WorldWideScience

Sample records for anastrepha obliqua macquart

  1. Selection of oviposition sites by wild Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart) (Diptera: Tephritidae) based on the nutritional composition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fontellas-Brandalha, Tania M.L.; Zucoloto, Fernando S. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Filosofia, Ciencias e Letras. Dept. de Biologia]. E-mail: zucoloto@ffclrp.usp.br

    2004-09-15

    Few works have studied in detail the types of nutrients associated to hosts which are attractive to females of Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart) and influence the choice of the oviposition site. The relationship of the males in the physiology and in the behavior of those females has also been scarcely studied and some ecological relationships seem to be quite important for the knowledge of this species' biology. Our objective in this study was to evaluate the discriminatory behavior of A. obliqua between oviposition sites containing different nutrients. The presence of the male and the nutritional status of the female were also considered in this work. Two experiments were developed: in the first, the preference of A. obliqua females between artificial oviposition substrates was evaluated; in the second, females were submitted to two types of artificial oviposition substrates in the presence and in the absence of males and were fed either on a poor diet or on an adequate diet concerning sucrose concentration. In the first experiment, A. obliqua showed higher preference for substrates containing brewer's yeast and sucrose. Substrate containing only yeast was the second most accepted. Offspring development and adult feeding may have determined the choice for the substrate containing brewer's yeast and sucrose. In addition, the presence of protein in the brewer's yeast may indicate nutritional quality to the females in a more accurate way than the sucrose. In the second experiment, the brewer's yeast was the most accepted by the females. The male absence was also an important factor in the selection of hosts and in the egg production of A. obliqua. (author)

  2. Selection of oviposition sites by wild Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart) (Diptera: Tephritidae) based on the nutritional composition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fontellas-Brandalha, Tania M.L.; Zucoloto, Fernando S.

    2004-01-01

    Few works have studied in detail the types of nutrients associated to hosts which are attractive to females of Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart) and influence the choice of the oviposition site. The relationship of the males in the physiology and in the behavior of those females has also been scarcely studied and some ecological relationships seem to be quite important for the knowledge of this species' biology. Our objective in this study was to evaluate the discriminatory behavior of A. obliqua between oviposition sites containing different nutrients. The presence of the male and the nutritional status of the female were also considered in this work. Two experiments were developed: in the first, the preference of A. obliqua females between artificial oviposition substrates was evaluated; in the second, females were submitted to two types of artificial oviposition substrates in the presence and in the absence of males and were fed either on a poor diet or on an adequate diet concerning sucrose concentration. In the first experiment, A. obliqua showed higher preference for substrates containing brewer's yeast and sucrose. Substrate containing only yeast was the second most accepted. Offspring development and adult feeding may have determined the choice for the substrate containing brewer's yeast and sucrose. In addition, the presence of protein in the brewer's yeast may indicate nutritional quality to the females in a more accurate way than the sucrose. In the second experiment, the brewer's yeast was the most accepted by the females. The male absence was also an important factor in the selection of hosts and in the egg production of A. obliqua. (author)

  3. Effect of sucrose ingestion on the performance of wild Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart) females (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fontellas, Tania M.L.; Zucoloto, Fernando S.

    2003-01-01

    Carbohydrates are the main source of energy for insects and the lack of these nutrients in the diet can cause serious damage to the biology of these arthropods. In order to better understand the effect of sucrose on the performance and dietary selection of adult Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart), the following experiments were carried out: 1) effect of different amount of sucrose on diet ingestion, longevity and egg production; 2) dietary selection that contains different amounts of sucrose, and 3) discrimination threshold for sucrose in adult individuals deprived or not of carbohydrates. The control diet showed the best results in relation to ingestion, longevity and egg production for these species, probably due to the fact that it presents an optimal nutritional balance between sucrose and yeast. The control diet was also the preferred diet of females, indicating a positive correlation between the nutritional value of a diet and chemical perception by A. obliqua. Sucrose-deprived females were able to perceive lower carbohydrate quantity than non-deprived females. This characteristic might represent a biological advantage since it reduces the food foraging time for these insects. (author)

  4. Use of gamma radiation against Ceratitis capitata (Wied., 1824), Anastrepha Fraterculus (Wied., 1830) and Anastrepha Obliqua (Macquart, 1835) (Diptera, Tephritidae) for disinfestation of mangoes for exportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raga, A.

    1990-04-01

    The gamma radiation doses to attend quarantine requirements of importing countries, by disinfecting mango fruits from Ceratitis capitata (Wied., 1824), Anastrepha Fraterculus (Wied., 1830) and Anastrepha Obliqua (Macquart, 1835) is studied. An increase of radiation resistance of C. capitata eggs was observed during the embryonic development. Doses up to 40 Gy for C. capitata and up to 100 Gy for A. Fraterculus and A. Obliqua did not affect pupation of 4-,5-,6- and 7-day-old larvae, irradiated 'in vitro'. Larvae of C. capitata were more resistant than A. Obliqua and A. Fraterculus. Larvae of A. Obliqua were more resistant than A. Fraterculus. The dose of 125.5 Gy fulfilled the criteria for efficacy, which prevented emergence of the adults of three fruit fly species studied. (author)

  5. Disinfestation of Averrhoa carambola infested with Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart, 1835) (Diptera - Tephritidae) using gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arthur, V.; Wiendl, F.M.

    1994-01-01

    The disinfestation dose of gamma radiation in Averrhoa carambola infested with larvae of Anastrepha obliqua was determined. Fruits were collected in the field, each having about 11 larvae in the last instar. Fruits were irradiated with the following ganna radiation doses: 0 (control), 50, 150, 300, 600 and 900 Gy. Each treatment consisted of 9 fruits (3 replications) giving the amount of 99 larvae for each treatment. After irradiation the fruits were kept in a climatic chamber with the temperature adjusted to 25± 5 0 C and relative humidity of 70± 5 0 C, until larvae left the fruit and became transformed into pupae and adults. The lethal dose (LD 100 ) of gamma radiation for larvae in the fuits was 600 Gy and the dose of 50 Gy inhibited completely the total emergency of adults. (author). 19 refs, 1 figs, 1 tab

  6. Disinfestation of Averrhoa carambola infested with Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart, 1835) (Diptera - Tephritidae) using gamma radiation; Desinfestacao de Averrhoa carambola infestada por Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart, 1835) (Diptera - Tephritidae) atraves de radiacao gama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arthur, V.; Wiendl, F.M. [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil)

    1994-05-01

    The disinfestation dose of gamma radiation in Averrhoa carambola infested with larvae of Anastrepha obliqua was determined. Fruits were collected in the field, each having about 11 larvae in the last instar. Fruits were irradiated with the following ganna radiation doses: 0 (control), 50, 150, 300, 600 and 900 Gy. Each treatment consisted of 9 fruits (3 replications) giving the amount of 99 larvae for each treatment. After irradiation the fruits were kept in a climatic chamber with the temperature adjusted to 25{+-} 5{sup 0} C and relative humidity of 70{+-} 5{sup 0} C, until larvae left the fruit and became transformed into pupae and adults. The lethal dose (LD{sub 100}) of gamma radiation for larvae in the fuits was 600 Gy and the dose of 50 Gy inhibited completely the total emergency of adults. (author). 19 refs, 1 figs, 1 tab.

  7. The presence of the sexual partner and nutritional condition alter the Anastrepha obliqua MacQuart (Diptera: Tephritidae) protein discrimination threshold

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cresoni-Pereira, Carla; Zucoloto, Fernando S. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Filosofia, Ciencias e Letras. Dept. de Biologia

    2005-11-15

    The minimum protein amount that Anastrepha obliqua MacQuart can detect in its alimentary source is variable, though the causes of such variation are not very well known. In this study, the authors tested whether the sexual partners nutritional condition and presence devoid of direct contact alter the A. obliqua protein discrimination threshold. Male and female insects were assigned to groups as follows: (1) newly emerged, (2) deprived of protein source (yeast) during 18 days, (3) non-yeast-deprived during 18 days, (4) yeast-deprived in the presence of equally yeast-deprived sexual partners, (5) yeast-deprived in the presence of non-yeast-deprived partners, (6) non-yeast-deprived with yeast-deprived partners and (7) non-yeast-deprived with non-yeast-deprived partners. The sexual partners were maintained apart by a transparent plastic screen with small holes. Not only the males presence but also their nutritional condition have altered the females discrimination threshold, particularly when the females were deprived and when non- deprived females cohabited with deprived males. Therefore, the females threshold was determined by their own nutritional condition in addition to recognition of the males nutritional condition. The males discrimination threshold was higher for non-deprived subjects than for the deprived ones. The occurrence of responses in the absence of direct contact between males and females has shown that they may use a chemical mechanism for mutual recognition of the sexual partner nutritional condition. (author)

  8. The presence of the sexual partner and nutritional condition alter the Anastrepha obliqua MacQuart (Diptera: Tephritidae) protein discrimination threshold

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cresoni-Pereira, Carla; Zucoloto, Fernando S.

    2005-01-01

    The minimum protein amount that Anastrepha obliqua MacQuart can detect in its alimentary source is variable, though the causes of such variation are not very well known. In this study, the authors tested whether the sexual partners nutritional condition and presence devoid of direct contact alter the A. obliqua protein discrimination threshold. Male and female insects were assigned to groups as follows: (1) newly emerged, (2) deprived of protein source (yeast) during 18 days, (3) non-yeast-deprived during 18 days, (4) yeast-deprived in the presence of equally yeast-deprived sexual partners, (5) yeast-deprived in the presence of non-yeast-deprived partners, (6) non-yeast-deprived with yeast-deprived partners and (7) non-yeast-deprived with non-yeast-deprived partners. The sexual partners were maintained apart by a transparent plastic screen with small holes. Not only the males presence but also their nutritional condition have altered the females discrimination threshold, particularly when the females were deprived and when non- deprived females cohabited with deprived males. Therefore, the females threshold was determined by their own nutritional condition in addition to recognition of the males nutritional condition. The males discrimination threshold was higher for non-deprived subjects than for the deprived ones. The occurrence of responses in the absence of direct contact between males and females has shown that they may use a chemical mechanism for mutual recognition of the sexual partner nutritional condition. (author)

  9. Influence of Pupation Substrate on Mass Production and Fitness of Adult Anastrepha obliqua Macquart (Diptera: Tephritidae) for Sterile Insect Technique Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aceituno-Medina, Marysol; Rivera-Ciprian, José Pedro; Hernández, Emilio

    2017-12-05

    Tephritid mass-rearing systems require an artificial substrate for pupation. Pupation substrate characteristics influence the quality of insects produced. Coconut fiber, as an alternative to the conventional pupation substrate vermiculite, was evaluated for Anastrepha obliqua Macquart (Diptera: Tephritidae) pupation behavior (pupation patterns, distribution, respiration rate, and pupal weight) and adult fitness (adult eclosion time, flight ability, and male mating competitiveness). Pupation percentage at 24 h, pupal weight, and flight ability were not significantly affected by substrate type. Adult eclosion levels of 50% were reached at 29.7 and 41.6 h for coconut fiber and vermiculite, respectively. Pupae distribution patterns differed between substrates because the larval aggregation level was reduced during the pupation process in coconut fiber. The pupae aggregation was three times greater in vermiculite than in coconut fiber. A higher respiratory rate in the last days of pupation and adult eclosion were recorded in the insects maintained in coconut fiber. Coconut fiber suitability as a pupation substrate for quality mass production of pupae and its implications for sterile insect technique are discussed. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Selección de Cepas de Hongos Entomopatógenos para el Manejo de Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart, 1835 (Diptera: Tephritidae en Colombia Selection of Strains of Entomopathogenic Fungi for Management of Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart, 1835 (Diptera: Tephritidae in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armando Osorio-Fajardo

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluaron 15 cepas de los hongos entomopatógenos Beauveria bassiana y Metarhizium anisopliae sobre adultos de un día de edad de la mosca de la fruta Anastrepha obliqua. El trabajo se realizó con el fin de seleccionar las cepas más virulentas al insecto y estudiar el efecto sobre los adultos jóvenes cuando el hongo era aplicado antes de la emergencia. Mediante un screening con una concentración de 1x10(7 conidias/mL se seleccionaron las tres cepas más virulentas, siendo dos de ellas de Beauveria y una de Metarhizium, las cuales causaron mortalidades del 77%, 71% y 66%. Valores de CL50 de 2,38x10(6, 1,81x10(6 y 9,94x10(6 conidias/mL, respectivamente, fueron determinados para cada una de estas cepas y un TL50 respectivo de 48,12; 56 y 42,75 horas. No se encontraron diferencias significativas en la mortalidad entre hembras y machos. La aspersión de la CL90 de las cepas seleccionadas sobre el medio de pupación de la mosca de la fruta produjo 34-48% de mortalidad durante las 120 horas de evaluación. Los hongos entomopatógenos pueden ser utilizados fácilmente para el control biológico de A. obliqua aplicándolos de manera dirigida a los adultos jóvenes bajo la copa de los árboles, en programas de manejo integrado de plagas.Fifteen strains from entomopathogenic Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae fungi were evaluated on one day-old adults of Anastrepha obliqua fruit fly. Tested were carried out for selecting the most virulent strains and the effectiveness of their use on young adult when the entomopathogen were applied before emergence were studied too. A screening with a 1x10(7 conidia/mL concentration was used for selecting the three most pathogenic isolates, two from Beauveria and one from Metarhizium, having 77, 71 and 66% mortality. The LC50 for these isolates were 2.38x10(6, 1.81x10(6 and 9.94x10(6 conidia/mL, respectively, and a respective LT50 were 48.12, 56 and 42.75 hours. No significant differences were found

  11. Dispersal and longevity of wild and mass-reared Anastrepha Ludens and Anastrepha Obliqua (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez, E.; Orozco, D.; Flores Breceda, S.; Dominguez, J.

    2007-01-01

    The rates of dispersal and survival of sterile mass-reared laboratory flies and sterile wild flies of Anastrepha ludens (Loew) and Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart) were estimated and compared with a regular rectangular array of 64 food-baited traps spaced 60 m between traps around the release point in Tapachula Chiapas, Mexico. The traps were scored every day during the first week, and then every 3 d over a 30-d period. For A. obliqua, the number of males recaptured was higher than that of females, while for A. ludens, females were recaptured more frequently than males. The recapture rate for the wild strains ranged from 0.6-24.8% for A. ludens and 1.3-16.2% for A. obliqua and the corresponding ranges for the mass-reared strains were 0.5-7.1% and 0.5-3.0% respectively. The life expectancy was 4.7 d for wild and 4.3 d for mass-reared A. obliqua males but 3 and 2 d, respectively, for wild and mass-reared A. ludens males. The net displacement of A. ludens and A. obliqua ranged approximately from 100-250 m and took place mostly on the first day. Wild A. ludens moved to the northwest from the release point while the mass-reared strain moved to the west. The A. obliqua wild flies moved to the west, while the mass-reared strain shifted to the southwest. We discuss the implications of our findings as to the spacing and frequency of sterile fly releases for the suppression of wild populations. (author) [es

  12. Influence of male nutritional conditions on the performance and alimentary selection of wild females of Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart)(Diptera, Tephritidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cresoni-Pereira, Carla; Zucoloto, Fernando Sergio

    2006-01-01

    The behavior of A. obliqua females is regulated by endogenous and exogenous factors and among these the presence of males. Experiments were carried out to investigate whether the presence of males and their nutritional condition may affect the behavior of self-selection feeding and the performance of A. obliqua females. Females were sorted in groups containing yeast-deprived females and males, and non-yeast deprived females and males. The females were maintained apart from the males by a transparent plastic screen. Several yeast and sucrose combinations were offered to the females in a single diet block or in separate blocks. Ingestion, egg production, longevity and diet efficiency were determined. The non-yeast-deprived males positively influenced the females performance when the latter were fed with yeast and sucrose in distinct diet blocks. Performance was better in the groups without males and with yeast-deprived males where the females could not select the nutrient proportions (yeast and sucrose in a single diet block). (author)

  13. Influence of male nutritional conditions on the performance and alimentary selection of wild females of Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart)(Diptera, Tephritidae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cresoni-Pereira, Carla; Zucoloto, Fernando Sergio [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (USP), Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Filosofia, Ciencias e Letras. Dept. de Biologia], e-mail: cresoni@usp.br, e-mail: zucoloto@ffclrp.usp.br

    2006-04-15

    The behavior of A. obliqua females is regulated by endogenous and exogenous factors and among these the presence of males. Experiments were carried out to investigate whether the presence of males and their nutritional condition may affect the behavior of self-selection feeding and the performance of A. obliqua females. Females were sorted in groups containing yeast-deprived females and males, and non-yeast deprived females and males. The females were maintained apart from the males by a transparent plastic screen. Several yeast and sucrose combinations were offered to the females in a single diet block or in separate blocks. Ingestion, egg production, longevity and diet efficiency were determined. The non-yeast-deprived males positively influenced the females performance when the latter were fed with yeast and sucrose in distinct diet blocks. Performance was better in the groups without males and with yeast-deprived males where the females could not select the nutrient proportions (yeast and sucrose in a single diet block). (author)

  14. Anastrepha ludens and Anastrepha serpentina (Diptera: Tephritidae) do not infest Psidium guajava (Myrtaceae), but Anastrepha obliqua occasionally shares this resource with Anastrepha striata in nature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birke, Andrea; Aluja, Martin

    2011-08-01

    This study examined whether economically important fruit fly species Anastrepha ludens (Loew), Anastrepha serpentina (Wiedemann), and Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart) (Diptera: Tephritidae) may opportunistically exploit guavas, Psidium guajava L. (Myrtaceae), growing near preferred natural hosts. We collected 3,459 kg of guavas and 895 kg of other known host species [sour orange, Citrus aurantium L.; grapefruit, Citrus paradisi Macfadyen; mango, Mangifera indica L.; white sapote, Casimiroa edulis La Llave and Lex.; sapote, Pouteria sapota (Jacq.); sapodilla, Manilkara zapota L.; and wild plum, Spondias purpurea L. and Spondias mombin L.] along an altitudinal gradient over a 4-yr period (2006-2009). Plants were growing in sympatry in 23 localities where the guavas are usually infested in the state of Veracruz, M6xico. The guava samples yielded 20,341 Anastrepha spp. pupae in total (overall mean, 5.88 pupae per kg of fruit). Confirming previous reports, Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann) and Anastrepha striata (Schiner) were found heavily infesting guavas in Veracruz. Importantly, although we did not find evidence that A. ludens and A. serpentina are able to attack this valuable commodity, we document for the first time in the agriculturally important state of Veracruz that P. guajava is an alternative natural host plant of A. obliqua. We recovered two fruit in the mango-growing locality of la Vibora, Tlalixcoyan, that harbored larvae of A. striata and A. obliqua. This finding has important practical implications for management of A. obliqua. Over the entire altitudinal gradient, when individual fruit infestation was examined, a dynamic pattern of species dominance was unveiled with guavas growing below 800 m above sea level mainly attacked by A. striata and a progressive replacement with increasing altitude by A. fraterculus. Interestingly, most individual fruit examined (97%) harbored a single species of fruit fly, a finding that may be taken as evidence of

  15. Nonhost status of commercial Persea americana 'Hass' to Anastrepha ludens, Anastrepha obliqua, Anastrepha serpentina, and Anastrepha striata (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aluja, Martín; Díaz-Fleischer, Francisco; Arredondo, José

    2004-04-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the host status in Mexico of commercially cultivated and marketed avocado, Persea americana (Mill.), 'Hass' to Anastrepha ludens (Loew), Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart), Anastrepha serpentina (Wiedemann), and Anastrepha striata (Schiner) (Diptera: Tephritidae). Experiments in Michoacán, Mexico, were carried out in six orchards located at three altitudes above sea level during two times (August-October 2001 and April-June 2002). They included choice ('Hass' avocado plus natural host) and no-choice foraging behavior tests on trees under field cages; no-choice, forced infestation trials on caged, fruit-bearing branches in the field, and with individual fruit under laboratory conditions; infestation trials using 'Hass' avocados left unprotected over 1 and 7 d on the ground of orchards; studies to ascertain depth of oviposition and determine egg hatchability; and experiments to determine susceptibility by using time elapsed since removal of fruit from tree as the experimental variable. We trapped adult Anastrepha (n = 7,936) in all orchards and dissected fruit (n = 7,695) from orchards and packing houses (n = 1,620) in search of eggs or larvae. Most (96.7%) A. ludens, A. obliqua, A. striata, and A. serpentina adults were captured in low-elevation orchards. No eggs or larvae were detected in any of the fruit from foraging behavior studies or dissected fruit from orchards or packing houses. Of 5,200 mature, intact fruit on trees in the field forcibly exposed to no-choice female oviposition activity (five females/fruit), we only found four fruit infested by A. ludens but no adults emerged. 'Hass' avocados only became marginally susceptible to attack by A. ludens (but not A. obliqua, A. serpentina, and A. striata) 24 h after being removed from the tree. Fruit placed on the ground in orchards (n = 3,600) were occasionally infested by Neosilba batesi (Curran) (Diptera: Lonchaeidae), a decomposer, but not Anastrepha spp. Based on our

  16. Desinfestação de Averrhoa carambola infestada por Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart, 1835 (diptera -Tephritidae através de radiação gama Desinfestation of Averrhoa carambola infested with Anastrepha obliqua (mac. 1835 (diptera - Tephritidae using gamma radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Arthur

    1994-08-01

    Full Text Available O experimento teve por objetivo determinar a dose de desinfestação para Averrhoa carambola infestada por larvas de Anastrepha obliqua. Para realização do experimento coletou-se frutos do campo e fez-se urna amostragem prévia, constatando-se que cada fruta continha em média 11 larvas de último instar do referido inseto praga. Esses frutos foram irradiados com as seguintes doses de radiação gama: 0 (test., 50, 150, 300, 600 e 900 Gy. Cada tratamento constou de 3 repetições num total de 9 frutas e aproximadamente 99 larvas por tratamento. Após a irradiação as frutas foram colocadas em câmara climatizada com 25 ± 5°C de temperatura e umidade relativa de 70 ± 5% onde aguardou-se que as larvas deixassem os frutos e se transformassem em pupas e posteriormente em adultos. Pelos resultados obtidos concluiu-se que a dose letal para (LD100 para larvas em frutos de carambola foi 600 Gy e a que impediu a emergência dos adultos foi a de 50 Gy.The aim of this experiment was to determine the desinfestation dose of gamma radiation in Averrhoa carambola infested with larvae of Anastrepha obliqua. Fruits were collected in the field, each having about 11 larvae in the last instar. Fruits were irradiated with the following gamma radiation doses: 0 (control, 50, 150, 300, 600 and 900 Gy. Each treatment consisted of 9 fruits (3 replications giving the amount of 99 larvae for each treatment. After irradiation the fruits were kept in a climatic chamber with the temperature adjusted to 25 ± 5°C and relative humidity of 70 ± 5%, until larvae left the fruit and became transformed into pupae and adults. The lethal dose (LD100 of gamma radiation for larvae in the fruits was 600 Gy and the dose of 50 Gy inhibited completely the total emergency of adults.

  17. Best Host Age of Anastrepha obliqua (Diptera: Tephritidae) for Multiplication of Four Native Parasitoids from the Americas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poncio, S; Montoya, P; Cancino, J; Nava, D E

    2018-01-01

    Abstract The success of the mass rearing of parasitoids is directly related to host quality, and it requires selecting the best biological host age to ensure the optimal performance of the parasitoids released into the field. The larval development of the parasitoids Utetes anastrephae (Viereck) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) and Odontosema anastrephae Borgmeier (Hymenoptera: Eucoilidae) and the pupal development of the parasitoids Coptera haywardi (Ogloblin) (Hymenoptera: Diapriidae) and Dirhinus sp. (Hymenoptera: Chalcididae) on the native host Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart) (Diptera: Tephritidae) in different larvae and pupae ages were investigated under laboratory conditions. Not all parasitoid species developed with the same efficiency in immature individuals of A. obliqua; U. anastrephae and C. haywardi showed the higher parasitism rates. The emergence and parasitism of U. anastrephae were equal using larvae from 5 to 8 d, while C. haywardi reared in 1- to 8-d-old pupae showed higher averages of parasitism. These results suggest that native parasitoids can be used to strengthen the implementation of biological control projects against A. obliqua, a pest of economic importance in South America.

  18. Effect of Resin Ducts and Sap Content on Infestation and Development of Immature Stages of Anastrepha obliqua and Anastrepha ludens (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Four Mango (Sapindales: Anacardiaceae) Cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillén, Larissa; Adaime, Ricardo; Birke, Andrea; Velázquez, Olinda; Angeles, Guillermo; Ortega, Fernando; Ruíz, Eliel; Aluja, Martín

    2017-04-01

    We determined the influence of resin ducts, sap content, and fruit physicochemical features of four mango cultivars (Criollo, Manila, Ataulfo, and Tommy Atkins) on their susceptibility to the attack of the two most pestiferous fruit fly species infesting mangoes in Mexico: Anastrepha ludens (Loew) and Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart). We performed three studies: 1) analysis of resin ducts in mango fruit exocarp to determine the density and area occupied by resin ducts in each mango cultivar, 2) assessment of mango physicochemical features including fruit sap content, and 3) a forced infestation trial under field conditions using enclosed fruit-bearing branches to expose mangoes to gravid A. ludens or A. obliqua females. Infestation rates, development time from egg to prepupae and pupae, pupal weight, and percent of adult emergence, were assessed. 'Ataulfo' and 'Tommy Atkins' cultivars exhibited the highest resin duct density and sap content, the lowest infestation rate, and had a negative effect on immature development and pupal weight. In sharp contrast, 'Manila' and 'Criollo' cultivars, with the lowest resin duct density and sap content, were highly susceptible to A. ludens and A. obliqua attack. We conclude that sap content and the number, size, and distribution of resin ducts as well as firmness in mango fruit exocarp are all involved in the resistance of mango to A. ludens and A. obliqua attack. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Influence of quantities of brewer yeast on the performance of Anastrepha obliqua wild females (Diptera, Tephritidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cresoni-Pereira Carla

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Using artificial solid diets, experiments were performed with Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart, 1835 wild females in order to verify the influence of different quantities of brewer yeast on the performance and compensation behavior to unbalanced diets ingestion. The observed parameters were egg production, ingestion, diet efficiency and survival in the reproductive phase. Results indicated that there was no compensatory ingestion to different quantities of yeast and that the diet with 12.5g of yeast provided the best performance. The absence of compensatory ingestion is discussed based on the yeast phagostimulation and on the costs involved in solid diets ingestion. The relation between the analyzed parameters and the protein quantities in the diet were discussed.

  20. Influence of quantities of brewer yeast on the performance of Anastrepha obliqua wild females (Diptera, Tephritidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cresoni-Pereira, Carla; Zucoloto, Fernando Sergio

    2001-01-01

    Using artificial solid diets, experiments were performed with Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart, 1835) wild females in order to verify the influence of different quantities of brewer yeast on the performance and compensation behavior to unbalanced diets ingestion. The observed parameters were egg production, ingestion, diet efficiency and survival in the reproductive phase. Results indicated that there was no compensatory ingestion to different quantities of yeast and that the diet with 12.5g of yeast provided the best performance. The absence of compensatory ingestion is discussed based on the yeast phagostimulation and on the costs involved in solid diets ingestion. The relation between the analyzed parameters and the protein quantities in the diet were discussed. (author)

  1. Influence of quantities of brewer yeast on the performance of Anastrepha obliqua wild females (Diptera, Tephritidae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cresoni-Pereira, Carla; Zucoloto, Fernando Sergio [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Filosofia, Ciencias e Letras. Dept. de Biologia

    2001-11-15

    Using artificial solid diets, experiments were performed with Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart, 1835) wild females in order to verify the influence of different quantities of brewer yeast on the performance and compensation behavior to unbalanced diets ingestion. The observed parameters were egg production, ingestion, diet efficiency and survival in the reproductive phase. Results indicated that there was no compensatory ingestion to different quantities of yeast and that the diet with 12.5g of yeast provided the best performance. The absence of compensatory ingestion is discussed based on the yeast phagostimulation and on the costs involved in solid diets ingestion. The relation between the analyzed parameters and the protein quantities in the diet were discussed. (author)

  2. Procedures for mass rearing the West Indian fruit fly, Anastrepha obliqua

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreno, M.P.; Gomez Simuta, Y.; Zavala Lopez, J.L.

    1999-01-01

    A series of bioassays resulted in a promising colony of Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart) for artificial production. A new model circular cage has been designed to achieve an increase in density of adults per cages, thus resulting in an increase in egg production. A bioassay for best egg production as well as constant hydration of eggs until collection time was chosen. Cotton fabric gave the best results of the fabrics used in the oviposition panel. A new diet based on corn cob particles and with citrus acid instead of hydrochloric acid was tested and showed promising results in good production, quality and less risk in handling. The optimum humidity range for larva to pupa conversion was found to be 70-80%. (author)

  3. Preliminary studies for the colonization of Anastrepha obliqua and Anastrepha serpentina (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Celedonio H, H.; Enkerlin H, W.; Bruzzone, D.

    1999-01-01

    A series of trials were carried out with the aim of collecting preliminary data for the colonization of Anastrepha obliqua and Anastrepha serpentina. Trials were focused on evaluating adequate oviposition media as well as their effect on fly demographic parameters; the effect of cage population densities on demographic parameters was also considered; for A. serpentina, egg disinfection treatments by organic acids was assayed, and a screening study was carried out for suitable pupation media. Nylon-made egging mesh resulted in the most efficient oviposition medium, while low insect densities provided the best conditions for increased rates of fly fertility. Organic acids (methyl-p-hydroxy-benzoic) were found to hamper egg hatch, while a variety of pupation media provided improved fly emergence rates vs. the naked pupation method. (author)

  4. Carambola Cultivar, Fruit Ripeness, and Damage by Conspecific Larvae Influence the Host-Related Behaviors of Anastrepha obliqua (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Ley, Jorge Ulises; Toledo, Jorge; Malo, Edi A; Gomez, Jaime; Santiesteban, Antonio; Rojas, Julio C

    2016-02-01

    In this study, we investigated the influence of cultivar type, fruit ripeness, and damage by conspecific larvae on the attraction of Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart) (Diptera: Tephritidae) to and oviposition on carambola fruit (Averroha carambola L.). The attraction of both sexes of A. obliqua to fruit of different quality was evaluated through cage experiments in the field, and the oviposition preferences of mated females were examined in laboratory tests. Both sexes, mated or virgin, were more attracted to the "Maha" fruit than to the "Golden Star" fruit, and the females oviposited more frequently on the Maha cultivar than the Golden Star cultivar. Both sexes were more attracted to ripe and half-ripe Maha fruits than to mature green fruit, and although females did not show a preference for ovipositing on half-ripe or ripe fruits, they did not oviposit on mature green fruits. Males did not show a preference for the volatiles from uninfested, artificially damaged, or infested Maha fruits, but females were more attracted to uninfested fruits than to artificially damaged and infested Maha fruits. Furthermore, females preferred to oviposit on uninfested fruits compared with artificially damaged fruit, and they did not oviposit on infested fruits. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Associative learning in wild Anastrepha obliqua females (Diptera, Tephritidae related to a protein source Aprendizagem associativa em fêmeas selvagens de Anastrepha obliqua (Diptera, Tephritidae em relação a uma fonte protéica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Cresoni-Pereira

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to determine whether wild adult Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart, 1835 females are able to associate a compound (quinine sulphate - QS not related to their habitual diet with a protein-enriched food. Females were first fed on diets based on brewer yeast and sucrose containing or not QS. The groups were then allowed to choose between their original diets and a diet with or without QS, depending on the previous treatment, and between a diet based on agar and a diet containing agar and QS. When the nutritional value of the diets was adequate, the females did not show any preference for the diet with or without QS. With respect to the agar diet and the agar + QS diet, females previously fed on a nutritive diet containing QS preferred the diet containing QS, indicating an association between the compound and the nutritional value of the diet. The importance of this behavioral strategy is discussed.O objetivo do presente estudo foi determinar se fêmeas adultas selvagens de Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart, 1835 são capazes de associar um composto (sulfato de quinino-SQ não-relacionado à sua dieta habitual com um alimento rico em proteínas. Primeiro, as fêmeas foram alimentadas com dietas à base de lêvedo de cerveja e sacarose contendo ou não SQ. Os grupos foram então colocados para escolher entre sua dieta original e dietas com ou sem SQ, dependendo do tratamento prévio, e entre uma dieta à base de agar somente e outra à base de agar e SQ. Quando o valor nutricional das dietas era adequado, as fêmeas não mostraram nenhuma preferência para a dieta com ou sem SQ. Em relação às dietas de agar e agar+SQ, fêmeas previamente alimentadas com uma dieta nutritiva contendo SQ preferiram a dieta contendo SQ, indicando uma associação entre o composto e o valor nutricional da dieta. A importância desta estratégia comportamental é discutida.

  6. There is no magic fruit fly trap: multiple biological factors influence the response of adult Anastrepha ludens and Anastrepha obliqua (Diptera: Tephritidae) individuals to MultiLure traps baited with BioLure or NuLure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Fleischer, Francisco; Arredondo, José; Flores, Salvador; Montoya, Pablo; Aluja, Martín

    2009-02-01

    Field-cage experiments were performed to determine the effectiveness of MultiLure traps (Better World MFG Inc., Fresno, CA) baited with NuLure (Miller Chemical and Fertilizer Corp., Hanover, PA) or BioLure (Suterra LLC, Inc., Bend, OR) in capturing individually marked Mexican fruit fly, Anastrepha ludens (Loew), and West Indian fruit fly, Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart) (Diptera: Tephritidae), of both sexes. Experimental treatments involved wild and laboratory-reared flies of varying ages (2-4 and 15-18 d) and dietary histories (sugar only, open fruit, open fruit plus chicken feces, and hydrolyzed protein mixed with sugar). Data were divided into two parts: total captures over a 24-h period and trap visits/landings, entrances into interior of trap ,and effective captures (i.e., drowning in liquid bait or water) over a 5-h detailed observation period (0600-1100 hours). The response to the two baits varied by fly species, gender, physiological state, age, and strain. Importantly, there were several highly significant interactions among these factors, underlining the complex nature of the response. The two baits differed in attractiveness for A. obliqua but not A. ludens. The effect of strain (wild versus laboratory flies) was significant for A. ludens but not A. obliqua. For effect of dietary history, adults of both species, irrespective of sex, were significantly less responsive to both baits when fed on a mixture of protein and sugar when compared with adults fed the other diets. Finally, we confirmed previous observations indicating that McPhail-type traps are quite inefficient. Considering the total 24-h fly tenure in the cage, and independent of bait treatment and fly type (i.e., strain, adult diet, gender and age), of a total of 2,880 A. obliqua and 2,880 A. ludens adults released into the field cages over the entire study (15 replicates), only 564 (19.6%) and 174 (6%) individuals, respectively, were effectively caught. When only considering the 5-h detailed

  7. Benzalkonium Chloride Provides Remarkable Stability to Liquid Protein Lures for Trapping Anastrepha obliqua (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasa, R; Williams, T

    2017-12-05

    Hydrolyzed protein lures are widely used to monitor fruit fly pests but are rapidly degraded by microbial activity and must be replaced frequently. To improve the stability of lures, the quaternary ammonium biocide, benzalkonium chloride (BC), was evaluated in mixtures with two hydrolyzed proteins commonly used to monitor Anastrepha spp. The mean number of Anastrepha obliqua adults captured during six consecutive weeks using Captor + borax with the addition of 240 mg BC/liter, not renewed during the test, was similar to Captor + borax that was replaced at weekly intervals and was more effective than Captor + borax without BC. Numbers of A. obliqua flies captured in 30% CeraTrap diluted in water containing 240 mg BC/liter were similar to those caught in traps baited with Captor + borax or 30% CeraTrap without BC in the first 9 d of evaluation but was significantly more effective than both lures after 56 d. After >2 mo of use, 30% CeraTrap containing 240 mg BC/liter remained as effective as newly prepared 30% CeraTrap. The addition of BC to lures reduced surface tension of liquid lures by ~40-50%. However, when BC was increased to 720 mg BC/liter, only a small additional reduction in surface tension was observed and higher concentrations of BC did not increase capture rates. These findings could contribute to reduced costs for trapping networks and the development of long-lasting formulations of liquid protein lures for bait stations and mass-trapping targeted at major tephritid pests. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Sexual Competitiveness, Field Survival, and Dispersal of Anastrepha obliqua (Diptera: Tephritidae) Fruit Flies Irradiated at Different Doses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallardo-Ortiz, Uriel; Pérez-Staples, Diana; Liedo, Pablo; Toledo, Jorge

    2018-04-02

    The sterile insect technique (SIT) is used in area-wide pest management programs for establishing low pest prevalence and/or areas free of fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae). The aim of this technique is to induce high levels of sterility in the wild population, for this the released insects must have a high sexual competitiveness and field dispersal. However, radiation decreases these biological attributes that do not allow it to compete successfully with wild insects. In this study the sexual competitiveness, field survival and dispersal of Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart; Diptera: Tephritidae) irradiated at 0, 40, 50, 60, 70, and 80 Gy were evaluated in laboratory. A dose of 60 Gy produced 98% sterility, whereas doses of 70 and 80 Gy produced 99% sterility. Sexual competitiveness was assessed in field cages, comparing males irradiated at 0, 50, 60, 70, and 80 Gy against wild males for mating with wild fertile females. Males irradiated at 50 and 60 Gy achieved more matings than those irradiated at 70 and 80 Gy. Wild males were more competitive than mass-reared males, even when these were not irradiated (0 Gy). There was no effect of irradiation on mating latency, yet wild males showed significantly shorter mating latency than mass-reared males. Female remating did not differ among those that mated with wild males and those that mated with males irradiated with different doses. The relative sterility index (RSI) increased from 0.25 at 80 Gy to 0.37 at 60 Gy. The Fried competitiveness index was 0.69 for males irradiated at 70 Gy and 0.57 for those irradiated at 80 Gy, which indicates that a 10 Gy reduction in the irradiation dose produces greater induction of sterility in the wild population. There were no significant differences in field survival and dispersal between flies irradiated at 70 or 80 Gy. Reducing the irradiation dose to 60 or 70 Gy could improve the performance of sterile males and the effectiveness of the SIT. Our results also distinguish between the

  9. Midgut Protease Activity During Larval Development of Anastrepha obliqua (Diptera: Tephritidae) Fed With Natural and Artificial Diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera-Ciprian, José Pedro; Aceituno-Medina, Marysol; Guillen, Karina

    2017-01-01

    Abstract In this study, we examined the activity of two serine proteases (chymotrypsin and trypsin) and two metalloproteases (carboxypeptidases A and B) during larval development in Anastrepha obliqua fed natural (mango fruit) and artificial (formulation used in mass-rearing) diets. Proteolytic activity of chymotrypsin, trypsin, carboxypeptidase A, and carboxypeptidase B was detected in the midgut of different instars of A. obliqua and was strongly affected by the pH and diet type. The protein content of the natural and artificial diets was similar. Enzymatic activity was higher in the midgut of the larvae fed the natural diet than in larvae fed the artificial diet. The activity of the endopeptidases (chymotrypsin and trypsin) was lower than those of the exopeptidases (carboxypeptidases A and B). The pH of the midgut varied from acidic to neutral. The results indicate that in the midgut of the larvae reared on both types of diet, the level of carboxypeptidase activity was approximately 100-fold greater than the level of chymotrypsin activity and 10,000-fold greater than the level of trypsin. In conclusion, carboxypeptidase A and B are the main proteases involved in the digestion of proteins in the larvae of A. obliqua. The natural diet showed a high bioaccessibility. A clear tendency to express high activities of chymotrypsin and trypsin was observed by the third instar. Our research contributes to the planning and development of novel bioaccessibility assays to understand the nutrition processing of A. obliqua larvae under mass-rearing conditions for sterile insect technique.

  10. Foraging behavior of Anastrepha Ludens, A. obliqua, and A. serpentina in response to feces extracts containing host marking pheromone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aluja, Martin; Díaz-Fleischer, Francisco

    2006-02-01

    Following oviposition, females of many Tephritid flies deposit host marking pheromones (HMPs) to indicate that the host fruit has been occupied. We describe the foraging behavior of these three economically important species (Anastrepha ludens and A. obliqua from the fraterculus species group and A. serpentina from the serpentina species group) when they encounter an artificial fruit (green agar spheres wrapped in Parafilm) marked with intra- and interspecific feces extracts that contain, among other substances, host marking pheromone. When flies encountered fruit treated with either 1 or 100 mg/ml feces extract, there were drastic and statistically significant reductions in tree residence time, mean time spent on fruit, and in the number of oviposition attempts or actual ovipositions when compared to the control treatment (clean fruit). These responses were almost identical irrespective of extract origin (i.e., fly species), indicating complete interspecific HMP cross-recognition by all three Anastrepha species tested. We discuss the ecological and practical implications of our findings.

  11. Susceptibility of 15 mango (Sapindales: Anacardiaceae) cultivars to the attack by Anastrepha ludens and Anastrepha obliqua (Diptera:Tephritidae) and the role of underdeveloped fruit as pest reservoirs: management implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    We evaluated the susceptibility of 15 mango cultivars to the attack of Anastrepha ludens and A. obliqua, the main Tephritid pests of this crop in Mexico. In a field experiment, bagged, fruit-bearing branches were exposed to gravid females of both fly species. Infestation rates, developmental time,...

  12. Visibility and Persistence of Marker Dyes and Effect on the Quality and Mating Competitiveness of Mass-Reared Flies (Diptera: Tephritidae): Anastrepha obliqua and Bisexual and Genetic Sexing (Tapachula-7) Strains of A. ludens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arredondo, José; Ruiz, Lia; López, Gladis; Díaz-Fleischer, Francisco

    2017-08-01

    Fluorescent dyes are commonly used in the sterile insect technique (SIT) for marking insects for a proper identification after recapture. However, the quality of the mark must be balanced against insect performance, because dyes can negatively affect some parameters of insect performance and reduce their effectiveness in control with the SIT. We determined the visibility and persistence and the effect of dyes on the quality of Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart) and Anastrepha ludens (Loew) (bisexual and genetic sexing strains) by testing four concentrations of a dye (Day-Glo) from 0 to 2.5 g dye/kg of pupae. Visibility and persistence of the mark were positively affected by dose and negatively affected by the length of time the samples were kept in a solution of 75% alcohol. However, upon dissection, even the lowest dose of dye was visible under a fluorescence microscope. Between dyed and undyed pupae (control), no significant differences were observed in rates of emergence, fliers and flight ability, and survival in two tests, with water and without food and without water and food, at any of the concentrations tested. Furthermore, no significant difference in mating competitiveness was detected between control pupae and those dyed at 1.0 and 2.5 g dye/kg pupae. We discuss our results with the possibility of reducing the dose of dye in these three flies, because the heads are large enough to capture sufficient particles to permit identification with the current methods of detection. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Parasitóides (Hymenoptera: Braconidae de Anastrepha Schiner (Diptera: Tephritidae no estado do Acre Parasitoids (Hymenoptera: Braconidae of Anastrepha Schiner (Diptera: Tephritidae in the state of Acre, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcílio José Thomazini

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho relata a primeira ocorrência de parasitóides em moscas-das-frutas do gênero Anastrepha Schiner no estado do Acre. No município de Bujari foram encontrados os braconídeos Opius bellus Gahan (72,5%, Doryctobracon areolatus (Szépligeti (26,8% e Utetes anastrephae (Viereck (0,7% associados a A. obliqua (Macquart em frutos de taperebá (Spondias mombin L., com parasitismo de 29,5%. No município de Rio Branco, em frutos de goiaba (Psidium guajava L., ocorreu somente D. areolatus em A. obliqua com parasitismo de 2,7%.This paper records the first parasitoids occurrence on Anastrepha Schiner fruit flies in the state of Acre, Brazil. In the Bujari County there occurred the braconids Opius bellus Gahan (72.5%, Doryctobracon areolatus (Szépligeti (26.8% e Utetes anastrephae (Viereck (0.7% associated with A. obliqua (Macquart in tapereba fruits (Spondias mombin L., with parasitism of 29.5%. In guajava fruits (Psidium guajava L. at Rio Branco County, only D. areolatus on A. obliqua occurred, with parasitism of 2.7%.

  14. Species of Anastrepha (Diptera: Tephritidae) captured in a guava orchard (Psidium guajava L., Myrtaceae) in Boa Vista, Roraima, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsaro Júnior, A L; Deus, E G; Ronchi-Teles, B; Adaime, R; Silva Júnior, R J

    2013-11-01

    The guava fruit (Psidium guajava) is among the most strongly affected by fruit flies in Brazil. In the Brazilian Amazon, 11 species of Anastrepha have been reported in guava orchards to date. This work aimed to identify the species of Anastrepha present in a guava orchard in the municipality of Boa Vista, determine the species infesting the fruits, and identify any parasitoids present. Two McPhail traps with food bait were installed and weekly collections were made between January and December 2008. Fruits were also collected systematically during this period, with a view to determining the association between host plant and tephritid species. Nine species of Anastrepha were identified, in addition to one specimen belonging to a probable new species. Anastrepha striata Schiner, Anastrepha sororcula Zucchi, Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart), and Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann) were the dominant species in the orchard, accounting for 84.8% of all captured individuals. All females collected directly from fruits were A. striata. Doryctobracon areolatus (Szépligeti) was the only parasitoid species obtained. In this work, Anastrepha ethalea (Walker) is reported for the first time in the state of Roraima.

  15. Biodiversidade de moscas-das-frutas do gênero Anastrepha (Diptera, Tephritidae no campus da ESALQ-USP, Piracicaba, São Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keiko Uramoto

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi conduzido na área abrangida pelo campus da Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz da Universidade de São Paulo, no município de Piracicaba, Estado de São Paulo. Teve como objetivos, determinar a composição do gênero Anastrepha Schiner e verificar a associação das espécies de plantas hospedeiras, estabelecidas na área, com as espécies de Anastrepha. Foram examinadas 23.277 fêmeas de Anastrepha coletadas por meio de armadilhas McPhail e 18 espécies pertencentes a nove grupos de espécies foram registradas. Um total de 563 amostras de frutos pertencentes a nove famílias e, pelo menos, 23 espécies de plantas foi coletado em 47 estações de capturas. Foram identificadas 10.243 fêmeas e das 18 espécies de Anastrepha capturadas em armadilhas somente seis emergiram das amostras de frutos: A. bistrigata Bezzi, A. fraterculus (Wied., A. obliqua (Macquart, A. pseudoparallela (Loew, A. serpentina (Wied. e A. sororcula Zucchi. A. fraterculus infestou maior diversidade de frutos. Os hospedeiros preferidos de A. obliqua foram as espécies da família Anacardiaceae. A. pseudoparallela e A. serpentina infestaram exclusivamente Passifloraceae e Sapotaceae, respectivamente. A. fraterculus é registrada pela primeira vez em sapoti (Manilkara zapota L. no Brasil.Biodiversity of fruit flies of the genus Anastrepha (Diptera, Tephritidae at the ESALQ-USP campus, Piracicaba, São Paulo. The aim of this study was to determine the number of species of Anastrepha Schiner at the campus and to verify the association between host plant species and Anastrepha species in this area. A total of 23,277 females of Anastrepha collected in McPhail traps was examined, and 18 species belonging to nine species groups were recorded. A total of 563 fruit samples representing at least 23 plant species from nine families was collected in 47 capture sites. A total of 10,243 females was identified. Of the 18 Anastrepha species captured in traps

  16. UTILIZAÇÃO DA ANÁLISE DISCRIMINANTE EM ESTUDOS TAXONÔMICOS DE MOSCAS-DAS-FRUTAS DO GÊNERO Anastrepha Schiner, 1868 (DIPTERA: TEPHRITIDAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ARAUJO E.L.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available As moscas-das-frutas Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann, 1830, A. obliqua (Macquart, 1835, A. sororcula (Zucchi, 1979 e A. zenildae (Zucchi, 1979 foram submetidas a uma análise discriminante. Essas espécies do grupo fraterculus distinguem-se unicamente com base em detalhes do ápice do acúleo, que por serem muito semelhantes, dificultam a identificação específica. A análise discriminante permitiu a separação das quatro espécies de Anastrepha, com base em oito medidas do acúleo. Portanto, essa é mais uma técnica para auxiliar as identificações de espécies de Anastrepha, como já acontece em muitos outros grupos de insetos.

  17. Overlapping and co-occurrence pattern of Anastrepha species (Diptera, Tephritidae in anthropic areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tayron Sousa Amaral

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out in two anthropic areas (Fazenda Areão and Monte Olimpo on the “Luiz de Queiroz” campus, University of São Paulo, Piracicaba, SP. We analyzed data from 52 collections of 14 McPhail traps distributed in both areas. A total of 1,583 females belonging to 14 species were collected, including Anastrepha amita Zucchi, A. barbiellinii Lima, A. bistrigata Bezzi, A. daciformis Bezzi, A. distincta Greene, A. fraterculus (Wiedemann, A. grandis (Macquart, A. manihoti Lima, A. montei Lima, A. obliqua (Macquart, A. pickeli Lima, A. pseudoparallela (Loew, A. serpentina (Wiedemann and A. sororcula Zucchi. A greater number of specimens (1,041 were collected at the Fazenda Areão compared to Monte Olimpo (542. The mean niche overlap was greater than expected at random for both areas; therefore, the ecological niches of the species largely overlap. The pattern of co-occurrence indicates that segregation was not random between two pairs of species: A. pseudoparallela × A. obliqua (Fazenda Areão and A. fraterculus × A. pseudoparallela (Monte Olimpo. This segregation suggests that there may be competition for resources in each niche. The analysis also revealed three aggregated species pairs: A. bistrigata × A. montei, A. fraterculus × A. barbiellinii (Fazenda Areão, and A. fraterculus × A. bistrigata (Monte Olimpo, indicating that each pair occurs concomitantly without interfering with the permanence of the populations in these areas.

  18. Capture of Anastrepha species (Diptera: Tephritidae) with multilure traps and biolure attractants in Guatemala

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez, A.J.; Salinas, E.J.; Rendon, P.

    2007-01-01

    Two trapping systems were compared in a study in Guatemala during the wet season, May through Dec 2001. Trap/lure combinations consisting of green or yellow-based plastic McPhail-like traps baited with a synthetic 2-component lure (putrescine and ammonium acetate) and 300 mL of propylene glycol antifreeze as a preservative were compared to the traditional glass McPhail baited with torula yeast/borax and 300 mL of water. Both systems captured several key Anastrepha species including Anastrepha ludens Loew, A. obliqua, Macquart, A. serpentina Weidemann, A. striata Schiner, A. distincta Greene, A. fraterculus Weidemann as well as Ceratitis capitata Weidemann. Additionally, 13 other Anastrepha spp. were captured with the synthetic lure. The plastic traps captured more key flies than the McPhail trap except for A. distincta where there were no significant differences between the yellow-based plastic trap and the McPhail trap and no significant differences between any trap and lure for trapping A. fraterculus. The synthetic lure lasted 10 weeks. The sex ratio was female-biased for almost all captured key species in both systems. Moreover, there were significant numbers of captured nontarget insects in all traps; however, the captured flies in those traps with the synthetic lure were not adversely affected by these insects. Propylene glycol-based antifreeze was a superior preservative when compared to borax/water. (author) [es

  19. Forest fragments as barriers to fruit fly dispersal: Anastrepha (Diptera: Tephritidae) populations in orchards and adjacent forest fragments in Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, David A; Kendra, Paul E; Van Bloem, Skip; Whitmire, Stefanie; Mizell, Russ; Goenaga, Ricardo

    2013-04-01

    McPhail-type traps baited with ammonium acetate and putrescine were used to monitor populations of Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart) and Anastrepha suspensa (Loew) in two orchards with hosts of these flies (mango, Mangifera indica L., and carambola, Averrhoa carambola L.), as well as in forest fragments bordering these orchards. Contour maps were constructed to measure population distributions in and around orchards. Our results indicate that Anastrepha populations are focused around host fruit in both space and time, that traps do not draw fruit flies away from hosts, even when placed within 15 m of the host, and that lures continue to function for 6 mo in the field. The contour mapping analyses reveal that populations of fruit flies are focused around ovipositional hosts. Although the trapping system does not have a very long effective sampling range, it is ideal, when used in combination with contour analyses, for assessing fine-scale (on the order of meters) population distributions, including identifying resources around which fly populations are focused or, conversely, assessing the effectiveness of management tools. The results are discussed as they pertain to monitoring and detecting Anastrepha spp. with the McPhail-type trap and ammonium acetate and putrescine baiting system and the dispersal of these flies within Puerto Rico.

  20. Capture of Anastrepha species (Diptera: Tephritidae) with multilure traps and biolure attractants in Guatemala

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez, A J; Salinas, E J [USDA-APHIS-PPQ-CPHST, 22675 N. Moorefield Rd, Edinburg, TX 78541-5033 (United States); Rendon, P [USDA-APHIS-PPQ-CPHST, 4a Avenida 12-62, Zona 10, Guatemala City (Guatemala)

    2007-03-15

    Two trapping systems were compared in a study in Guatemala during the wet season, May through Dec 2001. Trap/lure combinations consisting of green or yellow-based plastic McPhail-like traps baited with a synthetic 2-component lure (putrescine and ammonium acetate) and 300 mL of propylene glycol antifreeze as a preservative were compared to the traditional glass McPhail baited with torula yeast/borax and 300 mL of water. Both systems captured several key Anastrepha species including Anastrepha ludens Loew, A. obliqua, Macquart, A. serpentina Weidemann, A. striata Schiner, A. distincta Greene, A. fraterculus Weidemann as well as Ceratitis capitata Weidemann. Additionally, 13 other Anastrepha spp. were captured with the synthetic lure. The plastic traps captured more key flies than the McPhail trap except for A. distincta where there were no significant differences between the yellow-based plastic trap and the McPhail trap and no significant differences between any trap and lure for trapping A. fraterculus. The synthetic lure lasted 10 weeks. The sex ratio was female-biased for almost all captured key species in both systems. Moreover, there were significant numbers of captured nontarget insects in all traps; however, the captured flies in those traps with the synthetic lure were not adversely affected by these insects. Propylene glycol-based antifreeze was a superior preservative when compared to borax/water. (author) [Spanish] En Guatemala, se compararon dos sistemas de trampeo durante la epoca lluviosa de Mayo a Deciembre, 2001. Combinaciones de trampa/atrayente que consistieron de trampas de plastico con bases verdes o amarillos y con atrayentes sinteticos (acetate de amoniaco y putrecina) fueron comparadas con el sistema de trampeo tradicional McPhail de vidrio cebada con torula y borax en agua. Los dos sistemas capturaron moscas del genero Anastrepha incluyendo Anastrepha ludens Loew, A. obliqua, Macquart, A. serpentina Weidemann, A. striata Schiner, A

  1. Especies, distribución y hospedantes del género Anastrepha Schiner en el departamento del Tolima, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Castañeda Marìa del Rosario

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Las moscas del género Anastrepha constituyen una de las principales
    plagas de la fruticultura colombiana. El conocimiento
    de la diversidad de especies presentes en un área es el primer
    paso en el diseño de estudios tendientes a establecer tecnologías
    apropiadas de manejo. Además de un listado de las especies de
    Anastrepha identificadas en el Laboratorio de Entomología de
    la Universidad
    del Tolima desde 1988 hasta la fecha a través de
    diversos estudios realizados en este departamento, el presente
    trabajo incluye también la distribución y hospederos de dichas
    especies provenientes de diez municipios del departamento,
    con alturas entre 300 y 2.500 msnm. Se identificaron 60.688
    especímenes pertenecientes a 24 especies de Anastrepha.
    Mediante la recolección de frutos se asociaron 16 especies de
    hospederos (incluyendo
    cinco nuevos reportes a nueve especies
    de Anastrepha. Las especies A. distincta Greene, A. sororcula
    Zucchi y A. striata Schiner fueron las que presentaron una
    distribución altitudinal más amplia (300 a 2.200 msnm. Por
    su parte, A. obliqua solo se encontró desde los 300 hasta los
    1.550 msnm. Especies de importancia cuarentenaria como A.
    fraterculus (Wiedemann, A. grandis Macquart y A. serpentina
    (Wiedemann se encontraron por arriba de los 1.100, 960 y 900
    msnm, respectivamente.

  2. Anastrepha species (Diptera: Tephritidae, their host plants and parasitoids (Hymenoptera in the state of Roraima, Brazil: state of the art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Luiz Marsaro Júnior

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7925.2017v30n1p13 The aim of this review was to update the available information on Anastrepha species in the state of Roraima, Brazil, with emphasis on distribution, host plants and parasitoids. In total, 25 species of Anastrepha and 27 host plant species have been recorded to date in Roraima. Anastrepha striata and A. obliqua are widely distributed in the state. Anastrepha obliqua is the most polyphagous species, where it is associated with 13 hosts. Six species of parasitoids of Anastrepha have been reported in Roraima. Of these, Doryctobracon areolatus is the most abundant and has been associated with the largest number of Anastrepha species.

  3. The South American fruit fly, Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann) in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zucchi, R.A.; Araujo, E.L.; Canal D, N.A.; Uchoa F, M.A.

    1999-01-01

    Anastrepha fraterculus, the South American fruit fly, is the most common and economically important pest for the fruit-bearing species in the Neotropical region. However, there are some species that are close to A. fraterculus and, sometimes they can be erroneously identified as A. fraterculus. The separation of A. fraterculus from A. obliqua, A. sororcula and A. zenildae, species closely related to South American fruit fly, is discussed. Also, information on the host plants and braconid parasitoids for A. fraterculus in Brazil is presented. (author)

  4. Synthetic attractants for Anastrepha fruit flies in Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez-Simuta, Y; Flores-Breceda, S; Lppez-Munoz, L [Subdireccion de Desarrollo de Metodos, Programa Moscamed, Tapachula, Chiapas (Mexico)

    2007-10-15

    The efficacy of synthetic attractants in the capture of Anastrepha fruit flies (Anastrepha ludens, A. obliqua and A. serpentina) was tested in three commercial orchards of known fruit fly hosts: mango (Mangifera indica L.), mammy (Calocarpum mammosum L.) and Mexican plum (Spondias purpurea L.) in Chiapas, Mexico. Among the synthetic attractants tested, we found that Ammonium Acetate (AA) plus Putrescine (PT) in a liquid trap was often the best combination for attracting flies. Interestingly, the reduction of release rate of AA increases the capture of fruit flies. We also found that Ammonium Bicarbonate (AB) plus PT in a wet trap was effective in a Mexican plum orchard in comparison with the other combinations of synthetic attractants. However, the synthetic attractants in dry traps were not effective and always presented the lowest Captures. (author)

  5. [Fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) and their parasitoids (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) associated to host plants in the southern region of Bahia State].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bittencourt, M A L; da Silva, A C M; Silva, V E S; Bomfim, Z V; Guimarães, J A; de Souza Filho, M F; Araujo, E L

    2011-01-01

    The association among Anastrepha species, braconid parasitoids and host fruits in southern Bahia is recorded. Doryctobracon areolatus (Szépligeti) was associated with A. serpentina (Wied.) in Pouteria caimito, A. bahiensis Lima in Helicostylis tomentosa, A. sororcula Zucchi in Eugenia uniflora, and A. obliqua (Macquart) in Spondias purpurea. Anatrepha obliqua was unique in fruits of Averrhoa carambola, but associated with D. areolatus, Asobara anastrephae (Muesebeck) and Utetes anastrephae (Viereck). In Achras sapota, A. serpentina was associated with A. anastrephae and D. areolatus, while in Psidium guajava, A. fraterculus (Wied.) and A. sororcula were associated with D. areolatus and U. anastrephae.

  6. Behaviour of Anastrepha fraterculus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salles, L.A.

    1999-01-01

    A number of experiments and observations on the behaviour, host associations, attractants for adults and pupation of the South American fruit fly Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann), conducted under field or semi-natural conditions are presented here. (author)

  7. Biology of Anastrepha fraterculus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salles, L.A.

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents available (published) information on specific abiotic factors, such as temperature, humidity, and lighting on the life cycle of Anastrepha fraterculus, henceforth AF. AF displays holometabolous development: egg, larva (development is completed in three instars), pupa and free living adults. (author)

  8. Rearing of Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salles, L.A.

    1999-01-01

    A few attempts were conducted to establish basic needs, materials, conditions and procedures for artificial rearing of Anastrepha fraterculus, henceforth AF. A brief summary will be presented based on published and personal information. (author)

  9. Faunistic analysis of the species of Anastrepha Schiner (Diptera: Tephritidae in three municipalities of the state of Roraima, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AL. Marsaro Júnior

    Full Text Available The purpose of this work was to describe the population patterns of Anastrepha in three municipalities of the state of Roraima, Brazil, via faunistic analysis. Weekly collections were performed from January through December 2008, using McPhail traps containing 5% hydrolysed protein, in domestic orchards in the municipalities of Boa Vista, Bonfim and Pacaraima. We captured 301 females of Anastrepha in Boa Vista, 212 in Bonfim, and 167 in Pacaraima. Boa Vista presented the highest species richness (S = 10 and Pacaraima the lowest (S = 4. Anastrepha striata was the predominant species in Boa Vista (47.18% and Pacaraima (65.87%, whereas A. obliqua predominated in Bonfim (46.23%. Boa Vista presented the highest Shannon-Wiener diversity index (H' = 1.19 and Margalef index (α = 1.58, and Bonfim presented the highest Pielou's evenness index (J' = 0.69. In Pacaraima the cumulative curves reached stability, confirming that the observed and expected species richness were the same. In the other two municipalities, the curves showed a moderate growth, suggesting that the sampling effort was not sufficient to produce an accurate depiction of species richness. In this study, Anastrepha zernyi is reported for the first time in Roraima.

  10. Nomenclatural Studies Toward a World List of Diptera Genus-Group Names. Part V: Pierre-Justin-Marie Macquart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evenhuis, Neal L; Pape, Thomas; Pont, Adrian C

    2016-09-30

    The Diptera genus-group names of Pierre-Justin-Marie Macquart are reviewed and annotated. A total of 399 available genus-group names in 69 families of Diptera are listed alphabetically, for each name giving author, year and page of original publication, originally included species, type species and method of fixation, current status of the name, family placement, and a list of any emendations of it that have been found in the literature. Remarks are given to clarify nomenclatural or taxonomic information. In addition, an index to all the species-group names of Diptera proposed by Macquart (3,611, of which 3,543 are available) is given with bibliographic reference (year and page) to each original citation.        The following type species are designated herein: Agculocera nigra Macquart, 1855 for Onuxicera Macquart, 1855, present designation [Tachinidae]; Trixa imhoffi Macquart, 1834, for Semiomyia Macquart, 1848, present designation [Tachinidae].        The following type species are designated herein with fixation under ICZN Code Art. 70.3.2: Azelia nebulosa Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830 for Atomogaster Macquart, 1835, present designation [Muscidae]; Tachydromia vocatoria Fallén, 1816 for Chelipoda Macquart, 1835, present designation [Empididae]; Eriocera macquarti Enderlein, 1912 for Eriocera Macquart, 1838, present designation [Limoniidae]; Limosina acutangula Zetterstedt, 1847 for Heteroptera Macquart, 1835, present designation [Sphaeroceridae]; Phryxe pavoniae Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830 for Masicera Macquart, 1834, present designation [Tachinidae]; Pachymyia macquartii Townsend, 1916 for Pachymyia Macquart, 1844, present designation [Tachinidae].        Earlier valid subsequent type-species designations have been found in this study for the following: Anisophysa Macquart, 1835 [Sepsidae]; Diphysa Macquart, 1838 [Stratiomyidae]; Pachyrhina Macquart, 1834 [Tipulidae]; Silbomyia Macquart, 1844 [Calliphoridae].        One name is raised from

  11. First record of Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart) (Diptera, Calliphoridae) from Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    José O. de Almeida Silva; Fernando da S. Carvalho-Filho; Maria C. Esposito; Geniana A. Reis

    2012-01-01

    First record of Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart) (Diptera, Calliphoridae) from Brazil. In addition to its native fauna, the Neotropical region is known to be inhabited by four introduced species of blow flies of the genus Chrysomya. Up until now, only three of these species have been recorded in Brazil - Chrysomya albiceps (Wiedemann), Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius), and Chrysomya putoria (Wiedemann). In South America, C. rufifacies (Macquart) has only been reported from Argentina and Colom...

  12. Lonomia obliqua Walker (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae: hemostasis implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silviane Maggi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Summary In southern Brazil, since 1989, several cases of accidents produced by unwilling contact with the body of poisonous caterpillars of the moth species Lonomia obliqua Walker, 1855 (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae, were described. L. obliqua caterpillars have gregarious behavior and feed on leaves of host trees during the night, staying grouped in the trunk during the day, which favors the occurrence of accidents with the species. This caterpillar has the body covered with bristles that on contact with the skin of individuals, breaks and release their contents, inoculating the venom into the victim. The basic constitution of the venom is protein and its components produce physiological changes in the victim, which include disturbances in hemostasis. Hemorrhagic syndrome associated with consumption coagulopathy, intravascular hemolysis and acute renal failure are some of the possible clinical manifestations related to poisoning by L. obliqua. Specific laboratory tests for diagnosis of poisoning have not been described previously. The diagnosis of poisoning is made based on the patient's medical history, clinical manifestations, erythrocyte levels, and, primarily, parameters that evaluate blood coagulation. Treatment is performed with the use of supportive care and the administration of specific hyperimmune antivenom. Poisoning can be serious and even fatal.

  13. Establishment of the west indian fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) parasitoid Doryctobracon areolatus (Hymenoptera: Braconidae)in the Dominican Republic

    Science.gov (United States)

    The West Indian fruit fly, Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart), infests numerous fruit species, particularly Anacardiaceae and most importantly mango (Mangifera indica L.). Widespread in the Neotropics, it was first reported in Hispaniola nearly 70 years ago. Continental populations are attacked by the op...

  14. Parasitóides (Braconidae associados à Anastrepha (Tephritidae em frutos hospedeiros do litoral sul da Bahia Parasitoids (Braconidae associated with Anastrepha (Tephritidae in host fruits on the southern coast of Bahia, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Aparecida Leão Bittencourt

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Dentre os organismos que atuam no controle biológico natural dos tefritídeos, os representantes da família Braconidae constituem-se no mecanismo de parasitismo natural mais atuante, e na região Neotropical, representantes de Opiinae são os principais agentes de controle de Anastrepha. Este trabalho teve por objetivo conhecer a percentagem de parasitismo e as espécies de braconídeos associados às fruteiras cultivadas em municípios da região Litoral Sul da Bahia. No período de agosto de 2005 a março de 2008, coletaram-se frutos hospedeiros de moscas-das-frutas de diversas espécies botânicas, e dos frutos foram obtidas as seguintes espécies de Anastrepha: A. fraterculus, A. obliqua, A. bahiensis, A serpentina, A. sororcula e A. zenildae. Do total de 838 exemplares de braconídeos, 21,36% foram da espécie Utetes anastrephae (Viereck, provenientes de cajá, carambola, goiaba, manga e pitanga; 4,42% da espécie Asobara anastrephae (Muesebeck obtidos dos frutos de cajá, carambola e goiaba, e apenas um exemplar da espécie Opius bellus Gahan (0,12% que emergiu da amostra de goiaba. A espécie Doryctobracon areolatus (Szépligeti (74,10% foi predominante e emergiu dos pupários provenientes de todos os frutos hospedeiros coletados, provavelmente pela maior eficiência desta espécie em localizar as larvas dos tefritídeos. A percentagem média de parasitismo de Anastrepha spp. foi de 4,45%.Among the organisms acting in the natural biological control of tephritids, members of the family Braconidae are the most active form of natural parasite, and in Neotropical regions, members of Opiinae are the main control agents of Anastrepha. The objective of this work was to discover the percentage of parasitism and the species of braconid associated with fruit trees growing in cities on the southern coast of Bahia. During the period of August, 2005 to March, 2008, hosts fruits of fruit flies from several plant species were collected and from the

  15. Biology of Anastrepha grandis (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Different Cucurbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolzan, Anderson; Nava, Dori E; Garcia, Flávio R M; Valgas, Ricardo A; Smaniotto, Giovani

    2015-06-01

    Anastrepha grandis (Macquart) (Diptera: Tephritidae) is one of the main pests of cucurbits in Brazil. Losses occur due to the damage caused to the fruits and the embargo on exports, as A. grandis is considered a quarantine pest in countries that import Brazilian cucurbits. This study aimed to evaluate the development of A. grandis in hosts of the Cucurbitaceae family. The hosts used were stem squash (Cucurbita pepo L.), squash (Cucurbita moschata Duchesne), chayote [Sechium edule (Jacq.) Swartz], mini watermelon [Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum & Nakai], Spanish melon (Cucumis melo L.), hybrid squash "Tetsukabuto" (C. moschata×Cucurbita maxima Duchesne), and salad cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.). We evaluated the viability and duration of egg-to-pupa period, pupal weight, sex ratio, and average number of pupae per fruit under controlled conditions of temperature, relative humidity, and photophase. The preoviposition and oviposition periods, fecundity, fertility, and longevity of females were determined for adults. Hosts of the genus Cucurbita provided a better development of A. grandis in comparison with other hosts, and presented a greater number of insects on fruit as well as higher infestation rate. Fecundity and longevity were also higher for females that developed in hosts of the genus Cucurbita, although values of these biological parameters varied between stem squash, squash, hybrid squash "Tetsukabuto." © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. 76 FR 43804 - Movement of Hass Avocados From Areas Where Mediterranean Fruit Fly or South American Fruit Fly Exist

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-22

    ... dorsalis), peach fruit fly (Anastrepha zonata), and sapote fruit fly (Anastrepha serpentina) in the... obliqua, Anastrepha serpentina, and Anastrepha striata (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Mexico. J. Econ. Entomol...

  17. Specific bibliography on Anastrepha fraterculus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salles, L.A.; Jaldo, H.

    1999-01-01

    Most publications on Anastrepha fraterculus are in the literature sources from South America, and papers were published in Spanish or Portuguese. Many literature sources mentioned in this list are not indexed in entomological abstracts and, consequently, are not easily available outside their home state or country. Due to this fact, the inclusion of a list of specific bibliography on A. fraterculus could be a help for researchers and students interested in fruit flies. In this list are included only references directly dealing with Anastrepha fraterculus. Obviously, many more references exist that consider this species, but general or non-specific work or data concerning A. fraterculus were not included in the present list. (author)

  18. Faunistic analysis of Anastrepha spp. (Diptera: Tephritidae) on a guava orchard under organic management in the municipality of Una, Bahia, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dutra, Vivian S.; Santos, Mirian S; Souza Filho, Zilton A.; Silva, Janisete G. [Universidade Estadual de Santa Cruz (UESC), Ilheus, BA (Brazil). Dept. de Ciencias Biologicas; Araujo, Elton L. [Universidade Federal Rural do Semi-Arido, Mossoro, RN (Brazil). Dept. de Ciencias Vegetais

    2009-01-15

    We carried out a study to characterize fruit fly populations on an organic guava orchard (Psidium guajava cv. Paluma) in the municipality of Una, southern region of the state of Bahia, Brazil, using faunistic analysis of the adult fruit f y specimens captured in McPhail traps from January 2004 through March 2007. A total of 22,673 specimens of Anastrepha (15,306 females and 7,367 males) were captured. Thirteen species of Anastrepha were recorded. A. fraterculus and A. obliqua were the more frequent and dominant species, accounting for 90.1% of all females captured in the traps. A. fraterculus was the predominant species (more frequent, constant and dominant). The high value of the Simpson index (0.62) and the low values of Shannon-Wiener (0.83) and equitability (0.49) indices indicated the dominance and high frequency of A. fraterculus and A. obliqua on the guava orchard despite the presence of other fruit species as potential hosts of fruit flies. (author)

  19. Faunistic analysis of Anastrepha spp. (Diptera: Tephritidae) on a guava orchard under organic management in the municipality of Una, Bahia, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dutra, Vivian S.; Santos, Mirian S; Souza Filho, Zilton A.; Silva, Janisete G.; Araujo, Elton L.

    2009-01-01

    We carried out a study to characterize fruit fly populations on an organic guava orchard (Psidium guajava cv. Paluma) in the municipality of Una, southern region of the state of Bahia, Brazil, using faunistic analysis of the adult fruit f y specimens captured in McPhail traps from January 2004 through March 2007. A total of 22,673 specimens of Anastrepha (15,306 females and 7,367 males) were captured. Thirteen species of Anastrepha were recorded. A. fraterculus and A. obliqua were the more frequent and dominant species, accounting for 90.1% of all females captured in the traps. A. fraterculus was the predominant species (more frequent, constant and dominant). The high value of the Simpson index (0.62) and the low values of Shannon-Wiener (0.83) and equitability (0.49) indices indicated the dominance and high frequency of A. fraterculus and A. obliqua on the guava orchard despite the presence of other fruit species as potential hosts of fruit flies. (author)

  20. First Record of Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart) (Diptera, Calliphoridae) in Southeastern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Ribeiro, Antonia de Castro; UNIRIO; Cardoso, Debora; UESB; Lessa, Cláudia Soares dos Santos; UNIRIO; Moya-Borja, Gonzalo Efrain; UFRRJ; Aguiar, Valéria Magalhães; UNIRIO

    2013-01-01

    The present note reports the first record of Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart) in Southeastern Brazil, in the municipality of Seropédica, Rio de Janeiro. The collecting was conducted with Diptera traps using fresh fish as bait. Primeiro Registro de Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart) (Diptera, Calliphoridae) no Sudeste do Brasil Resumo. A presente nota relata o primeiro registro da espécie Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart), no Sudeste do Brasil, no Município de Serop&...

  1. First record of Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart (Diptera, Calliphoridae from Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José O. de Almeida Silva

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available First record of Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart (Diptera, Calliphoridae from Brazil. In addition to its native fauna, the Neotropical region is known to be inhabited by four introduced species of blow flies of the genus Chrysomya. Up until now, only three of these species have been recorded in Brazil - Chrysomya albiceps (Wiedemann, Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius, and Chrysomya putoria (Wiedemann. In South America, C. rufifacies (Macquart has only been reported from Argentina and Colombia. This study records C. rufifacies from Brazil for the first time. The specimens were collected in an area of cerrado (savanna-like vegetation in the municipality of Caxias in state of Maranhão, and were attracted by pig carcasses.

  2. Biochemical and biological properties of Lonomia obliqua bristle extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Chudzinski-Tavassi

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Lonomia obliqua caterpillar is frequently seen in accidents with humans especially in the south of Brazil. Patients develop a hemorrhagic syndrome that can be treated with specific antilonomic serum. A consumptive coagulopathy was found to be the main cause of bleeding complications observed in patients after contact with L. obliqua. Studies revealed that L. obliqua caterpillar bristle extract (LOCBE displays a procoagulant activity that leads to intravascular thrombin formation, resulting in a special form of disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC. Fibrinolysis seems to be secondary to the fibrin production, since no direct fibrinolytic activity was found in LOCBE. Two procoagulant toxins, a factor X activator (Losac and a prothrombin activator (Lopap, were isolated from LOCBE and characterized. Infusion of Lopap into experimental animals triggered a condition similar to that observed in human envenomation.

  3. A review on plant Cordia obliqua Willd. (Clammy cherry).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Richa; Gupta, Ghanshyam Das

    2015-01-01

    Cordia obliqua Willd. plant (Common name-Clammy Cherry) belongs to family Boraginaceae. It is a medium-sized deciduous tree and very vigorous in growth. According to traditional system, it possesses anthelmintic, purgative, diuretic, expectorant, antipyretic, hepatoprotective and analgesic action. The fruits are edible and used as pickle. The gum obtained from mucilage is used for pasting sheets of paper and as matrix forming material in tablet formulations. Phytochemical investigations show the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, phenolics, tannins and reducing sugar. Evaluation of pharmacological activities confirmed C. obliqua plant as antimicrobial, hypotensive, respiratory stimulant, diuretic and anti-inflammatory drug. A number of traditional activities of this plant still need scientific approval which will increase its medicinal potential. This review presents the Pharmacognostic properties, phytochemical constituents, traditional uses and biological activities reported for the plant and it will be helpful to explore the knowledge about Cordia obliqua Willd. for the researchers.

  4. Taxonomic status of Anastrepha fraterculus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steck, G.J.

    1999-01-01

    There has long been speculation that nominal Anastrepha fraterculus comprises more than a single biological species. Herein is a review of data supporting the hypothesis that multiple cryptic species are present. Evidence includes unusual variation in pest status, morphology, karyotypes, isozymes, mitochondrial DNA and cuticular hydrocarbon. The data strongly support the notion of multiple cryptic species. However, it is not yet possible to state how many species may be involved or to delineate them by diagnostic morphology, distribution, host plants or behavior. A combination of methodologies will be needed to resolve the complex. (author)

  5. 7 CFR 305.2 - Approved treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... T102-a. Anastrepha ludens, Anastrepha obliqua, Anastrepha serpentina FHA T103-c-1. Okra Pectinophora... tangelos Anastrepha fraterculus, A. obliqua, A. serpentina, and Ceratitis capitata CT T107-a-1 Mango...

  6. A review on plant Cordia obliqua Willd. (Clammy cherry)

    OpenAIRE

    Richa Gupta; Ghanshyam Das Gupta

    2015-01-01

    Cordia obliqua Willd. plant (Common name-Clammy Cherry) belongs to family Boraginaceae. It is a medium-sized deciduous tree and very vigorous in growth. According to traditional system, it possesses anthelmintic, purgative, diuretic, expectorant, antipyretic, hepatoprotective and analgesic action. The fruits are edible and used as pickle. The gum obtained from mucilage is used for pasting sheets of paper and as matrix forming material in tablet formulations. Phytochemical investigations show ...

  7. Surface ultrastructure of Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart) larvae (Diptera: Calliphoridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukontason, Kabkaew L; Sukontason, Kom; Lertthamnongtham, Sirisuda; Kuntalue, Budsabong; Thijuk, Natchanart; Vogtsberger, Roy C; Olson, Jimmy K

    2003-05-01

    The surface ultrastructure of all larval instars of Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart) is described by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Morphological changes were greatest from the first to the second instar, but less from the second to the third instar. Most of these changes involved the structure of the anterior spiracle, posterior spiracle, integument of the body, and mouthhooks. Modification of the mouthhooks, especially in the third instar, are helpful in explaining the ferocious feeding ability of the older maggots. The common name of "hairy-maggot" for C. rufifacies is only appropriate for the second and third instars because of their elongated tubercles along the body, whereas this name is not descriptive of the first instar that lack tubercles.

  8. Fitness of Mass-Reared Males of Anastrepha obliqua (Diptera: Tephritidae) Resulting From Mating Competition Tests in Field Cages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, Emilio; Liedo, Pablo; Toledo, Jorge; Montoya, Pablo; Perales, Hugo; Ruiz-Montoya, Lorena

    2017-12-05

    The sterile insect technique uses males that have been mass-reared in a controlled environment. The insects, once released in the field, must compete to mate. However, the mass-rearing condition supposes a loss of fitness that will be noticeable by wild females. To compare the fitness of wild males and mass-reared males, three competition settings were established. In setting 1, wild males, mass-reared males and wild females were released in field cages. In setting 2, wild females and wild males were released without competition, and in setting 3, mass-reared males and mass-reared females were also released without competition. Male fitness was based on their mating success, fecundity, weight and longevity. The fitness of the females was measured based on weight and several demographic parameters. The highest percentage of mating was between wild males and wild females between 0800 and 0900 h in the competition condition, while the mass-reared males started one hour later. The successful wild males weighed more and showed longer mating times, greater longevity and a higher number of matings than the mass-reared males. Although the mass-reared males showed the lowest percentage of matings, their fecundity when mating with wild females indicated a high fitness. Since the survival and fecundity of wild females that mated with mass-reared males decreased to become similar to those of mass-reared females that mated with mass-reared males, females seem to be influenced by the type of male (wild or mass-reared). © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Pheromone communication in Anastrepha obliqua (Diptera: Tephritidae): A comparison of the volatiles and salivary gland extracts of two wild populations

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Goncalves, G. B.; Silva, C. E.; Mendonca, A. D. L.; Vaníčková, Lucie; Tomčala, Aleš; do Nascimento, R. R.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 96, č. 4 (2013), s. 1365-1374 ISSN 0015-4040 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : salivary glands * volatile compounds * sex attractant * wild population * gas chromatography - mass spectrometry Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 1.056, year: 2013

  10. The South American fruit fly, Anastrepha fraterculus (Wied.); advances in artificial rearing, taxonomic status and biological studies. Proceedings of a workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1999-01-01

    One of the fruit flies of major concern, because of its economic and quarantine importance in the Americas, is the exotic Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata, which is established throughout the Central and South American countries, excluding Chile. Chile, Mexico and the USA have conducted multi-million dollar campaigns to prevent the establishment of this and other exotic fruit flies in their respective territories, in support of the development of important fruit production and export industries. Other important fruit fly species, which are native to the American continent, are those of the genus Anastrepha. In this group, of most economic importance are A. obliqua and A. ludens for Mexico and some Central American countries and A. fraterculus and A. obliqua for South America. In this publication, attention is focused on A. fraterculus, the South American fruit fly. This species, as it is presently recognized, occurs from Mexico to Argentina and is reported from approximately 80 host plants, including commercial fruits of economic importance, such as mango, citrus, guava, apple and coffee. As A. fraterculus if considered to be of high economic and quarantine importance in many countries in South America, it is justifiable to recommend and promote the implementation of activities to strengthen knowledge of the species and develop techniques for its control and/or eradication. The development of sterile insect technique (SIT) and other biological control methods are very encouraging alternatives, as can be seen from examples in Mexico and the USA, where these approaches are in use against A. ludens and A. obliqua Refs, figs, tabs

  11. The South American fruit fly, Anastrepha fraterculus (Wied.); advances in artificial rearing, taxonomic status and biological studies. Proceedings of a workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    One of the fruit flies of major concern, because of its economic and quarantine importance in the Americas, is the exotic Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata, which is established throughout the Central and South American countries, excluding Chile. Chile, Mexico and the USA have conducted multi-million dollar campaigns to prevent the establishment of this and other exotic fruit flies in their respective territories, in support of the development of important fruit production and export industries. Other important fruit fly species, which are native to the American continent, are those of the genus Anastrepha. In this group, of most economic importance are A. obliqua and A. ludens for Mexico and some Central American countries and A. fraterculus and A. obliqua for South America. In this publication, attention is focused on A. fraterculus, the South American fruit fly. This species, as it is presently recognized, occurs from Mexico to Argentina and is reported from approximately 80 host plants, including commercial fruits of economic importance, such as mango, citrus, guava, apple and coffee. As A. fraterculus if considered to be of high economic and quarantine importance in many countries in South America, it is justifiable to recommend and promote the implementation of activities to strengthen knowledge of the species and develop techniques for its control and/or eradication. The development of sterile insect technique (SIT) and other biological control methods are very encouraging alternatives, as can be seen from examples in Mexico and the USA, where these approaches are in use against A. ludens and A. obliqua

  12. Host status of grapefruit and Valencia oranges for Anastrepha serpentina and Anastrepha ludens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anastrepha serpentina, known as the zapote fly or serpentine fruit fly, is occasionally captured in the Rio Grande Valley of Texas. Lists of host plants for this species include several species of citrus, such as oranges and grapefruit. Current regulatory procedures require quarantines and treatme...

  13. First Record of Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart (Diptera, Calliphoridae in Southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonia Ribeiro

    2013-12-01

    Resumo. A presente nota relata o primeiro registro da espécie Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart, no Sudeste do Brasil, no Município de Seropédica, Rio de Janeiro. As coletas foram realizadas com auxílio de armadilhas para dípteros e a isca utilizada foi peixe fresco.

  14. ANÁLISE FAUNÍSTICA E FLUTUAÇÃO POPULACIONAL DE MOSCAS-DAS-FRUTAS (DIPTERA: TEPHRITIDAE EM BELMONTE, BAHIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MÍRIAN DA SILVA SANTOS

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out in a mixed orchard in the municipality of Belmonte, in the southernmost region of Bahia and it aimed at characterizing the fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae population using faunistic analysis and studying its population fluctuation. The study was conducted from August 2007 to August 2009. Fruit fly captures were carried out using McPhail traps baited with protein hydrolisate at 5%. Weekly, the captured insects found in traps were transferred to plastic vials, one vial per trap, filled with 70% ethanol and taken to the laboratory for identification. A total of 9,709 fruit flies was captured, out of which 9,477 specimens were Anastrepha (5,908 females and 3,569 males and 232 specimens were Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann (201 females and 31 males. Nine species of Anastrepha were recorded: Anastrepha bahiensis (Lima (2.59%, Anastrepha distincta (Greene (2.71%, Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann (59.37%, Anastrepha leptozona (Hendel (0.02%, Anastrepha manihoti (Lima (0.02%, Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart (2.98%, Anastrepha serpentina (Wiedemann (0.07%, Anastrepha sororcula Zucchi (29.14%, Anastrepha zenildae Zucchi (0.22%, and C. capitata (2.88%. Anastrepha fraterculus and A. sororcula were the dominant species and only A. fraterculus was constant on the orchard. The values of the Simpson (0.51 and of Shannon (01.35 indices were intermediate and the modified Hill index was 0.49, indicating a medium diversity. The high est capturevalues of Anastrepha spp. occurred from July to December 2008, with a population peak in September.

  15. FRUIT FLIES AND THEIR PARASITOIDS IN THE FRUIT GROWING REGION OF LIVRAMENTO DE NOSSA SENHORA, BAHIA, WITH RECORDS OF UNPRECEDENTED INTERACTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SUZANY AGUIAR LEITE

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Several fruit fly species (Diptera: Tephritidae and Lonchaeidae assume the status of primary pests in fruit trees grown in Brazil, causing direct production losses. The aims of the study were to know aspects of diversity of fruit flies and their parasitoids in the fruit growing region of Livramento de Nossa Senhora, Bahia. Fruit samples were collected from 19 plant species during November/2011 and June/2014. Infestation rates were calculated in pupae.kg-1 of fruit and pupae.fruit-1. The results indicate the occurrence of Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann and Neosilba pendula (Bezzi. Plant species Anacardium occidentale, Averrhoa carambola, Carica papaya, Eugenia uniflora, Malpighia emarginata, Mangifera indica var. “Haden”, “Rosa” and “Tommy Atkins”, Opuntia ficus indica, Pereskia bahiensis, Psidium guajava, Spondias lutea, Spondias purpurea and Spondias tuberosa are hosts of fruit flies in the region. Unprecedented bitrophic relationships between P. bahiensis and C. capitata and Anastrepha sp. and between Opuntia ficus indica and C. capitata and A. obliqua were recorded. Unprecedented tritrophic relationship for the state of Bahia Averrhoa carambola and C. capitata and parasitoid of the Pteromalidae Family were also recorded. Tritrophic associations between M. indica var. “Tommy Atkins” and S. purpurea and A. obliqua and Doryctobracon areolatus; and between S. purpurea and A. obliqua and Utetes anastrephae were observed.

  16. Dopaol 2-keto- and 2,3-diketo-glycosides from Chelone obliqua (Scrophulariaceae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Franzyk, Henrik; Olsen, Carl Erik; Jensen, Søren Rosendal

    2004-01-01

    Two unique 2-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)ethyl glycosides, namely, dopaol beta-D-2-ketoglucopyranoside and dopaol beta-D-2,3-diketoglucopyranoside, were isolated from Chelone obliqua together with the iridoid glucoside catalpol, dopaol beta-D-glucopyranoside, descaffeoylverbascoside, and verbascoside. G...

  17. Dopaol 2-keto- and 2,3-diketoglycosides from Chelone obliqua

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Franzyk, Henrik; Olsen, Carl Erik; Jensen, Søren Rosendal

    2004-01-01

    Two unique 2-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)ethyl glycosides, namely, dopaol beta-D-2-ketoglucopyranoside and dopaol beta-D-2,3-diketoglucopyranoside, were isolated from Chelone obliqua together with the iridoid glucoside catalpol, dopaol beta-D-glucopyranoside, descaffeoylverbascoside, and verbascoside. G...

  18. Development of synthetic volatile attractant for maleEctropis obliqua moths

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Xiao-ling; LI Xi-wang; XIN Zhao-jun; HAN Juan-juan; RAN Wei; LEI Shu

    2016-01-01

    The tea geometridEctropis obliquais one of the most serious leaf-feeding insect pests in tea (Camelia sinensis) in East Asia. Although several volatile chemicals emitted from tea plants have been reported to be attractive toE. obliqua moths, no synthetic attractants for E. obliqua moths have been developed. By measuring the behavioral responses of the moth to a series of chemicals in the lab, we found that a blend containing a ternary mixture containing (Z)-3-hexenal, (Z)-3-hexenyl hexanoate and benzyl alcohol clearly attracted toE. obliqua moths of both sex and that (Z)-3-hexenyl acetate could enhance the attractiveness of the ternary blend. Moreover, we found that the volatiles emitted from the plant-E. obliqua larva com-plex have the same attractiveness as: 1) the blend of volatiles containing the ternary mixture and 2) the blend containing (Z)-3-hexenyl acetate plus the ternary mixture to both male and female moths. In a ifeld bioassay, more male moths were observed on traps that were baited with the blend containing (Z)-3-hexenyl acetate plus the ternary mixture than on control traps. Our study raises the tantalizing possibility that synthetic blends could be deployed as attractants for pests in the ifeld.

  19. Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart) (Diptera: Calliphoridae) established in the vicinity of Knoxville, Tennessee, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahid, S A; Hall, R D; Haskell, N H; Merritt, R W

    2000-07-01

    The hairy maggot blow fly, Chrsomya rufifacies (Macquart) (Diptera: Calliphoridae) was collected in large numbers as both adults and immatures in the Knoxville, Tennessee, area during 1998 and is likely established there. The distribution of this species in the Old World, isothermal data, and its collection from mid-Michigan during 1998 suggest that it will eventually occupy most of the U.S. The forensic importance of C. rufifacies makes it probable that it will factor into an increasing number of medicolegal cases, but the expanding distribution of this species decreases its utility as a geographic indicator when postmortem movement of decedents is suspected.

  20. The fruitfly Anastrepha serpentina in Curaçao

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burgers, A.C.J.

    1953-01-01

    On a private collecting trip to the Netherlands Antilles, in the winter of 1948—1949, I had the opportunity of studying an infestation of the sapodilla, caused by a well-known kind of fruitfly, Anastrepha serpentina, which, however, has never before been reported from these islands. The

  1. Breeding technique of Anastrepha fraterculus (Wied.) for genetic studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manso, F.

    1999-01-01

    Various samples of Anastrepha fraterculus from different areas in Argentina were obtained to develop artificial breeding in the laboratory. Based on a modification of Salles's method, an improved artificial rearing of the species was developed with satisfactory results for genetic analysis. The advances made will contribute towards the search for genetic mechanisms for control. (author)

  2. Identificación y localización geográfica de especies del género Anastrepha Schiner (Diptera: Tephritidae en Cundinamarca (Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martínez Javier Orlando

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available

    Este artículo inicia con una introducción sobre la morfología y la taxonomía del género Anas­trepha, para apoyar el reconocimiento taxonómico de los grupos de especies y las especies de este género en Cundinamarca. A tal fin se examinaron nueve co­lecciones en distintas instituciones universitarias y de investigación en este departamento. Para identificar el material depositado en las colecciones se procedió de la siguiente manera con los especímenes: se extra­jeron y prepararon los genitales para microscopía; se tomaron medidas micrométricas de los ovipositores; se compararon por claves taxonómicas; se compara­ron con material de referencia del museo entomoló­gico UNAB y se sistematizaron los respectivos datos de colección. Como resultados se reconocieron 14 especies contenidas en seis grupos de especies y una especie de ubicación incierta: 1 grupo mucronota: A. mucronota Stone, A. nunezae Steyskal; 2 grupo grandis: A. grandis (Macquart; 3 grupo spatulata: A. manihoti Lima; 4 grupo pseudoparallela: A. limae Stone, A. palli­dipennis Greene; 5 grupo serpentina: A. ornata Aldrich, A. serpentina (Wiedemann, A. striata Schiner; 6 grupo fraterculus: A. bahiensis Lima, A. distincta Greene, A. fra­terculus (Wiedemann, A. obliqua (Macquart; Incertae sedis: A. rheediae Stone. Asimismo, en este estudio se recopilaron datos de localización geográfica del gé­nero para 22 municipios; también se reportan por primera vez para Cundinamarca A. grandis, A. mani­hoti, A. mucronota, A. limae, A. ornata y A. serpentina.

  3. Lekking behavior of Anastrepha Fraterculus (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Segura, D.; Petit-Marty, N.; Cladera, J.; Sciurano, R.; Calcagno, G.; Gomez Cendra, P.; Vilardi, J.; Vera, T.; Allinghi, A.

    2007-01-01

    Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae) displays a lek mating system. Males form groups in which they simultaneously display signals (acoustical, visual, or chemical) to attract females with the purpose of mating. Females visit the lek and choose among signaling and courting males to mate. Scarce information is available in A. fraterculus about the main factors involved in female choice and the behavior of displaying males. This information could be important within the context of pest control programs with a sterile insect technique (SIT) component, because departures from normal sexual behavior caused by artificial rearing could affect males' performance in the field. In this study we assessed A. fraterculus male behavior within the leks and analyzed the importance of behavioral and morphological traits on their copulatory success. The existence of preferred places for lek formation was evaluated in field cages with trees inside and analyzed by dividing the trees in sectors according to a 3-dimensional system. Males were individually weighed, marked, and observed every 15 min. Morphometric and behavioral characteristics of successful and unsuccessful males were compared. Most successful males grouped in a region of the tree characterized by the highest light intensity in the first 2 h of the morning. Results showed that pheromone calling activity is positively associated with copulatory success. Copulations were more frequent for males calling inside the lek, indicating that pheromone calling activity and presence in the lek are key factors for copulatory success. A positive association between copulatory success and eye length was found; some characteristics of the face were also associated with copula duration and latency. (author) [es

  4. Host status of grapefruit and Valencia oranges for Anastrepha serpentina and Anastrepha ludens (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangan, Robert L; Thomas, Donald B; Moreno, Aleena M Tarshis

    2011-04-01

    Anastrepha serpentina (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae) is sporadically captured in the Rio Grande Valley of Texas. Although its preferred hosts are in the Sapotaceae family, several varieties of Citrus, including grapefruit and oranges are listed as alternate hosts. Although Mexican fruit fly, Anastrepha ludens (Loew), is known to be a major pest of Citrus, doubt exists as to the status of Citrus as a breeding host for A. serpentina. To evaluate the host status of commercial Citrus for A. serpentina we compared oviposition and development with that of A. ludens under laboratory conditions with 'Rio Red' grapefruit (Citrus paradisi MacFayden) and 'Valencia' oranges [Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck] in different stages of maturity. Both fly species oviposited in early season fruit in which the eggs and larvae died in the fruit albedo. Survival of either species to the adult stage occurred in later season grapefruit. In oranges, no A. serpentina larvae survived compared with 150 A. ludens surviving to adults. Survival on both Citrus species was much lower for A. serpentina, only approximately 5% of eggs eclosed into larvae in grapefruit compared with approximatley 50% for A. ludens. In oranges approximately 16% of A. serpentina eggs eclosed compared with approximately 76% for A. ludens. In grapefruit, only one fourth as many A. serpentina larvae survived to the adult stage compared with A. ludens. Additional experiments were performed in a greenhouse on small, caged trees of la coma (Sideroxylon celastrinum H.B.K.), a Texas species of Sapotaceae. The A. serpentina females readily oviposited into these berries and normal adults emerged. The present low incidence of the adults, coupled with the high mortality during development of the larvae, suggests that Texas citrus is unlikely to support a breeding population of A. serpentina.

  5. Application of neutron activation analysis method in leaves of Casearia obliqua medicinal plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamashita, Celina I.; Saiki, Mitiko; Sertie, Jaime A.A.

    2005-01-01

    The pharmacological properties of medicinal plants have been related to the presence of organic compounds, however elements are also known to have an important participation in the active compounds constitution process. In this study, instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) was applied to determine elements in leaves of Casearia obliqua medicinal plant collected at two different locations in the Atlantic Forest, Brazil, SP. Soil samples collected from where this plant was grown were also analyzed in order to verify if there is a correlation between the elements present in soils and plant leaves. Br, Ca, Cl, Co, Cr, Cs, Fe, K, La, Mn, Na, Rb, Sb, Sc and Zn were determined in C. obliqua leaves and the elements As, Ca, Ce, Eu, Fe, Hf, La, Lu, Nd, Rb, Sc, Sm, Tb, Th, U and Zn in soils. Soil samples collected from two different locations presented similar concentrations for most elements. Likewise, C. obliqua leaves collected from the two locations presented similar elemental contents. These results suggest that analysis of extracts from these leaf samples and the evaluation of their pharmacological activities should be carried out. Certified reference materials IAEA-Soil-7, USGS W-1, NIST 1573a Tomato Leaves and NIST 1515 Apple Leaves were analyzed and the quality of the obtained results was assured. (author)

  6. Chilled packing systems for fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) in the sterile insect technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez, Emilio; Escobar, Arseny; Bravo, Bigail; Montoya, Pablo [Instituto Interamericano de Cooperacion para la Agricultura (IICA), Chiapas (Mexico); Secretaria de Agricultura, Ganaderia, Desarrollo Rural, Pesca y Alimentacion (SAGARPA), Mexico, D.F. (Mexico). Programa Moscafrut

    2010-07-15

    We evaluated three packing systems (PARC boxes, 'GT' screen towers and 'MX' screen towers) for the emergence and sexual maturation of sterile fruit flies, at three adult fl y densities (1, 1.2 and 1.3 fly/cm 2) and three food types. At the lowest density, results showed no significant differences in the longevity and flight ability of adult Anastrepha ludens (Loew) and Anastrepha obliqua Macquart among the three packing systems. Higher densities resulted in a decrease in these parameters. In the evaluation of the three food types, no significant differences were found either on longevity or flight ability of A. ludens. However, the greatest longevity for both sexes A. obliqua was obtained with commercial powdered Mb and the mix of sugar, protein and corn starch on paper (SPCP) food types. The highest value for flight ability in A. obliqua males was obtained with powdered Mb and SPCP food types, and for females with Mb powdered food. Our data indicated that GT and MX screen tower packing systems are an alternative to the PARC boxes, since they were suitable for adult fl y sexual maturation without any harm to their longevity or flight ability. The tested foods were equivalent in both fruit fl y species, with the exception of the agar type for A. obliqua, which yielded the lowest biological parameters evaluated. Our results contribute to the application of new methods for the packing and release of sterile flies in large-scale programs. (author)

  7. Chilled packing systems for fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) in the sterile insect technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez, Emilio; Escobar, Arseny; Bravo, Bigail; Montoya, Pablo; Secretaria de Agricultura, Ganaderia, Desarrollo Rural, Pesca y Alimentacion

    2010-01-01

    We evaluated three packing systems (PARC boxes, 'GT' screen towers and 'MX' screen towers) for the emergence and sexual maturation of sterile fruit flies, at three adult fl y densities (1, 1.2 and 1.3 fly/cm 2) and three food types. At the lowest density, results showed no significant differences in the longevity and flight ability of adult Anastrepha ludens (Loew) and Anastrepha obliqua Macquart among the three packing systems. Higher densities resulted in a decrease in these parameters. In the evaluation of the three food types, no significant differences were found either on longevity or flight ability of A. ludens. However, the greatest longevity for both sexes A. obliqua was obtained with commercial powdered Mb and the mix of sugar, protein and corn starch on paper (SPCP) food types. The highest value for flight ability in A. obliqua males was obtained with powdered Mb and SPCP food types, and for females with Mb powdered food. Our data indicated that GT and MX screen tower packing systems are an alternative to the PARC boxes, since they were suitable for adult fl y sexual maturation without any harm to their longevity or flight ability. The tested foods were equivalent in both fruit fl y species, with the exception of the agar type for A. obliqua, which yielded the lowest biological parameters evaluated. Our results contribute to the application of new methods for the packing and release of sterile flies in large-scale programs. (author)

  8. Grapefruit as a host for the West Indian fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangan, Robert L; Thomas, Donald B; Moreno, Aleena Tarshis; Robacker, David

    2011-02-01

    The most common hosts for the West Indian fruit fly, Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart) (Diptera: Tephritidae) are fruit in the family Anacardiaceae (mango [Mangifera L.] and mombin [Spondias L.] species). However, similar to many of the tropical fruit flies of major economic importance, this species attacks several other families of crop fruit, including Annonaceae (cherimoya, Annona cherimola Mill.), Myrtaceae (guava, Psidium L.), Oxalidaceae (carambola, Averrhoa carambola L.), Passifloraceae (granadilla, Passiflora quadrangularis Mill.), and Sapotaceae [mamey sapote, Pouteria sapota (Jacq.) H. E. Moore & Steam]. In the family Rutaceae the economically important genus Citrus has been reported and until recently considered a host for this fruit fly. In this study, we reviewed the taxonomy of A. obliqua, tested specific chemicals that may inhibit oviposition, compared egg-to-adult survival of A. obliqua on preferred hosts and on grapefruit (Citrus X paradisi Macfad.), and measured fruit tissue-specific developmental rates of A. obliqua and the known citrus breeding Mexican fruit fly, Anastrepha ludens (Loew) (Diptera: Tephritidae), from egg to pupae. Our literature review shows much confusion concerning the taxonomy of this and related Anastrepha species, including synonymies and confusion with other species. The deterrent effect of the highest concentration of flavonoids for oviposition, although significant, was not absolute. Experiments carried out under laboratory conditions showed 15-40 times greater survival of A. ludens (whose preferred hosts include Rutaceae) on grapefruit compared with A. obliqua for both tree attached and harvested fruit. Experiments of survival of developing stages over time showed that the two species oviposit into different tissues in the fruit, and mortality is much higher for the West Indian fruit fly in the flavedo and albedo of the fruit compared with the Mexican fruit fly.

  9. Proton activation studies of changes in mineral composition of Eucalyptus obliqua due to Phytophthora cinnamomi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaudhri, M.A.; Lee, M.M.; Rouse, J.L.; Weste, G.

    1978-01-01

    As part of a study of disease caused by Phytophthora cinnamomi in native vegetation, the mineral composition of diseased plants has been compared with those free from disease, but grown under the same conditions. Using proton activation it has been shown that a reduction of 70% in iron and 41% in titanium occurs for diseased Eucalytus obliqua compared with disease-free plants. The reduction in iron is associated with severe chlorosis which occurs as a primary symptom in most plants attacked by this pathogen. (author)

  10. Insect growth regulatory activity of Vitex trifolia and Vitex agnus-castus essential oils against Spilosoma obliqua.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tandon, Shishir; Mittal, Ashutosh K; Pant, A K

    2008-06-01

    Essential oils of Vitex trifolia and Vitex agnus-castus were evaluated against Vth instar larvae of Spilosoma obliqua, when applied topically on the dorsal side of mesothoracic region, for insect growth regulatory activity. This treatment caused extended larval period and pupal period, increase in larval mortality and adult deformity and decrease in adult emergence, fecundity of female and egg fertility of test insect.

  11. Notes on the present situation of Anastrepha fraterculus in Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manso, F.; Basso, A.

    1999-01-01

    Behavioural and karyotypical results from Anastrepha fraterculus samples received in our laboratory during the period 92-94 are discussed. The work represents the partial situation of this pest in Argentina. Data from guava fruits indicate 1) that the oviposition behaviour does not agree with the autocontrol mechanism via ODP previously described, 2) that a selection mechanism associated to fruit size and quality exists, allowing the female to choose the oviposition site, 3) if different varieties of fruits are available, then the fly shows preference for one of them. The oviposition behaviour in samples of peaches is different from that observed on guava samples and agrees with the ODP mechanism. In some localities, A. fraterculus and C. capitata share the same substrate or fruit (same unit). Samples from commercial oranges do not show evidence of Anastrepha attack. A more frequent karyotype fArg 1 (wild type karyotype) as well as high karyotypic variation, mainly measured through the polymorphism of sexual chromosomes, are present within different geographic populations sharing the same host species. To date, we do not have enough information to associate a particular behaviour to a karyotype. The chromosomal analysis is merely descriptive. (author)

  12. Effect of the gene transformer of Anastrepha on the somatic sexual development of Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, María-Fernanda; Sánchez, Lucas

    2010-01-01

    The gene transformer (tra) is the key regulatory memory device for sex determination in tephritid insects. The present manuscript addressed the question about the functional conservation of the tephritid Anastrepha Transformer protein to direct somatic sexual development in Drosophila (Drosophilidae). The transformer cDNA of Anastrepha encoding the putative full-length Tra protein was cloned in pUAST and introduced into Drosophila melanogaster. To express this protein, the GAL4-UAS system was used. The Anastrepha Tra protein induced the female-specific splicing of both dsx and fru pre-mRNAs in Drosophila XY male flies, so that these became transformed into females, though this transformation was incomplete (the sexually dimorphic foreleg basitarsus and the external terminalia were monitored). It was found that the degree of female transformation directly depended on the dose of Anastrepha tra and Drosophila transformer-2 (tra-2) genes, and that the Anastrepha Tra-Drosophila Tra2 complex is not as efficient as the Drosophila Tra-Tra2 complex at inducing the female-specific splicing of Drosophila dsx pre-mRNA. This can explain why the Anastrepha Tra protein cannot fully substitute for the endogenous Drosophila Tra protein.

  13. Proton activation studies of changes in mineral composition of eucalyptus obliqua due to phytophthora cinnamomi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaudri, M.A.; Lee, M.M.; Rouse, J.L.; Weste, G.

    1978-01-01

    As part of a study of disease caused by Phytophthora cinnamomi in native vegetation, the mineral composition of diseased plants was compared with those free from disease, but grown under the same conditions. Young plants of Eucalyptus obliqua, three years old and with well-formed lignotubers, were selected (a) diseased plant from soil containing a high concentration of P. cinnamomi, and (b) unaffected plant from an adjacent area where the soil was free from this pathogen. The plants were ashed and their mineral composition was compared by activation analysis using proton beams from the Melbourne University Cyclotron. Results showed a 70% reduction in iron and 41% in titanium from diseased plants compared with disease-free plants. The reduction in iron is associated with severe chlorosis which occurs as a primary symptom in most plants attacked by this pathogen

  14. Study on the pupal morphogenesis of Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart) (Diptera: Calliphoridae) for postmortem interval estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Ting; Huang, Jia; Wang, Jiang-Feng

    2015-08-01

    Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart) is one of the most common species of blow flies at the scene of death in Southern China. Pupae are useful in postmortem interval (PMI) estimation due to their sedentary nature and longer duration of association with the corpse. However, to determine the age of a pupa is more difficult than that of a larva, due to the fact that morphological changes are rarely visible during pupal development. In this study, eggs of C. rufifacies were reared in climatic chambers under four different constant temperatures (20, 24, 28 and 32°C each±1°C, respectively) with same rearing conditions such as foodstuff, substrate, photoperiod and relative humidity. Ten duplicate pupae were sampled at 8-h intervals from prepupae to emergence under the different constant temperatures, respectively. The pupae were sampled, killed, fixed, dissected and with the puparium removed, the external morphological changes of the pupae were observed, recorded and photographed. The morphological characters of C. rufifacies pupae were described. Based on the visible external morphological characters during pupal morphogenesis at 28°C±1°C, the developmental period of C. rufifacies was divided into nine developmental stages and recorded in detailed description. Based on above-mentioned nine developmental stages, some visible external morphological characters were selected as indications for developmental stages. These indications mapped to 8-h sampling intervals at the four different constant temperatures were also described in this study. It is demonstrated that generally the duration of each developmental stage of C. rufifacies pupae is inversely correlated to appropriate developmental temperatures. This study provides relatively systematic pupal developmental data of C. rufifacies for the estimation of PMI. In addition, further work may improve by focus on other environmental factors, histological analysis, more thorough external examination by shortening sampling

  15. Primeiro relato de ocorrência de Anastrepha serpentina e Anastrepha leptozona (Dip.: Tephritidae em abiu (Pouteria caimito no Estado de São Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raga Adalton

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Foi registrada pela primeira vez a infestação das moscas-das-frutas Anastrepha serpentina (Wied. e Anastrepha leptozona Hendel (Dip.: Tephritidae em abiu Pouteria caimito (Sapotaceae no Estado de São Paulo. Os frutos coletados foram oriundos da Coleção de Fruteiras Nativas e Exóticas, localizada na sede do Pólo Regional de Desenvolvimento Tecnológico do Vale do Ribeira (SP, município de Pariquera-Açu. Também emergiram espécimens de Neosilba glaberrima (Wied. (Lonchaeidae.

  16. Revision of the New World bee fly genus Heterostylum Macquart (Diptera, Bombyliidae, Bombyliinae Revisão do bombylideos do gênero Heterostylum Macquart do novo mundo (Diptera, Bombyliidae, Bombyliinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Mallemont Cunha

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The genus Heterostylum Macquart and five Neotropical species (H. ferrugineum (Fabricius, 1805, H. hirsutum (Thunberg, 1827, H. rufum (Olivier, 1789, H. haemorrhoicum (Loew, 1863 and H. pallipes Bigot, 1892 are redescribed. The other species, recently redescribed or described are only diagnosed, except for H. deani Painter, 1930, whose spermathecae are described and illustrated for the first time. The main characters of the external morphology were photographed and the male genitalia and female spermathecae illustrated. An identification key to all included species is also presented.O gênero Heterostylum Macquart e cinco espécies Neotropicais (H. ferrugineum (Fabricius, 1805, H. hirsutum (Thunberg, 1827, H. rufum (Olivier, 1789, H. haemorrhoicum (Loew, 1863 e H. pallipes Bigot, 1892 são redescritas. As demais espécies recentemente redescritas ou descritas tem sua diagnose apresentada, com exceção de H. deani Painter, 1930, cuja espermateca foi descrita e ilustrada pela primeira vez. Os principais caracteres da morfologia externa foram fotografados e a genitália masculina e espermateca feminina ilustradas. Uma chave de identificação para todas as espécies também é apresentada.

  17. Functional Characteristics, Electrophysiological and Antennal Immunolocalization of General Odorant-Binding Protein 2 in Tea Geometrid, Ectropis obliqua

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ya-Li Zhang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available As one of the main lepidopteran pests in Chinese tea plantations, Ectropis obliqua Warren (tea geometrids can severely decrease yields of tea products. The olfactory system of the adult tea geometrid plays a significant role in seeking behaviors, influencing their search for food, mating partners, and even spawning grounds. In this study, a general odorant-binding protein (OBP gene, EoblGOBP2, was identified in the antennae of E. obliqua using reverse transcription quantification PCR (RT-qPCR. Results showed that EoblGOBP2 was more highly expressed in the antennae of males than in females relative to other tissues. The recombinant EoblGOBP2 protein was prepared in Escherichia coli and then purified through affinity chromatography. Ligand-binding assays showed that EoblGOBP2 had a strong binding affinity for some carbonyl-containing tea leaf volatiles (e.g., (E-2-hexenal, methyl salicylate, and acetophenone. Electrophysiological tests confirmed that the male moths were more sensitive to these candidate tea plant volatiles than the female moths. Immunolocalization results indicated that EoblGOBP2 was regionally confined to the sensilla trichoid type-II in the male antennae. These results indicate that EoblGOBP2 may be primarily involved in the olfactory activity of male E. obliqua moths, influencing their ability to sense tea leaf volatiles. This study provides a new perspective of insect GOBPs and implies that olfactory function can be used to prevent and control the tea geometrid.

  18. Tea saponin reduces the damage of Ectropis obliqua to tea crops, and exerts reduced effects on the spiders Ebrechtella tricuspidata and Evarcha albaria compared to chemical insecticides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi Zeng

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background Tea is one of the most economically important crops in China. However, the tea geometrid (Ectropis obliqua, a serious leaf-feeding pest, causes significant damage to tea crops and reduces tea yield and quality. Spiders are the most dominant predatory enemies in the tea plantation ecosystem, which makes them potentially useful biological control agents of E. obliqua. These highlight the need for alternative pest control measures. Our previous studies have shown that tea saponin (TS exerts insecticidal activity against lepidopteran pests. Here, we investigate whether TS represents a potentially new alternative insecticide with no harm to spiders. Methods We investigated laboratory bioactivities and the field control properties of TS solution against E. obliqua. (i A leaf-dip bioassay was used to evaluate the toxicity of TS to 3rd-instar E. obliqua larvae and effects of TS on the activities of enzymes glutathione-S-transferase (GST, acetylcholinesterase (AChE, carboxylesterase (CES and peroxidase (POD of 3rd-instar E. obliqua larvae in the laboratory. (ii Topical application was used to measure the toxicity of 30% TS (w/v and two chemical insecticides (10% bifenthrin EC and 50% diafenthiuron SC to two species of spider, Ebrechtella tricuspidata and Evarcha albaria. (iii Field trials were used to investigate the controlling efficacy of 30% TS against E. obliqua larvae and to classify the effect of TS to spiders in the tea plantation. Results The toxicity of TS to 3rd-instar E. obliqua larvae occurred in a dose-dependent manner and the LC50 was 164.32 mg/mL. Activities of the detoxifying-related enzymes, GST and POD, increased in 3rd-instar E. obliqua larvae, whereas AChE and CES were inhibited with time by treatment with TS. Mortalities of E. tricuspidata and E. albaria after 48 h with 30% TS treatment (16.67% and 20%, respectively were significantly lower than those with 10% bifenthrin EC (80% and 73.33%, respectively and 50

  19. VOLUME AND TAPER EQUATIONS FOR COMMERCIAL STEMS OF Nothofagus obliqua AND N. alpina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernan Attis Beltran

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Timber volume of standing trees is essential information for management decisions. The increasing need to optimize the potential capacity of forests maintaining their conservation, requires the quantification of the different potential possible timber products. The aim was to adjust taper equations to determine volumes of different timber products for commercial stems of Nothofagus alpina and N. obliqua. Trees of both species were randomly selected in harvesting areas of Lanin National Park (Argentina. Trees were felled and cut into commercial logs, measuring diameter with bark at different heights up to the beginning of the crown, and for each tree the diameter at breast height and total height. Five taper equations were selected and non-linear regression processes were employed for the fittings. We obtained the volume through the integration of the stem profile equation and the rotation in the space thereof through solid of revolution. The Bennet and Swindel (1972 model was selected for both Nothofagus species, obtaining similar equation parameters and differences were observed at the top of the stems of larger trees. For this the use of an integrated model is not recommended. With the obtained equations it is possible to: (i estimatevolume at different heights and for different commercial diameters, and (ii predict the height at which both species reach to a certain diameter. The model presented some statistical limitations (e.g. multicollinearity, however, the fitting of the equation and the easy understanding of the outputs support it as a useful tool in a broad range of forest applications.

  20. Morphological characterization of the reproductive system of irradiated Anastrepha fraterculus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartolucci, Andrea [Instituto de Sanidad y Calidad Agropecuaria de Mendoza (ISCAMEN), Mendoza (Argentina); Vera, M Teresa [Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas (CONICET), (Argentina); Yusef, Veronica [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica (Argentina). Centro Atomico Ezeiza; Oviedo, Andrea [Estacion Experimental Agroindustrial Obispo Colombres (EEAOC), Tucuman (Argentina)

    2006-07-01

    Field identification of released sterile insects is a major issue for eradication and suppression programs. Irradiated flies are normally identified by the presence of a fluorescent dye. When a fly lacks fluorescent dye, determination of gonadal state is necessary to identified between sterile or fertile flies. This is particularly relevant when population levels have decreased. Animal and identification is required to be as unequivocal as possible. Here we describe the reproductive system of irradiated Anastrepha fraterculus of different ages and we compare it with that of fertile flies in order to provide a diagnosis tool. Fertile and irradiated A. fraterculus were dissected from the day of emergence and until 15 days of age. Gross morphology was described and the gonads were measured. Germ cells were visualized in the testis. The reproductive systems of both males and females contained the same structures as other Anastrepha species. From day 1 to day 3, there were no detectable differences between irradiated and fertile males. The growing region encompassed half the testis total length and there was no free sperm in the seminal vesicle. On day 4 the presence of free sperm was seen in the seminal vesicle. At this stage irradiated males started differentiating from fertile ones: the growing region reduced in size and totally disappeared by day 11; sperm bundle zones occupied most of the testis; spermatids lost their triangular shape and sperm remained in the seminal vesicle without moving into the apical region. Testis length and width of irradiated males did not differ from fertile males. In females, the maturation of the ovaries involved a change in size that was more pronounced in the length of the ovary. This became noticeable at day 3. At this stage, the formation of yolk and the basal follicle began in fertile females and the oocyte had the same size as the trophocytes. From this point, the oocyte started growing. After day 8, the maturing oocyte reached

  1. Morphological characterization of the reproductive system of irradiated Anastrepha fraterculus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartolucci, Andrea; Vera, M. Teresa; Yusef, Veronica

    2006-01-01

    Field identification of released sterile insects is a major issue for eradication and suppression programs. Irradiated flies are normally identified by the presence of a fluorescent dye. When a fly lacks fluorescent dye, determination of gonadal state is necessary to identified between sterile or fertile flies. This is particularly relevant when population levels have decreased. Animal and identification is required to be as unequivocal as possible. Here we describe the reproductive system of irradiated Anastrepha fraterculus of different ages and we compare it with that of fertile flies in order to provide a diagnosis tool. Fertile and irradiated A. fraterculus were dissected from the day of emergence and until 15 days of age. Gross morphology was described and the gonads were measured. Germ cells were visualized in the testis. The reproductive systems of both males and females contained the same structures as other Anastrepha species. From day 1 to day 3, there were no detectable differences between irradiated and fertile males. The growing region encompassed half the testis total length and there was no free sperm in the seminal vesicle. On day 4 the presence of free sperm was seen in the seminal vesicle. At this stage irradiated males started differentiating from fertile ones: the growing region reduced in size and totally disappeared by day 11; sperm bundle zones occupied most of the testis; spermatids lost their triangular shape and sperm remained in the seminal vesicle without moving into the apical region. Testis length and width of irradiated males did not differ from fertile males. In females, the maturation of the ovaries involved a change in size that was more pronounced in the length of the ovary. This became noticeable at day 3. At this stage, the formation of yolk and the basal follicle began in fertile females and the oocyte had the same size as the trophocytes. From this point, the oocyte started growing. After day 8, the maturing oocyte reached

  2. Moscas-das-frutas (Diptera: Tephritidae em um pomar de goiabeira, no semiárido brasileiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elton Lucio Araujo

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available As moscas-das-frutas (Diptera: Tephritidae são pragas-chave na cultura da goiabeira Psidium guajava L., com predominância de diferentes espécies de acordo com a região produtora no Brasil. Os objetivos do presente trabalho foram conhecer a diversidade e analisar parâmetros faunísticos das moscas-das-frutas obtidas em um pomar de goiabeira, no município de Cruzeta, Rio Grande do Norte, situado no semiárido brasileiro. As moscas-das-frutas foram coletadas semanalmente, com auxílio de armadilhas McPhail, tendo como atrativo proteína hidrolisada a 5% v/v. Foram registradas cinco espécies no pomar estudado: Ceratitis capitata (Wied., Anastrepha zenildae Zucchi, Anastrepha sororcula Zucchi, Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart e Anastrepha dissimilis Stone. Ceratitis capitata foi a espécie mais frequente, constante e dominante, considerada como uma praga invasiva, potencial em pomares de goiabeira no semiárido brasileiro.

  3. Reproductive parameters of Lonomia obliqua Walker, 1855 (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae in laboratory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisete Maria Lorini

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Lonomia obliqua is an insect that has urticant spines in the larval stage. This species may cause death as a result of haemorrhages caused by a toxin released from the caterpillar's spines onto the skin of the victim. Since 1989 when this species was identified in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, many accidents have happened. The aim of this study was to verify the oviposition, fecundity, fertility, viability of eggs and incubation period of the species. Adults were left in a moth's cage to mate and lay eggs. Thirteen couples were observed daily, and the number of eggs and the caterpillars emerged were recorded. The results showed a mean of 2.8 (± 1.3 ovipositions, a mean fecundity of 135.3 (± 54.4 eggs/female, a mean fertility of 111.9 (± 55.4 eggs/female, a mean egg viability of 80.9 (± 20.97 % and a mean incubation period of 31.8 (± 5.8 days.O objetivo desse trabalho foi estudar os parâmetros biológicos de oviposição, fecundidade, fertilidade, viabilidade dos ovos e período de incubação de Lonomia obliqua Walker, 1855, em laboratório. As lagartas foram coletadas no campo nos municípios de Santa Cruz do Sul, Erechim, Guaporé, Passo Fundo, Não-Me-Toque, São Jorge, Farroupilha e Vila Lângaro, no Rio Grande do Sul, e Concórdia em Santa Catarina. As lagartas foram mantidas em sala de criação, com a leitura diária da temperatura e umidade relativa do ar, até a emergência dos adultos. Após a sexagem, cada casal foi colocado em uma gaiola para acasalamento e postura. Acompanhou-se, diariamente, as posturas das fêmeas e a eclosão das lagartas, determinando-se o número de posturas por fêmea, a fecundidade, a fertilidade, a viabilidade e o período de incubação dos ovos. O número médio de oviposições foi de 2,8 (± 1,3, fecundidade média de 135,30 (± 54,4 ovos por fêmea, fertilidade média de 111,9 (± 55,4 ovos por fêmea. A viabilidade média dos ovos foi de 80,9 (± 21,0 % e obteve-se um período médio de incuba

  4. First record of Anastrepha serpentina (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae) in citrus in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemos, W P; da Silva, R A; Araújo, S C A; Oliveira, E L A; da Silva, W R

    2011-01-01

    Anastrepha serpentina (Wiedemann) is recorded for the first time in citrus (Rutaceae) in Brazil. Specimens were obtained from sweet orange (Citrus sinensis) sampled in the municipalities of Belém and Capitão Poço, and from mandarin orange (Citrus reticulata) from Tomé-Açu, state of Pará, Brazil.

  5. First record of Anastrepha serpentina (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae) in citrus in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Lemos, WP; Silva, RA da; Araújo, SCA; Oliveira, ELA; Silva, WR da

    2011-01-01

    Anastrepha serpentina (Wiedemann) is recorded for the first time in citrus (Rutaceae) in Brazil. Specimens were obtained from sweet orange (Citrus sinensis) sampled in the municipalities of Belém and Capitão Poço, and from mandarin orange (Citrus reticulata) from Tomé-Açu, state of Pará, Brazil.

  6. Identification of Chemicals Emitted by Calling Males of the Sapote Fruit Fly, Anastrepha serpentina (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emissions from sexually active Anastrepha serpentine males were collected by solid-phase microextraction. Calling behavior of wild-type males showed no clear peak during the day, except that it was evident less frequently immediately after daybreak and just before dark. Calling by laboratory males...

  7. New species and host plants of Anastrepha (Diptera: Tephritidae) primarily from Peru and Bolivia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twenty-eight new species of Anastrepha are described and illustrated: A. acca (Bolivia, Peru), A. adami (Peru), A. amplidentata (Bolivia, Peru), A. annonae (Peru), A. breviapex (Peru), A. caballeroi (Peru), A. camba (Bolivia, Peru), A. cicra (Bolivia, Peru), A. disjuncta (Peru), A. durantae (Peru), ...

  8. Cuticular Hydrocarbons of the South American Fruit Fly Anastrepha fraterculus: Variability with Sex and Age

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vaníčková, Lucie; Svatoš, Aleš; Kroiss, J.; Kaltenpoth, M.; do Nascimento, R. R.; Hoskovec, Michal; Břízová, Radka; Kalinová, Blanka

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 38, č. 9 (2012), s. 1133-1142 ISSN 0098-0331 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : Anastrepha fratercules species complex * cuticular hydrocarbons * sex-specific differences * age-dependent production Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 2.462, year: 2012

  9. Understanding long-term fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) population dynamics: implications for areawide management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aluja, Martín; Ordano, Mariano; Guillén, Larissa; Rull, Juan

    2012-06-01

    Fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) are devastating agricultural pests worldwide but studies on their long-term population dynamics are sparse. Our aim was to determine the mechanisms driving long-term population dynamics as a prerequisite for ecologically based areawide pest management. The population density of three pestiferous Anastrepha species [Anastrepha ludens (Loew), Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart), and Anastrepha serpentina (Wiedemann)] was determined in grapefruit (Citrus x paradisi Macfad.), mango (Mangifera indica L.), and sapodilla [Manilkara zapota (L.) P. Royen] orchards in central Veracruz, México, on a weekly basis over an 11-yr period. Fly populations exhibited relatively stable dynamics over time. Population dynamics were mainly driven by a direct density-dependent effect and a seasonal feedback process. We discovered direct and delayed influences that were correlated with both local (rainfall and air temperature) and global climatic variation (El Niño Southern Oscillation [ENSO] and North Atlantic Oscillation [NAO]), and detected differences among species and location of orchards with respect to the magnitude and nature (linear or nonlinear) of the observed effects, suggesting that highly mobile pest outbreaks become uncertain in response to significant climatic events at both global and local levels. That both NAO and ENSO affected Anastrepha population dynamics, coupled with the high mobility of Anastrepha adults and the discovery that when measured as rate of population change, local population fluctuations exhibited stable dynamics over time, suggests potential management scenarios for the species studied lie beyond the local scale and should be approached from an areawide perspective. Localized efforts, from individual growers will probably prove ineffective, and nonsustainable.

  10. The gene transformer-2 of Anastrepha fruit flies (Diptera, Tephritidae) and its evolution in insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarno, Francesca; Ruiz, María F; Eirín-López, José M; Perondini, André L P; Selivon, Denise; Sánchez, Lucas

    2010-05-13

    In the tephritids Ceratitis, Bactrocera and Anastrepha, the gene transformer provides the memory device for sex determination via its auto-regulation; only in females is functional Tra protein produced. To date, the isolation and characterisation of the gene transformer-2 in the tephritids has only been undertaken in Ceratitis, and it has been shown that its function is required for the female-specific splicing of doublesex and transformer pre-mRNA. It therefore participates in transformer auto-regulatory function. In this work, the characterisation of this gene in eleven tephritid species belonging to the less extensively analysed genus Anastrepha was undertaken in order to throw light on the evolution of transformer-2. The gene transformer-2 produces a protein of 249 amino acids in both sexes, which shows the features of the SR protein family. No significant partially spliced mRNA isoform specific to the male germ line was detected, unlike in Drosophila. It is transcribed in both sexes during development and in adult life, in both the soma and germ line. The injection of Anastrepha transformer-2 dsRNA into Anastrepha embryos caused a change in the splicing pattern of the endogenous transformer and doublesex pre-mRNA of XX females from the female to the male mode. Consequently, these XX females were transformed into pseudomales. The comparison of the eleven Anastrepha Transformer-2 proteins among themselves, and with the Transformer-2 proteins of other insects, suggests the existence of negative selection acting at the protein level to maintain Transformer-2 structural features. These results indicate that transformer-2 is required for sex determination in Anastrepha through its participation in the female-specific splicing of transformer and doublesex pre-mRNAs. It is therefore needed for the auto-regulation of the gene transformer. Thus, the transformer/transfomer-2 > doublesex elements at the bottom of the cascade, and their relationships, probably represent

  11. Morphological comparison between Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart) and Chrysomya villeneuvi Patton (Diptera: Calliphoridae) puparia, forensically important blow flies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukontason, Kabkaew L; Narongchai, Paitoon; Kanchai, Chaturong; Vichairat, Karnda; Piangjai, Somsak; Boonsriwong, Worachote; Bunchu, Nophawan; Sripakdee, Duanghatai; Chaiwong, Tarinee; Kuntalue, Budsabong; Siriwattanarungsee, Sirisuda; Sukontason, Kom

    2006-12-20

    In Thailand, the hairy maggots of the blow flies, Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart) and Chrysomya villeneuvi Patton, are of forensic importance. Both flies are closely related species, not only in the morphological appearance of their larvae and puparia, but also on the aggressive feeding habit of the former. In our continuing studies of forensically important flies, identification of immature ones needs particular attention. In this study, we reported the morphological comparison between the puparia of these two blow fly species using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Observation revealed that the cuticular sculpture of tubercles along the dorsal and lateral segments had markedly different features: with C. rufifacies having many sharp spines assembling only at the tip, while of C. villeneuvi bore stout spines throughout the tubercle. A larger number of globules at the bubble membrane on the dorsolateral border of the fifth segment was found in C. villeneuvi (average 225) than in C. rufifacies (average 35), and more papillae was observed on the anterior spiracle in C. villeneuvi (13-15) than in C. rufifacies (9-12). However, the morphology of distinct net-like patches of the integument and structure of the posterior spiracle of both species were almost identical. Morphological comparison in this study permitted identification of the puparia of both fly species, particularly in areas where they co-exist.

  12. Eficiência de substâncias atrativas na captura de moscas-das-frutas (diptera: tephritidae em goiabeiras no município de Itapecuru-Mirim (MA Efficacy of attractants for fruits flies (diptera: tephritidae captures in guava crops in Itapecuru-Mirim (MA, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raimunda Nonata Santos Lemos

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available O experimento foi conduzido em pomar comercial de goiaba (Psidium guajava L. cultivar 'Pêra Vermelha', localizado no município de Itapecuru-Mirim (MA, na Comunidade Magnificat, visando a adotar um sistema de manejo integrado de moscas-das-frutas através do monitoramento com armadilhas do tipo frasco caça-moscas (modelo garrafa plástica e atraentes de alimentação. O delineamento estatístico adotado foi o de blocos inteiramente casualizados, com cinco tratamentos e quatro repetições, sendo: suco de laranja (50%, acerola (30%, goiaba (30%, maracujá (30% e solução de açúcar cristal a 10 %. Verificou-se que o suco de maracujá (30% e a solução de açúcar cristal (10% foram mais atrativos para os adultos de Anastrepha distincta Greene, A. sororcula Zucchi, A. striata Schiner, A. obliqua Macquart e A. serpentina Wiedemann.This research was carried out in a commercial guava orchard cv. 'Pera Vermelha' in the Magnificat Community, located at Itapecuru-Mirim (MA County, aiming to adopt an integrated management system for fruit flies, by trapping different food attractants. The experiment was arranged in a completely randomized block design with four replications. The attractants tested were: Sweet orange juice (50%, acerola juice (30%, guava juice (30%, passion fruit juice (30% and sugar solution (10%. The results showed that passion fruit juice (30% and sugar solution (10% were more attractive for adults fruit flies of Anastrepha distincta Greene, A. sororcula Zucchi, A. striata Schiner, A. obliqua Macquart and A. serpentina Wiedemann.

  13. Native and introduced host plants of Anastrepha fraterculus and Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae) in northwestern Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ovruski, Sergio; Schliserman, Pablo; Aluja, Martín

    2003-08-01

    Wild or commercially grown, native and exotic fruit were collected in 30 localities in the Tucumán province (NW Argentina) from January 1990 to December 1995 to determine their status as hosts of Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann) and/or Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), the only two fruit fly species of economic and quarantine importance in Argentina. A total of 84,094 fruit (3,466.1 kg) representing 33 species (7 native and 26 exotic) in 15 plant families were sampled. We determined the following 17 host plant associations: Annona cherimola Miller (Annonaceae), Citrus paradisi Macfadyn (Rutaceae), Diospyros kaki L. (Ebenaceae), Eugenia uniflora L., Psidium guajava L., Myrcianthes pungens (Berg) Legrand (Myrtaceae), Ficus carica L. (Moraceae), Juglans australis Grisebach (Juglandaceae), Mangifera indica L. (Anacardiaceae), Eriobotrya japonica (Thunb.) Lindl., Prunus armeniaca L., P. domestica L., and P. persica (L.) Batsch (Rosaceae) were infested by both A. fraterculus and C. capitata. Citrus aurantium L., Citrus reticulata Blanco, Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck (Rutaceae), and Passiflora caerulea L. (Passifloraceae) were only infested by Ceratitis capitata. Out of a total of 99,627 adults that emerged from pupae, 69,180 (approximately 69.5%) were Anastrepha fraterculus, 30,138 (approximately 30.2%) were C. capitata, and 309 (approximately 0.3%) were an unidentified Anastrepha species. Anastrepha fraterculus predominated in native plant species while C. capitata did so in introduced species. Infestation rates (number of larvae/kg of fruit) varied sharply from year to year and between host plant species (overall there was a significant negative correlation between fruit size and infestation level). We provide information on fruiting phenology of all the reported hosts and discuss our findings in light of their practical (e.g., management of A. fraterculus and C. capitata in citrus groves) implications.

  14. Karyotype relationships among Anastrepha bistrigata, A. striata and A. serpentina (Diptera, Tephritidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Selivon

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The species of Anastrepha are arranged into 17 intrageneric groups. Recently, it was proposed that two species of the striata group, Anastrepha striata and A. bistrigata, might be realocated to serpentina group. Anastrepha bistrigata and A. serpentina have an X1X2Y/X1X1 X2X2 sex chromosome system while A. striata has a XY/XX system. It was previously proposed that the karyotype of A. bistrigata could be derived from that of A. striata by an Y:A fusion, and that the karyotype of A. serpentina would be derived from another, hypothetical karyotype. In the present report sequential staining with DAPI and chromomycin A3 (CMA3, followed by C-banding, revealed that the C-banded heterochromatic blocks of the sex chromosomes of A. bistrigata have different affinities to fluorochromes in comparison to the chromosomes of A. striata, from which they have hypothetically derived. The chromosomes of A. serpentina show substantial differences in their cytochemical properties compared to their A. bistrigata and A. striata counterparts. The FISH technique showed that the ribosomal gene sequences are located in DAPI- or DAPI/CMA3-positive heterochromatic blocks of the sex chromosomes, one site on the Y chromosome and one site on the X chromosome (X1 in A. bistrigata and A. serpentina. The data suggest that the karyotype of A. striata and A. bistrigata could be derived from a common ancestral karyotype, while the A. serpentina karyotype probably has a distinct origin.

  15. Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Tucuman, Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaldo, H.E.

    1999-01-01

    Full text: In 1916, Rust recorded Anastrepha fraterculus, the ''South American fruit fly (SAFF)'', in Tucuman. Since 1910, the citrus area in the province has increased rapidly and SAFF has become an important pest. New varieties and management practices were also introduced in the region. Guavas (Psidium guajava) and peaches (Prunus persica) were the main host fruits of SAFF in Tucuman, but cherimoya (Anona chirimoya) and apricots (Prunus armeniaca) were also important. After the beginning of rains, populations increase in spring and develop mainly on peaches in November and December. Afterwards, SAFF attacks guava, where a peak population is attained in February or March. Guava is the principal wild host of SAFF in Tucuman. Compared with the forest where guava trees were frequent, citrus orchards covered a small area in the 1920's. Therefore SAFF populations increased in the wild guavas and invaded early oranges and grapefruits afterwards. Even though high numbers of punctures were observed in citrus skin, few larvae developed. The oils present in the skin kill high number of eggs. Moreover the larvae have to go through the albedo and hardly reach the pulp. Nevertheless the injury produced by the ovipositor allows microorganisms to rot the fruit. In 1918, rots produced 50% of damage in fruits which suffered premature ripening and fell. Only in very thin skinned and overripened fruit, larval development was registered. Some authors observed larval development in the field but Schult, in laboratory tests, found few eggs and never registered larval development. Between 1920 and 1945 studies with bait-traps were carried out to establish the seasonal occurrence of the fly and some control measures were tested. Poisoned baits were used against this pest, and biological control by inoculation of parasitoids were also employed. Cages with parasitized pupae were distributed to farmers. The emerged flies were kept within the cage and a sieve allowed the emerged parasites

  16. An update of the blow flies (Diptera: Calliphoridae) of the Galápagos Islands, and first record of Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart) from mainland Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tantawi, Tarek I; Sinclair, Bradley J

    2013-12-19

    Seven species of Calliphoridae are reported from the Galápagos Islands, Ecuador: Lucilia pionia (Walker), L. setosa (James), L. deceptor (Curran), L. eximia (Wiedemann), Cochliomyia macellaria (Fabricius), Chrysomya albiceps (Wiedemann), and Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius). Lucilia eximia is newly recorded from the islands. Lucilia sp. near pionia is recorded from the island of Española. The distribution and collection records of these species are discussed and listed, and a key to their identification is provided. Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart) is reported for the first time from mainland Ecuador and the identification of this species is outlined.

  17. Effect of diet composition on the development of the floodwater Mosquito Ochlerotatus (Ochletotatus) albifasciatus (Macquart) (Diptera: Culicidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sy, Victoria E.; Campos, Raul E.

    2008-01-01

    One important step for the colonization of Ochlerotatus albifasciatus (Macquart) is to determine the optimal conditions for larval rearing, which makes possible the development of experiments comprising larval rearing in the laboratory. In this research the effect of diet composition on the development of O. albifasciatus was studied. For this purpose, cohorts of 20 fi rst instars were reared using fi ve diets: 1:1 mix of yeast and TetraMin R , 1:1 mix of fi ne and coarse organic matter, grass cuts soaked in water for 1 h or 24 h before larvae incorporation, and 1:1:1 mix of grass cuts, fi ne organic matter and coarse organic matter. Survival was recorded for each cohort, while development time from first instar to pupa, and adult wing length were recorded for each individual. The effects of the diet on the observed traits were analyzed by one way ANOVA. Both survival and wing length were affected by diet, being significantly higher (79-100% and ∼ 4.46 mm) on diets consisting of organic matter or organic matter plus grass than on those consisting of yeast plus TetraMin R or grass. Development time was not affected by the diet, although the shortest time (8.1 to 8.3 days) and lower variation between replicates were recorded when larvae were reared using organic matter or organic matter plus grass. Thus, it is concluded that the diets consisting of organic matter or a mix of it and grass are the most effective for O. albifasciatus rearing. (author)

  18. Effect of diet composition on the development of the floodwater Mosquito Ochlerotatus (Ochletotatus) albifasciatus (Macquart) (Diptera: Culicidae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sy, Victoria E.; Campos, Raul E. [Universidad Nacional de La Plata, Buenos Aires (Argentina). Inst. de Limnologia Dr. Raul A. Ringuelet]. E-mails: victoriasy9@yahoo.com.ar; rcampos@ilpla.edu.ar

    2008-11-15

    One important step for the colonization of Ochlerotatus albifasciatus (Macquart) is to determine the optimal conditions for larval rearing, which makes possible the development of experiments comprising larval rearing in the laboratory. In this research the effect of diet composition on the development of O. albifasciatus was studied. For this purpose, cohorts of 20 fi rst instars were reared using fi ve diets: 1:1 mix of yeast and TetraMin{sup R}, 1:1 mix of fi ne and coarse organic matter, grass cuts soaked in water for 1 h or 24 h before larvae incorporation, and 1:1:1 mix of grass cuts, fi ne organic matter and coarse organic matter. Survival was recorded for each cohort, while development time from first instar to pupa, and adult wing length were recorded for each individual. The effects of the diet on the observed traits were analyzed by one way ANOVA. Both survival and wing length were affected by diet, being significantly higher (79-100% and {approx} 4.46 mm) on diets consisting of organic matter or organic matter plus grass than on those consisting of yeast plus TetraMin{sup R} or grass. Development time was not affected by the diet, although the shortest time (8.1 to 8.3 days) and lower variation between replicates were recorded when larvae were reared using organic matter or organic matter plus grass. Thus, it is concluded that the diets consisting of organic matter or a mix of it and grass are the most effective for O. albifasciatus rearing. (author)

  19. Diversity and seasonality of fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae and Lonchaeidae) and their parasitoids (Hymenoptera: Braconidae and Figitidae) in orchards of guava, loquat and peach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza-Filho, M.F.; Raga, A. [Instituto Biologico, Campinas, SP (Brazil)], e-mail: miguelf@biologico.sp.gov.br; Azevedo-Filho, J.A. [Agencia Paulista de Tecnologia dos Agronegocios (APTA), Monte Alegre do Sul, SP (Brazil). Polo Regional do Leste Paulista; Strikis, P.C. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Biologia. Dept. de Parasitologia; Guimaraes, J.A. [EMBRAPA Agroindustria Tropical, Fortaleza, CE (Brazil); Zucchi, R.A. [Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz (ESALQ/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Entomologia, Fitopatologia e Zoologia Agricola

    2009-02-15

    This work was carried out in orchards of guava progenies, and loquat and peach cultivars, in Monte Alegre do Sul, SP, Brazil, in 2002 and 2003. Guavas and loquats were bagged and unbagged bi-weekly and weekly, respectively, for assessment of the infestation period. Peach was only bagged weekly. The assays started when the fruits were at the beginning of development, but still green. Ripe fruits were taken to the laboratory and placed individually into plastic cups. McPhail plastic traps containing torula yeast were hung from January 2002 to January 2004 to assess the fruit fly population in each orchard, but only the Ceratitis capitata population is here discussed. Five tephritid species were reared from the fruits: Anastrepha bistrigata Bezzi, A. fraterculus (Wiedemann), A. obliqua (Macquart), A. sororcula Zucchi, and C. capitata, in addition to six lonchaeid species: Neosilba certa (Walker), N. glaberrima (Wiedemann), N. pendula (Bezzi), N. zadolicha McAlpine and Steyskal, Neosilba sp. 4, and Neosilba sp. 10 (both species are in the process of being described by P. C. Strikis), as well as some unidentified Neosilba species. Ten parasitoid species were obtained from fruit fly puparia, of which five were braconids: Asobara anastrephae (Muesebeck), Doryctobracon areolatus (Szepligeti), D. brasiliensis (Szepligeti), Opius bellus Gahan, and Utetes anastrephae (Viereck), and five figitids: Aganaspis pelleranoi (Brethes), Dicerataspis grenadensis Ashmead, Lopheucoila anastrephae (Rhower), Leptopilina boulardi (Barbotin, Carlton and Kelner-Pillaut), and Trybliographa infuscata Diaz, Gallardo and Uchoa. Ceratitis capitata showed a seasonal behavior with population density peaking at the second semester of each year. Anastrepha and Neosilba species remained in the orchards throughout both years. (author)

  20. Especies, distribución y hospederos del género Anastrepha Schiner en el departamento del Tolima, Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Castañeda, María del Rosario; Osorio F, Armando; Canal, Nelson A; Galeano, Pedro Édgar

    2010-01-01

    Las moscas del género Anastrepha constituyen una de las principales plagas de la fruticultura colombiana. El conocimiento de la diversidad de especies presentes en un área es el primer paso en el diseño de estudios tendientes a establecer tecnologías apropiadas de manejo. Además de un listado de las especies de Anastrepha identificadas en el Laboratorio de Entomología de la Universidad del Tolima desde 1988 hasta la fecha a través de diversos estudios realizados en este departamento, el prese...

  1. Especies, distribución y hospedantes del género anastrepha schiner en el departamento del tolima, colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Castañeda, Marìa del Rosario; Osorio, Armando; Canal, Nelson A.; Galeano, Pedro Edgar

    2010-01-01

    Las moscas del género Anastrepha constituyen una de las principales
    plagas de la fruticultura colombiana. El conocimiento
    de la diversidad de especies presentes en un área es el primer
    paso en el diseño de estudios tendientes a establecer tecnologías
    apropiadas de manejo. Además de un listado de las especies de
    Anastrepha identificadas en el Laboratorio de Entomología de
    la Universidad
    del Tolima desde 1988 hasta la ...

  2. Larval Distribution and Behavior of Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart) (Diptera: Calliphoridae) Relative to Other Species on Florida Black Bear (Carnivora: Ursidae) Decomposing Carcasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swiger, S L; Hogsette, J A; Butler, J F

    2014-02-01

    Larval interactions of dipteran species, blow flies in particular, were observed and documented daily over time and location on five black bear carcasses in Gainesville, FL, USA, from June 2002 - September 2004. Cochliomyia macellaria (Fabricius) or Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius) larvae were collected first, after which Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart) oviposited on the carcasses in multiple locations (i.e., neck, anus, and exposed flesh) not inhabited already by the other blow fly larvae. Within the first week of decomposition, C. rufifacies larvae grew to ≥12 mm, filling the carcasses with thousands of larvae and replacing the other calliphorid larvae either through successful food source competition or by predation. As a result, C. macellaria and C. megacephala were not collected past their third instar feeding stage. The blow fly species, C. megacephala, C. macellaria, Lucilia caeruleiviridis (Macquart), Phormia regina (Meigen), Lucilia sericata (Meigen), and C. rufifacies, completed two developmental cycles in the 88.5-kg carcass. This phenomenon might serve to complicate or prevent the calculation of an accurate postmortem interval.

  3. A review of hymenopterous parasitoid guilds attacking Anastrepha spp. and Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Argentina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ovruski, Sergio M.; Orono, Luis E.; Nunez-Campero, Segundo; Schliserman, Pablo; Albornoz-Medina, Patricia; Bezdjian, Laura P.; Nieuwenhove, Guido A. Van; Martin, Cristina B. [Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas (CONICET), Tucuman (Argentina). Planta Piloto de Procesos Industriales Microbiologicos y Biotecnologia. Div. Control Biologico de Plagas

    2006-07-01

    This study provides detailed information on the diversity, abundance, guilds, host plant and host fly ranges, distribution, and taxonomic status of hymenopterous parasitoid species associated with Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) and Anastrepha spp. (A. fraterculus (Wiedemann) and A. schultzi Blanchard) in Argentina. Moreover, the article also argues future needs regarding the use of some parasitoid species as an alternative tool in fruit fly management programs of the National Fruit Fly Control and Eradication Program (PROCEM-Argentina). Data used for this work were obtained from numerous old and recent published articles on fruit fly parasitoids in Argentina. (author)

  4. Karyotype study of the South American fruit fly, Anastrepha fraterculus (Wied.) in Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lifschitz, E.; Manso, F.; Basso, A.

    1999-01-01

    The most frequent karyotype of Anastrepha fraterculus in Argentina is described here on the basis of mitotic metaphase morphology. It was named ''fraterculus Arg 1''. The diploid number is 2n=10+XX/XY and in males it comprises five homomorphic pairs and one heteomorphic pair, the latter being the sexual pair. Samples from different populations were cytologically analyzed, and ''fraterculus Arg 1'' is present in all of them at a high frequency (about 60%). A typical C band pattern of the X chromosome was found only in the Montecarlo (Misiones province) population. (author)

  5. A review of hymenopterous parasitoid guilds attacking Anastrepha spp. and Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ovruski, Sergio M.; Orono, Luis E.; Nunez-Campero, Segundo; Schliserman, Pablo; Albornoz-Medina, Patricia; Bezdjian, Laura P.; Nieuwenhove, Guido A. Van; Martin, Cristina B.

    2006-01-01

    This study provides detailed information on the diversity, abundance, guilds, host plant and host fly ranges, distribution, and taxonomic status of hymenopterous parasitoid species associated with Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) and Anastrepha spp. (A. fraterculus (Wiedemann) and A. schultzi Blanchard) in Argentina. Moreover, the article also argues future needs regarding the use of some parasitoid species as an alternative tool in fruit fly management programs of the National Fruit Fly Control and Eradication Program (PROCEM-Argentina). Data used for this work were obtained from numerous old and recent published articles on fruit fly parasitoids in Argentina. (author)

  6. X-ray doses to safely release the parasitoid Diachasmimorpha longicaudata (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) reared on Anastrepha fraterculus larvae (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bachmann, G. E.; Carabajal Paladino, Leonela Z.; Conte, C. A.; Devescovi, F.; Milla, F. H.; Cladera, J. L.; Segura, D. F.; Viscarret, M. M.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 25, č. 9 (2015), s. 1092-1103 ISSN 0958-3157 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.30.0032 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : biological control * gamma rays * Anastrepha fraterculus Subject RIV: GF - Plant Pathology, Vermin, Weed, Plant Protection Impact factor: 0.848, year: 2015

  7. Electroantennogram response and attraction of Anastrepha suspensa to volatiles of various sugar sources and aged sugar solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    With the aim of finding new, sugar-based volatile attractants for economically important tephritid fruit fly species, we used electroantennography (EAG) to quantify olfactory responses of female Caribbean fruit fly, Anastrepha suspensa (Loew), to volatiles of six different sugars (refined white and ...

  8. A checklist of the species of Anastrepha with the families of their host plants and hymenopteran parasitoids in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zucchi, Roberto Antonio

    2000-01-01

    Many surveys on fruit flies have already been carried out by several researchers in Brazil while others are still going on. Most of these surveys were conducted in areas where no studies had been previously done. With these surveys, new species and new records of species were found in Brazil. Also, in this decade, several surveys on fruit fly braconid parasitoids were conducted. These data have been summarised recently, because of the great interest in the biological control of fruit flies in Brazil. Research on eucoilid fruit fly parasitoids have been largely neglected. However, taxonomic studies are being conducted on eucoilids associated with frugivorous flies (Tephritidae and Lonchaeidae) in Brazil. All the data on fruit flies, host plants and hymenopteran parasitoids are unfortunately scattered in the literature and frequently are only published as dissertations or congress abstracts which are not widely available. Even when submitted for publication, papers take a long time to come out in Brazil. Consequently, it is very difficult to get a list of the Anastrepha species in Brazil, or to determine which host plant species are associated with them. These data are of particular interest in the case of economically important species, especially those considered as quarantine pests. Therefore, such a list is very useful for regulatory entomologists and pest management programmes by listing the Anastrepha species in Brazil and their associated host plants and hymenopteran parasitoids. The objective of this paper is to gather some available records of the Anastrepha species, their host plants and hymenopteran parasitoids (Braconidae and Eucoilidae) published in Brazil. Due to the space limitation of this paper, only families of the host plants of the Anastrepha species are presented. In fact, this work is part of a research which deals with the preparation of a database for the Anastrepha species in Brazil

  9. Large scale artificial rearing of Anastrepha sp.1 aff. fraterculus (Diptera: Tephritidae in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Marcos Melges Walder

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Some species of the genus Anastrepha (Diptera: Tephritidae are successfully managed by matching the sterile insect technique with parasitoid releases. Such strategies used in integrated pest management can be implemented only where insect mass-rearing programs are feasible. In this study, we show the process of domestication, rearing technology and quality control data obtained from 54 generations of Anastrepha sp.1 aff. fraterculus (Wiedemann, 1830 kept under fully artificial conditions. Eggs were collected by an artificial oviposition panel consisting of one side of the cage made of blue voile fabric externally covered with a thin layer of silicon rubber. They were then air-bubbled in water at 25 ºC for 48 h before seeding. Larvae were reared on the regular laboratory artificial diet with 66 % of agar reduction turning over a semi-liquid diet, which reduced costs and improved insect quality. The adult and larval diets were composed of local ingredients including hydrolyzed yeast. When large-scale production of this fly is contemplated, the critical stage is larval development. This system of artificial rearing for A. fraterculus sp.1 developed in Brazil, allows for the production of a large number of insects of excellent quality using local ingredients and less agar in diet composition than the original medium used for this species. By reducing the interval of egg collection, the system might be optimized in terms of insect yield and, therefore, meet the demands of A. fraterculus sp.1 with regard to integrated pest management purposes.

  10. Co-Infestation and Spatial Distribution of Bactrocera carambolae and Anastrepha spp. (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Common Guava in the Eastern Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deus, E. G.; Godoy, W. A. C.; Sousa, M. S. M.; Lopes, G. N.; Jesus-Barros, C. R.; Silva, J. G.; Adaime, R.

    2016-01-01

    Field infestation and spatial distribution of introduced Bactrocera carambolae Drew and Hancock and native species of Anastrepha in common guavas [Psidium guajava (L.)] were investigated in the eastern Amazon. Fruit sampling was carried out in the municipalities of Calçoene and Oiapoque in the state of Amapá, Brazil. The frequency distribution of larvae in fruit was fitted to the negative binomial distribution. Anastrepha striata was more abundant in both sampled areas in comparison to Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann) and B. carambolae. The frequency distribution analysis of adults revealed an aggregated pattern for B. carambolae as well as for A. fraterculus and Anastrepha striata Schiner, described by the negative binomial distribution. Although the populations of Anastrepha spp. may have suffered some impact due to the presence of B. carambolae, the results are still not robust enough to indicate effective reduction in the abundance of Anastrepha spp. caused by B. carambolae in a general sense. The high degree of aggregation observed for both species suggests interspecific co-occurrence with the simultaneous presence of both species in the analysed fruit. Moreover, a significant fraction of uninfested guavas also indicated absence of competitive displacement. PMID:27638949

  11. Controle químico de Anastrepha fraterculus (Wied. (Diptera: Tephritidae em laboratório Chemical control of Anastrepha fraterculus (Wied. (Diptera: Tephritidae in laboratory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscila Lang Scoz

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available O efeito de quatro novos grupos químicos de inseticidas incluindo avermectina (benzoato de emamectina, éter piretróide (etofemprox, neoniconitnóide (imidacloprid, thiacloprid e thiamethoxan e naturalyte (spinosad foram avaliados em laboratório (25 ± 3ºC, umidade relativa de 70 ± 10% e fotofase de 12 horas, visando ao controle de adultos e ovos/larvas de Anastrepha fraterculus comparando-os com os fosforados fenthion e thrichlorphon. O benzoato de emamectina não foi eficiente no controle de adultos de A. fraterculus via contato e ingestão. O etofenprox, imidacloprid, spinosad e thiamethoxan foram eficientes no controle de adultos de A. fraterculus via contato e ingestão, proporcionando maior mortalidade via ingestão. Os novos inseticidas não provocaram mortalidade significativa de ovos/larvas de A. fraterculus localizados no interior de maçãs, enquanto que os fosforados fenthion e thrichlorphon resultaram em 100% de mortalidade das fases imaturas e adultos. Os novos inseticidas apresentam potencial para uso nas iscas tóxicas, substituindo os fosforados para o controle de adultos.The South American Fruit Fly, Anastrepha fraterculus is one of the most important pest of temperate fruit crops. The effect of four new inseticide groups to replace organophosphate compounds for A. fraterculus control was evaluated under laboratory conditions (25 ± 3ºC, relative humity of 70 ± 10% and 12:12 L:D. Emamectin benzoate, etofenprox, imidacloprid, spinosad, thiacloprid and thiamethoxan were evaluated to control adults by contact and ingestion and against eggs/larvae inside apple fruits compared with fenthion and thrichlorphon. Emamectin benzoate was not efficient to control adults of A. fraterculus by contact and ingestion. Etofenprox, imidacloprid, spinosad and thiamethoxan were efficient to control adults by contact and ingestion being more toxic by ingestion. No new insecticide controlled eggs/larvae inside apple fruit while organophosphate

  12. Update of host plant list of Anastrepha fraterculus and Ceratitis capitata in Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orono, Luis E.; Albornoz-Medina, Patricia; Nunez-Campero, Segundo; Nieuwenhove, Guido A. van; Bezdjian, Laura P.; Martin, Cristina B.; Schliserman, Pablo; Ovruski, Sergio M.

    2006-01-01

    The study displays a complete picture of the host range of the two economically important fruit fly species in Argentina, the native Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann) (South American Fruit Fly) and the exotic Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Mediterranean Fruit Fly or Medfly). This work provides information on the fruit type of each plant species, associated tephritid species, habitat where the fruit was collected, geographical location of each fruit collection area (latitude, longitude, and altitude), phyto geographic regions where each area is located, as well as a general description of the landscape characteristics of those habitats where the fruit samples with fly larvae were collected. A complete, detailed bibliographic review was made in order to provide all the relevant information needed for host use in natural setting. (author)

  13. New species and host plants of Anastrepha (Diptera: Tephritidae) primarily from Peru and Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norrbom, Allen L; Rodriguez, Erick J; Steck, Gary J; Sutton, Bruce A; Nolazco, Norma

    2015-11-16

    Twenty-eight new species of Anastrepha are described and illustrated: A. acca (Bolivia, Peru), A. adami (Peru), A. amplidentata (Bolivia, Peru), A. annonae (Peru), A. breviapex (Peru), A. caballeroi (Peru), A. camba (Bolivia, Peru), A. cicra (Bolivia, Peru), A. disjuncta (Peru), A. durantae (Peru), A. echaratiensis (Peru), A. eminens (Peru), A. ericki (Peru), A. gonzalezi (Bolivia, Peru), A. guevarai (Peru), A. gusi (Peru), A. kimi (Colombia, Peru), A. korytkowskii (Bolivia, Peru), A. latilanceola (Bolivia, Peru), A. melanoptera (Peru), A. mollyae (Bolivia, Peru), A. perezi (Peru), A. psidivora (Peru), A. robynae (Peru), A. rondoniensis (Brazil, Peru), A. tunariensis (Bolivia, Peru), A. villosa (Bolivia), and A. zacharyi (Peru). The following host plant records are reported: A. amplidentata from Spondias mombin L. (Anacardiaceae); A. caballeroi from Quararibea malacocalyx A. Robyns & S. Nilsson (Malvaceae); A. annonae from Annona mucosa Jacq. and Annona sp. (Annonaceae); A. durantae from Duranta peruviana Moldenke (Verbenaceae); and A. psidivora from Psidium guajava L. (Myrtaceae).

  14. Update of host plant list of Anastrepha fraterculus and Ceratitis capitata in Argentina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orono, Luis E.; Albornoz-Medina, Patricia; Nunez-Campero, Segundo; Nieuwenhove, Guido A. van; Bezdjian, Laura P.; Martin, Cristina B.; Schliserman, Pablo; Ovruski, Sergio M. [Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas (CONICET), Tucuman (Argentina). Planta Piloto de Procesos Industriales Microbiologicos y Biotecnologia. Div. Control Biologico de Plagas

    2006-07-01

    The study displays a complete picture of the host range of the two economically important fruit fly species in Argentina, the native Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann) (South American Fruit Fly) and the exotic Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Mediterranean Fruit Fly or Medfly). This work provides information on the fruit type of each plant species, associated tephritid species, habitat where the fruit was collected, geographical location of each fruit collection area (latitude, longitude, and altitude), phyto geographic regions where each area is located, as well as a general description of the landscape characteristics of those habitats where the fruit samples with fly larvae were collected. A complete, detailed bibliographic review was made in order to provide all the relevant information needed for host use in natural setting. (author)

  15. The South American fruit fly, Anastrepha fraterculus (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nunez Bueno, L.

    1999-01-01

    Anastrepha fraterculus (Wied) is the most important fruit fly in Colombia. It has been trapped from the sea level up to 2000 m of altitude, but is is more abundant in the coffee growing area located at 1300 to 1700 masl, with temperatures between 18 to 22 deg. C (-min 11 deg. C,-max 25 deg. C). The main host in that area is Coffea arabica L., but it also has 14 additional identified hosts that belong to 9 families. In the hot climates from 0 to 1000 m of altitude it breeds in mango (Mangifera indica L.) and guava (Psidium guayava L:). The pest has not been stabilised in the cultivated upper lands between 2300-2600 masl. (author)

  16. Trials to determine levels of oviposition of Anastrepha fraterculus (Wied.) on fruit and artificial oviposition devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alama, D.

    1999-01-01

    The current work was conducted in order to determine the level of oviposition of Anastrepha fraterculus on fresh mangos and artificial oviposition devices. Four trials were carried out during which freshly harvested fruit was exposed to wild South American adult fruit flies. The following viable oviposition/day/kg of fruit (viable ovipositions = emerged adults) were established: 79.16, 71.25, 83.6 and 60.6. The trials were carried out at 25 deg. C - 28 deg. C and 60%-80% relative humidity. Beginning with the first generation one trial was carried out which confirmed the acceptance of sexually mature females to oviposit on red oviposition devices consisting of wax-covered cloth. However, red plastic containers with holes of 0.5 mm did not produce good results. (author)

  17. Índice de infestação e diversidade de moscas-das-frutas em hospedeiros exóticos e nativos no pólo de fruticultura de Anagé, BA Index of infestation and diversity of fruit-flies in exotic hosts native to the fruitculture area in Anagé, Bahia, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Falcão de Sá

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available As moscas-das-frutas (Diptera: Tephritidae são os principais entraves às exportações de manga nos pólos de fruticultura da Região Sudoeste da Bahia. O presente trabalho teve como objetivo estudar índices de infestação e a diversidade de moscas-das-frutas no pólo de fruticultura de Anagé, BA, visando obter subsídios para o manejo integrado dessas pragas na mangueira, na região. Os estudos foram realizados em 2004 e 2005, nos municípios de Anagé, Belo Campo e Caraíbas, BA, procedendo-se à coleta de frutos de 21 espécies vegetais, nativas e exóticas, e identificação das espécies de moscas associadas. Estimaram-se os índices de infestação em pupários/kg de fruto e pupários/fruto. Os maiores índices de infestação, em pupários/kg de fruto, ocorreram em serigüela (Spondias purpurea L. com 61,3, juá (Ziziphus joazeiro L., 38,3 e umbu (Spondias tuberosa L., 33,1, considerados hospedeiros primários de Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann e A. obliqua (Macquart. As maiores infestações em pupários/fruto ocorreram em serigüela (0,9; umbu (0,7 e cajarana (Spondias sp. (0,2. Com base no monitoramento larval, registra-se, para as condições do pólo de fruticultura de Anagé, a ocorrência das espécies Anastrepha fraterculus, A. obliqua, A. dissimilis, A. amita, A. distincta, A. sororcula, A. zenildae e Ceratitis capitata. Registram-se, pela primeira vez, as seguintes associações bitróficas: juá com A. fraterculus, A. obliqua, A. dissimilis e A. distincta; e umbu com A. amita e A. sororcula.Fruit-flies (Diptera: Tephritidae are the main hindrance for mango exportation in the fruitculture areas of the Southwestern Region of Bahia. The purpose of the present work was to study the indexes of infestation and diversity of fruit-flies in the fruitculture area of Anagé, BA, in order to obtain subsidies to the integrated management of these pests in mango, in this region. Studies were carried out in 2004 and 2005 in the

  18. Positive and purifying selection influence the evolution of doublesex in the Anastrepha fraterculus species group.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iderval S Sobrinho

    Full Text Available The gene doublesex (dsx is considered to be under strong selective constraint along its evolutionary history because of its central role in somatic sex differentiation in insects. However, previous studies of dsx used global estimates of evolutionary rates to investigate its molecular evolution, which potentially miss signals of adaptive changes in generally conserved genes. In this work, we investigated the molecular evolution of dsx in the Anastrepha fraterculus species group (Diptera, Tephritidae, and test the hypothesis that this gene evolved solely by purifying selection using divergence-based and population-based methods. In the first approach, we compared sequences from Anastrepha and other Tephritidae with other Muscomorpha species, analyzed variation in nonsynonymous to synonymous rate ratios (dN/dS in the Tephritidae, and investigated radical and conservative changes in amino acid physicochemical properties. We show a general selective constraint on dsx, but with signs of positive selection mainly in the common region. Such changes were localized in alpha-helices previously reported to be involved in dimer formation in the OD2 domain and near the C-terminal of the OD1 domain. In the population-based approach, we amplified a region of 540 bp that spanned almost all of the region common to both sexes from 32 different sites in Brazil. We investigated patterns of selection using neutrality tests based on the frequency spectrum and locations of synonymous and nonsynonymous mutations in a haplotype network. As in the divergence-based approach, these analyses showed that dsx has evolved under an overall selective constraint, but with some events of positive selection. In contrast to previous studies, our analyses indicate that even though dsx has indeed evolved as a conserved gene, the common region of dsx has also experienced bouts of positive selection, perhaps driven by sexual selection, during its evolution.

  19. Fruit Flies of the Genus Anastrepha (Diptera: Tephritidae) From Some Localities of Paraguay: New Records, Checklist, and Illustrated Key

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias, Osmar René; Fariña, Nelson Librado; Lopes, Gleidyane Novaes; Uramoto, Keiko; Zucchi, Roberto Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Abstract This study deals with fruit flies of the genus Anastrepha Schiner (Diptera: Tephritidae) collected in McPhail traps in the municipalities of Concepción, Belén, Horqueta, Loreto (state of Concepción) and Santa Rosa (state of Misiones), Paraguay. In total, 17 species were captured, 9 of which are new records for Paraguay. All morphological characters used for species identification are illustrated. RESUMEN. Se estudió las especies de moscas de las frutas del género Anastrepha Schiner (Diptera: Tephritidae), colectadas en trampas tipo McPhail en las localidades de Concepción, Belén, Horqueta (Departamento de Concepción) y Santa Rosa (Departamento de Misiones). En total fueron capturadas 17 especies, de las cuales nueve especies corresponden a nuevos registros para el Paraguay. Todos los caracteres morfológicos para la identificación de las especies fueron ilustrados. PMID:25525098

  20. Mass rearing of the Mexican fruit fly, Anastrepha ludens, at the Fruit Flies Biofactory in Metapa de Dominguez, Chiapas, Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zavala Lopez, J.L.; Dominguez G, J.; Gomez S, Y.; Moreno, P.

    1999-01-01

    A description of the present methods for mass rearing Anastrepha ludens, known as the Mexican fruit fly, at the Fruit Flies Biofactory in Metapa de Dominguez, Chiapas, is given. Important contributions and improvements are described for the rearing stages, e.g. egg production and incubation, larvae diets, lab conditions for the development of larvae and pupae, larvae and pupae handling and environmental control. (author)

  1. Taxonomy and phenotypic relationships of the Anastrepha fraterculus complex in the Mesoamerican and Pacific Neotropical dominions (Diptera, Tephritidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Ortiz, Vicente; Canal, Nelson A.; Salas, Juan O. Tigrero; Ruíz-Hurtado, Freddy M.; Dzul-Cauich, José F.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Previous morphometric studies based on linear measurements of female structures of the aculeus, mesonotum, and wing revealed the existence of seven morphotypes within the Anastrepha fraterculus cryptic species complex along the Neotropical Region. The current research followed linear and geometric morphometric approaches in 40 population samples of the nominal species Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann) spread throughout the Meso-American and Pacific Neotropical dominions (including Mexico, Central America, Venezuela, Colombia, Ecuador, and Peru). The goals were to explore the phenotypic relationships of the morphotypes in these biogeographical areas; evaluate the reliability of procedures used for delimitation of morphotypes; and describe their current distribution. Findings determined that morphotypes previously recognized via the linear morphometrics were also supported by geometric morphometrics of the wing shape. In addition, we found an eighth morphotype inhabiting the highlands of Ecuador and Peru. Morphotypes are related into three natural phenotypic groups nominated as Mesoamerican-Caribbean lineage, Andean lineage, and Brazilian lineage. The hypothesis that lineages are not directly related to each other is discussed, supported by their large morphological divergence and endemicity in these three well-defined biogeographic areas. In addition, this hypothesis of the non-monophyly of the Anastrepha fraterculus complex is also supported by evidence from other authors based on molecular studies and the strong reproductive isolation between morphs from different lineages. PMID:26798256

  2. Irradiation of mangoes as a quarantine treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bustos R, M E; Enkerlin H, W; Toledo A, J; Reyes F, J; Casimiro G, A

    1991-06-15

    This research project was conducted following guidelines of research protocols for post-harvest treatments developed by the United States Department of Agriculture CUSA. Laboratory bioassays included the irradiation of mangoes infested with third instar larvae of Anastrepha serpentina (Wied), A. ludens (Loew), A. obliqua (Macquart) and Ceratitis capitata (Wied) , at doses from 10 to 250 Gy. Irradiation doses were applied using a Co-60 AECL Model JS-7400 irradiator. The design was chosen to obtain a maximum to minimum ratio equal to, or less than, 1.025. C. capitata was the species most tolerant to irradiation. A dose of 60 Gy applied to third instar fruit fly larvae sterilized this species and prevented emergence of adults of the other three species. A dose of 250 Gy was required to prevent emergence of C. capitata. In fertility tests using emerged adults of A . Iudens, and A. obliqua a dose of 30 Gy gave 45 % and 27 % fertility, respectively. Adults of A. serpentina that emerged, died before reaching sexual maturity. The confirmatory tests, at probit-9 security level, were done at 100 Gy for the three species of Anastrepha and at 150 Gy for C. capitata. The quality of mangoes irradiated up to 1000 Gy was evaluated by chemical, physiological, and sensorial tests. The determination of vitamin C indicated that there was no loss of the nutritive value of the fruit. It also was observed that fruit metabolism was not accelerated since no significant increase in respiration or transpiration was registered and consumers accepted both treated and untreated fruit in the same way. (Author)

  3. Irradiation of mangoes as a quarantine treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bustos R, M.E.; Enkerlin H, W.; Toledo A, J.; Reyes F, J.; Casimiro G, A.

    1991-06-01

    This research project was conducted following guidelines of research protocols for post-harvest treatments developed by the United States Department of Agriculture CUSA. Laboratory bioassays included the irradiation of mangoes infested with third instar larvae of Anastrepha serpentina (Wied), A. ludens (Loew), A. obliqua (Macquart) and Ceratitis capitata (Wied) , at doses from 10 to 250 Gy. Irradiation doses were applied using a Co-60 AECL Model JS-7400 irradiator. The design was chosen to obtain a maximum to minimum ratio equal to, or less than, 1.025. C. capitata was the species most tolerant to irradiation. A dose of 60 Gy applied to third instar fruit fly larvae sterilized this species and prevented emergence of adults of the other three species. A dose of 250 Gy was required to prevent emergence of C. capitata. In fertility tests using emerged adults of A . Iudens, and A. obliqua a dose of 30 Gy gave 45 % and 27 % fertility, respectively. Adults of A. serpentina that emerged, died before reaching sexual maturity. The confirmatory tests, at probit-9 security level, were done at 100 Gy for the three species of Anastrepha and at 150 Gy for C. capitata. The quality of mangoes irradiated up to 1000 Gy was evaluated by chemical, physiological, and sensorial tests. The determination of vitamin C indicated that there was no loss of the nutritive value of the fruit. It also was observed that fruit metabolism was not accelerated since no significant increase in respiration or transpiration was registered and consumers accepted both treated and untreated fruit in the same way. (Author)

  4. Comportamento sexual de Anastrepha sororcula Zucchi (Diptera, Tephritidae em laboratório Sexual behavior of Anastrepha sororcula Zucchi (Diptera, Tephritidae in laboratory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelli C. N. Facholi-Bendassolli

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Anastrepha sororcula Zucchi, 1979, é uma das espécies de mosca-das-frutas mais disseminadas no País, sendo considerada a praga-chave que causa os maiores danos à produção de goiaba (Psidium guajava L., 1758 no Brasil. Em vista da importância desta espécie no complexo de pragas naturais da fruticultura brasileira e, em face à escassez de dados sobre sua biologia e comportamento, este trabalho teve por objetivo obter informações sobre a idade de maturação sexual de A. sororcula em laboratório e descrever seu comportamento reprodutivo. Os machos atingiram a maturidade sexual entre 7 e 18 dias após a emergência, com a maioria dos indivíduos tornando-se sexualmente maduros entre 10 e 13 dias de idade. Exibiram comportamento de sinalização às fêmeas, caracterizado pela distensão da região pleural do abdome, formando uma pequena bolsa de cada lado e, eversão de uma diminuta bolsa membranosa de cutícula retal que circunda a área anal. Durante este processo, os machos realizaram rápidos movimentos de vibração das asas, produzindo sinais audíveis. Uma gotícula foi liberada da região anal durante os movimentos de vibração alar. Após a atração das fêmeas, os machos realizaram uma série de movimentos elaborados de cortejo. As fêmeas alcançaram a maturação sexual entre 14 e 24 dias da emergência, com a maioria tornando-se sexualmente madura aos 19 dias de idade. A exibição diária das atividades sexuais foi confinada quase que exclusivamente ao período das 16:00-17:30h. A. sororcula apresentou um acentuado padrão de protandria.Anastrepha sororcula Zucchi, 1979, is a fruit fly species that can be considered a key pest to the production of guava (Psidium guajava L., 1758, fruit tree which has a wide distribution in Brazil. In view of the importance of this species as a natural pest of Brazilian horticulture and, considering the lack of data about its biology and behavior, the aim of this paper is to obtain

  5. Cool-weather activity of the forensically important hairy maggot blow fly Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart) (Diptera: Calliphoridae) on carrion in Upstate South Carolina, United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cammack, Jonathan A; Nelder, Mark P

    2010-02-25

    The hairy maggot blow fly Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart) (Diptera: Calliphoridae) has expanded its range in the United States since its introduction into Texas (ca. 1980) and has been collected in 15 states. We investigated the bionomics of immature and adult C. rufifacies collected from carcasses of a raccoon Procyon lotor (Linnaeus) and white-tailed deer Odocoileus virginianus Zimmerman in Upstate South Carolina during November 2007, and used these insects to estimate the minimum period of insect activity. Puparia of C. rufifacies were collected from deer carrion; 28% were parasitized by Nasonia vitripennis (Walker) (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae). The mean daily ambient temperature during this study was 11.4+/-1.02 degrees C, representing the lowest recorded mean temperature for adult activity of C. rufifacies; adults of C. rufifacies were observed flying among the carcasses at 9.0 degrees C. Although C. rufifacies is considered a warm-weather blow fly, researchers should be aware of its activity at suboptimal conditions, behavior that might aid its expansion into more northern areas. 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Identification and Comparative Study of Chemosensory Genes Related to Host Selection by Legs Transcriptome Analysis in the Tea Geometrid Ectropis obliqua.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Long Ma

    Full Text Available Host selection by female moths is fundamental to the survival of their larvae. Detecting and perceiving the non-volatile chemicals of the plant surface involved in gustatory detection determine the host preference. In many lepidopteran species, tarsal chemosensilla are sensitive to non-volatile chemicals and responsible for taste detection. The tea geometrid Ectropis obliqua is one devastating chewing pest selectively feeding on limited plants, requiring the specialized sensors to forage certain host for oviposition. In present study, we revealed the distribution of chemosensilla in the ventral side of female fifth tarsomere in E. obliqua. To investigate its molecular mechanism of gustatory perception, we performed HiSeq 2500 sequencing of the male- and female- legs transcriptome and identified 24 candidate odorant binding proteins (OBPs, 21 chemosensory proteins (CSPs, 2 sensory neuron membrane proteins (SNMPs, 3 gustatory receptors (GRs and 4 odorant receptors (ORs. Several leg-specific or enriched chemosensory genes were screened by tissue expression analysis, and clustered with functionally validated genes from other moths, suggesting the potential involvement in taste sensation or other physiological processes. The RPKM value analysis revealed that 9 EoblOBPs showed sex discrepancy in the leg expression, 8 being up-regulated in female and only 1 being over expressed in male. These female-biased EoblOBPs indicated an ecological adaption related with host-seeking and oviposition behaviors. Our work will provide basic knowledge for further studies on the molecular mechanism of gustatory perception, and enlighten a host-selection-based control strategy of insect pests.

  7. Current status and perspectives for management of Anastrepha fraterculus (Wied.) in apple orchards in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovaleski, Adalecio; Sugayama, Regina L.; Malavasi, Aldo

    2000-01-01

    Pomiculture is a recent activity in southern Brazil. The first apple orchards were installed in the early 1970s. Recently, the area grown with apples exceeded 30,000 ha, concentrated in the regions of Fraiburgo and Sao Joaquim (state of Santa Catarina) and Vacaria and Bom Jesus (state of Rio Grande do Sul). Part of the 600,000 tons that are harvested every year is exported to the USA and European countries. Some exotic apple pests were unintentionally introduced, like the European red mite (Panonychuls ulmi Koch) and the Oriental fruit moth (Grapholita molesta Busck). Furthermore, some native species of insects became important pests, as in the South American apple leafroller (Bonagota cranaodes Meyrick) and the South American fruit fly (Anastrepha fraterculus Wiedemann). The South American fruit fly is the best-studied pest of apples in Brazil regarding its biology and ecology. In this paper, we synthesise the information available and discuss the feasibility of adopting new control methods. Most experiments were conducted in Vacaria where A. fraterculus populations reach levels as high as 150 flies/trap day in some years. Sixteen species of Anastrepha occur in the region of Vacaria and only A. fraterculus is considered economically important (Kovaleski et al., submitted). In addition to the typical morphology of A. fraterculus, the morphotype CSS (Selivon et al. 1996) was detected in McPhail traps and infested native fruits. The second most frequent species of Anastrepha is A. dissimilis Stone. It may be responsible for more than 20% of fruit flies in commercial apple orchards in some periods of the year (November-January) but does not attack apples (Kovaleski 1997). Adult population fluctuation has been studied for the last four years using plastic McPhail traps containing grape juice at 25% (v/v) as attractant. It is more efficient than corn protein hydrolysate, vinegar, and sugarcane molasses (Kovaleski et al. 1995) and is widely used by apple growers as the

  8. Análise morfométrica e molecular de morfotipos do complexo fraterculus (Diptera, Tephritidae, Anastrepha) de duas populações do Paraguai 

    OpenAIRE

    Gleidyane Novais Lopes

    2011-01-01

    A alta diversidade observada em Anastrepha fraterculus em toda sua área de distribuição caracteriza a existência do complexo fraterculus. A correta identificação de espécies de Anastrepha aparentadas atualmente exige a utilização de uma série de técnicas. Assim, o presente trabalho propõe verificar quão semelhantes os morfotipos de duas populações do complexo A. fraterculus são, usando dados morfológicos (morfometria tradicional e geométrica) e moleculares (marcadores nucleares e mitocondriai...

  9. Demographic and quality control parameters of Anastrepha Fraterculus (Diptera: Tephritidae) maintained under artificial rearing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vera, T.; Abraham, S.; Oviedo, A.; Willink, E.

    2007-01-01

    The integration of the sterile insect technique (SIT) in the management of the South American fruit fly Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae) is a promising alternative to chemically-based control in those areas where it is sympatric with Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae) or other tephritid species for which the SIT is being used. Implementation of the SIT requires the development of a cost effective mass-rearing protocol. In this work, we present demographic and quality control parameters for the A. fraterculus strain reared at the Estacion Experimental Agroindustrial Obispo Colombres, Tucuman, Argentina. Considering the rearing cage as the reproduction unit, we observed that fecundity is optimal during the first 3 weeks after the onset of oviposition. Fertility was constant during this period. During 2003 and 2004, some improvements were made to the existing rearing protocol, which resulted in increased larval viability, pupal weight, and adult emergence. Current weekly egg production is 1 million per week. These eggs are used to maintain the colony and to assess quality parameters. Finally, research needs leading to improved yields and fly quality are discussed. (author) [es

  10. Calling behavior of mass-reared and wild Anastrepha serpentina (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castrejón-Gómez, Victor R; Lascares, Shaila; Malo, Edi A; Toledo, Jorge; Rojas, Julio C

    2007-08-01

    The calling behavior of mass-reared and wild males of Anastrepha serpentina (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae) was studied both in the laboratory and in field cage tests. In the laboratory, density (1, 5, and 10 males per container), age, and hour of day significantly affected calling behavior. Mass-reared males called independently of density, whereas wild males only called at densities of 5 and 10 individuals. Males of both strains started calling when they were 5-7 d old. The daily pattern of male calling was similar in both strains, starting at 0730 hours, and reaching a peak at 1330-1630 hours. Field cage tests showed that mass-reared males started calling when they were 5d old; the period of peak calling was when males were 8-9 d old. In contrast, wild males began calling when they were 10 d old, reaching peaks when males were 13, 15, and 18 d old. Wild males tended to form leks to call during each day of the experiment, whereas mass-reared males only formed leks during 2 d, both strains displaying very low levels. During field cage tests, males, independently of strain, displayed two calling peaks, one peak in the morning and one peak in the afternoon, whereas males observed in the laboratory only showed a single calling peak. The results are discussed in view of the effects of mass rearing A. serpentina males in relation to potential use of the sterile insect technique.

  11. Identification of chemicals emitted by calling males of the Sapote fruit fly, Anastrepha serpentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robacker, David C; Aluja, Martin; Bartelt, Robert J; Patt, Joseph

    2009-05-01

    Emissions from sexually active Anastrepha serpentina males were collected by solid-phase microextraction. Calling behavior of wild-type males showed no clear peak during the day, except that it was evident less frequently immediately after daybreak and just before dark. Calling by laboratory males was highest between 8 and 11 h after onset of the photophase, and mating by wild flies occurred mostly between 6 and 10 h after onset of the photophase. Two major components of male emissions were identified as 2,5-dimethylpyrazine (DMP) and 3,6-dihydro-2,5-dimethylpyrazine (DHDMP). DHDMP was synthesized, and the identity of the natural product confirmed by comparison of gas chromatographic retention times and mass spectrum. Emissions of DMP and DHMP were greatest during peak calling behavior, with males emitting up to 1.8 and 3.3 microg/h of DMP and DHDMP, respectively. A minor component, which did not vary with time of day, was identified as 2,3,5-trimethylpyrazine. To our knowledge, this is the first report of 3,6-dihydro-2,5-dimethylpyrazine in nature.

  12. Estimation of populations and sterility induction in Anastrepha ludens (Diptera: Tephritidae) fruit flies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flores, Salvador; Montoya, Pablo; Toledo, Jorge; Liedo, Pablo; Enkerlin, Walther

    2015-01-01

    The relationship between different release densities of sterile flies and fly trap captures, expressed as flies per trap per day, in the monitoring of Anastrepha ludens (Loew) populations was evaluated in mango orchards. The induction of sterility in fertile females was evaluated using different ratios of sterile: fertile males under field cage conditions. A direct relationship between recaptured flies and densities of release sterile flies was found. However, trap efficiency, expressed as percentage of recaptured flies, decreased as the density of released flies increased. Sterility induction was positively correlated to the ratio of sterile: fertile flies. A significant difference in egg fertility among treatments was observed. The trajectory of sterility induction slowed down after a sterile: wild ratio of 30:1, which suggests that this ratio could be appropriate in an sterile insect technique program with A. ludens. Sterility induction was greater when only sterile males were released than when releasing both sterile males and females, but the differences were not significant. Our findings contribute to a better interpretation of fly captures obtained from the field trapping networks, and to an improvement in the efficiency of sterile insect technique against A. ludens fruit flies, through the implementation of more rational sterile fly release densities. (author)

  13. Induction of sterility in Anastrepha Fraterculus (Diptera: Tephritidae) by gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allinghi, A.; Gramajo, C.; Willink, E.; Vilardi, J.

    2007-01-01

    In relation to the application of the sterile insect technique (SIT) for the South American fruit fly Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann), we analyzed the effect on adult fertility of different doses of gamma irradiation and the age of pupae at the time of irradiation. In a first experiment, we applied doses of 50, 70, and 90 Gy to pupae at 24, 48, 72, and 96 h before adult emergence. In a second experiment we irradiated pupae 48 h before emergence with 20, 40, and 60 Gy and estimated male and female fertility and sperm transfer by irradiated males. The results indicated pupal age at irradiation does not significantly affect male fertility. If males irradiated with 60 Gy are crossed to non-irradiated females the fertility is about 1%. Females irradiated with 40 Gy did not lay eggs independently of the male to which they mated. No significant effects of radiation were observed with respect to the ability of males to transfer sperm. A dose of 70 Gy applied 48 h before adult emergence induces 100% sterility in both males and females. (author) [es

  14. Sexual selection on multivariate phenotypes in Anastrepha Fraterculus (Diptera: Tephritidae) from Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sciurano, R.; Rodriguero, M.; Gomez Cendra, P.; Vilardi, J.; Segura, D.; Cladera, J.L.; Allinghi, Armando

    2007-01-01

    Despite the interest in applying environmentally friendly control methods such as sterile insect technique (SIT) against Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae), information about its biology, taxonomy, and behavior is still insufficient. To increase this information, the present study aims to evaluate the performance of wild flies under field cage conditions through the study of sexual competitiveness among males (sexual selection). A wild population from Horco Molle, Tucuman, Argentina was sampled. Mature virgin males and females were released into outdoor field cages to compete for mating. Morphometric analyses were applied to determine the relationship between the multivariate phenotype and copulatory success. Successful and unsuccessful males were measured for 8 traits: head width (HW), face width (FW), eye length (EL), thorax length (THL), wing length (WL), wing width (WW), femur length (FL), and tibia length (TIL). Combinations of different multivariate statistical methods and graphical analyses were used to evaluate sexual selection on male phenotype. The results indicated that wing width and thorax length would be the most probable targets of sexual selection. They describe a non-linear association between expected fitness and each of these 2 traits. This non-linear relation suggests that observed selection could maintain the diversity related to body size. (author) [es

  15. Haldane's rule and other aspects of reproductive isolation observed in the Anastrepha fraterculus complex (Diptera: Tephritidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selivon Denise

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Some aspects of reproductive isolation between allopatric populations of two closely related species of the Anastrepha fraterculus complex (A. fraterculus sp. 1 and sp. 2 were evaluated in laboratory conditions. Most of the crosses were fertile in each species as well as between sp. 2 females and sp. 1 males. In the reciprocal cross only 41.7% of the matings yielded viable progeny. Egg hatching occurred at similar rates within the two species, but was significantly lower in the crosses between the species. Adult emergence did not differ significantly among crosses. The sex ratio of adult progeny within each species, as well as in the hybrid progeny derived from sp. 1 females crossed to sp. 2 males, did not differ from the expected 1:1 ratio. However, in the crosses between sp. 2 females to sp. 1 males, a significant deviation in the sex ratio in favor of females was observed, according to the Haldane's rule. The results reinforce previous data which indicated that A. fraterculus sp. 1 and A. fraterculus sp. 2 are distinct biological entities.

  16. Sterility and Sexual Competitiveness of Tapachula-7 Anastrepha ludens Males Irradiated at Different Doses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orozco-Dávila, Dina; Adriano-Anaya, Maria de Lourdes; Quintero-Fong, Luis; Salvador-Figueroa, Miguel

    2015-01-01

    A genetic sexing strain of Anastrepha ludens (Loew), Tapachula-7, was developed by the Mexican Program Against Fruit Flies to produce and release only males in programs where the sterile insect technique (SIT) is applied. Currently, breeding are found at a massive scale, and it is necessary to determine the optimum irradiation dose that releases sterile males with minimum damage to their sexual competitiveness. Under laboratory and field conditions, we evaluated the effects of gamma irradiation at doses of 0, 20, 40, 60 and 80 Gy on the sexual competitiveness of males, the induction of sterility in wild females and offspring survivorship. The results of the study indicate that irradiation doses have a significant effect on the sexual behavior of males. A reduction of mating capacity was inversely proportional to the irradiation dose of males. It is estimated that a dose of 60 Gy can induce more than 99% sterility in wild females. In all treatments, the degree of offspring fertility was correlated with the irradiation dose of the parents. In conclusion, the results of the study indicate that a dose of 60 Gy can be applied in sterile insect technique release programs. The application of this dose in the new genetic sexing strain of A. ludens is discussed.

  17. Progress on the artificial rearing of Anastrepha fraterculus (Wied.) (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nunez Bueno, L.; Guzman Duenas, R.

    1999-01-01

    With the purpose of evaluating post-harvest quarantine treatments for fruits in Colombia, we have established experimental colonies of fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) at the Colombian Agricultural Institute (ICA), plant quarantine Laboratory Ibague (Tol.) at 24 deg. C, 70-80% RH, and 10 hr light. The procedures and results refer only to A. fraterculus from September 1994 to September 1996. The first adults, obtained from Coffea arabica L. cherries, were initially multiplied in fruits and later put on artificial diet. The handling procedures, diets and data collected are adapted from those established by USDA-ARA 1981, Celedonio et al. 1989, Gonzalez et al. Martinez et al. 1987, and others, that were used for Anastrepha spp. The average percentages of recuperation between stages that were hatched 66.0±1.0; first to third instar larvae 28.12±14.4; third instar larvae to pupae 81.80±3.0; pupae to adult 75.82±3.4. Additional data related to partial mortality of the stages are also discussed. The average recuperation from eggs to third instar larvae of 17.57%, and from eggs to emerged adults of 9.5±4.9, is low and indicates the necessity of doing basic research to improve the procedures. (author)

  18. Genetic variation of Anastrepha suspensa (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Florida and the Caribbean using microsatellite DNA markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boykin, Laura M; Shatters, Robert G; Hall, David G; Dean, David; Beerli, Peter

    2010-12-01

    Anastrepha suspensa (Loew) (Diptera: Tephritidae), the Caribbean fruit fly, is indigenous to Florida and the Greater Antilles where it causes economic losses in fruit crops, including citrus. Because of the geographic separation of many of its native locations and anecdotal descriptions of regional differences in host preferences, there have been questions about the population structure of A. suspensa. Seven DNA microsatellite markers were used to characterize the population genetic structure of A. suspensa, in Florida and the Caribbean from a variety of hosts, including citrus. We genotyped 729 A. suspensa individuals from Florida, Puerto Rico, Cayman Island, Dominican Republic, and Jamaica. The investigated seven loci displayed from 5 to 19 alleles, with expected heterozygosities ranging from 0.05 to 0.83. There were five unique alleles in Florida and three unique alleles in the Caribbean samples; however, no microsatellite alleles were specific to a single host plant. Genetic diversity was analyzed using F(ST) and analysis of molecular variance and revealed low genetic diversity between Florida and Caribbean samples and also between citrus and noncitrus samples. Analyses using migrate revealed there is continuous gene flow between sampling sites in Florida and the Caribbean and among different hosts. These results support previous comparisons based on the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I locus indicating there is no genetic differentiation among locations in Florida and the Caribbean and that there is no separation into host races.

  19. Primeiro registro de Trichopria anastrephae, parasitoide de moscas-das-frutas, no Rio Grande do Sul First record of Trichopria anastrephae, parasitoid of fruit flies, in the Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Postalli Cruz

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Existem poucas informações sobre as espécies nativas de himenópteros parasitoides de moscas-das-frutas da Região Neotropical, o que objetivou a realização do presente trabalho. Assim, coletas de goiaba (Psidium guajava L. foram realizadas de janeiro a março de 2009 na Área Experimental em Estudos de Produção Agroecológica (AEEPA da Universidade Federal de Pelotas, no município de Capão do Leão, Rio Grande do Sul. Os frutos foram levados ao laboratório, contados, pesados e acondicionados individualmente em potes plásticos contendo areia umedecida e telado na parte superior. Semanalmente, o substrato foi peneirado, os pupários recolhidos e acondicionados em placas de Petri com papel filtro umedecido com água destilada. Os pupários foram mantidos em sala climatizada (26±2°C, 60±10% de umidade relativa e 12h fotofase onde foram efetuadas observações semanais para verificar a emergência de moscas e/ou parasitoides e posterior identificação das espécies. Trichopria anastrephae Lima (Hymenoptera: Diapriidae foi obtida de pupários de Anastrepha fraterculus, com parasitismo de 5,8%.There is little information on native species of hymenopteran parasitoids of fruit flies from the Neotropical region. Collections of guava (Psidium guajava L. were conducted from January to March 2009 at the Experimental Area of Agroecological Production studies (AEEPA, Federal University of Pelotas, Capão do Leão, Rio Grande do Sul. Fruits were taken individually to the laboratory, counted, weighed and packaged in plastic pots containing moist sand and mesh on top. Weekly substrate was sieved, the pupae collected and placed in Petri dishes with filter paper moistened with distilled water. The pupae were placed in a room (26±2°C, 60±10% RH and 12h photophase where observations were made weekly to check the emergence of adult flies or parasitoids and subsequent species identification. Trichopria anastrephae Lima was obtained from Anastrepha

  20. Contribución al Estudio de las Moscas Anastrephas en Colombia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    González Mendoza Rafael

    1952-11-01

    Full Text Available 1. Colombia tiene amplias posibilidades de desarrollar una industria frutícola floreciente dadas las excepcionales condiciones de ubicación geográfica, diversidad de climas y de suelos. 2. La deficiente producción frutera actual es el resultado de una reunión de factores adversos, entre los que resalta el desconocimiento de los problemas científicos que afectan a dicha industria. En este aspecto, los problemas fitosanitarios, abandonados y faltos de investigación, ocupan lugar preponderante. 3. Las moscas Anastrephas constituyen la plaga más importante de la fruticultura nacional, y por esta razón, un estudio sobre estos insectos es un tema de importancia. 4. Las principales "moscas de las frutas" pertenecen dentro de la familia Trypetidae, a los géneros: Dacus, Rhaglethis, Ceratitis, Dactrocera y Anastrepha. 5. Los nombres comunes con que se conocen las moscas Anastrephas varían de un país a otro y se relacionan particularmente con el lugar de origen de las distintas especies o la fruta determinada como preterida por la mosca en una localidad. En Colombia la denominación vernácula más difundida es la de "gusano de las frutas". También se nombra el insecto como "mosca o gusano del mango" o "gusano de la guayaba". 6. Los nombres científicos de las moscas distinguen a una, gran cantidad de especies. En Colombia, varios autores han reportado la existencia de las especies A.fraterculus, A. ludens, A. mombinpracoptans, A. pikeli y A. serpentina. Todas estas especies inciden en las regiones colombianas comprendidas entre 0 y 2000 metros de altura, es decir, en casi todas las regiones agrícolas importantes (frutales, café, cacao de temperaturas entre 14° y 30° C. 7. Las moscas Anastrephas están confinadas casi exclusivamente al continente americano entre las latitudes 27° N. y 35° S. Particularmente, la especie A. fraterculus, una de las más difundidas en Colombia, fué determinada por Wiedemann (1830

  1. La fenêtre condamnée : Transparence et opacité de la représentation dans Les Rougon-Macquart d’Émile Zola

    OpenAIRE

    Piton-Foucault , Émilie ,

    2012-01-01

    TTransparent panes of glass and wide-open windows are some of the common models Zola’s critics have set up to emphasise the will of transitivity in his art. Although they denounce this idea as a literary utopia, it is still used as a pertinent key to understand Zolian fictional processes. La fenêtre condamnée questions the promotion of the “transparent window” to a metadiscursive symbol of Zolian transitivity by analysing its actualization in the Rougon- Macquart cycle. The study points out a...

  2. Disinfestation of apples attacked by the fruit fly Anastrepha fraterculus (Wied.) (Diptera: Tephritidae) using gamma radiation of cobalt-60

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arthur, Valter; Wiendl, Frederico M.

    1996-01-01

    Apples, cv. Gala, artificially infested during 72 hours with adults of the fruit fly Anastrepha fraterculus (Wied.) were irradiated with the following gamma radiation doses: 0 (control), 25, 50, 75 and 100 Gy, at the dose rate of 1048 Gy per hour. After irradiation fruits were put in plastic bags with 80 ml of sugar cane bagasse. The bags were maintained in a rearing room at temperature 21 - 24 deg C, 65 - 75% R H, and photo period of 12 hours. Pupae obtained were sieved out and kept in small glass tubes. All doses tested did not allow emergence of adults. (author)

  3. Response of Anastrepha suspensa (Diptera: Tepritidae) to white and brown cane, coconut, date, date jaggery and panela sugar solutions with varying degrees of fermentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    We measured the EAG response of Anastrepha suspensa (Loew), the Caribbean fruit fly to six different sugars (white and brown cane, coconut, date, date jaggery and panela sugars). Wild and lab female flies of different physiological states (immature and mature) were tested in dry crystals and 10% su...

  4. Adult population dynamics of the bolivian fruit flies Anastrepha sp. (Diptera: Tephritidae at Municipality Coroico, Department of The La Paz, Bolivia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzáles Manuel

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The investigation was carried out in Paco (1603 msnm communities, it Marca (1511 msnm and Capellania (1720 msnm, of the Municipality of Coroico, department of La Paz, Bolivia. In orchards frutícolas semicomerciales, they settled 15 traps distributed McPhail in a similar way among areas, five for community, sampling" "points. The censuses were carried out with an interval of 15 days, they were identified and they quantified the mature flies of the fruit. For the captures of the individuals, they settled the traps McPhail, using the attractive (Buminal one and as conserving borax. The traps were distributed in representative parcels, having as main cultivations, orange, mandarin, grapefruit, guava and avocado. The identification taxonómica of the captured species was carried out in the laboratory of the National Program of Control of Flies of the fruit (PROMOSCA, clerk of the National Service of Agricultural Sanity and Alimentary (SENASAG Inocuidad. 1210 mature flies of the fruit were captures, those that grouped for species, sex, capture dates and community, corresponding to the seven carried out censuses. The species of Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedeman were identified, Anastrepha striata Schiner, Anastrepha serpentine (Wiedeman, Anastrepha sp, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann, Blepharoneura sp Loew, Hexaresta sp Hering, Hexachaeta sp Loew, Tomoplagia sp Coquillett, Tetreuaresta sp Hendel, being that of more presence Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedeman with 818 and Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann, with 354. The temperature and presence of spices put up frutícolas of flies of the fruit in maturation state explain the observed fluctuations.

  5. Damage evaluation of Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae) on five apple cultivars under laboratory conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Branco, E.S.; Vendramin, J.D.; Denardi, F.; Nora, I.

    1999-01-01

    The apple production losses in southern Brazil caused by the attack of the fruit fly Anastrepha fraterculus can reach up to 100% in some years. Its control demands intensive systematic sprays of insecticides, which increase production costs and affect environmental quality. In terms of integrated pest management, the use of resistant cultivars represents one of the most important alternatives to control this apple pest. With the objective of identifying sources of host plant resistance, apple fruits of different cultivars from the Clonal Germplasm Repository of the EPAGRI Research Station of Cacador were tested. The experiment consisted of 5 treatments (cultivars) with 5 replicates. Fruits at the harvest stage were used. The fruits were placed in boxes (40x110 cm), where they were exposed to oviposition by the fruit fly. After infestation, fruits were left on shelves at room temperature for 10 days in order to evaluate the damage level according to the following scale: 1 = fruit without attack; 2 = fruit with punctures and/or deformation without galleries; 3 = fruit with punctures and/or deformation and galleries; 4 = fruit with punctures and/or deformations, galleries and larvae. The Gala cultivar was the most susceptible, with an average damage level of 3.4, differing from the cultivars Fuji and Royal Red Delicious (damage levels of 1.6 and 1.2, respectively). The Belgolden and Sansa clones presented intermediate damage levels. A. fraterculus preferred to oviposit in the Golden Delicious group compared with the Delicious group. These studies suggest good possibilities for reduction of insecticide sprays to control the fruit fly in the cv. Fuji, as well as the incorporation of resistance factor in apple cultivars. (author)

  6. Male irradiation affects female remating behavior in Anastrepha serpentina (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landeta-Escamilla, Anais; Hernández, Emilio; Arredondo, José; Díaz-Fleischer, Francisco; Pérez-Staples, Diana

    2016-02-01

    Female remating in target pest species can affect the efficacy of control methods such as the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) but very little is known about the postcopulatory mating behavior of these pests. In this study, we investigated the remating behavior of female Anastrepha serpentina (Diptera: Tephritidae), an oligophagous pest of Sapotaceae. First, we tested how long the sexual refractory period of females lasted after an initial mating. Second, we tested the effect of male and female sterility, female ovipositing opportunities and male density on female propensity to remate. Lastly, we tested if the amount of sperm stored by females was correlated to the likelihood of females to remate. We found that receptivity of mass-reared A. serpentina females had a bimodal response, with up to 16% of mass-reared A. serpentina females remating five days after the initial copulation, decreasing to 2% at 10 and 15 days and increasing to 13% after 20 days. Compared to fertile males, sterile males were less likely to mate and less likely to inhibit females from remating. Copula duration of sterile males was shorter compared to fertile males. Remating females were less likely to mate with a sterile male as a second mate. Sterile females were less likely to mate or remate compared to fertile females. Opportunity to oviposit and male density had no effect on female remating probability. Sperm numbers were not correlated with female likelihood to remate. Information on the post-copulatory behavior of mass-reared A. serpentina will aid fruit fly managers in improving the quality of sterile males. We discuss our results in terms of the differences this species presents in female remating behavior compared to other tephritids. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Compatibility and competitiveness of a laboratory strain of Anastrepha Fraterculus (Diptera: Tephritidae) after irradiation treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allinghi, A.; Calcagno, G.; Gomez Cendra, P.; Vilardi, J.C.; Petit-Marty, N.; Segura, D.; Cladera, J.; Vera, T.; Gramajo, C.; Willink, E.

    2007-01-01

    We evaluated under semi-natural field cage conditions sexual compatibility and competitiveness of a laboratory strain (LAB) compared to a wild population (TUC) of Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann). The LAB strain is produced under semi-mass rearing conditions at the Estacion Experimental Agroindustrial Obispo Colombres facility (Tucuman, Argentina). Wild flies were obtained at Horco Molle (Tucuman, Argentina) from infested guava fruits. LAB pupae were irradiated ( 60 Co) 48 h before adult emergence. The tested doses were 0 (control), 40, 70, and 100 Gy. Twenty-five males and 25 females each of TUC and LAB were released into cages and mating pairs collected. Only 1 irradiation dose was considered at a time. Females were separated and allowed to lay eggs into artificial fruits to estimate induced sterility from the corresponding hatching rate. Copulation start time did not differ significantly between strains nor among irradiation treatments. Copulation duration showed highly significant differences among irradiation doses, but no differences between strains. The index of sexual isolation (ISI) and the relative sterility index (RSI) indices indicated that LAB and TUC are fully compatible, males from TUC and LAB did not differ in mating competitiveness, and irradiation within the range tested did not affect these indices. Non-irradiated LAB females exhibited higher mating propensity than TUC ones. However, a significant reduction in the female relative performance index (FRPI) index was observed with increasing irradiation dose. The analysis of induced sterility indicated that treatment with 40 Gy reduces male fertility from about 80% to 0.75%, and higher doses produce total sterility. In females, the 40 Gy dose reduces fertility to about 2% and higher doses prevent egg laying. (author) [es

  8. Effective sampling range of food-based attractants for female Anastrepha suspensa (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendra, Paul E; Epsky, Nancy D; Heath, Robert R

    2010-04-01

    Release-recapture studies were conducted with both feral and sterile females of the Caribbean fruit fly, Anastrepha suspensa (Loew) (Diptera: Tephritidae), to determine sampling range for a liquid protein bait (torula yeast/borax) and for a two-component synthetic lure (ammonium acetate and putrescine). Tests were done in a guava, Psidium guajava L., grove and involved releasing flies at a central point and recording the numbers captured after 7 h and 1, 2, 3, and 6 d in an array of 25 Multilure traps located 9-46 m from the release point. In all tests, highest rate of recapture occurred within the first day of release, so estimations of sampling range were based on a 24-h period. Trap distances were grouped into four categories (30 m from release point) and relative trapping efficiency (percentage of capture) was determined for each distance group. Effective sampling range was defined as the maximum distance at which relative trapping efficiency was > or = 25%. This corresponded to the area in which 90% of the recaptures occured. Contour analysis was also performed to document spatial distribution of fly dispersal. In tests with sterile flies, immature females dispersed farther and were recovered in higher numbers than mature females, regardless of attractant, and recapture of both cohorts was higher with torula yeast. For mature feral flies, range of the synthetic lure was determined to be 30 m. With sterile females, effective range of both attractants was 20 m. Contour maps indicated that wind direction had a strong influence on the active space of attractants, as reflected by distribution of captured flies.

  9. Examination of the ligand-binding and enzymatic properties of a bilin-binding protein from the poisonous caterpillar Lonomia obliqua.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana B G Veiga

    Full Text Available The bilin-binding proteins (BBP from lepidopteran insects are members of the lipocalin family of proteins and play a special role in pigmentation through the binding of biliverdin IXγ. Lopap, a BBP-like protein from the venom of the toxic caterpillar Lonomia obliqua has been reported to act as a serine protease that activates the coagulation proenzyme prothrombin. Here we show that BBPLo, a variant of lopap from the same organism binds biliverdin IXγ, forming a complex that is spectrally identical with previously described BBP proteins. Although BBPLo is nearly identical in sequence to lopap, no prothrombinase activity was detected in our recombinant preparations using reconstituted systems containing coagulation factors Xa and Va, as well as anionic phospholipids. In addition to biliverdin, BBPLo was found to form a 1:1 complex with heme prompting us to examine whether the unusual biliverdin IXγ ligand of BBPs forms as a result of oxidation of bound heme in situ rather than by a conventional heme oxygenase. Using ascorbate or a NADPH(+-ferredoxin reductase-ferredoxin system as a source of reducing equivalents, spectral changes are seen that suggest an initial reduction of heme to the Fe(II state and formation of an oxyferrous complex. The complex then disappears and a product identified as a 5-coordinate carbonyl complex of verdoheme, an intermediate in the biosynthesis of biliverdin, is formed. However, further reaction to form biliverdin was not observed, making it unlikely that biliverdin IXγ is formed by this pathway.

  10. Observations on the growth parameters of Spilosoma obliqua (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae) reared on artificial diets and reproductive competence of this irradiated pest and its progeny

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahman, R.; Rahman, M.M.; Islam, S.; Huque, R.

    2002-01-01

    Ten trials were conducted to standardize an artificial diet for Spilosoma oblique. The main ingredients included agar, mulberry leaves, yeast, casein, cellulose, sucrose, glucose, ascorbic acid, sorbic acid, antibiotics, vitamin C, Wesson's salt, and vitamin B complex in variable proportions. A diet formulation with increased amounts of Wesson's salt, choline chloride and iron supplement was found to be most suitable when growth parameters were measured. The deleterious effects when 6-day old pupae were treated with 100 and 150 Gy of gamma radiation were increased in the F 1 generation as compared to the parental generation. Various combinations of crosses between treated and untreated moths indicated that females were more sensitive to gamma radiation when compared to males. F 1 sterility was attained when male moths treated with 100 Gy were allowed to mate with untreated females. Two species of hymenopteran parasitoids of the genus Glyptapanteles and Meteorus were found to infest Spilosoma obliqua. These parasitoids may serve as an effective addition to an integrated pest management program for this pest in Bangladesh. (author)

  11. Larval feeding substrate and species significantly influence the effect of juvenile hormone analog on sexual development/performance in four tropical tephritid flies

    Science.gov (United States)

    The juvenile hormone analog methoprene reduces the amount of time it takes laboratory-reared Anastrepha suspensa (Caribbean fruit fly) males to reach sexual maturity by almost half. Here, we examined if methoprene exerted a similar effect on four other species of Anastrepha (A. ludens, A. obliqua, ...

  12. Mass rearing methods for fruit fly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dominguez Gordillo, J.C.

    1999-01-01

    The most common rearing methods used for mass rearing of fruit flies, with emphasis on those of economic importance in Mexico such as Anastrepha ludens (the Mexican fruit fly). Anastrepha obliqua (the mango and plum fruit fly) and the exotic fruit fly Ceratitis capitata (the Mediterranean fruit fly) are described here. (author)

  13. Flutuação populacional de adultos de Anastrepha fraterculus (Wied. em cultivo protegido e convencional de videira Anastrepha fraterculus (Wied. adult seasonal fluctuation in plastic covering and conventional grapevine cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geraldo Chavarria

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available A mosca-das-frutas sul-americana, Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann, 1830 (Diptera: Tephritidae, é considerada praga-chave das fruteiras de clima temperado na região Sul do Brasil. No entanto, poucas informações encontram-se disponíveis quando a espécie está associada à cultura da videira. Neste trabalho, foi avaliado o efeito da cobertura plástica sobre a população de adultos de A. fraterculus durante o ciclo de cultivo da videira cv. Moscato Giallo. O experimento foi conduzido nos ciclos de 2005/06 e 2006/07, em vinhedo comercial localizado em Flores da Cunha-RS (latitude 29° 06' sul, longitude 51° 20' oeste e altitude de 541 m, coberto com plástico impermeável tipo ráfia (160 µm de 12 fileiras com 35 m, deixando-se cinco fileiras sem cobertura (controle. Os adultos foram monitorados nas duas áreas com armadilhas McPhail, utilizando-se como atrativo de proteína hidrolisada (BioAnastrepha® a 5%, no período de outubro a abril, nos dois ciclos. O pico populacional da espécie, nos dois ciclos, foi observado no período de maturação da uva. Não foram registradas diferenças significativas nas capturas entre as áreas, concluindo-se que a cobertura plástica não afeta a mobilidade e a flutuação populacional de A. fraterculus em cultivo protegido de videira.The South American Fruit Fly Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann, 1830 (Diptera: Tephritidae is one of the most important pests of temperate fruits in Southern Brazil. Little information regarded to pest damage is available when this insect is associated with vineyards. In this work was evaluated the plastic cover effect on seasonal fluctuation of A. fraterculus adults in vineyards of cv. Moscato Giallo. The experiment was conducted on 2005/06 and 2006/07 seasons in a vineyard located in Flores da Cunha, RS (latitude 29° 06' South, longitude 51° 20' West and altitude 541 m, covered with an impermeable plastic cloth (2.65 m x 160 µm, in 12 rows with 35 m, with five rows

  14. Mineralización del nitrógeno, carbono y actividad enzimática del suelo en un bosque de Nothofagus obliqua (Mirb Oerst y una plantación de Pinus radiata D. Don. del centro-sur de Chile Nitrogen and carbon mineralization and enzyme activity in soils of Nothofagus obliqua (Mirb Oerst stands and Pinus radiata D. Don plantation in south-central Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YESSICA RIVAS

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available En Chile, el establecimiento de plantaciones comerciales de rápido crecimiento ha sido sostenido en las últimas décadas mediante la sustitución de bosques nativos y conversión de suelos agrícolas. Pinus radiata D. Don es la principal especie productiva, debido a su crecimiento acelerado y adaptabilidad al clima y los suelos. En el presente estudio se plantea que la actividad biológica del suelo es variable a través del año, en respuesta a variaciones de precipitación, temperatura y contenido de humedad de suelo y que el cambio de uso de suelo desde un bosque templado de Nothofagus obliqua (Mirb Oerst a una plantación con coniferas exóticas, modifica la química del suelo y consecuentemente los procesos de N-min, C-min y la actividad biológica del suelo. Esta hipótesis fue examinada en un bosque de N. obliqua y una plantación de P. radiata del centro-sur de Chile (40°07' S, 72° O. Se evaluó mensualmente la tasa mineralización de nitrógeno (N-min, cabono (C-min y la actividad enzimática potencial del suelo (ureasa, proteasa e hidrólisis de la fluoresceína diacetato entre septiembre 2003 y mayo 2005. Los resultados demuestran que los niveles de las variables de actividad biológica del suelo fueron significativamente diferentes entre las parcelas de bosque y plantación (Lambda de Wilk = 0,022; F 5,80 = 733; P In Chile, commercial forests plantations have increased during the last decades due in part to replacement of native forests and conversion of agricultural soils. Pinus radiata D. Don has been the main tree planted, due to its rapid growth and adaptability. In the present study we proposed that biological activity varies along the year due to changes of precipitation, temperature and soil water content and mainly because the conversion of native forest to exotic P. radiata plantations alters the soil chemistry, N and C mineralization and the potential enzymatic activity in these soils. This hypothesis was examined in a

  15. Comparison of longevity between a laboratory strain and a natural population of Anastrepha Fraterculus (Diptera: Tephritidae) under field cage conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez Cendra, P.; Vilardi, J.; Segura, D.; Cladera, J.; Allinghi, A.

    2007-01-01

    The South American fruit fly Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann) is one of the most destructive fruit pests in this region, infesting major fruit crops. Implementation of the sterile insect technique (SIT) as part of an area-wide integrated approach against this species requires information on the survival of mass-reared and sterilized insects in the field and their ability to mate with wild females. The survival rates in field cages of both non-irradiated and irradiated laboratory flies were compared with that of wild flies. Both types of laboratory flies survived longer than their wild counterparts over the 8 days under the experimental conditions. The irradiation dose (70 Gy) did not affect survival of the laboratory reared flies. Our results improve the prospect of integrating the SIT into the control of A. fraterculus populations in Argentina. (author) [es

  16. Selection by mating competitiveness improves the performance of Anastrepha ludens males of the genetic sexing strain Tapachula-7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintero-Fong, L; Toledo, J; Ruiz, L; Rendón, P; Orozco-Dávila, D; Cruz, L; Liedo, P

    2016-10-01

    The sexual performance of Anastrepha ludens males of the Tapachula-7 genetic sexing strain, produced via selection based on mating success, was compared with that of males produced without selection in competition with wild males. Mating competition, development time, survival, mass-rearing quality parameters and pheromone production were compared. The results showed that selection based on mating competitiveness significantly improved the sexual performance of offspring. Development time, survival of larvae, pupae and adults, and weights of larvae and pupae increased with each selection cycle. Differences in the relative quantity of the pheromone compounds (Z)-3-nonenol and anastrephin were observed when comparing the parental males with the F4 and wild males. The implications of this colony management method on the sterile insect technique are discussed.

  17. Establishment of a colony of Anastrepha ludens (Diptera: Tephritidae) under relaxed mass-rearing conditions in Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orozco-Davila, Dina; Hernandez, Refugio; Solis, Eduardo; Quintero, J. Luis; Dominguez, Julio

    2006-01-01

    Several studies have suggested that maintaining a line of insects under laboratory conditions reduces their biological attributes. With this principle in mind, the mass production of Anastrepha ludens originating from a colony raised under relaxed rearing conditions was evaluated over a period of three years. The results of the evaluation indicated that insects kept under these conditions reached their larval maturity in 10 days, and attained a greater weight, which has a direct influence on pupal quality. In adult cages having a fly density of 70,000 individuals, there was a lower level of stress which favored fecundity. Fertility was apparently not affected by the cage density. These results suggest that keeping a production line under relaxed conditions optimizes insect production and promotes higher quality. (author)

  18. Establishment of a colony of Anastrepha ludens (Diptera: Tephritidae) under relaxed mass-rearing conditions in Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orozco-Davila, Dina; Hernandez, Refugio; Solis, Eduardo; Quintero, J. Luis; Dominguez, Julio, E-mail: dorozco1@prodigy.net.m [United States Department of Agriculture, Gainesville, FL (United States). Agricultural Research Service. Center for Medical, Agricultural, and Veterinary Entomology; Sigma Space Corporation, MD(United States); Programa Moscamed Moscafrut-Desarrollo de Metodos, Chiapas (Mexico)

    2006-07-01

    Several studies have suggested that maintaining a line of insects under laboratory conditions reduces their biological attributes. With this principle in mind, the mass production of Anastrepha ludens originating from a colony raised under relaxed rearing conditions was evaluated over a period of three years. The results of the evaluation indicated that insects kept under these conditions reached their larval maturity in 10 days, and attained a greater weight, which has a direct influence on pupal quality. In adult cages having a fly density of 70,000 individuals, there was a lower level of stress which favored fecundity. Fertility was apparently not affected by the cage density. These results suggest that keeping a production line under relaxed conditions optimizes insect production and promotes higher quality. (author)

  19. Evaluation of Food Lures for Capture and Monitoring of Anastrepha fraterculus (Diptera: Tephritidae) on Temperate Fruit Trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, J M da; Arioli, C J; Santos, J P Dos; Menezes-Netto, A C; Botton, M

    2017-06-01

    The Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae) is the main pest of fruit trees grown in temperate climates in the southern region of Brazil. The objective of this work was to evaluate the efficiency of the major commercial food lures used in Brazil for trapping and monitoring of A. fraterculus in plum, pear, and feijoa orchards. The assessed lures were hydrolyzed proteins of animal origin (CeraTrap) and plant origin (BioAnastrepha), torula yeast + borax (Torula), and grape juice. Response variables included the rate of adult capture (flies per trap per day, FTD) and the percentage of females captured. We also evaluated the number of times the weekly capture rate exceeded the traditional threshold of 0.5 FTD for each lure. Traps baited with grape juice, currently used for monitoring A. fraterculus in Southern Brazil, captured fewer adults and a lower percentage of females compared with the other lures. CeraTrap trapped a greater number of A. fraterculus adults and, in some cases, a lower percentage of females compared with the other lures in pears. Traps baited with CeraTrap had greater capture rates (FTD), particularly during the stages of fruit maturation and harvest, and even in years with low population density of A. fraterculus, thus demonstrating greater sensitivity in the detection of this pest. These results show that, in order to detect and monitor the presence of A. fraterculus in plum, feijoa, and pear crops, protein-based lures are superior to grape juice, especially the animal protein CeraTrap. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) variation in the Anastrepha fraterculus cryptic species complex (Diptera, Tephritidae) of the Andean region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, Bruce D.; Steck, Gary J.; Norrbom, Allen L.; Rodriguez, Erick J.; Srivastava, Pratibha; Alvarado, Norma Nolazco; Colque, Fredy; Landa, Erick Yábar; Sánchez, Juan José Lagrava; Quisberth, Elizabeth; Peñaranda, Emilio Arévalo; Clavijo, P. A. Rodriguez; Alvarez-Baca, Jeniffer K.; Zapata, Tito Guevara; Ponce, Patricio

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) was sequenced for Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann, 1830) originating from 85 collections from the northern and central Andean countries of South America including Argentina (Tucumán), Bolivia, Perú, Ecuador, Colombia, and Venezuela. The ITS1 regions of additional specimens (17 collections) from Central America (México, Guatemala, Costa Rica, and Panamá), Brazil, Caribbean Colombia, and coastal Venezuela were sequenced and together with published sequences (Paraguay) provided context for interpretation. A total of six ITS1 sequence variants were recognized in the Andean region comprising four groups. Type I predominates in the southernmost range of Anastrepha fraterculus. Type II predominates in its northernmost range. In the central and northern Andes, the geographic distributions overlap and interdigitate with a strong elevational effect. A discussion of relationships between observed ITS1 types and morphometric types is included. PMID:26798259

  1. Sequence variation in the cytochrome oxidase subunit I and II genes of two commonly found blow fly species, Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius) and Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart) (Diptera: Calliphoridae) in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Siew Hwa; Aris, Edah Mohd; Surin, Johari; Omar, Baharudin; Kurahashi, Hiromu; Mohamed, Zulqarnain

    2009-08-01

    The mitochondiral DNA region encompassing the cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) and cytochrome oxidase subunit II (COII) genes of two Malaysian blow fly species, Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius) and Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart) were studied. This region, which spans 2303bp and includes the COI, tRNA leucine and partial COII was sequenced from adult fly and larval specimens, and compared. Intraspecific variations were observed at 0.26% for Ch. megacephala and 0.17% for Ch. rufifacies, while sequence divergence between the two species was recorded at a minimum of 141 out of 2303 sites (6.12%). Results obtained in this study are comparable to published data, and thus support the use of DNA sequence to facilitate and complement morphology-based species identification.

  2. The Mexican Fruit Fly Eradication Programme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reyes F, Jesus; Santiago M, Guillermo; Hernandez M, Porfirio [Comision Nacional de Sanidad Agropecuaria (Mexico)

    2000-07-01

    The goal of the Mexican Fruit Fly Eradication Programme is to control, suppress or eradicate from Mexico four species of fruit flies of economic and quarantine importance (Anastrepha ludens Loew, A. obliqua Macquart, A. serpentina Wied. and A. striata Schiner). These pests cause damage amounting to US$710 million per year. In addition to this cost, there are other expenses from pest control actions and the loss of international markets, because fruit importing countries have established stringent quarantine measures to restrict the entry of these pests. For purposes of the programme's implementation, Mexico was divided into three working zones, defined by agro-ecological characteristics, the number of fruit fly species present and the size of fruit growing regions. In addition, a cost:benefit analysis was carried out which indicated that the rate of return, in a 12-year time frame, might be as much as 33:1 in Northern Mexico, and 17:1 in the rest of the country, for an area over 100,000 hectares. Eradication technology involves: 1) surveys of pest populations by trapping and host fruit harvesting to monitor the presence and density of fruit flies, 2) reduction of pest populations applying cultural practices and using selective bait sprays, 3) mass release of sterile flies and augmentative release of parasitoids to eliminate populations and, 4) enforcement of quarantine measures to protect fruit fly free areas.

  3. The Mexican Fruit Fly Eradication Programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reyes F, Jesus; Santiago M, Guillermo; Hernandez M, Porfirio

    2000-01-01

    The goal of the Mexican Fruit Fly Eradication Programme is to control, suppress or eradicate from Mexico four species of fruit flies of economic and quarantine importance (Anastrepha ludens Loew, A. obliqua Macquart, A. serpentina Wied. and A. striata Schiner). These pests cause damage amounting to US$710 million per year. In addition to this cost, there are other expenses from pest control actions and the loss of international markets, because fruit importing countries have established stringent quarantine measures to restrict the entry of these pests. For purposes of the programme's implementation, Mexico was divided into three working zones, defined by agro-ecological characteristics, the number of fruit fly species present and the size of fruit growing regions. In addition, a cost:benefit analysis was carried out which indicated that the rate of return, in a 12-year time frame, might be as much as 33:1 in Northern Mexico, and 17:1 in the rest of the country, for an area over 100,000 hectares. Eradication technology involves: 1) surveys of pest populations by trapping and host fruit harvesting to monitor the presence and density of fruit flies, 2) reduction of pest populations applying cultural practices and using selective bait sprays, 3) mass release of sterile flies and augmentative release of parasitoids to eliminate populations and, 4) enforcement of quarantine measures to protect fruit fly free areas

  4. Male Sexual Behavior and Pheromone Emission Is Enhanced by Exposure to Guava Fruit Volatiles in Anastrepha fraterculus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo E Bachmann

    Full Text Available Plant chemicals can affect reproductive strategies of tephritid fruit flies by influencing sex pheromone communication and increasing male mating competitiveness.We explored whether exposure of Anastrepha fraterculus males to guava fruit volatiles and to a synthetic blend of volatile compounds released by this fruit affects the sexual performance of wild and laboratory flies. By means of bioassays and pheromone collection we investigated the mechanism underlying this phenomenon.Guava volatile exposure enhanced male mating success and positively affected male calling behavior and pheromone release in laboratory and wild males. Changes in male behavior appear to be particularly important during the initial phase of the sexual activity period, when most of the mating pairs are formed. Exposure of laboratory males to a subset of guava fruit volatiles enhanced mating success, showing that the response to the fruit might be mimicked artificially.Volatiles of guava seem to influence male mating success through an enhancement of chemical and physical signals related to the communication between sexes. This finding has important implications for the management of this pest species through the Sterile Insect Technique. We discuss the possibility of using artificial blends to improve the sexual competitiveness of sterile males.

  5. Fungi that cause rot in bunches of grape identified in adult fruit flies (Anastrepha fraterculus (Diptera: Tephritidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruben Machota Jr

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann is the main species of frugivorous insect that damages berries of table grape (Vitis vinifera L. in Southern Brazil. This study was conducted to isolate and identify the fungi associated with bunch rot present in the body of adults of A. fraterculus collected in a commercial vineyard. From January to February 2011, adults of A. fraterculus were collected from a commercial vineyard of green grapes using adapted McPhail traps. In laboratory, flies bodies were divided into four parts (head, legs, wings, and ovipositor in Petri dishes with PDA medium to evaluate microorganisms associated. Six adult females of A. fraterculus collected in the field were also analyzed in a scanning electron microscope (SEM to identify spores of fungi. Phytopathogenic microorganisms were found in all sectioned parts. Fungal spores were recorded adhered to the body of adult females of A. fraterculus. The main species of fungi found in the body parts of A. fraterculus were Cladosporium spp. (20.2% of the obtained colonies, Botrytis cinerea Pers. (12.9%, Colletotrichum spp. (10.1%, Penicillium spp. (10.1%, Fusarium spp. (7.7%, followed by Rhizopus spp., Trichoderma spp. and Aspergillus spp., suggesting that the insect can serve as a mechanical vector of spores increasing damage in the vineyards.

  6. Male Sexual Behavior and Pheromone Emission Is Enhanced by Exposure to Guava Fruit Volatiles in Anastrepha fraterculus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachmann, Guillermo E.; Segura, Diego F.; Devescovi, Francisco; Juárez, M. Laura; Ruiz, M. Josefina; Vera, M. Teresa; Cladera, Jorge L.; Fernández, Patricia C.

    2015-01-01

    Background Plant chemicals can affect reproductive strategies of tephritid fruit flies by influencing sex pheromone communication and increasing male mating competitiveness. Objective and Methodology We explored whether exposure of Anastrepha fraterculus males to guava fruit volatiles and to a synthetic blend of volatile compounds released by this fruit affects the sexual performance of wild and laboratory flies. By means of bioassays and pheromone collection we investigated the mechanism underlying this phenomenon. Results Guava volatile exposure enhanced male mating success and positively affected male calling behavior and pheromone release in laboratory and wild males. Changes in male behavior appear to be particularly important during the initial phase of the sexual activity period, when most of the mating pairs are formed. Exposure of laboratory males to a subset of guava fruit volatiles enhanced mating success, showing that the response to the fruit might be mimicked artificially. Conclusions Volatiles of guava seem to influence male mating success through an enhancement of chemical and physical signals related to the communication between sexes. This finding has important implications for the management of this pest species through the Sterile Insect Technique. We discuss the possibility of using artificial blends to improve the sexual competitiveness of sterile males. PMID:25923584

  7. Genetic diversity and population structure of Anastrepha striata (Diptera: Tephritidae) in three natural regions of southwestern Colombia using mitochondrial sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo-Franco, Jenny Johana; Velasco-Cuervo, Sandra Marcela; Aguirre-Ramirez, Elkin; González Obando, Ranulfo; Carrejo, Nancy Soraya; Toro-Perea, Nelson

    2017-02-01

    Anastrepha striata is widely distributed across the Americas and is a pest of economically important crops, especially crops of the Myrtaceae family. Insect population structures can be influenced by the presence of physical barriers or characteristics associated with habitat differences. This study evaluated the effect of the Western Andes on the population structure of A. striata. Individuals were collected from Psidium guajava fruits from three natural regions of southwestern Colombia (Pacific Coast, mountainous region and the inter-Andean valley of the Cauca River). Based on a 1318 bp concatenated of the genes Cytochrome Oxidase subunit I (COI) and NADH dehydrogenase subunit 6 (ND6), 14 haplotypes with few changes among them (between 1 and 3) were found. There was only one dominant haplotype in all three regions. No genetic structure associated with the three eco-geographical regions of the study was found. Moreover, the Western Andes are not an effective barrier for the genetic isolation of the populations from the Pacific Coast compared with the inter-Andean valley populations. This genetic homogeneity could be partially due to anthropogenic intervention, which acts as a dispersal agent of infested fruits. Another hypothesis to explain the lack of structure would be the relatively recent arrival of A. striata to the region, as indicated by an analysis of the demographic history, which reveals a process of population expansion. This study represents the first attempt to understand the population genetics of A. striata in Colombia and could contribute to the integral management of this pest.

  8. Percepção química e visual de Anastrepha fraterculus (Diptera, Tephritidae em laboratório Chemical and visual perception of Anastrepha fraterculus (Diptera, Tephritidae in laboratory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia L. F. Gregorio

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available A mosca-das-frutas-sul-americana, Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann, 1830, é uma das principais pragas da fruticultura no Brasil. Durante a alimentação, as larvas fazem galerias nos frutos, alterando o sabor e prejudicando a produção e comercialização dos mesmos. O presente trabalho teve como objetivo estudar fatores envolvidos na escolha do hospedeiro por A. fraterculus. Foram avaliadas as respostas eletroantenográficas de machos e fêmeas a extratos etanólicos de frutos verdes e maduros de pessegueiro - Prunus persica, cultivar Chimarrita (Rosaceae, pitangueira - Eugenia uniflora (Myrtaceae, guabirobeira - Campomanesia xanthocarpa (Myrtaceae e araçazeiro - Psidium cattleianum (Myrtaceae. Foram também observadas as influências da cor (amarela, verde e vermelha e da composição do substrato de oviposição (polpas de araçá, guabiroba, pitanga e pêssego na fecundidade da espécie. As respostas eletroantenográficas de fêmeas foram significativamente distintas para os extratos de guabiroba verde e madura, araçá maduro e pitanga verde. Em antenas de machos, as maiores despolarizações médias foram registradas em resposta aos extratos de guabiroba verde e madura, araçá verde e maduro e pitanga verde. As respostas eletrofisiológicas geradas não diferiram estatisticamente entre os sexos, para todos os tratamentos. A cor do substrato não afetou a oviposição. As fêmeas ovipositaram mais nos substratos contendo polpa de pêssego e de guabiroba, quando comparados aos respectivos controles.The South American fruit fly Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann, 1830 is one of the greatest threats to the fruit growing industry in Brazil. During the feeding process, the larvae build galleries within the fruit, altering the flavor and damaging its production and commercialization. The present work had as its objective to study the factors involved in the choice of the host by A. fraterculus. Electroantennographic responses of the males and

  9. Viabilidad de huevos y modelo de jaula para la cría artificial masiva de Anastrepha fraterculus (Diptera: Tephritidae Viability of eggs and screen cage model for mass artificial rearing of Anastrepha fraterculus (Diptera: Tephritidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana García

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del presente trabajo fue determinar la viabilidad de huevos y el modelo de jaula apropiada para la cría artificial masiva de Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann. Los resultados muestran que el periodo de máxima oviposición ocurre durante los primeros 10 días en jaulas modelo Mediana, lo cual permite obtener el volumen de huevos necesario para alimentar el pie de cría de A. fraterculus en una cría masiva. Considerando que se encontró relación positiva entre el volumen de huevos ovipositados y el porcentaje de eclosión de huevos, en un periodo de 21 días de colecta, este periodo coincide además con los valores de eclosión más altos. Entre los modelos de jaulas evaluadas: Mediana, Grande y Mission; el modelo Mediana mostró los mejores resultados al evaluar el número de ía con un valor promedio de 11,4. La jaula que mostró menores resultados fue el modelo Mission, con un valor promedio de 4,6 huevos/hembra/día. Las jaulas grandes mostraron valores menores a las jaulas Medianas, pero las diferencias fueron no significativas. Los buenos valores registrados en las jaulas Medianas posiblemente se deban a la estructura de la jaula, que presentó la cara interna dividida en muchos compartimientos, lo cual mejora la distribución de las moscas adultas y previene la mortalidad temprana por hacinamiento en la base o en el techo de la jaula.The aim of this study was to determine the viability of eggs and cage model suitable for artificial mass rearing of Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann. The results show that the period of maximum oviposition occurs during the first 10 days in Medium cages which allows to obtain the necessary volume of eggs to feed the foot of rearing of A. fraterculus in a mass rearing. Considering that a positive relationship was found between the volume of eggs oviposited and the hatchability percentage in a period of 21 days of collection, this period coincides with the highest values of hatching. Among the

  10. Development and reproductive biology of the egg-pupal parasite, Fopius arisanus in Anastrepha suspensa, a new tephritid host

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawrence, Pauline O.; Harris, Ernest J.; Bautist, Renato C.

    2000-01-01

    Fopius (=Biosteres) arisanus (Sonan) (=Opius oophilus Fullaway) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) is a solitary egg parasite (parasitoid) that attacks tephritid fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) eggs and first instars (Haramoto 1953, Clausen et al. 1965, Harris and Okamoto 1991). It completes its development within the host's larva and pupa and emerges from the latter as an adult and as such, is an egg-pupal endoparasite. F. arisanus is known to attack at least seven tephritid fruit fly species (Wharton and Gilstrap 1983) and appears to be the only egg-pupal parasite of tephritids in the Western Hemisphere. It is considered to be the most successful of the parasites that attack the Oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) and the Mediterranean fruit fly (Medfly), Ceratitis capitata (Weidmann) in Hawaii (Knipling 1995), resulting in 74-92% of total parasites recovered from both host species (Wong and Ramadan 1987). However, in Malaysia, Palacio et al. (1992) found that F. arisanus was outcompeted by the larval endoparasite, Diachasmimorpha longicaudata (Ashmead) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) in multiple parasitised B. dorsalis. While several larval parasites of tephritids had been cultured successfully in the laboratory (Ramadan 1991) and utilised in inundative release programmes, F. arisanus proved difficult to maintain in culture. In recent years, a laboratory strain of F. arisanus (termed the 'Harris strain') has been established on B. dorsalis (Harris and Okamoto 1991). Efforts are currently in progress to mass rear this strain on the Medfly and other tephritid pests. F. arisanus was first released into Florida from Hawaii in 1974-75 as a biological control agent against the Caribbean fruit fly (Caribfly) Anastrepha suspensa (Loew) (Diptera: Tephritidae) but this was unsuccessful (Baranowski et al. 1993). Interestingly, it was also introduced into Costa Rica from Hawaii and was subsequently reared from puparia of Anastrepha spp. (Wharton et al. 1981), indicating its

  11. Status of the Caribbean fruit fly, Anastrepha suspensa (Loew), sterile insect technique programme in the state of Florida, USA - November 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holler, T.C.; Harris, D.L.; Burns, R.E.

    1999-01-01

    Status of the Caribbean fruit fly, Anastrepha suspensa, Loew, sterile insect technique program in the state of Florida, USA - November 1996. Application of sterilization techniques to Anastrepha suspensa in Florida was conducted as early as 1970 in Key West. In 1988-1990, releases of sterile flies were made in a 20 km 2 urban area in southwestern Florida adjacent to commercial citrus. With the intent to integrate a sterile insect technique system within a fly-free management program for the caribfly, additional tests are being conducted both within a major citrus production area and in an isolated urban location of the mid to lower Florida peninsula. Tests at the former site measures the synergistic effect of augmenting sterile fly releases with parasitoids, whereas the latter studies will define the efficacy of reduced numbers of sterile flies released per acre than is standard in medfly and medfly eradication and suppression programs. Discussed here is the progress of an ongoing project to measure the benefits of SIT as it applies to caribfly export protocols. (author)

  12. Geostatistics and Geographic Information System to Analyze the Spatial Distribution of the Diversity of Anastrepha Species (Diptera: Tephritidae): the Effect of Forest Fragments in an Urban Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, A G; Araujo, M R; Uramoto, K; Walder, J M M; Zucchi, R A

    2017-12-08

    Fruit flies are among the most damaging insect pests of commercial fruit in Brazil. It is important to understand the landscape elements that may favor these flies. In the present study, spatial data from surveys of species of Anastrepha Schiner (Diptera: Tephritidae) in an urban area with forest fragments were analyzed, using geostatistics and Geographic Information System (GIS) to map the diversity of insects and evaluate how the forest fragments drive the spatial patterns. The results indicated a high diversity of species associated with large fragments, and a trend toward lower diversity in the more urbanized area, as the fragment sizes decreased. We concluded that the diversity of Anastrepha species is directly and positively related to large and continuous forest fragments in urbanized areas, and that combining geostatistics and GIS is a promising method for use in insect-pest management and sampling involving fruit flies. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Sexual Competitiveness of Anastrepha ludens (Diptera: Tephritidae) Males Exposed to Citrus aurantium and Citrus paradisi Essential Oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morató, Santiago; Shelly, Todd; Rull, Juan; Aluja, Martin

    2015-04-01

    Males of the Mediterranean fruit fly (Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann)) display increased mating competitiveness following exposure to the odor of certain host and nonhost plants, and this phenomenon has been used in the sterile insect technique to boost the mating success of released, sterile males. Here, we aimed to establish whether males of the Mexican fruit fly (Anastrepha ludens (Loew)) gain a mating advantage when exposed to the aroma of two preferred hosts, grapefruit (Citrus paradisi Macfadyen) and bitter orange (Citrus aurantium L.). Under seminatural conditions, we observed that, in trials using wildish males (from a young laboratory colony started with wild flies) exclusively, exposure to the aroma of bitter orange had no effect on male mating success but exposure to the odor grapefruit oil increased male mating success significantly. In a separate test involving both exposed and nonexposed wildish and mass-reared, sterile males, although wildish males were clearly more competitive than sterile males, exposure to grapefruit oil had no detectable effect on either male type. Exposure to oils had no effect on copulation duration in any of the experiments. We discuss the possibility that the positive effect of grapefruit essential oils on wildish male competitiveness may have been linked to exposure of females to grapefruit as a larval food, which may have imprinted them with grapefruit odors during pupal eclosion and biased their response as adults to odors of their maternal host. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Assessment of Injuries Caused by Anastrepha fraterculus (Wied.) (Diptera: Tephritidae) on the Incidence of Bunch Rot Diseases in Table Grape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machota, R; Bortoli, L C; Cavalcanti, F R; Botton, M; Grützmacher, A D

    2016-08-01

    Anastrepha fraterculus (Wied.) is the main insect pest of table grapes (Vitis vinifera) in the Southern Region of Brazil. In this study, we aimed to investigate the effect of fruit puncturing by adult females and larval infestation by A. fraterculus on the occurrence of bunch rot disease in the grape (cultivar "Itália") by evaluating grapes (a) punctured for oviposition by females of A. fraterculus, sterilized in laboratory with novaluron (40 mg L(-1)) and further spray-inoculated separately with Botrytis cinerea (1 × 10(6) conidia mL(-1)), Glomerella cingulata (1 × 10(6) conidia mL(-1)), and bacteria and yeast that cause sour rot (1 × 10(5) cells mL(-1)), (b) grapes punctured for oviposition by non-sterilized females with pathogen spraying, (c) grapes with mechanical wounds and pathogen spraying, (d) grapes with no wounds and with pathogen spraying, (e) grapes punctured for oviposition by A. fraterculus chemically sterilized in laboratory with novaluron, (f) grapes punctured for oviposition by A. fraterculus non-sterilized in laboratory with novaluron, (g) grapes with mechanical wounds, and (h) grapes with no sterilization or pathogen spraying. Our data indicated that the mechanical and oviposition wounds caused by A. fraterculus increased the percentage of grapes infected by B. cinerea, G. cingulata, and microorganisms of acid rot. The grape puncturing by A. fraterculus and the mechanical wound allows the penetration of B. cinerea and microorganisms leading to acid rot. We conclude that the fruit fly A. fraterculus may facilitate phytopathogens penetration leading to bunch rots in the table grape Itália.

  15. Development of Anastrepha fraterculus (Diptera: Tephritidae) Related to the Phenology of Blueberry, Blackberry, Strawberry Guava, and Surinam Cherry Fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisognin, M; Nava, D E; Diez-Rodríguez, G I; Valgas, R A; Garcia, M S; Krolow, A C R; Antunes, L E C

    2015-02-01

    Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann, 1830) is the main pest of temperate climate orcharding. The study investigated the development of A. fraterculus related to phenological stage of blueberry, blackberry, strawberry guava, and Surinam cherry trees. The phenological stages I (green fruits), II (intermediate ripening stage of fruits), and III (fruits close to harvesting) were determined, and they are from 8th, 10th, and 11th week; 6th, 8th, and 9th week; 8th, 13th, and 16th week; and 5th, 6th, and 7th week after the first flowering of blueberry, blackberry, strawberry guava, and Surinam cherry trees, respectively. We collected fruits from orchards to determine the infestation index using the formula: number of pupa/fruit weight. To investigate the development of A. fraterculus, we determined the following biological parameters: egg-to-adult period, weight of pupae, oviposition period, fecundity, number of pupae, and number of infested fruits. The infestation index for the fruits collected in the field was greater in strawberry guava and Surinam cherry fruits. In the laboratory, the development of A. fraterculus occurred in stage III of blueberry. In blackberry, besides stage III, we also observed the development in stage II, however, at lower infestation. In strawberry guava, the development of A. fraterulus occurred in stages II and III, and the development in both stages was similar. For Surinam cherry, the development occurred in the three phenological stages with similar values for biological parameters. Overall, of the four hosts studied, the strawberry guava and Surinam cherry fruits allowed a better biological development of A. fraterculus, corroborating its preference for fruits native to Brazil. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Effect of cryopreservation on the pre-hatching behavior in the Mexican fruit fly Anastrepha ludens Loew (Diptera, Tephritidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajamohan, Arun; Rinehart, Joseph P; Leopold, Roger A

    2018-02-01

    In a sampling of untreated embryos of the economically important fruit pest species, Anastrepha ludens, the cumulative hatch percentage in the lab was noted to be ∼85%. Approximately 70% of the larvae had eclosed through the posterior pole of the egg. This process is effected by the act of Pole Reversal (PR) of the fully developed pre-hatch larva from the wider anterior to the narrower posterior pole of the egg. Investigation of the effects of cryopreservation and various pretreatments prior to cryostorage on the PR behavior was prompted by the observation of significantly lower proportion of cryopreserved embryos exhibiting the PR behavior. Pretreatments (dechorionation and permeabilization) followed by vitrification resulted in delayed hatching, reflecting a slower embryonic development rate of ∼10 h. A smaller proportion of the treated embryos either eclosed from the anterior end of the egg or did not eclose at all despite complete development and prehatch gnawing activity. In the untreated controls, 24.0% of the embryos eclosed from the anterior pole. After permeabilization and cryopreservation, 83% and 55% (adjusted hatch) of the embryos were noted to hatch this way, respectively. An analysis of the hatch count after the treatments shows that factors contributing to the embryos' inability to properly invert polarity is not solely due to cryopreservation but also due to the pretreatment procedures including dechorionation and permeabilization. In fact, the permeabilization pre-treatment contributed the highest to this phenomenon lending support to the view that chemical toxicity rather than physical effects of cryopreservation play a major role in post-cryopreservation effects. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. Effects of gamma radiation on the ovarian development of the south american fruit fly, Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann, 1830)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mastrangelo, Thiago; Botteon, Victor; Scopel, Wanessa

    2017-01-01

    The South American fruit fly, Anastrepha fraterculus (Wied.) represents 98.5% of the flies captured in commercial apple orchards from Brazil. Looking for environmentally friendly alternatives to suppress this fruit fly pest, researchers from USP and EMBRAPA, along with the Brazilian Association of Apple Producers, created the MOSCASUL Biological Control Center, which intends to apply an Area-Wide Integrated Pest Management Program that integrates the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT). The assurance of sterility of the released flies is a critical assumption of an SIT program, since the unintentional release of thousands of fertile females could cause severe damages to the orchards nearby. Females of A. fraterculus are more radiosensitive than males, but the morphology of the ovaries of the sterile females was not investigated so far. The objective of this study, therefore, was to characterize the morphology of the ovaries of A. fraterculus treated with different doses of gamma radiation. Pupae with 48 h before adult emergence were irradiated with 0 (control), 15, 25, 35, and 45 Gy at the Gammabeam-650® irradiator from CENA/USP. Twelve hours after initial emergence, adults were sorted by sex, and for each radiation dose, 1 day old nonirradiated males were placed with irradiated females of the same age in cages. Adult females were then dissected in a saline solution at 1, 7, and 15 days of age, and the ovaries were examined under stereo microscope. The length, width and area of each ovary were measured from the images made. On the 1 st day after the emergence of the adults, no morphological differences were observed among irradiated and nonirradiated ovaries. On the 7 th day, however, the nonirradiated ovaries showed to be larger than the irradiated ones. Doses of 15 Gy or higher induced complete atrophy of the ovaries and, on the 15 th day, no signs of regeneration of the ovaries were observed. On the last day of observation, the irradiated ovaries presented mean area

  18. Capture of Anastrepha sororcula (Diptera: Tephritidae in McPhail and Jackson traps with food attractant and virgin adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christiane dos Santos Felix

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available This stady evaluated the capture of A. sororcula in the traps baited with the conspecific virgin adults and food attractant in two orchards. The first was the orchard of the Universidade Federal da Grande Dourados (OUFGD and the second, the orchard of the Sindicato Rural de Dourados (OSRD. The capture of A. sororcula in McPhail and Jackson traps was carried out using the corn hydrolysed protein (CHP, control (no flies, virgin males (5, 10 and 15, five virgin females and five virgin couples. The average number of the flies caught in the traps with the corn hydrolysed protein was signifícantly higher than all the other treatments. There was no significant capture of A. sororcula females in the traps baited with the conspecific virgin males, females or the couples.As moscas-das-frutas constituem um grupo de pragas responsáveis por grandes prejuízos econômicos à fruticultura mundial. Anastrepha sororcula Zucchi, é a principal espécie de tefritídeo que ataca a goiaba em Mato Grosso do Sul. O objetivo desta pesquisa foi avaliar a captura de adultos de A. sororcula em armadilhas com atrativo alimentar e adultos virgens, em dois ambientes. Os bioensaios iniciaram-se com a criação de A. sororcula no Laboratório de Insetos Frugívoros da Universidade Federal da Grande Dourados (UFGD. As pesquisas de campo foram desenvolvidas nos pomares da UFGD e do Sindicato Rural de Dourados (SRD-MS. A captura de adultos de A. sororcula em armadilhas McPhail e Jackson foi avaliada para os tratamentos: proteína hidrolisada de milho, testemunha (sem moscas, machos virgens (5, 10 e 15, 5 fêmeas virgens e 5 casais. O número médio de indivíduos capturados nas armadilhas com proteína foi significativamente maior que nos demais tratamentos. O número médio de adultos de A. sororcula, capturado com o tratamento proteína no SRD foi significativamente superior ao do pomar da UFGD. Não ocorreu captura significativa de fêmeas de A. sororcula nas armadilhas com

  19. Effects of gamma radiation on the ovarian development of the south american fruit fly, Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann, 1830)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mastrangelo, Thiago; Botteon, Victor, E-mail: piaui@cena.usp.br, E-mail: victor.botteon@usp.br [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil); Scopel, Wanessa, E-mail: scopelw@usp.br [Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz (ESALQ/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    The South American fruit fly, Anastrepha fraterculus (Wied.) represents 98.5% of the flies captured in commercial apple orchards from Brazil. Looking for environmentally friendly alternatives to suppress this fruit fly pest, researchers from USP and EMBRAPA, along with the Brazilian Association of Apple Producers, created the MOSCASUL Biological Control Center, which intends to apply an Area-Wide Integrated Pest Management Program that integrates the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT). The assurance of sterility of the released flies is a critical assumption of an SIT program, since the unintentional release of thousands of fertile females could cause severe damages to the orchards nearby. Females of A. fraterculus are more radiosensitive than males, but the morphology of the ovaries of the sterile females was not investigated so far. The objective of this study, therefore, was to characterize the morphology of the ovaries of A. fraterculus treated with different doses of gamma radiation. Pupae with 48 h before adult emergence were irradiated with 0 (control), 15, 25, 35, and 45 Gy at the Gammabeam-650® irradiator from CENA/USP. Twelve hours after initial emergence, adults were sorted by sex, and for each radiation dose, 1 day old nonirradiated males were placed with irradiated females of the same age in cages. Adult females were then dissected in a saline solution at 1, 7, and 15 days of age, and the ovaries were examined under stereo microscope. The length, width and area of each ovary were measured from the images made. On the 1{sup st} day after the emergence of the adults, no morphological differences were observed among irradiated and nonirradiated ovaries. On the 7{sup th} day, however, the nonirradiated ovaries showed to be larger than the irradiated ones. Doses of 15 Gy or higher induced complete atrophy of the ovaries and, on the 15{sup th} day, no signs of regeneration of the ovaries were observed. On the last day of observation, the irradiated ovaries

  20. The effects of constant and alternating temperatures on the reproductive potential, life span, and life expectancy of Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann (Dipteria: Tephritidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. CARDOSO

    Full Text Available Ovarian development, oviposition, larval eclosion, ornithine decarboxylase (ODC activity, ovarian, testis and ejaculatory apodeme measurements (length, width, and area, and the number of spermatozoa of Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann were analyzed at alternating (20º/6ºC and 20º/13°C and constant (6°C; 25°C temperatures. Life span and life expectancy were also analyzed for both genders. All the results suggest that temperature, especially alternating temperatures, increase not only male and female reproductive potential but also their life span and life expectancy. These changes can be a powerful strategy triggered by A. fraterculus as a means to survive the stressful temperature conditions found in winter in the apple production region in Brazil, enabling this species to increase its population density and cause apple damage when spring begins.

  1. The effects of constant and alternating temperatures on the reproductive potential, life span, and life expectancy of Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann (Dipteria: Tephritidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CARDOSO V. V.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Ovarian development, oviposition, larval eclosion, ornithine decarboxylase (ODC activity, ovarian, testis and ejaculatory apodeme measurements (length, width, and area, and the number of spermatozoa of Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann were analyzed at alternating (20masculine/6masculineC and 20masculine/13degreesC and constant (6degreesC; 25degreesC temperatures. Life span and life expectancy were also analyzed for both genders. All the results suggest that temperature, especially alternating temperatures, increase not only male and female reproductive potential but also their life span and life expectancy. These changes can be a powerful strategy triggered by A. fraterculus as a means to survive the stressful temperature conditions found in winter in the apple production region in Brazil, enabling this species to increase its population density and cause apple damage when spring begins.

  2. Himenópteros parasitóides de larvas de Anastrepha spp. em frutos de carambola (Averrhoa carambola L. na região de Divinópolis, Minas Gerais, Brasil Himenopterous parasitoids of Anastrepha spp. larvae, in star fruit (Averrhoa carambola L. In divinópolis region, Minas Gerais, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudio Gonçalves Silva

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi conduzido com o objetivo de conhecer os parasitóides de moscas-da-fruta na região de Divinópolis-MG. As pupas foram obtidas pelo método de flutuação, sendo individualizadas em cápsulas de gelatina até a emergência das moscas adultas ou de seus parasitóides. A prevalência total de parasitismo foi de 14,8%. Trichopria anastrepha foi a espécie mais comum, com 44,5%.The objective of this work was to identify the parasitoids of fruit flies in Divinópolis-MG region. The pupae were obtained by the flotation method. They were individually placed in gelatin capsules until the emergency of the adult flies or their parasitoids. The overall prevalence of parasitism was 14,8%. Trichopria anastrepha was the most common specie with a frequency of 44,5%.

  3. Effects of gamma radiation on the sterility and behavioral quality of the caribbean fruit fly, Anastrepha suspensa (Loew (Diptera:Tephritidae Efeitos da radiação gama na esterilização e comportamento da mosca-do-caribe, Anastrepha suspensa (Low (Diptera:Tephritidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.M.M. Walder

    1993-09-01

    Full Text Available Pupae of Anastrepha suspensa (Loew were irradiated 2 days before adult eclosión in an air atmosphere with 15, 20, 25, 30, 50 and 70 Gy of gamma radiation (Co-60. The radiation effects on sterility and other parameters of quality and behavior of males and females of caribfly were established. Males became fully sterile with a dose of 50 Gy and females laid no eggs when exposed to 25 Gy. Radiation had no significant effect on adult eclosion, sex ratio, flight ability and irritability, but female mortality was affected significantly by radiation, showing higher survival rates in low dosage treatments. The mating behavior of the males was reduced significantly by increasing the radiation doses.Pupas de Anastrepha suspensa (Loew foram irradiadas dois dias antes da emergência dos adultos em atmosfera de ar com as doses de 15, 20, 25, 30, 50 e 70 Gy de radiação gama (Co-60. Foram avaliados os efeitos da radiação sobre a esterilidade e outros parâmetros de qualidade e comportamento de machos e fêmeas de mosca-do-caribe. Machos tornaram-se totalmente estéreis com uma dose de 50 Gy e as fêmeas não ovipositaram quando expostas a 25 Gy. A radiação não teve efeito significativo sobre a taxa de emergência de adultos, na razão sexual, na habilidade de vôo e na irritabilidade desses insetos. Somente a mortalidade das fêmeas foi afetada significativamente pela radiação, causando unia maior sobrevivência nas dosagens mais baixas. A atividade de acasalamento dos machos foi reduzida significativamente com o incremento da dosagem de radiação.

  4. OCORRÊNCIA E ÍNDICE DE INFESTAÇÃO DE Anastrepha spp. (DIP., TEPHRITIADE EM Pouteria gardneriana Radlk. E Pouteria ramiflora (Mart. Radlk. (SAPOTACEAE, NOS CERRADOS DE GOIÁS OCCURENCE AND INFESTATION INDEXES OF Anastrepha spp. (DIP., TEPHIRITIDAE IN Pouteria gardneriana RADLK AND Pouteria ramjflora (MART. RADLK. (SAPOTACEAE IN “CERRADOS” OF THE STATE OF GOIÁS, BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Augusto Canal Daza

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Dentre as frutíferas nativas dos cerrados goianos destacam-se as do gênero Pouteria, com ampla distribuição nas regiões tropicais e subtropicais de todo o mundo, sendo a P. ramiflora (curriola a mais comum. Pouteria gardneriana (guapeva ocorre geralmente nos solos mais úmidos, sempre agrupada na faixa de separação cerrados-veredas. Dos 25 municípios do Estado de Goiás amostrados, em nove foi registrada a ocorrência dessas duas espécies de Pouteria, cujos frutos são bastante suscetíveis ao ataque de moscas-das-frutas. Dos frutos de guapeva e curriola, emergiram adultos de Anastrepha (99,82% e apenas alguns exemplares de Ceratitis capitata (0,18%. As espécies coletadas em P. gardneriana foram: Anastrepha bistrigata, A. fraterculus, A. leptozona, A. serpentina, A. zenildae, A. zernyi e C. capitata. De P. ramiflora foram obtidas: A. fraterculus, A. leptozona, A. serpentina e A. zernyi. Dos pupários de Anastrepha

  5. CONTROL DE Anastrepha serpentina (Wiedemann Y CALIDAD DE LOS FRUTOS DE ZAPOTE MAMEY Pouteria sapota (Jacq Moore & Stearn TRATADOS CON AIRE CALIENTE FORZADO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Ariza-Flores

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Los objetivos de este estudio fue evaluar la efectividad de tratamientos térmicos con aire caliente forzado húmedo en el combate de la mosca de los zapotes (Anastrepha serpentina Wiedemann "in vivo" y determinar la tolerancia a las condiciones aplicadas de frutos de zapote mamey. Los frutos no fueron dañados internamente por el tratamiento térmico cuando fueron expuestos a 43 °C·120 min-1. Los frutos alcanzaron su madurez de consumo a los ocho días a 25 °C, presentaron cambios rápidamente en color y perdieron más peso; mientras que, a 10 °C se mantuvieron con mayor firmeza, prolongaron su vida de anaquel y mostraron mayores daños en los haces vasculares. Con respecto a la mortandad de los huevos y larvas de mosca de la fruta A. serpentina, éstas fueron del 100 % con la atmósfera controlada (CA de aire caliente a 43 °C·120 min-1, igualmente los frutos no fueron dañados por la aplicación de la CA; las larvas murieron fácilmente por el calor a 40 °C·120 min-1, mientras que los huevos fueron más resistentes ya que ocurrieron larvas emergidas a 25 °C para los ocho días de almacenados.

  6. Quarantine cold treatments for Ceratitis capitata and Anastrepha fraterculus (Diptera: Tephritidae) for citrus in Argentina: conclusions after 10 years of research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willink, Eduardo; Gastaminza, Gerardo; Salvatore, Analia; Gramajo, M. Cecilia; Acenolaza, Mariana; Avila, Rosana; Favre, Paola

    2006-01-01

    Argentina has quarantine restrictions in some markets due to the presence of two quarantine fruit fly pests: Ceratitis capitata and Anastrepha fraterculus. One alternative is the use of cold quarantine treatments during transport of the commodities. Since 1996, the Estacion Experimental Agroindustrial Obispo Colombres (EEAOC), Tucuman, Argentina, has developed different cold quarantine treatments for citrus. In the present work we present all the data the EEAOC generated in the last ten years in order to facilitate the development of such cold treatments. Fruit flies were obtained from the colonies reared at EEAOC. Four citrus species were analyzed: lemon, grapefruit, orange and tangerines. Different varieties were analyzed for each fruit species. Sensitivity trials aiming at determine the most tolerant stage as well as to asses if there is any influence of varieties on cold tolerance were performed. Finally we compared the tolerance to cold between the two species. Sensitivity trials showed that mature larvae (L3) are the most tolerant stage for both fruit fly species. There was no effect of the varieties and the two fruit fly species were equally sensible to cold. Our results provide strong evidence in favor of concluding that any cold treatment developed for C. capitata is effective for A. fraterculus. (author)

  7. Comparison of Anastrepha ludens (Diptera: Tephritidae) Bisexual and Genetic Sexing (Tapachula-7) Strains: Effect of Hypoxia, Fly Density, Chilling Period, and Food Type on Fly Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arredondo, José; Ruiz, Lía; Hernández, Emilio; Montoya, Pablo; Díaz-Fleischer, Francisco

    2016-04-01

    The use of genetic sexing strain (GSS) insects in the sterile insect technique (SIT) makes necessary the revision of quality parameters of some stressful steps used during the packing process for aerial release because of possible differences in tolerance between fly strains. Here, we determined the effect of three periods of hypoxia (12, 24, and 36 h at pupal stage), three cage densities (1.0, 1.3, and 1.5 flies/cm2), two different foods (protein/sugar (1/24) and Mubarqui), and three chilling times (20 min [control], 90, and 180 min) on the quality parameters of flies of two Anastrepha ludens (Loew) strains (bisexual and GSS Tapachula-7). In general, the response to stressful conditions of both fly strains was qualitatively equivalent but quantitatively different, as flies of both strains responded equally to the stressful factors; however, flies of Tapachula-7 exhibited lower quality parameters than the control flies. Thus, hypoxia affected the flying ability but not the emergence or longevity of flies. The food type affected the adult weight; protein/sugar produced heavier flies that also survived longer and had a greater mating propensity. Flies under the lowest density were better fliers that those at the other two densities. Increasing chilling time reduced flight ability but not longevity or mating propensity. The implications of these findings for the use of A. ludens GSS in SIT programs are discussed herein.

  8. Analysis of host preference and geographical distribution of Anastrepha suspensa (Diptera: Tephritidae) using phylogenetic analyses of mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I DNA sequence data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boykin, L M; Shatters, R G; Hall, D G; Burns, R E; Franqui, R A

    2006-10-01

    Anastrepha suspensa (Loew) is an economically important pest, restricted to the Greater Antilles and southern Florida. It infests a wide variety of hosts and is of quarantine importance in citrus, a multi-million dollar industry in Florida. The observed recent increase in citrus infested with A. suspensa in Florida has raised questions regarding host-specificity of certain populations and genetic diversity of the pest throughout its geographical distribution. Cytochrome oxidase I (COI) DNA sequence data was used to characterize the genetic diversity of A. suspensa from Florida and Caribbean populations reared from different host plants. Maximum likelihood and Bayesian phylogenetic methods were used to analyse COI data. Sequence variation among mitochondrial COI genes from 107 A. suspensa samples collected throughout Florida and the Caribbean ranged between 0 and 10% and placed all A. suspensa as a monophyletic group that united all A. suspensa in a clade sister to a Central American group of the A. fraterculus paraphyletic species complex. The most likely tree of the COI locus indicated that COI sequence variation was too low to provide resolution at the subspecies level, therefore monophyletic groups based on host-plant use, geography (Florida, Jamaica, Cayman Islands, Puerto Rico or Dominican Republic) or population sampled are not supported. This result indicates that either no population segregation has occurred based on these biological or geographical distinctions and that this is a generalist, polyphagous invasive genotype. Alternatively, if populations are distinct, the segregation event was more recent than can be distinguished based on COI sequence variation.

  9. Short-term anoxic conditioning hormesis boosts antioxidant defenses, lowers oxidative damage following irradiation and enhances male sexual performance in the Caribbean fruit fly, Anastrepha suspensa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez-Martinez, Giancarlo; Hahn, Daniel A [Department of Entomology and Nematology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States)

    2013-01-15

    Most organisms are repeatedly exposed to oxidative stress from multiple sources throughout their lifetimes, potentially affecting all aspects of organismal performance. Here we test whether exposure to a conditioning bout of anoxia early in adulthood induces a hormetic response that confers resistance to oxidative stress and enhances male sexual performance later in life in the Caribbean fruit fly, Anastrepha suspensa. Anoxic conditioning of adults prior to emergence led to an increase in antioxidant capacity driven by mitochondrial superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase. When exposed to gamma irradiation, a strong oxidative stressor, males that received anoxic conditioning had lower lipid and protein oxidative damage at sexual maturity. Anoxia conditioning led to greater male sexual competitiveness compared with unconditioned males when both were irradiated, although there was no effect of anoxia conditioning on mating competitiveness in unirradiated males. Anoxia also led to higher adult emergence rates and greater flight ability in irradiation-stressed flies while preserving steriity. Thus, hormetic treatments that increased antioxidant enzyme activity also improved male performance after irradiation, suggesting that antioxidant enzymes play an important role in mediating the relationship between oxidative stress and sexual selection. Furthermore, our work has important applied implications for the sterile insect technique (SIT), an environmentally friendly method of insect pest control where males are sterilized by irradiation and deployed in the field to disrupt pest populations via mating. We suggest that hormetic treatments specifically designed to enhance antioxidant activity may produce more sexually competitive sterile males, thus improving the efficacy and economy of SIT programs. (author)

  10. Isolation of entomopathogenic nematodes in an apple orchard in Southern Brazil and its virulence to Anastrepha fraterculus (Diptera: Tephritidae) larvae, under laboratory conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foelkel, E; Voss, M; Monteiro, L B; Nishimura, G

    2017-03-01

    Entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs) are a promising alternative to integrated control in many fruit pests. Few studies were made on the relationship of Anastrepha fraterculus natural population with native EPNs population and other biotic and abiotic factors. The aim of this work was to verify the occurrence of endemic nematodes in an apple orchard, concerning environmental conditions and technical procedure, and access isolates virulence to A. fraterculus larvae. The experiment was conducted during a year taking monthly soil samples from an apple orchard, with and without fallen fruits just above the soil. Samples were baited with Tenebrium molitor and A. fraterculus larvae in laboratory. Canopy and fallen fruits were sampled to access the pest infestation. Seventy three EPN isolates were captured, in 23.2% soil samples, more with T. molitor than with A. fraterculus baits. From the 20 isolates tested against A. fraterculus, only five were pathogenic, and they were identified as Oscheius sp. The nematodes were captured during all seasons in a similar frequency. Soil and weather conditions, presence of fruit over the orchard soil, and A. fraterculus pupae in the fruits had no significant influence on the capture. As a conclusion, nematodes of the genera Oscheius are found in an apple orchard of Porto Amazonas constantly along the year, independently of fluctuations in A. fraterculus population, climate conditions and presence of fruit over the soil. Some of the isolates are pathogenic to A. fraterculus.

  11. Quarantine cold treatments for Ceratitis capitata and Anastrepha fraterculus (Diptera: Tephritidae) for citrus in Argentina: conclusions after 10 years of research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willink, Eduardo; Gastaminza, Gerardo; Salvatore, Analia; Gramajo, M. Cecilia; Acenolaza, Mariana; Avila, Rosana; Favre, Paola, E-mail: ewillink@eeaoc.org.a [Estacion Experimental Agroindustrial Obispo Colombres (EEAOC), Tucuman (Argentina)

    2006-07-01

    Argentina has quarantine restrictions in some markets due to the presence of two quarantine fruit fly pests: Ceratitis capitata and Anastrepha fraterculus. One alternative is the use of cold quarantine treatments during transport of the commodities. Since 1996, the Estacion Experimental Agroindustrial Obispo Colombres (EEAOC), Tucuman, Argentina, has developed different cold quarantine treatments for citrus. In the present work we present all the data the EEAOC generated in the last ten years in order to facilitate the development of such cold treatments. Fruit flies were obtained from the colonies reared at EEAOC. Four citrus species were analyzed: lemon, grapefruit, orange and tangerines. Different varieties were analyzed for each fruit species. Sensitivity trials aiming at determine the most tolerant stage as well as to asses if there is any influence of varieties on cold tolerance were performed. Finally we compared the tolerance to cold between the two species. Sensitivity trials showed that mature larvae (L3) are the most tolerant stage for both fruit fly species. There was no effect of the varieties and the two fruit fly species were equally sensible to cold. Our results provide strong evidence in favor of concluding that any cold treatment developed for C. capitata is effective for A. fraterculus. (author)

  12. Mixture-amount design and response surface modeling to assess the effects of flavonoids and phenolic acids on developmental performance of Anastrepha ludens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascacio-Villafán, Carlos; Lapointe, Stephen; Williams, Trevor; Sivinski, John; Niedz, Randall; Aluja, Martín

    2014-03-01

    Host plant resistance to insect attack and expansion of insect pests to novel hosts may to be modulated by phenolic compounds in host plants. Many studies have evaluated the role of phenolics in host plant resistance and the effect of phenolics on herbivore performance, but few studies have tested the joint effect of several compounds. Here, we used mixture-amount experimental design and response surface modeling to study the effects of a variety of phenolic compounds on the development and survival of Mexican fruit fly (Anastrepha ludens [Loew]), a notorious polyphagous pest of fruit crops that is likely to expand its distribution range under climate change scenarios. (+)- Catechin, phloridzin, rutin, chlorogenic acid, and p-coumaric acid were added individually or in mixtures at different concentrations to a laboratory diet used to rear individuals of A. ludens. No effect was observed with any mixture or concentration on percent pupation, pupal weight, adult emergence, or survival from neonate larvae to adults. Larval weight, larval and pupal developmental time, and the prevalence of adult deformities were affected by particular mixtures and concentrations of the compounds tested. We suggest that some combinations/concentrations of phenolic compounds could contribute to the management of A. ludens. We also highlight the importance of testing mixtures of plant secondary compounds when exploring their effects upon insect herbivore performance, and we show that mixture-amount design is a useful tool for this type of experiments.

  13. Acoustic courtship songs in males of the fruit fly Anastrepha ludens (Diptera: Tephritidae associated with geography, mass rearing and courtship success

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.D Briceño

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The Sterile Insect Technique (SIT has been used successfully to control or eradicate fruit flies. The commonly observed inferiority of mass-reared males, compared with wild males, when they are paired with wild females, is apparently due to their inadequate courtship. Anastrepha ludens males produce two types of wing vibration during courtship and mating, the "calling sound" and the "premating or precopulatory sound". There were clear differences in the calling songs between successful and unsuccessful courtships in sterile (irradiated and fertile Mexican flies. Among sterile flies, successful males produce longer buzzes, shorter interpulses and a higher power spectrum in the signal. Fertile flies showed the same trend. For mating songs a significant difference occurred in two parameters: power spectrum between sterile and fertile flies with respect to the type of song, and the signal duration and intensity were greater in non-irradiated flies. Calling songs of wild flies compared with laboratory grown flies from Mexico had shorter interpulses, longer pulses, and a greater power spectrum. However, in the case of premating songs, the only difference was in the intensity, which was significantly greater in wild males. An unexpected result was not observing pulses during pheromone deposition in wild males from Costa Rica. Comparing the premating songs of wild flies from Costa Rica and Mexico, no significant differences were observed in the duration, and the intensity of the signal was slightly greater in flies from Mexico. Rev. Biol. Trop. 57 (Suppl. 1: 257-265. Epub 2009 November 30.La técnica estéril del insecto (SIT se ha utilizado con éxito para controlar o para suprimir las moscas de fruta y su impacto en los cultivos. La inferioridad comúnmente observada de machos criados masivamente, comparada con los machos silvestres, cuando se aparean con las hembras silvestres es al parecer debido a su inadecuado cortejo. Los machos de Anastrepha

  14. Sexual competitiveness and compatibility between mass-reared sterile flies and wild populations of Anastrepha Ludens (Diptera: Tephritidae) from different regions in Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orozco-Davila, D.; Hernandez, R.; Meza, S.; Dominguez, J.

    2007-01-01

    The mass-reared colony of Anastrepha ludens (Loew) currently used in Mexico for suppression of the Mexican fruit fly has been in use for over 10 years. Sterile flies are released into a wide range of environmental conditions as part of an integrated area-wide approach to suppress diverse populations of this pest in the Mexican Republic. This paper assesses the performance of the sterile flies interacting with wild populations from the different environments. We investigated the sexual compatibility and competitiveness of the sterile flies when competing with wild populations from 6 representatives Mexican states: Nuevo Leon, Tamaulipas, Sinaloa, Nayarit, Michoacan, and Chiapas. Results show that the males of the wild populations differed in the time to the onset and peak of sexual activity. Nevertheless, the index of sexual isolation (ISI) reflected sexual compatibility between the populations and the mass-reared strain, indicating that the sterile individuals mate satisfactorily with the wild populations from the 6 states. The male relative performance index (MRPI) showed that the sterile male is as effective in copulating as the wild males. The female relative performance index (FRPI) reflected a general tendency for wild females to copulate in greater proportion than the sterile females, except for the strains from Tamaulipas and Chiapas. In general, the lower participation of the sterile females in copulation increases the possibilities of sterile males to mate with wild females. The relative sterility index (RSI) showed that the acceptance by wild females of the sterile males (25-55%) was similar to that of wild males. Females of the Chiapas strain showed the lowest acceptance of sterile males. Finally, the results obtained in the Fried test (which measures induced sterility in eggs) showed a competitiveness coefficient ranging from 0.2 to 0.5. This suggests that sterile males successfully compete and are compatible with flies from different geographic origins

  15. Packing and Postirradiation Handling of the Anastrepha ludens (Diptera: Tephritidae) Tapachula-7 Genetic Sexing Strain: Combined Effects of Hypoxia, Pupal Size, and Temperature on Adult Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arredondo, José; Ruiz, Lia; Montoya, Pablo; Díaz-Fleischer, Francisco

    2018-04-02

    The production of genetic sexing strains (GSS) of tephritid flies for sterile insect technique (SIT) programs convey the need to determine new conditions for packing and shipment since these flies are more susceptible to stressors than standard bisexual strains. We studied the effect of hypoxia, pupae size, and temperature on the new GSS Tapachula-7 of Anastrepha ludens flies (Diptera: Tephritidae). In one experiment, we tested the interaction size hypoxia using three pupae sizes, 6 (11.6 ± 1.1 mg), 7 (15.3 ± 1.5 mg), and 8 (17.9 ± 1.3 mg) (95% of produced pupae exhibit these categories of size), and four hypoxia periods, 12, 24, 36, 48 h and a control. In a second experiment, we tested two periods of hypoxia (24 and 48 h) and four temperatures: 15, 20, 25, and 30°C and a control (without hypoxia at laboratory temperature). Our results showed that the emergence and percent of fliers from the pupae exposed to hypoxia were adversely affected; however, emergence was higher in pupae of size 7. Treatment for 12 and 24 h hypoxia led to a higher number of fliers. In the case of the interaction of hypoxia and temperature, it was observed that those flies that emerged from the pupae exposed to hypoxia at 15 and 20°C exhibited quality control parameters similar to those that were not exposed to hypoxia. We discuss our results on the basis of the metabolic response to these factors and its application in the SIT programs.

  16. SISTEMA DE CROMOSSOMOS SEXUAIS MÚLTIPLOS X1X1X2X2/X1X2Y NA MOSCA-DAS-FRUTAS Anastrepha sororcula (DIPTERA: TEPHRITIDAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inês Regina de Araújo Moura Cunha

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Sistemas de cromossomos sexuais simples estão difundidos entre os Tephritidae do gênero Anastrepha. Espécies deste gênero apresentam enorme importância pelo impacto que causam em frutíferas cultivadas, sobretudo no nordeste do Brasil. Análises citogenéticas desenvolvidas em Anastrepha sororcula, através da análise da estrutura cariotípica e bandamento C revelaram a presença de um sistema de cromossomos sexuais múltiplos do tipo X1X1X2X2/X1X2Y nesta espécie. Enquanto as fêmeas apresentam um cariótipo homomórfico com 2n=12, os machos possuem 2n=11, onde se destaca um grande cromossomo Y despareado. O nível de divergência cariotípica da espécie A. sororcula do nordeste, com a presença de um sistema de cromossomos sexuais múltiplos, em relação às regiões central e sudeste do Brasil, podem indicar a ocorrência de impedimentos reprodutivos entre os exemplares das duas áreas e que possivelmente, como outros exemplos que existem neste gênero, A. sororcula constitua um complexo de espécies ainda não inteiramente definido. Palavras-chave: Alossomos, peste agrícola, citogenética de insetos, heterocromatina. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18561/2179-5746/biotaamazonia.v4n2p1-4

  17. MOSCAS-DAS-FRUTAS (DIPTERA: TEPHRITIDAE EM POMARES DA ÁREA URBANA NO NORTE DE MINAS GERAIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CLARICE DINIZ ALVARENGA

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim this work was know the species of fruit fly and host plants in orchards in the urban area in the north of Minas Gerais. Were selected 10 orchards with wide variety of fruit species, which were distributed in equidistant way in the urban area of Janaúba, MG. Weekly, were collected systematically fruit flies through trap type McPhail and ripe fruit and in ripening one, on those orchards. Were collected 7.016 tephritid obtained from trap (5.226 and fruit (1.790, from which 1.044 belonged to genus Anastrepha and 5.972 were Ceratitis capitata. The specimens number of C. capitata (85.1% was around six times superior to Anastrepha spp. (14.9%, demonstrating the preference of this species for urban orchards. Eight species of Anastrepha occur in urban orchards of Janaúba, MG. Ceratitis capitata was found infesting 10 species of host fruits, being the main S. purpurea and guava. In fruits were collected three species of Anastrepha (A. obliqua, A. sororcula and A. zenildae which were associated with five species of fruit (Malpighia glabra L, Psidium guayava L, S. dulcis, S. purpurea and S. tuberosa. The predominant species of Anastrepha was A. obliqua, and S. tuberosa and S. purpurea being the main hosts of this species in the urban area of Janaúba, MG.

  18. Efeito de terra de diatomáceas e óleo essencial de citronela, Cymbopogon nardus (L.) Rendle, sobre a incidência de mosca-das-frutas, Anastrepha fraterculus (Diptera: Tephritidae), em cultivares de ameixeira em sistema orgânico.

    OpenAIRE

    Gonçalves, Paulo Antonio de Souza; Santos, Janaína Pereira dos; Nesi, Cristiano Nunes

    2007-01-01

    A mosca-das-frutas, Anastrepha fraterculus (Diptera: Tephritidae) é considerada uma das principais pragas no sistema de produção orgânica de fruteiras temperadas. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar produtos alternativos sobre a incidência deste inseto em cultivares de ameixeira em sistema orgânico. A pesquisa foi conduzida na Epagri/Estação Experimental de Ituporanga de outubro a janeiro de 2006/2007. Os tratamentos foram (1) terra de diatomáceas 1% associada a óleo essencial de citronela,...

  19. FRUIT FLIES (DIPTERA: TEPHRITIDAE AND THEIR PARASITOIDS ASSOCIATED WITH DIFFERENT HOG PLUM GENOTYPES IN TERESINA, PIAUÍ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LEONARDO DA SILVA SOUSA

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The aim of this work was to identify and quantify the infestation of fruit fly species and their parasitoids, associated with 20 hog plum genotypes (Spondias mombin L. in a commercial orchard in Teresina, Piauí, Brazil. The survey was conducted by fruit sampling and monitoring through traps stocked with bait food, in the period from January to December 2012. Overall, 6560 fruits were collected (79.58 kg, resulting in 23059 pupae, of which 10080 fruit flies of the genus Anastrepha and 4984 braconid parasitoids emerged. Anastrepha obliqua species was the predominant with 99.92%. F16P13 and F11P10 genotypes had the highest infestation indexes and F15P11 and F04P01 genotypes, the lowest. The main parasitoids collected were Opius bellus (77.65%, Doryctobracon areolatus (19.88% and Utetes anastrephae (2.47%. The average parasitism rate among genotypes was of 30.46%. In traps, a total of 1434 fruit flies were collected, whose species were: A. obliqua (97.6%, A. serpentina (1.4%, A. fraterculus (0.4%, A. striata (0.4%, A. dissimilis (0.1%, A. pseudoparallela (0.1%. Anastrepha obliqua species was predominant in the area, based on faunistic analysis. The infestation index in the orchard was relevant for five months (January-May, coinciding with the period of availability of hog plum fruits, reaching the highest peak in March (2.86 FAT. There was a significant negative correlation between number of fruit flies in the orchard and the average air temperature, and a significant positive correlation with rainfall and relative humidity. However, the main factor that influenced the observed infestation index in the hog plum orchard was fruit availability.

  20. Hymenopteran parasitoids associated with frugivorous larvae in a Brazilian caatinga-cerrado ecotone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Souza, A R; Lopes-Mielezrski, G N; Lopes, E N; Querino, R B; Corsato, C D A; Giustolin, T A; Zucchi, R A

    2012-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate native species of parasitoids of frugivorous larvae and their associations with host plants in commercial guava orchards and in typical native dry forests of a caatinga-cerrado ecotone in the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. Nine species of parasitoids were associated with larvae of Anastrepha (Tephritidae) and Neosilba (Lonchaeidae) in fruit of Psidium guajava L. (Myrtaceae), Ziziphus joazeiro Mart. (Rhamnaceae), Spondias tuberosa Arruda (Anacardiaceae), Spondias dulcis Forst. (Anacardiaceae), Syzygium cumini (L.) Skeels (Myrtaceae), and Randia armata (Sw.) DC. (Rubiaceae). Doryctobracon areolatus was the most abundant species, obtained from puparia of Anastrepha zenildae, An. sororcula, An. fraterculus, An. obliqua, and An. turpiniae. This is the first report of Asobara obliqua in Brazil and of As. anastrephae and Tropideucoila weldi in dry forests of Minas Gerais State. The number of species of parasitoids was higher in areas with greater diversity of cultivated species and lower pesticide use. The forest fragments adjacent to the orchards served as shelter for parasitoids of frugivorous larvae.

  1. Cordia dichotomoa Forst. f Syn. C. obliqua Willd. (English: Sebesten ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ropes, cordage and paper pulp. The fruit is an astringent and is used in affections o.f urinary passages, diseases o.llllngs and spleen. The decoction of bark is used infevers. The kernels are used in treating ring-worm. The leaves are used in treating ulcers and headache. The plant is used as an antidote to snake-bite.

  2. Review of existing species of fruit flies in Ecuador

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tigrero, Juan

    1998-01-01

    This study was carried out since 1990 to 1997. The goal was to figure out different species of fruit fly that inhabit in Ecuador. For the identification we put special emphasis in the female genitalia. We recommend to do more research into this subject, because of the few studies done in our country and the importance of fruit cultivation. We mention 32 genus in the family Tephritidae in Ecuador, including the introduced genus Ceratitis. Into Toxotrypaninae are pointing out the presence of one specie of the Toxotrypana genus and 31 species of the Anastrepha genus, detailing brilly the 27 species most common. General notions about taxonomic bases are mentioned in order to identify species of the Anastrepha Schiner, pointing out certain fenotipic characteristics that prove variability among the ecuadorian's population, mainly A. fraterculus, A. distincta, A. obliqua, A. striata, and others. (The author)

  3. Tephritids in fruit plantations in Costa Rica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camacho V, H [Universidad de Costa Rica Escuela de Biologia, San Jose (Costa Rica)

    2005-07-01

    Full text: The diversity of tephritids captured in fruit orchards in Costa Rica during four years (2001- 2004) with Multilure{sup RM} Traps is presented. These were baited with different attractants (Torula, Nu-Lure and several synthetic mixtures) in a project to determine their capacity of attraction, in mixed plantations of coffee and citrus in the Grecia Canton (year 2001) and in the Corralar District (2002 and 2004); in a mango plantation in the Esparza Canton (2001 and 2003), in a guava orchard in Pocora District (2002 and 2004) and in a citrus plantation in the San Carlos Canton, (2003). In the Grecia Canton 4,545 fruit flies were captured: 3837 (84.42%) medflies, 634 (13,94%) Anastrepha ludens, 49 (1,07%) A. striata, 29 (0.06%) A. fraterculus. In Esparza Canton (2001) 2239 tephritids were captured: 1107 (49,44%) Medflies, 875 (39,07%) A. obliqua, 156 (6,96%) A. striata, 73 (3,26%) A. serpentina and 1 (0.04%) A. ludens. In Esparza (2003) 792 tephritids were captured: 518 (65.40%) medflies, 216 (27,27%) A. obliqua, 15 (1.89%) A. striata, 18 (2.27%) A. serpentina and 24 (3.03%) Hexachaeta obscura. In Corralar District (2002) 3873 tephritids were captured: 2323 (59.99%) medflies, 1416 (36.56%) A. ludens, 20 (0.51%) A. obliqua and 114 (2.94%) A. striata. In the same place (Corralar - 2004) 533 tephritids were captured: 270 (50.65%) medflies, 118 (22.13%) A. ludens, 19 (3.56%) A. obliqua, 5 (0.93%) A. striata, 105 (19.69%) of the genus Molynocoelya spp., 14 (2.62%) Paroxyna spp. and 2 (0.37%) Tetreuareta spp. In Pocora District (2002) 1542 tephritids were captured: 1526 (98.96%) A. striata, 3 (0.19%) A. obliqua, 6 (0.38%) A. fraterculus, 1 (0.064%) A. zuelianiae, 2 (0.12%) Pesudocrotaenia spp. and 1 (0.064%) Pyrgotoides spp. In the same place (2004) 9250 tephritidis was captured: 8071 (87.25%) A. striata, 935(10.10%) A. obliqua, 235 (2.54%) medflies, 6 (0.06%) A. serpentina, 2 (0.02%) A. cyclayae and 1 (0.01%) Hexachaeta obscura. In a citrus plantation in the San

  4. Ocorrência de moscas-das-frutas (Diptera: Tephritidae em mangueiras (Mangifera indica L. em Boa Vista, Roraima = The occurrence of fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae in mango (Mangifera indica L. in Boa Vista, Roraima

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Bezerra Lima

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Um estudo foi conduzido no período de junho de 2007 a janeiro de 2008, em pomares comerciais de manga das variedades: Tommy Atkins, Haden e Palmer sendo 3 ha de cada cultivar, localizado na região do Bom Intento no Município de Boa Vista. Os espécimes de moscas-das-frutas foram coletados, por meio de armadilhas, confeccionadas com garrafas pet, que foram penduradas na copa das árvores a 1,60 m de altura. Como atrativo alimentar foi utilizado 200 mL de suco de maracujá a 30%. Foram utilizadas nove armadilhas, sendo uma armadilha por hectare. Semanalmente as armadilhas eram examinadas, ocasião em que se substituía o atrativo e os insetos capturados retirados e colocados em frascos de vidro devidamente etiquetados e transportados ao Laboratório de Entomologia do Centro de Ciências Agrárias da Universidade Federal de Roraima. As identificações dos espécimes foram feitas no Instituto Nacional de Pesquisa da Amazônia - INPA. No período de oito meses foram coletados 24 espécimes adultos do gênero Anastrepha (nove fêmeas e 15 machos. Quatro espécies foram identificadas: A. serpentina, A. striata, A. obliqua e A. turpinae. A maior frequência foi A. serpentina (44,44%, seguida de A. striata e A. obliqua ambas com 22,22% e A. turpinae com 11,11%. Os meses de maior ocorrência de Anastrepha spp. foram junho, julho e agosto. Este é o primeiro registro da espécie Anastrepha turpinae Stone, 1942, em Roraima. The study was done during th period of June 2007 to January of 2008, in commercial mango orchards having: 3 ha of cv. Tommy Atkins, 3 ha of cv. Haden. and 3 ha of cv. Palmer, located at Bom Intento in the municipal district of Boa Vista - RR. The specimens of fruit flies were collected, by trapping, made with transparent bottles pet, which were hung in the cup of the trees at 1.60 m of height. 200 mL of passion fruit juice (30% was used as an attractant feed; 9 traps were used, being one trap for hectare. Weekly The traps were

  5. Disinfestation of mangoes by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bustos R, M.E.

    1992-05-01

    The mango is a fruit-bearing very important in the mexican economy. Mexico is between the first positions of the world like country producing with an average export volume of 40,000 annual tons in the last years. For this reason it was decided to make this investigation, which was developed according to the investigation protocols proposed by the Agricultural Research Service of the USA (ARS - US DOA). The objective is to account with the technical and scientific necessary bases to propose to the US DOA the regulation of the irradiation process like quarantine treatment for Mexican export mango. The goals are: to determine in the laboratory the minimum dose (Dmin.) to inhibit the emergency of adults of the species of the fruit flies of more importance for Mexico. To confirm the least radiation dose Dmin. for quarantine treatment based on the safety value Probit-9. To evaluate the mango quality irradiated to 2 and 2.5 times the Dmin. proposal for quarantine treatment. According to information provided by the General Direction of Vegetable Sanity, it was determined that the fly species of the fruit of more economic importance for Mexico are of the genus Anastrepha ludens, Anastrepha serpentina, Anastrepha obliqua and Ceratitis capitata. (Author)

  6. Disinfestation of mangoes by irradiation; Desinfestacion de mango por irradiacion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bustos R, M E

    1992-05-15

    The mango is a fruit-bearing very important in the mexican economy. Mexico is between the first positions of the world like country producing with an average export volume of 40,000 annual tons in the last years. For this reason it was decided to make this investigation, which was developed according to the investigation protocols proposed by the Agricultural Research Service of the USA (ARS - US DOA). The objective is to account with the technical and scientific necessary bases to propose to the US DOA the regulation of the irradiation process like quarantine treatment for Mexican export mango. The goals are: to determine in the laboratory the minimum dose (Dmin.) to inhibit the emergency of adults of the species of the fruit flies of more importance for Mexico. To confirm the least radiation dose Dmin. for quarantine treatment based on the safety value Probit-9. To evaluate the mango quality irradiated to 2 and 2.5 times the Dmin. proposal for quarantine treatment. According to information provided by the General Direction of Vegetable Sanity, it was determined that the fly species of the fruit of more economic importance for Mexico are of the genus Anastrepha ludens, Anastrepha serpentina, Anastrepha obliqua and Ceratitis capitata. (Author)

  7. On the predation of fly, Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart) by a spider, Oxyopes sp. Latreille (Oxyopidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heo, C C; Mohamad, A M; John, J; Baharudin, O

    2008-04-01

    During a forensic entomological study conducted in a palm oil plantation in Tg.Sepat, Selangor in September 2007, a spider (Arachnida), Oxyopes sp. (Oxyopidae) was found to predate on a calliphorid fly (Chrysomya rufifacies). The female spider laid a silk thread, or "drag line", behind it as it moved. This spider bites its prey by using a pairs of chelicerae, and injecting venom into the fly. The fly was moving its wing trying to escape, however, it succumbed to the deadly bite.

  8. Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart) as a forensically-important fly species in Thailand: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukontason, K L; Sukontason, K; Narongchai, P; Lertthamnongtham, S; Piangjai, S; Olson, J K

    2001-12-01

    The first documented use of the larvae of the hairy maggot blow fly, Chrysomya rufifacies, for estimating the postmortem interval (PMI) of a decomposing human corpse in Thailand is reported. A honeycomb-like wound observed on one leg of the corpse was infested with numerous third-stage C. rufifacies larvae. Based on the pupae and larvae present in accordance with the ambient temperature previously recorded, six days postmortem was estimated for a corpse at the time of its discovery and investigation. Since adult C. rufifacies specimens have been collected in many parts of both urban and mountainous areas in Thailand, more biological information about this blowfly species is needed to increase the accuracy of forensic investigations where the fly is present.

  9. Effects of temperature and tissue type on Chrysomya rufifacies (Diptera: Calliphoridae) (Macquart) development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Micah; Longnecker, Michael; Tomberlin, Jeffery K

    2014-12-01

    The hairy maggot blow fly, Chrysomya rufifacies (Diptera: Calliphoridae), is a forensically important fly often encountered on human and other vertebrate remains in temperate and tropic regions throughout the world including Australia, Asia, Central America and North America. C. rufifacies was reared under controlled laboratory conditions on three muscle types (i.e., porcine, equine and canine) at three temperatures (i.e., 20.8, 24.8 and 28.3°C). Rate of larval weight gain across time was statistically significant between muscle types (P≤0.0001) and approaching significance across time between temperatures (P=0.0511). This research represents the first development study for C. rufifacies from central Texas, USA and the first study to examine the impact of tissue type on its development. Furthermore, these data, when compared to those available in the literature, indicate developmental differences that could be due to genetic differences in populations or possibly methods employed during the studies. Caution should be emphasized when applying development data for this species from one region to forensic investigations in other ecoregions as such differences in development based on tissue fed upon by larvae, population genetics, and methodologies used in the studies could represent error in estimating the time of colonization. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Neotropical Copestylum Macquart (Diptera: Syrphidae) Breeding in Fruits and Flowers, Including 7 New Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricarte, Antonio; Marcos-García, M. Ángeles; Hancock, E. Geoffrey; Rotheray, Graham E.

    2015-01-01

    Ten species of Copestylum (Diptera: Syrphidae) were reared from fruits and flowers in Costa Rica, Ecuador and Trinidad. Seven were new and in this paper, we describe them, their development sites and the third stage larva and/or the puparium of all ten species. One new synonym is proposed, Copestylum pinkusi (Curran) [= Copestylum cinctiventre (Curran)]. Similarities and differences between these new and other Copestylum species, suggest they separate into two groups, referred to as the Vagum and Cinctiventre species groups. Features characterising these groups for both adult and early stages are assessed. Each species was also distinguished using adult and early stage characters. Within the Vagum group, adults were more disparate morphologically than the larval stage; this was reversed in the Cinctiventre group. Adult colour patterns are probably cryptic in function and for disguise. Vagum species have disruptive marks, while the Cinctiventre species have reflective colours. Biologically, the groups are almost distinguished by larval development sites. Vagum species use predominantly fruits and have a larval stage that is relatively generalised in form and habit. Cinctiventre species are confined to developing in flowers and the larva is more specialised. A key to both adult and early stages of all ten species is provided. PMID:26580811

  11. The biology of Aedes (Ochlerotatus albifasciatus Macquart, 1838 (Diptera: Culicidae in Central Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco F. Ludueña Almeida

    1995-08-01

    Full Text Available Aedes albifasciatus is a flood water mosquito ocurring in the southern countries of South America. It is a competent vector of the Western Equine Encephalitis (WEE and causes important losses on milk and beef production in central Argentina. Field work was carried out from December 1990 to March 1993, on a monthly basis during the dry season and biweekly during the rainy season. Larvae were collected using the 'dipping' technique and females with CDC traps baited with CO2. Field collected larvae were used to build laboratory cohorts, from which basic population parameters were estimated. Eggs survived up to six months on dry soil, although there was a linear decrease of viability with time. At 23ºC, larval development time was around nine days, and all adults emerged within one week. The estimation of larval development in the laboratory seems to be very near the development on the field, as larvae have been collected on average eight days after a rainfall. Egg to adult survival was 83%, with the highest mortality on fourth larval instar (6%. In the laboratory studies, sex proportion among the adults was 1:1, females lived longer than males (median 13 and five days, respectively, and adult survival pattern showed a constant number of individuals dying per unit time. Field collected females layed an average of 84 eggs per batch, and completing up to five gonotrophic cycles, suggesting an estimated survival of up to 35-50 days.

  12. Sex Pheromone Investigation of Anastrepha serpentina (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attraction of virgin females to odor of calling males was demonstrated. This sex pheromone mediated attraction occurred during the latter half of a 13-h photophase but not during the first half of the day. Two major components of emissions of calling males, 2,5-dimethylpyrazine (DMP) and 2,5-dihyd...

  13. Surface-bound phosphatase activity in living hyphae of ectomycorrhizal fungi of Nothofagus obliqua.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Maricel; Godoy, Roberto; Heyser, Wolfgang; Härtel, Steffen

    2004-01-01

    We determined the location and the activity of surface-bound phosphomonoesterase (SBP) of five ectomycorrhizal (EM) fungi of Nothofagus oblique. EM fungal mycelium of Paxillus involutus, Austropaxillus boletinoides, Descolea antartica, Cenococcum geophilum and Pisolithus tinctorius was grown in media with varying concentrations of dissolved phosphorus. SBP activity was detected at different pH values (3-7) under each growth regimen. SBP activity was assessed using a colorimetric method based on the hydrolysis of p-nitrophenyl phosphate (pNPP) to p-nitrophenol phosphate (pNP) + P. A new technique involving confocal laser-scanning microscopy (LSM) was used to locate and quantify SBP activity on the hyphal surface. EM fungi showed two fundamentally different patterns of SBP activity in relation to varying environmental conditions (P-concentrations and pH). In the cases of D. antartica, A. boletinoides and C. geophilum, changes in SBP activity were induced primarily by changes in the number of SBP-active centers on the hyphae. In the cases of P. tinctorius and P. involutus, the number of SBP-active centers per μm hyphal length changed much less than the intensity of the SBP-active centers on the hyphae. Our findings not only contribute to the discussion about the role of SBP-active centers in EM fungi but also introduce LSM as a valuable method for studying EM fungi.

  14. Human urine and chicken feces as fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) attractants for resource-poor fruit growers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piñero, Jaime; Aluja, Martín; Vázquez, Alejandro; Equihua, Miguel; Varón, Jorge

    2003-04-01

    We evaluated human urine and chicken feces, two naturally occurring, inexpensive, and readily available substances, as baits for the capture of Anostrepha spp. (Diptera: Tephritidae) by using glass McPhail traps. Two studies were performed simultaneously in a commercial mango orchard in Veracruz, México. In the first study, we compared a 50% water dilution of human urine against hydrolyzed protein, both compounds at the fresh and 5-d-old stages, and water alone (control treatment). In the second study, we tested fresh chicken feces mixed with water, a torula yeast/borax solution at three different ages (1-4, 5-9, and 10-15 d), and water (control treatment). Both human urine and chicken feces were attractive to Anastrepha adults compared with water alone, but attracted two and three times fewer adults than hydrolyzed protein and torula yeast/borax, respectively. However, unlike torula yeast/borax, aging of human urine did not decrease its attractiveness. Five-day old human urine attracted numerically more A. serpentina females than males, similar numbers of A. obliqua males and females, and significantly more sexually immature A. obliqua females than mature ones. Chicken feces proved to be as attractive as the aged torula yeast/borax treatments for A. obliqua and A. serpentina. We argue that because both human urine and chicken feces are cost-free and can be easily obtained, they are viable, low-technology alternatives to costly commercial attractants, particularly for low-income growers or backyard farmers in Mexico and other Latin American countries.

  15. Molecular identification of Malaysian Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius) and Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart) using life stage specific mitochondrial DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavitha, R; Tan, T C; Lee, H L; Nazni, W A; Sofian, A M

    2013-06-01

    DNA identification of blow fly species can be a very useful tool in forensic entomology. One of the potential benefits that mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) has offered in the field of forensic entomology is species determination. Conventional identification methods have limitations for sibling and closely related species of blow fly and stage and quality of the specimen used. This could be overcome by DNA-based identification methods using mitochondrial DNA which does not demand intact or undamaged specimens. Mitochondrial DNA is usually isolated from whole blow fly and legs. Alternate sources for mitochondrial DNA isolation namely, egg, larva, puparium and empty puparium were explored in this study. The sequence of DNA obtained for each sample for every life cycle stage was 100% identical for a particular species, indicating that the egg, 1st instar, 2nd instar, 3rd instar, pupa, empty puparium and adult from the same species and obtained from same generation will exhibit similar DNA sequences. The present study also highlighted the usefulness of collecting all life cycle stages of blow fly during crime scene investigation with proper preservation and subsequent molecular analysis. Molecular identification provides a strong basis for species identification and will prove an invaluable contribution to forensic entomology as an investigative tool in Malaysia.

  16. Larval development rates of Chrysomya rufifacies Macquart, 1842 (Diptera: Calliphoridae) within its native range in South-East Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanmanee, Surasuk; Husemann, Martin; Benbow, Mark Eric; Suwannapong, Guntima

    2016-09-01

    Chrysomya rufifacies represents an important indicator species in forensic entomology that is often used to estimate the minimum postmortem interval (PMImin) in crime scene investigation. However, developmental rates differ locally, so that estimates should be based on regionally generated development data. Therefore, we determined the developmental rates of C. rufifacies within its native range in Thailand under nine constant temperature regimes: 15, 18, 21, 24, 27, 30, 33, 36 and 39°C. Developmental times from egg to adult varied among the temperatures and were longest at 15°C (618h) and shortest at 33°C (168h). No pupae emerged at 39°C. We used linear regression models to estimate the minimum development threshold temperatures for each life stage: egg stage=9.5°C, first to second instar=10.8°C, second to third instar=11.5°C, third instar to pupariation=11.4°C, pupariation to adults=5.0°C; the minimum threshold to complete all larvae stages was 11.1°C and to complete all life stages from eggs to adult was 9.5°C. We further generated isomorphen and isomegalen diagrams that can be used to quickly estimate the PMImin for forensic applications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Augmentative biological control in the Mexican national fruit fly campaign

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montoya, P [Campana Nacional Moscas de la Fruta, DGSV-SAGARPA (Mexico); Cancino, J; Gutierrez, J M; Santiago, G [Campana Nacional Moscas de la Fruta, DGSV-SAGARPA (Mexico)

    2005-07-01

    Full text: Tephritid fruit flies are some of the most economically important species of insects worldwide. In Mexico, the native Anastrepha ludens, A. obliqua, A. serpentina and A. striata, are among the most important problems because of the great number of commercial fruits they attack. In an attempt to solve the Anastrepha fruit flies problems, the Mexican Government created the National Campaign against Fruit Flies in 1992. Using an area-wide approach and an integrated pest management framework, that included the use of environment-friendly strategies to suppress/eradicate fruit flies, the Mexican Campaign has integrated different technologies such as the application of specific toxic bait, the use of the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT), and the release of the endoparasitoid Diachasmimorpha longicaudata (Ashmead) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), which attacks preferably third instar larvae of fruit flies. Since 1995, the Moscafrut mass-rearing facility has the capacity to produce an average of 50 millions of parasitised pupae per week, with 65-70% of parasitoid emergence using irradiated A. ludens larvae as host. The mass-rearing procedures of D. longicaudata have been fully described by Cancino. Parasitised pupae are sent via commercial flights to several states of the country (i.e. Michoacan, Sinaloa, Nayarit, Tamaulipas), according to a yearly national plan. This plan derives from industry requirements and/or availability of biological material. In the target zones, parasitoids are released in specific periods and specific areas where the environmental, biological and social conditions are considered as adequate. Packing and release procedures of parasitoids follow those that Montoya et al used. The releases are focused on Anastrepha spp. host trees located in marginal areas (i.e backyard orchards), with the objective to prevent the migration of fruit fly populations into commercial orchards. The impact of parasitoids on fruit fly populations is evaluated through

  18. Flutuação populacional de moscas-das-frutas (Diptera: Tephritidae associadas a variedades de manga no município de José de Freitas-Piauí Population dynamics of fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae associated to mango varieties in the city of Jose de Freitas - Piauí - Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sávio Silveira Feitosa

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available O Piauí possui uma área considerável de manga, sendo um grande produtor dessa fruta no Brasil. Contudo, a presença de pragas, como as moscas-das-frutas, tem provocado grandes impactos na cadeia produtiva, pois estes insetos fazem parte de um grupo responsável por grandes prejuízos econômicos na cultura da mangueira. O conhecimento da flutuação populacional e a época de maior ocorrência de uma determinada espécie de inseto de importância econômica são requisitos indispensáveis para o estabelecimento de um controle eficiente e racional. O presente trabalho visou registrar a flutuação populacional das espécies de moscas-das-frutas associadas a variedades de manga, bem como correlacionar a ocorrência das moscas com as médias mensais de temperatura, precipitação e umidade relativa, e também avaliar os atrativos alimentares utilizados na captura dos insetos. A pesquisa foi conduzida de junho de 2004 a maio de 2005, em pomar comercial de manga (Mangifera indica L.-Anacardiaceae, das variedades Tommy Atkins, Keitt, Kent e Palmer, localizado no município de José de Freitas-Piauí-Brasil, na latitude 04º50'S e longitude 42º41'W. Anastrepha obliqua e Anastrepha serpentina são as espécies de tephritídeos predominantes na cultura da manga.Piaui has a considerable mango area, being a great producer of this fruit. However, the presence of plagues like the fruit flies has provoked great impacts in the production chain, so these insects are part of a responsible group of great economic damages in mango tree culture. The knowledge of the population dynamics and the highest occurrence period of specific insect species of economic importance are indispensable requirement to establish an efficient and rational control. The purpose of the present work was to register the population dynamics of the fruit fly species associated to the mango varieties, as well as correlating the fly occurrence with the monthly averages of temperature

  19. Response of Anastrepha suspensa to liquid protein baits and synthetic lure formulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Epsky, Nancy D.; Kendra, Paul E.; Heath, Robert R.

    2006-01-01

    Traps baited with AAPt captured more A. suspensa than traps baited with ABPt even when the ammonia release rates were similar. Reducing dosage of ammonia by 50% of the commercially available AA lure slightly increased female capture, but reducing dosage to 25% tended to decrease female capture. The 5% CPH/3% borax bait captured the same number of flies as TYB, and was more effective than 10% CPH/3% borax. Further decreasing the amount of borax added to CPH may improve its effectiveness. As has been observed in field tests, fresh TYB captures more A. suspensa than fresh Nulure/borax but this difference decreases as the bait solutions age. EAG analysis indicates that volatiles from fresh Nulure/ borax elicit a higher antennal response than TYB, but this difference decreases as the TYB solution ages. Chemical analysis will be needed to determine the nature of reduced capture by fresh Nulure/borax and to identify additional attractive chemicals emitted by these protein baits. (author)

  20. Response of Anastrepha suspensa to liquid protein baits and synthetic lure formulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Epsky, Nancy D.; Kendra, Paul E.; Heath, Robert R., E-mail: Nancy.Epsky@ars.usda.go, E-mail: Paul.Kendra@ars.usda.go, E-mail: Bob.Heath@ars.usda.go [U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA/ARS/SHRS), Miami, FL (United States). Agricultural Research Service. Subtropical Horticulture Research Station

    2006-07-01

    Traps baited with AAPt captured more A. suspensa than traps baited with ABPt even when the ammonia release rates were similar. Reducing dosage of ammonia by 50% of the commercially available AA lure slightly increased female capture, but reducing dosage to 25% tended to decrease female capture. The 5% CPH/3% borax bait captured the same number of flies as TYB, and was more effective than 10% CPH/3% borax. Further decreasing the amount of borax added to CPH may improve its effectiveness. As has been observed in field tests, fresh TYB captures more A. suspensa than fresh Nulure/borax but this difference decreases as the bait solutions age. EAG analysis indicates that volatiles from fresh Nulure/ borax elicit a higher antennal response than TYB, but this difference decreases as the TYB solution ages. Chemical analysis will be needed to determine the nature of reduced capture by fresh Nulure/borax and to identify additional attractive chemicals emitted by these protein baits. (author)

  1. Intraspecific variation of cuticular hydrocarbon profiles in the Anastrepha fraterculus (Diptera: Tephritidae) species complex

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vaníčková, Lucie; Břízová, Radka; Mendonca, A. L.; Pompeiano, A.; do Nascimento, R. R.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 139, č. 9 (2015), s. 679-689 ISSN 0931-2048 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : chemotaxonomy * GCxGC/TOFMS * multiple factorial analyses * putative species * South American fruit fly Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 1.517, year: 2015

  2. Identification of male-borne attractants in Anastrepha fraterculus (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Milet-Pinheiro, P.; Navarro, D. M. A.; De Aquino, N. C.; Ferreira, L. L.; Tavares, R. F.; Correia da Silva, R. C.; Lima-Mendonca, A.; Vaníčková, Lucie; Mendonca, A. L.; do Nascimento, R. R.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 25, č. 3 (2015), s. 115-122 ISSN 0937-7409 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : South American fruit fly * sexual pheromone * male-borne attractants * GC-EAD * behavioral activity Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 1.863, year: 2015

  3. Contribución al estudio de las moscas anastrephas en colombia.

    OpenAIRE

    González Mendoza, Rafael

    2012-01-01

    1. Colombia tiene amplias posibilidades de desarrollar una industria frutícola floreciente dadas las excepcionales condiciones de ubicación geográfica, diversidad de climas y de suelos. 2. La deficiente producción frutera actual es el resultado de una reunión de factores adversos, entre los que resalta el desconocimiento de los problemas científicos que afectan a dicha industria. En este aspecto, los problemas fitosanitarios, abandonados y faltos de investigación, ocupan lugar pre...

  4. Pheromone analyses of the Anastrepha fraterculus (Diptera: Tephritidae) cryptic species complex

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Břízová, Radka; Mendonca, A. L.; Vaníčková, L.; Mendonca, Al. L.; Da Silva, C. E.; Tomčala, Aleš; Paranhos, B. A. J.; Dias, V. S.; Joachim-Bravo, I. S.; Hoskovec, Michal; Kalinová, Blanka; do Nascimento, R. R.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 96, č. 3 (2013), s. 1107-1115 ISSN 0015-4040 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : South American fruit fly * GCxGC/TOE-MS * principal component analysis (PCA) Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 1.056, year: 2013

  5. Current knowledge of the species complex Anastrepha fraterculus (Diptera, Tephritidae) in Brazil

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vaníčková, Lucie; Hernández-Ortiz, V.; Bravo, I. S. J.; Dias, V.; Roriz, A. K. P.; Laumann, R. A.; Mendonca, A. L.; Paranhos, B. A. J.; do Nascimento, R. R.

    -, č. 540 (2015), s. 211-237 ISSN 1313-2989 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : South American fruit fly * cryptic species * taxonomy * sexual behavior * chemical communication Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.938, year: 2015 http://zookeys.pensoft.net/articles.php?id=6228

  6. THE LIFE OF GERVAISE MACQUART AS A LOWER WORKING CLASS WOMEN UNDER FRENCH SECOND EMPIRE IN THE NOVEL L’ASSOMMOIR BY ÉMILE ZOLA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teguh Basuki

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The industrialization which developed in the 19th century France had brought both positive and negative impacts. Some of the negative impacts are the rising number of labors, the emergence of inter class conflicts, social problems such as prostitution, and the oppression of lower class women. This research will discuss about the life of lower class women depicted in the novel L’Assommoir by Émile Zola, as the portrayal of the reality in the French Second Empire. The analysis uses qualitative descriptive technique and applies Foucaults’s theory on social exclusion, Beauvoir’s theory of second sex, and also gender theory. The analysis shown that Zola criticize the inequalities in the life of lower class women under Second Empire. It also shows that lower class women excluded from the ‘grand’ discourse in French society. The exclusion process which is done by society and supported by the State at that time regarded as a normal thing and ‘taken for granted’.

  7. Patterns of oviposition and development of Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius) (Diptera: Calliphoridae) and Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart) (Diptera: Calliphoridae) on burned rabbit carcasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahat, N A; Zainol-Abidin, N L; Nordin, N H; Abdul-Wahab, R; Jayaprakash, P T

    2016-03-01

    Considering that crimes against animals such as illegal killing and cruelty have been alarmingly increasing and since burning is one of the common ways for disposing cadavers, ability to estimate minimum postmortem interval (PMI) using entomological data merits consideration. Chrysomya megacephala and Chrysomya rufifacies are common necrophagous species recovered from cadavers in many countries including Malaysia. Specific studies focusing on the oviposition and developmental patterns of both species on cadavers manifesting different levels of burn as described by the Crow-Glassman Scale (CGS) remain scarce. In four replicates, rabbit carcasses were burned to CGS levels #1, #2 and #3 by varying the amount of petrol used and duration of burning. Oviposition by C. megacephala and C. rufifacies was delayed by one day in the case of carcasses burned to the CGS level #3 (p0.05) in the duration of development were found between control and burned carcasses. These findings deserve consideration while estimating minimum PMI since burning as a mean for disposing animal and human cadavers is gaining popularity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Larval distribution and behavior of Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart) (Diptera:Calliphoridae) relative to other species on Florida black bear(Carnivora:Ursidae) carcasses decompsing in North Central Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larval interactions of blow flies were documented daily temporally and spatially on 5 black bear carcasses from June – November, 2002. Cochliomyia macellaria or Chrysomya megacephala larvae were collected first, then Chrysomya rufifacies oviposited in multiple locations on the carcasses uninhabited...

  9. Mango resistance to fruit flies. II - resistance of the alfa cultivar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rossetto, C.J.; Bortoletto, N., E-mail: rossetto@iac.sp.gov.b [Agencia Paulista de Tecnologia dos Agronegocios (APTA), Votuporanga, SP (Brazil). Polo Regional do Noroeste Paulista; Walder, J.M.M.; Mastrangelo, T. de A., E-mail: jmwalder@cena.usp.b [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil); Carvalho, C.R.L.; Castro, J.V. de, E-mail: climonta@iac.sp.gov.b, E-mail: josalba@iac.sp.gov.b [Instituto Agronomico de Campinas, SP (Brazil); Pinto, A.C. de Q. [EMBRAPA, Brasilia, DF (Brazil); Cortelazzo, A.L., E-mail: angelo@unicamp.b [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Biologia

    2006-07-01

    The percentage of infested mango fruits of five selected mango varieties was evaluated during three years under field conditions. Three varieties with field resistance to fruit flies had less then 10% of fruits infested. Tommy Atkins, the susceptible commercial check, had 42,9% and the susceptible check had 98.9 % of infested fruits. The three field resistant varieties plus the susceptible commercial check, Tommy Atkins, were further tested in laboratory, under caged conditions, with artificial infestation of Anastrepha obliqua. The attempts of oviposition and the number of pupae developed from each fruit were evaluated. Under caged conditions, the cultivar Alfa maintained its field resistance and Espada Stahl and IAC 111 lost the field resistance and were as susceptible as Tommy Atkins. The attempts of oviposition were positively and highly correlated with the number of pupae developed in the fruits. Non preference for oviposition was confirmed as the main mechanism of resistance of mango fruits to fruit flies. In the absence of a more susceptible variety (no choice test) the cultivar Alfa has kept the resistance (author)

  10. Development of attractant systems for trapping female Ceratitis capitata (Wied.) (Diptera: Tephritidae) in the Soconusco region, Chiapas, Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montoya, P.; Miranda, H.; Paxtian, J.; Celedonio, H.; Orozco, D.

    1999-01-01

    With the aim of developing a system of attractants and trapping to optimize the capture of female Mediterranean fruit flies, Ceratitis capitata (Wied.) as well as other fruit flies, six experiments were carried out during the period 1994-1997, in a sterile-insect release zone in the Soconusco region of Chiapas, Mexico. Relating to the system of attractants, the evaluation focused on the comparison of food attractants (i.e. ammonium acetate, putrescine and trimethylamine) with standard attractants, such as Trimedlure and liquid hydrolyzed protein. For the trapping system, dry traps (Jackson trap, Open bottom dry trap, etc.) as well as wet traps (McPhail trap, Tephri trap, etc.) were tested alternately with the different kinds of attractants. The experiments were performed in agrosystems of coffee and groves of citrus and mango. Results consistently showed that a combination of ammonium acetate + putrescine + trimethylamine was the best for the capture of female Ceratitis capitata (Wied.) when used in traps such as the OBDT and the plastic McPhail trap (IPMT), while for Anastrepha spp., the McPhail trap baited with liquid hydrolyzed protein still appears to be the best option, although the combination of ammonium acetate with putrescine was quite consistent in the trapping of A. obliqua and A. ludens in traps such as the IPMT. (author)

  11. Mango resistance to fruit flies. II - resistance of the alfa cultivar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossetto, C.J.; Bortoletto, N.; Carvalho, C.R.L.; Castro, J.V. de; Pinto, A.C. de Q.; Cortelazzo, A.L.

    2006-01-01

    The percentage of infested mango fruits of five selected mango varieties was evaluated during three years under field conditions. Three varieties with field resistance to fruit flies had less then 10% of fruits infested. Tommy Atkins, the susceptible commercial check, had 42,9% and the susceptible check had 98.9 % of infested fruits. The three field resistant varieties plus the susceptible commercial check, Tommy Atkins, were further tested in laboratory, under caged conditions, with artificial infestation of Anastrepha obliqua. The attempts of oviposition and the number of pupae developed from each fruit were evaluated. Under caged conditions, the cultivar Alfa maintained its field resistance and Espada Stahl and IAC 111 lost the field resistance and were as susceptible as Tommy Atkins. The attempts of oviposition were positively and highly correlated with the number of pupae developed in the fruits. Non preference for oviposition was confirmed as the main mechanism of resistance of mango fruits to fruit flies. In the absence of a more susceptible variety (no choice test) the cultivar Alfa has kept the resistance (author)

  12. ENTOMOFAUNA ASSOCIADA AOS FRUTOS DO BACUPARI, Salacia folia (MART. PEYR, NOS CERRADOS DO BRASIL CENTRAL INSECTS ASSOCIED WITH BACUPARI FRUIT, Salacia crassifolia (Mart. PEYR, IN THE SAVANNAHS OF CENTRAL BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juracy Rocha Braga Filho

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    O bacupari, Salacia crassifolia (Mart. Peyr, (Hippocrateaceae é uma frutífera nativa da região dos cerrados, utilizada pela fauna e também pela população da região, embora seus frutos sejam muito atacados pelas moscas-das-frutas, e por isso seu consumo fica limitado. De polpa branca à alaranjada, de sabor levemente ácido e muito agradável os frutos dessa espécie podem ser consumidos ao natural ou na forma de sucos. Neste trabalho apresenta-se um levantamento da entomofauna associada aos frutos do bacupari, coletados em 11 municípios da região dos cerrados no Estado de Goiás, no período de setembro de 1995 a dezembro de 1999. No Laboratório de Entomologia da Escola de Agronomia da Universidade Federal de Goiás, esses frutos foram, inicialmente, contados e pesados e, posteriormente, acondicionados em caixas de polipropileno com areia úmida para obtenção de pupários e insetos adultos. Tephritidae foi a família mais freqüente nos frutos do bacupari, com 54,22% dos insetos coletados. Nessa família foram registradas as espécies Anastrepha sp. (espécie nova em fase de descrição, A. zenildae, A. obliqua, A. fraterculus, A. sororcula e A. serpentina. Na família Lonchaeidae foi coletada Neosilba sp., em Muscidae, Atherigona orientalis e espécimes da família Oititidae. Dessas moscas foram obtidos os parasitóides Doryctobracon sp. (espécie nova, D. areolatus, Dicerataspis flavipes, Lopheucoila anastrephae, Aganaspis nordlanderi e A. pelleranoi. Foram coletados isoladamente no mesmo fruto exemplares de Anastrepha sp. e Lonchaeidae e Anastrepha sp. e A. zenildae

  13. Empleo de microalga Scenedesmus obliquas en la eliminación de cromo presente en aguas residuales galvánicas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pellón, A.

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available Dumping wastewaters from plating industry with a high content in chromium is a potential hazard for people and environment. It is known that some metals, including the heavy metals, at low concentrations participate in different metabolic routes, but at high concentration are toxic for many living organisms. Some microorganism taking the heavy metals from the environment are capable of concentrating and accumulating large quantities of them in different citoplasmatic structures with no-toxic effects. Microalgae have affinity by the polyvalent metals making possible their use as depollutant agent in waters that contains dissolved metallic ions as alternative methods when others methods of recycle are unusable. In this report a chromium removal study from a plating wastewater, using scenedesmus obliquus culture was made. The removal efficiency of Cr (VI was 12 % and Cr (III was 27 % and for condition of algae's immobilization removal of Cr (III was 95 %.

    El vertido de aguas residuales con alto contenido de cromo, procedentes de las industrias galvanoplásticas, es un peligro potencial que se le presenta a la población y al medio ambiente. Se conoce que algunos metales, incluyendo los pesados, a concentraciones bajas participan en diferentes rutas metabólicas, pero en altas concentraciones pueden ser tóxicos para muchos organismos vivos. Algunos microorganismos toman los metales pesados del medio ambiente, siendo capaces de concentrar y acumular grandes cantidades de los mismos en diferentes estructuras citoplasmáticas, sin que lleguen a ocasionar efectos tóxicos en los mismos. Las microalgas son un ejemplo de este comportamiento, ya que tienen afinidad por los metales polivalentes, de ahí la posibilidad de su aplicación como agentes descontaminantes en aguas que contengan iones metálicos disueltos como método alternativo cuando no se pueda utilizar otro método de recuperación. En este trabajo se realizó un estudio de eliminación de cromo presente en las aguas residuales galvánicas, empleando un cultivo de scenedesmus obliquus. Se obtuvo una eficiencia de eliminación de Cr (VI del 12 % y del 27 % para el Cr (III, y en condiciones de inmovilización del alga fue del 95 % para el Cr (III.

  14. INFESTAÇÃO DE MOSCAS-DAS-FRUTAS EM VARIEDADES DE MANGA (Mangifera indica L. NO ESTADO DE GOIÁS INFESTATION OF FRUIT FLY IN VARIETIES OF MANGO IN THE STATE OF GOIÁS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juracy Rocha Braga Filho

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    A mangueira (Mangifera indica L. é a principal espécie frutífera da família Anacardiaceae cultivada no Brasil. A expansão dessa cultura nos últimos anos, tanto para o consumo in natura como para a exportação, é limitada por diversas pragas, principalmente pelas moscas-das-frutas. No período de setembro de 1999 a fevereiro de 2000 foi estudado o nível de infestação natural de moscas-das-frutas em dez variedades de manga, em três municípios do Estado de Goiás. Foram obtidos 1.195 pupários, dos quais emergiram 484 adultos de Anastrepha (80% dos insetos identificados, 104 lonqueídeos (17,2 % e 17 braconídeos (2,8%. Das fêmeas identificadas, 77,9% pertenciam ao gênero Anastrepha e 22,08%, a Neosilba. As espécies identificadas foram: A. obliqua (48,78%, A. fraterculus (47,97%, A. sororcula (2,03% e A. turpiniae (1,22%, referida pela primeira vez em frutos de manga no Estado. O parasitóide Doryctobracon areolatus foi encontrado em larvas/pupas de moscas-das-frutas, nas variedades Imperial e Tommy Atkins. As variedades com maiores índices de infestação foram Imperial (15,3 pupários/fruto e 73,611 pupários/kg de frutos, em Goiânia, e Tommy Atkins (7,0 pupários/fruto e 17,503 pupários/kg de frutos, no município de Orizona. Em Goiânia, a variedade Bourbon não foi infestada, e a Sabina apresentou um índice de infestação de 0,076 pupários/fruto e 0,363 pupários/ kg de frutos.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Insecta; Diptera; Tephritoidea; avaliação de danos; parasitóides.

    Mango (Mangifera indica L. production has expanded greatly in Brazil but several pests, especially fruit flies, have limited both fresh fruit consumption and

  15. Characterisation of the chemical profiles of Brazilian and Andean morphotypes belonging to the Anastrepha fraterculus complex (Diptera, Tephritidae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vaníčková, Lucie; Břízová, Radka; Pompeiano, A.; Ferreira, L. L.; De Aquino, N. C.; Tavares, R. F.; Rodriguez, L. D.; Mendonca, A. L.; Canal, N. A.; do Nascimento, R. R.

    -, č. 540 (2015), s. 193-209 ISSN 1313-2989 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : cryptic species * chemotaxonomy * GCxGC/MS * PCA Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.938, year: 2015 http://zookeys.pensoft.net/articles.php?id=6224

  16. Gamma radiation use as a quarantine treatment for Ceratitis capitata (Wied., 1824) and Anastrepha fraterculus (Wied., 1830) in papaya fruits (Carica papaya, Linnaeus), cultivar sunrise solo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faria, J.T. de.

    1989-01-01

    The gamma irradiation as treatment for control of the immature stages of fruit flies, C. capitata and A. fraterculus in papaya fruits, cultivar Sunrise Solo is studied. The gamma rays attenuation was observed by one and two papaya fruits placed between source and infested fruit, and this changed the radiation doses required to obtain mortality in eggs and larvae of the Medfly. The efficacy of irradiation was higher when the infested papayas were packed in paper box. The radiation dose determined using the Probit 9 concept, for immature stages mortality of C. capitata was 107,74 Gy and for A. fraterculus was 50,82 Gy. The sterilizing doses for adults of C. capitata and D. fraterculus, irradiated as pupae, was 60 Gy and 40 Gy, respectively. (author)

  17. Mass production in liquid diet and radiosterilization of South American fruit fly Anastrepha sp.1 aff. fraterculus (Wied., 1830) (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamiya, Aline Cristiane

    2010-01-01

    Both the biological control techniques as the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT), are used in many countries to control, suppress and even eradicate fruit flies and other pests in agriculture and public health. The use of such techniques minimizes the continuous employment of insecticides, protects the environment and conforms to standards for food safety. However, it is necessary to implement such programs, technology to produce millions of parasitoids and the pest in its own laboratory with biological quality similar to the insects found in nature and cost competitive with chemical control. The objectives of this study was to establish protocols for artificial rearing of A. sp. 1 aff. fraterculus in liquid larval diet that will achieve levels of mass production for a possible reduction in the cost of establishing and determining the dose of radiation sterilization of adult A. sp. 1 aff. fraterculus meeting the quality parameters required by the Sterile Insect Technique with insects from the creation of Radioentomology Laboratory of CENA/USP. Seven experimental diets compared to the conventional diet used in Radioentomology Lab. of CENA/USP, which was used as control. All seven diets have in common the exclusion of agar in its formulation. Only two of the diets tested were suitable for larval development of the fly, they compared with the standard diet, showed inferior results with respect to the volume of recovered larvae, pupae and weight of emergency, however, no significant differences regarding the periods of development , pupal recovery, sex ratio and longevity under stress. It is possible to replace the diet with agar for liquid diets for artificial creation of A. sp. 1 aff. fraterculus, reduced cost and greater convenience of handling, but due to their quality standards lower than the standard diet, more tests are needed especially regarding the adaptability of the insect to the new environment. To determine the sterilizing dose this study examined the fertility, fecundity, emergence, flight ability and longevity under stress in A. fraterculus irradiated with 40, 50, 60, 70 and 80 Gy. The radiation source was a gamma irradiator with a Co-60 (Gamma beam-650) located in the same laboratory. The tests were performed under the following environmental conditions: 26 +- 1 deg C, 70 +- 5% RH and photoperiod of 12:12. The dose of gamma radiation sterilization for male A. sp. 1 aff. fraterculus was determined with 70 Gy. Irradiates females, even with the lower dose of 40 Gy, laid no eggs, possibly due to atrophy of the ovaries caused by radiation. The radiation did not affect the other quality parameters such as insect emergence, longevity and ability to fly. (author)

  18. Current initiatives in the mass production and field release of the Mexican fruit fly, Anastrepha ludens, in the lower Rio Grande valley of Texas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Worley, J.N.; Forrester, O.T.

    1999-01-01

    In order to reduce the program operating expenses in the South Texas Mexican Fruit Fly Sterile Release Program, four cost reduction initiatives are in progress at the U.S. Department of Agriculture's Mexican Fruit Fly Rearing Facility. These initiatives include implementation of a less expensive larval diet formulation, automation of the larval diet dispensing process, processing and reutilization of spent larval diet medium, and a more efficient system for emerging and feeding sterile flies prior to field release. (author)

  19. Blow Flies Visiting Decaying Alligators: Is Succession Synchronous or Asynchronous?

    OpenAIRE

    Nelder, Mark P.; McCreadie, John W.; Major, Clinton S.

    2009-01-01

    Succession patterns of adult blow flies (Diptera: Calliphoridae) on decaying alligators were investigated in Mobile (Ala, USA) during August 2002. The most abundant blow fly species visiting the carcasses were Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart), Cochliomyia macellaria (Fabricus), Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricus), Phormia regina (Meigen), and Lucilia coeruleiviridis (Macquart). Lucilia coeruleiviridis was collected more often during the early stages of decomposition, followed by Chrysomya spp., C...

  20. Mass production in liquid diet and radiosterilization of South American fruit fly Anastrepha sp.1 aff. fraterculus (Wied., 1830) (Diptera: Tephritidae); Criacao massal em dieta liquida e radioesterilizacao da mosca-sulamericana Anastrepha sp.1 aff. fraterculus (Wied., 1830) (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamiya, Aline Cristiane

    2010-07-01

    Both the biological control techniques as the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT), are used in many countries to control, suppress and even eradicate fruit flies and other pests in agriculture and public health. The use of such techniques minimizes the continuous employment of insecticides, protects the environment and conforms to standards for food safety. However, it is necessary to implement such programs, technology to produce millions of parasitoids and the pest in its own laboratory with biological quality similar to the insects found in nature and cost competitive with chemical control. The objectives of this study was to establish protocols for artificial rearing of A. sp. 1 aff. fraterculus in liquid larval diet that will achieve levels of mass production for a possible reduction in the cost of establishing and determining the dose of radiation sterilization of adult A. sp. 1 aff. fraterculus meeting the quality parameters required by the Sterile Insect Technique with insects from the creation of Radioentomology Laboratory of CENA/USP. Seven experimental diets compared to the conventional diet used in Radioentomology Lab. of CENA/USP, which was used as control. All seven diets have in common the exclusion of agar in its formulation. Only two of the diets tested were suitable for larval development of the fly, they compared with the standard diet, showed inferior results with respect to the volume of recovered larvae, pupae and weight of emergency, however, no significant differences regarding the periods of development , pupal recovery, sex ratio and longevity under stress. It is possible to replace the diet with agar for liquid diets for artificial creation of A. sp. 1 aff. fraterculus, reduced cost and greater convenience of handling, but due to their quality standards lower than the standard diet, more tests are needed especially regarding the adaptability of the insect to the new environment. To determine the sterilizing dose this study examined the fertility, fecundity, emergence, flight ability and longevity under stress in A. fraterculus irradiated with 40, 50, 60, 70 and 80 Gy. The radiation source was a gamma irradiator with a Co-60 (Gamma beam-650) located in the same laboratory. The tests were performed under the following environmental conditions: 26 +- 1 deg C, 70 +- 5% RH and photoperiod of 12:12. The dose of gamma radiation sterilization for male A. sp. 1 aff. fraterculus was determined with 70 Gy. Irradiates females, even with the lower dose of 40 Gy, laid no eggs, possibly due to atrophy of the ovaries caused by radiation. The radiation did not affect the other quality parameters such as insect emergence, longevity and ability to fly. (author)

  1. First survey of fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) and parasitoid diversity among myrtaceae fruit across the state of Bahia, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Lidia Nogueira; Santos, Mírian Silva; Dutra, Vivian Siqueira; Araujo, Elton Lucio; Costa, Marco Antonio; Silva, Janisete Gomes

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the diversity of fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) species that use myrtaceous fruit, particularly guava, as hosts in several localities in the state of Bahia and to determine the infestation rates, pupal viability rates, and fruit fly-parasitoid associations. Sampling of myrtaceous fruit was carried out in 24 municipalities in different regions in the state of Bahia. Four fruit fly species, Anastrepha fraterculus, Anastrepha zenildae, Anastrepha sor...

  2. Description of a new Goliathid from the Cameroons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neervoort van de Poll, J.R.H.

    1890-01-01

    ♀. Brunneo-niger, nitidus ; plaga basalis prothoracis, scutellum elytraque (humeri excepti) tomento brunneo-olivaceo obtecta. Prothorax lateraliter margine angusta et ab angulis anticis linea obliqua, scutellum lateraliter vitta lata, elytra omnino maculis et atomis (quae maculae ad margines

  3. First survey of fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae and parasitoid diversity among myrtaceae fruit across the state of Bahia, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidia Nogueira Silva

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the diversity of fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae species that use myrtaceous fruit, particularly guava, as hosts in several localities in the state of Bahia and to determine the infestation rates, pupal viability rates, and fruit fly-parasitoid associations. Sampling of myrtaceous fruit was carried out in 24 municipalities in different regions in the state of Bahia. Four fruit fly species, Anastrepha fraterculus, Anastrepha zenildae, Anastrepha sororcula, and Ceratitis capitata were obtained from the collected fruit. Three parasitoid species (Hymenoptera: Braconidae emerged from Anastrepha larvae/pupae, Doryctobracon areolatus, Utetes anastrephae, and Asobara anastrephae. Doryctobracon areolatus emerged from A. fraterculus, A. sororcula and A. zenildae; Utetes anastrephae emerged from A. fraterculus and A. zenildae; and Asobara anastrephae emerged from A. fraterculus. Fruit fly and myrtaceous fruit associations are reported for the first time in several municipalities in the state of Bahia. A. zenildae was found infesting Syzygium malaccense for the first time in Brazil.

  4. Main predators of insect pests: screening and evaluation through comprehensive indices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Tingbang; Liu, Jie; Yuan, Longyu; Zhang, Yang; Peng, Yu; Li, Daiqin; Chen, Jian

    2017-11-01

    Predatory natural enemies play key functional roles in integrated pest management. However, the screening and evaluation of the main predators of insect pests has seldom been reported in the field. Here, we employed comprehensive indices for evaluating the predation of a common pest (Ectropis obliqua) by nine common spider species in Chinese tea plantations. We established the relative dominance of the spider species and their phenological overlap with the pest species, and analyzed DNA from the nine spider species using targeted real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction to identify the residual DNA of E. obliqua. The predation rates and predation numbers per predator were estimated by the positive rates of target fragments and the residual minimum number of E. obliqua in predators' guts, respectively. The results showed that only four spider species preyed on E. obliqua, and the order of potential of the spiders to control E. obliqua from greatest to smallest was Neoscona mellotteei, Xysticus ephippiatus, Evarcha albaria and Coleosoma octomaculatum by the Z-score method. The orb-weaving spider N. mellotteei has the maximum potential as a biological control agent of E. obliqua in an integrated pest management strategy. An approach of screening and evaluating main predators of insect pests through comprehensive indices was preliminarily established. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  5. Determinação de danos do gorgulho, Conotrachelus Psidii Marshall e captura de mosca-das-frutas, Anastrepha fFaterculus Wiedemann, com óleo de andiroba, Carapa Guianensis em goiabeira serrana Acca Sellowiana

    OpenAIRE

    Rosa, Joatan Machado da

    2011-01-01

    A goiabeira-serrana (Acca sellowiana (Berg) Burret) pertencente a família Myrtaceae, é uma espécie nativa com ampla dispersão nos planaltos meridionais do sul do Brasil. Além de espécie nativa e produzir frutos de odor e sabor diferenciado, razão pela qual seu cultivo comercial é incentivado pelo Departamento de Conservação da Biodiversidade do Ministério do Meio Ambiente. A goiabeira serrana tem sido cultivada sob os sistemas orgânico, convencional, ou ainda, os frutos coletad...

  6. Determinação de danos do gorgulho, Conotrachelus psidii Marshall e captura de mosca-das-frutas, Anastrepha fraterculus Wiedemann, com óleo de andiroba, Carapa guianensis em goiabeira serrana Acca sellowiana. Lages-SC 2011

    OpenAIRE

    Rosa, Joatan Machado da

    2011-01-01

    A goiabeira-serrana (Acca sellowiana (Berg) Burret) pertencente a família Myrtaceae, é uma espécie nativa com ampla dispersão nos planaltos meridionais do sul do Brasil. Além de espécie nativa e produzir frutos de odor e sabor diferenciado, razão pela qual seu cultivo comercial é incentivado pelo Departamento de Conservação da Biodiversidade do Ministério do Meio Ambiente. A goiabeira serrana tem sido cultivada sob os sistemas orgânico, convencional, ou ainda, os frutos coletad...

  7. Avaliação de atrativos alimentares utilizados no monitoramento de mosca-das-frutas em pessegueiro na lapa- PR Food attractants used in the monitoring of fruit flies in peach trees in lapa, Paraná (PR, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lino Bittencourt Monteiro

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available As moscas-das-frutas do gênero Anastrepha são uma praga-chave na cultura do pessegueiro no Paraná. Atrativos alimentares foram testados para determinar a sua eficiência no monitoramento de moscas-das-frutas capturadas em frascos caça-moscas McPhail. O experimento foi conduzido por três anos, sendo que, em 2002, foram testados como atrativo o suco de uva da marca Maguari®, o hidrolisado enzimático de proteína da marca BioAnastrepha® e o vinagre da marca Chemin Agrin®. Nos dois anos seguintes, o vinagre foi substituído pelo composto protéico hidrolisável da marca Torula®. As substâncias atrativas à base de proteína foram as mais eficientes na captura de Anastrepha spp., e as capturas ocorreram antecipadas em relação ao suco de uva. De acordo com os resultados, recomendam-se atrativos à base de proteína para monitoramento de Anastrepha spp em pessegueiro, na Lapa.Fruit flies of Anastrepha genus are a key pest in peach trees in Paraná. Food attractants were tested to determine their efficiency in monitoring fruit flies captured in McPhail fly traps. The experiment was conducted over a period of three years. In 2002 the following attractors were tested: Maguari® brand grape juice, BioAnastrepha® brand hydrolyzed enzymatic protein and Chemin Agrin® vinegar. Over the next two years, the vinegar was replaced by Torula® hydrolyzed protein compound. Protein-based attractants were the most efficient in trapping Anastrepha spp. and captured flies earlier comparing to grape juice. According to the results, the use of protein-based attractants for monitoring Anastrepha spp in the Lapa peach trees was recommended.

  8. A pictorial key and diagnosis of the Brazilian genera of Micropezidae (Diptera, Nerioidea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Borges Ferro

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available A pictorial key and diagnosis of the Brazilian genera of Micropezidae (Diptera, Nerioidea. This paper provides the first pictorial key and diagnosis for the Brazilian genera of the Micropezidae, based on external morphological characters illustrated with photographs. The key includes 13 genera: Cardiacephala Macquart, Cliobata Enderlein, Grallipeza Rondani, Metasphen Frey, Micropeza Meigen, Parasphen Enderlein, Planipeza Marshall, Plocoscelus Enderlein, Poecilotylus Hennig, Ptilosphen Enderlein, Rainieria Rondani, Scipopus Enderlein and Taeniaptera Macquart. For each genus, the species known to occur in Brazil are listed and their distribution records, including new ones, are provided.

  9. A report on the pupae of Desmometopa sp. (Diptera: Milichiidae) recovered from a human corpse in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumara, T K; Abu Hassan, A; Che Salmah, M R; Bhupinder, S

    2010-04-01

    The pupae of Desmometopa sp. (Diptera: Milichiidae) were collected from a human corpse found indoor in active decay stage together with the larvae of Sarcophagidae, Synthesiomyia nudiseta (Wulp), Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius) and Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart). This research note is the first report of the Desmometopa sp. recovered from a human corpse in Malaysia.

  10. Nomenclatural studies toward a world list of Diptera genus-group names. Part V

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Evenhuis, Neal L.; Pape, Thomas; Pont, Adrian C.

    and method of fixation, current status of the name, family placement, and a list of any emendations of it that have been found in the literature. Remarks are given to clarify nomenclatural or taxonomic information. In addition, an index to all the species-group names of Diptera proposed by Macquart (3...

  11. New floristic records in the Balkans: 2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2006-01-01

    caespitosa subsp. alpina (34), Plantago maritima subsp. serpentina (38), Thymus callieri subsp. callieri (31); Montenegro - Asperula hercegovina (73); Serbia - Allium paniculatum subsp. villosum (98), Viola obliqua (57); Turkey-in-Europe - Chamaecytisus jankae (37). subsp. (98), (57); Turkey-in-Europe - (37...

  12. Primary abductor hip contracture as diagnostic, prognostic and therapeutic problem in child hip pathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pajić Miloš

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Coxa obliqua represents a special functional entity in the pathology of the child hip. Authors have confirmed the results of S.L. Weissman and B. Strinovic which claimed that the abductor contracture of the hip was a primary congenital condition that developed as a result of intrauterine malposition, leading later to the contralateral adductor contracture. Critical period for the development of complications was between 6 and 8 month after birth, adductor contracture might keep persisting together with the development of acetabular dysplasia, and later on with ipsilateral subluxation. This malformation has usually been diagnosed within 3 and 6 months of age. It could be connected with some other signs of malposition, such as plagiocephaly, torticollis or infantile thoracic C scoliosis. For the diagnosis of coxa obliqua, the examination of hips in the prone position was very important and the ultrasonic and radiological examinations were crucial. The applied treatment used to be exclusively physical rehabilitation. Wide diapering has been contraindicated. In this study, we included 2,500 newborns, 1,300 boys and 1,200 girls (5,000 hips. In 22 cases of coxa obliqua (10‰, the excellent results were obtained in 96% of cases. In two unsuccessfully treated cases, a contralateral dysplasia developed, and in one untreated, subluxation. The authors are advocating a systematic and early detection and treatment of the primary coxa obliqua. .

  13. NUEVA LOCALIDAD GEOGRAFICA PARA BERBERIS NEGERIANA TISCHLER (BERBERIDACEAE) EN LA PROVINCIA DE ARAUCO, REGION DEL BIO-BIO, CHILE

    OpenAIRE

    Gómez, Persy; Belov, Michail; San Martín, José

    2008-01-01

    This note reports the finding of a population of Berberis negeriana Tischler (Berberidaceae), in the province of Arauco, Bío-Bío Region (37°42'17" S y 73°19'43" W) in the center south of Chile. The population was found between Nothofagus obliqua and species of the Valdiviano Forest.

  14. New records of fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae), wild hosts and parasitoids (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) in the Brazilian Amazon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jesus, Cristiane R. de; Oliveira, Manoela N. de; Silva, Ricardo A. da [EMBRAPA Amapa, Macapa, AP (Brazil); Pereira, Julia D.B. [Universidade Federal do Amapa, Macapa, AP (Brazil); Souza Filho, Miguel F. [Instituto Biologico, Campinas, SP (Brazil); Costa Neto, Salustiano V. da [Instituto de Pesquisas Cientificas e Tecnologicas do Amapa, Macapa, AP (Brazil); Marinho, Claudia F.; Zucchi, Roberto A. [Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz (ESALQ/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Entomologia, Fitopatologia e Zoologia Agricola

    2008-11-15

    Anastrepha anomala Stone was obtained from Parahancornia amapa (Huber) Ducke (Apocynaceae) fruits, and Anastrepha hastata Stone from Cheiloclinium cognatum (Miers.) (Hippocrateaceae) in the State of Amapa, Brazil. Two braconids, Doryctobracon sp. and Opius bellus Gahan, were reared from the latter fruit fl y species. This is the fi rst record of P. amapa as a fruit fl y host. C. cognatum is the fi rst host known to A. hastata. Both braconids are also the fi rst records of parasitoids for this species. (author)

  15. Blow Flies Visiting Decaying Alligators: Is Succession Synchronous or Asynchronous?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark P. Nelder

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Succession patterns of adult blow flies (Diptera: Calliphoridae on decaying alligators were investigated in Mobile (Ala, USA during August 2002. The most abundant blow fly species visiting the carcasses were Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart, Cochliomyia macellaria (Fabricus, Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricus, Phormia regina (Meigen, and Lucilia coeruleiviridis (Macquart. Lucilia coeruleiviridis was collected more often during the early stages of decomposition, followed by Chrysomya spp., Cochliomyia macellaria, and Phormia regina in the later stages. Lucilia coeruleiviridis was the only synchronous blow fly on the three carcasses; other blow fly species exhibited only site-specific synchrony. Using dichotomous correlations and analyses of variance, we demonstrated that blow fly-community succession was asynchronous among three alligators; however, Monte Carlo simulations indicate that there was some degree of synchrony between the carcasses.

  16. Summary of macrofloral biostratigraphy of Sydney Coalfield, Nova Scotia, Canada (Carboniferous, Westphalian/Cantabrian age)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zodrow, E.L. (University College of Cape Breton, Sydney, NS (Canada). Dept. of Geology)

    1989-04-01

    Bell's (1938) macrofloral biostratigraphy (three floristic zones of Westphalian C and D ages) of the Sydney Coalfield is fundamentally revised. The revision is based mainly on two lines of evidence: newly collected macrofloras (sphenophylls, odontopterids, pecopterids) by the present author and K. McCandlish since 1974 from the upper part of the Sydney Coalfield in the Point Aconi area, and extension of ranges for some of Bell's records, especially {ital S. cuneifolium} and {ital Linopteris obliqua}. As interpretative results, the age of the Sydney Coalfield is considered to be Westphalian C to Cantabrian (earliest Stephanian), with the two recognized macrofloristic zones ({ital Lonchopteris eschweileriana} and {ital L. obliqua} zones) of Westphalian C, and Westphalian D and Cantabrian ages, respectively. 21 refs., 4 figs.

  17. Evaluating mating compatibility within fruit fly cryptic species complexes and the potential role of sex pheromones in pre-mating isolation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Juárez, M. L.; Devescovi, F.; Břízová, Radka; Bachmann, G.; Segura, D. F.; Kalinová, Blanka; Fernández, P.; Ruiz, M. J.; Yang, J.; Teal, P. E. A.; Cáceres, C.; Vreysen, M. J. B.; Hendrichs, J.; Vera, M. T.

    -, č. 540 (2015), s. 125-155 ISSN 1313-2989 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 7AMB13AR018 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : species delimitation * field cages * Tephritidae * Anastrepha fraterculus * Bactrocera dorsalis Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.938, year: 2015 http://zookeys.pensoft.net/articles.php?id=6133

  18. Ionizing radiation as a phytosanitary treatment against fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae): Efficacy in naturally versus artificially infested fruit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Some phytosanitary irradiation treatments against tephritid fruit flies have been developed using artificial infestation of fruit without first comparing its effect on efficacy. In this study, efficacy was compared using infestation of grapefruit with Mexican fruit fly, Anastrepha ludens (Loew), vi...

  19. Functional comparison of three transformer gene introns regulating conditional female lethality

    Science.gov (United States)

    The trasformer gene plays a critical role in the sex determination pathways of many insects. We cloned two transformer gene introns from Anastrepha suspensa, the Caribbean fruit fly. These introns have sequences that putatively have a role in sex-specific splicing patterns that affect sex determinat...

  20. Power Spectrum Density of Stochastic Oscillating Accretion Disk GB ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    J., 672, 40. Harko, T., Mocanu, G. R. 2012, Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc., 421, 3102. Jauncey, D. L., Macquart, J. P. 2001, Astron. Astrophys., 370, L9. Kato, S. 2001, Publ. Astron. Soc. Jpn., 53, 1. Leung, C. S., Wei, J. Y., Harko, T. et al. 2011a, J. Astrophys. Astr., 32, 189. Leung, C. S., Wei, J. Y., Kovacs, Z. et al. 2011b, Res. Astron.

  1. Aquatic dance flies fauna (Diptera, Empididae: Clinocerinae and Hemerodromiinae) of Montenegro

    OpenAIRE

    Ivković, Marija; Mihaljević, Zlatko; Miliša, Marko; Previšić, Ana

    2013-01-01

    Adult aquatic dance flies (Empididae) were collected during July 2012 and July 2013 in Montenegro using sweep nets and by aspirator at 21 sampling sites. From 25 species recorded in this study, 22 species are new to the fauna of Montenegro: Chelifera pyrenaica Vaillant, Hemerodromia laudatoria Collin, Clinocera stagnalis (Haliday), Clinocera wesmaeli (Macquart), Clinocerella sorex (Engel), Dolichocephala guttata (Haliday), Kowarzia barbatula Mik, Kowarzia plectrum Mik, Roederiodes macedonicus...

  2. Aproximación al estudio de los discursos en el epítome de Justino

    OpenAIRE

    Ballesteros Pastor, Luis

    2009-01-01

    Justin’s Epitome records some speeches that Trogus had included in the Historiae Philippicae . Justin abridges and modifies a great deal of these passages, which appear in most cases in oratio obliqua, following an option that he attributes to Trogus. Justin’s manipulation of the text makes these discourses very problematic to study: sometimes they are extremely shortened, or they completely lack any kind of settings, or they are moved from their original place, or they may even appear in dir...

  3. A world revision of the bee fly tribe Usiini (Diptera, Bombyliidae) Part 2: Usia sensu stricto.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, David

    2014-05-22

    This is the second part of a world revision of the genera Usia Latreille and Parageron Paramonov, of the tribe Usiini Becker, and covers the pale-haired species, the Usia sensu stricto group. Usia sensu stricto as defined here contains 24 species of which 16 species fall into two monophyletic groups, the U. lata group with 10 species and the U. florea group with six species. Eight species cannot be placed in either of these two groups, four of them form two pairs of sibling species while the remaining four species have no clear affinities. Of the 25 formerly available names that belong in Usia sensu stricto, U. putilla Becker stat. rev., previously synonymised under U. angustifrons, is reinstated as a full species. U. sicula Egger syn. nov., is synonymised under U. manca Loew, U. anus Becker syn. nov., is synonymised under U. vestita Macquart and U. claripennis Macquart syn. nov., is synonymised under U. atrata (Fabricius). Usia vicina Macquart, formerly placed as a synonym of U. atrata, is shown to be a junior synonym of U. aenea Rossi. Five new species are described, U. anatoliensis sp. nov., U. annetteae sp. nov., U. greatheadi sp. nov., U. maghrebensis sp. nov. and U. cornigera sp. nov. Both the male and female genitalia are illustrated in detail for 21 species, female only in the cases of U. calva Loew and U. notata Loew and male only for U. incognita Paramonov.

  4. Eficácia de atrativos alimentares na captura de moscas-das-frutas em pomar de citros Attractiveness of food baits to the fruit flies in citrus orchard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adalton Raga

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available As moscas-das-frutas (Diptera: Tephritoidea são importantes pragas de frutas cítricas no Estado de São Paulo, principalmente Anastrepha fraterculus (Wied. e Ceratitis capitata (Wied.. O objetivo deste estudo foi medir a eficiência dos atrativos alimentares para monitoramento de moscas-das-frutas, em pomar de citros. O delineamento experimental adotado foi de blocos ao acaso com cinco tratamentos e cinco repetições. O ensaio foi instalado em 30/9/2003 e desenvolvidopor nove semanas. Os atrativos testados foram: proteínas hidrolisadas comerciais Bio Anastrepha, Isca Mosca e Aumax®, todas diluídas em água a 5%; melaço a 7% isoladamente e melaço a 7% em mistura com suco de laranja a 10%. Foram utilizados semanalmente, 400mL da solução atrativa por frasco plástico McPhail instalado na copa de laranjeiras da variedade 'Pêra Rio'. As soluções eram renovadas semanalmente, ocasião em que os adultos eram coletados e çevados ao laboratório para contagem, sexagem e identificação. Foram capturados 1.821 adultos de Tephritoidea, sendo 892 de Anastrepha spp., 731 de C. capitata e 198 de Neosilba spp. Para essas espécies, as proteínas Bio Anastrepha e Isca Mosca foram altamente eficientes e semelhantes entre si, capturando 44,5% e 41,3% dos adultos de Tephritidae respectivamente. Não houve diferença entre as espécies de Tephritidae analisadas por sexo capturadas em Bio Anastrepha, Aumax® e melaço. Aumax®, melaço isoladamente e melaço + suco de laranja atraíram apenas 4,6%, 1,3% e 1,2% do total de adultos de Tephritidae, respectivamente. Melaço isoladamente e melaço com suco de laranja foram mais eficazes na atratividade de Zaprionus indianus (Gupta (Diptera: Drosophilidae.Fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritoidea are key pests in citrus production in the State of São Paulo, Brazil, mainly Anastrepha fraterculus (Wied. and Ceratitis capitata (Wied.. The objective of this study was to evaluate food baits to monitor fruit fly

  5. Análise faunística e flutuação populacional de moscas-das-frutas (Diptera, Tephritidae em um fragmento de floresta semidecídua em Dourados, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brasil Faunistic study and populational fluctuation of fruit flies (Diptera, Tephritidae in a fragment of semideciduous forest in Dourados, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Canesin

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Determinou-se a composição das espécies de moscas-das-frutas, realizou-se a análise faunística de adultos de Tephritidae e verificou-se a correlação entre a flutuação populacional com os fatores climáticos: temperatura média, umidade relativa do ar e precipitação pluviométrica, medidos pelo coeficiente de Pearson (p The species composition of adult fruit flies and the faunistic study were determined. The populational fluctuation of fruit flies was correlated to climatic factors, by means of the coefficient of Pearson (p < 0.05. The samplings were carried out in the Picadinha Forest Reserve (22º09'20,5"S and 54º59'03,7"W/22º08'32,6"S and 55º00'01,2"W, at the Fazenda Paradouro II, municipality of Dourados. Eleven McPhail traps were installed at the edges of the Reserve and checked weekly, from May 2001 to May 2002. A check list of the 14 species of fruit flies caught in the traps is given. Anastrepha elegans Blanchard, 1961 was the dominant species. This is the first report of adult populations of Anastrepha amita Zucchi, 1979, A. elegans and Anastrepha pseudoparallela (Loew, 1873 in the State of Mato Grosso do Sul. Relative humidity was negatively correlated with the capture of A. elegans and Anastrepha serpentina (Wiedemann, 1830. Precipitation and mean temperature showed a positive correlation with the capture of Anastrepha sororcula Zucchi, 1979 and A. pseudoparallela, respectively.

  6. Contribución al Conocimiento de las Moscas de las Frutas (Tephritidae y sus Parasitoides en el Departamento de Antioquia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yepes R. Francisco

    1989-12-01

    Full Text Available Las moscas de las frutas constituyen, como grupo, la plaga insectil mas importante de estos cultivos en Colombia y en el mundo. Además de Anastrepha spp., la especie más dañina dentro de las verdaderas moscas de las frutas (Tephritidae, la mosca del Mediterráneo, fue detectada por primera vez en Colombia en 1986 y confirmada su presencia en Antioquia en abril de 1987. El trabajo se realizó en tres fases simultáneamente; una de campo (11 regiones, otra de laboratorio (procesamiento de muestras y la tercera consistió en la obtención de la identificación de las especies (moscas y parasitoides Los resultados fueron: 1.la especie más distribuida y frecuentemente registrada en mayor número de hospedantes fue Anastrepha striata; fue reportada por primera vez en guayabo anselmo (Campomanesia cornifolia y guayabo de mono (Bellucia axinanthera, 2.la especie que ataca a B. axinanthera en el nordeste y oriente antioqueños es A sp. "F-]", aparentemente no descrita y considerada dentro de un grupo actualmente bajo revisión, 3.en total se encontraron 13 especies diferentes de Tephritidae (incluyendo los géneros de Anastrepha, Ceratitis y Toxotrypana y siete especies de Lonchaeidae (Neosilba spp. y Dasiops spp., 4.dentro de los parasitoides de larva-pupa de Anastrepha spp. se destacan: Doryctobracon areolatus y D. crawfordi¡ Opius anastrephae, Asobara anastrephaey Microcrasis sp. pertenecientes a la familia Braconidae y Aganaspis pelleranoi (Eucoilidae y Aceratoneuromyia indicum (Eulophidae.

  7. Prolongevity effects of a botanical with oregano and cranberry extracts in Mexican fruit flies: examining interactions of diet restriction and age

    OpenAIRE

    Zou, Sige; Carey, James R.; Liedo, Pablo; Ingram, Donald K.; Yu, Binbing

    2011-01-01

    Botanicals rich with phytochemicals have numerous health benefits. Dietary restriction (DR) extends lifespan in diverse species. We previously demonstrated that an oregano–cranberry (OC) mixture can promote longevity in the Mexican Fruit fly (Mexfly, Anastrepha ludens Loew). However, little is known about the interaction between botanicals and DR, and the age-dependent effect of botanicals on lifespan and reproduction. Here we investigated these issues by feeding Mexflies a full or DR diet su...

  8. The dipteran family Celyphidae in the New World, with discussion of and key to world genera (Insecta, Diptera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen D. Gaimari

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The family Celyphidae (Diptera, Lauxanioidea is verified as part of the New World fauna, with a second specimen discovered of a species described from French Guiana in 1844 by P.J.M. Macquart. As this species possesses characteristics that clearly suggest a separate lineage from the Old World celyphids, a new genus is proposed, Atopocelyphus gen. n., with the type species, Celyphus ruficollis Macquart, in the new combination Atopocelyphus ruficollis (Macquart, comb. n. A key to world genera of Celyphidae is presented, along with discussion of generic concepts. Chamaecelyphus Frey is synonymized under Spaniocelyphus Hendel, syn. n., resulting in the following 10 new combinations: Spaniocelyphus africanus (Walker, comb. n.; S. dichrous (Bezzi, comb. n.; S. gutta (Speiser, comb. n.; S. halticinus (Frey, comb. n.; S. kalongensis (Vanschuytbroek, comb. n.; S. ruwenzoriensis (Vanschuytbroek, comb. n.; S. straeleni (Vanschuytbroek, comb. n.; S. upembaensis (Vanschuytbroek, comb. n.; S. violaceus (Vanschuytbroek, comb. n.; S. vrydaghi (Vanschuytbroek, comb. n. The subgenera of Celyphus Dalman are elevated to genus rank, as Paracelyphus Bigot, stat. rev., and Hemiglobus Frey, stat. rev., resulting in the following 17 new and revised combinations: Hemiglobus cheni (Shi, comb. n.; H. eos (Frey, comb. n.; H. lacunosus Frey, comb. rev.; H. pellucidus Frey, comb. rev.; H. planitarsalis (Shi, comb. n.; H. porosus (Tenorio, comb. n.; H. pulchmaculatus (Liu & Yang, comb. n.; H. quadrimaculatus (Tenorio, comb. n.; H. resplendens Frey, comb. rev.; H. rugosus (Tenorio, comb. n.; H. testaceus (Malloch, comb. n.; H. trichoporis (Shi, comb. n.; H. unicolor Frey, comb. rev.; H. violaceus Chen, comb. rev.; Paracelyphus hyacinthus Bigot, comb. rev.; P. medogis (Shi, comb. n.; P. vittalis (Shi, comb. n.

  9. Revision of the Neotropical Xanthandrus Verral (Diptera, Syrphidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borges Zuleica M.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The Neotropical genus Xanthandrus Verral, 1901 is revised. Six species are redescribed: X. bucephalus (Wiedemann, 1830, X. cubanus Fluke, 1936, X. mellinoides (Macquart, 1846, X. mexicanus Curran, 1930, X. nitidulus Fluke, 1937, and X. plaumanni Fluke, 1937. Three species are included based on original descriptions: X. flavomaculatus Shannon, 1927, X. palliatus (Fluke, 1945, and X. simplex (Loew, 1861. New synonyms proposed: Argentinomyia longicornis (Walker, 1837 = Xanthandrus biguttatus Hull, 1945 syn. nov., and Xanthandrus bucephalus (Wiedemann, 1830 = Melanostoma quadrinotata Bigot, 1884 syn. nov. Description of terminalia, a key for Neotropical species, and illustrations are also presented.

  10. Larval morphology of Chrysomya nigripes (Diptera: Calliphoridae), a fly species of forensic importance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukontason, Kabkaew L; Vogtsberger, Roy C; Boonchu, Noppawan; Chaiwong, Tarinee; Sripakdee, Duanghatai; Ngern-Klun, Radchadawan; Piangjai, Somsak; Sukontason, Kom

    2005-05-01

    The morphology of all instars of Chrysomya nigripes Aubertin, a blow fly species of forensic importance, is presented with the aid of both light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Morphological features of the cephalopharyngeal skeleton, anterior spiracle, posterior spiracle, and dorsal spines between the prothorax and mesothorax are highlighted. No consistent features were found, even using SEM, for distinguishing the first instar of C. nigripes from that of Chrysomya megacephala (F.) or Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart), two other commonly associated blow fly species in corpses in Thailand. Several features observed in second and third instars proved to be valuable characteristics for separating these species.

  11. Chrysomya albiceps and C. rufifacies (Diptera: Calliphoridae): contribution to an ongoing taxonomic problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tantawi, T I; Greenberg, B

    1993-05-01

    Until recently, the two biologically equivalent blow flies Chrysomya albiceps (Wiedemann) and Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart) had disjunct distributions outside the Americas; the former was Palaearctic, the latter Australasian and Oriental. The two species are now spreading throughout the Americas and coexist in Argentina. The predatory "hairy" larvae of both species are difficult to separate, which could result in taxonomic errors. New diagnostic characters are presented to differentiate the third instars of the two species. The usefulness of the prostigmatic bristle as a diagnostic taxonomic character in distinguishing adults of these species is questioned.

  12. Larval morphology of Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius) (Diptera: Calliphoridae) using scanning electron microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukontason, Kabkaew L; Sukontason, Kom; Piangjai, Somsak; Boonchu, Noppawan; Chaiwong, Tarinee; Vogtsberger, Roy C; Kuntalue, Budsabong; Thijuk, Natchanart; Olson, Jimmy K

    2003-06-01

    The larval morphology of Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius) is presented using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Extreme similarity of this species to Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart), a species usually found concurrently inhabiting decomposing human corpses in Thailand, is seen only in the first-instar larvae. The relative thickness of the branches of the posterior spiracular hairs in these species could be used to differentiate them in this developmental stage. In contrast, the "hairy" appearance of C. rufifacies allows second- and third-instar larvae to be easily distinguished. Results of this study should help in future endeavors to differentiate C. megacephala from other larvae found in decomposing human corpses in Thailand.

  13. Aproximación al estudio de los discursos en el Epítome de Justino

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ballesteros Pastor, Luis

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Justin’s Epitome records some speeches that Trogus had included in theHistoriae Philippicae. Justin abridges and modifies a great deal of these passages, which appear in most cases in oratio obliqua, following an option that he attributes to Trogus. Justin’s manipulation of the text makes these discourses very problematic to study: sometimes they are extremely shortened, or they completely lack any kind of settings, or they are moved from their original place, or they may even appear in direct style.

  14. Aproximación al estudio de los discursos en el Epítome de Justino

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Ballesteros Pastor

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Justin’s Epitome records some speeches that Trogus had included in the Historiae Philippicae . Justin abridges and modifies a great deal of these passages, which appear in most cases in oratio obliqua, following an option that he attributes to Trogus. Justin’s manipulation of the text makes these discourses very problematic to study: sometimes they are extremely shortened, or they completely lack any kind of settings, or they are moved from their original place, or they may even appear in direct style.

  15. Blowfly succession from possum (Trichosurus vulpecula) carrion in a sheep-farming zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, M D; Allen, G R; Horton, B J

    2006-12-01

    The significance of brushtail possum, Trichosurus vulpecula Kerr (Diprotodontia: Phalangeridae) carcasses to the succession and production of Diptera species and its relevance to fly strike management in Tasmania, Australia was examined. Calliphora stygia (Fabricius), Lucilia sericata (Meigen) and Calliphora vicina Robineau-Desvoidy (Diptera: Calliphoridae) were found to be the most abundant and Lucilia cuprina (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Calliphoridae) always the least abundant (Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart) (Diptera: Calliphoridae), Chrysomya varipes (Macquart) (Diptera: Calliphoridae) and putative tertiary flies (Hydrotaea rostrata Robineau-Desvoidy (Diptera: Muscidae)) to the number of C. vicina or C. stygia to emerge. There was enormous variability in the numbers of secondary/tertiary fly species to emerge from carcasses (0-11 450) that negatively correlated with the proportion of all flies to emerge that were primary, and with the mean size of adult L. sericata. Although carcass temperatures, especially those with a large larval population, were elevated, this did not appear to result in significant pre-adult fly mortality. The most important primary fly strike species L. cuprina was only found in insignificant numbers, whereas three other members of the fly strike fauna C. stygia, L. sericata and Ch. rufifacies did use possum carrion as an important breeding resource, but left implications for fly strike management inconclusive.

  16. Dataset of traumatic myiasis observed for three dominant screw worm species in North West Pakistan with first report of Wohlfahrtia magnifica (Schiner).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaidi, Farrah; Fatima, Syeda Hira; Gul, Ayesha

    2016-09-01

    Regional surveys were carried out in different parts of North West Pakistan among domestic animals (N=57,921) including pets and livestock identifying cases of traumatic myiasis (n=1037). A total of four surveys focused general livestock population during Eid ul Adha (Eid surveys; incidence=1.21%) while another four surveys (Miscellaneous surveys; incidence=7.34%) targeted animal population brought to veterinary hospitals and dispensaries. Timeframe spanned four years from 2012 to 2015. Maggots were sampled and location of the wound was recorded for each host. Taxonomic identification used light and electron microscopic techniques. Our dataset shows three species as principle agents of myiasis (n=882) including Chrysomya bezziana Villeneuve (n=394), Wohlfahrtia magnifica (n=244) and Lucilia cuprina Wiedemann (n=244). Others (n=155) including Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius), Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart), Lucilia sericata (Meigen), Lucilia illustris (Meigen), Lucilia porphyrina (Walker), Hemipyrellia ligguriens (Wiedemann), Calliphora vicina (Robineau-Desvoidy), Sarcophaga crassipalpalis (Macquart) and Sarcophaga species were identified as species of minor importance. The obligatory screwworm species W. magnifica is a first report from Pakistan. The results based on this dataset are presented in a recent publication "Distribution Modeling of three screwworm species in the ecologically diverse landscape of North West Pakistan" (Zaidi et al., 2016) [1].

  17. Dataset of traumatic myiasis observed for three dominant screw worm species in North West Pakistan with first report of Wohlfahrtia magnifica (Schiner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farrah Zaidi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Regional surveys were carried out in different parts of North West Pakistan among domestic animals (N=57,921 including pets and livestock identifying cases of traumatic myiasis (n=1037. A total of four surveys focused general livestock population during Eid ul Adha (Eid surveys; incidence=1.21% while another four surveys (Miscellaneous surveys; incidence=7.34% targeted animal population brought to veterinary hospitals and dispensaries. Timeframe spanned four years from 2012 to 2015. Maggots were sampled and location of the wound was recorded for each host. Taxonomic identification used light and electron microscopic techniques. Our dataset shows three species as principle agents of myiasis (n=882 including Chrysomya bezziana Villeneuve (n=394, Wohlfahrtia magnifica (n=244 and Lucilia cuprina Wiedemann (n=244. Others (n=155 including Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius, Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart, Lucilia sericata (Meigen, Lucilia illustris (Meigen, Lucilia porphyrina (Walker, Hemipyrellia ligguriens (Wiedemann, Calliphora vicina (Robineau-Desvoidy, Sarcophaga crassipalpalis (Macquart and Sarcophaga species were identified as species of minor importance. The obligatory screwworm species W. magnifica is a first report from Pakistan. The results based on this dataset are presented in a recent publication “Distribution Modeling of three screwworm species in the ecologically diverse landscape of North West Pakistan” (Zaidi et al., 2016 [1].

  18. Species composition of carrion blow flies in northern Thailand: altitude appraisal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moophayak, Kittikhun; Klong-Klaew, Tunwadee; Sukontason, Kom; Kurahashi, Hiromu; Tomberlin, Jeffery K; Sukontason, Kabkaew L

    2014-01-01

    Distribution and occurrence of blow flies of forensic importance was performed during 2007 and 2008 in Chiang Mai and Lampang Provinces, northern Thailand. Surveys were conducted in forested areas for 30 minutes using a sweep net to collected flies attracted to a bait. A total of 2,115 blow flies belonging to six genera and 14 species were collected; Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius) (44.7%), C. pinguis (Walker) (15.1%), C. chani Kurahashi (9.3%), C. thanomthini Kurahashi & Tumrasvin (0.3%); Achoetandrus rufifacies (Macquart) (10.5%), A. villeneuvi (Patton) (2.2%); Lucilia papuensis Macquart (2.2%), L. porphyrina (Walker) (12.4%), L. sinensis Aubertin (0.7%); Hemipyrellia ligurriens (Wiedemann) (1.3%), H. pulchra (Wiedemann) (0.1%); Hypopygiopsis infumata (Bigot) (0.6%), Hy. tumrasvini Kurahashi (0.2%) and Ceylonomyia nigripes Aubertin (0.4%). Among them, C. megacephala was the predominant species collected, particularly in the summer. The species likely to prevail in highland areas are C. pinguis, C. thanomthini, Hy. tumrasvini, L. papuensis and L. porphyrina.

  19. Ultrastructure of male genitalia of blow flies (Diptera: Calliphoridae) of forensic importance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sontigun, Narin; Sanit, Sangob; Wannasan, Anchalee; Sukontason, Kom; Amendt, Jens; Yasanga, Tippawan; Sukontason, Kabkaew L

    2018-03-01

    Male genitalia of blow flies (Diptera: Calliphoridae) are distinctive in their morphological features and are often used for species identification. The aim of this work was to investigate the male genitalia of blow flies of medical and forensic importance from Thailand at the ultrastructural level, using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Flies in two subfamilies were examined: Chrysomyinae [Chrysomya bezziana Villeneuve, Chrysomya chani Kurahashi, Chrysomya nigripes Aubertin, Chrysomya pinguis (Walker), Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart), Chrysomya thanomthini Kurahashi & Tumrasvin, and Chrysomya villeneuvi Patton] and Luciliinae [Hemipyrellia ligurriens (Wiedemann), Hypopygiopsis infumata (Bigot), Hypopygiopsis tumrasvini Kurahashi, Lucilia cuprina (Wiedemann), Lucilia papuensis Macquart, Lucilia porphyrina (Walker), and Lucilia sinensis Aubertin]. Particular attention was paid to the main distinguishing features such as the shapes of the cercus and the surstylus, and the complex structure of the distiphallus. The differentiation of the male genitalia of these species at the SEM level is discussed and compared to the conditions in closely related species such as Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius). A key for the identification of 14 blow fly species based on male genitalia is provided. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. SPECIES COMPOSITION OF CARRION BLOW FLIES IN NORTHERN THAILAND: ALTITUDE APPRAISAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kittikhun Moophayak

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Distribution and occurrence of blow flies of forensic importance was performed during 2007 and 2008 in Chiang Mai and Lampang Provinces, northern Thailand. Surveys were conducted in forested areas for 30 minutes using a sweep net to collected flies attracted to a bait. A total of 2,115 blow flies belonging to six genera and 14 species were collected; Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius (44.7%, C. pinguis (Walker (15.1%, C. chani Kurahashi (9.3%, C. thanomthini Kurahashi & Tumrasvin (0.3%; Achoetandrus rufifacies (Macquart (10.5%, A. villeneuvi (Patton (2.2%; Lucilia papuensis Macquart (2.2%, L. porphyrina (Walker (12.4%, L. sinensis Aubertin (0.7%; Hemipyrellia ligurriens(Wiedemann (1.3%, H. pulchra(Wiedemann (0.1%; Hypopygiopsis infumata (Bigot (0.6%, Hy. tumrasvini Kurahashi (0.2% and Ceylonomyia nigripes Aubertin (0.4%. Among them, C. megacephala was the predominant species collected, particularly in the summer. The species likely to prevail in highland areas are C. pinguis, C. thanomthini, Hy. tumrasvini, L. papuensis and L. porphyrina.

  1. Forensically important calliphoridae (diptera) associated with pig carrion in rural north-central Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruner, Susan V.; Slone, D.H.; Capinera, J.L.

    2007-01-01

    A study to determine the relative abundance and seasonality of forensically important blow flies (Diptera: Calliphoridae) in rural north-central Florida was conducted using pig carcasses (Sus scrofa L.) as models for human bodies. Seven species of Calliphoridae were collected: Lucilia coeruleiviridis (=Phoenicia) (Macquart), Cochliomyia macellaria (F.), Chrysomya rufifaces (Macquart), Phormia regina (Meigen), Chrysomya megacephala (F.), and a few specimens of Calliphora livida Hall, and Calliphora vicina Robineau-Desvoidy. Species composition in aerial collections of adult flies, preserved larval collections, and samples of larvae reared to the adult stage were all highly correlated. Relative abundance of the species found was significantly different, with L. coeruleiviridis the most abundant species year-round. The relative abundance of the collected species varied significantly by day of decomposition and by season, with significant interactions between season and day, season and species, and day and species. L. coeruleiviridis, C. macellaria, C. rufifaces, and P. regina were found during the entire year, two C. vicina specimens and 11 C. livida specimens were collected from December to March, whereas C. megacephala was collected only from June through September. ?? 2007 Entomological Society of America.

  2. Effect of emulsion size and shelf life of azadirachtin A on the bioefficacy of neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) emulsifiable concentrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, L; Parmar, B S

    2000-08-01

    In a study of 33 recipes of neem oil based emulsifiable concentrates, the specific surface area of the emulsions and cream plus oil layer separation in emulsions at 24 h revealed a correlation of -0.6874 between them and correlations of -0.8940 and 0.6972, respectively, with bioefficacy (LC(50)) against the 3-day-old second-instar larvae of the Bihar hairy caterpillar, Spilosoma obliqua Walker. Nearly 96-99% of azadirachtin A in emulsifiable concentrates (aza-A content = 617.93-1149.65 ppm) degraded during the heat stability test at 54 +/- 1 degrees C for 14 days with half-lives ranging between 1.84 and 4.53 days. The LC(50) values against S. obliqua were, however, statistically at par in both the pre- and the post-heat-treated samples, suggesting a similar effect of azadirachtin A and its degradation products on the bioactivity. The half-life of azadirachtin A could be enhanced by storing the concentrates at lower temperatures. A low pH of the formulation solvent did not check the degradation of azadirachtin A, as reported with aqueous solutions in the literature.

  3. Males of Hylamorpha elegans burmeister (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) are attracted to odors released from conspecific females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiroz, Andrés; Palma, Ruben; Etcheverría, Paulina; Navarro, Vicente; Rebolledo, Ramón

    2007-04-01

    The behavioral responses of Hylamorpha elegans L. (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae, Rutelinae) to the semiochemicals released from conspecific individual adults were studied, with particular attention paid to female attraction of males. Odors released from virgin females significantly attracted male conspecifics in both the field and laboratory olfactometer and wind tunnel bioassays. However, females did not attract other females, and males attracted no one. The response of male H. elegans to (1) compounds (1,4-hydroquinone and 1,4-benzoquinone) released only by unmated females; (2) the essential oil of the secondary host (Nothofagus obliqua); and (3) the blend of 1,4-hydroquinone and 1,4-benzoquinone with N. obliqua essential oil was studied. The blend of 1,4-benzoquinone mixed with essential oil at the trial concentration was attractive with males. The same response was found with 1,4-hydroquinone alone. The essential oil did not have the expected attractant effect on conspecific males. These results suggest that, when combined with essential oil, 1,4-benzoquinone may function in the sexual behavior of males and females. These findings are discussed in terms of the ecological role of this putative sexual pheromone and its potential use in a strategy of control of this pest.

  4. Evaluation of ionizing radiation as quarantine treatment in Tephritidae (Diptera)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anjos Duarte, A.L. dos.

    1991-01-01

    Gamma irradiation was used to treat: eggs at different ages of C. capitata, third instar larvae of C. capitata, A. fraterculus and A. obliqua, papayas infested with a known number of C. capitata eggs; papayas and mangoes with C. capitata and A. fraterculus eggs and first instar and mangoes infested with third instar larvae of C. capitata and A. fraterculus. Third instar irradiated larvae of C. capitata were more sensitive than larvae of A. fraterculus and A. obliqua in terms of pupation rate. The pupation and emergence rate were different when C. capitata eggs of 24 and 48 h were irradiated in vitro and in papaya. C. capitata infesting either papaya or mango presented higher frequency of fruits heavily infested (more than 100 pupae per fruit), when compared with A. fraterculus. No emergence was found in C. capitata and A. fraterculus when infested fruits were irradiated at 40, 80 and 160 Gy. The dose of 150 Gy is recommended not only to provide no adult emergence but also to decrease the number of pupae when the commodity is infested by eggs and young larvae. (author)

  5. Advances and perspectives in the mass rearing of fruit fly parasitoids in Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cancino, Jorge; Montoya, Pablo [Secretaria de Agricultura, Ganaderia, Desarrollo Rural, Pesca y Alimentacion (DGSV/SENASICA/SAGARPA), Chiapas (Mexico). Servicio Nacional de Sanidad, Inocuidad y Calidad Agroalimentaria. Programa Moscamed-Moscafrut

    2006-07-01

    Biological control by augmentation is applied in Mexico as part of an integrated pest management program against native fruit flies of the genus Anastrepha Schiner. The exotic parasitoid Diachasmimorpha longicaudata has been the most important species used within this context. A program for the mass rearing of 50 million parasitized pupa per week has been established in southeast Mexico, and these are released into the field according to a yearly national plan based on industry requirements. In order to reduce costs and optimize procedures, important advances have been made in the technology for mass production, including an increase in the weight of host larvae (24 mg), changes in the management of host exposition, improvements in the management of environmental conditions, suitability in time and motions are the main areas addressed. Furthermore, a quality control program is routinely applied, and the key parameters under constant evaluation are: 1) weight and volume of host larvae, 2) host mortality after exposure, 3) weight and volume of pupae, and 4) percent parasitoid viability and percent emergence. Good performance in these parameters produces adults with adequate longevity and fecundity, high flight ability and good searching behavior. The introduced egg parasitoid Fopius arisanus and the native pupal parasitoid Coptera hawardi are being evaluated for use in the future as a complement to releases into the field of D. longicaudata. Manipulating host size and exposition time, the use of starting diet and suppressing host development by irradiation, have permitted the effective use of Anastrepha eggs as hosts for the rearing of F. arisanus. Further achievements in the mass rearing of C. haywardi (e.g., the suppression of unparasitized hosts after irradiation), could give us the opportunity to employ new options to reinforce the augmentative biological control of Anastrepha fruit flies in Mexico. (author)

  6. Advances and perspectives in the mass rearing of fruit fly parasitoids in Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cancino, Jorge; Montoya, Pablo

    2006-01-01

    Biological control by augmentation is applied in Mexico as part of an integrated pest management program against native fruit flies of the genus Anastrepha Schiner. The exotic parasitoid Diachasmimorpha longicaudata has been the most important species used within this context. A program for the mass rearing of 50 million parasitized pupa per week has been established in southeast Mexico, and these are released into the field according to a yearly national plan based on industry requirements. In order to reduce costs and optimize procedures, important advances have been made in the technology for mass production, including an increase in the weight of host larvae (24 mg), changes in the management of host exposition, improvements in the management of environmental conditions, suitability in time and motions are the main areas addressed. Furthermore, a quality control program is routinely applied, and the key parameters under constant evaluation are: 1) weight and volume of host larvae, 2) host mortality after exposure, 3) weight and volume of pupae, and 4) percent parasitoid viability and percent emergence. Good performance in these parameters produces adults with adequate longevity and fecundity, high flight ability and good searching behavior. The introduced egg parasitoid Fopius arisanus and the native pupal parasitoid Coptera hawardi are being evaluated for use in the future as a complement to releases into the field of D. longicaudata. Manipulating host size and exposition time, the use of starting diet and suppressing host development by irradiation, have permitted the effective use of Anastrepha eggs as hosts for the rearing of F. arisanus. Further achievements in the mass rearing of C. haywardi (e.g., the suppression of unparasitized hosts after irradiation), could give us the opportunity to employ new options to reinforce the augmentative biological control of Anastrepha fruit flies in Mexico. (author)

  7. Gamma irradiation as a quarantine treatment for carambolas infested with Caribbean fruit flies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gould, W.P.; Windeguth, D.L. von

    1991-01-01

    Carambolas infested with the Caribbean fruit fly Anastrepha suspensa (Loew), eggs and larvae were exposed to ionizing gamma radiation. Probit 9 was estimated to be 22.95 Gy (95% fiducial limits 16.68 Gy - 49.73 Gy). Over 100,000 immature A. suspensa infesting carambolas were treated at 50 Gy with no adult survivors. This dose did not cause any observable damage to the fruit. The 50 Gy dose satisfies quarantine requirements for treatment of fruits exposed from fruit fly infested areas. (author) [es

  8. Isolation, identification and determination of the biological activity of candidate fruit volatile components from Argania spinosa L. (Sapotacea)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakri, A.; Dueben, B.D.; Proveaux, A.T.; Heath, R.R.

    2006-01-01

    This study provides detailed information on the diversity, abundance, guilds, host plant and host fly ranges, distribution, and taxonomic status of hymenopterous parasitoid species associated with Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) and Anastrepha spp. (A. fraterculus (Wiedemann) and A. schultzi Blanchard) in Argentina. Moreover, the article also argues future needs regarding the use of some parasitoid species as an alternative tool in fruit fly management programs of the National Fruit Fly Control and Eradication Program (PROCEM-Argentina). Data used for this work were obtained from numerous old and recent published articles on fruit fly parasitoids in Argentina. (author)

  9. Gamma irradiation followed by cold storage as a quarantine treatment for Florida grapefruit infested with Caribbean fruit fly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Von Windeguth, D.L.; Gould, W.P.

    1990-01-01

    'Marsh' white grapefruit, Citrus paradisi (Macf.). infested with eggs and larvae of Caribbean fruit fly, Anastrepha suspensa (Loew) were subjected to ionizing radiation at several low doses followed by cold (1.1°C) storage for 0 to 8 days. Data analyses indicated that an irradiation dose of 50 Gray followed by 5 days of cold storage will give in excess of probit 9 level of quarantine security. A test involving more than 100,000 insects infesting grapefruit confirmed the efficacy of this treatment

  10. Biologia da mosca‑das‑frutas sul‑americana em frutos de mirtilo, amoreira‑preta, araçazeiro e pitangueira Biology of South American fruit fly in blueberry, blackberry, strawberry guava, and Surinam cherry crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maicon Bisognin

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi descrever a biologia de Anastrepha fraterculus em frutos de mirtilo (Vaccinium ashei, amoreira‑preta (Rubus spp., araçazeiro (Psidium cattleyanum e pitangueira (Eugenia uniflora. O experimento foi realizado em laboratório, em condições controladas de temperatura (25±2ºC, umidade relativa (70±10% e fotófase (12 horas, para determinação dos parâmetros biológicos do inseto nos estágios de desenvolvimento imaturos e adultos. Anastrepha fraterculus completa o ciclo biológico em todos hospedeiros estudados, embora os frutos nativos (pitanga e araçá ofereçam melhores condições para seu desenvolvimento. Os parâmetros biológicos determinados para as fases imaturas foram semelhantes nos quatro hospedeiros. Insetos criados em pitanga e araçá apresentam, na fase adulta, maior período de oviposição, fecundidade e longevidade de fêmeas, em comparação aos criados em mirtilo e amora‑preta. O ritmo diário de oviposição é mais prolongado e uniforme nos insetos criados em araçá e pitanga, o que mostra que A. fraterculus está mais bem adaptada a estas frutas, nativas da região Sul.The objective of this work was to describe the biology of Anastrepha fraterculus in blueberry (Vaccinium ashei, blackberry (Rubus spp., strawberry guava (Psidium cattleyanum and Surinam cherry (Eugenia uniflora fruits. The experiment was carried out in laboratory under controlled conditions of temperature (25±2ºC, relative humidity (70±10%, and photophase (12 hours to determine insect biological parameters in immature and adult development stages. Anastrepha fraterculus finishes its biological cycle in all studied hosts; however, the Brazilian native fruits (strawberry guava and Surinam cherry provide better conditions for development of the insect. Biological parameters determined for immature development stadium were similar in the four hosts. Insects reared in Surinam cherry and strawberry guava showed, in the

  11. Isolation, identification and determination of the biological activity of candidate fruit volatile components from Argania spinosa L. (Sapotacea)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bakri, A., E-mail: bakri@ucam.ac.m [University Cadi Ayyad, Marrakech (Morocco). Fac. of Science Semlalia. Insect Biological Control Unit; Dueben, B.D.; Proveaux, A.T.; Heath, R.R., E-mail: rheath@saa.ars.usda.go [U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA/REE-ARS), Miami, FL (United States). Agricultural Research Service

    2006-07-01

    This study provides detailed information on the diversity, abundance, guilds, host plant and host fly ranges, distribution, and taxonomic status of hymenopterous parasitoid species associated with Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) and Anastrepha spp. (A. fraterculus (Wiedemann) and A. schultzi Blanchard) in Argentina. Moreover, the article also argues future needs regarding the use of some parasitoid species as an alternative tool in fruit fly management programs of the National Fruit Fly Control and Eradication Program (PROCEM-Argentina). Data used for this work were obtained from numerous old and recent published articles on fruit fly parasitoids in Argentina. (author)

  12. Contribución al conocimiento de las moscas de las frutas (tephritidae) y sus parasitoides en el departamento de antioquia

    OpenAIRE

    Yepes R., Francisco; Vélez A., Raúl

    2012-01-01

    Las moscas de las frutas constituyen, como grupo, la plaga insectil mas importante de estos cultivos en Colombia y en el mundo. Además de Anastrepha spp., la especie más dañina dentro de las verdaderas moscas de las frutas (Tephritidae), la mosca del Mediterráneo, fue detectada por primera vez en Colombia en 1986 y confirmada su presencia en Antioquia en abril de 1987. El trabajo se realizó en tres fases simultáneamente; una de campo (11 regiones), otra de laboratorio (procesamiento de ...

  13. Desarrollo de herramientas moleculares para la evaluación de la calidad genética y productividad en la cría artificial de Diachasmimorpha longicaudata, agente de control biológico de moscas plaga de los frutos

    OpenAIRE

    Mannino, María Constanza

    2016-01-01

    Diachasmimorpha longicaudata Ashmead (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) es un endoparasitoide solitario de estadios larvales de moscas de la fruta perteneciente a la familia Tephritidae. Es criado a nivel masivo en bioplantas y utilizado en diversas partes del mundo para las estrategias de control biológico (CB) principalmente de dípteros de importancia económica de los géneros Ceratitis, Anastrepha y Bactrocera. Actualmente, se estudia su implementación en nuestro país para el control de Ceratitis ca...

  14. ESTUDIO DE LAS VISITAS DE LAS MOSCAS DE LAS FLORES (DIPTERA: SYRPHIDAE EN Salvia bogotensis (LAMIACEAE EN EL JARDÍN BOTÁNICO JOSÉ CELESTINO MUTIS (BOGOTÁ D.C., COLOMBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zamora Monica

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de esta investigación fue describir la interacción entre Salvia bogotensis (Lamiaceae y las moscas de las flores (Diptera: Syrphidae en un ambiente urbano, el jardín botánico "José Celestino Mutis" (Bogotá D.C.. Una vez comprobada la existencia del síndrome de entomofilia, se caracterizó la morfología floral, la composición taxonómica, la riqueza y la abundancia de las especies de sírfidos identificadas como visitantes florales, así como la morfometría cefálica y bucal. S. bogotensis presenta el síndrome de la entomofilia con ausencia de autofecundación. La comunidad de sírfidos asociada con esta comprende nueve especies, agrupadas en cinco géneros. Las especies son Allograpta neotropica Curran, 1936, Allograpta exotica Wiedermann, 1830, Allograpta annulipes Macquart, 1850, Allograpta aenea Hull, 1937, Lejops mexicana Macquart, 1842, Platycheirus ecuadoriensis Fluke, 1945, Platycheirus fenestrata Macquart, 1842, Syrphus shoree Fluke, 1950 y Toxomerus sp. 1. Las especies de moscas identificadas presentan en su conjunto características conductuales y morfológicas asociadas a polinizadores de baja eficiencia, con una baja tasa de visitas, incapacidad de activación de los balancines y un mínimo contacto corporal del insecto con las anteras y el estigma de la flor. Adicionalmente, las moscas presentan una carga muy baja de granos de polen de S. bogotensis sobre el cuerpo y alta inversión de tiempo en la limpieza de su cuerpo (acicalamiento. Las flores visitadas por estos insectos no dieron origen a frutos. Todo lo anterior permite concluir que dichas moscas no son polinizadores efectivos de S. bogotensis. Además de dípteros, se observaron varias especies de insectos visitantes florales de S. bogotensis pertenecientes a las familias Apidae, Halictidae y Megachilidae. Los sírfidos se benefician por el consumo de polen de S. bogotensis, pero no interfieren en el crecimiento y el desarrollo de la planta, por lo cual

  15. Regeneración de un bosque mixto de Nothofagus (Nothofagaceae después de una corta selectiva Regeneration of a Nothofagus (Nothofagaceae mixed forest after selective cutting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALEJANDRO DEZZOTTI

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available El estudio de la ecología de la regeneración natural del bosque constituye una parte esencial de la silvicultura. El cerro Tren Tren (40°12' S, 71°26' O, 1.367 m, Reserva Mapuche Curruhuinca, Argentina está ocupado por un bosque cerrado compuesto por Nothofagus dombeyi, N. nervosa y N. obliqua. En 1994 se estimó la densidad de renovales (diámetro en la base del tallo Understanding forest regeneration is essential to develop sound, ecologically-based silvicultural practices. Mount Tren Tren (40°12' S, 71°26' W, 1,367 m, Reservation Mapuche Curruhuinca, Argentina is occupied by a closed stand of Nothofagus dombeyi, N. obliqua, and N. nervosa. In 1994, tree regeneration (root collar diameter < 10 cm was estimated to be 90 ind ha-1. After that, a group selection silvicultural system was implemented and the resulting 10 artificial gaps of between 1,587 and 4,322 m² were enclosed to prevent grazing by domestic livestock. Size and age structure of regeneration were analysed based on systematic and random samplings. All tree species became established simultaneously within the artificial gaps. However, the less light demanding N. nervosa exhibited a mean age slightly larger given its differential persistence as "advanced regeneration" previous to cutting treatment. Tree regeneration was estimated in 97,006 ind ha-1 (68 % of N. dombeyi, 20 % of N. obliqua, and 12 % of N. nervosa. Regeneration abundance and composition were unrelated to shape and size of regeneration gaps, nor to abundance of adult trees within the stand and along the gap boundaries. A significant positive effect of the enclosure on plant was observed. The 86 % of juvenile Nothofagus were present when understory height and cover were low to intermediate. The management plan is considered adequate if the abundance of regeneration is compared before and after its implementation, and encourages the use and conservation of this forest type under the current silvicultural system

  16. Seasonal and habitat abundance and distribution of some forensically important blow flies (Diptera: Calliphoridae) in Central California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brundage, Adrienne; Bros, Shannon; Honda, Jeffrey Y

    2011-10-10

    Seasonal and habitat calliphorid abundance and distribution were examined weekly for two years (2001-2003) in Santa Clara County, California, using sentinel traps baited with bovine liver. Of the 34,389 flies examined in three defined habitats (rural, urban, and riparian), 38% of the total catch represented Compsomyiops callipes (Bigot) and 23% represented Phormia regina (Meigen). Other flies collected in this survey included Calliphora vomitoria (Linnaeus), Calliphora latifrons (Hough), Lucilia sericata (Meigen), Lucilia cuprina (Wiedemann), and Lucilia mexicana (Macquart), which is a new record for the area. Multivariate MANOVA and ANOVA (P ≤ 0.05) analysis indicate significant seasonal habitat preference for all fly species examined. This information may be used to identify potentially forensically impo rtant fly species within Santa Clara County, California. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  17. Influence of rain and malathion on the oviposition and development of blowflies (Diptera: Calliphoridae) infesting rabbit carcasses in Kelantan, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahat, N A; Zafarina, Z; Jayaprakash, P T

    2009-11-20

    The influence of rain and malathion on the initial oviposition as well as development of blowfly species infesting rabbit carcasses decomposing in sunlit and shaded habitats were studied over a period of 1 year in Kelantan, Malaysia. Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius) was the most dominant species that infested the carcasses, followed by Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart). In general, rain, depending on its intensity, delayed initial oviposition by 1-2 days and prolonged the pupation period by 1-3 days. The presence of malathion in the carcasses delayed initial oviposition by 1-3 days and prolonged the pupation period by 2-3 days. These findings deserve consideration while estimating postmortem interval since rain is a commonplace occurrence in Malaysia and malathion is one of the common poisons as an agent for choice to commit suicide.

  18. Occurrence of oriental flies associated with indoor and outdoor human remains in the tropical climate of north Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumara, T K; Disney, R H L; Abu Hassan, A; Flores, Micah; Hwa, Tan Siew; Mohamed, Zulqarnain; CheSalmah, M R; Bhupinder, S

    2012-06-01

    Flies attracted to human remains during death investigations were surveyed in north Peninsular Malaysia. Six families, eight genera, and 16 species were identified from human remains, with the greatest fly diversity occurring on remains recovered indoors. The total relative frequency of species was led by Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius, 1794) (46%), followed by Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart, 1842) (22%), Sarcophaga (Liopygia) ruficornis (Fabricius, 1974) (5%), Sarcophaga spp. (4%), Synthesiomyia nudiseta Wulp, 1883 (6%), Megaselia spp. (3%), Megaselia scalaris (Loew, 1866), (2%), Megaselia spiracularis Schmitz, 1938 (2%), and Chrysomya villeneuvi Patton, 1922 (2%). Hemipyrellia tagaliana (Bigot, 1877), Desmometopa sp., Megaselia curtineura (Brues, 1909), Hemipyrellia ligurriens Wiedemann 1830, Ophyra sp., Sarcophaga princeps Wiedemann 1830, Piophila casei (Linnaeus, 1758), and unidentified pupae each represented 1%, respectively. © 2012 The Society for Vector Ecology.

  19. Hairy maggot of Chrysomya villeneuvi (Diptera: Calliphoridae), a fly species of forensic importance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukontason, Kom; Sukontason, Kabkaew L; Piangjai, Somsak; Chaiwong, Tarinee; Boonchu, Noppawan; Kurahashi, Hiromu

    2003-11-01

    We reported on the hairy maggot of Chrysomya villeneuvi Patton, collected from a human corpse in Thailand. Although the general morphology of the third instar closely resembled the more common hairy maggot blow fly, Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart), the spines along the tubercles of each body segment could be used as a feature to distinguish between these species, with those of C. villeneuri bearing sharp-ended spines that encircle the entire tubercle. Not only has the resemblance of a hairy appearance between C. villeneuvi and C. rufifacies larvae been documented but also their similarity in predacious feeding behavior. The differentiation between these two species is necessary for post-mortem interval estimation in the corpse.

  20. Identification of forensically important fly eggs using a potassium permanganate staining technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukontason, Kom; Sukontason, Kabkaew L; Piangjai, Somsak; Boonchu, Noppawan; Kurahashi, Hiromu; Hope, Michelle; Olson, Jimmy K

    2004-01-01

    Fly eggs found in corpses can be utilized as entomological evidence in forensic investigations of deaths if the species of fly and the developmental rate at a temperature similar to the death scene are known. The species identification of fly eggs is particularly important, and previously, scanning electron microscope has been used for this purpose. Herein, we report a simple technique, using light microscopy, to identify forensically important eggs of Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart), Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius), Chrysomya pacifica Kurahashi, Chrysomya nigripes Aubertin, Aldrichina grahami (Aldrich), Lucilia cuprina (Wiedemann), Musca domestica L. and Megaselia scalaris (Loew). A 1% potassium permanganate solution was used to stain egg surfaces for 1 min, followed by dehydration in 15, 70, and 95%, absolute alcohol (each solution for 1 min) and the eggs were permanently mounted. The characteristics are based on the width of plastron, morphology of plastron area surrounding the micropyle and chorionic sculpturing, with the length of egg being used as supplemental feature.

  1. Effects of temperature on Chrysomya rufifacies (Diptera:Calliphoridae) development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrd, J H; Butler, J F

    1997-05-01

    Growth curves were studied for the egg, larva, and pupa of Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart) under mean cyclic temperatures of 15.6, 21.1, 26.7, and 35.0 degrees C and a constant temperature of 25.0 degrees C. Development from egg to adult under all regimes ranged from 190 to 598 h. A constant temperature of 25 degrees C produced a range of pupation times from 134 to 162 h, with adult emergence ranging from 237 to 289 h. The maximal preferential temperature of 35.1 degrees C was determined for maggots using a gradient system. Highly predictable developmental time, minimal larval length variation, and low cohort variation emphasize the utility of this species in entomological-based postmortem interval determinations. Therefore, C. rufifacies should be of primary forensic importance when recovered alone or in conjunction with other species of Calliphoridae.

  2. Morphology of second and third instars of Chrysomya villeneuvi Patton (Diptera: Calliphoridae), a fly species of forensic importance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukontason, Kom; Sukontason, Kabkaew L; Piangjai, Somsak; Narongchai, Paitoon; Samai, Wirachai; Boonchu, Noppawan; Sripakdee, Duanghatai; Ngern-Klun, Radchadawan; Siriwattanarungsee, Sirisuda

    2005-11-25

    The morphology of the second and third instars of Chrysomya villeneuvi Patton, a fly species of forensic importance, was presented by use of light microscopy. Both instars were of hairy appearance, bearing elongated tubercles along the abdominal and caudal segments. The anterior spiracle had 13-15 papillae. Minute dark spots were observed to thoroughly cover the tubercle's surface, with 4-6 strong dark tips. Regarding the third instar, the intersegmental spines between the prothorax and mesothorax were heavily pigmented. The posterior spiracle had a thick and heavily pigmented incomplete peritreme. The surface and tip of the tubercles was covered with heavily pigmented sharp spines. The integument of the body was covered with numerous distinct net-like patches. A comparison with another well-known hairy maggot, Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart), was discussed.

  3. Blow fly maggots (Diptera: Calliphoridae)from a human corpse in a vehicle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sribanditmongkol, Pongruk; Monum, Tawachai; Wannasan, Anchalee; Tomberlin, Jeffery K; Sukontason, Kom; Sukontason, Kabkaew L

    2014-09-01

    Correct species identification and development data of insects associated with a cadaver can help estimate the time of colonization which could be used to infer a minimal post-mortem interval (minPMI) for forensic investigations. Human remains are found in a variety of locations ranging from open fields to inside automobiles. We report the investigation of blow fly larvae collected from a decomposing body located in the trunk of a car. There were two blow fly (Diptera: Calliphoridae) species: Achoetandrus rufifacies (Macquart) and Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius). Blow flies can enter the vehicle and colonize human remains. Based on age estimations of third stage larvae of A. rufifacies, the minPMI was estimated to be 4-5 days, which was within the range of 3-5 days estimated by other forensically relevant information.

  4. First report of human myiasis caused by Chrysomya megacephala and Chrysomya rufifacies (Diptera: Calliphoridae) in Thailand, and its implication in forensic entomology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukontason, Kabkaew L; Narongchai, Paitoon; Sripakdee, Duanghatai; Boonchu, Noppawan; Chaiwong, Tarinee; Ngern-Klun, Radchadawan; Piangjai, Somsak; Sukontason, Kom

    2005-07-01

    We report a forensic entomology case associated with human myiasis in Chiang Mai Province, northern Thailand. The remains of a 53-yr-old-male were concurrently infested with third instars of the two blow fly species, Chrysomya megacephala (F.) and Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart), near a severe tumor lesion presented on the lower right leg. The presence of third instars, approximately 5 d old, on the day following postmortem indicated that myiasis occurred before death. This is the first report of both fly species acting as a myiasis-producing agent in Thailand. Unsynchronized data between the age of fly larvae due to myiasis premortem and verified age/ condition of the corpse suggest a potential complication and error in the estimation of postmortem interval if other predisposition fly infestations are not considered.

  5. Origin and diversification of hoverflies: a revision of the genera Asarkina and Allobaccha – A BIG4 Consortium PhD project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trevor Burt

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This BIG4 PhD project involves the overall taxonomic revision of the genera Allobaccha Curran and Asarkina Macquart (Diptera: Syrphidae. The revisions will be divided by biogeographic region (Afrotropical and Indomalayan and published accordingly. The publications will be collated as a thesis for submission to the University of Bonn (Rheinische Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universität Bonn, Germany doctoral program of biology. The goal of this project is to resolve alpha taxonomy and to infer the phylogenetic placement of these genera within the Syrphidae using Next-Generation Sequencing and Anchored Hybrid Enrichment techniques. The techniques undertaken in this project will be applied to future systematic problems in Diptera and testing future phylogenetic hypotheses.

  6. Natural infection of Culex theileri (Diptera: Culicidae) with Dirofilaria immitis (Nematoda: Filarioidea) on Madeira Island, Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santa-Ana, Marta; Khadem, Manhaz; Capela, Ruben

    2006-01-01

    Field and laboratory studies were performed to verify whether Culex theileri Theobald functions as a natural vector of Dirofilaria immitis (Leidy) on Madeira Island, Portugal. CO2-baited light traps (EVS traps) were use to sample mosquitoes monthly basis between February 2002 and February 2003 in the area of Quebradas (Funchal). Three mosquito species were captured, including 58 Culex pipiens L., 790 Cx. theileri, and three Culiseta longiareolata (Macquart). Only C. theileri tested positive for D. immitis. The presence of this filarial worm was detected by direct observation, infectivity assay dissection technique, and polymerase chain reaction methods. Infected mosquitoes were recovered in October and December 2002 and January 2003. These data provide evidence that Cx. theileri could be the main vector of D. immitis in Funchal, Madeira.

  7. FAMILY PSYCHODIDAE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bejarano, Eduar Elías; Estrada, Luis Gregorio

    2016-06-14

    A catalogue is presented of the species of haematophagous and non-haematophagous psychodids recorded in Colombia. The list comprises 199 species distributed among five subfamilies and 16 genera, as follows: Subfamily Bruchomyiinae, genus Nemopalpus Macquart, 1838 (4 species); subfamily Phlebotominae, genera Brumptomyia França & Parrot, 1921 (8 species), Lutzomyia França, 1924 (153 species) and Warileya Hertig, 1948 (2 species); subfamily Psychodinae, genera Arisemus Satchell, 1955 (3 species), Australopericoma Vaillant, 1975 (1 species), Balbagathis Quate, 1996 (1 species), Clogmia Enderlein, 1937 (1 species), Didicrum Enderlein, 1937 (1 species), Feuerborniella Vaillant, 1971 (1 species), Lepidiella Enderlein, 1937 (1 species), Maruina Müller, 1895 (4 species), Paramormia Enderlein, 1935 (1 species), Parasetomima Duckhouse, 1968 (1 species) and Psychoda Latreille, 1796 (7 species); subfamily Sycoracinae, genus Sycorax Haliday, 1839 (5 species); and subfamily Trichomyiinae, genus Trichomyia Haliday, 1839 (5 species).

  8. LEVANTAMENTO POPULACIONAL E ANÁLISE FAUNÍSTICA DE LEPIDOPTERA EM Eucalyptus spp. NO MUNICÍPIO DE PINHEIRO MACHADO, RS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oderlei Bernardi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to collect, to study and to characterize the fauna of lepidopterous associated with Eucalyptus spp., plantation in the Municipality of Pinheiro Machado, in RS state. In the period of October 2005 to October 2007, every 15 days, collections of insects were accomplished with three light traps. After selection and transfixion procedures, the lepidopterous were identified based on entomological collections and specialized literature. Two thousand and twenty individuals belonging to 14 families, 106 genera and 220 species were collected. The families with the highest number of species collected were: Noctuidae (59, Geometridae (30, Arctiidae (28 and Saturniidae (14. According to the fauna classification the most species were considered not dominant, uncommon, rare and accidental. Among the species identified, there were some whose larvae are defoliators of the eucalypts: Oxydia agliata, (Geometridae, Sarsina violascens (Lymantriidae, Automeris illustris, Eacles imperialis magnifica and Lonomia obliqua (Saturniidae, which needs to have their populations monitored.

  9. Efeitos do uso em sistema faxinal na florística e estrutura em duas áreas da Floresta Ombrófila Mista no munícipio de Rebouças, PR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jey Marinho de Albuquerque

    2011-01-01

    distributed in 16 families, whereas in Faxinal Marmeleiro de Cima, 445 individuals were inventoried, pertaining to 22 species, 18 genera, distributed in 11 families. The species with highest importance value in Faxinal Marmeleiro de Baixo were Mosiera prismatica (26.46% and Campomanesia xanthocarpa (7.67%, while in Faxinal Marmeleiro de Cima they were Casearia obliqua (28.59% and Capsicodendron dinisii (13.27%. Taking into account the results of this study, it can be concluded that historical (phytophisiognomy and ecological factors (the area of the fragments and the occurrence of anthropic disturbances represent important elements that characterize the composition and richness of species in forest fragments using the forest under a Faxinal System.

  10. Conodont zonation of Lower Triassic strata in Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tea Kolar-Jurkovšek

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of a conodont study carried out in the Triassic strata in the area of the Slovenian part of the Southern Alps, External Dinarides and the Transition region between the External and Internal Dinarides. The following conodont zones have been distinguished: Hindeodus praeparvus Z., H. parvus Z., Isarcicella lobata Z., I. staeschei – I. isarcica Z., H. postparvus Z., Hadrodontina aequabilis Z., Ha. anceps Z., Eurygnathodus costatus Z., Neospathodus planus Z., N. robustus Z., Platyvillosus corniger Z., Pl. regularis Z., Pachycladina obliqua Z., Foliella gardenae Z., Triassospathodus hungaricus Z., T. symmetricus Z., N. robustispinus - T. homeri Z. and T. triangularis Z. The introduced conodont zonation spans from the Induan, including the Permian-Triassic boundary interval to the late Olenekian and is valid for the shallow shelf environments of western Tethys.

  11. Biological aspects of Periga circumstans Walker, 1855 (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae: Hemileucinae with larvae reared on khaki and mate-plant leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Specht

    Full Text Available The goal of the present study was to investigate biological aspects of Periga circumstans Walker, 1855 (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae: Hemileucinae whose larvae were fed on leaves of khaki-plant (Diospyros khaki Linnaeus - Ebenaceae and Mate-plant (Ilex paraguariensis Saint Hilaire - Aquifoliaceae leaves. The biological parameters were obtained from specimens kept under controlled conditions: temperature of 25 ± 1 °C, relative humidity of 70 ± 10%, and photoperiod of 12 hours. For each developmental stage, morphological and ethological parameters are described. The larvae passed through six instars with a growth average rate of 1.4 for each instar. The host plants influenced significantly only the total duration of the larval phase, which was prolonged for larvae fed on khaki-plant leaves. Several aspects related to the morphology and the ethology of P. circumstans are similar to those described for Lonomia obliqua Walker, 1855.

  12. Estudio comparativo del crecimiento y la ramificación de brotes anuales en dos especies de Nothofagus (Nothofagaceae y en híbridos inter-específicos Comparative study of annual shoot growth and branching in two species of Nothofagus (Nothofagaceae and inter-specific hybrids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian Torres

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Las ramas principales y secundarias se diferencian en mayor o menor medida según las especies, lo cual puede observarse en base al crecimiento primario de los brotes que las originan. En ejemplares de vivero juveniles-adultos de Nothofagus obliqua, N. nervosa e híbridos entre ambas especies, se compararon la dinámica de alargamiento, el tamaño y la morfología de dos brotes distales de ramas principales: uno que continúa el alargamiento de la rama principal y el otro que inicia una rama secundaria. En N. alpina y en híbridos, los dos brotes más distales se diferencian más que en N. obliqua. A pesar de la homogeneidad ambiental en el vivero y el origen geográfico común para los ejemplares de N. nervosa y los híbridos, hubieron diferencias fenológicas y morfológicas entre estas entidades. La duración y tasa de alargamiento y la longitud final de los brotes fueron altamente variables en cada entidad. Las variaciones entre entidades en la diferenciación de ejes podrían indicar diferencias en sus capacidades de uso del espacio circundante. La diferenciación entre ramas principales y secundarias se iniciaría en el estado de yema. La variación intra-específica fenológica y morfológica es útil para programas de selección artificial de individuos.Main and secondary branches are more or less differentiated according to the species and this could be observed during the primary growth of the shoots that produce them. In young-adult trees of Nothofagus obliqua, N. nervosa and hybrids between them growing in a common garden, growth dynamics, size and morphology were compared between two distal shoots produced by main branches: one of these shoots continued the extension of the main branch whereas the other initiated a secondary branch. The two distal shoots differed from each other more notably in N. nervosa and in the hybrids than in N. obliqua. Despite the environmental homogeneities at the nursery and the common geographic origin of

  13. Ocorrência precoce da mosca das frutas em ameixas Incidence of the southamerican fruit fly on plums

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Antonio Salles

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi verificar qual o estágio fenológico mais precoce da fruta de ameixeira em que ocorreria o ataque de mosca das frutas Anastrepha fraterculus. Os estudos foram conduzidos em plantas adultas de ameixeira, expondo-se fêmeas grávidas da mosca das frutas, confinadas em gaiolas com frutos protegidos do ataque natural. Cinco cultivares de ameixeira foram estudados (Amarelinha, Pluma 7, Reubennel, Santa Rosa e Wade. Essa praga ataca frutos de qualquer um dos cultivares logo nos primeiros estádios do desenvolvimento, quando os mesmos têm somente cerca de 2 a 3cm de diâmetro.The incidence of the southamerican fruit fly, Anastrepha fraterculus, on plum cultivars is reported. The objective of this study was to know the earliest fruit phase that fly attack could occur. Fertilized females were confined with fruits in plum trees in an orchard. Five plums cultivars were studied: Amarelinha; Pluma 7; Reubennel; Santa Rosa and Wade. This pest attack fruits during first stages of their development, mainly they have only from 2 to 3 centimeters of diameter.

  14. Hongos de importancia agrícola presentes en moscas de la fruta del valle de Ica, Perú

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos E. Tipismana

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del presente trabajo fue aislar e identificar hongos de especímenes de moscas de la fruta de los géneros Ceratitis (Macleay y Anastrepha (Schiner, del valle de Ica, Perú. Se aislaron hongos pertenecientes a los géneros Alternaria, Aspergillus, Cladosporium, Mucor, Penicillium, Rhizoctonia, Rhizopus y Trichoderma;así como levaduras y micelios estériles. Los recuentos de hongos presentaron rangos entre 8x103 a 8x104 UFC/g para el género Ceratitis; y 7x103 a 7x104 UFC/g para el género Anastrepha. El IVI% (Índice de Valor de Importancia demostró que Cladosporium es el género con mayor valor ecológico con un 78,05%. El Índice de Similitud de especies de hongos entre ambos géneros de mosca de la fruta analizados fue 0,5. Los resultados obtenidos confirman la presencia de hongos en moscas de la fruta; y se deduce el posible impacto de estos dípteros en el área agrícola como potenciales agentes vectores de enfermedades fúngicas para los cultivos locales de importancia económica.

  15. Parasitoid diversity (Hymenoptera: Braconidae and Figitidae on frugivorous larvae (Diptera: Tephritidae and Lonchaeidae at Adolpho Ducke Forest Reserve, Central Amazon Region, Manaus, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SGM. Costa

    Full Text Available This study aimed to identify parasitoid species of frugivorous larvae and to describe the tritrophic interactions involving wild fruits, frugivorous insects and their natural enemies at Adolpho Ducke Forest Reserve (RFAD (Manaus, AM, Brazil. Collections were performed in four 1 km² quadrants in the corners of the RFAD. The wild fruits were collected inside the forest in access trails leading to each collection area and in trails that surrounded the quadrants, up to five metres from the trail on each side. The fruits were placed in plastic containers covered with thin fabric, with a vermiculite layer on the base to allow the emergence of flies or parasitoids. Seven Braconidae species were collected, distributed among Opiinae: Doryctobracon areolatus (Szépligeti, 1911, Utetes anastrephae (Viereck, 1913, and Opius sp., and Alysiinae: Asobara anastrephae (Muesebeck, 1958, Phaenocarpa pericarpa Wharton and Carrejo, 1999, Idiasta delicata Papp, 1969, and Asobara sp. Parasitism rates by braconids and figitids are presented. Doryctobracon areolatus was the most frequent, parasitizing the highest number of fly species, and showing the highest parasitism percentage in larvae feeding on Micropholis williamii fruits. The collected figitids belong to Aganaspis nordlanderi Wharton, 1998 and A. pelleranoi (Brethes, 1924. All 15 tritrophic associations are new records for the Brazilian Amazon region. The RFAD is an important natural reservoir of frugivorous larvae parasitoids.

  16. Comparison of two synthetic food-odor lures for captures of feral Mexican fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Mexico and implications regarding use of irradiated flies to assess lure efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robacker, David C; Thomas, Donald B

    2007-08-01

    Feral Mexican fruit flies, Anastrepha ludens (Loew) (Diptera: Tephritidae), were trapped in a citrus orchard in Mexico by using two types of synthetic food-odor lures, the AFF lure (Anastrepha fruit fly lure, APTIV, Inc., Portland, OR) and the BioLure (two-component MFF lure, Suterra LLC, Inc., Bend, OR). In Multilure traps (Better World Manufacturing, Inc., Miami, FL) containing water, BioLures captured about the same numbers of flies as AFF lures. In Multilure traps containing antifreeze solution, BioLures captured 2 and 5 times more flies than AFF lures in two experiments. BioLures, and AFF lures did not differ in attractiveness when used on sticky traps (Intercept trap, APTIV, Inc.; and sticky cylinder trap). Multilure traps captured >4 times as many flies as sticky traps with the exception that captures of females did not differ between Multilure and sticky traps baited with AFF lures. The percentage of females captured in Multilure traps was greater when traps were baited with BioLures compared with AFF lures, but the reverse was true for sticky traps. Sticky cylinder traps captured a higher percentage of females than Multilure traps. The most effective trap/lure combination was the Multilure trap baited with BioLure and antifreeze. In comparison with tests of these two lures in Texas, results were similar for Multilure traps, but they differed for sticky cylinder traps in that AFF lures were consistently more attractive than BioLures in Texas, but not in Mexico.

  17. INTERSPECIFIC COMPETITION BETWEEN NATIVE AND EXOTIC FRUIT FLY PARASITOIDSIN MIXED ORCHARDS IN MACEIO, ALAGOAS, BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JAKELINE MARIA DOS SANTOS

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to assess the effects of the release and establishment of the exotic parasitoid Diachasmimorpha longicaudata (Ashmead, 1905 (Hymenoptera: Braconidae and its interspecific competitive relationship with native fruit fly parasitoids in organic and conventional orchards in Maceio, State of Alagoas, Brazil. The exotic parasitoids were reared in the Radio - Entomology Laboratory of the Center for Nuclear Energy in Agriculture, University of São Paulo, Piracicaba, São Paulo, and released (112,350 individuals between five and eight days old in orchards from June 8 to July12, 2013.Fruit samples were collected randomly every week during one year to assess the D. longicaudata recaptured from plants and fallen fruits on the ground, which were taken to the Entomology Laboratory of the CECA - UFAL, classified and individually placed in plastic containers, containing a layer of 1 cm of sand for pupation of the host larvae. The pupae, obtained after 10 days, were placed in Petri dishes with a layer of sand until the emergence of adults, which were then kept in plastic microtubes, containing ethanol 70%. The release of exotic parasitoids did not displace native species. The same species were found before and after the release in both cultures: Doryctobracon areolatus , Asobara anastrephae , Utetes anastrephae and Opius bellus (Braconidae, Aganaspis pelleranoi (Figitidae and individuals of the Pteromalidae family. One year after the last release, 44 individuals of the exotic parasitoid were found, showing its establishment in the studied areas.

  18. Produtividade, incidência de podridão-parda e danos por pragas em pêssego cultivado sob produção integrada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise Larissa May de Mio

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available O sistema de produção integrada (IP é uma tecnologia que permite aumentar a segurança alimentar, diminuir a aplicação de produtos químicos e o impacto ambiental. Este trabalho comparou dois pomares de pêssego da cultivar Chimarrita, um deles sob produção integrada e o outro sob manejo convencional (CP, situados na Lapa, Paraná, Brasil. O manejo do pomar CP foi o usualmente aplicado pelos produtores locais, e o manejo IP foi o recomendado pelas Normas Brasileiras de Produção Integrada de Pêssego. Durante três safras (2002, 2003 e 2004, produtividade, calibre dos frutos, incidência de podridão parda e danos (causados por Grapholita, Anastrepha, lagartas e outras causas foram quantificados em ambos os sistemas. O número de aplicações de inseticidas e fungicidas no CP foi maior que no IP, tal qual ocorreu com a incidência de podridão-parda. Grapholita molesta, Anastrepha spp. e lagartas foram mantidas sob controle durante as três safras. A produtividade, bem como o tamanho dos frutos, foram maiores no IP, indicando as vantagens desse sistema de produção.

  19. Reflectance-based determination of age and species of blowfly puparia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voss, Sasha C; Magni, Paola; Dadour, Ian; Nansen, Christian

    2017-01-01

    Forensic entomology is primarily concerned with the estimation of time since death and involves determination of the age of immature insects colonising decomposing remains. Accurate age determination of puparia is usually accomplished by dissection, which means destructive sampling of evidence. As part of improving abilities to correctly identify species and developmental age, it is highly desirable to have available non-destructive methods. In this study, we acquired external hyperspectral imaging (HSI) data (77 spectral bands, 389-892 nm) from the dorsal and ventral sides of individual puparia of two species of blowfly (Diptera: Calliphoridae), Calliphora dubia Macquart 1855 and Chrysomya rufifacies Macquart 1842. Puparia were dissected to determine the presence/absence of eight internal morphological development characteristics (legs, wings, labella, abdominal segments, antennae, thoracic bristles, orbital/facial bristles and eye colour and arista). Based on linear discriminant analysis and independent validation of HSI data, reflectance features from puparia could be used to successfully (1) distinguish the two species (classification accuracy = 92.5 %), (2) differentiate dorsal and ventral sides of puparia (classification accuracy C. dubia = 81.5 %; Ch. rufifacies = 89.2 %) and (3) predict the presence of these morphological characteristics and therefore the developmental stage of puparia (average classification accuracy using dorsal imaging: C. dubia = 90.3 %; Ch. rufifacies = 94.0 %). The analytical approach presented here provides proof of concept for a direct puparial age relationship (i.e. days since the onset of pupation) between external puparial reflectance features and internal morphological development. Furthermore, this approach establishes the potential for further refinement by using a non-invasive technique to determine the age and developmental stage of blowflies of forensic importance.

  20. Distribution Modeling of three screwworm species in the ecologically diverse landscape of North West Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaidi, Farrah; Fatima, Syeda Hira; Khisroon, Muhammad; Gul, Ayesha

    2016-10-01

    North West Pakistan (NWP) is characterized by four eco-zones: Northern Montane Region, North Western Hills, Submontane Region and Indus Plains. Present study identified 1037 cases of traumatic myiasis in the region during 2012-2015. Screw worm larvae were classified as 12 species: Chrysomya bezziana (Villeneuve), Chryomya megacephala (Fabricius), Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart), Lucilia cuprina (Wiedemann), Lucilia sericata (Meigen), Lucilia illustris (Meigen), Lucilia porphyrina (Walker), Hemipyrellia ligguriens (Wiedemann), Calliphora vicina (Robineau-Desvoidy), Wohlfahrtia magnifica (Schiner), Sarcophaga crassipalpalis (Macquart), Sarchophaga species. Among these C. bezziana, L. cuprina and W. magnifica with approximately 882 case reports were the principal agents of traumatic myiasis. The species W. magnifica is a first report from Pakistan. In order to investigate spatial distribution of these dominant species we used MaxEnt niche model. Our results revealed a well-established occurrence of C. bezziana and L. cuprina in the four eco-regions while W. magnifica is currently contained in the Submontane Region. Several hot spot areas of infestation were detected all characterized by high human population density showing synanthropic nature of these species. Wohlfahrtia magnifica was excluded from Northern Montane Region with severe winters and Southern Indus Plains with harsh summers revealing that invasive species are initially sensitive to extreme of temperatures. Presence of L. cuprina in the wet areas of North Humid Belt (Maximum annual precipitation: 1641mm) depicted a moisture preference of the species. In perspective of changing climate and future predictions of severe events such as droughts and flooding in NWP, W. magnifica can potentially alter the species composition. Considering these findings in an eco-geographically dynamic region of Pakistan we predict that two factors (1) Growing human population (2) Climatic conditions, equally contribute to range

  1. Thermoregulation in larval aggregations of carrion-feeding blow flies (Diptera: Calliphoridae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slone, D.H.; Gruner, Susan V.

    2007-01-01

    The growth and development of carrion-feeding calliphorid (Diptera Calliphoridae) larvae, or maggots, is of great interest to forensic sciences, especially for estimation of a postmortem interval (PMI). The development rate of calliphorid larvae is influenced by the temperature of their immediate environment. Heat generation in larval feeding aggregations (=maggot masses) is a well-known phenomenon, but it has not been quantitatively described. Calculated development rates that do not include internally generated temperatures will result in overestimation of PMI. Over a period of 2.5 yr, 80 pig, Sus scrofa L., carcasses were placed out at study sites in north central Florida and northwestern Indiana. Once larval aggregations started to form, multiple internal and external temperatures, and weather observations were taken daily or every few days between 1400 and 1800 hours until pupation of the larvae. Volume of each aggregation was determined by measuring surface area and average depth. Live and preserved samples of larvae were taken for species identification. The four most common species collected were Lucilia coeruleiviridis (=Phaenicia) (Macquart) (77%), Cochliomyia macellaria (F.) (8.3%), Chrysomya rufifaces (Macquart) (7.7%), and Phormia regina (Meigen) (5.5%). Statistical analyses showed that 1) volume of a larval mass had a strong influence on its temperature, 2) internal temperatures of masses on the ground were influenced by soil temperature and mass volume, 3) internal temperatures of masses smaller than 20 cm3 were influenced by ambient air temperature and mass volume, and 4) masses larger than 20 cm3 on the carcass had strongly regulated internal temperatures determined only by the volume of the mass, with larger volumes associated with higher temperatures. Nonsignificant factors included presence of rain or clouds, shape of the aggregation, weight of the carcass, species composition of the aggregation, time since death, or season.

  2. Taxonomia e morfologia de espécies neotropicais de Graphomya Robineau-Desvoidy (Diptera, Muscidae Taxonomic study of neotropical species of Graphomya Robineau-Desvoidy (Diptera, Muscidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bianca Marques

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Graphomya Robineau-Desvoidy (Diptera, Muscidae pode ser reconhecido por padrões cromáticos característicos no mesonoto e abdômen e pelas cerdas catepisternais 0:2. Das 14 espécies citadas na literatura para a Região Neotropical, sete são redescritas, com descrições das terminálias masculina e feminina - G. analis (Macquart, G. maculata (Scopoli, G. meridionalis Townsend, G. mexicana Giglio-Tos, G. occidentalis Arntfield, G. podexaurea(Enderlein e G. tropicalis Malloch, aqui revalidada. Ilustrações coloridas do mesonoto e do abdômen são apresentadas para facilitar o reconhecimento das espécies. O neótipo de G. maculata é designado. A fêmea de G. podexaurea é registrada pela primeira vez. O registro geográfico das seguintes espécies é ampliado: G. meridionalis para o Equador e Peru; G. mexicana e G. podexaurea para o Brasil; G. tropicalis para Colômbia e Brasil.Graphomya Robineau-Desvoidy (Diptera, Muscidae is recognized by characteristic color patterns on mesonotum and abdomen and by the disposition of the katepisternal setae 0:2. From the 14 species recorded in the Neotropical Region, seven are redescribed with the descriptions of male and female terminalia - G. analis (Macquart, G. maculata (Scopoli, G. meridionalis Townsend, G. mexicana Giglio-Tos, G. occidentalis Arntfield, G. podexaurea(Enderlein and G. tropicalis Malloch, herein revalidated. Colored illustrations of mesonotum and abdomen are presented in order to aid the recognition of the species. The neotype of G. maculata is designated. The female of G. podexaurea is recorded for the first time. The geographic record of the following species is enlarged: G. meridionalis for Ecuador and Peru; G. mexicana and G. podexaurea for Brazil and G. tropicalis for Colombia and Brazil.

  3. Evaluation of bait traps as a means to predict initial blow fly (Diptera: Calliphoridae) communities associated with decomposing swine remains in New Jersey, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weidner, Lauren M; Gemmellaro, M Denise; Tomberlin, Jeffery K; Hamilton, George C

    2017-09-01

    Information about blow fly (Diptera: Calliphoridae) species distributions can be valuable for criminal investigations, with regards to determining movement of remains from one location to another and time of colonization estimates, making these data extremely useful. Past work has been conducted on initial species community structure across New Jersey, USA using traps baited with beef liver; however, if these same species frequent vertebrate carrion remains unclear. In order to evaluate these data, piglet carcasses were placed out once every two weeks for a year in New Brunswick, New Jersey, USA. The same methods were implemented as those used for traps baited with beef liver, with length of collections being based on ADD values. Seven calliphorid species, Calliphora vicina (Robineau-Desvoidy), Lucilia sericata (Meigen), Lucilia coeruleiviridis (Macquart), Phormia regina (Meigen), Pollenia pediculata Macquart, Pollenia rudis (F.) and Protophormia terraenovae (Robineau-Desvoidy) were collected from the carcasses. During this experiment L. sericata, L. coeruleiviridis and P. regina were the dominant adult blow flies captured, totaling 38.2%, 29.2% and 29.2% respectively of all adults caught. All three species colonized the carcasses as well, although not all were dominant colonizers. C. vicina was recorded ovipositing in December, while the piglet was submerged in approximately 5cm of snow. All species that totaled at least 1% of the total collection (adults captured and larvae reared) were the same across baited traps and carcasses. This study supports the use of beef liver baits for surveying forensically important blow flies and the application of such information to forensic investigations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Environmental effects on growth phenology of co-occurring Eucalyptus species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawal, Deepa S; Kasel, Sabine; Keatley, Marie R; Aponte, Cristina; Nitschke, Craig R

    2014-05-01

    Growth is one of the most important phenological cycles in a plant's life. Higher growth rates increase the competitive ability, survival and recruitment and can provide a measure of a plant's adaptive capacity to climate variability and change. This study identified the growth relationship of six Eucalyptus species to variations in temperature, soil moisture availability, photoperiod length and air humidity over 12 months. The six species represent two naturally co-occurring groups of three species each representing warm-dry and the cool-moist sclerophyll forests, respectively. Warm-dry eucalypts were found to be more tolerant of higher temperatures and lower air humidity than the cool-moist eucalypts. Within groups, species-specific responses were detected with Eucalyptus microcarpa having the widest phenological niche of the warm-dry species, exhibiting greater resistance to high temperature and lower air humidity. Temperature dependent photoperiodic responses were exhibited by all the species except Eucalyptus tricarpa and Eucalyptus sieberi, which were able to maintain growth as photoperiod shortened but temperature requirements were fulfilled. Eucalyptus obliqua exhibited a flexible growth rate and tolerance to moisture limitation which enables it to maintain its growth rate as water availability changes. The wider temperature niche exhibited by E. sieberi compared with E. obliqua and Eucalyptus radiata may improve its competitive ability over these species where winters are warm and moisture does not limit growth. With climate change expected to result in warmer and drier conditions in south-east Australia, the findings of this study suggest all cool-moist species will likely suffer negative effects on growth while the warm-dry species may still maintain current growth rates. Our findings highlight that climate driven shifts in growth phenology will likely occur as climate changes and this may facilitate changes in tree communities by altering inter

  5. Amelioration of irradiation injury to Florida grapefruit by pretreatment with vapor heat or fungicides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, W.R.; McDonald, R.E.

    1998-01-01

    Grapefruit shipped to certain markets must be certified free of Caribbean fruit fly (Anastrepha suspensa Loew) (CFF) infestation. Low-dose irradiation is effective for the control of CFF by sterilization. This treatment is expected to be approved for industry usage in the near future. 'Marsh' grapefruit (Citrus paradisi Macf.) was treated with vapor heat (2 hours at 38 degrees C), and fungicidal treatments of thiabendazole (TBZ) (4 gm.L-1) and TBZ (1 gm.L-1) plus imazalil (1 gm.L-1) prior to irradiation at 0.5 or 1.0 kGy. Vapor heat reduced the severity and incidence of peel injury by approximately 50% without adversely affecting other quality attributes. The fungicide did not reduce peel injury. The use of vapor heat before low-dose irradiation quarantine treatment of grapefruit may ameliorate or eliminate peel injury caused by irradiation

  6. Apple biological and physiological disorders in the orchard and in postharvest according to production system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Roberto Martins

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to evaluate the incidence of biological and physiological disorders in the field and postharvested apples cvs. Gala, Fuji and Catarina grown in four production systems: conventional, organic transition, integrated and organic. Apples were evaluated for damages related to biological and physiological disorders in the orchard and after harvest. The greatest damages were attributed to pests, especially Anastrepha fraterculus in the organic system and Grapholita molesta in the organic transition. Apples produced in organic orchards had higher damage levels caused by postharvest physiological disorders than those grown in other production systems. For apples becoming from organic orchards most of the damage was due to lenticels breakdown and degeneration ('Gala', and bitter pit ('Fuji' and 'Catarina'. The incidence of postharvest rot was not influenced by apple production system.

  7. Determination of gamma radiation dose as a post-harvest treatment in mangos infested with the South American fruit fly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alama, D.

    1999-01-01

    Efforts are being made to determine a gamma radiation dose for mortality of third-instar larvae of Anastrepha fraterculus which infest mangos of the Haden variety of 400 g weight. Four radiation treatments were tested: 0.4 kGy, 0.6 kGy, 0.8 kGy and 1.0 kGy. Using as a criterium for mortality the interruption of the biological cycle between larva and pupa, the following results were achieved: 49.61%, 63.33%, 74.86% and 90.72%. The percentages obtained have been corrected using the Abbot formula. When the criterium was based on no adult emergence, 100% mortality was achieved for the four treatments. (author)

  8. Standardization of Ceratitis capitata Wied. (Diptera: Tephritidae) female trapping for use in sterile insect programmes. Catamarca, Argentina, 1995-1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vattuone, M.

    1999-01-01

    The main objective of the study was to assess Ceratitis capitata Wied. (medfly) female trapping with new traps and attractants in varying ecological conditions as part of a co-ordinated international programme. Trials were carried out between 1995 and 1997, using seven types of traps baited with the various combination of sexual and food attractants. Different methods for insects retention were also tested. For these trials, protocols established by the International Atomic Energy Agency were followed. The Jackson Trap with Trimedlure plugs proved to be the most efficient for capture of medfly males, while International Pheromone's McPhail Trap was the most efficient for the capture of females, when used with a combination of all three new attractants (FA-3) consisting of ammonium acetate, putrescine, and trimethylamine plus the toxicant DDVP for insect retention. The new traps and attractants also captured flies belonging to genus Anastrepha (Diptera: Tephritidae). (author)

  9. Quantification of tephritid fruit fly dispersal. Guidelines for a sterile release programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, P.S.; Chan, A.S.T.

    1991-01-01

    The dispersal of sterile Anastrepha ludens and Ceratitis capitata was studied in a mango and coffee plantation in Chiapas, S. Mexico. Flies were released at the centre of a rectangular array of McPhail and Jackson traps. There were small though significant downwind movements in very light winds (below 1 m/s). Fly distributions were significantly correlated in the x-y plane on several days and these orientations were also related to wind direction. Released flies disappeared quickly, more than 90 % were caught within 5 days of release. Methodology for the presentation and analysis of data is discussed in relation to the needs of a practical sterile release programme. Recommendations are made for routine studies of fly dispersal

  10. Diversity and indices of infestation of fruit flies and their parasitoids in six coffee cultivars in the city of Bom Jesus of Itabapoana, RJ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Sobral Silva

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses one of the most important pests of world fruit crop: the fruit flies, however, there are few studies concerned with their association with coffee fruit. This study was carried out in the municipality of Bom Jesus do Itabapoana, in the Northwest Region of Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil, aiming at determining the species which occur in the coffee plantations of this region, their natural infestation indices and the natural parasitism of these species. Mature fruits of six cultivars of Arabic coffee (‘Acauã’ ‘Catuaí Amarelo’, ‘Catuaí Vermelho’, ‘Catuaí 785’, ‘Mundo Novo’e ‘2SL Vermelho’ were collected. All cultivars evaluated were infested by fruit flies, which were associated with only one species of parasitoid in each cultivar. A total of 1,749 puparia were obtained and from which emerged 460 adults, being 441 specimens of fruit flies and 19 parasitoids. Four species of fruit flies were obtained: Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemman, 1830, Anastrepha sororcula (Zucchi, 1979, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann, 1824, (Tephritidae and Neosilba pendula Bezzi, 1919 (Lonchaeidae. The mean natural infestation index of the coffee fruits by fruit flies was of 291.5 puparia/kg and 0.4 puparia/fruit. There was a predominance of A. fraterculus over C. capitata, which was more frequent only in ‘Catuaí Vermelho’ and ‘Catuaí 785’. All parasitoids belong to the family Braconidae [Asobara sp., Opius bellus (Gahan, 1930 and Doryctobrachon areolatus (Szépligeti, 1911], which were responsible for a very low level of natural parasitism (1.1%.

  11. SELETIVIDADE DE INSETICIDAS A Neoseiulus californicus MCGREGOR (ACARI: PHYTOSEIIDAE EM MACIEIRA, NO RIO GRANDE DO SUL AGROCHEMICAL SELECTIVITY TO Neoseiulus californicus MCGREGOR (ACARI: PHYTOSEIIDAE ON APPLE IN RIO GRANDE DO SUL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LINO BITTENCOURT MONTEIRO

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Testes para determinar os efeitos de agroquímicos homologados para macieira foram realizados em laboratório sobre Neoseiulus californicus (Acari: Phytoseiidae. Os indivíduos testados foram coletados de um pomar comercial da Agriflor Ltda, em Vacaria, Rio Grande do Sul, após várias liberações inoculativas. Os inseticidas utilizados foram os tradicionalmente recomendados para o controle de pragas, principalmente mosca-das-frutas Anastrepha fraterculus (Diptera: Tephritidae. A oviposição e a mortalidade dos ácaros foram avaliadas 12; 24; 48 e 96 horas após a pulverização, cujos produtos foram classificados em quatro classes de toxicidade (IOBC/WPRS. Azinphos ethyl, deltametrina e fenthion provocaram 100% de mortalidade, sendo que dimethoate, fenitrotion, paration, phosmet e triclorfon foram levemente nocivos (classe 2. Malation foi considerado neutro para esta população.The side-effects of agrochemical to Neoseiulus californicus (Acari: Phytoseiidae were studied in laboratory. The mites were collected in commercial apple orchard of Agropastoril Rincão das Flores, in Vacaria, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, after successive inoculative releases. The insecticids used were recommended to control of same pest, as Anastrepha fraterculus (Diptera: Tephritidae. The reproduction effect and mortality were evalued 12, 24, 48 and 96 hours after pulverization, while the agrochemical were ranked in toxicity classes, according to IOBC/WPRS. Azinphos ethyl, deltametrina e fenthion were harmful with ca. 100% of mortality in 24 hours, dimethoate, fenitrotion, paration, phosmet e triclorfon were slightly harmful (class 2. Malation was harmless.

  12. EMBALAGENS NA PROTEÇÃO CONTRA PRAGAS DE FRUTOS DE CAQUIZEIRO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carine Rusin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The persimmon culture can be attacked by several pests and diseases, however, there are few studies related to the control. In addition, there is a lack of pesticides registered in the Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock and Supply (MAPA, in Portuguese “Ministério da Agricultura, Pecuária e Abastecimento”, emerging the fruit bagging as an alternative. The aim of this study was to evaluate different kinds of protective packs for bagging persimmon fruits, in order to control pests and diseases and, consequently, improve the fruit quality. The experiment was conducted in a persimmon orchard on the experimental station of the Instituto Federal de Educação, Ciência e Tecnologia do Rio Grande do Sul (IFRS, located in the Tuiuty District, in Bento Gonçalves, RS. Were performed four treatments: control (not bagged fruits, perforated polypropylene packaging, white TNT (non woven tissue packing, and kraft brown paper packing. The harvested fruits were evaluated for weight, symptoms of caterpillars damage, presence of mealybug (Pseudococcus sp. and symptoms of Schyzothyrium pomi. The fluctuation population of Anastrepha fraterculus was performed using McPhail trap with hydrolyzed protein. Among the treatments, only the fruits protected with perforated polypropylene differ significantly from the control on the evaluations of weight and Schyzothyrium pomi symptoms. However, there was no significant difference on the damage caused by caterpillars and presence of mealybugs. The use of perforated polypropylene has demonstrated efficiency on the control of Anastrepha fraterculus, and it can be used to reduce the damage in the fruits.

  13. The smart aerial release machine, a universal system for applying the sterile insect technique: Manuscript Draft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mubarqui, Leal Ruben; Perez, Rene Cano; Klad, Roberto Angulo; Lopez, Jose L. Zavale; Parker, Andrew; Seck, Momar Talla; Sall, Baba; Bouyer, Jeremy

    2014-01-01

    Beyond insecticides, alternative methods to control insect pests for agriculture and vectors of diseases are needed. Management strategies involving the mass-release of living control agents have been developed, including genetic control with sterile insects and biological control with parasitoids, for which aerial release of insects is often required. Aerial release in genetic control programmes often involves the use of chilled sterile insects, which can improve dispersal, survival and competitiveness of sterile males. Currently available means of aerially releasing chilled fruit flies are however insufficiently precise to ensure homogeneous distribution at low release rates and no device is available for tsetse. Here we present the smart aerial release machine, a new design by the Mubarqui Company, based on the use of vibrating conveyors. The machine is controlled through Bluetooth by a tablet with Android Operating System including a completely automatic guidance and navigation system (MaxNav software). The tablet is also connected to an online relational database facilitating the preparation of flight schedules and automatic storage of flight reports. The new machine was compared with a conveyor release machine in Mexico using two fruit flies species (Anastrepha ludens and Ceratitis capitata) and we obtained better dispersal homogeneity (% of positive traps, p < 0.001) for both species and better recapture rates for Anastrepha ludens (p < 0.001), especially at low release densities (<1500 per ha). We also demonstrated that the machine can replace paper boxes for aerial release of tsetse in Senegal.This technology limits damages to insects and allows a large range of release rates from 10 flies/km"2 for tsetse flies up to 600 000 flies/km"2 for fruit flies. The potential of this machine to release other species like mosquitoes is discussed. Plans and operating of the machine are provided to allow its use worldwide.

  14. Efficacy of two synthetic food-odor lures for Mexican fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) is determined by trap type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robacker, David C; Czokajlo, Darek

    2005-10-01

    Sterile mass-reared Mexican fruit flies, Anastrepha ludens (Loew), were trapped in a citrus orchard by using multilure traps and cylindrical sticky traps baited with Advanced Pheromone Technologies Anastrepha fruit fly (AFF) lures or Suterra BioLure two-component (ammonium acetate and putrescine) MFF lures (BioLures). The cylinder trap/AFF lure combination was the best trap over the first 6 wk, the multilure trap/BioLure combination was best during weeks 6-12, and the multilure trap/AFF lure combination was best during the last 6 wk. The multilure trap/BioLure combination was best overall by 36% over the cylinder trap/AFF lure combination, and 57% over the multilure trap/AFF lure combination. Cylinder traps with BioLures were the least effective trap/lure combination throughout the experiment, capturing only half as many flies as cylinder traps with AFF lures. Captures with cylinder traps baited with either lure and multilure traps with BioLures were female biased. For the most part, both lures remained highly attractive and emitted detectable amounts of attractive components under hot field conditions for the duration of the 18-wk experiment. Total emission of ammonia was 4 times greater and 1-pyrroline at least 10 times greater from AFF lures compared with BioLures. Correlations of trap and lure performance with ammonia emission and weather were determined, but no conclusions were possible. Results indicate that BioLures would be the lure of choice in multilure or other McPhail-type traps and AFF lures would be superior with most sticky traps or kill stations that attract flies to outer (not enclosed) surfaces.

  15. The smart aerial release machine, a universal system for applying the sterile insect technique.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruben Leal Mubarqui

    Full Text Available Beyond insecticides, alternative methods to control insect pests for agriculture and vectors of diseases are needed. Management strategies involving the mass-release of living control agents have been developed, including genetic control with sterile insects and biological control with parasitoids, for which aerial release of insects is often required. Aerial release in genetic control programmes often involves the use of chilled sterile insects, which can improve dispersal, survival and competitiveness of sterile males. Currently available means of aerially releasing chilled fruit flies are however insufficiently precise to ensure homogeneous distribution at low release rates and no device is available for tsetse.Here we present the smart aerial release machine, a new design by the Mubarqui Company, based on the use of vibrating conveyors. The machine is controlled through Bluetooth by a tablet with Android Operating System including a completely automatic guidance and navigation system (MaxNav software. The tablet is also connected to an online relational database facilitating the preparation of flight schedules and automatic storage of flight reports. The new machine was compared with a conveyor release machine in Mexico using two fruit flies species (Anastrepha ludens and Ceratitis capitata and we obtained better dispersal homogeneity (% of positive traps, p<0.001 for both species and better recapture rates for Anastrepha ludens (p<0.001, especially at low release densities (<1500 per ha. We also demonstrated that the machine can replace paper boxes for aerial release of tsetse in Senegal.This technology limits damages to insects and allows a large range of release rates from 10 flies/km2 for tsetse flies up to 600,000 flies/km2 for fruit flies. The potential of this machine to release other species like mosquitoes is discussed. Plans and operating of the machine are provided to allow its use worldwide.

  16. Calliphoridae (Diptera en parches de Selva Pedemontana con distinto grado de intervención antrópica en Tucumán (Argentina Calliphoridae (Diptera in pedemontane forest patches with different degrees of human intervention in Tucumán (Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofía M. Olea

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available En el noroeste de la Argentina, se encuentra la ecoregión de las Yungas, donde existe escasa información ecológica sobre Calliphoridae. El presente trabajo tuvo como objetivo ampliar el conocimiento sobre la riqueza, la composición y la abundancia de Calliphoridae en tres parches selváticos, en áreas con distinto grado de urbanización. Los muestreos se realizaron mensualmente desde noviembre de 2009 hasta mayo de 2010 en tres localidades: San Miguel de Tucumán (sitio urbano, Nueva Esperanza (sitio rural y El Taficillo (selva. Se registraron 8 especies: Lucilia cluvia (Walker, Lucilia sericata (Meigen, Lucilia sp., Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius, Chrysomya albiceps (Wiedemann, Chrysomya putoria (Wiedemann, Paralucilia pseudolyrcea (Mello y Calliphora nigribasis Macquart. Para las especies más abundantes, se calculó el Índice de Sinantropía (IS. La asociación entre la abundancia de las especies y los sitios fue examinada mediante un Análisis de Componentes Principales (ACP. Lucilia cluvia fue dominante en todos los sitios y muestras, con una leve predominancia hacia sectores menos afectados por la urbanización. Los resultados del presente estudio reflejan la composición de los ensambles de Calliphoridae representativos de la Selva Pedemontana de las Yungas de Tucumán, caracterizados por una fuerte dominancia de especies del genero Lucilia.The Yungas ecoregion is located in the northwest of Argentina, where the ecological information on Calliphoridae is scarce. The aim of this work was to provide the information on richness, composition and abundance of Calliphoridae along urban-rural gradients in the Yungas. Monthly samples were obtained between November 2009 and May 2010 from three localities: San Miguel de Tucumán (urban site, Nueva Esperanza (rural site and El Taficillo (forest. Eight blowfly species were collected: Lucilia cluvia (Walker, Lucilia sericata (Meigen, Lucilia sp., Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius, Chrysomya

  17. The Importance of Habitat in the Ecology of Decomposition on Rabbit Carcasses in Malaysia: Implications in Forensic Entomology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silahuddin, Siti Aisyah; Latif, Baha; Kurahashi, Hiromu; Walter, David Evans; Heo, Chong Chin

    2015-01-01

    The stages of decomposition and the faunal succession on rabbit carcasses in three different habitats, namely jungle, rural, and highland areas, were studied. Three New Zealand White rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) carcasses weighing ∼2 kg were sampled daily until the decomposition process was completed. Representative specimens of adult flies, larvae, pupa, and mites were collected from the carcasses and processed in the laboratory. There were differences in decomposition rate and faunal succession between the carcasses. The fastest rate of decomposition was recorded in rural area, and the slowest rate of decomposition was recorded in highland area. The carcasses exhibited the same pattern of colonization by adult flies, but the dominant species of larvae and adult flies on each carcass in specific habitats were different. The primary species of flies recorded in jungle were Chrysomya megacephala F., Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart), Chrysomya chani Kurahashi, Chrysomya villenuevi Patton, Chrysomya nigripes Aubertin, Chrysomya pinguis (Walker), Hemipyrellia ligurriens (Wiedemann), Hemipyrellia tagaliana (Bigot), Hypopyiopsis fumipennis (Walker), Hypopygiopsis violacea (Macquart), and Hydrotaea spinigera Stein represented by both adults and larvae. Musca domestica L., Atherigona sp., Lioproctia pattoni (Senior-White), Lioproctia saprianovae Pape & Bänziger, and Seniorwhitea princeps (Wiedemann) were represented by adults only. The biodiversity of flies in the rural area were C. megacephala, C. rufifacies, H. ligurriens, Fannia canicularis L., Hydrotaea chalcogaster (Wiedemann), and Hyd. spinigera represented by both adults and larvae, meanwhile M. domestica, Atherigona sp., Boettcherisca peregrina (Robineau-Desvoidy), Parasarcophaga taenionota Wiedemann, Parasarcophaga scopariiformis Senior-White, and S. princeps were represented by adults only. The species of flies collected in the highland area were Lucilia porphyrina (Walker), C. megacephala, C. rufifacies, C

  18. Temperature-dependent development of the parasitoid Tachinaephagus zealandicus on five forensically important carrion fly species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voss, S C; Spafford, H; Dadour, I R

    2010-06-01

    The influences of temperature and host species on the development of the forensically important parasitoid Tachinaephagus zealandicus Ashmead (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) were studied at six constant temperatures in the range of 15-30 degrees C. T. zealandicus completed development successfully between 15 degrees C and 27 degrees C on five species of Calliphoridae, Calliphora albifrontalis Malloch, Calliphora dubia Macquart, Lucilia sericata Meigen, Chrysomya rufifacies Macquart and Chrysomya megacephala Fabricius. No adult parasitoids emerged from any of the host species reared at 30 degrees C. Temperature and host species significantly influenced development time, emergence success and progeny size. Development was significantly longer on Ch. megacephala and Ch. rufifacies at 18-24 degrees C and significantly longer on Ch. rufifacies and C. albifrontalis at 15 degrees C and 27 degrees C. Parasitoid emergence success was greatest at 21 degrees C, declined at the temperature extremes (15 degrees C and 27 degrees C) and was significantly lower on Ch. megacephala and Ch. rufifacies than on the three other host species. Progeny numbers per host pupa were highest at 21-24 degrees C, declined on either side of this temperature range and were significantly lower on L. sericata, Ch. rufifacies and Ch. megacephala than on either C. dubia or C. albifrontalis. An effect of host species on sex ratio was only observed at 27 degrees C, at which a higher proportion of T. zealandicus females emerged from Ch. megacephala and Ch. rufifacies than from the other host species. The thermal requirements for development (developmental thresholds, thermal constant, optimum temperature) of T. zealandicus in each host species were estimated using linear and non-linear models. Upper and lower developmental thresholds ranged between 29.90 degrees C and 31.73 degrees C, and 9.73 degrees C and 10.08 degrees C, respectively. The optimum temperature for development was estimated at between 25

  19. Émile Zola: a formação de um militante * Emile Zola: the making of a militant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RILTON FERREIRA BORGES

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Resumo: Este artigo tem como objetivo traçar uma biografia de Émile Zola do ponto de vista intelectual, buscando em sua formação, trajetória pessoal e profissional, os caracteres que possam ter contribuído para que sua obra, sobretudo a partir de Germinal, passasse a ser reconhecida por seus contemporâneos, e também posteriormente, como uma espécie de “militância”, termo que será utilizado em sentido amplo, como defesa de uma ideia ou causa. A partir de documentações de diferentes ordens, tentaremos demonstrar alguns itinerários possíveis para compreender esta questão, relacionando Émile Zola, o contexto histórico, social e intelectual em que viveu, e alguns traços de sua obra, sobretudo a série Os Rougon-Macquart. Para tanto, a trajetória de Zola será dividida em três momentos: a militância na arte, a militância pelo Naturalismo e a militância política.Palavras-chave: Zola – Militante – Intelectual. Abstract: This article aims to draw a biography of Emile Zola by an intellectual point of view, investigating his formation, personal and professional trajectory, the features that may contributed to his work, mainly from Germinal, started to be known by his contemporaries, and lately, as a kind of “militance”, term used meaning “the defense of an idea or a cause”. From distinct kinds of documents, we will try to demonstrate some possible ways to understand this point, relating Emile Zola's historical, social and intellectual context with some marks of his books, especially The Rougon-Macquart series. Therefore, the trajectory of Zola will be divided in three stages: militancy in art, militancy in the Naturalism and political militancy.Keywords: Zola – Militant – Intellectual.

  20. DICKINSARTELLA FAUNA FROM THE SAIWAN FORMATION (OMAN: A BIVALVE FAUNA TESTIFYING TO THE LATE SAKMARIAN (EARLY PERMIAN CLIMATIC AMELIORATION ALONG THE NORTH-EASTERN GONDWANAN FRINGE.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CRISTIANO LARGHI

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available The transitional faunas of the Permian Huqf succession of Oman make it one of the key-sections for the intercalibration of Early to Middle Permian biostratigraphical scales. The abundance of fossils improved the knowledge of some marine faunas which populated the North-Eastern Gondwanan fringe during times of climatic changes in the Permian. A Sterlitamakian (upper Sakmarian, Lower Permian bivalve fauna from the Saiwan Formation in the Huqf area, informally named "Dickinsartella Fauna", is described in the present paper. The specimens examined were collected from the "Pachycyrtella Bed" (Auctorum, the basal bed of the Formation in its type locality. The Dickinsartella Fauna can be identified for the presence of the new genus Dickinsartella, which dominates the bivalve thanatocoenosis with D. pistacina sp. n. (type species. The bivalve fauna from the Pachycyrtella Bed includes the new species Stutchburia sangallii and Promytilus  mazzolenii, and also Astartella obliqua Dickins, 1963, Nuculopsis cf. bangarraensis Dickins, 1963, ?Oriocrassatella sp., and indeterminable aviculopectinids. This fauna shows a low taxonomic diversity. Nevertheless, some species are represented by a high number of generally well-preserved specimens, i.e. some specimens of S. sangallii sp. n. and A. obliqua show part of the ligament.  The good preservation of the shells permitted the microstructural analysis of D. pistacina sp. n. and S. sangallii sp. n. The microstructure of S. sangallii sp. n. supports the close phylogenetical link between modiomorphids and crassatelloids recognized by some previous authors.The new genus Dickinsartella includes the more recent species belonging to the important Paleozoic Order Cyrtodontida Scarlato & Starobogatov, 1971. The discovery of Dickinsartella gen. n. and other taxa of the Pachycyrtella Bed, present also in the Sakmarian levels of the Carnarvon and Perth Basins in Western Australia,  indicates a wider distribution of the

  1. Diversity and Spatial Distribution of Extant Freshwater Ostracodes (Crustacea in Ancient Lake Ohrid (Macedonia/Albania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Lorenschat

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available We carried out an intensive sampling survey in ancient Lake Ohrid (Macedonia/Albania, covering all seasons, to determine total species number, relative species abundances and spatial distribution of Ostracoda. We identified 32 living species that belong to seven families (Candonidae, Ilyocyprididae, Cyprididae, Leptocytheridae, Limnocytheridae, Cytherideidae, and Darwinulidae and 15 genera (Candona, Fabaeformiscandona, Candonopsis, Cypria, Cyclocypris, Ilyocypris, Eucypris, Prionocypris, Bradleystrandesia, Herpetocypris, Dolerocypris, Amnicythere, Paralimnocythere, Cytherissa, and Darwinula. Six additional species were identified from empty carapaces and valves. Dominant families in Lake Ohrid were Candonidae and Limnocytheridae, representing 53% and 16% of all species, respectively. Prevalence of species flocks in these two families confirms the “young” ancient status of the lake. Amnicythere displays a preference for oligo-haline to meso-haline waters, but some species are found in saline environments, which suggests Lake Ohrid has a marine history. Recent studies, however, indicate fluvial/glaciofluvial deposition at the onset of Lake Ohrid sedimentation. Candona is the most diverse genus in Lake Ohrid, represented by 12 living species. Paralimnocythere is represented by five living species and all other genera are represented by one or two species. Reports of Candona bimucronata, Ilyocypris bradyi, Eucypris virens, Eucypris sp., Prionocypris zenkeri, Bradleystrandesia reticulate, Herpetocypris sp. 2, and Dolerocypris sinensis are firsts for this lake. Living ostracodes were collected at the maximum water depth (280 m in the lake (Candona hadzistei, C. marginatoides, C. media, C. ovalis, C. vidua, Fabaeformiscandona krstici, Cypria lacustris, C. obliqua and Amnicythere karamani. Cypria lacustris was overall the most abundant species and Cypria obliqua displayed the highest abundance at 280 m water depth. Principal environmental variables

  2. Calliphoridae (Diptera en parches de Selva Pedemontana con distinto grado de intervención antrópica en Tucumán (Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofía M. OLEA

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available En el noroeste de la Argentina, se encuentra la ecoregión de las Yungas, donde existe escasa información ecológica sobre Calliphoridae. El presente trabajo tuvo como objetivo ampliar el conocimiento sobre la riqueza, la composición y la abundancia de Calliphoridae en tres parches selváticos, en áreas con distinto grado de urbanización. Los muestreos se realizaron mensualmente desde noviembre de 2009 hasta mayo de 2010 en tres localidades: San Miguel de Tucumán (sitio urbano, Nueva Esperanza (sitio rural y El Taficillo (selva. Se registraron 8 especies: Lucilia cluvia (Walker, Lucilia sericata (Meigen, Lucilia sp., Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius, Chrysomya albiceps (Wiedemann, Chrysomya putoria (Wiedemann, Paralucilia pseudolyrcea (Mello y Calliphora nigribasis Macquart. Para las especies más abundantes, se calculó el Índice de Sinantropía (IS. La asociación entre la abundancia de las especies y los sitios fue examinada mediante un Análisis de Componentes Principales (ACP. Lucilia cluvia fue dominante en todos los sitios y muestras, con una leve predominancia hacia sectores menos afectados por la urbanización. Los resultados del presente estudio reflejan la composición de los ensambles de Calliphoridae representativos de la Selva Pedemontana de las Yungas de Tucumán, caracterizados por una fuerte dominancia de especies del genero Lucilia.

  3. Review of forensically important entomological specimens collected from human cadavers in Malaysia (2005-2010).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavitha, Rajagopal; Nazni, Wasi Ahmad; Tan, Tian Chye; Lee, Han Lim; Azirun, Mohd Sofian

    2013-07-01

    Forensic entomological specimens collected from human decedents during crime scene investigations in Malaysia in the past 6 years (2005-2010) are reviewed. A total of 80 cases were recorded and 93 specimens were collected. From these specimens, 10 species of cyclorrphagic flies were identified, consisting of Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart) -38 specimens (40.86%), Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius) -36 specimens (38.70%), Chrysomya villeneuvi (Patton) -2 specimens (2.15%), Chrysomya nigripes (Aubertin) -2 specimens (2.15%), Chrysomya pinguis (Walker) -1 specimen (1.08%), Hermetia illucens (Linnaeus) -1 specimen (1.08%), Hemipyrellia liguriens (Wiedemann) -5 specimens (5.37%), Synthesiomyia nudiseta (Wulp) -1 specimen (1.08%), Megaselia scalaris (Loew)-1 specimen (1.08%) and Sarcophaga ruficornis (Fabricius) -4 specimens (4.30%). In two specimens (2.15%), the maggots were not identifiable. Ch. megacephala and Ch. rufifacies were the commonest species found in human decedents from three different ecological habitats. S. nudiseta is an uncommon species found only on human cadavers from indoors. A total of 75 cases (93.75%) had a single fly infestation and 5 cases (6.25%) had double fly infestation. In conclusion, although large numbers of fly species were found on human decedents, the predominant species are still those of Chrysomya. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  4. Do fly parasites of bats and their hosts coevolve?speciation in Trichobius phyllostomae group (Diptera, Streblidae and their hosts (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae suggests that they do not

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Graciolli

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available We examined whether, like many parasite-host systems of coevolution, a group of obligate parasitic bat flies (Trichobius phyllostomae Kessel and related species cospeciate with their hosts. We first did a cladistic analysis of the T. phyllostomae group and combined that analysis with a phylogenetic hypothesis from the literature for the Stenodermatinae bats. The cladistic analysis included, as outgroups, one species from each morphological group and complex of Trichobius Gervais, and one species from the following genera: Paratrichobius Miranda-Ribeiro, Megistopoda Macquart, Megistapophysys Dick & Wenzel, Neotrichobius Wenzel & Aitken, Speiseria Kessel and Strebla Wiedemann. The cladogram was rooted with a species of Strebla in the subfamily Streblinae. One cladogram was obtained and which found Trichobius to be polyphyletic. The phylogenetic hypothesis as follows: (Paratrichobius, (Neotrichobius, (Megistopoda, Megistapophysis is the sister-group of the phyllostomae group and the following relationships within the ingroup, (((T. vampyropis Wenzel, Trichobius sp. 2 ((T. hispidus Wenzel, T. petersoni Wenzel ((Trichobius sp. 1 (T. phyllostomae, T. brennani Wenzel. When we compared phylogenies through historical association analyses, cospeciation was uncommon, while host-switching was more common and better explained the association between the phyllostomae group and their bat hosts.

  5. Blackflies (Diptera: Simuliidae) in Croatia: species richness, distribution and relationship to surrounding countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivković, Marija; Kúdela, Matuš; Kúdelová, Tatiana

    2016-05-05

    All records of blackflies (Simuliidae) from the territory of Croatia are summarized, including previously unpublished data. The blackfly fauna of Croatia consists of 28 species. Simulium (Nevermannia) angustitarse (Lundström), Simulium (Nevermannia) cryophilum (Rubtsov) complex, Simulium (Nevermannia) lundstromi (Enderlein), Simulium (Nevermannia) vernum Macquart complex, Simulium (Simulium) argyreatum Meigen, Simulium (Simulium) bezzii (Corti) complex, Simulium paraequinum Puri and Simulium pseudequinum Séguy are reported for the first time from Croatia. Information related to the ecoregions, in which species were found and specific species traits are given. Genus Prosimulium Roubaud is represented by one species only. Genus Simulium Latreille is represented by 27 species in six subgenera, with subgenus Simulium Latreille s. str. being most species rich (13 species) and subgenera Boophthora Enderlein and  Trichodagmia Enderlein represented each by only one species. Compared to the neighboring countries, the Croatian species assemblage is most similar to the fauna of Slovenia and least similar to that of Italy. The relatively low number of species, presence of several species complexes and unclear identity of other species show that further research of blackflies in Croatia is needed.

  6. Effects of larval population density on rates of development and interactions between two species of Chrysomya (Diptera: Calliphoridae) in laboratory culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodbrod, J R; Goff, M L

    1990-05-01

    Rearing of Chrysomya megacephala (F.) and Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart) in pure cultures at seven different population densities (larvae per gram of liver) demonstrated an inverse relationship between density and the duration of the larval stage. In pure cultures, larval mortality rates decreased with increasing density until an optimum density was reached (8 larvae/g liver for C. megacephala and 10 larvae/g liver for C. rufifacies), then decreased directly with density. Puparial and adult weights varied inversely with density for both species in pure cultures. Internal feeding mass temperatures were above ambient temperatures for all cultures, with maximum temperatures recorded in cultures with 20 and 40 larvae/g liver for G. rufifacies and C. megacephala, respectively. In paired encounters, larvae of C. rufifacies were cannibalistic and predatory on C. megacephala larvae after the first instar. In mixed cultures of these two species, the larval mortality of C. rufifacies remained relatively stable, whereas the larval mortality of C. megacephala increased directly with population density.

  7. Development changes of cuticular hydrocarbons in Chrysomya rufifacies larvae: potential for determining larval age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, G H; Ye, G Y; Hu, C; Xu, X H; Li, K

    2006-12-01

    Age determination is the basis of determining the postmortem interval using necrophagous fly larvae. To explore the potential of using cuticular hydrocarbons for determining the ages of fly larvae, changes of cuticular hydrocarbons in developing larvae of Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart) (Diptera: Calliphoridae) were investigated using gas chromatography with flame-ionization detection and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. This study showed that the larvae produced cuticular hydrocarbons typical of insects. Most of the hydrocarbons identified were alkanes with the carbon chain length of 21-31, plus six kinds of alkenes. The hydrocarbon composition of the larvae correlated with age. The statistical results showed that simple peak ratios of n-C29 divided by another eight selected peaks increased significantly with age; their relationships with age could be modelled using exponential or power functions with R(2) close to or > 0.80. These results suggest that cuticular hydrocarbon composition is a useful indicator for determining the age of larval C. rufifacies, especially for post-feeding larvae, which are difficult to differentiate by morphology.

  8. Occurrence of blow fly species (Diptera: calliphoridae) in Phitsanulok Province, Northern Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunchu, Nophawan; Sukontason, Kom; Sanit, Sangob; Chidburee, Polprecha; Kurahashi, Hiromu; Sukontason, Kabkaew L

    2012-12-01

    Based on the current forensic importance of blow flies (Diptera: Calliphoridae), their biological aspects have been studied increasingly worldwide. The blow fly fauna in Phitsanulok Province, Northern Thailand was studied from May 2009 to April 2010 in the residential, agricultural, mountainous and forested areas of Muang, Wat Bot, Nakhon Thai and Wang Thong districts, respectively, in order to know the occurrence of blow flies in this province. Collections were carried out monthly using commercial funnel fly traps and sweeping methods, with 1-day tainted pork viscera as bait. Identification of adult blow flies exhibited 14 634 specimens, comprising of 5 subfamilies, 14 genera and 36 species. Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius, 1794) and Achoetandrus rufifacies (Macquart, 1843) were the most and second most abundant species trapped, respectively. These two species of carrion flies prevailed in all the types of land investigated. We calculated and compared the diversity indices, species evenness and richness, and similarity coefficients of the blow fly species in various areas. The data from this study may be used to identify the potential of forensicallyimportant fly species within Phitsanulok Province and fulfill the information on blow fly fauna in Thailand.

  9. Interdisciplinary workshop yields new entomological data for forensic sciences: Chrysomya rufifacies (Diptera: Calliphoridae) established in North Carolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomberlin, Jeffery K; Albert, A Midori; Byrd, Jason H; Hall, David W

    2006-11-01

    ABSTRACT Workshops are used for educating law enforcement personnel on the application of entomological, anthropological, and botanical techniques to gather forensically important information from a body recovery site. From 8 to 11 June 2004, such a workshop was conducted in the metropolitan area of Charlotte, NC, by the American Academy of Applied Forensics at Central Piedmont Community College. For this workshop, three pig carcasses weighing individually between 40 and 60 kg were placed in the field 4 June, whereas three pigs similar in size were placed in the field 7 June. During the afternoon session on 11 June, workshop participants collected three Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart) (Diptera: Calliphoridae) third instar larvae from a pig carcass placed in the field on 7 June. These data represent the first records of this forensically important insect in North Carolina; furthermore, these data provide evidence of this species expansion into new geographic regions of the United States. This finding is an example of the benefits derived from an experiential and interdisciplinary approach to educating death scene investigators. Learners acquired new knowledge, put it into practice through the "body" recovery exercise, and ultimately contributed to science by way of the discovery and first documentation of a forensically important insect previously not known to inhabit North Carolina.

  10. Development of the Oriental Latrine Fly, Chrysomya megacephala (Diptera: Calliphoridae), at Five Constant Temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruner, S V; Slone, D H; Capinera, J L; Turco, M P

    2017-03-01

    Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius) is a forensically important fly that is found throughout the tropics and subtropics. We calculated the accumulated development time and transition points for each life stage from eclosion to adult emergence at five constant temperatures: 15, 20, 25, 30, and 35 °C. For each transition, the 10th, 50th, and 90th percentiles were calculated with a logistic linear model. The mean transition times and % survivorship were determined directly from the raw laboratory data. Development times of C. megacephala were compared with that of two other closely related species, Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart) and Phormia regina (Meigen). Ambient and larval mass temperatures were collected from field studies conducted from 2001-2004. Field study data indicated that adult fly activity was reduced at lower ambient temperatures, but once a larval mass was established, heat generation occurred. These development times and durations can be used for estimation of a postmortem interval (PMI). © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Human wound colonization by Lucilia eximia and Chrysomya rufifacies (Diptera: Calliphoridae): myiasis, perimortem, or postmortem colonization?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanford, Michelle R; Whitworth, Terry L; Phatak, Darshan R

    2014-05-01

    The infestation of human or animal tissues by fly larvae has been given distinctive terminology depending on the timing and location of colonization. Wounds and orifices colonized by Diptera in a living human or animal are typically referred to as myiasis. When the colonization occurs after death, it is referred to as postmortem colonization and can be used to estimate the minimum postmortem interval. What happens when the human, as in the case presented here, has a necrotic limb while the human remains alive, at least for a short period of time? The case presented here documents perimortem wound colonization by Lucilia eximia (Wiedemann) and Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart) and the considerations for approximating development temperatures and estimating the time of colonization (TOC). This represents the first record of L. eximia in human myiasis in the United States and the first record of the co-occurrence of L. eximia and C. rufifacies in human myiasis in the United States. The TOC was estimated using both ambient and body temperature. Insect colonization before death complicates the estimation of TOC and minimum postmortem interval and illustrates the problem of temperature approximation in forensic entomology casework.

  12. Determination of Opiinae parasitoids (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) associated with crop infesting Bactrocera spp. (Diptera: Tephritidae) using COI and Cyt b sequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shariff, Safiah; Yaakop, Salmah; Zain, Badrul Munir Md.

    2013-11-01

    Members of the Opiinae subfamily (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) are well known as important parasitoids of fruit fly larvae (Diptera: Tephritidae). They are widely used as biological control agents of fruit flies, especially the Bactrocera Macquart species that infest fruits. In this study, the larvae of fruit flies were collected from infested crops including star fruit, guava, wax apple and ridge gourd. The parasitized larvae were then reared under laboratory conditions until emergence of the adult parasitoids. Additionally, Malaise trap also was used to collect parasitoid species. The general concept of the multiplex PCR has been performed is to amplify two mitochondrial DNA markers, namely cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) and cytochrome b (Cyt b) simultaneously. Therefore, the lengthy process of reaction will be reduced. The status of the fruit fly species has also been confirmed by using COI marker on the early stage of the larvae. Maximum parsimony (MP) and Bayesian Inference (BI) were implemented to help and support the identification of Opiinae species. The result obtained from this study showed three parasitoid genera of the Opiinae viz. Fopius Wharton, Psyttalia Walker and Diachasmimorpha Viereck. Each genus has been determined by clustering together in a similar clade according to their infested crops. Therefore, accurate determination of parasitoids and the fruit fries species was highly useful and necessary for successful biological control of Bactrocera species.

  13. Cadaver wrapping and arrival performance of adult flies in an oil palm plantation in northern Peninsular Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Azwani; Ahmad, Abu Hassan; Dieng, Hamady; Satho, Tomomitsu; Ahmad, Hamdan; Aziz, Al Thbyani; Boots, Michael

    2011-11-01

    There is accumulating evidence that criminals wrap dead bodies in an attempt to conceal evidence. To anticipate the forensic implications of this phenomenon, we examined whether flies that are naturally associated with cadavers exhibit a delay in attendance or differ in species composition and abundance patterns because of the presence of wrapping material. Wrapped and exposed carcasses of dead monkeys placed in an oil plantation in Kedah, Malaysia, were visited over 50 d. On daily visits to each of the six carcasses, visiting adult flies were sampled using hand nets. Flies of 12 families were encountered. Calliphoridae (Chrysomya rufifacies Macquart and C. megacephala (F.) was the most prevalent family, followed by Sphaeroceridae. Some families tended to be more abundant in WRCs (i.e., Calliphoridae, Muscidae, and Phoridae), whereas others (i.e., Piophilidae, Sepsidae, and Psychodidae) were more prevalent in exposed carcasses. Wrapping delayed the arrival of all fly species encountered, with delays varying from 1 to 13 d depending on species. Wrapping did not affect species composition of flies, but prolong the occurrence of some species. The results of the current study emphasize the need to take into consideration the presence of a wrap when estimating postmortem interval.

  14. Forensic entomology of high-rise buildings in Malaysia: Three case reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syamsa, R A; Omar, B; Zuha, R M; Faridah, M N; Swarhib, M S; Hidayatulfathi, O; Shahrom, A W

    2015-06-01

    The distributions of flies are not only confined to ground level but can also be at higher altitudes. Here, we report three forensic cases involving dipterans in high-rise buildings in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Case 1 involved a corpse of adult female found at the top floor of a fifteen-story apartment. Case 2 dealt with a body of a 75-year-old female discovered in a bedroom on the eleventh floor of an eighteen-story building, while Case 3 was a 52-year-old male found in his fifth floor shop house. Interestingly, entomological analysis revealed that all corpses were infested with similar Dipterans: Megaselia scalaris (Loew) (Diptera: Phoridae), Synthesiomyia nudiseta (Wulp) (Diptera: Muscidae) and sarcophagid (Diptera: Sarcophagidae). The first two species were commonly associated with corpses found indoors at ground level. We noted the additional occurrence of blowflies Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius) (Diptera: Calliphoridae) and Chrysomya rufifacies Macquart (Diptera: Calliphoridae) larvae in Case 2 and Case 3, respectively. Findings from this study are significant as they demonstrate that certain groups of fly can locate dead bodies even in high-rise buildings. Forensic entomofauna research on corpses found at high elevation is scarce and our study has highlighted the peculiarity of the fly species involved in Malaysia.

  15. Morphology and developmental rate of blowflies Chrysomya megacephala and Chrysomya rufifacies in Thailand: application in forensic entomology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukontason, Kom; Piangjai, Somsak; Siriwattanarungsee, Sirisuda; Sukontason, Kabkaew L

    2008-05-01

    The larval morphology and developmental rate of Chrysomya megacephala (F.) and Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart), the two most forensically important blowfly species in Thailand, are presented. Morphological comparison of the third instar of both species revealed different characteristics (e.g., body appearance, cephalopharyngeal skeleton, dorsal cuticular spines between the prothorax and mesothorax, and feature of the posterior spiracle), thereby, allowing correct identification. A data analysis was conducted in Chiang Mai province, Northern Thailand during 2000-2001 on the developmental rate of both flies under natural ambient temperature and a natural light-dark photoperiod. The results indicated that larvae of C. megacephala developed more rapidly in April, pupariation initiated at 84 h at temperatures averaging 31.4 degrees C, and the larvae grew slower in the rainy season and winter. Similarly, rapid development of C. rufifacies larvae appeared in the summer, with a pupariation period as short as 96 h in June (average temperature 27.4 degrees C). Analysis of the median body length of C. megacephala and C. rufifacies larvae in different seasons of the years 2000-2001 in Thailand revealed that both species developed rapidly in the summer; pupariation of C. rufifacies initiated at 144 h, while C. megacephala initiated pupariation at 156 h. This information is potentially useful for estimating the postmortem interval of a corpse in forensic investigations, where the corpse becomes infesting with these fly species.

  16. Forensic entomology cases in Thailand: a review of cases from 2000 to 2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukontason, Kom; Narongchai, Paitoon; Kanchai, Chaturong; Vichairat, Karnda; Sribanditmongkol, Pongruk; Bhoopat, Tanin; Kurahashi, Hiromu; Chockjamsai, Manoch; Piangjai, Somsak; Bunchu, Nophawan; Vongvivach, Somsak; Samai, Wirachai; Chaiwong, Tarinee; Methanitikorn, Rungkanta; Ngern-Klun, Rachadawan; Sripakdee, Duanghatai; Boonsriwong, Worachote; Siriwattanarungsee, Sirisuda; Srimuangwong, Chaowakit; Hanterdsith, Boonsak; Chaiwan, Khankam; Srisuwan, Chalard; Upakut, Surasak; Moopayak, Kittikhun; Vogtsberger, Roy C; Olson, Jimmy K; Sukontason, Kabkaew L

    2007-10-01

    This paper presents and discusses 30 cases of cadavers that had been transferred for forensic entomology investigations to the Department of Forensic Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Chiang Mai University, northern Thailand, from 2000 to 2006. Variable death scenes were determined, including forested area and suburban and urban outdoor and indoor environments. The fly specimens found in the corpses obtained were the most commonly of the blow fly of family Calliphoridae, and consisted of Chrysomya megacephala (F.), Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart) Chrysomya villeneuvi Patton, Chrysomya nigripes Aubertin, Chrysomya bezziana Villeneuve, Chrysomya chani Kurahashi, Lucilia cuprina (Wiedemann), Hemipyrellia ligurriens (Wiedemann), and two unknown species. Flies of the family Muscidae [Hydrotaea spinigera Stein, Synthesiomyia nudiseta (Wulp)], Piophilidae [Piophila casei (L.)], Phoridae [Megaselia scalaris (Loew)], Sarcophagidae [Parasarcophaga ruficornis (F.) and three unknown species], and Stratiomyiidae (Sargus sp.) were also collected from these human remains. Larvae and adults of the beetle, Dermestes maculatus DeGeer (Coleoptera: Dermestidae), were also found in some cases. Chrysomya megacephala and C. rufifacies were the most common species found in the ecologically varied death scene habitats associated with both urban and forested areas, while C. nigripes was commonly discovered in forested places. S. nudiseta was collected only from corpses found in an indoor death scene.

  17. [Claude Bernard - then and now].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wise, Peter

    2017-01-01

    The early life of Claude Bernard - dreamer and frustrated playwright - reveals no indication of his future scientific aptitude. Cartesian doubt, a principle that he would adhere to lifelong, clouded a failed pharmacy apprenticeship that led to medical studies in Paris - but without great success. Research was his only aim, it was made possible only by a lucrative but unsuccessful arranged marriage. His passion for work and over-riding principles of truth and proof would ultimately allow him to stand out from his peers with recognition by multiple French professional societies - and the wider scientific world. In today's world, the two centuries-long practice of homeopathy illustrates his abhorrence of ''practice without proof'': a dominance by economic factors that is apparent in cancer chemotherapy, where new drug approval is often based on statistics rather than genuine clinical benefit. Bernard was indeed sceptical about the (ab)use of statistics - a caution even more necessary today. His experimental method stands out as a signal principle in research. This was cleverly taken out of context by Emile Zola, who used it to support his ideas on the literary naturalism that appeared in his Rougon-Macquart cycle of books - and that led him to dedicate his book, Le Roman Expérimental, to Claude Bernard himself. © Société de Biologie, 2017.

  18. [Seasonality and landscape use by Tabanidae species (Diptera) in the Central Amazon, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira-Keppler, Ruth L; Rafael, José A; Guerrero, José C H

    2010-01-01

    Adults of Tabanidae may become serious pests wherever they occur due to their attack to humans and others animals. Tabanids were captured near ground, water surface and at 25 m high on primary forests and forest gaps of anthropogenic origin, to understand their abundance, seasonality, diversity and similarity on such environments. Collections were carried out in the Base II of the War Instruction Center in the Jungle (CIGS) located at 54 km from Manaus municipality, Amazonas state. Two Malaise flight interception traps and four attraction traps (two suspended at 25 m high and two above the water surface of igarapé) were installed in forest gap and primary forest, areas for 10 consecutive days, during 15 months. A total of 2,643 specimens of 66 species were captured. Diachlorini (35 species /11 genera) was the most abundant tribe, followed by Tabanini (19 species /three genera), Chrysopsini (seven species /one genus) and Scionini (five species /two genera). Seventeen species were captured only in the primary forest, 11 in the anthropic clearing, and 38 species were common to both environments. The most abundant species were Phorcotabanus cinereus (Wiedemann), Tabanus occidentalis L, Chrysops laetus Fabricius and Tabanus angustifrons Macquart. The greatest richness was found in drier months (September/October) in both areas. Theforest gap showed higher abundance of specimens (1,827) than the primary forest (816). Traps suspended above the water surface were the most efficient (1,723 specimens) probably due to the dispersion of horseflies over small streams.

  19. Taxonomic review of the species of Helina R.-D. (Diptera: Muscidae) from Andean-Patagonian forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patitucci, Luciano Damián; Mulieri, Pablo Ricardo; Mariluis, Juan Carlos

    2016-08-12

    Helina Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830 is the second genus of Muscidae in terms of richness. This genus includes several species collected at high altitudes and high latitudes, and is poorly studied in the Neotropical region. Only 12 species of Helina have been recorded in the southern limit of South America in the Andean-Patagonian forests. In the present work, we studied all the species known from the Andean-Patagonian forests, with the exception of H. viola Malloch, 1934, present three new species, H. araucana sp. nov., H. dorada sp. nov., and H. ouina sp. nov., and provide the first description of the females of H. australis Carvalho & Pont, 1993 and H. rufoapicata Malloch, 1934. We also propose four new synonymies: H. nigrimana basilaris (Carvalho & Pont, 1993) and H. nigrimana grisea (Malloch, 1934) as new junior synonyms of H. nigrimana (Macquart, 1851); and H. fulvocalyptrata Malloch, 1934 and H. simplex Malloch, 1934 as new junior synonyms of H. chilensis Malloch, 1934. Finally, we provide a generic diagnosis and a new key for the Helina species of the Andean-Patagonian forests, as well as notes on the biology and distribution maps of each specimen, and discuss a preliminary contruction of groups of species.

  20. Vascular epiphytes as regeneration indicators of disturbed forests of the Colombian Amazon region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Triana Moreno, Luz Amparo; Garzon Venegas, Nelson Javier; Sanchez Zambrano, Jairo; Vargas Orlando

    2003-01-01

    In order to compare how the distribution and composition of vascular epiphytes varies, in three disturbed forests with different recovery times, and to verify whether these factors can indicate the regeneration state, three stubbles that had been abandoned during 12, 18 and 22 years were selected in the neighborhood of Leticia City (Amazons, Colombia). In each stubble 7 Cecropia sciadophylla (Cecropiaceae) individuals were selected, and a sampling of epiphytes was made in the first 3 m of each tree. The number of species, their abundance and covering were used as criteria to compare the three stubbles, because the sensitivity of epiphytes to environmental changes. The results show that the evaluated factors are useful for the characterization of the forest regeneration process. In spite of the fact that the number of species in the there stubbles was similar, the composition varied in such ways that about half the species of each stubble, were exclusive. The dominance of Monstera obliqua (Araceae) was evident, constituting more than 80% of the epiphytic covering of the total sample. The youngest stubble presented a denser covering and a high diversity index, whereas in the oldest stubbles these values diminish drastically

  1. Individual-Tree Diameter Growth Models for Mixed Nothofagus Second Growth Forests in Southern Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo C. Moreno

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Second growth forests of Nothofagus obliqua (roble, N. alpina (raulí, and N. dombeyi (coihue, known locally as RORACO, are among the most important native mixed forests in Chile. To improve the sustainable management of these forests, managers need adequate information and models regarding not only existing forest conditions, but their future states with varying alternative silvicultural activities. In this study, an individual-tree diameter growth model was developed for the full geographical distribution of the RORACO forest type. This was achieved by fitting a complete model by comparing two variable selection procedures: cross-validation (CV, and least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO regression. A small set of predictors successfully explained a large portion of the annual increment in diameter at breast height (DBH growth, particularly variables associated with competition at both the tree- and stand-level. Goodness-of-fit statistics for this final model showed an empirical coefficient of correlation (R2emp of 0.56, relative root mean square error of 44.49% and relative bias of −1.96% for annual DBH growth predictions, and R2emp of 0.98 and 0.97 for DBH projection at 6 and 12 years, respectively. This model constitutes a simple and useful tool to support management plans for these forest ecosystems.

  2. Estimation of the fustal diameter on the central knotty cylinder in oak basal logs, Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricio Corvalán Vera

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to determine the diameter of the central knotted cylinder both alive and dead, a total of 60 trees belonging to the upper quartile of diametric classes in unmanaged renewal of N. obliqua from the Maule foothills were sampled. It is assumed that these are determined by the lowest living and dead branch present in tree height, respectively. We analyzed the relationships between the diameter of the central knotty cylinder, and the diameters at the lower end of logs 1.2, 2.4 and 3.6 m above the stump, the normal diameter and the insertion height of the first branch. From the analysis it is deduced that: i the diameter of the live and dead central knotted cylinder increases linearly with the normal diameter of the tree, ii that the diameter at the smaller end of the logs increases as it does and decreases as increases in height above the ground and iii that the fustal diameter on the dead central knotty cylinder increases linearly with the normal diameter and the insertion height of the lowest dead branch of the tree, allowing to determine the zone of occlusion of the knots of the tree.

  3. Abiotic alterations caused by forest fragmentation affect tree regeneration: a shade and drought tolerance gradient in the remnants of Coastal Maulino Forest Alteraciones abióticas causadas por la fragmentación del bosque afectan la regeneración arbórea: un gradiente de tolerancia a la sombra y la sequía en los remanentes del Bosque Maulino Costero

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PABLO C GUERRERO

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Plant regeneration is strongly determined by light and soil moisture differences between habitáis; both variables are modified by large-scale forest fragmentation. Several studies have indicated this alteration as the mechanism involved in tropical forest community change. The effects of fragmentation may be much more severe in Mediterranean and deciduous forests, because plant species in these forests show a stress tolerance tradeoff between shade and drought. Our study was performed in the deciduous fragmented Coastal Maulino Forest: Reserva Nacional Los Queules (RNLQ and surrounding small fragments. We hypothesised that Aristotelia chilensis (shade intolerant but drought tolerant should increase its regeneration in small patches as a consequence of the change in habitat suitability (i.e. luminous and drier, while Cryptocarya alba (shade tolerant but drought intolerant should have less regeneration in small fragments. We also expected that Nothofagus glauca and N. obliqua, which have shade and drought tolerances intermedíate between A. chilensis and C. alba, should respond less to forest fragmentation. We used two estimations of plant regeneration: (i seedling and sapling densities via field observations and (ii seed germination and seedling establishment via a field-based experiment. Natural regeneration patterns of C. alba indicated a depressed regeneration within small forest fragments compared to RNLQ, although experimental germination, establishment and recruitment proportions did not vary between habitáis. In contrast, A. chilensis regeneration was favored by forest fragmentation, with increased seedling and sapling densities and germination in small forest fragments. Both N. glauca and N. obliqua were less affected by forest fragmentation in their natural and experimental regeneration. This study highlights the relevance of studying changes in abiotic factors as a consequence of human activities, and considering safe sites (defined

  4. The deciduous lower dentition of Ouranopithecus macedoniensis (Primates, Hominoidea) from the late Miocene deposits of Macedonia, Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koufos, George D; de Bonis, Louis

    2004-06-01

    Two mandibular fragments with associated milk teeth assigned to the late Miocene hominoid primate Ouranopithecus macedoniensis are analyzed. The fossils, which belong to a single individual, were found in the Vallesian locality of "Ravin de la Pluie" of the Axios Valley (Macedonia, Greece). The material is described here and compared with extant and extinct hominoids, allowing assessment of the evolutionary trends in the deciduous lower dentition within the Hominoidea. Hylobatids represent the more primitive pattern. Gorilla is slightly more derived than hylobatids, but less derived than Pongo and Pan, the latter being the most derived. With relatively smaller deciduous canines and more molarized deciduous premolars, Ouranopithecus is more derived than both Pan and Gorilla. Among the fossil hominoids, Proconsul, representing the primitive condition, has a very simple dp(3)and a dp(4)that has a trigonid that is taller than the talonid and which lacks a hypoconulid. Griphopithecus is more derived than Proconsul in having a dp(4) with a lower trigonid, a hypoconulid, and a less oblique cristid obliqua. Australopithecus and Paranthropus possess a similar morphology to that of Homo, while Ardipithecus appears to be more primitive than the latter genera. Ouranopithecus has a more derived lower milk dentition than Proconsul and Griphopithecus, but less derived than Australopithecus and Paranthropus. The comparison of the lower milk dentition of Ouranopithecus confirms our previous conclusions suggesting that this fossil hominoid shares derived characters with Australopithecus and Homo.

  5. Descomposición de hojarasca de Pinus radiata y tres especies arbóreas nativas Decomposition of leaf litter of Pinus radiata and three native tree species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHRISTOPHER H. LUSK

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available En el centro-sur de Chile, las últimas décadas han sido testigo de una conversión masiva de bosques, matorrales y tierras agrícolas a plantaciones de árboles exóticos. Aunque se ha estudiado la influencia de dichos cambios sobre el balance hídrico, los posibles efectos sobre otros procesos ecosistémicos han recibido poca atención. En esta breve comunicación se presentan datos de un estudio de la descomposición de hojarasca de Pinus radiata y tres especies arbóreas nativas, llevado a cabo con el fin de explorar los posibles efectos del reemplazo de bosque nativo por plantaciones exóticas sobre el ciclaje de nutrientes. Se incubaron muestras de las cuatro especies en dos ambientes distintos en sitios colindantes: bajo un bosque nativo secundario, y bajo un rodal de P. radiata. Se registró la pérdida de peso seco después de dos meses y seis meses. Las tasas diarias de descomposición fueron mucho mayores durante los primeros dos meses de incubación que durante los cuatro meses subsiguientes. En ambas fechas hubo diferencias significativas entre las especies y entre los sitios: todas las especies presentaron mayores tasas de descomposición bajo P. radiata que bajo el bosque nativo. No hubo evidencia de interacción entre sitio y especie. Después de seis meses, el orden de pérdida de peso seco fue Nothofagus obliqua > P. radiata > Peumus boldus > Cryptocarya alba. La variación interespecífica en la tasa de descomposición presentó más relación con el área foliar específica que con el contenido de nitrógeno en la hojarasca. Dado que la hojarasca de P. radiata se descompuso más lentamente que la de la especie caducifolia N. obliqua, pero más rápidamente que las especies esclerófilas, los efectos de la sustitución o invasión sobre descomposición dependerían de la composición original del bosque nativo en cuestiónRecent decades have seen widespread conversion of native forests, shrublands and farmland in south

  6. A survey of syrphid predators of Nasonovia ribisnigri in organic lettuce on the central coast of California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Hugh A; Chaney, William E

    2007-02-01

    Organic lettuce, Lactuca sativa L., producers on California's Central Coast rely on endemic syrphid flies (Diptera: Syrphidae) to suppress populations of Nasonovia ribisnigri Mosley (Homoptera: Aphididae) and other aphids affecting lettuce. Growers are using various forms of habitat manipulation to enhance biological control. We surveyed syrphids collected from organic romaine in and around the Salinas Valley from March through September 2005 to gain a better understanding of the species responsible for aphid suppression and to examine possible implications for biocontrol. The primary species of syrphid fly reared were Toxomerus marginatus (Say) (39%), Platycheirus stegnus (Say) (27%), Sphaerophoria sulfuripes (Thomson) (13%), and Allograpta obliqua (Say) (10%). Syrphus opinator Osten Sacken (2%), Toxomerus occidentalis (Curran) (1.3%), and Eupeodes volucris Osten Sacken (1%) were less common. Sphaerophoria pyrrhina Bigot, Scaeva pyrastri (L.), Platycheirus obscurus Say, Allograpta exotica Wiedemann, and Eupeodes americanus Wiedemann each made up aphids. P. stegnus was observed to deposit in clusters of eggs, and was only reared in significant numbers from highly infested fields. Approximately 5% of syrphid larvae overall were parasitized by either Diplazon sp. (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae) or Pachyneuron sp. (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae).

  7. The genus Rosalba Thomson, 1864 (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae, Lamiinae, Apomecynini).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos-Silva, Antonio; Galileo, Maria Helena M; Joly, Luis J; Tavakilian, GÉrard L

    2018-02-26

    Nineteen new species are described: Rosalba wappesi, from Bolivia; R. giesberti, from Bolivia; R. skillmani, from Bolivia; R. lingafelteri, from Bolivia; R. senecauxi, from French Guiana; R. dalensi, from French Guiana; R. giuglarisi, from French Guiana; R. nearnsi, from French Guiana; R. cerdai, from French Guiana; R. gaianii, from Venezuela; R. pittieri, from Venezuela; R. clinei, from Bolivia and Brazil; R. morrisi, from Costa Rica and Panama; R. schneppi, from Panama; R. birai, from Colombia; R. stenodesma, from Venezuela and French Guiana; R. similis, from Peru and Ecuador; R. bezarki, from Ecuador; and R.seraisorum, from Ecuador and Brazil (Amazonas). The following new synonymies are established: Aletretia dissimilis Belon, 1903 = A. fimbriata Belon, 1903; Aletretia consobrina Melzer, 1934, Rosalba gounellei Galileo Martins, 2013 and Rosalba vanini Galileo Martins, 2013 = Aletretia inscripta Bates, 1866; Aletretia mediofasciata Breuning, 1943 = Aletretia bucki Melzer, 1934; Aletretia peraffinis Breuning, 1940 = Aletretia approximata Melzer, 1934. The following species are redescribed: Rosalba strandiella (Breuning, 1940); and Rosalba rufescens (Breuning, 1940). The following new records are reported: Rosalba strandiella for Bolivia; R. strandi (Breuning, 1943) from the Brazilian states of São Paulo, Paraná and Santa Catarina; R. inscripta from Peru and the Brazilian state of Acre; R. smaragdina (Breuning, 1940) from the Brazilian state of Minas Gerais; R. obliqua (Thomson, 1868) from Brazil; and Rosalba fimbriata (Belon, 1903) from Ecuador.

  8. Regional Suppression of Bactrocera Fruit Flies (Diptera: Tephritidae in the Pacific through Biological Control and Prospects for Future Introductions into Other Areas of the World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger I. Vargas

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Bactrocera fruit fly species are economically important throughout the Pacific. The USDA, ARS U.S. Pacific Basin Agricultural Research Center has been a world leader in promoting biological control of Bactrocera spp. that includes classical, augmentative, conservation and IPM approaches. In Hawaii, establishment of Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett in 1895 resulted in the introduction of the most successful parasitoid, Psyttalia fletcheri (Silvestri; similarly, establishment of Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel in 1945 resulted in the introduction of 32 natural enemies of which Fopius arisanus (Sonan, Diachasmimorpha longicaudata (Ashmead and Fopius vandenboschi (Fullaway were most successful. Hawaii has also been a source of parasitoids for fruit fly control throughout the Pacific region including Australia, Pacific Island Nations, Central and South America, not only for Bactrocera spp. but also for Ceratitis and Anastrepha spp. Most recently, in 2002, F. arisanus was introduced into French Polynesia where B. dorsalis had invaded in 1996. Establishment of D. longicaudata into the new world has been important to augmentative biological control releases against Anastrepha spp. With the rapid expansion of airline travel and global trade there has been an alarming spread of Bactrocera spp. into new areas of the world (i.e., South America and Africa. Results of studies in Hawaii and French Polynesia, support parasitoid introductions into South America and Africa, where B. carambolae and B. invadens, respectively, have become established. In addition, P. fletcheri is a candidate for biological control of B. cucurbitae in Africa. We review past and more

  9. Moscas frugívoras associadas a mirtáceas e laranjeira "Céu" na região do Vale do Rio Caí, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil Frugivorous flies in myrtaceans and orange trees 'Céu' in the region of Vale do Rio Caí, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tacimara Gattelli

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo teve o objetivo de reconhecer as espécies de moscas frugívoras em mirtáceas: Eugenia uniflora L., Campomanesia xanthocarpa Berg., Psidium cattleianum Sabine, Psidium guajava L. e Acca sellowiana (Berg. Burret., bem como em Citrus sinensis (L. Osbeck (Rutaceae, na região do Vale do Caí, RS. Os frutos foram coletados no período de maturação de cada espécie frutífera, entre outubro de 2004 e julho de 2005, levados ao laboratório e acondicionados em potes com areia mantidos a 25 ± 1°C; 80 ± 10% UR e fotofase de 12 horas. Os pupários obtidos foram individualizados e suas características foram registradas. De Tephritidae foi registrada apenas Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann e de Lonchaeidae Neosilba n. sp. 3, Neosilba zadolicha McAlpine & Steyskal e Neosilba certa (Walker. As duas últimas são novos registros para o Rio Grande do Sul. Apenas em P. cattleianum foram registradas todas as espécies de moscas encontradas neste trabalho. Os resultados evidenciam que A. fraterculus é a espécie de mosca-das-frutas de maior ocorrência para a região do Vale do Caí, RS, nas frutíferas estudadas.This study aimed at recognizing frugivorous flies species in Myrtaceae: Eugenia uniflora L., Campomanesia xanthocarpa Berg. Psidium cattleianum Sabine, Psidium guajava L. and Acca sellowiana (Berg. Burret., as well as in Citrus sinensis (L. Osbeck (Rutaceae, at Vale do Cai region, Rio Grande do Sul. Fruits were collected at the maturation stage of each fruit species between October 2004 and July 2005, and at the laboratory they were placed in pots with sand and were kept at 12h photoperiod, 80 ± 10% RH and 25 ± 1°C. Pupae were individualized and their characteristics were recorded. In Tephritidae only Anastrepha fraterculus (Wied. was recorded and in Lonchaeidae, Neosilba n. sp. 3, Neosilba zadolicha McAlpine & Steyskal and Neosilba certa (Walker. These last two species were recorded for the first time in Rio Grande do Sul. Only on

  10. Incidence of fruit flies on coffee and citrus and quarantine treatment of citrus fruits by gamma radiation; Incidencia de moscas-das-frutas em cafe e citros e tratamento quarentenario de frutos citricos com radiacao gama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raga, Adalton

    1997-12-31

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the fruit fly infestation on coffee and citrus, and also to determine gamma radiation doses for immature stages of Ceratitis capitata and Anastrepha fraterculus, in order to satisfy quarantine regulations. Coffee arabica varieties Icatu Vermelho, Catuai Amarelo, Mundo Novo and Sarchimor showed the highest infestation indices (pupa/berry): 0.53; 0,41; 0.33 and 0.36. respectively Icatu Vermelho and Catuai Vermelho showed the highest values of pupa/berry weight (0.49 and 0.39, respectively), and Robusta (Coffea canephora) presented the lowest index (0.01). The following fruit flies were found in coffee berries: C. capitata (76.6%) Anastrepha spp. (7.4%) and Lonchaeidae (17.0%). In area near coffee plantation, fruit fly infestation indices in sweet oranges were of 4.77 larvae/kg and 0.55 larva/fruit. The infestation indices for sweet orange, collected from five regions of the State of Sao Paulo ranged from 0.73 to 7.60 pupa/kg and 0.12 to 1.27 pupa/fruit. The same species of fruit flies were found in oranges. In the case of C. capitata eggs with 24-48 hours old, 20 Gy prevented completely adult emergence (artificial diet and orange). No emergence of adult occurred when C. capitata larvae of third instar were irradiated at 20 Gy in their rearing medium. But at 25 Gy, the number of adults was reduced by 54% and 97% from larval infestation in oranges and grapefruit, respectively. A dose of 30 Gy was required to prevent medfly emergence from third instar larvae in grapefruit. A dose of 15 Gy was required for third instar, to prevent adult emergence of A. fraterculus. No adult emerged from C third instar, to prevent adult emergence of A. fraterculus. No adult emerged from C capitata pre-pupa irradiated at 30 Gy. One medfly adult emerged from pupa (3-4 days after pupating) irradiated at 120 Gy. At the same dose, sixteen A. fraterculus adults emergency from irradiated pupa with 5-6 days old. (author) 85 refs., 2 figs., 13 tabs.

  11. Introducción y producción en laboratorio de Diachasmimorpha tryon i y Diachasmimorpha longicaudata (Hymenoptera: Braconidae para el control biológico de Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae en la Argentina Introduction and laboratory production of Diachasmimorpha tryoni and Diachasmimorpha longicaudata (Hymenoptera: Braconidae for the biological control of Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae in Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio M. Ovruski

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Con el propósito de reanudar la utilización de enemigos naturales contra la especie exótica Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann, fueron introducidos a la Argentina en 1999 los agentes de control biológico Diachasmimorpha tryoni (Cameron y Diachasmimorpha longicaudata (Ashmead, dos endoparasitoides de larvas de tefrítidos. Por este motivo, en este trabajo se describen los procedimientos de cría en laboratorio del huésped y de ambas especies de parasitoides y, se presentan y discuten los resultados de un año de producción de D. tryoni y D. longicaudata a mediana escala (enero-diciembre/2000. Se realizó un análisis comparativo de los datos obtenidos sobre la producción de descendientes, proporción sexual, porcentaje de parasitismo y viabilidad de puparios por jaula de cría durante 15 generaciones entre ambas especies de parasitoides exóticos, utilizando como huésped larvas de C. capitata del tercer estadio de siete días de edad. Además, se discuten las posibilidades para implementar el control biológico aumentativo contra C. capitata y Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann en el país.The biocontrol agents Diachasmimorpha tryoni (Cameron and Diachasmimorpha longicaudata (Ashmead, two endoparasitoids of fruit fly larvae, were introduced to Argentina in 1999 with the purpose of renewing the employment of natural enemies against Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann. For this reason, the general procedure and maintenance of the host and parasitoids rearing in the laboratory are described, and the results of one year insectary production (January-December/2000 of both D. tryoni and D. longicaudata are discussed. Data are presented of the progeny production, offpring sex ratio, host parasitism percentage, and pupal viability per parasitoid rearing cage during 15 generations of D. longicaudata and D. tryoni reared using late third instar larvae of C. capitata. New perspectives are discussed on the establishment of a biological control program for C

  12. Incidence of fruit flies on coffee and citrus and quarantine treatment of citrus fruits by gamma radiation; Incidencia de moscas-das-frutas em cafe e citros e tratamento quarentenario de frutos citricos com radiacao gama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raga, Adalton

    1996-12-31

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the fruit fly infestation on coffee and citrus, and also to determine gamma radiation doses for immature stages of Ceratitis capitata and Anastrepha fraterculus, in order to satisfy quarantine regulations. Coffee arabica varieties Icatu Vermelho, Catuai Amarelo, Mundo Novo and Sarchimor showed the highest infestation indices (pupa/berry): 0.53; 0,41; 0.33 and 0.36. respectively Icatu Vermelho and Catuai Vermelho showed the highest values of pupa/berry weight (0.49 and 0.39, respectively), and Robusta (Coffea canephora) presented the lowest index (0.01). The following fruit flies were found in coffee berries: C. capitata (76.6%) Anastrepha spp. (7.4%) and Lonchaeidae (17.0%). In area near coffee plantation, fruit fly infestation indices in sweet oranges were of 4.77 larvae/kg and 0.55 larva/fruit. The infestation indices for sweet orange, collected from five regions of the State of Sao Paulo ranged from 0.73 to 7.60 pupa/kg and 0.12 to 1.27 pupa/fruit. The same species of fruit flies were found in oranges. In the case of C. capitata eggs with 24-48 hours old, 20 Gy prevented completely adult emergence (artificial diet and orange). No emergence of adult occurred when C. capitata larvae of third instar were irradiated at 20 Gy in their rearing medium. But at 25 Gy, the number of adults was reduced by 54% and 97% from larval infestation in oranges and grapefruit, respectively. A dose of 30 Gy was required to prevent medfly emergence from third instar larvae in grapefruit. A dose of 15 Gy was required for third instar, to prevent adult emergence of A. fraterculus. No adult emerged from C third instar, to prevent adult emergence of A. fraterculus. No adult emerged from C capitata pre-pupa irradiated at 30 Gy. One medfly adult emerged from pupa (3-4 days after pupating) irradiated at 120 Gy. At the same dose, sixteen A. fraterculus adults emergency from irradiated pupa with 5-6 days old. (author) 85 refs., 2 figs., 13 tabs.

  13. Apple biological and physiological disorders in the orchard and in postharvest according to production system Distúrbios biológicos e fisiológicos no pomar e na pós-colheita de maçãs em função do sistema de produção

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Roberto Martins

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to evaluate the incidence of biological and physiological disorders in the field and postharvested apples cvs. Gala, Fuji and Catarina grown in four production systems: conventional, organic transition, integrated and organic. Apples were evaluated for damages related to biological and physiological disorders in the orchard and after harvest. The greatest damages were attributed to pests, especially Anastrepha fraterculus in the organic system and Grapholita molesta in the organic transition. Apples produced in organic orchards had higher damage levels caused by postharvest physiological disorders than those grown in other production systems. For apples becoming from organic orchards most of the damage was due to lenticels breakdown and degeneration ('Gala', and bitter pit ('Fuji' and 'Catarina'. The incidence of postharvest rot was not influenced by apple production system.O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a ocorrência de distúrbios biológicos e fisiológicos, tanto em nível de campo como em pós-colheita, de maçãs 'Gala', 'Fuji' e 'Catarina', produzidas em pomares conduzidos em quatro sistemas de produção: convencional, transição convencional-orgânico, integrado e orgânico. As maçãs foram avaliadas quanto à presença de danos ocasionados por distúrbios biológicos e fisiológicos no pomar e em pós-colheita. Os maiores danos foram atribuídos às pragas, principalmente à Anastrepha fraterculus em sistema orgânico e à Grapholita molesta em sistema de transição convencional-orgânico. As maçãs produzidas em sistema orgânico tiveram maiores danos em pós-colheita ocasionados por distúrbios fisiológicos do que as dos demais sistemas de produção. Nas frutas produzidas em sistema orgânico, os danos, em sua maioria foram com degenerescência e depressão lenticelar para a cv. Gala, e bitter pit para as cvs. Fuji e Catarina. A incidência de podridões pós-colheita não foi influenciada pelo sistema de

  14. Incidence of fruit flies on coffee and citrus and quarantine treatment of citrus fruits by gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raga, Adalton

    1996-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the fruit fly infestation on coffee and citrus, and also to determine gamma radiation doses for immature stages of Ceratitis capitata and Anastrepha fraterculus, in order to satisfy quarantine regulations. Coffee arabica varieties Icatu Vermelho, Catuai Amarelo, Mundo Novo and Sarchimor showed the highest infestation indices (pupa/berry): 0.53; 0,41; 0.33 and 0.36. respectively Icatu Vermelho and Catuai Vermelho showed the highest values of pupa/berry weight (0.49 and 0.39, respectively), and Robusta (Coffea canephora) presented the lowest index (0.01). The following fruit flies were found in coffee berries: C. capitata (76.6%) Anastrepha spp. (7.4%) and Lonchaeidae (17.0%). In area near coffee plantation, fruit fly infestation indices in sweet oranges were of 4.77 larvae/kg and 0.55 larva/fruit. The infestation indices for sweet orange, collected from five regions of the State of Sao Paulo ranged from 0.73 to 7.60 pupa/kg and 0.12 to 1.27 pupa/fruit. The same species of fruit flies were found in oranges. In the case of C. capitata eggs with 24-48 hours old, 20 Gy prevented completely adult emergence (artificial diet and orange). No emergence of adult occurred when C. capitata larvae of third instar were irradiated at 20 Gy in their rearing medium. But at 25 Gy, the number of adults was reduced by 54% and 97% from larval infestation in oranges and grapefruit, respectively. A dose of 30 Gy was required to prevent medfly emergence from third instar larvae in grapefruit. A dose of 15 Gy was required for third instar, to prevent adult emergence of A. fraterculus. No adult emerged from C third instar, to prevent adult emergence of A. fraterculus. No adult emerged from C capitata pre-pupa irradiated at 30 Gy. One medfly adult emerged from pupa (3-4 days after pupating) irradiated at 120 Gy. At the same dose, sixteen A. fraterculus adults emergency from irradiated pupa with 5-6 days old. (author)

  15. Do fly parasites of bats and their hosts coevolve?speciation in Trichobius phyllostomae group (Diptera, Streblidae and their hosts (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae suggests that they do not Moscas parasitas de morcegos e seus hospedeiros co-evoluem?especiação do grupo Trichobius phyllostomae (Diptera, Streblidae e seus hospedeiros (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae sugere que eles não fazem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Graciolli

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available We examined whether, like many parasite-host systems of coevolution, a group of obligate parasitic bat flies (Trichobius phyllostomae Kessel and related species cospeciate with their hosts. We first did a cladistic analysis of the T. phyllostomae group and combined that analysis with a phylogenetic hypothesis from the literature for the Stenodermatinae bats. The cladistic analysis included, as outgroups, one species from each morphological group and complex of Trichobius Gervais, and one species from the following genera: Paratrichobius Miranda-Ribeiro, Megistopoda Macquart, Megistapophysys Dick & Wenzel, Neotrichobius Wenzel & Aitken, Speiseria Kessel and Strebla Wiedemann. The cladogram was rooted with a species of Strebla in the subfamily Streblinae. One cladogram was obtained and which found Trichobius to be polyphyletic. The phylogenetic hypothesis as follows: (Paratrichobius, (Neotrichobius, (Megistopoda, Megistapophysis is the sister-group of the phyllostomae group and the following relationships within the ingroup, (((T. vampyropis Wenzel, Trichobius sp. 2 ((T. hispidus Wenzel, T. petersoni Wenzel ((Trichobius sp. 1 (T. phyllostomae, T. brennani Wenzel. When we compared phylogenies through historical association analyses, cospeciation was uncommon, while host-switching was more common and better explained the association between the phyllostomae group and their bat hosts.Nós examinamos, como em muitos sistemas parasito-hospedeiro de coevolução, se um grupo de moscas parasitas obrigatórias de morcegos (Trichobius phyllostomae Kessel e espécies relacionadas coespecia com seus hospedeiros. Primeiro, nós fizemos uma análise cladística do grupo T. phyllostomae e combinamos a análise com a hipótese filogenética da literatura para os morcegos da subfamília Stenodermatinae. A análise cladística incluiu, como grupo-externo, uma espécie de cada grupo morfológico de Trichobius Gervais, e uma espécie dos seguintes g

  16. Effects of continuous drought and immersion on hatchability of Ochlerotatus albifasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae eggs stored at low temperature Efecto de la sequía continua y la inmersión sobre la respuesta de eclosión de los huevos de Ochlerotatus albifasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae almacenados a baja temperatura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raúl E Campos

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available The role of environmental factors on the hatching response of O. albifasciatus (Macquart eggs is studied by simulating winter conditions in the laboratory. The hypothesis tested was that hatching response is affected by: (1 time that eggs remain at low temperature, (2 storage conditions, and (3 acclimatization time. Eggs were stored at 5ºC in drought and immersion conditions during 7, 21, 35, 90 and 146 days, immediately after, they were acclimatized at 22ºC during 24, 72, and 168 hours, and then eggs were flooded to induce hatching. Percent of hatched eggs was analyzed with a Generalized Lineal Model with a binomial distribution. Results show that: (1 a long storage period at cold temperature and long acclimatization periods improve the hatching response; (2 storage conditions have a moderate effect on hatching, being more evident in eggs stored dry; (3 a long time of acclimatization favors the hatching response in submerged eggs more than in eggs stored dry; (4 long time at cold favors the hatching response in eggs stored dry more than in submerged eggs; (5 the hatching response of eggs that remain for a long time at low temperature is higher when the time of acclimatization is long.Se estudió el rol de los factores ambientales sobre la eclosión de los huevos de O. albifasciatus (Macquart, simulando condiciones de invierno. La hipótesis planteada fue que la respuesta de eclosión de los huevos depende de: (1 tiempo de permanencia a baja temperatura, (2 condiciones de almacenamiento, y (3 tiempo de aclimatación. Los huevos fueron almacenados a 5º C en condiciones de sequía y sumergidos durante 7, 21, 35, 90 y 146 días; luego fueron aclimatados a 22º C durante 24, 72, y 168 horas y posteriormente inundados para inducir la eclosión. El porcentaje de huevos eclosionados se analizó con un Modelo Lineal Generalizado con distribución binomial. Los resultados mostraron que: (1 largos períodos de almacenamiento en frío y largos tiempos

  17. Comunidade de Syrphidae (Diptera: diversidade e preferências florais no Cinturão Verde (Santa Cruz do Sul, RS, Brasil Syrphidae (Diptera community: diversity and floral preferences in the Green Belt (Santa Cruz do Sul, RS, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mírian Nunes Morales

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se investigar a comunidade de Syrphidae, do Cinturão Verde de Santa Cruz do Sul, RS, Brasil, permitindo a obtenção de informações acerca da composição e estrutura desta comunidade, suas preferências florais e interações entre as espécies na utilização de recursos alimentares. Realizaram-se coletas com rede entomológica, entre setembro/2001 a janeiro/2005. Foram capturados 1.283 espécimes de Syrphidae, representados por 88 espécies, distribuídos em 21 gêneros. Eristalinae apresentou o maior número de espécies coletadas, seguida por Syrphinae e Microdontinae. O gênero Palpada Macquart e a espécie P. urotaenia (Curran foram os mais abundantes. As coletas alcançaram cerca de 80% do que se estima para a área de estudo. Coletaram-se 1.187 sirfídeos (74 espécies visitantes de 51 espécies de plantas, de 23 famílias, onde Apiaceae e Asteraceae apresentaram o maior número de visitantes. O grau de especialização alimentar variou de acordo com os tipos de flores visitadas. A facilidade do acesso aos recursos florais e a coloração clara das flores são os principais responsáveis pela atração dos sirfídeos em Apiaceae, Asteraceae, Lauraceae, Malvaceae, Meliaceae, Oleaceae, Poaceae e Solanaceae. A diversidade da comunidade de Syrphidae é regulada por interações locais entre as espécies, principalmente entre as condições ambientais e disponibilidade de recursos alimentares.The aim of this study was to investigate the Syrphidae community in the area of the Green Belt of Santa Cruz do Sul, RS, Brazil, as well as to obtain information on the structure and composition of this community, its floral preferences and the interactions between the species in the food resource utilization. The specimens were collected with entomological net, from September/2001 to January/2005. A total of 1.283 syrphid specimens were collected, totaling 88 species distributed in 21 genera. Eristalinae presented the highest number of

  18. Effect of high hydrostatic pressure on the physiology of Manila mango.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas-Ortiz, M A; De la Cruz-Medina, J; de Los Monteros, J J Espinosa; Oliart-Ros, R M; Rebolledo-Martinez, A; Ramírez, J A; García, H S

    2013-06-01

    Manila mangoes (Mangifera indica L.) have sensory characteristics that make them attractive for consumption as a fresh fruit. A large portion of the annual yield of this fruit is infested by the Mexican fruit fly (Anastrepha ludens), adversely impacting the quality of the crop. Hence, it is necessary to develop economically viable postharvest treatments to reduce the damage caused by this insect. Currently, high hydrostatic pressures are used to guarantee the safety of many processed foods. The objective of this work was to assess the effects of high hydrostatic pressure on mangoes at their physiological maturity. High hydrostatic pressures were applied to mangoes at three levels: 50, 100 and 200 megapascals applied for four different time periods (0, 5, 10 and 20 min). Physiologically mature mangoes were more resistant to changes in response to the pressure of 50 MPa. Reduction of physiological activity by application of high hydrostatic pressure opens a new avenue for the research on treatments intended to enhance preservation of whole fresh fruit.

  19. Assessment of differences between X and γ rays in order to validate a new generation of irradiators for insect sterilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mastrangelo, Thiago; Walder, Julio M.M.; Parker, Andrew G.; Jessup, Andrew; Orozco-Davila, Dina; Islam, Amirul; Dammalage, Thilakasiri; Pereira, Rui

    2009-01-01

    Recent fears of terrorism provoked an increase in delays and denials of transboundary shipments of radioisotopes. This represents a serious constraint to sterile insect technique (SIT) programs around the world as they rely on the use of ionizing energy from radioisotopes for insect sterilization. In order to validate a novel Xray irradiator, a series of studies on Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) and Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae) were carried out, comparing the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) between X-rays and traditional γ radiation from 60 Co. Male C. capitata pupae and pupae of both sexes of A. fraterculus, both 24 to 48 h before adult emergence, were irradiated with doses ranging from 15 to 120 Gy and 10 to 70 Gy respectively. Estimated mean doses of 91.2 Gy of X and 124.9 Gy of γ radiation induced 99% sterility in C. capitata males. Irradiated A. fraterculus were 99% sterile at about 40-60 Gy for both radiation treatments. Standard quality control parameters were not significantly affected by the two types of radiation. There were no significant differences between X and γ radiation regarding mating indices. The RBE did not differ significantly between the tested X and γ radiation, and X-rays are as biologically effective for SIT purposes as γ rays are. This work confirms the suitability of this new generation of X-ray irradiators for pest control programs in UN Member States. (author)

  20. IMPROVING MASS REARING TECHNOLOGY FOR SOUTH AMERICAN FRUIT FLY (DIPTERA:TEPHRITIDAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raimundo Braga Sobrinho

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies on availability of suitable and economic diets for adults and larvae of the South American fruit fly Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann, 1830 were carried out at the Entomology Unit of the FAO/IAEA Agriculture and Biotechnology Laboratories in Seibersdorf, Austria with the aim to find the best diets to fit in a large scale mass rearing production. The best diet for adult was the combination of Hydrolysate Corn Protein + Yeast Hydrolysate Enzymatic + Sugar (3:1:3. This diet resulted in the highest numbers of egg/female/day, spermatozoid in the spermathecae, percentages of egg hatch, the lowest mortality rate of adults and the highest average mating duration compared with the standard adult diet based on Yeast Hydrolysate Enzymatic + Sugar (1:3. Among eleven larval diets tested, diets based on sugarcane and sugarbeet bagases plus 7% brewer yeast, 8% sugar, 0.2% sodium benzoate, 0.8% of hydrochloric acid and 60% water (adjusted, yielded the highest percentages of egg hatching, pupal recovery, pupal weight and adult emergence. There was no statistical difference with the standard larval diet based on wheat germ 3%, corncob 15%, corn flower 8%, brewer yeast 6%, sugar 8%, sodium benzoate 0.23%, hydrochloric acid 0.63%, nipagin 0.14% and water 59% (adjusted. The significant performance of these adult and larval diets open discussion for future researches on improvement of rearing techniques required for the establishment of sterile insect technique (SIT program focused on the South American fruit fly.

  1. Mating disruption with low density diffusers for the management of oriental fruit moths (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae in apple orchards under subtropical climate in southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lino Bittencourt Monteiro

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta Busck, and fruit flies, Anastrepha fraterculus L., are the important apple pests under Subtropical climate in Southern Brazil, and control is normally accomplished with insecticides. An alternative strategy for the control of G. molesta is mating disruption, through the use of pheromones. Mating disruption strategies using a low density of dispensers (20 per hectare were tested in comparison with conventional pesticides for control of G. molesta in commercial Gala apple orchards in Fraiburgo, SC, for a period of five years. The average field efficiency period of mating disruption formulation over five years was 113 days. In this period the mating interruption index on mating disruption plots was 84.8% over five years. Damage to Gala apples by oriental moth larvae was low (<0.1% in mating disruption plots but did not differ from conventional plots, except in the third year. The use of mating disruption allowed for an average reduction of 5.2 insecticide treatments per year in Gala orchards during field efficiency period. It was necessary to apply 1.0 and 1.2 applications of insecticide to control of G. molesta and A. fraterculus, respectively. Mating disruption with a low density of diffusers proved to be an effective alternative to conventional methods for control of G. molesta in Gala apple orchards in subtropical climate in southern Brazil.

  2. Development of Myrmeleon brasiliensis (Navas) (Neuroptera, Myrmeleontidae), in laboratory, with different natural diets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Missirian, Giani L.B. [Centro Universitario da Grande Dourados, MS (Brazil). Curso de Ciencias Biologicas; Uchoa-Fernandes, Manoel A. [Universidade Federal da Grande Dourados, MS (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Biologicas e Ambientais]. E-mail: uchoa.fernandes@ufgd.edu.br; Fischer, Erich [Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso do Sul, Campo Grande, MS (Brazil). Dept. de Biologia

    2006-07-01

    Antlions larvae are sit-and-wait predators that capture arthropod prey in conical sand pits. The aim of this paper were to determine the effect of different natural diets [leaf-cutting ants (Atta spp.), fruit fly larvae (Anastrepha spp. and Ceratitis capitata) and mixed diet (Atta spp. plus fruit fly larvae)] on the development of larvae and pupae of M. brasiliensis (Navas, 1914) and to estimate the number and size of prey caught in each instar and on each kind of diet. The average duration (days) of the second and third instars of M. brasiliensis was longer when larvae of antlion were fed with leaf-cutting ants. The diets did not affect the duration of the pupal stage nor the pupae size. The different diets did not affect the mean width of head capsule (mm), the mean weight (mg) or the mean body size (mm) in the different instars of M. brasiliensis. In the second and third instars, the larvae of M. brasiliensis fed with leaf-cutting ants consumed more prey than larvae kept on other diets. Adults whose larvae were fed fruit fly larvae were larger than adults on other diets. Although Myrmeleontidae are few studied in Brazil, these results contribute to knowledge of M. brasiliensis biology, but also suggest the need of studies about the development of larvae and pupae in natural environments. (author)

  3. Moscas frugívoras e seus parasitoides nos municípios de Pelotas e Capão do Leão, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil Frugivorous flies and their parasitoids in the cities of Pelotas and Capão do Leão, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrise Medeiros Nunes

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available As moscas frugívoras (Tephritoidea são as principais pragas da fruticultura de clima temperado no Brasil. O objetivo do presente trabalho foi avaliar a infestação desses dípteros e a ocorrência de seus parasitoides em frutíferas nos municípios de Pelotas e Capão do Leão, localizados na região Sul, nas safras agrícolas de 2007/08 e 2008/09. Foram coletados frutos de araçazeiro-amarelo e vermelho (Psidium cattleianum Sabine, 1821, butiazeiro [Butia capitata (Mart. Becc., 1916], caquizeiro (Diospyros kaki Linnaeus, 1753, cerejeira-do-mato (Eugenia involucrata DC., 1828, goiabeira [Psidium guajava (Linnaeus, 1753], goiabeira-serrana [Acca sellowiana (Berg. Burret, 1941], nespereira [Eriobotrya japonica (Thunb. Lindley, 1822], pessegueiro [Prunus persicae (L. Batsch, 1801], pitangueira (Eugenia uniflora Linnaeus,1753 e uvalheira (Eugenia pyriformis Cambessèdes, 1832. Os frutos foram coletados e transportados para o laboratório, onde foram individualizados e determinados os seguintes parâmetros: índice de infestação das moscas, índice de parasitismo e frequência de indivíduos por espécie de parasitoide. Foram constatadas duas espécies de Tephritidae, Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann, 1830 (90,5% e Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann, 1824 (9,5% e duas de Lonchaeidae, Neosilba zadolicha McAlpine & Steyskal, 1982 (87,8% e uma espécie ainda não descrita, referida como Neosilba n. sp. 3 (12,2%. Anastrepha fraterculus é a espécie mais abundante nos dois municípios, sendo constatada na maioria das frutíferas coletadas. Caquizeiro e goiabeira foram os hospedeiros que apresentaram o maior índice de infestação por C. capitata. Quanto às espécies de Neosilba, a maior infestação ocorreu em frutos de goiabeira-serrana. Dos parasitoides emergidos, foram identificadas três espécies, sendo duas de Braconidae, Doryctobracon areolatus (Szépligeti, 1911 (52,6% e Opius bellus (Gahan, 1930 (27,5% e uma espécie de Figitidae, Aganaspis

  4. Variação na infestação de mosca-das-frutas (Diptera: Tephritidae e parasitismo em diferentes fases de frutificação em mirtaceas nativas no Rio Grande do Sul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diogo Ricardo Pereira Rêgo

    2013-07-01

    Abstract. The fruit fly Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann (Diptera: Tephritidae is an important pest of fruit production in Rio Grande do Sul. A. fraterculus presents native and exotic hosts, according to fruiting time. The objective of this study was compare infestation rate, the intensity of infestation of fruit fly and parasitism in four native Myrtaceae. The fruits were stored under ambient conditions until flies or parasitoids emergence. These evaluation were made in fruits collected from the canopy and soil, and between stages of ripening of the canopy. The largest infestation rate of fruit fly occurred in guava (89.5% and the lowest in feijoa (67%. The intensity of infestation per fruit was highest in guava (17.33 and lowest in red strawberry guava (1.62. The highest rate of puparia per gram of fruit was obtained in the feijoa (0.50 and the lowest in guava (0.22. The highest parasitism rate was in feijoa (21.40% and the lowest in yellow strawberry guava (2.81%. A greater occurrence of this pest in guava and feijoa revealing highest attractiveness in these hosts. Feijoa is a repository for native parasitodes species.

  5. Reducing irradiation damage to 'Arkin' carambola by plastic packaging or storage temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, W.R.; McDonald, R.E.

    1998-01-01

    Carambolas (Averrhoa carambola L.) require quarantine treatment for control of the Caribbean fruit fly (Anastrepha suspensa Loew) (CFF) prior to shipment to certain domestic and export markets. Low-dose irradiation, less than or equal to kGy, is effective for sterilizing CFF and other fruit flies; however, carambolas are susceptible to irradiation-induced peel injury. Low-dose gamma irradiation treatment generally reduced fruit quality, but the effects were mitigated by packaging carambola fruit in ''clamshell'' polystyrene containers, rather than conventional fiberboard boxes, prior to treatment. Use of clamshell containers reduced peel pitting, stem-end breakdown, shriveling, and loss of mass after storage for 14 days at 5 or 7 degrees C. In addition, fruit held in clamshell containers were firmer, with slightly less green peel, and had lower total soluble solids, but the flavor was not quite as good as that of fruit stored in fiberboard boxes. There was no difference in the mastication texture or acidity of fruit by package type at final storage. Packing carambolas in clamshell containers increased their tolerance to irradiation-induced peel disorders and improved the potential for usage of low-dose irradiation for quarantine treatment

  6. Genetic technologies to enhance the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alphey, Luke; Baker, Pam; Condon, George C.; Condon, Kirsty C.; Dafa'alla, Tarig H.; Fu, Guoliang; Jin, Li; Labbe, Genevieve; Morrison, Neil M.; Nimmo, Derric D.; O'Connell, Sinead; Phillips, Caroline E.; Plackett, Andrew; Scaife, Sarah; Woods, Alexander; Burton, Rosemary S.; Epton, Matthew J.; Gong, Peng

    2006-01-01

    The Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) has been used very successfully against range of pest insects, including various tephritid fruit flies, several moths and a small number of livestock pests. However, modern genetics could potentially provide several improvements that would increase the cost-effectiveness of SIT, and extend the range of suitable species. These include improved identification of released individuals by incorporation of a stable, heritable, genetic marker; built-in sex separation (genetic sexing); reduction of the hazard posed by non-irradiated accidental releases from mass-rearing facility (fail-safe); elimination of the need for sterilization by irradiation (genetic sterilization). We discuss applications of these methods and the state of the art, at the time of this meeting, in developing suitable strains. We have demonstrated, in several key pest species, that the required strains can be constructed by introducing a repressible dominant lethal genetic system, a method known as RIDL(trade mark). Based on field experience with Medfly, incorporation of a genetic sexing system into SIT programs for other tephritids could potentially provide a very significant improvement in cost-effectiveness. We have now been able to make efficient female-lethal strains for Medfly. One advantage of our approach is that it should be possible rapidly to extend this technology to other fruit fly species; indeed we have recently been able also to make genetic sexing strains of Medfly (Anastrepha ludens). (author)

  7. Guidance for packing, shipping, holding and release of sterile flies in area-wide fruit fly control programmes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enkerlin, W.

    2007-01-01

    This guidance represents the recommendations, reached by consensus of an international group of experts, on the standard procedures for the packing, shipping, holding and release of mass reared and sterilized tephritid flies that are to be used in area-wide programmes that include the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT). The majority of the procedures were initially designed specifically for the Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (or Medfly), but they are applicable, with minor modifications, for other tephritid species such as those in the genera Anastrepha, Bactrocera and Dacus. The guidance is designed to be a working document that can be subject to periodic updates due to technological developments and research contributions. Future editions will endeavour to include more specific recommendations for other species of fruit flies as the relevant data become available. The procedures described in this guidance will help ensure that released sterile fruit flies will be of optimal quality and that the resulting field density of these flies will be as closely aligned to the individual programme needs. It is hoped that this guidance will help to quickly identify and correct problems in programme effectiveness, resulting from less than optimal emergence and release conditions

  8. A compound produced by fruigivorous Tephritidae (Diptera) larvae promotes oviposition behavior by the biological control agent Diachasmimorpha longicaudata (Hymenoptera: Braconidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuhl, Charles; Sivinski, John; Teal, Peter; Paranhos, Beatriz; Aluja, Martin

    2011-06-01

    Tephritid fruit fly parasitoids use fruit-derived chemical cues and the vibrations that result from larval movements to locate hosts sequestered inside fruit. However, compounds produced by the larvae themselves have not been previously described nor their significance to parasitoid foraging determined. We collected the volatiles from four species of tropical and subtropical Tephritidae: Anastrepha suspensa (Loew), Bactrocera dorsalis Hendel, Bactrocera cucurbitae Coquillett, and Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), representing two subfamilies (Dacinae and Trypetinae). Para-ethylacetophenone, an analog of a known tephritid parasitoid attractant, was a major constituent of all four, and was not associated with larvae of another acalypterate fly, Drosophila melanogaster Meigen, or with the calypterate Musca domestica L. It also was present in volatiles from whole, A. suspensa infested fruits of Eugenia uniflora (L.). Para-ethylacetophenone was not necessarily produced as a direct consequence of fruit consumption because it also was detected from larvae that developed in two artificial diets and in spent diets subsequent to larval development. Sensillae on both the antennae and ovipositor of the opiine braconid fruit fly parasitoid, Diachasmimorpha longicaudata (Ashmead) responded to the para-ethylacetophenone in larval volatiles and as a synthetic. Although a potential cue to foraging parasitoids, para-ethylacetophenone showed no long range (>1m) attractiveness to the adult female parasitoid, but did stimulate ovipositor-insertion and oviposition into both a natural (fruit) and an artificial (parafilm) substrate. Thus it may prove useful in colonizing and mass-rearing opine fruit fly parasitoids.

  9. Host availability affects the interaction between pupal parasitoid Coptera haywardi (Hymenoptera: Diiapridae) and larval-pupal parasitoid Diachasmimorpha longicaudata (Hymenoptera: Braconidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montoya, P; Gálvez, C; Díaz-Fleischer, F

    2018-02-12

    The use of multiple species in biological control programmes is controversial when interactions among them are not fully understood. We determined the response of the pupal parasitoid Coptera haywardi (Oglobin) to different availability of Anastrepha ludens (Loew) pupae previously parasitized or not by larval-pupal Diachasmimorpha longicaudata (Ashmead). The two types of pupae were exposed at different ages and proportions to different numbers of C. haywardi females for 48 h. The performance of C. haywardi adults emerging from parasitized and unparasitized pupae was measured. Coptera haywardi prefers to attack unparasitized A. ludens pupae rather than pupae parasitized by D. longicaudata. However, when the availability of unparasitized pupae was low or the number of foraging females was high, C. haywardi competed against early immature stages of the D. longicaudata, or hyperparasitized, feeding directly on the advanced-immature developmental stages of the early acting species. Adults of C. haywardi emerging as hyperparasitoids were no different in size, fecundity and longevity from those emerging as primary parasitoids. Our data suggest that simultaneous use of these species in augmentative biological control projects may be feasible but should be carefully planned in order to avoid any detrimental effect of its interaction.

  10. Genetic technologies to enhance the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alphey, Luke; Baker, Pam; Condon, George C; Condon, Kirsty C; Dafa' alla, Tarig H; Fu, Guoliang; Jin, Li; Labbe, Genevieve; Morrison, Neil M; Nimmo, Derric D; O' Connell, Sinead; Phillips, Caroline E; Plackett, Andrew; Scaife, Sarah; Woods, Alexander [Oxitec Ltd., Oxford (United Kingdom); Burton, Rosemary S; Epton, Matthew J; Gong, Peng [University of Oxford (United Kingdom). Dept. of Zoology

    2006-07-01

    The Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) has been used very successfully against range of pest insects, including various tephritid fruit flies, several moths and a small number of livestock pests. However, modern genetics could potentially provide several improvements that would increase the cost-effectiveness of SIT, and extend the range of suitable species. These include improved identification of released individuals by incorporation of a stable, heritable, genetic marker; built-in sex separation (genetic sexing); reduction of the hazard posed by non-irradiated accidental releases from mass-rearing facility (fail-safe); elimination of the need for sterilization by irradiation (genetic sterilization). We discuss applications of these methods and the state of the art, at the time of this meeting, in developing suitable strains. We have demonstrated, in several key pest species, that the required strains can be constructed by introducing a repressible dominant lethal genetic system, a method known as RIDL(trade mark). Based on field experience with Medfly, incorporation of a genetic sexing system into SIT programs for other tephritids could potentially provide a very significant improvement in cost-effectiveness. We have now been able to make efficient female-lethal strains for Medfly. One advantage of our approach is that it should be possible rapidly to extend this technology to other fruit fly species; indeed we have recently been able also to make genetic sexing strains of Medfly (Anastrepha ludens). (author)

  11. Evaluation of the quality and shelf life of gamma irradiated blueberries by quarantine purposes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lires, Carla M. L.; Docters, Andrea; Horak, Celina I.

    2018-02-01

    Fresh blueberries (Vaccinium spp.) are considered one of the richest sources of phenolic compounds and are appreciated for their high antioxidant capacity. But they are hosts in Argentina of the quarantine pests Ceratitis capitata and Anastrepha fraterculus, and have to be treated to avoid its spreading. Irradiation is being introduced in the Agricultural World trade, increasing exponentially on the last years. In order to guarantee the success of this process, it is required previous to the rutinary treatment, to define the irradiation dose range to be applied. The minimum dose for these pests has been already approved in the IPPC standard 28. The maximum dose depends on the tolerance of the fruit cultivars, maturity, pre-harvest conditions, harvest time, storage conditions, and interactions among these factors. The postharvest quality of Argentina´s blueberry treated with irradiation doses of 150 (generic quarantine dose used for fruit flies) and 300 Gy (to evaluate tolerance) was evaluated. The studies included blueberries from different harvest seasons 2009-2012). Misty, O'Neal and Emeral varieties were chosen, because they represent the biggest volume of exported blueberry from Argentina. The results indicated that irradiation at 150 Gy and 300 Gy did not significantly affect the postharvest quality and slightly improved shelf life of the different blueberries varieties. Therefore, it is possible to use irradiation as an alternative quarantine treatment for Argentina´s blueberries, establishing a dose range appropriate to be applied on a commercial irradiation facility.

  12. Influence of irradiation on development of Caribbean fruit fly (diptera: tephritidae) larvae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nation, J.L.; Milne, K.; Dykstra, T.M.

    1995-01-01

    Larvae of the Caribbean fruit fly, Anastrepha suspensa (Loew), were irradiated at hatching with 0, 5, 10, 20, 50, 75, 100 and 150 Gy doses from a Cesium-137 source and dissected for measurements of the supraesophageal ganglion (brain) and proventriculus (B/Prv) as mature third instars. Cross-sectional area of a plane through the brain and proventriculus, and simple dorsal width measurements of the two organs were evaluated as indicators of radiation exposure. Brain area, brain width, and brain/proventriculus (B/Prv) ratios were significantly different from controls in insects treated with a dose ≥20 Gy. Detailed dissections of hatching larvae exposed to 50 Gy revealed reductions in brain growth, small and misshapen compound eye and leg imaginal disks, and a ventral nerve cord that was elongated and sinuous. Larvae irradiated on the 1st d of each of the three instars had smaller brains, with the percentage of reduction in brain size being greater the younger the larvae were at the time of exposure. Brain and proventriculus measurements and calculated B/Prv values are indicative of irradiation in Caribbean fruit fly larvae, but the procedure may not be adaptable for routine use by quarantine inspectors. 14 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs

  13. Biological Control of Tephritid Fruit Flies in Argentina: Historical Review, Current Status, and Future Trends for Developing a Parasitoid Mass-Release Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ovruski, Sergio M; Schliserman, Pablo

    2012-09-14

    In Argentina there are two tephritid fruit fly species of major economic and quarantine importance: the exotic Ceratitis capitata that originated from Southeast Africa and the native Anastrepha fraterculus. In recent years, the use of fruit fly parasitoids as biocontrol agents has received renewed attention. This increasing interest has recently led to the establishment of a program for the mass rearing of five million Diachasmimorpha longicaudata parasitoids per week in the BioPlanta San Juan facility, San Juan, Argentina. The first augmentative releases of D. longicaudata in Argentina are currently occurring on commercial fig crops in rural areas of San Juan as part of an integrated fruit fly management program on an area-wide basis. In this context, research is ongoing to assess the suitability of indigenous parasitoid species for successful mass rearing on larvae of either C. capitata or A. fraterculus. The purpose of this article is to provide a historical overview of the biological control of the fruit fly in Argentina, report on the strategies currently used in Argentina, present information on native parasitoids as potential biocontrol agents, and discuss the establishment of a long-term fruit fly biological control program, including augmentative and conservation modalities, in Argentina's various fruit growing regions.

  14. Biological Control of Tephritid Fruit Flies in Argentina: Historical Review, Current Status, and Future Trends for Developing a Parasitoid Mass-Release Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio M. Ovruski

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In Argentina there are two tephritid fruit fly species of major economic and quarantine importance: the exotic Ceratitis capitata that originated from Southeast Africa and the native Anastrepha fraterculus. In recent years, the use of fruit fly parasitoids as biocontrol agents has received renewed attention. This increasing interest has recently led to the establishment of a program for the mass rearing of five million Diachasmimorpha longicaudata parasitoids per week in the BioPlanta San Juan facility, San Juan, Argentina. The first augmentative releases of D. longicaudata in Argentina are currently occurring on commercial fig crops in rural areas of San Juan as part of an integrated fruit fly management program on an area-wide basis. In this context, research is ongoing to assess the suitability of indigenous parasitoid species for successful mass rearing on larvae of either C. capitata or A. fraterculus. The purpose of this article is to provide a historical overview of the biological control of the fruit fly in Argentina, report on the strategies currently used in Argentina, present information on native parasitoids as potential biocontrol agents, and discuss the establishment of a long-term fruit fly biological control program, including augmentative and conservation modalities, in Argentina’s various fruit growing regions.

  15. Disinfestation by irradiation of mangoes (Manguifera Indica L.) Kent and oranges (Citrus sinensis O.) Valencia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bustos Ramirez, M.E.

    1987-01-01

    The objectives in this work were to determine the minimum dose for radiation disinfestation of mangoes and oranges infested with Mexican fruit fly (Anastrepha ludens Loew) and to evaluate the quality of the fruits by organoleptic, chemical and physiological analysis of mangoes irradiated to 0.3, 0.6 and 1.0 kGy and storaged at 12 0 C during 15 days and oranges irradiated to 0.25, 0.6 and 1.0 kGy and storaged at 15 0 C during 21 days. To inhibit the development of larvaes in mangoes the minimum dose was 0.3 kGy and for oranges the dose was 0.45 kGy. The dose for the probit 9 security test were 0.43 kGy for mangoes and 0.63 kGy for oranges. The results of sensorial analysis in mangoes, indicated that there are no significative differences for the two panels: consumers or trained judges. The differences in the physiological and chemical analysis are greater for storage fruits than for the irradiated ones. At the end of the storage period the appearance of the irradiated mangoes was better than for the control. The observed differences in irradiated oranges were the presence of dark zones on the oranges peel which affect their quality. This effect is due to the irradiation in oranges not completely ripen. (author)

  16. Wolbachia in two populations of Melittobia digitata Dahms (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Copeland, Claudia S.; Sivinski, John

    2008-01-01

    We investigated two populations of Melittobia digitata Dahms, a gregarious parasitoid (primarily upon a wide range of solitary bees, wasps, and flies), in search of Wolbachia infection. The first population, from Xalapa, Mexico, was originally collected from and reared on Mexican fruit fly pupae, Anastrepha ludens Loew (Diptera: Tephritidae); the other, from Athens, Georgia, was collected from and reared on prepupae of mud dauber wasps, Trypoxylon politum Say (Hymenoptera: Crabronidae). PCR studies of the ITS2 region corroborated that both parasitoid populations were the same species; this potentially provides a useful molecular taxonomic profile since females of Melittobia species are superficially similar. Amplification of the Wolbachia surface protein gene (wsp) confirmed the presence of this endosymbiont in both populations. Sequencing revealed that the Wolbachia harbored in both populations exhibited a wsp belonging to a unique subgroup (denoted here as Dig) within the B-supergroup of known wsp genes. This new subgroup of wsp may either belong to a different strain of Wolbachia from those previously found to infect Melittobia or may be the result of a recombination event. In either case, known hosts of Wolbachia with a wsp of this subgroup are only distantly related taxonomically. Reasons are advanced as to why Melittobia - an easily reared and managed parasitoid - holds promise as an instructive model organism of Wolbachia infection amenable to the investigation of Wolbachia strains among its diverse hosts. (author)

  17. Wolbachia in two populations of Melittobia digitata Dahms (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Copeland, Claudia S.; Sivinski, John [United States Dept. of Agriculture, Gainesville, FL (United States). Center for Medical, Agriculture and Veterinary Entomology]. E-mails: cclaudia@bioinf.uni-leipzig.de; john.sivinski@ars.usda.gov; Matthews, Robert W. [University of Georgia, Athens, GA (United States). Dept. of Entomology]. E-mail: rmatthew@uga.edu; Gonzalez, Jorge M. [Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States). Dept. of Entomology]. E-mail: jmgonzalez@neo.tamu.edu; Aluja, Martin [Instituto de Ecologia A.C., Veracruz (Mexico)]. E-mail: martin.aluja@inecol.edu.mx

    2008-11-15

    We investigated two populations of Melittobia digitata Dahms, a gregarious parasitoid (primarily upon a wide range of solitary bees, wasps, and flies), in search of Wolbachia infection. The first population, from Xalapa, Mexico, was originally collected from and reared on Mexican fruit fly pupae, Anastrepha ludens Loew (Diptera: Tephritidae); the other, from Athens, Georgia, was collected from and reared on prepupae of mud dauber wasps, Trypoxylon politum Say (Hymenoptera: Crabronidae). PCR studies of the ITS2 region corroborated that both parasitoid populations were the same species; this potentially provides a useful molecular taxonomic profile since females of Melittobia species are superficially similar. Amplification of the Wolbachia surface protein gene (wsp) confirmed the presence of this endosymbiont in both populations. Sequencing revealed that the Wolbachia harbored in both populations exhibited a wsp belonging to a unique subgroup (denoted here as Dig) within the B-supergroup of known wsp genes. This new subgroup of wsp may either belong to a different strain of Wolbachia from those previously found to infect Melittobia or may be the result of a recombination event. In either case, known hosts of Wolbachia with a wsp of this subgroup are only distantly related taxonomically. Reasons are advanced as to why Melittobia - an easily reared and managed parasitoid - holds promise as an instructive model organism of Wolbachia infection amenable to the investigation of Wolbachia strains among its diverse hosts. (author)

  18. Parasites of Columba livia (Aves: Columbiformes in Tenerife (Canary Islands and their role in the conservation biology of the Laurel pigeons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Foronda P.

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence and intensity of the parasites from 50 wild doves (Columba livia from the city of Santa Cruz de Tenerife, in the island of Tenerife (Canary Archipelago, were studied. The following ectoparasites were found in apparently healthy pigeons (prevalences are shown in percentage (% and mean intensities with their standard deviations: the acari Dermanyssus gallinae (De Geer, 1778 (6 241 .0 ± 138.9 and Tinaminyssus melloi Fain, 1962 (10 %, 218.3 ± 117.3; the louses, Columbicola columbae Linnaeus, 1758 (100 %, 111.4 ± 76.8 and Campanulotes bidentatus Scopoli, 1763 (94 %, 48.4 ± 26.6; and the pigeon fly, Pseudolynchia canariensis Macquart, 1839 (36 %, 6.2 ± 1.6. The endoparasites we found, were: a haemoprotozoan species, Haemoproteus columbae Kruze, 1890 (82 %, 14.8 ± 10.3 per 1000; coccidian oocysts, Eimeria sp. (50 %, 0.2 x 103 ± 1.7 x 103 per gr; a cestode species Raillietina micracantha (Fuhrmann, 1909 López Neyra, 1947 (44 %, 12.3 ± 9.4; and four nematode species, Tetrameres (Tetrameres fissispina (Diesing, 1861 Travassos, 1915 (4 %, 99.5 ± 34,1, Synhimantus (Dispharynx spiralis (Molin, 1858 (8 %, 46. 8 ± 11.6, Ascaridia columbae (Gmelin, 1790 Travassos, 1913 (40 %, 8.4 ± 8.8 and Aonchotheca sp. (18 %, 6.0 ± 3.1. Several species detected in our study can be pathogens for C. bollii and C. junoniae, which are endemic pigeons of the Canary Islands, considered endangered species. Parasites (ectoparasites, protozoa and helminths of C. livia found in Tenerife and others from wild and farm birds in the island were considered as healthy controls.

  19. Parasites of Columba livia (Aves: Columbiformes) in Tenerife (Canary Islands) and their role in the conservation biology of the laurel pigeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foronda, P; Valladares, B; Rivera-Medina, J A; Figueruelo, E; Abreu, N; Casanova, J C

    2004-09-01

    The prevalence and intensity of the parasites from 50 wild doves (Columba livia) from the city of Santa Cruz de Tenerife, in the island of Tenerife (Canary Archipelago), were studied. The following ectoparasites were found in apparently healthy pigeons (prevalences are shown in percentage (%) and mean intensities with their standard deviations): the acari Dermanyssus gallinae (De Geer, 1778) (6, 241.0 +/- 138.9) and Tinaminyssus melloi Fain, 1962 (10%, 218.3 +/- 117.3); the louses, Columbicola columbae Linnaeus, 1758 (100%, 111.4 +/- 76.8) and Campanulotes bidentatus Scopoli, 1763 (94%, 48.4 +/- 26.6); and the pigeon fly, Pseudolynchia canariensis Macquart, 1839 (36%, 6.2 +/- 1.6). The endoparasites we found were: a haemoprotozoan species, Haemoproteus columbae Kruze, 1890 (82%, 14.8 +/- 10.3 per 1000); coccidian oocysts, Eimeria sp. (50%, 0.2 x 10(3) +/- 1.7 x 10(3) per gr); a cestode species Raillietina micracantha (Fuhrmann, 1909) López Neyra, 1947 (44%, 12.3 +/- 9.4); and four nematode species, Tetrameres (Tetrameres) fissispina (Diesing, 1861) Travassos, 1915 (4%, 99.5 +/- 34.1), Synhimantus (Dispharynx) spiralis (Molin, 1858) (8%, 46.8 +/- 11.6), Ascaridia columbae (Gmelin, 1790) Travassos, 1913 (40%, 8.4 +/- 8.8) and Aonchotheca sp. (18%, 6.0 +/- 3.1). Several species detected in our study can be pathogens for C. bollii and C. junoniae, which are endemic pigeons of the Canary Islands, considered endangered species. Parasites (ectoparasites, protozoa and helminths) of C. livia found in Tenerife and others from wild and farm birds in the island were considered as healthy controls.

  20. Natural Distribution of Parasitoids of Larvae of the Fall Armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda, in Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabriela Murúa, M.; Molina-Ochoa, Jaime; Fidalgo, Patricio

    2009-01-01

    To develop a better understanding of the natural distribution of the fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), and to update the knowledge of the incidence of its complex of parasitoids. S. frugiperda, samplings in whorl-stage corn were carried out in provinces of Argentina from 1999 to 2003. S. frugiperda larvae were collected from corn in localities of the provinces of Tucumán, Salta, Jujuy, Santiago del Estero, La Rioja, Córdoba, San Luis, Chaco and Misiones. In each locality 30 corn plants were sampled and only larvae located in those plants were collected. The parasitoids that emerged from S. frugiperda larvae were identified and counted. The abundance of the parasitoids and the parasitism rate were estimated. The S. frugiperda parasitoids collected were Campoletis grioti (Blanchard) (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae), Chelonus insularis (Cresson) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), Archytas marmoratus (Townsend) (Diptera Tachinidae) and/or A. incertus (Macquart), Ophion sp. (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae), Euplectrus platyhypenae Howard (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), and Incamyia chilensis (Aldrich) (Diptera Tachinidae). C. grioti was the most abundant and frequent during the five-year survey. Similar diversity of parasitoids was obtained in all the provinces, with the exception of I. chilensis and E. platyhypenae that were recovered only in the province of Salta. In the Northwestern region, in Tucumán, C. grioti and species of Archytas were the most abundant and frequent parasitoids. On the contrary, in Salta and Jujuy Ch. insularis was the parasitoid most abundant and frequently recovered. The parasitism rate obtained in Tucumán, Salta and Jujuy provinces were 21.96%, 17.87% and 6.63% respectively with an average of 18.93%. These results demonstrate that hymenopteran and dipteran parasitoids of S. frugiperda occurred differentially throughout the Argentinian provinces and played an important role on the natural control of the S. frugiperda larval

  1. Revision of the stiletto fly genera Acupalpa Kröber and Pipinnipons Winterton (Diptera, Therevidae, Agapophytinae using cybertaxonomic methods, with a key to Australasian genera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaun Winterton

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Australian stiletto flies of the sister-genera Acupalpa Kröber, 1912 and Pipinnipons Winterton, 2001 (Diptera: Therevidae: Agapophytinae are revised. Twelve new species of Acupalpa are described, while Acupalpa imitans (White, 1915, comb. n. is transferred from Pipinnipons and Acupalpa albimanis (Kröber, 1914, comb. n. is transferred from Ectinorhynchus Macquart as a senior synonym of Acupalpa pollinosa Mann. The total number of species of Acupalpa is therefore increased to 19: A. albimanis (Kröber, comb. n., A. albitarsa Mann, A. boharti sp. n., A. divisa (Walker, A. dolichorhyncha sp. n., A. glossa sp. n., A. imitans (White, comb. n., A. irwini Winterton, A. melanophaeos sp. n., A. miaboolya sp. n., A. minuta sp. n., A. minutoides sp. n., A. notomelas sp. n., A. novayamarna sp. n., A. rostrata Kröber, A. semirufa Mann, A. westralica sp. n., A. yalgoo sp. n. and A. yanchep sp. n. Three new species of Pipinnipons are described, increasing the total number of species to five: P. chauncyvallis sp. n., P. fascipennis (Kröber, P. kampmeierae sp. n., P. kroeberi Winterton, and P. sphecoda sp. n. Pipinnipons and Acupalpa are rediagnosed in light of the new species presented herein and revised keys to species are included. A dichotomous key to genera of Australasian Therevidae is included. As an empirical example of cybertaxonomy, taxonomic descriptions were composed using a character matrix developed in Lucid Builder (in Structured Descriptive Data (SDD format to generate natural language descriptions supplemented by online specimen and image databases. Web resources are provided throughout the document including: a links to high resolution colour images of all species on Morphbank, b registration of authors, publications, taxon names and other nomenclatural acts in Zoobank, with assignment of Life Science Identifiers (LSIDs for each, c links to Genbank accession records for DNA sequences, and d assignment of LSIDs to specimen records with links

  2. Variation in the Time of Colonization of Broiler Carcasses by Carrion Flies in Nakhonsawan Province, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moophayak, Kittikhun; Sukontason, Kabkaew L; Ruankham, Watcharapong; Tomberlin, Jeffery K; Bunchu, Nophawan

    2017-09-01

    Carrion flies are the primary insects colonizing vertebrate carrion; however, limited information is available on the variation in the time of colonization (TOC) as related to time of placement (TOP) and time of death (TOD), particularly in Thailand. Three seasonal sets of nine broiler carcasses (euthanized and placed in field within 0.5 h after death) were placed in mesh enclosures within a disturbed deciduous dipterocarp forest at Nakhonsawan Province, upper-central Thailand, for 3 d to determine the colonization time by carrion flies. In total, 21,536 arthropods were collected using traps placed over each carcass. Carrion flies of the family Calliphoridae, Muscidae, and Sarcophagidae predominated (93.42%). Of these, Chrysomya megacephala (F.) (Diptera: Calliphoridae) and Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart) (Diptera: Calliphoridae) were the dominant species being 36.18% and 35.36%, respectively, across season. These species arrived immediately (5 min) after placement of the carrion in the field during the rainy season, while they were delayed 1-2 h during the dry season. Chrysomya megacephala, C. rufifacies, and Parasarcophaga dux (Thomson) colonized the remains. Time of colonization by C. megacephala and C. rufifacies occurred mostly at ∼1600-1700 hours (10-11 h after placement) for all seasons. In contrast, TOC by P. dux was delayed for 1 d during rainy and dry season. These results mark the first record of carrion fly colonization in this area and also may deserve important information for the further study as they demonstrate time of colonization differs from TOP and most importantly TOD. © Crown copyright 2017.

  3. Laboratory Colonization of the Blow Flies, Chrysomya megacephala (Diptera: Calliphoridae) and Chrysomya rufifacies (Diptera: Calliphoridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swiger, Sonja Lise; Hogsette, Jerome A; Butler, Jerry F

    2014-10-01

    Chrysomya megacephala (F.) and Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart) were colonized so that larval growth rates could be compared. Colonies were also established to provide insight into the protein needs of adult C. rufifacies and developmental rates of the ensuing larvae. The C. megacephala and C. rufifacies laboratory colonies were reared for five and six generations, respectively, at 28°C. C. megacephala developmental mean rate from egg to adult was 20.4 ± 0.38 d. First-instar larvae emerge in 1.4 ± 0.24 d, second-instar larvae develop in 2.6 ± 0.38 d and third instars occur at 6.3 ± 0.72 d. Development from egg to pupation occurred in 12 ± 1.10 d. C. rufifacies developed at a mean rate of 16.2 ± 0.78 d from egg to adult emergence. Each stage occurred in succession from first-instar larvae 1.1 ± 0.25 d, second-instar larvae developed 2.3 ± 0.25 d later, and the third-instar larvae developed 5.7 ± 0.41 d later. The larvae pupated 10.0 ± 0.57 d after oviposition. Both of these flies can be collected in the wild and easily colonized using conditioned chicken as an oviposition and larval medium. C. megacephala apparently prefers a lower development and maintenance temperature than C. rufifacies, as evidenced by the high pupal mortality. Laboratory-reared C. rufifacies benefited from bloodmeal as a protein supplement to enhance egg production. C. rufifacies larvae were not observed preying on each other and additional larval species were not provided to serve as prey. © 2014 Entomological Society of America.

  4. Ommatidia of blow fly, house fly, and flesh fly: implication of their vision efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukontason, Kabkaew L; Chaiwong, Tarinee; Piangjai, Somsak; Upakut, Sorawit; Moophayak, Kittikhun; Sukontason, Kom

    2008-06-01

    This work aims to elucidate the number of ommatidia or facets (the outwardly visible units of each ommatidium) for compound eyes in blow flies [Chrysomya megacephala (F.), Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart), Chrysomya nigripes (Aubertin), Lucilia cuprina (Wiedemann)], house flies (Musca domestica L.), and flesh flies (Liosarcophaga dux Thomson) by manual counts of the corneal spreads. The head of the fly in each species was soaked in 20% potassium hydroxide solution at room temperature for 7 days, and the clear compound eye was dissected into six small parts, each of which was placed onto a slide and flattened using a coverslip. Images of each part were obtained using a microscope connected to a computer. The printed images of each part were magnified, and the total number of ommatidia per eye was manually counted. For males, the mean number of ommatidia was statistically different among all flies examined: L. dux (6,032) > C. rufifacies (5,356) > C. nigripes (4,798) > C. megacephala (4,376) > L. cuprina (3,665) > M. domestica (3,484). Likewise, the mean number of facets in females was statistically different: L. dux (6,086) > C. megacephala (5,641) > C. rufifacies (5,208) > C. nigripes (4,774) > L. cuprina (3,608) > M. domestica (3433). Scanning electron microscopy analysis of adult flies revealed the sexual dimorphism in the compound eye. Male C. megacephala had large ommatidia in the upper two thirds part and small ommatidia in the lower one third part, whereas only small ommatidia were detected in females. Dense postulate appearance was detected in the external surface of the corneal lens of the ommatidia of C. megacephala, C. rufifacies, and C. nigripes, while a mix of dense postulate appearance and variable groove array length was detected in L. cuprina and M. domestica. The probable functions of ommatidia are discussed with reference to other literature.

  5. Nonconsumptive Effects of Predatory Chrysomya rufifacies (Diptera: Calliphoridae) Larval Cues on Larval Cochliomyia macellaria (Diptera: Calliphoridae) Growth and Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Micah; Crippen, Tawni L; Longnecker, Michael; Tomberlin, Jeffery K

    2017-09-01

    Forensic entomologists often rely on development data associated with a given species to estimate when it colonized human or other vertebrate remains. In most instances, these development studies are based on single species reared in isolation in the laboratory. This study examined the impact of excretions and secretions (ES) associated with third-instar Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart), a predator, on the development of its prey, Cochliomyia macellaria (F.). Not surprisingly, Ch. rufifacies ES did not impact the development of first- or second-instar C. macellaria, which are typically not preyed on by Ch. rufifacies. However, development of third-instar C. macellaria, which do experience predation, was impacted. First, larvae were longer than those in the control (deionized water, dH2O). Filtering the ES and removing the associated bacteria and byproducts >0.2 µm dampened the previous impact observed by the unfiltered ES on third-instar C. macellaria. Second, third-instar C. macellaria treated with unfiltered ES completed pupariation 8 h quicker than the controls. Filtering the ES lessened this effect by 50%. And finally, third-instar C. macellaria treated with filtered or unfiltered Ch. rufifacies ES reached adulthood ∼5 h faster than controls treated with dH2O. In summary, these data have large ramifications for forensic entomology, as multiple species being present on decomposing remains is not uncommon. Understanding the impact of associated ES produced by interspecific cohorts on associated development could lead to more precise estimates of the minimum postmortem interval for forensic investigation of decomposing remains. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Estimating the Number of Eggs in Blow Fly (Diptera: Calliphoridae) Egg Masses Using Photographic Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosati, J Y; Pacheco, V A; Vankosky, M A; Vanlaerhoven, S L

    2015-07-01

    Little work has been done to quantify the number of eggs oviposited by blow flies (Diptera: Calliphoridae) in studies examining colonization behavior. Egg counting methods currently available are time-consuming and destructive. This study used ImageJ software and analysis of covariance to relate the volume of egg masses to the number of eggs laid by three different blow fly species: Lucilia sericata (Meigen), Phormia regina (Meigen), and Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart). Egg mass volume, species, and the interaction of species and egg mass volume all affected the number of blow fly eggs deposited in egg masses. Both species identity and egg mass volume are important when predicting egg number, as such a single regression equation cannot be used to estimate egg number for these three species. Therefore, simple linear regression equations were determined for each species. The volume of individual eggs was incorporated into the model, yet differences between species were observed, suggesting that the orientation of the eggs oviposited by multiple conspecific females within egg masses influences egg estimates. Based on our results, we expect that imaging software can be used for other blow fly species, as well as other insect species; however, equations specific to each species must be developed. This study describes an important tool for quantifying egg deposition in a nondestructive manner, which is important in studying the colonization behavior and life history of insects of ecological and forensic importance. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Host-feeding patterns of Culex pipiens and other potential mosquito vectors (Diptera: Culicidae) of West Nile virus (Flaviviridae) collected in Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osório, Hugo Costa; Zé-Zé, Líbia; Alves, Maria João

    2012-05-01

    The host blood-feeding patterns of mosquito vectors affects the likelihood of human exposure to zoonotic pathogens, including West Nile Virus (family Flaviviridae, genus Flavivirus, WNV). In Portugal, data are unavailable regarding the blood-feeding habits of common mosquito species, including Culex pipiens L., considered the primary vector of WNV to humans. The sources of bloodmeals in 203 blood-fed mosquitoes of nine species collected from June 2007 to November 2010 in 34 Portuguese counties were analyzed by sequencing cytochrome-b partial fragments. Cx. pipiens was the most common species collected and successfully analyzed (n = 135/78). In addition, blood-fed females of the following species were analyzed: Ochlerotatus caspius Pallas (n = 20), Culex theileri Theobald (n = 16), Anopheles maculipennis s.l. Meigen (n = 10), Culiseta longiareolata Macquart (n = 7), Aedes aegypti L. (n = 6), Culex perexiguus Theobald (n = 3), Culiseta annulata Schrank (n = 3), and Ochlerotatus detritus Haliday (n = 3). The Cx. pipiens mosquitoes fed predominantly on birds (n = 55/78, 70.5%), with a high diversity of avian species used as hosts, although human blood was identified in 18 specimens (18/78, 23.1%). No significant differences were found between the host-feeding patterns of blood-fed Cx. pipiens collected in residential and nonresidential habitats. The occurrence of human derived blood meals and the presence of a mix avian-human bloodmeal accordingly suggest this species as a potential vector of WNV. Therefore, in Portugal, Cx. pipiens may play a role both in the avian-to-avian enzootic WNV cycle and in the avian-to-mammal transmission. In this context, the identity of Cx. pipiens (considering the forms molestus and pipiens) and the potential consequence on feeding behavior and WNV transmission are discussed.

  8. Hydrocarbon profiles throughout adult Calliphoridae aging: A promising tool for forensic entomology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pechal, Jennifer L; Moore, Hannah; Drijfhout, Falko; Benbow, M Eric

    2014-12-01

    Blow flies (Diptera: Calliphoridae) are typically the first insects to arrive at human remains and carrion. Predictable succession patterns and known larval development of necrophagous insects on vertebrate remains can assist a forensic entomologist with estimates of a minimum post-mortem interval (PMImin) range. However, adult blow flies are infrequently used to estimate the PMImin, but rather are used for a confirmation of larval species identification. Cuticular hydrocarbons have demonstrated potential for estimating adult blow fly age, as hydrocarbons are present throughout blow fly development, from egg to adult, and are stable structures. The goal of this study was to identify hydrocarbon profiles associated with the adults of a North American native blow fly species, Cochliomyia macellaria (Fabricius) and a North American invasive species, Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart). Flies were reared at a constant temperature (25°C), a photoperiod of 14:10 (L:D) (h), and were provided water, sugar and powdered milk ad libitum. Ten adult females from each species were collected at day 1, 5, 10, 20, and 30 post-emergence. Hydrocarbon compounds were extracted and then identified using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis. A total of 37 and 35 compounds were detected from C. macellaria and Ch. rufifacies, respectively. There were 24 and 23 n-alkene and methyl-branched alkane hydrocarbons from C. macellaria and Ch. rufifacies, respectively (10 compounds were shared between species), used for statistical analysis. Non-metric multidimensional scaling analysis and permutational multivariate analysis of variance were used to analyze the hydrocarbon profiles with significant differences (Pforensic practitioners and potentially increase the use of adult insects during death investigations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Identifying fly puparia by clearing technique: application to forensic entomology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukontason, Kabkaew L; Ngern-Klun, Radchadawan; Sripakdee, Duanghatai; Sukontason, Kom

    2007-10-01

    In forensic investigations, immature stages of the fly (egg, larva, or puparia) can be used as entomological evidence at death scenes, not only to estimate the postmortem interval (PMI), analyze toxic substances, and to determine the manner of death but also to indicate the movement of a corpse in homicide cases. Of these immature stages, puparia represent the longest developmental time, which makes them of useful. However, in order for forensic entomologists to use puparia effectively, it is crucial that they are able to accurately identify the species of fly found in a corpse. Typically, these puparia are similar in general appearance, being coarctate and light brown to dark brown in color, which makes identification difficult. In this study, we report on the clearing technique used to pale the integument of fly puparia, thereby allowing observation of the anterior end (second to fourth segments) and the profile of the posterior spiracle, which are important clues for identification. We used puparia of the blowfly, Chrysomya megacephala (F.), as the model species in this experiment. With placement in a 20% potassium hydroxide solution daily and mounting on a clearing medium (Permount(R), New Jersey), the profile of the posterior spiracle could be clearly examined under a light microscope beginning on the fifth day after pupation, and the number of papillae in the anterior spiracle could be counted easily starting from the ninth day. Comparison of morphological features of C. megacephala puparia with those of other blowflies (Chrysomya nigripes [Aubertin], Chrysomya rufifacies [Macquart], Chrysomya villeneuvi [Patton], Lucilia cuprina [Wiedemann], and Hemipyrellia ligurriens [Wiedemann]) and a housefly (Musca domestica L.) revealed that the anterior ends and the profiles of the posterior spiracles had markedly distinguishing characteristics. Morphometric analysis of the length and width of puparia, along with the length of the gaps between the posterior spiracles

  10. Rehydration of forensically important larval Diptera specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanford, Michelle R; Pechal, Jennifer L; Tomberlin, Jeffery K

    2011-01-01

    Established procedures for collecting and preserving evidence are essential for all forensic disciplines to be accepted in court and by the forensic community at large. Entomological evidence, such as Diptera larvae, are primarily preserved in ethanol, which can evaporate over time, resulting in the dehydration of specimens. In this study, methods used for rehydrating specimens were compared. The changes in larval specimens with respect to larval length and weight for three forensically important blow fly (Diptera: Calliphoridae) species in North America were quantified. Phormia regina (Meigen), Cochliomyia macellaria (F.), and Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart) third-instar larvae were collected from various decomposing animals and preserved with three preservation methods (80% ethanol, 70% isopropyl alcohol, and hot-water kill then 80% ethanol). Preservative solutions were allowed to evaporate. Rehydration was attempted with either of the following: 80% ethanol, commercial trisodium phosphate substitute solution, or 0.5% trisodium phosphate solution. All three methods partially restored weight and length of specimens recorded before preservation. Analysis of variance results indicated that effects of preservation, rehydration treatment, and collection animal were different in each species. The interaction between preservative method and rehydration treatment had a significant effect on both P. regina and C. macellaria larval length and weight. In addition, there was a significant interaction effect of collection animal on larval C. macellaria measurements. No significant effect was observed in C. rufifacies larval length or weight among the preservatives or treatments. These methods could be used to establish a standard operating procedure for dealing with dehydrated larval specimens in forensic investigations.

  11. Whole-tree distribution and temporal variation of non-structural carbohydrates in broadleaf evergreen trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Merryn G; Miller, Rebecca E; Arndt, Stefan K; Kasel, Sabine; Bennett, Lauren T

    2018-04-01

    Non-structural carbohydrates (NSCs) form a fundamental yet poorly quantified carbon pool in trees. Studies of NSC seasonality in forest trees have seldom measured whole-tree NSC stocks and allocation among organs, and are not representative of all tree functional types. Non-structural carbohydrate research has primarily focussed on broadleaf deciduous and coniferous evergreen trees with distinct growing seasons, while broadleaf evergreen trees remain under-studied despite their different growth phenology. We measured whole-tree NSC allocation and temporal variation in Eucalyptus obliqua L'Hér., a broadleaf evergreen tree species typically occurring in mixed-age temperate forests, which has year-round growth and the capacity to resprout after fire. Our overarching objective was to improve the empirical basis for understanding the functional importance of NSC allocation and stock changes at the tree- and organ-level in this tree functional type. Starch was the principal storage carbohydrate and was primarily stored in the stem and roots of young (14-year-old) trees rather than the lignotuber, which did not appear to be a specialized starch storage organ. Whole-tree NSC stocks were depleted during spring and summer due to significant decreases in starch mass in the roots and stem, seemingly to support root and crown growth but potentially exacerbated by water stress in summer. Seasonality of stem NSCs differed between young and mature trees, and was not synchronized with stem basal area increments in mature trees. Our results suggest that the relative magnitude of seasonal NSC stock changes could vary with tree growth stage, and that the main drivers of NSC fluctuations in broadleaf evergreen trees in temperate biomes could be periodic disturbances such as summer drought and fire, rather than growth phenology. These results have implications for understanding post-fire tree recovery via resprouting, and for incorporating NSC pools into carbon models of mixed

  12. Foraging behaviour of the exotic wasp Vespula germanica (Hymenoptera: Vespidae) on a native caterpillar defoliator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietrantuono, A L; Moreyra, S; Lozada, M

    2017-09-19

    Vespula germanica is a social wasp and an opportunistic predator. While foraging, these wasps learn and integrate different kinds of cues. They have successfully invaded many parts of the world, including native Nothofagus and Lophozonia forests located in the Andean-Patagonian region, where they forage on native arthropods. Perzelia arda, a lepidopteron defoliator of Lophozonia obliqua, uses the foliage to hide in and feed on. The purpose of this work is to study whether V. germanica use olfactory cues when foraging on P. arda. To do this, we used a Y-tube olfactometer and established three treatments to compare pairs of all combinations of stimuli (larvae, leaves with larval traces, and leaves without larval traces) and controls. Data were analysed via two developed models that showed decisions made by V. germanica and allowed to establish a scale of preferences between the stimuli. The analysis demonstrates that V. germanica wasps choose P. arda as larval prey and are capable of discriminating between the offered stimuli (deviance information criterion (DIC) null model = 873.97; DIC simple model = 84.5, n = 152). According to the preference scale, V. germanica preferred leaves with traces of larvae, suggesting its ability to associate these traces with the presence of the prey. This may be because, under natural conditions, larvae are never exposed outside their shelters of leaves and therefore V. germanica uses indirect signals. The presence of V. germanica foraging on P. arda highlights the flexible foraging behaviour of this wasp which may also act as a positive biological control, reducing lepidopteran populations.

  13. Plant-Herbivore and Plant-Pollinator Interactions of the Developing Perennial Oilseed Crop, Silphium integrifolium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasifka, J R; Mallinger, R E; Hulke, B S; Larson, S R; Van Tassel, D

    2017-12-08

    Sampling in Kansas and North Dakota documented the plant-herbivore and plant-pollinator interactions of the developing perennial oilseed crop, Silphium integrifolium Michx. The larva of the tortricid moth, Eucosma giganteana (Riley), was the most damaging floret- and seed-feeding pest in Kansas, with infested heads producing ≈85% (2015) or ≈45% (2016) fewer seeds than apparently undamaged heads. Necrosis of apical meristems caused stunting and delayed bloom in Kansas; though the source of the necrosis is not known, observations of the tarnished plant bug, Lygus lineolaris (Palisot de Beauvois; Hemiptera: Miridae), in S. integrifolium terminals suggest a possible cause. In North Dakota, E. giganteana larvae were not found, but pupae of Neotephritis finalis (Loew; Diptera: Tephritidae), a minor pest of cultivated sunflower, were common in the heads of S. integrifolium. Bees appeared highly attracted to S. integrifolium, and in all but one observation, bees were seen actively collecting pollen. The most common bees included large apids (Apis mellifera L., Svastra obliqua [Say], Melissodes spp.) and small-bodied halictids (Lasioglossum [Dialictus] spp.). Controlled pollination experiments demonstrated that S. integrifolium is pollinator dependent, due to both mechanical barriers (imperfect florets and protogyny) and genetic self-incompatibility. Subsequent greenhouse tests and AFLP confirmation of putative self-progeny show that a low (<1%) level of self-pollination is possible. If genetic self-incompatibility is eventually reduced through breeding, mechanical barriers would maintain a reliance on bees to move pollen between male and female florets. Collectively, observations on S. integrifolium show that both herbivore and pollinator management are important to maximize seed production. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America 2017. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  14. Bt Jute Expressing Fused δ-Endotoxin Cry1Ab/Ac for Resistance to Lepidopteran Pests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuvobrata Majumder

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Jute (Corchorus sp. is naturally occurring, biodegradable, lignocellulosic-long, silky, golden shiny fiber producing plant that has great demands globally. Paper and textile industries are interested in jute because of the easy availability, non-toxicity and high yield of cellulosic biomass produced per acre in cultivation. Jute is the major and most industrially used bast fiber-producing crop in the world and it needs protection from insect pest infestation that decreases its yield and quality. Single locus integration of the synthetically fused cry1Ab/Ac gene of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt in Corchorus capsularis (JRC 321 by Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated shoot tip transformation provided 5 potent Bt jute lines BT1, BT2, BT4, BT7 and BT8. These lines consistently expressed the Cry1Ab/Ac endotoxin ranging from 0.16 to 0.35 ng/mg of leaf, in the following generations (analyzed upto T4. The effect of Cry1Ab/Ac endotoxin was studied against 3 major Lepidopteran pests of jute- semilooper (Anomis sabulifera Guenee, hairy caterpillar (Spilarctia obliqua Walker and indigo caterpillar (Spodoptera exigua Hubner by detached leaf and whole plant insect bioassay on greenhouse-grown transgenic plants. Results confirm that larvae feeding on transgenic plants had lower food consumption, body size, body weight and dry weight of excreta compared to non-transgenic controls. Insect mortality range among transgenic feeders was 66–100% for semilooper and hairy caterpillar and 87.50% for indigo caterpillar. Apart from insect resistance, the transgenic plants were at par with control plants in terms of agronomic parameters and fiber quality. Hence, these Bt jutes in the field would survive Lepidopteran pest infestation, minimize harmful pesticide usage and yield good quality fiber.

  15. Biogeochemistry of the Ballarat East goldfield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stott, J.; Arne, D.; Waldron, H.

    1998-01-01

    The gold deposits along the crest of the Whitehorse Range were extensively worked last century, and the area was revegetated during the 1930s with Monterey Pine (P. radiata). P. Radiata of different ages were sampled at 25m intervals along two east-west traverses roughly perpendicular to the strike of the Ballarat East field. Sampling occurred during the winter of 1995 following heavy rains. Blackwood (Acacia melanoxylon) and Chinese scrub (Cassinia aculeata) were also sampled for comparative purposes. A third traverse through a belt of remnant eucalyptus (E. obliqua, E. dives, and E. macrorhyncha) was sampled to the south of the pine plantation in 1996. These samples were washed in de-ionised water. Sample material included either leaves or needles, the tips of twigs, and outer bark. The samples were dried, pulverized and analysed using instrumental neutron activation at Lucas Heights, NSW. Gold and As from Cassinia leaves and twigs, and Eucalyptus bark show a good correlation with extensions of known mineralized trends inferred from aerial photographs, as do Ce, Cr, La, Sm, Sc and Th. Samples of P. radiata needles and bark show only a moderate correlation with mineralized trends for Au and As. Repeat sampling to determine sampling variance has revealed probable contamination of Eucalyptus outer bark by dust. Sequential washing experiments indicate that the dust is difficult to remove from fibrous outer bark. Therefore, while application of biogeochemistry to exploration in the central Victorian Goldfields appears feasible, caution must be exercised in the interpretation of data from outer bark for some Eucalyptus species

  16. EFECTO DE LA VEGETACIÓN EN LA INTERCEPCIÓN DE LA PRECIPITACIÓN EN LA PRECORDILLERA DE LA REGIÓN DEL MAULE, CHILE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. S. Vallejos-Barra

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available En este estudio se comparó el comportamiento de un bosque secundario de Roble-Hualo, donde las especies predominantes son Nothofagus obliqua y Nothofagus glauca y una plantación de Pinus radiata D. Don de 12 años de edad, en el proceso precipitación - intercepción. El estudio se desarrolló en la Estación Experimental El Picazo, comuna de San Clemente, Región del Maule, Chile, entre el mes de julio de 2007 a julio de 2008, en dos microcuencas vecinas de dimensiones reducidas con condiciones similares de suelo, exposición y pendiente pero que diferían en la cobertura vegetal. Se caracterizó la vegetación de cada microcuenca y se establecieron indicadores de densidad de parcela. Los indicadores de la cobertura nativa superaron ampliamente a los de las coberturas exóticas. Para registrar la precipitación se instalaron dos pluviógrafos del tipo Hobo en cada microcuenca. Equidistante de ellas se ubicó otro pluviógrafo sin cobertura vegetal. Se registraron 21 tormentas caracterizando temporal y espacialmente el comportamiento de la precipitación abierta y bajo dosel. Los resultados indican que pese a tener diferencias numéricas las coberturas vegetales, éstas no se transforman en diferencias estadísticamente significativas. Además se observó que la intercepción depende en mayor medida de la arquitectura de copa, distribución espacial de los árboles y tipo de hojas, que de la cantidad de árboles por parcela.

  17. Biogeochemistry of the Ballarat East goldfield

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stott, J.; Arne, D. [University of Ballarat, VIC (Australia). Minerals Industry Research Institute]|[Posgold Ltd, Tennant Creek, NT (Australia); Waldron, H. [Becquerel Laboratories, Lucas Heights, NSW (Australia)

    1998-12-31

    The gold deposits along the crest of the Whitehorse Range were extensively worked last century, and the area was revegetated during the 1930s with Monterey Pine (P. radiata). P. Radiata of different ages were sampled at 25m intervals along two east-west traverses roughly perpendicular to the strike of the Ballarat East field. Sampling occurred during the winter of 1995 following heavy rains. Blackwood (Acacia melanoxylon) and Chinese scrub (Cassinia aculeata) were also sampled for comparative purposes. A third traverse through a belt of remnant eucalyptus (E. obliqua, E. dives, and E. macrorhyncha) was sampled to the south of the pine plantation in 1996. These samples were washed in de-ionised water. Sample material included either leaves or needles, the tips of twigs, and outer bark. The samples were dried, pulverized and analysed using instrumental neutron activation at Lucas Heights, NSW. Gold and As from Cassinia leaves and twigs, and Eucalyptus bark show a good correlation with extensions of known mineralized trends inferred from aerial photographs, as do Ce, Cr, La, Sm, Sc and Th. Samples of P. radiata needles and bark show only a moderate correlation with mineralized trends for Au and As. Repeat sampling to determine sampling variance has revealed probable contamination of Eucalyptus outer bark by dust. Sequential washing experiments indicate that the dust is difficult to remove from fibrous outer bark. Therefore, while application of biogeochemistry to exploration in the central Victorian Goldfields appears feasible, caution must be exercised in the interpretation of data from outer bark for some Eucalyptus species

  18. Species choice, provenance and species trials among native Brazilian species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drumond, M A

    1982-01-01

    Six papers from the conference are presented. Drumond, M.A., Potential of species native to the semi-arid tropics, 766-781, (Refs. 18), reports on Anadenanthera macrocarpa, Mimosa species, Schinopsis brasiliensis, Spondias tuberosa, Ziziphus joazeiro, Cnidoscolus phyllacanthus, Bursera leptophleos (leptophloeos), Tabebuia impetiginosa, Astronium urundeuva, and Mimosa caesalpinia. Monteiro, R.F.R., Speltz, R.M., Gurgel, J.T. do A.; Silvicultural performance of 24 provenances of Araucaria angustifolia in Parana, 814-824, (Refs. 8). Pires, C.L. da S., Kalil Filho, A.N., Rosa, P.R.F. da, Parente, P.R., Zanatto, A.C.S.; Provenance trials of Cordia alliodora in the State of Sao Paulo, 988-995, (Refs. 9). Nogueira, J.C.B., Siqueira, A.C.M.F., Garrido, M.A.O., Gurgel Garrido, L.M. do A., Rosa, P.R.F., Moraes, J.L. de, Zandarin, M.A., Gurgel Filho, O.A., Trials of some native species in various regions of the State of Sao Paulo, 1051-1063, (Refs. 9) describes Centrolobium tomentosum, Peltophorum dubium, Tabebuia vellosoi, Cariniana legalis, and Balfourodendron riedelianum. Batista, M.P., Borges, J.F., Franco, M.A.B.; Early growth of a native species in comparison with exotics in northeastern Para, Brazil, 1105-1110, (Refs. 3). Jacaranda copaia is compared with Gmelina arborea, Pinus caribaea various hondurensis, Eucalyptus deglupta, and E. urophylla. Lima, P.C.F., Souza, S.M. de, Drumond, M.A.; Trials of native forest species at Petrolina, Pernambuco, 1139-1148, (Refs. 8), deals with Anadenanthera macrocarpa, Piptadenia obliqua, Pithecellobium foliolosum, Astronium urundeuva, Schinopsis brasiliensis, Cassia excelsa, Caesalpinia pyramidalis, Parkia platycephala, Pseudobombax simplicifolium, Tabebuia impetiginosa, Caesalpinia ferrea, and Aspidosperma pyrifolium. 18 references.

  19. Structural adjustments in resprouting trees drive differences in post-fire transpiration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolan, Rachael H; Mitchell, Patrick J; Bradstock, Ross A; Lane, Patrick N J

    2014-02-01

    Following disturbance many woody species are capable of resprouting new foliage, resulting in a reduced leaf-to-sapwood area ratio and altered canopy structure. We hypothesized that such changes would promote adjustments in leaf physiology, resulting in higher rates of transpiration per unit leaf area, consistent with the mechanistic framework proposed by Whitehead et al. (Whitehead D, Jarvis PG, Waring RH (1984) Stomatal conductance, transpiration and resistance to water uptake in a Pinus sylvestris spacing experiment. Can J For Res 14:692-700). We tested this in Eucalyptus obliqua L'Hér following a wildfire by comparing trees with unburnt canopies with trees that had been subject to 100% canopy scorch and were recovering their leaf area via resprouting. In resprouting trees, foliage was distributed along the trunk and on lateral branches, resulting in shorter hydraulic path lengths. We evaluated measurements of whole-tree transpiration and structural and physiological traits expected to drive any changes in transpiration. We used these structural and physiological measurements to parameterize the Whitehead et al. equation, and found that the expected ratio of transpiration per unit leaf area between resprouting and unburnt trees was 3.41. This is similar to the observed ratio of transpiration per unit leaf area, measured from sapflow observations, which was 2.89 (i.e., resprouting trees had 188% higher transpiration per unit leaf area). Foliage at low heights (tree crown (14-18 m) in a number of traits, including higher specific leaf area, midday leaf water potential and higher rates of stomatal conductance and photosynthesis. We conclude that these post-fire adjustments in resprouting trees help to drive increased stomatal conductance and hydraulic efficiency, promoting the rapid return of tree-scale transpiration towards pre-disturbance levels. These transient patterns in canopy transpiration have important implications for modelling stand-level water fluxes

  20. Custos variáveis de produção de Diachasmimorpha longicaudata (Ashmead para controle de moscas-das-frutas = Variable costs of production for Diachasmimorpha longicaudata to control the fruit flies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Gisely Camargos

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available O controle biológico aplicado consiste em liberações em massa de predadores ou parasitoides após a criação laboratorial em larga escala. Avaliar o custo de produção do parasitoide Diachasmimorpha longicaudata para controle biológico de moscas-das-frutas irá fornecer uma ferramenta capaz de auxiliar o planejamento, controle e uma forma de apoiar as empresas quanto as suas tomadas de decisão. Este trabalho teve por objetivo identificar e analisar os custos variáveis de produção do parasitoideD. longicaudata, criado em larvas de Anastrepha fraterculus utilizando a ferramenta de Custeio Baseado em Atividade [ABC]. Foi acompanhado o processo produtivo para obter o custo variável total de produção em laboratório de pesquisa e biofábrica de inimigos naturais, localizado em Piracicaba, São Paulo. A capacidade de produção de pupas de A. fraterculus parasitadas por D. longicaudata é de um milhão por semana nesse laboratório, sendo que um milhão de pupas representa 34 L, e um mL contém aproximadamente 30 pupas. O custo variável de produção para produzir um milhão de pupas parasitadas por semana foi de R$ 5.919,65 ou R$0,0059 por pupa. O custo com mão de obra representa 57% do custo total, enquanto o custo com materiais representa 43%. A tomada de decisão do produtor em relação ao controle biológico utilizando D. longicaudatadependerá de estudos prévios sobre o parasitoide e cultura pretendida. = Applied biological control consists in the mass liberation of laboratory reared predators or parasitoids. Evaluating the variable cost of production of the fruit flies parasitoid Diachasmimorpha longicaudata for biological control will provide a tool to assist the planning, control and a way to support businesses as their decision-making. This study aims to identify and analyze the variable costs productionof D. longicaudata, created in larvas of Anastrepha fraterculus using the Activity-Based Costing Tool [ABC]. The total

  1. Development of Myrmeleon brasiliensis (Navás (Neuroptera, Myrmeleontidae, in laboratory, with different natural diets Desenvolvimento de Myrmeleon brasiliensis (Navás (Neuroptera, Myrmeleontidae, em laboratório, com diferentes dietas naturais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giani L. B. Missirian

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Antlions larvae are sit-and-wait predators that capture arthropod prey in conical sand pits. The aim of this paper were to determine the effect of different natural diets [leaf-cutting ants (Atta spp., fruit fly larvae (Anastrepha spp. and Ceratitis capitata and mixed diet (Atta spp. plus fruit fly larvae] on the development of larvae and pupae of M. brasiliensis (Navás, 1914 and to estimate the number and size of prey caught in each instar and on each kind of diet. The average duration (days of the second and third instars of M. brasiliensis was longer when larvae of antlion were fed with leaf-cutting ants. The diets did not affect the duration of the pupal stage nor the pupae size. The different diets did not affect the mean width of head capsule (mm, the mean weight (mg or the mean body size (mm in the different instars of M. brasiliensis. In the second and third instars, the larvae of M. brasiliensis fed with leaf-cutting ants consumed more prey than larvae kept on other diets. Adults whose larvae were fed fruit fly larvae were larger than adults on other diets. Although Myrmeleontidae are few studied in Brazil, these results contribute to knowledge of M. brasiliensis biology, but also suggest the need of studies about the development of larvae and pupae in natural environments.Larvas de formiga-leão são conhecidas por suas armadilhas ("funis" que constroem em solo arenoso, sob as quais esperam por suas presas. Este trabalho teve como objetivos verificar o efeito de diferentes dietas naturais [formigas-cortadeiras (Atta spp., larvas de moscas-das-frutas (Anastrepha spp. e Ceratitis capitata e dieta mista (Atta spp. e larvas de moscas-das-frutas] sobre o desenvolvimento larval e pupal de M. brasiliensis (Navás, 1914 e estimar o número e tamanho de presas capturadas, por instar larval, em cada dieta. No segundo e terceiro instares, as larvas de M. brasiliensis alimentadas com formigas-cortadeiras consumiram um número maior de presas e a

  2. Controle de pragas e doenças, maturação e qualidade de maçãs 'imperial gala' submetidas ao ensacamento Control of insect pests and diseases, maturity and quality of 'imperial gala' apples submitted to bagging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosângela Teixeira

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a eficiência de diferentes embalagens no ensacamento de maçãs para o controle de pragas e doenças, e sua influência na maturação e qualidade dos frutos, em pomar sob sistema orgânico. O experimento foi conduzido em pomar com plantas de dez anos de idade da cultivar Imperial Gala, sobre porta-enxerto 'Marubakaido', com filtro EM-9, localizado no município de São Joaquim-SC, nas safras 2007/2008 e 2008/2009. Os frutos foram ensacados, após o raleio, com embalagens plásticas transparentes microperfuradas ou de tecido não texturizado (TNT. Frutos não ensacados constituíram o tratamento-controle. Na colheita, os frutos foram avaliados quanto aos danos provocados por mosca-das-frutas (Anastrepha fraterculus, mariposa-oriental (Grapholita molesta, lagarta-enroladeira (Bonagota salubricola e pulgão-lanígero (Eriosoma lanigerum, incidência das doenças sarna-da-macieira (Venturia inaequalis e podridão-amarga (Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, e atributos físico-químicos de maturação e qualidade e teor de cálcio (Ca nos frutos. O ensacamento, independentemente do tipo de material utilizado, reduziu os danos de insetos-praga, porém não foi eficiente no controle de doenças nos frutos. O ensacamento não comprometeu o desenvolvimento de coloração vermelha na casca e o teor de Ca nos frutos. De modo geral, o ensacamento antecipou o processo de maturação, caracterizado pela redução na firmeza de polpa e na textura da casca e da polpa, e pelo aumento no índice de iodoamido.This work was carried out to evaluate the efficiency of different fruit bagging materials to insect pests and diseases control, and its influence on maturity and quality of the fruits in an organic apple orchard. The experiment was conducted in an orchard with ten years old 'Imperial Gala' apple trees grafted on 'Marubakaido' rootstock (with a filter of EM-9, in São Joaquim, State of Santa Catarina, in 2007/08 and 2008

  3. Novel insecticide strategies such as phototoxic dyes in adult fruit fly control and suppression programmes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreno, Daniel S.; Mangan, Robert L.

    2000-01-01

    The problems of public acceptance, ecological impact, and integration with pest management programmes associated with use of broad spectrum insecticides in bait sprays for fruit flies are being addressed in our laboratory by our development of more precisely targeted bait systems which use insecticides which are less toxic to non-target organisms. Historically, bait and insecticide sprays to control fruit flies have been used since the beginning of the 20th century. Initially, inorganic insecticides were recommended. After the Second World War, chlorinated hydrocarbon insecticides replaced inorganic ones only to be replaced by the organic ones that are used at present. Back and Pemberton (1918) stated that baits used for fruit fly control were first recommended by Mally in South Africa for the control of the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), in 1908-1909 and by Berlese in Italy for the control of the olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Gmelin). The methods were improved by Lounsboury in South Africa in 1912 for the control of C. capitata and by Newman during 1913-1914 in Australia for the control of the Queensland fruit fly, Bactrocera tryoni (Froggatt). In 1910, Marsh used low-volume insecticide applications against the melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett), in Hawaii. Thereafter, other investigators adopted the low-volume approach to kill fruit flies. Whenever baits were used, they added carbohydrates and fermenting substances such as sugars, molasses, syrups, or fruit juices. In the 1930s, McPhail (1937), while working with attractants, found that sugar-yeast solutions attracted flies, and, in 1939 found that protein lures were attractive to Anastrepha species, especially to the guava fruit fly, A. striata Schiner (Baker et al. 1944). It was not until 1952, however, when Steiner demonstrated the use of hydrolysed proteins and partially hydrolysed yeast in combination with organophosphate insecticides to control fruit flies, that

  4. First register of fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae in star fruit in Teresina, Altos and Parnaiba, state of Piaui, Brazil/ Primeiro registro de moscas-das-frutas (Diptera: Tephritidae em carambola nos municípios de Teresina, Altos e Parnaíba no estado do Piauí

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almerinda Amélia Rodrigues Araújo Soares

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available The present work aims to register the occurrence of the fruit flies associated to star fruit (Averrhoa carambola L. in three counties of the state of Piaui, as well as to determine the frequency and the index of infestation of these insects. The fruits had been collected during the months of August and September 2005, and had been placed in plastic trays with sterilized soil, stored in metal cages, and left in environmental temperature at the laboratory. Until emergency, the adults had been kept in bottles with alcohol 70% and later identified in the species level. The biggest index of infestation (flies/fruit of C. capitata has occurred in the county of Altos (3.66, followed by Teresina and Parnaiba that had presented index of infestation of 2.18 and 0.016, respectively. C. capitata was the most frequent species in all the counties, presenting frequencies of 100%, 96.5%, and 100% in Teresina, Altos and Parnaiba, respectively. Ceratitis capitata is registered for the first time in star fruit in Teresina, Altos and Parnaiba, state of the Piaui. Anastrepha fraterculus is registered for the first time in the county of Altos. A. fraterculus and C. capitata occur simultaneously in star fruits.O presente trabalho visou conhecer as espécies de moscas-das-frutas associadas à carambola (Averrhoa carambola L. em três municípios do Estado do Piauí, bem como determinar a freqüência e o índice de infestação desses insetos. Os frutos foram coletados durante os meses de agosto e setembro de 2005, colocados em bandejas plásticas com solo esterilizado, armazenados em gaiolas metálicas e deixados em temperatura ambiente no laboratório. Até a emergência dos adultos, estes foram acondicionados em frascos contendo álcool 70% e posteriormente identificados em nível de espécie. O maior índice de infestação (moscas/fruto de C. capitata ocorreu no município de Altos (3,66, seguido pelos municípios de Teresina e Parnaíba que apresentaram

  5. Trapping guidelines for area-wide fruit fly programmes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-11-01

    Different traps and lures have been developed and used over decades to survey fruit fly populations. The first attractant for male fruit flies was methyl eugenol (ME) (for Bactrocera zonata, Howlett, 1912) followed by kerosene for Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata, (medfly), Severin and Severin, 1913. In 1956, Angelica seed oil was used to trap medfly (Steiner et al, 1957). Beroza et al. (1961) discovered trimedlure (TML) to be effective for the same purpose. Beroza and Green, 1963, demonstrated cuelure to be an effective attractant for Bactrocera cucurbitae. Food baits based on protein solutions, fermenting sugar solutions, fruit juices, and vinegar have been used since 1918 for the capture of females of several species. The McPhail trap was the first device to be used with protein baits (McPhail, 1929). Steiner traps were developed in 1957 (Steiner et al., 1957) and Jackson traps in 1971 for TML (Harris et al., 1971). These traps are currently used in various countries for fruit fly surveys in support of control activities and eradication campaigns. The combination of a McPhail trap with a protein attractant, Jackson trap with TML, and the Steiner trap with ME or cuelure (CUE), has remained unchanged for several decades. Global trends in increasing food quality, revenue sources, and fruit and vegetable trade, has resulted in an increased worldwide movement of fruit fly species and requires refinement of survey systems. After years of validating trapping technology through coordinated research programmes (CRP's) and extensive technical assistance to member countries, the Joint Division FAO/IAEA proposes the use of proven technologies in improving trap sensitivity in area-wide fruit fly control programmes (IAEA 1996 and IAEA 1998). These proven technologies include the use of synthetic food lures such as female attractants that can be used for several species of Anastrepha, Bactrocera and Ceratitis. Other citations of information on these developments are

  6. Trapping guidelines for area-wide fruit fly programmes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-11-01

    Different traps and lures have been developed and used over decades to survey fruit fly populations. The first attractant for male fruit flies was methyl eugenol (ME) (for Bactrocera zonata, Howlett, 1912) followed by kerosene for Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata, (medfly), Severin and Severin, 1913. In 1956, Angelica seed oil was used to trap medfly (Steiner et al, 1957). Beroza et al. (1961) discovered trimedlure (TML) to be effective for the same purpose. Beroza and Green, 1963, demonstrated cuelure to be an effective attractant for Bactrocera cucurbitae. Food baits based on protein solutions, fermenting sugar solutions, fruit juices, and vinegar have been used since 1918 for the capture of females of several species. The McPhail trap was the first device to be used with protein baits (McPhail, 1929). Steiner traps were developed in 1957 (Steiner et al., 1957) and Jackson traps in 1971 for TML (Harris et al., 1971). These traps are currently used in various countries for fruit fly surveys in support of control activities and eradication campaigns. The combination of a McPhail trap with a protein attractant, Jackson trap with TML, and the Steiner trap with ME or cuelure (CUE), has remained unchanged for several decades. Global trends in increasing food quality, revenue sources, and fruit and vegetable trade, has resulted in an increased worldwide movement of fruit fly species and requires refinement of survey systems. After years of validating trapping technology through coordinated research programmes (CRP's) and extensive technical assistance to member countries, the Joint Division FAO/IAEA proposes the use of proven technologies in improving trap sensitivity in area-wide fruit fly control programmes (IAEA 1996 and IAEA 1998). These proven technologies include the use of synthetic food lures such as female attractants that can be used for several species of Anastrepha, Bactrocera and Ceratitis. Other citations of information on these developments are

  7. Yeast derivatives and wheat germ in the adult diet modulates fecundity in a tephritid pest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goane, L; Pereyra, P M; Castro, F; Ruiz, M J; Juárez, M L; Segura, D F; Vera, M T

    2018-05-22

    Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann), a pest of great economic importance in South America, needs urgently to be controlled by environmentally friendly methods such as the sterile insect technique for which mass rearing of insects is required. Because oogenesis takes place during the adult stage, mass-rearing facilities should provide the females a diet that maximizes egg production at the lowest cost. Accordingly, we investigated the effect of artificial protein sources in the adult diet (yeast derivatives of different cost but with similar amino acids profiles, and the addition of wheat germ) on fecundity. Additionally, we evaluated different ratios of yeast derivatives or wheat germ on ovary maturation, fecundity, and fertility as well as their association with the nutrient content of females. Females fed hydrolyzed yeast and yeast extract attained the highest fecundity level, and those fed brewer's yeast the lowest. Reducing the amount of hydrolyzed yeast, an expensive protein source, in the diet negatively affected fecundity and ovary maturation. Increasing the amount of brewer's yeast, a low-cost protein source, did not favor fecundity. The addition of wheat germ in the adult diet improved fecundity regardless of the yeast derivate considered. Percentage of egg hatch was not affected by the diet. Nutrient content of A. fraterculus females varied according to the adult diet provided and mating status. Our findings provide novel baseline information to understand the role of nutrition on reproductive performance of A. fraterculus females and are discussed in the context of resource allocation. They also provide valuable advances in the search for cost-effective adult diets at fruit fly mass rearing facilities.

  8. Ionizing radiation quarantine treatments against tephritid fruit flies: a review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hallman, G. J. [USDA-ARS, Weslaco, TX (United States)

    1999-06-15

    Fruit flies of the family Tephritidae are considered the most important insect pest risk carried by exported fruits worldwide. Fruits suspected of harboring fruit fly eggs and larvae must be treated to control virtually 100% of any tephritids present. Irradiation is unique among quarantine treatments in that it is the only treatment used which does not cause acute mortality; instead, insects are prevented from maturing or are sterilized. Tephritids have been the most studied group of quarantined pests as far as irradiation; minimum absorbed doses confirmed with large-scale testing to provide control to the probit 9 level (99.9968%) have ranged from 50 to 250 Gy. Considerable work has been done with the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), one of the most important quarantined pests worldwide, and doses suggested to provide quarantine security have varied widely. The fact that insects are still alive for some time after irradiation has been one of the major obstacles to its use. Irradiation may be the most widely applicable quarantine treatment from the standpoint of fruit quality. However, some important fruits shipped across quarantine barriers (mangoes, Mangifera indica L., and citrus) may suffer from doses as low as 150 Gy when applied on a commercial scale where much of the fruit load may receive 300 Gy. Fortunately, some of the important tephritids attacking these fruits, such as Anastrepha spp., can be controlled with lower doses. Mainland USA has begun to use irradiation as a quarantine treatment for some fruits imported from Hawaii since April 1995 and remains the only country using irradiation as a quarantine treatment, although on a very limited basis. Irradiation offers some additional risk abatement advantages over other quarantine treatments. © 1999 Published by Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved. (author)

  9. Eradication of tephritid fruit fly pest populations: outcomes and prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suckling, David Maxwell; Kean, John M; Stringer, Lloyd D; Cáceres-Barrios, Carlos; Hendrichs, Jorge; Reyes-Flores, Jesus; Dominiak, Bernard C

    2016-03-01

    The number of insect eradication programmes is rising in response to globalisation. A database of arthropod and plant pathogen eradications covers 1050 incursion responses, with 928 eradication programmes on 299 pest and disease taxa in 104 countries (global eradication database b3.net.nz/gerda). A subset of the database was assembled with 211 eradication or response programmes against 17 species of fruit flies (Tephritidae) in 31 countries, in order to investigate factors affecting the outcome. The failure rate for fruit fly eradication programmes was about 7%, with 0% for Ceratitis capitata (n = 85 programmes) and 0% for two Anastrepha species (n = 12 programmes), but 12% for 13 Bactrocera species (n = 108 programmes). A number of intended eradication programmes against long-established populations were not initiated because of cost and other considerations, or evolved during the planning phase into suppression programmes. Cost was dependent on area, ranged from $US 0.1 million to $US 240 million and averaged about $US 12 million (normalised to $US in 2012). In addition to the routine use of surveillance networks, quarantine and fruit destruction, the key tactics used in eradication programmes were male annihilation, protein bait sprays (which can attract both sexes), fruit destruction and the sterile insect technique. Eradication success generally required the combination of several tactics applied on an area-wide basis. Because the likelihood of eradication declines with an increase in the area infested, it pays to invest in effective surveillance networks that allow early detection and delimitation while invading populations are small, thereby greatly favouring eradication success. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  10. Fruit flies (Diptera, Tephritidae and their parasitoids on cultivated and wild hosts in the Cerrado-Pantanal ecotone in Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago Ledesma Taira

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Fruit flies (Diptera, Tephritidae and their parasitoids on cultivated and wild hosts in the Cerrado-Pantanal ecotone in Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. Information on frugivorous flies in cultivated or wild host plants and their parasitoids in the Cerrado-Pantanal ecotone in Aquidauana, Mato Grosso do Sul is presented and discussed. Fruit fly samples were collected weekly in specific fruit trees, and McPhail® traps were installed in the same trees for a period of two years. The fruit flies infested ripe and unripe fruits of Averrhoa carambola L., Schoepfia sp., Psidium guajava L. and Pouteria torta (Mart. Radlk and mature fruits of Anacardium occidentale L. and Inga laurina (Sw. Willd. Nineteen fruit fly species were obtained with the combination of sampling methods (collecting fruits and trapping, nine of them obtained with both methods, five found only in fruits and five only in traps. This is the first record of Anastrepha striata Schiner in a species of Sapotaceae, as well as for A. castanea Norrbom and A. daciformes Bezzi in Schoepfia sp. (Olacaceae, and for A. distincta Greene in fruits of P. guajava in the state of Mato Grosso do Sul. Fruit collections simultaneously associated with capture of fruit flies by McPhail traps in the same host plants are essential to understand the diversity of fruit flies and their relationship with hosts and parasitoids. Species of Braconidae and Pteromalidae were recovered, where Doryctobracon areolatus (Szépligeti was the most abundant parasitoid in larvae of tephritids infesting both cultivated and wild host fruits.

  11. Dietas artificiais para a criação de larvas e adultos da mosca-das-frutas sul-americana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrise Medeiros Nunes

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi adequar as dietas artificiais para o desenvolvimento dos estágios de larva e adulto da mosca-das-frutas sul-americana (Anastrepha fraterculus. Para o estágio larval, foram testadas as seguintes dietas: D1, original, com 10 g de ágar; D2, modificada, com 3,6 g de ágar; e, D3, modificada, com bagaço seco de cana-de-açúcar. Para os adultos, foram testadas quatro dietas: A, levedura de cerveja + mel (2:1; B, açúcar refinado + extrato de levedura + gérmen de trigo cru (3:1:1; C, extrato de soja + açúcar mascavo + gérmen de trigo cru (3:1:1; e D, levedura seca de cervejaria + mel (2:1. Avaliaram-se os parâmetros biológicos de duração do período ovo-pupa, duração e viabilidade do estágio de pupa, massa média de pupas, razão sexual e duração e viabilidade do período ovo-adulto. O desenvolvimento larval em D1 e D2 foi semelhante e indicou que a criação de larvas pode ser realizada com 1/3 da quantidade de ágar da utilizada em D1. A utilização do bagaço seco de cana-de-açúcar, na dieta artificial, afetou negativamente o desenvolvimento larval. As dietas artificiais com levedura de cerveja + mel e com açúcar refinado + extrato de levedura + gérmen de trigo cru são as mais adequadas para a criação de adultos.

  12. Product quality control, irradiation and shipping procedures for mass-reared tephritid fruit flies for sterile insect release programmes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-05-01

    This document represents the recommendations, reached by consensus of an international group of quality control experts, on the standard procedures for product quality control (QC) for mass reared tephritid flies that are to be used in Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) programs. In addition, the manual describes recommended methods of handling and packaging pupae during irradiation and shipment. Most of the procedures were designed specifically for use with Mediterranean fruit flies, Ceratitis capitata (Wied.), but they are applicable, with minor modification in some cases, for other tephritid species such as Caribbean fruit fly Anastrepha suspense, Mexican fruit fly A. ludens, and various Bactrocera species. The manual is evolving and subject to periodic updates. The future additions will include other fruit flies as the need is identified. If followed, procedures described in this manual will help ensure that the quality of mass-produced flies is measured accurately in a standardised fashion, allowing comparisons of quality over time and across rearing facilities and field programmes. Problems in rearing, irradiation and handling procedures, and strain quality can be identified and hopefully corrected before control programmes are affected. Tests and procedures described in this document are only part of a total quality control programme for tephritid fly production. The product QC evaluations included in this manual are, unless otherwise noted, required to be conducted during SIT programmes by the Field programme staff not the production staff. Additional product QC tests have been developed and their use is optional (see ancillary test section). Production and process QC evaluations (e.g., analysis of diet components, monitoring the rearing environment, yield of larvae, development rate, etc.) are not within the scope of this document. Quality specifications are included for minimum and mean acceptability of conventional strains of C. capitata, A. ludens, and A

  13. Injúrias causadas por mosca-das-frutas sul-americana em cultivares de videira

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Zart

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A mosca-das-frutas sul-americana, Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann (Diptera: Tephritidae, é uma das principais pragas da fruticultura no Brasil. O objetivo deste estudo foi identificar a suscetibilidade quanto à queda e deformação de bagas de diferentes cultivares/espécies de uva pela injúria causada pela oviposição de A. fraterculus. O trabalho foi realizado em vinhedos das cultivares 'Cabernet Sauvignon' (Vitis vinifera, 'Moscato Embrapa' (75% de V. vinifera e 'Isabel' (Vitis labrusca, localizados em Bento Gonçalves (RS, na safra 2006/2007. Dois casais de A. fraterculus foram confinados por cacho, em gaiolas de tecido voile, durante os estádios fenológicos de grão ervilha, início da compactação, início da maturação e maturação plena dos cachos. Queda significativa de bagas devido ao ataque de A. fraterculus foi registrada na cultivar 'Cabernet Sauvignon' quando a infestação foi realizada nos estádios fenológicos de grão ervilha e início da compactação de cacho; estádios de grão ervilha em 'Moscato Embrapa'; e nos estádios de grão ervilha, início da compactação e início da maturação do cacho na cultivar 'Isabel'. Foi registrada deformação de bagas quando as infestações foram realizadas nos estádios de grão ervilha e início da compactação de cacho em 'Cabernet Sauvignon', 'Moscato Embrapa' e 'Isabel'. O desenvolvimento larval até a fase de pupa foi observado somente na cultivar 'Moscato Embrapa'.

  14. Eradication of tephritid fruit fly pest populations: outcomes and prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suckling, David Maxwell; Kean, John M.; Stringer, Lloyd D.; Cáceres-Barrios, Carlos; Hendrichs, Jorge; Reyes-Flores, Jesus; Dominiak, Bernard C.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The number of insect eradication programmes is rising in response to globalisation. A database of arthropod and plant pathogen eradications covers 1050 incursion responses, with 928 eradication programmes on 299 pest and disease taxa in 104 countries (global eradication database b3.net.nz/gerda). METHODS: A subset of the database was assembled with 211 eradication or response programmes against 17 species of fruit flies (Tephritidae) in 31 countries, in order to investigate factors affecting the outcome. RESULTS: The failure rate for fruit fly eradication programmes was about 7%, with 0% for Ceratitis capitata (n=85 programmes) and 0% for two Anastrepha species (n=12 programmes), but 12% for 13 Bactrocera species (n=108 programmes). A number of intended eradication programmesagainst long-established populations were not initiated because of cost and other considerations, or evolved during the planning phase into suppression programmes. Cost was dependent on area, ranged from $US 0.1 million to $US 240 million and averaged about $US 12 million (normalised to $US in 2012). In addition to the routine use of surveillance networks, quarantine and fruit destruction, the key tactics used in eradication programmes were male annihilation, protein bait sprays (which can attract both sexes), fruit destruction and the sterile insect technique. CONCLUSIONS: Eradication success generally required the combination of several tactics applied on an area-wide basis. Because the likelihood of eradication declines with an increase in the area infested, it pays to invest in effective surveillance networks that allow early detection and delimitation while invading populations are small, thereby greatly favouring eradication success. (author)

  15. Prolongevity effects of a botanical with oregano and cranberry extracts in Mexican fruit flies: examining interactions of diet restriction and age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Sige; Carey, James R; Liedo, Pablo; Ingram, Donald K; Yu, Binbing

    2012-04-01

    Botanicals rich with phytochemicals have numerous health benefits. Dietary restriction (DR) extends lifespan in diverse species. We previously demonstrated that an oregano-cranberry (OC) mixture can promote longevity in the Mexican Fruit fly (Mexfly, Anastrepha ludens Loew). However, little is known about the interaction between botanicals and DR, and the age-dependent effect of botanicals on lifespan and reproduction. Here we investigated these issues by feeding Mexflies a full or DR diet supplemented with or without 2% OC. Lifespan and daily egg production of individual flies were recorded. The effect of short-term OC supplementation was evaluated by implementing the supplementation at three age intervals-young, middle, and old age. We found that OC increased lifespan of Mexflies on the full or DR diet when compared to their respective controls. OC increased reproduction of females on the full diet and, to a lesser extent, on the DR diet. Short-term OC supplementation was not sufficient to extend lifespan for males at all three age intervals nor for females at young and old age intervals. However, OC supplementation at the middle age interval was sufficient to extend lifespan in females, while only OC supplementation at the young age interval increased reproduction in females. Our findings suggest that OC extends lifespan and promotes reproduction partly through DR-independent pathways, and short-term supplementation have varied impact on longevity and reproduction. This also suggests a positive interaction between non-genetic interventions in promoting longevity and provides guidance for using botanicals as aging interventions in humans.

  16. Ionizing radiation quarantine treatments against tephritid fruit flies: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hallman, G.J.

    1999-01-01

    Fruit flies of the family Tephritidae are considered the most important insect pest risk carried by exported fruits worldwide. Fruits suspected of harboring fruit fly eggs and larvae must be treated to control virtually 100% of any tephritids present. Irradiation is unique among quarantine treatments in that it is the only treatment used which does not cause acute mortality; instead, insects are prevented from maturing or are sterilized. Tephritids have been the most studied group of quarantined pests as far as irradiation; minimum absorbed doses confirmed with large-scale testing to provide control to the probit 9 level (99.9968%) have ranged from 50 to 250 Gy. Considerable work has been done with the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), one of the most important quarantined pests worldwide, and doses suggested to provide quarantine security have varied widely. The fact that insects are still alive for some time after irradiation has been one of the major obstacles to its use. Irradiation may be the most widely applicable quarantine treatment from the standpoint of fruit quality. However, some important fruits shipped across quarantine barriers (mangoes, Mangifera indica L., and citrus) may suffer from doses as low as 150 Gy when applied on a commercial scale where much of the fruit load may receive 300 Gy. Fortunately, some of the important tephritids attacking these fruits, such as Anastrepha spp., can be controlled with lower doses. Mainland USA has begun to use irradiation as a quarantine treatment for some fruits imported from Hawaii since April 1995 and remains the only country using irradiation as a quarantine treatment, although on a very limited basis. Irradiation offers some additional risk abatement advantages over other quarantine treatments. © 1999 Published by Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved. (author)

  17. Additional records of vector mosquito diversity collected from Al Khor district of North-eastern Qatar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Mohammed Kardousha

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To survey mosquito diversity in the north-eastern area, which includes the most important gas industrial city in Qatar, and to investigate the potential mosquitoes for transmitting diseases. Methods: A study was performed from September 2009 until June 2011 in Al-Khor district of North-eastern Qatar. Five localities were selected for larval collection: Al Khor City (the main city, Al Dhakira, Ras Laffan (gas industrial city, Simsimah and Al Ghuwariyah. The survey was carried out by using different sampling methods and covering all expected natural breeding sites. The larvae were collected, preserved and transferred to the laboratory for identification. Results: Our findings revealed that 10 species of mosquito larvae had been detected from the area and five of them were new records in Qatar. The species encountered were: Ochlerotatus caspius (Pallas 1771, Anopheles stephensi (Liston 1901, Culex quinquefasciatus (Say 1823 (Cx. quinquefasciatus, Culex pipiens biotype molestus (Forskal 1775 (Cx. pipiens, Culex univittatus (Theobald 1901, Culex pusillus (Macquart 1850, Culex tritaeniorhynchus (Giles 1901 (Cx. tritaeniorhynchus, Culex laticinctus (Edwards 1913, Culex sitiens (Weidmann 1828 and Culex perexiguus (Theobald 1901. The new recorded species were Cx. quinquefasciatus, Cx. tritaeniorhynchus, Culex laticinctus, Culex sitiens and Culex perexiguus. The most prevalent type was Cx. pipiens molestus (31.29% and followed by Culex pusillus and Cx. quinquefasciatus which have relatively similar prevalence of 18.72% and 18.52% respectively. Anopheles stephensi was an established vector for malaria. Cx. pipiens molestus and Cx. quinquefasciatus were vectors of West Nile virus and filariasis. Cx. tritaeniorhynchus was established as a vector of Rift Valley virus and Culex univittatus was the main vector of Sindbis virus. Conclusions: The north-eastern area of Qatar harbors is the most important industrial city in the country, which has

  18. Oviposition preferences of two forensically important blow fly species, Chrysomya megacephala and C. rufifacies (Diptera: Calliphoridae), and implications for postmortem interval estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shih-Tsai; Shiao, Shiuh-Feng

    2012-03-01

    Necrophagous blow fly species (Diptera: Calliphoridae) are the most important agents for estimating the postmortem interval (PMI) in forensic entomology. Nevertheless, the oviposition preferences of blow flies may cause a bias of PMI estimations because of a delay or acceleration of egg laying. Chrysomya megacephala (F.) and C. rufifacies (Macquart) are two predominant necrophagous blow fly species in Taiwan. Their larvae undergo rather intense competition, and the latter one can prey on the former under natural conditions. To understand the oviposition preferences of these two species, a dual-choice device was used to test the choice of oviposition sites by females. Results showed when pork liver with and without larvae of C. rufifacies was provided, C. megacephala preferred to lay eggs on the liver without larvae. However, C. megacephala showed no preference when pork liver with and without conspecific larvae or larvae of Hemipyrellia ligurriens (Wiedemann) was provided. These results indicate that females of C. megacephala try to avoid laying eggs around larvae of facultatively predaceous species of C. rufifacies. However, C. rufifacies showed significant oviposition preference for pork liver with larvae of C. megacephala or conspecific ones when compared with pork liver with no larvae. These results probably imply that conspecific larvae or larvae of C. megacephala may potentially be alternative food resources for C. rufifacies, so that its females prefer to lay eggs in their presence. When considering the size of the oviposition media, pork livers of a relatively small size were obviously unfavorable to both species. This may be because females need to find sufficient resources to meet the food demands of their larvae. In another experiment, neither blow fly species showed an oviposition preference for pork livers of different stages of decay. In addition, the oviposition preferences of both species to those media with larvae were greatly disturbed in a dark

  19. Study of the inorganic constituents in different species of Casearia medicinal plant collected in distinct regions of the Atlantic Forest, SP State, Brazil; Estudo sobre os constituintes inorganicos presentes em diferentes especies da planta medicinal do genero Casearia coletadas em regioes distintas da Mata Atlantica, SP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamashita, Celina Izumi

    2006-07-01

    The use of medicinal plants in the treatment of diseases has increased significantly in the last years, as has research concerning chemical characterization of these plants. In this study, inorganic constituents were determined in leaves and in extracts from three medicinal plant species of the Casearia genus (C. sylvestris, C. decandra and C. obliqua) collected in distinct regions of the Atlantic Forest, SP. The elemental compositions of the soils in which these plants were grown were also determined. Traditionally, these plants are used due to their antiinflammatory, antiacid, antiseptic and cicatrizing properties. The antiulcer and the antitumor activities of the Casearia genus and its capacity to neutralize snake and bee venoms, have also been scientifically confirmed. The analytical methodology used was neutron activation analysis. Long and short irradiation periods of the samples and the standards were carried out at IPEN's IEA-R1 nuclear research reactor. In the leaf K was found at the percentage levels, Ca, Cl, Mg and Na at mg g{sup -1} levels and the elements Br, Fe, Mn, Rb and Zn at the {mu}g g{sup -1} levels. As, Co, Cr, Cs, La, Sb, Sc and Se at the ng g{sup -1} levels. Results obtained in the extracts indicated that the same elements present in the leaves are also found in their extracts. The comparison between the inorganic composition of Casearia sylvestris leaves collected from three different regions of the Atlantic Forest showed that the elemental concentrations in the plants leaves varied depending on the place where they were grown. Different Casearia species cultivated in a same region presented similar elemental compositions. Based on these findings it can be concluded that the studies about the pharmacological effect of Casearia genus plants grown in different types of soil are of great importance. The quality of the obtained results was assured by the analyses of the certified reference materials NIST 1573a Tomato Leaves, NIST 1515 Apple

  20. Study of the inorganic constituents in different species of Casearia medicinal plant collected in distinct regions of the Atlantic Forest, SP State, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamashita, Celina Izumi

    2006-01-01

    The use of medicinal plants in the treatment of diseases has increased significantly in the last years, as has research concerning chemical characterization of these plants. In this study, inorganic constituents were determined in leaves and in extracts from three medicinal plant species of the Casearia genus (C. sylvestris, C. decandra and C. obliqua) collected in distinct regions of the Atlantic Forest, SP. The elemental compositions of the soils in which these plants were grown were also determined. Traditionally, these plants are used due to their antiinflammatory, antiacid, antiseptic and cicatrizing properties. The antiulcer and the antitumor activities of the Casearia genus and its capacity to neutralize snake and bee venoms, have also been scientifically confirmed. The analytical methodology used was neutron activation analysis. Long and short irradiation periods of the samples and the standards were carried out at IPEN's IEA-R1 nuclear research reactor. In the leaf K was found at the percentage levels, Ca, Cl, Mg and Na at mg g -1 levels and the elements Br, Fe, Mn, Rb and Zn at the μg g -1 levels. As, Co, Cr, Cs, La, Sb, Sc and Se at the ng g -1 levels. Results obtained in the extracts indicated that the same elements present in the leaves are also found in their extracts. The comparison between the inorganic composition of Casearia sylvestris leaves collected from three different regions of the Atlantic Forest showed that the elemental concentrations in the plants leaves varied depending on the place where they were grown. Different Casearia species cultivated in a same region presented similar elemental compositions. Based on these findings it can be concluded that the studies about the pharmacological effect of Casearia genus plants grown in different types of soil are of great importance. The quality of the obtained results was assured by the analyses of the certified reference materials NIST 1573a Tomato Leaves, NIST 1515 Apple Leaves, INCT-TL-1 Tea

  1. Management of lepidopterans through irradiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhati, Dheeraj; Parvez, Asif; Kausar, Hina; Srivastava, Meera

    2012-01-01

    suppression by irradiation include Spodoptera litura, S.exigua, S.frugiperda, Helicoverpa armigera, H.zea, Pectinophora gossypiella, Diatraea saccharalis, Cydia pomonella, C.molesta, Ectomyelois ceratoniae, Ephestia kuehniella, Crocidolomia binotalis, Chilo suppressalis, Ostrinia furnacalis, O.nubilalis, Plutella xylostella and Spilosoma obliqua. (author)

  2. Study of the inorganic constituents in different species of Casearia medicinal plant collected in distinct regions of the Atlantic Forest, SP State, Brazil; Estudo sobre os constituintes inorganicos presentes em diferentes especies da planta medicinal do genero Casearia coletadas em regioes distintas da Mata Atlantica, SP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamashita, Celina Izumi

    2006-07-01

    The use of medicinal plants in the treatment of diseases has increased significantly in the last years, as has research concerning chemical characterization of these plants. In this study, inorganic constituents were determined in leaves and in extracts from three medicinal plant species of the Casearia genus (C. sylvestris, C. decandra and C. obliqua) collected in distinct regions of the Atlantic Forest, SP. The elemental compositions of the soils in which these plants were grown were also determined. Traditionally, these plants are used due to their antiinflammatory, antiacid, antiseptic and cicatrizing properties. The antiulcer and the antitumor activities of the Casearia genus and its capacity to neutralize snake and bee venoms, have also been scientifically confirmed. The analytical methodology used was neutron activation analysis. Long and short irradiation periods of the samples and the standards were carried out at IPEN's IEA-R1 nuclear research reactor. In the leaf K was found at the percentage levels, Ca, Cl, Mg and Na at mg g{sup -1} levels and the elements Br, Fe, Mn, Rb and Zn at the {mu}g g{sup -1} levels. As, Co, Cr, Cs, La, Sb, Sc and Se at the ng g{sup -1} levels. Results obtained in the extracts indicated that the same elements present in the leaves are also found in their extracts. The comparison between the inorganic composition of Casearia sylvestris leaves collected from three different regions of the Atlantic Forest showed that the elemental concentrations in the plants leaves varied depending on the place where they were grown. Different Casearia species cultivated in a same region presented similar elemental compositions. Based on these findings it can be concluded that the studies about the pharmacological effect of Casearia genus plants grown in different types of soil are of great importance. The quality of the obtained results was assured by the analyses of the certified reference materials NIST 1573a Tomato Leaves, NIST 1515 Apple

  3. Can native plant species be preserved in an anthropogenic forest landscape dominated by aliens? A case study from Mediterranean Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steffi Heinrichs

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Plantations with fast growing exotic tree species can negatively affect native plant species diversity and promote the spread of alien species. Mediterranean Chile experienced major landscape changes with a vast expansion of industrial plantations of Pinus radiata in the past. However, with increasing knowledge of biodiversity effects on ecosystem services Chilean forest owners now aim to integrate the conservation of native biodiversity into forest management, but data on native species diversity and establishment within a plantation landscape is scarce. Here we investigated plant species diversity and composition in four forest management options applied within a landscape dominated by P. radiata plantations in comparison to an unmanaged reference: (i a clear cut, (ii a strip cut, (iii a native canopy of Nothofagus glauca and (iv a young P. radiata plantation. We wanted to assess if native plant species can be maintained either by natural regeneration or by planting of native tree species (Nothofagus glauca, N. obliqua, Quillaja saponaria within this landscape. Results show a high diversity of native and forest plant species within the different management options indicating a high potential for native biodiversity restoration within an anthropogenic landscape. In particular, herbaceous species can benefit from management. They are rare in unmanaged natural forests that are characterized by low light conditions and a thick litter layer. Management, however, also promoted a diversity of alien species. The rapid spread of alien grass species after management can deter an initial establishment of native tree species or the survival and growth after planting mainly under dry but less under sufficient moisture conditions. The most unsuccessful option for promoting native plant species was clear cutting in a dry area where alien grasses were abundant. For drought-tolerant tree species such as Quillaja saponaria, though

  4. Aggregate and soil organic carbon dynamics in South Chilean Andisols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Huygens

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Extreme sensitivity of soil organic carbon (SOC to climate and land use change warrants further research in different terrestrial ecosystems. The aim of this study was to investigate the link between aggregate and SOC dynamics in a chronosequence of three different land uses of a south Chilean Andisol: a second growth Nothofagus obliqua forest (SGFOR, a grassland (GRASS and a Pinus radiata plantation (PINUS. Total carbon content of the 0-10cm soil layer was higher for GRASS (6.7 kg C m-2 than for PINUS (4.3 kg C m-2, while TC content of SGFOR (5.8 kg C m-2 was not significantly different from either one. High extractable oxalate and pyrophosphate Al concentrations (varying from 20.3-24.4 g kg-1, and 3.9-11.1 g kg-1, respectively were found in all sites. In this study, SOC and aggregate dynamics were studied using size and density fractionation experiments of the SOC, δ13C and total carbon analysis of the different SOC fractions, and C mineralization experiments. The results showed that electrostatic sorption between and among amorphous Al components and clay minerals is mainly responsible for the formation of metal-humus-clay complexes and the stabilization of soil aggregates. The process of ligand exchange between SOC and Al would be of minor importance resulting in the absence of aggregate hierarchy in this soil type. Whole soil C mineralization rate constants were highest for SGFOR and PINUS, followed by GRASS (respectively 0.495, 0.266 and 0.196 g CO2-Cm-2d-1 for the top soil layer. In contrast, incubation experiments of isolated macro organic matter fractions gave opposite results, showing that the recalcitrance of the SOC decreased in another order: PINUS>SGFOR>GRASS. We deduced that electrostatic sorption processes and physical protection of SOC in soil aggregates were the main processes determining SOC stabilization. As a result, high aggregate carbon concentrations, varying from 148 till 48 g kg-1, were encountered for all land use

  5. Revision of the Neotropical treehopper genus Tolania (Hemiptera, Membracidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesse L. Albertson

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The treehopper genus Tolania Stål (Hemiptera: Membracidae: Nicomiinae: Nicomiini and 69 valid species (59 new are described and illustrated based on adult morphology. Ten informal species groups are recognized based on a previously published phylogenetic analysis: (1 the dira species group comprising T. calista sp. nov., T. dira sp. nov., T. inca sp. nov., T. macaria sp. nov., T. secoya sp. nov., and T. zaparo sp. nov.; (2 the fasciata species group comprising T. fasciata (Walker, T. gracilis sp. nov., and T. laticlava sp. nov.; (3 the femoralis species group comprising T. femoralis Stål, T. fraterna Stål, and T. roberti sp. nov.; (4 the furcata species group comprising T. furcata sp. nov., T. tryphena sp. nov., and T. venezuelensis sp. nov.; (5 the hispida species group comprising T. alida sp. nov., T. hispida sp. nov., and T. periculosa sp. nov.; (6 the malefica species group comprising T. cactina sp. nov., T. curvata sp. nov., T. grallator sp. nov., T. jocosa sp. nov., T. mackameyi sp. nov., T. malefica sp. nov., T. obliqua (Walker, and T. terencia sp. nov.; (7 the obtusa species group comprising T. obtusa Fowler, T. obunca sp. nov., and T. torosa sp. nov.; (8 the opponens species group comprising T. alvira sp. nov., T. arcuata sp. nov., T. damia sp. nov., T. insolita sp. nov., T. lunata sp. nov., T. lurida sp. nov., T. opponens (Walker, T. oriana sp. nov., T. reflexa sp. nov., T. risa sp. nov., T. sinuata sp. nov., T. trilobata sp. nov., T. tumida sp. nov., T. umbella sp. nov., T. vitocensis sp. nov., T. woodi sp. nov., and T. xantha sp. nov.; (9 the peltacauda species group comprising T. brasiliensis sp. nov., T. iratafelis sp. nov., T. modesta sp. nov., T. peltacauda sp. nov., T. picta sp. nov., and T. thyrea sp. nov.; and (10 the semipellucida species group comprising T. atrata sp. nov., T. fimbriata sp. nov., T. nicia sp. nov., and T. semipellucida Stål. The following new species are not placed in species groups: T. anomala sp. nov

  6. Systematics and phylogeny of the Neotropical treehopper subfamily Nicomiinae (Hemiptera, Membracidae Sistemática e filogenia das cigarrinhas neotropicais da subfamília Nicomiinae (Hemiptera, Membracidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesse L. Albertson

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Morphological characters of adults of the treehopper subfamily Nicomiinae Haupt, 1929 (Hemiptera, Membracidae including seven genera (Eudonica gen. nov.; Euwalkeria Goding, 1926; Holdgatiella Evans, 1962; Nicomia Stål, 1858; Nodonica Dietrich, McKamey& Deitz, 2001; Stalomia gen. nov.; and Tolania Stål, 1858 and 22 species (16 new are described and illustrated. Keys are provided for genera and for species of Euwalkeria, Holdgatiella, and Nicomia. Nomenclatural changes, based on study of the primary type material of 15 species, include three new combinations, one new synonymy, and reinstatement of one junior synonym. Eudonica has one species, Eudonica nanella sp. nov.; Euwalkeria has five species, including four new species: E. colorata sp. nov., E. distincta sp. nov., E. perdita sp. nov., E. rubrica sp. nov.; Holdgatiella has two species, one of which is described as new: Holdgatiella chiloensis sp. nov.; Nicomia has twelve species, nine of which are described as new: N. buccina sp. nov., N. harenosa sp. nov., N. inscripta sp. nov., N. jucunda sp. nov., N. monticola sp. nov., N. nigrifasciata sp. nov., N. notidana sp. nov., N. pulchella sp. nov., N. serrata sp. nov.; Nodonica has one species, Nodonica bispinigera Dietrich, McKamey & Deitz; and Stalomia has one species, Stalomia veruta sp. nov. Tolania contains eleven previously described species and nearly 60 new species, which will be treated in a later publication. Three new combinations are proposed: one species described in Nicomia is placed in the tribe Abelini (Centrotinae as Abelus retrospinosus (Lethierry comb. nov.; one species previously placed in Nicomia is transferred to the genus Tolania as T. obliqua (Walker, 1858, comb. nov.; one species described in Holdgatiella is placed in the genus Tolania as T. stria (Cryan & Deitz, 2002, comb. nov. One new synonymy is proposed: Hoplophera [sic] cicadoides Walker, 1862, syn. nov., a junior synonym of Nicomia interrupta Stål, 1858. Nicomia

  7. Entomology Unit annual report 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    As described in the 2002 Annual Report an improved medfly genetic sexing strain (GSS) was developed, VIENNA 8. This strain shows improved production characteristics and will have a major impact on the production efficiency in SIT rearing facilities. During 2003 this strain was transferred to four rearing facilities in Guatemala, Peru, South Africa and Tunisia based on acceptable QC data developed for the strain in the Unit. For the first time the strain was transferred to the different facilities under an agreement that prevents further distribution to third parties without consent of the Unit. In the past, strains originating from the Unit have been freely exchanged within the medfly SIT community, sometimes with not always the best results. During 2003 there has been a substantial increase in the resources devoted to activities in fruit flies other than medfly e.g. Bactrocera oleae and Anastrepha fraterculus. Rearing of the olive fly, B. oleae has traditionally not been straightforward due to the very specific, and expensive, larval diet that is required by this monophagous pest. With the disappearance of an essential larval diet component from the commercial market an urgent search is underway for an alternative. In 2004, experiments will be carried out to identify improved larval diets. For A. fraterculus, a large-scale evaluation of mating compatibility between different geographical races has been carried out by a consultant. Progress has been made in the containerised rearing of tsetse fly colonies. The container required considerable work before the temperature and humidity controls were suitable for tsetse rearing and a closed colony of Glossina fuscipes is now being reared. Discussions are now underway to install a version of TPU 3.2 (an automated tsetse feeding and production unit) in the container. A protocol for the handling, irradiation and eventual release of large numbers of sterile male tsetse has been formulated and it will involve at least two

  8. Sterilization of fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) with X-rays for sterile insect technique programs; Esterilizacao de moscas-das-frutas (Diptera: Tephritidae) com raios-X para programas de tecnica do inseto esteril

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mastrangelo, Thiago de Araujo

    2009-07-01

    Recent fear of acts of terrorism provoked an increase of delays and denials in the shipment of radioisotopes. This truly represented a menace to sterile insect production projects around the world. In order to validate the use of a new kind of low-energy Xray irradiator, a series of radiobiological studies on Ceratitis capitata (tsl-VIENNA 8 strain) (Wied., 1824) (Diptera: Tephritidae) and an Argentinean strain of Anastrepha fraterculus (Wied., 1830) (Diptera: Tephritidae) were carried out, also comparing biological effectiveness between X-rays and traditional {gamma} radiation from {sup 60}Co. Pupae 48- 24 h before adult emergence of C. capitata males and both sexes of A. fraterculus were irradiated with doses ranging from 15 to 120 Gy and 10 to 70 Gy respectively. Doses that induce 50, 90 and 99% of sterility were estimated and the hypothesis of Parallelism for the Probit equations was tested. Doses of 82.7 Gy of X-rays and 128.2 Gy of {gamma} rays (thus, a RBE{approx}1.5) induced 99% sterility on medfly males. The fertility of A. fraterculus fertile females crossed with 41 Gy of X-rays and 62.7 Gy of {gamma} rays decreased in 99% comparing with the control group (RBE{approx}1.5). 99% sterility of A. fraterculus irradiated females was achieved with 60-80 Gy (RBE{approx}0.7). The standard quality control parameters of fecundity, adult emergence, fliers and survival were not significantly affected by the two types of radiation (RBE{approx}1) either for medfly or A. fraterculus (p>0.01), being averages in conformity with the values required by FAO/IAEA/USDA. Only fecundity of irradiated A. fraterculus females was severely reduced with increasing doses and no egg was laid at 70 Gy of both radiations. There were no significant differences between X-rays and {gamma} rays regarding mating indices (RSI for medfly, RII, ISI, MRPI and FRPI for A. fraterculus) (p>0.05), what indicated more random matings for fertile and sterile insects. The results demonstrated that no

  9. The gene transformer-2 of Sciara (Diptera, Nematocera) and its effect on Drosophila sexual development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín, Iker; Ruiz, María F; Sánchez, Lucas

    2011-03-15

    The gene transformer-2, which is involved in sex determination, has been studied in Drosophila, Musca, Ceratitis, Anastrepha and Lucilia. All these members of Diptera belong to the suborder Brachycera. In this work, it is reported the isolation and characterisation of genes transformer-2 of the dipterans Sciara ocellaris and Bradysia coprophila (formerly Sciara coprophila), which belong to the much less extensively analysed Sciaridae Family of the Suborder Nematocera, which is paraphyletic with respect to Suborder Brachycera. The transformer-2 genes of the studied Sciara species were found to be transcribed in both sexes during development and adult life, in both the soma and germ lines. They produced a single primary transcript, which follows the same alternative splicing in both sexes, giving rise to different mRNAs isoforms. In S. ocellaris the most abundant mRNA isoform encoded a full-length protein of 251 amino acids, while that of B. coprophila encoded a protein of 246 amino acids. Both showed the features of the SR protein family. The less significant mRNA isoforms of both species encoded truncated, presumably non-functional Transformer-2 proteins. The comparison of the functional Sciara Transformer-2 proteins among themselves and those of other insects revealed the greatest degree of conservation in the RRM domain and linker region. In contrast, the RS1 and RS2 domains showed extensive variation with respect to their number of amino acids and their arginine-serine (RS) dipeptide content. The expression of S. ocellaris Transformer-2 protein in Drosophila XX pseudomales lacking the endogenous transformer-2 function caused their partial feminisation. The transformer-2 genes of both Sciaridae species encode a single protein in both sexes that shares the characteristics of the Transformer-2 proteins of other insects. These proteins showed conserved sex-determination function in Drosophila; i.e., they were able to form a complex with the endogenous Drosophila

  10. Danos de moscas-das-frutas (Diptera, Tephritidae em citros, manejados no sistema orgânico de produção

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Felisberto da Silva

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available As moscas-das-frutas são as principais pragas da fruticultura mundial. Consideradas chaves para a produção de citros, torna-se necessário o seu monitoramento, visando a evitar os danos diretos. O experimento teve como objetivos conhecer a variação populacional de Anastrepha fraterculus e a relação de sua população com danos em pomares orgânicos de Citrus sinensis, cultivar Céu e de C. sinensis x Citrus reticulata tangor 'Murcott'. Os dados foram coletados em 2003 e 2004 durante o período de maturação dos frutos, na região do vale do Caí, RS, Brasil. O número de moscas-das-frutas foi registrado, semanalmente, por meio de armadilhas McPhail, contendo suco de uva, a 25%. Danos aos frutos foram determinados pela razão entre frutos sadios e frutos danificados pela mosca. Registros meteorológicos de temperatura, umidade relativa e precipitação pluviométrica foram obtidos, em estação meteorológica distante 30 km das áreas experimentais. Verificou-se que, em condições ideais de precipitação pluvial, maiores foram as populações de A. fraterculus, espécie predominante na região. A população estimada capaz de causar danos aos frutos variou de acordo com o cultivar, sendo a laranjeira 'Céu' a mais susceptível. Os maiores picos populacionais ocorrem na fase de mudança de coloração dos frutos. Porém, na fase de maturação, as moscas causaram os maiores danos, dada a intolerância dos frutos ao ataque. Conclui-se que a infestação dos frutos de citros por A. fraterculus está relacionada com espécie e cultivar e com fatores climáticos, principalmente com a precipitação pluvial. O monitoramento constante da população de mosca-das-frutas é importante na determinação da infestação na colheita.

  11. Sterilization of fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) with X-rays for sterile insect technique programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mastrangelo, Thiago de Araujo

    2009-01-01

    Recent fear of acts of terrorism provoked an increase of delays and denials in the shipment of radioisotopes. This truly represented a menace to sterile insect production projects around the world. In order to validate the use of a new kind of low-energy Xray irradiator, a series of radiobiological studies on Ceratitis capitata (tsl-VIENNA 8 strain) (Wied., 1824) (Diptera: Tephritidae) and an Argentinean strain of Anastrepha fraterculus (Wied., 1830) (Diptera: Tephritidae) were carried out, also comparing biological effectiveness between X-rays and traditional γ radiation from 60 Co. Pupae 48- 24 h before adult emergence of C. capitata males and both sexes of A. fraterculus were irradiated with doses ranging from 15 to 120 Gy and 10 to 70 Gy respectively. Doses that induce 50, 90 and 99% of sterility were estimated and the hypothesis of Parallelism for the Probit equations was tested. Doses of 82.7 Gy of X-rays and 128.2 Gy of γ rays (thus, a RBE∼1.5) induced 99% sterility on medfly males. The fertility of A. fraterculus fertile females crossed with 41 Gy of X-rays and 62.7 Gy of γ rays decreased in 99% comparing with the control group (RBE∼1.5). 99% sterility of A. fraterculus irradiated females was achieved with 60-80 Gy (RBE∼0.7). The standard quality control parameters of fecundity, adult emergence, fliers and survival were not significantly affected by the two types of radiation (RBE∼1) either for medfly or A. fraterculus (p>0.01), being averages in conformity with the values required by FAO/IAEA/USDA. Only fecundity of irradiated A. fraterculus females was severely reduced with increasing doses and no egg was laid at 70 Gy of both radiations. There were no significant differences between X-rays and γ rays regarding mating indices (RSI for medfly, RII, ISI, MRPI and FRPI for A. fraterculus) (p>0.05), what indicated more random matings for fertile and sterile insects. The results demonstrated that no significant difference in biological

  12. History of the sterile insect technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klassen, W.; Curtis, C.F.

    2005-01-01

    (Zeller), the cactus moth Cactoblastis cactorum (Berg), the Old World screwworm Chrysomya bezziana (Villeneuve), additional Glossina spp., other Anastrepha spp. and Bactrocera spp. fruit flies, and other pest insects. (author)

  13. Effects of Ionizing Radiation on Insects and Other Arthropods; Effet des rayonnements ionisants sur les insectes et autres arthropodes; Vozdejstvie ioniziruntsej radiatsii na nasekomykh i drugikh chlenistonogikh; Efectos de las radiaciones ionizantes sobre los insectos y otros artropodos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stone, William E. [United States Department of Agriculture Laboratories, Mexico City, D.F (Mexico)

    1963-09-15

    Research into the possible application of the radiation sterilization method of population suppression is now under way on a number of insects that attack man, animals and a variety of crops. These exploratory investigations have shown that ionizing irradiation will induce sterility but there is considerable variation in the amounts needed. The research also suggests that radiation damage may in some cases prevent application of the method to some insects. A frequent obstacle that must be overcome is lack of practical mass-rearing methods. Some insects also appeartobeso abundant that the use of the technique may not be feasible without first processing the infested area with other control measures to bring wild populations within reach. Despite these difficulties, when conditions are favourable, few other approaches to the control of pests are so potentially rewarding. The radiation sterilization method may also be thought of as a possible means of delaying development of infestation until crops are harvested. The present paper reports on the influence-of gamma radiation on the reproductive potential, sexual aggressiveness, vigour and longevity of the oriental fruit fly, Dacus dorsalis Hendel, the melon fly, Dacus cucurbitae Coq., the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata Wied., the Mexican fruit fly, Anastrepha ludens Loew, and Anopheles quadrimaculatus Say, and results of practical field trials of the sterile-male release method of population suppression. Progress in the campaign to eradicate the screw-worm, Cochliomyia hominivora Cqrl., in the United States and in studies to develop vigorous genetically marked strains that will permit ready identifications of released sterile flies is reviewed. Results of irradiation research on six additional species that infest fruit, vegetable, field and forest crops, three that attack livestock, three that largely affect man, the effects of irradiation on the scorpion, Centruroides limpid us Karsch, and the Lone

  14. Purification and partial characterization of an entomopoxvirus (DlEPV from a parasitic wasp of tephritid fruit flies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pauline O. Lawrence

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available An insect poxvirus [entomopoxvirus (EPV] occurs in the poison gland apparatus of female Diachasmimorpha longicaudata , a parasitic wasp of the Caribbean fruit fly, Anastrepha suspensa and other tephritid fruit flies. The DlEPV virion is 250-300 nm in diameter, has a "bumpy" appearance and a unipartite double stranded DNA genome of 290-300 kb. DlEPV DNA restriction fragment profiles differed from those reported for Amsacta moorei EPV (AmEPV and Melanoplus sanguinipes EPV (MsEPV, the only two EPVs whose genomes have been sequenced, and from those reported for vaccinia (Vac, a vertebrate poxvirus (chordopoxvirus, ChPV. Blast search and ClustalW alignment of the amino acids deduced from the 2316 nucleotides of a DlEPV DNA fragment cloned from an EcoR1 genomic library revealed 75-78% homology with the putative DNA-directed RNA polymerases of AmEPV, MsEPV, and two ChPV homologs of the Vac J6R gene. Of the deduced 772 amino acids in the DlEPV sequence, 28.4% are conserved/substituted among the four poxviruses aligned, 12.9% occur in at least one EPV, 6.5% in at least one ChPV, 3.1 % in at least one EPV and one ChPV, and 49.1% occur only in DlEPV. Although the RI-36-1 fragment represents a portion of the gene, it contains nucleotides that encode the NADFDGDE consensus sequence of known DNA-directed RNA polymerases. Western blots using a mouse polyclonal anti-DlEPV serum recognized six major protein bands in combined fractions of sucrose-purified DlEPV, at least one band in homogenates of male and female wasps, and at least two bands in host hemolymph that contained DlEPV virions. A digoxigenin-labeled DlEPV genomic DNA probe recognized DNA in dot-blots of male and female wasps. These results confirm that DlEPV is a true EPV and probably a member of the Group C EPVs. Unlike other EPVs, DlEPV does not express the spheroidin protein. Since it also replicates in both the wasp and fly, members of two different insect Orders, DlEPV may represent a new EPV

  15. Transpiration and water use efficiency in native chilean and exotic species, a usefull tool for catchment management?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hervé-Fernández, P.; Oyarzun, C. E.

    2012-04-01

    Land-use and forest cover change play important roles in socio-economic processes and have been linked with water supply and other ecosystem services in various regions of the world. Water yield from watersheds is a major ecosystem service for human activities but has been altered by landscape management superimposed on climatic variability and change. Sustaining ecosystem services important to humans, while providing a dependable water supply for agriculture and urban needs is a major challenge faced by managers of human-dominated or increased antropical effect over watersheds. Since water is mostly consumed by vegetation (i.e: transpiration), which strongly depends on trees physiological characteristics (i.e: foliar area, transpiration capacity) are very important. The quantity of water consumed by plantations is influenced mainly by forest characteristics (species physiology, age and management), catchment water retention capacity and meteorological characteristics. Eventhough in Chile, the forest sector accounts for 3.6% of the gross domestic product (GDP) and 12.5% of total exports (INFOR, 2003), afforestation with fast growing exotic species has ended up being socially and politically questionable because of the supposed impact on the environment and water resources. We present data of trees transpiration and water use efficiency from three headwater catchments: (a) second growth native evergreen forest (Aetoxicon punctatum, Drimys winterii, Gevuina avellana, Laureliopsis philippiana); (b) Eucalyptus globulus plantation, and (c) a mixed native deciduous (Nothofagus obliqua and some evergreen species) forest and Eucalyptus globulus and Acacia melanoxylon plantation located at the Coastal Mountain Range in southern Chile (40°S). Annual transpiration rates ranged from 1.24 ± 0.41 mol•m-2•s-1 (0.022 ± 0.009 L•m-2•s-1) for E. globulus, while the lowest observed was for L. philippiana 0.44 ± 0.31 mol•m-2•s-1 (0.008 ± 0.006 L•m-2•s-1). However

  16. Revision of the subfamily Opiinae (Hymenoptera, Braconidae from Hunan (China, including thirty-six new species and two new genera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Xi-Ying

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The species of the subfamily Opiinae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae from Hunan (Oriental China are revised and illustrated. Thirty-six new species are described: Apodesmia bruniclypealis Li & van Achterberg, sp. n., A. melliclypealis Li & van Achterberg, sp. n., Areotetes albiferus Li & van Achterberg, sp. n., Areotetes carinuliferus Li & van Achterberg, sp. n., A. striatiferus Li & van Achterberg, sp. n., Coleopioides diversinotum Li & van Achterberg, sp. n., C. postpectalis Li & van Achterberg, sp. n., Fopius dorsopiferus Li, van Achterberg & Tan, sp. n., Indiopius chenae Li & van Achterberg, sp. n., Opiognathus aulaciferus Li & van Achterberg, sp. n., O. brevibasalis Li & van Achterberg, sp. n., Opius crenuliferus Li & van Achterberg, sp. n., O. malarator Li, van Achterberg & Tan, sp. n., O. monilipalpis Li & van Achterberg, sp. n., O. pachymerus Li & van Achterberg, sp. n., O. son