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Sample records for anastrepha

  1. Behaviour of Anastrepha fraterculus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salles, L.A.

    1999-01-01

    A number of experiments and observations on the behaviour, host associations, attractants for adults and pupation of the South American fruit fly Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann), conducted under field or semi-natural conditions are presented here. (author)

  2. Biology of Anastrepha fraterculus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salles, L.A.

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents available (published) information on specific abiotic factors, such as temperature, humidity, and lighting on the life cycle of Anastrepha fraterculus, henceforth AF. AF displays holometabolous development: egg, larva (development is completed in three instars), pupa and free living adults. (author)

  3. Rearing of Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salles, L.A.

    1999-01-01

    A few attempts were conducted to establish basic needs, materials, conditions and procedures for artificial rearing of Anastrepha fraterculus, henceforth AF. A brief summary will be presented based on published and personal information. (author)

  4. Specific bibliography on Anastrepha fraterculus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salles, L.A.; Jaldo, H.

    1999-01-01

    Most publications on Anastrepha fraterculus are in the literature sources from South America, and papers were published in Spanish or Portuguese. Many literature sources mentioned in this list are not indexed in entomological abstracts and, consequently, are not easily available outside their home state or country. Due to this fact, the inclusion of a list of specific bibliography on A. fraterculus could be a help for researchers and students interested in fruit flies. In this list are included only references directly dealing with Anastrepha fraterculus. Obviously, many more references exist that consider this species, but general or non-specific work or data concerning A. fraterculus were not included in the present list. (author)

  5. Taxonomic status of Anastrepha fraterculus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steck, G.J.

    1999-01-01

    There has long been speculation that nominal Anastrepha fraterculus comprises more than a single biological species. Herein is a review of data supporting the hypothesis that multiple cryptic species are present. Evidence includes unusual variation in pest status, morphology, karyotypes, isozymes, mitochondrial DNA and cuticular hydrocarbon. The data strongly support the notion of multiple cryptic species. However, it is not yet possible to state how many species may be involved or to delineate them by diagnostic morphology, distribution, host plants or behavior. A combination of methodologies will be needed to resolve the complex. (author)

  6. Anastrepha ludens and Anastrepha serpentina (Diptera: Tephritidae) do not infest Psidium guajava (Myrtaceae), but Anastrepha obliqua occasionally shares this resource with Anastrepha striata in nature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birke, Andrea; Aluja, Martin

    2011-08-01

    This study examined whether economically important fruit fly species Anastrepha ludens (Loew), Anastrepha serpentina (Wiedemann), and Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart) (Diptera: Tephritidae) may opportunistically exploit guavas, Psidium guajava L. (Myrtaceae), growing near preferred natural hosts. We collected 3,459 kg of guavas and 895 kg of other known host species [sour orange, Citrus aurantium L.; grapefruit, Citrus paradisi Macfadyen; mango, Mangifera indica L.; white sapote, Casimiroa edulis La Llave and Lex.; sapote, Pouteria sapota (Jacq.); sapodilla, Manilkara zapota L.; and wild plum, Spondias purpurea L. and Spondias mombin L.] along an altitudinal gradient over a 4-yr period (2006-2009). Plants were growing in sympatry in 23 localities where the guavas are usually infested in the state of Veracruz, M6xico. The guava samples yielded 20,341 Anastrepha spp. pupae in total (overall mean, 5.88 pupae per kg of fruit). Confirming previous reports, Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann) and Anastrepha striata (Schiner) were found heavily infesting guavas in Veracruz. Importantly, although we did not find evidence that A. ludens and A. serpentina are able to attack this valuable commodity, we document for the first time in the agriculturally important state of Veracruz that P. guajava is an alternative natural host plant of A. obliqua. We recovered two fruit in the mango-growing locality of la Vibora, Tlalixcoyan, that harbored larvae of A. striata and A. obliqua. This finding has important practical implications for management of A. obliqua. Over the entire altitudinal gradient, when individual fruit infestation was examined, a dynamic pattern of species dominance was unveiled with guavas growing below 800 m above sea level mainly attacked by A. striata and a progressive replacement with increasing altitude by A. fraterculus. Interestingly, most individual fruit examined (97%) harbored a single species of fruit fly, a finding that may be taken as evidence of

  7. Preliminary studies for the colonization of Anastrepha obliqua and Anastrepha serpentina (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Celedonio H, H.; Enkerlin H, W.; Bruzzone, D.

    1999-01-01

    A series of trials were carried out with the aim of collecting preliminary data for the colonization of Anastrepha obliqua and Anastrepha serpentina. Trials were focused on evaluating adequate oviposition media as well as their effect on fly demographic parameters; the effect of cage population densities on demographic parameters was also considered; for A. serpentina, egg disinfection treatments by organic acids was assayed, and a screening study was carried out for suitable pupation media. Nylon-made egging mesh resulted in the most efficient oviposition medium, while low insect densities provided the best conditions for increased rates of fly fertility. Organic acids (methyl-p-hydroxy-benzoic) were found to hamper egg hatch, while a variety of pupation media provided improved fly emergence rates vs. the naked pupation method. (author)

  8. A revision of the Anastrepha robusta species group (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Anastrepha robusta species group is revised to include the following 29 species: A. amaryllis Tigrero (Ecuador), A. amazonensis, n. sp. (Brazil: Amazonas), A. bella, n. sp. (Panamá), A. binodosa Stone (Colombia, Brazil: Amazonas, Pará), A. concava Greene (Costa Rica to Ecuador and Brazil: Amazon...

  9. Breeding technique of Anastrepha fraterculus (Wied.) for genetic studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manso, F.

    1999-01-01

    Various samples of Anastrepha fraterculus from different areas in Argentina were obtained to develop artificial breeding in the laboratory. Based on a modification of Salles's method, an improved artificial rearing of the species was developed with satisfactory results for genetic analysis. The advances made will contribute towards the search for genetic mechanisms for control. (author)

  10. Diversity of Anastrepha spp. (Diptera: Tephritidae) and associated braconid parasitoids from native and exotic hosts in southeastern Bahia, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Janisete G; Dutra, Vivian S; Santos, Mirian S; Silva, Nívea M O; Vidal, Daniela B; Nink, Ricardo A; Guimarães, Jorge A; Araujo, Elton L

    2010-10-01

    We documented fruit fly-host associations and infestation rates over 5 yr in the state of Bahia, Brazil, by systematically collecting native and introduced fruits in backyard and commercial orchards, experimental stations, and patches of native vegetation. Fruit were collected in multiple sites in the southern and southernmost regions of Bahia. A total of 942.22 kg from 27 fruit species in 15 plant families was collected throughout this study. Of these, 15 plant species from six families were infested by Anastrepha species. A total of 11,614 fruit flies was reared from the fruit (5,178 females and 6,436 males). No specimens of Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) were recovered. Eleven Anastrepha species were recovered from the collected fruit: Anastrepha antunesi Lima (0.04%), Anastrepha distincta Greene (0.1%), Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann) (53.5%), Anastrepha leptozona Hendel (4.5%), Anastrepha manihoti Lima (0.1%), Anastrepha montei Lima (1.0%), Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart) (33.0%), Anastrepha pickeli Lima (2.0%), Anastrepha serpentina (Wiedemann) (1.0%), Anastrepha sororcula Zucchi (3.0%), and Anastrepha zenildae Zucchi (1.8%). We recovered 1,265 parasitoids (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) from Anastrepha pupae. Three species of braconids were found to parasitize larvae of nine Anastrepha species. The most common parasitoid species recovered was Doryctobracon areolatus (Szépligeti) (81.7%), followed by Utetes anastrephae (Viereck) (12.2%) and Asobara anastrephae (Muesebeck) (6.1%). We report A. fraterculus infesting Malay apple Syzygium malaccense (L.) Merr. & L. M. Perry and A. fraterculus, A. sororcula, and A. zenildae infesting araza Eugenia stipitata McVaugh for the first time in Brazil.

  11. Lekking behavior of Anastrepha Fraterculus (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Segura, D.; Petit-Marty, N.; Cladera, J.; Sciurano, R.; Calcagno, G.; Gomez Cendra, P.; Vilardi, J.; Vera, T.; Allinghi, A.

    2007-01-01

    Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae) displays a lek mating system. Males form groups in which they simultaneously display signals (acoustical, visual, or chemical) to attract females with the purpose of mating. Females visit the lek and choose among signaling and courting males to mate. Scarce information is available in A. fraterculus about the main factors involved in female choice and the behavior of displaying males. This information could be important within the context of pest control programs with a sterile insect technique (SIT) component, because departures from normal sexual behavior caused by artificial rearing could affect males' performance in the field. In this study we assessed A. fraterculus male behavior within the leks and analyzed the importance of behavioral and morphological traits on their copulatory success. The existence of preferred places for lek formation was evaluated in field cages with trees inside and analyzed by dividing the trees in sectors according to a 3-dimensional system. Males were individually weighed, marked, and observed every 15 min. Morphometric and behavioral characteristics of successful and unsuccessful males were compared. Most successful males grouped in a region of the tree characterized by the highest light intensity in the first 2 h of the morning. Results showed that pheromone calling activity is positively associated with copulatory success. Copulations were more frequent for males calling inside the lek, indicating that pheromone calling activity and presence in the lek are key factors for copulatory success. A positive association between copulatory success and eye length was found; some characteristics of the face were also associated with copula duration and latency. (author) [es

  12. Dispersal and longevity of wild and mass-reared Anastrepha Ludens and Anastrepha Obliqua (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez, E.; Orozco, D.; Flores Breceda, S.; Dominguez, J.

    2007-01-01

    The rates of dispersal and survival of sterile mass-reared laboratory flies and sterile wild flies of Anastrepha ludens (Loew) and Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart) were estimated and compared with a regular rectangular array of 64 food-baited traps spaced 60 m between traps around the release point in Tapachula Chiapas, Mexico. The traps were scored every day during the first week, and then every 3 d over a 30-d period. For A. obliqua, the number of males recaptured was higher than that of females, while for A. ludens, females were recaptured more frequently than males. The recapture rate for the wild strains ranged from 0.6-24.8% for A. ludens and 1.3-16.2% for A. obliqua and the corresponding ranges for the mass-reared strains were 0.5-7.1% and 0.5-3.0% respectively. The life expectancy was 4.7 d for wild and 4.3 d for mass-reared A. obliqua males but 3 and 2 d, respectively, for wild and mass-reared A. ludens males. The net displacement of A. ludens and A. obliqua ranged approximately from 100-250 m and took place mostly on the first day. Wild A. ludens moved to the northwest from the release point while the mass-reared strain moved to the west. The A. obliqua wild flies moved to the west, while the mass-reared strain shifted to the southwest. We discuss the implications of our findings as to the spacing and frequency of sterile fly releases for the suppression of wild populations. (author) [es

  13. Copula duration, insemination and sperm allocation in Anastrepha ludens (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The juxtaposition and functional relationship of the sperm storage organs in Anastrepha ludens is described. The spermatheca squash technique has been used to determine mated status in tephritid fruit flies and thus as a measure of compatability and coverage for SIT programs. Female Anastrepha luden...

  14. The South American fruit fly, Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann) in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zucchi, R.A.; Araujo, E.L.; Canal D, N.A.; Uchoa F, M.A.

    1999-01-01

    Anastrepha fraterculus, the South American fruit fly, is the most common and economically important pest for the fruit-bearing species in the Neotropical region. However, there are some species that are close to A. fraterculus and, sometimes they can be erroneously identified as A. fraterculus. The separation of A. fraterculus from A. obliqua, A. sororcula and A. zenildae, species closely related to South American fruit fly, is discussed. Also, information on the host plants and braconid parasitoids for A. fraterculus in Brazil is presented. (author)

  15. A new species of Anastrepha (Diptera: Tephritidae) from Colombia, Costa Rica and Panama

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anastrepha woodi, new species, is described and illustrated based on specimens from Colombia and Costa Rica. It is compared with A. loewi Stone, the most similar species, which is also redescribed....

  16. Notes on the present situation of Anastrepha fraterculus in Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manso, F.; Basso, A.

    1999-01-01

    Behavioural and karyotypical results from Anastrepha fraterculus samples received in our laboratory during the period 92-94 are discussed. The work represents the partial situation of this pest in Argentina. Data from guava fruits indicate 1) that the oviposition behaviour does not agree with the autocontrol mechanism via ODP previously described, 2) that a selection mechanism associated to fruit size and quality exists, allowing the female to choose the oviposition site, 3) if different varieties of fruits are available, then the fly shows preference for one of them. The oviposition behaviour in samples of peaches is different from that observed on guava samples and agrees with the ODP mechanism. In some localities, A. fraterculus and C. capitata share the same substrate or fruit (same unit). Samples from commercial oranges do not show evidence of Anastrepha attack. A more frequent karyotype fArg 1 (wild type karyotype) as well as high karyotypic variation, mainly measured through the polymorphism of sexual chromosomes, are present within different geographic populations sharing the same host species. To date, we do not have enough information to associate a particular behaviour to a karyotype. The chromosomal analysis is merely descriptive. (author)

  17. Species of Anastrepha (Diptera: Tephritidae) captured in a guava orchard (Psidium guajava L., Myrtaceae) in Boa Vista, Roraima, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsaro Júnior, A L; Deus, E G; Ronchi-Teles, B; Adaime, R; Silva Júnior, R J

    2013-11-01

    The guava fruit (Psidium guajava) is among the most strongly affected by fruit flies in Brazil. In the Brazilian Amazon, 11 species of Anastrepha have been reported in guava orchards to date. This work aimed to identify the species of Anastrepha present in a guava orchard in the municipality of Boa Vista, determine the species infesting the fruits, and identify any parasitoids present. Two McPhail traps with food bait were installed and weekly collections were made between January and December 2008. Fruits were also collected systematically during this period, with a view to determining the association between host plant and tephritid species. Nine species of Anastrepha were identified, in addition to one specimen belonging to a probable new species. Anastrepha striata Schiner, Anastrepha sororcula Zucchi, Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart), and Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann) were the dominant species in the orchard, accounting for 84.8% of all captured individuals. All females collected directly from fruits were A. striata. Doryctobracon areolatus (Szépligeti) was the only parasitoid species obtained. In this work, Anastrepha ethalea (Walker) is reported for the first time in the state of Roraima.

  18. Comparative Responses of Anastrepha ludens and Anastrepha obliqua (Diptera: Tephritidae) to the Synthetic Attractant BioLure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Déctor, Nayeli; Malo, Edi A; Rojas, Julio C; Liedo, Pablo

    2016-10-01

    The responses of wild and sterile Anastrepha ludens (Loew) and Anastrepha obliqua (Mcquart) fruit flies to the synthetic attractant BioLure were determined by electroantennography (EAG), in field cage tests using MultiLure traps, and by release-recapture field experiments using sterile flies. In EAG bioassays, no differences were found between species, sexes, sterile and wild flies. There were only specific differences and interactions in dose responses. More A. ludens than A. obliqua individuals were captured in multilure traps in field cage test. In A. ludens, there was not significant difference between the number of females and males captured, whereas in A. obliqua more females than males were caught. Age showed a bimodal response in both species and both sexes, with peaks at 4 and 14 d old. In the release-recapture experiments, there were significant differences between species, sexes, and orchards and among the days after release. More individuals of A. ludens than A obliqua were recaptured. Only in A. obliqua the difference between the sexes was significant, with a 3.60:1 female:male ratio. Orchard conditions affected the recapture rate, but in both orchards the largest number of flies recaptured occurred during the first day after release (46 and 88% in each orchard). Our results show that the response to this synthetic lure is species-specific and contribute to better interpret trapping data. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Morphological characterization of the reproductive system of irradiated Anastrepha fraterculus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartolucci, Andrea, E-mail: andreabartolucci@iscamen.com.a [Instituto de Sanidad y Calidad Agropecuaria de Mendoza (ISCAMEN), Mendoza (Argentina); Vera, M. Teresa [Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas (CONICET), (Argentina); Yusef, Veronica [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica (Argentina). Centro Atomico Ezeiza; Oviedo, Andrea [Estacion Experimental Agroindustrial Obispo Colombres (EEAOC), Tucuman (Argentina)

    2006-07-01

    Field identification of released sterile insects is a major issue for eradication and suppression programs. Irradiated flies are normally identified by the presence of a fluorescent dye. When a fly lacks fluorescent dye, determination of gonadal state is necessary to identified between sterile or fertile flies. This is particularly relevant when population levels have decreased. Animal and identification is required to be as unequivocal as possible. Here we describe the reproductive system of irradiated Anastrepha fraterculus of different ages and we compare it with that of fertile flies in order to provide a diagnosis tool. Fertile and irradiated A. fraterculus were dissected from the day of emergence and until 15 days of age. Gross morphology was described and the gonads were measured. Germ cells were visualized in the testis. The reproductive systems of both males and females contained the same structures as other Anastrepha species. From day 1 to day 3, there were no detectable differences between irradiated and fertile males. The growing region encompassed half the testis total length and there was no free sperm in the seminal vesicle. On day 4 the presence of free sperm was seen in the seminal vesicle. At this stage irradiated males started differentiating from fertile ones: the growing region reduced in size and totally disappeared by day 11; sperm bundle zones occupied most of the testis; spermatids lost their triangular shape and sperm remained in the seminal vesicle without moving into the apical region. Testis length and width of irradiated males did not differ from fertile males. In females, the maturation of the ovaries involved a change in size that was more pronounced in the length of the ovary. This became noticeable at day 3. At this stage, the formation of yolk and the basal follicle began in fertile females and the oocyte had the same size as the trophocytes. From this point, the oocyte started growing. After day 8, the maturing oocyte reached

  20. Morphological characterization of the reproductive system of irradiated Anastrepha fraterculus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartolucci, Andrea; Vera, M. Teresa; Yusef, Veronica

    2006-01-01

    Field identification of released sterile insects is a major issue for eradication and suppression programs. Irradiated flies are normally identified by the presence of a fluorescent dye. When a fly lacks fluorescent dye, determination of gonadal state is necessary to identified between sterile or fertile flies. This is particularly relevant when population levels have decreased. Animal and identification is required to be as unequivocal as possible. Here we describe the reproductive system of irradiated Anastrepha fraterculus of different ages and we compare it with that of fertile flies in order to provide a diagnosis tool. Fertile and irradiated A. fraterculus were dissected from the day of emergence and until 15 days of age. Gross morphology was described and the gonads were measured. Germ cells were visualized in the testis. The reproductive systems of both males and females contained the same structures as other Anastrepha species. From day 1 to day 3, there were no detectable differences between irradiated and fertile males. The growing region encompassed half the testis total length and there was no free sperm in the seminal vesicle. On day 4 the presence of free sperm was seen in the seminal vesicle. At this stage irradiated males started differentiating from fertile ones: the growing region reduced in size and totally disappeared by day 11; sperm bundle zones occupied most of the testis; spermatids lost their triangular shape and sperm remained in the seminal vesicle without moving into the apical region. Testis length and width of irradiated males did not differ from fertile males. In females, the maturation of the ovaries involved a change in size that was more pronounced in the length of the ovary. This became noticeable at day 3. At this stage, the formation of yolk and the basal follicle began in fertile females and the oocyte had the same size as the trophocytes. From this point, the oocyte started growing. After day 8, the maturing oocyte reached

  1. Biology of Anastrepha grandis (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Different Cucurbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolzan, Anderson; Nava, Dori E; Garcia, Flávio R M; Valgas, Ricardo A; Smaniotto, Giovani

    2015-06-01

    Anastrepha grandis (Macquart) (Diptera: Tephritidae) is one of the main pests of cucurbits in Brazil. Losses occur due to the damage caused to the fruits and the embargo on exports, as A. grandis is considered a quarantine pest in countries that import Brazilian cucurbits. This study aimed to evaluate the development of A. grandis in hosts of the Cucurbitaceae family. The hosts used were stem squash (Cucurbita pepo L.), squash (Cucurbita moschata Duchesne), chayote [Sechium edule (Jacq.) Swartz], mini watermelon [Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum & Nakai], Spanish melon (Cucumis melo L.), hybrid squash "Tetsukabuto" (C. moschata×Cucurbita maxima Duchesne), and salad cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.). We evaluated the viability and duration of egg-to-pupa period, pupal weight, sex ratio, and average number of pupae per fruit under controlled conditions of temperature, relative humidity, and photophase. The preoviposition and oviposition periods, fecundity, fertility, and longevity of females were determined for adults. Hosts of the genus Cucurbita provided a better development of A. grandis in comparison with other hosts, and presented a greater number of insects on fruit as well as higher infestation rate. Fecundity and longevity were also higher for females that developed in hosts of the genus Cucurbita, although values of these biological parameters varied between stem squash, squash, hybrid squash "Tetsukabuto." © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Use of gamma radiation against Ceratitis capitata (Wied., 1824), Anastrepha Fraterculus (Wied., 1830) and Anastrepha Obliqua (Macquart, 1835) (Diptera, Tephritidae) for disinfestation of mangoes for exportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raga, A.

    1990-04-01

    The gamma radiation doses to attend quarantine requirements of importing countries, by disinfecting mango fruits from Ceratitis capitata (Wied., 1824), Anastrepha Fraterculus (Wied., 1830) and Anastrepha Obliqua (Macquart, 1835) is studied. An increase of radiation resistance of C. capitata eggs was observed during the embryonic development. Doses up to 40 Gy for C. capitata and up to 100 Gy for A. Fraterculus and A. Obliqua did not affect pupation of 4-,5-,6- and 7-day-old larvae, irradiated 'in vitro'. Larvae of C. capitata were more resistant than A. Obliqua and A. Fraterculus. Larvae of A. Obliqua were more resistant than A. Fraterculus. The dose of 125.5 Gy fulfilled the criteria for efficacy, which prevented emergence of the adults of three fruit fly species studied. (author)

  3. Grape Juice as an Attractant for Anastrepha suspensa (Diptera: Tephritidae) and Zaprionus indianus (Diptera: Drosophilidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    In field tests conducted in south Florida to test grape juice as an alternative inexpensive bait for Anastrepha suspensa Loew, high numbers of Zaprionus indianus Gupta were captured in traps baited with aqueous grape juice. These experiments included comparisons of grape juice with standard A. susp...

  4. Monitoring and application of reduced-risk pesticides for managing Anastrepha suspensa (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tropical guava, Psidium guajava, is an important fruit crop that is rich in several nutrients including vitamin C. In the U. S. it is commonly cultivated in southern Florida, Texas and California. Caribbean fruit fly, Anastrepha suspensa Loew, is a key pest of tropical guava, causing significant yie...

  5. A new species of Anastrepha (Diptera: Tephritidae) from Euphorbia tehuacana (Euphorbiaceae) in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norrbom, Allen L; Castillo-Meza, Ana Lucía; García-Chávez, Juan Héctor; Aluja, Martín; Rull, Juan

    2014-03-24

    Anastrepha tehuacana, a new species of Tephritidae (Diptera) from Tehuacán, Puebla, Mexico reared from seeds of Euphorbia tehuacana (Brandegee) V.W. Steinm. (Euphorbiaceae), is described and illustrated. Its probable relationship to A. relicta Hernández-Ortiz is discussed.

  6. A new species of Anastrepha (Diptera: Tephritidae) from Euphorbia tehuacana (Euphorbiaceae) in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anastrepha tehuacana, a new species of Tephritidae (Diptera) from Tehuacán, Puebla, Mexico reared from seeds of Euphorbia tehuacana (Brandegee) V.W. Steinm. (Euphorbiaceae), is described and illustrated. Its probable relationship to A. relicta Hernández-Ortiz is discussed....

  7. Cuticular Hydrocarbons of the South American Fruit Fly Anastrepha fraterculus: Variability with Sex and Age

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vaníčková, Lucie; Svatoš, Aleš; Kroiss, J.; Kaltenpoth, M.; do Nascimento, R. R.; Hoskovec, Michal; Břízová, Radka; Kalinová, Blanka

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 38, č. 9 (2012), s. 1133-1142 ISSN 0098-0331 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : Anastrepha fratercules species complex * cuticular hydrocarbons * sex-specific differences * age-dependent production Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 2.462, year: 2012

  8. Capture of Anastrepha species (Diptera: Tephritidae) with multilure traps and biolure attractants in Guatemala

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez, A.J.; Salinas, E.J.; Rendon, P.

    2007-01-01

    Two trapping systems were compared in a study in Guatemala during the wet season, May through Dec 2001. Trap/lure combinations consisting of green or yellow-based plastic McPhail-like traps baited with a synthetic 2-component lure (putrescine and ammonium acetate) and 300 mL of propylene glycol antifreeze as a preservative were compared to the traditional glass McPhail baited with torula yeast/borax and 300 mL of water. Both systems captured several key Anastrepha species including Anastrepha ludens Loew, A. obliqua, Macquart, A. serpentina Weidemann, A. striata Schiner, A. distincta Greene, A. fraterculus Weidemann as well as Ceratitis capitata Weidemann. Additionally, 13 other Anastrepha spp. were captured with the synthetic lure. The plastic traps captured more key flies than the McPhail trap except for A. distincta where there were no significant differences between the yellow-based plastic trap and the McPhail trap and no significant differences between any trap and lure for trapping A. fraterculus. The synthetic lure lasted 10 weeks. The sex ratio was female-biased for almost all captured key species in both systems. Moreover, there were significant numbers of captured nontarget insects in all traps; however, the captured flies in those traps with the synthetic lure were not adversely affected by these insects. Propylene glycol-based antifreeze was a superior preservative when compared to borax/water. (author) [es

  9. Response of Anastrepha suspensa (Diptera: Tephritidae) to terminal diamines in a food-based synthetic attractant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendra, Paul E; Epsky, Nancy D; Montgomery, Wayne S; Heath, Robert R

    2008-10-01

    A current trapping system for Anastrepha fruit flies uses a two-component food-based synthetic attractant consisting of ammonium acetate and putrescine (1,4-diaminobutane). Development of more effective monitoring programs may be realized through identification of additional attractant chemicals. This study examined response of the Caribbean fruit fly, Anastrepha suspensa (Loew), to putrescine and four homologous terminal diamines, differing only in carbon chain length. Using a fixed dose of each diamine substrate, electroantennogram (EAG) responses from mature females to putrescine and cadaverine (1,5-diaminopentane) were not significantly different from each other but were significantly greater than responses to longer chain diamines. Over a range of doses tested, mean female EAG response was greater than male response to both putrescine and cadaverine. In an initial field test, capture of female flies in traps baited with ammonium acetate and either putrescine or cadaverine was higher than in traps baited with ammonium acetate and any of the other diamines. In a subsequent field test, traps baited with putrescine, cadaverine, or 1,6-diaminohexane in combination with ammonium acetate captured more female flies than traps baited with ammonium acetate alone. A significantly greater synergistic effect on female captures was observed with either putrescine or cadaverine than with 1,6-diaminohexane. Thus, of the diamines evaluated, cadaverine elicited both antennal and behavioral responses comparable to that of putrescine and will be studied further as a potential attractant for pest Anastrepha species.

  10. Best Host Age of Anastrepha obliqua (Diptera: Tephritidae) for Multiplication of Four Native Parasitoids from the Americas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poncio, S; Montoya, P; Cancino, J; Nava, D E

    2018-01-01

    Abstract The success of the mass rearing of parasitoids is directly related to host quality, and it requires selecting the best biological host age to ensure the optimal performance of the parasitoids released into the field. The larval development of the parasitoids Utetes anastrephae (Viereck) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) and Odontosema anastrephae Borgmeier (Hymenoptera: Eucoilidae) and the pupal development of the parasitoids Coptera haywardi (Ogloblin) (Hymenoptera: Diapriidae) and Dirhinus sp. (Hymenoptera: Chalcididae) on the native host Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart) (Diptera: Tephritidae) in different larvae and pupae ages were investigated under laboratory conditions. Not all parasitoid species developed with the same efficiency in immature individuals of A. obliqua; U. anastrephae and C. haywardi showed the higher parasitism rates. The emergence and parasitism of U. anastrephae were equal using larvae from 5 to 8 d, while C. haywardi reared in 1- to 8-d-old pupae showed higher averages of parasitism. These results suggest that native parasitoids can be used to strengthen the implementation of biological control projects against A. obliqua, a pest of economic importance in South America.

  11. Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Tucuman, Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaldo, H.E.

    1999-01-01

    Full text: In 1916, Rust recorded Anastrepha fraterculus, the ''South American fruit fly (SAFF)'', in Tucuman. Since 1910, the citrus area in the province has increased rapidly and SAFF has become an important pest. New varieties and management practices were also introduced in the region. Guavas (Psidium guajava) and peaches (Prunus persica) were the main host fruits of SAFF in Tucuman, but cherimoya (Anona chirimoya) and apricots (Prunus armeniaca) were also important. After the beginning of rains, populations increase in spring and develop mainly on peaches in November and December. Afterwards, SAFF attacks guava, where a peak population is attained in February or March. Guava is the principal wild host of SAFF in Tucuman. Compared with the forest where guava trees were frequent, citrus orchards covered a small area in the 1920's. Therefore SAFF populations increased in the wild guavas and invaded early oranges and grapefruits afterwards. Even though high numbers of punctures were observed in citrus skin, few larvae developed. The oils present in the skin kill high number of eggs. Moreover the larvae have to go through the albedo and hardly reach the pulp. Nevertheless the injury produced by the ovipositor allows microorganisms to rot the fruit. In 1918, rots produced 50% of damage in fruits which suffered premature ripening and fell. Only in very thin skinned and overripened fruit, larval development was registered. Some authors observed larval development in the field but Schult, in laboratory tests, found few eggs and never registered larval development. Between 1920 and 1945 studies with bait-traps were carried out to establish the seasonal occurrence of the fly and some control measures were tested. Poisoned baits were used against this pest, and biological control by inoculation of parasitoids were also employed. Cages with parasitized pupae were distributed to farmers. The emerged flies were kept within the cage and a sieve allowed the emerged parasites

  12. Effect of Resin Ducts and Sap Content on Infestation and Development of Immature Stages of Anastrepha obliqua and Anastrepha ludens (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Four Mango (Sapindales: Anacardiaceae) Cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillén, Larissa; Adaime, Ricardo; Birke, Andrea; Velázquez, Olinda; Angeles, Guillermo; Ortega, Fernando; Ruíz, Eliel; Aluja, Martín

    2017-04-01

    We determined the influence of resin ducts, sap content, and fruit physicochemical features of four mango cultivars (Criollo, Manila, Ataulfo, and Tommy Atkins) on their susceptibility to the attack of the two most pestiferous fruit fly species infesting mangoes in Mexico: Anastrepha ludens (Loew) and Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart). We performed three studies: 1) analysis of resin ducts in mango fruit exocarp to determine the density and area occupied by resin ducts in each mango cultivar, 2) assessment of mango physicochemical features including fruit sap content, and 3) a forced infestation trial under field conditions using enclosed fruit-bearing branches to expose mangoes to gravid A. ludens or A. obliqua females. Infestation rates, development time from egg to prepupae and pupae, pupal weight, and percent of adult emergence, were assessed. 'Ataulfo' and 'Tommy Atkins' cultivars exhibited the highest resin duct density and sap content, the lowest infestation rate, and had a negative effect on immature development and pupal weight. In sharp contrast, 'Manila' and 'Criollo' cultivars, with the lowest resin duct density and sap content, were highly susceptible to A. ludens and A. obliqua attack. We conclude that sap content and the number, size, and distribution of resin ducts as well as firmness in mango fruit exocarp are all involved in the resistance of mango to A. ludens and A. obliqua attack. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Performance of Anastrepha obliqua (Diptera, Tephritidae larvae fed on artificial diets Desempenho das larvas de Anastrepha obliqua (Diptera, Tephritidae alimentadas com dietas artificiais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tânia M. L. Fontellas-Brandalha

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Moscas das frutas do gênero Anastrepha Schiner, 1868 são conhecidas por sua importância econômica devido aos danos que elas causam nos frutos comerciais. As exigências nutricionais dos estágios imaturo e adulto são diferentes e as larvas não se desenvolvem bem utilizando a mesma dieta do adulto. Embora as necessidades nutricionais básicas dos insetos sejam bem conhecidas, existe ainda o problema de elaborar dietas de criação adequadas para espécies com necessidades específicas. O objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar o efeito de diferentes tipos e quantidades de carboidratos na dieta sobre a performance larval de Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart, 1835. Larvas foram criadas individualmente em tubos de ensaio contendo uma das dietas artificiais a serem testadas onde elas foram mantidas até a pupação. A composição básica das dietas testadas incluia 2,5 g de agar, 3,25 g de levedo de cerveja e quantidades variadas de sacarose e farinha de trigo. A adequação do meio artificial para A. obliqua foi testada pela avaliação da sobrevivência larval e pupal (% e o tempo de desenvolvimento larval, pupal e de larva-adulto. A dieta contendo farinha de trigo (2 g e sacarose (2 g e a dieta somente com sacarose (5,5 g foram as que apresentaram melhor performance larval. Todas as dietas testadas apresentaram resultados similares ou superiores às dietas utilizadas em outros trabalhos. A importância da presença da farinha de trigo e seu valor nutricional para as larvas são discutidos.Fruit flies of the genus Anastrepha Schiner, 1868 are well-known for having economical importance since they damage commercially cultivated fruits. Nutritional demands during the immature and adult stages are different, so the larvae do not develop well using the same diet as the adults. Although the insect basic nutritional needs are well-known, there is also the challenge to elaborate rearing diets adequate to species with specific needs. The aim of this study

  14. Parasitóides (Hymenoptera: Braconidae de Anastrepha Schiner (Diptera: Tephritidae no estado do Acre Parasitoids (Hymenoptera: Braconidae of Anastrepha Schiner (Diptera: Tephritidae in the state of Acre, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcílio José Thomazini

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho relata a primeira ocorrência de parasitóides em moscas-das-frutas do gênero Anastrepha Schiner no estado do Acre. No município de Bujari foram encontrados os braconídeos Opius bellus Gahan (72,5%, Doryctobracon areolatus (Szépligeti (26,8% e Utetes anastrephae (Viereck (0,7% associados a A. obliqua (Macquart em frutos de taperebá (Spondias mombin L., com parasitismo de 29,5%. No município de Rio Branco, em frutos de goiaba (Psidium guajava L., ocorreu somente D. areolatus em A. obliqua com parasitismo de 2,7%.This paper records the first parasitoids occurrence on Anastrepha Schiner fruit flies in the state of Acre, Brazil. In the Bujari County there occurred the braconids Opius bellus Gahan (72.5%, Doryctobracon areolatus (Szépligeti (26.8% e Utetes anastrephae (Viereck (0.7% associated with A. obliqua (Macquart in tapereba fruits (Spondias mombin L., with parasitism of 29.5%. In guajava fruits (Psidium guajava L. at Rio Branco County, only D. areolatus on A. obliqua occurred, with parasitism of 2.7%.

  15. Susceptibility of 15 mango (Sapindales: Anacardiaceae) cultivars to the attack by Anastrepha ludens and Anastrepha obliqua (Diptera:Tephritidae) and the role of underdeveloped fruit as pest reservoirs: management implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    We evaluated the susceptibility of 15 mango cultivars to the attack of Anastrepha ludens and A. obliqua, the main Tephritid pests of this crop in Mexico. In a field experiment, bagged, fruit-bearing branches were exposed to gravid females of both fly species. Infestation rates, developmental time,...

  16. Karyotype study of the South American fruit fly, Anastrepha fraterculus (Wied.) in Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lifschitz, E.; Manso, F.; Basso, A.

    1999-01-01

    The most frequent karyotype of Anastrepha fraterculus in Argentina is described here on the basis of mitotic metaphase morphology. It was named ''fraterculus Arg 1''. The diploid number is 2n=10+XX/XY and in males it comprises five homomorphic pairs and one heteomorphic pair, the latter being the sexual pair. Samples from different populations were cytologically analyzed, and ''fraterculus Arg 1'' is present in all of them at a high frequency (about 60%). A typical C band pattern of the X chromosome was found only in the Montecarlo (Misiones province) population. (author)

  17. A review of hymenopterous parasitoid guilds attacking Anastrepha spp. and Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ovruski, Sergio M.; Orono, Luis E.; Nunez-Campero, Segundo; Schliserman, Pablo; Albornoz-Medina, Patricia; Bezdjian, Laura P.; Nieuwenhove, Guido A. Van; Martin, Cristina B.

    2006-01-01

    This study provides detailed information on the diversity, abundance, guilds, host plant and host fly ranges, distribution, and taxonomic status of hymenopterous parasitoid species associated with Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) and Anastrepha spp. (A. fraterculus (Wiedemann) and A. schultzi Blanchard) in Argentina. Moreover, the article also argues future needs regarding the use of some parasitoid species as an alternative tool in fruit fly management programs of the National Fruit Fly Control and Eradication Program (PROCEM-Argentina). Data used for this work were obtained from numerous old and recent published articles on fruit fly parasitoids in Argentina. (author)

  18. A review of hymenopterous parasitoid guilds attacking Anastrepha spp. and Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Argentina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ovruski, Sergio M.; Orono, Luis E.; Nunez-Campero, Segundo; Schliserman, Pablo; Albornoz-Medina, Patricia; Bezdjian, Laura P.; Nieuwenhove, Guido A. Van; Martin, Cristina B. [Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas (CONICET), Tucuman (Argentina). Planta Piloto de Procesos Industriales Microbiologicos y Biotecnologia. Div. Control Biologico de Plagas

    2006-07-01

    This study provides detailed information on the diversity, abundance, guilds, host plant and host fly ranges, distribution, and taxonomic status of hymenopterous parasitoid species associated with Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) and Anastrepha spp. (A. fraterculus (Wiedemann) and A. schultzi Blanchard) in Argentina. Moreover, the article also argues future needs regarding the use of some parasitoid species as an alternative tool in fruit fly management programs of the National Fruit Fly Control and Eradication Program (PROCEM-Argentina). Data used for this work were obtained from numerous old and recent published articles on fruit fly parasitoids in Argentina. (author)

  19. X-ray doses to safely release the parasitoid Diachasmimorpha longicaudata (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) reared on Anastrepha fraterculus larvae (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bachmann, G. E.; Carabajal Paladino, Leonela Z.; Conte, C. A.; Devescovi, F.; Milla, F. H.; Cladera, J. L.; Segura, D. F.; Viscarret, M. M.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 25, č. 9 (2015), s. 1092-1103 ISSN 0958-3157 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.30.0032 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : biological control * gamma rays * Anastrepha fraterculus Subject RIV: GF - Plant Pathology, Vermin, Weed, Plant Protection Impact factor: 0.848, year: 2015

  20. Male sexual behavior and pheromone emission is enhanced by exposure to guava fruit volatiles in Anastrepha fraterculus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Host plant chemicals can influence sex pheromone communication of tephritid fruit flies, and affect strategies optimizing mating and reproduction. Previous studies suggest that females of the South American fruit fly, Anastrepha fraterculus, prefer to mate with laboratory males previously exposed to...

  1. Effect of cryopreservation on the pre-hatching behavior in the Mexican fruit fly Anastrepha ludens Loew (Diptera, Tephritidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    In a sampling of untreated embryos of Mexican fruit fly, Anastrepha ludens, the cumulative hatch percentage was 84.77±7.8% of which ~70% of the larvae eclosed through the posterior pole of the egg. This is due to an unusual and seemingly energy demanding act of flipping of the fully developed pre-ha...

  2. Incipient speciation revealed in Anastrepha fraterculus (Diptera; Tephritidae) by studies on mating compatibility, sex pheromones, hybridisation and cytology

    Science.gov (United States)

    It is suggested that the nominal species Anastrepha fraterculus is a species complex and previous studies showed high levels of pre-zygotic isolation between two laboratory strains from Argentina and Peru. To further analyze this observation, experiments were carried out on the same populations and...

  3. A checklist of the species of Anastrepha with the families of their host plants and hymenopteran parasitoids in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zucchi, Roberto Antonio

    2000-01-01

    Many surveys on fruit flies have already been carried out by several researchers in Brazil while others are still going on. Most of these surveys were conducted in areas where no studies had been previously done. With these surveys, new species and new records of species were found in Brazil. Also, in this decade, several surveys on fruit fly braconid parasitoids were conducted. These data have been summarised recently, because of the great interest in the biological control of fruit flies in Brazil. Research on eucoilid fruit fly parasitoids have been largely neglected. However, taxonomic studies are being conducted on eucoilids associated with frugivorous flies (Tephritidae and Lonchaeidae) in Brazil. All the data on fruit flies, host plants and hymenopteran parasitoids are unfortunately scattered in the literature and frequently are only published as dissertations or congress abstracts which are not widely available. Even when submitted for publication, papers take a long time to come out in Brazil. Consequently, it is very difficult to get a list of the Anastrepha species in Brazil, or to determine which host plant species are associated with them. These data are of particular interest in the case of economically important species, especially those considered as quarantine pests. Therefore, such a list is very useful for regulatory entomologists and pest management programmes by listing the Anastrepha species in Brazil and their associated host plants and hymenopteran parasitoids. The objective of this paper is to gather some available records of the Anastrepha species, their host plants and hymenopteran parasitoids (Braconidae and Eucoilidae) published in Brazil. Due to the space limitation of this paper, only families of the host plants of the Anastrepha species are presented. In fact, this work is part of a research which deals with the preparation of a database for the Anastrepha species in Brazil

  4. Large scale artificial rearing of Anastrepha sp.1 aff. fraterculus (Diptera: Tephritidae in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Marcos Melges Walder

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Some species of the genus Anastrepha (Diptera: Tephritidae are successfully managed by matching the sterile insect technique with parasitoid releases. Such strategies used in integrated pest management can be implemented only where insect mass-rearing programs are feasible. In this study, we show the process of domestication, rearing technology and quality control data obtained from 54 generations of Anastrepha sp.1 aff. fraterculus (Wiedemann, 1830 kept under fully artificial conditions. Eggs were collected by an artificial oviposition panel consisting of one side of the cage made of blue voile fabric externally covered with a thin layer of silicon rubber. They were then air-bubbled in water at 25 ºC for 48 h before seeding. Larvae were reared on the regular laboratory artificial diet with 66 % of agar reduction turning over a semi-liquid diet, which reduced costs and improved insect quality. The adult and larval diets were composed of local ingredients including hydrolyzed yeast. When large-scale production of this fly is contemplated, the critical stage is larval development. This system of artificial rearing for A. fraterculus sp.1 developed in Brazil, allows for the production of a large number of insects of excellent quality using local ingredients and less agar in diet composition than the original medium used for this species. By reducing the interval of egg collection, the system might be optimized in terms of insect yield and, therefore, meet the demands of A. fraterculus sp.1 with regard to integrated pest management purposes.

  5. Co-Infestation and Spatial Distribution of Bactrocera carambolae and Anastrepha spp. (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Common Guava in the Eastern Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deus, E. G.; Godoy, W. A. C.; Sousa, M. S. M.; Lopes, G. N.; Jesus-Barros, C. R.; Silva, J. G.; Adaime, R.

    2016-01-01

    Field infestation and spatial distribution of introduced Bactrocera carambolae Drew and Hancock and native species of Anastrepha in common guavas [Psidium guajava (L.)] were investigated in the eastern Amazon. Fruit sampling was carried out in the municipalities of Calçoene and Oiapoque in the state of Amapá, Brazil. The frequency distribution of larvae in fruit was fitted to the negative binomial distribution. Anastrepha striata was more abundant in both sampled areas in comparison to Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann) and B. carambolae. The frequency distribution analysis of adults revealed an aggregated pattern for B. carambolae as well as for A. fraterculus and Anastrepha striata Schiner, described by the negative binomial distribution. Although the populations of Anastrepha spp. may have suffered some impact due to the presence of B. carambolae, the results are still not robust enough to indicate effective reduction in the abundance of Anastrepha spp. caused by B. carambolae in a general sense. The high degree of aggregation observed for both species suggests interspecific co-occurrence with the simultaneous presence of both species in the analysed fruit. Moreover, a significant fraction of uninfested guavas also indicated absence of competitive displacement. PMID:27638949

  6. Co-Infestation and Spatial Distribution of Bactrocera carambolae and Anastrepha spp. (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Common Guava in the Eastern Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deus, E G; Godoy, W A C; Sousa, M S M; Lopes, G N; Jesus-Barros, C R; Silva, J G; Adaime, R

    2016-01-01

    Field infestation and spatial distribution of introduced Bactrocera carambolae Drew and Hancock and native species of Anastrepha in common guavas [Psidium guajava (L.)] were investigated in the eastern Amazon. Fruit sampling was carried out in the municipalities of Calçoene and Oiapoque in the state of Amapá, Brazil. The frequency distribution of larvae in fruit was fitted to the negative binomial distribution. Anastrepha striata was more abundant in both sampled areas in comparison to Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann) and B. carambolae The frequency distribution analysis of adults revealed an aggregated pattern for B. carambolae as well as for A. fraterculus and Anastrepha striata Schiner, described by the negative binomial distribution. Although the populations of Anastrepha spp. may have suffered some impact due to the presence of B. carambolae, the results are still not robust enough to indicate effective reduction in the abundance of Anastrepha spp. caused by B. carambolae in a general sense. The high degree of aggregation observed for both species suggests interspecific co-occurrence with the simultaneous presence of both species in the analysed fruit. Moreover, a significant fraction of uninfested guavas also indicated absence of competitive displacement. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Entomological Society of America.

  7. The South American fruit fly, Anastrepha fraterculus (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nunez Bueno, L.

    1999-01-01

    Anastrepha fraterculus (Wied) is the most important fruit fly in Colombia. It has been trapped from the sea level up to 2000 m of altitude, but is is more abundant in the coffee growing area located at 1300 to 1700 masl, with temperatures between 18 to 22 deg. C (-min 11 deg. C,-max 25 deg. C). The main host in that area is Coffea arabica L., but it also has 14 additional identified hosts that belong to 9 families. In the hot climates from 0 to 1000 m of altitude it breeds in mango (Mangifera indica L.) and guava (Psidium guayava L:). The pest has not been stabilised in the cultivated upper lands between 2300-2600 masl. (author)

  8. Update of host plant list of Anastrepha fraterculus and Ceratitis capitata in Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orono, Luis E.; Albornoz-Medina, Patricia; Nunez-Campero, Segundo; Nieuwenhove, Guido A. van; Bezdjian, Laura P.; Martin, Cristina B.; Schliserman, Pablo; Ovruski, Sergio M.

    2006-01-01

    The study displays a complete picture of the host range of the two economically important fruit fly species in Argentina, the native Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann) (South American Fruit Fly) and the exotic Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Mediterranean Fruit Fly or Medfly). This work provides information on the fruit type of each plant species, associated tephritid species, habitat where the fruit was collected, geographical location of each fruit collection area (latitude, longitude, and altitude), phyto geographic regions where each area is located, as well as a general description of the landscape characteristics of those habitats where the fruit samples with fly larvae were collected. A complete, detailed bibliographic review was made in order to provide all the relevant information needed for host use in natural setting. (author)

  9. Procedures for mass rearing the West Indian fruit fly, Anastrepha obliqua

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreno, M.P.; Gomez Simuta, Y.; Zavala Lopez, J.L.

    1999-01-01

    A series of bioassays resulted in a promising colony of Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart) for artificial production. A new model circular cage has been designed to achieve an increase in density of adults per cages, thus resulting in an increase in egg production. A bioassay for best egg production as well as constant hydration of eggs until collection time was chosen. Cotton fabric gave the best results of the fabrics used in the oviposition panel. A new diet based on corn cob particles and with citrus acid instead of hydrochloric acid was tested and showed promising results in good production, quality and less risk in handling. The optimum humidity range for larva to pupa conversion was found to be 70-80%. (author)

  10. Trials to determine levels of oviposition of Anastrepha fraterculus (Wied.) on fruit and artificial oviposition devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alama, D.

    1999-01-01

    The current work was conducted in order to determine the level of oviposition of Anastrepha fraterculus on fresh mangos and artificial oviposition devices. Four trials were carried out during which freshly harvested fruit was exposed to wild South American adult fruit flies. The following viable oviposition/day/kg of fruit (viable ovipositions = emerged adults) were established: 79.16, 71.25, 83.6 and 60.6. The trials were carried out at 25 deg. C - 28 deg. C and 60%-80% relative humidity. Beginning with the first generation one trial was carried out which confirmed the acceptance of sexually mature females to oviposit on red oviposition devices consisting of wax-covered cloth. However, red plastic containers with holes of 0.5 mm did not produce good results. (author)

  11. Volatile substances from male Anastrepha fraterculus wied. (Diptera: Tephritidae: identification and behavioural activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lima Ivanildo S.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Volatile compounds produced by calling males of Anastrepha species have previously been reported from A. ludens and A. suspensa. Both species mate in the afternoon, release a similar range of compounds in different proportions, and only differ in the production of monoterpenes. When calling, male A. fraterculus releases two isomers of the sesquiterpene alpha-farnesene, three lactones (anastrephin, epianastrephin and (E,E-suspensolide, and two monoterpenes (limonene and (Z-beta-ocimene. The dimorphic male salivary glands produce and/or store the same isomers of alpha-farnesene and suspensolide, and four pyrazines. Two of these compounds have been previously reported from male A. ludens and A. suspensa. Salivary glands from virgin calling male A. fraterculus showed behavioural activity when bioassayed with virgin mature female flies, but immature females were not attracted.

  12. Influence of quantities of brewer yeast on the performance of Anastrepha obliqua wild females (Diptera, Tephritidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cresoni-Pereira Carla

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Using artificial solid diets, experiments were performed with Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart, 1835 wild females in order to verify the influence of different quantities of brewer yeast on the performance and compensation behavior to unbalanced diets ingestion. The observed parameters were egg production, ingestion, diet efficiency and survival in the reproductive phase. Results indicated that there was no compensatory ingestion to different quantities of yeast and that the diet with 12.5g of yeast provided the best performance. The absence of compensatory ingestion is discussed based on the yeast phagostimulation and on the costs involved in solid diets ingestion. The relation between the analyzed parameters and the protein quantities in the diet were discussed.

  13. Influence of quantities of brewer yeast on the performance of Anastrepha obliqua wild females (Diptera, Tephritidae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cresoni-Pereira, Carla; Zucoloto, Fernando Sergio [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Filosofia, Ciencias e Letras. Dept. de Biologia

    2001-11-15

    Using artificial solid diets, experiments were performed with Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart, 1835) wild females in order to verify the influence of different quantities of brewer yeast on the performance and compensation behavior to unbalanced diets ingestion. The observed parameters were egg production, ingestion, diet efficiency and survival in the reproductive phase. Results indicated that there was no compensatory ingestion to different quantities of yeast and that the diet with 12.5g of yeast provided the best performance. The absence of compensatory ingestion is discussed based on the yeast phagostimulation and on the costs involved in solid diets ingestion. The relation between the analyzed parameters and the protein quantities in the diet were discussed. (author)

  14. Update of host plant list of Anastrepha fraterculus and Ceratitis capitata in Argentina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orono, Luis E.; Albornoz-Medina, Patricia; Nunez-Campero, Segundo; Nieuwenhove, Guido A. van; Bezdjian, Laura P.; Martin, Cristina B.; Schliserman, Pablo; Ovruski, Sergio M. [Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas (CONICET), Tucuman (Argentina). Planta Piloto de Procesos Industriales Microbiologicos y Biotecnologia. Div. Control Biologico de Plagas

    2006-07-01

    The study displays a complete picture of the host range of the two economically important fruit fly species in Argentina, the native Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann) (South American Fruit Fly) and the exotic Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Mediterranean Fruit Fly or Medfly). This work provides information on the fruit type of each plant species, associated tephritid species, habitat where the fruit was collected, geographical location of each fruit collection area (latitude, longitude, and altitude), phyto geographic regions where each area is located, as well as a general description of the landscape characteristics of those habitats where the fruit samples with fly larvae were collected. A complete, detailed bibliographic review was made in order to provide all the relevant information needed for host use in natural setting. (author)

  15. Influence of quantities of brewer yeast on the performance of Anastrepha obliqua wild females (Diptera, Tephritidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cresoni-Pereira, Carla; Zucoloto, Fernando Sergio

    2001-01-01

    Using artificial solid diets, experiments were performed with Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart, 1835) wild females in order to verify the influence of different quantities of brewer yeast on the performance and compensation behavior to unbalanced diets ingestion. The observed parameters were egg production, ingestion, diet efficiency and survival in the reproductive phase. Results indicated that there was no compensatory ingestion to different quantities of yeast and that the diet with 12.5g of yeast provided the best performance. The absence of compensatory ingestion is discussed based on the yeast phagostimulation and on the costs involved in solid diets ingestion. The relation between the analyzed parameters and the protein quantities in the diet were discussed. (author)

  16. New species and host plants of Anastrepha (Diptera: Tephritidae) primarily from Peru and Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norrbom, Allen L; Rodriguez, Erick J; Steck, Gary J; Sutton, Bruce A; Nolazco, Norma

    2015-11-16

    Twenty-eight new species of Anastrepha are described and illustrated: A. acca (Bolivia, Peru), A. adami (Peru), A. amplidentata (Bolivia, Peru), A. annonae (Peru), A. breviapex (Peru), A. caballeroi (Peru), A. camba (Bolivia, Peru), A. cicra (Bolivia, Peru), A. disjuncta (Peru), A. durantae (Peru), A. echaratiensis (Peru), A. eminens (Peru), A. ericki (Peru), A. gonzalezi (Bolivia, Peru), A. guevarai (Peru), A. gusi (Peru), A. kimi (Colombia, Peru), A. korytkowskii (Bolivia, Peru), A. latilanceola (Bolivia, Peru), A. melanoptera (Peru), A. mollyae (Bolivia, Peru), A. perezi (Peru), A. psidivora (Peru), A. robynae (Peru), A. rondoniensis (Brazil, Peru), A. tunariensis (Bolivia, Peru), A. villosa (Bolivia), and A. zacharyi (Peru). The following host plant records are reported: A. amplidentata from Spondias mombin L. (Anacardiaceae); A. caballeroi from Quararibea malacocalyx A. Robyns & S. Nilsson (Malvaceae); A. annonae from Annona mucosa Jacq. and Annona sp. (Annonaceae); A. durantae from Duranta peruviana Moldenke (Verbenaceae); and A. psidivora from Psidium guajava L. (Myrtaceae).

  17. Benzalkonium Chloride Provides Remarkable Stability to Liquid Protein Lures for Trapping Anastrepha obliqua (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasa, R; Williams, T

    2017-12-05

    Hydrolyzed protein lures are widely used to monitor fruit fly pests but are rapidly degraded by microbial activity and must be replaced frequently. To improve the stability of lures, the quaternary ammonium biocide, benzalkonium chloride (BC), was evaluated in mixtures with two hydrolyzed proteins commonly used to monitor Anastrepha spp. The mean number of Anastrepha obliqua adults captured during six consecutive weeks using Captor + borax with the addition of 240 mg BC/liter, not renewed during the test, was similar to Captor + borax that was replaced at weekly intervals and was more effective than Captor + borax without BC. Numbers of A. obliqua flies captured in 30% CeraTrap diluted in water containing 240 mg BC/liter were similar to those caught in traps baited with Captor + borax or 30% CeraTrap without BC in the first 9 d of evaluation but was significantly more effective than both lures after 56 d. After >2 mo of use, 30% CeraTrap containing 240 mg BC/liter remained as effective as newly prepared 30% CeraTrap. The addition of BC to lures reduced surface tension of liquid lures by ~40-50%. However, when BC was increased to 720 mg BC/liter, only a small additional reduction in surface tension was observed and higher concentrations of BC did not increase capture rates. These findings could contribute to reduced costs for trapping networks and the development of long-lasting formulations of liquid protein lures for bait stations and mass-trapping targeted at major tephritid pests. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Biological Activity of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bacillales: Bacillaceae) in Anastrepha fraterculus (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Liliane Nachtigall; Lara, Ana Paula de Souza Stori de; Ferreira, Márcio Soares; Nunes, Adrise Medeiros; Bernardi, Daniel; Leite, Fábio Pereira Leivas; Garcia, Flávio Roberto Mello

    2018-01-18

    Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae) is considered to be one of the major pest insects in fruit orchards worldwide. Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner (Bacillales: Bacillaceae) strains are widely used as biological control agents and show high biological activity against different insect species. The objective of this study was to evaluate the biological activity of different strains of B. thuringiensis against A. fraterculus larvae and adults. Bioassays were performed using suspensions of bacterial spores/crystals of B. thuringiensis var. israelensis (Bti), kurstaki (Btk), and oswaldocruzi (Bto) strains at three concentrations [2 × 107, 2 × 108, and 2 × 109 colony-forming units per ml (CFU ml-1)]. At a concentration of 2 × 109 CFU ml-1, a significant larval effect (mortality 60%) was observed when compared with the control treatment. Larvae that ingested spore/crystal suspensions of Bti, Btk, or Bto bacterial strains exhibited significant larval and pupal deformations, leading to a significant decrease (~50%) in the completion of the insects' biological cycle (egg to adult). The B. thuringiensis strains (Bti, Btk, or Bto) at a concentration of 2 × 109 CFU ml-1 in combination with one food attractant (BioAnastrepha 3% or CeraTrap 1.5%) in formulations of toxic baits provided high mortality (mortality > 85%) of A. fraterculus adults 7 d after treatment. However, the Btk strain in combination with CeraTrap 1.5% caused mortality of 40%. On the basis of these results, the native bacterial strains Bti, Btk, and Bto were considered to be promising candidates as biological control agents against A. fraterculus. © The Author(s) 2018. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Anastrepha egg deposition induces volatiles in fruits that attract the parasitoid Fopius arisanus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, J; Rojas, J C; Montoya, P; Liedo, P; Castillo, A

    2013-06-01

    Fopius arisanus is a solitary egg-pupal endoparasitoid that attacks several species of tephritid fruit flies, particularly Bactrocera spp. This species, indigenous from the Indo-Australian region, was introduced into Mexico for biological control purposes. From the standpoint of the 'new associations' concept this parasitoid has been evaluated against fruit flies in the Anastrepha complex. We investigated the specificity of F. arisanus responses to fruits infested with two species of Anastrepha. We examined whether fruit volatiles attractive to this parasitoid are induced as a result of fruit fly oviposition. We also investigated whether F. arisanus females are able to discriminate between the oviposition-induced volatiles from host eggs parasitised by conspecifics and volatiles from unparasitised eggs. All experiments were performed in a wind tunnel. Results showed that mango fruits infested with A. ludens eggs (2-3 days after egg deposition) were significantly more attractive to naïve F. arisanus females compared with non-infested fruits or fruits infested with larvae. In addition, guava fruits harbouring A. striata eggs were significantly more attractive to the parasitoid than non-infested fruits or fruits infested with larvae. Thus, the parasitoid was attracted to fruits with eggs, but fruit and fly species did not influence the parasitoid attraction. We also found that F. arisanus females were more attracted to fruits exposed to fertile A. ludens females (i.e. fruits with eggs inside) compared with fruits exposed to sterile females (i.e. fruits with no eggs inside) or fruits with mechanical damage. Parasitoid females were not attracted to A. ludens eggs. The results suggest that the presence of eggs induces volatiles that attract parasitoids. Finally, we found that F. arisanus was able to discriminate between fruits with unparasitised eggs vs. eggs parasitised by conspecifics, indicating that host discrimination could be mediated by olfactory cues.

  20. The gene transformer of anastrepha fruit flies (Diptera, tephritidae and its evolution in insects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Fernanda Ruiz

    Full Text Available In the tephritids Ceratitis capitata and Bactrocera oleae, the gene transformer acts as the memory device for sex determination, via an auto-regulatory function; and functional Tra protein is produced only in females. This paper investigates the evolution of the gene tra, which was characterised in twelve tephritid species belonging to the less extensively analysed genus Anastrepha. Our study provided the following major conclusions. Firstly, the memory device mechanism used by this gene in sex determination in tephritids likely existed in the common ancestor of the Ceratitis, Bactrocera and Anastrepha phylogenetic lineages. This mechanism would represent the ancestral state with respect to the extant cascade seen in the more evolved Drosophila lineage. Secondly, Transformer2-specific binding intronic splicing silencer sites were found in the splicing regulatory region of transformer but not in doublesex pre-mRNAs in these tephritids. Thus, these sites probably provide the discriminating feature for the putative dual splicing activity of the Tra-Tra2 complex in tephritids. It acts as a splicing activator in dsx pre-mRNA splicing (its binding to the female-specific exon promotes the inclusion of this exon into the mature mRNA, and as a splicing inhibitor in tra pre-mRNA splicing (its binding to the male-specific exons prevents the inclusion of these exons into the mature mRNA. Further, a highly conserved region was found in the specific amino-terminal region of the tephritid Tra protein that might be involved in Tra auto-regulatory function and hence in its repressive splicing behaviour. Finally, the Tra proteins conserved the SR dipeptides, which are essential for Tra functionality.

  1. Mass rearing of the Mexican fruit fly, Anastrepha ludens, at the Fruit Flies Biofactory in Metapa de Dominguez, Chiapas, Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zavala Lopez, J.L.; Dominguez G, J.; Gomez S, Y.; Moreno, P.

    1999-01-01

    A description of the present methods for mass rearing Anastrepha ludens, known as the Mexican fruit fly, at the Fruit Flies Biofactory in Metapa de Dominguez, Chiapas, is given. Important contributions and improvements are described for the rearing stages, e.g. egg production and incubation, larvae diets, lab conditions for the development of larvae and pupae, larvae and pupae handling and environmental control. (author)

  2. Reference genes for accessing differential expression among developmental stages and analysis of differential expression of OBP genes in Anastrepha obliqua

    OpenAIRE

    Nakamura, Aline Minali; Chahad-Ehlers, Samira; Lima, Andr? Lu?s A.; Taniguti, Cristiane Hayumi; Sobrinho Jr., Iderval; Torres, Felipe Rafael; de Brito, Reinaldo Alves

    2016-01-01

    The West Indian fruit fly, Anastrepha obliqua, is an important agricultural pest in the New World. The use of pesticide-free methods to control invasive species such as this reinforces the search for genes potentially useful in their genetic control. Therefore, the study of chemosensory proteins involved with a range of responses to the chemical environment will help not only on the understanding of the species biology but may also help the development of environmentally friendly pest control...

  3. Biodiversidade de moscas-das-frutas do gênero Anastrepha (Diptera, Tephritidae no campus da ESALQ-USP, Piracicaba, São Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keiko Uramoto

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi conduzido na área abrangida pelo campus da Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz da Universidade de São Paulo, no município de Piracicaba, Estado de São Paulo. Teve como objetivos, determinar a composição do gênero Anastrepha Schiner e verificar a associação das espécies de plantas hospedeiras, estabelecidas na área, com as espécies de Anastrepha. Foram examinadas 23.277 fêmeas de Anastrepha coletadas por meio de armadilhas McPhail e 18 espécies pertencentes a nove grupos de espécies foram registradas. Um total de 563 amostras de frutos pertencentes a nove famílias e, pelo menos, 23 espécies de plantas foi coletado em 47 estações de capturas. Foram identificadas 10.243 fêmeas e das 18 espécies de Anastrepha capturadas em armadilhas somente seis emergiram das amostras de frutos: A. bistrigata Bezzi, A. fraterculus (Wied., A. obliqua (Macquart, A. pseudoparallela (Loew, A. serpentina (Wied. e A. sororcula Zucchi. A. fraterculus infestou maior diversidade de frutos. Os hospedeiros preferidos de A. obliqua foram as espécies da família Anacardiaceae. A. pseudoparallela e A. serpentina infestaram exclusivamente Passifloraceae e Sapotaceae, respectivamente. A. fraterculus é registrada pela primeira vez em sapoti (Manilkara zapota L. no Brasil.Biodiversity of fruit flies of the genus Anastrepha (Diptera, Tephritidae at the ESALQ-USP campus, Piracicaba, São Paulo. The aim of this study was to determine the number of species of Anastrepha Schiner at the campus and to verify the association between host plant species and Anastrepha species in this area. A total of 23,277 females of Anastrepha collected in McPhail traps was examined, and 18 species belonging to nine species groups were recorded. A total of 563 fruit samples representing at least 23 plant species from nine families was collected in 47 capture sites. A total of 10,243 females was identified. Of the 18 Anastrepha species captured in traps

  4. Comportamento sexual de Anastrepha sororcula Zucchi (Diptera, Tephritidae em laboratório Sexual behavior of Anastrepha sororcula Zucchi (Diptera, Tephritidae in laboratory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelli C. N. Facholi-Bendassolli

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Anastrepha sororcula Zucchi, 1979, é uma das espécies de mosca-das-frutas mais disseminadas no País, sendo considerada a praga-chave que causa os maiores danos à produção de goiaba (Psidium guajava L., 1758 no Brasil. Em vista da importância desta espécie no complexo de pragas naturais da fruticultura brasileira e, em face à escassez de dados sobre sua biologia e comportamento, este trabalho teve por objetivo obter informações sobre a idade de maturação sexual de A. sororcula em laboratório e descrever seu comportamento reprodutivo. Os machos atingiram a maturidade sexual entre 7 e 18 dias após a emergência, com a maioria dos indivíduos tornando-se sexualmente maduros entre 10 e 13 dias de idade. Exibiram comportamento de sinalização às fêmeas, caracterizado pela distensão da região pleural do abdome, formando uma pequena bolsa de cada lado e, eversão de uma diminuta bolsa membranosa de cutícula retal que circunda a área anal. Durante este processo, os machos realizaram rápidos movimentos de vibração das asas, produzindo sinais audíveis. Uma gotícula foi liberada da região anal durante os movimentos de vibração alar. Após a atração das fêmeas, os machos realizaram uma série de movimentos elaborados de cortejo. As fêmeas alcançaram a maturação sexual entre 14 e 24 dias da emergência, com a maioria tornando-se sexualmente madura aos 19 dias de idade. A exibição diária das atividades sexuais foi confinada quase que exclusivamente ao período das 16:00-17:30h. A. sororcula apresentou um acentuado padrão de protandria.Anastrepha sororcula Zucchi, 1979, is a fruit fly species that can be considered a key pest to the production of guava (Psidium guajava L., 1758, fruit tree which has a wide distribution in Brazil. In view of the importance of this species as a natural pest of Brazilian horticulture and, considering the lack of data about its biology and behavior, the aim of this paper is to obtain

  5. UTILIZAÇÃO DA ANÁLISE DISCRIMINANTE EM ESTUDOS TAXONÔMICOS DE MOSCAS-DAS-FRUTAS DO GÊNERO Anastrepha Schiner, 1868 (DIPTERA: TEPHRITIDAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ARAUJO E.L.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available As moscas-das-frutas Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann, 1830, A. obliqua (Macquart, 1835, A. sororcula (Zucchi, 1979 e A. zenildae (Zucchi, 1979 foram submetidas a uma análise discriminante. Essas espécies do grupo fraterculus distinguem-se unicamente com base em detalhes do ápice do acúleo, que por serem muito semelhantes, dificultam a identificação específica. A análise discriminante permitiu a separação das quatro espécies de Anastrepha, com base em oito medidas do acúleo. Portanto, essa é mais uma técnica para auxiliar as identificações de espécies de Anastrepha, como já acontece em muitos outros grupos de insetos.

  6. Current status and perspectives for management of Anastrepha fraterculus (Wied.) in apple orchards in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovaleski, Adalecio; Sugayama, Regina L.; Malavasi, Aldo

    2000-01-01

    Pomiculture is a recent activity in southern Brazil. The first apple orchards were installed in the early 1970s. Recently, the area grown with apples exceeded 30,000 ha, concentrated in the regions of Fraiburgo and Sao Joaquim (state of Santa Catarina) and Vacaria and Bom Jesus (state of Rio Grande do Sul). Part of the 600,000 tons that are harvested every year is exported to the USA and European countries. Some exotic apple pests were unintentionally introduced, like the European red mite (Panonychuls ulmi Koch) and the Oriental fruit moth (Grapholita molesta Busck). Furthermore, some native species of insects became important pests, as in the South American apple leafroller (Bonagota cranaodes Meyrick) and the South American fruit fly (Anastrepha fraterculus Wiedemann). The South American fruit fly is the best-studied pest of apples in Brazil regarding its biology and ecology. In this paper, we synthesise the information available and discuss the feasibility of adopting new control methods. Most experiments were conducted in Vacaria where A. fraterculus populations reach levels as high as 150 flies/trap day in some years. Sixteen species of Anastrepha occur in the region of Vacaria and only A. fraterculus is considered economically important (Kovaleski et al., submitted). In addition to the typical morphology of A. fraterculus, the morphotype CSS (Selivon et al. 1996) was detected in McPhail traps and infested native fruits. The second most frequent species of Anastrepha is A. dissimilis Stone. It may be responsible for more than 20% of fruit flies in commercial apple orchards in some periods of the year (November-January) but does not attack apples (Kovaleski 1997). Adult population fluctuation has been studied for the last four years using plastic McPhail traps containing grape juice at 25% (v/v) as attractant. It is more efficient than corn protein hydrolysate, vinegar, and sugarcane molasses (Kovaleski et al. 1995) and is widely used by apple growers as the

  7. Sterility and Sexual Competitiveness of Tapachula-7 Anastrepha ludens Males Irradiated at Different Doses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orozco-Dávila, Dina; Adriano-Anaya, Maria de Lourdes; Quintero-Fong, Luis; Salvador-Figueroa, Miguel

    2015-01-01

    A genetic sexing strain of Anastrepha ludens (Loew), Tapachula-7, was developed by the Mexican Program Against Fruit Flies to produce and release only males in programs where the sterile insect technique (SIT) is applied. Currently, breeding are found at a massive scale, and it is necessary to determine the optimum irradiation dose that releases sterile males with minimum damage to their sexual competitiveness. Under laboratory and field conditions, we evaluated the effects of gamma irradiation at doses of 0, 20, 40, 60 and 80 Gy on the sexual competitiveness of males, the induction of sterility in wild females and offspring survivorship. The results of the study indicate that irradiation doses have a significant effect on the sexual behavior of males. A reduction of mating capacity was inversely proportional to the irradiation dose of males. It is estimated that a dose of 60 Gy can induce more than 99% sterility in wild females. In all treatments, the degree of offspring fertility was correlated with the irradiation dose of the parents. In conclusion, the results of the study indicate that a dose of 60 Gy can be applied in sterile insect technique release programs. The application of this dose in the new genetic sexing strain of A. ludens is discussed.

  8. Sexual selection on multivariate phenotypes in Anastrepha Fraterculus (Diptera: Tephritidae) from Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sciurano, R.; Rodriguero, M.; Gomez Cendra, P.; Vilardi, J.; Segura, D.; Cladera, J.L.; Allinghi, Armando

    2007-01-01

    Despite the interest in applying environmentally friendly control methods such as sterile insect technique (SIT) against Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae), information about its biology, taxonomy, and behavior is still insufficient. To increase this information, the present study aims to evaluate the performance of wild flies under field cage conditions through the study of sexual competitiveness among males (sexual selection). A wild population from Horco Molle, Tucuman, Argentina was sampled. Mature virgin males and females were released into outdoor field cages to compete for mating. Morphometric analyses were applied to determine the relationship between the multivariate phenotype and copulatory success. Successful and unsuccessful males were measured for 8 traits: head width (HW), face width (FW), eye length (EL), thorax length (THL), wing length (WL), wing width (WW), femur length (FL), and tibia length (TIL). Combinations of different multivariate statistical methods and graphical analyses were used to evaluate sexual selection on male phenotype. The results indicated that wing width and thorax length would be the most probable targets of sexual selection. They describe a non-linear association between expected fitness and each of these 2 traits. This non-linear relation suggests that observed selection could maintain the diversity related to body size. (author) [es

  9. Estimation of populations and sterility induction in Anastrepha ludens (Diptera: Tephritidae) fruit flies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flores, Salvador; Montoya, Pablo; Toledo, Jorge; Liedo, Pablo; Enkerlin, Walther

    2015-01-01

    The relationship between different release densities of sterile flies and fly trap captures, expressed as flies per trap per day, in the monitoring of Anastrepha ludens (Loew) populations was evaluated in mango orchards. The induction of sterility in fertile females was evaluated using different ratios of sterile: fertile males under field cage conditions. A direct relationship between recaptured flies and densities of release sterile flies was found. However, trap efficiency, expressed as percentage of recaptured flies, decreased as the density of released flies increased. Sterility induction was positively correlated to the ratio of sterile: fertile flies. A significant difference in egg fertility among treatments was observed. The trajectory of sterility induction slowed down after a sterile: wild ratio of 30:1, which suggests that this ratio could be appropriate in an sterile insect technique program with A. ludens. Sterility induction was greater when only sterile males were released than when releasing both sterile males and females, but the differences were not significant. Our findings contribute to a better interpretation of fly captures obtained from the field trapping networks, and to an improvement in the efficiency of sterile insect technique against A. ludens fruit flies, through the implementation of more rational sterile fly release densities. (author)

  10. Olfactory response of Anastrepha striata (Diptera: Tephritidae) to guava and sweet orange volatiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz-Santiz, Edvin; Rojas, Julio C; Cruz-López, Leopoldo; Hernández, Emilio; Malo, Edi A

    2016-10-01

    The behavioral responses of virgin and mated female Anastrepha striata Schiner (Diptera: Tephritidae) to guava (Psidium guajava L.) or sweet orange (Citrus sinensis L.) were evaluated separately using multilure traps in two-choice tests in field cages. The results showed that flies were more attracted to guava and sweet orange volatiles than to control (unbaited trap). The physiological state (virgin or mated) of females did not affect their attraction to the fruit volatiles. Combined analysis of gas chromatography coupled with electroantennography (GC-EAD) of volatile extracts of both fruits showed that 1 and 6 compounds from orange and guava, respectively elicited repeatable antennal responses from mated females. The EAD active compounds in guava volatile extracts were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) as ethyl butyrate, (Z)-3-hexenol, hexanol, ethyl hexanoate, hexyl acetate, and ethyl octanoate. Linalool was identified as the only antennal active compound in sweet orange extracts. In field cage tests, there were no significant differences between the number of mated flies captured by the traps baited with guava extracts and the number caught by traps baited with the 6-component blend that was formulated according to the relative proportions in the guava extracts. Similar results occurred when synthetic linalool was evaluated against orange extracts. From a practical point of view, the compounds identified in this study could be used for monitoring A. striata populations. © 2015 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  11. Effect of sucrose ingestion on the performance of wild Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart) females (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fontellas, Tania M.L.; Zucoloto, Fernando S.

    2003-01-01

    Carbohydrates are the main source of energy for insects and the lack of these nutrients in the diet can cause serious damage to the biology of these arthropods. In order to better understand the effect of sucrose on the performance and dietary selection of adult Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart), the following experiments were carried out: 1) effect of different amount of sucrose on diet ingestion, longevity and egg production; 2) dietary selection that contains different amounts of sucrose, and 3) discrimination threshold for sucrose in adult individuals deprived or not of carbohydrates. The control diet showed the best results in relation to ingestion, longevity and egg production for these species, probably due to the fact that it presents an optimal nutritional balance between sucrose and yeast. The control diet was also the preferred diet of females, indicating a positive correlation between the nutritional value of a diet and chemical perception by A. obliqua. Sucrose-deprived females were able to perceive lower carbohydrate quantity than non-deprived females. This characteristic might represent a biological advantage since it reduces the food foraging time for these insects. (author)

  12. A novel attractant for Anastrepha ludens (Diptera: Tephritidae) from a Concord grape product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robacker, David C; Massa, Michelle J; Sacchetti, Patrizia; Bartelt, Robert J

    2011-08-01

    An attractant for Mexican fruit fly, Anastrepha ludens (Loew) (Diptera: Tephritidae), was developed from a commercial product called Sabor Uva containing processed Concord grape juice. The principal volatile components of Sabor Uva aroma were identified and an aqueous mixture of 15 components that was gas chromatographically similar to Sabor Uva was prepared. This mixture was equivalent to Sabor Uva in attractiveness by using wind-tunnel bioassays. After deleting chemicals that did not contribute to attractiveness, and increasing the concentrations of the remaining chemicals, the final attractant contained propylene glycol (90,000 ppm, vol/vol), acetic acid (4500), methyl anthranilate (1800), ethyl 2-methylpropionate (670), and one or both of the esters ethyl 3-methylbutyrate (44) and 2-methylbutyl propionate (44), in aqueous solution. This mixture was approximately 1.8X as attractive as Sabor Uva by indirect comparison. Deletion of propylene glycol, acetic acid, methyl anthranilate, or ethyl 2-methylpropionate from the mixture significantly decreased attractiveness. Deletion of either of the other two esters seemed to diminish attractiveness although effects were not statistically significant. Deletion of water from the mixture significantly decreased attractiveness. We conclude that propylene glycol, acetic acid, methyl anthranilate, water, and at least one or as many as all three of the methyl-branched esters are essential for complete attractiveness.

  13. Grape Juice as a Bait for Anastrepha suspensa (Diptera: Tephritidae) and Zaprionus indianus (Diptera: Drosophilidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epsky, Nancy D; Gill, Micah A; Mangan, Robert L

    2015-08-01

    In field tests conducted in south Florida to test grape juice as a bait for the Caribbean fruit fly, Anastrepha suspensa Loew, high numbers of Zaprionus indianus Gupta were captured in traps with aqueous grape juice. These experiments included comparisons of grape juice bait with established A. suspensa protein-based baits (ammonium acetate + putrescine lures, or torula yeast) or wine, a bait found previously to be attractive to Z. indianus. Effects of different preservatives (polypropylene glycol, polyethylene glycol, proxel, or sodium tetraborate) and bait age were also tested. Traps with grape juice baits captured more A. suspensa than unbaited traps, but more were captured in traps with grape juice plus preservative baits and the highest numbers were captured in traps containing the established protein-based baits. In contrast, grape juice baits without preservative that were prepared on the day of deployment (0 d) or that were aged for 3-4 d in the laboratory captured the highest numbers of Z. indianus, while solutions that were aged in the laboratory for 6 or 9 d captured fewer. Although these studies found that aqueous grape juice is a poor bait for A. suspensa, we found that actively fermenting aqueous grape juice may be an effective bait for Z. indianus. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America 2015. This work is written by US Government employees and is in the public domain in the US.

  14. A new blend of white sapote fruit volatiles as potential attractant to Anastrepha ludens (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Ricardo; Toledo, Jorge; Cruz-Lopez, Leopoldo; Virgen, Armando; Santiesteban, Antonio; Malo, Edi A

    2006-12-01

    The behavioral and electrophysiological responses of nonirradiated male and female Anastrepha ludens (Loew) (Diptera: Tephritidae), to white sapote, Casimiroa edulis Oerst. (Rutaceae), volatiles were investigated. Females flew upwind and landed more often on fruit than on artificial fruit in wind tunnel bioassays. Males flew upwind (but not landed) more frequently on fruit than on artificial fruit. Porapak Q volatile extracts of white sapote also elicited upwind flight and landing on artificial fruit for both sexes. Gas chromatography-electroantennographic detection analysis of white sapote extracts revealed that antennae of both sexes responded to eight compounds. Two peaks were unidentified because they did not separate from the solvent. Subsequent peaks were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry as styrene, myrcene, 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene, 1,8-cineole, and linalool in a proportion of 50: 21: 0.5: 27: 1.5, respectively. Eight peaks were tentatively identified as beta-trans-ocimene. The number of A. ludens captured in multilure traps baited with the synthetic white sapote blend was higher than the flies captured by the multilure unbaited traps (control) in field cages. However, the number of flies captured by traps baited with the white sapote blend was not different from that of flies captured by traps baited with hydrolyzed protein. Using standard chemical ecology techniques, we found potential attractants from wild sapote fruit for monitoring and management of A. ludens population.

  15. Overlapping and co-occurrence pattern of Anastrepha species (Diptera, Tephritidae in anthropic areas

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    Tayron Sousa Amaral

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out in two anthropic areas (Fazenda Areão and Monte Olimpo on the “Luiz de Queiroz” campus, University of São Paulo, Piracicaba, SP. We analyzed data from 52 collections of 14 McPhail traps distributed in both areas. A total of 1,583 females belonging to 14 species were collected, including Anastrepha amita Zucchi, A. barbiellinii Lima, A. bistrigata Bezzi, A. daciformis Bezzi, A. distincta Greene, A. fraterculus (Wiedemann, A. grandis (Macquart, A. manihoti Lima, A. montei Lima, A. obliqua (Macquart, A. pickeli Lima, A. pseudoparallela (Loew, A. serpentina (Wiedemann and A. sororcula Zucchi. A greater number of specimens (1,041 were collected at the Fazenda Areão compared to Monte Olimpo (542. The mean niche overlap was greater than expected at random for both areas; therefore, the ecological niches of the species largely overlap. The pattern of co-occurrence indicates that segregation was not random between two pairs of species: A. pseudoparallela × A. obliqua (Fazenda Areão and A. fraterculus × A. pseudoparallela (Monte Olimpo. This segregation suggests that there may be competition for resources in each niche. The analysis also revealed three aggregated species pairs: A. bistrigata × A. montei, A. fraterculus × A. barbiellinii (Fazenda Areão, and A. fraterculus × A. bistrigata (Monte Olimpo, indicating that each pair occurs concomitantly without interfering with the permanence of the populations in these areas.

  16. Progress on the artificial rearing of Anastrepha fraterculus (Wied.) (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nunez Bueno, L.; Guzman Duenas, R.

    1999-01-01

    With the purpose of evaluating post-harvest quarantine treatments for fruits in Colombia, we have established experimental colonies of fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) at the Colombian Agricultural Institute (ICA), plant quarantine Laboratory Ibague (Tol.) at 24 deg. C, 70-80% RH, and 10 hr light. The procedures and results refer only to A. fraterculus from September 1994 to September 1996. The first adults, obtained from Coffea arabica L. cherries, were initially multiplied in fruits and later put on artificial diet. The handling procedures, diets and data collected are adapted from those established by USDA-ARA 1981, Celedonio et al. 1989, Gonzalez et al. Martinez et al. 1987, and others, that were used for Anastrepha spp. The average percentages of recuperation between stages that were hatched 66.0±1.0; first to third instar larvae 28.12±14.4; third instar larvae to pupae 81.80±3.0; pupae to adult 75.82±3.4. Additional data related to partial mortality of the stages are also discussed. The average recuperation from eggs to third instar larvae of 17.57%, and from eggs to emerged adults of 9.5±4.9, is low and indicates the necessity of doing basic research to improve the procedures. (author)

  17. Demographic and quality control parameters of Anastrepha Fraterculus (Diptera: Tephritidae) maintained under artificial rearing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vera, T.; Abraham, S.; Oviedo, A.; Willink, E.

    2007-01-01

    The integration of the sterile insect technique (SIT) in the management of the South American fruit fly Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae) is a promising alternative to chemically-based control in those areas where it is sympatric with Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae) or other tephritid species for which the SIT is being used. Implementation of the SIT requires the development of a cost effective mass-rearing protocol. In this work, we present demographic and quality control parameters for the A. fraterculus strain reared at the Estacion Experimental Agroindustrial Obispo Colombres, Tucuman, Argentina. Considering the rearing cage as the reproduction unit, we observed that fecundity is optimal during the first 3 weeks after the onset of oviposition. Fertility was constant during this period. During 2003 and 2004, some improvements were made to the existing rearing protocol, which resulted in increased larval viability, pupal weight, and adult emergence. Current weekly egg production is 1 million per week. These eggs are used to maintain the colony and to assess quality parameters. Finally, research needs leading to improved yields and fly quality are discussed. (author) [es

  18. Contribución al Estudio de las Moscas Anastrephas en Colombia.

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    González Mendoza Rafael

    1952-11-01

    Full Text Available 1. Colombia tiene amplias posibilidades de desarrollar una industria frutícola floreciente dadas las excepcionales condiciones de ubicación geográfica, diversidad de climas y de suelos. 2. La deficiente producción frutera actual es el resultado de una reunión de factores adversos, entre los que resalta el desconocimiento de los problemas científicos que afectan a dicha industria. En este aspecto, los problemas fitosanitarios, abandonados y faltos de investigación, ocupan lugar preponderante. 3. Las moscas Anastrephas constituyen la plaga más importante de la fruticultura nacional, y por esta razón, un estudio sobre estos insectos es un tema de importancia. 4. Las principales "moscas de las frutas" pertenecen dentro de la familia Trypetidae, a los géneros: Dacus, Rhaglethis, Ceratitis, Dactrocera y Anastrepha. 5. Los nombres comunes con que se conocen las moscas Anastrephas varían de un país a otro y se relacionan particularmente con el lugar de origen de las distintas especies o la fruta determinada como preterida por la mosca en una localidad. En Colombia la denominación vernácula más difundida es la de "gusano de las frutas". También se nombra el insecto como "mosca o gusano del mango" o "gusano de la guayaba". 6. Los nombres científicos de las moscas distinguen a una, gran cantidad de especies. En Colombia, varios autores han reportado la existencia de las especies A.fraterculus, A. ludens, A. mombinpracoptans, A. pikeli y A. serpentina. Todas estas especies inciden en las regiones colombianas comprendidas entre 0 y 2000 metros de altura, es decir, en casi todas las regiones agrícolas importantes (frutales, café, cacao de temperaturas entre 14° y 30° C. 7. Las moscas Anastrephas están confinadas casi exclusivamente al continente americano entre las latitudes 27° N. y 35° S. Particularmente, la especie A. fraterculus, una de las más difundidas en Colombia, fué determinada por Wiedemann (1830

  19. Disinfestation of apples attacked by the fruit fly Anastrepha fraterculus (Wied.) (Diptera: Tephritidae) using gamma radiation of cobalt-60

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arthur, Valter; Wiendl, Frederico M.

    1996-01-01

    Apples, cv. Gala, artificially infested during 72 hours with adults of the fruit fly Anastrepha fraterculus (Wied.) were irradiated with the following gamma radiation doses: 0 (control), 25, 50, 75 and 100 Gy, at the dose rate of 1048 Gy per hour. After irradiation fruits were put in plastic bags with 80 ml of sugar cane bagasse. The bags were maintained in a rearing room at temperature 21 - 24 deg C, 65 - 75% R H, and photo period of 12 hours. Pupae obtained were sieved out and kept in small glass tubes. All doses tested did not allow emergence of adults. (author)

  20. Compatibility and competitiveness of a laboratory strain of Anastrepha Fraterculus (Diptera: Tephritidae) after irradiation treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allinghi, A.; Calcagno, G.; Gomez Cendra, P.; Vilardi, J.C.; Petit-Marty, N.; Segura, D.; Cladera, J.; Vera, T.; Gramajo, C.; Willink, E.

    2007-01-01

    We evaluated under semi-natural field cage conditions sexual compatibility and competitiveness of a laboratory strain (LAB) compared to a wild population (TUC) of Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann). The LAB strain is produced under semi-mass rearing conditions at the Estacion Experimental Agroindustrial Obispo Colombres facility (Tucuman, Argentina). Wild flies were obtained at Horco Molle (Tucuman, Argentina) from infested guava fruits. LAB pupae were irradiated ( 60 Co) 48 h before adult emergence. The tested doses were 0 (control), 40, 70, and 100 Gy. Twenty-five males and 25 females each of TUC and LAB were released into cages and mating pairs collected. Only 1 irradiation dose was considered at a time. Females were separated and allowed to lay eggs into artificial fruits to estimate induced sterility from the corresponding hatching rate. Copulation start time did not differ significantly between strains nor among irradiation treatments. Copulation duration showed highly significant differences among irradiation doses, but no differences between strains. The index of sexual isolation (ISI) and the relative sterility index (RSI) indices indicated that LAB and TUC are fully compatible, males from TUC and LAB did not differ in mating competitiveness, and irradiation within the range tested did not affect these indices. Non-irradiated LAB females exhibited higher mating propensity than TUC ones. However, a significant reduction in the female relative performance index (FRPI) index was observed with increasing irradiation dose. The analysis of induced sterility indicated that treatment with 40 Gy reduces male fertility from about 80% to 0.75%, and higher doses produce total sterility. In females, the 40 Gy dose reduces fertility to about 2% and higher doses prevent egg laying. (author) [es

  1. Selection by mating competitiveness improves the performance of Anastrepha ludens males of the genetic sexing strain Tapachula-7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintero-Fong, L; Toledo, J; Ruiz, L; Rendón, P; Orozco-Dávila, D; Cruz, L; Liedo, P

    2016-10-01

    The sexual performance of Anastrepha ludens males of the Tapachula-7 genetic sexing strain, produced via selection based on mating success, was compared with that of males produced without selection in competition with wild males. Mating competition, development time, survival, mass-rearing quality parameters and pheromone production were compared. The results showed that selection based on mating competitiveness significantly improved the sexual performance of offspring. Development time, survival of larvae, pupae and adults, and weights of larvae and pupae increased with each selection cycle. Differences in the relative quantity of the pheromone compounds (Z)-3-nonenol and anastrephin were observed when comparing the parental males with the F4 and wild males. The implications of this colony management method on the sterile insect technique are discussed.

  2. Establishment of a colony of Anastrepha ludens (Diptera: Tephritidae) under relaxed mass-rearing conditions in Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orozco-Davila, Dina; Hernandez, Refugio; Solis, Eduardo; Quintero, J. Luis; Dominguez, Julio, E-mail: dorozco1@prodigy.net.m [United States Department of Agriculture, Gainesville, FL (United States). Agricultural Research Service. Center for Medical, Agricultural, and Veterinary Entomology; Sigma Space Corporation, MD(United States); Programa Moscamed Moscafrut-Desarrollo de Metodos, Chiapas (Mexico)

    2006-07-01

    Several studies have suggested that maintaining a line of insects under laboratory conditions reduces their biological attributes. With this principle in mind, the mass production of Anastrepha ludens originating from a colony raised under relaxed rearing conditions was evaluated over a period of three years. The results of the evaluation indicated that insects kept under these conditions reached their larval maturity in 10 days, and attained a greater weight, which has a direct influence on pupal quality. In adult cages having a fly density of 70,000 individuals, there was a lower level of stress which favored fecundity. Fertility was apparently not affected by the cage density. These results suggest that keeping a production line under relaxed conditions optimizes insect production and promotes higher quality. (author)

  3. Comparison of longevity between a laboratory strain and a natural population of Anastrepha Fraterculus (Diptera: Tephritidae) under field cage conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez Cendra, P.; Vilardi, J.; Segura, D.; Cladera, J.; Allinghi, A.

    2007-01-01

    The South American fruit fly Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann) is one of the most destructive fruit pests in this region, infesting major fruit crops. Implementation of the sterile insect technique (SIT) as part of an area-wide integrated approach against this species requires information on the survival of mass-reared and sterilized insects in the field and their ability to mate with wild females. The survival rates in field cages of both non-irradiated and irradiated laboratory flies were compared with that of wild flies. Both types of laboratory flies survived longer than their wild counterparts over the 8 days under the experimental conditions. The irradiation dose (70 Gy) did not affect survival of the laboratory reared flies. Our results improve the prospect of integrating the SIT into the control of A. fraterculus populations in Argentina. (author) [es

  4. Establishment of a colony of Anastrepha ludens (Diptera: Tephritidae) under relaxed mass-rearing conditions in Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orozco-Davila, Dina; Hernandez, Refugio; Solis, Eduardo; Quintero, J. Luis; Dominguez, Julio

    2006-01-01

    Several studies have suggested that maintaining a line of insects under laboratory conditions reduces their biological attributes. With this principle in mind, the mass production of Anastrepha ludens originating from a colony raised under relaxed rearing conditions was evaluated over a period of three years. The results of the evaluation indicated that insects kept under these conditions reached their larval maturity in 10 days, and attained a greater weight, which has a direct influence on pupal quality. In adult cages having a fly density of 70,000 individuals, there was a lower level of stress which favored fecundity. Fertility was apparently not affected by the cage density. These results suggest that keeping a production line under relaxed conditions optimizes insect production and promotes higher quality. (author)

  5. Precocious sexual signalling and mating in Anastrepha fraterculus (Diptera: Tephritidae) sterile males achieved through juvenile hormone treatment and protein supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liendo, M C; Devescovi, F; Bachmann, G E; Utgés, M E; Abraham, S; Vera, M T; Lanzavecchia, S B; Bouvet, J P; Gómez-Cendra, P; Hendrichs, J; Teal, P E A; Cladera, J L; Segura, D F

    2013-02-01

    Sexual maturation of Anastrepha fraterculus is a long process. Methoprene (a mimic of juvenile hormone) considerably reduces the time for sexual maturation in males. However, in other Anastrepha species, this effect depends on protein intake at the adult stage. Here, we evaluated the mating competitiveness of sterile laboratory males and females that were treated with methoprene (either the pupal or adult stage) and were kept under different regimes of adult food, which varied in the protein source and the sugar:protein ratio. Experiments were carried out under semi-natural conditions, where laboratory flies competed over copulations with sexually mature wild flies. Sterile, methoprene-treated males that reached sexual maturity earlier (six days old), displayed the same lekking behaviour, attractiveness to females and mating competitiveness as mature wild males. This effect depended on protein intake. Diets containing sugar and hydrolyzed yeast allowed sterile males to compete with wild males (even at a low concentration of protein), while brewer´s yeast failed to do so even at a higher concentration. Sugar only fed males were unable to achieve significant numbers of copulations. Methoprene did not increase the readiness to mate of six-day-old sterile females. Long pre-copulatory periods create an additional cost to the management of fruit fly pests through the sterile insect technique (SIT). Our findings suggest that methoprene treatment will increase SIT effectiveness against A. fraterculus when coupled with a diet fortified with protein. Additionally, methoprene acts as a physiological sexing method, allowing the release of mature males and immature females and hence increasing SIT efficiency.

  6. Nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) variation in the Anastrepha fraterculus cryptic species complex (Diptera, Tephritidae) of the Andean region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, Bruce D.; Steck, Gary J.; Norrbom, Allen L.; Rodriguez, Erick J.; Srivastava, Pratibha; Alvarado, Norma Nolazco; Colque, Fredy; Landa, Erick Yábar; Sánchez, Juan José Lagrava; Quisberth, Elizabeth; Peñaranda, Emilio Arévalo; Clavijo, P. A. Rodriguez; Alvarez-Baca, Jeniffer K.; Zapata, Tito Guevara; Ponce, Patricio

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) was sequenced for Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann, 1830) originating from 85 collections from the northern and central Andean countries of South America including Argentina (Tucumán), Bolivia, Perú, Ecuador, Colombia, and Venezuela. The ITS1 regions of additional specimens (17 collections) from Central America (México, Guatemala, Costa Rica, and Panamá), Brazil, Caribbean Colombia, and coastal Venezuela were sequenced and together with published sequences (Paraguay) provided context for interpretation. A total of six ITS1 sequence variants were recognized in the Andean region comprising four groups. Type I predominates in the southernmost range of Anastrepha fraterculus. Type II predominates in its northernmost range. In the central and northern Andes, the geographic distributions overlap and interdigitate with a strong elevational effect. A discussion of relationships between observed ITS1 types and morphometric types is included. PMID:26798259

  7. Head Transcriptomes of Two Closely Related Species of Fruit Flies of the Anastrepha fraterculus Group Reveals Divergent Genes in Species with Extensive Gene Flow

    OpenAIRE

    Rezende, Victor Borges; Congrains, Carlos; Lima, Andr? Lu?s A.; Campanini, Emeline Boni; Nakamura, Aline Minali; de Oliveira, Jana?na Lima; Chahad-Ehlers, Samira; Junior, Iderval Sobrinho; Alves de Brito, Reinaldo

    2016-01-01

    Several fruit flies species of the Anastrepha fraterculus group are of great economic importance for the damage they cause to a variety of fleshy fruits. Some species in this group have diverged recently, with evidence of introgression, showing similar morphological attributes that render their identification difficult, reinforcing the relevance of identifying new molecular markers that may differentiate species. We investigated genes expressed in head tissues from two closely related species...

  8. Associative learning in wild Anastrepha obliqua females (Diptera, Tephritidae related to a protein source Aprendizagem associativa em fêmeas selvagens de Anastrepha obliqua (Diptera, Tephritidae em relação a uma fonte protéica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Cresoni-Pereira

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to determine whether wild adult Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart, 1835 females are able to associate a compound (quinine sulphate - QS not related to their habitual diet with a protein-enriched food. Females were first fed on diets based on brewer yeast and sucrose containing or not QS. The groups were then allowed to choose between their original diets and a diet with or without QS, depending on the previous treatment, and between a diet based on agar and a diet containing agar and QS. When the nutritional value of the diets was adequate, the females did not show any preference for the diet with or without QS. With respect to the agar diet and the agar + QS diet, females previously fed on a nutritive diet containing QS preferred the diet containing QS, indicating an association between the compound and the nutritional value of the diet. The importance of this behavioral strategy is discussed.O objetivo do presente estudo foi determinar se fêmeas adultas selvagens de Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart, 1835 são capazes de associar um composto (sulfato de quinino-SQ não-relacionado à sua dieta habitual com um alimento rico em proteínas. Primeiro, as fêmeas foram alimentadas com dietas à base de lêvedo de cerveja e sacarose contendo ou não SQ. Os grupos foram então colocados para escolher entre sua dieta original e dietas com ou sem SQ, dependendo do tratamento prévio, e entre uma dieta à base de agar somente e outra à base de agar e SQ. Quando o valor nutricional das dietas era adequado, as fêmeas não mostraram nenhuma preferência para a dieta com ou sem SQ. Em relação às dietas de agar e agar+SQ, fêmeas previamente alimentadas com uma dieta nutritiva contendo SQ preferiram a dieta contendo SQ, indicando uma associação entre o composto e o valor nutricional da dieta. A importância desta estratégia comportamental é discutida.

  9. Midgut Protease Activity During Larval Development of Anastrepha obliqua (Diptera: Tephritidae) Fed With Natural and Artificial Diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera-Ciprian, José Pedro; Aceituno-Medina, Marysol; Guillen, Karina

    2017-01-01

    Abstract In this study, we examined the activity of two serine proteases (chymotrypsin and trypsin) and two metalloproteases (carboxypeptidases A and B) during larval development in Anastrepha obliqua fed natural (mango fruit) and artificial (formulation used in mass-rearing) diets. Proteolytic activity of chymotrypsin, trypsin, carboxypeptidase A, and carboxypeptidase B was detected in the midgut of different instars of A. obliqua and was strongly affected by the pH and diet type. The protein content of the natural and artificial diets was similar. Enzymatic activity was higher in the midgut of the larvae fed the natural diet than in larvae fed the artificial diet. The activity of the endopeptidases (chymotrypsin and trypsin) was lower than those of the exopeptidases (carboxypeptidases A and B). The pH of the midgut varied from acidic to neutral. The results indicate that in the midgut of the larvae reared on both types of diet, the level of carboxypeptidase activity was approximately 100-fold greater than the level of chymotrypsin activity and 10,000-fold greater than the level of trypsin. In conclusion, carboxypeptidase A and B are the main proteases involved in the digestion of proteins in the larvae of A. obliqua. The natural diet showed a high bioaccessibility. A clear tendency to express high activities of chymotrypsin and trypsin was observed by the third instar. Our research contributes to the planning and development of novel bioaccessibility assays to understand the nutrition processing of A. obliqua larvae under mass-rearing conditions for sterile insect technique.

  10. Fungi that cause rot in bunches of grape identified in adult fruit flies (Anastrepha fraterculus (Diptera: Tephritidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruben Machota Jr

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann is the main species of frugivorous insect that damages berries of table grape (Vitis vinifera L. in Southern Brazil. This study was conducted to isolate and identify the fungi associated with bunch rot present in the body of adults of A. fraterculus collected in a commercial vineyard. From January to February 2011, adults of A. fraterculus were collected from a commercial vineyard of green grapes using adapted McPhail traps. In laboratory, flies bodies were divided into four parts (head, legs, wings, and ovipositor in Petri dishes with PDA medium to evaluate microorganisms associated. Six adult females of A. fraterculus collected in the field were also analyzed in a scanning electron microscope (SEM to identify spores of fungi. Phytopathogenic microorganisms were found in all sectioned parts. Fungal spores were recorded adhered to the body of adult females of A. fraterculus. The main species of fungi found in the body parts of A. fraterculus were Cladosporium spp. (20.2% of the obtained colonies, Botrytis cinerea Pers. (12.9%, Colletotrichum spp. (10.1%, Penicillium spp. (10.1%, Fusarium spp. (7.7%, followed by Rhizopus spp., Trichoderma spp. and Aspergillus spp., suggesting that the insect can serve as a mechanical vector of spores increasing damage in the vineyards.

  11. Male Sexual Behavior and Pheromone Emission Is Enhanced by Exposure to Guava Fruit Volatiles in Anastrepha fraterculus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachmann, Guillermo E; Segura, Diego F; Devescovi, Francisco; Juárez, M Laura; Ruiz, M Josefina; Vera, M Teresa; Cladera, Jorge L; Teal, Peter E A; Fernández, Patricia C

    2015-01-01

    Plant chemicals can affect reproductive strategies of tephritid fruit flies by influencing sex pheromone communication and increasing male mating competitiveness. We explored whether exposure of Anastrepha fraterculus males to guava fruit volatiles and to a synthetic blend of volatile compounds released by this fruit affects the sexual performance of wild and laboratory flies. By means of bioassays and pheromone collection we investigated the mechanism underlying this phenomenon. Guava volatile exposure enhanced male mating success and positively affected male calling behavior and pheromone release in laboratory and wild males. Changes in male behavior appear to be particularly important during the initial phase of the sexual activity period, when most of the mating pairs are formed. Exposure of laboratory males to a subset of guava fruit volatiles enhanced mating success, showing that the response to the fruit might be mimicked artificially. Volatiles of guava seem to influence male mating success through an enhancement of chemical and physical signals related to the communication between sexes. This finding has important implications for the management of this pest species through the Sterile Insect Technique. We discuss the possibility of using artificial blends to improve the sexual competitiveness of sterile males.

  12. Genetic diversity and population structure of Anastrepha striata (Diptera: Tephritidae) in three natural regions of southwestern Colombia using mitochondrial sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo-Franco, Jenny Johana; Velasco-Cuervo, Sandra Marcela; Aguirre-Ramirez, Elkin; González Obando, Ranulfo; Carrejo, Nancy Soraya; Toro-Perea, Nelson

    2017-02-01

    Anastrepha striata is widely distributed across the Americas and is a pest of economically important crops, especially crops of the Myrtaceae family. Insect population structures can be influenced by the presence of physical barriers or characteristics associated with habitat differences. This study evaluated the effect of the Western Andes on the population structure of A. striata. Individuals were collected from Psidium guajava fruits from three natural regions of southwestern Colombia (Pacific Coast, mountainous region and the inter-Andean valley of the Cauca River). Based on a 1318 bp concatenated of the genes Cytochrome Oxidase subunit I (COI) and NADH dehydrogenase subunit 6 (ND6), 14 haplotypes with few changes among them (between 1 and 3) were found. There was only one dominant haplotype in all three regions. No genetic structure associated with the three eco-geographical regions of the study was found. Moreover, the Western Andes are not an effective barrier for the genetic isolation of the populations from the Pacific Coast compared with the inter-Andean valley populations. This genetic homogeneity could be partially due to anthropogenic intervention, which acts as a dispersal agent of infested fruits. Another hypothesis to explain the lack of structure would be the relatively recent arrival of A. striata to the region, as indicated by an analysis of the demographic history, which reveals a process of population expansion. This study represents the first attempt to understand the population genetics of A. striata in Colombia and could contribute to the integral management of this pest.

  13. Reference genes for accessing differential expression among developmental stages and analysis of differential expression of OBP genes in Anastrepha obliqua

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Aline Minali; Chahad-Ehlers, Samira; Lima, André Luís A.; Taniguti, Cristiane Hayumi; Sobrinho Jr., Iderval; Torres, Felipe Rafael; de Brito, Reinaldo Alves

    2016-01-01

    The West Indian fruit fly, Anastrepha obliqua, is an important agricultural pest in the New World. The use of pesticide-free methods to control invasive species such as this reinforces the search for genes potentially useful in their genetic control. Therefore, the study of chemosensory proteins involved with a range of responses to the chemical environment will help not only on the understanding of the species biology but may also help the development of environmentally friendly pest control strategies. Here we analyzed the expression patterns of three OBP genes, Obp19d_2, Obp56a and Obp99c, across different phases of A. obliqua development by qPCR. In order to do so, we tested eight and identified three reference genes for data normalization, rpl17, rpl18 and ef1a, which displayed stability for the conditions here tested. All OBPs showed differential expression on adults and some differential expression among adult stages. Obp99c had an almost exclusive expression in males and Obp56a showed high expression in virgin females. Thereby, our results provide relevant data not only for other gene expression studies in this species, as well as for the search of candidate genes that may help in the development of new pest control strategies. PMID:26818909

  14. Application of feces extracts and synthetic analogues of the host marking pheromone of Anastrepha ludens significantly reduces fruit infestation by A. obliqua in tropical plum and mango backyard orchards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aluja, Martín; Díaz-Fleischer, F; Boller, E F; Hurter, J; Edmunds, A J F; Hagmann, L; Patrian, B; Reyes, J

    2009-12-01

    We determined the efficacy of three potential oviposition deterrents in reducing fruit infestation by Anastrepha obliqua in tropical plum and mango orchards. These were: (1) Extracts of feces of Mexican fruit fly, Anastrepha ludens, known to contain the A. ludens host marking pheromone (HMP) and (2) two fully synthetic simplified analogues of the naturally occurring compound, which we have named desmethyl A. ludens HMP (DM-HMP) and Anastrephamide. Two applications of feces extracts 2 or 3 wk before fruit color break reduced A. obliqua infestation in plums by 94.1, 75.9, and 72% when measured 8, 14, and 25 d, respectively, after application. The natural A. ludens-HMP containing extract retained its effectiveness despite considerable rainfall (112.5 mm) and high A. obliqua populations. The synthetic desmethyl HMP derivative (DM-HMP) also reduced infestation in plums by 53.3 and 58.7% when measured, 18 and 26 d, respectively, after application. Finally, applications of Anastrephamide resulted in fruit loss cut by half and an 80% reduction in numbers of fly larvae per fruit. Our results confirm previous findings indicating that there is interspecific cross-recognition of the HMP in two of the most pestiferous Anastrepha species and open the door for the development of a highly selective, biorational Anastrepha management scheme.

  15. Viabilidad de huevos y modelo de jaula para la cría artificial masiva de Anastrepha fraterculus (Diptera: Tephritidae Viability of eggs and screen cage model for mass artificial rearing of Anastrepha fraterculus (Diptera: Tephritidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana García

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del presente trabajo fue determinar la viabilidad de huevos y el modelo de jaula apropiada para la cría artificial masiva de Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann. Los resultados muestran que el periodo de máxima oviposición ocurre durante los primeros 10 días en jaulas modelo Mediana, lo cual permite obtener el volumen de huevos necesario para alimentar el pie de cría de A. fraterculus en una cría masiva. Considerando que se encontró relación positiva entre el volumen de huevos ovipositados y el porcentaje de eclosión de huevos, en un periodo de 21 días de colecta, este periodo coincide además con los valores de eclosión más altos. Entre los modelos de jaulas evaluadas: Mediana, Grande y Mission; el modelo Mediana mostró los mejores resultados al evaluar el número de ía con un valor promedio de 11,4. La jaula que mostró menores resultados fue el modelo Mission, con un valor promedio de 4,6 huevos/hembra/día. Las jaulas grandes mostraron valores menores a las jaulas Medianas, pero las diferencias fueron no significativas. Los buenos valores registrados en las jaulas Medianas posiblemente se deban a la estructura de la jaula, que presentó la cara interna dividida en muchos compartimientos, lo cual mejora la distribución de las moscas adultas y previene la mortalidad temprana por hacinamiento en la base o en el techo de la jaula.The aim of this study was to determine the viability of eggs and cage model suitable for artificial mass rearing of Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann. The results show that the period of maximum oviposition occurs during the first 10 days in Medium cages which allows to obtain the necessary volume of eggs to feed the foot of rearing of A. fraterculus in a mass rearing. Considering that a positive relationship was found between the volume of eggs oviposited and the hatchability percentage in a period of 21 days of collection, this period coincides with the highest values of hatching. Among the

  16. Development and reproductive biology of the egg-pupal parasite, Fopius arisanus in Anastrepha suspensa, a new tephritid host

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawrence, Pauline O.; Harris, Ernest J.; Bautist, Renato C.

    2000-01-01

    Fopius (=Biosteres) arisanus (Sonan) (=Opius oophilus Fullaway) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) is a solitary egg parasite (parasitoid) that attacks tephritid fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) eggs and first instars (Haramoto 1953, Clausen et al. 1965, Harris and Okamoto 1991). It completes its development within the host's larva and pupa and emerges from the latter as an adult and as such, is an egg-pupal endoparasite. F. arisanus is known to attack at least seven tephritid fruit fly species (Wharton and Gilstrap 1983) and appears to be the only egg-pupal parasite of tephritids in the Western Hemisphere. It is considered to be the most successful of the parasites that attack the Oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) and the Mediterranean fruit fly (Medfly), Ceratitis capitata (Weidmann) in Hawaii (Knipling 1995), resulting in 74-92% of total parasites recovered from both host species (Wong and Ramadan 1987). However, in Malaysia, Palacio et al. (1992) found that F. arisanus was outcompeted by the larval endoparasite, Diachasmimorpha longicaudata (Ashmead) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) in multiple parasitised B. dorsalis. While several larval parasites of tephritids had been cultured successfully in the laboratory (Ramadan 1991) and utilised in inundative release programmes, F. arisanus proved difficult to maintain in culture. In recent years, a laboratory strain of F. arisanus (termed the 'Harris strain') has been established on B. dorsalis (Harris and Okamoto 1991). Efforts are currently in progress to mass rear this strain on the Medfly and other tephritid pests. F. arisanus was first released into Florida from Hawaii in 1974-75 as a biological control agent against the Caribbean fruit fly (Caribfly) Anastrepha suspensa (Loew) (Diptera: Tephritidae) but this was unsuccessful (Baranowski et al. 1993). Interestingly, it was also introduced into Costa Rica from Hawaii and was subsequently reared from puparia of Anastrepha spp. (Wharton et al. 1981), indicating its

  17. Fatores climáticos na dinâmica populacional de Anastrepha spp. (diptera: tephritidae e de Scymnus spp. (coleoptera: coccinellidae em um pomar experimental de goiaba (Psidium guajava L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Aparecido Calore

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho objetivou caracterizar a dinâmica populacional de Anastrepha spp. e de Scymnus spp. em pomar experimental semiorgânico de goiaba (Psidium guajava L., em Pindorama-SP, na Agência Paulista de Tecnologia dos Agronegócios (APTA e correlacioná-la com fatores meteorológicos. Para o levantamento da dinâmica populacional, os espécimes foram monitorados com armadilhas adesivas amarelas (25 cm x 9,5 cm, trocadas a cada 15 dias, no período de um ano (entre junho de 2009 e junho de 2010. Os insetos foram avaliados e quantificados no Laboratório de Seletividade Ecológica da UNESP-FCAV em Jaboticabal-SP. Observou-se a ocorrência de Anastrepha spp. e Scymnus spp. durante todo o período de amostragem. Com base nos resultados obtidos e nas condições de desenvolvimento do presente trabalho, foram possíveis as seguintes conclusões: a Ocorre aumento na densidade populacional de Anastrepha spp. com o aumento das temperaturas mínima, média e máxima; b Os picos populacionais de Anastrepha spp. ocorrem de janeiro a março e coincidem com o período de disponibilidade de frutos maduros no pomar de goiaba; c Constatam-se as maiores ocorrências do predador Scymnus spp. no período de setembro a dezembro, e as menores ocorrências, em fevereiro e março; d As precipitações não interferem na dinâmica populacional de Anastrepha spp. e de Scymnus spp..

  18. Status of the Caribbean fruit fly, Anastrepha suspensa (Loew), sterile insect technique programme in the state of Florida, USA - November 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holler, T.C.; Harris, D.L.; Burns, R.E.

    1999-01-01

    Status of the Caribbean fruit fly, Anastrepha suspensa, Loew, sterile insect technique program in the state of Florida, USA - November 1996. Application of sterilization techniques to Anastrepha suspensa in Florida was conducted as early as 1970 in Key West. In 1988-1990, releases of sterile flies were made in a 20 km 2 urban area in southwestern Florida adjacent to commercial citrus. With the intent to integrate a sterile insect technique system within a fly-free management program for the caribfly, additional tests are being conducted both within a major citrus production area and in an isolated urban location of the mid to lower Florida peninsula. Tests at the former site measures the synergistic effect of augmenting sterile fly releases with parasitoids, whereas the latter studies will define the efficacy of reduced numbers of sterile flies released per acre than is standard in medfly and medfly eradication and suppression programs. Discussed here is the progress of an ongoing project to measure the benefits of SIT as it applies to caribfly export protocols. (author)

  19. Faunistic analysis of Anastrepha spp. (Diptera: Tephritidae) on a guava orchard under organic management in the municipality of Una, Bahia, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dutra, Vivian S.; Santos, Mirian S; Souza Filho, Zilton A.; Silva, Janisete G. [Universidade Estadual de Santa Cruz (UESC), Ilheus, BA (Brazil). Dept. de Ciencias Biologicas; Araujo, Elton L. [Universidade Federal Rural do Semi-Arido, Mossoro, RN (Brazil). Dept. de Ciencias Vegetais

    2009-01-15

    We carried out a study to characterize fruit fly populations on an organic guava orchard (Psidium guajava cv. Paluma) in the municipality of Una, southern region of the state of Bahia, Brazil, using faunistic analysis of the adult fruit f y specimens captured in McPhail traps from January 2004 through March 2007. A total of 22,673 specimens of Anastrepha (15,306 females and 7,367 males) were captured. Thirteen species of Anastrepha were recorded. A. fraterculus and A. obliqua were the more frequent and dominant species, accounting for 90.1% of all females captured in the traps. A. fraterculus was the predominant species (more frequent, constant and dominant). The high value of the Simpson index (0.62) and the low values of Shannon-Wiener (0.83) and equitability (0.49) indices indicated the dominance and high frequency of A. fraterculus and A. obliqua on the guava orchard despite the presence of other fruit species as potential hosts of fruit flies. (author)

  20. Faunistic analysis of Anastrepha spp. (Diptera: Tephritidae) on a guava orchard under organic management in the municipality of Una, Bahia, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dutra, Vivian S.; Santos, Mirian S; Souza Filho, Zilton A.; Silva, Janisete G.; Araujo, Elton L.

    2009-01-01

    We carried out a study to characterize fruit fly populations on an organic guava orchard (Psidium guajava cv. Paluma) in the municipality of Una, southern region of the state of Bahia, Brazil, using faunistic analysis of the adult fruit f y specimens captured in McPhail traps from January 2004 through March 2007. A total of 22,673 specimens of Anastrepha (15,306 females and 7,367 males) were captured. Thirteen species of Anastrepha were recorded. A. fraterculus and A. obliqua were the more frequent and dominant species, accounting for 90.1% of all females captured in the traps. A. fraterculus was the predominant species (more frequent, constant and dominant). The high value of the Simpson index (0.62) and the low values of Shannon-Wiener (0.83) and equitability (0.49) indices indicated the dominance and high frequency of A. fraterculus and A. obliqua on the guava orchard despite the presence of other fruit species as potential hosts of fruit flies. (author)

  1. Assessment of Injuries Caused by Anastrepha fraterculus (Wied.) (Diptera: Tephritidae) on the Incidence of Bunch Rot Diseases in Table Grape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machota, R; Bortoli, L C; Cavalcanti, F R; Botton, M; Grützmacher, A D

    2016-08-01

    Anastrepha fraterculus (Wied.) is the main insect pest of table grapes (Vitis vinifera) in the Southern Region of Brazil. In this study, we aimed to investigate the effect of fruit puncturing by adult females and larval infestation by A. fraterculus on the occurrence of bunch rot disease in the grape (cultivar "Itália") by evaluating grapes (a) punctured for oviposition by females of A. fraterculus, sterilized in laboratory with novaluron (40 mg L(-1)) and further spray-inoculated separately with Botrytis cinerea (1 × 10(6) conidia mL(-1)), Glomerella cingulata (1 × 10(6) conidia mL(-1)), and bacteria and yeast that cause sour rot (1 × 10(5) cells mL(-1)), (b) grapes punctured for oviposition by non-sterilized females with pathogen spraying, (c) grapes with mechanical wounds and pathogen spraying, (d) grapes with no wounds and with pathogen spraying, (e) grapes punctured for oviposition by A. fraterculus chemically sterilized in laboratory with novaluron, (f) grapes punctured for oviposition by A. fraterculus non-sterilized in laboratory with novaluron, (g) grapes with mechanical wounds, and (h) grapes with no sterilization or pathogen spraying. Our data indicated that the mechanical and oviposition wounds caused by A. fraterculus increased the percentage of grapes infected by B. cinerea, G. cingulata, and microorganisms of acid rot. The grape puncturing by A. fraterculus and the mechanical wound allows the penetration of B. cinerea and microorganisms leading to acid rot. We conclude that the fruit fly A. fraterculus may facilitate phytopathogens penetration leading to bunch rots in the table grape Itália.

  2. Sexual Competitiveness of Anastrepha ludens (Diptera: Tephritidae) Males Exposed to Citrus aurantium and Citrus paradisi Essential Oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morató, Santiago; Shelly, Todd; Rull, Juan; Aluja, Martin

    2015-04-01

    Males of the Mediterranean fruit fly (Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann)) display increased mating competitiveness following exposure to the odor of certain host and nonhost plants, and this phenomenon has been used in the sterile insect technique to boost the mating success of released, sterile males. Here, we aimed to establish whether males of the Mexican fruit fly (Anastrepha ludens (Loew)) gain a mating advantage when exposed to the aroma of two preferred hosts, grapefruit (Citrus paradisi Macfadyen) and bitter orange (Citrus aurantium L.). Under seminatural conditions, we observed that, in trials using wildish males (from a young laboratory colony started with wild flies) exclusively, exposure to the aroma of bitter orange had no effect on male mating success but exposure to the odor grapefruit oil increased male mating success significantly. In a separate test involving both exposed and nonexposed wildish and mass-reared, sterile males, although wildish males were clearly more competitive than sterile males, exposure to grapefruit oil had no detectable effect on either male type. Exposure to oils had no effect on copulation duration in any of the experiments. We discuss the possibility that the positive effect of grapefruit essential oils on wildish male competitiveness may have been linked to exposure of females to grapefruit as a larval food, which may have imprinted them with grapefruit odors during pupal eclosion and biased their response as adults to odors of their maternal host. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Development of Anastrepha fraterculus (Diptera: Tephritidae) Related to the Phenology of Blueberry, Blackberry, Strawberry Guava, and Surinam Cherry Fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisognin, M; Nava, D E; Diez-Rodríguez, G I; Valgas, R A; Garcia, M S; Krolow, A C R; Antunes, L E C

    2015-02-01

    Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann, 1830) is the main pest of temperate climate orcharding. The study investigated the development of A. fraterculus related to phenological stage of blueberry, blackberry, strawberry guava, and Surinam cherry trees. The phenological stages I (green fruits), II (intermediate ripening stage of fruits), and III (fruits close to harvesting) were determined, and they are from 8th, 10th, and 11th week; 6th, 8th, and 9th week; 8th, 13th, and 16th week; and 5th, 6th, and 7th week after the first flowering of blueberry, blackberry, strawberry guava, and Surinam cherry trees, respectively. We collected fruits from orchards to determine the infestation index using the formula: number of pupa/fruit weight. To investigate the development of A. fraterculus, we determined the following biological parameters: egg-to-adult period, weight of pupae, oviposition period, fecundity, number of pupae, and number of infested fruits. The infestation index for the fruits collected in the field was greater in strawberry guava and Surinam cherry fruits. In the laboratory, the development of A. fraterculus occurred in stage III of blueberry. In blackberry, besides stage III, we also observed the development in stage II, however, at lower infestation. In strawberry guava, the development of A. fraterulus occurred in stages II and III, and the development in both stages was similar. For Surinam cherry, the development occurred in the three phenological stages with similar values for biological parameters. Overall, of the four hosts studied, the strawberry guava and Surinam cherry fruits allowed a better biological development of A. fraterculus, corroborating its preference for fruits native to Brazil. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Viabilidad de huevos y modelo de jaula para la cría artificial masiva de Anastrepha fraterculus (Diptera: Tephritidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JULIANA GARCÍA

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del presente trabajo fue determinar la viabilidad de huevos y el modelo de jaula apropiada para la cría artificial masiva de Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann. Los resultados muestran que el periodo de máxima oviposición ocurre durante los primeros 10 días en jaulas modelo Mediana, lo cual permite obtener el volumen de huevos necesario para alimentar el pie de cría de A. fraterculus en una cría masiva. Considerando que se encontró relación positiva entre el volumen de huevos ovipositados y el porcentaje de eclosión de huevos, en un periodo de 21 días de colecta, este periodo coincide además con los valores de eclosión más altos. Entre los modelos de jaulas evaluadas: Mediana, Grande y Mission; el modelo Mediana mostró los mejores resultados al evaluar el número de huevos/hembra/día con un valor promedio de 11,4. La jaula que mostró menores resultados fue el modelo Mission, con un valor promedio de 4,6 huevos/hembra/día. Las jaulas grandes mostraron valores menores a las jaulas Medianas, pero las diferencias fueron no significativas. Los buenos valores registrados en las jaulas Medianas posiblemente se deban a la estructura de la jaula, que presentó la cara interna dividida en muchos compartimientos, lo cual mejora la distribución de las moscas adultas y previene la mortalidad temprana por hacinamiento en la base o en el techo de la jaula.

  5. Sexual Competitiveness, Field Survival, and Dispersal of Anastrepha obliqua (Diptera: Tephritidae) Fruit Flies Irradiated at Different Doses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallardo-Ortiz, Uriel; Pérez-Staples, Diana; Liedo, Pablo; Toledo, Jorge

    2018-04-02

    The sterile insect technique (SIT) is used in area-wide pest management programs for establishing low pest prevalence and/or areas free of fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae). The aim of this technique is to induce high levels of sterility in the wild population, for this the released insects must have a high sexual competitiveness and field dispersal. However, radiation decreases these biological attributes that do not allow it to compete successfully with wild insects. In this study the sexual competitiveness, field survival and dispersal of Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart; Diptera: Tephritidae) irradiated at 0, 40, 50, 60, 70, and 80 Gy were evaluated in laboratory. A dose of 60 Gy produced 98% sterility, whereas doses of 70 and 80 Gy produced 99% sterility. Sexual competitiveness was assessed in field cages, comparing males irradiated at 0, 50, 60, 70, and 80 Gy against wild males for mating with wild fertile females. Males irradiated at 50 and 60 Gy achieved more matings than those irradiated at 70 and 80 Gy. Wild males were more competitive than mass-reared males, even when these were not irradiated (0 Gy). There was no effect of irradiation on mating latency, yet wild males showed significantly shorter mating latency than mass-reared males. Female remating did not differ among those that mated with wild males and those that mated with males irradiated with different doses. The relative sterility index (RSI) increased from 0.25 at 80 Gy to 0.37 at 60 Gy. The Fried competitiveness index was 0.69 for males irradiated at 70 Gy and 0.57 for those irradiated at 80 Gy, which indicates that a 10 Gy reduction in the irradiation dose produces greater induction of sterility in the wild population. There were no significant differences in field survival and dispersal between flies irradiated at 70 or 80 Gy. Reducing the irradiation dose to 60 or 70 Gy could improve the performance of sterile males and the effectiveness of the SIT. Our results also distinguish between the

  6. Effects of gamma radiation on the ovarian development of the south american fruit fly, Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann, 1830)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mastrangelo, Thiago; Botteon, Victor, E-mail: piaui@cena.usp.br, E-mail: victor.botteon@usp.br [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil); Scopel, Wanessa, E-mail: scopelw@usp.br [Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz (ESALQ/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    The South American fruit fly, Anastrepha fraterculus (Wied.) represents 98.5% of the flies captured in commercial apple orchards from Brazil. Looking for environmentally friendly alternatives to suppress this fruit fly pest, researchers from USP and EMBRAPA, along with the Brazilian Association of Apple Producers, created the MOSCASUL Biological Control Center, which intends to apply an Area-Wide Integrated Pest Management Program that integrates the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT). The assurance of sterility of the released flies is a critical assumption of an SIT program, since the unintentional release of thousands of fertile females could cause severe damages to the orchards nearby. Females of A. fraterculus are more radiosensitive than males, but the morphology of the ovaries of the sterile females was not investigated so far. The objective of this study, therefore, was to characterize the morphology of the ovaries of A. fraterculus treated with different doses of gamma radiation. Pupae with 48 h before adult emergence were irradiated with 0 (control), 15, 25, 35, and 45 Gy at the Gammabeam-650® irradiator from CENA/USP. Twelve hours after initial emergence, adults were sorted by sex, and for each radiation dose, 1 day old nonirradiated males were placed with irradiated females of the same age in cages. Adult females were then dissected in a saline solution at 1, 7, and 15 days of age, and the ovaries were examined under stereo microscope. The length, width and area of each ovary were measured from the images made. On the 1{sup st} day after the emergence of the adults, no morphological differences were observed among irradiated and nonirradiated ovaries. On the 7{sup th} day, however, the nonirradiated ovaries showed to be larger than the irradiated ones. Doses of 15 Gy or higher induced complete atrophy of the ovaries and, on the 15{sup th} day, no signs of regeneration of the ovaries were observed. On the last day of observation, the irradiated ovaries

  7. Effects of gamma radiation on the ovarian development of the south american fruit fly, Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann, 1830)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mastrangelo, Thiago; Botteon, Victor; Scopel, Wanessa

    2017-01-01

    The South American fruit fly, Anastrepha fraterculus (Wied.) represents 98.5% of the flies captured in commercial apple orchards from Brazil. Looking for environmentally friendly alternatives to suppress this fruit fly pest, researchers from USP and EMBRAPA, along with the Brazilian Association of Apple Producers, created the MOSCASUL Biological Control Center, which intends to apply an Area-Wide Integrated Pest Management Program that integrates the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT). The assurance of sterility of the released flies is a critical assumption of an SIT program, since the unintentional release of thousands of fertile females could cause severe damages to the orchards nearby. Females of A. fraterculus are more radiosensitive than males, but the morphology of the ovaries of the sterile females was not investigated so far. The objective of this study, therefore, was to characterize the morphology of the ovaries of A. fraterculus treated with different doses of gamma radiation. Pupae with 48 h before adult emergence were irradiated with 0 (control), 15, 25, 35, and 45 Gy at the Gammabeam-650® irradiator from CENA/USP. Twelve hours after initial emergence, adults were sorted by sex, and for each radiation dose, 1 day old nonirradiated males were placed with irradiated females of the same age in cages. Adult females were then dissected in a saline solution at 1, 7, and 15 days of age, and the ovaries were examined under stereo microscope. The length, width and area of each ovary were measured from the images made. On the 1 st day after the emergence of the adults, no morphological differences were observed among irradiated and nonirradiated ovaries. On the 7 th day, however, the nonirradiated ovaries showed to be larger than the irradiated ones. Doses of 15 Gy or higher induced complete atrophy of the ovaries and, on the 15 th day, no signs of regeneration of the ovaries were observed. On the last day of observation, the irradiated ovaries presented mean area

  8. Capture of Anastrepha sororcula (Diptera: Tephritidae in McPhail and Jackson traps with food attractant and virgin adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christiane dos Santos Felix

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available This stady evaluated the capture of A. sororcula in the traps baited with the conspecific virgin adults and food attractant in two orchards. The first was the orchard of the Universidade Federal da Grande Dourados (OUFGD and the second, the orchard of the Sindicato Rural de Dourados (OSRD. The capture of A. sororcula in McPhail and Jackson traps was carried out using the corn hydrolysed protein (CHP, control (no flies, virgin males (5, 10 and 15, five virgin females and five virgin couples. The average number of the flies caught in the traps with the corn hydrolysed protein was signifícantly higher than all the other treatments. There was no significant capture of A. sororcula females in the traps baited with the conspecific virgin males, females or the couples.As moscas-das-frutas constituem um grupo de pragas responsáveis por grandes prejuízos econômicos à fruticultura mundial. Anastrepha sororcula Zucchi, é a principal espécie de tefritídeo que ataca a goiaba em Mato Grosso do Sul. O objetivo desta pesquisa foi avaliar a captura de adultos de A. sororcula em armadilhas com atrativo alimentar e adultos virgens, em dois ambientes. Os bioensaios iniciaram-se com a criação de A. sororcula no Laboratório de Insetos Frugívoros da Universidade Federal da Grande Dourados (UFGD. As pesquisas de campo foram desenvolvidas nos pomares da UFGD e do Sindicato Rural de Dourados (SRD-MS. A captura de adultos de A. sororcula em armadilhas McPhail e Jackson foi avaliada para os tratamentos: proteína hidrolisada de milho, testemunha (sem moscas, machos virgens (5, 10 e 15, 5 fêmeas virgens e 5 casais. O número médio de indivíduos capturados nas armadilhas com proteína foi significativamente maior que nos demais tratamentos. O número médio de adultos de A. sororcula, capturado com o tratamento proteína no SRD foi significativamente superior ao do pomar da UFGD. Não ocorreu captura significativa de fêmeas de A. sororcula nas armadilhas com

  9. Genetics and biology of Anastrepha fraterculus: research supporting the use of the sterile insect technique (SIT) to control this pest in Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cladera, Jorge L; Vilardi, Juan C; Juri, Marianela; Paulin, Laura E; Giardini, M Cecilia; Gómez Cendra, Paula V; Segura, Diego F; Lanzavecchia, Silvia B

    2014-01-01

    Two species of true fruit flies (taxonomic family Tephritidae) are considered pests of fruit and vegetable production in Argentina: the cosmopolitan Mediterranean fruit fly (Ceratitis capitata Wiedemann) and the new world South American fruit fly (Anastrepha fraterculus Wiedemann). The distribution of these two species in Argentina overlaps north of the capital, Buenos Aires. Regarding the control of these two pests, the varied geographical fruit producing regions in Argentina are in different fly control situations. One part is under a programme using the sterile insect technique (SIT) for the eradication of C. capitata, because A. fraterculus is not present in this area. The application of the SIT to control C. capitata north of the present line with the possibility of A. fraterculus occupying the niche left vacant by C. capitata becomes a cause of much concern. Only initial steps have been taken to investigate the genetics and biology of A. fraterculus. Consequently, only fragmentary information has been recorded in the literature regarding the use of SIT to control this species. For these reasons, the research to develop a SIT protocol to control A. fraterculus is greatly needed. In recent years, research groups have been building a network in Argentina in order to address particular aspects of the development of the SIT for Anastrepha fraterculus. The problems being addressed by these groups include improvement of artificial diets, facilitation of insect mass rearing, radiation doses and conditions for insect sterilisation, basic knowledge supporting the development of males-only strains, reduction of male maturation time to facilitate releases, identification and isolation of chemical communication signals, and a good deal of population genetic studies. This paper is the product of a concerted effort to gather all this knowledge scattered in numerous and often hard-to-access reports and papers and summarize their basic conclusions in a single publication.

  10. Demographic analysis of mass-reared Anastrepha fraterculus (Diptera: Tephritidae in Tucumán, Argentina Análisis demográfico de la cría masiva de Anastrepha fraterculus (Diptera: Tephritidae en Tucumán, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor E. Jaldo

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The life cycle of a lab-adapted mass reared strain of Anastrepha fraterculus at 24°C constant temperature was 41 days, including the preoviposition period. Mortality rates of 8%, 22%, 22%, 5%, and 43% were recorded for eggs, larvae, pupae, adults (preoviposition stage and adults (reproductive stage, respectively. The intrinsic rate of increase was 0.065, the net fecundity rate was 120.4, and the gross fecundity rate was 328.4. In a stable population, 22% would be eggs, 53% larvae, 18% pupae, 4% preoviposition adults, and 3% reproductive adults.El ciclo de vida de Anastrepha fraterculus en cría masiva a temperatura constante de 24°C fue de 41 días, incluyendo el período de preoviposición. Las mortalidades para huevo, larva, pupa, adultos en preoviposición y adultos reproductivos fueron de 8%, 22%, 22%, 5% y 43%, respectivamente. La tasa intrínseca de incremento natural fue de 0,065, la tasa de fertilidad neta fue de 120,4, y la tasa de fertilidad bruta fue de 328,4. En una población estable 22% debería ser huevos, 53% larvas, 18% pupas, 4% adultos en preoviposición y 3% adultos en etapa reproductiva.

  11. Himenópteros parasitóides de larvas de Anastrepha spp. em frutos de carambola (Averrhoa carambola L. na região de Divinópolis, Minas Gerais, Brasil Himenopterous parasitoids of Anastrepha spp. larvae, in star fruit (Averrhoa carambola L. In divinópolis region, Minas Gerais, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudio Gonçalves Silva

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi conduzido com o objetivo de conhecer os parasitóides de moscas-da-fruta na região de Divinópolis-MG. As pupas foram obtidas pelo método de flutuação, sendo individualizadas em cápsulas de gelatina até a emergência das moscas adultas ou de seus parasitóides. A prevalência total de parasitismo foi de 14,8%. Trichopria anastrepha foi a espécie mais comum, com 44,5%.The objective of this work was to identify the parasitoids of fruit flies in Divinópolis-MG region. The pupae were obtained by the flotation method. They were individually placed in gelatin capsules until the emergency of the adult flies or their parasitoids. The overall prevalence of parasitism was 14,8%. Trichopria anastrepha was the most common specie with a frequency of 44,5%.

  12. Effects of gamma radiation on the sterility and behavioral quality of the caribbean fruit fly, Anastrepha suspensa (Loew (Diptera:Tephritidae Efeitos da radiação gama na esterilização e comportamento da mosca-do-caribe, Anastrepha suspensa (Low (Diptera:Tephritidae

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    J.M.M. Walder

    1993-09-01

    Full Text Available Pupae of Anastrepha suspensa (Loew were irradiated 2 days before adult eclosión in an air atmosphere with 15, 20, 25, 30, 50 and 70 Gy of gamma radiation (Co-60. The radiation effects on sterility and other parameters of quality and behavior of males and females of caribfly were established. Males became fully sterile with a dose of 50 Gy and females laid no eggs when exposed to 25 Gy. Radiation had no significant effect on adult eclosion, sex ratio, flight ability and irritability, but female mortality was affected significantly by radiation, showing higher survival rates in low dosage treatments. The mating behavior of the males was reduced significantly by increasing the radiation doses.Pupas de Anastrepha suspensa (Loew foram irradiadas dois dias antes da emergência dos adultos em atmosfera de ar com as doses de 15, 20, 25, 30, 50 e 70 Gy de radiação gama (Co-60. Foram avaliados os efeitos da radiação sobre a esterilidade e outros parâmetros de qualidade e comportamento de machos e fêmeas de mosca-do-caribe. Machos tornaram-se totalmente estéreis com uma dose de 50 Gy e as fêmeas não ovipositaram quando expostas a 25 Gy. A radiação não teve efeito significativo sobre a taxa de emergência de adultos, na razão sexual, na habilidade de vôo e na irritabilidade desses insetos. Somente a mortalidade das fêmeas foi afetada significativamente pela radiação, causando unia maior sobrevivência nas dosagens mais baixas. A atividade de acasalamento dos machos foi reduzida significativamente com o incremento da dosagem de radiação.

  13. Quarantine cold treatments for Ceratitis capitata and Anastrepha fraterculus (Diptera: Tephritidae) for citrus in Argentina: conclusions after 10 years of research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willink, Eduardo; Gastaminza, Gerardo; Salvatore, Analia; Gramajo, M. Cecilia; Acenolaza, Mariana; Avila, Rosana; Favre, Paola

    2006-01-01

    Argentina has quarantine restrictions in some markets due to the presence of two quarantine fruit fly pests: Ceratitis capitata and Anastrepha fraterculus. One alternative is the use of cold quarantine treatments during transport of the commodities. Since 1996, the Estacion Experimental Agroindustrial Obispo Colombres (EEAOC), Tucuman, Argentina, has developed different cold quarantine treatments for citrus. In the present work we present all the data the EEAOC generated in the last ten years in order to facilitate the development of such cold treatments. Fruit flies were obtained from the colonies reared at EEAOC. Four citrus species were analyzed: lemon, grapefruit, orange and tangerines. Different varieties were analyzed for each fruit species. Sensitivity trials aiming at determine the most tolerant stage as well as to asses if there is any influence of varieties on cold tolerance were performed. Finally we compared the tolerance to cold between the two species. Sensitivity trials showed that mature larvae (L3) are the most tolerant stage for both fruit fly species. There was no effect of the varieties and the two fruit fly species were equally sensible to cold. Our results provide strong evidence in favor of concluding that any cold treatment developed for C. capitata is effective for A. fraterculus. (author)

  14. Influence of Pupation Substrate on Mass Production and Fitness of Adult Anastrepha obliqua Macquart (Diptera: Tephritidae) for Sterile Insect Technique Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aceituno-Medina, Marysol; Rivera-Ciprian, José Pedro; Hernández, Emilio

    2017-12-05

    Tephritid mass-rearing systems require an artificial substrate for pupation. Pupation substrate characteristics influence the quality of insects produced. Coconut fiber, as an alternative to the conventional pupation substrate vermiculite, was evaluated for Anastrepha obliqua Macquart (Diptera: Tephritidae) pupation behavior (pupation patterns, distribution, respiration rate, and pupal weight) and adult fitness (adult eclosion time, flight ability, and male mating competitiveness). Pupation percentage at 24 h, pupal weight, and flight ability were not significantly affected by substrate type. Adult eclosion levels of 50% were reached at 29.7 and 41.6 h for coconut fiber and vermiculite, respectively. Pupae distribution patterns differed between substrates because the larval aggregation level was reduced during the pupation process in coconut fiber. The pupae aggregation was three times greater in vermiculite than in coconut fiber. A higher respiratory rate in the last days of pupation and adult eclosion were recorded in the insects maintained in coconut fiber. Coconut fiber suitability as a pupation substrate for quality mass production of pupae and its implications for sterile insect technique are discussed. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Quarantine cold treatments for Ceratitis capitata and Anastrepha fraterculus (Diptera: Tephritidae) for citrus in Argentina: conclusions after 10 years of research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willink, Eduardo; Gastaminza, Gerardo; Salvatore, Analia; Gramajo, M. Cecilia; Acenolaza, Mariana; Avila, Rosana; Favre, Paola, E-mail: ewillink@eeaoc.org.a [Estacion Experimental Agroindustrial Obispo Colombres (EEAOC), Tucuman (Argentina)

    2006-07-01

    Argentina has quarantine restrictions in some markets due to the presence of two quarantine fruit fly pests: Ceratitis capitata and Anastrepha fraterculus. One alternative is the use of cold quarantine treatments during transport of the commodities. Since 1996, the Estacion Experimental Agroindustrial Obispo Colombres (EEAOC), Tucuman, Argentina, has developed different cold quarantine treatments for citrus. In the present work we present all the data the EEAOC generated in the last ten years in order to facilitate the development of such cold treatments. Fruit flies were obtained from the colonies reared at EEAOC. Four citrus species were analyzed: lemon, grapefruit, orange and tangerines. Different varieties were analyzed for each fruit species. Sensitivity trials aiming at determine the most tolerant stage as well as to asses if there is any influence of varieties on cold tolerance were performed. Finally we compared the tolerance to cold between the two species. Sensitivity trials showed that mature larvae (L3) are the most tolerant stage for both fruit fly species. There was no effect of the varieties and the two fruit fly species were equally sensible to cold. Our results provide strong evidence in favor of concluding that any cold treatment developed for C. capitata is effective for A. fraterculus. (author)

  16. The presence of the sexual partner and nutritional condition alter the Anastrepha obliqua MacQuart (Diptera: Tephritidae) protein discrimination threshold

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cresoni-Pereira, Carla; Zucoloto, Fernando S. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Filosofia, Ciencias e Letras. Dept. de Biologia

    2005-11-15

    The minimum protein amount that Anastrepha obliqua MacQuart can detect in its alimentary source is variable, though the causes of such variation are not very well known. In this study, the authors tested whether the sexual partners nutritional condition and presence devoid of direct contact alter the A. obliqua protein discrimination threshold. Male and female insects were assigned to groups as follows: (1) newly emerged, (2) deprived of protein source (yeast) during 18 days, (3) non-yeast-deprived during 18 days, (4) yeast-deprived in the presence of equally yeast-deprived sexual partners, (5) yeast-deprived in the presence of non-yeast-deprived partners, (6) non-yeast-deprived with yeast-deprived partners and (7) non-yeast-deprived with non-yeast-deprived partners. The sexual partners were maintained apart by a transparent plastic screen with small holes. Not only the males presence but also their nutritional condition have altered the females discrimination threshold, particularly when the females were deprived and when non- deprived females cohabited with deprived males. Therefore, the females threshold was determined by their own nutritional condition in addition to recognition of the males nutritional condition. The males discrimination threshold was higher for non-deprived subjects than for the deprived ones. The occurrence of responses in the absence of direct contact between males and females has shown that they may use a chemical mechanism for mutual recognition of the sexual partner nutritional condition. (author)

  17. The presence of the sexual partner and nutritional condition alter the Anastrepha obliqua MacQuart (Diptera: Tephritidae) protein discrimination threshold

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cresoni-Pereira, Carla; Zucoloto, Fernando S.

    2005-01-01

    The minimum protein amount that Anastrepha obliqua MacQuart can detect in its alimentary source is variable, though the causes of such variation are not very well known. In this study, the authors tested whether the sexual partners nutritional condition and presence devoid of direct contact alter the A. obliqua protein discrimination threshold. Male and female insects were assigned to groups as follows: (1) newly emerged, (2) deprived of protein source (yeast) during 18 days, (3) non-yeast-deprived during 18 days, (4) yeast-deprived in the presence of equally yeast-deprived sexual partners, (5) yeast-deprived in the presence of non-yeast-deprived partners, (6) non-yeast-deprived with yeast-deprived partners and (7) non-yeast-deprived with non-yeast-deprived partners. The sexual partners were maintained apart by a transparent plastic screen with small holes. Not only the males presence but also their nutritional condition have altered the females discrimination threshold, particularly when the females were deprived and when non- deprived females cohabited with deprived males. Therefore, the females threshold was determined by their own nutritional condition in addition to recognition of the males nutritional condition. The males discrimination threshold was higher for non-deprived subjects than for the deprived ones. The occurrence of responses in the absence of direct contact between males and females has shown that they may use a chemical mechanism for mutual recognition of the sexual partner nutritional condition. (author)

  18. Mixture-amount design and response surface modeling to assess the effects of flavonoids and phenolic acids on developmental performance of Anastrepha ludens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascacio-Villafán, Carlos; Lapointe, Stephen; Williams, Trevor; Sivinski, John; Niedz, Randall; Aluja, Martín

    2014-03-01

    Host plant resistance to insect attack and expansion of insect pests to novel hosts may to be modulated by phenolic compounds in host plants. Many studies have evaluated the role of phenolics in host plant resistance and the effect of phenolics on herbivore performance, but few studies have tested the joint effect of several compounds. Here, we used mixture-amount experimental design and response surface modeling to study the effects of a variety of phenolic compounds on the development and survival of Mexican fruit fly (Anastrepha ludens [Loew]), a notorious polyphagous pest of fruit crops that is likely to expand its distribution range under climate change scenarios. (+)- Catechin, phloridzin, rutin, chlorogenic acid, and p-coumaric acid were added individually or in mixtures at different concentrations to a laboratory diet used to rear individuals of A. ludens. No effect was observed with any mixture or concentration on percent pupation, pupal weight, adult emergence, or survival from neonate larvae to adults. Larval weight, larval and pupal developmental time, and the prevalence of adult deformities were affected by particular mixtures and concentrations of the compounds tested. We suggest that some combinations/concentrations of phenolic compounds could contribute to the management of A. ludens. We also highlight the importance of testing mixtures of plant secondary compounds when exploring their effects upon insect herbivore performance, and we show that mixture-amount design is a useful tool for this type of experiments.

  19. Acoustic courtship songs in males of the fruit fly Anastrepha ludens (Diptera: Tephritidae associated with geography, mass rearing and courtship success

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.D Briceño

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The Sterile Insect Technique (SIT has been used successfully to control or eradicate fruit flies. The commonly observed inferiority of mass-reared males, compared with wild males, when they are paired with wild females, is apparently due to their inadequate courtship. Anastrepha ludens males produce two types of wing vibration during courtship and mating, the "calling sound" and the "premating or precopulatory sound". There were clear differences in the calling songs between successful and unsuccessful courtships in sterile (irradiated and fertile Mexican flies. Among sterile flies, successful males produce longer buzzes, shorter interpulses and a higher power spectrum in the signal. Fertile flies showed the same trend. For mating songs a significant difference occurred in two parameters: power spectrum between sterile and fertile flies with respect to the type of song, and the signal duration and intensity were greater in non-irradiated flies. Calling songs of wild flies compared with laboratory grown flies from Mexico had shorter interpulses, longer pulses, and a greater power spectrum. However, in the case of premating songs, the only difference was in the intensity, which was significantly greater in wild males. An unexpected result was not observing pulses during pheromone deposition in wild males from Costa Rica. Comparing the premating songs of wild flies from Costa Rica and Mexico, no significant differences were observed in the duration, and the intensity of the signal was slightly greater in flies from Mexico. Rev. Biol. Trop. 57 (Suppl. 1: 257-265. Epub 2009 November 30.La técnica estéril del insecto (SIT se ha utilizado con éxito para controlar o para suprimir las moscas de fruta y su impacto en los cultivos. La inferioridad comúnmente observada de machos criados masivamente, comparada con los machos silvestres, cuando se aparean con las hembras silvestres es al parecer debido a su inadecuado cortejo. Los machos de Anastrepha

  20. Selection of artificial hosts for oviposition by wild Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart (Diptera, Tephritidae: influence of adult food and effect of experience Seleção de hospedeiros artificiais para oviposição por Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart (Diptera, Tephritidae selvagem: influência do alimento do adulto e efeito da experiência

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    Thamara A. B. S. Leal

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Several factors influence the selection of oviposition substrates by insects. The aim of the present work was to find answers to the following questions related to the oviposition behavior of Anastrepha obliqua. Can carbohydrates (glucose or sucrose present in the adult diet have influence on the female preference for an oviposition substrate with similar composition? Can the previous experience with a host containing one of mentioned carbohydrates interfere in further selection of oviposition substrates? The results showed that the kind of carbohydrate present in the adult diet did not affect the female preference for an artificial oviposition substrate, neither when it was presented by itself nor in combination with brewer's yeast. The effect of experience in the oviposition behavior was observed when there was a previous contact with artificial oviposition substrates containing yeast and sucrose. The data are discussed in terms of the behavioral plasticity presented by this species in relation to feeding and oviposition behaviors.Vários fatores podem atuar durante a seleção de substratos para oviposição por insetos. O presente estudo teve por objetivo responder às seguintes questões relacionadas ao comportamento de oviposição de Anastrepha obliqua. O carboidrato presente na dieta do adulto (glicose ou sacarose pode influenciar a preferência da fêmea por um substrato para oviposição com composição semelhante? A experiência prévia com um hospedeiro que possui um dos dois carboidratos citados pode interferir em escolhas futuras entre substratos para oviposição? Os resultados indicaram que o tipo de carboidrato presente na dieta do adulto não exerceu influência sobre a preferência das fêmeas por um substrato artificial para oviposição, tanto quando em combinação com lêvedo de cerveja ou quando sozinho. O efeito da experiência no comportamento de oviposição foi notado quando o contato prévio foi com substratos

  1. Sexual competitiveness and compatibility between mass-reared sterile flies and wild populations of Anastrepha Ludens (Diptera: Tephritidae) from different regions in Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orozco-Davila, D.; Hernandez, R.; Meza, S.; Dominguez, J.

    2007-01-01

    The mass-reared colony of Anastrepha ludens (Loew) currently used in Mexico for suppression of the Mexican fruit fly has been in use for over 10 years. Sterile flies are released into a wide range of environmental conditions as part of an integrated area-wide approach to suppress diverse populations of this pest in the Mexican Republic. This paper assesses the performance of the sterile flies interacting with wild populations from the different environments. We investigated the sexual compatibility and competitiveness of the sterile flies when competing with wild populations from 6 representatives Mexican states: Nuevo Leon, Tamaulipas, Sinaloa, Nayarit, Michoacan, and Chiapas. Results show that the males of the wild populations differed in the time to the onset and peak of sexual activity. Nevertheless, the index of sexual isolation (ISI) reflected sexual compatibility between the populations and the mass-reared strain, indicating that the sterile individuals mate satisfactorily with the wild populations from the 6 states. The male relative performance index (MRPI) showed that the sterile male is as effective in copulating as the wild males. The female relative performance index (FRPI) reflected a general tendency for wild females to copulate in greater proportion than the sterile females, except for the strains from Tamaulipas and Chiapas. In general, the lower participation of the sterile females in copulation increases the possibilities of sterile males to mate with wild females. The relative sterility index (RSI) showed that the acceptance by wild females of the sterile males (25-55%) was similar to that of wild males. Females of the Chiapas strain showed the lowest acceptance of sterile males. Finally, the results obtained in the Fried test (which measures induced sterility in eggs) showed a competitiveness coefficient ranging from 0.2 to 0.5. This suggests that sterile males successfully compete and are compatible with flies from different geographic origins

  2. The South American fruit fly, Anastrepha fraterculus (Wied.); advances in artificial rearing, taxonomic status and biological studies. Proceedings of a workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    One of the fruit flies of major concern, because of its economic and quarantine importance in the Americas, is the exotic Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata, which is established throughout the Central and South American countries, excluding Chile. Chile, Mexico and the USA have conducted multi-million dollar campaigns to prevent the establishment of this and other exotic fruit flies in their respective territories, in support of the development of important fruit production and export industries. Other important fruit fly species, which are native to the American continent, are those of the genus Anastrepha. In this group, of most economic importance are A. obliqua and A. ludens for Mexico and some Central American countries and A. fraterculus and A. obliqua for South America. In this publication, attention is focused on A. fraterculus, the South American fruit fly. This species, as it is presently recognized, occurs from Mexico to Argentina and is reported from approximately 80 host plants, including commercial fruits of economic importance, such as mango, citrus, guava, apple and coffee. As A. fraterculus if considered to be of high economic and quarantine importance in many countries in South America, it is justifiable to recommend and promote the implementation of activities to strengthen knowledge of the species and develop techniques for its control and/or eradication. The development of sterile insect technique (SIT) and other biological control methods are very encouraging alternatives, as can be seen from examples in Mexico and the USA, where these approaches are in use against A. ludens and A. obliqua

  3. Head Transcriptomes of Two Closely Related Species of Fruit Flies of the Anastrepha fraterculus Group Reveals Divergent Genes in Species with Extensive Gene Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezende, Victor Borges; Congrains, Carlos; Lima, André Luís A.; Campanini, Emeline Boni; Nakamura, Aline Minali; de Oliveira, Janaína Lima; Chahad-Ehlers, Samira; Junior, Iderval Sobrinho; Alves de Brito, Reinaldo

    2016-01-01

    Several fruit flies species of the Anastrepha fraterculus group are of great economic importance for the damage they cause to a variety of fleshy fruits. Some species in this group have diverged recently, with evidence of introgression, showing similar morphological attributes that render their identification difficult, reinforcing the relevance of identifying new molecular markers that may differentiate species. We investigated genes expressed in head tissues from two closely related species: A. obliqua and A. fraterculus, aiming to identify fixed single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and highly differentiated transcripts, which, considering that these species still experience some level of gene flow, could indicate potential candidate genes involved in their differentiation process. We generated multiple libraries from head tissues of these two species, at different reproductive stages, for both sexes. Our analyses indicate that the de novo transcriptome assemblies are fairly complete. We also produced a hybrid assembly to map each species’ reads, and identified 67,470 SNPs in A. fraterculus, 39,252 in A. obliqua, and 6386 that were common to both species. We identified 164 highly differentiated unigenes that had a mean interspecific index (D¯) of at least 0.94. We selected unigenes that had Ka/Ks higher than 0.5, or had at least three or more highly differentiated SNPs as potential candidate genes for species differentiation. Among these candidates, we identified proteases, regulators of redox homeostasis, and an odorant-binding protein (Obp99c), among other genes. The head transcriptomes described here enabled the identification of thousands of genes hitherto unavailable for these species, and generated a set of candidate genes that are potentially important to genetically identify species and understand the speciation process in the presence of gene flow of A. obliqua and A. fraterculus. PMID:27558666

  4. Head Transcriptomes of Two Closely Related Species of Fruit Flies of the Anastrepha fraterculus Group Reveals Divergent Genes in Species with Extensive Gene Flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Borges Rezende

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Several fruit flies species of the Anastrepha fraterculus group are of great economic importance for the damage they cause to a variety of fleshy fruits. Some species in this group have diverged recently, with evidence of introgression, showing similar morphological attributes that render their identification difficult, reinforcing the relevance of identifying new molecular markers that may differentiate species. We investigated genes expressed in head tissues from two closely related species: A. obliqua and A. fraterculus, aiming to identify fixed single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs and highly differentiated transcripts, which, considering that these species still experience some level of gene flow, could indicate potential candidate genes involved in their differentiation process. We generated multiple libraries from head tissues of these two species, at different reproductive stages, for both sexes. Our analyses indicate that the de novo transcriptome assemblies are fairly complete. We also produced a hybrid assembly to map each species’ reads, and identified 67,470 SNPs in A. fraterculus, 39,252 in A. obliqua, and 6386 that were common to both species. We identified 164 highly differentiated unigenes that had a mean interspecific index (D¯ of at least 0.94. We selected unigenes that had Ka/Ks higher than 0.5, or had at least three or more highly differentiated SNPs as potential candidate genes for species differentiation. Among these candidates, we identified proteases, regulators of redox homeostasis, and an odorant-binding protein (Obp99c, among other genes. The head transcriptomes described here enabled the identification of thousands of genes hitherto unavailable for these species, and generated a set of candidate genes that are potentially important to genetically identify species and understand the speciation process in the presence of gene flow of A. obliqua and A. fraterculus.

  5. Flutuação populacional de Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann, 1830 (Diptera, Tephritidae na Região Oeste de Santa Catarina, Brasil Population fluctuation of Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann, 1830 (Diptera, Tephritidae in the Western Region of Santa Catarina State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávio Roberto Mello Garcia

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Fruit flies are the major pests in fruit orchards and require a frequent insecticide aplication control, which increases production cost and chemical residues in fruits. Adults of Anastrepha fraterculus were sampled from twelve peach, plum, orange, tangerine and acid lime orchards in four counties in the Western Region of Santa Catarina. Modified McPhail plastic traps, baited with glucose 10%, were used to collect the flies from October 1998 to September 2000. Trap monitoring, bait replacement and fruit flies sorting by species and sex were done weekly. A total of 4,164 specimens of A. fraterculus was collected and highest population was registered in the county of Chapecó (64,8% of all sampled flies. Adults were collected all year long, with the highest population peaks occurring from December and January, although the fluctuation was different for each fruit species due to their particular phenology and in different years. Positive correlation among temperature, atmospheric humidity and population levels of adults of A. fraterculus was observed. According to the degree days obtained for each year, 4851.9, 4632.9 and 4983.7, respectively in 1998, 1999 and 2000, it was established that A. fraterculus could present an average of 11.2 generations a year.

  6. SUSCETIBILIDADE DE GENÓTIPOS DE MACIEIRA A Anastrepha fraterculus (DIPTERA: TEPHRITIDAE EM DIFERENTES CONDIÇÕES DE INFESTAÇÃO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JANAÍNA PEREIRA DOS SANTOS

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO O estudo objetivou registrar as injúrias de Anastrepha fraterculus (Diptera: Tephritidae, em dois estádios de desenvolvimento dos frutos das macieiras M-11/00 e ‘Catarina’, submetidos a três condições de infestação a campo, na safra de 2011/2012. O experimento foi conduzido em pomar mantido sob manejo orgânico, na Estação Experimental da Epagri de Caçador-SC. O número médio de moscas foi avaliado semanalmente, com quatro armadilhas do tipo McPhail. Frutos imaturos e maduros da seleção M-11/00 e da cultivar Catarina foram submetidos às condições de infestação artificial, controlada e natural. No início da frutificação, após o raleio, em cada genótipo, 500 frutos foram aleatoriamente ensacados com embalagens de tecido não texturizado (TNT. Os frutos submetidos à infestação artificial foram envoltos, individualmente, por uma gaiola contendo duas fêmeas acasaladas de A. fraterculus, que permaneceram por três dias para oviposição. Na infestação controlada, no mesmo dia da instalação das gaiolas, frutos protegidos tiveram as embalagens retiradas para que ficassem por três dias expostos. Frutos não ensacados foram utilizados para avaliar a infestação natural. Em cada estádio de desenvolvimento, foram registrados os valores dos atributos físico-químicos dos frutos. O número médio de A. fraterculus durante a safra foi de 3,08 moscas/armadilha/ semana. Na seleção M-11/00, em todas as condições de infestação, o número médio de larvas e pupários foi maior em frutos maduros. Na cv. Catarina, estes números não diferiram entre as condições de infestação nem entre os estádios de desenvolvimento. Pupários de A. fraterculus não foram observados em frutos de ‘Catarina’, e nesta cultivar constatou-se maior acidez e menor relação sólidos solúveis/acidez.

  7. Visibility and Persistence of Marker Dyes and Effect on the Quality and Mating Competitiveness of Mass-Reared Flies (Diptera: Tephritidae): Anastrepha obliqua and Bisexual and Genetic Sexing (Tapachula-7) Strains of A. ludens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arredondo, José; Ruiz, Lia; López, Gladis; Díaz-Fleischer, Francisco

    2017-08-01

    Fluorescent dyes are commonly used in the sterile insect technique (SIT) for marking insects for a proper identification after recapture. However, the quality of the mark must be balanced against insect performance, because dyes can negatively affect some parameters of insect performance and reduce their effectiveness in control with the SIT. We determined the visibility and persistence and the effect of dyes on the quality of Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart) and Anastrepha ludens (Loew) (bisexual and genetic sexing strains) by testing four concentrations of a dye (Day-Glo) from 0 to 2.5 g dye/kg of pupae. Visibility and persistence of the mark were positively affected by dose and negatively affected by the length of time the samples were kept in a solution of 75% alcohol. However, upon dissection, even the lowest dose of dye was visible under a fluorescence microscope. Between dyed and undyed pupae (control), no significant differences were observed in rates of emergence, fliers and flight ability, and survival in two tests, with water and without food and without water and food, at any of the concentrations tested. Furthermore, no significant difference in mating competitiveness was detected between control pupae and those dyed at 1.0 and 2.5 g dye/kg pupae. We discuss our results with the possibility of reducing the dose of dye in these three flies, because the heads are large enough to capture sufficient particles to permit identification with the current methods of detection. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Irradiation of Anastrepha suspensa (Diptera: Tephritidae): new irradiation facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smittle, B.J.

    1993-01-01

    An irradiation facility financed by a Cooperative Agreement with the U.S. Dept. of Energy, is near completion in Gainesville, FL. It utilizes a GE-CGR linear accelerator as the irradiation source in a two level design. The lower level has a one meter horn for 10 Me V electrons to irradiate shallow layers of commodities. The upper level has a 2.5 meter horn equipped to produce 5 Me V X-rays to irradiate loads up to pallet size. Automated conveyors transport materials to be irradiated. The facility is divided for irradiated and unirradiated commodities with freezer and refrigerated storage on both sides. The facility is designed for both research and demonstration purposes and has the capacity to irradiate over 10 million Caribbean fruit fly larvae or pupae per minute

  9. New protein sources in adults diet for mass-rearing of Anastrepha fraterculus (Diptera:Tephritidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Morelli

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to find alternatives to reduce the cost of mass production of the South American fruit fly (A. fraterculus by looking for locally available products as protein source in the diet of adults to replace the imported product without changing the quality parameters. Two yeast from a Brazilian company were evaluated. The quality parameters showed that the imported hydrolyzed yeast used in the adult diet could be perfectly replaced by the local products tested, with a reduction of over 80% of the cost of the diet. The quality of the produced insects remained the same and there were improvements in some quality parameters such as the volume of eggs produced, number of adults flying and longevity under the stress.

  10. Identification of male-borne attractants in Anastrepha fraterculus (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Milet-Pinheiro, P.; Navarro, D. M. A.; De Aquino, N. C.; Ferreira, L. L.; Tavares, R. F.; Correia da Silva, R. C.; Lima-Mendonca, A.; Vaníčková, Lucie; Mendonca, A. L.; do Nascimento, R. R.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 25, č. 3 (2015), s. 115-122 ISSN 0937-7409 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : South American fruit fly * sexual pheromone * male-borne attractants * GC-EAD * behavioral activity Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 1.863, year: 2015

  11. Pheromone analyses of the Anastrepha fraterculus (Diptera: Tephritidae) cryptic species complex

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Břízová, Radka; Mendonca, A. L.; Vaníčková, L.; Mendonca, Al. L.; Da Silva, C. E.; Tomčala, Aleš; Paranhos, B. A. J.; Dias, V. S.; Joachim-Bravo, I. S.; Hoskovec, Michal; Kalinová, Blanka; do Nascimento, R. R.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 96, č. 3 (2013), s. 1107-1115 ISSN 0015-4040 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : South American fruit fly * GCxGC/TOE-MS * principal component analysis (PCA) Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 1.056, year: 2013

  12. Response of Anastrepha suspensa to liquid protein baits and synthetic lure formulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Epsky, Nancy D.; Kendra, Paul E.; Heath, Robert R., E-mail: Nancy.Epsky@ars.usda.go, E-mail: Paul.Kendra@ars.usda.go, E-mail: Bob.Heath@ars.usda.go [U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA/ARS/SHRS), Miami, FL (United States). Agricultural Research Service. Subtropical Horticulture Research Station

    2006-07-01

    Traps baited with AAPt captured more A. suspensa than traps baited with ABPt even when the ammonia release rates were similar. Reducing dosage of ammonia by 50% of the commercially available AA lure slightly increased female capture, but reducing dosage to 25% tended to decrease female capture. The 5% CPH/3% borax bait captured the same number of flies as TYB, and was more effective than 10% CPH/3% borax. Further decreasing the amount of borax added to CPH may improve its effectiveness. As has been observed in field tests, fresh TYB captures more A. suspensa than fresh Nulure/borax but this difference decreases as the bait solutions age. EAG analysis indicates that volatiles from fresh Nulure/ borax elicit a higher antennal response than TYB, but this difference decreases as the TYB solution ages. Chemical analysis will be needed to determine the nature of reduced capture by fresh Nulure/borax and to identify additional attractive chemicals emitted by these protein baits. (author)

  13. Intraspecific variation of cuticular hydrocarbon profiles in the Anastrepha fraterculus (Diptera: Tephritidae) species complex

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vaníčková, Lucie; Břízová, Radka; Mendonca, A. L.; Pompeiano, A.; do Nascimento, R. R.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 139, č. 9 (2015), s. 679-689 ISSN 0931-2048 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : chemotaxonomy * GCxGC/TOFMS * multiple factorial analyses * putative species * South American fruit fly Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 1.517, year: 2015

  14. Solar sterilization of abscised fruit: a cultural practice to reduce infestations of Anastrepha obliqua around orchards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abscised mangoes, Mangifera indica L., of several varieties were stored under varying conditions of insolation, including no sun (stored in a laboratory), shade (stored under the shade of a mango tree), full sun (stored in direct view of the sun), and covered in a black plastic bag and stored in dir...

  15. Response of Anastrepha suspensa to liquid protein baits and synthetic lure formulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Epsky, Nancy D.; Kendra, Paul E.; Heath, Robert R.

    2006-01-01

    Traps baited with AAPt captured more A. suspensa than traps baited with ABPt even when the ammonia release rates were similar. Reducing dosage of ammonia by 50% of the commercially available AA lure slightly increased female capture, but reducing dosage to 25% tended to decrease female capture. The 5% CPH/3% borax bait captured the same number of flies as TYB, and was more effective than 10% CPH/3% borax. Further decreasing the amount of borax added to CPH may improve its effectiveness. As has been observed in field tests, fresh TYB captures more A. suspensa than fresh Nulure/borax but this difference decreases as the bait solutions age. EAG analysis indicates that volatiles from fresh Nulure/ borax elicit a higher antennal response than TYB, but this difference decreases as the TYB solution ages. Chemical analysis will be needed to determine the nature of reduced capture by fresh Nulure/borax and to identify additional attractive chemicals emitted by these protein baits. (author)

  16. Current knowledge of the species complex Anastrepha fraterculus (Diptera, Tephritidae) in Brazil

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vaníčková, Lucie; Hernández-Ortiz, V.; Bravo, I. S. J.; Dias, V.; Roriz, A. K. P.; Laumann, R. A.; Mendonca, A. L.; Paranhos, B. A. J.; do Nascimento, R. R.

    -, č. 540 (2015), s. 211-237 ISSN 1313-2989 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : South American fruit fly * cryptic species * taxonomy * sexual behavior * chemical communication Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.938, year: 2015 http://zookeys.pensoft.net/articles.php?id=6228

  17. Pheromone communication in Anastrepha obliqua (Diptera: Tephritidae): A comparison of the volatiles and salivary gland extracts of two wild populations

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Goncalves, G. B.; Silva, C. E.; Mendonca, A. D. L.; Vaníčková, Lucie; Tomčala, Aleš; do Nascimento, R. R.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 96, č. 4 (2013), s. 1365-1374 ISSN 0015-4040 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : salivary glands * volatile compounds * sex attractant * wild population * gas chromatography - mass spectrometry Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 1.056, year: 2013

  18. Characterisation of the chemical profiles of Brazilian and Andean morphotypes belonging to the Anastrepha fraterculus complex (Diptera, Tephritidae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vaníčková, Lucie; Břízová, Radka; Pompeiano, A.; Ferreira, L. L.; De Aquino, N. C.; Tavares, R. F.; Rodriguez, L. D.; Mendonca, A. L.; Canal, N. A.; do Nascimento, R. R.

    -, č. 540 (2015), s. 193-209 ISSN 1313-2989 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : cryptic species * chemotaxonomy * GCxGC/MS * PCA Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.938, year: 2015 http://zookeys.pensoft.net/articles.php?id=6224

  19. Capture of Anastrepha sororcula (Diptera: Tephritidae) in McPhail and Jackson traps with food attractant and virgin adults

    OpenAIRE

    Felix,Christiane dos Santos; Uchôa-Fernandes,Manoel Araécio; Faccenda,Odival

    2009-01-01

    This stady evaluated the capture of A. sororcula in the traps baited with the conspecific virgin adults and food attractant in two orchards. The first was the orchard of the Universidade Federal da Grande Dourados (OUFGD) and the second, the orchard of the Sindicato Rural de Dourados (OSRD). The capture of A. sororcula in McPhail and Jackson traps was carried out using the corn hydrolysed protein (CHP), control (no flies), virgin males (5, 10 and 15), five virgin females and five virgin coupl...

  20. Fitness cost implications of phiC31-mediated site-specific integrations in target-site strains of the Mexican fruit fly, Anastrepha ludens (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Site-specific recombination technologies are powerful new tools for the manipulation of genomic DNA in insects that can improve transgenesis strategies such as targeting transgene insertions, allowing transgene cassette exchange and DNA mobilization for transgene stabilization. However, understandin...

  1. Gamma radiation use as a quarantine treatment for Ceratitis capitata (Wied., 1824) and Anastrepha fraterculus (Wied., 1830) in papaya fruits (Carica papaya, Linnaeus), cultivar sunrise solo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faria, J.T. de.

    1989-01-01

    The gamma irradiation as treatment for control of the immature stages of fruit flies, C. capitata and A. fraterculus in papaya fruits, cultivar Sunrise Solo is studied. The gamma rays attenuation was observed by one and two papaya fruits placed between source and infested fruit, and this changed the radiation doses required to obtain mortality in eggs and larvae of the Medfly. The efficacy of irradiation was higher when the infested papayas were packed in paper box. The radiation dose determined using the Probit 9 concept, for immature stages mortality of C. capitata was 107,74 Gy and for A. fraterculus was 50,82 Gy. The sterilizing doses for adults of C. capitata and D. fraterculus, irradiated as pupae, was 60 Gy and 40 Gy, respectively. (author)

  2. Current initiatives in the mass production and field release of the Mexican fruit fly, Anastrepha ludens, in the lower Rio Grande valley of Texas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Worley, J.N.; Forrester, O.T.

    1999-01-01

    In order to reduce the program operating expenses in the South Texas Mexican Fruit Fly Sterile Release Program, four cost reduction initiatives are in progress at the U.S. Department of Agriculture's Mexican Fruit Fly Rearing Facility. These initiatives include implementation of a less expensive larval diet formulation, automation of the larval diet dispensing process, processing and reutilization of spent larval diet medium, and a more efficient system for emerging and feeding sterile flies prior to field release. (author)

  3. Biodemography of a long-lived tephritid: Reproduction and longevity in a large cohort of female Mexican fruit flies, Anastrepha ludens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, James R.; Liedoc, Pablo; Muüller, Hans-Georg; Wang, Jane-Ling; Senturke, Damla; Harshman, Lawrence

    2008-01-01

    Age of sexual maturity, daily and lifetime reproductive rates, and life span were recorded in a laboratory cohort of Mexican fruit flies consisting of over 1100 females maintained individually. The results revealed that, relative to the medfly, the Mexfly is slower maturing (14 vs 17 days), more fecund (1400 vs 650–1100 eggs/female), and longer lived (50 vs 35 days). The results reinforced the generality of several earlier findings on the medfly including the deceleration of mortality at older ages and the weakness of the correlation between the rate of egg laying at early ages and both subsequent reproduction and remaining longevity. Discussion includes perspectives on the role of artificial selection in shaping the demographic traits of the mass-reared strain of Mexfly used in this study, as well as the overall significance of large scale biodemographic studies in understanding aging and longevity. PMID:16154309

  4. Mass production in liquid diet and radiosterilization of South American fruit fly Anastrepha sp.1 aff. fraterculus (Wied., 1830) (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamiya, Aline Cristiane

    2010-01-01

    Both the biological control techniques as the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT), are used in many countries to control, suppress and even eradicate fruit flies and other pests in agriculture and public health. The use of such techniques minimizes the continuous employment of insecticides, protects the environment and conforms to standards for food safety. However, it is necessary to implement such programs, technology to produce millions of parasitoids and the pest in its own laboratory with biological quality similar to the insects found in nature and cost competitive with chemical control. The objectives of this study was to establish protocols for artificial rearing of A. sp. 1 aff. fraterculus in liquid larval diet that will achieve levels of mass production for a possible reduction in the cost of establishing and determining the dose of radiation sterilization of adult A. sp. 1 aff. fraterculus meeting the quality parameters required by the Sterile Insect Technique with insects from the creation of Radioentomology Laboratory of CENA/USP. Seven experimental diets compared to the conventional diet used in Radioentomology Lab. of CENA/USP, which was used as control. All seven diets have in common the exclusion of agar in its formulation. Only two of the diets tested were suitable for larval development of the fly, they compared with the standard diet, showed inferior results with respect to the volume of recovered larvae, pupae and weight of emergency, however, no significant differences regarding the periods of development , pupal recovery, sex ratio and longevity under stress. It is possible to replace the diet with agar for liquid diets for artificial creation of A. sp. 1 aff. fraterculus, reduced cost and greater convenience of handling, but due to their quality standards lower than the standard diet, more tests are needed especially regarding the adaptability of the insect to the new environment. To determine the sterilizing dose this study examined the fertility, fecundity, emergence, flight ability and longevity under stress in A. fraterculus irradiated with 40, 50, 60, 70 and 80 Gy. The radiation source was a gamma irradiator with a Co-60 (Gamma beam-650) located in the same laboratory. The tests were performed under the following environmental conditions: 26 +- 1 deg C, 70 +- 5% RH and photoperiod of 12:12. The dose of gamma radiation sterilization for male A. sp. 1 aff. fraterculus was determined with 70 Gy. Irradiates females, even with the lower dose of 40 Gy, laid no eggs, possibly due to atrophy of the ovaries caused by radiation. The radiation did not affect the other quality parameters such as insect emergence, longevity and ability to fly. (author)

  5. Mixture-Amount Design and Response Surface Modeling to Assess the Effects of Flavonoids and Phenolic Acids on Developmental Performance of Anastrepha ludens

    OpenAIRE

    Pascacio-Villafán, Carlos; Lapointe, Stephen; Williams, Trevor; Sivinski, John; Niedz, Randall; Aluja, Martín

    2014-01-01

    Host plant resistance to insect attack and expansion of insect pests to novel hosts may to be modulated by phenolic compounds in host plants. Many studies have evaluated the role of phenolics in host plant resistance and the effect of phenolics on herbivore performance, but few studies have tested the joint effect of several compounds. Here, we used mixture-amount experimental design and response surface modeling to study the effects of a variety of phenolic compounds on the development and s...

  6. Mass production in liquid diet and radiosterilization of South American fruit fly Anastrepha sp.1 aff. fraterculus (Wied., 1830) (Diptera: Tephritidae); Criacao massal em dieta liquida e radioesterilizacao da mosca-sulamericana Anastrepha sp.1 aff. fraterculus (Wied., 1830) (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamiya, Aline Cristiane

    2010-07-01

    Both the biological control techniques as the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT), are used in many countries to control, suppress and even eradicate fruit flies and other pests in agriculture and public health. The use of such techniques minimizes the continuous employment of insecticides, protects the environment and conforms to standards for food safety. However, it is necessary to implement such programs, technology to produce millions of parasitoids and the pest in its own laboratory with biological quality similar to the insects found in nature and cost competitive with chemical control. The objectives of this study was to establish protocols for artificial rearing of A. sp. 1 aff. fraterculus in liquid larval diet that will achieve levels of mass production for a possible reduction in the cost of establishing and determining the dose of radiation sterilization of adult A. sp. 1 aff. fraterculus meeting the quality parameters required by the Sterile Insect Technique with insects from the creation of Radioentomology Laboratory of CENA/USP. Seven experimental diets compared to the conventional diet used in Radioentomology Lab. of CENA/USP, which was used as control. All seven diets have in common the exclusion of agar in its formulation. Only two of the diets tested were suitable for larval development of the fly, they compared with the standard diet, showed inferior results with respect to the volume of recovered larvae, pupae and weight of emergency, however, no significant differences regarding the periods of development , pupal recovery, sex ratio and longevity under stress. It is possible to replace the diet with agar for liquid diets for artificial creation of A. sp. 1 aff. fraterculus, reduced cost and greater convenience of handling, but due to their quality standards lower than the standard diet, more tests are needed especially regarding the adaptability of the insect to the new environment. To determine the sterilizing dose this study examined the fertility, fecundity, emergence, flight ability and longevity under stress in A. fraterculus irradiated with 40, 50, 60, 70 and 80 Gy. The radiation source was a gamma irradiator with a Co-60 (Gamma beam-650) located in the same laboratory. The tests were performed under the following environmental conditions: 26 +- 1 deg C, 70 +- 5% RH and photoperiod of 12:12. The dose of gamma radiation sterilization for male A. sp. 1 aff. fraterculus was determined with 70 Gy. Irradiates females, even with the lower dose of 40 Gy, laid no eggs, possibly due to atrophy of the ovaries caused by radiation. The radiation did not affect the other quality parameters such as insect emergence, longevity and ability to fly. (author)

  7. Mass rearing methods for fruit fly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dominguez Gordillo, J.C.

    1999-01-01

    The most common rearing methods used for mass rearing of fruit flies, with emphasis on those of economic importance in Mexico such as Anastrepha ludens (the Mexican fruit fly). Anastrepha obliqua (the mango and plum fruit fly) and the exotic fruit fly Ceratitis capitata (the Mediterranean fruit fly) are described here. (author)

  8. First survey of fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae and parasitoid diversity among myrtaceae fruit across the state of Bahia, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidia Nogueira Silva

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the diversity of fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae species that use myrtaceous fruit, particularly guava, as hosts in several localities in the state of Bahia and to determine the infestation rates, pupal viability rates, and fruit fly-parasitoid associations. Sampling of myrtaceous fruit was carried out in 24 municipalities in different regions in the state of Bahia. Four fruit fly species, Anastrepha fraterculus, Anastrepha zenildae, Anastrepha sororcula, and Ceratitis capitata were obtained from the collected fruit. Three parasitoid species (Hymenoptera: Braconidae emerged from Anastrepha larvae/pupae, Doryctobracon areolatus, Utetes anastrephae, and Asobara anastrephae. Doryctobracon areolatus emerged from A. fraterculus, A. sororcula and A. zenildae; Utetes anastrephae emerged from A. fraterculus and A. zenildae; and Asobara anastrephae emerged from A. fraterculus. Fruit fly and myrtaceous fruit associations are reported for the first time in several municipalities in the state of Bahia. A. zenildae was found infesting Syzygium malaccense for the first time in Brazil.

  9. Intrinsic competition and competitor-free-space influence the coexistence of parasitoids (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Opiinae) of neotropical tephritidae (Diptera)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endoparasitoid larvae may eliminate heterospecific competitors by physical or physiological means. The outcomes of these intrinsic competitions are often predictable with one species typically eliminating the other. The opiine braconids Doryctobracon areolatus (Szepligeti) and Utetes anastrephae (Vi...

  10. Avaliação de atrativos alimentares utilizados no monitoramento de mosca-das-frutas em pessegueiro na lapa- PR Food attractants used in the monitoring of fruit flies in peach trees in lapa, Paraná (PR, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lino Bittencourt Monteiro

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available As moscas-das-frutas do gênero Anastrepha são uma praga-chave na cultura do pessegueiro no Paraná. Atrativos alimentares foram testados para determinar a sua eficiência no monitoramento de moscas-das-frutas capturadas em frascos caça-moscas McPhail. O experimento foi conduzido por três anos, sendo que, em 2002, foram testados como atrativo o suco de uva da marca Maguari®, o hidrolisado enzimático de proteína da marca BioAnastrepha® e o vinagre da marca Chemin Agrin®. Nos dois anos seguintes, o vinagre foi substituído pelo composto protéico hidrolisável da marca Torula®. As substâncias atrativas à base de proteína foram as mais eficientes na captura de Anastrepha spp., e as capturas ocorreram antecipadas em relação ao suco de uva. De acordo com os resultados, recomendam-se atrativos à base de proteína para monitoramento de Anastrepha spp em pessegueiro, na Lapa.Fruit flies of Anastrepha genus are a key pest in peach trees in Paraná. Food attractants were tested to determine their efficiency in monitoring fruit flies captured in McPhail fly traps. The experiment was conducted over a period of three years. In 2002 the following attractors were tested: Maguari® brand grape juice, BioAnastrepha® brand hydrolyzed enzymatic protein and Chemin Agrin® vinegar. Over the next two years, the vinegar was replaced by Torula® hydrolyzed protein compound. Protein-based attractants were the most efficient in trapping Anastrepha spp. and captured flies earlier comparing to grape juice. According to the results, the use of protein-based attractants for monitoring Anastrepha spp in the Lapa peach trees was recommended.

  11. Larval endoparasitoids (Hymenoptera of frugivorous flies (Diptera, Tephritoidea reared from fruits of the cerrado of the State of Mato Grosso do Sul , Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoel A. Uchôa-Fernandes

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a five years survey of endoparasitoids obtained from the larvae of frugivorous Tephritidae and Lonchaeidae flies. The insects were reared from cultivated and wild fruits collected in areas of the cerrado in the State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. The flies obtained from 14 host fruit species were eight Anastrepha species, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann, 1824 (Tephritidae; Dasiops sp. and Neosilba spp. (Lonchaeidae. Eleven parasitoid species were collected: Braconidae - Asobara anastrephae (Muesebek, 1958, Doryctobracon areolatus (Szépligeti, 1911, D. fluminensis (Costa Lima, 1938, Opius bellus Gahan, 1930 and Utetes anastrephae (Viereck, 1913; Figitidae - Aganaspis nordlanderi Wharton, 1998, Lopheucoila anastrephae (Rhower, 1919, Odontosema anastrephae (Borgmeier, 1935 and Trybliographa infuscata Gallardo, Díaz & Uchôa-Fernandes, 2000 and, Pteromalidae - Spalangia gemina Boucek, 1963 and S. endius Walker, 1839. In all cases only one parasitoid emerged per puparium. D. areolatus was the most abundant and frequent parasitoid of fruit fly species, as was L. anastrephae in Neosilba spp. larvae. This is the first record of A. nordlanderi in the midwestern Brazilian region.

  12. MOSCAS-DAS-FRUTAS (DIPTERA: TEPHRITIDAE EM POMARES DA ÁREA URBANA NO NORTE DE MINAS GERAIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CLARICE DINIZ ALVARENGA

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim this work was know the species of fruit fly and host plants in orchards in the urban area in the north of Minas Gerais. Were selected 10 orchards with wide variety of fruit species, which were distributed in equidistant way in the urban area of Janaúba, MG. Weekly, were collected systematically fruit flies through trap type McPhail and ripe fruit and in ripening one, on those orchards. Were collected 7.016 tephritid obtained from trap (5.226 and fruit (1.790, from which 1.044 belonged to genus Anastrepha and 5.972 were Ceratitis capitata. The specimens number of C. capitata (85.1% was around six times superior to Anastrepha spp. (14.9%, demonstrating the preference of this species for urban orchards. Eight species of Anastrepha occur in urban orchards of Janaúba, MG. Ceratitis capitata was found infesting 10 species of host fruits, being the main S. purpurea and guava. In fruits were collected three species of Anastrepha (A. obliqua, A. sororcula and A. zenildae which were associated with five species of fruit (Malpighia glabra L, Psidium guayava L, S. dulcis, S. purpurea and S. tuberosa. The predominant species of Anastrepha was A. obliqua, and S. tuberosa and S. purpurea being the main hosts of this species in the urban area of Janaúba, MG.

  13. Understanding long-term fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) population dynamics: implications for areawide management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aluja, Martín; Ordano, Mariano; Guillén, Larissa; Rull, Juan

    2012-06-01

    Fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) are devastating agricultural pests worldwide but studies on their long-term population dynamics are sparse. Our aim was to determine the mechanisms driving long-term population dynamics as a prerequisite for ecologically based areawide pest management. The population density of three pestiferous Anastrepha species [Anastrepha ludens (Loew), Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart), and Anastrepha serpentina (Wiedemann)] was determined in grapefruit (Citrus x paradisi Macfad.), mango (Mangifera indica L.), and sapodilla [Manilkara zapota (L.) P. Royen] orchards in central Veracruz, México, on a weekly basis over an 11-yr period. Fly populations exhibited relatively stable dynamics over time. Population dynamics were mainly driven by a direct density-dependent effect and a seasonal feedback process. We discovered direct and delayed influences that were correlated with both local (rainfall and air temperature) and global climatic variation (El Niño Southern Oscillation [ENSO] and North Atlantic Oscillation [NAO]), and detected differences among species and location of orchards with respect to the magnitude and nature (linear or nonlinear) of the observed effects, suggesting that highly mobile pest outbreaks become uncertain in response to significant climatic events at both global and local levels. That both NAO and ENSO affected Anastrepha population dynamics, coupled with the high mobility of Anastrepha adults and the discovery that when measured as rate of population change, local population fluctuations exhibited stable dynamics over time, suggests potential management scenarios for the species studied lie beyond the local scale and should be approached from an areawide perspective. Localized efforts, from individual growers will probably prove ineffective, and nonsustainable.

  14. ANÁLISE FAUNÍSTICA DE ESPÉCIES DE MOSCA-DAS-FRUTAS (DIP., TEPHRITIDAE EM MINAS GERAIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.A. CANAL

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Em seis locais de quatro municípios (Janaúba, Jaíba, Nova Porteirinha e Itacarambí do norte do Estado de Minas Gerais, foram coletados 29.454 espécimes de mosca-das-frutas, pertencentes a Ceratitis capitata e a 20 espécies de Anastrepha. O levantamento foi feito entre janeiro de 94 e dezembro de 96, utilizando armadilhas plásticas tipo McPhail. Ceratitis capitata foi a espécie predominante em áreas urbanas. As espécies de Anastrepha predominaram em áreas rurais. A. obliqua, A. zenildae e Anastrepha n. sp.3 foram as espécies predominantes do gênero, entretanto, essa predominância variou de local para local em função da disponibilidade de hospedeiros. As comunidades apresentaram índices de diversidade baixos e quocientes de similaridade entre 73 e 100%.A total of 29,454 specimens of fruit fly were trapped in six sites of four counties (Janaúba, Jaíba, Nova Porteirinha and Itacarambí of the north of the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. The specimens were collected using McPhail plastic traps from January 1994 to December 1996. The trapped fruit flies belonged to Ceratitis capitata and to 20 species of Anastrepha. Ceratitis capitata was the predominant species in the urban areas and Anastrepha species were predominant in the field areas. A. obliqua, A. zenildae and Anastrepha n. sp.3 were the predominant species of the genera, whereas the predominant species differed among localities, according to host availability. The diversity indexes were low and the coefficient of similarity varied from 73 to 100%.

  15. Avaliação de atrativos alimentares utilizados no monitoramento de mosca-das-frutas em pessegueiro na lapa- PR Food attractants used in the monitoring of fruit flies in peach trees in lapa, Paraná (PR), Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Lino Bittencourt Monteiro; Louise Larissa May De Mio; Antônio Carlos Vargas Motta; Beatriz Monte Serrat; Francine Lorena Cuquel

    2007-01-01

    As moscas-das-frutas do gênero Anastrepha são uma praga-chave na cultura do pessegueiro no Paraná. Atrativos alimentares foram testados para determinar a sua eficiência no monitoramento de moscas-das-frutas capturadas em frascos caça-moscas McPhail. O experimento foi conduzido por três anos, sendo que, em 2002, foram testados como atrativo o suco de uva da marca Maguari®, o hidrolisado enzimático de proteína da marca BioAnastrepha® e o vinagre da marca Chemin Agrin®. Nos dois anos seguintes, ...

  16. Avaliação de atrativos alimentares utilizados no monitoramento de mosca-das-frutas em pessegueiro na lapa- PR

    OpenAIRE

    Monteiro,Lino Bittencourt; May De Mio,Louise Larissa; Motta,Antônio Carlos Vargas; Serrat,Beatriz Monte; Cuquel,Francine Lorena

    2007-01-01

    As moscas-das-frutas do gênero Anastrepha são uma praga-chave na cultura do pessegueiro no Paraná. Atrativos alimentares foram testados para determinar a sua eficiência no monitoramento de moscas-das-frutas capturadas em frascos caça-moscas McPhail. O experimento foi conduzido por três anos, sendo que, em 2002, foram testados como atrativo o suco de uva da marca Maguari®, o hidrolisado enzimático de proteína da marca BioAnastrepha® e o vinagre da marca Chemin Agrin®. Nos dois anos seguintes, ...

  17. New records of fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae), wild hosts and parasitoids (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) in the Brazilian Amazon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jesus, Cristiane R. de; Oliveira, Manoela N. de; Silva, Ricardo A. da [EMBRAPA Amapa, Macapa, AP (Brazil); Pereira, Julia D.B. [Universidade Federal do Amapa, Macapa, AP (Brazil); Souza Filho, Miguel F. [Instituto Biologico, Campinas, SP (Brazil); Costa Neto, Salustiano V. da [Instituto de Pesquisas Cientificas e Tecnologicas do Amapa, Macapa, AP (Brazil); Marinho, Claudia F.; Zucchi, Roberto A. [Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz (ESALQ/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Entomologia, Fitopatologia e Zoologia Agricola

    2008-11-15

    Anastrepha anomala Stone was obtained from Parahancornia amapa (Huber) Ducke (Apocynaceae) fruits, and Anastrepha hastata Stone from Cheiloclinium cognatum (Miers.) (Hippocrateaceae) in the State of Amapa, Brazil. Two braconids, Doryctobracon sp. and Opius bellus Gahan, were reared from the latter fruit fl y species. This is the fi rst record of P. amapa as a fruit fl y host. C. cognatum is the fi rst host known to A. hastata. Both braconids are also the fi rst records of parasitoids for this species. (author)

  18. Moscas-das-frutas (Diptera: Tephritidae em um pomar de goiabeira, no semiárido brasileiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elton Lucio Araujo

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available As moscas-das-frutas (Diptera: Tephritidae são pragas-chave na cultura da goiabeira Psidium guajava L., com predominância de diferentes espécies de acordo com a região produtora no Brasil. Os objetivos do presente trabalho foram conhecer a diversidade e analisar parâmetros faunísticos das moscas-das-frutas obtidas em um pomar de goiabeira, no município de Cruzeta, Rio Grande do Norte, situado no semiárido brasileiro. As moscas-das-frutas foram coletadas semanalmente, com auxílio de armadilhas McPhail, tendo como atrativo proteína hidrolisada a 5% v/v. Foram registradas cinco espécies no pomar estudado: Ceratitis capitata (Wied., Anastrepha zenildae Zucchi, Anastrepha sororcula Zucchi, Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart e Anastrepha dissimilis Stone. Ceratitis capitata foi a espécie mais frequente, constante e dominante, considerada como uma praga invasiva, potencial em pomares de goiabeira no semiárido brasileiro.

  19. Ionizing radiation as a phytosanitary treatment against fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae): Efficacy in naturally versus artificially infested fruit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Some phytosanitary irradiation treatments against tephritid fruit flies have been developed using artificial infestation of fruit without first comparing its effect on efficacy. In this study, efficacy was compared using infestation of grapefruit with Mexican fruit fly, Anastrepha ludens (Loew), vi...

  20. Establishment of the west indian fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) parasitoid Doryctobracon areolatus (Hymenoptera: Braconidae)in the Dominican Republic

    Science.gov (United States)

    The West Indian fruit fly, Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart), infests numerous fruit species, particularly Anacardiaceae and most importantly mango (Mangifera indica L.). Widespread in the Neotropics, it was first reported in Hispaniola nearly 70 years ago. Continental populations are attacked by the op...

  1. Evaluating mating compatibility within fruit fly cryptic species complexes and the potential role of sex pheromones in pre-mating isolation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Juárez, M. L.; Devescovi, F.; Břízová, Radka; Bachmann, G.; Segura, D. F.; Kalinová, Blanka; Fernández, P.; Ruiz, M. J.; Yang, J.; Teal, P. E. A.; Cáceres, C.; Vreysen, M. J. B.; Hendrichs, J.; Vera, M. T.

    -, č. 540 (2015), s. 125-155 ISSN 1313-2989 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 7AMB13AR018 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : species delimitation * field cages * Tephritidae * Anastrepha fraterculus * Bactrocera dorsalis Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.938, year: 2015 http://zookeys.pensoft.net/articles.php?id=6133

  2. DEZ ANOS DE PESQUISAS SOBRE MOSCAS-DAS-FRUTAS (DIPTERA: TEPHRITIDAE NO ESTADO DO AMAPÁ: AVANÇOS OBTIDOS E DESAFIOS FUTUROS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezequiel da Glória de Deus

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available As moscas-das-frutas (Diptera: Tephritidae estão entre as principais pragas da agricultura mundial, sendo motivo de preocupação especialmente para países tropicais em desenvolvimento, os quais têm na fruticultura um importante componente de sua balança comercial. Esta revisão tem por objetivo compilar informações geradas nos últimos 10 anos sobre moscas-das-frutasno estado do Amapá, com ênfase em distribuição, hospedeiros e parasitoides. Além disso, visa indicar as prioridades de pesquisa para os próximos anos.No estado do Amapá, os estudos com moscas-das-frutas e seus inimigos naturais apresentaram, nos últimos anos, significativo crescimento. Atualmente, além Bactrocera carambolae, estão assinaladas para o Estado 34 espécies de Anastrepha. Anastrepha distincta, Anastrepha coronilli, Anastrepha fraterculus e Anastrepha striata são as espécies mais amplamente distribuídas. Estão assinaladas para o estado 37 espécies vegetais hospedeiras (pertencentes a 19 famílias botânicas de moscas-das-frutas. Anastrepha striata é espécie mais polífaga, estando associada a 25 hospedeiros. Nove espécies de parasitoides específicos de moscas-das-frutas estão registrados, sendo Doryctobracon areolatuso mais abundante. Apesar do significativo avanço, novos estudos sobre biologia, genética, ecologia, distribuição e dispersão populacional, bem como fatores reguladores dos níveis populacionais são necessários, com vista a desenvolver estratégias de controle menos onerosas com efeitos não nocivos ao ambiente. Palavras-chave: Anastrepha, Bactrocera carambolae, parasitoides, Amazônia. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18561/2179-5746/biotaamazonia.v3n3p157-168

  3. Eficácia de atrativos alimentares na captura de moscas-das-frutas em pomar de citros Attractiveness of food baits to the fruit flies in citrus orchard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adalton Raga

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available As moscas-das-frutas (Diptera: Tephritoidea são importantes pragas de frutas cítricas no Estado de São Paulo, principalmente Anastrepha fraterculus (Wied. e Ceratitis capitata (Wied.. O objetivo deste estudo foi medir a eficiência dos atrativos alimentares para monitoramento de moscas-das-frutas, em pomar de citros. O delineamento experimental adotado foi de blocos ao acaso com cinco tratamentos e cinco repetições. O ensaio foi instalado em 30/9/2003 e desenvolvidopor nove semanas. Os atrativos testados foram: proteínas hidrolisadas comerciais Bio Anastrepha, Isca Mosca e Aumax®, todas diluídas em água a 5%; melaço a 7% isoladamente e melaço a 7% em mistura com suco de laranja a 10%. Foram utilizados semanalmente, 400mL da solução atrativa por frasco plástico McPhail instalado na copa de laranjeiras da variedade 'Pêra Rio'. As soluções eram renovadas semanalmente, ocasião em que os adultos eram coletados e çevados ao laboratório para contagem, sexagem e identificação. Foram capturados 1.821 adultos de Tephritoidea, sendo 892 de Anastrepha spp., 731 de C. capitata e 198 de Neosilba spp. Para essas espécies, as proteínas Bio Anastrepha e Isca Mosca foram altamente eficientes e semelhantes entre si, capturando 44,5% e 41,3% dos adultos de Tephritidae respectivamente. Não houve diferença entre as espécies de Tephritidae analisadas por sexo capturadas em Bio Anastrepha, Aumax® e melaço. Aumax®, melaço isoladamente e melaço + suco de laranja atraíram apenas 4,6%, 1,3% e 1,2% do total de adultos de Tephritidae, respectivamente. Melaço isoladamente e melaço com suco de laranja foram mais eficazes na atratividade de Zaprionus indianus (Gupta (Diptera: Drosophilidae.Fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritoidea are key pests in citrus production in the State of São Paulo, Brazil, mainly Anastrepha fraterculus (Wied. and Ceratitis capitata (Wied.. The objective of this study was to evaluate food baits to monitor fruit fly

  4. Diversity and seasonality of fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae and Lonchaeidae) and their parasitoids (Hymenoptera: Braconidae and Figitidae) in orchards of guava, loquat and peach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza-Filho, M.F.; Raga, A. [Instituto Biologico, Campinas, SP (Brazil)], e-mail: miguelf@biologico.sp.gov.br; Azevedo-Filho, J.A. [Agencia Paulista de Tecnologia dos Agronegocios (APTA), Monte Alegre do Sul, SP (Brazil). Polo Regional do Leste Paulista; Strikis, P.C. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Biologia. Dept. de Parasitologia; Guimaraes, J.A. [EMBRAPA Agroindustria Tropical, Fortaleza, CE (Brazil); Zucchi, R.A. [Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz (ESALQ/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Entomologia, Fitopatologia e Zoologia Agricola

    2009-02-15

    This work was carried out in orchards of guava progenies, and loquat and peach cultivars, in Monte Alegre do Sul, SP, Brazil, in 2002 and 2003. Guavas and loquats were bagged and unbagged bi-weekly and weekly, respectively, for assessment of the infestation period. Peach was only bagged weekly. The assays started when the fruits were at the beginning of development, but still green. Ripe fruits were taken to the laboratory and placed individually into plastic cups. McPhail plastic traps containing torula yeast were hung from January 2002 to January 2004 to assess the fruit fly population in each orchard, but only the Ceratitis capitata population is here discussed. Five tephritid species were reared from the fruits: Anastrepha bistrigata Bezzi, A. fraterculus (Wiedemann), A. obliqua (Macquart), A. sororcula Zucchi, and C. capitata, in addition to six lonchaeid species: Neosilba certa (Walker), N. glaberrima (Wiedemann), N. pendula (Bezzi), N. zadolicha McAlpine and Steyskal, Neosilba sp. 4, and Neosilba sp. 10 (both species are in the process of being described by P. C. Strikis), as well as some unidentified Neosilba species. Ten parasitoid species were obtained from fruit fly puparia, of which five were braconids: Asobara anastrephae (Muesebeck), Doryctobracon areolatus (Szepligeti), D. brasiliensis (Szepligeti), Opius bellus Gahan, and Utetes anastrephae (Viereck), and five figitids: Aganaspis pelleranoi (Brethes), Dicerataspis grenadensis Ashmead, Lopheucoila anastrephae (Rhower), Leptopilina boulardi (Barbotin, Carlton and Kelner-Pillaut), and Trybliographa infuscata Diaz, Gallardo and Uchoa. Ceratitis capitata showed a seasonal behavior with population density peaking at the second semester of each year. Anastrepha and Neosilba species remained in the orchards throughout both years. (author)

  5. Parasitóides associados às moscas-das-frutas (Diptera: Tephritoidea em café orgânico com e sem arborização em Valença, RJ, Brasil Parasitoids associated with fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritoidea in organic coffee plantation under shaded and unshaded management in Valença, RJ, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elen de Lima Aguiar-Menezes

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se, com esse trabalho, determinar as espécies de parasitóides associados às moscas-das-frutas infestando seis cultivares de café arábica (Coffea arabica L., em sistema de cultivo com e sem arborização, sob manejo orgânico. Uma amostra de 1 kg de frutos maduros por cultivar foi colhida em maio de 2005. Os frutos foram depositados em bandejas plásticas, contendo uma camada de areia, a qual serviu como substrato para a fase de pupa. Os pupários foram quantificados e mantidos em copos plásticos transparentes com areia até a emergência dos insetos. Sete espécies de parasitóides da ordem Hymenoptera foram identificadas, das quais cinco da família Braconidae: Asobara anastrephae (Muesebeck, Doryctobracon areolatus (Szépligeti, Utetes anastrephae (Viereck, Opius bellus Gahan e Opius sp., e duas da Figitidae: Aganaspis pelleranoi (Brèthes e Lopheucoila anastrephae Weld. Larvas de Tephritidae e Lonchaeidae infestando frutos dos seis cultivares foram parasitadas por Braconidae e Figitidae, com média de 14,2% e 7,7% nos sistemas sem e com arborização, respectivamente.The aim of this work was to determine the parasitoid species associated with fruit flies infesting six cultivars of arabic coffee under shaded and unshaded organic management. A 1kg-sample of maturing fruits per cultivar was harvested in May 2005. The fruits were placed in plastic trays containing a layer of thin sand, as a substrate for pupa phase. The puparia were quantified and kept in transparent plastic cups with sand until the emergence of the insects. Seven parasitoid species of the order Hymenoptera were identified, from which five belong to the family Braconidae: Asobara anastrephae (Muesebeck, Doryctobracon areolatus (Szépligeti, Utetes anastrephae (Viereck, Opius bellus Gahan and Opius sp., and two of the Figitidae: Aganaspis pelleranoi (Brèthes and Lopheucoila anastrephae Weld. Larvae of Tephritidae and Lonchaeidae infesting fruits of the six

  6. Occurrence and managing of fruit flies in Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vazquez, Luis L.; Perez, Isabel; Navarro, Aurelio; Casin, Juan C.

    2000-01-01

    Fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) are considered to be pests of potential importance because they damage fruits or limit their commercialisation. They therefore constitute one of the principal problems for the fruit industry world-wide. Of particular interest are the species of the genus Anastrepha Schiner widely distributed in the neotropical region where, according to Norrbom and Chung (1988), more than 180 species are known. In Cuba, five members of this genus are reported in addition to Toxotrypana curvicauda Gerstaeker and up to now, no other species are known (Alayo and Garcia, 1983). Although Ceratitis capitata Wiedeman or pest fruit flies from the genus Anastrepha and Bactrocera do not exist in the country, a defence programme has been operating for many years which includes among other measures, fruit sampling and trapping. The present work was undertaken in order to study the status of these insects in Cuba

  7. ESPÉCIES E FLUTUAÇÃO POPULACIONAL DE MOSCAS-DAS-FRUTAS EM UM POMAR COMERCIAL DE MANGUEIRA, NO LITORAL DO ESTADO DO CEARÁ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Jonathan Dantas de Oliveira

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to know the species and the population fluctuation of fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae in a commercial mango (Mangifera indica L. orchard in the coast of Ceará State. The study was developed from July of 2005 to July of 2007, in the municipality of Beberibe (CE. The capture of the fruit flies was performed using McPhail traps with 5% corn protein hydrolyzed solution as attractant. Weekly, the captured insects were sorted, the fruit flies were maintained in 70% alcohol solution and subsequently identified. The population fluctuation was estimated using the FTD (Fly/Trap/Day index. During the research, six fruit flies species were captured: Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart (63%, A. zenildae Zucchi (7%, A. sororcula Zucchi (5%, A. fraterculus (Wied. (2%, A. distincta Greene (2% and Ceratitis capitata (Wied. (21%. The Anastrepha spp. and C. capitata population peaked was between April and July, in both years of study.

  8. Review of existing species of fruit flies in Ecuador

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tigrero, Juan

    1998-01-01

    This study was carried out since 1990 to 1997. The goal was to figure out different species of fruit fly that inhabit in Ecuador. For the identification we put special emphasis in the female genitalia. We recommend to do more research into this subject, because of the few studies done in our country and the importance of fruit cultivation. We mention 32 genus in the family Tephritidae in Ecuador, including the introduced genus Ceratitis. Into Toxotrypaninae are pointing out the presence of one specie of the Toxotrypana genus and 31 species of the Anastrepha genus, detailing brilly the 27 species most common. General notions about taxonomic bases are mentioned in order to identify species of the Anastrepha Schiner, pointing out certain fenotipic characteristics that prove variability among the ecuadorian's population, mainly A. fraterculus, A. distincta, A. obliqua, A. striata, and others. (The author)

  9. Mating disruption with low density diffusers for the management of oriental fruit moths (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in apple orchards under subtropical climate in southern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Monteiro, Lino Bittencourt; Souza, Alexander; Argenton, Jeferson

    2013-01-01

    The oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta Busck, and fruit flies, Anastrepha fraterculus L., are the important apple pests under Subtropical climate in Southern Brazil, and control is normally accomplished with insecticides. An alternative strategy for the control of G. molesta is mating disruption, through the use of pheromones. Mating disruption strategies using a low density of dispensers (20) per hectare were tested in comparison with conventional pesticides for control of G. molesta in...

  10. Parasitismo natural em moscas-das-frutas (Diptera: Tephritidae no semiárido do sudoeste da Bahia, Brasil Natural parasitism in fruit-flies in the fruticulture area of anagé, semi-arid of southwestern Bahia, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Falcão de Sá

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Parasitoides são importantes agentes de controle natural de tefritídeos, e os conhecimentos sobre as relações tritróficas podem subsidiar o manejo destas pragas. Este trabalho objetivou estimar índices de parasitismo em moscas-das-frutas, em 21 espécies vegetais, e identificar as espécies de parasitoides associados, nas condições do semiárido do sudoeste da Bahia. Oito hospedeiros apresentaram infestação por Anastrepha spp. e, destes, em quatro, ocorreu parasitismo superior a 20,0%, sendo: 20,8% (Ziziphus joazeiro L.; 21,3% (Spondias tuberosa L.; 32,4% (Spondias purpurea L. e 57,1% (Malpighia emarginata L.. Os parasitoides coletados pertencem à família Braconidae, sendo 89% de Doryctobracon areolatus e 11% de Asobara anastrephae.Parasitoids are important natural control agents of tephritids and knowledge about the tritrophic relationships can support the management of these pests. This study aimed to estimate of parasitism indexes in fruit flies in 21 plant species and identify the species of parasitoids associated, in semiarid conditions of Southwestern Bahia. Eight hosts showed infestation by Anastrepha spp. and, of these, four occurred parasitism above 20.0%, of which: 20.8% (Ziziphus joazeiro L.; 21.3% (Spondias tuberosa L.; 32.4% (Spondias purpurea L. and 57.1% (Malpighia emarginata L.. The collected parasitoids belong to the Braconidae family, 89% of Doryctobracon areolatus and 11% of Asobara anastrephae.

  11. FRUIT FLIES AND THEIR PARASITOIDS IN THE FRUIT GROWING REGION OF LIVRAMENTO DE NOSSA SENHORA, BAHIA, WITH RECORDS OF UNPRECEDENTED INTERACTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SUZANY AGUIAR LEITE

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Several fruit fly species (Diptera: Tephritidae and Lonchaeidae assume the status of primary pests in fruit trees grown in Brazil, causing direct production losses. The aims of the study were to know aspects of diversity of fruit flies and their parasitoids in the fruit growing region of Livramento de Nossa Senhora, Bahia. Fruit samples were collected from 19 plant species during November/2011 and June/2014. Infestation rates were calculated in pupae.kg-1 of fruit and pupae.fruit-1. The results indicate the occurrence of Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann and Neosilba pendula (Bezzi. Plant species Anacardium occidentale, Averrhoa carambola, Carica papaya, Eugenia uniflora, Malpighia emarginata, Mangifera indica var. “Haden”, “Rosa” and “Tommy Atkins”, Opuntia ficus indica, Pereskia bahiensis, Psidium guajava, Spondias lutea, Spondias purpurea and Spondias tuberosa are hosts of fruit flies in the region. Unprecedented bitrophic relationships between P. bahiensis and C. capitata and Anastrepha sp. and between Opuntia ficus indica and C. capitata and A. obliqua were recorded. Unprecedented tritrophic relationship for the state of Bahia Averrhoa carambola and C. capitata and parasitoid of the Pteromalidae Family were also recorded. Tritrophic associations between M. indica var. “Tommy Atkins” and S. purpurea and A. obliqua and Doryctobracon areolatus; and between S. purpurea and A. obliqua and Utetes anastrephae were observed.

  12. Disinfestation of mangoes by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bustos R, M.E.

    1992-05-01

    The mango is a fruit-bearing very important in the mexican economy. Mexico is between the first positions of the world like country producing with an average export volume of 40,000 annual tons in the last years. For this reason it was decided to make this investigation, which was developed according to the investigation protocols proposed by the Agricultural Research Service of the USA (ARS - US DOA). The objective is to account with the technical and scientific necessary bases to propose to the US DOA the regulation of the irradiation process like quarantine treatment for Mexican export mango. The goals are: to determine in the laboratory the minimum dose (Dmin.) to inhibit the emergency of adults of the species of the fruit flies of more importance for Mexico. To confirm the least radiation dose Dmin. for quarantine treatment based on the safety value Probit-9. To evaluate the mango quality irradiated to 2 and 2.5 times the Dmin. proposal for quarantine treatment. According to information provided by the General Direction of Vegetable Sanity, it was determined that the fly species of the fruit of more economic importance for Mexico are of the genus Anastrepha ludens, Anastrepha serpentina, Anastrepha obliqua and Ceratitis capitata. (Author)

  13. Disinfestation of mangoes by irradiation; Desinfestacion de mango por irradiacion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bustos R, M.E

    1992-05-15

    The mango is a fruit-bearing very important in the mexican economy. Mexico is between the first positions of the world like country producing with an average export volume of 40,000 annual tons in the last years. For this reason it was decided to make this investigation, which was developed according to the investigation protocols proposed by the Agricultural Research Service of the USA (ARS - US DOA). The objective is to account with the technical and scientific necessary bases to propose to the US DOA the regulation of the irradiation process like quarantine treatment for Mexican export mango. The goals are: to determine in the laboratory the minimum dose (Dmin.) to inhibit the emergency of adults of the species of the fruit flies of more importance for Mexico. To confirm the least radiation dose Dmin. for quarantine treatment based on the safety value Probit-9. To evaluate the mango quality irradiated to 2 and 2.5 times the Dmin. proposal for quarantine treatment. According to information provided by the General Direction of Vegetable Sanity, it was determined that the fly species of the fruit of more economic importance for Mexico are of the genus Anastrepha ludens, Anastrepha serpentina, Anastrepha obliqua and Ceratitis capitata. (Author)

  14. Ocorrência de moscas-das-frutas (Diptera: Tephritidae em mangueiras (Mangifera indica L. em Boa Vista, Roraima = The occurrence of fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae in mango (Mangifera indica L. in Boa Vista, Roraima

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Bezerra Lima

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Um estudo foi conduzido no período de junho de 2007 a janeiro de 2008, em pomares comerciais de manga das variedades: Tommy Atkins, Haden e Palmer sendo 3 ha de cada cultivar, localizado na região do Bom Intento no Município de Boa Vista. Os espécimes de moscas-das-frutas foram coletados, por meio de armadilhas, confeccionadas com garrafas pet, que foram penduradas na copa das árvores a 1,60 m de altura. Como atrativo alimentar foi utilizado 200 mL de suco de maracujá a 30%. Foram utilizadas nove armadilhas, sendo uma armadilha por hectare. Semanalmente as armadilhas eram examinadas, ocasião em que se substituía o atrativo e os insetos capturados retirados e colocados em frascos de vidro devidamente etiquetados e transportados ao Laboratório de Entomologia do Centro de Ciências Agrárias da Universidade Federal de Roraima. As identificações dos espécimes foram feitas no Instituto Nacional de Pesquisa da Amazônia - INPA. No período de oito meses foram coletados 24 espécimes adultos do gênero Anastrepha (nove fêmeas e 15 machos. Quatro espécies foram identificadas: A. serpentina, A. striata, A. obliqua e A. turpinae. A maior frequência foi A. serpentina (44,44%, seguida de A. striata e A. obliqua ambas com 22,22% e A. turpinae com 11,11%. Os meses de maior ocorrência de Anastrepha spp. foram junho, julho e agosto. Este é o primeiro registro da espécie Anastrepha turpinae Stone, 1942, em Roraima. The study was done during th period of June 2007 to January of 2008, in commercial mango orchards having: 3 ha of cv. Tommy Atkins, 3 ha of cv. Haden. and 3 ha of cv. Palmer, located at Bom Intento in the municipal district of Boa Vista - RR. The specimens of fruit flies were collected, by trapping, made with transparent bottles pet, which were hung in the cup of the trees at 1.60 m of height. 200 mL of passion fruit juice (30% was used as an attractant feed; 9 traps were used, being one trap for hectare. Weekly The traps were

  15. Advances and perspectives in the mass rearing of fruit fly parasitoids in Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cancino, Jorge; Montoya, Pablo [Secretaria de Agricultura, Ganaderia, Desarrollo Rural, Pesca y Alimentacion (DGSV/SENASICA/SAGARPA), Chiapas (Mexico). Servicio Nacional de Sanidad, Inocuidad y Calidad Agroalimentaria. Programa Moscamed-Moscafrut

    2006-07-01

    Biological control by augmentation is applied in Mexico as part of an integrated pest management program against native fruit flies of the genus Anastrepha Schiner. The exotic parasitoid Diachasmimorpha longicaudata has been the most important species used within this context. A program for the mass rearing of 50 million parasitized pupa per week has been established in southeast Mexico, and these are released into the field according to a yearly national plan based on industry requirements. In order to reduce costs and optimize procedures, important advances have been made in the technology for mass production, including an increase in the weight of host larvae (24 mg), changes in the management of host exposition, improvements in the management of environmental conditions, suitability in time and motions are the main areas addressed. Furthermore, a quality control program is routinely applied, and the key parameters under constant evaluation are: 1) weight and volume of host larvae, 2) host mortality after exposure, 3) weight and volume of pupae, and 4) percent parasitoid viability and percent emergence. Good performance in these parameters produces adults with adequate longevity and fecundity, high flight ability and good searching behavior. The introduced egg parasitoid Fopius arisanus and the native pupal parasitoid Coptera hawardi are being evaluated for use in the future as a complement to releases into the field of D. longicaudata. Manipulating host size and exposition time, the use of starting diet and suppressing host development by irradiation, have permitted the effective use of Anastrepha eggs as hosts for the rearing of F. arisanus. Further achievements in the mass rearing of C. haywardi (e.g., the suppression of unparasitized hosts after irradiation), could give us the opportunity to employ new options to reinforce the augmentative biological control of Anastrepha fruit flies in Mexico. (author)

  16. Advances and perspectives in the mass rearing of fruit fly parasitoids in Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cancino, Jorge; Montoya, Pablo

    2006-01-01

    Biological control by augmentation is applied in Mexico as part of an integrated pest management program against native fruit flies of the genus Anastrepha Schiner. The exotic parasitoid Diachasmimorpha longicaudata has been the most important species used within this context. A program for the mass rearing of 50 million parasitized pupa per week has been established in southeast Mexico, and these are released into the field according to a yearly national plan based on industry requirements. In order to reduce costs and optimize procedures, important advances have been made in the technology for mass production, including an increase in the weight of host larvae (24 mg), changes in the management of host exposition, improvements in the management of environmental conditions, suitability in time and motions are the main areas addressed. Furthermore, a quality control program is routinely applied, and the key parameters under constant evaluation are: 1) weight and volume of host larvae, 2) host mortality after exposure, 3) weight and volume of pupae, and 4) percent parasitoid viability and percent emergence. Good performance in these parameters produces adults with adequate longevity and fecundity, high flight ability and good searching behavior. The introduced egg parasitoid Fopius arisanus and the native pupal parasitoid Coptera hawardi are being evaluated for use in the future as a complement to releases into the field of D. longicaudata. Manipulating host size and exposition time, the use of starting diet and suppressing host development by irradiation, have permitted the effective use of Anastrepha eggs as hosts for the rearing of F. arisanus. Further achievements in the mass rearing of C. haywardi (e.g., the suppression of unparasitized hosts after irradiation), could give us the opportunity to employ new options to reinforce the augmentative biological control of Anastrepha fruit flies in Mexico. (author)

  17. Natural Parasitism in Fruit Fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) Populations in Disturbed Areas Adjacent to Commercial Mango Orchards in Chiapas and Veracruz, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montoya, Pablo; Ayala, Amanda; López, Patricia; Cancino, Jorge; Cabrera, Héctor; Cruz, Jassmin; Martinez, Ana Mabel; Figueroa, Isaac; Liedo, Pablo

    2016-04-01

    To determine the natural parasitism in fruit fly populations in disturbed areas adjacent to commercial mango orchards in the states of Chiapas and Veracruz, Mexico, we recorded over one year the fruit fly-host associations, fly infestation, and parasitism rates in backyard orchards and patches of native vegetation. We also investigated the relationship between fruit size, level of larval infestation, and percent of parasitism, and attempted to determine the presence of superparasitism. The most recurrent species in trap catches was Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart), followed by Anastrepha ludens (Loew), in both study zones. The fruit infestation rates were higher in Chiapas than in Veracruz, with A. obliqua again being the most conspicuous species emerging from collected fruits. The diversity of parasitoids species attacking fruit fly larvae was greater in Chiapas, with a predominance of Doryctobracon areolatus (Szépligeti) in both sites, although the exotic Diachasmimorpha longicaudata (Ashmead) was well established in Chiapas. Fruit size was positively correlated with the number of larvae per fruit, but this relationship was not observed in the level of parasitism. The number of oviposition scars was not related to the number of immature parasitoids inside the pupa of D. areolatus emerging from plum fruits. Mass releases of Di. longicaudata seem not to affect the presence or prevalence of the native species. Our findings open new research scenarios on the role and impact of native parasitoid species attacking Anastrepha flies that can contribute to the development of sound strategies for using these species in projects for augmentative biological control. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Evaluating mating compatibility within fruit fly cryptic species complexes and the potential role of sex pheromones in pre-mating isolation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juárez, M. Laura; Devescovi, Francisco; Břízová, Radka; Bachmann, Guillermo; Segura, Diego F.; Kalinová, Blanka; Fernández, Patricia; Ruiz, M. Josefina; Yang, Jianquan; Teal, Peter E.A.; Cáceres, Carlos; Vreysen, Marc J.B.; Hendrichs, Jorge; Vera, M. Teresa

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The study of sexual behavior and the identification of the signals involved in mate recognition between con-specifics are key components that can shed some light, as part of an integrative taxonomic approach, in delimitating species within species complexes. In the Tephritidae family several species complexes have received particular attention as they include important agricultural pests such as the Ceratitis fasciventris (Bezzi), Ceratitis anonae (Graham) and Ceratitis rosa Karsch (FAR) complex, the Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) complex and the Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann) complex. Here the value and usefulness of a methodology that uses walk-in field cages with host trees to assess, under semi-natural conditions, mating compatibility within these complexes is reviewed, and the same methodology to study the role of chemical communication in pre-mating isolation among Anastrepha fraterculus populations is used. Results showed that under the same experimental conditions it was possible to distinguish an entire range of different outcomes: from full mating compatibility among some populations to complete assortative mating among others. The effectiveness of the methodology in contributing to defining species limits was shown in two species complexes: Anastrepha fraterculus and Bactrocera dorsalis, and in the case of the latter the synonymization of several established species was published. We conclude that walk-in field cages constitute a powerful tool to measure mating compatibility, which is also useful to determine the role of chemical signals in species recognition. Overall, this experimental approach provides a good source of information about reproductive boundaries to delimit species. However, it needs to be applied as part of an integrative taxonomic approach that simultaneously assesses cytogenetic, molecular, physiological and morphological traits in order to reach more robust species delimitations. PMID:26798257

  19. Biologia da mosca‑das‑frutas sul‑americana em frutos de mirtilo, amoreira‑preta, araçazeiro e pitangueira Biology of South American fruit fly in blueberry, blackberry, strawberry guava, and Surinam cherry crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maicon Bisognin

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi descrever a biologia de Anastrepha fraterculus em frutos de mirtilo (Vaccinium ashei, amoreira‑preta (Rubus spp., araçazeiro (Psidium cattleyanum e pitangueira (Eugenia uniflora. O experimento foi realizado em laboratório, em condições controladas de temperatura (25±2ºC, umidade relativa (70±10% e fotófase (12 horas, para determinação dos parâmetros biológicos do inseto nos estágios de desenvolvimento imaturos e adultos. Anastrepha fraterculus completa o ciclo biológico em todos hospedeiros estudados, embora os frutos nativos (pitanga e araçá ofereçam melhores condições para seu desenvolvimento. Os parâmetros biológicos determinados para as fases imaturas foram semelhantes nos quatro hospedeiros. Insetos criados em pitanga e araçá apresentam, na fase adulta, maior período de oviposição, fecundidade e longevidade de fêmeas, em comparação aos criados em mirtilo e amora‑preta. O ritmo diário de oviposição é mais prolongado e uniforme nos insetos criados em araçá e pitanga, o que mostra que A. fraterculus está mais bem adaptada a estas frutas, nativas da região Sul.The objective of this work was to describe the biology of Anastrepha fraterculus in blueberry (Vaccinium ashei, blackberry (Rubus spp., strawberry guava (Psidium cattleyanum and Surinam cherry (Eugenia uniflora fruits. The experiment was carried out in laboratory under controlled conditions of temperature (25±2ºC, relative humidity (70±10%, and photophase (12 hours to determine insect biological parameters in immature and adult development stages. Anastrepha fraterculus finishes its biological cycle in all studied hosts; however, the Brazilian native fruits (strawberry guava and Surinam cherry provide better conditions for development of the insect. Biological parameters determined for immature development stadium were similar in the four hosts. Insects reared in Surinam cherry and strawberry guava showed, in the

  20. Isolation, identification and determination of the biological activity of candidate fruit volatile components from Argania spinosa L. (Sapotacea)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bakri, A., E-mail: bakri@ucam.ac.m [University Cadi Ayyad, Marrakech (Morocco). Fac. of Science Semlalia. Insect Biological Control Unit; Dueben, B.D.; Proveaux, A.T.; Heath, R.R., E-mail: rheath@saa.ars.usda.go [U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA/REE-ARS), Miami, FL (United States). Agricultural Research Service

    2006-07-01

    This study provides detailed information on the diversity, abundance, guilds, host plant and host fly ranges, distribution, and taxonomic status of hymenopterous parasitoid species associated with Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) and Anastrepha spp. (A. fraterculus (Wiedemann) and A. schultzi Blanchard) in Argentina. Moreover, the article also argues future needs regarding the use of some parasitoid species as an alternative tool in fruit fly management programs of the National Fruit Fly Control and Eradication Program (PROCEM-Argentina). Data used for this work were obtained from numerous old and recent published articles on fruit fly parasitoids in Argentina. (author)

  1. Isolation, identification and determination of the biological activity of candidate fruit volatile components from Argania spinosa L. (Sapotacea)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakri, A.; Dueben, B.D.; Proveaux, A.T.; Heath, R.R.

    2006-01-01

    This study provides detailed information on the diversity, abundance, guilds, host plant and host fly ranges, distribution, and taxonomic status of hymenopterous parasitoid species associated with Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) and Anastrepha spp. (A. fraterculus (Wiedemann) and A. schultzi Blanchard) in Argentina. Moreover, the article also argues future needs regarding the use of some parasitoid species as an alternative tool in fruit fly management programs of the National Fruit Fly Control and Eradication Program (PROCEM-Argentina). Data used for this work were obtained from numerous old and recent published articles on fruit fly parasitoids in Argentina. (author)

  2. Biodiversidade de moscas-das-frutas (Diptera, Tephritoidea em matas nativas e pomares domésticos de dois municípios do Estado do Tocantins, Brasil Biodiversity of fruit flies (Diptera, Tephritoidea in native forests and orchards in two counties of the State of Tocantins, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darcy A. do Bomfim

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho apresenta análise faunística comparativa das espécies de moscas-das-frutas capturadas em armadilhas McPhail (junho a dezembro de 2002 com proteína hidrolisada de milho a 5%. Foram comparadas a riqueza de espécies e a estrutura populacional entre ambientes de mata e pomar dos municípios de Palmas e Porto Nacional, TO. Foram capturados 1.748 indivíduos de espécies de três gêneros de Tephritidae: Tomoplagia Coquillett, 1910, Anastrepha Schiner, 1868 e Ceratitis MacLeay, 1829. De Lonchaeidae foram capturadas espécies de três gêneros: Lonchaea Fallén, 1820, Neosilba McAlpine, 1962 e Dasiops Rondani, 1856. Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann, 1824. Dezenove espécies de Anastrepha foram coletadas, sendo a maioria dos indivíduos (69,1% de A. obliqua (Macquart, 1835. Não houve diferença significativa (P This paper presents comparative and faunistic analysis of the species of fruit flies captured in McPhail traps (from June to December 2002 baited with 5% corn protein hydrolyzed. Species richness and the patterns of population are compared between forest and orchard environments and between the counties of Palmas and Porto Nacional. A total of 1,748 individuals of Tephritidae belonging to species of three genera were collected: Tomoplagia Coquillett, 1910, Anastrepha Schiner, 1868 and Ceratitis MacLeay, 1829. Species of three genera of Lonchaeidae were also captured: Lonchaea Fallén, 1820, Neosilba McAlpine, 1962 and Dasiops Rondani, 1856. Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann, 1824 and nineteen species of the genus Anastrepha were collected. Most of the collected individuals (69.1% belonged to A. obliqua (Macquart, 1935. The average numbers of tephritid individuals in Palmas and native forests were significantly lower than Porto Nacional and orchards, respectively. According to the Shannon diversity index (H' and test t used for comparing the fruit flies fauna among the environments, it was verified that only one comparison showed

  3. Eugenia stipitata McVaugh (Myrtaceae: food resource for frugivorous flies in the state of Amapá, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maiara Sabrine Martins Souza-Adaime

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This work was carried out to evaluate the infestation of fruits of Eugenia stipitata McVaugh (Myrtaceae by fruit flies in the state of Amapá, Brazil. There was 95% infestation of the green and ripe fruits. However, infestation (puparia/fruit was higher in ripe fruits than green fruits. Four species of Tephritidae and four species of Lonchaeidae were obtained. Bactrocera carambolae (Tephritidae predominated in ripe fruits. There was no difference in infestation by Anastrepha spp. (Tephritidae and Neosilba spp. (Lonchaeidae between green and ripe fruits.

  4. Desarrollo de herramientas moleculares para la evaluación de la calidad genética y productividad en la cría artificial de Diachasmimorpha longicaudata, agente de control biológico de moscas plaga de los frutos

    OpenAIRE

    Mannino, María Constanza

    2016-01-01

    Diachasmimorpha longicaudata Ashmead (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) es un endoparasitoide solitario de estadios larvales de moscas de la fruta perteneciente a la familia Tephritidae. Es criado a nivel masivo en bioplantas y utilizado en diversas partes del mundo para las estrategias de control biológico (CB) principalmente de dípteros de importancia económica de los géneros Ceratitis, Anastrepha y Bactrocera. Actualmente, se estudia su implementación en nuestro país para el control de Ceratitis ca...

  5. Gamma irradiation as a quarantine treatment for carambolas infested with Caribbean fruit flies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gould, W.P.; Windeguth, D.L. von

    1991-01-01

    Carambolas infested with the Caribbean fruit fly Anastrepha suspensa (Loew), eggs and larvae were exposed to ionizing gamma radiation. Probit 9 was estimated to be 22.95 Gy (95% fiducial limits 16.68 Gy - 49.73 Gy). Over 100,000 immature A. suspensa infesting carambolas were treated at 50 Gy with no adult survivors. This dose did not cause any observable damage to the fruit. The 50 Gy dose satisfies quarantine requirements for treatment of fruits exposed from fruit fly infested areas. (author) [es

  6. Chilled packing systems for fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) in the sterile insect technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez, Emilio; Escobar, Arseny; Bravo, Bigail; Montoya, Pablo [Instituto Interamericano de Cooperacion para la Agricultura (IICA), Chiapas (Mexico); Secretaria de Agricultura, Ganaderia, Desarrollo Rural, Pesca y Alimentacion (SAGARPA), Mexico, D.F. (Mexico). Programa Moscafrut

    2010-07-15

    We evaluated three packing systems (PARC boxes, 'GT' screen towers and 'MX' screen towers) for the emergence and sexual maturation of sterile fruit flies, at three adult fl y densities (1, 1.2 and 1.3 fly/cm 2) and three food types. At the lowest density, results showed no significant differences in the longevity and flight ability of adult Anastrepha ludens (Loew) and Anastrepha obliqua Macquart among the three packing systems. Higher densities resulted in a decrease in these parameters. In the evaluation of the three food types, no significant differences were found either on longevity or flight ability of A. ludens. However, the greatest longevity for both sexes A. obliqua was obtained with commercial powdered Mb and the mix of sugar, protein and corn starch on paper (SPCP) food types. The highest value for flight ability in A. obliqua males was obtained with powdered Mb and SPCP food types, and for females with Mb powdered food. Our data indicated that GT and MX screen tower packing systems are an alternative to the PARC boxes, since they were suitable for adult fl y sexual maturation without any harm to their longevity or flight ability. The tested foods were equivalent in both fruit fl y species, with the exception of the agar type for A. obliqua, which yielded the lowest biological parameters evaluated. Our results contribute to the application of new methods for the packing and release of sterile flies in large-scale programs. (author)

  7. Chilled packing systems for fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) in the sterile insect technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez, Emilio; Escobar, Arseny; Bravo, Bigail; Montoya, Pablo; Secretaria de Agricultura, Ganaderia, Desarrollo Rural, Pesca y Alimentacion

    2010-01-01

    We evaluated three packing systems (PARC boxes, 'GT' screen towers and 'MX' screen towers) for the emergence and sexual maturation of sterile fruit flies, at three adult fl y densities (1, 1.2 and 1.3 fly/cm 2) and three food types. At the lowest density, results showed no significant differences in the longevity and flight ability of adult Anastrepha ludens (Loew) and Anastrepha obliqua Macquart among the three packing systems. Higher densities resulted in a decrease in these parameters. In the evaluation of the three food types, no significant differences were found either on longevity or flight ability of A. ludens. However, the greatest longevity for both sexes A. obliqua was obtained with commercial powdered Mb and the mix of sugar, protein and corn starch on paper (SPCP) food types. The highest value for flight ability in A. obliqua males was obtained with powdered Mb and SPCP food types, and for females with Mb powdered food. Our data indicated that GT and MX screen tower packing systems are an alternative to the PARC boxes, since they were suitable for adult fl y sexual maturation without any harm to their longevity or flight ability. The tested foods were equivalent in both fruit fl y species, with the exception of the agar type for A. obliqua, which yielded the lowest biological parameters evaluated. Our results contribute to the application of new methods for the packing and release of sterile flies in large-scale programs. (author)

  8. Survey of ear flies (Diptera, Ulidiidae in maize (Zea mays L. and a new record of Euxesta mazorca Steyskal in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Cruz

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Survey of ear flies (Diptera, Ulidiidae in maize (Zea mays L. and a new record of Euxesta mazorca Steyskalin Brazil. Species of Euxesta (Diptera, Ulidiidae, known as silk flies or ear flies, are becoming increasingly important as maize insect pests in South America, although very little is known about them in Brazil. The larvae of some species of this genus initially damage female reproductive tissues, and then the developing kernels on the ear. As a result of feeding, fermentation and associated odors cause complete loss of the grain because it is no longer fit for human or livestock consumption. The main objective of this work was to evaluate the incidence of Euxesta spp. in Brazilian maize fields and to determine the most prevalent species using two different hydrolyzed protein foods attractants, BioAnastrepha® (hydrolyzed maize protein and Torula, placed inside McPhail traps. The two species identified were E. eluta Loew and E. mazorca Steyskal, the latter being a new record from Brazil. Between the two species, E. eluta was the more abundant in maize fields. Both attractants were efficient in capturing the two species. However, BioAnastrepha® captured significantly more insects than Torula.

  9. Hongos de importancia agrícola presentes en moscas de la fruta del valle de Ica, Perú

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos E. Tipismana

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del presente trabajo fue aislar e identificar hongos de especímenes de moscas de la fruta de los géneros Ceratitis (Macleay y Anastrepha (Schiner, del valle de Ica, Perú. Se aislaron hongos pertenecientes a los géneros Alternaria, Aspergillus, Cladosporium, Mucor, Penicillium, Rhizoctonia, Rhizopus y Trichoderma;así como levaduras y micelios estériles. Los recuentos de hongos presentaron rangos entre 8x103 a 8x104 UFC/g para el género Ceratitis; y 7x103 a 7x104 UFC/g para el género Anastrepha. El IVI% (Índice de Valor de Importancia demostró que Cladosporium es el género con mayor valor ecológico con un 78,05%. El Índice de Similitud de especies de hongos entre ambos géneros de mosca de la fruta analizados fue 0,5. Los resultados obtenidos confirman la presencia de hongos en moscas de la fruta; y se deduce el posible impacto de estos dípteros en el área agrícola como potenciales agentes vectores de enfermedades fúngicas para los cultivos locales de importancia económica.

  10. Evidence of Adaptive Evolution and Relaxed Constraints in Sex-Biased Genes of South American and West Indies Fruit Flies (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campanini, Emeline B; Torres, Felipe R; Rezende, Víctor B; Nakamura, Aline M; de Oliveira, Janaína L; Lima, André L A; Chahad-Ehlers, Samira; Sobrinho, Iderval S; de Brito, Reinaldo A

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Several studies have demonstrated that genes differentially expressed between sexes (sex-biased genes) tend to evolve faster than unbiased genes, particularly in males. The reason for this accelerated evolution is not clear, but several explanations have involved adaptive and nonadaptive mechanisms. Furthermore, the differences of sex-biased expression patterns of closely related species are also little explored out of Drosophila. To address the evolutionary processes involved with sex-biased expression in species with incipient differentiation, we analyzed male and female transcriptomes of Anastrepha fraterculus and Anastrepha obliqua, a pair of species that have diverged recently, likely in the presence of gene flow. Using these data, we inferred differentiation indexes and evolutionary rates and tested for signals of selection in thousands of genes expressed in head and reproductive transcriptomes from both species. Our results indicate that sex-biased and reproductive-biased genes evolve faster than unbiased genes in both species, which is due to both adaptive pressure and relaxed constraints. Furthermore, among male-biased genes evolving under positive selection, we identified some related to sexual functions such as courtship behavior and fertility. These findings suggest that sex-biased genes may have played important roles in the establishment of reproductive isolation between these species, due to a combination of selection and drift, and unveil a plethora of genetic markers useful for more studies in these species and their differentiation. PMID:29346618

  11. Isca tóxica e disrupção sexual no controle da mosca-da-fruta sul-americana e da mariposa-oriental em pessegueiro Toxic bait and mating disruption to control the American fruit fly and the oriental fruit moth on peach orchards

    OpenAIRE

    Wagner da Roza Härter; Anderson Dionei Grützmacher; Dori Edson Nava; Rafael da Silva Gonçalves; Marcos Botton

    2010-01-01

    O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o emprego simultâneo de isca tóxica e da técnica de disrupção sexual, com uso de feromônio sexual, para o controle de Anastrepha fraterculus e Grapholita molesta, em pomar comercial de pessegueiro. Foram utilizados três pomares de 0,5 ha, com os seguintes tratamentos: pomar 1, manejo com isca tóxica (Biofruit 3% + Malathion 500 CE a 200 mL por 100 L), aplicada nas plantas da borda do pomar quando o nível de controle era atingido, e uso da disrupção sexual...

  12. Apple biological and physiological disorders in the orchard and in postharvest according to production system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Roberto Martins

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to evaluate the incidence of biological and physiological disorders in the field and postharvested apples cvs. Gala, Fuji and Catarina grown in four production systems: conventional, organic transition, integrated and organic. Apples were evaluated for damages related to biological and physiological disorders in the orchard and after harvest. The greatest damages were attributed to pests, especially Anastrepha fraterculus in the organic system and Grapholita molesta in the organic transition. Apples produced in organic orchards had higher damage levels caused by postharvest physiological disorders than those grown in other production systems. For apples becoming from organic orchards most of the damage was due to lenticels breakdown and degeneration ('Gala', and bitter pit ('Fuji' and 'Catarina'. The incidence of postharvest rot was not influenced by apple production system.

  13. Tephritid Integrative Taxonomy: Where We Are Now, with a Focus on the Resolution of Three Tropical Fruit Fly Species Complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schutze, Mark K; Virgilio, Massimiliano; Norrbom, Allen; Clarke, Anthony R

    2017-01-31

    Accurate species delimitation underpins good taxonomy. Formalization of integrative taxonomy in the past decade has provided a framework for using multidisciplinary data to make species delimitation hypotheses more rigorous. We address the current state of integrative taxonomy by using as a case study an international project targeted at resolving three important tephritid species complexes: Bactrocera dorsalis complex, Anastrepha fraterculus complex, and Ceratitis FAR (C. fasciventris, C. anonae, C. rosa) complex. The integrative taxonomic approach has helped deliver significant advances in resolving these complexes: It has been used to identify some taxa as belonging to the same biological species as well as to confirm hidden cryptic diversity under a single taxonomic name. Nevertheless, the general application of integrative taxonomy has not been without issue, revealing challenges that must be considered when undertaking an integrative taxonomy project. Scrutiny of this international case study provides a unique opportunity to document lessons learned for the benefit of not only tephritid taxonomists, but also the wider taxonomic community.

  14. Determination of gamma radiation dose as a post-harvest treatment in mangos infested with the South American fruit fly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alama, D.

    1999-01-01

    Efforts are being made to determine a gamma radiation dose for mortality of third-instar larvae of Anastrepha fraterculus which infest mangos of the Haden variety of 400 g weight. Four radiation treatments were tested: 0.4 kGy, 0.6 kGy, 0.8 kGy and 1.0 kGy. Using as a criterium for mortality the interruption of the biological cycle between larva and pupa, the following results were achieved: 49.61%, 63.33%, 74.86% and 90.72%. The percentages obtained have been corrected using the Abbot formula. When the criterium was based on no adult emergence, 100% mortality was achieved for the four treatments. (author)

  15. Is sexually transmitted fungal infection evidence for size-related mating success in Neotropical guava fruit flies?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingemar Hedström

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available The influence of wing length on mate preference was examined in natural populations of the Neotropical guava fruit fly, Anastrepha striata Schiner, at two locations in Costa Rica. Based on evidence that the fungi are transmitted during mating, site-specific infection by Laboulbeniales fungi on the body surface was used to assess mating history. Males and females that carried fungi on the legs and/or on the ventral part of the thorax (males, and on both sides of the notum and/or the dorsal base of the abdomen (females, had significantly longer wings than males and females without fungi. This suggests that individuals of both sexes with longer wings (i.e. larger individuals enjoy higher mating success. Fungus infection is more frequent in the wet than in the seasonally dry forest, possibly because hosts are available year-round in the wet forest.

  16. Effects of irradiation on phenoloxidase levels in codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) larvae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neven, L.G.; Morford, M.

    1998-01-01

    Laboratory trials were conducted to determine if changes in phenoloxidase, a common hemolymph component in insects, could be detected in codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.). The 5 instars of codling moth were irradiated at doses of 0, 100, 300, 600, and 900 Gy and phenoloxidase levels were monitored at 0, 2, 4, and 6 d after treatment. The melanization method, protein electrophoresis, dot blot, and enzyme activity analyses were performed to determine phenoloxidase levels. No significant changes in the protein levels, enzymatic activity, or melanization rates in irradiated codling moth larvae were found. Although the melanization method may be adequate for determining whether larvae of the Caribbean fruit fly, Anastrepha suspensa (L.), were irradiated, it is not applicable to codling moth

  17. Standardization of Ceratitis capitata Wied. (Diptera: Tephritidae) female trapping for use in sterile insect programmes. Catamarca, Argentina, 1995-1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vattuone, M.

    1999-01-01

    The main objective of the study was to assess Ceratitis capitata Wied. (medfly) female trapping with new traps and attractants in varying ecological conditions as part of a co-ordinated international programme. Trials were carried out between 1995 and 1997, using seven types of traps baited with the various combination of sexual and food attractants. Different methods for insects retention were also tested. For these trials, protocols established by the International Atomic Energy Agency were followed. The Jackson Trap with Trimedlure plugs proved to be the most efficient for capture of medfly males, while International Pheromone's McPhail Trap was the most efficient for the capture of females, when used with a combination of all three new attractants (FA-3) consisting of ammonium acetate, putrescine, and trimethylamine plus the toxicant DDVP for insect retention. The new traps and attractants also captured flies belonging to genus Anastrepha (Diptera: Tephritidae). (author)

  18. Fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae associated to native fruit of Spondias spp. (Anacardiaceae and Ximenia americana L. (Olacaceae and their parasitoids in the State of Piaui, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almerinda Amélia Rodrigues Araújo

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This work aims to identify the species of fruit flies and their parasitoids associated to native fruit of Spondias spp. (caja S. mombin L., umbu-caja Spondias sp., umbu S. tuberosa Arr. Câm. and wild plum Ximenia americana L., in the State of Piaui, Brazil. Samples (63 of fruits were collected from November 2009 to July 2010, totalizing 4,495 fruits and 46,906 kg. It was possible to obtain 10,617 puparia, from which 4,497 tephritids and 1,118 braconid parasitoids emerged. Regarding Spondias spp., the highest occurrence was Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart, with 100% for umbu and umbu-caja. Caja presented an average of 99.52% of A. obliqua, 0.46% of Anastrepha fraterculus (Wied. and 0.97% of Ceratitis capitata (Wied.. Wild plum percentages were 97.83% for A. alveata Stone and 2.17% for A. fraterculus. Infestation rates were 429.2, 178.4, 158.9 and 43.3 puparia/kg in umbu-caja, caja, wild plum and umbu, respectively. Pupal viability was 77.8%, 69.3%, 52.5% and 41.1% to umbu, wild plum, umbu-caja and caja, respectively. By analyzing the sample parasitoids, the percentage was 21.39% for the Doryctobracon areolatus (Szépligeti species and 78.61% for Opius bellus Gahan. For the first time, it was recorded in Brazil X. americana as a host to A. alveata, as well as D. aleolatus and O. bellus as parasitoids of A. obliqua and A. alveata in Piaui.

  19. Eficiência de substâncias atrativas na captura de moscas-das-frutas (diptera: tephritidae em goiabeiras no município de Itapecuru-Mirim (MA Efficacy of attractants for fruits flies (diptera: tephritidae captures in guava crops in Itapecuru-Mirim (MA, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raimunda Nonata Santos Lemos

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available O experimento foi conduzido em pomar comercial de goiaba (Psidium guajava L. cultivar 'Pêra Vermelha', localizado no município de Itapecuru-Mirim (MA, na Comunidade Magnificat, visando a adotar um sistema de manejo integrado de moscas-das-frutas através do monitoramento com armadilhas do tipo frasco caça-moscas (modelo garrafa plástica e atraentes de alimentação. O delineamento estatístico adotado foi o de blocos inteiramente casualizados, com cinco tratamentos e quatro repetições, sendo: suco de laranja (50%, acerola (30%, goiaba (30%, maracujá (30% e solução de açúcar cristal a 10 %. Verificou-se que o suco de maracujá (30% e a solução de açúcar cristal (10% foram mais atrativos para os adultos de Anastrepha distincta Greene, A. sororcula Zucchi, A. striata Schiner, A. obliqua Macquart e A. serpentina Wiedemann.This research was carried out in a commercial guava orchard cv. 'Pera Vermelha' in the Magnificat Community, located at Itapecuru-Mirim (MA County, aiming to adopt an integrated management system for fruit flies, by trapping different food attractants. The experiment was arranged in a completely randomized block design with four replications. The attractants tested were: Sweet orange juice (50%, acerola juice (30%, guava juice (30%, passion fruit juice (30% and sugar solution (10%. The results showed that passion fruit juice (30% and sugar solution (10% were more attractive for adults fruit flies of Anastrepha distincta Greene, A. sororcula Zucchi, A. striata Schiner, A. obliqua Macquart and A. serpentina Wiedemann.

  20. Irradiation of mangoes as a quarantine treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bustos R, M.E.; Enkerlin H, W.; Toledo A, J.; Reyes F, J.; Casimiro G, A.

    1991-06-01

    This research project was conducted following guidelines of research protocols for post-harvest treatments developed by the United States Department of Agriculture CUSA. Laboratory bioassays included the irradiation of mangoes infested with third instar larvae of Anastrepha serpentina (Wied), A. ludens (Loew), A. obliqua (Macquart) and Ceratitis capitata (Wied) , at doses from 10 to 250 Gy. Irradiation doses were applied using a Co-60 AECL Model JS-7400 irradiator. The design was chosen to obtain a maximum to minimum ratio equal to, or less than, 1.025. C. capitata was the species most tolerant to irradiation. A dose of 60 Gy applied to third instar fruit fly larvae sterilized this species and prevented emergence of adults of the other three species. A dose of 250 Gy was required to prevent emergence of C. capitata. In fertility tests using emerged adults of A . Iudens, and A. obliqua a dose of 30 Gy gave 45 % and 27 % fertility, respectively. Adults of A. serpentina that emerged, died before reaching sexual maturity. The confirmatory tests, at probit-9 security level, were done at 100 Gy for the three species of Anastrepha and at 150 Gy for C. capitata. The quality of mangoes irradiated up to 1000 Gy was evaluated by chemical, physiological, and sensorial tests. The determination of vitamin C indicated that there was no loss of the nutritive value of the fruit. It also was observed that fruit metabolism was not accelerated since no significant increase in respiration or transpiration was registered and consumers accepted both treated and untreated fruit in the same way. (Author)

  1. Irradiation of mangoes as a quarantine treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bustos R, M.E.; Enkerlin H, W.; Toledo A, J.; Reyes F, J.; Casimiro G, A

    1991-06-15

    This research project was conducted following guidelines of research protocols for post-harvest treatments developed by the United States Department of Agriculture CUSA. Laboratory bioassays included the irradiation of mangoes infested with third instar larvae of Anastrepha serpentina (Wied), A. ludens (Loew), A. obliqua (Macquart) and Ceratitis capitata (Wied) , at doses from 10 to 250 Gy. Irradiation doses were applied using a Co-60 AECL Model JS-7400 irradiator. The design was chosen to obtain a maximum to minimum ratio equal to, or less than, 1.025. C. capitata was the species most tolerant to irradiation. A dose of 60 Gy applied to third instar fruit fly larvae sterilized this species and prevented emergence of adults of the other three species. A dose of 250 Gy was required to prevent emergence of C. capitata. In fertility tests using emerged adults of A . Iudens, and A. obliqua a dose of 30 Gy gave 45 % and 27 % fertility, respectively. Adults of A. serpentina that emerged, died before reaching sexual maturity. The confirmatory tests, at probit-9 security level, were done at 100 Gy for the three species of Anastrepha and at 150 Gy for C. capitata. The quality of mangoes irradiated up to 1000 Gy was evaluated by chemical, physiological, and sensorial tests. The determination of vitamin C indicated that there was no loss of the nutritive value of the fruit. It also was observed that fruit metabolism was not accelerated since no significant increase in respiration or transpiration was registered and consumers accepted both treated and untreated fruit in the same way. (Author)

  2. SELETIVIDADE DE INSETICIDAS A Neoseiulus californicus MCGREGOR (ACARI: PHYTOSEIIDAE EM MACIEIRA, NO RIO GRANDE DO SUL AGROCHEMICAL SELECTIVITY TO Neoseiulus californicus MCGREGOR (ACARI: PHYTOSEIIDAE ON APPLE IN RIO GRANDE DO SUL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LINO BITTENCOURT MONTEIRO

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Testes para determinar os efeitos de agroquímicos homologados para macieira foram realizados em laboratório sobre Neoseiulus californicus (Acari: Phytoseiidae. Os indivíduos testados foram coletados de um pomar comercial da Agriflor Ltda, em Vacaria, Rio Grande do Sul, após várias liberações inoculativas. Os inseticidas utilizados foram os tradicionalmente recomendados para o controle de pragas, principalmente mosca-das-frutas Anastrepha fraterculus (Diptera: Tephritidae. A oviposição e a mortalidade dos ácaros foram avaliadas 12; 24; 48 e 96 horas após a pulverização, cujos produtos foram classificados em quatro classes de toxicidade (IOBC/WPRS. Azinphos ethyl, deltametrina e fenthion provocaram 100% de mortalidade, sendo que dimethoate, fenitrotion, paration, phosmet e triclorfon foram levemente nocivos (classe 2. Malation foi considerado neutro para esta população.The side-effects of agrochemical to Neoseiulus californicus (Acari: Phytoseiidae were studied in laboratory. The mites were collected in commercial apple orchard of Agropastoril Rincão das Flores, in Vacaria, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, after successive inoculative releases. The insecticids used were recommended to control of same pest, as Anastrepha fraterculus (Diptera: Tephritidae. The reproduction effect and mortality were evalued 12, 24, 48 and 96 hours after pulverization, while the agrochemical were ranked in toxicity classes, according to IOBC/WPRS. Azinphos ethyl, deltametrina e fenthion were harmful with ca. 100% of mortality in 24 hours, dimethoate, fenitrotion, paration, phosmet e triclorfon were slightly harmful (class 2. Malation was harmless.

  3. Apple biological and physiological disorders in the orchard and in postharvest according to production system Distúrbios biológicos e fisiológicos no pomar e na pós-colheita de maçãs em função do sistema de produção

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Roberto Martins

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to evaluate the incidence of biological and physiological disorders in the field and postharvested apples cvs. Gala, Fuji and Catarina grown in four production systems: conventional, organic transition, integrated and organic. Apples were evaluated for damages related to biological and physiological disorders in the orchard and after harvest. The greatest damages were attributed to pests, especially Anastrepha fraterculus in the organic system and Grapholita molesta in the organic transition. Apples produced in organic orchards had higher damage levels caused by postharvest physiological disorders than those grown in other production systems. For apples becoming from organic orchards most of the damage was due to lenticels breakdown and degeneration ('Gala', and bitter pit ('Fuji' and 'Catarina'. The incidence of postharvest rot was not influenced by apple production system.O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a ocorrência de distúrbios biológicos e fisiológicos, tanto em nível de campo como em pós-colheita, de maçãs 'Gala', 'Fuji' e 'Catarina', produzidas em pomares conduzidos em quatro sistemas de produção: convencional, transição convencional-orgânico, integrado e orgânico. As maçãs foram avaliadas quanto à presença de danos ocasionados por distúrbios biológicos e fisiológicos no pomar e em pós-colheita. Os maiores danos foram atribuídos às pragas, principalmente à Anastrepha fraterculus em sistema orgânico e à Grapholita molesta em sistema de transição convencional-orgânico. As maçãs produzidas em sistema orgânico tiveram maiores danos em pós-colheita ocasionados por distúrbios fisiológicos do que as dos demais sistemas de produção. Nas frutas produzidas em sistema orgânico, os danos, em sua maioria foram com degenerescência e depressão lenticelar para a cv. Gala, e bitter pit para as cvs. Fuji e Catarina. A incidência de podridões pós-colheita não foi influenciada pelo sistema de

  4. Isca tóxica e disrupção sexual no controle da mosca-da-fruta sul-americana e da mariposa-oriental em pessegueiro Toxic bait and mating disruption to control the American fruit fly and the oriental fruit moth on peach orchards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wagner da Roza Härter

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o emprego simultâneo de isca tóxica e da técnica de disrupção sexual, com uso de feromônio sexual, para o controle de Anastrepha fraterculus e Grapholita molesta, em pomar comercial de pessegueiro. Foram utilizados três pomares de 0,5 ha, com os seguintes tratamentos: pomar 1, manejo com isca tóxica (Biofruit 3% + Malathion 500 CE a 200 mL por 100 L, aplicada nas plantas da borda do pomar quando o nível de controle era atingido, e uso da disrupção sexual por meio da aplicação de feromônio (Splat Grafo em 1.000 pontos por ha; pomar 2, manejo convencional, constituído por pulverizações com inseticidas de contato e ingestão de 2 a 3 vezes ao ano; pomar 3, testemunha, sem controle. A população de adultos das duas espécies e o dano em ponteiros e frutos foram monitorados nas safras 2007/2008 e 2008/2009. O uso simultâneo da isca tóxica e da técnica de disrupção sexual reduziu em mais de 90% a captura de adultos de A. fraterculus e G. molesta. Nas duas safras, os danos reduziram de 62-85% em ponteiros, e de 98-99% nos frutos, em comparação à testemunha sem controle.The objective of this work was to evaluate the simultaneous use of toxic bait and mating disruption technique using sexual pheromone for Anastrepha fraterculus and Grapholita molesta control, in commercial peach orchards. Three 0.5-ha orchards were used, with the following treatments: orchad 1, toxic bait (Biofruit 3% + Malathion 500 CE, 200 mL in 100 L and mating disruption using sexual pheromone (Splat Grafo in 1,000 points ha-1; orchad 2, conventional management, using contact insecticides 2 to 3 times a year; orchad 3, no pest control. Adult populations of both species, and sprout and fruit damages were monitored during the 2007/2008 and 2008/2009 crop seasons. Simultaneous use of toxic bait and mating disruption technique decreased the captures of A. fraterculus and G. molesta in more than 90%. In the two crop seasons

  5. Incidence of fruit flies on coffee and citrus and quarantine treatment of citrus fruits by gamma radiation; Incidencia de moscas-das-frutas em cafe e citros e tratamento quarentenario de frutos citricos com radiacao gama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raga, Adalton

    1996-12-31

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the fruit fly infestation on coffee and citrus, and also to determine gamma radiation doses for immature stages of Ceratitis capitata and Anastrepha fraterculus, in order to satisfy quarantine regulations. Coffee arabica varieties Icatu Vermelho, Catuai Amarelo, Mundo Novo and Sarchimor showed the highest infestation indices (pupa/berry): 0.53; 0,41; 0.33 and 0.36. respectively Icatu Vermelho and Catuai Vermelho showed the highest values of pupa/berry weight (0.49 and 0.39, respectively), and Robusta (Coffea canephora) presented the lowest index (0.01). The following fruit flies were found in coffee berries: C. capitata (76.6%) Anastrepha spp. (7.4%) and Lonchaeidae (17.0%). In area near coffee plantation, fruit fly infestation indices in sweet oranges were of 4.77 larvae/kg and 0.55 larva/fruit. The infestation indices for sweet orange, collected from five regions of the State of Sao Paulo ranged from 0.73 to 7.60 pupa/kg and 0.12 to 1.27 pupa/fruit. The same species of fruit flies were found in oranges. In the case of C. capitata eggs with 24-48 hours old, 20 Gy prevented completely adult emergence (artificial diet and orange). No emergence of adult occurred when C. capitata larvae of third instar were irradiated at 20 Gy in their rearing medium. But at 25 Gy, the number of adults was reduced by 54% and 97% from larval infestation in oranges and grapefruit, respectively. A dose of 30 Gy was required to prevent medfly emergence from third instar larvae in grapefruit. A dose of 15 Gy was required for third instar, to prevent adult emergence of A. fraterculus. No adult emerged from C third instar, to prevent adult emergence of A. fraterculus. No adult emerged from C capitata pre-pupa irradiated at 30 Gy. One medfly adult emerged from pupa (3-4 days after pupating) irradiated at 120 Gy. At the same dose, sixteen A. fraterculus adults emergency from irradiated pupa with 5-6 days old. (author) 85 refs., 2 figs., 13 tabs.

  6. Incidence of fruit flies on coffee and citrus and quarantine treatment of citrus fruits by gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raga, Adalton

    1996-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the fruit fly infestation on coffee and citrus, and also to determine gamma radiation doses for immature stages of Ceratitis capitata and Anastrepha fraterculus, in order to satisfy quarantine regulations. Coffee arabica varieties Icatu Vermelho, Catuai Amarelo, Mundo Novo and Sarchimor showed the highest infestation indices (pupa/berry): 0.53; 0,41; 0.33 and 0.36. respectively Icatu Vermelho and Catuai Vermelho showed the highest values of pupa/berry weight (0.49 and 0.39, respectively), and Robusta (Coffea canephora) presented the lowest index (0.01). The following fruit flies were found in coffee berries: C. capitata (76.6%) Anastrepha spp. (7.4%) and Lonchaeidae (17.0%). In area near coffee plantation, fruit fly infestation indices in sweet oranges were of 4.77 larvae/kg and 0.55 larva/fruit. The infestation indices for sweet orange, collected from five regions of the State of Sao Paulo ranged from 0.73 to 7.60 pupa/kg and 0.12 to 1.27 pupa/fruit. The same species of fruit flies were found in oranges. In the case of C. capitata eggs with 24-48 hours old, 20 Gy prevented completely adult emergence (artificial diet and orange). No emergence of adult occurred when C. capitata larvae of third instar were irradiated at 20 Gy in their rearing medium. But at 25 Gy, the number of adults was reduced by 54% and 97% from larval infestation in oranges and grapefruit, respectively. A dose of 30 Gy was required to prevent medfly emergence from third instar larvae in grapefruit. A dose of 15 Gy was required for third instar, to prevent adult emergence of A. fraterculus. No adult emerged from C third instar, to prevent adult emergence of A. fraterculus. No adult emerged from C capitata pre-pupa irradiated at 30 Gy. One medfly adult emerged from pupa (3-4 days after pupating) irradiated at 120 Gy. At the same dose, sixteen A. fraterculus adults emergency from irradiated pupa with 5-6 days old. (author)

  7. Regional Suppression of Bactrocera Fruit Flies (Diptera: Tephritidae in the Pacific through Biological Control and Prospects for Future Introductions into Other Areas of the World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger I. Vargas

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Bactrocera fruit fly species are economically important throughout the Pacific. The USDA, ARS U.S. Pacific Basin Agricultural Research Center has been a world leader in promoting biological control of Bactrocera spp. that includes classical, augmentative, conservation and IPM approaches. In Hawaii, establishment of Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett in 1895 resulted in the introduction of the most successful parasitoid, Psyttalia fletcheri (Silvestri; similarly, establishment of Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel in 1945 resulted in the introduction of 32 natural enemies of which Fopius arisanus (Sonan, Diachasmimorpha longicaudata (Ashmead and Fopius vandenboschi (Fullaway were most successful. Hawaii has also been a source of parasitoids for fruit fly control throughout the Pacific region including Australia, Pacific Island Nations, Central and South America, not only for Bactrocera spp. but also for Ceratitis and Anastrepha spp. Most recently, in 2002, F. arisanus was introduced into French Polynesia where B. dorsalis had invaded in 1996. Establishment of D. longicaudata into the new world has been important to augmentative biological control releases against Anastrepha spp. With the rapid expansion of airline travel and global trade there has been an alarming spread of Bactrocera spp. into new areas of the world (i.e., South America and Africa. Results of studies in Hawaii and French Polynesia, support parasitoid introductions into South America and Africa, where B. carambolae and B. invadens, respectively, have become established. In addition, P. fletcheri is a candidate for biological control of B. cucurbitae in Africa. We review past and more

  8. Mango resistance to fruit flies. II - resistance of the alfa cultivar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossetto, C.J.; Bortoletto, N.; Carvalho, C.R.L.; Castro, J.V. de; Pinto, A.C. de Q.; Cortelazzo, A.L.

    2006-01-01

    The percentage of infested mango fruits of five selected mango varieties was evaluated during three years under field conditions. Three varieties with field resistance to fruit flies had less then 10% of fruits infested. Tommy Atkins, the susceptible commercial check, had 42,9% and the susceptible check had 98.9 % of infested fruits. The three field resistant varieties plus the susceptible commercial check, Tommy Atkins, were further tested in laboratory, under caged conditions, with artificial infestation of Anastrepha obliqua. The attempts of oviposition and the number of pupae developed from each fruit were evaluated. Under caged conditions, the cultivar Alfa maintained its field resistance and Espada Stahl and IAC 111 lost the field resistance and were as susceptible as Tommy Atkins. The attempts of oviposition were positively and highly correlated with the number of pupae developed in the fruits. Non preference for oviposition was confirmed as the main mechanism of resistance of mango fruits to fruit flies. In the absence of a more susceptible variety (no choice test) the cultivar Alfa has kept the resistance (author)

  9. Development of Myrmeleon brasiliensis (Navas) (Neuroptera, Myrmeleontidae), in laboratory, with different natural diets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Missirian, Giani L.B. [Centro Universitario da Grande Dourados, MS (Brazil). Curso de Ciencias Biologicas; Uchoa-Fernandes, Manoel A. [Universidade Federal da Grande Dourados, MS (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Biologicas e Ambientais]. E-mail: uchoa.fernandes@ufgd.edu.br; Fischer, Erich [Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso do Sul, Campo Grande, MS (Brazil). Dept. de Biologia

    2006-07-01

    Antlions larvae are sit-and-wait predators that capture arthropod prey in conical sand pits. The aim of this paper were to determine the effect of different natural diets [leaf-cutting ants (Atta spp.), fruit fly larvae (Anastrepha spp. and Ceratitis capitata) and mixed diet (Atta spp. plus fruit fly larvae)] on the development of larvae and pupae of M. brasiliensis (Navas, 1914) and to estimate the number and size of prey caught in each instar and on each kind of diet. The average duration (days) of the second and third instars of M. brasiliensis was longer when larvae of antlion were fed with leaf-cutting ants. The diets did not affect the duration of the pupal stage nor the pupae size. The different diets did not affect the mean width of head capsule (mm), the mean weight (mg) or the mean body size (mm) in the different instars of M. brasiliensis. In the second and third instars, the larvae of M. brasiliensis fed with leaf-cutting ants consumed more prey than larvae kept on other diets. Adults whose larvae were fed fruit fly larvae were larger than adults on other diets. Although Myrmeleontidae are few studied in Brazil, these results contribute to knowledge of M. brasiliensis biology, but also suggest the need of studies about the development of larvae and pupae in natural environments. (author)

  10. Assessment of differences between X and γ rays in order to validate a new generation of irradiators for insect sterilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mastrangelo, Thiago; Walder, Julio M.M.; Parker, Andrew G.; Jessup, Andrew; Orozco-Davila, Dina; Islam, Amirul; Dammalage, Thilakasiri; Pereira, Rui

    2009-01-01

    Recent fears of terrorism provoked an increase in delays and denials of transboundary shipments of radioisotopes. This represents a serious constraint to sterile insect technique (SIT) programs around the world as they rely on the use of ionizing energy from radioisotopes for insect sterilization. In order to validate a novel Xray irradiator, a series of studies on Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) and Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae) were carried out, comparing the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) between X-rays and traditional γ radiation from 60 Co. Male C. capitata pupae and pupae of both sexes of A. fraterculus, both 24 to 48 h before adult emergence, were irradiated with doses ranging from 15 to 120 Gy and 10 to 70 Gy respectively. Estimated mean doses of 91.2 Gy of X and 124.9 Gy of γ radiation induced 99% sterility in C. capitata males. Irradiated A. fraterculus were 99% sterile at about 40-60 Gy for both radiation treatments. Standard quality control parameters were not significantly affected by the two types of radiation. There were no significant differences between X and γ radiation regarding mating indices. The RBE did not differ significantly between the tested X and γ radiation, and X-rays are as biologically effective for SIT purposes as γ rays are. This work confirms the suitability of this new generation of X-ray irradiators for pest control programs in UN Member States. (author)

  11. Olfactory response of the Mexican fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) to Citrus aurantium volatiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasgado, Milton A; Malo, Edi A; Cruz-López, Leopoldo; Rojas, Julio C; Toledo, Jorge

    2009-04-01

    We investigated the behavioral and electrophysiological responses of male and female Mexican fruit fly, Anastrepha ludens (Loew) (Diptera: Tephritidae), to volatiles of bitter orange fruit, Citrus aurantium L. In field cage tests, the number of A. ludens caught in Multilure traps baited with mature green bitter orange fruit was significantly higher than the number captured in traps baited with ripe yellow bitter orange fruit and control (unbaited traps). Both sexes were more attracted to mature green bitter orange fruit extracts than to controls in both flight tunnel and field cage assays. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of the mature green bitter orange fruit volatiles identified 10 different compounds. Limonene was the most abundant volatile compound, followed by an unknown compound, tentatively identified as trans-ocimene. Linalool, beta-pinene, and methyl salicylate were found in lower proportions. Both sexes of A. ludens evoked higher antennal response to linalool, methyl salicylate, and to a blend of these four components in comparison with limonene, and beta-pinene. In flight tunnel, both sexes were more attracted and landed more often on spheres baited with the four-component blend compared with control spheres. In field cage tests, Multilure traps baited with the four-component blend captured significantly more A. ludens flies than traps baited with hydrolyzed protein or control traps.

  12. Mango resistance to fruit flies. II - resistance of the alfa cultivar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rossetto, C.J.; Bortoletto, N., E-mail: rossetto@iac.sp.gov.b [Agencia Paulista de Tecnologia dos Agronegocios (APTA), Votuporanga, SP (Brazil). Polo Regional do Noroeste Paulista; Walder, J.M.M.; Mastrangelo, T. de A., E-mail: jmwalder@cena.usp.b [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil); Carvalho, C.R.L.; Castro, J.V. de, E-mail: climonta@iac.sp.gov.b, E-mail: josalba@iac.sp.gov.b [Instituto Agronomico de Campinas, SP (Brazil); Pinto, A.C. de Q. [EMBRAPA, Brasilia, DF (Brazil); Cortelazzo, A.L., E-mail: angelo@unicamp.b [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Biologia

    2006-07-01

    The percentage of infested mango fruits of five selected mango varieties was evaluated during three years under field conditions. Three varieties with field resistance to fruit flies had less then 10% of fruits infested. Tommy Atkins, the susceptible commercial check, had 42,9% and the susceptible check had 98.9 % of infested fruits. The three field resistant varieties plus the susceptible commercial check, Tommy Atkins, were further tested in laboratory, under caged conditions, with artificial infestation of Anastrepha obliqua. The attempts of oviposition and the number of pupae developed from each fruit were evaluated. Under caged conditions, the cultivar Alfa maintained its field resistance and Espada Stahl and IAC 111 lost the field resistance and were as susceptible as Tommy Atkins. The attempts of oviposition were positively and highly correlated with the number of pupae developed in the fruits. Non preference for oviposition was confirmed as the main mechanism of resistance of mango fruits to fruit flies. In the absence of a more susceptible variety (no choice test) the cultivar Alfa has kept the resistance (author)

  13. Reducing irradiation damage to 'Arkin' carambola by plastic packaging or storage temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, W.R.; McDonald, R.E.

    1998-01-01

    Carambolas (Averrhoa carambola L.) require quarantine treatment for control of the Caribbean fruit fly (Anastrepha suspensa Loew) (CFF) prior to shipment to certain domestic and export markets. Low-dose irradiation, less than or equal to kGy, is effective for sterilizing CFF and other fruit flies; however, carambolas are susceptible to irradiation-induced peel injury. Low-dose gamma irradiation treatment generally reduced fruit quality, but the effects were mitigated by packaging carambola fruit in ''clamshell'' polystyrene containers, rather than conventional fiberboard boxes, prior to treatment. Use of clamshell containers reduced peel pitting, stem-end breakdown, shriveling, and loss of mass after storage for 14 days at 5 or 7 degrees C. In addition, fruit held in clamshell containers were firmer, with slightly less green peel, and had lower total soluble solids, but the flavor was not quite as good as that of fruit stored in fiberboard boxes. There was no difference in the mastication texture or acidity of fruit by package type at final storage. Packing carambolas in clamshell containers increased their tolerance to irradiation-induced peel disorders and improved the potential for usage of low-dose irradiation for quarantine treatment

  14. Mating disruption with low density diffusers for the management of oriental fruit moths (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae in apple orchards under subtropical climate in southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lino Bittencourt Monteiro

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta Busck, and fruit flies, Anastrepha fraterculus L., are the important apple pests under Subtropical climate in Southern Brazil, and control is normally accomplished with insecticides. An alternative strategy for the control of G. molesta is mating disruption, through the use of pheromones. Mating disruption strategies using a low density of dispensers (20 per hectare were tested in comparison with conventional pesticides for control of G. molesta in commercial Gala apple orchards in Fraiburgo, SC, for a period of five years. The average field efficiency period of mating disruption formulation over five years was 113 days. In this period the mating interruption index on mating disruption plots was 84.8% over five years. Damage to Gala apples by oriental moth larvae was low (<0.1% in mating disruption plots but did not differ from conventional plots, except in the third year. The use of mating disruption allowed for an average reduction of 5.2 insecticide treatments per year in Gala orchards during field efficiency period. It was necessary to apply 1.0 and 1.2 applications of insecticide to control of G. molesta and A. fraterculus, respectively. Mating disruption with a low density of diffusers proved to be an effective alternative to conventional methods for control of G. molesta in Gala apple orchards in subtropical climate in southern Brazil.

  15. Genetic technologies to enhance the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alphey, Luke; Baker, Pam; Condon, George C.; Condon, Kirsty C.; Dafa' alla, Tarig H.; Fu, Guoliang; Jin, Li; Labbe, Genevieve; Morrison, Neil M.; Nimmo, Derric D.; O' Connell, Sinead; Phillips, Caroline E.; Plackett, Andrew; Scaife, Sarah; Woods, Alexander, E-mail: luke.alphey@zoo.ox.ac.u [Oxitec Ltd., Oxford (United Kingdom); Burton, Rosemary S.; Epton, Matthew J.; Gong, Peng [University of Oxford (United Kingdom). Dept. of Zoology

    2006-07-01

    The Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) has been used very successfully against range of pest insects, including various tephritid fruit flies, several moths and a small number of livestock pests. However, modern genetics could potentially provide several improvements that would increase the cost-effectiveness of SIT, and extend the range of suitable species. These include improved identification of released individuals by incorporation of a stable, heritable, genetic marker; built-in sex separation (genetic sexing); reduction of the hazard posed by non-irradiated accidental releases from mass-rearing facility (fail-safe); elimination of the need for sterilization by irradiation (genetic sterilization). We discuss applications of these methods and the state of the art, at the time of this meeting, in developing suitable strains. We have demonstrated, in several key pest species, that the required strains can be constructed by introducing a repressible dominant lethal genetic system, a method known as RIDL(trade mark). Based on field experience with Medfly, incorporation of a genetic sexing system into SIT programs for other tephritids could potentially provide a very significant improvement in cost-effectiveness. We have now been able to make efficient female-lethal strains for Medfly. One advantage of our approach is that it should be possible rapidly to extend this technology to other fruit fly species; indeed we have recently been able also to make genetic sexing strains of Medfly (Anastrepha ludens). (author)

  16. Biological Control of Tephritid Fruit Flies in Argentina: Historical Review, Current Status, and Future Trends for Developing a Parasitoid Mass-Release Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ovruski, Sergio M; Schliserman, Pablo

    2012-09-14

    In Argentina there are two tephritid fruit fly species of major economic and quarantine importance: the exotic Ceratitis capitata that originated from Southeast Africa and the native Anastrepha fraterculus. In recent years, the use of fruit fly parasitoids as biocontrol agents has received renewed attention. This increasing interest has recently led to the establishment of a program for the mass rearing of five million Diachasmimorpha longicaudata parasitoids per week in the BioPlanta San Juan facility, San Juan, Argentina. The first augmentative releases of D. longicaudata in Argentina are currently occurring on commercial fig crops in rural areas of San Juan as part of an integrated fruit fly management program on an area-wide basis. In this context, research is ongoing to assess the suitability of indigenous parasitoid species for successful mass rearing on larvae of either C. capitata or A. fraterculus. The purpose of this article is to provide a historical overview of the biological control of the fruit fly in Argentina, report on the strategies currently used in Argentina, present information on native parasitoids as potential biocontrol agents, and discuss the establishment of a long-term fruit fly biological control program, including augmentative and conservation modalities, in Argentina's various fruit growing regions.

  17. Biological Control of Tephritid Fruit Flies in Argentina: Historical Review, Current Status, and Future Trends for Developing a Parasitoid Mass-Release Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio M. Ovruski

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In Argentina there are two tephritid fruit fly species of major economic and quarantine importance: the exotic Ceratitis capitata that originated from Southeast Africa and the native Anastrepha fraterculus. In recent years, the use of fruit fly parasitoids as biocontrol agents has received renewed attention. This increasing interest has recently led to the establishment of a program for the mass rearing of five million Diachasmimorpha longicaudata parasitoids per week in the BioPlanta San Juan facility, San Juan, Argentina. The first augmentative releases of D. longicaudata in Argentina are currently occurring on commercial fig crops in rural areas of San Juan as part of an integrated fruit fly management program on an area-wide basis. In this context, research is ongoing to assess the suitability of indigenous parasitoid species for successful mass rearing on larvae of either C. capitata or A. fraterculus. The purpose of this article is to provide a historical overview of the biological control of the fruit fly in Argentina, report on the strategies currently used in Argentina, present information on native parasitoids as potential biocontrol agents, and discuss the establishment of a long-term fruit fly biological control program, including augmentative and conservation modalities, in Argentina’s various fruit growing regions.

  18. The Mexican Fruit Fly Eradication Programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reyes F, Jesus; Santiago M, Guillermo; Hernandez M, Porfirio

    2000-01-01

    The goal of the Mexican Fruit Fly Eradication Programme is to control, suppress or eradicate from Mexico four species of fruit flies of economic and quarantine importance (Anastrepha ludens Loew, A. obliqua Macquart, A. serpentina Wied. and A. striata Schiner). These pests cause damage amounting to US$710 million per year. In addition to this cost, there are other expenses from pest control actions and the loss of international markets, because fruit importing countries have established stringent quarantine measures to restrict the entry of these pests. For purposes of the programme's implementation, Mexico was divided into three working zones, defined by agro-ecological characteristics, the number of fruit fly species present and the size of fruit growing regions. In addition, a cost:benefit analysis was carried out which indicated that the rate of return, in a 12-year time frame, might be as much as 33:1 in Northern Mexico, and 17:1 in the rest of the country, for an area over 100,000 hectares. Eradication technology involves: 1) surveys of pest populations by trapping and host fruit harvesting to monitor the presence and density of fruit flies, 2) reduction of pest populations applying cultural practices and using selective bait sprays, 3) mass release of sterile flies and augmentative release of parasitoids to eliminate populations and, 4) enforcement of quarantine measures to protect fruit fly free areas

  19. Development of attractant systems for trapping female Ceratitis capitata (Wied.) (Diptera: Tephritidae) in the Soconusco region, Chiapas, Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montoya, P.; Miranda, H.; Paxtian, J.; Celedonio, H.; Orozco, D.

    1999-01-01

    With the aim of developing a system of attractants and trapping to optimize the capture of female Mediterranean fruit flies, Ceratitis capitata (Wied.) as well as other fruit flies, six experiments were carried out during the period 1994-1997, in a sterile-insect release zone in the Soconusco region of Chiapas, Mexico. Relating to the system of attractants, the evaluation focused on the comparison of food attractants (i.e. ammonium acetate, putrescine and trimethylamine) with standard attractants, such as Trimedlure and liquid hydrolyzed protein. For the trapping system, dry traps (Jackson trap, Open bottom dry trap, etc.) as well as wet traps (McPhail trap, Tephri trap, etc.) were tested alternately with the different kinds of attractants. The experiments were performed in agrosystems of coffee and groves of citrus and mango. Results consistently showed that a combination of ammonium acetate + putrescine + trimethylamine was the best for the capture of female Ceratitis capitata (Wied.) when used in traps such as the OBDT and the plastic McPhail trap (IPMT), while for Anastrepha spp., the McPhail trap baited with liquid hydrolyzed protein still appears to be the best option, although the combination of ammonium acetate with putrescine was quite consistent in the trapping of A. obliqua and A. ludens in traps such as the IPMT. (author)

  20. [Susceptibility of six Arabic coffee cultivars to fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritoidea) under shaded and unshaded organic management in Valença, State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguiar-Menezes, Elen L; Souza, Silvana A S; Santos, Carlos M A; Resende, André L S; Strikis, Pedro C; Costa, Janaína R; Ricci, Marta S F

    2007-01-01

    The infestation indices by fruit flies were determined for six cultivars of Coffea arabica L. in shaded and unshaded systems under organic management. The experiment was set in a completely randomized design with a split-split-plot arrangement and four replicates. A 250g-sample of maturing fruits per plot was harvested in May 2005. The cultivars Icatu Amarelo and Catucaí Amarelo were the least susceptible to attack by tephritids in both systems. As for lonchaeids, Oeiras, Catucaí Amarelo and Catuaí Vermelho were the least susceptible cultivars in the shaded system, and there was no difference among the cultivars in the unshaded system. The following tephritid species were obtained: Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann) and A. sororcula Zucchi (Tephritidae). Lonchaeids were represented by Neosilba bifida Strikis & Prado, N. certa (Walker), N. glaberrima (Wiedemann), N. pendula (Bezzi), N. pseudopendula (Korytkowski and Ojeda), Dasiops rugifrons Hennig, Neosilba n.sp.10 and Neosilba n.sp.14.

  1. Genetic technologies to enhance the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alphey, Luke; Baker, Pam; Condon, George C.; Condon, Kirsty C.; Dafa'alla, Tarig H.; Fu, Guoliang; Jin, Li; Labbe, Genevieve; Morrison, Neil M.; Nimmo, Derric D.; O'Connell, Sinead; Phillips, Caroline E.; Plackett, Andrew; Scaife, Sarah; Woods, Alexander; Burton, Rosemary S.; Epton, Matthew J.; Gong, Peng

    2006-01-01

    The Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) has been used very successfully against range of pest insects, including various tephritid fruit flies, several moths and a small number of livestock pests. However, modern genetics could potentially provide several improvements that would increase the cost-effectiveness of SIT, and extend the range of suitable species. These include improved identification of released individuals by incorporation of a stable, heritable, genetic marker; built-in sex separation (genetic sexing); reduction of the hazard posed by non-irradiated accidental releases from mass-rearing facility (fail-safe); elimination of the need for sterilization by irradiation (genetic sterilization). We discuss applications of these methods and the state of the art, at the time of this meeting, in developing suitable strains. We have demonstrated, in several key pest species, that the required strains can be constructed by introducing a repressible dominant lethal genetic system, a method known as RIDL(trade mark). Based on field experience with Medfly, incorporation of a genetic sexing system into SIT programs for other tephritids could potentially provide a very significant improvement in cost-effectiveness. We have now been able to make efficient female-lethal strains for Medfly. One advantage of our approach is that it should be possible rapidly to extend this technology to other fruit fly species; indeed we have recently been able also to make genetic sexing strains of Medfly (Anastrepha ludens). (author)

  2. Evaluation of the quality and shelf life of gamma irradiated blueberries by quarantine purposes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lires, Carla M. L.; Docters, Andrea; Horak, Celina I.

    2018-02-01

    Fresh blueberries (Vaccinium spp.) are considered one of the richest sources of phenolic compounds and are appreciated for their high antioxidant capacity. But they are hosts in Argentina of the quarantine pests Ceratitis capitata and Anastrepha fraterculus, and have to be treated to avoid its spreading. Irradiation is being introduced in the Agricultural World trade, increasing exponentially on the last years. In order to guarantee the success of this process, it is required previous to the rutinary treatment, to define the irradiation dose range to be applied. The minimum dose for these pests has been already approved in the IPPC standard 28. The maximum dose depends on the tolerance of the fruit cultivars, maturity, pre-harvest conditions, harvest time, storage conditions, and interactions among these factors. The postharvest quality of Argentina´s blueberry treated with irradiation doses of 150 (generic quarantine dose used for fruit flies) and 300 Gy (to evaluate tolerance) was evaluated. The studies included blueberries from different harvest seasons 2009-2012). Misty, O'Neal and Emeral varieties were chosen, because they represent the biggest volume of exported blueberry from Argentina. The results indicated that irradiation at 150 Gy and 300 Gy did not significantly affect the postharvest quality and slightly improved shelf life of the different blueberries varieties. Therefore, it is possible to use irradiation as an alternative quarantine treatment for Argentina´s blueberries, establishing a dose range appropriate to be applied on a commercial irradiation facility.

  3. Augmentative Biological Control Using Parasitoids for Fruit Fly Management in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávio R. M. Garcia

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The history of classical biological control of fruit flies in Brazil includes two reported attempts in the past 70 years. The first occurred in 1937 when an African species of parasitoid larvae (Tetrastichus giffardianus was introduced to control the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata and other tephritids. The second occurred in September 1994 when the exotic parasitoid Diachasmimorpha longicaudata, originally from Gainesville, Florida, was introduced by a Brazilian agricultural corporation (EMBRAPA to evaluate the parasitoid’s potential for the biological control of Anastrepha spp. and Ceratitis capitata. Although there are numerous native Brazilian fruit fly parasitoids, mass rearing of these native species is difficult. Thus, D. longicaudata was chosen due to its specificity for the family Tephritidae and its ease of laboratory rearing. In this paper we review the literature on Brazilian fruit fly biological control and suggest that those tactics can be used on a large scale, together creating a biological barrier to the introduction of new fruit fly populations, reducing the source of outbreaks and the risk of species spread, while decreasing the use of insecticides on fruit destined for domestic and foreign markets.

  4. Augmentative Biological Control Using Parasitoids for Fruit Fly Management in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Flávio R M; Ricalde, Marcelo P

    2012-12-21

    The history of classical biological control of fruit flies in Brazil includes two reported attempts in the past 70 years. The first occurred in 1937 when an African species of parasitoid larvae (Tetrastichus giffardianus) was introduced to control the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata and other tephritids. The second occurred in September 1994 when the exotic parasitoid Diachasmimorpha longicaudata, originally from Gainesville, Florida, was introduced by a Brazilian agricultural corporation (EMBRAPA) to evaluate the parasitoid's potential for the biological control of Anastrepha spp. and Ceratitis capitata. Although there are numerous native Brazilian fruit fly parasitoids, mass rearing of these native species is difficult. Thus, D. longicaudata was chosen due to its specificity for the family Tephritidae and its ease of laboratory rearing. In this paper we review the literature on Brazilian fruit fly biological control and suggest that those tactics can be used on a large scale, together creating a biological barrier to the introduction of new fruit fly populations, reducing the source of outbreaks and the risk of species spread, while decreasing the use of insecticides on fruit destined for domestic and foreign markets.

  5. Wolbachia in two populations of Melittobia digitata Dahms (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Copeland, Claudia S.; Sivinski, John [United States Dept. of Agriculture, Gainesville, FL (United States). Center for Medical, Agriculture and Veterinary Entomology]. E-mails: cclaudia@bioinf.uni-leipzig.de; john.sivinski@ars.usda.gov; Matthews, Robert W. [University of Georgia, Athens, GA (United States). Dept. of Entomology]. E-mail: rmatthew@uga.edu; Gonzalez, Jorge M. [Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States). Dept. of Entomology]. E-mail: jmgonzalez@neo.tamu.edu; Aluja, Martin [Instituto de Ecologia A.C., Veracruz (Mexico)]. E-mail: martin.aluja@inecol.edu.mx

    2008-11-15

    We investigated two populations of Melittobia digitata Dahms, a gregarious parasitoid (primarily upon a wide range of solitary bees, wasps, and flies), in search of Wolbachia infection. The first population, from Xalapa, Mexico, was originally collected from and reared on Mexican fruit fly pupae, Anastrepha ludens Loew (Diptera: Tephritidae); the other, from Athens, Georgia, was collected from and reared on prepupae of mud dauber wasps, Trypoxylon politum Say (Hymenoptera: Crabronidae). PCR studies of the ITS2 region corroborated that both parasitoid populations were the same species; this potentially provides a useful molecular taxonomic profile since females of Melittobia species are superficially similar. Amplification of the Wolbachia surface protein gene (wsp) confirmed the presence of this endosymbiont in both populations. Sequencing revealed that the Wolbachia harbored in both populations exhibited a wsp belonging to a unique subgroup (denoted here as Dig) within the B-supergroup of known wsp genes. This new subgroup of wsp may either belong to a different strain of Wolbachia from those previously found to infect Melittobia or may be the result of a recombination event. In either case, known hosts of Wolbachia with a wsp of this subgroup are only distantly related taxonomically. Reasons are advanced as to why Melittobia - an easily reared and managed parasitoid - holds promise as an instructive model organism of Wolbachia infection amenable to the investigation of Wolbachia strains among its diverse hosts. (author)

  6. Disinfestation by irradiation of mangoes (Manguifera Indica L.) Kent and oranges (Citrus sinensis O.) Valencia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bustos Ramirez, M.E.

    1987-01-01

    The objectives in this work were to determine the minimum dose for radiation disinfestation of mangoes and oranges infested with Mexican fruit fly (Anastrepha ludens Loew) and to evaluate the quality of the fruits by organoleptic, chemical and physiological analysis of mangoes irradiated to 0.3, 0.6 and 1.0 kGy and storaged at 12 0 C during 15 days and oranges irradiated to 0.25, 0.6 and 1.0 kGy and storaged at 15 0 C during 21 days. To inhibit the development of larvaes in mangoes the minimum dose was 0.3 kGy and for oranges the dose was 0.45 kGy. The dose for the probit 9 security test were 0.43 kGy for mangoes and 0.63 kGy for oranges. The results of sensorial analysis in mangoes, indicated that there are no significative differences for the two panels: consumers or trained judges. The differences in the physiological and chemical analysis are greater for storage fruits than for the irradiated ones. At the end of the storage period the appearance of the irradiated mangoes was better than for the control. The observed differences in irradiated oranges were the presence of dark zones on the oranges peel which affect their quality. This effect is due to the irradiation in oranges not completely ripen. (author)

  7. Generic ionizing radiation quarantine treatments against fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) proposed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallman, Guy J; Loaharanu, Paisan

    2002-10-01

    Tephritid fruit flies comprise the most important group of quarantined pests of fresh produce. Most quarantine treatments of fresh agricultural commodities are directed against these pests, and considerable effort in detection, trapping, and population control is expended worldwide to prevent these pests from invading new territories. Ionizing radiation has been studied for 70 yr for its possible use as a quarantine treatment against fruit flies, but has only been applied commercially on a limited basis since 1995. The treatment has great potential and will probably be used extensively in the future as it is tolerated by more species of fruits than any other major treatment. The U.S. Department Agriculture, Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service only recently proposed allowing irradiation for fresh agricultural imports from other countries, and other countries are studying proposals to do likewise. In 1991, the International Consultative Group on Food Irradiation recommended a generic dose against all tephritid fruit flies of 150 Gy. This article examines the literature dealing with irradiation quarantine treatments against fruit flies and recommends minimum absorbed doses of 70 Gy for Anastrepha spp., 101 Gy for Bactrocera jarvisi and B. tryoni, and 150 Gy for all Tephritidae except when fruits have been stored in hypoxic atmospheres.

  8. IMPROVING MASS REARING TECHNOLOGY FOR SOUTH AMERICAN FRUIT FLY (DIPTERA:TEPHRITIDAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raimundo Braga Sobrinho

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies on availability of suitable and economic diets for adults and larvae of the South American fruit fly Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann, 1830 were carried out at the Entomology Unit of the FAO/IAEA Agriculture and Biotechnology Laboratories in Seibersdorf, Austria with the aim to find the best diets to fit in a large scale mass rearing production. The best diet for adult was the combination of Hydrolysate Corn Protein + Yeast Hydrolysate Enzymatic + Sugar (3:1:3. This diet resulted in the highest numbers of egg/female/day, spermatozoid in the spermathecae, percentages of egg hatch, the lowest mortality rate of adults and the highest average mating duration compared with the standard adult diet based on Yeast Hydrolysate Enzymatic + Sugar (1:3. Among eleven larval diets tested, diets based on sugarcane and sugarbeet bagases plus 7% brewer yeast, 8% sugar, 0.2% sodium benzoate, 0.8% of hydrochloric acid and 60% water (adjusted, yielded the highest percentages of egg hatching, pupal recovery, pupal weight and adult emergence. There was no statistical difference with the standard larval diet based on wheat germ 3%, corncob 15%, corn flower 8%, brewer yeast 6%, sugar 8%, sodium benzoate 0.23%, hydrochloric acid 0.63%, nipagin 0.14% and water 59% (adjusted. The significant performance of these adult and larval diets open discussion for future researches on improvement of rearing techniques required for the establishment of sterile insect technique (SIT program focused on the South American fruit fly.

  9. Influence of irradiation on development of Caribbean fruit fly (diptera: tephritidae) larvae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nation, J.L.; Milne, K.; Dykstra, T.M.

    1995-01-01

    Larvae of the Caribbean fruit fly, Anastrepha suspensa (Loew), were irradiated at hatching with 0, 5, 10, 20, 50, 75, 100 and 150 Gy doses from a Cesium-137 source and dissected for measurements of the supraesophageal ganglion (brain) and proventriculus (B/Prv) as mature third instars. Cross-sectional area of a plane through the brain and proventriculus, and simple dorsal width measurements of the two organs were evaluated as indicators of radiation exposure. Brain area, brain width, and brain/proventriculus (B/Prv) ratios were significantly different from controls in insects treated with a dose ≥20 Gy. Detailed dissections of hatching larvae exposed to 50 Gy revealed reductions in brain growth, small and misshapen compound eye and leg imaginal disks, and a ventral nerve cord that was elongated and sinuous. Larvae irradiated on the 1st d of each of the three instars had smaller brains, with the percentage of reduction in brain size being greater the younger the larvae were at the time of exposure. Brain and proventriculus measurements and calculated B/Prv values are indicative of irradiation in Caribbean fruit fly larvae, but the procedure may not be adaptable for routine use by quarantine inspectors. 14 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs

  10. Development of Myrmeleon brasiliensis (Navás (Neuroptera, Myrmeleontidae, in laboratory, with different natural diets Desenvolvimento de Myrmeleon brasiliensis (Navás (Neuroptera, Myrmeleontidae, em laboratório, com diferentes dietas naturais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giani L. B. Missirian

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Antlions larvae are sit-and-wait predators that capture arthropod prey in conical sand pits. The aim of this paper were to determine the effect of different natural diets [leaf-cutting ants (Atta spp., fruit fly larvae (Anastrepha spp. and Ceratitis capitata and mixed diet (Atta spp. plus fruit fly larvae] on the development of larvae and pupae of M. brasiliensis (Navás, 1914 and to estimate the number and size of prey caught in each instar and on each kind of diet. The average duration (days of the second and third instars of M. brasiliensis was longer when larvae of antlion were fed with leaf-cutting ants. The diets did not affect the duration of the pupal stage nor the pupae size. The different diets did not affect the mean width of head capsule (mm, the mean weight (mg or the mean body size (mm in the different instars of M. brasiliensis. In the second and third instars, the larvae of M. brasiliensis fed with leaf-cutting ants consumed more prey than larvae kept on other diets. Adults whose larvae were fed fruit fly larvae were larger than adults on other diets. Although Myrmeleontidae are few studied in Brazil, these results contribute to knowledge of M. brasiliensis biology, but also suggest the need of studies about the development of larvae and pupae in natural environments.Larvas de formiga-leão são conhecidas por suas armadilhas ("funis" que constroem em solo arenoso, sob as quais esperam por suas presas. Este trabalho teve como objetivos verificar o efeito de diferentes dietas naturais [formigas-cortadeiras (Atta spp., larvas de moscas-das-frutas (Anastrepha spp. e Ceratitis capitata e dieta mista (Atta spp. e larvas de moscas-das-frutas] sobre o desenvolvimento larval e pupal de M. brasiliensis (Navás, 1914 e estimar o número e tamanho de presas capturadas, por instar larval, em cada dieta. No segundo e terceiro instares, as larvas de M. brasiliensis alimentadas com formigas-cortadeiras consumiram um número maior de presas e a

  11. Confusão sexual para o controle de Grapholita molesta (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae, em pomares de macieira, em Fraiburgo (SC, Brasil Mating disruption for the control of Grapholita molesta (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae, in Fraiburgo, Santa Catarina, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lino B. Monteiro

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available O controle de Grapholita molesta (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae foi avaliado pela técnica de confusão sexual em macieira no município de Fraiburgo (SC. A formulação do feromônio sintético utilizada foi da marca Quant G.m. (400 mg do acetato de (Z/E - 8 - dodecenila 14% p/v, com 500 difusores por hectare, distribuídos em um pomar de macieira comercial 'Fuji' de 2,52 ha. O tratamento com confusão sexual foi comparado com a testemunha convencional. O monitoramento para moscas-das-frutas, Anastrepha fraterculus (Diptera: Tephritidae; mariposa oriental, Grapholita molesta e lagarta enroladeira, Bonagota cranaodes (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae foi realizado para decidir se haveria necessidade de pulverização de inseticidas. Não houve capturas de G. molesta na armadilha do Tipo Delta, instalada no tratamento com confusão sexual até 93 dias após a liberação do feromônio. Nesse período, realizaram-se duas pulverizações para moscas-das-frutas e lagarta-enroladeira no tratamento com confusão sexual e oito pulverizações no tratamento convencional. Os danos causados por G. molesta em ambos os tratamentos não ultrapassaram 0,5%, mesmo com a redução de 77% dos inseticidas no tratamento com confusão sexual. Verifica-se, portanto, que a técnica de confusão sexual é eficiente para o controle de G. molesta.The control of Grapholita molesta (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae was assessed by using the mating disruption technique in an apple orchard in Fraiburgo, SC. Quant G.m. synthetic pheromone formulation (400 mg of (Z/E - 8 - dodecenyl acetate 14% p/v was used, with 500 dispensers per hectare, distributed over a 2.52 hectare 'Fuji' commercial orchard. The mating disruption treatment was compared with a chemical control treatment. The action threshold was determined by monitoring fruit flies Anastrepha fraterculus (Diptera: Tephritidae, G. molesta and leafroller Bonagota cranaodes (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae. G. molesta was caught in the Delta traps

  12. Controle de pragas e doenças, maturação e qualidade de maçãs 'imperial gala' submetidas ao ensacamento Control of insect pests and diseases, maturity and quality of 'imperial gala' apples submitted to bagging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosângela Teixeira

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a eficiência de diferentes embalagens no ensacamento de maçãs para o controle de pragas e doenças, e sua influência na maturação e qualidade dos frutos, em pomar sob sistema orgânico. O experimento foi conduzido em pomar com plantas de dez anos de idade da cultivar Imperial Gala, sobre porta-enxerto 'Marubakaido', com filtro EM-9, localizado no município de São Joaquim-SC, nas safras 2007/2008 e 2008/2009. Os frutos foram ensacados, após o raleio, com embalagens plásticas transparentes microperfuradas ou de tecido não texturizado (TNT. Frutos não ensacados constituíram o tratamento-controle. Na colheita, os frutos foram avaliados quanto aos danos provocados por mosca-das-frutas (Anastrepha fraterculus, mariposa-oriental (Grapholita molesta, lagarta-enroladeira (Bonagota salubricola e pulgão-lanígero (Eriosoma lanigerum, incidência das doenças sarna-da-macieira (Venturia inaequalis e podridão-amarga (Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, e atributos físico-químicos de maturação e qualidade e teor de cálcio (Ca nos frutos. O ensacamento, independentemente do tipo de material utilizado, reduziu os danos de insetos-praga, porém não foi eficiente no controle de doenças nos frutos. O ensacamento não comprometeu o desenvolvimento de coloração vermelha na casca e o teor de Ca nos frutos. De modo geral, o ensacamento antecipou o processo de maturação, caracterizado pela redução na firmeza de polpa e na textura da casca e da polpa, e pelo aumento no índice de iodoamido.This work was carried out to evaluate the efficiency of different fruit bagging materials to insect pests and diseases control, and its influence on maturity and quality of the fruits in an organic apple orchard. The experiment was conducted in an orchard with ten years old 'Imperial Gala' apple trees grafted on 'Marubakaido' rootstock (with a filter of EM-9, in São Joaquim, State of Santa Catarina, in 2007/08 and 2008

  13. Novel insecticide strategies such as phototoxic dyes in adult fruit fly control and suppression programmes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreno, Daniel S.; Mangan, Robert L.

    2000-01-01

    The problems of public acceptance, ecological impact, and integration with pest management programmes associated with use of broad spectrum insecticides in bait sprays for fruit flies are being addressed in our laboratory by our development of more precisely targeted bait systems which use insecticides which are less toxic to non-target organisms. Historically, bait and insecticide sprays to control fruit flies have been used since the beginning of the 20th century. Initially, inorganic insecticides were recommended. After the Second World War, chlorinated hydrocarbon insecticides replaced inorganic ones only to be replaced by the organic ones that are used at present. Back and Pemberton (1918) stated that baits used for fruit fly control were first recommended by Mally in South Africa for the control of the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), in 1908-1909 and by Berlese in Italy for the control of the olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Gmelin). The methods were improved by Lounsboury in South Africa in 1912 for the control of C. capitata and by Newman during 1913-1914 in Australia for the control of the Queensland fruit fly, Bactrocera tryoni (Froggatt). In 1910, Marsh used low-volume insecticide applications against the melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett), in Hawaii. Thereafter, other investigators adopted the low-volume approach to kill fruit flies. Whenever baits were used, they added carbohydrates and fermenting substances such as sugars, molasses, syrups, or fruit juices. In the 1930s, McPhail (1937), while working with attractants, found that sugar-yeast solutions attracted flies, and, in 1939 found that protein lures were attractive to Anastrepha species, especially to the guava fruit fly, A. striata Schiner (Baker et al. 1944). It was not until 1952, however, when Steiner demonstrated the use of hydrolysed proteins and partially hydrolysed yeast in combination with organophosphate insecticides to control fruit flies, that

  14. Custos variáveis de produção de Diachasmimorpha longicaudata (Ashmead para controle de moscas-das-frutas = Variable costs of production for Diachasmimorpha longicaudata to control the fruit flies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Gisely Camargos

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available O controle biológico aplicado consiste em liberações em massa de predadores ou parasitoides após a criação laboratorial em larga escala. Avaliar o custo de produção do parasitoide Diachasmimorpha longicaudata para controle biológico de moscas-das-frutas irá fornecer uma ferramenta capaz de auxiliar o planejamento, controle e uma forma de apoiar as empresas quanto as suas tomadas de decisão. Este trabalho teve por objetivo identificar e analisar os custos variáveis de produção do parasitoideD. longicaudata, criado em larvas de Anastrepha fraterculus utilizando a ferramenta de Custeio Baseado em Atividade [ABC]. Foi acompanhado o processo produtivo para obter o custo variável total de produção em laboratório de pesquisa e biofábrica de inimigos naturais, localizado em Piracicaba, São Paulo. A capacidade de produção de pupas de A. fraterculus parasitadas por D. longicaudata é de um milhão por semana nesse laboratório, sendo que um milhão de pupas representa 34 L, e um mL contém aproximadamente 30 pupas. O custo variável de produção para produzir um milhão de pupas parasitadas por semana foi de R$ 5.919,65 ou R$0,0059 por pupa. O custo com mão de obra representa 57% do custo total, enquanto o custo com materiais representa 43%. A tomada de decisão do produtor em relação ao controle biológico utilizando D. longicaudatadependerá de estudos prévios sobre o parasitoide e cultura pretendida. = Applied biological control consists in the mass liberation of laboratory reared predators or parasitoids. Evaluating the variable cost of production of the fruit flies parasitoid Diachasmimorpha longicaudata for biological control will provide a tool to assist the planning, control and a way to support businesses as their decision-making. This study aims to identify and analyze the variable costs productionof D. longicaudata, created in larvas of Anastrepha fraterculus using the Activity-Based Costing Tool [ABC]. The total

  15. Trapping guidelines for area-wide fruit fly programmes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-11-01

    Different traps and lures have been developed and used over decades to survey fruit fly populations. The first attractant for male fruit flies was methyl eugenol (ME) (for Bactrocera zonata, Howlett, 1912) followed by kerosene for Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata, (medfly), Severin and Severin, 1913. In 1956, Angelica seed oil was used to trap medfly (Steiner et al, 1957). Beroza et al. (1961) discovered trimedlure (TML) to be effective for the same purpose. Beroza and Green, 1963, demonstrated cuelure to be an effective attractant for Bactrocera cucurbitae. Food baits based on protein solutions, fermenting sugar solutions, fruit juices, and vinegar have been used since 1918 for the capture of females of several species. The McPhail trap was the first device to be used with protein baits (McPhail, 1929). Steiner traps were developed in 1957 (Steiner et al., 1957) and Jackson traps in 1971 for TML (Harris et al., 1971). These traps are currently used in various countries for fruit fly surveys in support of control activities and eradication campaigns. The combination of a McPhail trap with a protein attractant, Jackson trap with TML, and the Steiner trap with ME or cuelure (CUE), has remained unchanged for several decades. Global trends in increasing food quality, revenue sources, and fruit and vegetable trade, has resulted in an increased worldwide movement of fruit fly species and requires refinement of survey systems. After years of validating trapping technology through coordinated research programmes (CRP's) and extensive technical assistance to member countries, the Joint Division FAO/IAEA proposes the use of proven technologies in improving trap sensitivity in area-wide fruit fly control programmes (IAEA 1996 and IAEA 1998). These proven technologies include the use of synthetic food lures such as female attractants that can be used for several species of Anastrepha, Bactrocera and Ceratitis. Other citations of information on these developments are

  16. Prolongevity effects of a botanical with oregano and cranberry extracts in Mexican fruit flies: examining interactions of diet restriction and age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Sige; Carey, James R; Liedo, Pablo; Ingram, Donald K; Yu, Binbing

    2012-04-01

    Botanicals rich with phytochemicals have numerous health benefits. Dietary restriction (DR) extends lifespan in diverse species. We previously demonstrated that an oregano-cranberry (OC) mixture can promote longevity in the Mexican Fruit fly (Mexfly, Anastrepha ludens Loew). However, little is known about the interaction between botanicals and DR, and the age-dependent effect of botanicals on lifespan and reproduction. Here we investigated these issues by feeding Mexflies a full or DR diet supplemented with or without 2% OC. Lifespan and daily egg production of individual flies were recorded. The effect of short-term OC supplementation was evaluated by implementing the supplementation at three age intervals-young, middle, and old age. We found that OC increased lifespan of Mexflies on the full or DR diet when compared to their respective controls. OC increased reproduction of females on the full diet and, to a lesser extent, on the DR diet. Short-term OC supplementation was not sufficient to extend lifespan for males at all three age intervals nor for females at young and old age intervals. However, OC supplementation at the middle age interval was sufficient to extend lifespan in females, while only OC supplementation at the young age interval increased reproduction in females. Our findings suggest that OC extends lifespan and promotes reproduction partly through DR-independent pathways, and short-term supplementation have varied impact on longevity and reproduction. This also suggests a positive interaction between non-genetic interventions in promoting longevity and provides guidance for using botanicals as aging interventions in humans.

  17. Temporal Overlap and Co-Occurrence in a Guild of Sub-Tropical Tephritid Fruit Flies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Gleidyane N; Souza-Filho, Miguel F; Gotelli, Nicholas J; Lemos, Leandro J U; Godoy, Wesley A C; Zucchi, Roberto A

    2015-01-01

    Studies of community assembly have emphasized snapshot comparisons of spatially replicated samples from "natural" assemblages. Agro-ecosystems are characterized by relatively little habitat heterogeneity and no dispersal barriers for actively flying insects. Therefore, dynamic patterns of species segregation and aggregation are more likely to reflect the direct or indirect effects of species interactions. We studied the temporal organization of a guild of 21 congeneric species of Anastrepha that colonized fruit orchards in Monte Alegre do Sul, São Paulo, Brazil. This assemblage also included the introduced Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata. One hundred six consecutive weekly censuses (11 Jan 2002-16 Jan 2004) of flies in guava, loquat, and peach orchards revealed a pattern of minimum abundance during the coldest months of each year (June and July) and a maximum abundance during periods of flowering and fruit ripening. Overall, phenological overlap was greater than expected by chance. However, conditioned on the pattern of seasonal abundances, temporal occurrence and abundance matrices exhibited patterns of significant species segregation and anti-nestedness. In each year, the 3 orchards contained a small number of species pairs that exhibited statistically significant temporal segregation or aggregation. Most aggregated and segregated pairs reflected seasonal shifts in species presences that were not related to variation in air temperature. Most of the significant pairwise associations involved C. capitata: 8 of the 11 segregated pairs and 2 of the 7 aggregated pairs. These results suggest that species interactions between introduced and native species can be an important determinant of species associations in agro-ecosystems.

  18. Product quality control, irradiation and shipping procedures for mass-reared tephritid fruit flies for sterile insect release programmes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-05-01

    This document represents the recommendations, reached by consensus of an international group of quality control experts, on the standard procedures for product quality control (QC) for mass reared tephritid flies that are to be used in Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) programs. In addition, the manual describes recommended methods of handling and packaging pupae during irradiation and shipment. Most of the procedures were designed specifically for use with Mediterranean fruit flies, Ceratitis capitata (Wied.), but they are applicable, with minor modification in some cases, for other tephritid species such as Caribbean fruit fly Anastrepha suspense, Mexican fruit fly A. ludens, and various Bactrocera species. The manual is evolving and subject to periodic updates. The future additions will include other fruit flies as the need is identified. If followed, procedures described in this manual will help ensure that the quality of mass-produced flies is measured accurately in a standardised fashion, allowing comparisons of quality over time and across rearing facilities and field programmes. Problems in rearing, irradiation and handling procedures, and strain quality can be identified and hopefully corrected before control programmes are affected. Tests and procedures described in this document are only part of a total quality control programme for tephritid fly production. The product QC evaluations included in this manual are, unless otherwise noted, required to be conducted during SIT programmes by the Field programme staff not the production staff. Additional product QC tests have been developed and their use is optional (see ancillary test section). Production and process QC evaluations (e.g., analysis of diet components, monitoring the rearing environment, yield of larvae, development rate, etc.) are not within the scope of this document. Quality specifications are included for minimum and mean acceptability of conventional strains of C. capitata, A. ludens, and A

  19. Eradication of tephritid fruit fly pest populations: outcomes and prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suckling, David Maxwell; Kean, John M.; Stringer, Lloyd D.; Cáceres-Barrios, Carlos; Hendrichs, Jorge; Reyes-Flores, Jesus; Dominiak, Bernard C.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The number of insect eradication programmes is rising in response to globalisation. A database of arthropod and plant pathogen eradications covers 1050 incursion responses, with 928 eradication programmes on 299 pest and disease taxa in 104 countries (global eradication database b3.net.nz/gerda). METHODS: A subset of the database was assembled with 211 eradication or response programmes against 17 species of fruit flies (Tephritidae) in 31 countries, in order to investigate factors affecting the outcome. RESULTS: The failure rate for fruit fly eradication programmes was about 7%, with 0% for Ceratitis capitata (n=85 programmes) and 0% for two Anastrepha species (n=12 programmes), but 12% for 13 Bactrocera species (n=108 programmes). A number of intended eradication programmesagainst long-established populations were not initiated because of cost and other considerations, or evolved during the planning phase into suppression programmes. Cost was dependent on area, ranged from $US 0.1 million to $US 240 million and averaged about $US 12 million (normalised to $US in 2012). In addition to the routine use of surveillance networks, quarantine and fruit destruction, the key tactics used in eradication programmes were male annihilation, protein bait sprays (which can attract both sexes), fruit destruction and the sterile insect technique. CONCLUSIONS: Eradication success generally required the combination of several tactics applied on an area-wide basis. Because the likelihood of eradication declines with an increase in the area infested, it pays to invest in effective surveillance networks that allow early detection and delimitation while invading populations are small, thereby greatly favouring eradication success. (author)

  20. Dietas artificiais para a criação de larvas e adultos da mosca-das-frutas sul-americana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrise Medeiros Nunes

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi adequar as dietas artificiais para o desenvolvimento dos estágios de larva e adulto da mosca-das-frutas sul-americana (Anastrepha fraterculus. Para o estágio larval, foram testadas as seguintes dietas: D1, original, com 10 g de ágar; D2, modificada, com 3,6 g de ágar; e, D3, modificada, com bagaço seco de cana-de-açúcar. Para os adultos, foram testadas quatro dietas: A, levedura de cerveja + mel (2:1; B, açúcar refinado + extrato de levedura + gérmen de trigo cru (3:1:1; C, extrato de soja + açúcar mascavo + gérmen de trigo cru (3:1:1; e D, levedura seca de cervejaria + mel (2:1. Avaliaram-se os parâmetros biológicos de duração do período ovo-pupa, duração e viabilidade do estágio de pupa, massa média de pupas, razão sexual e duração e viabilidade do período ovo-adulto. O desenvolvimento larval em D1 e D2 foi semelhante e indicou que a criação de larvas pode ser realizada com 1/3 da quantidade de ágar da utilizada em D1. A utilização do bagaço seco de cana-de-açúcar, na dieta artificial, afetou negativamente o desenvolvimento larval. As dietas artificiais com levedura de cerveja + mel e com açúcar refinado + extrato de levedura + gérmen de trigo cru são as mais adequadas para a criação de adultos.

  1. Controle de pragas e doenças, maturação e qualidade de maçãs 'imperial gala' submetidas ao ensacamento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosângela Teixeira

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a eficiência de diferentes embalagens no ensacamento de maçãs para o controle de pragas e doenças, e sua influência na maturação e qualidade dos frutos, em pomar sob sistema orgânico. O experimento foi conduzido em pomar com plantas de dez anos de idade da cultivar Imperial Gala, sobre porta-enxerto 'Marubakaido', com filtro EM-9, localizado no município de São Joaquim-SC, nas safras 2007/2008 e 2008/2009. Os frutos foram ensacados, após o raleio, com embalagens plásticas transparentes microperfuradas ou de tecido não texturizado (TNT. Frutos não ensacados constituíram o tratamento-controle. Na colheita, os frutos foram avaliados quanto aos danos provocados por mosca-das-frutas (Anastrepha fraterculus, mariposa-oriental (Grapholita molesta, lagarta-enroladeira (Bonagota salubricola e pulgão-lanígero (Eriosoma lanigerum, incidência das doenças sarna-da-macieira (Venturia inaequalis e podridão-amarga (Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, e atributos físico-químicos de maturação e qualidade e teor de cálcio (Ca nos frutos. O ensacamento, independentemente do tipo de material utilizado, reduziu os danos de insetos-praga, porém não foi eficiente no controle de doenças nos frutos. O ensacamento não comprometeu o desenvolvimento de coloração vermelha na casca e o teor de Ca nos frutos. De modo geral, o ensacamento antecipou o processo de maturação, caracterizado pela redução na firmeza de polpa e na textura da casca e da polpa, e pelo aumento no índice de iodoamido.

  2. Efficacy of 1,4-diaminobutane (putrescine) in a food-based synthetic attractant for capture of Mediterranean and Mexican fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heath, Robert R; Epsky, Nancy D; Midgarden, David; Katsoyannos, Byron I

    2004-06-01

    Field trials were conducted in Guatemala to evaluate the importance of 1,4 diaminobutane (putrescine) in traps baited with ammonium acetate, trimethylamine, and putrescine. For the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), there were no differences in percentage of females captured in coffee and citrus or in percentage of males captured in citrus in traps with ammonium acetate and trimethylamine lures (females in coffee, 26.4 +/- 6.27%; females in citrus, 35.7 +/- 5.35%; males in citrus, 37.7 +/- 7.48%) versus ammonium acetate, trimethylamine, and putrescine lures (females in coffee, 36.6 +/- 9.64%; females in citrus, 41.1 +/- 5.18%; males in citrus, 37.1 +/- 6.09%). Percentage of males captured in coffee was reduced significantly when putrescine was not used with the ammonium acetate and trimethylamine (39.9 +/- 4.34 versus 31.6 +/- 5.29%). Lower percentages were captured in traps baited with ammonium acetate and putrescine, and the lowest percentages were captured in traps baited with putrescine and trimethylamine. When population level as indicated by capture in traps baited with ammonium acetate, trimethylamine, and putrescine was considered, a higher percentage of C. capitata males were captured in traps baited with all three components when one or more flies per trap per day were captured in coffee, and a higher percentage of females were captured when less than one fly per trap per day was captured in citrus. Percentage of the Mexican fruit fly, Anastrepha ludens (Loew), captured was significantly higher in traps baited with ammonium acetate and putrescine and significantly lower in traps baited putrescine and trimethylamine than in all other treatments. Results indicate that putrescine may be deleted when monitoring established populations of C. capitata but should be used in traps used to monitor A. ludens or to detect new infestations of C. capitata.

  3. Eradication of tephritid fruit fly pest populations: outcomes and prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suckling, David Maxwell; Kean, John M; Stringer, Lloyd D; Cáceres-Barrios, Carlos; Hendrichs, Jorge; Reyes-Flores, Jesus; Dominiak, Bernard C

    2016-03-01

    The number of insect eradication programmes is rising in response to globalisation. A database of arthropod and plant pathogen eradications covers 1050 incursion responses, with 928 eradication programmes on 299 pest and disease taxa in 104 countries (global eradication database b3.net.nz/gerda). A subset of the database was assembled with 211 eradication or response programmes against 17 species of fruit flies (Tephritidae) in 31 countries, in order to investigate factors affecting the outcome. The failure rate for fruit fly eradication programmes was about 7%, with 0% for Ceratitis capitata (n = 85 programmes) and 0% for two Anastrepha species (n = 12 programmes), but 12% for 13 Bactrocera species (n = 108 programmes). A number of intended eradication programmes against long-established populations were not initiated because of cost and other considerations, or evolved during the planning phase into suppression programmes. Cost was dependent on area, ranged from $US 0.1 million to $US 240 million and averaged about $US 12 million (normalised to $US in 2012). In addition to the routine use of surveillance networks, quarantine and fruit destruction, the key tactics used in eradication programmes were male annihilation, protein bait sprays (which can attract both sexes), fruit destruction and the sterile insect technique. Eradication success generally required the combination of several tactics applied on an area-wide basis. Because the likelihood of eradication declines with an increase in the area infested, it pays to invest in effective surveillance networks that allow early detection and delimitation while invading populations are small, thereby greatly favouring eradication success. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  4. Fruit flies (Diptera, Tephritidae and their parasitoids on cultivated and wild hosts in the Cerrado-Pantanal ecotone in Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago Ledesma Taira

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Fruit flies (Diptera, Tephritidae and their parasitoids on cultivated and wild hosts in the Cerrado-Pantanal ecotone in Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. Information on frugivorous flies in cultivated or wild host plants and their parasitoids in the Cerrado-Pantanal ecotone in Aquidauana, Mato Grosso do Sul is presented and discussed. Fruit fly samples were collected weekly in specific fruit trees, and McPhail® traps were installed in the same trees for a period of two years. The fruit flies infested ripe and unripe fruits of Averrhoa carambola L., Schoepfia sp., Psidium guajava L. and Pouteria torta (Mart. Radlk and mature fruits of Anacardium occidentale L. and Inga laurina (Sw. Willd. Nineteen fruit fly species were obtained with the combination of sampling methods (collecting fruits and trapping, nine of them obtained with both methods, five found only in fruits and five only in traps. This is the first record of Anastrepha striata Schiner in a species of Sapotaceae, as well as for A. castanea Norrbom and A. daciformes Bezzi in Schoepfia sp. (Olacaceae, and for A. distincta Greene in fruits of P. guajava in the state of Mato Grosso do Sul. Fruit collections simultaneously associated with capture of fruit flies by McPhail traps in the same host plants are essential to understand the diversity of fruit flies and their relationship with hosts and parasitoids. Species of Braconidae and Pteromalidae were recovered, where Doryctobracon areolatus (Szépligeti was the most abundant parasitoid in larvae of tephritids infesting both cultivated and wild host fruits.

  5. Sterilization of fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) with X-rays for sterile insect technique programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mastrangelo, Thiago de Araujo

    2009-01-01

    Recent fear of acts of terrorism provoked an increase of delays and denials in the shipment of radioisotopes. This truly represented a menace to sterile insect production projects around the world. In order to validate the use of a new kind of low-energy Xray irradiator, a series of radiobiological studies on Ceratitis capitata (tsl-VIENNA 8 strain) (Wied., 1824) (Diptera: Tephritidae) and an Argentinean strain of Anastrepha fraterculus (Wied., 1830) (Diptera: Tephritidae) were carried out, also comparing biological effectiveness between X-rays and traditional γ radiation from 60 Co. Pupae 48- 24 h before adult emergence of C. capitata males and both sexes of A. fraterculus were irradiated with doses ranging from 15 to 120 Gy and 10 to 70 Gy respectively. Doses that induce 50, 90 and 99% of sterility were estimated and the hypothesis of Parallelism for the Probit equations was tested. Doses of 82.7 Gy of X-rays and 128.2 Gy of γ rays (thus, a RBE∼1.5) induced 99% sterility on medfly males. The fertility of A. fraterculus fertile females crossed with 41 Gy of X-rays and 62.7 Gy of γ rays decreased in 99% comparing with the control group (RBE∼1.5). 99% sterility of A. fraterculus irradiated females was achieved with 60-80 Gy (RBE∼0.7). The standard quality control parameters of fecundity, adult emergence, fliers and survival were not significantly affected by the two types of radiation (RBE∼1) either for medfly or A. fraterculus (p>0.01), being averages in conformity with the values required by FAO/IAEA/USDA. Only fecundity of irradiated A. fraterculus females was severely reduced with increasing doses and no egg was laid at 70 Gy of both radiations. There were no significant differences between X-rays and γ rays regarding mating indices (RSI for medfly, RII, ISI, MRPI and FRPI for A. fraterculus) (p>0.05), what indicated more random matings for fertile and sterile insects. The results demonstrated that no significant difference in biological

  6. Danos de moscas-das-frutas (Diptera, Tephritidae em citros, manejados no sistema orgânico de produção

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Felisberto da Silva

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available As moscas-das-frutas são as principais pragas da fruticultura mundial. Consideradas chaves para a produção de citros, torna-se necessário o seu monitoramento, visando a evitar os danos diretos. O experimento teve como objetivos conhecer a variação populacional de Anastrepha fraterculus e a relação de sua população com danos em pomares orgânicos de Citrus sinensis, cultivar Céu e de C. sinensis x Citrus reticulata tangor 'Murcott'. Os dados foram coletados em 2003 e 2004 durante o período de maturação dos frutos, na região do vale do Caí, RS, Brasil. O número de moscas-das-frutas foi registrado, semanalmente, por meio de armadilhas McPhail, contendo suco de uva, a 25%. Danos aos frutos foram determinados pela razão entre frutos sadios e frutos danificados pela mosca. Registros meteorológicos de temperatura, umidade relativa e precipitação pluviométrica foram obtidos, em estação meteorológica distante 30 km das áreas experimentais. Verificou-se que, em condições ideais de precipitação pluvial, maiores foram as populações de A. fraterculus, espécie predominante na região. A população estimada capaz de causar danos aos frutos variou de acordo com o cultivar, sendo a laranjeira 'Céu' a mais susceptível. Os maiores picos populacionais ocorrem na fase de mudança de coloração dos frutos. Porém, na fase de maturação, as moscas causaram os maiores danos, dada a intolerância dos frutos ao ataque. Conclui-se que a infestação dos frutos de citros por A. fraterculus está relacionada com espécie e cultivar e com fatores climáticos, principalmente com a precipitação pluvial. O monitoramento constante da população de mosca-das-frutas é importante na determinação da infestação na colheita.

  7. Incidência de podridão-branca em frutos de macieira com e sem ferimentos Incidence of white rot in apple fruits with and without wounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janaína Pereira dos Santos

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo teve como objetivo avaliar a incidência da podridão-branca (Botryosphaeria dothidea em frutos de dois genótipos de macieira submetidos à inoculação artificial, na ausência e na presença de ferimentos provocados pela mosca-das-frutas (Anastrepha fraterculus e por estilete. O experimento foi conduzido no laboratório de Entomologia da Epagri/Estação Experimental de Caçador, na safra 2005/2006. No estudo, foram utilizados frutos da cv. Catarina (grupo 'Fuji' e da seleção M-13/00 (grupo 'Gala'. Os tratamentos foram os seguintes: (1 frutos feridos por mosca-das-frutas; (2 frutos feridos com estilete; (3 frutos sem ferimentos, e (4 frutos sem ferimentos pulverizados com água destilada (testemunha. Os tratamentos 1; 2 e 3 foram inoculados com B. dothidea. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado, com quatro repetições, de quatro frutos por parcela. Na cv. Catarina, o número de lesões de podridão-branca foi maior em relação à M-13/00. Os ferimentos nos frutos favoreceram o estabelecimento e o desenvolvimento de lesões da doença.The relationship between damages of wounds, fruit fly and the incidence of white rot (Botryosphaeria dothidea, inoculated artificially in two apple genotypes was studied. The experiment was carried out at the laboratory of Entomology at Epagri/Caçador Experimental Station, during the 2005/2006 season. 'Catarina' (group 'Fuji' and the selection M-13/00 (group 'Gala' were tested with the following treatments: (1 fruit submitted to fruit fly; (2 fruit submitted to wounds by needle; (3 fruit without wounds; (4 fruit without wounds sprayed with distilled water (control. The treatments 1, 2 and 3 were inoculated with B. dothidea. The experiment was conducted under completely randomized design with four replications of four apple fruits each. The frequency of lesions of white rot was larger on cv. Catarina compared to M-13/00. Fruit wounds stimulate the establishment and the

  8. History of the sterile insect technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klassen, W.; Curtis, C.F.

    2005-01-01

    (Zeller), the cactus moth Cactoblastis cactorum (Berg), the Old World screwworm Chrysomya bezziana (Villeneuve), additional Glossina spp., other Anastrepha spp. and Bactrocera spp. fruit flies, and other pest insects. (author)

  9. Efeito do ensacamento dos frutos no controle de pragas e doenças e na qualidade e maturação de maçãs 'Fuji Suprema'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosângela Teixeira

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a eficiência de embalagens de diferentes materiais para a proteção contra pragas e doenças e seu efeito sobre a qualidade físico-química, maturação e teor de cálcio (Ca em maçãs 'Fuji Suprema'. O experimento foi desenvolvido nas safras de 2007/2008 e 2008/2009, em pomar manejado sob o sistema orgânico, localizado na região de São Joaquim (SC. O pomar era composto por plantas de dez anos de idade da cultivar Fuji Suprema, sobre porta-enxerto 'Marubakaido', com interenxerto 'EM-9'. Depois do raleio manual, aproximadamente 40 dias após a plena floração, os frutos foram ensacados com embalagens plásticas transparentes microperfuradas ou de tecido não texturizado (TNT. Os frutos foram mantidos ensacados até a colheita. A testemunha foi constituída por frutos não ensacados. Na colheita, os frutos foram avaliados quanto aos danos provocados por mosca-das-frutas (Anastrepha fraterculus, mariposa oriental (Grapholita molesta e lagarta enroladeira (Bonagota salubricola. As doenças foram avaliadas pela incidência de sarna da macieira (Venturia inaequalis, podridão amarga (Colletotrichum gloeosporioides e podridão carpelar (Alternaria sp., Fusarium sp.. Também foi avaliada a incidência de distúrbios fisiológicos "russeting" e "bitter pit", atributos físico-químicos de maturação e qualidade e o teor de Ca nos frutos. Independentemente do tipo de embalagem verificou-se que o ensacamento é prática eficaz na proteção contra o ataque de insetos, mas não reduz a incidência e o desenvolvimento de doenças nos frutos. Na safra de 2008/2009, o ensacamento dos frutos aumentou o teor de Ca e reduziu a incidência de "bitter pit", e aumentou a incidência do "russeting". O ensacamento dos frutos antecipou a maturação, especialmente com embalagem plástica transparente microperfurada, e reduziu a coloração vermelha, especialmente com embalagem TNT.

  10. Isolation and characterization of microsatellite markers from the olive fly, Bactrocera oleae, and their cross-species amplification in the Tephritidae family

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kakani Evdoxia G

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Tephritidae family of insects includes the most important agricultural pests of fruits and vegetables, belonging mainly to four genera (Bactrocera, Ceratitis, Anastrepha and Rhagoletis. The olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae, is the major pest of the olive fruit. Currently, its control is based on chemical insecticides. Environmentally friendlier methods have been attempted in the past (Sterile Insect Technique, albeit with limited success. This was mainly attributed to the lack of knowledge on the insect's behaviour, ecology and genetic structure of natural populations. The development of molecular markers could facilitate the access in the genome and contribute to the solution of the aforementioned problems. We chose to focus on microsatellite markers due to their abundance in the genome, high degree of polymorphism and easiness of isolation. Results Fifty-eight microsatellite-containing clones were isolated from the olive fly, Bactrocera oleae, bearing a total of sixty-two discrete microsatellite motifs. Forty-two primer pairs were designed on the unique sequences flanking the microsatellite motif and thirty-one of them amplified a PCR product of the expected size. The level of polymorphism was evaluated against wild and laboratory flies and the majority of the markers (93.5% proved highly polymorphic. Thirteen of them presented a unique position on the olive fly polytene chromosomes by in situ hybridization, which can serve as anchors to correlate future genetic and cytological maps of the species, as well as entry points to the genome. Cross-species amplification of these markers to eleven Tephritidae species and sequencing of thirty-one of the amplified products revealed a varying degree of conservation that declines outside the Bactrocera genus. Conclusion Microsatellite markers are very powerful tools for genetic and population analyses, particularly in species deprived of any other means of genetic analysis. The

  11. Sterilization of fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) with X-rays for sterile insect technique programs; Esterilizacao de moscas-das-frutas (Diptera: Tephritidae) com raios-X para programas de tecnica do inseto esteril

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mastrangelo, Thiago de Araujo

    2009-07-01

    Recent fear of acts of terrorism provoked an increase of delays and denials in the shipment of radioisotopes. This truly represented a menace to sterile insect production projects around the world. In order to validate the use of a new kind of low-energy Xray irradiator, a series of radiobiological studies on Ceratitis capitata (tsl-VIENNA 8 strain) (Wied., 1824) (Diptera: Tephritidae) and an Argentinean strain of Anastrepha fraterculus (Wied., 1830) (Diptera: Tephritidae) were carried out, also comparing biological effectiveness between X-rays and traditional {gamma} radiation from {sup 60}Co. Pupae 48- 24 h before adult emergence of C. capitata males and both sexes of A. fraterculus were irradiated with doses ranging from 15 to 120 Gy and 10 to 70 Gy respectively. Doses that induce 50, 90 and 99% of sterility were estimated and the hypothesis of Parallelism for the Probit equations was tested. Doses of 82.7 Gy of X-rays and 128.2 Gy of {gamma} rays (thus, a RBE{approx}1.5) induced 99% sterility on medfly males. The fertility of A. fraterculus fertile females crossed with 41 Gy of X-rays and 62.7 Gy of {gamma} rays decreased in 99% comparing with the control group (RBE{approx}1.5). 99% sterility of A. fraterculus irradiated females was achieved with 60-80 Gy (RBE{approx}0.7). The standard quality control parameters of fecundity, adult emergence, fliers and survival were not significantly affected by the two types of radiation (RBE{approx}1) either for medfly or A. fraterculus (p>0.01), being averages in conformity with the values required by FAO/IAEA/USDA. Only fecundity of irradiated A. fraterculus females was severely reduced with increasing doses and no egg was laid at 70 Gy of both radiations. There were no significant differences between X-rays and {gamma} rays regarding mating indices (RSI for medfly, RII, ISI, MRPI and FRPI for A. fraterculus) (p>0.05), what indicated more random matings for fertile and sterile insects. The results demonstrated that no

  12. Isolation and characterization of microsatellite markers from the olive fly, Bactrocera oleae, and their cross-species amplification in the Tephritidae family

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augustinos, Antonios A; Stratikopoulos, Elias E; Drosopoulou, Eleni; Kakani, Evdoxia G; Mavragani-Tsipidou, Penelope; Zacharopoulou, Antigone; Mathiopoulos, Kostas D

    2008-01-01

    Background The Tephritidae family of insects includes the most important agricultural pests of fruits and vegetables, belonging mainly to four genera (Bactrocera, Ceratitis, Anastrepha and Rhagoletis). The olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae, is the major pest of the olive fruit. Currently, its control is based on chemical insecticides. Environmentally friendlier methods have been attempted in the past (Sterile Insect Technique), albeit with limited success. This was mainly attributed to the lack of knowledge on the insect's behaviour, ecology and genetic structure of natural populations. The development of molecular markers could facilitate the access in the genome and contribute to the solution of the aforementioned problems. We chose to focus on microsatellite markers due to their abundance in the genome, high degree of polymorphism and easiness of isolation. Results Fifty-eight microsatellite-containing clones were isolated from the olive fly, Bactrocera oleae, bearing a total of sixty-two discrete microsatellite motifs. Forty-two primer pairs were designed on the unique sequences flanking the microsatellite motif and thirty-one of them amplified a PCR product of the expected size. The level of polymorphism was evaluated against wild and laboratory flies and the majority of the markers (93.5%) proved highly polymorphic. Thirteen of them presented a unique position on the olive fly polytene chromosomes by in situ hybridization, which can serve as anchors to correlate future genetic and cytological maps of the species, as well as entry points to the genome. Cross-species amplification of these markers to eleven Tephritidae species and sequencing of thirty-one of the amplified products revealed a varying degree of conservation that declines outside the Bactrocera genus. Conclusion Microsatellite markers are very powerful tools for genetic and population analyses, particularly in species deprived of any other means of genetic analysis. The presented set of

  13. Entomology Unit annual report 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    As described in the 2002 Annual Report an improved medfly genetic sexing strain (GSS) was developed, VIENNA 8. This strain shows improved production characteristics and will have a major impact on the production efficiency in SIT rearing facilities. During 2003 this strain was transferred to four rearing facilities in Guatemala, Peru, South Africa and Tunisia based on acceptable QC data developed for the strain in the Unit. For the first time the strain was transferred to the different facilities under an agreement that prevents further distribution to third parties without consent of the Unit. In the past, strains originating from the Unit have been freely exchanged within the medfly SIT community, sometimes with not always the best results. During 2003 there has been a substantial increase in the resources devoted to activities in fruit flies other than medfly e.g. Bactrocera oleae and Anastrepha fraterculus. Rearing of the olive fly, B. oleae has traditionally not been straightforward due to the very specific, and expensive, larval diet that is required by this monophagous pest. With the disappearance of an essential larval diet component from the commercial market an urgent search is underway for an alternative. In 2004, experiments will be carried out to identify improved larval diets. For A. fraterculus, a large-scale evaluation of mating compatibility between different geographical races has been carried out by a consultant. Progress has been made in the containerised rearing of tsetse fly colonies. The container required considerable work before the temperature and humidity controls were suitable for tsetse rearing and a closed colony of Glossina fuscipes is now being reared. Discussions are now underway to install a version of TPU 3.2 (an automated tsetse feeding and production unit) in the container. A protocol for the handling, irradiation and eventual release of large numbers of sterile male tsetse has been formulated and it will involve at least two

  14. Purification and partial characterization of an entomopoxvirus (DlEPV from a parasitic wasp of tephritid fruit flies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pauline O. Lawrence

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available An insect poxvirus [entomopoxvirus (EPV] occurs in the poison gland apparatus of female Diachasmimorpha longicaudata , a parasitic wasp of the Caribbean fruit fly, Anastrepha suspensa and other tephritid fruit flies. The DlEPV virion is 250-300 nm in diameter, has a "bumpy" appearance and a unipartite double stranded DNA genome of 290-300 kb. DlEPV DNA restriction fragment profiles differed from those reported for Amsacta moorei EPV (AmEPV and Melanoplus sanguinipes EPV (MsEPV, the only two EPVs whose genomes have been sequenced, and from those reported for vaccinia (Vac, a vertebrate poxvirus (chordopoxvirus, ChPV. Blast search and ClustalW alignment of the amino acids deduced from the 2316 nucleotides of a DlEPV DNA fragment cloned from an EcoR1 genomic library revealed 75-78% homology with the putative DNA-directed RNA polymerases of AmEPV, MsEPV, and two ChPV homologs of the Vac J6R gene. Of the deduced 772 amino acids in the DlEPV sequence, 28.4% are conserved/substituted among the four poxviruses aligned, 12.9% occur in at least one EPV, 6.5% in at least one ChPV, 3.1 % in at least one EPV and one ChPV, and 49.1% occur only in DlEPV. Although the RI-36-1 fragment represents a portion of the gene, it contains nucleotides that encode the NADFDGDE consensus sequence of known DNA-directed RNA polymerases. Western blots using a mouse polyclonal anti-DlEPV serum recognized six major protein bands in combined fractions of sucrose-purified DlEPV, at least one band in homogenates of male and female wasps, and at least two bands in host hemolymph that contained DlEPV virions. A digoxigenin-labeled DlEPV genomic DNA probe recognized DNA in dot-blots of male and female wasps. These results confirm that DlEPV is a true EPV and probably a member of the Group C EPVs. Unlike other EPVs, DlEPV does not express the spheroidin protein. Since it also replicates in both the wasp and fly, members of two different insect Orders, DlEPV may represent a new EPV

  15. Development of improved attractants and their integration into fruit fly SIT management programmes. Proceedings of a final research coordination meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-10-01

    Information provided by trapping systems is used to assess the presence, seasonal abundance, spatial distribution, host sequence and infestation levels of fruit fly pests. This information is key for implementation of effective fruit fly control programmes. Most trapping systems commercially available are based on para-pheromones which are male specific. These male specific trapping systems have been used as the main survey tool in area-wide fruit fly control programmes. Nevertheless, in recent years, scientists and programme managers have realized that, in order to improve the efficiency of fruit fly control, it is essential to have a female specific or at least a female biased trapping system. Until the late 1990s, the only fruit fly female biased attractants were based on natural protein baits such as Torula Yeast and hydrolysate proteins. Although these attractants tend to catch more females than males (in average 60% females against 40% males), the proportion in favor of females is insufficient and the attractants are considered to be weak and non-selective. In 1999, as a result of a previous Coordinated Research Project (CRP) entitled 'Development of Female Medfly Attractant Systems for Trapping and Sterility Assessment' the first effective female biased synthetic food lure was developed for the Mediterranean fruit fly (Ceratitis capitata, Wied.) (IAEA-TECDOC-1099). This lure, with the commercial name of Biolure, is now being used in large-scale medfly control programmes worldwide. Given this background, and in order to further advance this field, the Joint FAO/IAEA Programme approved in 2000 a five year CRP entitled 'Development of Improved Attractants and their Integration into Fruit Fly SIT Management Programmes'. The research conducted under this CRP focused mainly on developing female biased trapping systems for other fruit fly species of quarantine and economic importance within the Anastrepha, Bactrocera, Ceratitis and Dacus genera and on optimization

  16. Entomology Unit annual report 2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    Medfly genetic sexing strains (GSS) are now being used for all operational SIT programmes. In 2002, a new strain, VIENNA 8, was evaluated for stability, quality and production characteristics. The strain carries the inversion as described in the 2001 Annual Report and it can produce ca 10% more males for irradiation and release than could previous GSS. This strain will be transferred to several facilities in 2003. As a further improvement to the strain the visible marker, Sergeant, has been introduced into the strain following the successful field cage evaluations reported in the 2001 Annual Report. In 2003 this strain will be further analysed to assess the stability of the marker. There is considerable interest in the field of medfly SIT in developing procedures whereby eggs can be shipped between different rearing facilities. This could be especially relevant for GSS as a central facility could hold and maintain a specific strain and eggs could be sent to satellite facilities where only males would be reared for sterilization and release. During 2002 a series of egg shipments was received from the medfly mass rearing facility at El Pino, Guatemala and the effect of shipment on the quality parameters of the resultant flies was assessed. It was concluded that although there was some reduction in egg viability, especially for long shipments, it will be possible to develop an effective shipment protocol. In 2002 colonies of Bactrocera oleae and Anastrepha fraterculus were established, the former after some initial problems associated with the unsuitability of the larval diet. In 2003 these colonies will be used to develop improved mass rearing techniques for these species and for A. fraterculus a series of field cage evaluations will be carried out to assess the degree of mating compatibility of populations from the whole geographic range of this species in South and Central America. The development of tsetse mass rearing facilities in Africa is expanding and in

  17. Efecto de la práctica de embolsado sobre la calidad del fruto en feijoa (Acca sellowiana Berg tander

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fánor Casierra-Posada

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available El  cultivo de  feijoa  (Acca  sellowiana Berg.  se ha  extendido  durante  los últimos  años  en  el territorio colombiano, debido a que  la  fruta es muy apetecida en el mercado por las excelentes propiedades  organolépticas.  Sin  embargo,  la cal idad  y  sanidad  exigidas  para  la comercialización  se  ven  afectadas  por  varios factores,  entre  los  que  se  encuentra  el  daño causado  por  la mosca de  la  fruta  (Anastrepha spp..  Por  tanto,  la  evaluación  del  efecto  de embolsado sobre la calidad de la fruta de feijoa es un tema de gran interés. Además, esta técnica es comúnmente usada en guayaba que pertenecea la misma familia que la feijoa (Mirtáceae. Para el estudio, se embolsaron flores en el momento de  la caída de pétalos, y cada semana después hasta  cuat ro  semanas.   Los  frutos  que  se embolsaron a la caída de pétalos detuvieron su crecimiento; aquellos embolsados una, dos y tres semanas  después  de  la  caída  de  pétalos  no reportaron diferencias significativas en cuanto los parámetros  evaluados  (peso  fresco,  peso  seco, diámetro transversal y  longitudinal, intensidad de infestación,  sólidos  solubles  totales  y  acidez titulable Los frutos embolsados cuatro semanas después de la caída de pétalos fueron de mayor peso,  tamaño y más dulces con  respecto a  los demás. La efectividad en el control de mosca de la  fruta  fue evidente. El embolsado, además de mejorar la sanidad del fruto,  influyó en su calidad y permitió obtener un producto con características adecuadas para el mercado.

  18. The sterile insect technique: Cost-effective control of the Mediterranean fruit fly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez Riera, Pablo

    2001-01-01

    Fruit flies are one of the most important plant pests of the world, in terms of the number of fly species involved, the regions in which they are present, and the variety of hosts they infest. Anastrepha is present in the Americas; Bactrocera in Asia and Ceratitis in Africa; Dacus in Africa and South East Asia, Australia and South Pacific Islands; and Rhagoletis in Chile, Peru, Eastern and Western USA, Europe and Asia (from Sweden to Kyrgystan and from Russia to France). There is an important species of Bactrocera, the Olive Fruit Fly (B.oleae), present in all olive-growing regions of Africa, Europe, the Middle East and Arab countries. Seventy five species of plants of economic importance are infested by fruit flies. Among them are tropical fruits such mango, guava, banana, papaya, fig, passion fruit and avocado; temperate fruits such as citrus (orange, grapefruit, tangerine, etc.), stone fruits (peach, apricot, cherry, etc.), nuts, grape, apple and pear; and vegetable crops such as cucurbits (squash, melon, watermelon), tomato, and eggplant. Fruit flies are present in 178 countries and islands; they are ubiquitous throughout the world between 45 deg. North and 45 deg. South latitude. Twenty species of fruit flies are the most harmful because of the range of hosts they infest and the many countries affected. These 20 are subject to quarantine: trade in fresh produce is restricted to avoid the introduction of any one of these species. The Mediterranean Fruit Fly, or simply Med Fly, (Ceratitis capitata Weid.) is the most harmful of all. It is present in 77 countries and infests 22 hosts of economic importance. From its origin in Central Africa, it has invaded northern Africa, Mediterranean Europe, the Middle East, all the Americas, and Australia. All the countries affected devote major efforts to eradicate this pest or greatly reduce its prevalence. The Med Fly has been eradicated from the USA (except Hawaii), Mexico, and Chile. Nevertheless, ongoing reintroductions

  19. Regional programme for the eradication of the Carambola fruit fly in South America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malavasi, Aldo; Sauers-Muller, Alies van; Midgarden, David; Kellman, Victorine; Didelot, Dominique; Caplong, Phillippe; Ribeiro, Odilson

    2000-01-01

    Bactrocera carambolae Drew and Hancock, the Carambola fruit fly (CFF), was probably introduced into Suriname from Indonesia in the 1960s or 1970s. The most likely mechanism of introduction was people arriving at Suriname from Indonesia by air, through Amsterdam. Any other method of transport would be too lengthy. Air travel was not commonly available to the general Surinamese population before the 1960s. About one-fifth of the Surinamese population is of Indonesian origin, and many strong ties remained between the countries. These ties are loosening with the increasing number of generations after immigration, which occurred in the late nineteenth and early twentieth century. The first recorded Bactrocera found in Suriname was in 1975, when flies were reared from a market fruit and preserved unidentified in the Ministry of Agriculture's insect collection. Bactrocera were not recorded again until 1986, when infested fruits were brought to the attention of the Ministry by a homeowner. These specimens were sent to the United States for identification and were identified as Dacus dorsalis. B. carambolae was formally described in 1994 as a species belonging to the B. dorsalis complex (Drew and Hancock 1994). At that time, in 1986, little importance was given to the finding in the United States, perhaps because the identifier was unaware that Suriname is in South America rather than Asia. The international community would only become aware of the establishment of a Dacus/Bactrocera species in the Americas four years later. The population of flies in the Guyanas has now been identified as B. carambolae, and its establishment in South America is a threat to the production and marketing of fruits throughout the tropical and subtropical Americas and the Caribbean (Hancock 1989). It might be expected that the newly established B. carambolae would move rapidly into the tropical forests where there are many species of the native Anastrepha fruit flies and, presumably, many

  20. Mediterranean fruit fly preventative release programme in southern California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dowell, Robert V.; Meyer, Fred; Siddiqu, Isi A.; Leon Spaugy, E.

    2000-01-01

    California employs several area-wide pest management programmes that use the release of sterile insects to protect its commercial and dooryard agriculture. The first was developed in response to the discovery of the Mexican fruit fly, Anastrepha ludens, in Tijuana, Mexico and adjacent areas in San Diego County, California. Initially pesticide sprays of malathion and bait were applied to host plants around each fly find site. Additionally, soil sprays of diazion (0.05 kg per 93 m 2 ) were applied under every host plant around each fly find site. It soon became apparent that this approach was expensive and environmentally damaging. This led the interested parties, the California Department of Food and Agriculture (CDFA), the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) and the government of Mexico to develop a programme that utilises the release of sterile Mexican fruit flies over the city of Tijuana in order to prevent the establishment of a breeding population of this fly in the city. The belief is that preventing the Mexican fruit fly from breeding in Tijuana will help protect both that city and California. To date, no Mexican fruit fly larvae have been found in Tijuana or the adjacent areas of California. The second programme was developed in response to the discovery of the pink bollworm, Pectinophora gossypiella, in cotton in the Imperial Valley area of southern California. As the pink bollworm spread throughout the cotton growing region of southern California, it became a significant pest that threatened the 405,000 hectares of cotton grown in the San Joaquin Valley to the north. To keep this pest out of the San Joaquin Valley, the CDFA/USDA and California cotton growers use the large-scale releases of sterile pink bollworms in areas in which wild pink bollworms are captured each year. Thus far, the pink bollworm has been prevented from establishing a permanent presence in the San Joaquin Valley and the cotton growers in southern California, Arizona and