptomyces, and lower (three species Rhodococcus actinobacteria are predominant in large amounts as a part of this phyla. Large biodiversity at a sufficiently high bacteria richness formed the structure of the microbial community that contribute to the balanced production of specific metabolites, including gases (CO2, N2, which allows the soil to function actively, preventing compaction of the pore space and maintaining optimal density, porosity, hydrologic properties of the studied silty clay soils. m the uppermost soil horizons. Analyses of heavy mineral fraction show presence of metamorphic and igneous minerals which indicate participation of weathering products from other rock types in the nearby area. The types of heavy minerals in soils depend more on composition of parent rocks and geomorphic position than on climate type. Soils from Nova Lovcha show similar composition, but the quantity of goethite and hematite significantly increase in soil from plain. Typical high-metamorphic minerals as andalusite, kyanite and sillimanite present only in Nova Lovcha, while garnet dominates in Petrovo and opaque minerals - in Dobrostan. Red soils, formed on slopes, where erosion prevails over accumulation, contain more illite, smectite and vermiculite-smectite, and very few or no kaolinite, whereas the kaolinite is dominant in soils formed on plain. The mineralogical composition of clays in different

  19. Preliminary Results of Occurrence and Mineralogical Properties of Opals from Northwest part of Central Anatolia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çalık, Ayten

    2016-04-01

    , Gökçekısık Opals consist of opal - CT and opal - C based on the results of XRD analysis. Key Words:Opal,opaline phases, Eskişehir,Kütahya, Northwest part of Central Anatolia

  20. Recent crustal deformation of İzmir, Western Anatolia and surrounding regions as deduced from repeated GPS measurements and strain field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aktuğ, Bahadır; Kılıçoğlu, Ali

    2006-07-01

    To investigate contemporary neotectonic deformation in İzmir, Western Anatolia and in its neighborhood, a relatively dense Global Positioning System (GPS) monitoring network was established in 2001. Combination of three spatially dense GPS campaigns in 2001, 2003 and 2004 with temporally dense campaigns between 1992 and 2004 resulted in a combined velocity field representing active deformation rate in the region. We computed horizontal and vertical velocity fields with respect to Earth-centered, Earth-fixed ITRF2000, to Eurasia and to Anatolia as well. The rates of principal and shear strains along with rigid-body rotation rates were derived from velocity field. Results show east-west shortening between Karaburun Peninsula and northern part of İzmir Bay together with the extension of İzmir Bay in accordance with general extension regime of Western Anatolia and Eastern Agea. East-west shortening and north-south extension of Karaburun Peninsula are closely related to right-lateral faulting and a clockwise rotation. There exists a block in the middle of the peninsula with a differential motion at a rate of 3-5 ± 1 mm/year and 5-6 ± 1 mm/year to the east and south, respectively. As is in Western Anatolia, north-south extension is dominant in almost all parts of the region despite the fact that they exhibit significantly higher rates in the middle of the peninsula. Extensional rates along Tuzla Fault lying nearly perpendicular to İzmir Bay and in its west are maximum in the region with an extension rate of 300-500 ± 80-100 nanostrain/year and confirm its active state. Extensional rates in other parts of the region are at level of 50-150 nanostrain/year as expected in the other parts of Western Anatolia.

  1. New characterisation tests of the coke behaviour at high temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Danloy, G.; Pesneux, P.; Fischbach, J.P. (and others) [CRM, Liege (Belgium)

    2009-07-01

    New laboratory tests have been developed to characterise the coke behaviour at high temperature under conditions similar to those encountered in the blast furnace, especially in terms of gasification degree. The CRM Cokarac test characterises the evolution of coke size distribution under mechanical, chemical and thermal stresses during increasing residence time under gasification conditions prevailing in the blast furnace. Two Corus tests characterise the resistance of coke submitted to the actions of liquid iron and slag. A CPM test characterises the strength of coke after a constant weight loss. The validity of these new tests has been demonstrated by comparing the modifications of the coke grain size and microscopic texture resulting from the tests with those undergone by coke in the blast furnace. The latter have been measured by comparing cokes sampled by a tuyere probe with cokes sampled before charging into the blast furnace. Industrial cokes from a wide variety of sources have been tested. Moreover, to highlight the sensitivity of the new tests and their innovative content, cokes differing greatly by their CRI and CSR indices have been produced in the pilot coke oven plant of CPM. The results of the new tests showed only little correlation with the classical coke characterisation indices (I10, I40) and with the standard CRI-CSR indices, which indicates that they really bring new information on coke properties. The applicability of these new tests on a routine basis has been evaluated in order to allow the ironmaking industry to better characterise coke quality. 15 refs., 90 figs., 23 tabs., 13 apps.

  2. Thermomechanical characterisation of cellular rubber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seibert, H.; Scheffer, T.; Diebels, S.

    2016-09-01

    This contribution discusses an experimental possibility to characterise a cellular rubber in terms of the influence of multiaxiality, rate dependency under environmental temperature and its behaviour under hydrostatic pressure. In this context, a mixed open and closed cell rubber based on an ethylene propylene diene monomer is investigated exemplarily. The present article intends to give a general idea of the characterisation method and the considerable effects of this special type of material. The main focus lies on the experimental procedure and the used testing devices in combination with the analysis methods such as true three-dimensional digital image correlation. The structural compressibility is taken into account by an approach for a material model using the Theory of Porous Media with additional temperature dependence.

  3. Spectroscopic characterisation of novel materials for semiconductor device applications

    OpenAIRE

    Reid, Ian

    2007-01-01

    The thesis uses surface science techniques to characterise the chemical composition and electronic properties of a range of carbon containing materials which have application in advanced semiconductor fabrication. The initial focus was on investigating the properties ofcarbon-doped oxide (CDO) which is a low dielectric constant material and a leading candidate to replace silicon dioxide (SiOz) as an interlayer dielectric (ILD) in microprocessor fabrication. The work then progresses to determi...

  4. Hexanitrohexaazaisowurtzitane or CL-20 in India: Synthesis and Characterisation

    OpenAIRE

    A. K. Sider; Nirmala Sikder; B. R. Gandhe; J. P. Agrawal; Haridwar Singh

    2002-01-01

    Hexanitrohexaazaisowurtzitane (HNIW) more commonly called CL-20, the highest density and the most powerful real world explosive, has been made with very high yield and a high product purity. CL-20 is thoroughly characterised by spectral data (IR, NMR and mass) along with electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis (ESCA) and X-ray diffractogram. Furthermore, small-scale sensitivity tests have also been carried out.

  5. Authentication and characterisation of pottery sherds from Apricena (FG)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents the preliminary results of an investigation on medieval ceramics from Apricena using thermoluminescence (TL), optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis (EDS). The combination of physical and chemical-mineralogical analyses has lead to an authentication and an initial characterisation of the ceramic sherds. (Copyright (c) 1998 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  6. The Humber Regional Environmental Characterisation

    OpenAIRE

    Tappin, D. R.; Pearce, B.; Fitch, S.; Dove, D.; Gearey, B.; Hill, J M; Chambers, C.; R. Bates; Pinnion, J.; Diaz Doce, D.; Green, M; Gallyot, J.; Georgiou, L.; Brutto, D.; Marzialetti, S.

    2011-01-01

    The Humber Regional Environmental Characterisation (REC) is a multidisciplinary marine study of the geology, biology and archaeology of an area of 11 000 km2 off the east coast of England. It was funded by the Marine Aggregate Levy Sustainability Fund (MALSF). 2. Within the REC area, there are 12 active aggregate licences with applications submitted for 10 more. Within the region there is also gas production, wind energy development, and intensive shellfish harvesting....

  7. Characterising rag-forming solids

    OpenAIRE

    Kupai, MM; Yang, F.; Harbottle, D; Moran, K.; Masliyah, J; Xu, Z.

    2013-01-01

    In oil sands froth treatment, an undesirable intermediate layer, often accumulates during the separation of water-oil emulsions. The layer referred to as rag layer is a complex mixture of water, oil, solids and interfacially active components. The presence of a rag layer has a detrimental impact on the separation of water and fine solids from diluted bitumen. The current study focuses on characterisation of solids from a rag layer forming stream of a naphthenic froth treatment plant in an att...

  8. Characterisation of gold from Fiji

    OpenAIRE

    Naden, Jon; Henney, P.J.

    1995-01-01

    This is a study of the variation in chemistry and inclusion mineralogy of bedrock and placer gold from Fiji. It forms part of a large project, undertaking gold characterisation from a wide range of geological environments in Ecuador, Zimbabwe, Malaysia and Fiji. The work was carried out under the Overseas Development AdministratiodBritish Geological Survey Technology Development and Research programme (Project R5549) as part of the British Government’s provision of technical...

  9. Characterisation of Electric Bicycles Performances

    OpenAIRE

    Cappelle, Jan; Lataire, Philippe; Maggetto, Gaston; Meeusen, Roman; Kempenaers, Farid

    2002-01-01

    The proposed paper reports on characterisation work performed in the scope of the E-tour project. This project has already been presented at EVS-18. At the ‘Vrije Universiteit Brussel’ different EPACs (Electric Power Assisted Cycles) are put at the public’s disposal for testing. To quantify the performances of these electrical bicycles we want to link the subjective experienced driving comfort to some measurable objective parameters. For this purpose we converted a treadmill in...

  10. Standardization in optical coating characterisation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    D.Ristau

    2005-01-01

    In the rapid development course of laser technology and modern optics, optical metrology continuously gains importance for the quality management in the industrial production environment and also for research in optical coatings. Besides absorption and scatter losses, the spectral characteristics and laser induced damage thresholds are considered as common quality factors for coated optical components and often define the optimization targets for new products and applications. Also, these quality parameters are the basis for the comparison of commercial optics and can be found in the product catalogues of most manufacturers of optical components. As a consequence, standardization of characterisation procedures for these fundamental properties evolved to a crucial point for the optics industry. During the last decade, adapted standard measurement techniques have been elaborated and discussed by representatives from many industrial companies and research institutes within working groups of the International Organisation for Standardization (ISO). In this contribution, the current state of standardized characterisation techniques for optical coatings is summarised. Selected standards for the measurement of absorption (ISO 11551), scattering (ISO 13696) and laser induced damage thresholds (ISO 11254, Parts 1 and 2) will be described and discussed in view of their applicability and reproducibility. The report will be concluded by an outlook on the current projects and future tasks of standardization in optics characterisation.

  11. The Role of Fractional Crystallization and Magma Mixing/Mingling in the Genesis of Karacaali Magmatic Complex (Central Anatolia, Turkey) Fe, Mo-Cu Mineralizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delibas, O.; Genc, Y.; de Campos, C. P.

    2009-05-01

    This work brings into focus different metal associations (Fe and Mo-Cu) characteristic for the Karacaali Magmatic Complex (KMC), in Central Anatolia, Turkey. The Mo-Cu mineralization is widespread hosted in rhyolitic-rhyodacitic/granidoid rocks or is related to N-S striking vertical quartz-calcite veins. The Fe mineralization, on the other hand, is hosted in gabbroic/basaltic rocks. Field relations and geochronologic studies on single zircons (U-Pb) point towards a coeval temporal relation between plutonites and volcanites. The relatively overlapping ages between monzonite (73.1 Ma) and rhyolitic rocks (67 Ma) reflect a long lasting gradual crystallization within a zoned magma chamber. This is confirmed by progressive transitional contacts from plutonites into volcanites. Based on detailed field, textural and petrographic studies, granitic and monzonitic rocks have been subdivided into four different facies. These are: porphyritic quartz monzonites, quartz-monzonites, fine-grained granites and porphyritic leucogranites. Furthermore, highly diverse textures and structures, which are typical for hybrid rocks, reveal important magma mixing/migling and fractional crystalization processes. From additional geochemical studies, granitic rocks show high Rb/Sr (1.52), nearly flat REE patterns and strong Eu negative anomalies. However; monzonitic and hybrid rocks have relatively low Rb/Sr ratios (0.37 and 0.32) and depleted HREE patterns. Thus, in this complex, granitic rocks are considered as evolved products from the felsic magma. Strong positive Mo-correlation within the granitoids can be explained by a high degree of magmatic fractionation (Ishihara and Tani, 2004). Therefore, last evolved granitic melts are enriched in Mo- rich volatiles giving rise to molybdenite-quartz-calcite veins. Field, macro-micro and chemical studies evidence a co-magmatic origin for the gabbroic/basaltic-hosted Fe-mineralization. Despite the very close relation between compositional character

  12. Trace metals and {sup 210}Po ({sup 210}Pb) concentrations in mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) consumed at western Anatolia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ugur, Aysun E-mail: aysun@bornova.ege.edu.tr; Yener, G.Guengoer; Bassari, Asiye

    2002-10-01

    The mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) have been evaluated for their bioavailability as biomonitors of trace and toxic elements in coastal water of western Anatolia. The levels of Fe, Cu, Zn, Pb, Br and Sr in the edible part of mussels were determined using X-ray fluorescence method during the period of September 1999-July 2000. Distribution of {sup 210}Po and {sup 210}Pb activities were measured by radiometric methods and their ratios were calculated. The activity concentrations of {sup 210}Po and {sup 210}Pb were found to vary between 52{+-}6-1344{+-}108 and 6{+-}2-167{+-}10 Bq kg{sup -1} dry wt, respectively. The highest values for {sup 210}Po and {sup 210}Pb were measured in Foca mussels and also observed the highest Fe, Zn and Br concentrations in the same species. {sup 210}Po/{sup 210}Pb activity ratio were derived as between 3.1 and 25.0.

  13. Using Multicriteria Decision Making Techniques in Free Zone for Facility Location Selection: An Example for Eastern Anatolia Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gökhan Ağaç

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Free Zones contribute to the prosperity of the region by increasing employment, attracting foreign capital, allowing technology transfer and increasing exports. In this study, an application of location selection was performed for a possible Free Zone established in provinces of Eastern Anatolia Region. For application of the study, AHP, TOPSIS, VIKOR and ELECTRE, which are multi criteria decision making techniques, were used. AHP was used for determine weights of the criteria that influence the Free Zone location selection while TOPSIS, VIKOR and ELECTRE methods were used to rank alternatives. Accordingly; the three most important criteria for the Free Zone location selection were proximity countries, quantity of exports and government incentives while first three provinces were respectively, Iğdır, Hakkâri and Van for Free Zone will be established.

  14. Cryogels: morphological, structural and adsorption characterisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gun'ko, Vladimir M; Savina, Irina N; Mikhalovsky, Sergey V

    2013-01-01

    Experimental results on polymer, protein, and composite cryogels and data treatment methods used for morphological, textural, structural, adsorption and diffusion characterisation of the materials are analysed and compared. Treatment of microscopic images with specific software gives quantitative structural information on both native cryogels and freeze-dried materials that is useful to analyse the drying effects on their structure. A combination of cryoporometry, relaxometry, thermoporometry, small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), equilibrium and kinetic adsorption of low and high-molecular weight compounds, diffusion breakthrough of macromolecules within macroporous cryogel membranes, studying interactions of cells with cryogels provides a consistent and comprehensive picture of textural, structural and adsorption properties of a variety of cryogels. This analysis allows us to establish certain regularities in the cryogel properties related to narrow (diameter 0.4100 μm) with boundary sizes within modified life science pore classification. Particular attention is paid to water bound in cryogels in native superhydrated or freeze-dried states. At least, five states of water - free unbound, weakly bound (changes in the Gibbs free energy-ΔG0.8 kJ/mol), and weakly associated (chemical shift of the proton resonance δ(H)=1-2 ppm) and strongly associated (δ(H)=3-6 ppm) waters can be distinguished in hydrated cryogels using (1)H NMR, DSC, TSDC, TG and other methods. Different software for image treatment or developed to analyse the data obtained with the adsorption, diffusion, SAXS, cryoporometry and thermoporometry methods and based on regularisation algorithms is analysed and used for the quantitative morphological, structural and adsorption characterisation of individual and composite cryogels, including polymers filled with solid nano- or microparticles.

  15. Prokaryotic diversity in the extreme lakes of Turkey, SW Anatolia, Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirel, Cansu; Gül Karagüler, Nevin; Menekşe-Kılıç, Meryem; Akçer-Ön, Sena; Haydar Gültekin, A.; Balcı, Nurgül

    2016-04-01

    The Lake District, located in the SW Anatolia region of Turkey, hosts a number of lakes with unique water chemistry. Among them, Lake Acigol, Lake Salda and Lake Yarisli display extreme biogeochemical conditions. In terms of their water chemistry and diverse prokaryotic community, each lake sets a great example for microbially mediated reactions (e.g carbonate precipitation). Lake Acigol (average pH around 8.6) is known for hypersaline and alkaline water chemistry. Lake Salda (average pH around 9.1) is known for its hydromagnesite beaches, clayey-hydromagnesite shoreline and ancient-modern stromatolite formations as well as being a model for Mars. For the first time, Lake Yarisli having alkaline conditions with an average pH value of 9.5 is investigated for its geochemistry and geobiology during this study. Algal bloom and well developed cyanobacterial mats are visible on shallow waters along the Eastern shoreline of the lake. In scope of elucidating complex bio/geochemical reactions that regulate C, S and O cycles in the extreme conditions of these lakes, water, surface sediment and shallow core samples were collected. For the first time, prokaryotic diversity of Lake Acigol, Salda and Yarisli were determined by Next-Generation Sequencing (NGS) during this study (Balci et al., 2013). Preliminary results revealed the total number of bacterial classes determined for Lake Acigol, Lake Salda and Lake Yarisli as 22, 19 and 19; respectively. Lake Acigol, Salda and Yarisli are mostly dominated by bacterial classes of Alphaproteobacteria (68.2%, 25.6% and 1.9%; respectively), Cyanobacteria (10.2%, 5.3% and 92.9%; respectively), Bacilli (9.6%, 23.7% and 0.45%; respectively), Gammaproteobacteria (6.1%, 39.6% and 4.3%; respectively) and Actinobacteria (2.7%, 1.8% and 0.06%; respectively). The total number of archaeal classes determined for Lake Acigol, Lake Salda and Lake Yarisli are 8, 7 and 6; respectively. Common most dominant archaeal classes of Lake Acigol, Lake Salda

  16. [Evaluation of the oropharyngeal tularemia cases admitted to our hospital from the provinces of Central Anatolia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uyar, Melek; Cengiz, Buğra; Unlü, Murat; Celebi, Bekir; Kılıç, Selçuk; Eryılmaz, Adil

    2011-01-01

    Tularemia caused by the bacterium Francisella tularensis is a zoonotic infection which has re-emerged in Turkey in recent years as water-borne endemics. Oropharyngeal form is the most frequently reported form of the disease from Turkey. The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical and laboratory findings of oropharyngeal tularemia patients admitted to ear, nose & throat outpatient clinic between January-March 2010. A total of 10 patients (age range: 16-80 years, mean age: 43.9 years; nine were male) inhabiting in the provinces in Central Anatolia, Turkey, were admitted to our hospital with the complaints of fever, sore throat and painful cervical lump. They have been previously diagnosed as tonsillo-pharyngitis at different medical centers and empirical antibiotic therapy has initiated, however, their complaints have not recovered. Endoscopic laryngoscopic examination revealed that oropharynx, larynx and hypopharynx were normal. Physical examination of the neck yielded localized fixed masses with diameters between 2-7 cm. The lesions were localized at right submandibular (n= 4), upper jugular (n=3) and one of each at left posterior cervical, left submandibular and left jugulodigastric regions. The patients were hospitalized with the pre-diagnosis of "neck mass with unknown origin" for further investigation and treatment. The mean white blood cell count of the cases was 9730 (7500-15.100) cells/µl; the mean erythrocyte sedimantation rate was 68.7 (46-85) mm3/hours and the mean C-reactive protein level was 4.3 (1.5-7.4) µg/dl. Salmonella, Brucella, Toxoplasma gondii, rubella, cytomegalovirus, herpes simplex virus, Epstein-Barr virus and viral hepatitis serology did not indicate acute infections. Serum and tissue samples were sent to Refik Saydam National Public Health Agency in order to test for tularemia, namely culture, microagglutination test (MAT), direct fluorescence antibody (DFA) test and in-house polymerase chain reaction (PCR). All of the patients

  17. Arsenic mineralization, source, distribution, and abundance in the Kutahya region of the western Anatolia, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogan, Meral; Dogan, A Umran

    2007-04-01

    Environmental exposure to arsenic (As) in the Kutahya region of the western Anatolia, Turkey has been reported to cause various types of arsenic-associated skin disorders (Dogan, Dogan, Celebi, & Baris, 2005). A geological and mineralogical study was conducted to find the sources and distribution of the As. Geogenic (background) levels were measured in samples collected from various sources in the Gediz, Simav, Tavsanli, Emet, Yoncali, Yenicekoy, and Muratdagi areas of the Kutahya region. Based on this analysis, we determined that natural sources are a domineering factor affecting the distribution of As, which was found: (1) mainly in evaporitic minerals, including colemanite (269-3900 ppm) and gypsum (11-99,999 ppm), but also in alunite (7-10 ppm) and chert (54-219 ppm); (2) in secondary epithermal gypsum, which has a high concentration of As in the form of realgar and orpiment along fracture zones of Mesozoic and Cenozoic carbonate aquifers; (3) in rocks, including limestone/dolomite (3-699 ppm) and travertine (5-4736 ppm), which are relatively more enriched in As than volcanics (2-14 ppm), probably because of secondary enrichment through hydrological systems; (4) in coal (1.9-46.5 ppm) in the sedimentary successions of the Tertiary basins; (5) in thermal waters, where As is unevenly distributed at concentrations varying from 0.0-0.9 mg/l. The highest As concentrations in thermal water (Gediz and Simav) correlate to the higher pH (7-9.3) and T (60-83 degrees C) conditions and to the type of water (Na-HCO3-SO4 with high concentration of Ca, Mg, K, SiO2, and Cl in the water). Changes in pH can be related to some redox reactions, such as the cation exchange reactions driving the dissolution of carbonates and silicates. Fe-oxidation, high pH values (7-9.3), presence of other trace metals (Ni, Co, Pb, Zn, Al), increased salinity (Na, Cl), high B, Li, F, and SiO, high Fe, SO4 (magnetite, specularite-hematite, gypsum), and graphite, and the presence of U, Fe, Cu, Pb, Zn

  18. Geology and Tectonic Evolution of the Kazdaǧ Massif (NW Anatolia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdoğan, B.; Akay, E.; Hasözbek, A.; Satır, M.; Siebel, W.

    2009-04-01

    In the northwestern part of Anatolia along the Izmir-Ankara Suture Zone, the Kazdağ and Uludağ metamorphic massifs form an E-W trending belt between the Sakarya Continent in the north and the Menderes Massif in the south. Internal succession of these two massifs have been described as metamorphic complexes consisting of various kinds of micaschists, quartz mica schist, gneisses, amphibolites and marbles. In the Kazdağ metamorphics, metaophiolites have been described additionally (Okay et al., 1991; Yaltırak and Okay, 1994; Okay et al., 1996; Duru et al., 2004). These metamorphic complexes were considered to form the basement of the Sakarya Continent tectonically overlain by the Early Permian (Topuz et al., 2004) to Late Triassic (Okay and Monie, 1997; Okay et al., 2002) Karakaya Complex. This old basement and the Karakaya Complex were suggested to be unconformably overlain by Liassic and younger platform limestones and detritals (Altıner et al., 1991). In the literature, it has also been suggested that the Kazdağ Massif had experienced polyphase metamorphism, first during Carboniferous time, second during Early Triassic and third during Tertiary (Bingöl, 1971; Okay et al., 1996; Okay and Satır, 2000). In this study we mapped the Kazdağ Massif on 1/25000 scale, studied its internal stratigraphy and structures and performed some petrologic analyses and radiogenic age determinations. Stratigraphically in the lower part of the Kazdağ metamorphic sequence, there is a part of an oceanic crust represented by metaultramafic rocks and gabbroic metacumulates. Geochemistry of these banded metagabbros show a mid-oceanic affinity. This oceanic crust is overlain, along an unconformity, by a platform type marble succession. At the base of the marbles, there is a basal conglomerate, clasts of which derived from the underlying ultramafic sequence. Thick white marble sequence is overlain along a gradational boundary with a metadetrital succession consisting of quartz mica

  19. A framework for Higgs characterisation

    CERN Document Server

    Artoisenet, P; Demartin, F; Frederix, R; Frixione, S; Maltoni, F; Mandal, M K; Mathews, P; Mawatari, K; Ravindran, V; Seth, S; Torrielli, P; Zaro, M

    2013-01-01

    We introduce a framework, based on an effective field theory approach, that allows one to perform characterisation studies of the boson recently discovered at the LHC, for all the relevant channels and in a consistent, systematic and accurate way. The production and decay of such a boson with various spin and parity assignments can be simulated by means of multi-parton, tree-level matrix elements and of next-to-leading order QCD calculations, both matched with parton showers. Several sample applications are presented which show, in particular, that beyond-leading-order effects in QCD have non-trivial phenomenological implications.

  20. Preparation and characterisation of glass surfaces for experimental purposes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experimental investigation of glasses, applied especially to the prevision of the behaviour of vitrified nuclear wastes, requires the preparation of well-defined and reproducibles surfaces, in order to separate the investigated phenomena from artifacts due to surface anomalies and to allow a valuable comparison between results obtained in different laboratories. The aim of the present report is to determine which characters, both physical and chemical, of glass surfaces, have to be controlled, because of their influence upon the investigated phenomena or the experimental processes employed in the investigation. A method is then presented for a surface preparation giving good guaranties of quality and reproducibility. The physical and chemical aspects of surface characterisation are successively considered. The relevant characters and their importance are described, then the corresponding techniques of characterisation are reviewed and it has been attempted to propose a set of techniques allowing a characterisation as complete as possible for laboratory purposes. A preparation method for experimental sample, aiming to satisfy all the previously defined criteria, is then proposed, and present results obtained with this method are described

  1. A NEW MEDIUM TO HIGH ENTHALPY GEOTHERMAL FIELD IN AEGEAN REGION (AKYAR) MENDERES – SEFERİHİSAR – İZMİR, WESTERN ANATOLIA, TURKEY

    OpenAIRE

    BULUT, Metin

    2013-01-01

    There are also geothermal areas of low and medium enthalpy besides the high-temperature geothermal fields in the Western Anatolia. These areas are important for thermal tourism and agricultural applications. According to the surface temperature at by the lowtemperature action for known fluid high temperature fluid can be provided. They are the purpose of the study. The study area between the towns of Mendere and Seferihisar. These districts are located south-southwest of Izmir. İnvestigate th...

  2. Site characterisation methods and data interpretation. The Drigg site characterisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Further site characterisation work is being undertaken to underpin the impact assessment of BNFL's Drigg low level radioactive waste (LLW) disposal site. This site has been in operation for about forty years and is located approximately seven kilometres south of the Sellafield reprocessing plant in West Cumbria. The site accepts the majority of LLW produced in the U.K. which may be generated by hospitals and general industry as well as the nuclear industry itself. Historically, waste was tumble tipped into trenches which were then covered with an interim cap incorporating a plastic membrane. Waste is now placed in a concrete vault within steel Isofreight containers. This practice will continue through to the end of operations which is anticipated to be in the middle of the next century. Subsequently, a final closure cap will be emplaced over the disposal area. The five year Drigg Site Characterisation programme was, therefore, set up in order to improve and build upon our current understanding of the geology and hydrogeology of the site. The first one and a half years are devoted entirely to data acquisition with the greatest activity surrounding the drilling and geophysical aspects of the programme. Four years will be devoted to collecting a high quality time series data set of water levels, stream flows and meteorological variables and to produce a comprehensive interpretation of the hydrogeology of the site. The programme to date has been very successful and the acquired information has enabled us to start refining our geological model of the site which will then be used to underpin our eventual conceptual hydrogeological model. 3 refs

  3. A characterisation of algebraic exactness

    CERN Document Server

    Garner, Richard

    2011-01-01

    An algebraically exact category in one that admits all of the limits and colimits which every variety of algebras possesses and every forgetful functor between varieties preserves, and which verifies the same interactions between these limits and colimits as hold in any variety. Such categories were studied by Ad\\'amek, Lawvere and Rosick\\'y: they characterised them as the categories with small limits and sifted colimits for which the functor taking sifted colimits is continuous. They conjectured that a complete and sifted-cocomplete category should be algebraically exact just when it is Barr-exact, finite limits commute with filtered colimits, regular epimorphisms are stable by small products, and filtered colimits distribute over small products. We prove this conjecture.

  4. Characterisation of TRISO fuel particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez H, E. [IPN, Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados, Unidad Saltillo, Carretera Saltillo-Monterrey Km 13.5, 25900 Ramos Arizpe, Coahuila (Mexico); Yang, D., E-mail: eddie.lopez@cinvestav.edu.mx [The Academy of Armoured Forces Engineering, Science and Technology on Remanufacturing Laboratory, 100072 Beijing (China)

    2012-10-15

    The TRISO (tri structural isotropic) coated fuel particle is a key component contributing to the inherent safety of the High Temperature Reactor. A uranium kernel is coated with three layers of pyrolytic carbon and one of silicon carbide. The purpose of these coatings is to work as a miniature fission product containment vessel capable of enclosing all important radio nuclei under normal and off-normal reactor operating conditions. Due to the importance of these coatings, is of great interest to establish characterisation techniques capable of providing a detailed description of their microstructure and physical properties. Here we describe the use of Raman spectroscopy and two modulator generalised ellipsometry to study the anisotropy and thermal conductivity of pyrolytic carbon coatings, as well as the stoichiometry of the silicon carbide coatings and fibres. (Author)

  5. Record of high-pressure overprint in metamorphic soles of the Tavşanli zone, Western Anatolia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plunder, Alexis; Agard, Philippe; Chopin, Christian; Okay, Aral

    2013-04-01

    Large obducted ophiolites correspond to the emplacement of dense oceanic lithosphere on top of a continent and thereby provide insights into rheological and thermal coupling between plates or fluid budgets. Obducted ophiolites thrust onto the continental margin of the Anatolide-Tauride block (Western Anatolia, south of the Izmir-Ankara suture zone) are dated through their metamorphic sole at ca. 90-95Ma and derive from the same intra-oceanic Neotethyan subduction. We herein focus on the metamorphic soles of the Tavşanlı zone, which show a variable high-pressure low-temperature (HP-LT) overprint of the initial amphibolitic metamorphic conditions (Önen & Hall, 1993; Dilek & Whitney, 1997; Okay et al, 1998). Systematic sampling was done in both the already studied areas as well as new locations. PT conditions were estimated at 8 kbar and 700°C for the amphibolitic stage with the assemblage hornblende + plagioclase ± garnet ± epidote. The HP-LT metamorphic overprint reached incipient blueschist to blueschist facies PT conditions. Development of the characteristic assemblage glaucophane + lawsonite yields PT estimates of >6-7 kbar and 300°C. The high-pressure stage is similar to the one observed for the underlying accretionary-complex unit of the Tavşanlı zone (Plunder et al, this meeting). This HP overprint was not observed in other obduction contexts such as Oman or New Caledonia but was documented in Fransciscan Complex amphibolites (Wakayabashi, 1990). The record of two metamorphic events can be understood as: (1) rapid cooling of the subduction zone after initiation and the exhumation of the metamorphic sole; (2) reburial after or during exhumation of the amphibolite initially welded at the base of the ophiolite. Several observations (i.e., lack of tectonic contact between the ophiolitic body and the metamorphic sole, PT estimates,...) point to cooling as the most likely hypothesis. Metamorphic soles allow to highlight: (1) the dynamics of obducted

  6. Old stories and lost pieces of the Eastern Mediterranean puzzle: a new approach to the tectonic evolution of the Western Anatolia and the Aegean Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaltırak, Cenk; Engin Aksu, Ali; Hall, Jeremy; Elitez, İrem

    2015-04-01

    During the last 20 or so years, the tectonic evolution of Aegean Sea and Western Anatolia has been dominantly explained by back-arc extension and escape tectonics along the North Anatolian Fault. Various datasets have been considered in the construction of general tectonic models, including the geometry of fault patterns, paleomagnetic data, extensional directions of the core complexes, characteristic changes in magmatism and volcanism, the different sense of Miocene rotation between the opposite sides of the Aegean Sea, and the stratigraphy and position of the Miocene and Pliocene-Quaternary basins. In these models, the roles of the Burdur-Fethiye Shear Zone, the Trakya-Eskişehir Fault Zone, the Anaximander Mountains and Isparta Angle have almost never been taken into consideration. The holistic evaluation of numerous land and marine researches in the Aegean Sea and western Anatolia suggest the following evolutionary stages: 1. during the early Miocene, Greece and western Anatolia were deformed under the NE-SW extensional tectonics associated with the back-arc extension, when core complexes and supra-detachment basins developed, 2. following the collision of the Anaximander Mountains and western Anatolia in early Miocene , the Isparta Angle locked this side of the western arc by generating a triangle-shaped compressional structure, 3. while the Isparta Angle penetrated into the Anatolia, the NE-striking Burdur-Fethiye Shear Zone in the west and NW-striking Trakya-Eskişehir Fault Zone in the north developed along the paleo-tectonic zones , 4. the formation of these two tectonic structures allowed the counterclockwise rotation of the western Anatolia in the middle Miocene and this rotation removed the effect of the back-arc extension on the western Anatolian Block, 5. the counterclockwise rotation developed with the early westward escape of the Western Anatolian reached up to 35-40o and Trakya-Eskişehir Fault Zone created a total dextral displacement of about 200

  7. Mitochondrial analysis of a Byzantine population reveals the differential impact of multiple historical events in South Anatolia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ottoni, Claudio; Ricaut, François-X; Vanderheyden, Nancy; Brucato, Nicolas; Waelkens, Marc; Decorte, Ronny

    2011-05-01

    The archaeological site of Sagalassos is located in Southwest Turkey, in the western part of the Taurus mountain range. Human occupation of its territory is attested from the late 12th millennium BP up to the 13th century AD. By analysing the mtDNA variation in 85 skeletons from Sagalassos dated to the 11th-13th century AD, this study attempts to reconstruct the genetic signature potentially left in this region of Anatolia by the many civilizations, which succeeded one another over the centuries until the mid-Byzantine period (13th century BC). Authentic ancient DNA data were determined from the control region and some SNPs in the coding region of the mtDNA in 53 individuals. Comparative analyses with up to 157 modern populations allowed us to reconstruct the origin of the mid-Byzantine people still dwelling in dispersed hamlets in Sagalassos, and to detect the maternal contribution of their potential ancestors. By integrating the genetic data with historical and archaeological information, we were able to attest in Sagalassos a significant maternal genetic signature of Balkan/Greek populations, as well as ancient Persians and populations from the Italian peninsula. Some contribution from the Levant has been also detected, whereas no contribution from Central Asian population could be ascertained. PMID:21224890

  8. The Konya earthquakes of 10–11 September 2009 and soil conditions in Konya, Central Anatolia, Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Aksoy

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Earthquakes registering magnitudes Md = 4.5 and 4.7 struck the city of Konya, Central Anatolia, on 10–11 September 2009, causing very slight damages. The earthquake epicenters were located at the east of Sille District along the Konya Fault Zone, a dip-slip fault. The nature and seismicity of the fault zone indicates that it is capable of producing earthquakes of moderate magnitudes. This paper summarizes the geologic data along the fault zone and documents groundwater conditions and analyzes borehole and geotechnical data of the Konya city. The residential area of the city covers an area of approximately 1150 square kilometers and consists almost entirely of flat land except for a small part of rugged land in the southwestern corner. Groundwater and geotechnical data were collected and analyzed to evaluate the liquefaction potential of deposits under the Konya city. This preliminary investigation indicates that areas for liquefaction are generally limited to the eastern and east central parts of the city.

  9. Naturally occurring arsenic in terrestrial geothermal systems of western Anatolia, Turkey: potential role in contamination of freshwater resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bundschuh, Jochen; Maity, Jyoti Prakash; Nath, Bibhash; Baba, Alper; Gunduz, Orhan; Kulp, Thomas R; Jean, Jiin-Shuh; Kar, Sandeep; Yang, Huai-Jen; Tseng, Yu-Jung; Bhattacharya, Prosun; Chen, Chien-Yen

    2013-11-15

    Arsenic (As) contamination in terrestrial geothermal systems has been identified in many countries worldwide. Concentrations higher than 0.01 mg/L are detrimental to human health. We examined potential consequences for As contamination of freshwater resources based on hydrogeochemical investigations of geothermal waters in deep wells and hot springs collected from western Anatolia, Turkey. We analyzed samples for major ions and trace element concentrations. Temperature of geothermal waters in deep wells showed extreme ranges (40 and 230 °C), while, temperature of hot spring fluids was up to 90 °C. The Piper plot illustrated two dominant water types: Na-HCO3(-) type for geothermal waters in deep wells and Ca-HCO3(-) type for hot spring fluids. Arsenic concentration ranged from 0.03 to 1.5mg/L. Dominance of reduced As species, i.e., As(III), was observed in our samples. The Eh value ranged between -250 and 119 mV, which suggests diverse geochemical conditions. Some of the measured trace elements were found above the World Health Organization guidelines and Turkish national safe drinking water limits. The variation in pH (range: 6.4-9.3) and As in geothermal waters suggest mixing with groundwater. Mixing of geothermal waters is primarily responsible for contamination of freshwater resources and making them unsuitable for drinking or irrigation.

  10. Chemical and physicochemical characterisation of various horse feed ingredients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brøkner, Christine; Knudsen, Knud Erik Bach; Karaman, Ibrahim;

    2012-01-01

    There is an increasing need for identifying energy dense fibre rich feed ingredients, because starch has shown to cause detrimental health problems in sports horses. This study aimed at evaluating feeds considered to be suitable for horses by use of comprehensive carbohydrate analytical methods...... may be underestimated depending on the analytical method. Quantifying the soluble NCP fraction is beneficial as it has been shown to have health beneficial properties and contributes to the total energy supply. These results suggest that the DF method should be used when evaluating feeds for horses....

  11. PHYSICAL-CHEMICAL CHARACTERISATION OF OXAZOLIDINE-TANNED LEATHER

    OpenAIRE

    V. Segarra; Martínez, M A; Roig, M; Ferrer, J.

    2012-01-01

    Nowadays chrome tanning is the most widely used technique for leather production, accounting for more than 90% of leather tanned worldwide. This process gives leather excellent physical properties but maypose an impact on the environment. At present, the leather industry is looking for chrome-free tanning processes, more environmentally friendly.The Centre for Technology and Innovation (INESCOP) is researching into the feasibility of oxazolidine tanning in the framework of the project titled ...

  12. Mimosa 32-ter Chip Characterisation

    CERN Document Server

    Behera, Arabinda

    2013-01-01

    The Inner Tracking System (ITS) is a very important part of the ALICE detector. Present ITS is made up of 6 coaxial layers of silicon detectors (2 SPD, 2 SDD and 2 SSD). This system has a lot of limitations. Its tracking efficiency and resolution is low. Its readout rate is also very slow. Its not possible to study charm and beauty baryons and mesons with this system. So the upcoming ITS Upgrade plan will try to overcome these shortcomings. A very crucial part in this plan is to replace the existing hybrid sensors by new and advanced Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors(MAPS). In MAPS the sensor and the electronics are embedded in the same chip. The MAPS will reduce the material budget, increase the readout rate and enhance the tracking efficiency and momentum resolution. In this report I will present the results for the Characterisation of MIMOSA 32-ter chip, which is a MAPS. My main aim is to calculate the Charge Collection Efficiency of different sectors of the chip and compare between them. And most importa...

  13. Synthesis and Characterisation of Nanomaterials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Saravanan

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Development of synthesis protocols for realising nanomaterials over a range of sizes, shapes,and chemical compositions is an important aspect of nanotechnology. The remarkable size-dependent physico-chemical properties of nanoparticles have fascinated and inspired researchactivity in this direction. This paper describes some aspects on synthesis and characterisationof nanoparticles of metals, metal alloys, and oxides, either in the form of thin films or bulk shapes.A brief discussion on processing of two-phase nanocomposite magnets is also presented.Defence Science Journal, 2008, 58(4, pp.504-516, DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.14429/dsj.58.1671

  14. Characterisation of mycelial morphology using image analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, G C; Thomas, C R

    1998-01-01

    Image analysis is now well established in quantifying and characterising microorganisms from fermentation samples. In filamentous fermentations it has become an invaluable tool for characterising complex mycelial morphologies, although it is not yet used extensively in industry. Recent method developments include characterisation of spore germination from the inoculum stage and of the subsequent dispersed and pellet forms. Further methods include characterising vacuolation and simple structural differentiation of mycelia, also from submerged cultures. Image analysis can provide better understanding of the development of mycelial morphology, of the physiological states of the microorganisms in the fermenter, and of their interactions with the fermentation conditions. This understanding should lead to improved design and operation of mycelial fermentations. PMID:9468800

  15. Molecular weight characterisation of synthetic polymers

    CERN Document Server

    Holding, Steve R

    1995-01-01

    The report comprises a state-of-the-art overview of the subject of molecular weight characterisation, supported by an extensive, indexed bibliography. The bibliography contains over 400 references and abstracts, compiled from the Polymer Library.

  16. Physico-chemical characterisation of particulate heavy metals from municipal solid waste incinerator emissions and their contributions to ambient air quality. Case of Toulon MSWI (South of France); Caracterisation physico-chimique et tracage des emissions particulaires metalliques d'une usine d'incineration d'ordures menageres dans l'air ambiant. Exemple de l'UIOM de Toulon (Var, France)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Floch, M

    2004-07-15

    The aims of this study are the physico-chemical characterisation, the apportionment and the following of particulate heavy metals from MSWI emissions. Various methods (in situ data treatment, unmixing models and codes, UNMIX or CMB, sequential extractions and extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) agree in the following: - identification of the MSWI source in two profiles (Zn - Ca and Ba - Cu - Fe - Zn - Pb - Ca); - estimation of its contribution of up to 25% of the total sources contribution; - showing the seasonal variability in term of profile and contribution of this source; - suggest the potential of emitted elements to enter the food chain; This EXAFS first approach on atmospheric particulate matter shows that zinc and lead are in an atomic environment with calcium, silicon and aluminum. In spite of disputable conclusions, isotopic lead ratios define a 'MSWI' end-member and confirm that the town-center of Toulon is outside the MSWI plume influence. (author)

  17. The UNEP/SETAC recommended characterisation factors for human health and aquatic ecotoxicity: results and future

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenbaum, Ralph K.; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky; Bachmann, Till M.;

    , called USEtox, to serve as a repository for recommended practice. USEtox is a parsimonious and transparent tool that currently provides human-health characterisation factors (CFs) for some 1000 chemicals and aquatic ecotoxicity CFs for more than 2000 substances. The accuracy of these factors relative...

  18. Thermal Characterisation of Brake Pads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramousse, Séverine; Høj, Jakob Weiland; Sørensen, O. T.

    2001-01-01

    The chemical-physical decomposition processes that occur in a brake pad heated to 1000degreesC have been studied. This temperature can be reached when a brake pad is applied. Thermogravimetry and differential thermal analysis were used in combination with evolved gas analysis, and image analysis...

  19. Preliminary results on a promising long paleoclimatic archive for the Near East: the lacustrine sequence of Acigöl (Anatolia, Turkey).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demory, François; Perrin, Mireille; Cihat Alçiçek, Mehmet; Lebatard, Anne-Elizabeth; Nomade, Sébastien; Andrieu-Ponel, Valérie; Djamali, Morteza; Rochette, Pierre; Helvaci, Cahit

    2016-04-01

    A 601 m long core was drilled in Lake Acigöl located in an extensional basin in SW Anatolia (Turkey). The alternation of carbonates relatively rich in evaporites, siliciclastic particles and fossils (ostracods, gastropods and bivalves) gives to the sequence a high potential for palaeoclimatic record. The Acigöl sequence is younger than 3.4 Ma, the oldest age determination recorded for lacustrine successions elsewhere in SW Anatolia (van den Hoek Ostende, 2015). The first paleomagnetic investigations show numerous reverse polarities implying that two third of the sequence is older than 0.78 Ma (Brunhes/Matuyama transition) with a base dating back to 1.7 Ma or more. Indeed, although Jaramillo subchron (from 0.9 to 1.06 Ma) is well recorded, uncertainty remains for the Odulvaï subchron (from 1.78 to 2 Ma) which is not yet robustly identified. The age model will be soon completed by radiometric dating of a tephra found in the sequence and by authigenic 10Be/9Be dating. Detrital proxies (such as magnetic susceptibility) versus biological proxies will allow discrimination between tectonic and climatic signals and may reveal the response of terrestrial ecosystems to the mid-Pleistocene climatic transition. This research is supported by a two-year bilateral cooperation between CNRS-INSU and TUBITAK (grant number 114Y723). Reference: van den Hoek Ostende L.W. Gardner J.D. van Bennekom L. Alçiçek M.C. Murray A.M. Wesselingh F.P. Alçiçek H. Tesakov A.S. 2015. Ericek, a new Pliocene vertebrate locality from the Çameli Basin (SW Anatolia, Turkey). Palaeobiodiversity and Palaeoenvironments 95, 305-320

  20. Environmental changes of Northern Anatolia/Black Sea region during the Eemian and the Holocene: pollen and dinocyst records from sediment cores 22-GC3/8

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shumilovskikh, Lyudmila; Arz, Helge; Fleitmann, Dominik; Behling, Hermann

    2013-04-01

    In order to improve the knowledge about regional climate development in the Eastern Mediterranean, the DFG-Project "Dynamics of Mid-latitude / Mediterranean climate during the last 150 ka: Black Sea / Northern Anatolian Paleoenvironmental Reconstructions" (DynNAP) was established. For this goal, marine cores 22-GC3 and 22-GC8 from SE Black Sea cover the last 140 kyr BP and were studied by high resolution analysis of pollen and dinoflagellate cysts. These records were used to reconstruct vegetation of Northern Anatolia and hydrological changes of the SE Black Sea during the Holocene and the last interglacial. Age-control of the time series is based on shell oxygen isotopes (ostracods, bivalve) correlated to the isotope records of Uranium series dated stalagmites from Solufar Cave, NW Anatolia. The results show a dominance of steppe vegetation during glacial periods and the spreading of oak steppe forest during the deglaciation periods. The interglacial periods are characterized by the development of more humid forest vegetation (Fagus, Carpinus, Corylus, Ulmus/Zelkova, Ostrya). During both interglacial periods, the Holocene and the Eemian, a Mediterranean - Black Sea reconnection took place, inducing transition from freshwater/brackish to more marine conditions. Patterns of vegetation and hydrological changes during interglacials were not identical during both interglacials. During the Eemian, the submediterranean Ostrya-type dominated during the first half of the interglacial, indicating warm summers, whereas more humid Fagus-Carpinus forests dominated in the second half. During the Holocene, the dominance of Pinus in pollen record indicates generally cooler conditions than in the Eemian. An increase of anthropogenic indicators such as Plantago lanceolata-type, Rumex, Juglans in the late Holocene suggests elevated human activities in Northern Anatolia. Sea-surface temperature and salinity of the Black Sea achieved significant higher values in the Eemian compared to

  1. Anatolia tattoo art; Tunceli exampleAnadolu dövme sanatı; Tunceli ili örneği

    OpenAIRE

    Çağlayandereli, Mustafa; Göker, Hediye

    2016-01-01

    In this article, Anatolia tattoo tradition and art are examinated of Tunceli culture. Tattoo is accepted the first father of writing is defined to aim of decoration or giving message and to paint specific cultural figures to the body and lower part of skin surface. Tattoo is one of subject of social sciences especially sociology and antropology, tattoo is dating back to old periods of history, and it is seen in all societies as a cultural object. The tattoo is also a colorful elemen of Anatol...

  2. Geology and Magmatism of Gülşehir Area, City of Nevşehir, Central Anatolia, Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayhan, Uǧur Can; Miyak, İlayda; Keskin, Mehmet

    2016-04-01

    character from calc-alkaline to alkaline. Pyroclastic flow deposits (i.e. ignimbrites with rhyolitic to dacitic compositions) and low-viscosity sub-alkaline/alkaline basaltic lava fields are widely exposed in the study area. Geomorphology of the region is controlled by strike-slip faults related to the neotectonics of Central Anatolia and the erosion/deposition of the Kızılırmak River. Quaternary terraces which are composed of coarse-grained thick sedimentary beds are the products of the Kızılırmak River. In this study, we will present the preliminary results of our new studies in the northwest of the Gülşehir area, specifically aiming to reveal the geology, petrology and tectonic evolution of this part of Central Anatolia.

  3. Characterisation, quantity and sorptive properties of microplastics extracted from cosmetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napper, Imogen E; Bakir, Adil; Rowland, Steven J; Thompson, Richard C

    2015-10-15

    Cosmetic products, such as facial scrubs, have been identified as potentially important primary sources of microplastics to the marine environment. This study characterises, quantifies and then investigates the sorptive properties of plastic microbeads that are used as exfoliants in cosmetics. Polyethylene microbeads were extracted from several products, and shown to have a wide size range (mean diameters between 164 and 327 μm). We estimated that between 4594 and 94,500 microbeads could be released in a single use. To examine the potential for microbeads to accumulate and transport chemicals they were exposed to a binary mixture of (3)H-phenanthrene and (14)C-DDT in seawater. The potential for transport of sorbed chemicals by microbeads was broadly similar to that of polythene (PE) particles used in previous sorption studies. In conclusion, cosmetic exfoliants are a potentially important, yet preventable source of microplastic contamination in the marine environment. PMID:26234612

  4. Characterisation, quantity and sorptive properties of microplastics extracted from cosmetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napper, Imogen E; Bakir, Adil; Rowland, Steven J; Thompson, Richard C

    2015-10-15

    Cosmetic products, such as facial scrubs, have been identified as potentially important primary sources of microplastics to the marine environment. This study characterises, quantifies and then investigates the sorptive properties of plastic microbeads that are used as exfoliants in cosmetics. Polyethylene microbeads were extracted from several products, and shown to have a wide size range (mean diameters between 164 and 327 μm). We estimated that between 4594 and 94,500 microbeads could be released in a single use. To examine the potential for microbeads to accumulate and transport chemicals they were exposed to a binary mixture of (3)H-phenanthrene and (14)C-DDT in seawater. The potential for transport of sorbed chemicals by microbeads was broadly similar to that of polythene (PE) particles used in previous sorption studies. In conclusion, cosmetic exfoliants are a potentially important, yet preventable source of microplastic contamination in the marine environment.

  5. The Characterisation of the Products of Reduction of Chinkombe Ilmenite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Afewu, K.I.; Mwalula, J.B. [University of Zambia, Dept. (Zambia); Kaoma, J

    1998-12-15

    The characterisation of iron-containing species in Chinkombe ilmenite and its reduction products was undertaken using Moessbauer Spectroscopic techniques. The ore was reduced by graphite in an inert atmosphere. The effects of such variables as quantity of reductant, temperature and preoxidation were investigated. The ore was completely reduced to alpha-iron and titanium dioxide with 20% carbon for a period of one hour at 1373 K. Chemical mechanisms are proposed for the reduction and oxidation of Chinkombe ilmenite.In the processing of ilmenite to obtain synthetic rutile, the ultimate desire is to separate the Fe phase from the TiO{sub 2}. Moessbauer Spectroscopy has unambiguously confirmed the desired transformation of the iron phase according to thermodynamic predictions. The information gained would be used to choose the conditions of the reduction process. The alpha-iron could be separated physically or chemically from the completely reduced product mass to obtain synthetic titanium dioxide suitable for the paint industry.

  6. Identifying the volcanic eruption depicted in a neolithic painting at Çatalhöyük, Central Anatolia, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Axel K; Danišík, Martin; Aydar, Erkan; Şen, Erdal; Ulusoy, İnan; Lovera, Oscar M

    2014-01-01

    A mural excavated at the Neolithic Çatalhöyük site (Central Anatolia, Turkey) has been interpreted as the oldest known map. Dating to ∼6600 BCE, it putatively depicts an explosive summit eruption of the Hasan Dağı twin-peaks volcano located ∼130 km northeast of Çatalhöyük, and a birds-eye view of a town plan in the foreground. This interpretation, however, has remained controversial not least because independent evidence for a contemporaneous explosive volcanic eruption of Hasan Dağı has been lacking. Here, we document the presence of andesitic pumice veneer on the summit of Hasan Dağı, which we dated using (U-Th)/He zircon geochronology. The (U-Th)/He zircon eruption age of 8.97±0.64 ka (or 6960±640 BCE; uncertainties 2σ) overlaps closely with (14)C ages for cultural strata at Çatalhöyük, including level VII containing the "map" mural. A second pumice sample from a surficial deposit near the base of Hasan Dağı records an older explosive eruption at 28.9±1.5 ka. U-Th zircon crystallization ages in both samples range from near-eruption to secular equilibrium (>380 ka). Collectively, our results reveal protracted intrusive activity at Hasan Dağı punctuated by explosive venting, and provide the first radiometric ages for a Holocene explosive eruption which was most likely witnessed by humans in the area. Geologic and geochronologic lines of evidence thus support previous interpretations that residents of Çatalhöyük artistically represented an explosive eruption of Hasan Dağı volcano. The magmatic longevity recorded by quasi-continuous zircon crystallization coupled with new evidence for late-Pleistocene and Holocene explosive eruptions implicates Hasan Dağı as a potential volcanic hazard. PMID:24416270

  7. The Cooking Effect on Two Edible Mushrooms in Anatolia: Fatty Acid Composition, Total Bioactive Compounds, Antioxidant and Anticholinesterase Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Öztürk

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The effects of baking practices on the fatty acid and bioactivity of edible mushrooms; namely, Lactarius delicious and Ramaria flava, naturally growing in Anatolia were investigated. Each mushroom species was divided into two parts and one of the parts was baked. Both baked and unbaked materials were extracted with hexane and methanol, successively. The fatty acid contents of baked and unbaked extracts of both species were carried out by GC and GC-MS analytical techniques. In the unbaked extracts palmitic acid (9.7-14.43%, stearic acid (41.41-6.68%, oleic acid (25.94-47.12% and linoleic acid (22.85-9.78% were identified as major fatty acids, respectively. In the baked extracts, however, palmitic acid (7.92-19.12%, stearic acid (49.94-6.23%, oleic acid (18.07-45.13% and linoleic acid (23.36-9.25% were identified as major fatty acids, as well. The antioxidative effect of the extracts of baked and unbaked mushroom species was also determined by using four complimentary assays. In addition, the extracts and the major fatty acids were also evaluated for anticholinesterase activity against acetylcholinesterase (AChE and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE which are the chief enzymes of Alzheimer’s disease. The baked methanol extract of R. flava showed the highest activity in DPPH scavenging, ABTS scavenging and BChE assays, while the unbaked hexane extract of R. flava exhibited the best lipid peroxidation inhibition activity. In conclusion, baking proved to have influence in nutritional values and bioactivity properties of L. delicious and R. flava. The nutrient concentration and bioactivities of L. delicious were decreased when baked; however, baked R. flava proved to have higher nutrient concentrations and higher bioactivities than unbaked samples.

  8. Fabrication and characterisation of sulfur and phosphorus (S/P) co-doped carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altalhi, Tariq; Mezni, Amine; Aldalbahi, Ali; Alrooqi, Arwa; Attia, Yasser; Santos, Abel; Losic, Dusan

    2016-08-01

    In this work, first, we aim to present a catalyst-free protocol to fabricate doped carbon nanotubes (CNTs) by S, P and S/P elements and with controlled physical and chemical properties. Then, we have explored the effect of S concentration on the morphology of CNTs. The structural and chemical composition of fabricated CNTs/NAA composites were analysed by various characterisation techniques, including transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), EDXS and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM).

  9. Geochemical and mantle-like isotopic (Nd, Sr) composition of the Baklan Granite from the Muratdağı Region (Banaz, Uşak), western Turkey: Implications for input of juvenile magmas in the source domains of western Anatolia Eocene Miocene granites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydoğan, M. Selman; Çoban, Hakan; Bozcu, Mustafa; Akıncı, Ömer

    2008-07-01

    The (late syn)- post-collisional magmatic activities of western and northwestern Anatolia are characterized by intrusion of a great number of granitoids. Amongst them, Baklan Granite, located in the southern part of the Muratdağı Region from the Menderes Massif (Banaz, Uşak), has peculiar chemical and isotopic characteristics. The Baklan rocks are made up by K-feldspar, plagioclase, quartz, biotite and hornblende, with accessory apatite, titanite and magnetite, and include mafic microgranular enclaves (MME). Chemically, the Baklan intrusion is of sub-alkaline character, belongs to the high-K, calc-alkaline series and displays features of I-type affinity. It is typically metaluminous to mildly peraluminous, and classified predominantly as granodiorite in composition. The spider and REE patterns show that the rocks are fractionated and have small negative Eu anomalies (Eu/Eu ∗ = 0.62-0.86), with the depletion of Nb, Ti, P and, to a lesser extent, Ba and Sr. The pluton was dated by the K-Ar method on the whole-rock, yielded ages between 17.8 ± 0.7 and 19.4 ± 0.9 Ma (Early Miocene). The intrusion possesses primitive low initial 87Sr/ 86Sr ratios (0.70331-0.70452) and negative ɛNd(t) values (-5.0 to -5.6). The chemical contrast between evolved Baklan rocks (SiO 2, 62-71 wt.%; Cr, 7-27 ppm; Ni, 5-11 ppm; Mg#, 45-51) and more primitive clinopyroxene-bearing monzonitic enclaves (SiO 2, 54-59 wt.%; Cr, 20-310 ppm; Ni, 10-70 ppm; Mg#, 50-61) signifies that there is no co-genetic link between host granite and enclaves. The chemical and isotopic characteristics of the Baklan intrusion argue for an important role of a juvenile component, such as underplated mantle-derived basalt, in the generation of the granitoids. Crustal contamination has not contributed significantly to their origin. However, with respect to those of the Baklan intrusion, the generation of the (late syn)- post-collisional intrusions with higher Nd(t) values from the western Anatolia require a much

  10. Stratigraphy and Ar/Ar geochronology of the Miocene lignite-bearing Tunçbilek-Domaniç Basin, western Anatolia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helvacı, C.; Ersoy, E. Y.; Billor, M. Z.

    2016-08-01

    The Tunçbilek-Domaniç Basin is one of the Neogene basins containing economic coal deposits in western Anatolia, Turkey. The basin fill represents fluvial to lacustrine sedimentary units which are interlayered with volcanic rocks with bimodal composition. In order to reveal the stratigraphy and the exact ages of the basin fill and coal deposits, and to explore the tectonic evolution of the basin, we present new field data and Ar/Ar age data from the volcanic units. The field studies and the age data indicate that the whole basin fills were deposited between ~23 and ~19 Ma (Aquitanian-Early Burdigalian) without any unconformity. Taking into account the ages of the coal-bearing sedimentary units in the other Neogene basins in the region, it is concluded that most of the economic coal deposits in the western Anatolia were formed during Aquitanian. The field studies also show that the deposition of the sedimentary units in the basin was controlled by the NE-SW-trending strike- to oblique-slip normal faults. In a regional scale, tectonic evolution of the Tunçbilek-Domaniç Basin is linked to the differential stretching in the hanging wall of the southerly located, a crustal-scale low-angle detachment fault (the Simav detachment fault) that controlled the Early Miocene exhumation of the Menderes Extensional Core Complex.

  11. Geochemical characteristics of Kırka (Sarıkaya) borate deposit, northwestern Anatolia, Turkey

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    İ Koçak; Ş Koç

    2016-02-01

    The Kırka borate deposit was deposited in a Miocene lacustrine basin which is closely associated with volcanic activity which lasted from Paleogene to the beginning of Quaternary. Borate mineralization alternates with claystone, mudstone, tuff and fine-layered limestone and mostly shows a lenticular structure. The mineral paragenesis is composed of borax, tincalconite, ulexite, kurnakovite, probertite, tunellite, colemanite, dolomite, smectite group minerals, illite and some firstly reported minerals for the Kırka deposit including hydrochloroborite, brianroulstonite, hilgardite-4M and searlesite minerals. In comparison to average values of earth crust, concentrations of Cs, Sr, Li, As and Se were significantly enriched with respective rates of 21, 15, 14, 3 and 188 folds. Regarding KY, KS1 and KS2 locations, there are differences in both element abundances and their geochemical tendencies which are attributed to variations in discharge regime and physico-chemical conditions of the depositional environment. Independent behaviour of B2O3 might indicate that boron is not associated with clays and carbonates and, therefore, most part of boron must be derived from volcanic activity (hydrothermal solutions, gases). REE data indicate that the Kırka borate deposit was formed in a sedimentary environment where highly alkaline (high pH) hydrothermal solutions also took part in borate precipitation process.

  12. Toxic gas emissions from the Kayseri peat deposit, central Anatolia, Turkey

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Mehmet Şener; Mustafa Korkanç; M Furkan Şener; Selma Yaşar Korkanç; F Zafer Özgür

    2012-10-01

    Toxic gases evolving from the soil in urbanized peatland regions constitute a serious hazard since buildings may be subject to the direct ingress of volatiles into the structures. Peat formed in swamp and rarely exposed to subaerial conditions has been associated with the development of the folded foreland of the Quaternary Kayseri pull-apart basin. The peat deposit is extensively urbanized but so far no studies have evaluated the extent of the ground gas hazard. In this paper, the geology, petrography and chemical variation of the Kayseri peat deposit have been studied in order to predict the public health risk from the land gases’ behaviour, especially in soil gases. The main volatile species detected are methane (CH4), hydrogen sulphide (H2S) and carbon dioxide (CO2), all of which are highly toxic. The primary means of gas entry is directly from the ground through the floors, walls, and especially subsurface telephone cable pipes. Indoor vents emit 1000–70,000 ppm CH4, 330–49,000 ppm CO2 and 3.8–6.5 ppm H2S in soil and subsurface pipes; concentrations high enough to present an acute respiratory hazard to persons close to the vents.

  13. Diagnostics for characterisation of plasma actuators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotsonis, Marios

    2015-09-01

    The popularity of plasma actuators as flow control devices has sparked a flurry of diagnostic efforts towards their characterisation. This review article presents an overview of experimental investigations employing diagnostic techniques specifically aimed at AC dielectric barrier discharge, DC corona and nanosecond pulse plasma actuators. Mechanical, thermal and electrical characterisation techniques are treated. Various techniques for the measurement of induced velocity, body force, heating effects, voltage, current, power and discharge morphology are presented and common issues and challenges are described. The final part of this report addresses the effect of ambient conditions on the performance of plasma actuators.

  14. Cuttlebone: Characterisation, Application and Development of Biomimetic Materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Joseph Cadman; Shiwei Zhou; Yuhang Chen; Qing Li

    2012-01-01

    Cuttlebone signifies a special class of ultra-lightweight cellular natural material possessing unique chemical,mechanical and structural properties,which have drawn considerable attention in the literature.The aim of this paper is to better understand the mechanical and biological roles of cuttlebone.First,the existing literature concerning the characterisation and potential applications inspired by this remarkable biomaterial is critiqued.Second,the finite element-based homogenisation method is used to verify that morphological variations within individual cuttlebone samples have minimal impact on the effective mechanical properties.This finding agrees with existing literature,which suggests that cuttlebone strength is dictated by the cuttlefish habitation depth.Subsequently,this homogenisation approach is further developed to characterise the effective mechanical bulk modulus and biofluidic permeability that cuttlebone provides,thereby quantifying its mechanical and transporting functionalities to inspire bionic design of structures and materials for more extensive applications.Finally,a brief rationale for the need to design a biomimetic material inspired by the cuttlebone microstructure is provided,based on the preceding investigation.

  15. Applicability of analytical protocols for the characterisation of carbon-supported platinum group metal fuel cell electrocatalysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Linkov

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The nanoparticulate size of fuel cell electrocatalysts raises significant challenges in the analytical techniques used in their structural and electrochemical characterisation. For this reason, the applicability of analytical protocols in the qualitative and quantitative characterisation of nanophase fuel cell electrocatalysts was investigated. A set of structural and chemical properties influencing the performance of the electrocatalysts was identified. A large range of analytical tools was employed in characterising the electrocatalysts of interest. High accuracy and precision in the quantitative and qualitative structural and electrochemical characterisation of Pt/C and Pt-Ru/C nanophase electrocatalysts was demonstrated. Certain techniques were deemed to be highly applicable in discriminating between high- and low-performance electrocatalysts based on their structural and electrochemical properties. The goal of this effort is to contribute to the development of South Africa’s capabilities in the emerging hydrogen economy.

  16. Organic Phosphorus Characterisation in Agricultural Soils by Enzyme Addition Assays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarosch, Klaus; Frossard, Emmanuel; Bünemann, Else K.

    2013-04-01

    Phosphorus (P) is a non-renewable resource and it is a building block of many molecules indispensable for life. Up to 80 per cent of total soil P can be in organic form. Hydrolysability and thereby availability to plants and microorganisms differ strongly among the multitude of chemical forms of soil organic P. A recent approach to characterise organic P classes is the addition of specific enzymes which hydrolyse organic P to inorganic orthophosphate, making it detectable by colorimetry. Based on the substrate specificity of the added enzymes, conclusions about the hydrolysed forms of organic P can then be made. The aim of this study was to determine the applicability of enzyme addition assays for the characterisation of organic P species in soil:water suspensions of soils with differing properties. To this end, ten different soil samples originating from four continents, with variable pH (in water) values (4.2-8.0), land management (grassland or cropped land) and P fertilization intensity were analysed. Three different enzymes were used (acid phosphatase, nuclease and phytase). Acid phosphatase alone or in combination with nuclease was applied to determine the content of P in simple monoesters (monoester-like P) and P in DNA (DNA-like P), while P hydrolysed from myo-inositol hexakisphosphate (Ins6P-like P) was calculated from P release after incubation with phytase minus P release by acid phosphatase. To reduce sorption of inorganic P on soil particles of the suspension, especially in highly weathered soils, soil specific EDTA additions were determined in extensive pre-tests. The results of these pre-tests showed that recoveries of at least 30 per cent could be achieved in all soils. Thus, detection of even small organic P pools, such as DNA-like P, was possible in all soils if a suitable EDTA concentration was chosen. The enzyme addition assays provided information about the hydrolysable quantities of the different classes of soil organic P compounds as affected

  17. Characterisation and Testing of Multifunctional Surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Godi, Alessandro

    of MUFU surfaces in different applications. In machine elements, characterised by lower normal pressures, a new test rig is designed and developed studying the friction between bodies in pure sliding contact. Tests with this new device display how the employment of MUFU surfaces can reduce friction up...

  18. Characterisation and immobilisation of SGHWR wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report summarises the progress made during the year ending March 1984 on characterisation and immobilisation of SGHWR wastes. The results from analysing further samples of active sludge are reported together with results from the cementation programme. Those properties of the cemented sludge which relate to its performance in product preparation and handling in storage, transport and disposal are addressed. (author)

  19. Characterisation of carbon nanotubes in the context of toxicity studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berhanu, D.; Dybowska, A.; Misra, S.K.; Stanley, C.J.; Ruenraroengsak, P.; Boccaccini, A.R.; Tetley, T.D.; Luoma, S.N.; Plant, J.A.; Valsami-Jones, E.

    2009-01-01

    Nanotechnology has the potential to revolutionise our futures, but has also prompted concerns about the possibility that nanomaterials may harm humans or the biosphere. The unique properties of nanoparticles, that give them novel size dependent functionalities, may also have the potential to cause harm. Discrepancies in existing human health and environmental studies have shown the importance of good quality, well-characterized reference nanomaterials for toxicological studies. Here we make a case for the importance of the detailed characterization of nanoparticles, using several methods, particularly to allow the recognition of impurities and the presence of chemically identical but structurally distinct phases. Methods to characterise fully, commercially available multi-wall carbon nanotubes at different scales, are presented. ?? 2009 Berhanu et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

  20. Characterisation of CFRP Through Enhanced Ultrasonic Testing Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helfen, T. B.; Venkat, R. Sridaran; Rabe, U.; Hirsekorn, S.; Boller, C.

    2012-12-01

    Carbon fibre reinforced composite materials enjoy an increasing field of application in the aeronautical environment and are due to expand into the automotive and leisure sectors in due course. Those materials need to be qualified at reasonable cost and with considerable experience, where ultrasonic testing has become the procedure of primary choice for nondestructive testing (NDT) so far. However, the two-phase anisotropic structure of a composite material implies a variety of challenges such as scattering, beam skewing, and sound field distortion complicating the localization, sizing, and characterization of defects. Besides qualification during the manufacturing stage, additional tasks emerge once the composite material ages, maybe by mechanical fatigue, chemical ageing, or irradiation. Again characterisation of the material based on ultrasonics would allow comparisons to be made along a material's life cycle. The knowledge generated could be used for in-situ monitoring procedures such as considered in the context of structural health monitoring (SHM).

  1. Environmental Characterisation of a Nuclear Site Saluggia (VC (Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina D. Maio

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This study, carried out in collaboration with SOGIN (Società Gestione Impianti Nucleari - Nuclear Treatment Plant Management Company, is an integral part of environmental characterisation activity in the area where the EUREX treatment plant is situated, near Saluggia (North West Italy. With the aim of depicting the base conditions for the environment, which will then be used to develop decommissioning activities for the plant itself, a series of criteria have been defined in order to enable the identification of the present state of the environment, i.e. geologic, hydrogeologic and chemical structure, intrinsic and integrated vulnerability and land use. The study area is situated over an unconfined aquifer in a porous media of alluvial origin in the plain on the left bank of the Dora Baltea river. The whole area is strongly affected by human activities including industrial activities, extensive areas dedicated to agricultural use, quarries and numerous hamlets.

  2. Growth, characterisation and electronic applications of amorphous hydrogenated carbon

    CERN Document Server

    Paul, S

    2000-01-01

    temperature on GaAs, has been studied and concluded to be satisfactory on the basis of good adherence and low leakage currents. Such a structure was motivated by the applicability in Metal Insulator Semiconductor Field Effect Transistors (MISFET). My thesis proposes solutions to a number of riddles associated with the material, hydrogenated amorphous carbon, (a-C:H). This material has lately generated interest in the electronic engineering community, owing to some remarkable properties. The characterisation of amorphous carbon films, grown by radio frequency plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition has been reported. The coexistence of multiple phases in the same a-C:H film manifests itself in the inconsistent electrical behaviour of different parts of the film, thus rendering it difficult to predict the nature of films. For the first time, in this thesis, a reliable prediction of Schottky contact formation on a-C:H films is reported. A novel and simple development on a Scanning Electron Microscope, configu...

  3. A.E.S. characterisation of small dimensional heterostructures

    CERN Document Server

    Gelsthorpe, A J

    2001-01-01

    the surface. The CMA also incorporates an electrostatic lens that deflects electrons onto the detectors along the same path independent of their energy. The operation and characterisation of the modified CMA and its electrostatic lens is described. Application to topographical features that show artefacts is also described. The CMA system can also be used to perform depth profiling by ion beam bevelling. This technique is applied to multi-layered heterostructures and a comparison is made between this, ion beam milling and chemical bevelling. Surface analysis is used to examine the outer layers of solid material to determine their properties and composition, and has many applications in industry. Atomic composition of the surface can be determined by Auger analysis. Depth profiles can also be obtained by exposing layers buried within a structure and then analysing them. This thesis presents improved techniques for analysing complex structures that have multiple thin layers or have significant topographical fea...

  4. Ion beam induced luminescence characterisation of CVD diamond films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bettiol, A.A.; Gonon, P.; Jamieson, D.N. [Melbourne Univ., Parkville, VIC (Australia). School of Physics

    1996-12-31

    The characterisation of the band structure properties of materials and devices by ion microprobe techniques has been made possible at the Melbourne MeV ion microprobe facility with the development of Ion Beam Induced Luminescence (IBIL). A number of diamond films grown by Microwave Plasma Chemical Vapour Deposition (MPCVD) on silicon substrates are analysed. A preliminary study of the luminescence properties of these samples has revealed information not previously obtainable via traditional microprobe techniques. The optical effects of incorporating dopants during the deposition process is determined using IBIL. The presence of trace element impurities introduced during growth is examined by Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE), and a measurement of the film thickness is made using Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry (RBS). 7 refs., 2 figs.

  5. Modelling, fabrication and characterisation of THz fractal meta-materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xiao, S.; Zhou, L.; Malureanu, Radu;

    2011-01-01

    We present theoretical predictions, fabrication procedure and characterisation results of fractal metamaterials for the THz frequency range. The characterisation results match well the predicted response thus validating both the fabrication procedure as well as the simulation one. Such systems sh...

  6. Fertiliser characterisation: Major, trace and rare earth elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Otero, N. [Departament de Cristal lografia, Mineralogia i Diposits Minerals, Facultat de Geologia, Universitat de Barcelona, Marti i Franques, s/n, 08028, Barcelona (Spain)]. E-mail: notero@ub.edu; Vitoria, L. [Departament de Cristal lografia, Mineralogia i Diposits Minerals, Facultat de Geologia, Universitat de Barcelona, Marti i Franques, s/n, 08028, Barcelona (Spain); Soler, A. [Departament de Cristal lografia, Mineralogia i Diposits Minerals, Facultat de Geologia, Universitat de Barcelona, Marti i Franques, s/n, 08028, Barcelona (Spain); Canals, A. [Departament de Cristal lografia, Mineralogia i Diposits Minerals, Facultat de Geologia, Universitat de Barcelona, Marti i Franques, s/n, 08028, Barcelona (Spain)

    2005-08-15

    In recent years, there has been increasing concern regarding the chemical impact of agricultural activities on the environment so it is necessary to identify contaminants, and/or characterise the sources of contamination. In this study, a comprehensive chemical characterisation of 27 fertilisers of different types used in Spain has been conducted; major, minor and trace elements were determined, including rare earth elements. Results show that compound fertilisers used for fertigation or foliar application have low content of heavy metals, whereas fertilisers used for basal and top dressing have the highest content of both REE and other heavy metals. REE patterns of fertilisers have been determined in order for them to be used as tracers of fertilisers in future environmental studies. Furthermore in this work REE patterns of fertilisers are used as tracers of the source of phosphate in compound fertilisers, distinguishing between phosphorite and carbonatite derived fertilisers. Fertilisers from carbonatites have higher contents of REE, Sr, Ba and Th whereas fertilisers from phosphorites have higher contents of metals of environmental concern, such as Cd, U and As; and the sum of the heavy metals is higher. Some of the analysed fertilisers have Cd concentrations that exceed maximum values established in some countries and can be expected to produce long-term soil accumulation. Furthermore, other elements such as U, As and Cr are 10-50 times higher in concentration than those of Cd, but there is no legislation regarding them, therefore it is necessary to regulate fertiliser compositions in order to achieve environmental protection of soils and waters.

  7. Jurassic–Paleogene intraoceanic magmatic evolution of the Ankara Mélange, north-central Anatolia, Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Sarifakioglu

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Oceanic rocks in the Ankara Mélange along the Izmir–Ankara–Erzincan suture zone (IAESZ in north-central Anatolia include locally coherent ophiolite complexes (~ 179 Ma and ~ 80 Ma, seamount or oceanic plateau volcanic units with pelagic and reefal limestones (96.6 ± 1.8 Ma, metamorphic rocks with ages of 256.9 ± 8.0 Ma, 187.4 ± 3.7 Ma, 158.4 ± 4.2 Ma, and 83.5 ± 1.2 Ma indicating northern Tethys during the late Paleozoic through Cretaceous, and subalkaline to alkaline volcanic and plutonic rocks of an island arc origin (~ 67–63 Ma. All but the arc rocks occur in a shale–graywacke and/or serpentinite matrix, and are deformed by south-vergent thrust faults and folds that developed in the middle to late Eocene due to continental collisions in the region. Ophiolitic volcanic rocks have mid-ocean ridge (MORB and island arc tholeiite (IAT affinities showing moderate to significant large ion lithophile elements (LILE enrichment and depletion in Nb, Hf, Ti, Y and Yb, which indicate the influence of subduction-derived fluids in their melt evolution. Seamount/oceanic plateau basalts show ocean island basalt (OIB affinities. The arc-related volcanic rocks, lamprophyric dikes and syenodioritic plutons exhibit high-K shoshonitic to medium- to high-K calc-alkaline compositions with strong enrichment in LILE, rare earth elements (REE and Pb, and initial εNd values between +1.3 and +1.7. Subalkaline arc volcanic units occur in the northern part of the mélange, whereas the younger alkaline volcanic rocks and intrusions (lamprophyre dikes and syenodioritic plutons in the southern part. The late Permian, Early to Late Jurassic, and Late Cretaceous amphibole-epidote schist, epidote-actinolite, epidote-chlorite and epidote-glaucophane schists represent the metamorphic units formed in a subduction channel in the northern Neotethys. The Middle to Upper Triassic neritic limestones spatially associated with the

  8. Impedimetric method for physiologically characterisation of fungi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Per Væggemose; Petersen, Karina

    1998-01-01

    Fungi are playing an important role in the food and pharmaceutical industry today, both as starter cultures, fermentation organisms, and as contaminants. Characterisation of fungal growth is normally time consuming as it includes measurements and study on a wide range of media at different...... temperatures, pH, water activity and atmosphere composition. Nevertheless is it important information in ecophysiological studies, where the growth potential by fungi are related to composition and storage of food. It is therefore of great interest to device a rapid method for characterisation of fungi.......The objective was to determine the growth phases of various fungi using an impedimetric method and compare this with traditional methods using agar plates, in order to determine if this rapid method can replace the traditional method.The method is based on impedimetric assessment of growth on the Bactometer 128...

  9. Synthesis and Characterisation of Diaryl Furoxans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Krishnamurthy

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses the synthesis, characterisation, and performance evaluation of diarylfuroxans namely, bis-phenyl-3,4-furoxan (5 and bis-(4’-nitrophenyl-3,4-furoxan (6. Themolecules have been synthesised on the lines of reported method by cyclodimerisation of thenitrile oxides generated from benzaldoxime and p-nitro benzaldoxime, respectively. The synthesisedfuroxans (5 and (6 were characterised by the elemental analysis, UV, IR, and 1H NMRspectroscopy. The hazard characteristics (impact and friction sensitivity confirm that thecompounds are safe to handle. The oxygen balance, velocity of detonation and detonationpressure have been computed. The detonation velocity and pressure along with oxygen balanceincreased with the substitution of nitro group in the benzene ring, as expected. Thethermogravimetric studies on promising compound (6 brings out that maximum weight lossoccurs at decomposition temperature of 259–260 °C.

  10. Preparation and characterisation of nevirapine oral nanosuspensions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anju Raju

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to prepare and characterise nevirapine nanosuspensions so as to improve the dissolution rate of nevirapine. Nevirapine is a nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor of immunodeficiency virus type-1 and it is poorly water-soluble antiretroviral drug. The low solubility of nevirapine can lead to decreased and variable oral bioavailability. Nanosuspension can overcome the oral bioavailability problem of nevirapine. Nevirapine nanosuspensions were prepared using nanoedge method. The suspensions were stabilised using surfactants Lutrol F 127 or Poloxamer 407 and hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose. The nanosuspension was characterised for particle size, polydispersibility index, crystalline state, particle morphology, in vitro drug release and pharmacokinetics in rats after oral administration. The results support the claim for the preparation of nanosuspensions with enhanced solubility and bioavailability.

  11. Detailed Electrochemical Characterisation of Large SOFC Stacks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mosbæk, Rasmus Rode; Hjelm, Johan; Barfod, R.;

    2012-01-01

    application of advanced methods for detailed electrochemical characterisation during operation. An operating stack is subject to steep compositional gradients in the gaseous reactant streams, and significant temperature gradients across each cell and across the stack, which makes it a complex system...... Fuel Cell A/S was characterised in detail using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. An investigation of the optimal geometrical placement of the current probes and voltage probes was carried out in order to minimise measurement errors caused by stray impedances. Unwanted stray impedances...... are particularly problematic at high frequencies. Stray impedances may be caused by mutual inductance and stray capacitance in the geometrical set-up and do not describe the fuel cell. Three different stack geometries were investigated by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. Impedance measurements were carried...

  12. Evaluation of the radioactive waste characterisation at the Olkiluoto nuclear power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kekki, T.; Titta, A. [VTT Chemical Technology, Espoo (Finland)

    2000-03-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the physical, chemical and radiological characterisation, handling and documentation of the radioactive waste packages to be disposed of in the VLJ-repository at the Olkiluoto NPP. A comparison with the current practices in Europe, based on information from Sweden, Spain and Czech Republic, is made. The report presents recommendations for STUK to harmonise the LILW waste management practises in Finland with those in Europe. (orig.)

  13. Characterisation of Chromatography Media Aimed for Purification of Biomolecules

    OpenAIRE

    Andersson, Mikael

    2014-01-01

    Chromatography media (resins) are very important for and widely used by the biopharma industry in large scale production of biopharmaceuticals, e.g. monoclonal antibodies. Today there are several hundred biopharmaceuticals released globally on the healthcare market. This thesis discusses various strategies and methods for the characterisation of chemical and functional stability of chromatography media. In addition, various analytical techniques used in these areas were evaluated and applied....

  14. Characterisation of Quaternary sediments from East Anglia

    OpenAIRE

    Mitchell, C J; Bloodworth, A.J.; Evans, E. J.

    1996-01-01

    This report describes the mineralogical investigations of Quaternary sediments,mainly Cromer Till, collected from East Anglia. The main aim of the work was to characterise the mineralogical and physical properties of the till samples to facilitate correlation between tills from different localities. The clast composition of the samples was determined using a binocular microscope and the mineralogy of the matrix was determined using X-ray diffraction and thermogravimetry. Calibration charts we...

  15. Applied synthesis and characterisation of nanoparticles

    OpenAIRE

    Bear, J C

    2014-01-01

    This thesis covers three areas of development of nanomaterials synthesis; namely the synthesis of superhydrophobic polymer-nanoparticle composites (chapter 3), the synthesis of doped quantum dots for catalysis and photoluminescence enhancement (chapter 4) and the synthesis of magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles from inexpensive, readily available reagents (chapter 5). Details of characterisation and analytical techniques and synthetic methods used are given in chapter 2, and the thesis summaris...

  16. Engineering characterisation of Norwegian glaciomarine silt

    OpenAIRE

    Long, Michael; Gudjonsson, Gisli; Donohue, Shane; Hagberg, Knut

    2010-01-01

    Guidance is provided for geotechnical engineers designing civil engineering works in silty soils based on a detailed characterisation of a glaciomarine silt from Os in western Norway. It was found that these soils are susceptible to disturbance by good quality fixed piston tube sampling and care needs to be taken when using laboratory derived design parameters, particularly for consolidation and shear strength properties. A technique for assessing sample disturbance using shear wave vel...

  17. Characterisation of fan-beam collimators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pareto, D; Pavía, J; Falcón, C; Juvells, I; Cot, A; Ros, D

    2001-02-01

    Fan-beam collimators offer a good balance between resolution and noise. The collimator response may be included in iterative reconstruction algorithms in order to improve single-photon emission tomography (SPET) resolution. To this end, accurate determination of the focal region and characterisation of the collimator response as a function of the source co-ordinates must be performed. In this paper, a method to characterise fanbeam collimators is evaluated. First, we calculated the real focal region and the accuracy of the collimator convergence. Then, we confirmed the hypothesis that Gaussian distributions adequately fit the collimator responses, although no individualised treatment was performed for the tails of detector response which are associated with scattering and septal penetration. Finally, analytical functions were used to model the resolution and sensitivity. The parameter values in these functions were obtained from experimental measures by non-linear regression fitting. Our findings show differences of 1.43% between nominal and real focal length and standard deviations of 2.5 mm in the x-direction and 7.1 mm in the y-direction for the focal convergence. The correlation coefficients between experimental and predicted values were 0.994 for resolution and 0.991 for sensitivity. As a consequence, the proposed method can be used to characterise the collimator response.

  18. Characterisation of fan-beam collimators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan-beam collimators offer a good balance between resolution and noise. The collimator response may be included in iterative reconstruction algorithms in order to improve single-photon emission tomography (SPET) resolution. To this end, accurate determination of the focal region and characterisation of the collimator response as a function of the source co-ordinates must be performed. In this paper, a method to characterise fan-beam collimators is evaluated. First, we calculated the real focal region and the accuracy of the collimator convergence. Then, we confirmed the hypothesis that Gaussian distributions adequately fit the collimator responses, although no individualised treatment was performed for the tails of detector response which are associated with scattering and septal penetration. Finally, analytical functions were used to model the resolution and sensitivity. The parameter values in these functions were obtained from experimental measures by non-linear regression fitting. Our findings show differences of 1.43% between nominal and real focal length and standard deviations of 2.5 mm in the x-direction and 7.1 mm in the y-direction for the focal convergence. The correlation coefficients between experimental and predicted values were 0.994 for resolution and 0.991 for sensitivity. As a consequence, the proposed method can be used to characterise the collimator response. (orig.)

  19. Calculation of site specific characterisation factors for metal ecotoxicity using decoupled multi species fate and exposure modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birkved, Morten; Strandesen, Maria; Larsen, HF;

    2004-01-01

    Calculation of characterisation factors (CF’s) for metal ecotoxicity typically involves fate and exposure modelling of metals in multi-media models developed for assessment of organic compounds. Metals do not follow the fate patterns of organic chemicals, and the results will therefore most likel...

  20. Characterisation of the ecotoxicity of hospital effluents: A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orias, Frédéric; Perrodin, Yves

    2013-06-01

    The multiple activities that take place in hospitals (surgery, drug treatments, radiology, cleaning of premises and linen, chemical and biological analysis laboratories, etc.), are a major source of pollutant emissions into the environment (disinfectants, detergents, drug residues, etc.). Most of these pollutants can be found in hospital effluents (HWW), then in urban sewer networks and WWTP (weakly adapted for their treatment) and finally in aquatic environments. In view to evaluating the impact of these pollutants on aquatic ecosystems, it is necessary to characterise their ecotoxicity. Several reviews have focused on the quantitative and qualitative characterisation of pollutants present in HWW. However, none have focused specifically on the characterisation of their experimental ecotoxicity. We have evaluated this according to two complementary approaches: (i) a “substance” approach based on the identification of the experimental data in the literature for different substances found in hospital effluents, and on the calculation of their PNEC (Predicted Non Effect Concentration), (ii) a “matrix” approach for which we have synthesised ecotoxicity data obtained from the hospital effluents directly. This work first highlights the diversity of the substances present within hospital effluents, and the very high ecotoxicity of some of them (minimum PNEC observed close to 0,01 pg/L). We also observed that the consumption of drugs in hospitals was a predominant factor chosen by authors to prioritise the compounds to be sought. Other criteria such as biodegradability, excretion rate and the bioaccumulability of pollutants are considered, though more rarely. Studies of the ecotoxicity of the particulate phase of effluents must also be taken into account. It is also necessary to monitor the effluents of each of the specialised departments of the hospital studied. These steps is necessary to define realistic environmental management policies for hospitals

  1. Characterisation of the ecotoxicity of hospital effluents: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The multiple activities that take place in hospitals (surgery, drug treatments, radiology, cleaning of premises and linen, chemical and biological analysis laboratories, etc.), are a major source of pollutant emissions into the environment (disinfectants, detergents, drug residues, etc.). Most of these pollutants can be found in hospital effluents (HWW), then in urban sewer networks and WWTP (weakly adapted for their treatment) and finally in aquatic environments. In view to evaluating the impact of these pollutants on aquatic ecosystems, it is necessary to characterise their ecotoxicity. Several reviews have focused on the quantitative and qualitative characterisation of pollutants present in HWW. However, none have focused specifically on the characterisation of their experimental ecotoxicity. We have evaluated this according to two complementary approaches: (i) a “substance” approach based on the identification of the experimental data in the literature for different substances found in hospital effluents, and on the calculation of their PNEC (Predicted Non Effect Concentration), (ii) a “matrix” approach for which we have synthesised ecotoxicity data obtained from the hospital effluents directly. This work first highlights the diversity of the substances present within hospital effluents, and the very high ecotoxicity of some of them (minimum PNEC observed close to 0,01 pg/L). We also observed that the consumption of drugs in hospitals was a predominant factor chosen by authors to prioritise the compounds to be sought. Other criteria such as biodegradability, excretion rate and the bioaccumulability of pollutants are considered, though more rarely. Studies of the ecotoxicity of the particulate phase of effluents must also be taken into account. It is also necessary to monitor the effluents of each of the specialised departments of the hospital studied. These steps is necessary to define realistic environmental management policies for hospitals

  2. Anatolia tattoo art; Tunceli exampleAnadolu dövme sanatı; Tunceli ili örneği

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Çağlayandereli

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In this article, Anatolia tattoo tradition and art are examinated of Tunceli culture. Tattoo is accepted the first father of writing is defined to aim of decoration or giving message and to paint specific cultural figures to the body and lower part of skin surface. Tattoo is one of subject of social sciences especially sociology and antropology, tattoo is dating back to old periods of history, and it is seen in all societies as a cultural object. The tattoo is also a colorful elemen of Anatolian civilization. As a sociological context of tattoo is used to show an occupation group as a ‘mark’, social statute or tribe and tariqat of a person’s society. However, there is a belief such as Anatolian tattoo motifs protect to people from illness and the evi leye and these motifs bring beauty and bravery. Anatolia tattoo art is a general expression of composition of different local specifics. Tunceli region is the most specific city in Turkey with its geographical density of ‘Alevi’ and ‘Kurd’ identities. More than 90% population in Tunceli, societies are formed from tribes and these tribes are different from general society. According to this information, the aim of this research is to describe Tunceli tattoo art, which is estimated specific, and to determine its similarities and differences from Anatolia tattoo art. At the same time, this information are quality to assist in Anatolia tattoo art literature. Datas in Article are gotten after face-to-face interviews, which are prepared by researches via their developed standart question form, and 15 people (who had tattooes on their body in 2010 in Tunceli. Tunceli tatoo art sample pictures are presented in Article’s addition part (with approval of source people. The general result from the research is: (1 Tunceli tattoos are not Picture; they are ideogram form of Picture. (2 Tunceli tattoo technique is not more different from East and South-East Anatolia regions. (3 Ethnic or religious

  3. Characterisation of paint samples by infrared and Raman spectroscopy for criminalistic purposes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zięba-Palus, Janina; Michalska, Aleksandra; Wesełucha-Birczyńska, Aleksandra

    2011-05-01

    Infrared microspectrometry and Raman microscopy were applied in characterisation of paint coatings, i.e. in identification of pigments and in differentiation between paint samples of similar colour and shade. The use of different excitation lasers enabled us to reduce the fluorescence of the sample and identify the main pigments present in the sample. It was shown that Raman mapping has great potential for the forensic study of paint samples. It is useful because paints are usually chemically complex and heterogeneous mixtures and spectroscopic images allow an assessment of the chemical heterogeneity of a specimen in terms of the spatial distribution of the molecular constituents.

  4. The Challenge of Characterising Large Assemblages of Exotic Materials: a case study of the obsidian from Domuztepe, SE Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Healey

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Obsidian artefacts from Domuztepe (a large late Neolithic site in the Kahramanmaraş plain in south-east Turkey belonging to the Halaf culture and dated to c. 6000-5500 cal. BC account for about 18%, or some 10,000 artefacts, of the chipped stone assemblage. Obsidian is one of the few non-local materials at Domuztepe and as well as being used to make tools it is also used to make items of jewellery, mirrors, bowls and axe-like objects. We know from the geochemical analysis of a relatively small number of artefacts that the obsidian was imported from eight different and widely separated sources in Central, NE and SE Anatolia. These sources are between 200 and 900km distant from Domuztepe. All these factors suggest that obsidian was valued not only as a raw material for tool manufacture but also as a material from which to make luxury items. As an exotic material it is also likely to have a key role in forging and maintaining social and economic relationships, both within the site and more widely. Understanding of the origins of the obsidians and the form in which they were obtained, worked and used, context by context, is key to this. However, difficulties arise with provenancing such a large assemblage, not least because conventional geo-chemical methods are unfeasibly expensive. This article documents the approaches we have developed to overcome this problem.

  5. A rock characterisation facility consultative document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This U.K. Nirex Ltd., consultative document describes a proposed underground rock characterisation facility, east of Sellafield, for conducting geophysical surveys as a basis for refining long-term safety analysis of an underground repository for intermediate-level and low-level radioactive wastes. Planning application will be submitted in 1993. The construction of shafts and galleries is described and the site's geologic, topographical, climatic and archaeological features discussed. The effects to the local environment and on local populations and other socio-economic factors are discussed. (UK)

  6. Tablet surface characterisation by various imaging techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seitavuopio, Paulus; Rantanen, Jukka; Yliruusi, Jouko

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this study was to characterise tablet surfaces using different imaging and roughness analytical techniques including optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), laser profilometry and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The test materials compressed were potassium chloride (KCl......, but they do not provide quantitative information about surface roughness. Laser profilometry and AFM on the other hand provide quantitative roughness data from two different scales, laser profilometer from 1 mm and atomic force microscope from 90 microm scale. AFM is a powerful technique but other imaging...

  7. Geological exploration strategies and site characterisation methodologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Starting with a short overview of the Swiss HLW disposal programme the paper addresses the more general issue of how site characterisation programmes can better be matched to the acknowledged data requirements of safety analysts and repository designers. Swiss experience suggests that measures to promote mutual understanding between geologistsand quantitative modelers and advance planning of the GEO-data-synthesis can help to bridge the gap separating performance assessment input parameters and field measurements. This represents a step towards more effective and cost efficient field investigations. (author). 4 figs

  8. Surface anisotropy characterisation with meteosat observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lattanzio, A.; Govaerts, Y. M.; Pinty, B.

    Surface albedo, or more precisely Directional Hemispherical Reflectance (DHR), is the integral the Bi-directional Reflectance Factor (BRF) of the surface over all angles of the upward hemisphere. The retrieval of the DHR trough space observations requires accounting for the scattering and absorption processes in the atmosphere as well as for the angular anisotropy of the surface, the two systems being radiatively coupled. The accuracy achieved in the albedo estimation depends thus on the density of the angular sampling and the reliability of the atmospheric correction. Pinty et al. demonstrated the possibility to derive reliable surface albedo from observations acquired by Meteosat, the European meteorological geostationary satellite. The purpose of this presentation is to analyse the accuracy of this new Meteosat Surface Albedo (MSA) product, including the effects due to instrument changes and associated calibration uncertainties. In particular, the consistency of the surface anisotropy characterisation is examined in detail. To this end, observations acquired by two adjacent geostationary spacecrafts, i.e., Meteosat-7 and Meteosat-5 have been processed with the MSA algorithm. These satellites are located respectively at 0 and 63 degrees East. Data acquired by these two instruments overlap over a large area encompassing most of Africa and the Arabian Peninsula. The consistency of the surface anisotropy retrieval is evaluated through a reconstruction of the Meteosat-5 (-7) observations with the Meteosat-7 (-5) surface anisotropy characterisation. No differences larger than the calibration uncertainties have been found, which indicates that the MSA algorithm accounts correctly for the surface anisotropy and instrument differences.

  9. Characterising the environments of supernovae with MUSE

    CERN Document Server

    Galbany, L; Rosales-Ortega, F F; Kuncarayakti, H; Krühler, T; Sánchez, S F; Falcón-Barroso, J; Pérez, E; Maureira, J C; Hamuy, M; González-Gaitán, S; Förster, F; Moral, V

    2015-01-01

    We present a statistical analysis of the environments of 11 supernovae (SNe) which occurred in 6 nearby galaxies (z $\\lesssim$ 0.016). All galaxies were observed with MUSE, the high spatial resolution integral field spectrograph mounted to the 8m VLT UT4. These data enable us to map the full spatial extent of host galaxies up to $\\sim$3 effective radii. In this way, not only can one characterise the specific host environment of each SN, one can compare their properties with stellar populations within the full range of other environments within the host. We present a method that consists of selecting all HII regions found within host galaxies from 2D extinction-corrected H$\\alpha$ emission maps. These regions are then characterised in terms of their H$\\alpha$ equivalent widths, star formation rates, and oxygen abundances. Identifying HII regions spatially coincident with SN explosion sites, we are thus able to determine where within the distributions of host galaxy e.g. metallicities and ages each SN is found,...

  10. Underground characterisation and research facility ONKALO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Posiva's repository for geological disposal of the spent fuel from Finnish nuclear reactors will be constructed at Olkiluoto. The selection of Olkiluoto was made based on site selection research programme conducted between 1987-2001. The next step is to carry out complementary investigations of the site and apply for the construction license for the disposal facility. The license application will be submitted in 2012. To collect detailed information of the geological environment at planned disposal depth an underground characterisation and research facility will be built at the site. This facility, named as ONKALO, will comprise a spiral access tunnel and two vertical shafts. The excavation of ONKALO is in progress and planned depth (400 m) will be reached in 2009. During the course of the excavation Posiva will conduct site characterisation activities to assess the structure and other properties of the site geology. The aim is that construction will not compromise the favourable conditions of the planned disposal depth or introduce harmful effects in the surrounding bedrock which could jeopardize the long-term safety of the geological disposal. (author)

  11. Radiographic evaluation of third-molar development in relation to the chronological age of Turkish children in the southwest Eastern Anatolia region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karataş, Orhan H; Öztürk, Fırat; Dedeoğlu, Numan; Çolak, Cemil; Altun, Oğuzhan

    2013-10-10

    To study the chronological age of third-molar mineralisation of Turkish children from the southwest Eastern Anatolia region, the Demirjian staging method was used to determine the stage of the mineralisation of four third molars (18, 28, 38 and 48) and to compare third-molar development by sex and age with the results of previous studies. The study comprised 832 Turkish children from the southwest Eastern Anatolia region aged 6-16 years based on radiological evidence from digital orthopantomograms. The mean age of the 832 patients was 11.03±1.98 years, with 424 males (mean age, 10.97±1.97) and 408 females (mean age, 11.09±2.00). The orthopantomograms were scored by two observers. The Wilcoxon matched-pairs signed-rank test used to assess intra- and inter-observer assessment revealed strong agreement between both observers' measurements. Statistical analysis of the association between sex and age was performed with the Mann-Whitney U-test and the Wilcoxon test. Regression analysis was performed to obtain regression formulae for calculating the dental and the chronological age. The statistical analysis showed a strong correlation between age and third-molar development in males (R(2)=0.61) and females (R(2)=0.63). New equations (age=7.49+0.69, development stage (DS) 38+0.70, DS18) were derived for estimation of the chronological age. The results showed that there was no significant difference in mineralisation between 18 and 28 and 38 and 48 in males or females. For both sexes, the dental age was lower than the chronological age. Males reached the developmental stages earlier than females. In the whole population, the boys' and the girls' dental ages were 0.84 years and 0.16 years earlier, respectively, than their chronological ages. The use of third-molar teeth as a developmental marker is suitable, particularly when comparing the obtained standard deviation with other skeletal-age calculation techniques.

  12. Geoarchaeological research of the mid-age Ilyas Bey complex buildings with ground penetrating radar in Miletus, Aydin, Western Anatolia, Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kadioglu, S [Ankara University, Eng. Fac. Geophysical Engineering Department, 06100 Ankara (Turkey); Kadioglu, Y K [Ankara University, Eng. Fac. Geological Engineering Department, 06100 Ankara (Turkey); Akyol, A A [Ankara University, Baskent Vac. High Sch. Prog. of Restoration and Cons., Ankara (Turkey)], E-mail: kadioglu@eng.ankara.edu.tr, E-mail: kadi@eng.ankara.edu.tr, E-mail: akyol@ankara.edu.tr

    2008-07-01

    ) studies reveal that the main bulding rock units of Ilyas Bey Mosque are mainly composed of 4 main units these are marble, metalimestone, mica gneiss and granodiorite. The marble, metalimestone with the mica gneiss were obtained from Menderes Massif in Western Anatolia. The granodiorite columns might be obtained from Kozak Pluton in the north of Bergama-Izmir line of western Anatolia.

  13. Characterisation of free and glycosidically bound aroma compounds of La Mancha Verdejo white wines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Palomo, E; Alonso-Villegas, R; González Viñas, M A

    2015-04-15

    The aroma of Verdejo La Mancha white wines was studied by instrumental and sensory analysis across five consecutive vintages to determine their typicity and quality. Free and glycosidically-bound aroma compounds were isolated by solid phase extraction (SPE) to later be analysed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Seventy-four (74) free aroma compounds and thirty-six (36) bound aroma compounds were identified and quantified in La Mancha Verdejo wines oven this five year period. Based on the result, Verdejo white wines presents a complex chemical profile with a wealth of aromas in its aromatic composition. The sensory profile of Verdejo wines was evaluated by experienced wine-tasters and was characterised by fresh, citric, green apple, fruity and tropical fruit aroma descriptors. This study shows the first complete aromatic characterisation of La Mancha Verdejo white wines, also the data suggest that these wines present a great aromatic potential.

  14. Characterisation of Australian Verdelho wines from the Queensland Granite Belt region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonni, Francesca; Moore, Evan G; Chinnici, Fabio; Riponi, Claudio; Smyth, Heather E

    2016-04-01

    Verdelho is a white-grape-vine, growing well in the Granite Belt region of Queensland. Despite its traditional use in Madeira wine production, there is scant literature on the flavour characteristics of this variety as a dry wine. In this work, for the first time, volatile compounds of Verdelho wines from the Granite Belt have been isolated by solid phase extraction (SPE), and analysed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). A corresponding sensory characterisation of this distinctive wine style has also been investigated, using sensory descriptive analysis. Chemical compounds that mostly contribute to the flavour of these wines were related to fruity sweet notes (ethyl esters and acetates), grassy notes (3-hexenol), floral aromas (2-phenylethanol and β-linalool) and cheesy aromas (fatty acids). Sensory analysis confirmed that the Verdelho wines were characterised by fruity aroma attributes, especially "tree-fruit" and "rockmelon", together with "herbaceous", while significant differences in the other attributes were found.

  15. Comprehensive characterisation of sewage sludge for thermochemical conversion processes - Based on Singapore survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Wei Ping; Wang, Jing-Yuan

    2016-08-01

    Recently, sludge attracted great interest as a potential feedstock in thermochemical conversion processes. However, compositions and thermal degradation behaviours of sludge were highly complex and distinctive compared to other traditional feedstock led to a need of fundamental research on sludge. Comprehensive characterisation of sludge specifically for thermochemical conversion was carried out for all existing Water Reclamation Plants in Singapore. In total, 14 sludge samples collected based on the type, plant, and batch categorisation. Existing characterisation methods for physical and chemical properties were analysed and reviewed using the collected samples. Qualitative similarities and quantitative variations of different sludge samples were identified and discussed. Oxidation of inorganic in sludge during ash forming analysis found to be causing significant deviations on proximate and ultimate analysis. Therefore, alternative parameters and comparison basis including Fixed Residues (FR), Inorganic Matters (IM) and Total Inorganics (TI) were proposed for better understanding on the thermochemical characteristics of sludge. PMID:27189138

  16. Characterisation of imperial college reactor centre legacy waste using gamma-ray spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shuhaimi, Alif Imran Mohd [Nuclear Energy Department, Regulatory Economics & Planning Division, Tenaga Nasional Berhad (Malaysia)

    2016-01-22

    Waste characterisation is a principal component in waste management strategy. The characterisation includes identification of chemical, physical and radiochemical parameters of radioactive waste. Failure to determine specific waste properties may result in sentencing waste packages which are not compliant with the regulation of long term storage or disposal. This project involved measurement of intensity and energy of gamma photons which may be emitted by radioactive waste generated during decommissioning of Imperial College Reactor Centre (ICRC). The measurement will use High Purity Germanium (HPGe) as Gamma-ray detector and ISOTOPIC-32 V4.1 as analyser. In order to ensure the measurements provide reliable results, two quality control (QC) measurements using difference matrices have been conducted. The results from QC measurements were used to determine the accuracy of the ISOTOPIC software.

  17. Characterisation of imperial college reactor centre legacy waste using gamma-ray spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuhaimi, Alif Imran Mohd

    2016-01-01

    Waste characterisation is a principal component in waste management strategy. The characterisation includes identification of chemical, physical and radiochemical parameters of radioactive waste. Failure to determine specific waste properties may result in sentencing waste packages which are not compliant with the regulation of long term storage or disposal. This project involved measurement of intensity and energy of gamma photons which may be emitted by radioactive waste generated during decommissioning of Imperial College Reactor Centre (ICRC). The measurement will use High Purity Germanium (HPGe) as Gamma-ray detector and ISOTOPIC-32 V4.1 as analyser. In order to ensure the measurements provide reliable results, two quality control (QC) measurements using difference matrices have been conducted. The results from QC measurements were used to determine the accuracy of the ISOTOPIC software.

  18. Chemical carcinogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula A. Oliveira

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of chemical compounds benefits society in a number of ways. Pesticides, for instance, enable foodstuffs to be produced in sufficient quantities to satisfy the needs of millions of people, a condition that has led to an increase in levels of life expectancy. Yet, at times, these benefits are offset by certain disadvantages, notably the toxic side effects of the chemical compounds used. Exposure to these compounds can have varying effects, ranging from instant death to a gradual process of chemical carcinogenesis. There are three stages involved in chemical carcinogenesis. These are defined as initiation, promotion and progression. Each of these stages is characterised by morphological and biochemical modifications and result from genetic and/or epigenetic alterations. These genetic modifications include: mutations in genes that control cell proliferation, cell death and DNA repair - i.e. mutations in proto-oncogenes and tumour suppressing genes. The epigenetic factors, also considered as being non-genetic in character, can also contribute to carcinogenesis via epigenetic mechanisms which silence gene expression. The control of responses to carcinogenesis through the application of several chemical, biochemical and biological techniques facilitates the identification of those basic mechanisms involved in neoplasic development. Experimental assays with laboratory animals, epidemiological studies and quick tests enable the identification of carcinogenic compounds, the dissection of many aspects of carcinogenesis, and the establishment of effective strategies to prevent the cancer which results from exposure to chemicals.A sociedade obtém numerosos benefícios da utilização de compostos químicos. A aplicação dos pesticidas, por exemplo, permitiu obter alimento em quantidade suficiente para satisfazer as necessidades alimentares de milhões de pessoas, condição relacionada com o aumento da esperança de vida. Os benefícios estão, por

  19. A characterisation of superposable random measures

    CERN Document Server

    Maillard, Pascal

    2011-01-01

    Let $Z$ be a point process on $\\R$ and $T_\\alpha Z$ its translation by $\\alpha\\in\\R$. Let $Z'$ be an independent copy of $Z$. We say that $Z$ is \\emph{superposable}, if $T_\\alpha Z + T_\\beta Z'$ and $Z$ are equal in law for every $\\alpha,\\beta\\in\\R$, such that $\\e^\\alpha + \\e^\\beta = 1.$ We prove a characterisation of superposable point processes in terms of decorated Poisson processes, which was conjectured by Brunet and Derrida [A branching random walk seen from the tip, 2010, \\url{http://arxiv.org/abs/1011.4864v1}]. We further prove a generalisation to random measures.

  20. EChO - Exoplanet Characterisation Observatory

    CERN Document Server

    Tinetti, G; Henning, T; Meyer, M; Micela, G; Ribas, I; Stam, D; Swain, M; Krause, O; Ollivier, M; Pace, E; Swinyard, B; Aylward, A; van Boekel, R; Coradini, A; Encrenaz, T; Snellen, I; Zapatero-Osorio, M R; Bouwman, J; Cho, J Y-K; Foresto, V Coudé du; Guillot, T; Lopez-Morales, M; Mueller-Wodarg, I; Palle, E; Selsis, F; Sozzetti, A; Ade, P A R; Achilleos, N; Adriani, A; Agnor, C B; Afonso, C; Prieto, C Allende; Bakos, G; Barber, R J; Barlow, M; Bernath, P; Bezard, B; Bordé, P; Brown, L R; Cassan, A; Cavarroc, C; Ciaravella, A; Cockell, C O U; Coustenis, A; Danielski, C; Decin, L; De Kok, R; Demangeon, O; Deroo, P; Doel, P; Drossart, P; Fletcher, L N; Focardi, M; Forget, F; Fossey, S; Fouqué, P; Frith, J; Galand, M; Gaulme, P; Hernández, J I González; Grasset, O; Grassi, D; Grenfell, J L; Griffin, M J; Griffith, C A; Grözinger, U; Guedel, M; Guio, P; Hainaut, O; Hargreaves, R; Hauschildt, P H; Heng, K; Heyrovsky, D; Hueso, R; Irwin, P; Kaltenegger, L; Kervella, P; Kipping, D; Koskinen, T T; Kovács, G; La Barbera, A; Lammer, H; Lellouch, E; Leto, G; Morales, M Lopez; Valverde, M A Lopez; Lopez-Puertas, M; Lovis, C; Maggio, A; Maillard, J P; Prado, J Maldonado; Marquette, J B; Martin-Torres, F J; Maxted, P; Miller, S; Molinari, S; Montes, D; Moro-Martin, A; Moses, J I; Mousis, O; Tuong, N Nguyen; Nelson, R; Orton, G S; Pantin, E; Pascale, E; Pezzuto, S; Pinfield, D; Poretti, E; Prinja, R; Prisinzano, L; Rees, J M; Reiners, A; Samuel, B; Sanchez-Lavega, A; Forcada, J Sanz; Sasselov, D; Savini, G; Sicardy, B; Smith, A; Stixrude, L; Strazzulla, G; Tennyson, J; Tessenyi, M; Vasisht, G; Vinatier, S; Viti, S; Waldmann, I; White, G J; Widemann, T; Wordsworth, R; Yelle, R; Yung, Y; Yurchenko, S N

    2011-01-01

    A dedicated mission to investigate exoplanetary atmospheres represents a major milestone in our quest to understand our place in the universe by placing our Solar System in context and by addressing the suitability of planets for the presence of life. EChO -the Exoplanet Characterisation Observatory- is a mission concept specifically geared for this purpose. EChO will provide simultaneous, multi-wavelength spectroscopic observations on a stable platform that will allow very long exposures. EChO will build on observations by Hubble, Spitzer and groundbased telescopes, which discovered the first molecules and atoms in exoplanetary atmospheres. EChO will simultaneously observe a broad enough spectral region -from the visible to the mid-IR- to constrain from one single spectrum the temperature structure of the atmosphere and the abundances of the major molecular species. The spectral range and resolution are tailored to separate bands belonging to up to 30 molecules to retrieve the composition and temperature str...

  1. High Strain Rate Characterisation of Composite Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Rasmus Normann Wilken

    The high strain rate characterisation of FRP materials present the experimenter with a new set of challenges in obtaining valid experimental data. These challenges were addressed in this work with basis in classic wave theory. The stress equilibrium process for linear elastic materials, as fibre......-reinforced polymers, were considered, and it was first shown that the loading history controls equilibrium process. Then the High-speed servo-hydraulic test machine was analysed in terms its ability to create a state of constant strain rate in the specimen. The invertible inertial forces in the load train prevented...... for testing fibre-reinforced polymers due to their elastic behaviour and low strain to failure. This is problematic as the High-speed servo-hydraulic test machine closes the gap between quasi-static tests rates and lower strain rates, which are achievable with the Split Hopkinson Pressure Bar. The Split...

  2. Characterisation of Natural Fibre Reinforcements and Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard K. Cullen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent EU directives (e.g., ELV and WEEE have caused some rethinking of the life cycle implications of fibre reinforced polymer matrix composites. Man-made reinforcement fibres have significant ecological implications. One alternative is the use of natural fibres as reinforcements. The principal candidates are bast (plant stem fibres with flax, hemp, and jute as the current front runners. The work presented here will consider the characterisation of jute fibres and their composites. A novel technique is proposed for the measurement of fibre density. The new rule of mixtures, extended for noncircular cross-section natural fibres, is shown to provide a sensible estimate for the experimentally measured elastic modulus of the composite.

  3. Modal noise characterisation of a hybrid reformatter

    CERN Document Server

    Spaleniak, Izabela; Gris-Sánchez, Itandehui; Choudhury, Debaditya; Harris, Robert J; Arriola, Alexander; Allington-Smith, Jeremy R; Birks, Timothy A; Thomson, Robert R

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports on the modal noise characterisation of a hybrid reformatter. The device consists of a multicore-fibre photonic lantern and an ultrafast laser-inscribed slit reformatter. It operates around 1550 nm and supports 92 modes. Photonic lanterns transform a multimode signal into an array of single-mode signals, and thus combine the high coupling efficiency of multimode fibres with the diffraction-limited performance of single-mode fibres. This paper presents experimental measurements of the device point spread function properties under different coupling conditions, and its throughput behaviour at high spectral resolution. The device demonstrates excellent scrambling but its point spread function is not completely stable. Mode field diameter and mode barycentre position at the device output vary as the multicore-fibre is agitated due to the fabrication imperfections.

  4. Analytical characterisation of homoeopathic mother tinctures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biber, A; Franck-Karl, G; Waimer, F; Riegert, U; Wiget, R

    2009-03-01

    Quality of homoeopathic mother tinctures is assured by the definition of the starting material, the manufacturing process and the analytical characteristics described in the monograph. Traditionally analytical characterisation of the mother tincture comprises appearance, odour, identity, density and dry residue. According to annex I of directive 2001/83/EC an assay is only performed in case of a health hazard due to toxic compounds. The concept of marker substances as usually used in phytotherapy cannot be transferred to mother tinctures without research effort. For example the marker substances echinacoside, apigenin-7-glucoside and rosmarinic acid found in dried underground parts of Echinacea pallida Nutt., dried flower heads of Matricaria recutita L. and dried herb of Pulmonaria officinalis L. cannot be found in homoeopathic mother tinctures prepared from fresh material thereof. PMID:19275866

  5. Characterisation of Magnetic FeRh Epilayers

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaren, M. J.; de Vries, M. A.; Brydson, R. M. D.; Marrows, C.

    2012-07-01

    The lattice structure of roughly equiatomic iron-rhodium epilayers was studied using transmission electron microscopy. Thin films were grown on magnesium oxide substrates using molecular beam epitaxy with thicknesses of 50 nm and capped with a 2-3 nm thick MgO or Al cap. The samples were prepared into cross-sections for characterisation by TEM. Observation of the interfaces FeRh makes with the cap and the substrate are of interest, due to the potential for strain and interfacial diffusion, which will affect the magnetic properties. TEM imaging combined with X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy depth profiling data give an insight into how strain and diffusion at the interface can affect the magnetic transition.

  6. X-ray characterisation of nanostructured materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oddershede, Jette

    X-ray powder di®raction (XRPD) is an excellent tool for characterising the bulk structure of crystalline materials. Along with the growing interest in exploiting materials with decreasing particle sizes and increasing number of defects, factors that complicate the traditional interpretation...... of the experi- mental XRPD patterns, the need for new interpretation methods has arisen. The method described in the present thesis is by no means new, in fact it was developed by Debye in 1915. However, the Debye method it is rather computationally heavy, so in practise it is only applicable to the X-ray char...... Information File (CIF), simulate the XRPD pattern given information about the nature of the sample and the experimental setup, and ¯nally ¯t the simulated di®ractogram to experimental XRPD data. Three very di®erent materials were studied using the Debye approach: 1) Cellulose, an organic polymer with a nano...

  7. Functional Piezocrystal Characterisation under Varying Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaochun Liao

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Piezocrystals, especially the relaxor-based ferroelectric crystals, have been subject to intense investigation and development within the past three decades, motivated by the performance advantages offered by their ultrahigh piezoelectric coefficients and higher electromechanical coupling coefficients than piezoceramics. Structural anisotropy of piezocrystals also provides opportunities for devices to operate in novel vibration modes, such as the d36 face shear mode, with domain engineering and special crystal cuts. These piezocrystal characteristics contribute to their potential usage in a wide range of low- and high-power ultrasound applications. In such applications, conventional piezoelectric materials are presently subject to varying mechanical stress/pressure, temperature and electric field conditions. However, as observed previously, piezocrystal properties are significantly affected by a single such condition or a combination of conditions. Laboratory characterisation of the piezocrystal properties under these conditions is therefore essential to fully understand these materials and to allow electroacoustic transducer design in realistic scenarios. This will help to establish the extent to which these high performance piezocrystals can replace conventional piezoceramics in demanding applications. However, such characterisation requires specific experimental arrangements, examples of which are reported here, along with relevant results. The measurements include high frequency-resolution impedance spectroscopy with the piezocrystal material under mechanical stress 0–60 MPa, temperature 20–200 °C, high electric AC drive and DC bias. A laser Doppler vibrometer and infrared thermal camera are also integrated into the measurement system for vibration mode shape scanning and thermal conditioning with high AC drive. Three generations of piezocrystal have been tested: (I binary, PMN-PT; (II ternary, PIN-PMN-PT; and (III doped ternary, Mn

  8. First assessment on the molecular phylogeny of Anatololacerta (Squamata, Lacertidae) distributed in Southern Anatolia: insights from mtDNA and nDNA markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candan, Kamil; Kankılıç, Tolga; Güçlü, Özgür; Kumlutaş, Yusuf; Durmuş, Salih Hakan; Lymberakis, Petros; Poulakakis, Nikos; Ilgaz, Çetin

    2016-05-01

    The genus Anatololacerta (Lacertidae) occurs mainly in Anatolia (western and southern Turkey) and on the Aegean islands Samos, Ikaria, and Rhodos. Although its taxonomy has long been debated and is currently nascent, three morphological species have been attributed to this genus: Anatololacerta anatolica, Anatololacerta oertzeni, and Anatololacerta danfordi. Here, we investigated the evolutionary history of A. oertzeni and Anatololacerta danfordi based on both mitochondrial and nuclear markers (16S rRNA and cmos). In total, 34 Anatololacerta specimens were analyzed using maximum likelihood (ML) and Bayesian inference (BI) methods. Our results supported the presence of four well-supported lineages: two belongs to A. oertzeni and two to A. danfordi. The temporal diversification of these lineages probably started with the divergence of the first A. oertzeni lineage from western Antalya at 7.9 Mya. The other two major splits may have occurred in early Pliocene (4.4 Mya: the divergence of the second A. oertzeni from A. danfordi) and in late Pliocene (2.7 Mya: the divergence of the two lineages of A. danfordi). The phylogeographical scenario suggests that the major diversification events (from late Miocene to late Pliocene) could be related with climatic oscillations (such as the late Miocene aridification and the Messinian Salinity Crisis) and tectonic movements (such as the uplift of the central Taurus mountain). PMID:25489775

  9. An analysis of the murder of women in a 10-year period in Eskişehir Province located in western Anatolia in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karbeyaz, Kenan; Akkaya, Harun; Balci, Yasemin

    2013-08-01

    Murder of women generally occurs as a result of violence by their husbands and relatives. We evaluated the female victims of murder in Eskişehir, located in western Anatolia, where the education level is high in this study. Our aim was to assess and discuss data related to the victims and murderers. A total of 141 women's murder cases were analysed in the study. After a legal process and the results of the autopsies during 2002-2011 in Eskişehir, 715 subjects found to have died as a result of murder were chosen. Cases were evaluated in terms of their age, marital status, education level, relationship to the murderer, reasons for violence, type of action and reasons for death. It was determined that 48.2% (n = 68) of the victims had been killed by the husband and 7.8% (n = 11) by the ex-husband. Murderers generally stated that the reason of murder was the woman's request for divorce or breaking up (n = 40, 28.4%). In compliance with the literature, the women were most commonly killed by their husbands in our study. Enhancing women's status and preventing violence against women will decrease such murders.

  10. Thermo-resistant green microalgae for effective biodiesel production: isolation and characterization of unialgal species from geothermal flora of Central Anatolia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onay, Melih; Sonmez, Cagla; Oktem, Huseyin Avni; Yucel, Ayse Meral

    2014-10-01

    Oil content and composition, biomass productivity and adaptability to different growth conditions are important parameters in selecting a suitable microalgal strain for biodiesel production. Here, we describe isolation and characterization of three green microalgal species from geothermal flora of Central Anatolia. All three isolates, namely, Scenedesmus sp. METUNERGY1402 (Scenedesmus sp. ME02), Hindakia tetrachotoma METUNERGY1403 (H. tetrachotoma ME03) and Micractinium sp. METUNERGY1405 (Micractinium sp. ME05) are adaptable to growth at a wide temperature range (25-50 °C). Micractinium sp. ME05, particularly has superior properties for biodiesel production. Biomass productivity, lipid content and lipid productivity of this isolate are 0.17 g L(-1) d(-1), 22.7% and 0.04 g L(-1) d(-1), respectively. In addition, Micractinium sp. ME05 and Scenedesmus sp. ME03 mainly contain desirable fatty acid methyl esters (i.e. 16:0, 16:1, 18:0 and 18:1) for biodiesel production. All isolates can further be improved via genetic and metabolic engineering strategies.

  11. Secular changes in the height of the inhabitants of Anatolia (Turkey) from the 10th millennium B.C. to the 20th century A.D.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozer, Başak Koca; Sağır, Mehmet; Ozer, Ismail

    2011-03-01

    We use human-skeleton samples to estimate the height of adults living in Anatolia during the Neolithic period. We also report the results of surveys taken in the 20th century on the height of the Turkish population. Neolithic and the Chalcolithic (5000-3000 B.C.) male heights are estimated as 170.9 cm and 165.0 cm, respectively. Pronounced increases were observed for both sexes between the Chalcolithic and Iron (1000-580 B.C.) periods and sharp decreases among both males and females in the Hellenistic-Roman period (333 B.C. to 395 A.D.). Moreover, recovery to the Iron Age levels was achieved in the Anatolian Medieval period (395-1453 A.D.) for both sexes (169.4 cm for males and 158.0 cm for females). In 1884 the mean height of men was 162.2 cm and by the beginning of the 1930s it increased to 166.3 cm. In the first nationwide survey in 1937 males mean height was 165.3 cm, and females was 152.3 cm, where today current heights are 174.0 cm and 158.9 cm, respectively. PMID:21316315

  12. sandflyDST: a dynamic web-based decision support tool for the morphological identification of sandflies present in Anatolia and mainland Europe, and user study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakülah, G; Karakuş, M; Suner, A; Demir, S; Arserim, S K; Töz, S; Özbel, Y

    2016-09-01

    Species identification of sandflies is mainly performed according to morphological characters using classical written identification keys. This study introduces a new web-based decision support tool (sandflyDST) for guiding the morphological identification of sandfly species present in Anatolia and mainland Europe and classified in the Phlebotomus and Sergentomyia genera (both: Diptera: Psychodidae). The current version of the tool consists of 111 questions and 36 drawings obtained from classical written keys, and 107 photographs for the quick and easy identification of 26 species of the genus Phlebotomus and four species of the genus Sergentomyia. The tool guides users through a decision tree using yes/no questions about the morphological characters of the specimen. The tool was applied by 30 individuals, who then completed study questionnaires. The results of subsequent analyses indicated that the usability (x‾SUSScore=75.4) and users' level of appreciation (86.6%) of the tool were quite high; almost all of the participants considered recommending the tool to others. The tool may also be useful in training new entomologists and maintaining their level of expertise. This is a dynamic tool and can be improved or upgraded according to feedback. The tool is now available online at http://parasitology.ege.edu.tr/sandflyDST/index.php. PMID:27339389

  13. Characterisation of fucoidan extracted from Malaysian Sargassum binderi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Seng Joe; Wan Aida, Wan Mustapha; Maskat, Mohamad Yusof; Latip, Jalifah; Badri, Khairiah Haji; Hassan, Osman; Yamin, Bohari M

    2016-10-15

    Fucoidan is a sulphated polysaccharide that consists mainly of fucose, normally found in brown seaweeds. In this study, fucoidan was extracted from Sargassum binderi (Fsar) from Malaysia and subsequently characterised. The chemical characteristics of Fsar were found to be different than those of commercial food grade fucoidan (Fysk) and those of previously studied fucoidans. NMR analysis proposed that the main structure of Fsar is →3)fuc-2-OSO3(-)(1→3)fuc(1→. The molecular weight (47.87kDa) and degree of sulphation (0.20) of Fsar were higher than those of Fysk, at 27.98kDa and 0.15, respectively. However, Fsar's polydispersity index (1.12) and fucose content (34.50%) were lower than those of Fysk, at 1.88 and 43.30%, respectively. Both Fsar and Fysk showed similar thermo-gravimetric properties with four mass losses, amorphous in nature and negative optical rotations. Results show that Fsar has fundamental characteristics of fucoidan with different structural conformation i.e. variation in glycosidic linkages and sulphate group orientation. PMID:27173562

  14. Instrumental and sensory characterisation of Solaris white wines in Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jing; Toldam-Andersen, Torben Bo; Petersen, Mikael Agerlin; Zhang, Shujuan; Arneborg, Nils; Bredie, Wender L P

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the volatile and non-volatile compositions as well as sensory properties of the most common monovarietal white wine (var. Solaris) in Denmark. Using dynamic headspace sampling (DHS) coupled to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), 79 volatile compounds were identified. Among the major non-volatile components glycerol, sulphite, sugars and organic acids were analysed. A primary sensory difference was observed among wine samples, half of which were characterised by floral and fruity flavours (peach/apricot, Muscat, melon, banana and strawberry) while the remainder were described by less pleasant flavours, such as chemical, wood and rooibos/smoke. Partial least squares regression (PLS) showed that acetates and ethyl esters of straight-chain fatty acids were associated with floral and fruity odours while ethyl esters of branched-chain fatty acids were less associated with them. The study also suggested that differences in vintage were less characteristic than differences caused due to sulphite management by producers. PMID:25053038

  15. Characterisation of fucoidan extracted from Malaysian Sargassum binderi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Seng Joe; Wan Aida, Wan Mustapha; Maskat, Mohamad Yusof; Latip, Jalifah; Badri, Khairiah Haji; Hassan, Osman; Yamin, Bohari M

    2016-10-15

    Fucoidan is a sulphated polysaccharide that consists mainly of fucose, normally found in brown seaweeds. In this study, fucoidan was extracted from Sargassum binderi (Fsar) from Malaysia and subsequently characterised. The chemical characteristics of Fsar were found to be different than those of commercial food grade fucoidan (Fysk) and those of previously studied fucoidans. NMR analysis proposed that the main structure of Fsar is →3)fuc-2-OSO3(-)(1→3)fuc(1→. The molecular weight (47.87kDa) and degree of sulphation (0.20) of Fsar were higher than those of Fysk, at 27.98kDa and 0.15, respectively. However, Fsar's polydispersity index (1.12) and fucose content (34.50%) were lower than those of Fysk, at 1.88 and 43.30%, respectively. Both Fsar and Fysk showed similar thermo-gravimetric properties with four mass losses, amorphous in nature and negative optical rotations. Results show that Fsar has fundamental characteristics of fucoidan with different structural conformation i.e. variation in glycosidic linkages and sulphate group orientation.

  16. Characterisation of optical components of the COMPASS RICH1 detector

    CERN Document Server

    D'Ambrosio, C; Laub, M; Piedigrossi, D; Finger, M H; Zichy, J A

    2001-01-01

    The COMPASS RICH1 detector is under construction at CERN. We participated to the preparation of its optical system by characterising its spherical mirrors. In the article, the experimental set-up for mirror characterisation is described together with the obtained results. (5 refs).

  17. Structural characterisation of human proteinosis surfactant protein A

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leth-Larsen, Rikke; Holmskov, U; Højrup, P

    2000-01-01

    Human surfactant protein-A (SP-A) has been purified from a proteinosis patient and characterised by a combination of automated Edman degradation and mass spectrometry. The complete protein sequence was characterised. The major part of SP-A was shown to consist of SP-A2 gene product, and only a...

  18. The MEGAPOLI Paris campaign for urban aerosol characterisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beekmann, M.; Baltensperger, U.; Borbon, A.; Sciare, J.; Gros, V.; Baklanov, A.; Lawrence, M.; Pandis, S.

    2009-04-01

    Within the FP7 MEGAPOLI project, an intensive field campaign will be conducted in the Greater Paris region during July 2009 and January/February 2010. The aim is to quantify sources of primary and secondary aerosol, and the interaction with gaseous precursors, in and around a large agglomeration and to document its evolution in the megacity plume. Greater Paris has been chosen for such a campaign because it is a major and dense pollution source (more than 10 million inhabitants), surrounded by rural areas and relatively flat terrain. A particular focus will be put on organic carbon, for which secondary formation, but also primary emissions are still not well quantified. Detailed aerosol measurements and gaseous precursor measurements will be conducted at an urban and a sub-urban site, from two mobile platforms and from the French ATR-42 research aircraft (for plume characterisation). State of the art instrumentation will allow determination of aerosol chemical composition, either with very high frequency (several minutes to half an hour), or with large chemical detail (several dozens of organic compounds from filter samples). In addition, the size distribution, optical and hygroscopic and mixing properties will be determined in order to relate the aerosol chemical composition to its potential radiative and climate impact in the urban region and its plume. Gas phase measurements will focus especially on detailed VOC measurements in order to relate SOA build-up to gaseous precursor species abundance. A network of backscatter lidars including fixed station (urban, sub-urban) and mobile platforms (car and aircraft, see Cuesta et al., this session) will give the access to the aerosol vertical distribution in the region and to variations of the boundary layer height at the urban / rural interface. All in all, the campaign will be the most intensive urban aerosol characterisation experiment ever conducted over Europe. The present paper will present an overview over

  19. Characterisation of metals in the electronic waste of complex mixtures of end-of-life ICT products for development of cleaner recovery technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Z.H.I. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, TU Delft, 2628 CD Delft (Netherlands); Xiao, Y. [Ironmaking Department, R and D, Tata Steel, 1970 CA IJmuiden (Netherlands); Sietsma, J. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, TU Delft, 2628 CD Delft (Netherlands); Agterhuis, H.; Visser, G. [Business Development, Van Gansewinkel Groep BV, 5657 DH Eindhoven (Netherlands); Yang, Y. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, TU Delft, 2628 CD Delft (Netherlands)

    2015-01-15

    Highlights: • New characterisation methodology has been established to understand an industrially processed ICT waste. • Particle size distribution, composition, thermal–chemical behaviour and occurrence of metals were considered. • The characterisation provides direct guidelines for values recovery from the waste. - Abstract: Recycling of valuable metals from electronic waste, especially complex mixtures of end-of-life information and communication technology (ICT) products, is of great difficulty due to their complexity and heterogeneity. One of the important reasons is the lack of comprehensive characterisation on such materials, i.e. accurate compositions, physical/chemical properties. In the present research, we focus on developing methodologies for the characterisation of metals in an industrially processed ICT waste. The morphology, particle size distribution, compositional distribution, occurrence, liberation as well as the thermo-chemical properties of the ICT waste were investigated with various characterisation techniques, including X-ray Fluorescence Spectrometry (XRF), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with energy dispersed spectroscopy (EDS). Due to the high heterogeneity of the material, special sample preparation procedures were introduced to minimise the discrepancies during compositional analyses. As a result, a clearer overview of the ICT waste has been reached. This research provides better understanding of the extractability of each metal and improves the awareness of potential obstacles for extraction. It will lead to smarter decisions during further development of a clean and effective recovery process.

  20. Characterisation of thin films on rough steel substrates by FTIR microscopy and imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Complete text of publication follows. According to the new European regulations (Restrictions of Hazardous Substance Directive), there is an emerging demand for environmental friendly metal treatments instead on formerly used chromate conversion coating technique. The aim of the present investigations was to characterise and compare silicon containing protective thin layers on roughened galvanized steel surfaces (with average roughness of 0.7 microns), using FTIR microscopy and imaging techniques. The silicon containing coatings were produced either by Chemical Vapour Deposition (CVD) or by wet chemical treatment using liquid silane. FTIR techniques offer new possibilities in the characterisations and chemical mapping of differently coated thin films, besides SEM+EDS, AFM, nanoindentation, XPS measurements (P. Nemeth et al., Materials Science Forum, 589 (2008) 433-438). All measurements were carried out by a Varian FTS-7000 spectrometer with a 'Stingray' microscope configuration (UMA-600), equipped both with a single element MCT detector, and with a 64x64 MCT based focal plane array (FPA) detector system. FTIR spectra of silicon containing layers (∼1000 nm) produced by CVD coating technology show the characteristic SiO2 bands. The wet chemical treatment, however, results in a chemically inhomogeneous thin film. Beside the organic residue and characteristic SiO2 bands, SiOx (X2 bands, while the edges of the craters are of SiOx (x<2). FTIR imaging with a relative high lateral resolution of 5.5 microns is suitable for homogeneity (or inhomogeneity) studies of thin films. The image constructed from a single intensity parameter is influenced also by point-by-point (4096 pixels) thickness variations, so the FTIR image permit also a direct comparison of surface roughness. Compared with CVD produced thin film, the wet chemical treated coating proved to be not only chemically inhomogene, but presents a higher degree of surface roughness, too. These results demonstrate the

  1. New methods for refuse derived fuels characterisation; Neue Methoden zur Ersatzbrennstoffcharakterisierung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Danz, Philipp; Behling, Julia; Krueger, Burkhard; Marzi, Thomas [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Umwelt-, Sicherheits- und Energietechnik UMSICHT, Oberhausen (Germany)

    2012-05-15

    Refuse Derived Fuel (RDF) co-combustion for example in power plants and rotary cement kilns are gaining more and more importance. Because of the differing incineration properties against coal and the non-suiting laboratory standard methods, new approaches to gather the necessary information had to be done. The following article deals with two of these new methods for incineration characterisation of RDF. These are in detail: a drop shaft for detecting drag coefficient and stagger behaviour and a pyrolysis oven for detecting thermo-chemical and physical parameters. The project was partly funded by the Ziel 2-Programm of North Rhine-Westphalia. (orig.)

  2. New Device for Characterisation of Thermoforming and Blow Moulding Materials by Membrane Inflation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Erik Michael; Lauridsen, Carsten Linding

    1998-01-01

    New Device for Characterisation of Thermoforming and Blow Moulding Materials by Membrane Inflation......New Device for Characterisation of Thermoforming and Blow Moulding Materials by Membrane Inflation...

  3. CHARACTERISATION OF SOLID AND LIQUID PINEAPPLE WASTE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Abdullah

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The pineapple waste is contain high concentration of biodegradable organic material and suspended solid. As a result it has a high BOD and extremes of pH conditions. The pineapple wastes juice contains mainly sucrose, glucose, fructose and other nutrients. The characterisation this waste is needed to reduce it by  recycling to get raw material or  for  conversion into useful product of higher value added products such as organic acid, methane , ethanol, SCP and enzyme. Analysis of sugar indicates that liquid waste contains mainly sucrose, glucose and fructose.  The dominant sugar was fructose, glucose and sucrose.  The fructose and glucose levels were similar to each other, with fructose usually slightly higher than glucose. The total sugar and citric acid content were 73.76 and 2.18 g/l. The sugar content in solid waste is glucose and fructose was 8.24 and 12.17 %, no sucrose on this waste

  4. Synthesis and characterisation of mucoadhesive thiolated polyallylamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duggan, Sarah; Hughes, Helen; Owens, Eleanor; Duggan, Elaine; Cummins, Wayne; O' Donovan, Orla

    2016-02-29

    The thiolation of polyallylamine (PAAm) for use in mucoadhesive drug delivery has been achieved. PAAm was reacted with different ratios of Traut's reagent, yielding products with thiol contents ranging from 134-487μmol/g. Full mucoadhesive characterisation of the thiolated PAAm samples was conducted using swelling studies, mucoadhesive testing on porcine intestinal tissue and rheology. Both swelling and cohesive properties of the thiolated PAAm products were vastly improved in comparison to an unmodified PAAm control. The swelling abilities of the thiolated samples were high and the degree of thiolation of the products affected the initial rate of swelling. High levels of mucoadhesion were demonstrated by the thiolated PAAm samples, with adhesion times of greater than 24h measured for all three samples and, thus, thiol content did not appear to influence mucoadhesion. Rheological studies of the thiolated PAAm samples showed an increase in G' and G″ values upon the addition of a mucin solution which was not observed in the unmodified control, again highlighting the mucoadhesive interactions between these thiolated polymers and mucin. The synthesis of thiolated PAAm by reaction with Traut's reagent and resulting mucoadhesive properties demonstrates its potential for use a mucoadhesive drug delivery device.

  5. Characterisation of fume from hyperbaric welding operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report preliminary work characterising dust from hyperbaric welding trials carried out at increased pressure in a helium and oxygen atmosphere. Particle size and concentration were measured during welding. Samples for quartz and metal analysis and toxicity assessment were taken from a filter in the local fume extraction system. The residue of dust after metal extraction by nitric acid in hydrogen peroxide predominantly a non-metallic white powder assumed to be dust from welding rod coatings and thermal insulation material. Metallic analysis showed predominantly calcium, from the welding rod coating, and period 4 transition metals such as iron, manganese, magnesium and titanium (inductively coupled mass spectrometry, Agilent 7500c). The presence of zirconium indicated a contribution from grinding. The fume was nanoparticulate in nature with a mean particle diameter of 20-30 nm (MSI Inc WPS 1000XP). It showed an intermediate level of oxidative potential regarding the low-molecular weight respiratory tract lining fluid antioxidants ascorbate and glutathione and caused release of the inflammatory marker IL-8 in a human lung A 549 epithelial cell culture with no indication of cytotoxicity. The study findings have strong implications for the measurement techniques needed to assess fume exposure in hyperbaric welding and the provision of respiratory protection.

  6. Characterisation of Ferrosilicon Dense Medium Separation Material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrosilicon is used in the dense medium separation of iron ore at Kumba resources, Sishen, South Africa. Due to high cost and losses that occur during use, maximum recovery by means of magnetic separation is aimed for. The purpose of this project was to determine the characteristics of the unused Fe-Si and then to characterise the changes that occur during storage and use thereof. Scanning electron microscopy was used to determine the composition of each sample, whilst Moessbauer spectroscopy yielded a two-sextet spectrum with hyperfine magnetic field strengths of 20 and 31 T, respectively, for the fresh samples. Additional hematite oxide peaks appeared in the Moessbauer spectra after use of the Fe-Si over a length of time, but this did not result in a dramatic degradation of the medium. No definite changes occurred during correct storage methods. It was, however, found that the biggest loss of Fe-Si was due to the abrasion of the particles, which resulted in the formation of an oxihydroxide froth, during the process.

  7. 3D characterisation of RCF crack networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahlström Johan

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Rolling contact fatigue (RCF damage is becoming more frequent with increased traffic and loading conditions in the railway industry. Defects which are characterized by a two-lobe darkened surface and a V-shaped surface-breaking crack are often so-called squats. The origination and propagation of squats in railway rails is the topic of many recent studies; the associated crack networks develop with complicated geometry near the surface of rails that is difficult to characterise using most non-destructive methods. The cracks can be examined with repeated metallographic sectioning, but the process is time-consuming and destructive. In order to reduce time, as well as information and material loss, high-resolution and high-energy X-ray imaging of railway rails was done in the current study. Combining the exposures from a range of angles using image analysis, a 3D representation of the complex crack network is achieved. The latter was complemented with metallographic sectioning to determine the accuracy of prediction of the geometrical reconstruction.

  8. Characterising Cold Weather for the UK mainland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fradley, Kate; Dacre, Helen; Ambaum, Maarten

    2016-04-01

    Excess Winter Mortality is a peak in the population's mortality rate during winter months and is correlated with low outdoor temperatures. Excess Winter Mortality has adverse impacts, including increased demand on health services. The management of resources for such increased demands maybe improved through incorporation of weather forecasting information to advanced warnings. For the UK, prolonged cold periods are associated with easterly advection, and high pressure systems. Characterisation of the synoptic conditions associated with cold periods is important to understand forecast performance. Principal Component Analysis has been used with mean sea level pressure from 35 years of ERA interim reanalysis to capture synoptic variability on a continuous scale. Cold events in the North and South of the UK mainland have been identified as having different synoptic variability using this method. Furthermore extending the Principal Component Analysis to investigate the skill of forecasts has identified systematic under prediction of some cold weather synoptic conditions. Ensemble forecasts are used to quantify the uncertainty associated with these cold weather synoptic conditions. This information maybe be used to improve the value of existing weather warnings.

  9. CHEOPS: CHaracterising ExOPlanet Satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaak, K. G.

    2015-10-01

    CHEOPS (CHaracterising ExOPlanet Satellite) is the first exoplanet mission dedicated to the search for transits of exoplanets by means of ultrahigh precision photometry of bright stars already known to host planets. CHEOPS will provide the unique capability of determining radii to ~10% accuracy for a subset of those planets in the super-Earth to Neptune mass range. The high photometric precision of CHEOPS will be achieved using a photometer covering the 0.4 - 1.1um waveband and designed around a single frame-transfer CCD which is mounted in the focal plane of a 30 cm equivalent aperture diameter, f/5 on-axis Ritchey-Chretien telescope. Key to reaching the required performance is rejection of straylight from the Earth that is achieved using a specially designed optical baffle. CHEOPS is the first S-class mission in ESA's Cosmic Vision 2015-2025, and is currently planned to be launch-ready by the end of 2017. The mission is a partnership between Switzerland and ESA's science programme, with important contributions from Austria, Belgium, France, Germany, Hungary, Italy, Portugal, Spain, Sweden and the United Kingdom. In this presentation I will give a scientific and technical overview of the mission, as well as an update on the status of the project.

  10. Computed tomography characterisation of additive manufacturing materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bibb, Richard; Thompson, Darren; Winder, John

    2011-06-01

    Additive manufacturing, covering processes frequently referred to as rapid prototyping and rapid manufacturing, provides new opportunities in the manufacture of highly complex and custom-fitting medical devices and products. Whilst many medical applications of AM have been explored and physical properties of the resulting parts have been studied, the characterisation of AM materials in computed tomography has not been explored. The aim of this study was to determine the CT number of commonly used AM materials. There are many potential applications of the information resulting from this study in the design and manufacture of wearable medical devices, implants, prostheses and medical imaging test phantoms. A selection of 19 AM material samples were CT scanned and the resultant images analysed to ascertain the materials' CT number and appearance in the images. It was found that some AM materials have CT numbers very similar to human tissues, FDM, SLA and SLS produce samples that appear uniform on CT images and that 3D printed materials show a variation in internal structure.

  11. Surface layer characterisation of bearing rings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.J. Skrzypek

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available austenite. Theoretical calculation of residual macro-stresses due to volume fraction of transformed austenite in bearing rings and following measurements of residual stresses were carried out as well. The bearing elements were made of 100Cr6 steel and they were smoothed and grinded.Design/methodology/approach: Particular features of diffraction patterns like angle position; shape and intensity are used to characterize phase composition, residual micro and macro-stresses, crystallographic texture, lattice parameter, defects density and crystalline size.Findings: Machining by micro-deformation causes microstructural changes i.e. mechanically induced phase transformation of retained austenite and residual macrostresses. E.g. grinding cased tension and small compression whereas the mechanical smoothing of bearing rings caused high compresive residual stresses about -713 MPa.Research limitations/implications: For precise interpretation of differences between following results needs another investigations: i.e. measurement of retained austenite and residual stresses in rings after heat treatment before any mechanical treatment.Practical implications: The non-destructive character and large number of structural informations contained in diffraction pattern are the beneficial feature of diffraction methods. Therefore they have potential ability in application to technological operations and to diagnostic during fatigue.Originality/value: The non-destructive structure characterisation of surface layers for various kinds of bearing rings can be powerful method in surface characterization and in quality control. This results contribute in general relations between microstructure and properties.

  12. SiPM characterisation and quality Assurance for imaging calorimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Future lepton colliders like the ILC require a new generation of detectors with unprecedented precision. In this context the CALICE collaboration is developing a highly granular ''imaging'' calorimeter consisting out of ca. 8 million scintillating tiles with Silicon Photomultiplier (SiPM) readout. SiPMs are a novel type of solid state photo-detectors with promising properties. A detailed understanding and characterisation of the SiPMs as well as the characterisation and quality assurance of the scintillating tiles is essential for the final detector. In this talk results of the studies on SiPM and tile characterisation and large scale quality assurance are presented.

  13. Tibet and Beyond: Magmatic Records from CIA (Caucasus-Iran-Anatolia) and Southern Tibet with Implications for Asian Orogeny and Continental Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Sun-Lin

    2016-04-01

    This study, based on an ongoing joint research project "Tibet and Beyond", presents a synthesis of principal magmatic records from the CIA (Caucasus-Iran-Anatolia) and Tibet-Himalaya orogens resulting from the continental collisions of Arabia and India, respectively, with Eurasia. In both orogens, through this and other recent studies, the temporal and spatial variations in magmatism pre-, syn- and post-dating the collisions can now be much better defined, thus improving our understanding of collision zone magmatism that appears to have evolved with changes in the lithospheric structures over time and space by collisional processes. The two "collisional" Tethyan orogens were preceded by accretionary orogenic processes, which not only had produced a substantial amount of juvenile continental crust but also fulfill the "orogenic cycle" that evolved from an accretionary into a collisional system. Geochemical data reveal that in contrast to generating vast portions of juvenile crust in the early, accretionary stages of orogenic development, crustal recycling plays a more important role in the later, collisional stages. The latter, as exemplified in SE Turkey and southern Tibet, involves addition of older continental crust material back into the mantle, which subsequently melted and caused compositional transformation of the juvenile crust produced in the accretionary stages. Similar features are observed in young volcanic rocks from eastern Taiwan, the northern Luzon arc complex and part of the active subduction/accretion/collision system in Southeast Asia that may evolve one day to resemble the eastern Tethyan and central Asian orogenic belts by collision with the advancing Australian continent.

  14. Constraining crustal velocity fields with InSAR for Eastern Turkey: Limits to the block-like behavior of Eastern Anatolia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, R. J.; Parsons, B.; Wright, T. J.

    2014-06-01

    The Sentinel-1 satellite mission will enable global strain rate mapping from interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) and GPS data, and methods to combine these data in velocity fields will become increasingly important. Here we use InSAR to measure interseismic deformation in Eastern Turkey, across a ˜250,000 km2 area that spans the Arabia-Eurasia plate boundary zone. From our InSAR data we first estimate slip rates and locking depths for the North and East Anatolian Faults (NAF and EAF) of 20 ± 3 mm/yr and ˜16 km and 11 ± 3 mm/yr and ˜16 km, respectively, but we also combine the InSAR data with existing GPS velocity measurements to construct high-resolution velocity and strain rate fields across the region for the first time. We calculate 2-D and 3-D velocity fields and find that strain is mainly localized across the NAF and EAF and that there is negligible differential vertical motion across the Eastern Anatolian plateau. We also show that high-resolution 2-D strain rate fields can be calculated from InSAR alone, even in the absence of GPS data. We fit a block model to our velocity field and estimate slip rates of ˜21 mm/yr and ˜8 mm/yr for the NAF and EAF, showing that our previous estimates differ from these values because they neglected crustal rotation. Although this rotation is an important component of the velocity field in Eastern Turkey, systematic residuals between our velocity field and the best fitting block for Anatolia suggest that the region is not block-like as proposed by previous authors.

  15. Bioaccumulation of metals in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) from water bodies of Anatolia (Turkey): a review with implications for fisheries and human food consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilizzi, Lorenzo; Tarkan, Ali Serhan

    2016-04-01

    Although fish is widely consumed by humans for its nutritional properties, accumulation of heavy metals can pose serious health hazards. Widespread common carp Cyprinus carpio is cultured worldwide and represents an economically important species for fisheries in several countries. These include Turkey, where C. carpio often makes for a large part of the sales of the locally marketed fish and also for a traditional dish. This study provides a review of bioaccumulation of metals in tissues of C. carpio from water bodies of Anatolia and also includes reference to worldwide studies. From 42 water bodies across the region, 27 metals in total were studied, of which Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn were the most widely analysed, mainly in the muscle, liver and gill tissues. Amongst the potentially toxic metals, Cd, Cr and Pb occurred in several water bodies at concentrations not only above maximum allowed limits but also higher relative to other water bodies worldwide, even though As, Hg and Ni were also sometimes present at potentially hazardous concentrations. The essential metals Cu, Fe, Mn, Se and Zn were detected at various concentrations, with the latter two occasionally above limit. All water bodies flagged as having especially critical (i.e. above limit) concentrations of toxic metals supported C. carpio fisheries from highly populated regions, raising concern about food safety and calling for preventative measures. Given the significantly lower bioaccumulation levels in the muscle relative to the liver and gill tissues, it is suggested that consumption of C. carpio as fillets may be safer than after processing into e.g. meat balls and sausages. The limits of 1.0 μg/g for Cr and 1.15 μg/g for Se, currently lacking from the Turkish food safety legislation, are proposed, and it is suggested that a similar meta-analytical approach as adopted in this study may benefit other countries where C. carpio represents an important fisheries resource.

  16. Field evidences of secondary surface ruptures occurred during the 20 February 1956 Eskişehir earthquake in the NW Anatolia

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Faruk Ocakoğlu; Sanem Açıkalın

    2010-12-01

    Surface rupture and source fault of the 20 February 1956 Eskişehir earthquake have been a matter of debate that potentially contributes towards the understanding of the active deformation and seismic risk in the highly populated NW Anatolia. Field observations on the two fault segments (namely Kavacık and Uludere faults) in the north of the Eskişehir graben revealed evidences of co-seismic surface rupture and mass movements during the Eskişehir earthquake. Surface rupture was observed as a 2.5 m wide, a 100 m long and ca.20 cm deep asymmetric depression in the Gümüşlü valley, 2 km east of the Uludere village. A trench dug on this depression con firms a prominent high-angle south dipping fault (dominantly left lateral strike slip) and two faint north-dipping antithetics as clear noticeable shear zones in organic-rich thick soil. Mass failures are particularly observed in spring depressions filled with loose torrent and carbonaceous material in front of the fault scarp. Some rock slides of several tens of meters in size that obviously require significantly high ground shaking were also developed on steep fault scarps. The orientation of the principal stress tensor as deduced from the surface rupture of the Eskişehir earthquake displays clear inconsistency with the geometry of prominent faults in the area. We concluded that this disagreement may be explained by a curved surface rupture. The western and eastern tips of this rupture are EW trending and the probable NW-running part in the middle would correspond to the bounding zone between two right-stepping faults.

  17. Investigation of sea-level changes and shelf break prograding sequences during the Late Quaternary offshore of Kusadasi (West Anatolia) and surroundings by high resolution seismic methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurcay, Savas; Cifci, Gunay; Dondurur, Derman; Okay, Seda; Atgin, Orhan; Ozel, Ozkan; Mert Kucuk, Hilmi

    2016-04-01

    High Resolution multi-channel seismic reflection and Chirp data were collected by K. Piri Reis, research vessel of Dokuz Eylül University, in the central Aegean coast of the West Anatolia by research cruises carried out in 2005 and 2008, respectively. Submarine stratigraphic and structural features of Sıǧacık Gulf, Kuşadası Gulf and surroundings were investigated under this survey. The data were processed and interpreted in SeisLab, D.E.U. Marine Sciences and Technology seismic laboratory. Thirteen distinct unconformities can be traced below the study area that separate thirteen progradational stacked paleo-delta sequences (Lob1-Lob13) on seismic profiles following and cutting each other. As a result of comparison with the oxygen isotopic stages (δ18), these deltas (Lob1-L13) were interpreted that they have been deposited during the sea-level lowstands within Pleistocene glacial stages. In the study area the basement surface which observed as the lowest unconformity surface of the seismic sections was called 'Acoustic Basement'. This basement which traced approximately all of the seismic sections has generally quite wavy surface and underlain the upper seismic units. It was observed that these seismic units which terminated their formation in Pleistocene (Lob1-Lob13) and Holocene period were cut and uplifted by acoustic basement, like an intrusion. These type deformations were interpreted as a result of magmatic intrusion into these upper seismic units occurred in Late Pleistocene and Holocene period. Tectonic and structural interpretation was carried out to constitute the submarine active tectonic map of the study area by correlated active faults identified on seismic sections. Submarine active tectonic map and, basement topography and sediment thickness map were correlated together to present the relationship between tectonic deformation and stratigraphy.

  18. Chemically diverse polymer microarrays and high throughput surface characterisation: a method for discovery of materials for stem cell culture†Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c4bm00054dClick here for additional data file.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celiz, A D; Smith, J G W; Patel, A K; Langer, R; Anderson, D G; Barrett, D A; Young, L E; Davies, M C; Denning, C; Alexander, M R

    2014-11-30

    Materials discovery provides the opportunity to identify novel materials that are tailored to complex biological environments by using combinatorial mixing of monomers to form large libraries of polymers as micro arrays. The materials discovery approach is predicated on the use of the largest chemical diversity possible, yet previous studies into human pluripotent stem cell (hPSC) response to polymer microarrays have been limited to 20 or so different monomer identities in each study. Here we show that it is possible to print and assess cell adhesion of 141 different monomers in a microarray format. This provides access to the largest chemical space to date, allowing us to meet the regenerative medicine challenge to provide scalable synthetic culture ware. This study identifies new materials suitable for hPSC expansion that could not have been predicted from previous knowledge of cell-material interactions.

  19. Characterisation of Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia at Tygerberg hospital

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Orth, H.; Dreyer, Z.S.; Makgotlho, E.; Oosthuysen, W.; Sinha, B.; Wasserman, E.

    2013-01-01

    To elucidate the local epidemiology of Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia, we characterised blood culture isolates using molecular methods and prospectively collected clinical data to determine the occurrence of community-acquired, methicillinresistant S. aureus (MRSA). Consecutive S. aureus blood cu

  20. Characterisation of COPD heterogeneity in the ECLIPSE cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agusti, Alvar; Calverley, Peter M A; Celli, Bartolome;

    2010-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a complex condition with pulmonary and extra-pulmonary manifestations. This study describes the heterogeneity of COPD in a large and well characterised and controlled COPD cohort (ECLIPSE)....

  1. Overlooked Childhoods in the Nordic States characterised by Homogeneity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singla, Rashmi

    Overlooked Childhoods in the Nordic States characterised by Homogeneity: Children in visibly ethnically mixed households The research about immigrant children in Scandinavia almost completely overlooks a category of children of mixed parentage, though the recent globalisation has led to increase ...

  2. A demonstration of enhancements in interfacial rheological characterisations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hodder, Peter; Baldursdottir, Stefania G.

    projects and publications associated with the field of interfacial rheology. After previous experimentation by Dr. Stefania Baldursdottir, there was a keen interest in the ability to reduce the concentrations of proteins used for interfacial characterisations so that expensive therapeutically active...

  3. Phenotype characterisation using integrated gene transcript, protein and metabolite profiling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Orešič, M.; Clish, C.B.; Davidov, E.J.; Verheij, E.; Vogels, J.; Havekes, L.M.; Neumann, E.; Adourian, A.; Naylor, S.; Greef, J. van der; Plasterer, T.

    2004-01-01

    Multifactorial diseases present a significant challenge for functional genomics. Owing to their multiple compartmental effects and complex biomolecular activities, such diseases cannot be adequately characterised by changes in single components, nor can pathophysiological changes be understood by ob

  4. Characterisation of high dose aerosols from dry powder inhalers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grasmeijer, Floris; Hagedoorn, Paul; Frijlink, Henderik W; de Boer, Anne H

    2012-01-01

    Developments in high dose dry powder aerosol delivery will increasingly challenge the applicability of currently used aerosol characterisation techniques. With cascade impaction analysis bounce effects can negatively influence stage collection efficiency, especially with increasing impactor loads. I

  5. Chemical Emergencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    When a hazardous chemical has been released, it may harm people's health. Chemical releases can be unintentional, as in the case of an ... the case of a terrorist attack with a chemical weapon. Some hazardous chemicals have been developed by ...

  6. Site characterisation and monitoring for environmental remediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Available in abstract form only. Full text of publication follows: Radioactive contamination of nuclear and mineral processing sites can be very varied. Early work in the extraction of uranium and thorium led to the disposal of large amounts of waste containing a variety of daughter radioisotopes. Later, the development of nuclear weapon programs led to large scale processing of uranium and thorium ores, physical separation of isotopes, and the initiation of nuclear fission with the resulting production of fission product radionuclides and activated metals. Weapons testing and reprocessing of reactor fuel again led to the release of fission and activation products, together with radioelements from the chemistry of fuel extraction. Finally the recovery of oil and gas reserves have once again led to renewed interest in NORM (naturally occurring radioactive materials) in the form of Pb-210/Po-210 scales in gas pipelines and Ra-226/Ra-228 in oil pipelines. Methods of monitoring for the contamination generated from all of these processes are considered together with recommended monitoring options for contamination products using gamma, beta and alpha measuring techniques. Specific examples of several site characterisation and monitoring projects are given - covering site investigation through to in-situ and on-site monitoring during the actual remediation. Many of the projects described are of a large scale, typically involving many thousands of tons of waste material. The rapid identification and sentencing into the relevant waste categories is essential in support of on-site civil engineering processes. Consideration of tailoring the monitoring process to achieve such high throughput rates is given. (authors)

  7. Characterisation of circadian rhythms of various duckweeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muranaka, T; Okada, M; Yomo, J; Kubota, S; Oyama, T

    2015-01-01

    The plant circadian clock controls various physiological phenomena that are important for adaptation to natural day-night cycles. Many components of the circadian clock have been identified in Arabidopsis thaliana, the model plant for molecular genetic studies. Recent studies revealed evolutionary conservation of clock components in green plants. Homologues of clock-related genes have been isolated from Lemna gibba and Lemna aequinoctialis, and it has been demonstrated that these homologues function in the clock system in a manner similar to their functioning in Arabidopsis. While clock components are widely conserved, circadian phenomena display diversity even within the Lemna genus. In order to survey the full extent of diversity in circadian rhythms among duckweed plants, we characterised the circadian rhythms of duckweed by employing a semi-transient bioluminescent reporter system. Using a particle bombardment method, circadian bioluminescent reporters were introduced into nine strains representing five duckweed species: Spirodela polyrhiza, Landoltia punctata, Lemna gibba, L. aequinoctialis and Wolffia columbiana. We then monitored luciferase (luc+) reporter activities driven by AtCCA1, ZmUBQ1 or CaMV35S promoters under entrainment and free-running conditions. Under entrainment, AtCCA1::luc+ showed similar diurnal rhythms in all strains. This suggests that the mechanism of biological timing under day-night cycles is conserved throughout the evolution of duckweeds. Under free-running conditions, we observed circadian rhythms of AtCCA1::luc+, ZmUBQ1::luc+ and CaMV35S::luc+. These circadian rhythms showed diversity in period length and sustainability, suggesting that circadian clock mechanisms are somewhat diversified among duckweeds. PMID:24942699

  8. Forsmark site characterisation - Borehole KFM22 and KFM23: Derivation of porewater data by diffusion experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waber, H. N. [Rock Water Interaction, University of Bern, Bern (Switzerland); Smellie, J. A. T. [Conterra AB, Partille (Sweden)

    2012-04-15

    Within the Detum Project (Detailed Investigations in Forsmark) a 'Methodology comparison for porewater extraction and characterisation techniques' was initiated. This has centred on two shallow boreholes drilled at Soederviken within the northern part of the Forsmark characterisation site. The comparison includes different methodologies to characterise the chemical and isotopic composition of porewater residing in the connected pore space of the rock matrix. The present report describes the chemical and isotopic information of the porewater obtained by out-diffusion experiments and the diffusive isotope equilibration technique applied to originally water saturated drillcore samples. In addition, petrophysical data and solute transport properties of the rock matrix, all necessary for porewater characterisation, have also been elaborated. Specially conditioned drillcore samples were obtained from depths of less than 100 m from boreholes KFM22 and KFM23. Porewater has been extracted successfully from seven samples by laboratory out-diffusion and diffusive isotope exchange methods. The methodology to extract and analyse the porewater is outlined and the analytical data are tabulated. The data are critically reviewed for potential experimental artefacts and their significance with respect to in situ conditions. The connected pore space in the core material representing borehole KFM22 and KFM23 was measured on different types of originally saturated drillcore samples using gravimetric and isotope mass balance methods. Out-diffusion experiments were performed on kg-sized drillcore samples to derive the in situ concentration of the chemically conservative compounds chloride and bromide. The attainment of equilibrium conditions in the out-diffusion experiments was monitored by the concentration change of chloride and bromide as a function of time. The water isotope composition of porewater was determined by the diffusive isotope equilibration technique and by

  9. Forsmark site characterisation - Borehole KFM22 and KFM23: Derivation of porewater data by diffusion experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Within the Detum Project (Detailed Investigations in Forsmark) a 'Methodology comparison for porewater extraction and characterisation techniques' was initiated. This has centred on two shallow boreholes drilled at Soederviken within the northern part of the Forsmark characterisation site. The comparison includes different methodologies to characterise the chemical and isotopic composition of porewater residing in the connected pore space of the rock matrix. The present report describes the chemical and isotopic information of the porewater obtained by out-diffusion experiments and the diffusive isotope equilibration technique applied to originally water saturated drillcore samples. In addition, petrophysical data and solute transport properties of the rock matrix, all necessary for porewater characterisation, have also been elaborated. Specially conditioned drillcore samples were obtained from depths of less than 100 m from boreholes KFM22 and KFM23. Porewater has been extracted successfully from seven samples by laboratory out-diffusion and diffusive isotope exchange methods. The methodology to extract and analyse the porewater is outlined and the analytical data are tabulated. The data are critically reviewed for potential experimental artefacts and their significance with respect to in situ conditions. The connected pore space in the core material representing borehole KFM22 and KFM23 was measured on different types of originally saturated drillcore samples using gravimetric and isotope mass balance methods. Out-diffusion experiments were performed on kg-sized drillcore samples to derive the in situ concentration of the chemically conservative compounds chloride and bromide. The attainment of equilibrium conditions in the out-diffusion experiments was monitored by the concentration change of chloride and bromide as a function of time. The water isotope composition of porewater was determined by the diffusive isotope equilibration technique and by isotope mass

  10. Characterising Concurrent Tests Based on Message Sequence Chart Requirements

    OpenAIRE

    Mitchell, Bill

    2001-01-01

    MSC-s specifying system requirements can be used to generate test scripts in languages such as TTCN. In 1996 TTCN was extended in order to describe concurrent test scripts. We give a characterisation of which concurrent tests can be executed by parallel test components (PTC-s) acting in concert. We also characterise when the PTC-s give the correct test result verdict.

  11. Characterising a historical bridge’s bricks in Popayán (Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Alberto Galindo Díaz

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the procedures and results of studying the physical-mechanical and chemical-mineralogical cha-racterisation of the bricks originally used in a masonry arch bridge; the bridge was built in the first half of the 18th century in the city of Popayán, Colombia. Core-samples were thus extracted from the bridge’s lower area and sub-jected to different laboratory tests. Physical-mechanical characterisation quantified values related to dry weight, sus-pended weight, saturated weight, porosity, apparent gravity, apparent density and maximum load values, cold com-pression resistance and elasticity modulus. The results revealed the bricks’ high porosity and their low resistance to compression stress. Chemical-mineralogical characterisation involved a combination of tests including X-ray diffract-tion (XRD, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS and Fourier transformed infra-red spectroscopy (FTIR. Several mi-nerals found led to deducting the source of the raw material, as well as verifying some brick production characteris-tics of the time in the said region. Tridimite, cristobalite, magnetite and calcium carbonate were some of the phases formed by the temperatures reached while firing the bricks, while potassium sulphate presence in one of the samples conveyed the nature of the construction materials’ production characteristics. Combining XRD and XPS analysis pro-vided information about firing temperature and the new mineralogical phases appearing at the end of this process; FTIR proved functional OH and Si-O-Si group presence. These bricks’ characteristics provided valuable data for res-toration purposes, formulating a new brick from raw material complying with reconstruction requirements.

  12. Phosphogypsum surface characterisation using scanning electron microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajković Miloš B.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of application of Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM to examinations of the samples of natural gypsum and phosphogypsum. Phosphogypsum has a well developed crystalline structure, and appear in two polymorphous forms, of rombic and hexagonal shape crystals. Natural gypsum has a poorly crystalline structure. The differences in crystalline structure influence the chemical behavior of these row materials.

  13. ZT thin films produced by metal organic-chemical vapour deposition to be used as high-k dielectrics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work the synthesis and characterisation of ZrxTi1-xO2 (ZT) grown via a non conventional MOCVD apparatus on both silicon and platinum coated substrates are described. The samples have been chemically, morphologically and structurally characterised by AFM, XRD, SEM + FEG and XPS. Also high and low frequencies electrical characterisation has been performed to evaluate a possible application of such materials as high-k dielectrics

  14. Chemical analysis of Mycenaean pottery from the Menelaion and its vicinity

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, R E; Tomlinson, J.T.

    2009-01-01

    A chemical characterisation of the Mycenaean pottery from the major prehistoric site of the Menelaion in Laconia. The study defines the the lcoal pottery production and identifies the imports from various centres.

  15. Pectin functionalised by fatty acids: Diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform (DRIFT) spectroscopic characterisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamnev, Alexander A.; Calce, Enrica; Tarantilis, Petros A.; Tugarova, Anna V.; De Luca, Stefania

    2015-01-01

    Chemically modified pectin derivatives obtained by partial esterification of its hydroxyl moieties with fatty acids (FA; oleic, linoleic and palmitic acids), as well as the initial apple peel pectin were comparatively characterised using diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform (DRIFT) spectroscopy. Characteristic changes observed in DRIFT spectra in going from pectin to its FA esters are related to the corresponding chemical modifications. Comparing the DRIFT spectra with some reported data on FTIR spectra of the same materials measured in KBr or NaCl matrices has revealed noticeable shifts of several polar functional groups both in pectin and in its FA-esterified products induced by the halide salts. The results obtained have implications for careful structural analyses of biopolymers with hydrophilic functional groups by means of different FTIR spectroscopic methodologies.

  16. Characterisation of the Redox Sensitive NMDA Receptor

    KAUST Repository

    Alzahrani, Ohood

    2016-05-01

    Glucose entry into the brain and its subsequent metabolism to L-lactate, regulated by astrocytes, plays a major role in synaptic plasticity and memory formation. A recent study has shown that L-lactate produced by the brain upon stimulation of glycolysis, and glycogen-derived L-lactate from astrocytes and its transport into neurons, is crucial for memory formation. A recent study revealed the molecular mechanisms that underlie the role of L-lactate in neuronal plasticity and long-term memory formation. L-lactate was shown to induce a cascade of molecular events via modulation of redox-sensitive N-Methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor activity that was mimicked by nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide hydride (NADH) co-enzyme. This indicated that changes in cellular redox state, following L-lactate transport inside the cells and its subsequent metabolism, production of NADH, and favouring a reduced state are the key effects of L-lactate. Therefore, we are investigating the role of L-lactate in modulating NMDA receptor function via redox modulatory sites. Accordingly, crucial redox-sensitive cysteine residues, Cys320 and Cys87, of the NR2A NMDA receptor subunit are mutated using site-directed mutation, transfected, and expressed in HEK293 cells. This cellular system will then be used to characterise and monitor its activity upon Llactate stimulation, compared to the wild type. This will be achieved by calcium imaging, using fluorescent microscopy. Our data shows that L-lactate potentiated NMDA receptor activity and increased intracellular calcium influx in NR1/NR2A wild type compared to the control condition (WT NR1/NR2A perfused with (1μM) glutamate and (1μM) glycine agonist only), showing faster response initiation and slower decay rate of the calcium signal to the baseline. Additionally, stimulating with L-lactate associated with greater numbers of cells having high fluorescent intensity (peak amplitude) compared to the control. Furthermore, L-lactate rescued the

  17. Characterisation of DEFB107 by mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCullough, Bryan J.; Eastwood, Hayden; Clark, Dave J.; Polfer, Nick C.; Campopiano, Dominic J.; Dorin, Julia A.; Maxwell, Alison; Langley, Ross J.; Govan, John R. W.; Bernstein, Summer L.; Bowers, Michael T.; Barran, Perdita E.

    2006-05-01

    Mammalian defensins are small endogenous cationic proteins which form a class of antimicrobial peptides that is part of the innate immune response of all mammalian species [R. Lehrer, Nat. Rev. Microbiol. 2 (9) (2004) 727; T. Ganz, R.I. Lehrer, Curr. Opin. Immunol. 6 (4) (1994) 584] [1] and [2]. We have developed mass spectrometry based strategies for characterising the structure-activity relationship of defensins [D.J. Campopiano, D.J. Clarke, N.C. Polfer, P.E. Barran, R.J. Langley, J.R.W. Govan, A. Maxwell, J.R. Dorin, J. Biol. Chem. 279 (47) (2004) 48671; P.E. Barran, N.C. Polfer, D.J. Campopiano, D.J. Clarke, P.R.R. Langridge-Smith, R.J. Langley, J.R.W. Govan, A. Maxwell, J.R. Dorin, R.P. Millar, M.T. Bowers, Int. J. Mass Spectrom. 240 (2005) 273] [3] and [4], and here we present data obtained from a five cysteine containing [beta]-defensin, DEFB107. The synthetic product of this human defensin exists with a glutathione capping group, its oxidation state and disulphide connectivity have been determined via accurate mass measurements and peptide mass mapping respectively, and despite possessing three disulphide bridges, it does not fit the [beta]-defensin canonical motif. With the use of molecular modelling, we have generated candidate geometries to discern the influence of disulphide bridging on the overall tertiary structure of DEFB107. These are compared with experimental results from ion mobility measurements. Defensins display activity against a wide variety of pathogens including both gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria. Their mechanism of mode of action is unknown, but is believed to involve defensin aggregation at cell surfaces, followed by cell permeabilisation and hence deathE To probe this mechanism, the localisation of DEFB107 in synthetic vesicles was studied using H/D exchange and mass spectrometry. The results obtained are used to analyse the antimicrobial activity of DEFB107.

  18. Sulfate reduction controlled by organic matter availability in deep sediment cores from the saline, alkaline Lake Van (Eastern Anatolia, Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clemens eGlombitza

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available As part of the International Continental Drilling Program (ICDP deep lake drilling project PaleoVan, we investigated sulfate reduction (SR in deep sediment cores of the saline, alkaline (salinity 21.4 ‰, alkalinity 155 m mEq-1, pH 9.81 Lake Van, Turkey. The cores were retrieved in the Northern Basin (NB and at Ahlat Ridge (AR and reached a maximum depth of 220 m. Additionally, 65-75 cm long gravity cores were taken at both sites. Sulfate reduction rates (SRR were low (≤ 22 nmol cm-3 d-1 compared to lakes with higher salinity and alkalinity, indicating that salinity and alkalinity are not limiting SR in Lake Van. Both sites differ significantly in rates and depth distribution of SR. In NB, SRR are up to 10 times higher than at AR. Sulfate reduction (SR could be detected down to 19 meters below lake floor (mblf at NB and down to 13 mblf at AR. Although SRR were lower at AR than at NB, organic matter (OM concentrations were higher. In contrast, dissolved OM in the pore water at AR contained more macromolecular OM and less low molecular weight OM. We thus suggest, that OM content alone cannot be used to infer microbial activity at Lake Van but that quality of OM has an important impact as well. These differences suggest that biogeochemical processes in lacustrine sediments are reacting very sensitively to small variations in geological, physical or chemical parameters over relatively short distances. 

  19. Long continental pollen record of the last ca. 500 ka in eastern Anatolia - First palynological results from Lake Van cores obtained in 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickarski, N.; Heumann, G.; Litt, T.

    2012-04-01

    Lake Van is located in a climatically sensitive semiarid and tectonically active region in Eastern Anatolia, Turkey. It is a key site to reconstruct terrestrial paleoecology and paleoclimate in the Near East during the Quaternary. Lake Van is the largest soda lake (surface area 3.570 km2) and the fourth largest terminal lake in the world (volume 607 km3). The maximum water depth is 460 m and the maximum length is 130 km WSW-ENE. The present lake level is at an elevation of 1,646 m above mean sea level. The northern and eastern part of Lake Van is mainly characterized by steppe vegetation related to the so-called Irano-Turanian plant geographical territory. In contrast, some remnants of deciduous oak forests can be observed mainly in the Bitlis Massive, SW of the lake. We present preliminary palynological results of a long continental sedimentary record obtained during a coring campaign supported by the International Continental Scientific Drilling Program (ICDP) in summer 2010. The composite profile from the Ahlat Ridge, the most important site for paleoclimatological studies (total length of ca. 218 m), yields a continuous paleoclimate archive encompassing ca. 500.000 years. The record is partly characterized by annually laminated sediments. By using pollen analysis, several glacial and interglacial/ interstadial periods can be observed. The warm stages can be identified based on higher amounts of pollen from thermophilous trees such as deciduous oak. In addition to the current interglacial stage (MIS 1), pronounced warm phases coincide with past interglacials probably correlative to MIS 5, 7, 9 and 11 or 13. Cold stages are characterized by pollen types related to steppe plants such as Artemisia, chenopods and grasses. The glacial-interglacial cycles as reflected in the palynological data are in broad agreement with those of stable oxygen isotope analyses based on autigenic carbonate of the lacustrine sediments (bulk). Caused by the state of the art, more

  20. Dating of the late Quaternary volcanic events using Uranium-series technique on travertine deposit: A case study in Ihlara, Central Anatolia Volcanic Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karabacak, Volkan; Tonguç Uysal, İ.; Ünal-İmer, Ezgi

    2016-04-01

    Dating of late Quaternary volcanism is crucial to understanding of the recent mechanism of crustal deformation and future volcanic explosivity risk of the region. However, radiometric dating of volcanic products has been a major challenge because of high methodological error rate. In most cases, there are difficulties on discrimination of the volcanic lava flow relations in the field. Furthermore, there would be unrecorded and unpreserved volcanoclastic layers by depositional and erosional processes. We present a new method that allows precise dating of late Quaternary volcanic events (in the time range of 0-500,000 years before present) using the Uranium-series technique on travertine mass, which is thought to be controlled by the young volcanism. Since the high pressure CO2 in the spring waters are mobilized during crustal strain cycles and the carbonates are precipitated in the fissures act as conduit for hot springs, thus, travertine deposits provide important information about crustal deformation. In this study we studied Ihlara fissure ridge travertines in the Central Anatolia Volcanic Province. This region is surrounded by many eruption centers (i.e. Hasandaǧı, Acıgöl and Göllüdaǧı) known as the late Quaternary and their widespread volcanoclastic products. Recent studies have suggested at least 11 events at around Acıgöl Caldera for the last 180 ka and 2 events at Hasandaǧı Stratovolcano for the last 30 ka. Active travertine masses around Ihlara deposited from hotwaters, which rise up through deep-penetrated fissures in volcanoclastic products of surrounding volcanoes. Analyses of the joint systems indicate that these vein structures are controlled by the crustal deformation due to young volcanism in the vicinity. Thus, the geological history of Ihlara travertine mass is regarded as a record of surrounding young volcanism. We dated 9 samples from 5 ridge-type travertine masses around Ihlara region. The age distribution indicates that the crustal

  1. Fast characterisation of cell-derived extracellular vesicles by nanoparticles tracking analysis, cryo-electron microscopy, and Raman tweezers microspectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irène Tatischeff

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The joint use of 3 complementary techniques, namely, nanoparticle tracking analysis (NTA, cryo-electron microscopy (Cryo-EM and Raman tweezers microspectroscopy (RTM, is proposed for a rapid characterisation of extracellular vesicles (EVs of various origins. NTA is valuable for studying the size distribution and concentration, Cryo-EM is outstanding for the morphological characterisation, including observation of vesicle heterogeneity, while RTM provides the global chemical composition without using any exogenous label. The capabilities of this approach are evaluated on the example of cell-derived vesicles of Dictyostelium discoideum, a convenient general model for eukaryotic EVs. At least 2 separate species differing in chemical composition (relative amounts of DNA, lipids and proteins, presence of carotenoids were found for each of the 2 physiological states of this non-pathogenic microorganism, that is, cell growth and starvation-induced aggregation. These findings demonstrate the specific potency of RTM. In addition, the first Raman spectra of human urinary exosomes are reported, presumably constituting the primary step towards Raman characterisation of EVs for the purpose of human diseases diagnoses.

  2. SiteChar. Characterisation of European CO2 storage. Deliverable D8.1. Qualitative and quantitative social site characterisations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brunsting, S.; Pol, M.; Paukovic, M. [ECN Policy Studies, Energy research Centre of the Netherlands ECN, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Kaiser, M.; Zimmer, R. [Unabhaengiges Institut fuer Umweltfragen UfU, Berlin (Germany); Shackley, S.; Mabon, L. [Scottish Carbon Capture and Storage SCCS, Edinburg, Scotland (United Kingdom); Hepplewhite, F.; Loveridge, R. [Energy Markets Unit, Scottish Government, Edinburg, Scotland (United Kingdom); Mazurowski, M.; Polak-Osiniak, D. [Polish Oil and Gas Company PGNiG, Warszawa (Poland); Rybicki, C. [AGH University of Science and Technology, Krakow (Poland)

    2012-10-15

    At local level, public support has proven crucial to the implementation of CO2 capture and storage (CCS) demonstration projects. Whereas no method exists to guarantee public acceptability of any project, a constructive stakeholder engagement process does increase the likelihood thereof. Social site characterisation can be used as an instrument to explore, plan and evaluate a process of active and constructive local stakeholder engagement in a prospective CCS project as a parallel activity to technical site characterisation. It roughly consists of a formative research phase to get acquainted with the area followed by a series of public information and engagement activities. This deliverable presents results from the first phase for the social site characterisations of a prospective CCS site in Poland (onshore) and the UK (offshore), using qualitative as well as quantitative research methods, as a first step to planning of local public engagement activities and evaluation of these activities that will be undertaken by this consortium at both sites in the near future. Although the term social site characterisation actually refers to the entire process of formative research and subsequent public outreach, and hence to the complete package of awareness work undertaken as part of SiteChar, in the present deliverable the term only refers to the formative research activities as undertaken up to now and as described in this deliverable. The qualitative part of the social site characterisation consisted of (1) a description of relevant social site characteristics such as local history; (2) interviews with relevant local stakeholders; (3) a media analysis of local newspapers. The quantitative part of the social site characterisation consisted of surveys using representative samples to characterise the local population in terms of awareness, knowledge and perceptions of CCS, felt involvement in decision making, extent of local activism, level of trust in representatives and

  3. Oscillatory behaviour in Type IA FBG: ruling out chemical complexity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, George; Kalli, Kyriacos; Canning, John; Lacraz, Amedee

    2015-09-01

    Type IA FBG are regenerated gratings that appear in hydrogenated germanosilicate fibre of all types during prolonged UV exposure. The gratings are characterised by a large Bragg wavelength shift and a concomitant increase in the mean fibre core index. Modulated index changes are complex by comparison and significantly weaker, often characterised by oscillatory growth behaviour. Low thermal stability of Type IA gratings suggests a possible chemical role similar to thermally processed optical fibres where autocatalysis has been observed. We show that GeOH and SiOH formation are not out-of-phase and follow each other, with no evidence of autocatalysis, ruling out a chemical origin.

  4. Moody Music Generator: Characterising Control Parameters Using Crowdsourcing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scirea, Marco; Togelius, Julian; Nelson, Mark

    2015-01-01

    . In this paper we conduct a listener study to determine how people actually perceive the various moods the generator can produce. Rather than directly attempting to validate that our two control param- eters represent arousal and valence, instead we conduct an open-ended study to crowd-source labels...... characterising different parts of this two- dimensional control space. Our aim is to characterise perception of the generator’s expressive space, without constraining listeners’ responses to labels specifically aimed at validating the original arousal/valence moti- vation. Subjects were asked to listen to clips...... of the con- trol space. We believe that the characterisation methodology described here is general and could be used to map the expressive range of other parameterisable generators....

  5. Geochemical Parameters Required from the SKB Site Characterisation Programme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bath, Adrian [Intellisci Ltd., Loughborough (United Kingdom)

    2002-01-01

    SKB has described its approach to site characterisation in a number of Technical Reports. One of the scientific topics in which specific information requirements and priorities are set out is geochemistry. This report for SKI examines critically whether the geochemical parameters identified in the SKB programme documents will be adequate for safety and regulatory requirements. It also examines some of the details of parameter requirements and interpretation tools that will be necessary to convert site investigation data into knowledge about chemical conditions and groundwater movements. The SKB strategy for geochemical data focuses on a small number of 'suitability indicators', primarily dissolved oxygen, pH and salinity. Their parameter requirements aim to assess those primary characteristics, as well as to acquire a wider range of data that will support those assessments and provide a broader understanding of candidate areas. An initial observation in this review that, though it is a primary suitability indicator, dissolved oxygen apparently will not be measured and instead will be inferred from other redox indicators. This raises a number of issues about sampling and monitoring measures, analytical data reliability and sensitivity, and the degree of confidence in geochemical understanding. A geochemical programme involves reconnaissance by desk study and acquisition of new data at levels of details that are appropriate to the stage of site investigations. As early as possible, a conceptual model of a candidate area should help to define the objectives of geochemical measurements on both rock and groundwater samples. It is recommended that parameters requirements should be defined and considered not only in terms of isolated measurements but more in terms of addressing broader objectives that relate to safety and also to geoscientific understanding. The safety priorities remain (e.g. dissolved oxygen) but will then be supported by an understanding of

  6. Geochemical Parameters Required from the SKB Site Characterisation Programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SKB has described its approach to site characterisation in a number of Technical Reports. One of the scientific topics in which specific information requirements and priorities are set out is geochemistry. This report for SKI examines critically whether the geochemical parameters identified in the SKB programme documents will be adequate for safety and regulatory requirements. It also examines some of the details of parameter requirements and interpretation tools that will be necessary to convert site investigation data into knowledge about chemical conditions and groundwater movements. The SKB strategy for geochemical data focuses on a small number of 'suitability indicators', primarily dissolved oxygen, pH and salinity. Their parameter requirements aim to assess those primary characteristics, as well as to acquire a wider range of data that will support those assessments and provide a broader understanding of candidate areas. An initial observation in this review that, though it is a primary suitability indicator, dissolved oxygen apparently will not be measured and instead will be inferred from other redox indicators. This raises a number of issues about sampling and monitoring measures, analytical data reliability and sensitivity, and the degree of confidence in geochemical understanding. A geochemical programme involves reconnaissance by desk study and acquisition of new data at levels of details that are appropriate to the stage of site investigations. As early as possible, a conceptual model of a candidate area should help to define the objectives of geochemical measurements on both rock and groundwater samples. It is recommended that parameters requirements should be defined and considered not only in terms of isolated measurements but more in terms of addressing broader objectives that relate to safety and also to geoscientific understanding. The safety priorities remain (e.g. dissolved oxygen) but will then be supported by an understanding of processes

  7. Characterisation of crude oil components, asphaltene aggregation and emulsion stability by means of near infrared spectroscopy and multivariate analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aske, Narve

    2002-06-01

    Effective separation of water-in-crude oil emulsions is a central challenge for the oil industry on the Norwegian Continental Shelf, especially with the future increase in subsea and even down-hole processing of well fluids. The mechanisms and properties governing emulsion stability are far from fully understood but the indigenous surface active crude oil components are believed to play a major role. In this work a thorough physico-chemical characterisation of a set of crude oils originating from a variety of production fields has been performed. Crude oil properties responsible for emulsion stability were identified by use of multivariate analysis techniques like partial least squares regression (PLS) and principal component analysis (PCA). Interfacial elasticity along with both asphaltene content and asphaltene aggregation state were found to be main contributors to emulsion stability. Information on a crude oils ability to form elastic crude oil-water interfaces was found to be especially crucial when discussing emulsion stability. However, measured values of interfacial elasticity were highly dependent on asphaltene aggregation state. Several experimental techniques was utilised and partly developed for the crude oil characterisation. A high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) scheme was developed for SARA-fractionation of crude oils and an oscillating pendant drop tensiometer was used for characterisation of interfacial rheological properties. For emulsion stability a cell for determining the stability as a function of applied electric fields was used. In addition, near infrared spectroscopy (NIR) was used throughout the work both for chemical and physical characterisation of crude oils and model systems. High pressure NIR was used to study the aggregation of asphaltenes by pressure depletion. A new technique for detection of asphaltene aggregation onset pressures based on NIR combined with PCA was developed. It was also found that asphaltene aggregation is

  8. Characterisation of ferroelectric bulk materials and thin films

    CERN Document Server

    Cain, Markys G

    2014-01-01

    This book presents a comprehensive review of the most important methods used in the characterisation of piezoelectric, ferroelectric and pyroelectric materials. It covers techniques for the analysis of bulk materials and thick and thin film materials and devices. There is a growing demand by industry to adapt and integrate piezoelectric materials into ever smaller devices and structures. Such applications development requires the joint development of reliable, robust, accurate and - most importantly - relevant and applicable measurement and characterisation methods and models. In the past f

  9. Characterisation of a Sr-90 based electron monochromator

    CERN Document Server

    Arfaoui, S; CERN; Casella, C; ETH Zurich

    2015-01-01

    This note describes the characterisation of an energy filtered Sr-90 source to be used in laboratory studies that require Minimum Ionising Particles (MIP) with a kinetic energy of up to approx. 2 MeV. The energy calibration was performed with a LYSO scintillation crystal read out by a digital Silicon Photomultiplier (dSiPM). The LYSO/dSiPM set-up was pre-calibrated using a Na-22 source. After introducing the motivation behind the usage of such a device, this note presents the principle and design of the electron monochromator as well as its energy and momentum characterisation.

  10. Major leaching processes of combustion residues - Characterisation, modelling and experimental investigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan Jinying

    1998-12-31

    Characterising leaching behaviour provides ample evidence to identify the major leaching processes of combustion residues. Neutralisation and chemical weathering govern the leaching reactions and control the release of elements from combustion residues, and are thus considered to be the major leaching processes. According to experimental investigations and geochemical simulations, the leaching kinetics of buffering materials are key issues for the understanding of the neutralizing processes. The acid neutralizing capacity at different pH levels depends mainly on the mineralogy of the combustion residues. In combustion residues, the dissolution of glass phases is expected to play an important role in a long-term neutralizing process. The neutralizing process in a flow system is significantly different from that in a batch system. The neutralizing ability of a combustion residue may be strongly affected by solute transport and carbonation reactions in a natural leaching environment. The chemical weathering mainly involves the matrix of combustion residues consisting mostly of glass phases. The dissolution kinetics of waste glass and other possible processes involved in the chemical weathering have been investigated and incorporated into a kinetic reactive transport model. Most important processes in the chemical weathering can be simulated simultaneously using this model. The results show that there is a complicated relationship between the factors controlling the long-term chemical weathering. The environmental impact of the glass dissolution cannot be neglected. Although the glass dissolution provides considerable buffering capacity in long-term weathering, the carbonate is usually a dominant buffering mineral in actual weathering processes. The transformation of carbonate should be considered as an important process in the chemical weathering. The formation of secondary minerals may considerably alter the mineralogy of the waste, and thus change the leaching

  11. Characterisation of contaminated metals using an advanced statistical toolbox - Geostatistical characterisation of contaminated metals: methodology and illustrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiological characterisation plays an important role in the process to recycle contaminated or potentially contaminated metals. It is a platform for planning, identification of the extent and nature of contamination, assessing potential risk impacts, cost estimation, radiation protection, management of material arising from decommissioning as well as for the release of the materials as well as the disposal of the generated secondary waste as radioactive waste. Key issues in radiological characterisation are identification of objectives, development of a measurement and sampling strategy (probabilistic, judgmental or a combination thereof), knowledge management, traceability, recording and processing of obtained information. By applying advanced combination of statistical and geostatistical in the concept better performance can be achieved at a lower cost. This paper will describe the benefits with the usage of the available methods in the different stages of the characterisation, treatment and clearance processes aiming for reliable results in line with the data quality objectives. (authors)

  12. Aluminium phosphate sulphate minerals (APS) associated with proterozoic unconformity-type uranium deposits: crystal-chemical characterisation and petrogenetic significance; Les sulfates phosphates d'aluminium hydrates (APS) dans l'environnement des gisements d'uranium associes a une discordance proterozoique: caracterisation cristallochimique et signification petrogenetique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaboreau, St

    2005-07-01

    Aluminium phosphate sulfate minerals (APS) are particularly widespread and spatially associated with hydrothermal clay alteration in both the East Alligator River Uranium Field (Northern Territory, Australia) and the Athabasca basin (Saskatchewan, Canada), in the environment of proterozoic unconformity-related uranium deposits (URUD). The purpose of this study is both: 1) to characterize the nature and the origin of the APS minerals on both sides of the middle proterozoic unconformity between the overlying sandstones and the underlying metamorphic basement rocks that host the uranium ore bodies, 2) to improve our knowledge on the suitability of these minerals to indicate the paleo-conditions (redox, pH) at which the alteration processes relative to the uranium deposition operated. The APS minerals result from the interaction of oxidising and relatively acidic fluids with aluminous host rocks enriched in monazite. Several APS-bearing clay assemblages and APS crystal-chemistry have also been distinguished as a function of the distance from the uranium ore bodies or from the structural discontinuities which drained the hydrothermal solutions during the mineralisation event. One of the main results of this study is that the index mineral assemblages, used in the recent literature to describe the alteration zones around the uranium ore bodies, can be theoretically predicted by a set of thermodynamic calculations which simulate different steps of fluid-rock interaction processes related to a downward penetrating of hyper-saline, oxidizing and acidic diagenetic fluids through the lower sandstone units of the basins and then into the metamorphic basement rocks. The above considerations and the fact that APS with different crystal-chemical compositions crystallized in a range of fO{sub 2} and pH at which uranium can either be transported in solution or precipitated as uraninite in the host-rocks make these minerals not only good markers of the degree of alteration of the

  13. Complementary Physical and Mechanical Techniques to Characterise Tooth: A Bone-like Tissue

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Peter Zioupos; Keith D. Rogers

    2006-01-01

    Bone like tissues are biocomposites comprising an organic matrix (mostly collagen) and a reinforcement phase in the form of mineral crystals (poorly stoichiometric apatite). The composite properties are a result of the material characteristics of the two phases, their interaction, the relative composition, the orientation and the micro-architecture of the structure. The inherent spatial heterogeneity of these tissues (a result of evolutionary and functional requirements) and their exposure to various environmental and mechanical influences result in highly variable properties on the microscale, which can only be characterised by modern microanalytical methods. We present here results obtained by the complementary use of the modern nanoindentation and micro-X-ray diffraction techniques, which were used to probe the properties and structure of human dentine and enamel of primary molar teeth. The results show that both the addition and the higher organization of mineral within the organic matrix produce stiffer and harder tissue and that the examination of properties within small tissue volumes can be reliably achieved by use of these two methods in parallel. This opens new avenues in the study of biomaterial in general, and for the local characterisation of regions of teeth that suffered bacterial attack, mechanical wear, fluoridisation, chemical bleaching, or dental treatment such as laser ablation or drilling.

  14. Characterisation of baroque tin amalgam mirrors of the historical Green Vault in Dresden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zywitzki, O.; Nedon, W.; Kopte, T.; Modes, T.

    2008-07-01

    The historical Green Vault, one of Europe’s most sumptuous treasure chambers, has reopened in September 2006 in the Dresden Royal Palace. For the baroque presentation of the artworks the special properties of tin amalgam mirrors are of great importance. A comprehensive analytic characterisation was necessary for restoration and reconstruction. The different original casting glasses were analysed in respect of chemical composition, roughness, waviness and optical properties like chromaticity coordinates and transmittance. The microstructure of the tin amalgam layers were investigated on metallographic cross-sections and by X-ray diffraction. The investigations reveal that the tin amalgam layers are composed of γ-HgSn6-10 phase with a grain size between 5 and 50 μm surrounded by a thin mercury phase with about 2 wt. % tin. However the most important property of the baroque tin amalgam mirrors is a relative low reflectivity of about 59% which is drastically lower than for silver mirrors with a reflectivity of about 96%. According to the characterisation results a suitable glass for reconstruction was selected. The mirror layers were produced by historical tin amalgam technology for the rooms not destroyed by bombarding of Dresden in February 1945. For the completely destroyed Jewel Room pure tin layers were deposited by magnetron sputtering. The results show that this new technology enables an adequate substitute for the original tin amalgam layers.

  15. Characterisation and Antioxidant Activity of Crude Extract and Polyphenolic Rich Fractions from C. incanus Leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gori, Antonella; Ferrini, Francesco; Marzano, Maria Cristina; Tattini, Massimiliano; Centritto, Mauro; Baratto, Maria Camilla; Pogni, Rebecca; Brunetti, Cecilia

    2016-01-01

    Cistus incanus (Cistaceae) is a Mediterranean evergreen shrub. Cistus incanus herbal teas have been used as a general remedy in traditional medicine since ancient times. Recent studies on the antioxidant properties of its aqueous extracts have indicated polyphenols to be the most active compounds. However, a whole chemical characterisation of polyphenolic compounds in leaves of Cistus incanus (C. incanus) is still lacking. Moreover, limited data is available on the contribution of different polyphenolic compounds towards the total antioxidant capacity of its extracts. The purpose of this study was to characterise the major polyphenolic compounds present in a crude ethanolic leaf extract (CEE) of C. incanus and develop a method for their fractionation. Superoxide anion, hydroxyl and DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) radical scavenging assays were also performed to evaluate the antioxidant properties of the obtained fractions. Three different polyphenolic enriched extracts, namely EAC (Ethyl Acetate Fraction), AF1 and AF2 (Aqueos Fractions), were obtained from CEE. Our results indicated that the EAC, enriched in flavonols, exhibited a higher antiradical activity compared to the tannin enriched fractions (AF1 and AF2). These findings provide new perspectives for the use of the EAC as a source of antioxidant compounds with potential uses in pharmaceutical preparations. PMID:27548139

  16. Characterisation and Antioxidant Activity of Crude Extract and Polyphenolic Rich Fractions from C. incanus Leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonella Gori

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Cistus incanus (Cistaceae is a Mediterranean evergreen shrub. Cistus incanus herbal teas have been used as a general remedy in traditional medicine since ancient times. Recent studies on the antioxidant properties of its aqueous extracts have indicated polyphenols to be the most active compounds. However, a whole chemical characterisation of polyphenolic compounds in leaves of Cistus incanus (C. incanus is still lacking. Moreover, limited data is available on the contribution of different polyphenolic compounds towards the total antioxidant capacity of its extracts. The purpose of this study was to characterise the major polyphenolic compounds present in a crude ethanolic leaf extract (CEE of C. incanus and develop a method for their fractionation. Superoxide anion, hydroxyl and DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging assays were also performed to evaluate the antioxidant properties of the obtained fractions. Three different polyphenolic enriched extracts, namely EAC (Ethyl Acetate Fraction, AF1 and AF2 (Aqueos Fractions, were obtained from CEE. Our results indicated that the EAC, enriched in flavonols, exhibited a higher antiradical activity compared to the tannin enriched fractions (AF1 and AF2. These findings provide new perspectives for the use of the EAC as a source of antioxidant compounds with potential uses in pharmaceutical preparations.

  17. Characterisation of black carbon-rich samples by 13C solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novotny, Etelvino H.; Hayes, Michael H. B.; Deazevedo, Eduardo R.; Bonagamba, Tito J.

    2006-09-01

    There are difficulties in quantifying and characterising the organic matter (OM) in soils that contain significant amounts of partially oxidised char or charcoal materials. The anthropogenic black carbon (BC), such as that found in the Terra Preta de Índio soils of the Amazon region, is a good example of the OM that is difficult to analyse in such soils. 13C direct polarisation/magic angle spinning (DP/MAS) at high MAS frequency, 1H-13C cross polarisation (CP)/MAS with total suppression of spinning sidebands (TOSS), and chemical shift anisotropy (CSA) filter nuclear magnetic resonance techniques have been applied successfully for quantifying the different components of OM. However, because pyrogenic materials present strong local magnetic susceptibility heterogeneities, the use of CSA-filter and TOSS make the pulse sequences very sensitive to imperfections in the π pulses. In this study, the DP/MAS pulse sequence was replaced by a CP with a radio frequency ramp—variable amplitude CP (VACP)—VACP/MAS pulse sequence, and composite π pulses were used in the CSA-filter and TOSS pulse sequences. In that way, the component functionalities in a humic acid from a BC soil were successfully determined. The spectrometer time needed was greatly decreased by employing this VACP/MAS technique. This development provides an accurate method for characterising BC-rich samples from different origins.

  18. Characterisation of black carbon-rich samples by (13)C solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novotny, Etelvino H; Hayes, Michael H B; Deazevedo, Eduardo R; Bonagamba, Tito J

    2006-09-01

    There are difficulties in quantifying and characterising the organic matter (OM) in soils that contain significant amounts of partially oxidised char or charcoal materials. The anthropogenic black carbon (BC), such as that found in the Terra Preta de Indio soils of the Amazon region, is a good example of the OM that is difficult to analyse in such soils. (13)C direct polarisation/magic angle spinning (DP/MAS) at high MAS frequency, (1)H-(13)C cross polarisation (CP)/MAS with total suppression of spinning sidebands (TOSS), and chemical shift anisotropy (CSA) filter nuclear magnetic resonance techniques have been applied successfully for quantifying the different components of OM. However, because pyrogenic materials present strong local magnetic susceptibility heterogeneities, the use of CSA-filter and TOSS make the pulse sequences very sensitive to imperfections in the pi pulses. In this study, the DP/MAS pulse sequence was replaced by a CP with a radio frequency ramp--variable amplitude CP (VACP)--VACP/MAS pulse sequence, and composite pi pulses were used in the CSA-filter and TOSS pulse sequences. In that way, the component functionalities in a humic acid from a BC soil were successfully determined. The spectrometer time needed was greatly decreased by employing this VACP/MAS technique. This development provides an accurate method for characterising BC-rich samples from different origins. PMID:16688435

  19. The effect of environmental degradation on the characterisation of automotive clear coats by infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Pal, Karin J; Sauzier, Georgina; Maric, Mark; van Bronswijk, Wilhelm; Pitts, Kari; Lewis, Simon W

    2016-02-01

    This paper presents a study into the chemical changes occurring within automotive clear coats as a result of environmental weathering, and their potential effect upon the characterisation of samples using infrared spectroscopy combined with chemometric modelling. Testing of three samples, collected from separate vehicles, exposed to the outside environment revealed no changes in model predictions over a 175 day period; however, incorrect predictions were observed following 435 days of exposure. Inspection of the corresponding infrared spectra revealed that these changes were likely due to the hydrolysis and photodegradation of polymer chains present in the clear coat, which were not observed in samples stored away from the outside environment over a one-year period. Analysis of previously weathered samples using synchrotron infrared microscopy found these changes occurred in a top-down fashion rather than within the bulk of the clear coat. This indicates that although weathering may affect the surface characterisation of clear coats over time, the targeting of deeper portions of the clear coat layer may still provide useful information as to the identity of the vehicle.

  20. Mechanical and electrochemical characterisation of new Ti-Mo-Nb-Zr alloys for biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nnamchi, Paul S; Obayi, C S; Todd, Iain; Rainforth, M W

    2016-07-01

    The development and characterisation of new metallic biomaterials that contain non-toxic and non-allergic elements but possess low elastic modulus and low biodegradation rates, has become a topic of serious investigation in orthopaedic implant application. The lowering of elastic modulus and improving of corrosion resistance can be achieved by specific chemical alloying and super-elasticity effects, associated with a stress-induced phase transformation from the BCC metastable beta phase to the orthorhombic α″ martensite. Using this framework, this paper focuses on the effect of Nb and/or Zr micro-additions on the elastic modulus/yield strength balance and discusses microstructure, and the mechanical and electrochemical behaviour of four new β-Ti-8Mo-xNb-xZr (x=2-5) alloys, using tensile tests, X-ray diffraction, SEM characterisation, ultrasound technique and potentiodynamic polarisation methods. The results reveal that the alloys exhibit a pronounced microstructural sensitivity response, with alloying elements and excellent agreement between β-stability and high mechanical strength, with increasing Nb additions. Although all the alloys possess excellent corrosion resistance and low Young׳s modulus, Ti-8Mo-4Nb-2Zr alloy, which consists of β+α'' phases, exhibits a low Young modulus of 35GPa, which is lower than those of the commercial alloys already used in biomedical implantation. The significant corrosion resistance, nontoxicity and better mechanical compatibility are properties pertinent to preventing stress shielding and bone resorption in orthopaedic implant applications. PMID:26773649

  1. The effect of environmental degradation on the characterisation of automotive clear coats by infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Pal, Karin J; Sauzier, Georgina; Maric, Mark; van Bronswijk, Wilhelm; Pitts, Kari; Lewis, Simon W

    2016-02-01

    This paper presents a study into the chemical changes occurring within automotive clear coats as a result of environmental weathering, and their potential effect upon the characterisation of samples using infrared spectroscopy combined with chemometric modelling. Testing of three samples, collected from separate vehicles, exposed to the outside environment revealed no changes in model predictions over a 175 day period; however, incorrect predictions were observed following 435 days of exposure. Inspection of the corresponding infrared spectra revealed that these changes were likely due to the hydrolysis and photodegradation of polymer chains present in the clear coat, which were not observed in samples stored away from the outside environment over a one-year period. Analysis of previously weathered samples using synchrotron infrared microscopy found these changes occurred in a top-down fashion rather than within the bulk of the clear coat. This indicates that although weathering may affect the surface characterisation of clear coats over time, the targeting of deeper portions of the clear coat layer may still provide useful information as to the identity of the vehicle. PMID:26653507

  2. Mechanical and electrochemical characterisation of new Ti-Mo-Nb-Zr alloys for biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nnamchi, Paul S; Obayi, C S; Todd, Iain; Rainforth, M W

    2016-07-01

    The development and characterisation of new metallic biomaterials that contain non-toxic and non-allergic elements but possess low elastic modulus and low biodegradation rates, has become a topic of serious investigation in orthopaedic implant application. The lowering of elastic modulus and improving of corrosion resistance can be achieved by specific chemical alloying and super-elasticity effects, associated with a stress-induced phase transformation from the BCC metastable beta phase to the orthorhombic α″ martensite. Using this framework, this paper focuses on the effect of Nb and/or Zr micro-additions on the elastic modulus/yield strength balance and discusses microstructure, and the mechanical and electrochemical behaviour of four new β-Ti-8Mo-xNb-xZr (x=2-5) alloys, using tensile tests, X-ray diffraction, SEM characterisation, ultrasound technique and potentiodynamic polarisation methods. The results reveal that the alloys exhibit a pronounced microstructural sensitivity response, with alloying elements and excellent agreement between β-stability and high mechanical strength, with increasing Nb additions. Although all the alloys possess excellent corrosion resistance and low Young׳s modulus, Ti-8Mo-4Nb-2Zr alloy, which consists of β+α'' phases, exhibits a low Young modulus of 35GPa, which is lower than those of the commercial alloys already used in biomedical implantation. The significant corrosion resistance, nontoxicity and better mechanical compatibility are properties pertinent to preventing stress shielding and bone resorption in orthopaedic implant applications.

  3. Electrochemical characterisation of copper thin-film formation on polycrystalline platinum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkes, Balázs B; Henry, John B; Huang, Minghua; Bondarenko, Alexander S

    2012-09-17

    Electrochemically formed thin films are vital for a broad range of applications in virtually every field of modern science and technology. Understanding the film formation process could provide a means to aid the characterisation and control of film properties. Herein, we present a fundamental approach that combines two well-established analytical techniques (namely, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and electrogravimetry) with a theoretical approach to provide physico-chemical information on the electrode/electrolyte interface during film formation. This approach allows the monitoring of local and overall surface kinetic parameters with time to enable an evaluation of the different modes of film formation. This monitoring is independent of surface area and surface concentrations of electroactive species and so may allow current computational methods to calculate these parameters and provide a deeper physical understanding of the electrodeposition of new bulk phases. The ability of this method to characterise 3D phase growth in situ in more detail than that obtained by conventional approaches is demonstrated through the study of a model system, namely, Cu bulk-phase deposition on a Pt electrode covered with a Cu atomic layer (Cu(ad)/Pt). PMID:22730305

  4. Characterisation of long-term climate change by dimension estimates of multivariate palaeoclimatic proxy data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Donner

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem of extracting climatically relevant information from multivariate geological records is tackled by characterising the eigenvalues of the temporarily varying correlation matrix. From these eigenvalues, a quantitative measure, the linear variance decay (LVD dimension density, is derived. The LVD dimension density is shown to serve as a suitable estimate of the fractal dimension density. Its performance is evaluated by testing it for (i systems with independent components and for (ii subsystems of spatially extended linearly correlated systems. The LVD dimension density is applied to characterise two geological records which contain information about climate variability during the Oligocene and Miocene. These records consist of (a abundances of different chemical trace elements and (b grain-size distributions obtained from sediment cores offshore the East Antarctic coast. The presented analysis provides evidence that the major climate change associated with the Oligocene-Miocene transition is reflected in significant changes of the LVD dimension density. This is interpreted as a change of the interrelationships between different trace elements in the sediment and to a change of the provenance area of the deposited sediment.

  5. Structural characterisation and rheological properties of a polysaccharide from sesame leaves (Sesamum radiatum Schumach. & Thonn.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nep, E I; Carnachan, S M; Ngwuluka, N C; Kontogiorgos, V; Morris, G A; Sims, I M; Smith, A M

    2016-11-01

    A polysaccharide from the leaves of Sesamum radiatum was extracted by maceration in deionized water followed by ethanol precipitation then chemically and physically characterised. Monosaccharide composition and linkages were determined by high performance anion exchange chromatography (HPAEC), gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy respectively. Sesamum gum was composed of glucuronic acid, mannose, galactose, and xylose with trace quantities of glucose, rhamnose and arabinose. Proton and (13)C NMR spectroscopy, and linkage analysis revealed a glucuronomannan based structure comprising a backbone of →4)-β-d-GlcpA-(1→2)-α-d-Manp-(1→ with side-chains of galactose and xylose. Hydrated sesamum gum displayed temperature independent viscoelastic properties with no thermal hysteresis. Intrinsic viscosity was determined to be 3.31 and 4.40dLg(-1) in 0.1M NaCl and deionised water respectively, while the critical concentration was determined to be 0.1% w/v. The characterisation performed in this study will help direct potential applications of this material in foods and pharmaceuticals. PMID:27516302

  6. Ion beam characterisation of nanometre structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ion beam analysis methods have been applied to the study of technologically important issues in III-V nanometre structure science. In the first application, the incorporation of hydrogen in GaAs during electron cyclotron resonance etching was studied using the 1H(15N,αγ)12C reaction analysis method. The major part of the work was carried out using mass and energy dispersive Recoil Spectrometry (RS). RS was used to study reactions of thin metal films InP reactions. The metals investigated include Cr, Ti, Ni, Pd and Pt and the reactions as a function of temperature were studied to elucidate suitable compounds for contacts and metallization. Using 127I in the 0.5A to 0.7A MeV region as the projectile, the depth profiles for the different elements were obtained. Complementary measurements with X-ray diffraction to obtain chemical phase information as well as scanning electron microscopy to study the surface morphology were also carried out. 59 refs, 15 figs

  7. Ion beam characterisation of nanometre structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Persson, Leif

    1995-08-01

    Ion beam analysis methods have been applied to the study of technologically important issues in III-V nanometre structure science. In the first application, the incorporation of hydrogen in GaAs during electron cyclotron resonance etching was studied using the {sup 1}H({sup 15}N,{alpha}{gamma}){sup 12}C reaction analysis method. The major part of the work was carried out using mass and energy dispersive Recoil Spectrometry (RS). RS was used to study reactions of thin metal films InP reactions. The metals investigated include Cr, Ti, Ni, Pd and Pt and the reactions as a function of temperature were studied to elucidate suitable compounds for contacts and metallization. Using {sup 127}I in the 0.5A to 0.7A MeV region as the projectile, the depth profiles for the different elements were obtained. Complementary measurements with X-ray diffraction to obtain chemical phase information as well as scanning electron microscopy to study the surface morphology were also carried out. 59 refs, 15 figs.

  8. A multifrequency EPR approach to travertine characterisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Benedetto, F; Montegrossi, G; Pardi, L A; Minissale, A; Paladini, M; Romanelli, M

    2005-11-01

    The understanding of processes that give rise to travertine deposits is important. This is so because of its widespread use as decorative material, but more so in environmental studies due to the significance, by proxy, of travertine in climatology. In this paper, a multifrequency EPR spectroscopy study of the behaviour of an ubiquitary vicariant of Ca in calcite, Mn(II), is presented. EPR spectra were obtained from a natural sample at 9.5 (X-band), 95, 190, and 285GHz, and interpreted through numerical simulation. An analysis of the distribution of the zero-field splitting interaction revealed the source of some unexpected spectral features in the width of the lines in the X-band. By contrast, the homogeneous broadening plays only a minor role. Moreover, field-dependent anisotropies of the Zeeman and hyperfine tensors were observed at higher frequency. On the basis of results garnered in this study, the ZFS interaction of Mn(II) has been ascribed to the microstructural anomalies of the Mn(II) distribution in calcite. This may be considered as the fingerprint of the physical-chemical conditions at the time of travertine deposition. As a consequence, X-band EPR spectroscopy represents a specific tool to investigate the genesis, and to check the homogeneity of Mn(II) distribution in travertines as well as in other calcite-based materials. PMID:16105744

  9. Automated rock mass characterisation using 3-D terrestrial laser scanning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slob, S.

    2010-01-01

    The research investigates the possibility of using point cloud data from 3-D terrestrial laser scanning as a basis to characterise discontinuities in exposed rock massed in an automated way. Examples of discontinuities in rock are bedding planes, joints, fractures and schistocity. The characterisati

  10. Instrumental and sensory characterisation of Solaris white wines in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Jing; Toldam-Andersen, Torben Bo; Petersen, Mikael Agerlin;

    2015-01-01

    identified. Among the major non-volatile components glycerol, sulphite, sugars and organic acids were analysed. A primary sensory difference was observed among wine samples, half of which were characterised by floral and fruity flavours (peach/apricot, Muscat, melon, banana and strawberry) while...

  11. CO2 Storage Feasibility: A Workflow for Site Characterisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nepveu Manuel

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present an overview of the SiteChar workflow model for site characterisation and assessment for CO2 storage. Site characterisation and assessment is required when permits are requested from the legal authorities in the process of starting a CO2 storage process at a given site. The goal is to assess whether a proposed CO2 storage site can indeed be used for permanent storage while meeting the safety requirements demanded by the European Commission (EC Storage Directive (9, Storage Directive 2009/31/EC. Many issues have to be scrutinised, and the workflow presented here is put forward to help efficiently organise this complex task. Three issues are highlighted: communication within the working team and with the authorities; interdependencies in the workflow and feedback loops; and the risk-based character of the workflow. A general overview (helicopter view of the workflow is given; the issues involved in communication and the risk assessment process are described in more detail. The workflow as described has been tested within the SiteChar project on five potential storage sites throughout Europe. This resulted in a list of key aspects of site characterisation which can help prepare and focus new site characterisation studies.

  12. Synthesis and characterisation of uniform bisester tetra-amide segments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krijgsman, J.; Husken, D.; Gaymans, R.J.

    2003-01-01

    The synthesis and characterisation of a new type of high melting and fast crystallising amide units that can be used for copolymerisation have been studied. These bisester tetra-amide or TxTxT-dimethyl segments (T is a terephthalic unit and x=(CH2)n (n=2–8)) can be synthesised in a two-step reaction

  13. The characterisation and immobilisation of Winfrith reactor (SGHWR) wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper summarises the progress made in the twelve months to September 1986 on the DOE funded programme for the immobilisation of Winfrith Reactor Wastes. The results for the characterisation of both simulant and active homogenised sludge are reported, dealing with those properties of the sludge which relate to its performance in product preparation, handling and storage. (author)

  14. Characterisation of 'class A' polymer composites for the automotive industry

    OpenAIRE

    Schubel, Peter James

    2004-01-01

    This thesis addresses problems associated with surface quality measurement and residual volatile organic compounds for composite laminates intended for use as cosmetic body parts based on unsaturated polyester resin containing shrinkage control additives. Surface quality measurement techniques were compared for composite laminates allowing for rapid characterisation and benchmarked to industrial standards. Thermal desorption and solvent elution techniques were used for the detection of residu...

  15. Characterisation of cholera toxin by liquid chromatography - Electrospray mass spectrometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baar, B.L.M. van; Hulst, A.G.; Wils, E.R.J.

    1999-01-01

    Cholera toxin, one of the toxins that may be generated by various strains of the bacterium Vibrio cholerae, can be considered as a substance possibly used in biological warfare. The possibilities of characterising the toxin by liquid chromatography electrospray mass spectrometry (LC-ES-MS) were inve

  16. Characterisation of bovine epiblast-derived outgrowth colonies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østrup, Esben; Gjørret, Jakob; Schauser, Kirsten Hallundbæk;

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to characterise bovine epiblast-derived outgrowth colonies (OCs) with respect to the embryonic origin of their cellular components. Epiblasts were isolated mechanically from bovine Day 12 embryos. Epiblasts were cultured on feeder layers of SNL cells (neomycin...

  17. Process-theoretic characterisation of the Hermitian adjoint

    OpenAIRE

    Selby, John; Coecke, Bob

    2016-01-01

    We show that the physical principle "the adjoint associates to each state a `test' for that state" fully characterises the Hermitian adjoint for pure quantum theory, therefore providing the adjoint with operational meaning beyond its standard mathematical definition. Also, we show that for general process theories, which all admit a diagrammatic representation, this physical principle induces a reflection operation.

  18. Euromembrane 2000 highlights membrane physical characterisation and preparation techniques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sivertsen, Edvard; Yaroshchuk, A.; Ovcharenko, F.D.; Sutzkover, Iris; Hasson, David; Semiat, Raphael; Paul, D.; Krause, B.H.

    2001-01-01

    Here we present the final instalment of our Euromembrane 2000 round-up. This is the third in a series of summaries covering the event, which was held in Israel during September last year. It considers the physical characterisation of membranes, and preparation techniques which are used to produce th

  19. Biological characterisation of Haliclona (?gellius) sp.: sponge and associated microorganisms.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sipkema, D.; Holmes, B.; Nichols, S.A.; Blanch, H.W.

    2009-01-01

    We have characterised the northern Pacific undescribed sponge Haliclona (?gellius) sp. based on rDNA of the sponge and its associated microorganisms. The sponge is closely related to Amphimedon queenslandica from the Great Barrier Reef as the near-complete 18S rDNA sequences of both sponges were ide

  20. NMR characterisation and transdermal drug delivery potential of microemulsion systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kreilgaard, Mads; Pedersen, E J; Jaroszewski, J W

    2000-01-01

    ), and to compare the drug delivery potential of microemulsions to conventional vehicles. Self-diffusion coefficients determined by pulsed-gradient spin-echo NMR spectroscopy and T(1) relaxation times were used to characterise the microemulsions. Transdermal flux of lidocaine and prilocaine hydrochloride through...

  1. An ecosystem characterisation of the Bay of Bengal

    OpenAIRE

    Brewer, D.; Hayes, D.; Lyne, V.; Donovan, A.; Skewes, T.; Milton, D; Murphy, N.

    2015-01-01

    This study summarises the high level drivers on ecological systems of the BOBLME. The ecological characterisation resulted in the identification of 29 subsystems. The report recommends the development of fully integrated approaches that considers human needs and the ecological system, involving stakeholders in a transparent way.

  2. Nutrition economics - Characterising the economic and health impact of nutrition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I. Lenoir-Wijnkoop (Irene); M. Dapoigny; D. Dubois; E. Ganse (Éric); I. Gutiérrez-Ibarluzea (Iñaki); J. Hutton; P. Jones; T. Mittendorf (Thomas); M.J. Poley (Marten); S. Salminen (Seppo); M.J.C. Nuijten (Mark)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractThere is a new merging of health economics and nutrition disciplines to assess the impact of diet on health and disease prevention and to characterise the health and economic aspects of specific changes in nutritional behaviour and nutrition recommendations. A rationale exists for develo

  3. Application of differential thermal analysis for uranium oxide powders characterisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Specific Surface Area (SSA) of uranium dioxide (UO2+x) powders is a key guiding parameter for carrying out sintering of the oxide powders to get sintered UO2 pellets to be used as fuel in Nuclear Power Reactors. In present paper, oxidation of Uranium Oxide (UO2) powders employing Differential Thermal Analysis (DTA) was exploited for characterising the powders. (author)

  4. Characterisation of Oil-Gas Mixtures by Raman Spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Susanne Brunsgaard; Berg, Rolf W.; Stenby, Erling Halfdan

    2004-01-01

    . The present project deals with development of a technique for quick analysis of oil-gas mixtures. The main emphasis is laid on characterisation of gas phases in equilibrium with oil at high pressures and high temperatures by Raman spectroscopy. The Raman technique has a great potential of being useful, due...

  5. Multivariate Chemical Image Fusion of Vibrational Spectroscopic Imaging Modalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gowen, Aoife A; Dorrepaal, Ronan M

    2016-01-01

    Chemical image fusion refers to the combination of chemical images from different modalities for improved characterisation of a sample. Challenges associated with existing approaches include: difficulties with imaging the same sample area or having identical pixels across microscopic modalities, lack of prior knowledge of sample composition and lack of knowledge regarding correlation between modalities for a given sample. In addition, the multivariate structure of chemical images is often overlooked when fusion is carried out. We address these challenges by proposing a framework for multivariate chemical image fusion of vibrational spectroscopic imaging modalities, demonstrating the approach for image registration, fusion and resolution enhancement of chemical images obtained with IR and Raman microscopy. PMID:27384549

  6. Quantitative Chemical Indices of Weathered Igneous Rocks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    A study was conducted to compare the effectiveness of different weathering indices for characterising weathered igneous rocks of Hong Kong. Among eight chemical indices evaluated in this study, the Parker index has been found most suitable for a quantitative description of state of weathering. Based on geochemical results of 174 samples, the index decreases almost linearly with an increasing extent of weathering. The results enable a better understanding of the modification of geotechnical properties of igneous rocks associated with weathering processes.

  7. Implications of Late Cretaceous U-Pb zircon ages of granitic intrusions cutting ophiolitic and volcanogenic rocks for the assembly of the Tauride allochthon in SE Anatolia (Helete area, Kahramanmaraş Region, SE Turkey)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurlu, Nusret; Parlak, Osman; Robertson, Alastair; von Quadt, Albrecht

    2016-01-01

    An assemblage of NE-SW-trending, imbricate thrust slices (c. 26 km E-W long × 6.3 km N-S) of granitic rocks, basic-felsic volcanogenic rocks (Helete volcanics), ophiolitic rocks (Meydan ophiolite) and melange (Meydan melange) is exposed near the Tauride thrust front in SE Anatolia. The volcanogenic rocks were previously assumed to be Eocene because of associated Nummulitic limestones. However, ion probe U-Pb dating of zircons extracted from the intrusive granitic rocks yielded ages of 92.9 ± 2.2-83.1 ± 1.5 Ma (Cenomanian-Campanian). The Helete volcanic unit and the overlying Meydan ophiolitic rocks both are intruded by granitic rocks of similar age and composition. Structurally underlying ophiolite-related melange includes similar-aged, but fragmented granitic intrusions. Major, trace element and rare earth element analyses coupled with electron microprobe analysis of the granitic rocks show that they are metaluminus to peraluminus and calc-alkaline in composition. A magmatic arc setting is inferred from a combination of tectonomagmatic discrimination, ocean ridge granite-normalized multi-element patterns and biotite geochemistry. Sr-Nd-Pb isotope data further suggest that the granitoid rocks were derived from variably mixed mantle and crustal sources. Granitic rocks cutting the intrusive rocks are inferred to have crystallized at ~5-16 km depth. The volcanogenic rocks and granitic rocks originated in a supra-subduction zone setting that was widely developed throughout SE Anatolia. Initial tectonic assembly took place during the Late Cretaceous probably related to northward subduction and accretion beneath the Tauride continent (Keban and Malatya platforms). Initial tectonic assembly was followed by exhumation and then transgression by shelf-depth Nummulitic limestones during Mid-Eocene, as documented in several key outcrops. Final emplacement onto the Arabian continental margin took place during the Early Miocene.

  8. Biomarker geochemistry of bituminous shale sequence and crude oil in the Ereǧli-Bor Basin (Konya-Niǧde), Central Anatolia, Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kara-Gulbay, Reyhan; Erdogan, Mert; Korkmaz, Sadettin; Kadinkiz, Gökhan

    2016-04-01

    In the Ereǧli-Bor Basin (Konya-Niǧde), Central Anatolia, bituminous shale sequence with thickness ranging between 72 and 160 m occurs in lacustrine deposits of Upper Miocene-Pliocene age. The live oil has also been observed in this bituminous shale sequence. Rock-Eval/TOC, GC and GC-MS analyses were conducted on selected bituminous shale samples from four borehole (key-12/1, key-12/2, key-12/3 key-12/4) and one crude oil sample from a borehole (key-12/2) in the basin. In this study, organic matter type, maturity and depositional environment of bituminous shale are evaluated and the origin of crude oil is determined by the bituminous shale-crude oil correlation. The total organic carbon (TOC) values of the bituminous shale samples range from 1.21-13.98 wt% with an average TOC value of 4.75wt%. The bituminous shale sequence is characterized by high HI (127-662 mg HC/g TOC) and low OI (7-50 mgCO2/TOC). Tmax varies from 332-419ᵒC. Very low Pr/Ph ratios of bituminous shale (0.09-0.22) are indicative of anoxic depositional conditions. C27 is dominate sterane for bituminous shale and crude oil samples with C27>C29>C28. Normal steranes are more dominant compare to iso- and diasteranes. Ouite high sterane/hopane ratios (1.14-2.70) indicate dominant algal organic matter input for bituminous shale and source rock of crude oil. C31R/hopane ratio for bituminous shale and crude oil samples are very low (0.09-0.13) and these ratio show a lacustrine depositional envirronment for bituminous shale and source rock of crude oil. Sterane and terpane distributions of bituminous shale and crude oil are very similar. A very good correlation in terms of biomarker between bituminous shale and crude oil samples indicate that source rock of crude oil is bituminous shale. The 22S/(22R + 22S) C32 homohopane ratios of bituminous shale and crude oil samples are found to be 0.56 and 0.61, indicating that homohopane isomerization has attained equilibrium and bituminous shale and crude oil are

  9. Characterisation of metabolic profile of banana genotypes, aiming at biofortified Musa spp. cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Cristine Vanz; Amorim, Vanusia Batista de Oliveira; Ramlov, Fernanda; Ledo, Carlos Alberto da Silva; Donato, Marcela; Maraschin, Marcelo; Amorim, Edson Perito

    2014-02-15

    The banana is an important, widely consumed fruit, especially in areas of rampant undernutrition. Twenty-nine samples were analysed, including 9 diploids, 13 triploids and 7 tetraploids, in the Active Germplasm Bank, at Embrapa Cassava & Fruits, to evaluate the bioactive compounds. The results of this study reveal the presence of a diversity of bioactive compounds, e.g., catechins; they are phenolic compounds with high antioxidant potential and antitumour activity. In addition, accessions with appreciable amounts of pVACs were identified, especially compared with the main cultivars that are currently marketed. The ATR-FTIR, combined with principal components analysis, identified accessions with distinct metabolic profiles in the fingerprint regions of compounds important for human health. Likewise, starch fraction characterisation allowed discrimination of accessions according to their physical, chemical, and functional properties. The results of this study demonstrate that the banana has functional characteristics endowing it with the potential to promote human health.

  10. Studies on the preparation and characterisation of ammonium uranyl carbonate (AUC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studies have been carried out in the laboratory on the preparation of ammonium uranyl carbonate (AUC), using concentrated solution of uranyl nitrate. The precipitation of AUC has been done by addition of (NH4)2CO3 solution and injecting gaseous ammonia and carbon dioxide. The precipitates obtained under varying parameter have been characterised by chemical and XRD analysis and the precipitate obtained under ideal conditions have been found to have the formula [(NH4)4UO2(CO3)3]. Though the studies were mainly aimed at standardising the procedures for the identification of precipitates, some of the AUC samples have been tested to see their suitability for conversion to ceramic grade UO2 powder and its pelletisation and sintering properties of the pellets. The data collected during these studies is presented. (author). 15 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs

  11. Synthesis, characterisation and crystal structures of two bi-oxadiazole derivatives featuring the trifluoromethyl group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kettner, Marcos A; Klapötke, Thomas M; Witkowski, Tomasz G; von Hundling, Felix

    2015-03-01

    The synthesis, characterisation, and crystal structure determination of the closely related compounds 3,3'-bi-(5-trifluoromethyl-1,2,4-oxadiazole) and 5,5'-bi-(2-trifluoromethyl-1,3,4-oxadiazole) are reported. These two compounds are known for their bioactivity; however, in this study they serve as model compounds to evaluate the suitability of the heterocyclic oxadiazole ring system for energetic materials when the fluorine atoms in the exocyclic CF3 groups are substituted successively by nitro groups. Quantum chemical calculations for the bi-1,3,4-oxadiazole derivatives with difluoronitromethyl, fluorodinitromethyl, and trinitromethyl groups have been carried out and predict promising energetic performances for both explosive and propulsive applications.

  12. Microbiological characterisation and volatiles profile of model, ex-novo, and traditional Italian white wheat sourdoughs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ripari, Valery; Cecchi, Teresa; Berardi, Enrico

    2016-08-15

    The interplay of sourdough microbiology and generated volatile compounds that define its sensory characteristics was studied. In order to detail the flavour generating potential of microorganisms, eight single-strain dough fermentations were studied, four of them never investigated before. Moreover, for the first time, both ex-novo and traditional wheat sourdoughs were investigated and compared to chemically acidified dough. HS-SPME-GC-MS was used to sample and analyse volatile compounds, some of which have never been detected before in sourdoughs. Alcohols, esters, carbonyl compounds, and acids mainly characterised the volatile profiles. Different sourdough microbiota resulted in different volatile profiles. PCA indicated that samples could be clustered according to their specific microbiota. Production of aroma compounds was strain-specific, confirming previous findings. This study can contribute to the management of desirable features and differentiate specialty products, as well as selecting new, suitable, sourdoughs after microbial screening. PMID:27006243

  13. 纳米制备与表征%Nanoscale Fabrication and Characterisation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭全民

    2003-01-01

    @@ Are there great things to be discovered at the nanoscale? The answer is almost certainly"yes".From the microscale to the nanoscale,it is far from just scaling down,it is a "great leap forward"into a complete new regime where the physical and chemical properties of materials exhibit size dependent behaviour.A thorough understanding of the new physics and chemistry at the nanometer scale will lead to the design and fabrication of smart new functional materials and devices, for instance,electronic devices that operate on the basic principles of quantum mechanics.Nanofabrication will not go far without reliable measurement and characterisation methods.Indeed,the boom in nanotechnology all started when the scanning tunnelling microscopy (STM) was invented in 1982, which enabled surface imagning with atomic resolution.

  14. Materials Characterisation of Glass/epoxy Composites - Focusing on Process Conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Johnny; Lyckegaard, Anders; Jensen, Erik Appel;

    2013-01-01

    Predicting the behaviour of fibre reinforced polymer composites taking the process conditions into account involves advanced modelling techniques and an extensive materials characterisation. The materials characterisation of a chopped strand mat glass/epoxy composite has been the focus...

  15. Characterisation of bitumenised waste in SFR 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The waste deposited in the Final Repository for Radioactive Operational Waste, SFR, consists in part of waste solidified in bitumen. Bitumen is considered to have favourable chemical and physical properties to act as a fixation material for radioactive waste. However, during interim storage and subsequent disposal bitumen's properties may change. This may influence the stability of the bitumen matrix to retain radionuclides. This report discusses different processes affecting the long-term performance of bitumenised waste, and an evaluation of these properties in waste deposited in SFR 1 is made. The possible effect of a bitumen barrier on the release rate of radionuclides from SFR 1 is assessed. Based on leaching experiments reviewed in this study, it could take some thousand years, possibly more, to release all radionuclides in a 200-litre drum. The results are, however, extrapolated from experiments performed during a short period of time. Long- term deteriorating effects and the effect of a low temperature on the bitumen matrix are not very well documented. The literature focuses principally on bitumenised evaporator concentrate, but the bitumenised waste deposited in SFR 1 consists mainly of ion exchange resins. There are indications that the non-radioactive waste products usually investigated overestimate bitumen's ability to retain waste. Radiolytic effects has been estimated in this work to be negligible for waste categories F.17, F.20 and B.20 deposited in SFR 1, but for categories B.05, B.06 and F.18 the possibility of increased water uptake rate due to radiolysis can not be excluded. A more reasonable assumption is that bitumen will act as an effective barrier for radionuclide release during a time span from some hundreds to thousand of years. Generally, the majority of the inventory of radionuclides in SFR 1 is not solidified in bitumen. By taking the bitumen barrier into account in the modelling of release of radio- nuclides from SFR 1, the total

  16. The application of terahertz pulsed imaging in characterising density distribution of roll-compacted ribbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jianyi; Pei, Chunlei; Schiano, Serena; Heaps, David; Wu, Chuan-Yu

    2016-09-01

    Roll compaction is a commonly used dry granulation process in pharmaceutical, fine chemical and agrochemical industries for materials sensitive to heat or moisture. The ribbon density distribution plays an important role in controlling properties of granules (e.g. granule size distribution, porosity and strength). Accurate characterisation of ribbon density distribution is critical in process control and quality assurance. The terahertz imaging system has a great application potential in achieving this as the terahertz radiation has the ability to penetrate most of the pharmaceutical excipients and the refractive index reflects variations in density and chemical compositions. The aim of this study is to explore whether terahertz pulse imaging is a feasible technique for quantifying ribbon density distribution. Ribbons were made of two grades of microcrystalline cellulose (MCC), Avicel PH102 and DG, using a roll compactor at various process conditions and the ribbon density variation was investigated using terahertz imaging and section methods. The density variations obtained from both methods were compared to explore the reliability and accuracy of the terahertz imaging system. An average refractive index is calculated from the refractive index values in the frequency range between 0.5 and 1.5THz. It is shown that the refractive index gradually decreases from the middle of the ribbon towards to the edges. Variations of density distribution across the width of the ribbons are also obtained using both the section method and the terahertz imaging system. It is found that the terahertz imaging results are in excellent agreement with that obtained using the section method, demonstrating that terahertz imaging is a feasible and rapid tool to characterise ribbon density distributions. PMID:26826401

  17. Chemical use

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This is a summary of research and activities related to chemical use on Neal Smith National Wildlife Refuge between 1992 and 2009. The chemicals used on the Refuge...

  18. Chemical Reactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenney, C. N.

    1980-01-01

    Describes a course, including content, reading list, and presentation on chemical reactors at Cambridge University, England. A brief comparison of chemical engineering education between the United States and England is also given. (JN)

  19. A new chemical strain of Cladonia furcata (Huds.) Schrad. (Lichenes)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barendregt, A.; Dries, van den P.J.L.; Sipman, H.J.M.

    1982-01-01

    The well-known and widespread lichen species Cladonia furcata (Huds.) Schrad. is usually very constant in its chemistry: fumarprotocetraric acid is its main secondary metabolite, sometimes accompanied by atranorin. Recently a new chemical strain, characterised by the presence of psoromic acid instea

  20. Chemical sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauh, R. David (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    A sensor for detecting a chemical substance includes an insertion element having a structure which enables insertion of the chemical substance with a resulting change in the bulk electrical characteristics of the insertion element under conditions sufficient to permit effective insertion; the change in the bulk electrical characteristics of the insertion element is detected as an indication of the presence of the chemical substance.

  1. Multiparametric characterisation of neuronal network activity for in vitro agrochemical neurotoxicity assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alloisio, Susanna; Nobile, Mario; Novellino, Antonio

    2015-05-01

    The last few decades have seen the marketing of hundreds of new pesticide products with a forecasted expansion of the global agrochemical industry. As several pesticides directly target nervous tissue as their mechanism of toxicity, alternative methods to routine in vivo animal testing, such as the Multi Electrode Array (MEAs)-based approach, have been proposed as an in vitro tool to perform sensitive, quick and low cost neuro-toxicological screening. Here, we examined the effects of a training set of eleven active substances known to have neuronal or non-neuronal targets, contained in the most commonly used agrochemicals, on the spontaneous electrical activity of cortical neuronal networks grown on MEAs. A multiparametric characterisation of neuronal network firing and bursting was performed with the aim of investigating how this can contribute to the efficient evaluation of in vitro chemical-induced neurotoxicity. The analysis of MFR, MBR, MBD, MISI_B and % Spikes_B parameters identified four different groups of chemicals: one wherein only inhibition is observed (chlorpyrifos, deltamethrin, orysastrobin, dimoxystrobin); a second one in which all parameters, except the MISI_B, are inhibited (carbaryl, quinmerac); a third in which increases at low chemical concentration are followed by decreases at high concentration, with exception of MISI_B that only decreased (fipronil); a fourth in which no effects are observed (paraquat, glyphosate, imidacloprid, mepiquat). The overall results demonstrated that the multiparametric description of the neuronal networks activity makes MEA-based screening platform an accurate and consistent tool for the evaluation of the toxic potential of chemicals. In particular, among the bursting parameters the MISI_B was the best that correlates with potency and may help to better define chemical toxicity when MFR is affected only at relatively high concentration. PMID:25845298

  2. Chemical Leukoderma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonamonte, Domenico; Vestita, Michelangelo; Romita, Paolo; Filoni, Angela; Foti, Caterina; Angelini, Gianni

    2016-01-01

    Chemical leukoderma, often clinically mimicking idiopathic vitiligo and other congenital and acquired hypopigmentation, is an acquired form of cutaneous pigment loss caused by exposure to a variety of chemicals that act through selective melanocytotoxicity. Most of these chemicals are phenols and aromatic or aliphatic catechols derivatives. These chemicals, however, are harmful for melanocytes in individuals with an individual susceptibility. Nowadays, chemical leukoderma is fairly common, caused by common domestic products. The presence of numerous acquired confetti- or pea-sized macules is clinically characteristic of chemical leukoderma, albeit not diagnostic. Other relevant diagnostic elements are a history of repeated exposure to a known or suspected depigmenting agent at the sites of onset and a macules distribution corresponding to sites of chemical exposure. Spontaneous repigmentation has been reported when the causative agent is avoided; the repigmentation process is perifollicular and gradual, taking place for a variable period of weeks to months. PMID:27172302

  3. CHARACTERISATION OF CASSAVA FIBRE FOR USE AS A BIOMATERIAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lois Larbie

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study we investigate the cytotoxicity of de-starched cassava fibre granules and fine powder using human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC and examine changes in the composition of Simulated Body Fluid (SBF resulting from immersion of cassava fibre samples. The purpose of the study was to characterise cassavafibre for possible biomaterial applications. Preliminary results indicate insignificant cytotoxic effects on PBMCs with cassava sample concentrations of 0.1g/ml, 0.025g/ml and 0.00625g/ml. Additionally there was little or no significant change in Na, K, Mg, Cl, Ca, Mn, and Cu concentrations upon immersion in SBF as observed over a one week period at a temperature of 37°C. These initial results suggest cassava fibre may be considered for biomaterial applications following more extensive characterisation.

  4. Characterisation of Strongly Normalising lambda-mu-Terms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steffen van Bakel

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available We provide a characterisation of strongly normalising terms of the lambda-mu-calculus by means of a type system that uses intersection and product types. The presence of the latter and a restricted use of the type omega enable us to represent the particular notion of continuation used in the literature for the definition of semantics for the lambda-mu-calculus. This makes it possible to lift the well-known characterisation property for strongly-normalising lambda-terms - that uses intersection types - to the lambda-mu-calculus. From this result an alternative proof of strong normalisation for terms typeable in Parigot's propositional logical system follows, by means of an interpretation of that system into ours.

  5. Enhanced test methods to characterise automotive battery cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulder, Grietus; Omar, Noshin; Pauwels, Stijn; Leemans, Filip; Verbrugge, Bavo; De Nijs, Wouter; Van den Bossche, Peter; Six, Daan; Van Mierlo, Joeri

    This article evaluates the methods to characterise the behaviour of lithium ion cells of several chemistries and a nickel metal hydride cell for automotive applications like (plug-in) hybrid vehicles and battery electric vehicles. Although existing characterisation test methods are used, it was also indicated to combine test methods in order to speed up the test time and to create an improved comparability of the test results. Also, the existing capacity tests ignore that cells can be charged at several current rates. However, this is of interest for, e.g. fast charging and regenerative braking. Tests for high power and high energy application have been integrated in the enhanced method. The article explains the rationale to ameliorate the test methods. The test plan should make it possible to make an initial division in a group of cells purchased from several suppliers.

  6. Defect characterisation based on heat diffusion using induction thermography testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yunze; Pan, Mengchun; Luo, Feilu

    2012-10-01

    Pulsed eddy current (PEC) thermography (a.k.a. induction thermography) has been successfully applied to detect defects (corrosion, cracks, impact, and delamination) in metal alloy and carbon fiber reinforced plastic. During these applications, the defect detection mechanism is mainly investigated based on the eddy current interaction with defect. In this paper, defect characterisation for wall thinning defect and inner defect in steel is investigated based on heat diffusion. The paper presents the PEC thermography testing, which integrates the reflection mode and transmission mode by means of configuring two cameras on both sides of sample. The defect characterisation methods under transmission mode and reflection mode are investigated and compared through 1D analytical analysis, 3D numerical studies, and experimental studies. The suitable detection mode for wall thinning and inner defects quantification is concluded.

  7. Characterising encapsulated nuclear waste using cosmic-ray muon tomography

    CERN Document Server

    Clarkson, Anthony; Hoek, Matthias; Ireland, David G; Johnstone, John R; Kaiser, Ralf; Keri, Tibor; Lumsden, Scott; Mahon, David F; McKinnon, Bryan; Murray, Morgan; Nutbeam-Tuffs, Siân; Shearer, Craig; Yang, Guangliang; Zimmerman, Colin

    2014-01-01

    Tomographic imaging techniques using the Coulomb scattering of cosmic-ray muons have been shown previously to successfully identify and characterise low- and high-Z materials within an air matrix using a prototype scintillating-fibre tracker system. Those studies were performed as the first in a series to assess the feasibility of this technology and image reconstruction techniques in characterising the potential high-Z contents of legacy nuclear waste containers for the UK Nuclear Industry. The present work continues the feasibility study and presents the first images reconstructed from experimental data collected using this small-scale prototype system of low- and high-Z materials encapsulated within a concrete-filled stainless-steel container. Clear discrimination is observed between the thick steel casing, the concrete matrix and the sample materials assayed. These reconstructed objects are presented and discussed in detail alongside the implications for future industrial scenarios.

  8. Characterising the 750 GeV diphoton excess

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernon, Jérémy; Goudelis, Andreas; Kraml, Sabine; Mawatari, Kentarou; Sengupta, Dipan

    2016-05-01

    We study kinematic distributions that may help characterise the recently observed excess in diphoton events at 750 GeV at the LHC Run 2. Several scenarios are considered, including spin-0 and spin-2 750 GeV resonances that decay directly into photon pairs as well as heavier parent resonances that undergo three-body or cascade decays. We find that combinations of the distributions of the diphoton system and the leading photon can distinguish the topology and mass spectra of the different scenarios, while patterns of QCD radiation can help differentiate the production mechanisms. Moreover, missing energy is a powerful discriminator for the heavy parent scenarios if they involve (effectively) invisible particles. While our study concentrates on the current excess at 750 GeV, the analysis is general and can also be useful for characterising other potential diphoton signals in the future.

  9. Characterising the 750 GeV diphoton excess

    CERN Document Server

    Bernon, Jérémy; Kraml, Sabine; Mawatari, Kentarou; Sengupta, Dipan

    2016-01-01

    We study kinematic distributions that may help characterise the recently observed excess in diphoton events at 750 GeV at the LHC Run 2. Several scenarios are considered, including spin-0 and spin-2 750 GeV resonances that decay directly into photon pairs as well as heavier parent resonances that undergo three-body or cascade decays. We find that combinations of the distributions of the diphoton system and the leading photon can distinguish the topology and mass spectra of the different scenarios, while patterns of QCD radiation can help differentiate the production mechanisms. Moreover, missing energy is a powerful discriminator for the heavy parent scenarios if they involve (effectively) invisible particles. While our study concentrates on the current excess at 750 GeV, the analysis is general and can also be useful for characterising other potential diphoton signals in the future.

  10. Characterising encapsulated nuclear waste using cosmic-ray muon tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomographic imaging techniques using the Coulomb scattering of cosmic-ray muons have been shown previously to successfully identify and characterise low- and high-Z materials within an air matrix using a prototype scintillating-fibre tracker system. Those studies were performed as the first in a series to assess the feasibility of this technology and image reconstruction techniques in characterising the potential high-Z contents of legacy nuclear waste containers for the U.K. Nuclear Industry. The present work continues the feasibility study and presents the first images reconstructed from experimental data collected using this small-scale prototype system of low- and high-Z materials encapsulated within a concrete-filled stainless-steel container. Clear discrimination is observed between the thick steel casing, the concrete matrix and the sample materials assayed. These reconstructed objects are presented and discussed in detail alongside the implications for future industrial scenarios

  11. Microstructural characterisation of epitaxial rare earth metal based films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Epitaxial rare earth films and superlattices grown by molecular beam epitaxy, MBE, can be designed to investigate theoretical predictions of the magnetic and electronic properties of the metals. These investigations ideally require smooth epitaxial layers with atomically flat interfaces and therefore the microstructure of selected epitaxial rare earth systems has been characterised by a combination of techniques. These systems were grown on a (110) niobium parallel (112-bar0) sapphire substrate. Because the crystallographic quality of the subsequent layers is influenced by the quality of the substrate, the niobium-sapphire interface was studied with transmission electron microscopy, TEM, and high resolution electron microscopy, HREM, to identify uniquely the misfit dislocation network. Conventional TEM specimen preparation techniques were inappropriate for the preparation of metallic foils, and so appropriate specimen preparation techniques were developed. HREM was used to characterise the strain relief mechanisms within a partially relaxed holmium/yttrium superlattice

  12. Methodology for characterisation of glass fibre composite architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jens Zangenberg; Larsen, J.B.; Østergaard, R.C.;

    2012-01-01

    The present study outlines a methodology for microstructural characterisation of fibre reinforced composites containing circular fibres. Digital micrographs of polished cross-sections are used as input to a numerical image processing tool that determines spatial mapping and radii detection...... of the fibres. The information is used for different analyses to investigate and characterise the fibre architecture. As an example, the methodology is applied to glass fibre reinforced composites with varying fibre contents. The different fibre volume fractions (FVFs) affect the number of contact points per...... fibre, the communal fibre distance and the local FVF. The fibre diameter distribution and packing pattern remain somewhat similar for the considered materials. The methodology is a step towards a better understanding of the composite microstructure and can be used to evaluate the interconnection between...

  13. Characterising the Removal of Trace Organic Chemicals in Wastewater - Are we using the Right Tools?

    OpenAIRE

    Plósz, Benedek G.; Polesel, Fabio

    2015-01-01

    Hypothesis tests posed on trace organics fate and removal in wastewater are often answered using approaches that can introduce significant bias in observations made on the system. Using non-representative sampling approaches in sewer and wastewater treatment plant studies is an example (Ort et al., 2010). This study provides a critical discussion of processes and methodologies used in laboratory- and full-scale wastewater experimental studies, and offers potential solutions to observed pitfal...

  14. Natural Chemical Composition of Commercial Fish Species: Characterisation of Pangasius, Wild and Farmed Turbot and Barramundi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Manthey-Karl

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available To comply with the relevant legal requirements and correct labelling, it is necessary for business operators and inspection authorities to know the natural characteristics of the raw material. This study gives a comprehensive overview of muscle flesh composition of farmed and wild Atlantic turbot (Scophthalmus maximus and barramundi (Lates calcarifer and of farmed pangasius (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus. The proximate composition, di- and triphosphates and citric acid values are presented in order to evaluate possible indicators for a hidden treatment during processing to fillets. All moisture contents were ≤80%. Even for pangasius, protein values for deep skinned fillets of ≥18% were determined. Only small quantities of naturally occurring citric acid (up to 0.03 g·kg−1 were detectable. The lipid content was the most varying main component within the different species, ranging between 1.2% to 2.0% and 0.3% to 3.0% for farmed turbot and barramundi, respectively. Pangasius flesh had a mean lipid content of 7.8%. Trimming and separation of the red layer reduced the lipid content of the commercially sold white-flesh fillets to 2.7% to 3.5%. Fatty acids profiles, free amino acids, and minerals were analysed to show the nutritional quality of the aquaculture fish species and compared to wild turbot and barramundi. Despite some natural variation, these components can be considered as comparable.

  15. Immunomodulatory activity and chemical characterisation of sangre de drago (dragon's blood) from Croton lechleri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risco, Ester; Ghia, Felipe; Vila, Roser; Iglesias, José; Alvarez, Elida; Cañigueral, Salvador

    2003-09-01

    The immunomodulatory activity of the latex from Croton lechleri (sangre de drago) was determined by in vitro assays. Classical (CP) and alternative (AP) complement pathways activities were determined in human serum. Intracellular generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by human polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) and monocytes, and phagocytosis of opsonised fluorescent microspheres were measured by flow cytometry. Free radical scavenging activity was evaluated using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH). Activity on proliferation of murine lymphocytes was also investigated. In addition, anti-inflammatory activity was assayed in vivo by carrageenan-induced rat paw oedema test. Some of the activities were compared with those of the isolated alkaloid taspine. Sangre de drago from Croton lechleri showed immunomodulatory activity. It exhibited a potent inhibitory activity on CP and AP of complement system and inhibited the proliferation of activated T-cells. The latex showed free radical scavenging capacity. Depending on the concentration, it showed antioxidant or prooxidant properties, and stimulated or inhibited the phagocytosis. Moreover, the latex has strong anti-inflammatory activity when administered i. p. Taspine cannot be considered the main responsible for these activities, and other constituents, probably proanthocyanidins, should be also involved.

  16. Impact of targeted UPLC-MS/MS metabolomics on chemical and biochemical characterisation of MAPs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martens, Stefan

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of natural product pattern (metabolites; metabolomics and its formation (pathway; biosynthesis in plants, especially in non-model or crop plants such as medicinal and aromatic plants (MAPs, is a research field with significant potential for breeders, growers and consumers. There is an increasing importance for constant and sustainable quality of MAPs final products. Polyphenols are one of the most important compounds for the antioxidant properties of MAPs and are often, if not identified as active principle, used as lead compounds in quality assessment of herbal drugs and related preparation (herbal tea, alcoholic extracts etc.. Therefore, offering an efficient, robust and reliable fast tool to determine these quality features of MAPs will guarantee the growers, industrial users and the consumers from possible frauds.

  17. Chemical characterisation of three haemolytic compounds from the microalgal species Fibrocapsa japonica (Raphidophyceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fu, M.; Koulman, A; van Rijssel, M; Lutzen, A.; de Boer, M.K.; Tyl, M.R.; Liebezeit, G.

    2004-01-01

    The molecular Structures of the three main haemolytic compounds (Fj1, Fj2 and Fj3) isolated from the ichthyotoxic microalgal species Fibrocapsa japonica have been investigated by NMR, LC-ESI-MS, ESI-MS-MS, IR, GC-MS and GC-HRMS methods. They are polyunsaturated fatty acids which we identified as: 6,

  18. Physical and chemical characterisation of PM emissions from two ships operating in European emission control areas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moldanová, J.; Fridell, E.; Winnes, H.; Holmin-Fridell, S.; Boman, J.; Jedynska, A.; Tishkova, V.; Demirdjian, B.; Joulie, S.; Bladt, H.; Ivleva, N.P.; Niessner, R.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper emission factors (EFs) for particulate matter (PM) and some sub-components as well as gaseous substances were investigated in two onboard measurement campaigns. Emissions from two 4-stroke main engines were measured under stable-load conditions. The impact of varying engine load on the

  19. Characterisation of the non-asphaltene products of mild chemical degradation of asphaltenes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ekweozor, C.M.

    1986-01-01

    The major steranes of the non-asphaltene fraction of Nigerian tar sand bitumen (maltene) are the C{sub 27-29} and C{sub 28-29} regular steranes. The reducing-metal reaction products of the corresponding asphaltenes (maltene-I) contain mainly C{sub 27-29} regular steranes with the 14{beta}(H),17{beta}(H);20R+S and 14{alpha}(H),17{alpha}(H);20R+S configurations as well as the corresponding diasteranes having the 13{beta}(H),17{alpha}(H);20R+S configuration. These sterane distributions suggest that maltene-I corresponds to an unaltered oil while the maltene is equivalent to the product of severe biodegradation of maltene-I. This is consistent with maltene-I being the remnant of original oil trapped within the asphaltene matrix and protected from the effect of in-reservoir biodegradation. Degradation of Nigerian asphaltenes by refluxing with ferric chloride-acetic anhydride or methanolic potassium hydroxide also releases soluble reaction products having the characteristics of unaltered oil such as the presence of n-alkanes having an unbiased distribution. These methods appear to be milder and more suitable than reducing-metal reactions for releasing hydrocarbons occluded by asphaltenes. 15 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  20. Chemical characterisation and analysis of the cell wall polysaccharides of duckweed (Lemna minor).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, X; Moates, G K; Wellner, N; Collins, S R A; Coleman, M J; Waldron, K W

    2014-10-13

    Duckweed is potentially an ideal biofuel feedstock due to its high proportion of cellulose and starch and low lignin content. However, there is little detailed information on the composition and structure of duckweed cell walls relevant to optimising the conversion of duckweed biomass to ethanol and other biorefinery products. This study reports that, for the variety and batch evaluated, carbohydrates constitute 51.2% (w/w) of dry matter while starch accounts for 19.9%. This study, for the first time, analyses duckweed cell wall composition through a detailed sequential extraction. The cell wall is rich in cellulose and also contains 20.3% pectin comprising galacturonan, xylogalacturonan, rhamnogalacturonan; 3.5% hemicellulose comprising xyloglucan and xylan, and 0.03% phenolics. In addition, essential fatty acids (0.6%, α-linolenic and linoleic/linoelaidic acid) and p-coumaric acid (0.015%) respectively are the most abundant fatty acids and phenolics in whole duckweed. PMID:25037369

  1. Characterising the Removal of Trace Organic Chemicals in Wastewater - Are we using the Right Tools?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plósz, Benedek G.; Polesel, Fabio

    Hypothesis tests posed on trace organics fate and removal in wastewater are often answered using approaches that can introduce significant bias in observations made on the system. Using non-representative sampling approaches in sewer and wastewater treatment plant studies is an example (Ort et al...

  2. Chemical characterisation of dredged sediments in relation to their potential use in civil engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuliani, Tea; Mladenovič, Ana; Ščančar, Janez; Milačič, Radmila

    2016-04-01

    During capital and/or maintenance dredging operations, large amounts of material are produced. Instead of their discharge, dredged sediments may be a valuable natural resource if not contaminated. One of the possible areas of application is civil engineering. In the present work, the environmental status of seaport dredged sediment was evaluated in order to investigate its potential applicability as a secondary raw material. Sediments were analysed for element concentrations in digested samples, aqueous extracts and fractions from sequential extraction; for fluoride, chloride and sulphate concentrations in aqueous extracts; and for tributyltin (TBT). Granulometric and mineralogical compositions were also analysed. The elemental impact was evaluated by calculation of the enrichment factors. The total element concentrations determined showed moderate contamination of the dredged sediments as was confirmed also by their moderate enrichment factors, presumably as a result of industrial and port activities. Elemental concentrations in the aqueous extract were very low and therefore do not represent any hazard for the environment. The water-soluble element concentrations were under the threshold levels set by the EU Directive on the landfill of waste, on the basis of which the applicability of dredged sediments in civil engineering is evaluated, while the content of chloride and sulphate were above the threshold levels. It was found out that due to the large amounts of sediment available, civil engineering applications such as the construction of embankments and backfilling is the most beneficial recycling solution at present.

  3. Chemical characterisation of meltwater draining from Gangotri Glacier, Garhwal Himalaya, India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Virendra Bahadur Singh; A L Ramanathan; Jose George Pottakkal; Parmanand Sharma; Anurag Linda; Mohd Farooq Azam; C Chatterjee

    2012-06-01

    A detailed analytical study of major cations (Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+, K+) and anions (SO$^{2−}_{4}$, HCO$^{−}_{3}$, Cl−, NO$^{−}_{3}$) of meltwater draining from Gangotri Glacier was carried out to understand major ion chemistry and to get an insight into geochemical weathering processes controlling hydrochemistry of the glacier. In the meltwater, the abundance order of cations and anions varied as follows: Ca2+ > Mg2+ > K+ > Na+ and SO$^{2−}_{4}$ > HCO$^{−}_{3}$ < Cl− > NO$^{−}_{3}$, respectively. Calcium and magnesium are dominant cations while sulphate and bicarbonate are dominant anions. Weathering of rocks is the dominant mechanism controlling the hydrochemistry of drainage basin. The relative high contribution of (Ca+Mg) to the total cations (TZ+), high (Ca+Mg)/(Na+K) ratio (2.63) and low (Na+K)/TZ+ ratio (0.29) indicate the dominance of carbonate weathering as a major source for dissolved ions in the glacier meltwater. Sulphide oxidation and carbonation are the main proton supplying geochemical reactions controlling the rock weathering in the study area. Statistical analysis was done to identify various factors controlling the dissolved ionic strength of Gangotri Glacier meltwater.

  4. Physical and chemical characterisation of PM emissions from two ships operating in European Emission Control Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moldanová, J.; Fridell, E.; Winnes, H.; Holmin-Fridell, S.; Boman, J.; Jedynska, A.; Tishkova, V.; Demirdjian, B.; Joulie, S.; Bladt, H.; Ivleva, N. P.; Niessner, R.

    2013-12-01

    In this paper emission factors (EFs) for particulate matter (PM) and some sub-components as well as gaseous substances were investigated in two onboard measurement campaigns. Emissions from two 4-stroke main engines were measured under stable-load conditions. The impact of varying engine load on the emissions was investigated on one of the engines, and the impact of fuel quality on the other, where heavy fuel oil (HFO) with sulphur content 1% and 0.5% and marine gas oil (MGO) with sulphur content 0.1% were used. Furthermore, emissions from one auxiliary engine were studied. The measured EFs for PM mass were in the range of 0.3 to 2.7 g kg-1 fuel with the lowest values for emissions from the combustion of MGO, and the highest values for HFO with a sulphur content of 1%. The PM mass size distribution was dominated by particles in accumulation mode. Emission factors for particle numbers EF(PN) in the range of 5 × 1015-1 × 1017 # kg-1 fuel were found, the number concentration was dominated by particles in the ultrafine mode and ca. 2/3 of the particle number were non-volatile. The most abundant component of the PM mass was organic carbon, making up 25-60% of the PM. The measured EFs for organic carbon (OC) were 0.6 g kg-1 fuel for HFO and 0.2 g kg-1 fuel for MGO. Elemental carbon (EC) made up 10-38% of the PM mass, with no significant differences between HFO and MGO fuels. The concentrations of metals on sampled filters were investigated with energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) and the detected metal elements in exhaust when using HFO was concluded to originate from both the fuel (V, Ni, Fe) and the lubricant (Ca, Zn), while for the case of MGO combustion, most of the metals were concluded to originate from the lubricants. The measured emission factors for sulphate particles, EF (SO2-4), were low, ca. 0.1-0.2 g kg-1 fuel for HFO with 1% sulphur, 0.07-0.09 g kg-1 fuel for HFO with 0.5% sulphur and 0.003-0.006 g kg-1 fuel for MGO. This corresponds to 0.1-0.8% and 0.1-0.6% of fuel S converted to PM sulphate for HFO and MGO, respectively. Scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) images of the collected PM showed three different types of particles: relatively pure soot; char and char-mineral particles; and amorphous, probably organic particles containing inorganic impurities. The maps of elements obtained from STEM showed a heterogeneous composition of primary soot particles with respect to the trace metals and sulphur. Temperature-programmed oxidation (TPO) of PM showed higher soot oxidation reactivity compared to automotive diesel soot, PM from the HFO exhaust being more reactive than PM from the MGO exhaust. Oxidative potential measured as the rate of consumption of Dithiothreitol (DTT) was for the first time measured on PM from ship exhaust. The obtained values were between 0.01 and 0.04 nmol DTT min-1 μg-1 PM, which is quite similar to oxidative potentials of PM collected at urban and traffic sites. The data obtained during the experiments add information about emission factors for both gaseous and PM-bound compounds from ship engines using different fuels and under different engine-load conditions. Observed variability of the EFs illustrates uncertainties of these emission factors as a result of influences from fuel and lubricant composition, from differences between individual engines and from the differences in sampling conditions.

  5. Physical and chemical characterisation of PM emissions from two ships operating in European Emission Control Areas

    OpenAIRE

    Moldanová, J.; Fridell, E.; Winnes, H.; Holmin-Fridell, S.; J. Boman; Jedynska, A.; Tishkova, V.; Demirdjian, B.; S. Joulie; H. Bladt; Ivleva, N. P.; Niessner, R.

    2013-01-01

    Emissions of particulate matter (PM) from shipping contribute significantly to the anthropogenic burden of PM. The environmental effects of PM from shipping include negative impact on human health through increased concentrations of particles in many coastal areas and harbour cities and the climate impact. The PM emitted by ship engines consists of organic carbon (OC), elemental or black carbon (EC/BC), sulphate, inorganic compounds containing V, Ni, Ca, Zn and other metals and associated wat...

  6. Physical and chemical characterisation of PM emissions from two ships operating in European Emission Control Areas

    OpenAIRE

    Moldanová, J.; Fridell, E.; Winnes, H.; Holmin-Fridell, S.; J. Boman; Jedynska, A.; Tishkova, V.; Demirdjian, B.; S. Joulie; H. Bladt; Ivleva, N. P.; Niessner, R.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper emission factors (EFs) for particulate matter (PM) and some sub-components as well as gaseous substances were investigated in two onboard measurement campaigns. Emissions from two 4-stroke main engines were measured under stable-load conditions. The impact of varying engine load on the emissions was investigated on one of the engines, and the impact of fuel quality on the other, where heavy fuel oil (HFO) with sulphur content 1% and 0.5% and marine gas oil (MGO...

  7. ESC resistance of commercial grade polycarbonates during exposure to butter and related chemicals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjellander, Carina Koch; Nielsen, Tenna B; Ghanbari-Siahkali, Afshin;

    2008-01-01

    Three commercial grades of polycarbonates (Lexan (R) 144, Lexan (R) 104 and Makrolon Rx1805) were studied with respect to resistance to environmental stress cracking (ESC) when exposed to butter and related chemicals. The polycarbonates (PCs) were extensively characterised to determine whether...... differences in ESC resistance could be related to their structural or chemical properties. MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry revealed that Makrolon Rx:1805 contains a low molar mass material characterised as poly(propylene glycol)p, which was confirmed by ATR-FTIR and H-1 NMR. Some "non-absorbing" chemicals...

  8. Nutrition economics - Characterising the economic and health impact of nutrition

    OpenAIRE

    Lenoir-Wijnkoop, Irene; Dapoigny, M; Dubois, D; Ganse, Éric; Gutiérrez-Ibarluzea, Iñaki; Hutton, J.; Jones, P.; Mittendorf, Thomas; Poley, Marten; Salminen, Seppo; Nuijten, Mark

    2011-01-01

    textabstractThere is a new merging of health economics and nutrition disciplines to assess the impact of diet on health and disease prevention and to characterise the health and economic aspects of specific changes in nutritional behaviour and nutrition recommendations. A rationale exists for developing the field of nutrition economics which could offer a better understanding of both nutrition, in the context of having a significant influence on health outcomes, and economics, in order to est...

  9. Molecular Characterisation of Structural Chromosomal Abnormalities Associated with Congenital Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Mansouri, Mahmoud R.

    2006-01-01

    Chromosomal abnormalities are defined as changes in the chromosome structure and fall in one of two categories. The first category is numerical alterations while the second category consists of structural abnormalities. Structural chromosomal abnormalities do not always interrupt genes in order to cause disease. They can also affect gene expression by separating a gene and its promoter element from distant regulatory elements. We have used characterisation of structural chromosomal abnormalit...

  10. Characterisation of ethylene pathway components in non-climacteric capsicum

    OpenAIRE

    Aizat, Wan M; Able, Jason A; Stangoulis, James CR; Able, Amanda J.

    2013-01-01

    Background Climacteric fruit exhibit high ethylene and respiration levels during ripening but these levels are limited in non-climacteric fruit. Even though capsicum is in the same family as the well-characterised climacteric tomato (Solanaceae), it is non-climacteric and does not ripen normally in response to ethylene or if harvested when mature green. However, ripening progresses normally in capsicum fruit when they are harvested during or after what is called the ‘Breaker stage’. Whether e...

  11. Characterisation of longitudinal variation in photonic crystal fibre

    CERN Document Server

    Francis-Jones, Robert J A

    2016-01-01

    We present a method by which the degree of longitudinal variation in photonic crystal fibre (PCF) may be characterised through seeded four-wave mixing (FWM). Using an iterative numerical reconstruction, we created a model PCF that displays similar FWM phasematching properties across all measured length scales. Our results demonstrate that the structure of our PCF varies by less than 1% and that the characteristic length of the variations is approximately 15 cm.

  12. Children's colour choices for completing drawings of affectively characterised topics

    OpenAIRE

    Burkitt, Esther; Barrett, Martyn; Davis, Alyson

    2003-01-01

    Background: This study was designed to explore whether or not children systematically use particular colours when completing drawings of affectively characterised topics. Method: Three hundred and thirty 4-11-year-old children were subdivided into three conditions, colouring in a drawing of a man, a dog, or a tree, respectively. The children completed two test sessions in counterbalanced order. In one session, children rated and ranked ten colours in order of preference. In the other session,...

  13. Development and Characterisation of Nanoclays from Indian Clays

    OpenAIRE

    S. Manocha; Nikesh Patel; L. M. Manocha

    2008-01-01

    Indian clays are known for their smecticity. One such clay sample collected from Bhuj (Gujarat)was characterised and modified by successive sedimentation processes for different time intervals.The non-plastic components of clay, viz., quartz, illite, iron oxide, CaO, MgO, and organic matterwere removed in different steps, as the heavy impurities in the clay-water suspensions, settledown during sedimentation. The free iron oxide present in clay suspension was reduced bygiving sodium citrate-bi...

  14. Characterisation and stabilisation of oil from carmelina sativa

    OpenAIRE

    O'Dea, Gr??inne

    2010-01-01

    peer-reviewed Commercial camelina oil and camelina oil obtained from seeds grown under Irish conditions were characterised by fatty acid and tocopherol profiles, peroxide and ??-anisidine values, carbonyl compounds, acid value, water content and colour. Both oils met recommended quality standards in terms of water content, acid and peroxide values. Accordingly, camelina oils evaluated in this study were not oxidised more in storage than commercial edible oils namely, sunflower and rapeseed...

  15. Next Generation Characterisation of Cereal Genomes for Marker Discovery

    OpenAIRE

    Paul Visendi; Jacqueline Batley; David Edwards

    2013-01-01

    Cereal crops form the bulk of the world’s food sources, and thus their importance cannot be understated. Crop breeding programs increasingly rely on high-resolution molecular genetic markers to accelerate the breeding process. The development of these markers is hampered by the complexity of some of the major cereal crop genomes, as well as the time and cost required. In this review, we address current and future methods available for the characterisation of cereal genomes, with an emphasis o...

  16. European clinical network: autism spectrum disorder assessments and patient characterisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashwood, Karen L; Buitelaar, Jan; Murphy, Declan; Spooren, Will; Charman, Tony

    2015-08-01

    The United Nations and World Health Organisation have identified autism spectrum disorder (ASD) as an important public health issue across global mental health services. Although a range of tools exist to identify and quantify ASD symptoms, there is a lack of information about which ASD measures are used in different services worldwide. This paper presents data from a large survey of measures used for patient characterisation in major ASD research and clinical centres across Europe collected between June 2013 and January 2014. The objective was to map the use of different instruments used to characterise ASD, comorbid psychopathology and cognitive and adaptive ability for patient diagnostic and characterisation purposes across Europe. Sixty-six clinical research sites diagnosing 14,844 patients per year contributed data. The majority of sites use the well-established Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS) and the Autism Diagnostic Interview (ADI) instruments, though the proportion of sites in Western Europe using the ADI was almost double the rate in Eastern Europe. Approximately half the sites also used the Social Communication Questionnaire (SCQ) and Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS), although use of the SRS was over three times higher in Western Europe compared with Eastern Europe. The use of free/open access measures was lower than commercially available tools across all regions. There are clinical and scientific benefits in encouraging further convergence of clinical characterisation measures across ASD research and clinical centres in Europe to facilitate large-scale data sharing and collaboration, including clinical trials of novel medications and psychological interventions. PMID:25471824

  17. Characterising the biophysical properties of normal and hyperkeratotic foot skin

    OpenAIRE

    Hashmi, Farina; Nester, Christopher; Wright, Ciaran; Newton, Veronica; Lam, Sharon

    2015-01-01

    Background Plantar foot skin exhibits unique biophysical properties that are distinct from skin on other areas of the body. This paper characterises, using non-invasive methods, the biophysical properties of foot skin in healthy and pathological states including xerosis, heel fissures, calluses and corns. Methods Ninety three people participated. Skin hydration, elasticity, collagen and elastin fibre organisation and surface texture was measured from plantar calluses, corns, fissured heel ski...

  18. The status of spectroscopic data for the exoplanet characterisation missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tennyson, Jonathan; Yurchenko, Sergei N.

    2015-12-01

    The status of laboratory spectroscopic data for exoplanet characterisation missions such as EChO is reviewed. For many molecules (eg H 2O, CO, CO 2, H3+, O 2, O 3) the data are already available. For the other species work is actively in progress constructing this data. Much of the is work is being undertaken by ExoMol project (www.exomol.com). This information can be used to construct a mission-specific spectroscopic database.

  19. Characterisation of InAs-based epilayers by FTIR spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, infrared reflectance spectroscopy was employed to extract information on the optical and electrical properties of metal organic vapour phase epitaxial (MOVPE) grown InAs and InAsSb epilayers. These epitaxial layers were grown on InAs and GaAs substrates and characterised by infrared reflectance spectroscopy and Hall measurements. (copyright 2008 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  20. CHARACTERISING VEGETATED SURFACES USING MODIS MULTIANGULAR SATELLITE DATA

    OpenAIRE

    G. McCamley; Grant, I.; Jones, S; C. Bellman

    2012-01-01

    Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Functions (BRDF) seek to represent variations in surface reflectance resulting from changes in a satellite's view and solar illumination angles. BRDF representations have been widely used to assist in the characterisation of vegetation. However BRDF effects are often noisy, difficult to interpret and are the spatial integral of all the individual surface features present in a pixel. This paper describes the results of an approach to understanding ...

  1. Characterisation of BHK-21 cells engineered to secrete human insulin

    OpenAIRE

    Gammell, Patrick; O'Driscoll, Lorraine; Clynes, Martin

    2003-01-01

    Autoimmune destruction of β cells in the pancreas leads to type I, or insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM), through the loss of endogenous insulin production capacity. This paper describes an attempt to generate ‘artificial’β cells using the fibroblast cell line BHK21. Stable transfectants expressing the human preproinsulin (PPI) gene were isolated and characterised. The resulting clone selected for further analysis (BHK-PPI-C16) was capable of secreting 0.12 pmol proinsulin/hr/105 cell...

  2. Diffraction grating characterisation for cold-atom experiments

    CERN Document Server

    McGilligan, James P; Riis, Erling; Arnold, Aidan S

    2016-01-01

    We have studied the optical properties of gratings micro-fabricated into semiconductor wafers, which can be used for simplifying cold-atom experiments. The study entailed characterisation of diffraction efficiency as a function of coating, periodicity, duty cycle and geometry using over 100 distinct gratings. The critical parameters of experimental use, such as diffraction angle and wavelength are also discussed, with an outlook to achieving optimal ultracold experimental conditions.

  3. Characterisation of contaminaiton in Maralinga and Emu soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A range of Maralinga and Emu soils have been characterised by means of sieving and microparticle classification, yielding mass and activity distribution of plutonium and americium with respect to size. The activity distribution is quite different from the mass distribution and much more variable from sample to sample. While the 241Am activities >0.1 Bq, extends at least 100 km from the firing sites at Taranaki. 19 refs., 17 tabs., 4 figs

  4. Mud Origin, Characterisation and Human Activities (MOCHA): Final report

    OpenAIRE

    Fettweis, M.; Du Four, I.; Zeelmaekers, E.; Baeteman, C.; Francken, F.; Houziaux, J.-S.; Mathys, M; Nechad, B.; Pison, V.; Vandenberghe, N.; Van den Eynde, D; Van Lancker, V. R. M; Wartel, S.

    2007-01-01

    The cohesive sediments, which are frequently found in the Belgian nearshore zone (southern North Sea), are of different age such as tertiary clays and Holocene, modern and recently deposited muds. The area is characterised by a turbidity maximum. The source areas of the recently deposited muds and the effect of human impact vs. natural processes on the distribution and/or erosion of these sediments have been investigated using historic and recent bottom samples, in situ and remote sensing (sa...

  5. Characterisation by image analysis of anaerobic sludge under shock conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Alves, M. M.; Cavaleiro, A. J.; Ferreira, E.C.; A.L. Amaral; Mota, M; Motta, Maurício da; Vivier, H.; Pons, M.N.

    2000-01-01

    In the present work the characterisation by image analysis of anaerobic biomass under organic and hydraulic shocks was performed. The digester was fed with a synthetic substrate, containing 50% oleic acid (as COD). Organic and hydraulic shocks were performed by stepwise increasing the substrate concentration or by reducing the hydraulic retention time. In both cases the organic loading rate changed from 6 to 30 kg COD/m³.d. Hydraulic shock induced a fast decrease in the number of ...

  6. Biosorption of mercury from aqueous solutions using highly characterised peats

    OpenAIRE

    A.M. Rizzuti; F.L. Ellis; L.W. Cosme; A.D. Cohen

    2015-01-01

    This research investigated the biosorption of mercury from aqueous solutions by six highly characterised peats. Samples of the peats were tested both in unaltered condition and after being treated with hydrochloric acid (HCl) to free up any occupied exchange sites. Other variables tested were sample dose, contact time, mixing temperature, and the concentration and pH of the mercury solution. Desorption studies were also performed, and tests were done to determine whether the peats could be re...

  7. Spectroscopic characterisation of the erbium impurity in crystalline semiconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammerlaan, C. A. J.

    2001-12-01

    A scheme for the numerical calculation of energy levels of rare-earth ions in a crystalline solid is presented. Stark fields of cubic, trigonal, tetragonal, orthorhombic and monoclinic symmetry are considered. As examples, optical luminescence spectra of erbium in the semiconductors zinc selenide and silicon are analysed. Based on the optical characterisation, the g tensors for Zeeman splitting in an applied magnetic field are predicted for the crystal-field ground states of these centres.

  8. Characterisation of connective tissue cells containing factor XIII subunit a.

    OpenAIRE

    Adány, R; Glukhova, M A; Kabakov, A Y; Muszbek, L

    1988-01-01

    Paraffin embedded sections of human liver, lymph node, and placenta showed that certain connective tissue cells were positive for factor XIII subunit a. These cells were further characterised by double immunofluorescence labelling and by combined immunofluorescence and enzyme cytochemical staining on frozen sections. They were labelled by the monoclonal antibodies RFD7 and anti-Leu M3 (markers of the macrophage cell line) but gave a negative reaction for the fibroblast marker IIG10 and showed...

  9. Detection and characterisation of anthropogenic pieces by magnetic method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nodot, Emilie; Munschy, Marc; Benevent, Pierre

    2013-04-01

    Human activities have let many anthropogenic objects buried under our feet. Some of these like explosive devices left after the World Wars turn out to be a threat to safety or environment. Others must be perfectly localised in case of construction work, for example gas pipe. Geophysics and more specifically magnetic cartography (many of these items are magnetic) can obviously help to locate them. We already use this method on daily basis to detect UXO (unexploded ordnance) but less than 10% of the unearthed objects are actually bombs or shells. Detection and mostly characterisation methods must be improved in order to reduce this proportion. On the field there are a few things we can do to increase data qualities. Characterisation may be improved by multiple scale prospections. We search a large area with our usual and rather fast method then we achieve high definition cartographies of small interesting areas (upon the object to characterise). In the case of measurements in an urban environment for example, data are distorted. The traffic (train, tramway, cars…) produces temporal variations of the magnetic field. This effect can be lessened, sometimes even removed by the use of a fixed scalar magnetic sensor. Data treatment is another key as regards the characterisation. Tools such as analytic signal or derivative are frequently used at the first degree. We will see that in a synthetic case the second and third degree bring even more information. A new issue appeared recently about pipes. Can we localise very precisely (less than 10 cm uncertainty) a gas pipe? Horizontally we can but due to our inversion method we still have troubles with the depth accuracy. Our final concern is about the amplitude of some anomalies. Potential methods equations are based on the fact that the anomaly norm must be minor to magnetic field norm. Sometimes this is not the case but vector magnetometry is a lead to solve this problem.

  10. Solid waste characterisation study in the Guadalajara Metropolitan Zone, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernache-Pérez, G; Sánchez-Colón, S; Garmendia, A M; Dávila-Villarreal, A; Sánchez-Salazar, M E

    2001-10-01

    The key findings of a solid waste characterisation study conducted at the Guadalajara Metropolitan Zone, Mexico, are reported. Objectives of the study were to estimate the daily generation rate of household (HSW) and municipal solid waste (MSW), characterise and compare their composition by type of material, determine the proportion that HSW contributes to MSW, explore changes in MSW composition through time after final disposal, and estimate the types and amount of MSW that are sorted out for recycling at final disposal sites. HSW generated during seven days by a sample of 300 households chosen through a two-stage stratified sampling design was collected, weighed and classified. MSW entering the four local disposal sites was recorded for 12 weeks, and materials' sorting was quantified. MSW samples taken by excavating trenches in two final disposal sites were also characterised. The average per capita daily HSW generation rate was 508 g. HSW mainly consisted of putrescible waste (53%), paper (10%) and plastic (9%). The average daily generation rate of MSW was 3119.2 metric tonnes. HSW represented 55.9% of MSW, and the main difference between HSW and MSW was a lower proportion of organic materials (53% vs. 16.5%, respectively). The major changes in MSW composition through time after final disposal, were the result of the quick decomposition of putrescible materials. Only 2.2% of total MSW generated in Guadalajara (mainly package waste) was sorted for recycling.

  11. Characterisation of serpin polymers in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belorgey, Didier; Irving, James A; Ekeowa, Ugo I; Freeke, Joanna; Roussel, Benoit D; Miranda, Elena; Pérez, Juan; Robinson, Carol V; Marciniak, Stefan J; Crowther, Damian C; Michel, Claire H; Lomas, David A

    2011-03-01

    Neuroserpin is a member of the serine protease inhibitor or serpin superfamily of proteins. It is secreted by neurones and plays an important role in the regulation of tissue plasminogen activator at the synapse. Point mutations in the neuroserpin gene cause the autosomal dominant dementia familial encephalopathy with neuroserpin inclusion bodies or FENIB. This is one of a group of disorders caused by mutations in the serpins that are collectively known as the serpinopathies. Others include α(1)-antitrypsin deficiency and deficiency of C1 inhibitor, antithrombin and α(1)-antichymotrypsin. The serpinopathies are characterised by delays in protein folding and the retention of ordered polymers of the mutant serpin within the cell of synthesis. The clinical phenotype results from either a toxic gain of function from the inclusions or a loss of function, as there is insufficient protease inhibitor to regulate important proteolytic cascades. We describe here the methods required to characterise the polymerisation of neuroserpin and draw parallels with the polymerisation of α(1)-antitrypsin. It is important to recognise that the conditions in which experiments are performed will have a major effect on the findings. For example, incubation of monomeric serpins with guanidine or urea will produce polymers that are not found in vivo. The characterisation of the pathological polymers requires heating of the folded protein or alternatively the assessment of ordered polymers from cell and animal models of disease or from the tissues of humans who carry the mutation.

  12. Electrochemical synthesis, characterisation and phytogenic properties of silver nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singaravelan, R.; Bangaru Sudarsan Alwar, S.

    2015-11-01

    This work exemplifies a simple and rapid method for the synthesis of silver nanodendrite with a novel electrochemical technique. The antibacterial activity of these silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) against pathogenic bacteria was investigated along with the routine study of optical and spectral characterisation. The optical properties of the silver nanoparticles were characterised by diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. The optical band gap energy of the electrodeposited Ag NPs was determined from the diffuse reflectance using Kubelka-Munk formula. X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies were carried out to determine the crystalline nature of the silver nanoparticles which confirmed the formation of silver nanocrystals. The XRD pattern revealed that the electrodeposited Ag NPs were in the cubic geometry with dendrite preponderance. The average particle size and the peak broadening were deliberated using Debye-Scherrer equation and lattice strain due to the peak broadening was studied using Williamson-Hall method. Surface morphology of the Ag NPs was characterised by high-resolution scanning electron microscope and the results showed the high degree of aggregation in the particles. The antibacterial activity of the Ag NPs was evaluated and showed unprecedented level antibacterial activity against multidrug resistant strains such as Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Klebsiella pneumonia and Escherichia coli in combination with Streptomycin.

  13. Towards operando characterisation by powder diffraction techniques of molecular sieves; Vers la caracterisation operando de tamis moleculaires par diffraction par les poudres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pichon, C.; Palancher, H. [Institut Francais du Petrole, 69 - Vernaison (France); Palancher, H.; Hodeau, J.L.; Berar, J.F. [Laboratoire de Cristallographie (CNRS), BP 38 - Grenoble (France); Berar, J.F. [D2AM- CRG francaise (ESRF), 38 - Grenoble (France)

    2005-07-01

    Working molecular sieves imply numerous and various atoms and for their characterisation we need chemical selective probes. Thus they can be studied either by neutron powder diffraction or by anomalous X-ray powder diffraction techniques to extract structural information. We will illustrate the complementarities of these methods in the analysis of two different chemical processes on X-type zeolite. In the first case, a fully exchanged barium X-type zeolite was, firstly, characterised by neutron powder diffraction after an ex situ preparation step. During the preparation step, the sample was saturated with a mixture of heavy water and deuterated para-xylene. The selectivity of neutron diffraction for light elements allows the precise location of both water and xylene molecules. In the second example, an X-type zeolite exchanged by both strontium and rubidium cations was studied during the dehydration process. The in situ structural characterisation was performed by recording, for each state of the zeolite (hydrated, dehydrated), three X-ray powder patterns. Two of them were measured at an energy close to the absorption edge of each compensating cation (Sr{sup 2+} and Rb{sup +}) and one far from both absorption edges. The chemical selectivity of resonant diffraction allows an accurate determination of the distribution of compensating cations (location, distribution and mobility) during the dehydration process. Finally a comparison of some specificities and limitations of both methods are summarized. (authors)

  14. Current limitations and challenges in nanowaste detection, characterisation and monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Part, Florian; Zecha, Gudrun [Department of Water-Atmosphere-Environment, University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Institute of Waste Management, Muthgasse 107, 1190 Vienna (Austria); Causon, Tim [Department of Chemistry, Division of Analytical Chemistry, University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Muthgasse 18, 1190 Vienna (Austria); Sinner, Eva-Kathrin [Department of Nanobiotechnology, Institute for Synthetic Bioarchitectures, University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Muthgasse 11/II, 1190 Vienna (Austria); Huber-Humer, Marion, E-mail: marion.huber-humer@boku.ac.at [Department of Water-Atmosphere-Environment, University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Institute of Waste Management, Muthgasse 107, 1190 Vienna (Austria)

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • First review on detection of nanomaterials in complex waste samples. • Focus on nanoparticles in solid, liquid and gaseous waste samples. • Summary of current applicable methods for nanowaste detection and characterisation. • Limitations and challenges of characterisation of nanoparticles in waste. - Abstract: Engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) are already extensively used in diverse consumer products. Along the life cycle of a nano-enabled product, ENMs can be released and subsequently accumulate in the environment. Material flow models also indicate that a variety of ENMs may accumulate in waste streams. Therefore, a new type of waste, so-called nanowaste, is generated when end-of-life ENMs and nano-enabled products are disposed of. In terms of the precautionary principle, environmental monitoring of end-of-life ENMs is crucial to allow assessment of the potential impact of nanowaste on our ecosystem. Trace analysis and quantification of nanoparticulate species is very challenging because of the variety of ENM types that are used in products and low concentrations of nanowaste expected in complex environmental media. In the framework of this paper, challenges in nanowaste characterisation and appropriate analytical techniques which can be applied to nanowaste analysis are summarised. Recent case studies focussing on the characterisation of ENMs in waste streams are discussed. Most studies aim to investigate the fate of nanowaste during incineration, particularly considering aerosol measurements; whereas, detailed studies focusing on the potential release of nanowaste during waste recycling processes are currently not available. In terms of suitable analytical methods, separation techniques coupled to spectrometry-based methods are promising tools to detect nanowaste and determine particle size distribution in liquid waste samples. Standardised leaching protocols can be applied to generate soluble fractions stemming from solid wastes, while

  15. Chemical networks*

    OpenAIRE

    Thi Wing-Fai

    2015-01-01

    This chapter discusses the fundamental ideas of how chemical networks are build, their strengths and limitations. The chemical reactions that occur in disks combine the cold phase reactions used to model cold molecular clouds with the hot chemistry applied to planetary atmosphere models. With a general understanding of the different types of reactions that can occur, one can proceed in building a network of chemical reactions and use it to explain the abundance of species seen in disks. One o...

  16. The physicochemical characterisation of microscopic airborne particles in south Wales: A review of the locations and methodologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As part of the NERC-URGENT thematic programme, research was undertaken into the physicochemistry and bioreactivity of microscopic airborne particulate matter in south Wales. This paper reviews the collecting and characterisation methods used in the research; some of the results obtained are shown as examples. Four main collecting locations were chosen: Cardiff (urban); Port Talbot (urban/industrial); Park Slip West coal opencast pit (industrial/rural); the Black Mountains (rural/background). Collections initially used a 30-l/min Negretti PM1 filter collection system, however in the later stages of the project increased use was made of a 1100-l/min impaction system (nicknamed the super-sucker). This latter device was developed at Harvard University USA, however was adapted and optimised at Cardiff University. Methods for the extraction of PM1 off polycarbonate filters and polyurethane substrates were developed, with particular attention being paid to minimise physical or chemical changes during the extraction, and the extracts being in an appropriate state for bioreactivity assessment. Physicochemical characterisation of the PM1 included the empirical measurement of shape and size using electron microscopy and semi-automated image analysis. The determinations of the water-soluble and -insoluble chemical components were undertaken by ion chromatography and inductive coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. The bioreactivity of south Wales airborne particles is not covered by this review

  17. Preparation and characterisation of fluconazole vaginal films for the treatment of vaginal Candidiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective of the present study was to develop and evaluate vaginal films with essential in vitro studies. Films were developed using hydroxypropyl methylcellulose as a polymer and formulations were coded. The developed films were evaluated with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, drug content, viscosity, surface pH, thickness, mechanical characterisation and in vitro drug release study. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy results confirmed that there is no chemical interaction between drug and stabilisers/excipients. The batch variation was not more than 5% for average thickness and weight of the films. The drug content for the prepared formulation was in the range of 72.32±0.18% to 94.48±0.54%. Viscosity of the formulations increased with the increase in concentration of polymer. Mechanical characterisation revealed that tensile strength and percentage elongation of the films improved as there is increase in degree of substitution of the polymer, but the values of modulus decreased which confirmed that all the prepared films are soft in nature. The in vitro study indicated that 1 and 2% concentrations of polymer are the least concentrations to control the release of drug whereas the 4% concentration of polymer is a good and more effective concentration to control the release. Only one prepared formulation released the drug by following anomalous transport whereas other film formulations released the fluconazole by following Fickian diffusion mechanism. Prepared vaginal films may be an important alternative for the treatment of vaginal candidiasis, because these prepared films suggest the benefits of controlled release of fluconazole at the site of absorption.

  18. Populations having different GalA blocks characteristics are present in commercial pectins which are chemically similar but have different functionalities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guillotin, S.E.; Bakx, E.J.; Boulenguer, P.; Mazoyer, J.; Schols, H.A.; Voragen, A.G.J.

    2005-01-01

    Two commercially extracted pectins having different physical properties but similar chemical characteristics were fractionated into sub-populations using ion exchange chromatography. Individual sub-populations were characterised using established strategies (galacturonic acid and neutral sugar conte

  19. Chemical sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowell, J.R. Jr.; Edlund, D.J.; Friesen, D.T.; Rayfield, G.W.

    1991-07-02

    Sensors responsive to small changes in the concentration of chemical species are disclosed. The sensors comprise a mechanochemically responsive polymeric film capable of expansion or contraction in response to a change in its chemical environment. They are operatively coupled to a transducer capable of directly converting the expansion or contraction to a measurable electrical response. 9 figures.

  20. Preparation, characterisation and photocaltalytic activity of la-doped zno nanopowders synthesised using auto-combustion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nanocrystalline nanoparticles of pristine ZnO and La-doped ZnO have been synthesised using a combustion method using various concentrations of lanthanum dopant followed by calcination for 3 h at 700 Degree C. The crystalline structure, chemical composition and optical characteristics have been characterised using X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron spectroscopy (SEM) attached with energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy, Brunauer Emmett Teller (BET), UV-vis. spectroscopy and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy. Absorption spectra showed that the absorbance increased with La-doping and the blue shift observed was due to an increase in the band gap from 3.24 to 3.27 eV. The photocatalytic activities of the samples prepared were evaluated using the photocatalytic degradation of methyl orange (MO) under irradiation by sunlight. The textile mill effluents containing organic matter were also irradiated with sunlight inducing photocatalysis and the chemical oxygen demand (COD) of the treated effluent were investigated. The results showed that the ZnO photocatalyst doped with 1.0 at.percentage lanthanum exhibited four times enhancement in the photocatalytic activity compared to pure ZnO. (author)

  1. Copyrolysis of wood biomass and synthetic polymers mixtures. Part 2. Characterisation of the liquid phases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marin, N.; Collura, S.; Weber, J.V. [Laboratoire de Chimie et Applications, Universite de Metz, IUT, rue Victor Demange, 57500 Saint Avold (France); Sharypov, V.I.; Beregovtsova, N.G.; Baryshnikov, S.V.; Kutnetzov, B.N. [Institute of Chemistry and Chemical Technology SB RAS, Academgorodok, 660049 Krasnoyarsk (Russia); Cebolla, V. [Instituto de Carboquimica, CSIC, Zaragoza (Spain)

    2002-10-01

    The copyrolysis of wood biomass-polyolefins was carried out in a rotating autoclave. At 400C, more than 50% (in mass) of final products are found in the liquid phase for a 1:1 (in mass) mixture. The obtained liquids are separated in a distillable liquids fraction and in an extracted liquids fraction. The first fraction can be fully characterised by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Only olefins, paraffins and some aromatics (benzene, toluene and xylene), issued from the polymers, are found in this fraction. The origin of the polymer plays the most important role in the chemical composition of this fraction. Some interactions with the solid issued from thermal degradation of the biomass are evidenced, for example by the presence of 2-alkenes with 3n carbon atoms. In the heavy liquids fraction, more than 80% (in mass) of the products are heavy olefins or paraffins. Schematically, we can explain the results of the copyrolysis experiments by: the biomass, whatever its origin, leads to solid, water and gas; polymer leads to liquid and gaseous olefins and paraffins; at a temperature lower than 400C, the biomass reacts and during the pyrolysis at 400C the formed solid evolves to act as a radical donor; assisted by radicals from biomass, polymer chain scission leads to the production of the light liquids; if the presence of biomass has an influence on the chemical composition of final products (particularly the light liquids fraction) their origin has, in general, only a limited effect.

  2. XPS and micro-mechanical characterisation of nitrogen ion implanted low alloy steel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    A.O.Olofinjana; Z.Chen; J.M.Bell

    2001-01-01

    The surface composition of low alloy steel after N2+ implantation was studied with X-rayphoto-electron spectroscopy (XPS). The effect of the implantation on the mechanical hardnesswas evaluated by ultra-micro hardness indentation. Chemical characterisation of the surface indi-cated that a thin layer rich in N, C and Si was formed. It is shown that Fe played little role in thechemical composition and the structure of the modified surface. The mechanical hardness of N2+implanted surface was 35-50 GPa compared with a value of 10 GPa for the untreated sample. Itis thought that the high hardness observed on the surface and in the sub-surface was as a resultof chemical modification to form a film of Si doped carbon nitride. There is strong evidence fromthe XPS and the nanoindentation studies that the bonding structure of the C-N in the near surfaceis essentially sp3 types expected in crystalline C3N4. The value of nitrogen ion implantation asprocess for improving the wear resistance of low alloy steels is emphasized.

  3. Mycological and ecotoxicological characterisation of landfill leachate before and after traditional treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tigini, Valeria; Prigione, Valeria; Varese, Giovanna Cristina

    2014-07-15

    Pollution caused by landfill leachates is one of the main problems of urbanised areas, on account of their chemical composition, which turn in an ineffective treatment. A characterisation of leachates, which takes into account chemical, ecotoxicological and mycological aspects, is basilar for the evaluation of environmental impact of leachate and the development of suitable treatment techniques. In this study, the toxicity of a raw leachate and an effluent coming from traditional wastewater treatment plant was assessed by means of 4 ecotoxicological assays. Both the samples exceed the legal threshold value according to all the tested organisms, indicating the ineffectiveness of activated sludge treatment in the reduction of toxicity. The autochthonous mycoflora of the two samples was evaluated by filtration. The fungal load was 73 CFU for leachate and 102 CFU for the effluent. Ascomycetes were the dominant fraction (81% and 61%, for leachate and effluent respectively), followed by basidiomycetes (19% and 39%, respectively). Most of them were potential emerging pathogens. A decolourisation screening with autochthonous fungi was set up towards both samples in the presence or absence of glucose. Eleven fungi (basidiomycetes and ascomycetes) achieved up to 38% decolourisation yields, showing to be promising fungi for the bioremediation of leachates. Further experiment will be aimed to the study of decolourisation mechanism and toxicity reduction. PMID:24793330

  4. Characterisation of FOGs in grease trap waste from the processing of chickens in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitayapat, Nuttakan; Chitprasert, Pakamon

    2014-06-01

    Industrial firms that kill and process chickens generate wastewater that contains fat, oil, and grease (FOG). The FOGs are located in the fatty waste that is collected by floatation in grease traps. Chemical and physical characterisation of FOGs would provide useful information that would help in the development of methods designed to decrease the extent of pollution caused by disposal of the waste and to utilise commercially some of its lipid constituents. Employing these methods would enhance the profitability and competitive potential of these commercial organisations. Samples of grease trap waste from 14 firms in central Thailand have been examined. Due to the very different schemes of waste management employed by these firms, the physical appearance of their fatty wastes showed considerable variation. The chemical and physical properties of the FOGs present in these wastes showed considerable variation also. Large amounts of free fatty acids (10-70% as oleic acid) were detected in most of the 14 wastes and palmitic, cis-9-oleic, cis,cis-9,12-linoleic, stearic, and palmitoleic acids were the predominant species of free and esterified acids. Most of the FOGs were solid at temperatures below 40 °C. Many of them contained traces of heavy metals (Cu and Pb) and some contained traces of the pesticides dimethoate and cypermethrin. The content of these potentially hazardous substances would have to be considered very carefully before discarding the fatty wastes and during the development of methods designed to isolate their potentially profitable lipid constituents. PMID:24095036

  5. Fabrication and Characterisation of Polyaniline/Laponite based Semiconducting Organic/Inorganic Hybrid Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walt V.K. Wheelwright

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Novel organic-inorganic semiconducting hybrid material is developed by chemically grafting polyaniline (PANI onto an inorganic template, Laponite. The surface active silanol groups of the Laponite sheets were silylated with an aniline functionalised 3-phenylaminopropyltrimethoxysilane (PAPTMOS coupling agent followed by deposition of PANI onto the silylated surface. The method includes the reaction of Laponite with PAPTMOS dissolved in a very small amount of methanol at 110 °C for 44 h in a vacuum oven, interaction of the silylated product with PANI via in situ polymerisation of aniline and one-step isolation process by means of the removal of the non-connected PANI with N-methylpyrrolidinone-diethylamine binary solvent. After isolation and re-doping with methane sulfonic acid the Laponite-PAPTMOS-PANI hybrid becomes electrically conductive. The chemical attachment of PANI with silylated Laponite in the hybrids were characterised by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, elemental analysis, and scanning electron microscopy.Defence Science Journal, Vol. 64, No. 3, May 2014, pp. 193-197, DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.14429/dsj.64.7185

  6. Chemical Radioprotectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. N. Upadhyay

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Protection of biological systems against radiation damage is of paramount importance during accidental and unavoidable exposure to radiation. Several physico-chemical and biological factors collectively contribute to the damage caused by radiation and are, therefore, targets for developing radioprotectors. Work on the development of chemicals capable of protecting biological systemsfrom radiation damage was initiated nearly six decades ago with cysteine being the first molecule to be reported. Chemicals capable of scavenging free radicals, inducing oxygen depletion,antioxidants and modulators of immune response have been some of the radioprotectors extensively investigated with limited success. Mechanism of action of some chemical radioprotectors and their combinations have been elucidated, while further understanding is required in many instances. The present review elaborates on structure-activity relationship of some of the chemical radioprotectors, their evaluation, and assessment, limitation, and future prospects.

  7. Thermo-Mechanical Characterisation of In-Plane Properties for CSM E-glass Epoxy Polymer Composite Materials – Part 1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Johnny; Jensen, Martin; Andreasen, Jens H.

    2013-01-01

    The in-plane thermo-mechanical properties and residual stresses of a CSM E-glass/Epoxy material are characterised through the use of DSC and TMA. The measured data is used to generate material models which describe the mechanical behaviour as a function of conversion and temperature. The in......-plane thermal expansion coefficient (a) of the composite material decreases above the glass transition temperature (Tg), which is compensated by a higher out of plane deformation above Tg. Comparison of a and chemical shrinkage measurements suggests that chemical bonds between the polymer matrix and the glass...

  8. Workplace Field Characterisation at Chernobyl Unit 4 Shelter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: When assessment of effective dose is required, radiation field needs to be characterised in terms of energy spectrum and geometry of exposure. Prior to application of pre-calculated (e.g. ICRP 74) or site-specific conversion coefficients, one need to demonstrate compliance with one of standard irradiation geometries and determine appropriate energy (or energy spectrum). Particular conditions of the entombment of Chernobyl Unit 4 (Object 'Shelter') high dose rate fields, complex source-target geometry, presence of heavy shielding structures and, as a result, significant scattered component in radiation field make application of conventional area monitoring instruments like in situ spectrometers complicated if possible at all. Unique techniques and devices were developed for workplace field characterisation at Object 'Shelter'. The set of devices includes passive spectrometric system, which makes use of simultaneous exposing several TLD detectors placed inside spherical attenuators (principle much similar to Bonner sphere neutron spectroscopy). Deconvolution of gamma spectra is performed through solving a system of simultaneous linear equations. Geometry of irradiation at given workplace is determined by TLD detectors placed in the six-vector collimator. This simple device allows determination of anisotropy of radiation field, both horizontal and vertical. Another design incorporates portable gamma spectrometer with 1'x2' NaI detector placed in the specially designed lead-copper collimator with aperture compatible with the one of the described above six-vector passive system. The discussed experimental set-up was extensively tested in various locations within Object 'Shelter'. Results of both energy spectrum and exposure geometry characterisation demonstrated feasibility of the proposed approach. (author)

  9. Characterisation of neutron beam and gamma spectrometer for PGAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the second project year great efforts have been devoted in Budapest to the development of methods and procedures for neutron beam characterisation and spectrometer calibration. These are described here to provide recipes for other laboratories. Some illustrative results obtained on the former thermal guide, and partly on the new cold neutron guide are also given. Preliminary results from the benchmark experiments on flux monitors titanium standard and an unknown sample are also reported. New ko factors for elements of highest priority will be measured on the cold beam only in the near future. (author)

  10. Radioiodination of low potency human growth hormone and its characterisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioimmunoassay (RIA) of human growth hormone (hGH) using 125I-labelled tracer prepared from low purity (low potency) hGH and characterisation of the tracer are described. The radioiodination of low potency hGH resulted in low yield of immunoreactive fraction of the tracer. The major quantity of non-immunoreactive fraction could be removed by purification by gel filtration. However, the quality of radioiodinated tracer of low potency hGH has been found to be as that of the tracer prepared from high potency hGH with respect to assay sensitivity and RIA standard curve parameters. (author)

  11. Accurate characterisation of post moulding shrinkage of polymer parts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neves, L. C.; De Chiffre, L.; González-Madruga, D.;

    2015-01-01

    The work deals with experimental determination of the shrinkage of polymer parts after injection moulding. A fixture for length measurements on 8 parts at the same time was designed and manufactured in Invar, mounted with 8 electronic gauges, and provided with 3 temperature sensors. The fixture...... were compensated with respect to the effect from temperature variations during the measurements. Prediction of the length after stabilisation was carried out by fitting data at different stages of shrinkage. Uncertainty estimations were carried out and a procedure for the accurate characterisation...... of post moulding shrinkage of polymer parts was developed. Expanded uncertainties (k=2) of 3 μm were obtained....

  12. A hard X-ray laboratory for monochromator characterisation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamelin, B. [Institut Max von Laue - Paul Langevin (ILL), 38 - Grenoble (France)

    1997-04-01

    Since their installation at ILL during the 1970`s the ILL {gamma}-ray diffractometers have been intensively used in the development of neutron monochromators. However, the ageing of the sources and new developments in hard X-ray diffractometry lead to a decision at the end of 1995 to replace the existing {gamma}-ray laboratory with a hard X-ray laboratory, based on a 420 keV generator, making available in the long term several beam-lines for rapid characterisation of monochromator crystals. The facility is now installed and its characteristics and advantages are outlined. (author). 2 refs.

  13. Characterisation of an Optical Strain Gauge for Pantograph Applications

    OpenAIRE

    R. Khanniche; Davies, T.; M. S. Khanniche

    2005-01-01

    An optical strain gauge is developed and characterised for an active pantograph for high-speed electrical trains applications. Indeed, the pantograph is subjected to a continuous impact forces when it makes contact with the 25 kV overhead ac line. To detect load behaviour experienced, by the electrical pick-up on the pantograph, tests were carried out. The results show that the strain gauge responded linearly to static load over the range 0 to 80 Newton. Also, a high repeatability was achieve...

  14. CVD diamond coatings on titanium : Characterisation by XRD techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cappuccio, G. [CNR, Frascati, Rome (Italy). Istituto di Strutturistica Chimica]|[INFN-LNF, Frascati, Rome (Italy). Laboratorio Dafne Luce

    1996-09-01

    Here, the authors report an analysis carried out on diamond coatings on titanium substrates to show the potentially of x-ray diffraction techniques in the structural characterisation both of diamond thin films and of the other phases (TiC and TiH{sub 2}) present in the interfacial layer. It should be noted that the composition and microstructure of the interface layers strongly affect the characteristics of the diamond films, particularly adhesion, which is one of the most important elements determining the final quality of the coating.

  15. Logical Characterisation of Ontology Construction using Fuzzy Description Logics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Badie, Farshad; Götzsche, Hans

    had the extension of ontologies with Fuzzy Logic capabilities which plan to make proper backgrounds for ontology driven reasoning and argumentation on vague and imprecise domains. This presentation conceptualises learning from fuzzy classes using the Inductive Logic Programming framework. Then......, employs Description Logics in characterising and analysing fuzzy statements. And finally, provides a conceptual framework describing fuzzy concept learning in ontologies using the Inductive Logic Programming.......Ontologies based on Description Logics (DLs) have proved to be effective in formally sharing knowledge across semantic technologies, e.g. Semantic Web, Natural Language Processing, Text Analytics, Business intelligence. Our main goal is analysing ontology construction considering vagueness. We have...

  16. Recent Advances in the Quantitative Characterisation of Mechanical Scale Failure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M.SCH(U)TZE; I.WRIGHT; P.TORTORELLI

    2009-01-01

    @@ 1 Introduction In the past, several oxide scale failure models were developed for different types of failure, and ap-proaches exist to combine these models with oxide failure diagrams . The most well known concept is described in EPRI report FP686 from 1978 which served as a basis for the assessment of strain tolerance of scales formed on heat exchanger tubes exposed to steam. This concept is solely based on oxide scale thickness as the parameter characterising susceptibil-ity to scale failure, (Fig.1). However, research over the last 3 decades showed that this simplified crite-rion can be misleading.

  17. Characterising the D2 statistic: word matches in biological sequences

    OpenAIRE

    Foret, Sylvain; Wilson, Susan R; Burden, Conrad J.

    2009-01-01

    Word matches are often used in sequence comparison methods, either as a measure of sequence similarity or in the first search steps of algorithms such as BLAST or BLAT. The D2 statistic is the number of matches of words of k letters between two sequences. Recent advances have been made in the characterisation of this statistic and in the approximation of its distribution. Here, these results are extended to the case of approximate word matches. We compute the exact value of the variance of th...

  18. Characterisation of stromal-cellular mechanotransduction through syndecan-4

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hollosi, Peter; Grossi, Alberto; Couchman, John Robert

    a number of extracellular matrix proteins and actinmicrofilaments. Syndecan4 knockout mice have delayed healing of skin wounds and impaired granulation tissue angiogenesis. Cells null for syndecan4 are characterised by decreased cell motility and distinct changes in their cytoskeleton, including a lack...... phenotype and rate of cell migration. We map the binding site for syndecan-4 cytoplasmic domain in a-actinin to spectrin repeat4, utilising solid phase binding assays and recombinant peptides. Moreover, phosphorylation of syndecan-4 on its sole serine residue, known to influence cytoplasmic domain...

  19. Quantitative characterisation of audio data by ordinal symbolic dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aschenbrenner, T.; Monetti, R.; Amigó, J. M.; Bunk, W.

    2013-06-01

    Ordinal symbolic dynamics has developed into a valuable method to describe complex systems. Recently, using the concept of transcripts, the coupling behaviour of systems was assessed, combining the properties of the symmetric group with information theoretic ideas. In this contribution, methods from the field of ordinal symbolic dynamics are applied to the characterisation of audio data. Coupling complexity between frequency bands of solo violin music, as a fingerprint of the instrument, is used for classification purposes within a support vector machine scheme. Our results suggest that coupling complexity is able to capture essential characteristics, sufficient to distinguish among different violins.

  20. Electrochemical characterisation speeds up prediction of corrosion behaviour

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schuring, E.W.; Hooijmans, J.W. [ECN Environment and Energy Engineering, Petten (Netherlands)

    2013-04-15

    The contents of this presentation show the following elements: Introduction; Corrosion in real life; Why Electrochemical characterisation of corrosion; Applications (corrosion resistance coatings, corrosion behaviour (brazed) joints); Available electrochemical corrosion techniques; Standards; Conclusions. In the Conclusions the corrosion screening method is summarized: ECN method fast; within 1h -1 week results depending on test method; Fast pre-selection of promising materials/combinations (cost savings); Determining of corrosion initiation; Determination of corrosion mechanisms and propagation; Life time predictions possible; Strong combination with metallographic post-investigation; Ranking materials / constructions for corrosion performance.