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Sample records for anastrepha obliqua macquart

  1. Neurosecretory cells of third-instar larvae of Anastrepha obliqua Macquart (Diptera, Tephritidae

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    Isabel C Boleli

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available Neurosecretory cells of the nervous system of third-instar larvae of Anastrepha obliqua Macquart, 1835 were located and described histomorphologically. Six groups of neurosecretory cells were identified in the brain and one group in the ventral ganglion. The groups differed in position, cell size and staining characteristics. Four of these groups appear to he active throughout the third instar and three, from the prepupal period.

  2. Egg length of Anastrepha obliqua Macquart (Diptera, Tephritidae according to oviposition rate and maternal age

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    Isabel C. Boleli

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available The length of the entire egg, micropile and vitellus regions of Anastrepha obliqua Macquart, 1835 were measured during all opposition period. Obtained values were compared among them and with oviposition rate. The smallest eggs were produced during the first 35 oviposition days, period where the highest oviposition rate occured. The decrease in egg length was found to be due to a descrease in the vitellus region. Micropile length was found to be pratically constant throughout oviposition. Furthermore, no relationship between maternal age and length was detectable.

  3. Selection of oviposition sites by wild Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart) (Diptera: Tephritidae) based on the nutritional composition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Few works have studied in detail the types of nutrients associated to hosts which are attractive to females of Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart) and influence the choice of the oviposition site. The relationship of the males in the physiology and in the behavior of those females has also been scarcely studied and some ecological relationships seem to be quite important for the knowledge of this species' biology. Our objective in this study was to evaluate the discriminatory behavior of A. obliqua between oviposition sites containing different nutrients. The presence of the male and the nutritional status of the female were also considered in this work. Two experiments were developed: in the first, the preference of A. obliqua females between artificial oviposition substrates was evaluated; in the second, females were submitted to two types of artificial oviposition substrates in the presence and in the absence of males and were fed either on a poor diet or on an adequate diet concerning sucrose concentration. In the first experiment, A. obliqua showed higher preference for substrates containing brewer's yeast and sucrose. Substrate containing only yeast was the second most accepted. Offspring development and adult feeding may have determined the choice for the substrate containing brewer's yeast and sucrose. In addition, the presence of protein in the brewer's yeast may indicate nutritional quality to the females in a more accurate way than the sucrose. In the second experiment, the brewer's yeast was the most accepted by the females. The male absence was also an important factor in the selection of hosts and in the egg production of A. obliqua. (author)

  4. Use of gamma radiation against Ceratitis capitata (Wied., 1824), Anastrepha Fraterculus (Wied., 1830) and Anastrepha Obliqua (Macquart, 1835) (Diptera, Tephritidae) for disinfestation of mangoes for exportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The gamma radiation doses to attend quarantine requirements of importing countries, by disinfecting mango fruits from Ceratitis capitata (Wied., 1824), Anastrepha Fraterculus (Wied., 1830) and Anastrepha Obliqua (Macquart, 1835) is studied. An increase of radiation resistance of C. capitata eggs was observed during the embryonic development. Doses up to 40 Gy for C. capitata and up to 100 Gy for A. Fraterculus and A. Obliqua did not affect pupation of 4-,5-,6- and 7-day-old larvae, irradiated 'in vitro'. Larvae of C. capitata were more resistant than A. Obliqua and A. Fraterculus. Larvae of A. Obliqua were more resistant than A. Fraterculus. The dose of 125.5 Gy fulfilled the criteria for efficacy, which prevented emergence of the adults of three fruit fly species studied. (author)

  5. Color preference of Anastrepha obliqua (Diptera, Tephritidae Preferência de cor por Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart (Diptera, Tephritidae

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    Guillermo López-Guillén

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The color preference of A. obliqua was evaluated in two-choice tests. The results showed that both sexes were attracted to wavelengths ranging from 340 nm to 670 nm, although the broad major peak of attraction occurred between 380 and 570 nm.A preferência de cor por A. obliqua foi avaliada em testes de dupla escolha. Os resultados mostraram que ambos os sexos foram atraídos aos comprimentos de onda que variam de 340 nm a de 670 nm, embora o principal pico da atração de A. obliqua tenha ocorrido entre 380 e 570 nm.

  6. Nutritive value of diets with different carbohydrates for adult Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart) (Diptera, Tephritidae)

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    Tânia Mara de Lima Fontellas; Fernando Sérgio Zucoloto

    1999-01-01

    Adult Tephritidae, especially of the genus Anastrepha (Schiner, 1868), have been observed to feed on a wide variety of natural diets. The fruit on which they feed, in general, are rich in sugar content, chiefly glucose, frutose and sucrose, which are also the sugars that those insects utilise better. Neither the behavioural mechanisms, nor the physiological ones, that control food selection by insects, are well known. Because some of those aspects are not known for the species Anastrepha obli...

  7. The presence of the sexual partner and nutritional condition alter the Anastrepha obliqua MacQuart (Diptera: Tephritidae) protein discrimination threshold

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The minimum protein amount that Anastrepha obliqua MacQuart can detect in its alimentary source is variable, though the causes of such variation are not very well known. In this study, the authors tested whether the sexual partners nutritional condition and presence devoid of direct contact alter the A. obliqua protein discrimination threshold. Male and female insects were assigned to groups as follows: (1) newly emerged, (2) deprived of protein source (yeast) during 18 days, (3) non-yeast-deprived during 18 days, (4) yeast-deprived in the presence of equally yeast-deprived sexual partners, (5) yeast-deprived in the presence of non-yeast-deprived partners, (6) non-yeast-deprived with yeast-deprived partners and (7) non-yeast-deprived with non-yeast-deprived partners. The sexual partners were maintained apart by a transparent plastic screen with small holes. Not only the males presence but also their nutritional condition have altered the females discrimination threshold, particularly when the females were deprived and when non- deprived females cohabited with deprived males. Therefore, the females threshold was determined by their own nutritional condition in addition to recognition of the males nutritional condition. The males discrimination threshold was higher for non-deprived subjects than for the deprived ones. The occurrence of responses in the absence of direct contact between males and females has shown that they may use a chemical mechanism for mutual recognition of the sexual partner nutritional condition. (author)

  8. Selección de cepas de hongos entomopatógenos para el manejo de anastrepha obliqua (macquart, 1835) (diptera: tephritidae) en colombia

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    Osorio-Fajardo, Armando; Nelson A Canal

    2011-01-01

    Se evaluaron 15 cepas de los hongos entomopatógenos Beauveria bassiana y Metarhizium anisopliae sobre adultos de un día de edad de la mosca de la fruta Anastrepha obliqua. El trabajo se realizó con el fin de seleccionar las cepas más virulentas al insecto y estudiar el efecto sobre los adultos jóvenes cuando el hongo era aplicado antes de la emergencia. Mediante un screening con una concentración de 1x107 conidias/mL se seleccionaron las tres cepas más virulentas, siendo dos de ellas de Beauv...

  9. Dispersal and longevity of wild and mass-reared Anastrepha Ludens and Anastrepha Obliqua (Diptera: Tephritidae)

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    The rates of dispersal and survival of sterile mass-reared laboratory flies and sterile wild flies of Anastrepha ludens (Loew) and Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart) were estimated and compared with a regular rectangular array of 64 food-baited traps spaced 60 m between traps around the release point in Tapachula Chiapas, Mexico. The traps were scored every day during the first week, and then every 3 d over a 30-d period. For A. obliqua, the number of males recaptured was higher than that of females, while for A. ludens, females were recaptured more frequently than males. The recapture rate for the wild strains ranged from 0.6-24.8% for A. ludens and 1.3-16.2% for A. obliqua and the corresponding ranges for the mass-reared strains were 0.5-7.1% and 0.5-3.0% respectively. The life expectancy was 4.7 d for wild and 4.3 d for mass-reared A. obliqua males but 3 and 2 d, respectively, for wild and mass-reared A. ludens males. The net displacement of A. ludens and A. obliqua ranged approximately from 100-250 m and took place mostly on the first day. Wild A. ludens moved to the northwest from the release point while the mass-reared strain moved to the west. The A. obliqua wild flies moved to the west, while the mass-reared strain shifted to the southwest. We discuss the implications of our findings as to the spacing and frequency of sterile fly releases for the suppression of wild populations. (author)

  10. Anastrepha ludens and Anastrepha serpentina (Diptera: Tephritidae) do not infest Psidium guajava (Myrtaceae), but Anastrepha obliqua occasionally shares this resource with Anastrepha striata in nature.

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    Birke, Andrea; Aluja, Martin

    2011-08-01

    This study examined whether economically important fruit fly species Anastrepha ludens (Loew), Anastrepha serpentina (Wiedemann), and Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart) (Diptera: Tephritidae) may opportunistically exploit guavas, Psidium guajava L. (Myrtaceae), growing near preferred natural hosts. We collected 3,459 kg of guavas and 895 kg of other known host species [sour orange, Citrus aurantium L.; grapefruit, Citrus paradisi Macfadyen; mango, Mangifera indica L.; white sapote, Casimiroa edulis La Llave and Lex.; sapote, Pouteria sapota (Jacq.); sapodilla, Manilkara zapota L.; and wild plum, Spondias purpurea L. and Spondias mombin L.] along an altitudinal gradient over a 4-yr period (2006-2009). Plants were growing in sympatry in 23 localities where the guavas are usually infested in the state of Veracruz, M6xico. The guava samples yielded 20,341 Anastrepha spp. pupae in total (overall mean, 5.88 pupae per kg of fruit). Confirming previous reports, Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann) and Anastrepha striata (Schiner) were found heavily infesting guavas in Veracruz. Importantly, although we did not find evidence that A. ludens and A. serpentina are able to attack this valuable commodity, we document for the first time in the agriculturally important state of Veracruz that P. guajava is an alternative natural host plant of A. obliqua. We recovered two fruit in the mango-growing locality of la Vibora, Tlalixcoyan, that harbored larvae of A. striata and A. obliqua. This finding has important practical implications for management of A. obliqua. Over the entire altitudinal gradient, when individual fruit infestation was examined, a dynamic pattern of species dominance was unveiled with guavas growing below 800 m above sea level mainly attacked by A. striata and a progressive replacement with increasing altitude by A. fraterculus. Interestingly, most individual fruit examined (97%) harbored a single species of fruit fly, a finding that may be taken as evidence of

  11. A New Adult Diet Formulation for Sterile Males of Anastrepha ludens and Anastrepha obliqua (Diptera: Tephritidae).

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    Orozco-Dávila, Dina; Quintero-Fong, Luis

    2015-08-01

    A new adult diet formulation was evaluated for sterile Anastrepha ludens (Loew) and Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart) males at the emergence and release facility of fruit flies in Mexico. The formulation consists of hydrolyzed protein, sugar, juvenile hormone analogue methoprene, and water. The proportion of the ingredients between the solute (4% hydrolyzed protein and 96% sugar) and solvent (10% methoprene and 90% water) was 5:1. This new formulation was called the 1:24 formulation. The main objectives of this study were to develop a simple way to supply the 1:24 formulation to adults and to compare the sexual performance of these flies with the performance of flies fed a standard diet (called the Mubarqui formulation) used at the emergence and release facility of fruit flies in Mexico. The preparation, time, and cost also were evaluated. The results showed no significant differences in the sexual behaviors of the males (number of males mating, number of males calling, mating latency, and mating duration) between the 1:24 formulation and the Mubarqui formulation. However, the cost and the required preparation time are much lower for the 1:24 formulation process than for the Mubarqui formulation process. Based on these results, we recommend the 1:24 formulation as an additional adult diet option in the handling of sterile flies. Its application is practical and does not require changes in packaging systems. The contribution of our findings and their potential application to the improvement of the sterile insect technique are discussed. PMID:26470310

  12. Procedures for mass rearing the West Indian fruit fly, Anastrepha obliqua

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    A series of bioassays resulted in a promising colony of Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart) for artificial production. A new model circular cage has been designed to achieve an increase in density of adults per cages, thus resulting in an increase in egg production. A bioassay for best egg production as well as constant hydration of eggs until collection time was chosen. Cotton fabric gave the best results of the fabrics used in the oviposition panel. A new diet based on corn cob particles and with citrus acid instead of hydrochloric acid was tested and showed promising results in good production, quality and less risk in handling. The optimum humidity range for larva to pupa conversion was found to be 70-80%. (author)

  13. Influence of quantities of brewer yeast on the performance of Anastrepha obliqua wild females (Diptera, Tephritidae

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    Cresoni-Pereira Carla

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Using artificial solid diets, experiments were performed with Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart, 1835 wild females in order to verify the influence of different quantities of brewer yeast on the performance and compensation behavior to unbalanced diets ingestion. The observed parameters were egg production, ingestion, diet efficiency and survival in the reproductive phase. Results indicated that there was no compensatory ingestion to different quantities of yeast and that the diet with 12.5g of yeast provided the best performance. The absence of compensatory ingestion is discussed based on the yeast phagostimulation and on the costs involved in solid diets ingestion. The relation between the analyzed parameters and the protein quantities in the diet were discussed.

  14. Field evaluation of potential fruit-derived lures for Anastrepha obliqua (Diptera: Tephritidae).

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    Toledo, Jorge; Malo, Edi A; Cruz-López, Leopoldo; Rojas, Julio C

    2009-12-01

    Previous studies have shown that a nine-component blend (ethyl butyrate, isopropyl butyrate, hexan-1-ol, propyl butyrate, isobutyl butyrate, ethyl hexanoate, isopentyl butyrate, ethyl benzoate, and ethyl octanoate) isolated from Spondias mombin L. (Anacardiaceae) fruit are attractive to both sexes of West Indian fruit fly, Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart) (Diptera: Tephritidae), in laboratory and field cage tests. In this study, we evaluated the effectiveness of traps baited with the nine-component blend in capturing wild A. obliqua in a mango, Mangifera indica L. variety Ataulfo) orchard. In addition, we tested other S. mombin-derived lures to determine whether any of these effectively mimic the nine-component blend in attracting A. obliqua. In all trials, we compared the attractiveness of the S. mombin-derived lures against hydrolyzed protein, the standard bait for monitoring A. obliqua. We found that, in some trials, there was no difference in the number of females caught by traps baited with the nine-component blend or with hydrolyzed protein. In other trials, traps baited with hydrolyzed protein captured more females than traps baited with the nine-component blend. For males, in general there were no differences in the number of flies caught by traps baited either with the nine-component blend or with hydrolyzed protein. Traps baited with other S. mombin-derived lures captured fewer A. obliqua than traps baited with hydrolyzed protein. Traps baited with S. mombin-derived lures caught fewer species of nontarget tephritid flies and nontarget insects than traps baited with hydrolyzed protein. PMID:20069833

  15. Preliminary studies for the colonization of Anastrepha obliqua and Anastrepha serpentina (Diptera: Tephritidae)

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    A series of trials were carried out with the aim of collecting preliminary data for the colonization of Anastrepha obliqua and Anastrepha serpentina. Trials were focused on evaluating adequate oviposition media as well as their effect on fly demographic parameters; the effect of cage population densities on demographic parameters was also considered; for A. serpentina, egg disinfection treatments by organic acids was assayed, and a screening study was carried out for suitable pupation media. Nylon-made egging mesh resulted in the most efficient oviposition medium, while low insect densities provided the best conditions for increased rates of fly fertility. Organic acids (methyl-p-hydroxy-benzoic) were found to hamper egg hatch, while a variety of pupation media provided improved fly emergence rates vs. the naked pupation method. (author)

  16. Resolution of inter and intra-species relationships of the West Indian fruit fly Anastrepha obliqua.

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    Scally, M; Into, F; Thomas, D B; Ruiz-Arce, R; Barr, N B; Schuenzel, E L

    2016-08-01

    The West Indian fruit fly, Anastrepha obliqua (Diptera: Tephritidae), is an economically important pest that inhabits areas of South and Central America, Mexico and the Caribbean with occasional infestations in the southern United States. We examine intra-specific relationships within A. obliqua as well as interspecific relationships to other Anastrepha species using a multi-locus data set comprising nine loci (seven nuclear, two mitochondrial) with 105 operational taxonomic units. The results based on a concatenated set of nuclear loci strongly support the monophyly of A. obliqua and most of the other species previously identified by morphology. A split between Peruvian A. obliqua samples and those from other locations was also identified. These results contrast with prior findings of relationships within A. obliqua based on mitochondrial data, as we found a marked discrepancy between nuclear and mitochondrial loci. These analyses suggest that introgression, particularly between A. obliqua and fraterculus species, may be one explanation for the discrepancy and the high mitochondrial diversity reported for A. obliqua could be the result of incomplete lineage sorting. PMID:27126185

  17. Susceptibility of 15 mango (Sapindales: Anacardiaceae) cultivars to the attack by Anastrepha ludens and Anastrepha obliqua (Diptera: Tephritidae) and the role of underdeveloped fruit as pest reservoirs: management implications.

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    Aluja, M; Arredondo, J; Díaz-Fleischer, F; Birke, A; Rull, J; Niogret, J; Epsky, N

    2014-02-01

    We evaluated the susceptibility of 15 mango cultivars to the attack of Anastrepha ludens (Loew) and Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart) (Diptera: Tephritidae), the main tephritid pests of this crop in Mexico. In a field experiment, bagged fruit-bearing branches were exposed to gravid females of both fly species. Infestation rates, developmental time, adult eclosion, and F1 adult longevity, fecundity, and fertility were recorded, ranking cultivars in terms of susceptibility to fly attack and development. We also compared the volatile profile in selected resistant and susceptible cultivars in search of possible correlations. In a second experiment, clutch size for A. ludens was determined in each cultivar. Infestation rates, developmental time, and F1 demographic parameters varied sharply among cultivars and between fly species for bagged fruit. Cultivars 'Vishi,' '74-82,' and 'Brooks' were most susceptible to A. ludens infestation while "Tommy,' 'Sensation,' and 'Ataulfo "niño"' (parthenocarpic fruit) were most susceptible to A. obliqua infestation. 'Edward,' 'Kent,' 'Brooks late,' 'Palmer, and 'Ataulfo' exhibited tolerance to attack of both fly species. Fruit of susceptible and resistant cultivars exhibited unique volatile profiles. Fly development and F1 adult demographic parameters varied significantly among cultivars. A. ludens females laid larger clutches in larger and harder fruit. We highlight the important role of Ataulfo "niño" as pest reservoir if fruit is left unharvested on trees. We discuss the possible use of highly resistant cultivars as trap crops or egg sinks. PMID:24665723

  18. Efeitos das misturas de alguns alimentos na produção de óvulos em Anastrepha obliqua (Diptera, Tephritidae)

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    Creusa Maria Message; Fernando Sérgio Zucoloto

    1989-01-01

    Effect of mixtures of some foods on egg production in the fruit fly Anastrepha obliqua. Several diets based on mixtures of different foods (brewer's yeast Boneg, wheat germ Boneg and gevral Lederle) were tested for their effect on egg production in Anastrepha obliqua. The best results were obtained with the mixture of brewer's yeast and wheat germ.

  19. Efeitos das misturas de alguns alimentos na produção de óvulos em Anastrepha obliqua (Diptera, Tephritidae

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    Creusa Maria Message

    1989-01-01

    Full Text Available Effect of mixtures of some foods on egg production in the fruit fly Anastrepha obliqua. Several diets based on mixtures of different foods (brewer's yeast Boneg, wheat germ Boneg and gevral Lederle were tested for their effect on egg production in Anastrepha obliqua. The best results were obtained with the mixture of brewer's yeast and wheat germ.

  20. Influence of Methoprene on Pheromone Emission and Sexual Maturation of Anastrepha obliqua (Diptera: Tephritidae) males.

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    Muñoz-Barrios, Rodolfo; Cruz-López, Leopoldo; Rojas, Julio C; Hernández, Emilio; Liedo, Pablo; Gómez-Simuta, Yeudiel; Malo, Edi A

    2016-04-01

    It has been demonstrated that the application of juvenile hormone analog, methoprene, reduces the time required for sexual maturation and enhances mating success in several species of tephritid fruit flies. This study examined the effect of different concentrations of methoprene incorporated into the diet of adult flies and distinct sugar:protein (S:P) ratios on sexual maturity and pheromone emission of Anastrepha obliqua males. Diets with 0.2 and 0.5% of methoprene accelerated sexual maturation of males compared with untreated males. In subsequent assays, the enhancement of male pheromone emission and sexual maturation by the incorporation of 0.02% methoprene into a 24:1 (S: P) diet was confirmed. Among the volatiles released by males, (Z)-3-nonenol and (Z,Z)-3,6-nonadienol were emitted at higher quantities by flies treated with methoprene than untreated ones. The results show that methoprene accelerates sexual maturation of mass-reared A. obliqua males and increases their mating propensity. This would reduce the time required to attain sexual maturation by sterile males, thus decreasing fly handling costs and improving the efficacy of the sterile insect technique. PMID:26797870

  1. Experiments of different compounds to attract Anastrepha obliqua (Diptera:Tephritidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Information regarding eight experiments carried out between 2001 and 2004 to determine the responses of Anastrepha obliqua (Diptera:Tephritidae) to several attractants in fruit orchards in Costa Rica is presented. In a mixed coffee and citrus orchard where population levels where low in Corralar (2002 and 2004). In a guava orchard where population levels where low in 2002 and higher in 2004 in Pocora,. In a mango farm where population levels were high in Esparza (2001 and 2003). The Flies per trap per day index (FTD) obtained in mango in 2001 was 0.12 for Torula Yeast, for Ammonium Bicarbonate (AB) + Putrescine (PT) the FTD was 0.054 and for NuLure it was 0.053. In 2003 the highest attraction was obtained using NuLure (FTD = 0.025), AA+PT (FTD 0.019), 1/2AA+PT (FTD = 0.013) and Torula Yeast (FTD = 0.0077). In guava (February to April of 2004) the highest FTD was obtained with NuLure(FTD 0.11), with 1/2AA+PT (FTD = 0.07) and with Torula Yeast (FTD = 0.05). In the September - October, 2004, experiments the attraction was better using NuLure (FTD = 0.04), followed by 1/4AA+AB+1/4PT (FTD = 0.02) and by 1/2AA+PT and 1/2AA+1/4PT both with a 0.01 FTD. In the mixed coffee and citrus orchard (November - December of 2002) the highest FTD was for the NuLure, Torula Yeast and 1/2AA+PT. The differences in the concentration of AA in the formulations of 1/2, 1 and 2AA+PT, did not yield sufficient data to be able to make a conclusion. With a single 1/2AA+PT, the FTD was 0.0008, with 1AA+PT it was zero, and with 2AA+PT it was 0.004. The formulation of 1AA+PT+TMA yielded an FTD of 0.004, and the same was obtained with 2AA+PT. In 2004, the largest number of A. obliqua was captured with NuLure (FTD = 0.0053). The Easy traps with the same attractant had a FTD of 0.001. In the formulations with AA, those with 1/2AA+PT captured the largest number of flies. The data obtained in all these experiments indicate that NuLure and Torula Yeast were better attractants to capture A. obliqua in

  2. Parasitóides (Hymenoptera: Braconidae de Anastrepha Schiner (Diptera: Tephritidae no estado do Acre Parasitoids (Hymenoptera: Braconidae of Anastrepha Schiner (Diptera: Tephritidae in the state of Acre, Brazil

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    Marcílio José Thomazini

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho relata a primeira ocorrência de parasitóides em moscas-das-frutas do gênero Anastrepha Schiner no estado do Acre. No município de Bujari foram encontrados os braconídeos Opius bellus Gahan (72,5%, Doryctobracon areolatus (Szépligeti (26,8% e Utetes anastrephae (Viereck (0,7% associados a A. obliqua (Macquart em frutos de taperebá (Spondias mombin L., com parasitismo de 29,5%. No município de Rio Branco, em frutos de goiaba (Psidium guajava L., ocorreu somente D. areolatus em A. obliqua com parasitismo de 2,7%.This paper records the first parasitoids occurrence on Anastrepha Schiner fruit flies in the state of Acre, Brazil. In the Bujari County there occurred the braconids Opius bellus Gahan (72.5%, Doryctobracon areolatus (Szépligeti (26.8% e Utetes anastrephae (Viereck (0.7% associated with A. obliqua (Macquart in tapereba fruits (Spondias mombin L., with parasitism of 29.5%. In guajava fruits (Psidium guajava L. at Rio Branco County, only D. areolatus on A. obliqua occurred, with parasitism of 2.7%.

  3. Biodiversidade de moscas-das-frutas do gênero Anastrepha (Diptera, Tephritidae no campus da ESALQ-USP, Piracicaba, São Paulo

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    Keiko Uramoto

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi conduzido na área abrangida pelo campus da Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz da Universidade de São Paulo, no município de Piracicaba, Estado de São Paulo. Teve como objetivos, determinar a composição do gênero Anastrepha Schiner e verificar a associação das espécies de plantas hospedeiras, estabelecidas na área, com as espécies de Anastrepha. Foram examinadas 23.277 fêmeas de Anastrepha coletadas por meio de armadilhas McPhail e 18 espécies pertencentes a nove grupos de espécies foram registradas. Um total de 563 amostras de frutos pertencentes a nove famílias e, pelo menos, 23 espécies de plantas foi coletado em 47 estações de capturas. Foram identificadas 10.243 fêmeas e das 18 espécies de Anastrepha capturadas em armadilhas somente seis emergiram das amostras de frutos: A. bistrigata Bezzi, A. fraterculus (Wied., A. obliqua (Macquart, A. pseudoparallela (Loew, A. serpentina (Wied. e A. sororcula Zucchi. A. fraterculus infestou maior diversidade de frutos. Os hospedeiros preferidos de A. obliqua foram as espécies da família Anacardiaceae. A. pseudoparallela e A. serpentina infestaram exclusivamente Passifloraceae e Sapotaceae, respectivamente. A. fraterculus é registrada pela primeira vez em sapoti (Manilkara zapota L. no Brasil.Biodiversity of fruit flies of the genus Anastrepha (Diptera, Tephritidae at the ESALQ-USP campus, Piracicaba, São Paulo. The aim of this study was to determine the number of species of Anastrepha Schiner at the campus and to verify the association between host plant species and Anastrepha species in this area. A total of 23,277 females of Anastrepha collected in McPhail traps was examined, and 18 species belonging to nine species groups were recorded. A total of 563 fruit samples representing at least 23 plant species from nine families was collected in 47 capture sites. A total of 10,243 females was identified. Of the 18 Anastrepha species captured in traps

  4. Forest fragments as barriers to fruit fly dispersal: Anastrepha (Diptera: Tephritidae) populations in orchards and adjacent forest fragments in Puerto Rico

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    McPhail-type traps baited with ammonium acetate and putrescine were used to monitor populations of Anastrepha obliqua and A. suspensa at four sites in Guánica, Puerto Rico; one forest fragment in Ponce, Puerto Rico; in a commercial mango orchard in Guayanilla, PR; and an experimental carambola orcha...

  5. The South American fruit fly, Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann) in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anastrepha fraterculus, the South American fruit fly, is the most common and economically important pest for the fruit-bearing species in the Neotropical region. However, there are some species that are close to A. fraterculus and, sometimes they can be erroneously identified as A. fraterculus. The separation of A. fraterculus from A. obliqua, A. sororcula and A. zenildae, species closely related to South American fruit fly, is discussed. Also, information on the host plants and braconid parasitoids for A. fraterculus in Brazil is presented. (author)

  6. Synthetic attractants for Anastrepha fruit flies in Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The efficacy of synthetic attractants in the capture of Anastrepha fruit flies (Anastrepha ludens, A. obliqua and A. serpentina) was tested in three commercial orchards of known fruit fly hosts: mango (Mangifera indica L.), mammy (Calocarpum mammosum L.) and Mexican plum (Spondias purpurea L.) in Chiapas, Mexico. Among the synthetic attractants tested, we found that Ammonium Acetate (AA) plus Putrescine (PT) in a liquid trap was often the best combination for attracting flies. Interestingly, the reduction of release rate of AA increases the capture of fruit flies. We also found that Ammonium Bicarbonate (AB) plus PT in a wet trap was effective in a Mexican plum orchard in comparison with the other combinations of synthetic attractants. However, the synthetic attractants in dry traps were not effective and always presented the lowest Captures. (author)

  7. [Fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) and their parasitoids (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) associated to host plants in the southern region of Bahia State].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bittencourt, M A L; da Silva, A C M; Silva, V E S; Bomfim, Z V; Guimarães, J A; de Souza Filho, M F; Araujo, E L

    2011-01-01

    The association among Anastrepha species, braconid parasitoids and host fruits in southern Bahia is recorded. Doryctobracon areolatus (Szépligeti) was associated with A. serpentina (Wied.) in Pouteria caimito, A. bahiensis Lima in Helicostylis tomentosa, A. sororcula Zucchi in Eugenia uniflora, and A. obliqua (Macquart) in Spondias purpurea. Anatrepha obliqua was unique in fruits of Averrhoa carambola, but associated with D. areolatus, Asobara anastrephae (Muesebeck) and Utetes anastrephae (Viereck). In Achras sapota, A. serpentina was associated with A. anastrephae and D. areolatus, while in Psidium guajava, A. fraterculus (Wied.) and A. sororcula were associated with D. areolatus and U. anastrephae. PMID:21710038

  8. Revision of the Chilean species of Empididae (Diptera described by J. Macquart

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José A. Rafael

    Full Text Available Four Chilean species of Empididae (Diptera are revised: Aplomera pachymera (Macquart, 1838, A. gayi Macquart, 1838, Empis nudipes Macquart, 1838 and E. polita Macquart, 1838. Aplomera chilensis (Bezzi, 1909 was also studied and it is being considered junior synonym of A. pachymera. Empis nudipes Macquart, 1838 is confirmed to be a junior synonym of A. gayi Macquart, 1838. Lectotype is being designated for A. pachymera, A. chilensis and E. polita. Illustration of terminalia and photomicrographs of wings are also included.

  9. Behaviour of Anastrepha fraterculus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A number of experiments and observations on the behaviour, host associations, attractants for adults and pupation of the South American fruit fly Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann), conducted under field or semi-natural conditions are presented here. (author)

  10. Biology of Anastrepha fraterculus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents available (published) information on specific abiotic factors, such as temperature, humidity, and lighting on the life cycle of Anastrepha fraterculus, henceforth AF. AF displays holometabolous development: egg, larva (development is completed in three instars), pupa and free living adults. (author)

  11. Comparison of Hydrolyzed Protein Baits and Various Grape Juice Products as Attractants for Anastrepha Fruit Flies (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, F; Miranda, E; Gómez, E; Presa-Parra, E; Lasa, R

    2016-02-01

    Mexican fruit flies, Anastrepha ludens (Loew; Diptera: Tephritidae), have traditionally been trapped in citrus orchards in Mexico using protein hydrolysates as bait. Recently, CeraTrap(®), an enzymatic hydrolyzed protein, has emerged as an effective lure for monitoring A. ludens at the orchard level and is currently being used by growers in the region of Veracruz. Several studies have revealed that grape juice is highly attractive to A. ludens, and recent work supports its potential use for regulation purposes. In our study, the attraction of A. ludens to different grape products was evaluated in citrus orchards and in comparison to other Anastrepha species in an area composed of mango and chicozapote orchards. Attraction to grape lures was compared with CeraTrap and the standard protein Captor +borax trap. In general, CeraTrap was more attractive than different commercial grape products in several experiments. Only Jumex, a commercial grape juice, did not differ significantly from CeraTrap in the capture of A. ludens males and females in a citrus crop. However, several drawbacks were detected when using Jumex grape juice: 1) higher tendency to capture males, 2) less selectivity against non-targeted insects, 3) higher capture of beneficial lacewings, and iv) the need to re-bait weekly owing to lower stability. In the area containing mango and chicozapote, CeraTrap was more attractive than Captor + borax for Anastrepha obliqua and Anastrepha serpentina, followed by grape juice products, which were the least attractive for these fruit fly species. PMID:26396199

  12. Biology of Anastrepha grandis (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Different Cucurbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolzan, Anderson; Nava, Dori E; Garcia, Flávio R M; Valgas, Ricardo A; Smaniotto, Giovani

    2015-06-01

    Anastrepha grandis (Macquart) (Diptera: Tephritidae) is one of the main pests of cucurbits in Brazil. Losses occur due to the damage caused to the fruits and the embargo on exports, as A. grandis is considered a quarantine pest in countries that import Brazilian cucurbits. This study aimed to evaluate the development of A. grandis in hosts of the Cucurbitaceae family. The hosts used were stem squash (Cucurbita pepo L.), squash (Cucurbita moschata Duchesne), chayote [Sechium edule (Jacq.) Swartz], mini watermelon [Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum & Nakai], Spanish melon (Cucumis melo L.), hybrid squash "Tetsukabuto" (C. moschata×Cucurbita maxima Duchesne), and salad cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.). We evaluated the viability and duration of egg-to-pupa period, pupal weight, sex ratio, and average number of pupae per fruit under controlled conditions of temperature, relative humidity, and photophase. The preoviposition and oviposition periods, fecundity, fertility, and longevity of females were determined for adults. Hosts of the genus Cucurbita provided a better development of A. grandis in comparison with other hosts, and presented a greater number of insects on fruit as well as higher infestation rate. Fecundity and longevity were also higher for females that developed in hosts of the genus Cucurbita, although values of these biological parameters varied between stem squash, squash, hybrid squash "Tetsukabuto." PMID:26470226

  13. Parasitóides (Braconidae associados à Anastrepha (Tephritidae em frutos hospedeiros do litoral sul da Bahia Parasitoids (Braconidae associated with Anastrepha (Tephritidae in host fruits on the southern coast of Bahia, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Aparecida Leão Bittencourt

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Dentre os organismos que atuam no controle biológico natural dos tefritídeos, os representantes da família Braconidae constituem-se no mecanismo de parasitismo natural mais atuante, e na região Neotropical, representantes de Opiinae são os principais agentes de controle de Anastrepha. Este trabalho teve por objetivo conhecer a percentagem de parasitismo e as espécies de braconídeos associados às fruteiras cultivadas em municípios da região Litoral Sul da Bahia. No período de agosto de 2005 a março de 2008, coletaram-se frutos hospedeiros de moscas-das-frutas de diversas espécies botânicas, e dos frutos foram obtidas as seguintes espécies de Anastrepha: A. fraterculus, A. obliqua, A. bahiensis, A serpentina, A. sororcula e A. zenildae. Do total de 838 exemplares de braconídeos, 21,36% foram da espécie Utetes anastrephae (Viereck, provenientes de cajá, carambola, goiaba, manga e pitanga; 4,42% da espécie Asobara anastrephae (Muesebeck obtidos dos frutos de cajá, carambola e goiaba, e apenas um exemplar da espécie Opius bellus Gahan (0,12% que emergiu da amostra de goiaba. A espécie Doryctobracon areolatus (Szépligeti (74,10% foi predominante e emergiu dos pupários provenientes de todos os frutos hospedeiros coletados, provavelmente pela maior eficiência desta espécie em localizar as larvas dos tefritídeos. A percentagem média de parasitismo de Anastrepha spp. foi de 4,45%.Among the organisms acting in the natural biological control of tephritids, members of the family Braconidae are the most active form of natural parasite, and in Neotropical regions, members of Opiinae are the main control agents of Anastrepha. The objective of this work was to discover the percentage of parasitism and the species of braconid associated with fruit trees growing in cities on the southern coast of Bahia. During the period of August, 2005 to March, 2008, hosts fruits of fruit flies from several plant species were collected and from the

  14. Response of Anastrepha species (Diptera: Tephritidae) to synthetic attractants in Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Efficient trapping systems for Anastrepha spp is an essential requirement for integrated fruit fly management. In order to find more efficient attractants for this genus, food-based attractants were tested in two orchards in Colombia against A. obliqua, A. striata and A. fraterculus populations. Six experiments were carried out from 2001 to 2004, four of them were done in a mango orchard and the other two in a coffee plantation. The synthetic food attractants tested were different combination of Ammonium Acetate (AA), Putrescine (PT), Ammonium Bicarbonate (AB) and Trimethylamine (TMA); the controls were NuLure and Torula. Attractants were placed in Multilure traps using equidistant spacing of 28 m. Trap catches were recorded twice per week for a total of eight weeks. Traps were serviced once per week and rotated after each service. The experimental design was random blocks with five repetitions. In experiments 1, 2, 3, 5 and 6, NuLure and Torula were statistically the best attractants, however, synthetic lures caught more flies than the controls in the fourth one, when climate was hot and dry: 1/2AA+PT, 1/2AB+PT and 1/4AB+PT were the best attractant for males of A. obliqua and 1/2AA+PT and 1/4AB+PT were the best for females. In some repetitions the synthetic lures capture more or equal numbers of flies than the controls, perhaps when in the previous days the weather was hot and dry. Attractants in general caught a larger number of old females than young or mature females in the first tests, but the mature females were predominant in the fourth one when the synthetic attractants showed to be better. Fruit flies showed different response to attractants depending on sex, species and climatic conditions. More studies are needed in order to improve trapping systems for Anastrepha. (author)

  15. Solar sterilization of abscised fruit: a cultural practice to reduce infestations of Anastrepha obliqua around orchards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abscised mangoes, Mangifera indica L., of several varieties were stored under varying conditions of insolation, including no sun (stored in a laboratory), shade (stored under the shade of a mango tree), full sun (stored in direct view of the sun), and covered in a black plastic bag and stored in dir...

  16. Eucalyptus obliqua seedling growth in organic vs. mineral soil horizons

    OpenAIRE

    Barry, Karen M.; Janos, David P.; Nichols, Scott; Bowman, David M. J. S.

    2015-01-01

    Eucalyptus obliqua, the most widespread timber tree in Tasmania, is a pioneer after fire which can eliminate the organic layer of forest soil, exposing the underlying mineral soil. We compared seedling growth, mycorrhiza formation, and mineral nutrient limitation in organic layer vs. mineral soil. We grew E. obliqua seedlings separately in pots of organic layer and mineral soil in a glasshouse. Additional treatments of organic soil only, involved fully crossed methyl-bromide fumigation and fe...

  17. Faunistic analysis of Anastrepha spp. (Diptera: Tephritidae) on a guava orchard under organic management in the municipality of Una, Bahia, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We carried out a study to characterize fruit fly populations on an organic guava orchard (Psidium guajava cv. Paluma) in the municipality of Una, southern region of the state of Bahia, Brazil, using faunistic analysis of the adult fruit f y specimens captured in McPhail traps from January 2004 through March 2007. A total of 22,673 specimens of Anastrepha (15,306 females and 7,367 males) were captured. Thirteen species of Anastrepha were recorded. A. fraterculus and A. obliqua were the more frequent and dominant species, accounting for 90.1% of all females captured in the traps. A. fraterculus was the predominant species (more frequent, constant and dominant). The high value of the Simpson index (0.62) and the low values of Shannon-Wiener (0.83) and equitability (0.49) indices indicated the dominance and high frequency of A. fraterculus and A. obliqua on the guava orchard despite the presence of other fruit species as potential hosts of fruit flies. (author)

  18. Specific bibliography on Anastrepha fraterculus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Most publications on Anastrepha fraterculus are in the literature sources from South America, and papers were published in Spanish or Portuguese. Many literature sources mentioned in this list are not indexed in entomological abstracts and, consequently, are not easily available outside their home state or country. Due to this fact, the inclusion of a list of specific bibliography on A. fraterculus could be a help for researchers and students interested in fruit flies. In this list are included only references directly dealing with Anastrepha fraterculus. Obviously, many more references exist that consider this species, but general or non-specific work or data concerning A. fraterculus were not included in the present list. (author)

  19. Lonomia obliqua venomous secretion induces human platelet adhesion and aggregation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Markus; Reck, José; Terra, Renata M S; Beys da Silva, Walter O; Santi, Lucélia; Pinto, Antônio F M; Vainstein, Marilene H; Termignoni, Carlos; Guimarães, Jorge A

    2010-10-01

    The caterpillar Lonomia obliqua is a venomous animal that causes numerous accidents, especially in southern Brazil, where it is considered a public health problem. The clinical manifestations include several haemostatic disturbances that lead to a hemorrhagic syndrome. Considering that platelets play a central role in hemostasis, in this work we investigate the effects of L. obliqua venomous secretion upon blood platelets responses in vitro. Results obtained shows that L. obliqua venom directly induces aggregation and ATP secretion in human washed platelets in a dose-dependent manner. Electron microscopy studies clearly showed that the venomous bristle extract was also able to produce direct platelets shape change and adhesion as well as activation and formation of platelet aggregates. Differently from other enzyme inhibitors, the venom-induced platelet aggregation was significatively inhibited by p-bromophenacyl bromide, a specific inhibitor of phospholipases A2. Additional experiments with different pharmacological antagonists indicate that the aggregation response triggered by the venom active components occurs through a calcium-dependent mechanism involving arachidonic acid metabolite(s) of the cyclooxygenase pathway and activation of phosphodiesterase 3A, an enzyme that leads to the consumption of intracellular cAMP content. It was additionally found that L. obliqua-induced platelet aggregation was independent of ADP release. Altogether, these findings are in line with the need for a better understanding of the complex hemorrhagic syndrome resulting from the envenomation caused by L. obliqua caterpillars, and can also give new insights into the management of its clinical profile. PMID:20157842

  20. Biochemical and biological properties of Lonomia obliqua bristle extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Chudzinski-Tavassi

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Lonomia obliqua caterpillar is frequently seen in accidents with humans especially in the south of Brazil. Patients develop a hemorrhagic syndrome that can be treated with specific antilonomic serum. A consumptive coagulopathy was found to be the main cause of bleeding complications observed in patients after contact with L. obliqua. Studies revealed that L. obliqua caterpillar bristle extract (LOCBE displays a procoagulant activity that leads to intravascular thrombin formation, resulting in a special form of disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC. Fibrinolysis seems to be secondary to the fibrin production, since no direct fibrinolytic activity was found in LOCBE. Two procoagulant toxins, a factor X activator (Losac and a prothrombin activator (Lopap, were isolated from LOCBE and characterized. Infusion of Lopap into experimental animals triggered a condition similar to that observed in human envenomation.

  1. Taxonomic status of Anastrepha fraterculus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There has long been speculation that nominal Anastrepha fraterculus comprises more than a single biological species. Herein is a review of data supporting the hypothesis that multiple cryptic species are present. Evidence includes unusual variation in pest status, morphology, karyotypes, isozymes, mitochondrial DNA and cuticular hydrocarbon. The data strongly support the notion of multiple cryptic species. However, it is not yet possible to state how many species may be involved or to delineate them by diagnostic morphology, distribution, host plants or behavior. A combination of methodologies will be needed to resolve the complex. (author)

  2. Eucalyptus obliqua seedling growth in organic vs. mineral soil horizons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, Karen M.; Janos, David P.; Nichols, Scott; Bowman, David M. J. S.

    2015-01-01

    Eucalyptus obliqua, the most widespread timber tree in Tasmania, is a pioneer after fire which can eliminate the organic layer of forest soil, exposing the underlying mineral soil. We compared seedling growth, mycorrhiza formation, and mineral nutrient limitation in organic layer vs. mineral soil. We grew E. obliqua seedlings separately in pots of organic layer and mineral soil in a glasshouse. Additional treatments of organic soil only, involved fully crossed methyl-bromide fumigation and fertilization. Fertilization comprised chelated iron for 121 days after transplant (DAT) followed by soluble phosphorus. At 357 DAT, whole plant dry weight was three times greater in ambient organic than in mineral soil. In organic soil, fumigation halved ectomycorrhiza abundance and reduced seedling growth at 149 DAT, but by 357 DAT when negative effects of fumigation on seedling growth had disappeared, neither fumigation nor fertilization affected mycorrhiza abundance. Iron fertilization diminished seedling growth, but subsequent phosphorus fertilization improved it. E. obliqua seedlings grow much better in organic layer soil than in mineral soil, although phosphorus remains limiting. The prevalent forestry practice of burning to mineral soil after timber harvest exposes a poor growth medium likely only partially compensated by fire-induced mineral soil alterations. PMID:25750650

  3. Eucalyptus obliqua seedling growth in organic vs. mineral soil horizons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, Karen M; Janos, David P; Nichols, Scott; Bowman, David M J S

    2015-01-01

    Eucalyptus obliqua, the most widespread timber tree in Tasmania, is a pioneer after fire which can eliminate the organic layer of forest soil, exposing the underlying mineral soil. We compared seedling growth, mycorrhiza formation, and mineral nutrient limitation in organic layer vs. mineral soil. We grew E. obliqua seedlings separately in pots of organic layer and mineral soil in a glasshouse. Additional treatments of organic soil only, involved fully crossed methyl-bromide fumigation and fertilization. Fertilization comprised chelated iron for 121 days after transplant (DAT) followed by soluble phosphorus. At 357 DAT, whole plant dry weight was three times greater in ambient organic than in mineral soil. In organic soil, fumigation halved ectomycorrhiza abundance and reduced seedling growth at 149 DAT, but by 357 DAT when negative effects of fumigation on seedling growth had disappeared, neither fumigation nor fertilization affected mycorrhiza abundance. Iron fertilization diminished seedling growth, but subsequent phosphorus fertilization improved it. E. obliqua seedlings grow much better in organic layer soil than in mineral soil, although phosphorus remains limiting. The prevalent forestry practice of burning to mineral soil after timber harvest exposes a poor growth medium likely only partially compensated by fire-induced mineral soil alterations. PMID:25750650

  4. Eucalyptus obliqua seedling growth in organic versus mineral soil horizons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen eBarry

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Eucalyptus obliqua, the most widespread timber tree in Tasmania, is a pioneer after fire which can eliminate the organic layer of forest soil, exposing the underlying mineral soil. We compared seedling growth, mycorrhiza formation, and mineral nutrient limitation in organic layer versus mineral soil. We grew E. obliqua seedlings separately in pots of organic layer and mineral soil in a glasshouse. Additional treatments of organic soil only, involved fully crossed methyl-bromide fumigation and fertilization. Fertilization comprised chelated iron for 121 days after transplant (DAT followed by soluble phosphorus. At 357 DAT, whole plant dry weight was three times greater in ambient organic than in mineral soil. In organic soil, fumigation halved ectomycorrhiza abundance and reduced seedling growth at 149 DAT, but by 357 DAT when negative effects of fumigation on seedling growth had disappeared, neither fumigation nor fertilization affected mycorrhiza abundance. Iron fertilization diminished seedling growth, but subsequent phosphorus fertilization improved it. E. obliqua seedlings grow much better in organic layer soil than in mineral soil, although phosphorus remains limiting. The prevalent forestry practice of burning to mineral soil after timber harvest exposes a poor growth medium likely only partially compensated by fire-induced mineral soil alterations.

  5. The South American fruit fly, Anastrepha fraterculus (Wied.); advances in artificial rearing, taxonomic status and biological studies. Proceedings of a workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the fruit flies of major concern, because of its economic and quarantine importance in the Americas, is the exotic Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata, which is established throughout the Central and South American countries, excluding Chile. Chile, Mexico and the USA have conducted multi-million dollar campaigns to prevent the establishment of this and other exotic fruit flies in their respective territories, in support of the development of important fruit production and export industries. Other important fruit fly species, which are native to the American continent, are those of the genus Anastrepha. In this group, of most economic importance are A. obliqua and A. ludens for Mexico and some Central American countries and A. fraterculus and A. obliqua for South America. In this publication, attention is focused on A. fraterculus, the South American fruit fly. This species, as it is presently recognized, occurs from Mexico to Argentina and is reported from approximately 80 host plants, including commercial fruits of economic importance, such as mango, citrus, guava, apple and coffee. As A. fraterculus if considered to be of high economic and quarantine importance in many countries in South America, it is justifiable to recommend and promote the implementation of activities to strengthen knowledge of the species and develop techniques for its control and/or eradication. The development of sterile insect technique (SIT) and other biological control methods are very encouraging alternatives, as can be seen from examples in Mexico and the USA, where these approaches are in use against A. ludens and A. obliqua

  6. Pheromone communication in Anastrepha obliqua (Diptera: Tephritidae): A comparison of the volatiles and salivary gland extracts of two wild populations

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Goncalves, G. B.; Silva, C. E.; Mendonca, A. D. L.; Vaníčková, Lucie; Tomčala, Aleš; do Nascimento, R. R.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 96, č. 4 (2013), s. 1365-1374. ISSN 0015-4040 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : salivary glands * volatile compounds * sex attractant * wild population * gas chromatography - mass spectrometry Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 1.056, year: 2013

  7. [Accidents with caterpillar Lonomia obliqua (Walker, 1855). An emerging problem].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Matías N; Mignone Chagas, Mariana A; Casertano, Sergio A; Cavagnaro, Luis E; Peichoto, María E

    2015-01-01

    Lonomia obliqua (Walker, 1855) is a moth from the family Saturniidae, widely distributed in tropical rainforests of South America. In its larval stage (caterpillar) it is characterized by bristles that cover the animal's body. These structures are hard and branched spiny evaginations of the cuticle, underneath which a complex mixture of toxic molecules is stored. When spicules are brought into contact with the skin of people, toxins enter passively through the injury, causing not only local but also systemic poisoning (primarily hemorrhagic manifestations). When the whole animal is accidentally crushed, the insect's chitinous bristles are broken and the venomous secretions penetrate the human skin, reaching the blood circulation. Due to the numerous registered cases of erucism in Southern Brazil, the Butantan Institute has produced an antivenom able to neutralize the deleterious effects produced by contact with L. obliqua caterpillar bristles. In Argentina, these kinds of accidents are rare and restricted to the province of Misiones. Taking into account that to date there is no report in this country about clinical cases submitted to a specific treatment (antivenom), our aim is to communicate here six cases of Lonomia caterpillar-induced bleeding syndrome that were treated in the Hospital SAMIC of Puerto Iguazú (Misiones, Argentina) during 2014 with the antilonomic serum produced in Brazil. It is worthy to note that all patients evolved favorably within the first few hours, and for this reason, the use of this antivenom is recommended to treat the cases of Lonomia erucism in Argentina. PMID:26502471

  8. New species of and taxonomic notes on Anastrepha (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seven new species of Anastrepha are described: A. conflua (Costa Rica), A. levefasciata (Peru), A. nolazcoae (Peru), A. paradentata (Mexico), A. raveni (Peru), A. trivittata (Brazil: Amazonas), and A. woodleyi (Bolivia). Anastrepha nunezae Steyskal, 1977, is recognized as a synonym of A. mucronota S...

  9. Effects of Lonomia obliqua caterpillar venom upon the proliferation and viability of cell lines

    OpenAIRE

    Heinen, Tiago Elias; de Farias, Caroline Brunetto; Abujamra, Ana Lucia; Mendonça, Ronaldo Zucatelli; Roesler, Rafael; da Veiga, Ana Beatriz Gorini

    2013-01-01

    Many active principles produced by animals, plants and microorganisms have been employed in the development of new drugs for the treatment of human diseases. Among animals known to produce pharmacologically active molecules that interfere in human cell physiology, the caterpillar Lonomia obliqua has become the focus of toxicological studies due to recent findings about its venom constituents. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of L. obliqua venom upon the viability and...

  10. A new species of Cordyligaster Macquart, reared from caterpillars in Area de Conservacion Guanacaste, northwestern Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AJ Fleming

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available We describe a new species of Cordyligaster Macquart (Diptera: Tachinidae from Area de Conservacion Guanacaste (ACG in northwestern Costa Rica. Cordyligaster capellii sp. n., is described and photographed. All specimens of C. capellii were reared from Syngamia florella (Stoll, 1781 (Lepidoptera, Crambidae, Spilomelinae, a leaf-rolling caterpillar collected in ACG rain forest. By coupling morphology, photographic documentation, life history and molecular data, we provide a clear and concise description of this new species. In addition the authors provide new distribution and host records for C. fuscipennis (Macquart reared in ACG.

  11. Proteases from Lonomia obliqua venomous secretions: comparison of procoagulant, fibrin(ogen)olytic and amidolytic activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Antônio F M; Silva, Kátia R L M; Guimarães, Jorge A

    2006-01-01

    The hemorrhagic syndrome caused by Lonomia obliqua caterpillars is an increasing problem in Southern Brazil. The clinical profile is characterized by both hemorrhagic and pro-coagulant symptoms, constituting a paradoxical action of the venom. The effects upon blood coagulation and fibrin(ogen)olysis have been shown to result from the combined action of several active principles found mostly in the bristle extract. The present study reports quali-quantitative differences among L. obliqua secretions: Cryosecretion, hemolymph, bristle extract and tegument extract. Cryosecretion and hemolymph displayed strong amidolytic activity upon several substrates, presented moderated procoagulant activity and high fibrinogen degrading ability. Bristle and tegument extracts presented low amidolytic activity, but bristle extract showed the most potent procoagulant activity and both extracts presented low fibrinogen degrading ability. The differential involvement of these secretions during the accidents with L. obliqua can elucidate the different symptoms presented after envenomation. PMID:16360724

  12. Effects of Fuscoporia obliqua on Postprandial Glucose Excursion and Endothelial Dysfunction in Type 2 Diabetic Patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Postprandial hyperglycemia has been reported to elicit endothelial dysfunction and provoke future cardiovascular complications. A reduction of postprandial blood glucose levels by the glucosidase inhibitor Fuscoporia obliqua was associated with a risk reduction of cardiovascular complications, but the effects of Fuscoporia obliqua on endothelial function have never been elucidated. This study is aimed to assess the efficacy of Fuscoporia obliqua on postprandial metabolic parameters and endothelial function in type 2 diabetic patients. Postprandial peak glucose (14.47±1.27 vs. 8.50±0.53 mmol/liter), plasma glucose excursion (PPGE), and change in the area under the curve (AUC) glucose after a single loading of test meal (total 450 kcal; protein 15.3%; fat 32.3%; carbohydrate 51.4%) were significantly higher in the diet-treated type 2 diabetic patients (n=14) than the age- and sex-matched controls (n=12). The peak forearm blood flow response and total reactive hyperemic flow (flow debt repayment) during reactive hyperemia, indices of resistance artery endothelial function on strain-gauge plethysmography, were unchanged before and after meal loading in the controls. But those of the diabetics were significantly decreased 120 and 240 min after the test meal. A prior administration of Fuscoporia obliqua decreased postprandial peak glucose, PPGE, and AUC glucose. The peak forearm blood flow and flow debt repayment were inversely well correlated with peak glucose, PPGE, and AUC glucose, but not with AUC insulin or the other lipid parameters. Even a single loading of the test meal was shown to impair the endothelial function in type 2 diabetic patients, and the postprandial endothelial dysfunction was improved by a prior use of Fuscoporia obliqua. Fuscoporia obliqua might reduce macrovascular complication by avoiding endothelial injury in postprandial hyperglycemic status.

  13. Dopaol 2-keto- and 2,3-diketo-glycosides from Chelone obliqua (Scrophulariaceae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Franzyk, Henrik; Olsen, Carl Erik; Jensen, Søren Rosendal

    2004-01-01

    Two unique 2-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)ethyl glycosides, namely, dopaol beta-D-2-ketoglucopyranoside and dopaol beta-D-2,3-diketoglucopyranoside, were isolated from Chelone obliqua together with the iridoid glucoside catalpol, dopaol beta-D-glucopyranoside, descaffeoylverbascoside, and verbascoside...

  14. Dopaol 2-keto- and 2,3-diketoglycosides from Chelone obliqua

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Franzyk, Henrik; Olsen, Carl Erik; Jensen, Søren Rosendal

    2004-01-01

    Two unique 2-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)ethyl glycosides, namely, dopaol beta-D-2-ketoglucopyranoside and dopaol beta-D-2,3-diketoglucopyranoside, were isolated from Chelone obliqua together with the iridoid glucoside catalpol, dopaol beta-D-glucopyranoside, descaffeoylverbascoside, and verbascoside...

  15. Development of synthetic volatile attractant for maleEctropis obliqua moths

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Xiao-ling; LI Xi-wang; XIN Zhao-jun; HAN Juan-juan; RAN Wei; LEI Shu

    2016-01-01

    The tea geometridEctropis obliquais one of the most serious leaf-feeding insect pests in tea (Camelia sinensis) in East Asia. Although several volatile chemicals emitted from tea plants have been reported to be attractive toE. obliqua moths, no synthetic attractants for E. obliqua moths have been developed. By measuring the behavioral responses of the moth to a series of chemicals in the lab, we found that a blend containing a ternary mixture containing (Z)-3-hexenal, (Z)-3-hexenyl hexanoate and benzyl alcohol clearly attracted toE. obliqua moths of both sex and that (Z)-3-hexenyl acetate could enhance the attractiveness of the ternary blend. Moreover, we found that the volatiles emitted from the plant-E. obliqua larva com-plex have the same attractiveness as: 1) the blend of volatiles containing the ternary mixture and 2) the blend containing (Z)-3-hexenyl acetate plus the ternary mixture to both male and female moths. In a ifeld bioassay, more male moths were observed on traps that were baited with the blend containing (Z)-3-hexenyl acetate plus the ternary mixture than on control traps. Our study raises the tantalizing possibility that synthetic blends could be deployed as attractants for pests in the ifeld.

  16. A new apterous species of Platypalpus Macquart (Diptera: Hybotidae, Tachydromiinae) from Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Freitas-Silva, Rafael Augusto Pinheiro; Ale-Rocha, Rosaly

    2013-01-01

    Tachydromiinae is a very diverse subfamily of Hybotidae that comprises quite small predaceous flies. It is clearly monophyletic and its species are distinguished from other subfamilies by the apomorphic loss of vein M2 and cell dm, neither pterostigma nor pseudotracheae, phallus with the apex not articulated and ejaculatory apodeme not fused to the base of phallus (Sinclair & Cumming 2006). Platypalpus Macquart belongs to the tribe Tachydromiini and it is defined by the following characters: eyes bare, separated in both sexes, postpronotal lobe differentiated, scutum longer than broad (except in P brevicornis species-group), mid leg raptorial, mid femur thickened and armed with rows of spine-like ventral setae, mid tibia usually with a somewhat prominent apical projection, wing with veins A1 and CuA2 present (cell cup present) (Grootaert & Shamshev 2012). The genus is the most diverse of those in the Tachydromiinae, with approximately 550 species found almost worldwide, but preferentially inhabiting cold and temperate regions in the Nearctic and Palaearctic; it is particularly diverse in the latter region with 295 described species, whereas only 22 species are known from the Neotropics (Yang et al. 2007). In the tropics it is more diverse at higher altitudes and in cold regions, with few species known at lower altitudes and in tropical areas, where they likely compete with species of Elaphropeza Macquart that occupy similar habits and niches (Grootaert & Shamshev 2012). This apparent competitive exclusion is the probable reason the genus is not very diverse in tropical regions (op. cit.). This paper describes a very curious new wingless species of Platypalpus from the Parque Nacional Cajas, Ecuador. It is the first wingless species described in the genus and is the 23rd species known from the Neotropical Region. PMID:26042313

  17. Revision of the New World bee fly genus Heterostylum Macquart (Diptera, Bombyliidae, Bombyliinae) Revisão do bombylideos do gênero Heterostylum Macquart do novo mundo (Diptera, Bombyliidae, Bombyliinae)

    OpenAIRE

    André Mallemont Cunha; Carlos José Einicker Lamas; Márcia Souto Couri

    2007-01-01

    The genus Heterostylum Macquart and five Neotropical species (H. ferrugineum (Fabricius, 1805), H. hirsutum (Thunberg, 1827), H. rufum (Olivier, 1789), H. haemorrhoicum (Loew, 1863) and H. pallipes Bigot, 1892) are redescribed. The other species, recently redescribed or described are only diagnosed, except for H. deani Painter, 1930, whose spermathecae are described and illustrated for the first time. The main characters of the external morphology were photographed and the male genitalia and ...

  18. A new species of Cordyligaster Macquart, reared from caterpillars in Area de Conservacion Guanacaste, northwestern Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    AJ Fleming; Wood, D.; Smith, M.; Daniel Janzen; Winnie Hallwachs

    2014-01-01

    Abstract We describe a new species of Cordyligaster Macquart ( Diptera : Tachinidae ) from Area de Conservacion Guanacaste (ACG) in northwestern Costa Rica. Cordyligaster capellii sp. n., is described and photographed. All specimens of C. capellii were reared from Syngamia florella (Stoll, 1781) ( Lepidoptera , Crambidae , Spilomelinae ), a leaf-rolling caterpillar collected in ACG rain forest. By coupling morphology, photographic documentation, life history and molecular data, we provide a c...

  19. Eight new species of Australian stiletto flies in the genus Anabarhynchus Macquart (Diptera: Therevidae) from South East Queensland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, David J; Lambkin, Christine L; Yeates, David K

    2014-01-01

    We describe, diagnose and illustrate eight new species in the genus Anabarhynchus Macquart, 1848 as follows: Anabarhynchus cretatus sp. n., Anabarhynchus darembal sp. n., Anabarhynchus iancommoni sp. n., Anabarhynchus longiseta sp. n. Anabarhynchus lyncurium sp. n., Anabarhynchus moretonensis sp. n., Anabarhynchus neboensis sp. n. and Anabarhynchus wintertoni sp. n. These represent all new species in collections from south east Queensland. These new species bring the total number of described Australian species in the genus to 112. PMID:24871028

  20. Chilled packing systems for fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) in the sterile insect technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We evaluated three packing systems (PARC boxes, 'GT' screen towers and 'MX' screen towers) for the emergence and sexual maturation of sterile fruit flies, at three adult fl y densities (1, 1.2 and 1.3 fly/cm 2) and three food types. At the lowest density, results showed no significant differences in the longevity and flight ability of adult Anastrepha ludens (Loew) and Anastrepha obliqua Macquart among the three packing systems. Higher densities resulted in a decrease in these parameters. In the evaluation of the three food types, no significant differences were found either on longevity or flight ability of A. ludens. However, the greatest longevity for both sexes A. obliqua was obtained with commercial powdered Mb and the mix of sugar, protein and corn starch on paper (SPCP) food types. The highest value for flight ability in A. obliqua males was obtained with powdered Mb and SPCP food types, and for females with Mb powdered food. Our data indicated that GT and MX screen tower packing systems are an alternative to the PARC boxes, since they were suitable for adult fl y sexual maturation without any harm to their longevity or flight ability. The tested foods were equivalent in both fruit fl y species, with the exception of the agar type for A. obliqua, which yielded the lowest biological parameters evaluated. Our results contribute to the application of new methods for the packing and release of sterile flies in large-scale programs. (author)

  1. Chilled packing systems for fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) in the sterile insect technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez, Emilio; Escobar, Arseny; Bravo, Bigail; Montoya, Pablo [Instituto Interamericano de Cooperacion para la Agricultura (IICA), Chiapas (Mexico); Secretaria de Agricultura, Ganaderia, Desarrollo Rural, Pesca y Alimentacion (SAGARPA), Mexico, D.F. (Mexico). Programa Moscafrut

    2010-07-15

    We evaluated three packing systems (PARC boxes, 'GT' screen towers and 'MX' screen towers) for the emergence and sexual maturation of sterile fruit flies, at three adult fl y densities (1, 1.2 and 1.3 fly/cm 2) and three food types. At the lowest density, results showed no significant differences in the longevity and flight ability of adult Anastrepha ludens (Loew) and Anastrepha obliqua Macquart among the three packing systems. Higher densities resulted in a decrease in these parameters. In the evaluation of the three food types, no significant differences were found either on longevity or flight ability of A. ludens. However, the greatest longevity for both sexes A. obliqua was obtained with commercial powdered Mb and the mix of sugar, protein and corn starch on paper (SPCP) food types. The highest value for flight ability in A. obliqua males was obtained with powdered Mb and SPCP food types, and for females with Mb powdered food. Our data indicated that GT and MX screen tower packing systems are an alternative to the PARC boxes, since they were suitable for adult fl y sexual maturation without any harm to their longevity or flight ability. The tested foods were equivalent in both fruit fl y species, with the exception of the agar type for A. obliqua, which yielded the lowest biological parameters evaluated. Our results contribute to the application of new methods for the packing and release of sterile flies in large-scale programs. (author)

  2. A revision of the Anastrepha robusta species group (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Anastrepha robusta species group is revised to include the following 29 species: A. amaryllis Tigrero (Ecuador), A. amazonensis, n. sp. (Brazil: Amazonas), A. bella, n. sp. (Panamá), A. binodosa Stone (Colombia, Brazil: Amazonas, Pará), A. concava Greene (Costa Rica to Ecuador and Brazil: Amazon...

  3. Breeding technique of Anastrepha fraterculus (Wied.) for genetic studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Various samples of Anastrepha fraterculus from different areas in Argentina were obtained to develop artificial breeding in the laboratory. Based on a modification of Salles's method, an improved artificial rearing of the species was developed with satisfactory results for genetic analysis. The advances made will contribute towards the search for genetic mechanisms for control. (author)

  4. Distribution of Anastrepha spp. in carambola orchards: Evidence for migration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carambola orchards in Juana Diaz, Corozal, and Isabela, PR, were monitored for Anastrepha spp. fruit flies using Multi-lure traps baited with putrescine and ammonium acetate. The number of flies at various locations within the orchards were statistically compared with the expected distribution if fl...

  5. Ammonia Formulations and Capture of Anastrepha Fruit Flies (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fruit flies in the genus Anastrepha, especially the reproductive age females, are attracted in numbers to protein baits. Synthetic lures based on the principle components of protein degradation, especially ammonia along with acetic acid, were tested against three of the most economically important ...

  6. Embryonic transcriptome analysis of the Caribbean fruit fly, Anastrepha suspensa

    Science.gov (United States)

    The embryonic transcriptome of the Caribbean fruit fly, Anastrepha suspensa, was sequenced by 454 pyrosequencing in an effort to isolate embryonic promoters and genes involved in programmed cell death. A cDNA library was constructed from total RNA pooled from various time points in embryogenesis usi...

  7. Lekking behavior of Anastrepha Fraterculus (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae) displays a lek mating system. Males form groups in which they simultaneously display signals (acoustical, visual, or chemical) to attract females with the purpose of mating. Females visit the lek and choose among signaling and courting males to mate. Scarce information is available in A. fraterculus about the main factors involved in female choice and the behavior of displaying males. This information could be important within the context of pest control programs with a sterile insect technique (SIT) component, because departures from normal sexual behavior caused by artificial rearing could affect males' performance in the field. In this study we assessed A. fraterculus male behavior within the leks and analyzed the importance of behavioral and morphological traits on their copulatory success. The existence of preferred places for lek formation was evaluated in field cages with trees inside and analyzed by dividing the trees in sectors according to a 3-dimensional system. Males were individually weighed, marked, and observed every 15 min. Morphometric and behavioral characteristics of successful and unsuccessful males were compared. Most successful males grouped in a region of the tree characterized by the highest light intensity in the first 2 h of the morning. Results showed that pheromone calling activity is positively associated with copulatory success. Copulations were more frequent for males calling inside the lek, indicating that pheromone calling activity and presence in the lek are key factors for copulatory success. A positive association between copulatory success and eye length was found; some characteristics of the face were also associated with copula duration and latency. (author)

  8. Application of neutron activation analysis method in leaves of Casearia obliqua medicinal plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The pharmacological properties of medicinal plants have been related to the presence of organic compounds, however elements are also known to have an important participation in the active compounds constitution process. In this study, instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) was applied to determine elements in leaves of Casearia obliqua medicinal plant collected at two different locations in the Atlantic Forest, Brazil, SP. Soil samples collected from where this plant was grown were also analyzed in order to verify if there is a correlation between the elements present in soils and plant leaves. Br, Ca, Cl, Co, Cr, Cs, Fe, K, La, Mn, Na, Rb, Sb, Sc and Zn were determined in C. obliqua leaves and the elements As, Ca, Ce, Eu, Fe, Hf, La, Lu, Nd, Rb, Sc, Sm, Tb, Th, U and Zn in soils. Soil samples collected from two different locations presented similar concentrations for most elements. Likewise, C. obliqua leaves collected from the two locations presented similar elemental contents. These results suggest that analysis of extracts from these leaf samples and the evaluation of their pharmacological activities should be carried out. Certified reference materials IAEA-Soil-7, USGS W-1, NIST 1573a Tomato Leaves and NIST 1515 Apple Leaves were analyzed and the quality of the obtained results was assured. (author)

  9. A new species of Anastrepha from Colombia related to Mexican fruit fly (Díptera: Tephritidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALLEM L NORRBOM

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Anastrepha manizaliensis Norrbom & Korytkowski, new species, is described from Colombia. lt breeds in fruit of Juglans neotropica Diels (Juglandaceae, commonly known in Colombia as "cedro negro". The new species was previously confused with Mexican fruit fly, Anastrepha ludens (Loew, a major pest of citrus and mango, leading to quarantine problems, bul true A. ludens does not occur in Colombia.

  10. Revision of the New World bee fly genus Heterostylum Macquart (Diptera, Bombyliidae, Bombyliinae Revisão do bombylideos do gênero Heterostylum Macquart do novo mundo (Diptera, Bombyliidae, Bombyliinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Mallemont Cunha

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The genus Heterostylum Macquart and five Neotropical species (H. ferrugineum (Fabricius, 1805, H. hirsutum (Thunberg, 1827, H. rufum (Olivier, 1789, H. haemorrhoicum (Loew, 1863 and H. pallipes Bigot, 1892 are redescribed. The other species, recently redescribed or described are only diagnosed, except for H. deani Painter, 1930, whose spermathecae are described and illustrated for the first time. The main characters of the external morphology were photographed and the male genitalia and female spermathecae illustrated. An identification key to all included species is also presented.O gênero Heterostylum Macquart e cinco espécies Neotropicais (H. ferrugineum (Fabricius, 1805, H. hirsutum (Thunberg, 1827, H. rufum (Olivier, 1789, H. haemorrhoicum (Loew, 1863 e H. pallipes Bigot, 1892 são redescritas. As demais espécies recentemente redescritas ou descritas tem sua diagnose apresentada, com exceção de H. deani Painter, 1930, cuja espermateca foi descrita e ilustrada pela primeira vez. Os principais caracteres da morfologia externa foram fotografados e a genitália masculina e espermateca feminina ilustradas. Uma chave de identificação para todas as espécies também é apresentada.

  11. Moscas frugívoras (Diptera, Tephritoidea coletadas em Aquidauana, MS Frugivorous flies (Diptera, Tephritoidea collected in Aquidauana, MS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Roberto Rodrigues

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available No Brasil as moscas frugívoras são pragas importantes de frutas e hortaliças. O conhecimento da flutuação populacional dessas espécies em cada bioma é um importante requisito para a adoção de estratégia de controle de pragas nos agroecossistemas. O objetivo desse trabalho foi avaliar a diversidade de espécies de moscas-das-frutas infestantes de frutas silvestres e cultivadas em Aquidauana, MS. Vinte e uma espécies de frutas foram amostradas de fevereiro de 2003 a janeiro de 2004. As espécies de Tephritidae encontradas foram: Anastrepha striata Schiner, 1868, Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart, 1835 e Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann, 1824. Os frugívoros Lonchaeidae e Muscidae encontrados foram: Neosilba sp. e Atherigona orientalis (Schiner, 1868, respectivamente. Um total de 2.568 moscas foram coletadas, das quais 2.394 representadas pela mosca-do-Mediterrâneo C. capitata. A associação entre moscas frugívoras e espécies de frutas é discutida.In Brazil, frugivorous flies represent important pests of fruits and vegetables. Information on populational fluctuation of these species in each biome is an important requirement for the adoption of a strategy of pest control in the agroecosystems. The objective of this paper is to assess the diversity of fruit fly species occurring in wild and cultived fruits in Aquidauana, MS. Twenty-nine fruit species were sampled from February 2003 to January 2004. The Tephritidae species recovered were: Anastrepha striata Schiner, 1868, Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart, 1835 and Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann, 1824. The frugivorous Lonchaeidae and Muscidae recovered were: Neosilba sp. and Atherigona orientalis (Schiner, 1868, respectively. A total of 2.568 flies were obtained, from which 2.394 flies were the Mediterranean fruit fly, C. capitata. The association between frugivorous flies and the fruit species is discussed.

  12. The Sarcophaginae (Diptera: Sarcophagidae) of Southern South America. I. The species of Microcerella Macquart from the Patagonian Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulieri, Pablo Ricardo; Mariluis, Juan Carlos; Patitucci, Luciano Damián; Olea, María Sofía

    2015-01-01

    A revision is given of the species placed in the genus Microcerella Macquart, known from the southern extreme of South America, the so-called Patagonian Region. A new diagnosis of the genus is given on the basis of the revision of a large number of Neotropical species. A total of 25 valid species are recognized in the region. Most of these (21 species) are divided into four species-groups on the basis of general groundplan of genitalia and external characters. Four new species are described, M. deliae sp. nov., M. holmbergi sp. nov., M. nataliae sp. nov. and M. paetoi sp. nov. One new synonymy is established: Austrohartigia shannoni Lopes as a new junior synonym of Microcerella spinosa (Hall), syn. nov. A lectotype is designated for Doringia subandina Blanchard [a junior synonym of Microcerella spinigena (Rondani)]. Two species are recorded from Argentina for the first time: M. chicoensis (Lopes) and M. engeli (Hall). Three nominal species were not examined and are treated as nomina dubia within Microcerella: M. apicalis (Townsend), M. rufomaculata Macquart and M. sarcophagina Thomson. An illustrated key is provided to the males of Patagonian species of Microcerella allowing for separation of 25 species. Additionally, a series of images of male genitalia based on color photography and illustrations is provided to aid in the identification of these species of Microcerella. Biological information is given for the species, where known. PMID:25781852

  13. The complete genome of a baculovirus isolated from an insect of medical interest: Lonomia obliqua (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aragão-Silva, C W; Andrade, M S; Ardisson-Araújo, D M P; Fernandes, J E A; Morgado, F S; Báo, S N; Moraes, R H P; Wolff, J L C; Melo, F L; Ribeiro, B M

    2016-01-01

    Lonomia obliqua (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae) is a species of medical importance due to the severity of reactions caused by accidental contact with the caterpillar bristles. Several natural pathogens have been identified in L. obliqua, and among them the baculovirus Lonomia obliqua multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (LoobMNPV). The complete genome of LoobMNPV was sequenced and shown to have 120,022 bp long with 134 putative open reading frames (ORFs). Phylogenetic analysis of the LoobMNPV genome showed that it belongs to Alphabaculovirus group I (lepidopteran-infective NPV). A total of 12 unique ORFs were identified with no homologs in other sequenced baculovirus genomes. One of these, the predicted protein encoded by loob035, showed significant identity to an eukaryotic transcription terminator factor (TTF2) from the Lepidoptera Danaus plexippus, suggesting an independent acquisition through horizontal gene transfer. Homologs of cathepsin and chitinase genes, which are involved in host integument liquefaction and viral spread, were not found in this genome. As L. obliqua presents a gregarious behavior during the larvae stage the impact of this deletion might be neglectable. PMID:27282807

  14. Notes on the present situation of Anastrepha fraterculus in Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Behavioural and karyotypical results from Anastrepha fraterculus samples received in our laboratory during the period 92-94 are discussed. The work represents the partial situation of this pest in Argentina. Data from guava fruits indicate 1) that the oviposition behaviour does not agree with the autocontrol mechanism via ODP previously described, 2) that a selection mechanism associated to fruit size and quality exists, allowing the female to choose the oviposition site, 3) if different varieties of fruits are available, then the fly shows preference for one of them. The oviposition behaviour in samples of peaches is different from that observed on guava samples and agrees with the ODP mechanism. In some localities, A. fraterculus and C. capitata share the same substrate or fruit (same unit). Samples from commercial oranges do not show evidence of Anastrepha attack. A more frequent karyotype fArg 1 (wild type karyotype) as well as high karyotypic variation, mainly measured through the polymorphism of sexual chromosomes, are present within different geographic populations sharing the same host species. To date, we do not have enough information to associate a particular behaviour to a karyotype. The chromosomal analysis is merely descriptive. (author)

  15. Large scale artificial rearing of Anastrepha sp.1 aff. fraterculus (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Julio Marcos Melges Walder; Renata Morelli; Karen Zamboni Costa; Kenya Martins Faggioni; Patrícia Alessandra Sanches; Beatriz Aguiar Jordão Paranhos; José Maurício Simões Bento; Maria de Lourdes Zamboni Costa

    2014-01-01

    Some species of the genus Anastrepha (Diptera: Tephritidae) are successfully managed by matching the sterile insect technique with parasitoid releases. Such strategies used in integrated pest management can be implemented only where insect mass-rearing programs are feasible. In this study, we show the process of domestication, rearing technology and quality control data obtained from 54 generations of Anastrepha sp.1 aff. fraterculus (Wiedemann, 1830) kept under fully artificial conditions. E...

  16. Host Plant Record for the Fruit Flies, Anastrepha fumipennis and A. nascimentoi (Diptera, Tephritidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Uramoto, Keiko; Martins, David S; Lima, Rita C. A.; Roberto A. Zucchi

    2008-01-01

    The first host plant record for Anastrepha fumipennis Lima (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Geissospermum laeve (Vell.) Baill (Apocynaceae) and for A. nascimentoi Zucchi found in Cathedra bahiensis Sleumer (Olacaceae) was determined in a host plant survey of fruit flies undertaken at the “Reserva Natural da Companhia Vale do Rio Doce”. This reserve is located in an Atlantic Rain Forest remnant area, in Linhares county, state of Espírito Santo, Brazil. The phylogenetic relationships of Anastrepha spe...

  17. Proton activation studies of changes in mineral composition of eucalyptus obliqua due to phytophthora cinnamomi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As part of a study of disease caused by Phytophthora cinnamomi in native vegetation, the mineral composition of diseased plants was compared with those free from disease, but grown under the same conditions. Young plants of Eucalyptus obliqua, three years old and with well-formed lignotubers, were selected (a) diseased plant from soil containing a high concentration of P. cinnamomi, and (b) unaffected plant from an adjacent area where the soil was free from this pathogen. The plants were ashed and their mineral composition was compared by activation analysis using proton beams from the Melbourne University Cyclotron. Results showed a 70% reduction in iron and 41% in titanium from diseased plants compared with disease-free plants. The reduction in iron is associated with severe chlorosis which occurs as a primary symptom in most plants attacked by this pathogen

  18. Structures involved in production, secretion and injection of the venom produced by the caterpillar Lonomia obliqua (Lepidoptera, Saturniidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veiga, A B; Blochtein, B; Guimarães, J A

    2001-09-01

    The number of accidents caused by injection of the venom of Lonomia obliqua caterpillars in Southern Brazil has increased in the last years. Even though this kind of envenomation has an important social and medical impact, nothing is known about the cellular structures responsible for the production and secretion of this venom. Here we identify and analyse morphological structures possibly responsible for the production and secretion of the active principles of the venom, as well as the histological relationship of these structures with the urticating spines of L. obliqua. Detailed microscopic observations showed that: (a) L. obliqua has a complex tegument, with several cuticular specializations, (b) there are no pores along the tegument neither in the spines and (c) the spines bear a hollow canal--where the venom is deposited--and an area that can be easily broken when touched, releasing the venom. Histological and histochemical techniques revealed that: (a) there is no single gland cell that produces the venom, (b) a secretory epithelium, composed of cells containing vesicles that increase in size and number as they reach the apical region, underlies the tegument and the spines and is responsible for secretion of the venomous substances and (c) the venom is deposited in the subcuticular space and at the tips of the spines. PMID:11384722

  19. Biodiversidade de moscas-das-frutas (Diptera, Tephritoidea em matas nativas e pomares domésticos de dois municípios do Estado do Tocantins, Brasil Biodiversity of fruit flies (Diptera, Tephritoidea in native forests and orchards in two counties of the State of Tocantins, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darcy A. do Bomfim

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho apresenta análise faunística comparativa das espécies de moscas-das-frutas capturadas em armadilhas McPhail (junho a dezembro de 2002 com proteína hidrolisada de milho a 5%. Foram comparadas a riqueza de espécies e a estrutura populacional entre ambientes de mata e pomar dos municípios de Palmas e Porto Nacional, TO. Foram capturados 1.748 indivíduos de espécies de três gêneros de Tephritidae: Tomoplagia Coquillett, 1910, Anastrepha Schiner, 1868 e Ceratitis MacLeay, 1829. De Lonchaeidae foram capturadas espécies de três gêneros: Lonchaea Fallén, 1820, Neosilba McAlpine, 1962 e Dasiops Rondani, 1856. Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann, 1824. Dezenove espécies de Anastrepha foram coletadas, sendo a maioria dos indivíduos (69,1% de A. obliqua (Macquart, 1835. Não houve diferença significativa (P This paper presents comparative and faunistic analysis of the species of fruit flies captured in McPhail traps (from June to December 2002 baited with 5% corn protein hydrolyzed. Species richness and the patterns of population are compared between forest and orchard environments and between the counties of Palmas and Porto Nacional. A total of 1,748 individuals of Tephritidae belonging to species of three genera were collected: Tomoplagia Coquillett, 1910, Anastrepha Schiner, 1868 and Ceratitis MacLeay, 1829. Species of three genera of Lonchaeidae were also captured: Lonchaea Fallén, 1820, Neosilba McAlpine, 1962 and Dasiops Rondani, 1856. Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann, 1824 and nineteen species of the genus Anastrepha were collected. Most of the collected individuals (69.1% belonged to A. obliqua (Macquart, 1935. The average numbers of tephritid individuals in Palmas and native forests were significantly lower than Porto Nacional and orchards, respectively. According to the Shannon diversity index (H' and test t used for comparing the fruit flies fauna among the environments, it was verified that only one comparison showed

  20. Morphological characterization of the reproductive system of irradiated Anastrepha fraterculus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartolucci, Andrea, E-mail: andreabartolucci@iscamen.com.a [Instituto de Sanidad y Calidad Agropecuaria de Mendoza (ISCAMEN), Mendoza (Argentina); Vera, M. Teresa [Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas (CONICET), (Argentina); Yusef, Veronica [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica (Argentina). Centro Atomico Ezeiza; Oviedo, Andrea [Estacion Experimental Agroindustrial Obispo Colombres (EEAOC), Tucuman (Argentina)

    2006-07-01

    Field identification of released sterile insects is a major issue for eradication and suppression programs. Irradiated flies are normally identified by the presence of a fluorescent dye. When a fly lacks fluorescent dye, determination of gonadal state is necessary to identified between sterile or fertile flies. This is particularly relevant when population levels have decreased. Animal and identification is required to be as unequivocal as possible. Here we describe the reproductive system of irradiated Anastrepha fraterculus of different ages and we compare it with that of fertile flies in order to provide a diagnosis tool. Fertile and irradiated A. fraterculus were dissected from the day of emergence and until 15 days of age. Gross morphology was described and the gonads were measured. Germ cells were visualized in the testis. The reproductive systems of both males and females contained the same structures as other Anastrepha species. From day 1 to day 3, there were no detectable differences between irradiated and fertile males. The growing region encompassed half the testis total length and there was no free sperm in the seminal vesicle. On day 4 the presence of free sperm was seen in the seminal vesicle. At this stage irradiated males started differentiating from fertile ones: the growing region reduced in size and totally disappeared by day 11; sperm bundle zones occupied most of the testis; spermatids lost their triangular shape and sperm remained in the seminal vesicle without moving into the apical region. Testis length and width of irradiated males did not differ from fertile males. In females, the maturation of the ovaries involved a change in size that was more pronounced in the length of the ovary. This became noticeable at day 3. At this stage, the formation of yolk and the basal follicle began in fertile females and the oocyte had the same size as the trophocytes. From this point, the oocyte started growing. After day 8, the maturing oocyte reached

  1. Host plant record for the fruit flies, Anastrepha fumipennis and A. nascimentoi (Diptera, Tephritidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uramoto, Keiko; Martins, David S; Lima, Rita C A; Zucchi, Roberto A

    2008-01-01

    The first host plant record for Anastrepha fumipennis Lima (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Geissospermum laeve (Vell.) Baill (Apocynaceae) and for A. nascimentoi Zucchi found in Cathedra bahiensis Sleumer (Olacaceae) was determined in a host plant survey of fruit flies undertaken at the "Reserva Natural da Companhia Vale do Rio Doce". This reserve is located in an Atlantic Rain Forest remnant area, in Linhares county, state of Espírito Santo, Brazil. The phylogenetic relationships of Anastrepha species and their hosts are discussed. The occurrence of these fruit fly species in relation to the distribution range of their host plants is also discussed. PMID:20302458

  2. Losac, a factor X activator from Lonomia obliqua bristle extract: Its role in the pathophysiological mechanisms and cell survival

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Contact with the bristles of the caterpillar Lonomia obliqua can cause serious hemorrhage. Previously it was reported that a procoagulant protein (Lopap) in the bristle extract of L. obliqua increases cell longevity by inhibiting apoptosis. In this work, we purified from bristle extract a factor X activator that stimulates proliferation of endothelial cells. This protein, named Losac, was purified by ion exchange chromatography, followed by gel filtration chromatography and reverse-phase HPLC. Losac is a 45-kDa protein that activates factor X in a concentration-dependent manner and does not depend on calcium ions. In cultures of HUVECs, Losac increased cell proliferation and inhibited the apoptosis induced by starvation. HUVECs incubated with Losac (0.58 μM for 1 h) increased release of nitric oxide and tissue-plasminogen activator, which both may mediate anti-apoptosis. Losac also increased slightly the decay-accelerating factor (DAF = CD55), which protects cells from complement-mediated lysis. On the other hand, Losac did not alter the release or expression of von Willebrand factor, tissue factor, intercellular adhesion molecule-1, interleukin-8, and prostacyclin. These characteristics indicate that Losac, a protein with procoagulant activity, also functions as a growth stimulator and an inhibitor of cellular death for endothelial cells. Losac may have biotechnological applications, including the reduction of cell death and consequently increased productivity of animal cell cultures, and the use of hemolymph of L. obliqua for this purpose is already being explored. Further study is required to elucidate the mechanism for the inhibition of apoptosis by Losac

  3. Effect of diet composition on the development of the floodwater Mosquito Ochlerotatus (Ochletotatus) albifasciatus (Macquart) (Diptera: Culicidae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sy, Victoria E.; Campos, Raul E. [Universidad Nacional de La Plata, Buenos Aires (Argentina). Inst. de Limnologia Dr. Raul A. Ringuelet]. E-mails: victoriasy9@yahoo.com.ar; rcampos@ilpla.edu.ar

    2008-11-15

    One important step for the colonization of Ochlerotatus albifasciatus (Macquart) is to determine the optimal conditions for larval rearing, which makes possible the development of experiments comprising larval rearing in the laboratory. In this research the effect of diet composition on the development of O. albifasciatus was studied. For this purpose, cohorts of 20 fi rst instars were reared using fi ve diets: 1:1 mix of yeast and TetraMin{sup R}, 1:1 mix of fi ne and coarse organic matter, grass cuts soaked in water for 1 h or 24 h before larvae incorporation, and 1:1:1 mix of grass cuts, fi ne organic matter and coarse organic matter. Survival was recorded for each cohort, while development time from first instar to pupa, and adult wing length were recorded for each individual. The effects of the diet on the observed traits were analyzed by one way ANOVA. Both survival and wing length were affected by diet, being significantly higher (79-100% and {approx} 4.46 mm) on diets consisting of organic matter or organic matter plus grass than on those consisting of yeast plus TetraMin{sup R} or grass. Development time was not affected by the diet, although the shortest time (8.1 to 8.3 days) and lower variation between replicates were recorded when larvae were reared using organic matter or organic matter plus grass. Thus, it is concluded that the diets consisting of organic matter or a mix of it and grass are the most effective for O. albifasciatus rearing. (author)

  4. Sarcophaga (Liosarcophaga) tibialis Macquart 1851 (Diptera: Sarcophagidae): micromorphology of preimaginal stages of a fly of medical and veterinary interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paños-Nicolás, Ángela; Arnaldos, M Isabel; García, Ma Dolores; Ubero-Pascal, Nicolás

    2015-11-01

    Sarcophagids are a large family of Diptera, with a worldwide distribution. They are related to decomposing organic matter and are very interesting for health science and in forensic cases since many species produce myiasis and occur in human corpses. This family is considered difficult to study, particularly with regard to their immature stages, to which little attention has been paid. Genus Sarcophaga Meigen, 1826 is composed of species of very similar morphology, making very difficult to distinguish. Knowledge of the immature stages of this genus is important because such stages occupy the greater part of the life cycle, so that establishing a basis for their identification will increase their usefulness in systematic and applied sciences. This contribution presents a detailed study of the morphological features, both external and internal, of the preimaginal stages of Sarcophaga (Liosarcophaga) tibialis Macquart, 1851, providing a taxonomical context for the correct identification of Liosarcophaga species of forensic interest in the Iberian Peninsula. Both light and scanning electron microscopy were applied. Complete descriptions of every stage are provided and illustrated, and their usefulness for species comparison, taking into account our uneven knowledge of morphologically immature stages of this subgenus, is indicated. Features of the cephalopharyngeal skeleton, such as the shape of the mouth hook and the intermediate and basal sclerites, and external morphology, such as the pattern of spinose band and anterior and posterior spiracles, proved useful for separating species. Finally, tentative identification keys based on light microscopy observation to distinguish S. (L.) tibialis from other species of forensic interest belonging to Liosarcophaga subgenus are proposed for every immature stage. PMID:26227140

  5. Effect of diet composition on the development of the floodwater Mosquito Ochlerotatus (Ochletotatus) albifasciatus (Macquart) (Diptera: Culicidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One important step for the colonization of Ochlerotatus albifasciatus (Macquart) is to determine the optimal conditions for larval rearing, which makes possible the development of experiments comprising larval rearing in the laboratory. In this research the effect of diet composition on the development of O. albifasciatus was studied. For this purpose, cohorts of 20 fi rst instars were reared using fi ve diets: 1:1 mix of yeast and TetraMinR, 1:1 mix of fi ne and coarse organic matter, grass cuts soaked in water for 1 h or 24 h before larvae incorporation, and 1:1:1 mix of grass cuts, fi ne organic matter and coarse organic matter. Survival was recorded for each cohort, while development time from first instar to pupa, and adult wing length were recorded for each individual. The effects of the diet on the observed traits were analyzed by one way ANOVA. Both survival and wing length were affected by diet, being significantly higher (79-100% and ∼ 4.46 mm) on diets consisting of organic matter or organic matter plus grass than on those consisting of yeast plus TetraMinR or grass. Development time was not affected by the diet, although the shortest time (8.1 to 8.3 days) and lower variation between replicates were recorded when larvae were reared using organic matter or organic matter plus grass. Thus, it is concluded that the diets consisting of organic matter or a mix of it and grass are the most effective for O. albifasciatus rearing. (author)

  6. Understanding long-term fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) population dynamics: implications for areawide management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aluja, Martín; Ordano, Mariano; Guillén, Larissa; Rull, Juan

    2012-06-01

    Fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) are devastating agricultural pests worldwide but studies on their long-term population dynamics are sparse. Our aim was to determine the mechanisms driving long-term population dynamics as a prerequisite for ecologically based areawide pest management. The population density of three pestiferous Anastrepha species [Anastrepha ludens (Loew), Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart), and Anastrepha serpentina (Wiedemann)] was determined in grapefruit (Citrus x paradisi Macfad.), mango (Mangifera indica L.), and sapodilla [Manilkara zapota (L.) P. Royen] orchards in central Veracruz, México, on a weekly basis over an 11-yr period. Fly populations exhibited relatively stable dynamics over time. Population dynamics were mainly driven by a direct density-dependent effect and a seasonal feedback process. We discovered direct and delayed influences that were correlated with both local (rainfall and air temperature) and global climatic variation (El Niño Southern Oscillation [ENSO] and North Atlantic Oscillation [NAO]), and detected differences among species and location of orchards with respect to the magnitude and nature (linear or nonlinear) of the observed effects, suggesting that highly mobile pest outbreaks become uncertain in response to significant climatic events at both global and local levels. That both NAO and ENSO affected Anastrepha population dynamics, coupled with the high mobility of Anastrepha adults and the discovery that when measured as rate of population change, local population fluctuations exhibited stable dynamics over time, suggests potential management scenarios for the species studied lie beyond the local scale and should be approached from an areawide perspective. Localized efforts, from individual growers will probably prove ineffective, and nonsustainable. PMID:22812118

  7. [Occurrence of accidents caused by Lonomia obliqua Walker, in the State of Paraná between 1989 and 2001].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Claudia Moreira; Danni-Oliveira, Inês Moresco

    2007-01-01

    The present article aimed to show the distribution of accidents involving the caterpillar Lonomia obliqua, Walker, 1855, in the State of Paraná between 1989 and 2001. The data were obtained from the Environmental Health Department of Paraná. The information collected was mapped using the Arcview program, and maps of the seasonal occurrence of accidents were generated. This seasonality was correlated with the insects life cycle and summer was shown to be the period with greatest incidence of accidents. The greatest concentrations occurred in the central-southern, southeastern and southwestern regions of the State. PMID:17568899

  8. Development of a larval diet for the South American fruit fly Anastrepha fraterculus (Diptera:Tephritidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mass-rearing protocols must be developed. In particular, a cost-effective larval diet, to implement the sterile insect technique against Anastrepha fratercculus (Wiedemann). The key elements of this diet are the optimal nutrients and their concentrations, diet supports or bulking agents, and the pH ...

  9. Methoprene treatment reduces the pre-copulatory period in Anastrepha fraterculus (Diptera: Tephritidae) sterile males

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anastrepha fraterculus is a major fruit pest in South America. Ongoing studies encourage the implementation of the sterile insect technique (SIT) against this pest. Sexual readiness of sterile males is a key point for SIT. The time required for A. fraterculus males to become sexually mature is unkn...

  10. Cuticular Hydrocarbons of the South American Fruit Fly Anastrepha fraterculus: Variability with Sex and Age

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vaníčková, Lucie; Svatoš, Aleš; Kroiss, J.; Kaltenpoth, M.; do Nascimento, R. R.; Hoskovec, Michal; Břízová, Radka; Kalinová, Blanka

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 38, č. 9 (2012), s. 1133-1142. ISSN 0098-0331 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : Anastrepha fratercules species complex * cuticular hydrocarbons * sex-specific differences * age-dependent production Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 2.462, year: 2012

  11. RESPONSE OF ANASTREPHA SUSPENSA TO LIQUID PROTEIN BAITS AND SYNTHETIC LURE FORMULATIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The host list for the Caribbean fruit fly, Anastrepha suspensa (Loew), includes nearly 100 fruit trees including citrus. In south Florida, it is primarily a pest of dooryard fruit trees including Surinam cherry, Eugenia uniflora; loquat, Eriobotrya japonica; and tropical almond, Terminalia catappa;...

  12. New insights in the definition of the Anastrepha fraterculus cryptic species complex

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vera, T.; Abraham, S.; Břízová, Radka; Cáceres-Barrios, C.; Canal, N.; Castaneda, R.; Nascimento, R.; Silva, J.; Hendrichs, J.; Hernández-Ortiz, V.; Joachim-Bravo, I.; Kalinová, Blanka; Lima, K.; Malacrida, A.; Roriz, K.; Rull, J.; Segura, D.; Steck, G.; Teal, P.; Vaníčková, L.; Vreysen, M.

    Bangkok: Siam Print, 2014 - (Malavasi, A.; Cardoso-Pereira, R.; Orankanok, W.). s. 44 ISBN 978-616-358-012-2. [ISFFEI 2014. International Symposium on Fruit Flies of Economic Importance /9./. 12.05.2014-16.05.2014, Bangkok] Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : Anastrepha fraterculus * cryptic species * integrative taxonomy Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry

  13. Effect of continuous rearing on courtship acoustics of five braconid parasitoids, candidates for augmentative biological control of Anastrepha species

    Science.gov (United States)

    The courtship acoustics of five species of parasitoid wasps (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), potential candidates for augmentative biological control of Anastrepha species (Diptera: Tephritidae), were compared between recently colonized individuals and those continuously reared 70-148 generations. During...

  14. Experiments of attractants for Anastrepha striata in Costa Rica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The experiments were carried out in several orchards that are hosts of anastrepha striata (diptera: tephritidae). The orchards are: (1) grecia canton (year 2001) which is a mix coffee and orange orchard, (2) esparza canton (2002 and 2003) which is a mango orchard, (3) pocora (2002 and 2004) which is a guava orchard, and 4) corralar (2002 and 2004) which is also a mixed coffee and orange orchard. The purpose was to determine the responses of the guava fruit fly a. Striata to seven attractants: (a) nulure, (b) ammonium acetate (aa) at a release rate of 150μg nh4/hour + putrescine (pt), (c) aa at 300μg nh4/hour + pt, d) aa at 600μg nh4/hour +pt, e) ammonium bicarbonate (ab) at 300μg nh4/hour + pt, f) aa at 300μg nh4/hour + pt + trimethylamine and g) torula yeast. Each experiment lasted eight weeks, with a change of the attractants every four weeks and biweekly collecting of the captured fruit flies and non-target insects. The data are expressed by means of flies per trap per day (ftd). In the experiment carried out in pocora (2004) and in corrralar (2002 and 2004) the highest ftd was obtained with nulure (0.92, 0.021 and 0.02, respectively). In esparza (2002) and pocora (2002) the largest ftd was obtained with torula (0.03 and 0.12, respectively) and the second best was nulure. In grecia (2001) and in esparza (2003) the best attractant was the mixture of ammonium acetate with putrescine. In grecia (2001), pocora (2004) and corralar (2002), the second best was torula yeast. Important information on the presence, abundance and fluctuation of a. Striata populations was obtained under diverse climatic conditions and crop phenology. This information serves as an important basis to continue studies on the effectiveness of trapping systems used against this fruit fly species and potential use of bait stations. (author)

  15. Relações interespecíficas entre parasitoides nativos de moscas-das-frutas e o braconídeo exótico Diachasmimorpha longicaudata em frutos de 'umbu-cajá' Interespecific relations between native parasitoids of fruit flies and exotic braconid Diachasmimorpha longicaudata in fruits of 'umbu-cajá'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuzinaide Vidal Bomfim

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Espécies de vespas parasitoides (Hymenoptera: Braconidae são importantes agentes de controle biológico de moscas-das-frutas (Diptera: Tephritidae. Este trabalho teve por objetivo conhecer os efeitos da liberação e as relações de competitividade interespecífica do parasitoide exótico Diachasmimorpha longicaudata Ashmead sobre o complexo de parasitoides nativos de moscas-das-frutas associado a frutos de 'umbu-cajá' (Spondias spp. na região do Recôncavo Baiano. Entre os meses de abril e julho de 2006, 8.955 frutos (192,93kg foram coletados antes e após (24 e 48 horas a liberação de 9.600 fêmeas de D. longicaudata em campo. Obteve-se um total de 8.724 pupários de Tephritidae, dos quais emergiram 3.963 adultos de Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart e 1.115 parasitoides. A maior frequência relativa foi de Doryctobracon areolatus (Szépligeti, seguida por Asobara Anastrephae (Muesebeck e Utetes Anastrephae (Viereck. Após 24 e 48 horas da liberação do parasitoide exótico D. longicaudata em campo, constatou-se que o índice de parasitismo total aumentou de 15,86 para 20,4 e 45,19%, respectivamente. Assim, observou-se que a liberação da espécie exótica D. longicaudata não apresenta efeitos negativos na ocorrência dos parasitoides nativos e contribui para complementar o controle biológico natural de A. obliqua em frutos de 'umbu-cajá', nas condições deste estudo.Wasps parasitoid species (Hymenoptera: Braconidae are fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae biological control important agents. This study aimed to know the effects of the release and interspecific competitive relationships of the exotic parasitoid Diachasmimorpha longicaudata Ashmead (Hymenoptera: Braconidae on the native parasitoid complex of fruit flies in Spondias spp. in the region of Recôncavo Baiano. From April to July of 2006, 8.955 fruits (192.93kg were collected before and after (24 and 48 hours release of 9.600 females of D. longicaudata. Exactly 8.724 Tephritidae

  16. Fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae associated to native fruit of Spondias spp. (Anacardiaceae and Ximenia americana L. (Olacaceae and their parasitoids in the State of Piaui, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almerinda Amélia Rodrigues Araújo

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This work aims to identify the species of fruit flies and their parasitoids associated to native fruit of Spondias spp. (caja S. mombin L., umbu-caja Spondias sp., umbu S. tuberosa Arr. Câm. and wild plum Ximenia americana L., in the State of Piaui, Brazil. Samples (63 of fruits were collected from November 2009 to July 2010, totalizing 4,495 fruits and 46,906 kg. It was possible to obtain 10,617 puparia, from which 4,497 tephritids and 1,118 braconid parasitoids emerged. Regarding Spondias spp., the highest occurrence was Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart, with 100% for umbu and umbu-caja. Caja presented an average of 99.52% of A. obliqua, 0.46% of Anastrepha fraterculus (Wied. and 0.97% of Ceratitis capitata (Wied.. Wild plum percentages were 97.83% for A. alveata Stone and 2.17% for A. fraterculus. Infestation rates were 429.2, 178.4, 158.9 and 43.3 puparia/kg in umbu-caja, caja, wild plum and umbu, respectively. Pupal viability was 77.8%, 69.3%, 52.5% and 41.1% to umbu, wild plum, umbu-caja and caja, respectively. By analyzing the sample parasitoids, the percentage was 21.39% for the Doryctobracon areolatus (Szépligeti species and 78.61% for Opius bellus Gahan. For the first time, it was recorded in Brazil X. americana as a host to A. alveata, as well as D. aleolatus and O. bellus as parasitoids of A. obliqua and A. alveata in Piaui.

  17. Diversity and seasonality of fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae and Lonchaeidae) and their parasitoids (Hymenoptera: Braconidae and Figitidae) in orchards of guava, loquat and peach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza-Filho, M.F.; Raga, A. [Instituto Biologico, Campinas, SP (Brazil)], e-mail: miguelf@biologico.sp.gov.br; Azevedo-Filho, J.A. [Agencia Paulista de Tecnologia dos Agronegocios (APTA), Monte Alegre do Sul, SP (Brazil). Polo Regional do Leste Paulista; Strikis, P.C. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Biologia. Dept. de Parasitologia; Guimaraes, J.A. [EMBRAPA Agroindustria Tropical, Fortaleza, CE (Brazil); Zucchi, R.A. [Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz (ESALQ/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Entomologia, Fitopatologia e Zoologia Agricola

    2009-02-15

    This work was carried out in orchards of guava progenies, and loquat and peach cultivars, in Monte Alegre do Sul, SP, Brazil, in 2002 and 2003. Guavas and loquats were bagged and unbagged bi-weekly and weekly, respectively, for assessment of the infestation period. Peach was only bagged weekly. The assays started when the fruits were at the beginning of development, but still green. Ripe fruits were taken to the laboratory and placed individually into plastic cups. McPhail plastic traps containing torula yeast were hung from January 2002 to January 2004 to assess the fruit fly population in each orchard, but only the Ceratitis capitata population is here discussed. Five tephritid species were reared from the fruits: Anastrepha bistrigata Bezzi, A. fraterculus (Wiedemann), A. obliqua (Macquart), A. sororcula Zucchi, and C. capitata, in addition to six lonchaeid species: Neosilba certa (Walker), N. glaberrima (Wiedemann), N. pendula (Bezzi), N. zadolicha McAlpine and Steyskal, Neosilba sp. 4, and Neosilba sp. 10 (both species are in the process of being described by P. C. Strikis), as well as some unidentified Neosilba species. Ten parasitoid species were obtained from fruit fly puparia, of which five were braconids: Asobara anastrephae (Muesebeck), Doryctobracon areolatus (Szepligeti), D. brasiliensis (Szepligeti), Opius bellus Gahan, and Utetes anastrephae (Viereck), and five figitids: Aganaspis pelleranoi (Brethes), Dicerataspis grenadensis Ashmead, Lopheucoila anastrephae (Rhower), Leptopilina boulardi (Barbotin, Carlton and Kelner-Pillaut), and Trybliographa infuscata Diaz, Gallardo and Uchoa. Ceratitis capitata showed a seasonal behavior with population density peaking at the second semester of each year. Anastrepha and Neosilba species remained in the orchards throughout both years. (author)

  18. Diversity and seasonality of fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae and Lonchaeidae) and their parasitoids (Hymenoptera: Braconidae and Figitidae) in orchards of guava, loquat and peach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work was carried out in orchards of guava progenies, and loquat and peach cultivars, in Monte Alegre do Sul, SP, Brazil, in 2002 and 2003. Guavas and loquats were bagged and unbagged bi-weekly and weekly, respectively, for assessment of the infestation period. Peach was only bagged weekly. The assays started when the fruits were at the beginning of development, but still green. Ripe fruits were taken to the laboratory and placed individually into plastic cups. McPhail plastic traps containing torula yeast were hung from January 2002 to January 2004 to assess the fruit fly population in each orchard, but only the Ceratitis capitata population is here discussed. Five tephritid species were reared from the fruits: Anastrepha bistrigata Bezzi, A. fraterculus (Wiedemann), A. obliqua (Macquart), A. sororcula Zucchi, and C. capitata, in addition to six lonchaeid species: Neosilba certa (Walker), N. glaberrima (Wiedemann), N. pendula (Bezzi), N. zadolicha McAlpine and Steyskal, Neosilba sp. 4, and Neosilba sp. 10 (both species are in the process of being described by P. C. Strikis), as well as some unidentified Neosilba species. Ten parasitoid species were obtained from fruit fly puparia, of which five were braconids: Asobara anastrephae (Muesebeck), Doryctobracon areolatus (Szepligeti), D. brasiliensis (Szepligeti), Opius bellus Gahan, and Utetes anastrephae (Viereck), and five figitids: Aganaspis pelleranoi (Brethes), Dicerataspis grenadensis Ashmead, Lopheucoila anastrephae (Rhower), Leptopilina boulardi (Barbotin, Carlton and Kelner-Pillaut), and Trybliographa infuscata Diaz, Gallardo and Uchoa. Ceratitis capitata showed a seasonal behavior with population density peaking at the second semester of each year. Anastrepha and Neosilba species remained in the orchards throughout both years. (author)

  19. Sterility and Sexual Competitiveness of Tapachula-7 Anastrepha ludens Males Irradiated at Different Doses

    OpenAIRE

    Dina Orozco-Dávila; Maria de Lourdes Adriano-Anaya; Luis Quintero-Fong; Miguel Salvador-Figueroa

    2015-01-01

    A genetic sexing strain of Anastrepha ludens (Loew), Tapachula-7, was developed by the Mexican Program Against Fruit Flies to produce and release only males in programs where the sterile insect technique (SIT) is applied. Currently, breeding are found at a massive scale, and it is necessary to determine the optimum irradiation dose that releases sterile males with minimum damage to their sexual competitiveness. Under laboratory and field conditions, we evaluated the effects of gamma irradiati...

  20. Male Courtship Behavior of the South American Fruit Fly, Anastrepha fraterculus, from an Argentinean Laboratory Strain

    OpenAIRE

    Gomez Cendra, P.; Calcagno, G; Belluscio, L; Vilardi, J.C.

    2011-01-01

    The South American fruit fly Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae) is a pest of fruit species of warm regions of the Americas, including Argentina. Some authors claim that this taxon includes a group of cryptic species. In order to evaluate possible targets of sexual selection, it is necessary to analyze ethological aspects of male courtship and identify particular steps that strongly influence mating success. A mating test designed to evaluate behavioral differences betwe...

  1. Native and introduced host plants of Anastrepha fraterculus and Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae) in northwestern Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ovruski, Sergio; Schliserman, Pablo; Aluja, Martín

    2003-08-01

    Wild or commercially grown, native and exotic fruit were collected in 30 localities in the Tucumán province (NW Argentina) from January 1990 to December 1995 to determine their status as hosts of Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann) and/or Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), the only two fruit fly species of economic and quarantine importance in Argentina. A total of 84,094 fruit (3,466.1 kg) representing 33 species (7 native and 26 exotic) in 15 plant families were sampled. We determined the following 17 host plant associations: Annona cherimola Miller (Annonaceae), Citrus paradisi Macfadyn (Rutaceae), Diospyros kaki L. (Ebenaceae), Eugenia uniflora L., Psidium guajava L., Myrcianthes pungens (Berg) Legrand (Myrtaceae), Ficus carica L. (Moraceae), Juglans australis Grisebach (Juglandaceae), Mangifera indica L. (Anacardiaceae), Eriobotrya japonica (Thunb.) Lindl., Prunus armeniaca L., P. domestica L., and P. persica (L.) Batsch (Rosaceae) were infested by both A. fraterculus and C. capitata. Citrus aurantium L., Citrus reticulata Blanco, Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck (Rutaceae), and Passiflora caerulea L. (Passifloraceae) were only infested by Ceratitis capitata. Out of a total of 99,627 adults that emerged from pupae, 69,180 (approximately 69.5%) were Anastrepha fraterculus, 30,138 (approximately 30.2%) were C. capitata, and 309 (approximately 0.3%) were an unidentified Anastrepha species. Anastrepha fraterculus predominated in native plant species while C. capitata did so in introduced species. Infestation rates (number of larvae/kg of fruit) varied sharply from year to year and between host plant species (overall there was a significant negative correlation between fruit size and infestation level). We provide information on fruiting phenology of all the reported hosts and discuss our findings in light of their practical (e.g., management of A. fraterculus and C. capitata in citrus groves) implications. PMID:14503581

  2. Bioprospecçao de toxinas presentes na hemolinfa e extrato de cerdas da lagarta Lonomia obliqua

    OpenAIRE

    Gouveia, Ana Isabel da Costa Bernuci

    2012-01-01

    Resumo: Estudando o extrato de cerdas da lagarta Lonomia obliqua, detectamos uma atividade lítica sobre moléculas de ácido hialurônico. O extrato de cerdas também foi capaz de degradar condroitim sulfato purificado, porém, incapaz de hidrolisar moléculas de heparam sulfato e dermatam sulfato. Além disso, por meio de ensaios de cinética de degradação de ácido hialurônico, observamos que esta atividade lítica é causada por uma enzima do tipo hidrolase e não do tipo liase. Baseando-se no método ...

  3. Karyotype relationships among Anastrepha bistrigata, A. striata and A. serpentina (Diptera, Tephritidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Selivon

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The species of Anastrepha are arranged into 17 intrageneric groups. Recently, it was proposed that two species of the striata group, Anastrepha striata and A. bistrigata, might be realocated to serpentina group. Anastrepha bistrigata and A. serpentina have an X1X2Y/X1X1 X2X2 sex chromosome system while A. striata has a XY/XX system. It was previously proposed that the karyotype of A. bistrigata could be derived from that of A. striata by an Y:A fusion, and that the karyotype of A. serpentina would be derived from another, hypothetical karyotype. In the present report sequential staining with DAPI and chromomycin A3 (CMA3, followed by C-banding, revealed that the C-banded heterochromatic blocks of the sex chromosomes of A. bistrigata have different affinities to fluorochromes in comparison to the chromosomes of A. striata, from which they have hypothetically derived. The chromosomes of A. serpentina show substantial differences in their cytochemical properties compared to their A. bistrigata and A. striata counterparts. The FISH technique showed that the ribosomal gene sequences are located in DAPI- or DAPI/CMA3-positive heterochromatic blocks of the sex chromosomes, one site on the Y chromosome and one site on the X chromosome (X1 in A. bistrigata and A. serpentina. The data suggest that the karyotype of A. striata and A. bistrigata could be derived from a common ancestral karyotype, while the A. serpentina karyotype probably has a distinct origin.

  4. Predation of Fruit Fly Larvae Anastrepha (Diptera: Tephritidae by Ants in Grove

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. D. Fernandes

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on evidence that ants are population regulatory agents, we examined their efficiency in predation of fruit fly larvae Anastrepha Schiner, 1868 (Diptera: Tephritidae. Hence, we considered the differences among species of fruit trees, the degree of soil compaction, and the content of soil moisture as variables that would explain predation by ants because these variables affect burying time of larvae. We carried out the experiment in an orchard containing various fruit bearing trees, of which the guava (Psidium guajava Linn., jaboticaba (Myrciaria jaboticaba (Vell. Berg., and mango trees (Mangifera indica Linn. were chosen for observations of Anastrepha. We offered live Anastrepha larvae on soil beneath the tree crowns. We observed for 10 min whether ants removed the larvae or the larvae buried themselves. Eight ant species were responsible for removing 1/4 of the larvae offered. The Pheidole Westwood, 1839 ants were the most efficient genus, removing 93% of the larvae. In compacted and dry soils, the rate of predation by ants was greater. Therefore, this study showed that ants, along with specific soil characteristics, may be important regulators of fruit fly populations and contribute to natural pest control in orchards.

  5. Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Tucuman, Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: In 1916, Rust recorded Anastrepha fraterculus, the ''South American fruit fly (SAFF)'', in Tucuman. Since 1910, the citrus area in the province has increased rapidly and SAFF has become an important pest. New varieties and management practices were also introduced in the region. Guavas (Psidium guajava) and peaches (Prunus persica) were the main host fruits of SAFF in Tucuman, but cherimoya (Anona chirimoya) and apricots (Prunus armeniaca) were also important. After the beginning of rains, populations increase in spring and develop mainly on peaches in November and December. Afterwards, SAFF attacks guava, where a peak population is attained in February or March. Guava is the principal wild host of SAFF in Tucuman. Compared with the forest where guava trees were frequent, citrus orchards covered a small area in the 1920's. Therefore SAFF populations increased in the wild guavas and invaded early oranges and grapefruits afterwards. Even though high numbers of punctures were observed in citrus skin, few larvae developed. The oils present in the skin kill high number of eggs. Moreover the larvae have to go through the albedo and hardly reach the pulp. Nevertheless the injury produced by the ovipositor allows microorganisms to rot the fruit. In 1918, rots produced 50% of damage in fruits which suffered premature ripening and fell. Only in very thin skinned and overripened fruit, larval development was registered. Some authors observed larval development in the field but Schult, in laboratory tests, found few eggs and never registered larval development. Between 1920 and 1945 studies with bait-traps were carried out to establish the seasonal occurrence of the fly and some control measures were tested. Poisoned baits were used against this pest, and biological control by inoculation of parasitoids were also employed. Cages with parasitized pupae were distributed to farmers. The emerged flies were kept within the cage and a sieve allowed the emerged parasites

  6. INSETICIDAS VEGETAIS NO CONTROLE DE Anastrepha spp. (DIPTERA: TEPHRITIDAE EM POMAR DE GOIABA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Roberto Azevedo

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Objetivando avaliar os efeitos de inseticidas vegetais sobre Anastrepha spp. em pomar de goiaba, realizaram-se pesquisas em Barbalha, de 6 de maio a 24 de junho de 2011, testando Pironat®, Rotenat® e Natuneem®. Para avaliar o efeito sobre adultos, instalaram-se 20 armadilhas McPhail iscadas com proteína hidrolisada de milho a 5%, quantificando-se o número de insetos capturados. Na avaliação do efeito sobre larvas, colheram-se ao acaso 100 frutos maduros, verificando-se a presença de larvas vivas e mortas. Foram feitas três aplicações em ambos os experimentos com o auxílio de um atomizador costal motorizado, sendo as avaliações realizadas semanalmente. O extrato pirolenhoso do Pironat® repele satisfatoriamente adultos de Anastrepha spp., enquanto que a azadiractina presente no Natuneem® promove efeito inseticida sobre as larvas nas condições de campo, sendo estes produtos mais eficazes para o controle da praga a partir da segunda aplicação. Embora estes produtos vegetais não cheguem a causar 100% de controle, eles podem ser utilizados em programas de Manejo Agroecológico de Anastrepha spp. em pomares de goiaba, pois além de baratos, são de fácil aplicação e não provocam impacto ambiental em termos de risco de resíduos tóxicos nos frutos. Use este espaço para escrever o resumo.

  7. A review of hymenopterous parasitoid guilds attacking Anastrepha spp. and Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Argentina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ovruski, Sergio M.; Orono, Luis E.; Nunez-Campero, Segundo; Schliserman, Pablo; Albornoz-Medina, Patricia; Bezdjian, Laura P.; Nieuwenhove, Guido A. Van; Martin, Cristina B. [Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas (CONICET), Tucuman (Argentina). Planta Piloto de Procesos Industriales Microbiologicos y Biotecnologia. Div. Control Biologico de Plagas

    2006-07-01

    This study provides detailed information on the diversity, abundance, guilds, host plant and host fly ranges, distribution, and taxonomic status of hymenopterous parasitoid species associated with Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) and Anastrepha spp. (A. fraterculus (Wiedemann) and A. schultzi Blanchard) in Argentina. Moreover, the article also argues future needs regarding the use of some parasitoid species as an alternative tool in fruit fly management programs of the National Fruit Fly Control and Eradication Program (PROCEM-Argentina). Data used for this work were obtained from numerous old and recent published articles on fruit fly parasitoids in Argentina. (author)

  8. Karyotype study of the South American fruit fly, Anastrepha fraterculus (Wied.) in Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The most frequent karyotype of Anastrepha fraterculus in Argentina is described here on the basis of mitotic metaphase morphology. It was named ''fraterculus Arg 1''. The diploid number is 2n=10+XX/XY and in males it comprises five homomorphic pairs and one heteomorphic pair, the latter being the sexual pair. Samples from different populations were cytologically analyzed, and ''fraterculus Arg 1'' is present in all of them at a high frequency (about 60%). A typical C band pattern of the X chromosome was found only in the Montecarlo (Misiones province) population. (author)

  9. A review of hymenopterous parasitoid guilds attacking Anastrepha spp. and Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study provides detailed information on the diversity, abundance, guilds, host plant and host fly ranges, distribution, and taxonomic status of hymenopterous parasitoid species associated with Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) and Anastrepha spp. (A. fraterculus (Wiedemann) and A. schultzi Blanchard) in Argentina. Moreover, the article also argues future needs regarding the use of some parasitoid species as an alternative tool in fruit fly management programs of the National Fruit Fly Control and Eradication Program (PROCEM-Argentina). Data used for this work were obtained from numerous old and recent published articles on fruit fly parasitoids in Argentina. (author)

  10. Influence of methoprene and dietary protein on maturation and sexual performance of sterile, Anastrepha ludens (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juvenile hormone levels and adult diet have important effects on the attractiveness and competitiveness of the male Anastrepha ludens (Loew) (Mexican fruit fly). Since the success of the sterile insect technique requires the release of males that can compete in the wild, these effects are very impor...

  11. X-ray doses to safely release the parasitoid Diachasmimorpha longicaudata (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) reared on Anastrepha fraterculus larvae (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bachmann, G. E.; Carabajal Paladino, Leonela Z.; Conte, C. A.; Devescovi, F.; Milla, F. H.; Cladera, J. L.; Segura, D. F.; Viscarret, M. M.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 25, č. 9 (2015), s. 1092-1103. ISSN 0958-3157 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.30.0032 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : biological control * gamma rays * Anastrepha fraterculus Subject RIV: GF - Plant Pathology, Vermin, Weed, Plant Protection Impact factor: 0.938, year: 2014

  12. A checklist of the species of Anastrepha with the families of their host plants and hymenopteran parasitoids in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many surveys on fruit flies have already been carried out by several researchers in Brazil while others are still going on. Most of these surveys were conducted in areas where no studies had been previously done. With these surveys, new species and new records of species were found in Brazil. Also, in this decade, several surveys on fruit fly braconid parasitoids were conducted. These data have been summarised recently, because of the great interest in the biological control of fruit flies in Brazil. Research on eucoilid fruit fly parasitoids have been largely neglected. However, taxonomic studies are being conducted on eucoilids associated with frugivorous flies (Tephritidae and Lonchaeidae) in Brazil. All the data on fruit flies, host plants and hymenopteran parasitoids are unfortunately scattered in the literature and frequently are only published as dissertations or congress abstracts which are not widely available. Even when submitted for publication, papers take a long time to come out in Brazil. Consequently, it is very difficult to get a list of the Anastrepha species in Brazil, or to determine which host plant species are associated with them. These data are of particular interest in the case of economically important species, especially those considered as quarantine pests. Therefore, such a list is very useful for regulatory entomologists and pest management programmes by listing the Anastrepha species in Brazil and their associated host plants and hymenopteran parasitoids. The objective of this paper is to gather some available records of the Anastrepha species, their host plants and hymenopteran parasitoids (Braconidae and Eucoilidae) published in Brazil. Due to the space limitation of this paper, only families of the host plants of the Anastrepha species are presented. In fact, this work is part of a research which deals with the preparation of a database for the Anastrepha species in Brazil

  13. Large scale artificial rearing of Anastrepha sp.1 aff. fraterculus (Diptera: Tephritidae in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Marcos Melges Walder

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Some species of the genus Anastrepha (Diptera: Tephritidae are successfully managed by matching the sterile insect technique with parasitoid releases. Such strategies used in integrated pest management can be implemented only where insect mass-rearing programs are feasible. In this study, we show the process of domestication, rearing technology and quality control data obtained from 54 generations of Anastrepha sp.1 aff. fraterculus (Wiedemann, 1830 kept under fully artificial conditions. Eggs were collected by an artificial oviposition panel consisting of one side of the cage made of blue voile fabric externally covered with a thin layer of silicon rubber. They were then air-bubbled in water at 25 ºC for 48 h before seeding. Larvae were reared on the regular laboratory artificial diet with 66 % of agar reduction turning over a semi-liquid diet, which reduced costs and improved insect quality. The adult and larval diets were composed of local ingredients including hydrolyzed yeast. When large-scale production of this fly is contemplated, the critical stage is larval development. This system of artificial rearing for A. fraterculus sp.1 developed in Brazil, allows for the production of a large number of insects of excellent quality using local ingredients and less agar in diet composition than the original medium used for this species. By reducing the interval of egg collection, the system might be optimized in terms of insect yield and, therefore, meet the demands of A. fraterculus sp.1 with regard to integrated pest management purposes.

  14. Tetracycline-suppressible female lethality and sterility in the Mexican fruit fly, Anastrepha ludens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schetelig, M F; Targovska, A; Meza, J S; Bourtzis, K; Handler, A M

    2016-08-01

    The sterile insect technique (SIT) involves the mass release of sterile males to suppress insect pest populations. SIT has been improved for larval pests by the development of strains for female-specific tetracycline-suppressible (Tet-off) embryonic lethal systems for male-only populations. Here we describe the extension of this approach to the Mexican fruit fly, Anastrepha ludens, using a Tet-off driver construct with the Tet-transactivator (tTA) under embryo-specific Anastrepha suspensa serendipity α (As-sry-α) promoter regulation. In the absence of tetracycline, tTA acts upon a Tet-response element linked to the pro-apoptotic cell death gene lethal effector, head involuation defective (hid), from A. ludens (Alhid(Ala2) ) that contains a sex-specific intron splicing cassette, resulting in female-specific expression of the lethal effector. Parental adults double-homozygous for the driver/effector vectors were expected to yield male-only progeny when reared on Tet-free diet, but a complete lack of oviposited eggs resulted for each of the three strains tested. Ovary dissection revealed nonvitellogenic oocytes in all strains that was reversible by feeding females tetracycline for 5 days after eclosion, resulting in male-only adults in one strain. Presumably the sry-α promoter exhibits prezygotic maternal expression as well as zygotic embryonic expression in A. ludens, resulting in a Tet-off sterility effect in addition to female-specific lethality. PMID:27135433

  15. Índice de infestação e diversidade de moscas-das-frutas em hospedeiros exóticos e nativos no pólo de fruticultura de Anagé, BA Index of infestation and diversity of fruit-flies in exotic hosts native to the fruitculture area in Anagé, Bahia, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Falcão de Sá

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available As moscas-das-frutas (Diptera: Tephritidae são os principais entraves às exportações de manga nos pólos de fruticultura da Região Sudoeste da Bahia. O presente trabalho teve como objetivo estudar índices de infestação e a diversidade de moscas-das-frutas no pólo de fruticultura de Anagé, BA, visando obter subsídios para o manejo integrado dessas pragas na mangueira, na região. Os estudos foram realizados em 2004 e 2005, nos municípios de Anagé, Belo Campo e Caraíbas, BA, procedendo-se à coleta de frutos de 21 espécies vegetais, nativas e exóticas, e identificação das espécies de moscas associadas. Estimaram-se os índices de infestação em pupários/kg de fruto e pupários/fruto. Os maiores índices de infestação, em pupários/kg de fruto, ocorreram em serigüela (Spondias purpurea L. com 61,3, juá (Ziziphus joazeiro L., 38,3 e umbu (Spondias tuberosa L., 33,1, considerados hospedeiros primários de Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann e A. obliqua (Macquart. As maiores infestações em pupários/fruto ocorreram em serigüela (0,9; umbu (0,7 e cajarana (Spondias sp. (0,2. Com base no monitoramento larval, registra-se, para as condições do pólo de fruticultura de Anagé, a ocorrência das espécies Anastrepha fraterculus, A. obliqua, A. dissimilis, A. amita, A. distincta, A. sororcula, A. zenildae e Ceratitis capitata. Registram-se, pela primeira vez, as seguintes associações bitróficas: juá com A. fraterculus, A. obliqua, A. dissimilis e A. distincta; e umbu com A. amita e A. sororcula.Fruit-flies (Diptera: Tephritidae are the main hindrance for mango exportation in the fruitculture areas of the Southwestern Region of Bahia. The purpose of the present work was to study the indexes of infestation and diversity of fruit-flies in the fruitculture area of Anagé, BA, in order to obtain subsidies to the integrated management of these pests in mango, in this region. Studies were carried out in 2004 and 2005 in the

  16. Controle químico de Anastrepha fraterculus (Wied. (Diptera: Tephritidae em laboratório Chemical control of Anastrepha fraterculus (Wied. (Diptera: Tephritidae in laboratory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscila Lang Scoz

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available O efeito de quatro novos grupos químicos de inseticidas incluindo avermectina (benzoato de emamectina, éter piretróide (etofemprox, neoniconitnóide (imidacloprid, thiacloprid e thiamethoxan e naturalyte (spinosad foram avaliados em laboratório (25 ± 3ºC, umidade relativa de 70 ± 10% e fotofase de 12 horas, visando ao controle de adultos e ovos/larvas de Anastrepha fraterculus comparando-os com os fosforados fenthion e thrichlorphon. O benzoato de emamectina não foi eficiente no controle de adultos de A. fraterculus via contato e ingestão. O etofenprox, imidacloprid, spinosad e thiamethoxan foram eficientes no controle de adultos de A. fraterculus via contato e ingestão, proporcionando maior mortalidade via ingestão. Os novos inseticidas não provocaram mortalidade significativa de ovos/larvas de A. fraterculus localizados no interior de maçãs, enquanto que os fosforados fenthion e thrichlorphon resultaram em 100% de mortalidade das fases imaturas e adultos. Os novos inseticidas apresentam potencial para uso nas iscas tóxicas, substituindo os fosforados para o controle de adultos.The South American Fruit Fly, Anastrepha fraterculus is one of the most important pest of temperate fruit crops. The effect of four new inseticide groups to replace organophosphate compounds for A. fraterculus control was evaluated under laboratory conditions (25 ± 3ºC, relative humity of 70 ± 10% and 12:12 L:D. Emamectin benzoate, etofenprox, imidacloprid, spinosad, thiacloprid and thiamethoxan were evaluated to control adults by contact and ingestion and against eggs/larvae inside apple fruits compared with fenthion and thrichlorphon. Emamectin benzoate was not efficient to control adults of A. fraterculus by contact and ingestion. Etofenprox, imidacloprid, spinosad and thiamethoxan were efficient to control adults by contact and ingestion being more toxic by ingestion. No new insecticide controlled eggs/larvae inside apple fruit while organophosphate

  17. Irradiation of mangoes as a quarantine treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This research project was conducted following guidelines of research protocols for post-harvest treatments developed by the United States Department of Agriculture CUSA. Laboratory bioassays included the irradiation of mangoes infested with third instar larvae of Anastrepha serpentina (Wied), A. ludens (Loew), A. obliqua (Macquart) and Ceratitis capitata (Wied) , at doses from 10 to 250 Gy. Irradiation doses were applied using a Co-60 AECL Model JS-7400 irradiator. The design was chosen to obtain a maximum to minimum ratio equal to, or less than, 1.025. C. capitata was the species most tolerant to irradiation. A dose of 60 Gy applied to third instar fruit fly larvae sterilized this species and prevented emergence of adults of the other three species. A dose of 250 Gy was required to prevent emergence of C. capitata. In fertility tests using emerged adults of A . Iudens, and A. obliqua a dose of 30 Gy gave 45 % and 27 % fertility, respectively. Adults of A. serpentina that emerged, died before reaching sexual maturity. The confirmatory tests, at probit-9 security level, were done at 100 Gy for the three species of Anastrepha and at 150 Gy for C. capitata. The quality of mangoes irradiated up to 1000 Gy was evaluated by chemical, physiological, and sensorial tests. The determination of vitamin C indicated that there was no loss of the nutritive value of the fruit. It also was observed that fruit metabolism was not accelerated since no significant increase in respiration or transpiration was registered and consumers accepted both treated and untreated fruit in the same way. (Author)

  18. Irradiation of mangoes as a quarantine treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This research project was conducted following the guidelines of research protocols for post-harvest treatments developed by the United States Department of Agriculture. Laboratory bioassays included the irradiation of mangoes (Mangifera indica L.) infested with third instar larvae of Anastrepha serpentina (Wiedemann), A. Ludens (Loew), A. obliqua (Macquart) and Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) at doses of 10-250 Gy. Irradiation doses were applied using a 60Co Atomic Energy of Canada Limited Model JS-7400 irradiator. The design was chosen to obtain a maximum/minimum ratio equal to, or less than, 1025, C. capitata was the species most tolerant to irradiation. A dose of 60 Gy, applied to third instar fruit fly larvae in the infested fruits, sterilized this species and prevented the emergence of adults of the other three species. A dose of 250 Gy was required to prevent emergence of C. capitata. In fertility tests using emerged adults of A. ludens and A. obliqua, a dose of 30 Gy gave 45 and 27% fertility, respectively. The adults of A. serpentina that emerged died before reaching sexual maturity. Confirmatory tests, at the probit 9 security level, were done at 100 Gy for the three species of Anastrepha and at 150 Gy for C. capitata. The quality of fruits irradiated up to 1000 Gy was evaluated by chemical, physiological and sensorial tests. Determination of vitamin C indicated that there was no loss in the nutritive value of the fruit. It also was observed that fruit metabolism, was not accelerated, since no significant increase in respiration or transpiration was registered and consumers accepted both the treated and untreated fruits in the same way. (author). 11 refs, 2 figs, 9 tabs

  19. Current knowledge of the species complex Anastrepha fraterculus (Diptera, Tephritidae) in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaníčková, Lucie; Hernández-Ortiz, Vicente; Bravo, Iara Sordi Joachim; Dias, Vanessa; Roriz, Alzira Kelly Passos; Laumann, Raul Alberto; Mendonça, Adriana de Lima; Paranhos, Beatriz Aguiar Jordão; do Nascimento, Ruth Rufino

    2015-01-01

    The study of the species complex Anastrepha fraterculus (Af complex) in Brazil is especially important in a taxonomical, evolutionary and pest management context, because there are evidences that some of them may occur in sympatry. In this review, we analyzed the main results supporting evidences that three cryptic species occur in Brazil. The taxonomical and phylogenetic relationships based on eggshell morphology, adult morphometrics, as well as cytotaxonomy and genetic differentiations are discussed. We also review available information on sexual behavior including acoustic communication of males during courtship and sexual incompatibility; and chemical signals involved in the communication between sexes, with a special focus on sex pheromones. We examined the role of long- and short-range pheromones (male-produced volatiles and cuticular hydrocarbons, respectively), their implications in sexual isolation, and their possible use for chemotaxonomic differentiation of the putative species of the Af complex. PMID:26798261

  20. The South American fruit fly, Anastrepha fraterculus (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anastrepha fraterculus (Wied) is the most important fruit fly in Colombia. It has been trapped from the sea level up to 2000 m of altitude, but is is more abundant in the coffee growing area located at 1300 to 1700 masl, with temperatures between 18 to 22 deg. C (-min 11 deg. C,-max 25 deg. C). The main host in that area is Coffea arabica L., but it also has 14 additional identified hosts that belong to 9 families. In the hot climates from 0 to 1000 m of altitude it breeds in mango (Mangifera indica L.) and guava (Psidium guayava L:). The pest has not been stabilised in the cultivated upper lands between 2300-2600 masl. (author)

  1. Update of host plant list of Anastrepha fraterculus and Ceratitis capitata in Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study displays a complete picture of the host range of the two economically important fruit fly species in Argentina, the native Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann) (South American Fruit Fly) and the exotic Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Mediterranean Fruit Fly or Medfly). This work provides information on the fruit type of each plant species, associated tephritid species, habitat where the fruit was collected, geographical location of each fruit collection area (latitude, longitude, and altitude), phyto geographic regions where each area is located, as well as a general description of the landscape characteristics of those habitats where the fruit samples with fly larvae were collected. A complete, detailed bibliographic review was made in order to provide all the relevant information needed for host use in natural setting. (author)

  2. Relevant genetic differentiation among Brazilian populations of Anastrepha fraterculus (Diptera, Tephritidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manni, Mosè; Lima, Kátia Manuela; Guglielmino, Carmela Rosalba; Lanzavecchia, Silvia Beatriz; Juri, Marianela; Vera, Teresa; Cladera, Jorge; Scolari, Francesca; Gomulski, Ludvik; Bonizzoni, Mariangela; Gasperi, Giuliano; Silva, Janisete Gomes; Malacrida, Anna Rodolfa

    2015-01-01

    Abstract We used a population genetic approach to detect the presence of genetic diversity among six populations of Anastrepha fraterculus across Brazil. To this aim, we used Simple Sequence Repeat (SSR) markers, which may capture the presence of differentiative processes across the genome in distinct populations. Spatial analyses of molecular variance were used to identify groups of populations that are both genetically and geographically homogeneous while also being maximally differentiated from each other. The spatial analysis of genetic diversity indicates that the levels of diversity among the six populations vary significantly on an eco-geographical basis. Particularly, altitude seems to represent a differentiating adaptation, as the main genetic differentiation is detected between the two populations present at higher altitudes and the other four populations at sea level. The data, together with the outcomes from different cluster analyses, identify a genetic diversity pattern that overlaps with the distribution of the known morphotypes in the Brazilian area. PMID:26798258

  3. New species and host plants of Anastrepha (Diptera: Tephritidae) primarily from Peru and Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norrbom, Allen L; Rodriguez, Erick J; Steck, Gary J; Sutton, Bruce A; Nolazco, Norma

    2015-01-01

    Twenty-eight new species of Anastrepha are described and illustrated: A. acca (Bolivia, Peru), A. adami (Peru), A. amplidentata (Bolivia, Peru), A. annonae (Peru), A. breviapex (Peru), A. caballeroi (Peru), A. camba (Bolivia, Peru), A. cicra (Bolivia, Peru), A. disjuncta (Peru), A. durantae (Peru), A. echaratiensis (Peru), A. eminens (Peru), A. ericki (Peru), A. gonzalezi (Bolivia, Peru), A. guevarai (Peru), A. gusi (Peru), A. kimi (Colombia, Peru), A. korytkowskii (Bolivia, Peru), A. latilanceola (Bolivia, Peru), A. melanoptera (Peru), A. mollyae (Bolivia, Peru), A. perezi (Peru), A. psidivora (Peru), A. robynae (Peru), A. rondoniensis (Brazil, Peru), A. tunariensis (Bolivia, Peru), A. villosa (Bolivia), and A. zacharyi (Peru). The following host plant records are reported: A. amplidentata from Spondias mombin L. (Anacardiaceae); A. caballeroi from Quararibea malacocalyx A. Robyns & S. Nilsson (Malvaceae); A. annonae from Annona mucosa Jacq. and Annona sp. (Annonaceae); A. durantae from Duranta peruviana Moldenke (Verbenaceae); and A. psidivora from Psidium guajava L. (Myrtaceae). PMID:26624697

  4. Trials to determine levels of oviposition of Anastrepha fraterculus (Wied.) on fruit and artificial oviposition devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The current work was conducted in order to determine the level of oviposition of Anastrepha fraterculus on fresh mangos and artificial oviposition devices. Four trials were carried out during which freshly harvested fruit was exposed to wild South American adult fruit flies. The following viable oviposition/day/kg of fruit (viable ovipositions = emerged adults) were established: 79.16, 71.25, 83.6 and 60.6. The trials were carried out at 25 deg. C - 28 deg. C and 60%-80% relative humidity. Beginning with the first generation one trial was carried out which confirmed the acceptance of sexually mature females to oviposit on red oviposition devices consisting of wax-covered cloth. However, red plastic containers with holes of 0.5 mm did not produce good results. (author)

  5. Update of host plant list of Anastrepha fraterculus and Ceratitis capitata in Argentina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orono, Luis E.; Albornoz-Medina, Patricia; Nunez-Campero, Segundo; Nieuwenhove, Guido A. van; Bezdjian, Laura P.; Martin, Cristina B.; Schliserman, Pablo; Ovruski, Sergio M. [Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas (CONICET), Tucuman (Argentina). Planta Piloto de Procesos Industriales Microbiologicos y Biotecnologia. Div. Control Biologico de Plagas

    2006-07-01

    The study displays a complete picture of the host range of the two economically important fruit fly species in Argentina, the native Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann) (South American Fruit Fly) and the exotic Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Mediterranean Fruit Fly or Medfly). This work provides information on the fruit type of each plant species, associated tephritid species, habitat where the fruit was collected, geographical location of each fruit collection area (latitude, longitude, and altitude), phyto geographic regions where each area is located, as well as a general description of the landscape characteristics of those habitats where the fruit samples with fly larvae were collected. A complete, detailed bibliographic review was made in order to provide all the relevant information needed for host use in natural setting. (author)

  6. The gene transformer of anastrepha fruit flies (Diptera, tephritidae and its evolution in insects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Fernanda Ruiz

    Full Text Available In the tephritids Ceratitis capitata and Bactrocera oleae, the gene transformer acts as the memory device for sex determination, via an auto-regulatory function; and functional Tra protein is produced only in females. This paper investigates the evolution of the gene tra, which was characterised in twelve tephritid species belonging to the less extensively analysed genus Anastrepha. Our study provided the following major conclusions. Firstly, the memory device mechanism used by this gene in sex determination in tephritids likely existed in the common ancestor of the Ceratitis, Bactrocera and Anastrepha phylogenetic lineages. This mechanism would represent the ancestral state with respect to the extant cascade seen in the more evolved Drosophila lineage. Secondly, Transformer2-specific binding intronic splicing silencer sites were found in the splicing regulatory region of transformer but not in doublesex pre-mRNAs in these tephritids. Thus, these sites probably provide the discriminating feature for the putative dual splicing activity of the Tra-Tra2 complex in tephritids. It acts as a splicing activator in dsx pre-mRNA splicing (its binding to the female-specific exon promotes the inclusion of this exon into the mature mRNA, and as a splicing inhibitor in tra pre-mRNA splicing (its binding to the male-specific exons prevents the inclusion of these exons into the mature mRNA. Further, a highly conserved region was found in the specific amino-terminal region of the tephritid Tra protein that might be involved in Tra auto-regulatory function and hence in its repressive splicing behaviour. Finally, the Tra proteins conserved the SR dipeptides, which are essential for Tra functionality.

  7. Development, genetic and cytogenetic analyses of genetic sexing strains of the Mexican fruit fly, Anastrepha ludens Loew (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Zepeda-Cisneros, Cristina Silvia; Meza Hernández, José Salvador; García-Martínez, Víctor; Ibañez-Palacios, Jorge; Zacharopoulou, Antigone; Franz, Gerald

    2014-01-01

    Background Anastrepha ludens is among the pests that have a major impact on México's economy because it attacks fruits as citrus and mangoes. The Mexican Federal government uses integrated pest management to control A. ludens through the Programa Nacional Moscas de la Fruta [National Fruit Fly Program, SAGARPA-SENASICA]. One of the main components of this program is the sterile insect technique (SIT), which is used to control field populations of the pest by releasing sterile flies. Results T...

  8. Mass rearing of the Mexican fruit fly, Anastrepha ludens, at the Fruit Flies Biofactory in Metapa de Dominguez, Chiapas, Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A description of the present methods for mass rearing Anastrepha ludens, known as the Mexican fruit fly, at the Fruit Flies Biofactory in Metapa de Dominguez, Chiapas, is given. Important contributions and improvements are described for the rearing stages, e.g. egg production and incubation, larvae diets, lab conditions for the development of larvae and pupae, larvae and pupae handling and environmental control. (author)

  9. Morphometric study of third-instar larvae from five morphotypes of the Anastrepha fraterculus cryptic species complex (Diptera, Tephritidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Nelson A Canal; Hernández-Ortiz, Vicente; Salas, Juan O. Tigrero; Selivon, Denise

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The occurrence of cryptic species among economically important fruit flies strongly affects the development of management tactics for these pests. Tools for studying cryptic species not only facilitate evolutionary and systematic studies, but they also provide support for fruit fly management and quarantine activities. Previous studies have shown that the South American fruit fly, Anastrepha fraterculus , is a complex of cryptic species, but few studies have been performed on the mor...

  10. « Les corps de bibliothèque montraient les mêmes rangées de volumes » : « lectures sans fin » et capture psychique dans les « demeures closes » des Rougon-Macquart « Les corps de bibliothèque montraient les mêmes rangées de volumes » : « lectures sans fin » et capture psychique dans les « demeures closes » des Rougon-Macquart

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy Worth

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Cet article examine la représentation de la claustration subjective dans Les Rougon-Macquart d’Émile Zola. Il s’agit d’étudier la valeur symbolique des « demeures close[s] » (maisons, salons : espaces contraints où sont renfermés les « documents » (ou « textes » humains qui y voient définis leurs rôles sociaux, et où la capture psychique de ceux-ci est consolidée.Cet article examine la représentation de la claustration subjective dans Les Rougon-Macquart d’Émile Zola. Il s’agit d’étudier la valeur symbolique des « demeures close[s] » (maisons, salons : espaces contraints où sont renfermés les « documents » (ou « textes » humains qui y voient définis leurs rôles sociaux, et où la capture psychique de ceux-ci est consolidée.

  11. Ocorrência de acidentes provocados por Lonomia obliqua Walker, no Estado do Paraná, no período de 1989 a 2001 Occurrence of accidents caused by Lonomia obliqua Walker, in the State of Paraná between 1989 and 2001

    OpenAIRE

    Claudia Moreira Garcia; Inês Moresco Danni-Oliveira

    2007-01-01

    O presente artigo objetivou mostrar a distribuição dos acidentes com a lagarta Lonomia obliqua, Walker, 1855 no período de 1989-2001 no Estado do Paraná. Os dados foram obtidos junto a Secretaria de Saúde Ambiental do Paraná. As informações coletadas foram mapeadas utilizando-se o programa Arcview, sendo gerados mapas de ocorrência sazonal de acidentes. Esta sazonalidade foi correlacionada com o ciclo de vida do inseto, que indicou o período de verão como o de maior incidência de acidentes, e...

  12. Comportamento sexual de Anastrepha sororcula Zucchi (Diptera, Tephritidae em laboratório Sexual behavior of Anastrepha sororcula Zucchi (Diptera, Tephritidae in laboratory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelli C. N. Facholi-Bendassolli

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Anastrepha sororcula Zucchi, 1979, é uma das espécies de mosca-das-frutas mais disseminadas no País, sendo considerada a praga-chave que causa os maiores danos à produção de goiaba (Psidium guajava L., 1758 no Brasil. Em vista da importância desta espécie no complexo de pragas naturais da fruticultura brasileira e, em face à escassez de dados sobre sua biologia e comportamento, este trabalho teve por objetivo obter informações sobre a idade de maturação sexual de A. sororcula em laboratório e descrever seu comportamento reprodutivo. Os machos atingiram a maturidade sexual entre 7 e 18 dias após a emergência, com a maioria dos indivíduos tornando-se sexualmente maduros entre 10 e 13 dias de idade. Exibiram comportamento de sinalização às fêmeas, caracterizado pela distensão da região pleural do abdome, formando uma pequena bolsa de cada lado e, eversão de uma diminuta bolsa membranosa de cutícula retal que circunda a área anal. Durante este processo, os machos realizaram rápidos movimentos de vibração das asas, produzindo sinais audíveis. Uma gotícula foi liberada da região anal durante os movimentos de vibração alar. Após a atração das fêmeas, os machos realizaram uma série de movimentos elaborados de cortejo. As fêmeas alcançaram a maturação sexual entre 14 e 24 dias da emergência, com a maioria tornando-se sexualmente madura aos 19 dias de idade. A exibição diária das atividades sexuais foi confinada quase que exclusivamente ao período das 16:00-17:30h. A. sororcula apresentou um acentuado padrão de protandria.Anastrepha sororcula Zucchi, 1979, is a fruit fly species that can be considered a key pest to the production of guava (Psidium guajava L., 1758, fruit tree which has a wide distribution in Brazil. In view of the importance of this species as a natural pest of Brazilian horticulture and, considering the lack of data about its biology and behavior, the aim of this paper is to obtain

  13. Current status and perspectives for management of Anastrepha fraterculus (Wied.) in apple orchards in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pomiculture is a recent activity in southern Brazil. The first apple orchards were installed in the early 1970s. Recently, the area grown with apples exceeded 30,000 ha, concentrated in the regions of Fraiburgo and Sao Joaquim (state of Santa Catarina) and Vacaria and Bom Jesus (state of Rio Grande do Sul). Part of the 600,000 tons that are harvested every year is exported to the USA and European countries. Some exotic apple pests were unintentionally introduced, like the European red mite (Panonychuls ulmi Koch) and the Oriental fruit moth (Grapholita molesta Busck). Furthermore, some native species of insects became important pests, as in the South American apple leafroller (Bonagota cranaodes Meyrick) and the South American fruit fly (Anastrepha fraterculus Wiedemann). The South American fruit fly is the best-studied pest of apples in Brazil regarding its biology and ecology. In this paper, we synthesise the information available and discuss the feasibility of adopting new control methods. Most experiments were conducted in Vacaria where A. fraterculus populations reach levels as high as 150 flies/trap day in some years. Sixteen species of Anastrepha occur in the region of Vacaria and only A. fraterculus is considered economically important (Kovaleski et al., submitted). In addition to the typical morphology of A. fraterculus, the morphotype CSS (Selivon et al. 1996) was detected in McPhail traps and infested native fruits. The second most frequent species of Anastrepha is A. dissimilis Stone. It may be responsible for more than 20% of fruit flies in commercial apple orchards in some periods of the year (November-January) but does not attack apples (Kovaleski 1997). Adult population fluctuation has been studied for the last four years using plastic McPhail traps containing grape juice at 25% (v/v) as attractant. It is more efficient than corn protein hydrolysate, vinegar, and sugarcane molasses (Kovaleski et al. 1995) and is widely used by apple growers as the

  14. Identification and Comparative Study of Chemosensory Genes Related to Host Selection by Legs Transcriptome Analysis in the Tea Geometrid Ectropis obliqua.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Long; Li, Zhao-Qun; Bian, Lei; Cai, Xiao-Ming; Luo, Zong-Xiu; Zhang, Yong-Jun; Chen, Zong-Mao

    2016-01-01

    Host selection by female moths is fundamental to the survival of their larvae. Detecting and perceiving the non-volatile chemicals of the plant surface involved in gustatory detection determine the host preference. In many lepidopteran species, tarsal chemosensilla are sensitive to non-volatile chemicals and responsible for taste detection. The tea geometrid Ectropis obliqua is one devastating chewing pest selectively feeding on limited plants, requiring the specialized sensors to forage certain host for oviposition. In present study, we revealed the distribution of chemosensilla in the ventral side of female fifth tarsomere in E. obliqua. To investigate its molecular mechanism of gustatory perception, we performed HiSeq 2500 sequencing of the male- and female- legs transcriptome and identified 24 candidate odorant binding proteins (OBPs), 21 chemosensory proteins (CSPs), 2 sensory neuron membrane proteins (SNMPs), 3 gustatory receptors (GRs) and 4 odorant receptors (ORs). Several leg-specific or enriched chemosensory genes were screened by tissue expression analysis, and clustered with functionally validated genes from other moths, suggesting the potential involvement in taste sensation or other physiological processes. The RPKM value analysis revealed that 9 EoblOBPs showed sex discrepancy in the leg expression, 8 being up-regulated in female and only 1 being over expressed in male. These female-biased EoblOBPs indicated an ecological adaption related with host-seeking and oviposition behaviors. Our work will provide basic knowledge for further studies on the molecular mechanism of gustatory perception, and enlighten a host-selection-based control strategy of insect pests. PMID:26930056

  15. Identification and Comparative Study of Chemosensory Genes Related to Host Selection by Legs Transcriptome Analysis in the Tea Geometrid Ectropis obliqua.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Long Ma

    Full Text Available Host selection by female moths is fundamental to the survival of their larvae. Detecting and perceiving the non-volatile chemicals of the plant surface involved in gustatory detection determine the host preference. In many lepidopteran species, tarsal chemosensilla are sensitive to non-volatile chemicals and responsible for taste detection. The tea geometrid Ectropis obliqua is one devastating chewing pest selectively feeding on limited plants, requiring the specialized sensors to forage certain host for oviposition. In present study, we revealed the distribution of chemosensilla in the ventral side of female fifth tarsomere in E. obliqua. To investigate its molecular mechanism of gustatory perception, we performed HiSeq 2500 sequencing of the male- and female- legs transcriptome and identified 24 candidate odorant binding proteins (OBPs, 21 chemosensory proteins (CSPs, 2 sensory neuron membrane proteins (SNMPs, 3 gustatory receptors (GRs and 4 odorant receptors (ORs. Several leg-specific or enriched chemosensory genes were screened by tissue expression analysis, and clustered with functionally validated genes from other moths, suggesting the potential involvement in taste sensation or other physiological processes. The RPKM value analysis revealed that 9 EoblOBPs showed sex discrepancy in the leg expression, 8 being up-regulated in female and only 1 being over expressed in male. These female-biased EoblOBPs indicated an ecological adaption related with host-seeking and oviposition behaviors. Our work will provide basic knowledge for further studies on the molecular mechanism of gustatory perception, and enlighten a host-selection-based control strategy of insect pests.

  16. A catalog for the transcripts from the venomous structures of the caterpillar Lonomia obliqua: identification of the proteins potentially involved in the coagulation disorder and hemorrhagic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veiga, Ana B G; Ribeiro, José M C; Guimarães, Jorge A; Francischetti, Ivo M B

    2005-08-01

    Accidents with the caterpillar Lonomia obliqua are often associated with a coagulation disorder and hemorrhagic syndrome in humans. In the present study, we have constructed cDNA libraries from two venomous structures of the caterpillar, namely the tegument and the bristle. High-throughput sequencing and bioinformatics analyses were performed in parallel. Over one thousand cDNAs were obtained and clustered to produce a database of 538 contigs and singletons (clusters) for the tegument library and 368 for the bristle library. We have thus identified dozens of full-length cDNAs coding for proteins with sequence homology to snake venom prothrombin activator, trypsin-like enzymes, blood coagulation factors and prophenoloxidase cascade activators. We also report cDNA coding for cysteine proteases, Group III phospholipase A2, C-type lectins, lipocalins, in addition to protease inhibitors including serpins, Kazal-type inhibitors, cystatins and trypsin inhibitor-like molecules. Antibacterial proteins and housekeeping genes are also described. A significant number of sequences were devoid of database matches, suggesting that their biologic function remains to be defined. We also report the N-terminus of the most abundant proteins present in the bristle, tegument, hemolymph, and "cryosecretion". Thus, we have created a catalog that contains the predicted molecular weight, isoelectric point, accession number, and putative function for each selected molecule from the venomous structures of L. obliqua. The role of these molecules in the coagulation disorder and hemorrhagic syndrome caused by envenomation with this caterpillar is discussed. All sequence information and the , including figures and tables with hyperlinks to FASTA-formatted files for each contig and the best match to the databases, are available at http://www.ncbi.nih.gov/projects/omes. PMID:16023793

  17. Ocorrência de acidentes provocados por Lonomia obliqua Walker, no Estado do Paraná, no período de 1989 a 2001 Occurrence of accidents caused by Lonomia obliqua Walker, in the State of Paraná between 1989 and 2001

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Moreira Garcia

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo objetivou mostrar a distribuição dos acidentes com a lagarta Lonomia obliqua, Walker, 1855 no período de 1989-2001 no Estado do Paraná. Os dados foram obtidos junto a Secretaria de Saúde Ambiental do Paraná. As informações coletadas foram mapeadas utilizando-se o programa Arcview, sendo gerados mapas de ocorrência sazonal de acidentes. Esta sazonalidade foi correlacionada com o ciclo de vida do inseto, que indicou o período de verão como o de maior incidência de acidentes, e ocorrendo as maiores concentrações nas regiões centro-sul, sudeste e sudoeste do Estado.The present article aimed to show the distribution of accidents involving the caterpillar Lonomia obliqua, Walker, 1855, in the State of Paraná between 1989 and 2001. The data were obtained from the Environmental Health Department of Paraná. The information collected was mapped using the Arcview program, and maps of the seasonal occurrence of accidents were generated. This seasonality was correlated with the insect’s life cycle and summer was shown to be the period with greatest incidence of accidents. The greatest concentrations occurred in the central-southern, southeastern and southwestern regions of the State.

  18. Die Bedeutung ektotropher Mykorrhiza fuer die Naehrstoffversorgung von Nothofagus obliqua. Untersuchungen unter Beruecksichtigung der Boden- und Naehrstoffbedingungen der Nothofagus-Waelder in Suedchile im Hinblick auf Wiederaufforstung und nachhaltige Forstwirtschaft

    OpenAIRE

    Alvarez, Maricel

    2001-01-01

    Nothofagus species form the most important native constituents in the temperate humid forests of southern Chile. The presented work concentrates on the evaluation of the relevance of several specific and non-specific ectomycorrhiza for Nothofagus. First, a general survey of ectomycorrhiza found in association to N. obliqua and P. radiata near Valdivia (Chile) is presented. Further work concentrated on the mycorrhizal fungi Austropaxillus boletinoides, Boletus loyo, Austropaxillus statuum, Cen...

  19. Sterility and Sexual Competitiveness of Tapachula-7 Anastrepha ludens Males Irradiated at Different Doses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orozco-Dávila, Dina; Adriano-Anaya, Maria de Lourdes; Quintero-Fong, Luis; Salvador-Figueroa, Miguel

    2015-01-01

    A genetic sexing strain of Anastrepha ludens (Loew), Tapachula-7, was developed by the Mexican Program Against Fruit Flies to produce and release only males in programs where the sterile insect technique (SIT) is applied. Currently, breeding are found at a massive scale, and it is necessary to determine the optimum irradiation dose that releases sterile males with minimum damage to their sexual competitiveness. Under laboratory and field conditions, we evaluated the effects of gamma irradiation at doses of 0, 20, 40, 60 and 80 Gy on the sexual competitiveness of males, the induction of sterility in wild females and offspring survivorship. The results of the study indicate that irradiation doses have a significant effect on the sexual behavior of males. A reduction of mating capacity was inversely proportional to the irradiation dose of males. It is estimated that a dose of 60 Gy can induce more than 99% sterility in wild females. In all treatments, the degree of offspring fertility was correlated with the irradiation dose of the parents. In conclusion, the results of the study indicate that a dose of 60 Gy can be applied in sterile insect technique release programs. The application of this dose in the new genetic sexing strain of A. ludens is discussed. PMID:26274926

  20. Sterility and Sexual Competitiveness of Tapachula-7 Anastrepha ludens Males Irradiated at Different Doses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dina Orozco-Dávila

    Full Text Available A genetic sexing strain of Anastrepha ludens (Loew, Tapachula-7, was developed by the Mexican Program Against Fruit Flies to produce and release only males in programs where the sterile insect technique (SIT is applied. Currently, breeding are found at a massive scale, and it is necessary to determine the optimum irradiation dose that releases sterile males with minimum damage to their sexual competitiveness. Under laboratory and field conditions, we evaluated the effects of gamma irradiation at doses of 0, 20, 40, 60 and 80 Gy on the sexual competitiveness of males, the induction of sterility in wild females and offspring survivorship. The results of the study indicate that irradiation doses have a significant effect on the sexual behavior of males. A reduction of mating capacity was inversely proportional to the irradiation dose of males. It is estimated that a dose of 60 Gy can induce more than 99% sterility in wild females. In all treatments, the degree of offspring fertility was correlated with the irradiation dose of the parents. In conclusion, the results of the study indicate that a dose of 60 Gy can be applied in sterile insect technique release programs. The application of this dose in the new genetic sexing strain of A. ludens is discussed.

  1. Progress on the artificial rearing of Anastrepha fraterculus (Wied.) (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the purpose of evaluating post-harvest quarantine treatments for fruits in Colombia, we have established experimental colonies of fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) at the Colombian Agricultural Institute (ICA), plant quarantine Laboratory Ibague (Tol.) at 24 deg. C, 70-80% RH, and 10 hr light. The procedures and results refer only to A. fraterculus from September 1994 to September 1996. The first adults, obtained from Coffea arabica L. cherries, were initially multiplied in fruits and later put on artificial diet. The handling procedures, diets and data collected are adapted from those established by USDA-ARA 1981, Celedonio et al. 1989, Gonzalez et al. Martinez et al. 1987, and others, that were used for Anastrepha spp. The average percentages of recuperation between stages that were hatched 66.0±1.0; first to third instar larvae 28.12±14.4; third instar larvae to pupae 81.80±3.0; pupae to adult 75.82±3.4. Additional data related to partial mortality of the stages are also discussed. The average recuperation from eggs to third instar larvae of 17.57%, and from eggs to emerged adults of 9.5±4.9, is low and indicates the necessity of doing basic research to improve the procedures. (author)

  2. Sexual selection on multivariate phenotypes in Anastrepha Fraterculus (Diptera: Tephritidae) from Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Despite the interest in applying environmentally friendly control methods such as sterile insect technique (SIT) against Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae), information about its biology, taxonomy, and behavior is still insufficient. To increase this information, the present study aims to evaluate the performance of wild flies under field cage conditions through the study of sexual competitiveness among males (sexual selection). A wild population from Horco Molle, Tucuman, Argentina was sampled. Mature virgin males and females were released into outdoor field cages to compete for mating. Morphometric analyses were applied to determine the relationship between the multivariate phenotype and copulatory success. Successful and unsuccessful males were measured for 8 traits: head width (HW), face width (FW), eye length (EL), thorax length (THL), wing length (WL), wing width (WW), femur length (FL), and tibia length (TIL). Combinations of different multivariate statistical methods and graphical analyses were used to evaluate sexual selection on male phenotype. The results indicated that wing width and thorax length would be the most probable targets of sexual selection. They describe a non-linear association between expected fitness and each of these 2 traits. This non-linear relation suggests that observed selection could maintain the diversity related to body size. (author)

  3. Induction of sterility in Anastrepha Fraterculus (Diptera: Tephritidae) by gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In relation to the application of the sterile insect technique (SIT) for the South American fruit fly Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann), we analyzed the effect on adult fertility of different doses of gamma irradiation and the age of pupae at the time of irradiation. In a first experiment, we applied doses of 50, 70, and 90 Gy to pupae at 24, 48, 72, and 96 h before adult emergence. In a second experiment we irradiated pupae 48 h before emergence with 20, 40, and 60 Gy and estimated male and female fertility and sperm transfer by irradiated males. The results indicated pupal age at irradiation does not significantly affect male fertility. If males irradiated with 60 Gy are crossed to non-irradiated females the fertility is about 1%. Females irradiated with 40 Gy did not lay eggs independently of the male to which they mated. No significant effects of radiation were observed with respect to the ability of males to transfer sperm. A dose of 70 Gy applied 48 h before adult emergence induces 100% sterility in both males and females. (author)

  4. Demographic and quality control parameters of Anastrepha Fraterculus (Diptera: Tephritidae) maintained under artificial rearing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The integration of the sterile insect technique (SIT) in the management of the South American fruit fly Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae) is a promising alternative to chemically-based control in those areas where it is sympatric with Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae) or other tephritid species for which the SIT is being used. Implementation of the SIT requires the development of a cost effective mass-rearing protocol. In this work, we present demographic and quality control parameters for the A. fraterculus strain reared at the Estacion Experimental Agroindustrial Obispo Colombres, Tucuman, Argentina. Considering the rearing cage as the reproduction unit, we observed that fecundity is optimal during the first 3 weeks after the onset of oviposition. Fertility was constant during this period. During 2003 and 2004, some improvements were made to the existing rearing protocol, which resulted in increased larval viability, pupal weight, and adult emergence. Current weekly egg production is 1 million per week. These eggs are used to maintain the colony and to assess quality parameters. Finally, research needs leading to improved yields and fly quality are discussed. (author)

  5. Contribución al Estudio de las Moscas Anastrephas en Colombia.

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    González Mendoza Rafael

    1952-11-01

    Full Text Available 1. Colombia tiene amplias posibilidades de desarrollar una industria frutícola floreciente dadas las excepcionales condiciones de ubicación geográfica, diversidad de climas y de suelos. 2. La deficiente producción frutera actual es el resultado de una reunión de factores adversos, entre los que resalta el desconocimiento de los problemas científicos que afectan a dicha industria. En este aspecto, los problemas fitosanitarios, abandonados y faltos de investigación, ocupan lugar preponderante. 3. Las moscas Anastrephas constituyen la plaga más importante de la fruticultura nacional, y por esta razón, un estudio sobre estos insectos es un tema de importancia. 4. Las principales "moscas de las frutas" pertenecen dentro de la familia Trypetidae, a los géneros: Dacus, Rhaglethis, Ceratitis, Dactrocera y Anastrepha. 5. Los nombres comunes con que se conocen las moscas Anastrephas varían de un país a otro y se relacionan particularmente con el lugar de origen de las distintas especies o la fruta determinada como preterida por la mosca en una localidad. En Colombia la denominación vernácula más difundida es la de "gusano de las frutas". También se nombra el insecto como "mosca o gusano del mango" o "gusano de la guayaba". 6. Los nombres científicos de las moscas distinguen a una, gran cantidad de especies. En Colombia, varios autores han reportado la existencia de las especies A.fraterculus, A. ludens, A. mombinpracoptans, A. pikeli y A. serpentina. Todas estas especies inciden en las regiones colombianas comprendidas entre 0 y 2000 metros de altura, es decir, en casi todas las regiones agrícolas importantes (frutales, café, cacao de temperaturas entre 14° y 30° C. 7. Las moscas Anastrephas están confinadas casi exclusivamente al continente americano entre las latitudes 27° N. y 35° S. Particularmente, la especie A. fraterculus, una de las más difundidas en Colombia, fué determinada por Wiedemann (1830

  6. Disinfestation of apples attacked by the fruit fly Anastrepha fraterculus (Wied.) (Diptera: Tephritidae) using gamma radiation of cobalt-60

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apples, cv. Gala, artificially infested during 72 hours with adults of the fruit fly Anastrepha fraterculus (Wied.) were irradiated with the following gamma radiation doses: 0 (control), 25, 50, 75 and 100 Gy, at the dose rate of 1048 Gy per hour. After irradiation fruits were put in plastic bags with 80 ml of sugar cane bagasse. The bags were maintained in a rearing room at temperature 21 - 24 deg C, 65 - 75% R H, and photo period of 12 hours. Pupae obtained were sieved out and kept in small glass tubes. All doses tested did not allow emergence of adults. (author)

  7. Enhancing mating performance after juvenile hormone treatment in Anastrepha fraterculus (Diptera:Tephritidae): a differential response in males and females acts as a physiological sexing system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Methoprene treatment can reduce the time required for sexual maturation in Anastrepha fraterculus (Diptera: Tephritidae) (Wiedemann) males under laboratory conditions, supporting its use as a treatment for sterile males within the context of the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT). Here we evaluated sexu...

  8. Mixture-amount design and response surface modeling to assess the effects of flavonoids and phenolic acids on developmental performance of Anastrepha ludens

    Science.gov (United States)

    A mixture-amount experimental design and response surface modeling were used to study the effects of three flavonoids and two phenolic acids, alone or in mixtures, in an artificial larval diet on the development and survival of Mexican fruit fly (Anastrepha ludens [Loew]). Pupal weight, percentage o...

  9. Nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) variation in the Anastrepha fraterculus cryptic species complex (Diptera, Tephritidae) of the Andean region

    Science.gov (United States)

    The nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) was sequenced for Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann, 1830) originating from 85 collections from the northern and central Andean countries of South America including Argentina (Tucumán), Bolivia, Perú, Ecuador, Colombia, and Venezuela. The IT...

  10. Response of Anastrepha suspensa (Diptera: Tepritidae) to white and brown cane, coconut, date, date jaggery and panela sugar solutions with varying degrees of fermentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    We measured the EAG response of Anastrepha suspensa (Loew), the Caribbean fruit fly to six different sugars (white and brown cane, coconut, date, date jaggery and panela sugars). Wild and lab female flies of different physiological states (immature and mature) were tested in dry crystals and 10% su...

  11. Effects of bait age and prior protein feeding on cumulative time dependent mortality of Anastrepha ludens (Diptera: Tephritidae) exposed to GF-120 Spinosad baits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    A fruit fly bait to attract and kill adult fruit flies (GF-120, Dow Agro-Science) was tested to determine effects of pre-treatment diet and ageing of GF-120 bait prior to use on cumulative mortality rates of the Mexican fruit fly (Anastrepha ludens (Leow), Tephritidae). Bait effectiveness depends o...

  12. Adult population dynamics of the bolivian fruit flies Anastrepha sp. (Diptera: Tephritidae at Municipality Coroico, Department of The La Paz, Bolivia

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    Gonzáles Manuel

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The investigation was carried out in Paco (1603 msnm communities, it Marca (1511 msnm and Capellania (1720 msnm, of the Municipality of Coroico, department of La Paz, Bolivia. In orchards frutícolas semicomerciales, they settled 15 traps distributed McPhail in a similar way among areas, five for community, sampling" "points. The censuses were carried out with an interval of 15 days, they were identified and they quantified the mature flies of the fruit. For the captures of the individuals, they settled the traps McPhail, using the attractive (Buminal one and as conserving borax. The traps were distributed in representative parcels, having as main cultivations, orange, mandarin, grapefruit, guava and avocado. The identification taxonómica of the captured species was carried out in the laboratory of the National Program of Control of Flies of the fruit (PROMOSCA, clerk of the National Service of Agricultural Sanity and Alimentary (SENASAG Inocuidad. 1210 mature flies of the fruit were captures, those that grouped for species, sex, capture dates and community, corresponding to the seven carried out censuses. The species of Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedeman were identified, Anastrepha striata Schiner, Anastrepha serpentine (Wiedeman, Anastrepha sp, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann, Blepharoneura sp Loew, Hexaresta sp Hering, Hexachaeta sp Loew, Tomoplagia sp Coquillett, Tetreuaresta sp Hendel, being that of more presence Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedeman with 818 and Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann, with 354. The temperature and presence of spices put up frutícolas of flies of the fruit in maturation state explain the observed fluctuations.

  13. Male irradiation affects female remating behavior in Anastrepha serpentina (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landeta-Escamilla, Anais; Hernández, Emilio; Arredondo, José; Díaz-Fleischer, Francisco; Pérez-Staples, Diana

    2016-02-01

    Female remating in target pest species can affect the efficacy of control methods such as the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) but very little is known about the postcopulatory mating behavior of these pests. In this study, we investigated the remating behavior of female Anastrepha serpentina (Diptera: Tephritidae), an oligophagous pest of Sapotaceae. First, we tested how long the sexual refractory period of females lasted after an initial mating. Second, we tested the effect of male and female sterility, female ovipositing opportunities and male density on female propensity to remate. Lastly, we tested if the amount of sperm stored by females was correlated to the likelihood of females to remate. We found that receptivity of mass-reared A. serpentina females had a bimodal response, with up to 16% of mass-reared A. serpentina females remating five days after the initial copulation, decreasing to 2% at 10 and 15 days and increasing to 13% after 20 days. Compared to fertile males, sterile males were less likely to mate and less likely to inhibit females from remating. Copula duration of sterile males was shorter compared to fertile males. Remating females were less likely to mate with a sterile male as a second mate. Sterile females were less likely to mate or remate compared to fertile females. Opportunity to oviposit and male density had no effect on female remating probability. Sperm numbers were not correlated with female likelihood to remate. Information on the post-copulatory behavior of mass-reared A. serpentina will aid fruit fly managers in improving the quality of sterile males. We discuss our results in terms of the differences this species presents in female remating behavior compared to other tephritids. PMID:26616467

  14. Compatibility and competitiveness of a laboratory strain of Anastrepha Fraterculus (Diptera: Tephritidae) after irradiation treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We evaluated under semi-natural field cage conditions sexual compatibility and competitiveness of a laboratory strain (LAB) compared to a wild population (TUC) of Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann). The LAB strain is produced under semi-mass rearing conditions at the Estacion Experimental Agroindustrial Obispo Colombres facility (Tucuman, Argentina). Wild flies were obtained at Horco Molle (Tucuman, Argentina) from infested guava fruits. LAB pupae were irradiated (60Co) 48 h before adult emergence. The tested doses were 0 (control), 40, 70, and 100 Gy. Twenty-five males and 25 females each of TUC and LAB were released into cages and mating pairs collected. Only 1 irradiation dose was considered at a time. Females were separated and allowed to lay eggs into artificial fruits to estimate induced sterility from the corresponding hatching rate. Copulation start time did not differ significantly between strains nor among irradiation treatments. Copulation duration showed highly significant differences among irradiation doses, but no differences between strains. The index of sexual isolation (ISI) and the relative sterility index (RSI) indices indicated that LAB and TUC are fully compatible, males from TUC and LAB did not differ in mating competitiveness, and irradiation within the range tested did not affect these indices. Non-irradiated LAB females exhibited higher mating propensity than TUC ones. However, a significant reduction in the female relative performance index (FRPI) index was observed with increasing irradiation dose. The analysis of induced sterility indicated that treatment with 40 Gy reduces male fertility from about 80% to 0.75%, and higher doses produce total sterility. In females, the 40 Gy dose reduces fertility to about 2% and higher doses prevent egg laying. (author)

  15. Mass rearing methods for fruit fly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The most common rearing methods used for mass rearing of fruit flies, with emphasis on those of economic importance in Mexico such as Anastrepha ludens (the Mexican fruit fly). Anastrepha obliqua (the mango and plum fruit fly) and the exotic fruit fly Ceratitis capitata (the Mediterranean fruit fly) are described here. (author)

  16. Examination of the ligand-binding and enzymatic properties of a bilin-binding protein from the poisonous caterpillar Lonomia obliqua.

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    Ana B G Veiga

    Full Text Available The bilin-binding proteins (BBP from lepidopteran insects are members of the lipocalin family of proteins and play a special role in pigmentation through the binding of biliverdin IXγ. Lopap, a BBP-like protein from the venom of the toxic caterpillar Lonomia obliqua has been reported to act as a serine protease that activates the coagulation proenzyme prothrombin. Here we show that BBPLo, a variant of lopap from the same organism binds biliverdin IXγ, forming a complex that is spectrally identical with previously described BBP proteins. Although BBPLo is nearly identical in sequence to lopap, no prothrombinase activity was detected in our recombinant preparations using reconstituted systems containing coagulation factors Xa and Va, as well as anionic phospholipids. In addition to biliverdin, BBPLo was found to form a 1:1 complex with heme prompting us to examine whether the unusual biliverdin IXγ ligand of BBPs forms as a result of oxidation of bound heme in situ rather than by a conventional heme oxygenase. Using ascorbate or a NADPH(+-ferredoxin reductase-ferredoxin system as a source of reducing equivalents, spectral changes are seen that suggest an initial reduction of heme to the Fe(II state and formation of an oxyferrous complex. The complex then disappears and a product identified as a 5-coordinate carbonyl complex of verdoheme, an intermediate in the biosynthesis of biliverdin, is formed. However, further reaction to form biliverdin was not observed, making it unlikely that biliverdin IXγ is formed by this pathway.

  17. Observations on the growth parameters of Spilosoma obliqua (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae) reared on artificial diets and reproductive competence of this irradiated pest and its progeny

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ten trials were conducted to standardize an artificial diet for Spilosoma oblique. The main ingredients included agar, mulberry leaves, yeast, casein, cellulose, sucrose, glucose, ascorbic acid, sorbic acid, antibiotics, vitamin C, Wesson's salt, and vitamin B complex in variable proportions. A diet formulation with increased amounts of Wesson's salt, choline chloride and iron supplement was found to be most suitable when growth parameters were measured. The deleterious effects when 6-day old pupae were treated with 100 and 150 Gy of gamma radiation were increased in the F1 generation as compared to the parental generation. Various combinations of crosses between treated and untreated moths indicated that females were more sensitive to gamma radiation when compared to males. F1 sterility was attained when male moths treated with 100 Gy were allowed to mate with untreated females. Two species of hymenopteran parasitoids of the genus Glyptapanteles and Meteorus were found to infest Spilosoma obliqua. These parasitoids may serve as an effective addition to an integrated pest management program for this pest in Bangladesh. (author)

  18. Eficiência de substâncias atrativas na captura de moscas-das-frutas (diptera: tephritidae em goiabeiras no município de Itapecuru-Mirim (MA

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    Lemos Raimunda Nonata Santos

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available O experimento foi conduzido em pomar comercial de goiaba (Psidium guajava L. cultivar 'Pêra Vermelha', localizado no município de Itapecuru-Mirim (MA, na Comunidade Magnificat, visando a adotar um sistema de manejo integrado de moscas-das-frutas através do monitoramento com armadilhas do tipo frasco caça-moscas (modelo garrafa plástica e atraentes de alimentação. O delineamento estatístico adotado foi o de blocos inteiramente casualizados, com cinco tratamentos e quatro repetições, sendo: suco de laranja (50%, acerola (30%, goiaba (30%, maracujá (30% e solução de açúcar cristal a 10 %. Verificou-se que o suco de maracujá (30% e a solução de açúcar cristal (10% foram mais atrativos para os adultos de Anastrepha distincta Greene, A. sororcula Zucchi, A. striata Schiner, A. obliqua Macquart e A. serpentina Wiedemann.

  19. The Mexican Fruit Fly Eradication Programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The goal of the Mexican Fruit Fly Eradication Programme is to control, suppress or eradicate from Mexico four species of fruit flies of economic and quarantine importance (Anastrepha ludens Loew, A. obliqua Macquart, A. serpentina Wied. and A. striata Schiner). These pests cause damage amounting to US$710 million per year. In addition to this cost, there are other expenses from pest control actions and the loss of international markets, because fruit importing countries have established stringent quarantine measures to restrict the entry of these pests. For purposes of the programme's implementation, Mexico was divided into three working zones, defined by agro-ecological characteristics, the number of fruit fly species present and the size of fruit growing regions. In addition, a cost:benefit analysis was carried out which indicated that the rate of return, in a 12-year time frame, might be as much as 33:1 in Northern Mexico, and 17:1 in the rest of the country, for an area over 100,000 hectares. Eradication technology involves: 1) surveys of pest populations by trapping and host fruit harvesting to monitor the presence and density of fruit flies, 2) reduction of pest populations applying cultural practices and using selective bait sprays, 3) mass release of sterile flies and augmentative release of parasitoids to eliminate populations and, 4) enforcement of quarantine measures to protect fruit fly free areas

  20. Forecasting of two main mango fruit fly pests in Mexico using time series models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Field samples in mango orchards growing in Actopan region of Veracruz, Mexico were taken weekly during a 79-week period to capture adults of two of the main fruit flies pests of mango (Mangifera indica L.) in tropical Mexico: Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart) and A. ludens (Loew) (Diptera: Tephritidae). The data were analysed using Time Series models according to the Box and Jenkins methodology to attempt predicting the behaviour of the pest populations as basic knowledge for integrated pest management. Flies captures were estimated by FTD (flies trap day) method = (number of flies captured x number of traps used)/ number of days of traps deployment). We used McPhail glass traps for the two different species of fruit flies captures during 79 weeks, each one representing the two time series used in this work. After running all the four main steps (identification, parameters estimation, verification and forecasting) indicated in the Box and Jenkins methodology to find the adequate time series models, the ARMA (1,2,2,1) and ARMA (2,1,0,1) models, both with a seasonal behaviour, fully fitted the field observed behavioural pattern for A. obliqua and A. ludens, respectively, and gave good predictions of its future values up to four weeks in advance. This information could help to take the management strategies in an opportune and accurately way when the fruit flies populations surpassing its innocuous level numbers. On the comparative predictions with other different mathematical models, the sixth deg.ree polynomial model was able to made good forecastings in the two series studied

  1. Flutuação populacional de adultos de Anastrepha fraterculus (Wied. em cultivo protegido e convencional de videira Anastrepha fraterculus (Wied. adult seasonal fluctuation in plastic covering and conventional grapevine cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geraldo Chavarria

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available A mosca-das-frutas sul-americana, Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann, 1830 (Diptera: Tephritidae, é considerada praga-chave das fruteiras de clima temperado na região Sul do Brasil. No entanto, poucas informações encontram-se disponíveis quando a espécie está associada à cultura da videira. Neste trabalho, foi avaliado o efeito da cobertura plástica sobre a população de adultos de A. fraterculus durante o ciclo de cultivo da videira cv. Moscato Giallo. O experimento foi conduzido nos ciclos de 2005/06 e 2006/07, em vinhedo comercial localizado em Flores da Cunha-RS (latitude 29° 06' sul, longitude 51° 20' oeste e altitude de 541 m, coberto com plástico impermeável tipo ráfia (160 µm de 12 fileiras com 35 m, deixando-se cinco fileiras sem cobertura (controle. Os adultos foram monitorados nas duas áreas com armadilhas McPhail, utilizando-se como atrativo de proteína hidrolisada (BioAnastrepha® a 5%, no período de outubro a abril, nos dois ciclos. O pico populacional da espécie, nos dois ciclos, foi observado no período de maturação da uva. Não foram registradas diferenças significativas nas capturas entre as áreas, concluindo-se que a cobertura plástica não afeta a mobilidade e a flutuação populacional de A. fraterculus em cultivo protegido de videira.The South American Fruit Fly Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann, 1830 (Diptera: Tephritidae is one of the most important pests of temperate fruits in Southern Brazil. Little information regarded to pest damage is available when this insect is associated with vineyards. In this work was evaluated the plastic cover effect on seasonal fluctuation of A. fraterculus adults in vineyards of cv. Moscato Giallo. The experiment was conducted on 2005/06 and 2006/07 seasons in a vineyard located in Flores da Cunha, RS (latitude 29° 06' South, longitude 51° 20' West and altitude 541 m, covered with an impermeable plastic cloth (2.65 m x 160 µm, in 12 rows with 35 m, with five rows

  2. Mineralización del nitrógeno, carbono y actividad enzimática del suelo en un bosque de Nothofagus obliqua (Mirb Oerst y una plantación de Pinus radiata D. Don. del centro-sur de Chile Nitrogen and carbon mineralization and enzyme activity in soils of Nothofagus obliqua (Mirb Oerst stands and Pinus radiata D. Don plantation in south-central Chile

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    YESSICA RIVAS

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available En Chile, el establecimiento de plantaciones comerciales de rápido crecimiento ha sido sostenido en las últimas décadas mediante la sustitución de bosques nativos y conversión de suelos agrícolas. Pinus radiata D. Don es la principal especie productiva, debido a su crecimiento acelerado y adaptabilidad al clima y los suelos. En el presente estudio se plantea que la actividad biológica del suelo es variable a través del año, en respuesta a variaciones de precipitación, temperatura y contenido de humedad de suelo y que el cambio de uso de suelo desde un bosque templado de Nothofagus obliqua (Mirb Oerst a una plantación con coniferas exóticas, modifica la química del suelo y consecuentemente los procesos de N-min, C-min y la actividad biológica del suelo. Esta hipótesis fue examinada en un bosque de N. obliqua y una plantación de P. radiata del centro-sur de Chile (40°07' S, 72° O. Se evaluó mensualmente la tasa mineralización de nitrógeno (N-min, cabono (C-min y la actividad enzimática potencial del suelo (ureasa, proteasa e hidrólisis de la fluoresceína diacetato entre septiembre 2003 y mayo 2005. Los resultados demuestran que los niveles de las variables de actividad biológica del suelo fueron significativamente diferentes entre las parcelas de bosque y plantación (Lambda de Wilk = 0,022; F 5,80 = 733; P In Chile, commercial forests plantations have increased during the last decades due in part to replacement of native forests and conversion of agricultural soils. Pinus radiata D. Don has been the main tree planted, due to its rapid growth and adaptability. In the present study we proposed that biological activity varies along the year due to changes of precipitation, temperature and soil water content and mainly because the conversion of native forest to exotic P. radiata plantations alters the soil chemistry, N and C mineralization and the potential enzymatic activity in these soils. This hypothesis was examined in a

  3. Establishment of a colony of Anastrepha ludens (Diptera: Tephritidae) under relaxed mass-rearing conditions in Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several studies have suggested that maintaining a line of insects under laboratory conditions reduces their biological attributes. With this principle in mind, the mass production of Anastrepha ludens originating from a colony raised under relaxed rearing conditions was evaluated over a period of three years. The results of the evaluation indicated that insects kept under these conditions reached their larval maturity in 10 days, and attained a greater weight, which has a direct influence on pupal quality. In adult cages having a fly density of 70,000 individuals, there was a lower level of stress which favored fecundity. Fertility was apparently not affected by the cage density. These results suggest that keeping a production line under relaxed conditions optimizes insect production and promotes higher quality. (author)

  4. Comparison of longevity between a laboratory strain and a natural population of Anastrepha Fraterculus (Diptera: Tephritidae) under field cage conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The South American fruit fly Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann) is one of the most destructive fruit pests in this region, infesting major fruit crops. Implementation of the sterile insect technique (SIT) as part of an area-wide integrated approach against this species requires information on the survival of mass-reared and sterilized insects in the field and their ability to mate with wild females. The survival rates in field cages of both non-irradiated and irradiated laboratory flies were compared with that of wild flies. Both types of laboratory flies survived longer than their wild counterparts over the 8 days under the experimental conditions. The irradiation dose (70 Gy) did not affect survival of the laboratory reared flies. Our results improve the prospect of integrating the SIT into the control of A. fraterculus populations in Argentina. (author)

  5. The influence of prior experience with artificial fruits on the ovipositioning behavior of Anastrepha fraterculus (Diptera, Tephritidae

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    Patrícia L. F. Gregório

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The South American fruit fly, Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann, 1830 (Diptera, Tephritidae, is a leading pest of Brazilian fruit crops. This study evaluated how prior experience with artificial fruits containing peach and/or guabiroba pulp influenced the ovipositing behavior of A. fraterculus. Insects 15-21 days old were exposed to four treatments: 1 experience with guabiroba, Campomanesia xanthocarpa O. Berg (Myrtaceae; 2 experience with peach, Prunus persica (L. Batsch (Chimarrita cultivar; Rosaceae; 3 experience with both fruits; and 4 no experience (naive. Naive females and females experienced with guabiroba pulp and with both fruits (peach and guabiroba oviposited and showed dragging and puncturing behavior on substrates containing guabiroba, but females that were only exposed to peach pulp did not show a preference for any substrate. The study shows that prior experience with substrate influences ovipositing behavior in A. fraterculus.

  6. Establishment of a colony of Anastrepha ludens (Diptera: Tephritidae) under relaxed mass-rearing conditions in Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orozco-Davila, Dina; Hernandez, Refugio; Solis, Eduardo; Quintero, J. Luis; Dominguez, Julio, E-mail: dorozco1@prodigy.net.m [United States Department of Agriculture, Gainesville, FL (United States). Agricultural Research Service. Center for Medical, Agricultural, and Veterinary Entomology; Sigma Space Corporation, MD(United States); Programa Moscamed Moscafrut-Desarrollo de Metodos, Chiapas (Mexico)

    2006-07-01

    Several studies have suggested that maintaining a line of insects under laboratory conditions reduces their biological attributes. With this principle in mind, the mass production of Anastrepha ludens originating from a colony raised under relaxed rearing conditions was evaluated over a period of three years. The results of the evaluation indicated that insects kept under these conditions reached their larval maturity in 10 days, and attained a greater weight, which has a direct influence on pupal quality. In adult cages having a fly density of 70,000 individuals, there was a lower level of stress which favored fecundity. Fertility was apparently not affected by the cage density. These results suggest that keeping a production line under relaxed conditions optimizes insect production and promotes higher quality. (author)

  7. Evaluating the quality of the Mexican fruit-fly, Anastrepha ludens, as host for the parasitoid Melittobia digitata

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    J.M. González

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the presence of Melittobia digitata (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae and its associations with its natural hosts in Veracruz, Mexico. The parasitoid was confirmed to be present and found to attack prepupae of Trypoxylon and Sceliphron (Hymenoptera: Crabronidae and Sphecidae, respectively mud daubers as well as pupae of the Mexican fruit fly Anastrepha ludens (Diptera: Tephritidae. Since A. ludens is a very important pest of citrus and mango in Mexico and Central America, we evaluated, in laboratory experiments, the quality of A. ludens as host of M. digitata comparing the development of the parasitoid in another unrelated fly species (Sarcophaga [Neobellieria] bullata (Diptera: Sarcophagidae and in mud dauber wasps (Trypoxylon sp. and Sceliphron sp.. The Mexican fruit fly appears to be a good-quality host for M. digitata, and the results are discussed in the context of their possible interest as a natural enemy of A. ludens.

  8. Evaluation of techniques for C and ASG banding of the mitotic chromosomes of Anastrepha species (Diptera, Tephritidae

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    Denise Selivon

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available Methods previously described by Canovai et al. (Caryologia 47: 241-247, 1994 which produced C and ASG bands in mitotic chromosomes of Ceratitis capitata were applied to the chromosomes of several Anastrepha species. Metaphase plate yield was substantially increased by use of imaginal disks together with cerebral ganglia. The C-bands were quite prominent allowing the resolution of tiny blocks of heterochromatin. The ASG method produced G-like banded chromosomes, which permitted recognition of each individual chromosome. These simple techniques do not require special equipment and may be valuable for karyotype variability studies in fruit flies and other DipteraTécnicas descritas anteriormente por Canovai et al. (Caryologia 47: 241-247, 1994, que produzem bandas C e ASG nos cromossomos mitóticos de Ceratitis capitata, foram testadas com os cromossomos de várias espécies de Anastrepha. O número de metáfases analisáveis aumentou significativamente quando, além dos gânglios cerebrais, discos imaginais foram utilizados nas preparações. O bandamento tipo C produzido foi bastante conspícuo, permitindo inclusive a resolução de pequenos blocos de heterocromatina. O método ASG produziu uma fração significativa de metáfases cujos cromossomos apresentavam um nítido bandamento do tipo G, que permitiu diferenciar cada cromossomo do cariótipo. Essas técnicas simples, aplicadas sem a necessidade de equipamento especial, podem ser úteis para estudos de variabilidade cariotípica intra ou inter-específica

  9. Nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) variation in the Anastrepha fraterculus cryptic species complex (Diptera, Tephritidae) of the Andean region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, Bruce D.; Steck, Gary J.; Norrbom, Allen L.; Rodriguez, Erick J.; Srivastava, Pratibha; Alvarado, Norma Nolazco; Colque, Fredy; Landa, Erick Yábar; Sánchez, Juan José Lagrava; Quisberth, Elizabeth; Peñaranda, Emilio Arévalo; Clavijo, P. A. Rodriguez; Alvarez-Baca, Jeniffer K.; Zapata, Tito Guevara; Ponce, Patricio

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) was sequenced for Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann, 1830) originating from 85 collections from the northern and central Andean countries of South America including Argentina (Tucumán), Bolivia, Perú, Ecuador, Colombia, and Venezuela. The ITS1 regions of additional specimens (17 collections) from Central America (México, Guatemala, Costa Rica, and Panamá), Brazil, Caribbean Colombia, and coastal Venezuela were sequenced and together with published sequences (Paraguay) provided context for interpretation. A total of six ITS1 sequence variants were recognized in the Andean region comprising four groups. Type I predominates in the southernmost range of Anastrepha fraterculus. Type II predominates in its northernmost range. In the central and northern Andes, the geographic distributions overlap and interdigitate with a strong elevational effect. A discussion of relationships between observed ITS1 types and morphometric types is included. PMID:26798259

  10. MONITORAMENTO POPULACIONAL DE Anastrepha spp. (DIPTERA: TEPHRITIDAE EM POMAR DE MANGA (Mangifera indica L. NO MUNICÍPIO DE JABOTICABAL – SP

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    Wilson Carlos Pazini

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The population monitoring of agricultural pests is an important tool to select the best control methodto be employed in a determined culture. Thus, the objective of this research was analyze the population fluctuation of Anastrepha spp. correlated with the mango tree phenology and the meteorological elements, temperature, relative humidity and pluviometric precipitation. The study was conducted between Mach 2009 to August 2010 in Jaboticabal, SP. For Anastrepha spp. monitoring, we randomly installed five yellow stick traps in an experimental orchard composed by a collection of mango varieties. These traps were replaced every fifteen days and carried to the Laboratory of Ecological Selectivity of the Department of Plant Protection (FCAV/UNESP to evaluate the sampled specimens. The meteorological data were recorded at the FCAV/UNESP Meteorological Station, located approximately 200 m from the study area. The results showed that the greater and more consistent Anastrepha spp. population density is between the spring and summer seasons, particularly related to the mature fruits. A weak positive correlation is observed between maximum temperature (°C and relative humitidy (% when compared with the Anastrepha spp. population density. There is moderate positive correlation between minimum and medium temperatures (°C and accumuluted pluviometric precipitation (mm when compared with the said agricultural pest.O monitoramento populacional de insetos considerados pragas agrícolas constitui uma importante ferramenta para a escolha do melhor método de controle a ser empregado em determinada cultura. Desta forma, o objetivo desta pesquisa foi analisar a flutuação populacional de Anastrepha spp. correlacionada com a fenologia da mangueira e com os elementos meteorológicos, temperatura, umidade relativa e precipitação pluviométrica. O estudo foi desenvolvido no período entre março de 2009 a agosto de 2010 no município de Jaboticabal, SP. Para o

  11. Genetics and biology of Anastrepha fraterculus: research supporting the use of the sterile insect technique (SIT) to control this pest in Argentina

    OpenAIRE

    Cladera, Jorge L.; Vilardi, Juan C.; Juri, Marianela; Paulin, Laura E; Giardini, M Cecilia; Gómez Cendra, Paula V; Segura, Diego F.; Lanzavecchia, Silvia B

    2014-01-01

    Two species of true fruit flies (taxonomic family Tephritidae) are considered pests of fruit and vegetable production in Argentina: the cosmopolitan Mediterranean fruit fly (Ceratitis capitata Wiedemann) and the new world South American fruit fly (Anastrepha fraterculus Wiedemann). The distribution of these two species in Argentina overlaps north of the capital, Buenos Aires. Regarding the control of these two pests, the varied geographical fruit producing regions in Argentina are in differen...

  12. Nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) variation in the Anastrepha fraterculus cryptic species complex (Diptera, Tephritidae) of the Andean region

    OpenAIRE

    Sutton, Bruce D.; Steck, Gary J.; Norrbom, Allen L.; Rodriguez, Erick J.; Srivastava,Pratibha; Alvarado, Norma Nolazco; Colque,Fredy; Landa, Erick Yábar; Sánchez, Juan José Lagrava; Quisberth, Elizabeth; Peñaranda, Emilio Arévalo; Clavijo,P.A. Rodriguez; Alvarez-Baca, Jeniffer K.; Zapata, Tito Guevara; Ponce, Patricio

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) was sequenced for Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann, 1830) originating from 85 collections from the northern and central Andean countries of South America including Argentina (Tucumán), Bolivia, Perú, Ecuador, Colombia, and Venezuela. The ITS1 regions of additional specimens (17 collections) from Central America (México, Guatemala, Costa Rica, and Panamá), Brazil, Caribbean Colombia, and coastal Venezuela were sequenced and t...

  13. The Genetics of Eye Color Colour Mutants of the Fruit Fly Anastrepha ludens (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The fruit fly Anastrepha ludens is one of the most important pests attacking commercial fruits such as citrus and mangoes, and having a great quarantine importance in Mexico. As a control method, the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) is currently in use because of its effectiveness and advantages. However, its performance would be greatly enhanced by the development of a genetic sexing system that allows release of males only. Recently, the National Campaign of Fruit Flies has initiated a project to develop a genetic sexing strain of A. ludens. In order to find the appropriate genetic markers, some adult mutants have been isolated from the mass-rearing colony. These mutants are being studied in order to interpret their segregation mechanisms and to better understand the genetics of this species. Three different mutants that exhibit violet, red and yellow eyes have been found. The yellow eyes mutant possesses also white bands in the thorax. In contrast, the wild type shows green eyes with an orange mark in the centre. Additionally, wild type eyes exhibit iridescence that range from yellow to green. Conversely, a bright red background characterises eyes of the red eye mutant. The violet eye phenotype is characterised by a violet tint in the eye centre and two different iridescences, green or blue. Among all mutants, only one of them (yellow eyes) was isolated from the mass-rearing population, and then crossed with the wild type to carry on the inbreeding and screening procedures. The fly colonies were reared until F6 generation before starting with the protocols of the crosses. The offspring of the violet eye x violet eye cross was violet eye and wild type in the proportion 2:1, but the fertility rate was greatly reduced. This suggests that the mutation would be lethal as homozygous. When reciprocal crosses with the wild type were made, the F1 offspring yielded two phenotypic classes: wild type and violet eye in the ratio 1:1. A similar phenotype ratio is

  14. AVALIAÇÃO DE ATRATIVOS ALIMENTARES E ARMADILHAS PARA O MONITORAMENTO DE ANASTREPHA FRATERCULUS (WIEDEMANN, 1830 (DIPTERA: TEPHRITIDAE NA CULTURA DO PESSEGUEIRO (PRUNUS PERSICA (L. BATSH EVALUATION OF FOOD LURES AND TRAPS FOR MONITORING SOUTH AMERICAN FRUIT FLY ANASTREPHA FRATERCULUS (WIEDEMANN, 1830 (DIPTERA: TEPHRITIDAE IN PEACH (PRUNUS PERSICA (L. BATSH, ORCHARDS

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    Priscila Lang Scoz

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available A mosca-das-frutas Anastrepha fraterculus é uma das principais pragas da cultura do pessegueiro (Prunus persica no sul do Brasil, podendo ocasionar perdas de até 100% da produção. Neste trabalho, foram avaliados atrativos alimentares e armadilhas para o monitoramento de A. fraterculus em pomares de pessegueiro na região da Serra Gaúcha, RS, principal pólo produtor da fruta para consumo “in natura” do Estado. Dois experimentos foram conduzidos para avaliar a captura de adultos de A. fraterculus com a levedura torula formulada em pastilha (2,5% e a proteína hidrolisada (Nolure® a 5% no primeiro experimento e a proteína hidrolisada (Bio Anastrepha® a 5% e o atrativo Anastrepha Lure® (putrecina associada ao sulfato de amônia, veiculado na forma de sachê no segundo. Nos dois experimentos foi utilizada a armadilha McPhail contendo suco de uva a 25% como atrativo padrão. A eficiência de armadilhas construídas a partir de garrafas PET (Polietileno Tereftalado de dois litros, transparente e verde, foi comparado com a armadilha-padrão McPhail, utilizando suco de uva a 25% como atrativo. A levedura torula (2,5% foi significativamente superior ao suco de uva a 25% e a proteína hidrolisada na captura de adultos de A. fraterculus, os quais equivaleram-se entre si. O Anastrepha lure® não foi eficaz na captura de adultos da espécie. Os modelos alternativos de armadilhas foram equivalentes ao modelo McPhail na captura de adultos de A. fraterculus.The South American Fruit Fly Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann, 1830 (Diptera: Tephritidae is one of the most important peach pests (Prunus persica in Southern Brazil, causing damages of up to 100% of their total production. The objective of this study was to investigate the efficiency of food lures and traps for monitoring A. fraterculus in a commercial peach orchard. Two experiments were undertaken evaluating torula yeast (2,5% hydrolyzed protein (Nolure® at 5% and hydrolyzed protein (Bio

  15. Sexual Competitiveness of Anastrepha ludens (Diptera: Tephritidae) Males Exposed to Citrus aurantium and Citrus paradisi Essential Oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morató, Santiago; Shelly, Todd; Rull, Juan; Aluja, Martin

    2015-04-01

    Males of the Mediterranean fruit fly (Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann)) display increased mating competitiveness following exposure to the odor of certain host and nonhost plants, and this phenomenon has been used in the sterile insect technique to boost the mating success of released, sterile males. Here, we aimed to establish whether males of the Mexican fruit fly (Anastrepha ludens (Loew)) gain a mating advantage when exposed to the aroma of two preferred hosts, grapefruit (Citrus paradisi Macfadyen) and bitter orange (Citrus aurantium L.). Under seminatural conditions, we observed that, in trials using wildish males (from a young laboratory colony started with wild flies) exclusively, exposure to the aroma of bitter orange had no effect on male mating success but exposure to the odor grapefruit oil increased male mating success significantly. In a separate test involving both exposed and nonexposed wildish and mass-reared, sterile males, although wildish males were clearly more competitive than sterile males, exposure to grapefruit oil had no detectable effect on either male type. Exposure to oils had no effect on copulation duration in any of the experiments. We discuss the possibility that the positive effect of grapefruit essential oils on wildish male competitiveness may have been linked to exposure of females to grapefruit as a larval food, which may have imprinted them with grapefruit odors during pupal eclosion and biased their response as adults to odors of their maternal host. PMID:26470173

  16. Male Sexual Behavior and Pheromone Emission Is Enhanced by Exposure to Guava Fruit Volatiles in Anastrepha fraterculus.

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    Guillermo E Bachmann

    Full Text Available Plant chemicals can affect reproductive strategies of tephritid fruit flies by influencing sex pheromone communication and increasing male mating competitiveness.We explored whether exposure of Anastrepha fraterculus males to guava fruit volatiles and to a synthetic blend of volatile compounds released by this fruit affects the sexual performance of wild and laboratory flies. By means of bioassays and pheromone collection we investigated the mechanism underlying this phenomenon.Guava volatile exposure enhanced male mating success and positively affected male calling behavior and pheromone release in laboratory and wild males. Changes in male behavior appear to be particularly important during the initial phase of the sexual activity period, when most of the mating pairs are formed. Exposure of laboratory males to a subset of guava fruit volatiles enhanced mating success, showing that the response to the fruit might be mimicked artificially.Volatiles of guava seem to influence male mating success through an enhancement of chemical and physical signals related to the communication between sexes. This finding has important implications for the management of this pest species through the Sterile Insect Technique. We discuss the possibility of using artificial blends to improve the sexual competitiveness of sterile males.

  17. Comparison of aggregation and feeding responses by normal and irradiated fruit flies, Ceratitis capitata and Anastrepha suspensa (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olfactory, aggregatory, and feeding responses of normal (untreated) laboratory stocks of Mediterranean fruit fly (medfly), Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), and of Caribbean fruit fly (caribfly), Anastrepha suspensa (Loew), were compared to those of flies irradiated (10 krad in air) 2 days before eclosion. Females of both species consumed greater quantities of protein hydrolysate solutions, entered protein hydrolysate-baited olfactory traps, and aggregated on agar plates containing protein hydrolysate in greater numbers than males of the same age and condition. However, male medflies consumed more sucrose than did females of the same age and condition. In the medfly, irradiation resulted in reduced olfactory response, reduced total food intake by flies of both sexes, and a significant reduction in aggregation on and intake of protein hydrolysate by females and of sugar consumption by males. In the irradiated caribfly, there was a significant reduction in olfactory response of females to yeast hydrolysate. In both sexes, aggregation on and consumption of yeast hydrolysate were reduced. Effects of irradiation on feeding behavior are discussed in relation to the biology of the flies and their control by the sterile insect release method

  18. Fungi that cause rot in bunches of grape identified in adult fruit flies (Anastrepha fraterculus (Diptera: Tephritidae

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    Ruben Machota Jr

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann is the main species of frugivorous insect that damages berries of table grape (Vitis vinifera L. in Southern Brazil. This study was conducted to isolate and identify the fungi associated with bunch rot present in the body of adults of A. fraterculus collected in a commercial vineyard. From January to February 2011, adults of A. fraterculus were collected from a commercial vineyard of green grapes using adapted McPhail traps. In laboratory, flies bodies were divided into four parts (head, legs, wings, and ovipositor in Petri dishes with PDA medium to evaluate microorganisms associated. Six adult females of A. fraterculus collected in the field were also analyzed in a scanning electron microscope (SEM to identify spores of fungi. Phytopathogenic microorganisms were found in all sectioned parts. Fungal spores were recorded adhered to the body of adult females of A. fraterculus. The main species of fungi found in the body parts of A. fraterculus were Cladosporium spp. (20.2% of the obtained colonies, Botrytis cinerea Pers. (12.9%, Colletotrichum spp. (10.1%, Penicillium spp. (10.1%, Fusarium spp. (7.7%, followed by Rhizopus spp., Trichoderma spp. and Aspergillus spp., suggesting that the insect can serve as a mechanical vector of spores increasing damage in the vineyards.

  19. Preferencia de anastrepha ludens (loew) (diptera: tephritidae) por volátiles de frutos verdes o amarillos de mango y naranja

    OpenAIRE

    María de Jesús García Ramírez; Juan Cibrián Tovar; René Arzufí Barrera; José López Collado; Marcos Soto Hernández

    2004-01-01

    Se evaluó la respuesta de la mosca mexicana de la fruta, Anastrepha ludens (Loew), a volátiles de frutos verdes y amarillos de mango (Mangifera indica L. var. Haden), y naranja (Citrus aurantium L. var. Valencia). Grupos de moscas hembras y machos fueron evaluados en estado de precópula y postcópula. En los resultados de preferencia, los volátiles de los frutos verdes de mango y naranja atrajeron un mayor número de moscas en comparación con las otras opciones (p #8804;0.05). Las hembras y los...

  20. Percepção química e visual de Anastrepha fraterculus (Diptera, Tephritidae em laboratório Chemical and visual perception of Anastrepha fraterculus (Diptera, Tephritidae in laboratory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia L. F. Gregorio

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available A mosca-das-frutas-sul-americana, Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann, 1830, é uma das principais pragas da fruticultura no Brasil. Durante a alimentação, as larvas fazem galerias nos frutos, alterando o sabor e prejudicando a produção e comercialização dos mesmos. O presente trabalho teve como objetivo estudar fatores envolvidos na escolha do hospedeiro por A. fraterculus. Foram avaliadas as respostas eletroantenográficas de machos e fêmeas a extratos etanólicos de frutos verdes e maduros de pessegueiro - Prunus persica, cultivar Chimarrita (Rosaceae, pitangueira - Eugenia uniflora (Myrtaceae, guabirobeira - Campomanesia xanthocarpa (Myrtaceae e araçazeiro - Psidium cattleianum (Myrtaceae. Foram também observadas as influências da cor (amarela, verde e vermelha e da composição do substrato de oviposição (polpas de araçá, guabiroba, pitanga e pêssego na fecundidade da espécie. As respostas eletroantenográficas de fêmeas foram significativamente distintas para os extratos de guabiroba verde e madura, araçá maduro e pitanga verde. Em antenas de machos, as maiores despolarizações médias foram registradas em resposta aos extratos de guabiroba verde e madura, araçá verde e maduro e pitanga verde. As respostas eletrofisiológicas geradas não diferiram estatisticamente entre os sexos, para todos os tratamentos. A cor do substrato não afetou a oviposição. As fêmeas ovipositaram mais nos substratos contendo polpa de pêssego e de guabiroba, quando comparados aos respectivos controles.The South American fruit fly Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann, 1830 is one of the greatest threats to the fruit growing industry in Brazil. During the feeding process, the larvae build galleries within the fruit, altering the flavor and damaging its production and commercialization. The present work had as its objective to study the factors involved in the choice of the host by A. fraterculus. Electroantennographic responses of the males and

  1. Responses of Anastrepha fraterculus (Diptera: Tephritidae to pesticides used in organic fruit production Respuestas de Anastrepha fraterculus (Diptera: Tephritidae a plaguicidas utilizados en la producción orgánica de frutas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Bisotto-de-Oliveira

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The South American fruit fly, Anastrepha fraterculus (Diptera: Tephritidae, is an economically important pest of fruit production in Southern Brazil. In organically managed orchards the species has traditionally been controlled with oils, plant extracts, and solutions such as pyroligneous extract and lime sulfur. The objectives of this study were to examine the possible deterrent effect of pesticides with the highest electroantennographic bioactivity on fruit flies and to assess their effects on the viability of pupae in treated fruits. Antennae were exposed to pyroligneous extract (BioPirol7M®, 0.4%, lime sulfur solution (SulFertilizantes, 1%, neem (Organic Neem®, 0.5%, and rotenone (Rotenat®, 0.6%, taking into account fly sex, age and reproductive status. Pupal viability was assessed for larvae reared in papaya (Carica papaya var. Calyman and guava (Psidium guajava var. Paluma fruits treated with the pesticides that generated the strongest electrophysiological responses. The bioactivity of A. fraterculus antennae was highest when stimulated with pyroligneous extract and lime sulfur solution, for young and mated flies. Neither substance inhibited oviposition and larval development in treated fruits, a result that has important implications for A. fraterculus management in organic systems.La mosca sudamericana, Anastrepha fraterculus (Diptera: Tephritidae, es una plaga de importancia económica en la producción de frutas en el sur de Brasil. En huertos bajo manejo orgánico la especie se controla tradicionalmente con aceites, extractos vegetales y soluciones como el extracto piroleñoso y sulfuro de cal. Los objetivos de este estudio fueron evaluar el posible efecto disuasivo de los plaguicidas que presentan la más alta bioactividad electroantenográficas en moscas de la fruta y evaluar sus efectos sobre la viabilidad de las pupas en frutas tratadas. Las antenas fueron expuestas al extracto piroleñoso (BioPirol 7M®, 0,4%, solución de

  2. Viabilidad de huevos y modelo de jaula para la cría artificial masiva de Anastrepha fraterculus (Diptera: Tephritidae Viability of eggs and screen cage model for mass artificial rearing of Anastrepha fraterculus (Diptera: Tephritidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana García

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del presente trabajo fue determinar la viabilidad de huevos y el modelo de jaula apropiada para la cría artificial masiva de Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann. Los resultados muestran que el periodo de máxima oviposición ocurre durante los primeros 10 días en jaulas modelo Mediana, lo cual permite obtener el volumen de huevos necesario para alimentar el pie de cría de A. fraterculus en una cría masiva. Considerando que se encontró relación positiva entre el volumen de huevos ovipositados y el porcentaje de eclosión de huevos, en un periodo de 21 días de colecta, este periodo coincide además con los valores de eclosión más altos. Entre los modelos de jaulas evaluadas: Mediana, Grande y Mission; el modelo Mediana mostró los mejores resultados al evaluar el número de ía con un valor promedio de 11,4. La jaula que mostró menores resultados fue el modelo Mission, con un valor promedio de 4,6 huevos/hembra/día. Las jaulas grandes mostraron valores menores a las jaulas Medianas, pero las diferencias fueron no significativas. Los buenos valores registrados en las jaulas Medianas posiblemente se deban a la estructura de la jaula, que presentó la cara interna dividida en muchos compartimientos, lo cual mejora la distribución de las moscas adultas y previene la mortalidad temprana por hacinamiento en la base o en el techo de la jaula.The aim of this study was to determine the viability of eggs and cage model suitable for artificial mass rearing of Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann. The results show that the period of maximum oviposition occurs during the first 10 days in Medium cages which allows to obtain the necessary volume of eggs to feed the foot of rearing of A. fraterculus in a mass rearing. Considering that a positive relationship was found between the volume of eggs oviposited and the hatchability percentage in a period of 21 days of collection, this period coincides with the highest values of hatching. Among the

  3. Development and reproductive biology of the egg-pupal parasite, Fopius arisanus in Anastrepha suspensa, a new tephritid host

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fopius (=Biosteres) arisanus (Sonan) (=Opius oophilus Fullaway) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) is a solitary egg parasite (parasitoid) that attacks tephritid fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) eggs and first instars (Haramoto 1953, Clausen et al. 1965, Harris and Okamoto 1991). It completes its development within the host's larva and pupa and emerges from the latter as an adult and as such, is an egg-pupal endoparasite. F. arisanus is known to attack at least seven tephritid fruit fly species (Wharton and Gilstrap 1983) and appears to be the only egg-pupal parasite of tephritids in the Western Hemisphere. It is considered to be the most successful of the parasites that attack the Oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) and the Mediterranean fruit fly (Medfly), Ceratitis capitata (Weidmann) in Hawaii (Knipling 1995), resulting in 74-92% of total parasites recovered from both host species (Wong and Ramadan 1987). However, in Malaysia, Palacio et al. (1992) found that F. arisanus was outcompeted by the larval endoparasite, Diachasmimorpha longicaudata (Ashmead) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) in multiple parasitised B. dorsalis. While several larval parasites of tephritids had been cultured successfully in the laboratory (Ramadan 1991) and utilised in inundative release programmes, F. arisanus proved difficult to maintain in culture. In recent years, a laboratory strain of F. arisanus (termed the 'Harris strain') has been established on B. dorsalis (Harris and Okamoto 1991). Efforts are currently in progress to mass rear this strain on the Medfly and other tephritid pests. F. arisanus was first released into Florida from Hawaii in 1974-75 as a biological control agent against the Caribbean fruit fly (Caribfly) Anastrepha suspensa (Loew) (Diptera: Tephritidae) but this was unsuccessful (Baranowski et al. 1993). Interestingly, it was also introduced into Costa Rica from Hawaii and was subsequently reared from puparia of Anastrepha spp. (Wharton et al. 1981), indicating its

  4. Status of the Caribbean fruit fly, Anastrepha suspensa (Loew), sterile insect technique programme in the state of Florida, USA - November 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Status of the Caribbean fruit fly, Anastrepha suspensa, Loew, sterile insect technique program in the state of Florida, USA - November 1996. Application of sterilization techniques to Anastrepha suspensa in Florida was conducted as early as 1970 in Key West. In 1988-1990, releases of sterile flies were made in a 20 km2 urban area in southwestern Florida adjacent to commercial citrus. With the intent to integrate a sterile insect technique system within a fly-free management program for the caribfly, additional tests are being conducted both within a major citrus production area and in an isolated urban location of the mid to lower Florida peninsula. Tests at the former site measures the synergistic effect of augmenting sterile fly releases with parasitoids, whereas the latter studies will define the efficacy of reduced numbers of sterile flies released per acre than is standard in medfly and medfly eradication and suppression programs. Discussed here is the progress of an ongoing project to measure the benefits of SIT as it applies to caribfly export protocols. (author)

  5. Assessment of Injuries Caused by Anastrepha fraterculus (Wied.) (Diptera: Tephritidae) on the Incidence of Bunch Rot Diseases in Table Grape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machota, R; Bortoli, L C; Cavalcanti, F R; Botton, M; Grützmacher, A D

    2016-08-01

    Anastrepha fraterculus (Wied.) is the main insect pest of table grapes (Vitis vinifera) in the Southern Region of Brazil. In this study, we aimed to investigate the effect of fruit puncturing by adult females and larval infestation by A. fraterculus on the occurrence of bunch rot disease in the grape (cultivar "Itália") by evaluating grapes (a) punctured for oviposition by females of A. fraterculus, sterilized in laboratory with novaluron (40 mg L(-1)) and further spray-inoculated separately with Botrytis cinerea (1 × 10(6) conidia mL(-1)), Glomerella cingulata (1 × 10(6) conidia mL(-1)), and bacteria and yeast that cause sour rot (1 × 10(5) cells mL(-1)), (b) grapes punctured for oviposition by non-sterilized females with pathogen spraying, (c) grapes with mechanical wounds and pathogen spraying, (d) grapes with no wounds and with pathogen spraying, (e) grapes punctured for oviposition by A. fraterculus chemically sterilized in laboratory with novaluron, (f) grapes punctured for oviposition by A. fraterculus non-sterilized in laboratory with novaluron, (g) grapes with mechanical wounds, and (h) grapes with no sterilization or pathogen spraying. Our data indicated that the mechanical and oviposition wounds caused by A. fraterculus increased the percentage of grapes infected by B. cinerea, G. cingulata, and microorganisms of acid rot. The grape puncturing by A. fraterculus and the mechanical wound allows the penetration of B. cinerea and microorganisms leading to acid rot. We conclude that the fruit fly A. fraterculus may facilitate phytopathogens penetration leading to bunch rots in the table grape Itália. PMID:26911161

  6. Effectiveness of Metarhizium anisopliae against immature stages of Anastrepha fraterculus fruitfly (Diptera : Tephritidae Eficácia de Metarhizium anisopliae a estágios imaturos de Anastrepha fraterculus a mosca das frutas (Diptera : Tephritidae

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    Ricardo Henry Rodrigues Destéfano

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available The study evaluated the effectiveness of Metarhizium anisopliae var. anisopliae (Hyphomycetes : Moniliales strain E9, isolated from the pasture spittlebug Deois flavopicta (Hemiptera : Cercopidae, against larvae, prepupae and pupae stage and emergent adults of Anastrepha fraterculus, the South American fruitfly. The bioassay was carried out simulating field conditions, on autoclaved (AS and non-autoclaved (NAS soil from typical citrus orchards in the State of São Paulo, Southeastern region of Brazil. Various concentrations of conidia were incorporated into the soil the mortality, calculated based on the percentage of adult emergence, was 86% for the highest conidia concentrations: 2.52 x 10(10 for AS and 2.52 x 10(10 for NAS. The lethal concentration (LC50, expressed as conidia concentration, was 8.44 x 10(9 conidia/g of soil (S for AS and 12.23 x 10(9 conidia/g of soil for NAS.O estudo avaliou a eficácia de Metarhizium anisopliae var. anisopliae, (Hyphomycetes : Moniliales linhagem E9, isolada da cigarrinha das pastagens Deois flavopicta (Hemiptera : Cercopidae, contra larvas, prepupas, pupas e adultos emergentes de Anastreha fraterculus, a mosca Sul Americana das frutas. Os bioensaios foram conduzidos simulando condições de campo em solo autoclavado (AS e não autoclavado (NAS de pomares típicos de citros no Estado de São Paulo, sudeste do Brasil. Várias concentrações de conídios foram incorporadas no solo. A mortalidade calculada sobre a porcentagem de adultos emergentes, foi de 86% para as concentrações mais altas de conídios: 2,52 x 10(10 para AS e 2,52 x 10(10 para NAS. A concentração letal (LC50 expressa pela concentração de conídios, foi 8,44 x 10(9 conídios/g de solo para AS e 12,2 x 10(9 conídios/g/S para NAS.

  7. Capture of Anastrepha sororcula (Diptera: Tephritidae in McPhail and Jackson traps with food attractant and virgin adults

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    Christiane dos Santos Felix

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available This stady evaluated the capture of A. sororcula in the traps baited with the conspecific virgin adults and food attractant in two orchards. The first was the orchard of the Universidade Federal da Grande Dourados (OUFGD and the second, the orchard of the Sindicato Rural de Dourados (OSRD. The capture of A. sororcula in McPhail and Jackson traps was carried out using the corn hydrolysed protein (CHP, control (no flies, virgin males (5, 10 and 15, five virgin females and five virgin couples. The average number of the flies caught in the traps with the corn hydrolysed protein was signifícantly higher than all the other treatments. There was no significant capture of A. sororcula females in the traps baited with the conspecific virgin males, females or the couples.As moscas-das-frutas constituem um grupo de pragas responsáveis por grandes prejuízos econômicos à fruticultura mundial. Anastrepha sororcula Zucchi, é a principal espécie de tefritídeo que ataca a goiaba em Mato Grosso do Sul. O objetivo desta pesquisa foi avaliar a captura de adultos de A. sororcula em armadilhas com atrativo alimentar e adultos virgens, em dois ambientes. Os bioensaios iniciaram-se com a criação de A. sororcula no Laboratório de Insetos Frugívoros da Universidade Federal da Grande Dourados (UFGD. As pesquisas de campo foram desenvolvidas nos pomares da UFGD e do Sindicato Rural de Dourados (SRD-MS. A captura de adultos de A. sororcula em armadilhas McPhail e Jackson foi avaliada para os tratamentos: proteína hidrolisada de milho, testemunha (sem moscas, machos virgens (5, 10 e 15, 5 fêmeas virgens e 5 casais. O número médio de indivíduos capturados nas armadilhas com proteína foi significativamente maior que nos demais tratamentos. O número médio de adultos de A. sororcula, capturado com o tratamento proteína no SRD foi significativamente superior ao do pomar da UFGD. Não ocorreu captura significativa de fêmeas de A. sororcula nas armadilhas com

  8. Effects of gamma radiation on the sterility and behavioral quality of the Caribbean fruit fly, Anastrepha suspensa (Loew) (Diptera:Tephritidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pupae of Anastrepha suspensa (Loew) were irradiated 2 days before adult eclosion in an air atmosphere with 15, 20, 25, 30, 50 and 70 Gy of gamma radiation (Co-60). The radiation effects on sterility and other parameters of quality and behavior of males and females of Caribbean fly were established. Males became fully sterile with a dose of 50 Gy and females laid no eggs when exposed to 25 Gy. Radiation had no significant effect on adult eclosion, sex ratio, flight ability and irritability, but female mortality was affected significantly by radiation, showing higher survival rates in low dosage treatments. The mating behavior of the males was reduced significantly by increasing the radiation doses. (author)

  9. Genetics and biology of Anastrepha fraterculus: research supporting the use of the sterile insect technique (SIT) to control this pest in Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cladera, Jorge L; Vilardi, Juan C; Juri, Marianela; Paulin, Laura E; Giardini, M Cecilia; Gómez Cendra, Paula V; Segura, Diego F; Lanzavecchia, Silvia B

    2014-01-01

    Two species of true fruit flies (taxonomic family Tephritidae) are considered pests of fruit and vegetable production in Argentina: the cosmopolitan Mediterranean fruit fly (Ceratitis capitata Wiedemann) and the new world South American fruit fly (Anastrepha fraterculus Wiedemann). The distribution of these two species in Argentina overlaps north of the capital, Buenos Aires. Regarding the control of these two pests, the varied geographical fruit producing regions in Argentina are in different fly control situations. One part is under a programme using the sterile insect technique (SIT) for the eradication of C. capitata, because A. fraterculus is not present in this area. The application of the SIT to control C. capitata north of the present line with the possibility of A. fraterculus occupying the niche left vacant by C. capitata becomes a cause of much concern. Only initial steps have been taken to investigate the genetics and biology of A. fraterculus. Consequently, only fragmentary information has been recorded in the literature regarding the use of SIT to control this species. For these reasons, the research to develop a SIT protocol to control A. fraterculus is greatly needed. In recent years, research groups have been building a network in Argentina in order to address particular aspects of the development of the SIT for Anastrepha fraterculus. The problems being addressed by these groups include improvement of artificial diets, facilitation of insect mass rearing, radiation doses and conditions for insect sterilisation, basic knowledge supporting the development of males-only strains, reduction of male maturation time to facilitate releases, identification and isolation of chemical communication signals, and a good deal of population genetic studies. This paper is the product of a concerted effort to gather all this knowledge scattered in numerous and often hard-to-access reports and papers and summarize their basic conclusions in a single publication

  10. Demographic analysis of mass-reared Anastrepha fraterculus (Diptera: Tephritidae in Tucumán, Argentina Análisis demográfico de la cría masiva de Anastrepha fraterculus (Diptera: Tephritidae en Tucumán, Argentina

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    Héctor E. Jaldo

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The life cycle of a lab-adapted mass reared strain of Anastrepha fraterculus at 24°C constant temperature was 41 days, including the preoviposition period. Mortality rates of 8%, 22%, 22%, 5%, and 43% were recorded for eggs, larvae, pupae, adults (preoviposition stage and adults (reproductive stage, respectively. The intrinsic rate of increase was 0.065, the net fecundity rate was 120.4, and the gross fecundity rate was 328.4. In a stable population, 22% would be eggs, 53% larvae, 18% pupae, 4% preoviposition adults, and 3% reproductive adults.El ciclo de vida de Anastrepha fraterculus en cría masiva a temperatura constante de 24°C fue de 41 días, incluyendo el período de preoviposición. Las mortalidades para huevo, larva, pupa, adultos en preoviposición y adultos reproductivos fueron de 8%, 22%, 22%, 5% y 43%, respectivamente. La tasa intrínseca de incremento natural fue de 0,065, la tasa de fertilidad neta fue de 120,4, y la tasa de fertilidad bruta fue de 328,4. En una población estable 22% debería ser huevos, 53% larvas, 18% pupas, 4% adultos en preoviposición y 3% adultos en etapa reproductiva.

  11. Himenópteros parasitóides de larvas de Anastrepha spp. em frutos de carambola (Averrhoa carambola L. na região de Divinópolis, Minas Gerais, Brasil Himenopterous parasitoids of Anastrepha spp. larvae, in star fruit (Averrhoa carambola L. In divinópolis region, Minas Gerais, Brasil

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    Cláudio Gonçalves Silva

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi conduzido com o objetivo de conhecer os parasitóides de moscas-da-fruta na região de Divinópolis-MG. As pupas foram obtidas pelo método de flutuação, sendo individualizadas em cápsulas de gelatina até a emergência das moscas adultas ou de seus parasitóides. A prevalência total de parasitismo foi de 14,8%. Trichopria anastrepha foi a espécie mais comum, com 44,5%.The objective of this work was to identify the parasitoids of fruit flies in Divinópolis-MG region. The pupae were obtained by the flotation method. They were individually placed in gelatin capsules until the emergency of the adult flies or their parasitoids. The overall prevalence of parasitism was 14,8%. Trichopria anastrepha was the most common specie with a frequency of 44,5%.

  12. Cytogenetic Analysis of the South American Fruit Fly Anastrepha fraterculus (Diptera:Tephritidae) Species Complex: Construction of Detailed Photographic Polytene Chromosome Maps of the Argentinian Af. sp.1 Member

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augustinos, Antonios A.; Drosopoulou, Elena; Lanzavecchia, Silvia B.; Cladera, Jorge L.; Caceres, Carlos; Bourtzis, Kostas; Mavragani-Tsipidou, Penelope; Zacharopoulou, Antigone

    2016-01-01

    Genetic and cytogenetic studies constitute a significant basis for understanding the biology of insect pests and the design and the construction of genetic tools for biological control strategies. Anastrepha fraterculus is an important pest of the Tephritidae family. It is distributed from southern Texas through eastern Mexico, Central America and South America causing significant crop damage and economic losses. Currently it is considered as a species complex; until now seven members have been described based on multidisciplinary approaches. Here we report the cytogenetic analysis of an Argentinian population characterized as Af. sp.1 member of the Anastrepha fraterculus species complex. The mitotic karyotype and the first detailed photographic maps of the salivary gland polytene chromosomes are presented. The mitotic metaphase complement consists of six (6) pairs of chromosomes, including one pair of heteromorphic sex chromosomes, with the male being the heterogametic sex. The analysis of the salivary gland polytene complement shows a total number of five long chromosomes that correspond to the five autosomes of the mitotic karyotype and a heterochromatic network corresponding to the sex chromosomes. Comparison of the polytene chromosome maps between this species and Anastrepha ludens shows significant similarity. The polytene maps presented here are suitable for cytogenetic studies that could shed light on the species limits within this species complex and support the development of genetic tools for sterile insect technique (SIT) applications. PMID:27362546

  13. Cytogenetic Analysis of the South American Fruit Fly Anastrepha fraterculus (Diptera:Tephritidae) Species Complex: Construction of Detailed Photographic Polytene Chromosome Maps of the Argentinian Af. sp.1 Member.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gariou-Papalexiou, Angeliki; Giardini, María Cecilia; Augustinos, Antonios A; Drosopoulou, Elena; Lanzavecchia, Silvia B; Cladera, Jorge L; Caceres, Carlos; Bourtzis, Kostas; Mavragani-Tsipidou, Penelope; Zacharopoulou, Antigone

    2016-01-01

    Genetic and cytogenetic studies constitute a significant basis for understanding the biology of insect pests and the design and the construction of genetic tools for biological control strategies. Anastrepha fraterculus is an important pest of the Tephritidae family. It is distributed from southern Texas through eastern Mexico, Central America and South America causing significant crop damage and economic losses. Currently it is considered as a species complex; until now seven members have been described based on multidisciplinary approaches. Here we report the cytogenetic analysis of an Argentinian population characterized as Af. sp.1 member of the Anastrepha fraterculus species complex. The mitotic karyotype and the first detailed photographic maps of the salivary gland polytene chromosomes are presented. The mitotic metaphase complement consists of six (6) pairs of chromosomes, including one pair of heteromorphic sex chromosomes, with the male being the heterogametic sex. The analysis of the salivary gland polytene complement shows a total number of five long chromosomes that correspond to the five autosomes of the mitotic karyotype and a heterochromatic network corresponding to the sex chromosomes. Comparison of the polytene chromosome maps between this species and Anastrepha ludens shows significant similarity. The polytene maps presented here are suitable for cytogenetic studies that could shed light on the species limits within this species complex and support the development of genetic tools for sterile insect technique (SIT) applications. PMID:27362546

  14. Cytogenetic Analysis of the South American Fruit Fly Anastrepha fraterculus (Diptera:Tephritidae Species Complex: Construction of Detailed Photographic Polytene Chromosome Maps of the Argentinian Af. sp.1 Member.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angeliki Gariou-Papalexiou

    Full Text Available Genetic and cytogenetic studies constitute a significant basis for understanding the biology of insect pests and the design and the construction of genetic tools for biological control strategies. Anastrepha fraterculus is an important pest of the Tephritidae family. It is distributed from southern Texas through eastern Mexico, Central America and South America causing significant crop damage and economic losses. Currently it is considered as a species complex; until now seven members have been described based on multidisciplinary approaches. Here we report the cytogenetic analysis of an Argentinian population characterized as Af. sp.1 member of the Anastrepha fraterculus species complex. The mitotic karyotype and the first detailed photographic maps of the salivary gland polytene chromosomes are presented. The mitotic metaphase complement consists of six (6 pairs of chromosomes, including one pair of heteromorphic sex chromosomes, with the male being the heterogametic sex. The analysis of the salivary gland polytene complement shows a total number of five long chromosomes that correspond to the five autosomes of the mitotic karyotype and a heterochromatic network corresponding to the sex chromosomes. Comparison of the polytene chromosome maps between this species and Anastrepha ludens shows significant similarity. The polytene maps presented here are suitable for cytogenetic studies that could shed light on the species limits within this species complex and support the development of genetic tools for sterile insect technique (SIT applications.

  15. A revision of Afrotropical Quasimodo flies (Diptera: Schizophora; Curtonotidae). Part IV—the continental Afrotropical species of Curtonotum Macquart, with descriptions of thirteen new species and a combined phylogenetic analysis of the Curtonotidae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirk-Spriggs, Ashley H; Wiegmann, Brian M

    2013-01-01

    specific name, as Parapsinota sublineata (Duda, 1939). The continental Afrotropical fauna of the genus Curtonotum Macquart, 1844 is revised and a diagnosis of the genus is provided. Known biology, behaviour and published information on immature stages of the genus are briefly reviewed. Type material of 12 of the 13 named species (C. angolense Tsacas, C. campsiphallum Tsacas, C. cuthbertsoni Duda, C. herrero Tsacas, C. pauliani Tsacas, C. platyphallum Tsacas, C. quinquevittatum Curran, C. saheliense Tsacas, C. sao Tsacas, C. simile Tsacas, C. striatifrons Malloch and C. tigrinum Séguy), was studied and errors in previous interpretations and designation of type specimens are resolved. Curtonotum pauliani is the only species occurring on both the continental African mainland and Madagascar. The type spec-imen of C. maculiventris (Enderlein) is lost and a neotype is here designated. One species synonymy is proposed: C. tigrinum Séguy, 1933 = C. maculiventris (Enderlein, 1917), syn. n. Additional material of the aforementioned species is noted, substantially increasing their known distributions. Thirteen species are described as new, namely: C. bicuspis Kirk- Spriggs, sp. n., C. cimbebas Kirk-Spriggs, sp. n., C. constance Kirk-Spriggs, sp. n., C. freidberg Kirk-Spriggs, sp. n., C. gonzo Kirk-Spriggs, sp. n., C. hay Kirk-Spriggs, sp. n., C. litoralis Kirk-Spriggs, sp. n., C. marriott Kirk-Spriggs, sp. n., C. mcgregor Kirk-Spriggs, sp. n., C. moffatt Kirk-Spriggs, sp. n., C. tsacas Kirk-Spriggs, sp. n., C. uncinatum Kirk- Spriggs, sp. n. and C. unicuspis Kirk-Spriggs, sp. n. The head and thorax, frons, wing, fifth sternite and hypandrium of the male of the 25 named species are illustrated for the first time, as well as the highly diagnostic male phallus, from both the right and left sides laterally. A key to species based on male characters is provided, and species distributions are mapped and interpreted according to major vegetation types, topography and humidity zones. The

  16. Effects of gamma radiation on the sterility and behavioral quality of the caribbean fruit fly, Anastrepha suspensa (Loew (Diptera:Tephritidae Efeitos da radiação gama na esterilização e comportamento da mosca-do-caribe, Anastrepha suspensa (Low (Diptera:Tephritidae

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    J.M.M. Walder

    1993-09-01

    Full Text Available Pupae of Anastrepha suspensa (Loew were irradiated 2 days before adult eclosión in an air atmosphere with 15, 20, 25, 30, 50 and 70 Gy of gamma radiation (Co-60. The radiation effects on sterility and other parameters of quality and behavior of males and females of caribfly were established. Males became fully sterile with a dose of 50 Gy and females laid no eggs when exposed to 25 Gy. Radiation had no significant effect on adult eclosion, sex ratio, flight ability and irritability, but female mortality was affected significantly by radiation, showing higher survival rates in low dosage treatments. The mating behavior of the males was reduced significantly by increasing the radiation doses.Pupas de Anastrepha suspensa (Loew foram irradiadas dois dias antes da emergência dos adultos em atmosfera de ar com as doses de 15, 20, 25, 30, 50 e 70 Gy de radiação gama (Co-60. Foram avaliados os efeitos da radiação sobre a esterilidade e outros parâmetros de qualidade e comportamento de machos e fêmeas de mosca-do-caribe. Machos tornaram-se totalmente estéreis com uma dose de 50 Gy e as fêmeas não ovipositaram quando expostas a 25 Gy. A radiação não teve efeito significativo sobre a taxa de emergência de adultos, na razão sexual, na habilidade de vôo e na irritabilidade desses insetos. Somente a mortalidade das fêmeas foi afetada significativamente pela radiação, causando unia maior sobrevivência nas dosagens mais baixas. A atividade de acasalamento dos machos foi reduzida significativamente com o incremento da dosagem de radiação.

  17. Comparison of Anastrepha ludens (Diptera: Tephritidae) Bisexual and Genetic Sexing (Tapachula-7) Strains: Effect of Hypoxia, Fly Density, Chilling Period, and Food Type on Fly Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arredondo, José; Ruiz, Lía; Hernández, Emilio; Montoya, Pablo; Díaz-Fleischer, Francisco

    2016-04-01

    The use of genetic sexing strain (GSS) insects in the sterile insect technique (SIT) makes necessary the revision of quality parameters of some stressful steps used during the packing process for aerial release because of possible differences in tolerance between fly strains. Here, we determined the effect of three periods of hypoxia (12, 24, and 36 h at pupal stage), three cage densities (1.0, 1.3, and 1.5 flies/cm2), two different foods (protein/sugar (1/24) and Mubarqui), and three chilling times (20 min [control], 90, and 180 min) on the quality parameters of flies of two Anastrepha ludens (Loew) strains (bisexual and GSS Tapachula-7). In general, the response to stressful conditions of both fly strains was qualitatively equivalent but quantitatively different, as flies of both strains responded equally to the stressful factors; however, flies of Tapachula-7 exhibited lower quality parameters than the control flies. Thus, hypoxia affected the flying ability but not the emergence or longevity of flies. The food type affected the adult weight; protein/sugar produced heavier flies that also survived longer and had a greater mating propensity. Flies under the lowest density were better fliers that those at the other two densities. Increasing chilling time reduced flight ability but not longevity or mating propensity. The implications of these findings for the use of A. ludens GSS in SIT programs are discussed herein. PMID:26685109

  18. Regional-Scale Spatio-Temporal Analysis of Anastrepha ludens (Diptera: Tephritidae) Populations in the Citrus Region of Santa Engracia, Tamaulipas, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanoye-Eligio, Venancio; Barrientos-Lozano, Ludivina; Pérez-Castañeda, Roberto; Gaona-García, Griselda; Lara-Villalon, Manuel

    2015-08-01

    Large citrus areas in Tamaulipas are affected by Anastrepha ludens (Loew) populations. Here we report the findings of a spatio-temporal analysis of A. ludens on an extended citrus area from 2008-2011 aimed at analyzing the probabilities of A. ludens infestation and developing an infestation risk classification for citrus production. A Geographic Information System combined with the indicator kriging geostatistics technique was used to assess A. ludens adult densities in the spring and fall. During the spring, our models predicted higher probabilities of infestation in the western region, close to the Sierra Madre Oriental, than in the east. Although a patchy distribution of probabilities was observed in the fall, there was a trend toward higher probabilities of infestation in the west than east. The final raster models summarized the probability maps using a three-tiered infestation risk classification (low-, medium-, and high risk). These models confirmed the greater infestation risk in the west in both seasons. These risk classification data support arguments for the use of the sterile insect technique and biological control in this extended citrus area and will have practical implications for the area-wide integrated pest management carried out by the National Program Against Fruit Flies in Tamaulipas, Mexico. PMID:26470306

  19. Quarantine cold treatments for Ceratitis capitata and Anastrepha fraterculus (Diptera: Tephritidae) for citrus in Argentina: conclusions after 10 years of research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willink, Eduardo; Gastaminza, Gerardo; Salvatore, Analia; Gramajo, M. Cecilia; Acenolaza, Mariana; Avila, Rosana; Favre, Paola, E-mail: ewillink@eeaoc.org.a [Estacion Experimental Agroindustrial Obispo Colombres (EEAOC), Tucuman (Argentina)

    2006-07-01

    Argentina has quarantine restrictions in some markets due to the presence of two quarantine fruit fly pests: Ceratitis capitata and Anastrepha fraterculus. One alternative is the use of cold quarantine treatments during transport of the commodities. Since 1996, the Estacion Experimental Agroindustrial Obispo Colombres (EEAOC), Tucuman, Argentina, has developed different cold quarantine treatments for citrus. In the present work we present all the data the EEAOC generated in the last ten years in order to facilitate the development of such cold treatments. Fruit flies were obtained from the colonies reared at EEAOC. Four citrus species were analyzed: lemon, grapefruit, orange and tangerines. Different varieties were analyzed for each fruit species. Sensitivity trials aiming at determine the most tolerant stage as well as to asses if there is any influence of varieties on cold tolerance were performed. Finally we compared the tolerance to cold between the two species. Sensitivity trials showed that mature larvae (L3) are the most tolerant stage for both fruit fly species. There was no effect of the varieties and the two fruit fly species were equally sensible to cold. Our results provide strong evidence in favor of concluding that any cold treatment developed for C. capitata is effective for A. fraterculus. (author)

  20. Remating behavior in Anastrepha fraterculus (Diptera: Tephritidae) females is affected by male juvenile hormone analog treatment but not by male sterilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, S; Liendo, M C; Devescovi, F; Peralta, P A; Yusef, V; Ruiz, J; Cladera, J L; Vera, M T; Segura, D F

    2013-06-01

    The sterile insect technique (SIT) has been proposed as an area-wide method to control the South American fruit fly, Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann). This technique requires sterilization, a procedure that affects, along with other factors, the ability of males to modulate female sexual receptivity after copulation. Numerous pre-release treatments have been proposed to counteract the detrimental effects of irradiation, rearing and handling and increase SIT effectiveness. These include treating newly emerged males with a juvenile hormone mimic (methoprene) or supplying protein to the male's diet to accelerate sexual maturation prior to release. Here, we examine how male irradiation, methoprene treatment and protein intake affect remating behavior and the amount of sperm stored in inseminated females. In field cage experiments, we found that irradiated laboratory males were equally able to modulate female remating behavior as fertile wild males. However, females mated with 6-day-old, methoprene-treated males remated more and sooner than females mated with naturally matured males, either sterile or wild. Protein intake by males was not sufficient to overcome reduced ability of methoprene-treated males to induce refractory periods in females as lengthy as those induced by wild and naturally matured males. The amount of sperm stored by females was not affected by male irradiation, methoprene treatment or protein intake. This finding revealed that factors in addition to sperm volume intervene in regulating female receptivity after copulation. Implications for SIT are discussed. PMID:23340454

  1. Can consumption of antioxidant rich mushrooms extend longevity?: antioxidant activity of Pleurotus spp. and its effects on Mexican fruit flies' (Anastrepha ludens) longevity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, José E; Jiménez-Pérez, Gabriela; Liedo, Pablo

    2015-12-01

    The variability of antioxidant capacity of 14 strains of the edible oyster mushroom Pleurotus spp. was determined, and the effect of selected mushroom supplements on the longevity of the Mexican fruit fly, Anastrepha ludens, was evaluated. The antioxidant capacity of the fruiting bodies was determined by three different methods, measuring the free radical scavenging activity of methanolic extracts, the OH radical scavenging capacity, and the total phenol content. The inhibition percentage of the DPPH radical varied between 32.6 and 85.7% and total phenols varied between 30.6 and 143.3 mg/g. The strains with the highest (Pleurotus djamor ECS-0142) and lowest (Pleurotus ostreatus ECS-1123) antioxidant capacity were selected to study their effect on the survival, life expectancy, and mortality of the Mexican fruit fly A. ludens. The results demonstrated differing responses between male and female flies. High concentrations of mushrooms (5 and 20%) in the diet resulted in a decrease in life expectancy. However, flies on the diet with 1% P. djamor ECS-0142 showed slightly but significantly greater survival than those on the control diet. The possible adverse effect of protein content in mushroom extracts is discussed. PMID:26499817

  2. Acoustic courtship songs in males of the fruit fly Anastrepha ludens (Diptera: Tephritidae associated with geography, mass rearing and courtship success

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.D Briceño

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The Sterile Insect Technique (SIT has been used successfully to control or eradicate fruit flies. The commonly observed inferiority of mass-reared males, compared with wild males, when they are paired with wild females, is apparently due to their inadequate courtship. Anastrepha ludens males produce two types of wing vibration during courtship and mating, the "calling sound" and the "premating or precopulatory sound". There were clear differences in the calling songs between successful and unsuccessful courtships in sterile (irradiated and fertile Mexican flies. Among sterile flies, successful males produce longer buzzes, shorter interpulses and a higher power spectrum in the signal. Fertile flies showed the same trend. For mating songs a significant difference occurred in two parameters: power spectrum between sterile and fertile flies with respect to the type of song, and the signal duration and intensity were greater in non-irradiated flies. Calling songs of wild flies compared with laboratory grown flies from Mexico had shorter interpulses, longer pulses, and a greater power spectrum. However, in the case of premating songs, the only difference was in the intensity, which was significantly greater in wild males. An unexpected result was not observing pulses during pheromone deposition in wild males from Costa Rica. Comparing the premating songs of wild flies from Costa Rica and Mexico, no significant differences were observed in the duration, and the intensity of the signal was slightly greater in flies from Mexico. Rev. Biol. Trop. 57 (Suppl. 1: 257-265. Epub 2009 November 30.

  3. Short-term anoxic conditioning hormesis boosts antioxidant defenses, lowers oxidative damage following irradiation and enhances male sexual performance in the Caribbean fruit fly, Anastrepha suspensa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Most organisms are repeatedly exposed to oxidative stress from multiple sources throughout their lifetimes, potentially affecting all aspects of organismal performance. Here we test whether exposure to a conditioning bout of anoxia early in adulthood induces a hormetic response that confers resistance to oxidative stress and enhances male sexual performance later in life in the Caribbean fruit fly, Anastrepha suspensa. Anoxic conditioning of adults prior to emergence led to an increase in antioxidant capacity driven by mitochondrial superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase. When exposed to gamma irradiation, a strong oxidative stressor, males that received anoxic conditioning had lower lipid and protein oxidative damage at sexual maturity. Anoxia conditioning led to greater male sexual competitiveness compared with unconditioned males when both were irradiated, although there was no effect of anoxia conditioning on mating competitiveness in unirradiated males. Anoxia also led to higher adult emergence rates and greater flight ability in irradiation-stressed flies while preserving steriity. Thus, hormetic treatments that increased antioxidant enzyme activity also improved male performance after irradiation, suggesting that antioxidant enzymes play an important role in mediating the relationship between oxidative stress and sexual selection. Furthermore, our work has important applied implications for the sterile insect technique (SIT), an environmentally friendly method of insect pest control where males are sterilized by irradiation and deployed in the field to disrupt pest populations via mating. We suggest that hormetic treatments specifically designed to enhance antioxidant activity may produce more sexually competitive sterile males, thus improving the efficacy and economy of SIT programs. (author)

  4. Determination of optimum irradiation doses in respect of the competitiveness of sterile males of Anastrepha ludens (Loew); attraction to colour traps and to sexual attractants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fruit cultivation is of great socio-economic importance in Mexico and covers an area of 650,000 ha. One of the most important pests is the Mexican fruit fly Anastrepha ludens (Loew). Its study is of topical importance since the Directorate General of Plant Health (SARH) and the United States Department of Agriculture have embarked on a joint control and eradication programme through APHIS. The results relate mainly to the effect of gamma radiation on sexual competitiveness and behaviour. The radiation was applied in the pupal phase three days before emergence, and sterility and sexual competitiveness were studied in the laboratory and in the field. The following conclusions were reached: (a) The males showed 90% sterility at 4 krad and practically 100% at 6 krad. A dose between 3 and 5 krad may be sufficient to obtain a high degree of sterility with a minimum of effect on sexual competitiveness; (b) 'solar' yellow increases the efficiency of traps by a factor of three to five; (c) the live-male bait attracts the greatest number of flies of both sexes, and the male was found to secrete a sex pheromone and an aggregation pheromone; (d) in all cases a significantly higher number of normal than irradiated flies were captured in the traps. This at least shows that the dose of 6 krad affects the adults' flying capacity or perception of attractants. Colouring also reduced the number of flies attracted. (author)

  5. Quarantine cold treatments for Ceratitis capitata and Anastrepha fraterculus (Diptera: Tephritidae) for citrus in Argentina: conclusions after 10 years of research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Argentina has quarantine restrictions in some markets due to the presence of two quarantine fruit fly pests: Ceratitis capitata and Anastrepha fraterculus. One alternative is the use of cold quarantine treatments during transport of the commodities. Since 1996, the Estacion Experimental Agroindustrial Obispo Colombres (EEAOC), Tucuman, Argentina, has developed different cold quarantine treatments for citrus. In the present work we present all the data the EEAOC generated in the last ten years in order to facilitate the development of such cold treatments. Fruit flies were obtained from the colonies reared at EEAOC. Four citrus species were analyzed: lemon, grapefruit, orange and tangerines. Different varieties were analyzed for each fruit species. Sensitivity trials aiming at determine the most tolerant stage as well as to asses if there is any influence of varieties on cold tolerance were performed. Finally we compared the tolerance to cold between the two species. Sensitivity trials showed that mature larvae (L3) are the most tolerant stage for both fruit fly species. There was no effect of the varieties and the two fruit fly species were equally sensible to cold. Our results provide strong evidence in favor of concluding that any cold treatment developed for C. capitata is effective for A. fraterculus. (author)

  6. Optimización del proceso de cría de Anastrepha ludens Loew (Diptera: Tephritidae) utilizando una dieta larvaria a base de almidón pre-gelatinizado

    OpenAIRE

    J. Pedro RIVERA; Emilio HERNÁNDEZ; Jorge TOLEDO; Bigail BRAVO; Salvador, Miguel; Yeudiel GÓMEZ

    2012-01-01

    La dieta larvaria para cría masiva de la mosca mexicana de la fruta, Anastrepha ludens (Loew) representa el 30% del costo de producción y genera una gran cantidad de desechos sólidos con alto contenido de proteína como resultado de un bajo aprovechamiento por las larvas. Para reducir los costos de producción y la cantidad de desechos sólidos generados, se desarrolló una dieta texturizada con almidón pre-gelatinizado, con la cual se incrementó la producción en comparación con una dieta estanda...

  7. Acoustic courtship songs in males of the fruit fly Anastrepha ludens (Diptera: Tephritidae associated with geography, mass rearing and courtship success

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.D Briceño

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The Sterile Insect Technique (SIT has been used successfully to control or eradicate fruit flies. The commonly observed inferiority of mass-reared males, compared with wild males, when they are paired with wild females, is apparently due to their inadequate courtship. Anastrepha ludens males produce two types of wing vibration during courtship and mating, the "calling sound" and the "premating or precopulatory sound". There were clear differences in the calling songs between successful and unsuccessful courtships in sterile (irradiated and fertile Mexican flies. Among sterile flies, successful males produce longer buzzes, shorter interpulses and a higher power spectrum in the signal. Fertile flies showed the same trend. For mating songs a significant difference occurred in two parameters: power spectrum between sterile and fertile flies with respect to the type of song, and the signal duration and intensity were greater in non-irradiated flies. Calling songs of wild flies compared with laboratory grown flies from Mexico had shorter interpulses, longer pulses, and a greater power spectrum. However, in the case of premating songs, the only difference was in the intensity, which was significantly greater in wild males. An unexpected result was not observing pulses during pheromone deposition in wild males from Costa Rica. Comparing the premating songs of wild flies from Costa Rica and Mexico, no significant differences were observed in the duration, and the intensity of the signal was slightly greater in flies from Mexico. Rev. Biol. Trop. 57 (Suppl. 1: 257-265. Epub 2009 November 30.La técnica estéril del insecto (SIT se ha utilizado con éxito para controlar o para suprimir las moscas de fruta y su impacto en los cultivos. La inferioridad comúnmente observada de machos criados masivamente, comparada con los machos silvestres, cuando se aparean con las hembras silvestres es al parecer debido a su inadecuado cortejo. Los machos de Anastrepha

  8. Sexual competitiveness and compatibility between mass-reared sterile flies and wild populations of Anastrepha Ludens (Diptera: Tephritidae) from different regions in Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The mass-reared colony of Anastrepha ludens (Loew) currently used in Mexico for suppression of the Mexican fruit fly has been in use for over 10 years. Sterile flies are released into a wide range of environmental conditions as part of an integrated area-wide approach to suppress diverse populations of this pest in the Mexican Republic. This paper assesses the performance of the sterile flies interacting with wild populations from the different environments. We investigated the sexual compatibility and competitiveness of the sterile flies when competing with wild populations from 6 representatives Mexican states: Nuevo Leon, Tamaulipas, Sinaloa, Nayarit, Michoacan, and Chiapas. Results show that the males of the wild populations differed in the time to the onset and peak of sexual activity. Nevertheless, the index of sexual isolation (ISI) reflected sexual compatibility between the populations and the mass-reared strain, indicating that the sterile individuals mate satisfactorily with the wild populations from the 6 states. The male relative performance index (MRPI) showed that the sterile male is as effective in copulating as the wild males. The female relative performance index (FRPI) reflected a general tendency for wild females to copulate in greater proportion than the sterile females, except for the strains from Tamaulipas and Chiapas. In general, the lower participation of the sterile females in copulation increases the possibilities of sterile males to mate with wild females. The relative sterility index (RSI) showed that the acceptance by wild females of the sterile males (25-55%) was similar to that of wild males. Females of the Chiapas strain showed the lowest acceptance of sterile males. Finally, the results obtained in the Fried test (which measures induced sterility in eggs) showed a competitiveness coefficient ranging from 0.2 to 0.5. This suggests that sterile males successfully compete and are compatible with flies from different geographic origins

  9. Sexual behavior and male volatile compounds in wild and mass-reared strains of the Mexican fruit fly Anastrepha ludens (Diptera: Tephritidae) held under different colony management regimes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosa, Carlos Felipe; Cruz-López, Leopoldo; Zepeda-Cisneros, Cristina Silvia; Valle-Mora, Javier; Guillén-Navarro, Karina; Liedo, Pablo

    2016-02-01

    We compared the calling and mating behavior and volatile release of wild males Anastrepha ludens (Loew) with males from 4 mass-reared strains: (i) a standard mass-reared colony (control), (ii) a genetic sexing strain (Tap-7), (iii) a colony started from males selected on their survival and mating competitiveness abilities (selected), and (iv) a hybrid colony started by crossing wild males with control females. Selected and wild males were more competitive, achieving more matings under field cage conditions. Mass-reared strains showed higher percentages of pheromone calling males under field conditions except for Tap-7 males, which showed the highest percentages of pheromone calling males under laboratory cage conditions. For mature males of all strains, field-cage calling behavior increased during the last hour before sunset, with almost a 2 fold increase exhibited by wild males during the last half hour. The highest peak mating activity of the 4 mass-reared strains occurred 30 min earlier than for wild males. By means of solid phase microextraction (SPME) plus gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), the composition of volatiles released by males was analyzed and quantified. Wild males emitted significantly less amounts of (E,E)-α-farnesene but emitted significantly more amounts of (E,E)-suspensolide as they aged than mass-reared males. Within the 4 mass-reared strains, Tap-7 released significantly more amounts of (E,E)-α-farnesene and hybrid more of (E,E)-suspensolide. Differences in chemical composition could be explained by the intrinsic characteristics of the strains and the colony management regimes. Characterization of calling behavior and age changes of volatile composition between wild and mass-reared strains could explain the differences in mating competitiveness and may be useful for optimizing the sterile insect technique in A. ludens. PMID:25339372

  10. Effect of host plant chemistry on genetic differentiation and reduction of gene flow among Anastrepha fraterculus (Diptera: Tephritidae) populations exploiting sympatric, synchronic hosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oroño, Luis; Paulin, Laura; Alberti, Andrea C; Hilal, Mirna; Ovruski, Sergio; Vilardi, Juan C; Rull, Juan; Aluja, Martin

    2013-08-01

    Herbivore host specialization includes changes in behavior, driven by locally induced adaptations to specific plants. These adaptations often result in sexual isolation that can be gauged through detection of reduced gene flow between host associated populations. Hypothetically, reduced gene flow can be mediated both by differential response to specific plant kairomones and by the influence of larval diet on some adult traits such as pheromone composition. These hypotheses could serve as a model to explain rapid radiation of phytophagous tephritid fruit flies, a group that includes several complexes of cryptic species. The South American Fruit Fly Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann) is a complex of at least seven cryptic species among which pheromone mediated sexual isolation resulted in rapid differentiation. Cryptic species also exhibit differences in host affiliation. In search of a model explaining rapid radiation in this group, we studied host plant chemical composition and genetic structure of three host associated sympatric populations of A. fraterculus. Chemical composition among host plant fruit varied widely both for nutrient and potentially toxic secondary metabolite content. Adaptation to plant chemistry appears to have produced population differentiation. We found host mediated differentiation to be stronger between populations exploiting sympatric synchronic hosts differing in chemical composition, than between populations that exploit hosts that fruit in succession. Gene flow among such host associated populations was extremely low. We propose as a working hypothesis for future research, that for those differences to persist over time, isolating mechanisms such as male produced sex pheromones and female preferences resulting from adaptation to different larval diets should evolve. PMID:23905743

  11. Flutuação populacional de Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann, 1830 (Diptera, Tephritidae na Região Oeste de Santa Catarina, Brasil Population fluctuation of Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann, 1830 (Diptera, Tephritidae in the Western Region of Santa Catarina State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávio Roberto Mello Garcia

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Fruit flies are the major pests in fruit orchards and require a frequent insecticide aplication control, which increases production cost and chemical residues in fruits. Adults of Anastrepha fraterculus were sampled from twelve peach, plum, orange, tangerine and acid lime orchards in four counties in the Western Region of Santa Catarina. Modified McPhail plastic traps, baited with glucose 10%, were used to collect the flies from October 1998 to September 2000. Trap monitoring, bait replacement and fruit flies sorting by species and sex were done weekly. A total of 4,164 specimens of A. fraterculus was collected and highest population was registered in the county of Chapecó (64,8% of all sampled flies. Adults were collected all year long, with the highest population peaks occurring from December and January, although the fluctuation was different for each fruit species due to their particular phenology and in different years. Positive correlation among temperature, atmospheric humidity and population levels of adults of A. fraterculus was observed. According to the degree days obtained for each year, 4851.9, 4632.9 and 4983.7, respectively in 1998, 1999 and 2000, it was established that A. fraterculus could present an average of 11.2 generations a year.

  12. SUSCETIBILIDADE DE GENÓTIPOS DE MACIEIRA A Anastrepha fraterculus (DIPTERA: TEPHRITIDAE EM DIFERENTES CONDIÇÕES DE INFESTAÇÃO

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    JANAÍNA PEREIRA DOS SANTOS

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO O estudo objetivou registrar as injúrias de Anastrepha fraterculus (Diptera: Tephritidae, em dois estádios de desenvolvimento dos frutos das macieiras M-11/00 e ‘Catarina’, submetidos a três condições de infestação a campo, na safra de 2011/2012. O experimento foi conduzido em pomar mantido sob manejo orgânico, na Estação Experimental da Epagri de Caçador-SC. O número médio de moscas foi avaliado semanalmente, com quatro armadilhas do tipo McPhail. Frutos imaturos e maduros da seleção M-11/00 e da cultivar Catarina foram submetidos às condições de infestação artificial, controlada e natural. No início da frutificação, após o raleio, em cada genótipo, 500 frutos foram aleatoriamente ensacados com embalagens de tecido não texturizado (TNT. Os frutos submetidos à infestação artificial foram envoltos, individualmente, por uma gaiola contendo duas fêmeas acasaladas de A. fraterculus, que permaneceram por três dias para oviposição. Na infestação controlada, no mesmo dia da instalação das gaiolas, frutos protegidos tiveram as embalagens retiradas para que ficassem por três dias expostos. Frutos não ensacados foram utilizados para avaliar a infestação natural. Em cada estádio de desenvolvimento, foram registrados os valores dos atributos físico-químicos dos frutos. O número médio de A. fraterculus durante a safra foi de 3,08 moscas/armadilha/ semana. Na seleção M-11/00, em todas as condições de infestação, o número médio de larvas e pupários foi maior em frutos maduros. Na cv. Catarina, estes números não diferiram entre as condições de infestação nem entre os estádios de desenvolvimento. Pupários de A. fraterculus não foram observados em frutos de ‘Catarina’, e nesta cultivar constatou-se maior acidez e menor relação sólidos solúveis/acidez.

  13. Umbu-cajá como repositório natural de parasitoide nativo de moscas-das-frutas Umbu-cajá as natural repository of native fruit fly parasitoids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romulo da Silva Carvalho

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar diversidade de espécies de mosca-das-frutas e de parasitóides nativos em frutos de umbu-cajá (Spondias spp.. Os frutos foram coletados em nove municípios do Estado da Bahia. Estimaram-se: a infestação dos frutos pelas moscas; o índice de parasitismo das moscas; e a frequência de ocorrência das espécies de parasitóides. Pela primeira vez, a infestação de Anastrepha obliqua em frutos de umbu-cajá e a presença do parasitóide Asobara anastrephae em larvas de Anastrepha obliqua foram registradas. O parasitoide nativo Doryctobracon areolatus foi o mais frequente. A umbu-cajazeira é repositório natural de parasitoides de tefritídeos, e sua preservação é fundamental para a manutenção das relações tróficas entre as espécies de mosca-das-frutas e parasitoides.The objective of this work was to assess the species diversity of fruit fly and their parasitoids in fruit of umbu-cajá (Spondias spp.. Fruit were collected in nine municipalities of the state of Bahia, Brazil. Fruit infestation, fruit fly parasitism rates, and frequencies of the parasitoid species were estimated. For the first time, Anastrepha obliqua infesting umbu-cajá fruit and the presence of the native parasitoid Asobara anastrephae in Anastrepha oblique larvae were recorded. The native parasitoid Doryctobracon areolatus was the most frequent. Umbu-cajá tree is a natural repository of Tephritidae parasitoids, and its preservation is essential for the maintenance of trophic relationships between fruit fly species and parasitoids.

  14. ANÁLISE FAUNÍSTICA DE ESPÉCIES DE MOSCA-DAS-FRUTAS (DIP., TEPHRITIDAE EM MINAS GERAIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.A. CANAL

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Em seis locais de quatro municípios (Janaúba, Jaíba, Nova Porteirinha e Itacarambí do norte do Estado de Minas Gerais, foram coletados 29.454 espécimes de mosca-das-frutas, pertencentes a Ceratitis capitata e a 20 espécies de Anastrepha. O levantamento foi feito entre janeiro de 94 e dezembro de 96, utilizando armadilhas plásticas tipo McPhail. Ceratitis capitata foi a espécie predominante em áreas urbanas. As espécies de Anastrepha predominaram em áreas rurais. A. obliqua, A. zenildae e Anastrepha n. sp.3 foram as espécies predominantes do gênero, entretanto, essa predominância variou de local para local em função da disponibilidade de hospedeiros. As comunidades apresentaram índices de diversidade baixos e quocientes de similaridade entre 73 e 100%.A total of 29,454 specimens of fruit fly were trapped in six sites of four counties (Janaúba, Jaíba, Nova Porteirinha and Itacarambí of the north of the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. The specimens were collected using McPhail plastic traps from January 1994 to December 1996. The trapped fruit flies belonged to Ceratitis capitata and to 20 species of Anastrepha. Ceratitis capitata was the predominant species in the urban areas and Anastrepha species were predominant in the field areas. A. obliqua, A. zenildae and Anastrepha n. sp.3 were the predominant species of the genera, whereas the predominant species differed among localities, according to host availability. The diversity indexes were low and the coefficient of similarity varied from 73 to 100%.

  15. Review of existing species of fruit flies in Ecuador

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was carried out since 1990 to 1997. The goal was to figure out different species of fruit fly that inhabit in Ecuador. For the identification we put special emphasis in the female genitalia. We recommend to do more research into this subject, because of the few studies done in our country and the importance of fruit cultivation. We mention 32 genus in the family Tephritidae in Ecuador, including the introduced genus Ceratitis. Into Toxotrypaninae are pointing out the presence of one specie of the Toxotrypana genus and 31 species of the Anastrepha genus, detailing brilly the 27 species most common. General notions about taxonomic bases are mentioned in order to identify species of the Anastrepha Schiner, pointing out certain fenotipic characteristics that prove variability among the ecuadorian's population, mainly A. fraterculus, A. distincta, A. obliqua, A. striata, and others. (The author)

  16. Tephritids in fruit plantations in Costa Rica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The diversity of tephritids captured in fruit orchards in Costa Rica during four years (2001- 2004) with MultilureRM Traps is presented. These were baited with different attractants (Torula, Nu-Lure and several synthetic mixtures) in a project to determine their capacity of attraction, in mixed plantations of coffee and citrus in the Grecia Canton (year 2001) and in the Corralar District (2002 and 2004); in a mango plantation in the Esparza Canton (2001 and 2003), in a guava orchard in Pocora District (2002 and 2004) and in a citrus plantation in the San Carlos Canton, (2003). In the Grecia Canton 4,545 fruit flies were captured: 3837 (84.42%) medflies, 634 (13,94%) Anastrepha ludens, 49 (1,07%) A. striata, 29 (0.06%) A. fraterculus. In Esparza Canton (2001) 2239 tephritids were captured: 1107 (49,44%) Medflies, 875 (39,07%) A. obliqua, 156 (6,96%) A. striata, 73 (3,26%) A. serpentina and 1 (0.04%) A. ludens. In Esparza (2003) 792 tephritids were captured: 518 (65.40%) medflies, 216 (27,27%) A. obliqua, 15 (1.89%) A. striata, 18 (2.27%) A. serpentina and 24 (3.03%) Hexachaeta obscura. In Corralar District (2002) 3873 tephritids were captured: 2323 (59.99%) medflies, 1416 (36.56%) A. ludens, 20 (0.51%) A. obliqua and 114 (2.94%) A. striata. In the same place (Corralar - 2004) 533 tephritids were captured: 270 (50.65%) medflies, 118 (22.13%) A. ludens, 19 (3.56%) A. obliqua, 5 (0.93%) A. striata, 105 (19.69%) of the genus Molynocoelya spp., 14 (2.62%) Paroxyna spp. and 2 (0.37%) Tetreuareta spp. In Pocora District (2002) 1542 tephritids were captured: 1526 (98.96%) A. striata, 3 (0.19%) A. obliqua, 6 (0.38%) A. fraterculus, 1 (0.064%) A. zuelianiae, 2 (0.12%) Pesudocrotaenia spp. and 1 (0.064%) Pyrgotoides spp. In the same place (2004) 9250 tephritidis was captured: 8071 (87.25%) A. striata, 935(10.10%) A. obliqua, 235 (2.54%) medflies, 6 (0.06%) A. serpentina, 2 (0.02%) A. cyclayae and 1 (0.01%) Hexachaeta obscura. In a citrus plantation in the San Carlos

  17. La simbología religiosa en "Les Rougon Macquart" de Emile Zola

    OpenAIRE

    Veloso Santamaría, Isabel

    1996-01-01

    Se trata de un nuevo enfoque de la obra zoliana desde una doble perspectiva: una perspectiva critica basada en la aplicación del tematismo estructural, y una perspectiva religiosa. Partiendo de la idea de subversión de preceptos naturalistas, la tesis pretende descubrir la riqueza poética del imaginario del autor, a través del tema de la religión, como motor narrativo de la serie mencionada

  18. The biology of Aedes (Ochlerotatus albifasciatus Macquart, 1838 (Diptera: Culicidae in Central Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco F. Ludueña Almeida

    1995-08-01

    Full Text Available Aedes albifasciatus is a flood water mosquito ocurring in the southern countries of South America. It is a competent vector of the Western Equine Encephalitis (WEE and causes important losses on milk and beef production in central Argentina. Field work was carried out from December 1990 to March 1993, on a monthly basis during the dry season and biweekly during the rainy season. Larvae were collected using the 'dipping' technique and females with CDC traps baited with CO2. Field collected larvae were used to build laboratory cohorts, from which basic population parameters were estimated. Eggs survived up to six months on dry soil, although there was a linear decrease of viability with time. At 23ºC, larval development time was around nine days, and all adults emerged within one week. The estimation of larval development in the laboratory seems to be very near the development on the field, as larvae have been collected on average eight days after a rainfall. Egg to adult survival was 83%, with the highest mortality on fourth larval instar (6%. In the laboratory studies, sex proportion among the adults was 1:1, females lived longer than males (median 13 and five days, respectively, and adult survival pattern showed a constant number of individuals dying per unit time. Field collected females layed an average of 84 eggs per batch, and completing up to five gonotrophic cycles, suggesting an estimated survival of up to 35-50 days.

  19. Neotropical Copestylum Macquart (Diptera: Syrphidae) Breeding in Fruits and Flowers, Including 7 New Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricarte, Antonio; Marcos-García, M. Ángeles; Hancock, E. Geoffrey; Rotheray, Graham E.

    2015-01-01

    Ten species of Copestylum (Diptera: Syrphidae) were reared from fruits and flowers in Costa Rica, Ecuador and Trinidad. Seven were new and in this paper, we describe them, their development sites and the third stage larva and/or the puparium of all ten species. One new synonym is proposed, Copestylum pinkusi (Curran) [= Copestylum cinctiventre (Curran)]. Similarities and differences between these new and other Copestylum species, suggest they separate into two groups, referred to as the Vagum and Cinctiventre species groups. Features characterising these groups for both adult and early stages are assessed. Each species was also distinguished using adult and early stage characters. Within the Vagum group, adults were more disparate morphologically than the larval stage; this was reversed in the Cinctiventre group. Adult colour patterns are probably cryptic in function and for disguise. Vagum species have disruptive marks, while the Cinctiventre species have reflective colours. Biologically, the groups are almost distinguished by larval development sites. Vagum species use predominantly fruits and have a larval stage that is relatively generalised in form and habit. Cinctiventre species are confined to developing in flowers and the larva is more specialised. A key to both adult and early stages of all ten species is provided. PMID:26580811

  20. Factors affecting engorgement behavior in the salt marsh horse fly, Tabanus nigrovittatus Macquart (Diptera: Tabanidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Female Tabanus nigrovittatus were field collected and used in laboratory experimentation to further elucidate the physiological and behavioral factors that affect engorgement. Previous studies have shown that sulfakinins are feeding satiety factors in invertebrates. This study demonstrates that sulf...

  1. Ocorrência de moscas-das-frutas (Diptera: Tephritidae em mangueiras (Mangifera indica L. em Boa Vista, Roraima = The occurrence of fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae in mango (Mangifera indica L. in Boa Vista, Roraima

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Bezerra Lima

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Um estudo foi conduzido no período de junho de 2007 a janeiro de 2008, em pomares comerciais de manga das variedades: Tommy Atkins, Haden e Palmer sendo 3 ha de cada cultivar, localizado na região do Bom Intento no Município de Boa Vista. Os espécimes de moscas-das-frutas foram coletados, por meio de armadilhas, confeccionadas com garrafas pet, que foram penduradas na copa das árvores a 1,60 m de altura. Como atrativo alimentar foi utilizado 200 mL de suco de maracujá a 30%. Foram utilizadas nove armadilhas, sendo uma armadilha por hectare. Semanalmente as armadilhas eram examinadas, ocasião em que se substituía o atrativo e os insetos capturados retirados e colocados em frascos de vidro devidamente etiquetados e transportados ao Laboratório de Entomologia do Centro de Ciências Agrárias da Universidade Federal de Roraima. As identificações dos espécimes foram feitas no Instituto Nacional de Pesquisa da Amazônia - INPA. No período de oito meses foram coletados 24 espécimes adultos do gênero Anastrepha (nove fêmeas e 15 machos. Quatro espécies foram identificadas: A. serpentina, A. striata, A. obliqua e A. turpinae. A maior frequência foi A. serpentina (44,44%, seguida de A. striata e A. obliqua ambas com 22,22% e A. turpinae com 11,11%. Os meses de maior ocorrência de Anastrepha spp. foram junho, julho e agosto. Este é o primeiro registro da espécie Anastrepha turpinae Stone, 1942, em Roraima. The study was done during th period of June 2007 to January of 2008, in commercial mango orchards having: 3 ha of cv. Tommy Atkins, 3 ha of cv. Haden. and 3 ha of cv. Palmer, located at Bom Intento in the municipal district of Boa Vista - RR. The specimens of fruit flies were collected, by trapping, made with transparent bottles pet, which were hung in the cup of the trees at 1.60 m of height. 200 mL of passion fruit juice (30% was used as an attractant feed; 9 traps were used, being one trap for hectare. Weekly The traps were

  2. Evaluation of female fruit fly attractants in Honduras 2001-2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As part of an international effort coordinated by the International Atomic Energy Agency, a study to evaluate general and relative (percentage of females) efficiency of fruit fly attractants was conducted in four locations in Honduras from 2001 to 2004. Combinations of the food based dry synthetic attractants Ammonium Acetate (AA), Ammonium Bicarbonate (AB), Putrescine (PT) and Trimethylamine (TMA) were compared against NuLure and Torula Yeast, the standard protein lures currently used in surveillance Programmes. In the last year, pulp of hog plum, Spondias mombin was included in the treatments. Attractants were deployed using plastic McPhail-type traps that were checked twice weekly. The combination of AA+PT+TMA was the most efficient for the medfly, Ceratitis capitata, catching 0.74 flies/trap/day (FTP), whereas Torula Yeast caught 0.36 FTP. Both treatments captured over 90% females. For Anastrepha species, no combination of synthetic lures reached this efficiency. AA+PT and variations of it (smaller amounts of ammonia or putrescine released) gave the best results with Anastrepha, in some cases being statistically equal to the standard protein baits. In general, the best combination of AA+PT for each year caught an average of 0.29 FTP for A. obliqua and 0.23 for A. ludens, whereas the standard protein baits caught 0.39 and 0.42 FTP, respectively. Their relative efficiency was 77% females. Hog plum pulp gave good results in attracting Anastrepha flies, especially A. obliqua, performing equally or better than the standard protein baits. However, it only attracts around 60% females. (author)

  3. Disinfestation of mangoes by irradiation; Desinfestacion de mango por irradiacion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bustos R, M.E

    1992-05-15

    The mango is a fruit-bearing very important in the mexican economy. Mexico is between the first positions of the world like country producing with an average export volume of 40,000 annual tons in the last years. For this reason it was decided to make this investigation, which was developed according to the investigation protocols proposed by the Agricultural Research Service of the USA (ARS - US DOA). The objective is to account with the technical and scientific necessary bases to propose to the US DOA the regulation of the irradiation process like quarantine treatment for Mexican export mango. The goals are: to determine in the laboratory the minimum dose (Dmin.) to inhibit the emergency of adults of the species of the fruit flies of more importance for Mexico. To confirm the least radiation dose Dmin. for quarantine treatment based on the safety value Probit-9. To evaluate the mango quality irradiated to 2 and 2.5 times the Dmin. proposal for quarantine treatment. According to information provided by the General Direction of Vegetable Sanity, it was determined that the fly species of the fruit of more economic importance for Mexico are of the genus Anastrepha ludens, Anastrepha serpentina, Anastrepha obliqua and Ceratitis capitata. (Author)

  4. Disinfestation of mangoes by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The mango is a fruit-bearing very important in the mexican economy. Mexico is between the first positions of the world like country producing with an average export volume of 40,000 annual tons in the last years. For this reason it was decided to make this investigation, which was developed according to the investigation protocols proposed by the Agricultural Research Service of the USA (ARS - US DOA). The objective is to account with the technical and scientific necessary bases to propose to the US DOA the regulation of the irradiation process like quarantine treatment for Mexican export mango. The goals are: to determine in the laboratory the minimum dose (Dmin.) to inhibit the emergency of adults of the species of the fruit flies of more importance for Mexico. To confirm the least radiation dose Dmin. for quarantine treatment based on the safety value Probit-9. To evaluate the mango quality irradiated to 2 and 2.5 times the Dmin. proposal for quarantine treatment. According to information provided by the General Direction of Vegetable Sanity, it was determined that the fly species of the fruit of more economic importance for Mexico are of the genus Anastrepha ludens, Anastrepha serpentina, Anastrepha obliqua and Ceratitis capitata. (Author)

  5. 果蔬重要实蝇属的分布、危害与形态特征比较研究%Comparative Study on Distribution, Harm and Morphological Characteristics of Important Insects in Bactrocera in Fruits and Vegetables

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄振; 黄可辉

    2012-01-01

    This paper expounded the geological distribution, host plant species and major morphological characteristics of the important quarantine pest insects in fruits and vegetables in the following five genera: Bactrocera Macquart, Dacus Fabricius, Ceratitis Macleay, Anastrepha Schiner and Rhagoletis Loew, compared the similarities and differences among the five genera, and put forward some measures for the control of the important pest insects in fruits and vegetables in these genera.%阐述了果实蝇属、寡鬃实蝇属、小条实蝇属、按实蝇属、绕实蝇属5个检疫性害虫果蔬实蝇属的地理分布、寄主及其主要形态特征,比较了各个属形态特征的异同,并提出了一些防治果蔬重要实蝇属的措施.

  6. Responses of Anastrepha striata to various attractants in Costa Rica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The purpose was to determine the responses of A. striata to seven attractants: A) NuLure, B) Ammonium Acetate (AA) at 150 μg NH4/hour + Putrescine (PT), C) AA at 300 μg NH4/hour + PT, D) AA at 600 μg NH4/hour +PT, E) Ammonium Bicarbonate (AB) at 300 μg NH4/hour + PT, F) AA at 300 μg NH4/hour + PT + Trimethylamine and G) Torula yeast. Each evaluation lasted eight weeks, with a change of the attractants at four weeks and biweekly gatherings of the captured insects. The data are expressed as the 'Flies per Trap per Day Index' (FTD Index). In Grecia Canton (year 2001) in a coffee and orange plantation 4549 tephritids were captured and only 49 (1,07%) were A. striata. In Esparza Canton in a mango orchard (2001) 2239 tephritids were captured and of those 50 (4.03%) were this species, and in the (2003) evaluation 792 flies were captured and of them 15 (1,89%) were this species. In Pocora District (2002 and 2004) in a guava orchard 1,491 and 9,251 flies were collected and of those, 1477 (99,06%) and 8071 (87,20%) were of this species, respectively. And in Corralar District (2002 and 2004) in a mixed coffee and orange plantation 3853 and 447 tephritids were collected and of those 114 (2,95%) and 5 (1,11%) belong to A. striata. Therefore these data show that in coffee and citrus plantations and in the mango orchard, there was a low population density and in guava orchard a high density. The evaluation carried out in Pocora (2004) and in Corralar (2002 and 2004) the largest FTD Index was obtained with NuLure (0.92, 0.0215 and 0.02 respectively). In Esparza (2002) and Pocora (2002) the largest FTD Index was obtained with Torula (0.03 and 0.12, respectively). In Grecia (2001) and in Esparza (2003) the best attractant was the mixture of Ammonium Acetate with Putrescine. In Esparza (2002) and Pocora (2002) the second best attractant was NuLure. In Grecia (2001), Pocora (2004) and Corralar (2002) it was Torula. Basic and necessary information was obtained to evaluate the presence and density of the population of A. striata under diverse climatic conditions, phenologies and different population densities and an important base to study its use in bait stations. (author)

  7. Sex Pheromone Investigation of Anastrepha serpentina (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attraction of virgin females to odor of calling males was demonstrated. This sex pheromone mediated attraction occurred during the latter half of a 13-h photophase but not during the first half of the day. Two major components of emissions of calling males, 2,5-dimethylpyrazine (DMP) and 2,5-dihyd...

  8. Conditional lethality strains for the biological control of Anastrepha species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pro-apoptotic cell death genes are promising candidates for biologically-based autocidal control of pest insects as demonstrated by tetracycline (tet)-suppressible systems for conditional embryonic lethality in Drosophila melanogaster (Dm) and the medfly, Ceratitis capitata (Cc). However, for medfly...

  9. Surface-bound phosphatase activity in living hyphae of ectomycorrhizal fungi of Nothofagus obliqua.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Maricel; Godoy, Roberto; Heyser, Wolfgang; Härtel, Steffen

    2004-01-01

    We determined the location and the activity of surface-bound phosphomonoesterase (SBP) of five ectomycorrhizal (EM) fungi of Nothofagus oblique. EM fungal mycelium of Paxillus involutus, Austropaxillus boletinoides, Descolea antartica, Cenococcum geophilum and Pisolithus tinctorius was grown in media with varying concentrations of dissolved phosphorus. SBP activity was detected at different pH values (3-7) under each growth regimen. SBP activity was assessed using a colorimetric method based on the hydrolysis of p-nitrophenyl phosphate (pNPP) to p-nitrophenol phosphate (pNP) + P. A new technique involving confocal laser-scanning microscopy (LSM) was used to locate and quantify SBP activity on the hyphal surface. EM fungi showed two fundamentally different patterns of SBP activity in relation to varying environmental conditions (P-concentrations and pH). In the cases of D. antartica, A. boletinoides and C. geophilum, changes in SBP activity were induced primarily by changes in the number of SBP-active centers on the hyphae. In the cases of P. tinctorius and P. involutus, the number of SBP-active centers per μm hyphal length changed much less than the intensity of the SBP-active centers on the hyphae. Our findings not only contribute to the discussion about the role of SBP-active centers in EM fungi but also introduce LSM as a valuable method for studying EM fungi. PMID:21148871

  10. Total Synthesis of 4,5-Didehydroguadiscine: A Potent Melanogenesis Inhibitor from the Brazilian Medicinal Herb, Hornschuchia obliqua.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanabe, Genzoh; Sugano, Youta; Shirato, Miki; Sonoda, Naoki; Tsutsui, Nozomi; Morikawa, Toshio; Ninomiya, Kiyofumi; Yoshikawa, Masayuki; Muraoka, Osamu

    2015-07-24

    The first total synthesis of the 7,7-dimethylaporphinoid, 4,5-didehydroguadiscine (6), originally isolated from the stems and roots of Hornschuchia oblique (Annonaceae), was achieved by the condensation of homopiperonylamine (7) with an α,α-dimethylphenylacetic acid derivative (8) and subsequent Pschorr reaction of the resulting benzylisoquinoline intermediate (22). The reported (13)C NMR data were partially revised on the basis of the analysis of HMBC spectra measured under different conditions. The melanogenesis inhibitory activity (IC50 = 4.7 μM) of 6 was 40 times stronger than that of arbutin (174 μM), which was used as reference standard. Furthermore, 6 was the most potent natural melanogenesis inhibitor within this class of compounds. PMID:26135746

  11. Augmentative biological control in the Mexican national fruit fly campaign

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Tephritid fruit flies are some of the most economically important species of insects worldwide. In Mexico, the native Anastrepha ludens, A. obliqua, A. serpentina and A. striata, are among the most important problems because of the great number of commercial fruits they attack. In an attempt to solve the Anastrepha fruit flies problems, the Mexican Government created the National Campaign against Fruit Flies in 1992. Using an area-wide approach and an integrated pest management framework, that included the use of environment-friendly strategies to suppress/eradicate fruit flies, the Mexican Campaign has integrated different technologies such as the application of specific toxic bait, the use of the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT), and the release of the endoparasitoid Diachasmimorpha longicaudata (Ashmead) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), which attacks preferably third instar larvae of fruit flies. Since 1995, the Moscafrut mass-rearing facility has the capacity to produce an average of 50 millions of parasitised pupae per week, with 65-70% of parasitoid emergence using irradiated A. ludens larvae as host. The mass-rearing procedures of D. longicaudata have been fully described by Cancino. Parasitised pupae are sent via commercial flights to several states of the country (i.e. Michoacan, Sinaloa, Nayarit, Tamaulipas), according to a yearly national plan. This plan derives from industry requirements and/or availability of biological material. In the target zones, parasitoids are released in specific periods and specific areas where the environmental, biological and social conditions are considered as adequate. Packing and release procedures of parasitoids follow those that Montoya et al used. The releases are focused on Anastrepha spp. host trees located in marginal areas (i.e backyard orchards), with the objective to prevent the migration of fruit fly populations into commercial orchards. The impact of parasitoids on fruit fly populations is evaluated through

  12. Flutuação populacional de moscas-das-frutas (Diptera: Tephritidae associadas a variedades de manga no município de José de Freitas-Piauí Population dynamics of fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae associated to mango varieties in the city of Jose de Freitas - Piauí - Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sávio Silveira Feitosa

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available O Piauí possui uma área considerável de manga, sendo um grande produtor dessa fruta no Brasil. Contudo, a presença de pragas, como as moscas-das-frutas, tem provocado grandes impactos na cadeia produtiva, pois estes insetos fazem parte de um grupo responsável por grandes prejuízos econômicos na cultura da mangueira. O conhecimento da flutuação populacional e a época de maior ocorrência de uma determinada espécie de inseto de importância econômica são requisitos indispensáveis para o estabelecimento de um controle eficiente e racional. O presente trabalho visou registrar a flutuação populacional das espécies de moscas-das-frutas associadas a variedades de manga, bem como correlacionar a ocorrência das moscas com as médias mensais de temperatura, precipitação e umidade relativa, e também avaliar os atrativos alimentares utilizados na captura dos insetos. A pesquisa foi conduzida de junho de 2004 a maio de 2005, em pomar comercial de manga (Mangifera indica L.-Anacardiaceae, das variedades Tommy Atkins, Keitt, Kent e Palmer, localizado no município de José de Freitas-Piauí-Brasil, na latitude 04º50'S e longitude 42º41'W. Anastrepha obliqua e Anastrepha serpentina são as espécies de tephritídeos predominantes na cultura da manga.Piaui has a considerable mango area, being a great producer of this fruit. However, the presence of plagues like the fruit flies has provoked great impacts in the production chain, so these insects are part of a responsible group of great economic damages in mango tree culture. The knowledge of the population dynamics and the highest occurrence period of specific insect species of economic importance are indispensable requirement to establish an efficient and rational control. The purpose of the present work was to register the population dynamics of the fruit fly species associated to the mango varieties, as well as correlating the fly occurrence with the monthly averages of temperature

  13. THE LIFE OF GERVAISE MACQUART AS A LOWER WORKING CLASS WOMEN UNDER FRENCH SECOND EMPIRE IN THE NOVEL L’ASSOMMOIR BY ÉMILE ZOLA

    OpenAIRE

    Teguh Basuki; Arifah Arum Candra H.

    2015-01-01

    The industrialization which developed in the 19th century France had brought both positive and negative impacts. Some of the negative impacts are the rising number of labors, the emergence of inter class conflicts, social problems such as prostitution, and the oppression of lower class women. This research will discuss about the life of lower class women depicted in the novel L’Assommoir by Émile Zola, as the portrayal of the reality in the French Second Empire. The analysis uses qualitative ...

  14. Patterns of oviposition and development of Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius) (Diptera: Calliphoridae) and Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart) (Diptera: Calliphoridae) on burned rabbit carcasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahat, N A; Zainol-Abidin, N L; Nordin, N H; Abdul-Wahab, R; Jayaprakash, P T

    2016-03-01

    Considering that crimes against animals such as illegal killing and cruelty have been alarmingly increasing and since burning is one of the common ways for disposing cadavers, ability to estimate minimum postmortem interval (PMI) using entomological data merits consideration. Chrysomya megacephala and Chrysomya rufifacies are common necrophagous species recovered from cadavers in many countries including Malaysia. Specific studies focusing on the oviposition and developmental patterns of both species on cadavers manifesting different levels of burn as described by the Crow-Glassman Scale (CGS) remain scarce. In four replicates, rabbit carcasses were burned to CGS levels #1, #2 and #3 by varying the amount of petrol used and duration of burning. Oviposition by C. megacephala and C. rufifacies was delayed by one day in the case of carcasses burned to the CGS level #3 (p0.05) in the duration of development were found between control and burned carcasses. These findings deserve consideration while estimating minimum PMI since burning as a mean for disposing animal and human cadavers is gaining popularity. PMID:26779962

  15. THE LIFE OF GERVAISE MACQUART AS A LOWER WORKING CLASS WOMEN UNDER FRENCH SECOND EMPIRE IN THE NOVEL L’ASSOMMOIR BY ÉMILE ZOLA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teguh Basuki

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The industrialization which developed in the 19th century France had brought both positive and negative impacts. Some of the negative impacts are the rising number of labors, the emergence of inter class conflicts, social problems such as prostitution, and the oppression of lower class women. This research will discuss about the life of lower class women depicted in the novel L’Assommoir by Émile Zola, as the portrayal of the reality in the French Second Empire. The analysis uses qualitative descriptive technique and applies Foucaults’s theory on social exclusion, Beauvoir’s theory of second sex, and also gender theory. The analysis shown that Zola criticize the inequalities in the life of lower class women under Second Empire. It also shows that lower class women excluded from the ‘grand’ discourse in French society. The exclusion process which is done by society and supported by the State at that time regarded as a normal thing and ‘taken for granted’.

  16. Development of attractant systems for trapping female Ceratitis capitata (Wied.) (Diptera: Tephritidae) in the Soconusco region, Chiapas, Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the aim of developing a system of attractants and trapping to optimize the capture of female Mediterranean fruit flies, Ceratitis capitata (Wied.) as well as other fruit flies, six experiments were carried out during the period 1994-1997, in a sterile-insect release zone in the Soconusco region of Chiapas, Mexico. Relating to the system of attractants, the evaluation focused on the comparison of food attractants (i.e. ammonium acetate, putrescine and trimethylamine) with standard attractants, such as Trimedlure and liquid hydrolyzed protein. For the trapping system, dry traps (Jackson trap, Open bottom dry trap, etc.) as well as wet traps (McPhail trap, Tephri trap, etc.) were tested alternately with the different kinds of attractants. The experiments were performed in agrosystems of coffee and groves of citrus and mango. Results consistently showed that a combination of ammonium acetate + putrescine + trimethylamine was the best for the capture of female Ceratitis capitata (Wied.) when used in traps such as the OBDT and the plastic McPhail trap (IPMT), while for Anastrepha spp., the McPhail trap baited with liquid hydrolyzed protein still appears to be the best option, although the combination of ammonium acetate with putrescine was quite consistent in the trapping of A. obliqua and A. ludens in traps such as the IPMT. (author)

  17. Mango resistance to fruit flies. II - resistance of the alfa cultivar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rossetto, C.J.; Bortoletto, N., E-mail: rossetto@iac.sp.gov.b [Agencia Paulista de Tecnologia dos Agronegocios (APTA), Votuporanga, SP (Brazil). Polo Regional do Noroeste Paulista; Walder, J.M.M.; Mastrangelo, T. de A., E-mail: jmwalder@cena.usp.b [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil); Carvalho, C.R.L.; Castro, J.V. de, E-mail: climonta@iac.sp.gov.b, E-mail: josalba@iac.sp.gov.b [Instituto Agronomico de Campinas, SP (Brazil); Pinto, A.C. de Q. [EMBRAPA, Brasilia, DF (Brazil); Cortelazzo, A.L., E-mail: angelo@unicamp.b [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Biologia

    2006-07-01

    The percentage of infested mango fruits of five selected mango varieties was evaluated during three years under field conditions. Three varieties with field resistance to fruit flies had less then 10% of fruits infested. Tommy Atkins, the susceptible commercial check, had 42,9% and the susceptible check had 98.9 % of infested fruits. The three field resistant varieties plus the susceptible commercial check, Tommy Atkins, were further tested in laboratory, under caged conditions, with artificial infestation of Anastrepha obliqua. The attempts of oviposition and the number of pupae developed from each fruit were evaluated. Under caged conditions, the cultivar Alfa maintained its field resistance and Espada Stahl and IAC 111 lost the field resistance and were as susceptible as Tommy Atkins. The attempts of oviposition were positively and highly correlated with the number of pupae developed in the fruits. Non preference for oviposition was confirmed as the main mechanism of resistance of mango fruits to fruit flies. In the absence of a more susceptible variety (no choice test) the cultivar Alfa has kept the resistance (author)

  18. Mango resistance to fruit flies. II - resistance of the alfa cultivar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The percentage of infested mango fruits of five selected mango varieties was evaluated during three years under field conditions. Three varieties with field resistance to fruit flies had less then 10% of fruits infested. Tommy Atkins, the susceptible commercial check, had 42,9% and the susceptible check had 98.9 % of infested fruits. The three field resistant varieties plus the susceptible commercial check, Tommy Atkins, were further tested in laboratory, under caged conditions, with artificial infestation of Anastrepha obliqua. The attempts of oviposition and the number of pupae developed from each fruit were evaluated. Under caged conditions, the cultivar Alfa maintained its field resistance and Espada Stahl and IAC 111 lost the field resistance and were as susceptible as Tommy Atkins. The attempts of oviposition were positively and highly correlated with the number of pupae developed in the fruits. Non preference for oviposition was confirmed as the main mechanism of resistance of mango fruits to fruit flies. In the absence of a more susceptible variety (no choice test) the cultivar Alfa has kept the resistance (author)

  19. Y-Linked markers for improved population control of the tephritid fruit fly pest, Anastrepha suspensa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Insect pest control programs incorporating the sterile insect technique (SIT) rely on the mass production and release of sterilized insects to reduce the wild-type population through infertile matings. Most effective programs release only males to avoid any crop damage caused by female fruit flies o...

  20. Sex specific differences in perception of the pheromone in Anastrepha fraterculus

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Břízová, Radka; Vaníčková, Lucie; Kalinová, Blanka; Nascimento, R. R.; Hoskovec, Michal

    Tours: International Society of Chemical Ecology, 2010. s. 210-210. [International Society of Chemical Ecology. Annual Meeting /26./. 31.07.2010-04.08.2010, Tours] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : South American fruit fly * monoterpenes * sesquiterpenes * antennal activities Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry

  1. Current knowledge of the species complex Anastrepha fraterculus (Diptera, Tephritidae) in Brazil

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vaníčková, Lucie; Hernández-Ortiz, V.; Bravo, I. S. J.; Dias, V.; Roriz, A. K. P.; Laumann, R. A.; Mendonca, A. L.; Paranhos, B. A. J.; do Nascimento, R. R.

    -, č. 540 (2015), s. 211-237. ISSN 1313-2989 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : South American fruit fly * cryptic species * taxonomy * sexual behavior * chemical communication Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.933, year: 2014 http://zookeys.pensoft.net/articles.php?id=6228

  2. Intraspecific variation of cuticular hydrocarbon profiles in the Anastrepha fraterculus (Diptera: Tephritidae) species complex

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vaníčková, Lucie; Břízová, Radka; Mendonca, A. L.; Pompeiano, A.; do Nascimento, R. R.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 139, č. 9 (2015), s. 679-689. ISSN 0931-2048 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : chemotaxonomy * GCxGC/TOFMS * multiple factorial analyses * putative species * South American fruit fly Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 1.650, year: 2014

  3. Response of Anastrepha suspensa to liquid protein baits and synthetic lure formulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Traps baited with AAPt captured more A. suspensa than traps baited with ABPt even when the ammonia release rates were similar. Reducing dosage of ammonia by 50% of the commercially available AA lure slightly increased female capture, but reducing dosage to 25% tended to decrease female capture. The 5% CPH/3% borax bait captured the same number of flies as TYB, and was more effective than 10% CPH/3% borax. Further decreasing the amount of borax added to CPH may improve its effectiveness. As has been observed in field tests, fresh TYB captures more A. suspensa than fresh Nulure/borax but this difference decreases as the bait solutions age. EAG analysis indicates that volatiles from fresh Nulure/ borax elicit a higher antennal response than TYB, but this difference decreases as the TYB solution ages. Chemical analysis will be needed to determine the nature of reduced capture by fresh Nulure/borax and to identify additional attractive chemicals emitted by these protein baits. (author)

  4. Identification of male-borne attractants in Anastrepha fraterculus (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Milet-Pinheiro, P.; Navarro, D. M. A.; De Aquino, N. C.; Ferreira, L. L.; Tavares, R. F.; Correia da Silva, R. C.; Lima-Mendonca, A.; Vaníčková, Lucie; Mendonca, A. L.; do Nascimento, R. R.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 25, č. 3 (2015), s. 115-122. ISSN 0937-7409 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : South American fruit fly * sexual pheromone * male-borne attractants * GC-EAD * behavioral activity Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 1.923, year: 2014

  5. Pheromone analyses of the Anastrepha fraterculus (Diptera: Tephritidae) cryptic species complex

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Břízová, Radka; Mendonca, A. L.; Vaníčková, L.; Mendonca, Al. L.; Da Silva, C. E.; Tomčala, Aleš; Paranhos, B. A. J.; Dias, V. S.; Joachim-Bravo, I. S.; Hoskovec, Michal; Kalinová, Blanka; do Nascimento, R. R.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 96, č. 3 (2013), s. 1107-1115. ISSN 0015-4040 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : South American fruit fly * GCxGC/TOE-MS * principal component analysis (PCA) Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 1.056, year: 2013

  6. Isolation and identification of the pheromone components of the Argentine population of Anastrepha fraterculus (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kalinová, Blanka; Břízová, Radka; Vaníčková, L.; Hoskovec, Michal; Bachmann, G.; Vera, M. T.; Nascimento, R. R.

    Bogotá: -, 2014. s. 88. [ALAEQ 2014. Congress of the Latin American Association of Chemical Ecology /3./. 18.11.2014-21.11.2014, Bogotá] R&D Projects: GA MŠk 7AMB13AR018 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : fruit flies * male sex pheromones * populations Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation

  7. Response of Anastrepha suspensa to liquid protein baits and synthetic lure formulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Epsky, Nancy D.; Kendra, Paul E.; Heath, Robert R., E-mail: Nancy.Epsky@ars.usda.go, E-mail: Paul.Kendra@ars.usda.go, E-mail: Bob.Heath@ars.usda.go [U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA/ARS/SHRS), Miami, FL (United States). Agricultural Research Service. Subtropical Horticulture Research Station

    2006-07-01

    Traps baited with AAPt captured more A. suspensa than traps baited with ABPt even when the ammonia release rates were similar. Reducing dosage of ammonia by 50% of the commercially available AA lure slightly increased female capture, but reducing dosage to 25% tended to decrease female capture. The 5% CPH/3% borax bait captured the same number of flies as TYB, and was more effective than 10% CPH/3% borax. Further decreasing the amount of borax added to CPH may improve its effectiveness. As has been observed in field tests, fresh TYB captures more A. suspensa than fresh Nulure/borax but this difference decreases as the bait solutions age. EAG analysis indicates that volatiles from fresh Nulure/ borax elicit a higher antennal response than TYB, but this difference decreases as the TYB solution ages. Chemical analysis will be needed to determine the nature of reduced capture by fresh Nulure/borax and to identify additional attractive chemicals emitted by these protein baits. (author)

  8. Contribución al estudio de las moscas anastrephas en colombia.

    OpenAIRE

    González Mendoza Rafael

    2012-01-01

    1. Colombia tiene amplias posibilidades de desarrollar una industria frutícola floreciente dadas las excepcionales condiciones de ubicación geográfica, diversidad de climas y de suelos. 2. La deficiente producción frutera actual es el resultado de una reunión de factores adversos, entre los que resalta el desconocimiento de los problemas científicos que afectan a dicha industria. En este aspecto, los problemas fitosanitarios, abandonados y faltos de investigación, ocupan lugar pre...

  9. INSECTS ASSOCIED WITH BACUPARI FRUIT, Salacia crassifolia (Mart. PEYR, IN THE SAVANNAHS OF CENTRAL BRAZIL ENTOMOFAUNA ASSOCIADA AOS FRUTOS DO BACUPARI, Salacia folia (MART. PEYR, NOS CERRADOS DO BRASIL CENTRAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronaldo Veloso Naves

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    The bacupari (Salacia crassifolia is a native fruit plant of the Brazilian cerrado areas. Although a high fruit fly infestation limits its utilization, it is eaten by animals and humans. Fruits present orange colored pulp, with slightly acid flavour and can be apreciated in natura or juices. The objective of this study was to assay bacupari plant features in Goiás State cerrado and to verify insects associated to bacupari, to determine infestation index and to verify this plant as a natural reservoir of fruit flies for adjacent orchards. Samples were collected during the frutification stage from September to December from 1995 to 1999 on 11 counties in Goiás State. The insects found more often were from Tephritidae (54.22% as Anastrepha sp. (new species, A. zenildae, A. obliqua, A. fraterculus, A. sororcula, A. serpentina. Insects from other families were also identified: Lonchaeidae (Neosilba sp., Muscidae (Atherigona orientalis, Oititidae and their parasitoids: Braconidae (Doryctobracon areolatus, Doryctobracon sp.-new species, Pteromalidae (Dicerataspis flavipes and Figitidae (Eucoilinae - Lopheucoila anastrephae, Aganaspis nordlanderi, A. pelleranoi. Anstrepha sp. and Lonchaeidae, Anastrepha sp. and A. zenildae were found in the same fruit, proving overposition of fruit fly species in the fruit.

    KEY-WORDS: Insecta; native fruit plant; insects population.

    O bacupari, Salacia

  10. Empleo de microalga Scenedesmus obliquas en la eliminación de cromo presente en aguas residuales galvánicas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pellón, A.

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available Dumping wastewaters from plating industry with a high content in chromium is a potential hazard for people and environment. It is known that some metals, including the heavy metals, at low concentrations participate in different metabolic routes, but at high concentration are toxic for many living organisms. Some microorganism taking the heavy metals from the environment are capable of concentrating and accumulating large quantities of them in different citoplasmatic structures with no-toxic effects. Microalgae have affinity by the polyvalent metals making possible their use as depollutant agent in waters that contains dissolved metallic ions as alternative methods when others methods of recycle are unusable. In this report a chromium removal study from a plating wastewater, using scenedesmus obliquus culture was made. The removal efficiency of Cr (VI was 12 % and Cr (III was 27 % and for condition of algae's immobilization removal of Cr (III was 95 %.

    El vertido de aguas residuales con alto contenido de cromo, procedentes de las industrias galvanoplásticas, es un peligro potencial que se le presenta a la población y al medio ambiente. Se conoce que algunos metales, incluyendo los pesados, a concentraciones bajas participan en diferentes rutas metabólicas, pero en altas concentraciones pueden ser tóxicos para muchos organismos vivos. Algunos microorganismos toman los metales pesados del medio ambiente, siendo capaces de concentrar y acumular grandes cantidades de los mismos en diferentes estructuras citoplasmáticas, sin que lleguen a ocasionar efectos tóxicos en los mismos. Las microalgas son un ejemplo de este comportamiento, ya que tienen afinidad por los metales polivalentes, de ahí la posibilidad de su aplicación como agentes descontaminantes en aguas que contengan iones metálicos disueltos como método alternativo cuando no se pueda utilizar otro método de recuperación. En este trabajo se realizó un estudio de eliminación de cromo presente en las aguas residuales galvánicas, empleando un cultivo de scenedesmus obliquus. Se obtuvo una eficiencia de eliminación de Cr (VI del 12 % y del 27 % para el Cr (III, y en condiciones de inmovilización del alga fue del 95 % para el Cr (III.

  11. Characterization of the proteasome ß2 subunit gene and its mutant allele in the tephritid fruit fly pest, Anastrepha suspensa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conditional lethal release (CLR) is a proposed variation of the sterile insect technique (SIT) for the biological control of pest insects that would result from the release of transgenic insects carrying dominant conditional lethal genes. After mating with pest insects in the field, lethal gene exp...

  12. Characterisation of the chemical profiles of Brazilian and Andean morphotypes belonging to the Anastrepha fraterculus complex (Diptera, Tephritidae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vaníčková, Lucie; Břízová, Radka; Pompeiano, A.; Ferreira, L. L.; De Aquino, N. C.; Tavares, R. F.; Rodriguez, L. D.; Mendonca, A. L.; Canal, N. A.; do Nascimento, R. R.

    -, č. 540 (2015), s. 193-209. ISSN 1313-2989 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : cryptic species * chemotaxonomy * GCxGC/MS * PCA Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.933, year: 2014 http://zookeys.pensoft.net/articles.php?id=6224

  13. Detection of Caribbean fruit fly [(Anastrepha suspensa Loew (Diptera: Tephritidae)]-infested grapefruit with portable gas chromatography

    Science.gov (United States)

    New technologies are being sought by plant protection officials to more quickly and efficiently identify concealed pests in imported commodities. The zNose portable gas chromatography unit was investigated as a tool for identifying organic volatile signatures indicative of Caribbean fruit fly infest...

  14. Effects of Different Semiochemical Found in the Sex Pheromone of the Males on the Response of Anastrepha fraterculus Females

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Břízová, Radka; Juárez, L.; Ruiz, J.; Kalinová, Blanka; Bachmann, G.; Segura, D.; Fernández, P.; Teal, P.; Vera, T.

    Bangkok: Siam Print, 2014 - (Malavasi, A.; Cardoso-Pereira, R.; Orankanok, W.). s. 180 ISBN 978-616-358-012-2. [ISFFEI 2014. International Symposium on Fruit Flies of Economic Importance /9./. 12.05.2014-16.05.2014, Bangkok] Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : South American fruit fly * pheromone * sexual communication Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry

  15. Laboratory and field cage studies on female-targeted attract-and-kill bait stations for Anastrepha suspensa (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    A matrix was developed for use as a base for bait station for pest tephritid fruit flies. The matrix consists of a wax, a hardener and emulsifier, and can be used with a variety of insecticides and other additives. Bait stations were formed into plugs to approximate a sphere shape or into strips of ...

  16. Mass production in liquid diet and radiosterilization of South American fruit fly Anastrepha sp.1 aff. fraterculus (Wied., 1830) (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Both the biological control techniques as the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT), are used in many countries to control, suppress and even eradicate fruit flies and other pests in agriculture and public health. The use of such techniques minimizes the continuous employment of insecticides, protects the environment and conforms to standards for food safety. However, it is necessary to implement such programs, technology to produce millions of parasitoids and the pest in its own laboratory with biological quality similar to the insects found in nature and cost competitive with chemical control. The objectives of this study was to establish protocols for artificial rearing of A. sp. 1 aff. fraterculus in liquid larval diet that will achieve levels of mass production for a possible reduction in the cost of establishing and determining the dose of radiation sterilization of adult A. sp. 1 aff. fraterculus meeting the quality parameters required by the Sterile Insect Technique with insects from the creation of Radioentomology Laboratory of CENA/USP. Seven experimental diets compared to the conventional diet used in Radioentomology Lab. of CENA/USP, which was used as control. All seven diets have in common the exclusion of agar in its formulation. Only two of the diets tested were suitable for larval development of the fly, they compared with the standard diet, showed inferior results with respect to the volume of recovered larvae, pupae and weight of emergency, however, no significant differences regarding the periods of development , pupal recovery, sex ratio and longevity under stress. It is possible to replace the diet with agar for liquid diets for artificial creation of A. sp. 1 aff. fraterculus, reduced cost and greater convenience of handling, but due to their quality standards lower than the standard diet, more tests are needed especially regarding the adaptability of the insect to the new environment. To determine the sterilizing dose this study examined the fertility, fecundity, emergence, flight ability and longevity under stress in A. fraterculus irradiated with 40, 50, 60, 70 and 80 Gy. The radiation source was a gamma irradiator with a Co-60 (Gamma beam-650) located in the same laboratory. The tests were performed under the following environmental conditions: 26 +- 1 deg C, 70 +- 5% RH and photoperiod of 12:12. The dose of gamma radiation sterilization for male A. sp. 1 aff. fraterculus was determined with 70 Gy. Irradiates females, even with the lower dose of 40 Gy, laid no eggs, possibly due to atrophy of the ovaries caused by radiation. The radiation did not affect the other quality parameters such as insect emergence, longevity and ability to fly. (author)

  17. Gamma radiation effects on ovarian development of the Caribbean fruit fly, Anastrepha suspensa (Loew) (Diptera: Tephritidae), and its relationship to sterile fly identification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caribbean fruit fly pupae were subjected late in their development to gamma radiation (Cs-137) doses of 0, 15, 20, 25, 30, 50 and 70 Gy. Twelve hours after the eclosion, adults were transferred into small cages and held under 14 hour photophase at 26@*C and 70% RH. Ovarian dissections were performed at 1, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30 days after adult eclosion. Irradiated females showed abnormally-developed ovaries and doses of 25 Gy and higher caused severe atrophy. Regeneration was not observed. All irradiated females possessed hypertrophied accessory glands, probably due to accumulation of secretions normally used to lubricate the oviduct

  18. Gamma radiation use as a quarantine treatment for Ceratitis capitata (Wied., 1824) and Anastrepha fraterculus (Wied., 1830) in papaya fruits (Carica papaya, Linnaeus), cultivar sunrise solo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The gamma irradiation as treatment for control of the immature stages of fruit flies, C. capitata and A. fraterculus in papaya fruits, cultivar Sunrise Solo is studied. The gamma rays attenuation was observed by one and two papaya fruits placed between source and infested fruit, and this changed the radiation doses required to obtain mortality in eggs and larvae of the Medfly. The efficacy of irradiation was higher when the infested papayas were packed in paper box. The radiation dose determined using the Probit 9 concept, for immature stages mortality of C. capitata was 107,74 Gy and for A. fraterculus was 50,82 Gy. The sterilizing doses for adults of C. capitata and D. fraterculus, irradiated as pupae, was 60 Gy and 40 Gy, respectively. (author)

  19. Mixture-Amount Design and Response Surface Modeling to Assess the Effects of Flavonoids and Phenolic Acids on Developmental Performance of Anastrepha ludens

    OpenAIRE

    Pascacio-Villafán, Carlos; Lapointe, Stephen; Williams, Trevor; Sivinski, John; Niedz, Randall; Aluja, Martín

    2014-01-01

    Host plant resistance to insect attack and expansion of insect pests to novel hosts may to be modulated by phenolic compounds in host plants. Many studies have evaluated the role of phenolics in host plant resistance and the effect of phenolics on herbivore performance, but few studies have tested the joint effect of several compounds. Here, we used mixture-amount experimental design and response surface modeling to study the effects of a variety of phenolic compounds on the development and s...

  20. Current initiatives in the mass production and field release of the Mexican fruit fly, Anastrepha ludens, in the lower Rio Grande valley of Texas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to reduce the program operating expenses in the South Texas Mexican Fruit Fly Sterile Release Program, four cost reduction initiatives are in progress at the U.S. Department of Agriculture's Mexican Fruit Fly Rearing Facility. These initiatives include implementation of a less expensive larval diet formulation, automation of the larval diet dispensing process, processing and reutilization of spent larval diet medium, and a more efficient system for emerging and feeding sterile flies prior to field release. (author)

  1. Mass production in liquid diet and radiosterilization of South American fruit fly Anastrepha sp.1 aff. fraterculus (Wied., 1830) (Diptera: Tephritidae); Criacao massal em dieta liquida e radioesterilizacao da mosca-sulamericana Anastrepha sp.1 aff. fraterculus (Wied., 1830) (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamiya, Aline Cristiane

    2010-07-01

    Both the biological control techniques as the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT), are used in many countries to control, suppress and even eradicate fruit flies and other pests in agriculture and public health. The use of such techniques minimizes the continuous employment of insecticides, protects the environment and conforms to standards for food safety. However, it is necessary to implement such programs, technology to produce millions of parasitoids and the pest in its own laboratory with biological quality similar to the insects found in nature and cost competitive with chemical control. The objectives of this study was to establish protocols for artificial rearing of A. sp. 1 aff. fraterculus in liquid larval diet that will achieve levels of mass production for a possible reduction in the cost of establishing and determining the dose of radiation sterilization of adult A. sp. 1 aff. fraterculus meeting the quality parameters required by the Sterile Insect Technique with insects from the creation of Radioentomology Laboratory of CENA/USP. Seven experimental diets compared to the conventional diet used in Radioentomology Lab. of CENA/USP, which was used as control. All seven diets have in common the exclusion of agar in its formulation. Only two of the diets tested were suitable for larval development of the fly, they compared with the standard diet, showed inferior results with respect to the volume of recovered larvae, pupae and weight of emergency, however, no significant differences regarding the periods of development , pupal recovery, sex ratio and longevity under stress. It is possible to replace the diet with agar for liquid diets for artificial creation of A. sp. 1 aff. fraterculus, reduced cost and greater convenience of handling, but due to their quality standards lower than the standard diet, more tests are needed especially regarding the adaptability of the insect to the new environment. To determine the sterilizing dose this study examined the fertility, fecundity, emergence, flight ability and longevity under stress in A. fraterculus irradiated with 40, 50, 60, 70 and 80 Gy. The radiation source was a gamma irradiator with a Co-60 (Gamma beam-650) located in the same laboratory. The tests were performed under the following environmental conditions: 26 +- 1 deg C, 70 +- 5% RH and photoperiod of 12:12. The dose of gamma radiation sterilization for male A. sp. 1 aff. fraterculus was determined with 70 Gy. Irradiates females, even with the lower dose of 40 Gy, laid no eggs, possibly due to atrophy of the ovaries caused by radiation. The radiation did not affect the other quality parameters such as insect emergence, longevity and ability to fly. (author)

  2. A pictorial key and diagnosis of the Brazilian genera of Micropezidae (Diptera, Nerioidea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Borges Ferro

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available A pictorial key and diagnosis of the Brazilian genera of Micropezidae (Diptera, Nerioidea. This paper provides the first pictorial key and diagnosis for the Brazilian genera of the Micropezidae, based on external morphological characters illustrated with photographs. The key includes 13 genera: Cardiacephala Macquart, Cliobata Enderlein, Grallipeza Rondani, Metasphen Frey, Micropeza Meigen, Parasphen Enderlein, Planipeza Marshall, Plocoscelus Enderlein, Poecilotylus Hennig, Ptilosphen Enderlein, Rainieria Rondani, Scipopus Enderlein and Taeniaptera Macquart. For each genus, the species known to occur in Brazil are listed and their distribution records, including new ones, are provided.

  3. 7 CFR 305.31 - Irradiation treatment of imported regulated articles for certain plant pests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Drug Administration under 21 CFR part 179. (2) Be constructed so as to provide physically separate... Anastrepha suspensa Caribbean fruit fly 70 Aspidiotus destructor Coconut scale 150 Bactrocera jarvisi...

  4. Avaliação de atrativos alimentares utilizados no monitoramento de mosca-das-frutas em pessegueiro na lapa- PR Food attractants used in the monitoring of fruit flies in peach trees in lapa, Paraná (PR, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lino Bittencourt Monteiro

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available As moscas-das-frutas do gênero Anastrepha são uma praga-chave na cultura do pessegueiro no Paraná. Atrativos alimentares foram testados para determinar a sua eficiência no monitoramento de moscas-das-frutas capturadas em frascos caça-moscas McPhail. O experimento foi conduzido por três anos, sendo que, em 2002, foram testados como atrativo o suco de uva da marca Maguari®, o hidrolisado enzimático de proteína da marca BioAnastrepha® e o vinagre da marca Chemin Agrin®. Nos dois anos seguintes, o vinagre foi substituído pelo composto protéico hidrolisável da marca Torula®. As substâncias atrativas à base de proteína foram as mais eficientes na captura de Anastrepha spp., e as capturas ocorreram antecipadas em relação ao suco de uva. De acordo com os resultados, recomendam-se atrativos à base de proteína para monitoramento de Anastrepha spp em pessegueiro, na Lapa.Fruit flies of Anastrepha genus are a key pest in peach trees in Paraná. Food attractants were tested to determine their efficiency in monitoring fruit flies captured in McPhail fly traps. The experiment was conducted over a period of three years. In 2002 the following attractors were tested: Maguari® brand grape juice, BioAnastrepha® brand hydrolyzed enzymatic protein and Chemin Agrin® vinegar. Over the next two years, the vinegar was replaced by Torula® hydrolyzed protein compound. Protein-based attractants were the most efficient in trapping Anastrepha spp. and captured flies earlier comparing to grape juice. According to the results, the use of protein-based attractants for monitoring Anastrepha spp in the Lapa peach trees was recommended.

  5. First record of Coptera haywardi Loiácono (Hymenoptera: Diapriidae) as a parasitoid of fruit-infesting Tephritidae (Diptera) in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Aguiar Menezes, Elen L.; Menezes, Eurípedes B.; Loiácono, Marta Susana

    2003-01-01

    This study reports the first occurrence of Coptera haywardi Loiácono as a pupal parasitoid of fruit-infesting Tephritidae in Brazil. We reared this diapriid from fruits of Eugenia uniflora (Surinam cherry) infested by Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann) and/or Anastrepha sororcula Zucchi. We also identified two other species of pupal parasitoids: Pachrycrepoideus vindemmiae Rondani and Spalangia endius Walker (Pteromalidae). Four species of larval-pupal parasitoids were also recorded: Doryctob...

  6. Larval endoparasitoids (Hymenoptera of frugivorous flies (Diptera, Tephritoidea reared from fruits of the cerrado of the State of Mato Grosso do Sul , Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoel A. Uchôa-Fernandes

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a five years survey of endoparasitoids obtained from the larvae of frugivorous Tephritidae and Lonchaeidae flies. The insects were reared from cultivated and wild fruits collected in areas of the cerrado in the State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. The flies obtained from 14 host fruit species were eight Anastrepha species, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann, 1824 (Tephritidae; Dasiops sp. and Neosilba spp. (Lonchaeidae. Eleven parasitoid species were collected: Braconidae - Asobara anastrephae (Muesebek, 1958, Doryctobracon areolatus (Szépligeti, 1911, D. fluminensis (Costa Lima, 1938, Opius bellus Gahan, 1930 and Utetes anastrephae (Viereck, 1913; Figitidae - Aganaspis nordlanderi Wharton, 1998, Lopheucoila anastrephae (Rhower, 1919, Odontosema anastrephae (Borgmeier, 1935 and Trybliographa infuscata Gallardo, Díaz & Uchôa-Fernandes, 2000 and, Pteromalidae - Spalangia gemina Boucek, 1963 and S. endius Walker, 1839. In all cases only one parasitoid emerged per puparium. D. areolatus was the most abundant and frequent parasitoid of fruit fly species, as was L. anastrephae in Neosilba spp. larvae. This is the first record of A. nordlanderi in the midwestern Brazilian region.

  7. Diversidad de plantas trepadoras y epífitas vasculares en un paisaje agroforestal del sur de chile: una comparación entre fragmentos de bosque nativo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jimmy Pincheira-Ulbrich

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Se comparó la diversidad de plantas trepadoras y epífitas vasculares entre un fragmento de bosque siempreverde (Laureliopsis philippiana y Eucryphia cordifolia y cuatro fragmentos de bosque secundario dominados por Nothofagus obliqua en una matriz agroforestal en la precordillera costera de la provincia de Osorno (Chile. Sobre la base de un muestreo por transectos con observaciones desde la base del suelo, se obtuvo la riqueza de especies, la composición florística, la frecuencia de ocurrencia (fo y parámetros estructurales del bosque. Los resultados mostraron que: (1 la riqueza fue mayor en el fragmento siempreverde (19 especies y decreció en los fragmentos de N. obliqua (16 a 10 especies, (3 la familia Hymenophyllaceae (epíftas fue el grupo más diverso (10 especies, y con mayor fo en el fragmento siempreverde, (4 las trepadoras incrementaron su fo en los fragmentos de N. obliqua, (5 cuatro y cinco especies sólo se encontraron en el bosque siempreverde y N. obliqua, respectivamente, (6 la similitud florística varió entre 38 % y 75 % entre fragmentos, (7 el estado de desarrollo del bosque fue desigual entre las comunidades forestales. Se concluye que los cambios de diversidad de las especies ocurren por efecto de los cambios en la estructura del bosque.Vascular epiphytes and climbing plants diversity in an agroforestal landscape in southern Chile: a comparison among native forest fragments. We compared the diversity of vines and vascular epiphytes among an evergreen forest fragment (Laureliopsis philippiana y Eucryphia cordifolia and four fragments of secondary forest dominated for Nothofagus obliqua in an agro-forestry matrix landscape localized in the coastal range of Osorno, in Chile. Based on a sampling transects with ground-based observations, we obtained the species richness, floristic composition, frequency of occurrence (fo and forest structure. The results showed that: (1 the richness was higher in the evergreen forest (19

  8. Primary abductor hip contracture as diagnostic, prognostic and therapeutic problem in child hip pathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pajić Miloš

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Coxa obliqua represents a special functional entity in the pathology of the child hip. Authors have confirmed the results of S.L. Weissman and B. Strinovic which claimed that the abductor contracture of the hip was a primary congenital condition that developed as a result of intrauterine malposition, leading later to the contralateral adductor contracture. Critical period for the development of complications was between 6 and 8 month after birth, adductor contracture might keep persisting together with the development of acetabular dysplasia, and later on with ipsilateral subluxation. This malformation has usually been diagnosed within 3 and 6 months of age. It could be connected with some other signs of malposition, such as plagiocephaly, torticollis or infantile thoracic C scoliosis. For the diagnosis of coxa obliqua, the examination of hips in the prone position was very important and the ultrasonic and radiological examinations were crucial. The applied treatment used to be exclusively physical rehabilitation. Wide diapering has been contraindicated. In this study, we included 2,500 newborns, 1,300 boys and 1,200 girls (5,000 hips. In 22 cases of coxa obliqua (10‰, the excellent results were obtained in 96% of cases. In two unsuccessfully treated cases, a contralateral dysplasia developed, and in one untreated, subluxation. The authors are advocating a systematic and early detection and treatment of the primary coxa obliqua. .

  9. Revisão de Euprepina Hull (Diptera, Bombyliidae, Bombyliinae Revision of Euprepina Hull (Diptera, Bombyliidae, Bombyliinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos José Einicker Lamas

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available Euprepina Hull, 1971 (Diptera, Bombyliidae, Bombyliinae a neotropical genus with ten species is revised. Redescriptions of eight species were made: E. nuda Hull, 1971, E. amabilis (Wulp, 1881, E. beckeri Lamas & Couri, 1998, E. bicincta (Wiedemann, 1830, E. caminaria (Wiedemann, 1830, E. knutsoni Hull, 1971, E. maracajula Hull, 1971 and E. truxalia Hull, 1971, with illustrations of the types, male terminalia and spermathecae. Two synonymies - E. bicincta (Wiedemann, 1830, syn.: E. bicincta Hull, 1971; and E. nuda Hull, 1971, syn.: E. shannoni Hull, 1971 - are proposed. A key to species are presented except to E. goyaz (Macquart, 1840 and E. aperta (Macquart, 1847, which were not included in this study, as no material was examined.

  10. Blow Flies Visiting Decaying Alligators: Is Succession Synchronous or Asynchronous?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark P. Nelder

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Succession patterns of adult blow flies (Diptera: Calliphoridae on decaying alligators were investigated in Mobile (Ala, USA during August 2002. The most abundant blow fly species visiting the carcasses were Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart, Cochliomyia macellaria (Fabricus, Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricus, Phormia regina (Meigen, and Lucilia coeruleiviridis (Macquart. Lucilia coeruleiviridis was collected more often during the early stages of decomposition, followed by Chrysomya spp., Cochliomyia macellaria, and Phormia regina in the later stages. Lucilia coeruleiviridis was the only synchronous blow fly on the three carcasses; other blow fly species exhibited only site-specific synchrony. Using dichotomous correlations and analyses of variance, we demonstrated that blow fly-community succession was asynchronous among three alligators; however, Monte Carlo simulations indicate that there was some degree of synchrony between the carcasses.

  11. Abundância e riqueza de espécies de Syrphidae (Diptera em áreas de borda e interior de floresta no Parque Estadual de Vila Velha, Ponta Grossa, Paraná, Brasil Abundance and species richness of Syrphidae (Diptera in the interior and edges of forest in the State Park of Vila Velha, Ponta Grossa, Paraná, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciane Marinoni

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de caracterizar a fauna local de insetos foram obtidas amostras semanais, de setembro/1999 a agosto/2000, utilizando-se armadilhas Malaise instaladas na borda da floresta e no seu interior. Uma análise temporal foi realizada com as espécies de Syrphidae coletadas há, aproximadamente, dezessete anos no mesmo local, dentro da floresta. A abundância e a riqueza de espécies também foram avaliadas. Tanto a riqueza quanto a abundância foram maiores na borda da floresta. Comparando-se os dados atuais com aqueles obtidos em 1986/1987, observa-se um decréscimo na abundância e também na riqueza de espécies de Syrphidae. A espécie mais abundante na borda foi Allograpta neotropica Curran, 1936 e no interior (1999/2000, Ocyptamus sativus (Curran, 1941. Os espécimens de Toxomerus Macquart, 1855 foram os mais abundantes na armadilha localizada na borda da floresta e os de Ocyptamus Macquart, 1834 no interior. Noventa e cinco espécies foram identificadas em 22 gêneros. Ocyptamus foi o gênero com maior riqueza de espécies (23. Na seqüência estão Copestylum Macquart, 1846 (15, Toxomerus (15 e Microdon Meigen, 1803 (10. Sete espécies foram comuns aos três levantamentos: Allograpta neotropica; Copestylum selectum (Curran, 1939; Leucopodella gracilis (Williston, 1891; Mixogaster polistes Hull, 1954; Ocyptamus funebris Macquart, 1834; Toxomerus procrastinatus Metz, 2001 e Toxomerus tibicen (Wiedemann, 1830. Três novas espécies de Microdon, uma de Toxomerus, uma de Aristosyrphus Curran, 1941 e uma de Myolepta Newman, 1838 foram identificadas.To characterize the local insect fauna, samples were obtained weekly from September/1999 to August/2000 through Malaise traps installed at the edge and inside the forest. A temporal analysis of Syrphidae species collected approximately 17 years ago at the same local, inside the forest, was made. Also, the abundance and species richness between the areas were analyzed. The syrphids were more

  12. Revision of the stiletto fly genera Acupalpa Kröber and Pipinnipons Winterton (Diptera, Therevidae, Agapophytinae) using cybertaxonomic methods, with a key to Australasian genera

    OpenAIRE

    Shaun Winterton

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Australian stiletto flies of the sister-genera Acupalpa Kröber, 1912 and Pipinnipons Winterton, 2001 (Diptera: Therevidae: Agapophytinae) are revised. Twelve new species of Acupalpa are described, while Acupalpa imitans (White, 1915), comb. n. is transferred from Pipinnipons and Acupalpa albimanis (Kröber, 1914), comb. n. is transferred from Ectinorhynchus Macquart as a senior synonym of Acupalpa pollinosa Mann. The total number of species of Acupalpa is therefore increased to 19: Ac...

  13. A new species of Anabarhynchus ( Diptera : Therevidae ) from an ocean beach in south east Victoria

    OpenAIRE

    David Ferguson; David Yeates

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Anabarhynchus Macquart 1848 is a large genus of the Therevidae  ( Diptera ) that are endemic to Australasia with a couple of described species from Melanesia. We describe and illustrate Anabarhynchus oceanus sp. n., a species found on ocean beaches in eastern Victoria, Australia. The species shares most characters with the monobasic Anabarhynchus kampmeierae species group of Lyneborg (2001), but also shares a unique feature of the male genitalia with the endemic New Zealand genus Meg...

  14. Redescription of two neotropical species of Toxophora Meigen (Diptera, Bombyliidae, Toxophorinae) Redescrição de duas espécies neotropicais de Toxophora Meigen (Diptera, Bombyliidae, Toxophorinae)

    OpenAIRE

    André Mallemont Cunha; Carlos José Einicker Lamas; Márcia Souto Couri

    2009-01-01

    Two neotropical species of Toxophora Meigen, 1848 are redescribed (T. aurea Macquart, 1848 and T. leucon Séguy, 1930) and the male terminalia, female spermathecae, and the eggs are described and illustrated. Both species can be easily segregated from the other congeners by the following features: T. leucon: body covered with dark brown scales, longitudinal stripe formed by yellow scales on center of mesonotum, scutellum and abdomen, and abdomen slender; T. aurea: antenna with short dark brown...

  15. Pas de roman avant le mariage, tous les romans après le mariage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tone Smolej

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available Dans cet article, l’auteur explore la bibliothèque imaginaire des personnages du cycle des Rougon-Macquart, d’Émile Zola. Il se penche plus particulièrement sur les livres lus par deux catégories de personnages : les révoltés à l’égard du système politique et les jeunes filles.

  16. La place et le rôle du romanesque dans la poétique d'Emile Zola.

    OpenAIRE

    NDIAYE, ASSANE FAYE

    2015-01-01

    Les Rougon-Macquart, a huge literary composition containing twenty novels, is in many respects the most prominent testimony of Zola’s poetic narrative. This poetics is grounded on the guiding principles of Naturalism that Emile Zola, prominent leader of this movement has developed in his various writings, as literary theoretician and critic. Among the features that Zola attributed to the naturalist story is the refusal to use "romance" in the poetics of his work. The adjective “novelistic" ce...

  17. A world revision of the bee fly tribe Usiini (Diptera, Bombyliidae) Part 2: Usia sensu stricto.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, David

    2014-01-01

    This is the second part of a world revision of the genera Usia Latreille and Parageron Paramonov, of the tribe Usiini Becker, and covers the pale-haired species, the Usia sensu stricto group. Usia sensu stricto as defined here contains 24 species of which 16 species fall into two monophyletic groups, the U. lata group with 10 species and the U. florea group with six species. Eight species cannot be placed in either of these two groups, four of them form two pairs of sibling species while the remaining four species have no clear affinities. Of the 25 formerly available names that belong in Usia sensu stricto, U. putilla Becker stat. rev., previously synonymised under U. angustifrons, is reinstated as a full species. U. sicula Egger syn. nov., is synonymised under U. manca Loew, U. anus Becker syn. nov., is synonymised under U. vestita Macquart and U. claripennis Macquart syn. nov., is synonymised under U. atrata (Fabricius). Usia vicina Macquart, formerly placed as a synonym of U. atrata, is shown to be a junior synonym of U. aenea Rossi. Five new species are described, U. anatoliensis sp. nov., U. annetteae sp. nov., U. greatheadi sp. nov., U. maghrebensis sp. nov. and U. cornigera sp. nov. Both the male and female genitalia are illustrated in detail for 21 species, female only in the cases of U. calva Loew and U. notata Loew and male only for U. incognita Paramonov. PMID:24870868

  18. New records of fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae), wild hosts and parasitoids (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) in the Brazilian Amazon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jesus, Cristiane R. de; Oliveira, Manoela N. de; Silva, Ricardo A. da [EMBRAPA Amapa, Macapa, AP (Brazil); Pereira, Julia D.B. [Universidade Federal do Amapa, Macapa, AP (Brazil); Souza Filho, Miguel F. [Instituto Biologico, Campinas, SP (Brazil); Costa Neto, Salustiano V. da [Instituto de Pesquisas Cientificas e Tecnologicas do Amapa, Macapa, AP (Brazil); Marinho, Claudia F.; Zucchi, Roberto A. [Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz (ESALQ/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Entomologia, Fitopatologia e Zoologia Agricola

    2008-11-15

    Anastrepha anomala Stone was obtained from Parahancornia amapa (Huber) Ducke (Apocynaceae) fruits, and Anastrepha hastata Stone from Cheiloclinium cognatum (Miers.) (Hippocrateaceae) in the State of Amapa, Brazil. Two braconids, Doryctobracon sp. and Opius bellus Gahan, were reared from the latter fruit fl y species. This is the fi rst record of P. amapa as a fruit fl y host. C. cognatum is the fi rst host known to A. hastata. Both braconids are also the fi rst records of parasitoids for this species. (author)

  19. New records of fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae), wild hosts and parasitoids (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) in the Brazilian Amazon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anastrepha anomala Stone was obtained from Parahancornia amapa (Huber) Ducke (Apocynaceae) fruits, and Anastrepha hastata Stone from Cheiloclinium cognatum (Miers.) (Hippocrateaceae) in the State of Amapa, Brazil. Two braconids, Doryctobracon sp. and Opius bellus Gahan, were reared from the latter fruit fl y species. This is the fi rst record of P. amapa as a fruit fl y host. C. cognatum is the fi rst host known to A. hastata. Both braconids are also the fi rst records of parasitoids for this species. (author)

  20. Biologia da mosca‑das‑frutas sul‑americana em frutos de mirtilo, amoreira‑preta, araçazeiro e pitangueira Biology of South American fruit fly in blueberry, blackberry, strawberry guava, and Surinam cherry crops

    OpenAIRE

    Maicon Bisognin; Dori Edson Nava; Heitor Lisbôa; Alexandre Zandoná Bisognin; Mauro Silveira Garcia; Ricardo Alexandre Valgas; Gabriela Inés Diez‑Rodríguez; Marcos Botton; Luis Eduardo Corrêa Antunes

    2013-01-01

    O objetivo deste trabalho foi descrever a biologia de Anastrepha fraterculus em frutos de mirtilo (Vaccinium ashei), amoreira‑preta (Rubus spp.), araçazeiro (Psidium cattleyanum) e pitangueira (Eugenia uniflora). O experimento foi realizado em laboratório, em condições controladas de temperatura (25±2ºC), umidade relativa (70±10%) e fotófase (12 horas), para determinação dos parâmetros biológicos do inseto nos estágios de desenvolvimento imaturos e adultos. Anastrepha fraterculus comple...

  1. Biologia da mosca‑das‑frutas sul‑americana em frutos de mirtilo, amoreira‑preta, araçazeiro e pitangueira

    OpenAIRE

    Maicon Bisognin; Dori Edson Nava; Heitor Lisbôa; Alexandre Zandoná Bisognin; Mauro Silveira Garcia; Ricardo Alexandre Valgas; Gabriela Inés Diez‑Rodríguez; Marcos Botton; Luis Eduardo Corrêa Antunes

    2013-01-01

    O objetivo deste trabalho foi descrever a biologia de Anastrepha fraterculus em frutos de mirtilo (Vaccinium ashei), amoreira‑preta (Rubus spp.), araçazeiro (Psidium cattleyanum) e pitangueira (Eugenia uniflora). O experimento foi realizado em laboratório, em condições controladas de temperatura (25±2ºC), umidade relativa (70±10%) e fotófase (12 horas), para determinação dos parâmetros biológicos do inseto nos estágios de desenvolvimento imaturos e adultos. Anastrepha fraterculus completa o c...

  2. Aggregate structure and stability linked to carbon dynamics in a south Chilean Andisol

    OpenAIRE

    C. Oyarzún; Godoy, R.; O. Van Cleemput; P. Boeckx; Huygens, D.

    2005-01-01

    International audience The extreme vulnerability of soil organic carbon to climate and land use change emphasizes the need for further research in different terrestrial ecosystems. We have studied the aggregate stability and carbon dynamics in a chronosequence of three different land uses in a south Chilean Andisols: a second growth Nothofagus obliqua forest (SGFOR), a grassland (GRASS) and a Pinus radiata plantation (PINUS). The aim of this study was to investigate the role of Al as soil ...

  3. EFFECT OF ECOSYSTEM TYPE ON SOIL HETEROTROPHIC FLAGELLATE COMMUNITIES UNDER FOREST-STEPPE CONDITIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Tikhonenkov, Denis; Mazei, Yuri; Embulaeva, Elena

    2010-01-01

    The species diversity and patterns of soil heterotrophic flagellate community structure in the forest-steppe of the Middle Volga Region were investigated in accordance with the spatial heterogeneity of forest-steppe ecosystems. Fifty-three species and forms were identified. Eurybiontic Bodo designis (revealed in 100% of biotopes), Paraphysomonas sp. (100%), Spumella sp. (100%), Heteromita minima (94%), Phyllomitus apiculatus (88%), Ploeotia obliqua (88%), Heteromita globosa (82%), Goniomonas ...

  4. Back-transmission of a virus associated with apple stem pitting and pear vein yellows from Nicotiana occidentalis to apple and pear indicators

    OpenAIRE

    Leone, G.; Lindner, J. L.; Jongedijk, G.; Meer, van der, D

    1995-01-01

    The successful back-transmission of the mechanically transmissible virus associated with apple stem pitting and pear vein yellows, from Nicotiana occidentalis to apple seedlings "Golden Delicious" under greenhouse conditions is reported. This result enabled a field experiment where isolates of apple stem pitting, originating from apple, that were back transmitted from N. occidentalis 37B and N. occidentalis subsp. obliqua to apple seedlings are indexed by double budding on apple and pear indi...

  5. Evaluating mating compatibility within fruit fly cryptic species complexes and the potential role of sex pheromones in pre-mating isolation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Juárez, M. L.; Devescovi, F.; Břízová, Radka; Bachmann, G.; Segura, D. F.; Kalinová, Blanka; Fernández, P.; Ruiz, M. J.; Yang, J.; Teal, P. E. A.; Cáceres, C.; Vreysen, M. J. B.; Hendrichs, J.; Vera, M. T.

    -, č. 540 (2015), s. 125-155. ISSN 1313-2989 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 7AMB13AR018 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : species delimitation * field cages * Tephritidae * Anastrepha fraterculus * Bactrocera dorsalis Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.933, year: 2014 http://zookeys.pensoft.net/articles.php?id=6133

  6. Functional comparison of three transformer gene introns regulating conditional female lethality

    Science.gov (United States)

    The trasformer gene plays a critical role in the sex determination pathways of many insects. We cloned two transformer gene introns from Anastrepha suspensa, the Caribbean fruit fly. These introns have sequences that putatively have a role in sex-specific splicing patterns that affect sex determinat...

  7. Eficácia de atrativos alimentares na captura de moscas-das-frutas em pomar de citros Attractiveness of food baits to the fruit flies in citrus orchard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adalton Raga

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available As moscas-das-frutas (Diptera: Tephritoidea são importantes pragas de frutas cítricas no Estado de São Paulo, principalmente Anastrepha fraterculus (Wied. e Ceratitis capitata (Wied.. O objetivo deste estudo foi medir a eficiência dos atrativos alimentares para monitoramento de moscas-das-frutas, em pomar de citros. O delineamento experimental adotado foi de blocos ao acaso com cinco tratamentos e cinco repetições. O ensaio foi instalado em 30/9/2003 e desenvolvidopor nove semanas. Os atrativos testados foram: proteínas hidrolisadas comerciais Bio Anastrepha, Isca Mosca e Aumax®, todas diluídas em água a 5%; melaço a 7% isoladamente e melaço a 7% em mistura com suco de laranja a 10%. Foram utilizados semanalmente, 400mL da solução atrativa por frasco plástico McPhail instalado na copa de laranjeiras da variedade 'Pêra Rio'. As soluções eram renovadas semanalmente, ocasião em que os adultos eram coletados e çevados ao laboratório para contagem, sexagem e identificação. Foram capturados 1.821 adultos de Tephritoidea, sendo 892 de Anastrepha spp., 731 de C. capitata e 198 de Neosilba spp. Para essas espécies, as proteínas Bio Anastrepha e Isca Mosca foram altamente eficientes e semelhantes entre si, capturando 44,5% e 41,3% dos adultos de Tephritidae respectivamente. Não houve diferença entre as espécies de Tephritidae analisadas por sexo capturadas em Bio Anastrepha, Aumax® e melaço. Aumax®, melaço isoladamente e melaço + suco de laranja atraíram apenas 4,6%, 1,3% e 1,2% do total de adultos de Tephritidae, respectivamente. Melaço isoladamente e melaço com suco de laranja foram mais eficazes na atratividade de Zaprionus indianus (Gupta (Diptera: Drosophilidae.Fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritoidea are key pests in citrus production in the State of São Paulo, Brazil, mainly Anastrepha fraterculus (Wied. and Ceratitis capitata (Wied.. The objective of this study was to evaluate food baits to monitor fruit fly

  8. An annotated catalogue of the New World Therevidae (Insecta: Diptera: Asiloidea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Donald W; Gaimari, Stephen D; Hauser, Martin; Holston, Kevin C; Metz, Mark A; Irwin, Michael E; Kampmeier, Gail E; Algmin, Kristin

    2013-01-01

    The genera and species of New World stiletto flies (Diptera: Therevidae) are listed, with annotated references to nomenclature, synonymies and generic combinations, type localities, the primary type depositories, distribution, and citations for the most recent revisions. The genus Cyclotelus Walker, 1850 (along with its synonyms Furcifera Kröber, 1911, and Epomyia Cole, 1923a) is synonymized under Cerocatus Rondani, 1848. Ectinorhynchus fascipennis Kröber, 1911 is given the new name Cerocatus rondanii Gaimari, and Phycus rufiventris Kröber, 1911 is given the new name Cerocatus raspii Hauser. Phycus analis Kröber, 1911 and Phycus bicolor Kröber, 1911, are placed as new combinations in Cerocatus Rondani, as are the following species that were previously in combination with Cyclotelus: Furcifera achaeta Malloch, 1932, Cyclotelus badicrusus Irwin and Webb, 1992, Phycus beckeri Kröber, 1911, Epomyia bella Cole, 1923a, Furcifera braziliana Cole, 1960a, Cyclotelus colei Irwin and Lyneborg, 1981a, Thereva diversipes Kröber, 1911, Thereva fascipennis Macquart, 1846a, Psilocephala femorata Kröber, 1911, Furcifera flavipes Kröber, 1928b, Furcifera hardyi Cole, 1960a, Furcifera kroeberi Cole, 1960a, Cyclotelus laetus Walker, 1850, Furcifera longicornis Kröber, 1911, Cyclotelus nigroflammus Walker, 1850, Psilocephala nigrifrons Kröber, 1914a, Thereva pictipennis Wiedemann, 1821, Furcifera polita Kröber, 1911, Cyclotelus pruinosus Walker, 1850, Thereva ruficornis Macquart, 1841a, Psilocephala rufiventris Loew, 1869, Thereva scutellaris Walker, 1857, Cyclotelus silacrusus Irwin and Webb, 1992, Cyclotelus socius Walker, 1850 and Psilocephala sumichrasti Bellardi, 1861. Dialineura pallidiventris Malloch, 1932, Melanothereva blackmani Oldroyd, 1968, Thereva maculicornis Jaennicke, 1867 and Thereva notabilis Macquart, 1841a are placed as new combinations in Entesia Oldroyd. Henicomyia amazonica Irwin and Webb, 1992 is a new synonym of Henicomyia flava Lyneborg, 1972

  9. A new species of Anabarhynchus (Diptera: Therevidae from an ocean beach in south east Victoria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Ferguson

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Anabarhynchus Macquart 1848 is a large genus of the Therevidae (Diptera that are endemic to Australasia with a couple of described species from Melanesia. We describe and illustrate Anabarhynchus oceanus sp. n., a species found on ocean beaches in eastern Victoria, Australia. The species shares most characters with the monobasic A. kampmeierae species group of Lyneborg (2001, but also shares a unique feature of the male genitalia with the endemic New Zealand genus Megathereva Lyneborg, 1992. This new species brings the total number of described Australian species in the genus to 113.

  10. A new species of Anabarhynchus (Diptera: Therevidae) from an ocean beach in south east Victoria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, David J; Yeates, David K

    2014-01-01

    Anabarhynchus Macquart 1848 is a large genus of the Therevidae (Diptera) that are endemic to Australasia with a couple of described species from Melanesia. We describe and illustrate Anabarhynchusoceanus sp. n., a species found on ocean beaches in eastern Victoria, Australia. The species shares most characters with the monobasic Anabarhynchuskampmeierae species group of Lyneborg (2001), but also shares a unique feature of the male genitalia with the endemic New Zealand genus Megathereva Lyneborg, 1992. This new species brings the total number of described Australian species in the genus to 113. PMID:25349526

  11. Seven new species of Limnophora Robineau-Desvoidy (Diptera: Muscidae from Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Manuel Fogaça

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTHere we describe seven new species of Limnophora from Ecuador: Limnophora bifasciatasp. nov. from Napo, Quito; Limnophora equatoriensissp. nov. from Zamora-Chinchipe, Zamora; Limnophora femurosetalissp. nov. from Zamora-Chinchipe, Zamora; Limnophora lamasisp. nov. from Zamora-Chinchipe, Zamora; Limnophora longivittatasp. nov. from Napo, Quito; Limnophora penaisp. nov. from Azuay, Cuenca and Limnophora polletisp. nov. from Napo, Quito. We provide an identification key for the ten recognized species of Limnophora from Ecuador, including L. marginata Stein, 1904, L. pica(Macquart, 1851 and L. saeva (Wiedemann, 1830. We also redescribed Limnophora marginata Stein, 1904, and designated designed lectotype male and paralectotypes males and females of the species.

  12. Interaction between Tephritidae (Insecta, Diptera and plants of the family Asteraceae: new host and distribution records for the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcoandre Savaris

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Twenty species of Tephritidae (Diptera are recorded in association with capitula of plants in the family Asteraceae. The Tephritidae genus Tetreuaresta is registered for Rio Grande do Sul for the first time. Five species of Tephritidae are newly recorded for Rio Grande do Sul, and new hosts are recorded for the following fly species: Dioxyna chilensis (Macquart, Plaumannimyia dolores (Hering, Plaumannimyia imitatrix (Hering, Plaumannimyia miseta (Hering, Plaumannimyia pallens Hering, Tomoplagia incompleta (Williston, Tomoplagia matzenbacheri Prado, Norrbom & Lewinsohn, Tomoplagia reimoseri Hendel, Xanthaciura biocellata (Thomson and Xanthaciura chrysura (Thomson.

  13. Revision of the Neotropical Xanthandrus Verral (Diptera, Syrphidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borges Zuleica M.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The Neotropical genus Xanthandrus Verral, 1901 is revised. Six species are redescribed: X. bucephalus (Wiedemann, 1830, X. cubanus Fluke, 1936, X. mellinoides (Macquart, 1846, X. mexicanus Curran, 1930, X. nitidulus Fluke, 1937, and X. plaumanni Fluke, 1937. Three species are included based on original descriptions: X. flavomaculatus Shannon, 1927, X. palliatus (Fluke, 1945, and X. simplex (Loew, 1861. New synonyms proposed: Argentinomyia longicornis (Walker, 1837 = Xanthandrus biguttatus Hull, 1945 syn. nov., and Xanthandrus bucephalus (Wiedemann, 1830 = Melanostoma quadrinotata Bigot, 1884 syn. nov. Description of terminalia, a key for Neotropical species, and illustrations are also presented.

  14. Occurrence and managing of fruit flies in Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) are considered to be pests of potential importance because they damage fruits or limit their commercialisation. They therefore constitute one of the principal problems for the fruit industry world-wide. Of particular interest are the species of the genus Anastrepha Schiner widely distributed in the neotropical region where, according to Norrbom and Chung (1988), more than 180 species are known. In Cuba, five members of this genus are reported in addition to Toxotrypana curvicauda Gerstaeker and up to now, no other species are known (Alayo and Garcia, 1983). Although Ceratitis capitata Wiedeman or pest fruit flies from the genus Anastrepha and Bactrocera do not exist in the country, a defence programme has been operating for many years which includes among other measures, fruit sampling and trapping. The present work was undertaken in order to study the status of these insects in Cuba

  15. Parasitismo natural em moscas-das-frutas (Diptera: Tephritidae no semiárido do sudoeste da Bahia, Brasil Natural parasitism in fruit-flies in the fruticulture area of anagé, semi-arid of southwestern Bahia, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Falcão de Sá

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Parasitoides são importantes agentes de controle natural de tefritídeos, e os conhecimentos sobre as relações tritróficas podem subsidiar o manejo destas pragas. Este trabalho objetivou estimar índices de parasitismo em moscas-das-frutas, em 21 espécies vegetais, e identificar as espécies de parasitoides associados, nas condições do semiárido do sudoeste da Bahia. Oito hospedeiros apresentaram infestação por Anastrepha spp. e, destes, em quatro, ocorreu parasitismo superior a 20,0%, sendo: 20,8% (Ziziphus joazeiro L.; 21,3% (Spondias tuberosa L.; 32,4% (Spondias purpurea L. e 57,1% (Malpighia emarginata L.. Os parasitoides coletados pertencem à família Braconidae, sendo 89% de Doryctobracon areolatus e 11% de Asobara anastrephae.Parasitoids are important natural control agents of tephritids and knowledge about the tritrophic relationships can support the management of these pests. This study aimed to estimate of parasitism indexes in fruit flies in 21 plant species and identify the species of parasitoids associated, in semiarid conditions of Southwestern Bahia. Eight hosts showed infestation by Anastrepha spp. and, of these, four occurred parasitism above 20.0%, of which: 20.8% (Ziziphus joazeiro L.; 21.3% (Spondias tuberosa L.; 32.4% (Spondias purpurea L. and 57.1% (Malpighia emarginata L.. The collected parasitoids belong to the Braconidae family, 89% of Doryctobracon areolatus and 11% of Asobara anastrephae.

  16. Moscas-das-frutas em pomares de pessegueiro e maracujazeiro, no Município de Iraceminha, Santa Catarina, Brasil Fruit flies in peach and passion fruit orchards in Iraceminha, Santa Catarina, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheila Alberti

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo teve o objetivo de caracterizar a comunidade de moscas-das-frutas de ocorrência em pomares de pessegueiro e maracujazeiro, no Município de Iraceminha, Santa Catarina (SC, por meio da análise faunística. Os adultos de moscas-das-frutas foram capturados semanalmente, em armadilhas McPhail, contendo glicose invertida a 10%, no período de abril de 2006 a março de 2007. Na caracterização, foram calculados os índices de abundância, constância, dominância, frequência e diversidade. Foram coletados 697 adultos de moscas-das-frutas. Anastrepha grandis e Anastrepha fraterculus foram as espécies mais abundantes, frequentes, constantes e dominantes nos pomares estudados, predominando sobre as outras espécies de moscas-das-frutas. Ceratitis capitata foi caracterizada como dispersa e pouco frequente. O maior índice de diversidade encontrado foi de 1,99 no pomar de maracujazeiro.This research had the objective to characterize the community of fruit flies in peach and passion fruit orchards in Iraceminha, Santa Catarina, Brazil, through faunistic analyses. The adults fruit flies were weekly captured in McPhail traps with 10% inverted glucose, from April 2006 to March 2007. In the characterization, the indices for abundance, constancy, dominance, frequency and diversity were calculated. A total of 697 adults fruit flies were collected. Anastrepha grandis and Anastrepha fraterculus species were the most abundant, frequent, constant and dominant in orchards studied, predominating upon other fruit flies species. Ceratitis capitata was dispersed and not very frequent. The biggest index of diversity of 1.99 was in passion fruit orchard.

  17. Los insectos plaga de las Myrtaceae frutales en Pucallpa, Amazonia peruana

    OpenAIRE

    Couturier, Guy; Quinonez R., L.; Gonzalez R., I.; Riva R., R.; Young R., F.

    1996-01-01

    During two series of observations realized in the Pucallpa region, Peru in 1994 and 1995, some species of insect pests have been observed on cultivated trees of #Eugenia stipitata$ ("araza"), #Myrciaria dubia$ ("camu-camu") and #Myrciaria uniflora ("pitanga") belonging to the family #Myrtaceae$. #Anastrepha sororcula$ Zucchi and #Pseudoparlatoria turgida$ Ferris are reported for the first time in Peru. (Résumé d'auteur)

  18. Redescription of two neotropical species of Toxophora Meigen (Diptera, Bombyliidae, Toxophorinae Redescrição de duas espécies neotropicais de Toxophora Meigen (Diptera, Bombyliidae, Toxophorinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Mallemont Cunha

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Two neotropical species of Toxophora Meigen, 1848 are redescribed (T. aurea Macquart, 1848 and T. leucon Séguy, 1930 and the male terminalia, female spermathecae, and the eggs are described and illustrated. Both species can be easily segregated from the other congeners by the following features: T. leucon: body covered with dark brown scales, longitudinal stripe formed by yellow scales on center of mesonotum, scutellum and abdomen, and abdomen slender; T. aurea: antenna with short dark brown scales, body covered with yellow scales and spots of dark brown scales with greenish reflex, wings without inter-radial vein, femora with yellow scales and without setae on males, and abdomen stout.Duas espécies de Toxophora Meigen, 1848 são redescritas (T. aurea Macquart, 1848 e T. leucon Séguy, 1930 e as terminálias masculinas, femininas e os ovos são aqui descritos e ilustrados. Ambas as espécies podem ser facilmente distintas pelas seguintes características: T. leucon: corpo coberto por escamas castanho-escuras, faixa longitudinal formada por escamas amarelas no centro do mesonoto, escutelo e abdômen e abdômen fino; T. aurea: antenas com escamas curtas castanhoescuras, corpo coberto por escamas amarelas e manchas de escamas castanho-escuras com reflexo esverdeado, asas sem a nervura inter-radial, fêmures com escamas amarelas e ausência de cerdas nos machos e abdômen largo.

  19. Forensically important calliphoridae (diptera) associated with pig carrion in rural north-central Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruner, Susan V.; Slone, D.H.; Capinera, J.L.

    2007-01-01

    A study to determine the relative abundance and seasonality of forensically important blow flies (Diptera: Calliphoridae) in rural north-central Florida was conducted using pig carcasses (Sus scrofa L.) as models for human bodies. Seven species of Calliphoridae were collected: Lucilia coeruleiviridis (=Phoenicia) (Macquart), Cochliomyia macellaria (F.), Chrysomya rufifaces (Macquart), Phormia regina (Meigen), Chrysomya megacephala (F.), and a few specimens of Calliphora livida Hall, and Calliphora vicina Robineau-Desvoidy. Species composition in aerial collections of adult flies, preserved larval collections, and samples of larvae reared to the adult stage were all highly correlated. Relative abundance of the species found was significantly different, with L. coeruleiviridis the most abundant species year-round. The relative abundance of the collected species varied significantly by day of decomposition and by season, with significant interactions between season and day, season and species, and day and species. L. coeruleiviridis, C. macellaria, C. rufifaces, and P. regina were found during the entire year, two C. vicina specimens and 11 C. livida specimens were collected from December to March, whereas C. megacephala was collected only from June through September. ?? 2007 Entomological Society of America.

  20. Population fluctuation of fruit flies (Diptera, Tephritidae in peach and passion fruit orchards in Iraceminha, Santa Catarina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheila Alberti

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was learn more about the population fluctuation of fruit flies in peach and passion fruit orchards in the municipality of Iraceminha, Santa Catarina. In order to carry out the survey, McPhail traps were set up with 10% inverted glucose from April 2006 to March 2007. Captured flies were identified at the Laboratório de Entomologia at UNOCHAPECÓ. The collected females belonged to twelve species and four genera. The adults of Anastrepha fraterculus were trapped during all seasons, with a population peak in October 2006 in the peach orchards. The population levels of Anastrepha grandis remained higher during the first five months in the passion fruit orchard. There were low infestation rates by flies of the genera Ceratitis, Blepharoneura and Tomoplagia when compared to flies of the genus Anastrepha. The results showed that the presence of flies in the orchards was associated with the availability of host fruit and not with climatic conditions.

  1. Species of fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae: in a transect of the Amazonian Rainforest in Oiapoque, Amapá, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rose B. Rodrigues Trindade

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Species of fruit flies (Tephritidae were surveyed in a transect of the Amazonian Rainforest in the district of Clevelândia do Norte, municipality of Oiapoque, state of Amapá, Brazil. This study describes the diversity of fruit fly species sampled inside this transect (2.2 linear km. Eleven McPhail traps were serviced weekly from June 2002 to June 2003. A total of 55 samples were obtained, totaling 125 specimens of Tephritidae. Anastrepha Schiner, 1868 was the most abundant and diverse genus, with 18 species caught. Two new species, A. oiapoquensis Norrbom & Uchôa, 2011 and A. siculigera Norrbom & Uchôa, 2011, were discovered in this survey. Anastrepha coronilli Carrejo & González, 1993 (n = 40 was the most abundant species. Six species, Anastrepha amita Zucchi, 1979, A. duckei Lima, 1934, A. flavipennis Greene, 1934, A. minensis Lima, 1937, A. pseudoparallela (Loew, 1873, and A. submunda Lima, 1937, are recorded for the first time from Amapá. Three of them, A. minensis, A. pseudoparallela, and A. submunda, are reported for the first time from northern Brazil. This paper updates to 36 the number of frugivorous species of Tephritidae in Amapá.

  2. Regeneración de un bosque mixto de Nothofagus (Nothofagaceae) después de una corta selectiva Regeneration of a Nothofagus (Nothofagaceae) mixed forest after selective cutting

    OpenAIRE

    ALEJANDRO DEZZOTTI; RENATO SBRANCIA; MARCELO RODRÍGUEZ-ARIAS; DANIELA ROAT; ANDREA PARISI

    2003-01-01

    El estudio de la ecología de la regeneración natural del bosque constituye una parte esencial de la silvicultura. El cerro Tren Tren (40°12' S, 71°26' O, 1.367 m, Reserva Mapuche Curruhuinca, Argentina) está ocupado por un bosque cerrado compuesto por Nothofagus dombeyi, N. nervosa y N. obliqua. En 1994 se estimó la densidad de renovales (diámetro en la base del tallo < 10 cm) en 90 ind ha-1. Posteriormente, se implementaron cortas de selección en bosquetes y los 10 claros artificiales result...

  3. 桦褐孔菌的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵芬琴; 朴惠善

    2005-01-01

    桦褐孔菌,学名为Fuscoporia obliqua(Pers:Fr.) Aoshi或Inonotus obliquus(Fr.)Pilat,俗名为Black Birch touchwood,Birch mushroom,C1inker polypore,Tschaga pilz,Crooked schiller—Porling,Kofukisarunokoshikake。属于真菌门、担子菌亚门、层菌纲、非褐菌目(无褶菌目=多孔菌目,多孔菌科)、褐卧孔菌属(纤孔菌属)。

  4. Two New Lanostane Triterpenoids from the Branches and Leaves of Polyalthia oblique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu-Kai Wang

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Two new lanostane triterpenoids, 20-hydroxyeuphorbol-7-one (1 and 15α-hydroxyeuphorbol-7,11-dione (2, together with four known triterpenoids, euphorbol-7-one (3, friedelin (4, stigmast-4-ene-6α-ol-3-one (5, stigmasta-4-en-3,6-dione (6, were isolated from ethanol extract of the branches and leaves of Polyalthia obliqua. The structures of 1 and 2 were elucidated on the basis of extensive spectroscopic analysis and comparisons with related known compounds. Antibacterial activities of two new compounds and four known compounds were tested.

  5. Evaluation of ionizing radiation as quarantine treatment in Tephritidae (Diptera)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gamma irradiation was used to treat: eggs at different ages of C. capitata, third instar larvae of C. capitata, A. fraterculus and A. obliqua, papayas infested with a known number of C. capitata eggs; papayas and mangoes with C. capitata and A. fraterculus eggs and first instar and mangoes infested with third instar larvae of C. capitata and A. fraterculus. Third instar irradiated larvae of C. capitata were more sensitive than larvae of A. fraterculus and A. obliqua in terms of pupation rate. The pupation and emergence rate were different when C. capitata eggs of 24 and 48 h were irradiated in vitro and in papaya. C. capitata infesting either papaya or mango presented higher frequency of fruits heavily infested (more than 100 pupae per fruit), when compared with A. fraterculus. No emergence was found in C. capitata and A. fraterculus when infested fruits were irradiated at 40, 80 and 160 Gy. The dose of 150 Gy is recommended not only to provide no adult emergence but also to decrease the number of pupae when the commodity is infested by eggs and young larvae. (author)

  6. Molecular Cloning and Characterization of Hydroperoxide Lyase Gene in the Leaves of Tea Plant (Camellia sinensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Wei-Wei; Wu, Yi-Lin; Li, Ye-Yun; Tan, Zhen; Wei, Chao-Ling

    2016-03-01

    Hydroperoxide lyase (HPL, E.C. 4.1.2.) is the major enzyme in the biosynthesis of natural volatile aldehydes and alcohols in plants, however, little was known about HPL in tea plants (Camellia sinensis). A unique cDNA fragment was isolated by suppressive subtractive hybridization (SSH) from a tea plant subjected to herbivory by tea geometrid Ectropis obliqua. This full length cDNA acquired by RACE was 1476 bp and encoded 491 amino acids. DNA and protein BLAST searches showed high homology to HPL sequences from other plants. The His-tag expression vector pET-32a(+)/CsHPL was constructed and transferred into Escherichia coli Rosetta (DE3). The expression product of recombinant CsHPL in E. coli was about 60 kDa. The enzyme activity of CsHPL was 0.20 μmol·min(-1)·mg(-1). Quantitative RT-PCR analysis indicated CsHPL was strongly up-regulated in tea plants after Ectropis obliqua attack, suggesting that it may be an important candidate for defense against insects in tea plants. PMID:26886573

  7. Novelties in Casearia (Flacourtiaceae for Argentina NOVEDADES EN CASEARIA (FLACOURTIACEAE PARA ARGENTINA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor A. Keller

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available

    Casearia obliqua Spreng. (Flacourtiaceae is recorded for the first time to Argentina, based on
    specimens collected beside Iguazú river, in Misiones province. The taxon is here described
    and illustrated. The presence of Casearia gossypiosperma Briq. in Misiones, a tree mentioned
    in 1936 for that province, is here documented by mean herbarium material. A key for identifying
    the argentinean species is included
    Se cita por primera vez para la flora de Argentina, Casearia obliqua Spreng. (Flacourtiaceae,
    sobre la base de ejemplares recolectados junto al río Iguazú, en la provincia de Misiones. Este
    taxón es descripto e ilustrado. Se certifica mediante material de herbario la presencia en
    Misiones de Casearia gossypiosperma Briq., especie arbórea que fue mencionada para dicha
    provincia en 1936. Se incluye una clave para determinar las especies de Casearia de
    Argentina.

  8. The influence of microhabitat on the population dynamics of four herbaceous species in a semiarid area of northeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, K A; Santos, J M F F; Andrade, J R; Lima, E N; Albuquerque, U P; Ferraz, E M N; Araújo, E L

    2016-02-01

    Variation in annual rainfall is considered the most important factor influencing population dynamics in dry environments. However, different factors may control population dynamics in different microhabitats. This study recognizes that microhabitat variation may attenuate the influence of climatic seasonality on the population dynamics of herbaceous species in dry forest (Caatinga) areas of Brazil. We evaluated the influence of three microhabitats (flat, rocky and riparian) on the population dynamics of four herbaceous species (Delilia biflora, Commelina obliqua, Phaseolus peduncularis and Euphorbia heterophylla) in a Caatinga (dry forest) fragment at the Experimental Station of the Agronomic Research Institute of Pernambuco in Brazil, over a period of three years. D. biflora, C. obliqua and P. peduncularis were found in all microhabitats, but they were present at low densities in the riparian microhabitat. There was no record of E. heterophylla in the riparian microhabitat. Population size, mortality rates and natality rates varied over time in each microhabitat. This study indicates that different establishment conditions influenced the population size and occurrence of the four species, and it confirms that microhabitat can attenuate the effect of drought stress on mortality during the dry season, but the strength of this attenuator role may vary with time and species. PMID:26909622

  9. Elevation and vegetation influences on soil properties in Chilean Nothofagus forests Influencia de la elevación y la vegetación sobre las propiedades del suelo de los bosques chilenos de Nothofagus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KELLY L.M DECKER

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available We measured net nitrogen mineralization, net nitrification, proportional nitrification, and total inorganic nitrogen, available phosphorus, and soil organic carbon in five Andean forested stands in an attempt to resolve the relative influence of elevation and forest canopy composition on soil organic matter and nutrient dynamics in this ecosystem type. Our five forested study sites were within a contiguous Nothofagus forest that ranged from 1,280 to 1,700 m elevation in the central Chilean Andes. The five sites consisted of three single species stands, one each of the low elevation deciduous N. obliqua, the evergreen N. dombeyi, or the high elevation deciduous N. pumilio, as well as two mixed evergreen-deciduous stands. There was no statistically significant relationship of nitrogen mineralization or phosphorus with elevation. In contrast, there were statistically significant, though weak, negative relationships between elevation and net nitrification, proportional nitrification, soil pH and organic carbon. In general, soils from the N. obliqua stand had higher levels/rates of nitrification, soil organic carbon content, soil pH, and plant available phosphorus than soils form the other single species stands. In contrast, the N. dombeyi and N. pumilio stands had lower rates of nitrification and soil pH than did the N. obliqua stand. The evergreen-deciduous mixed stands tended to be intermediate in soil properties. These results demonstrate that vegetation, particularly the balance of evergreen and deciduous species, exerts stronger control over soil chemical and biochemical properties than the climate variations induced by 350 m in elevation, even where the evergreen and deciduous species are closely-related angiosperms.Medimos la mineralización neta de nitrógeno, la nitrificación, el total de nitrógeno disponible, el fósforo disponible y el carbono orgánico del suelo en cinco rodales forestales andinos con el propósito de separar la

  10. A revision of the Egyptian species of the genus Actorthia Kröber (Diptera: Therevidae: Phycinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badrawy, Haitham B M; Mohammad, Salwa K

    2013-01-01

    The genus Actorthia Kröber, 1912 was described based on a single female from Tourrah (Egypt) and is revised for the first time since the original description. Actorthia khedivialis (Becker, 1912) is newly synonymized with A. frontata (Kröber, 1912) based on examination of the type specimens of both species recently discovered in the Cairo University Collection (Egypt) and Natural History Museum (Austria), respectively. Actorthia efflatouni Kröber, 1925 is confirmed as a synonym of A. micans (Kröber, 1923) and Actorthia olivierii (Macquart, 1840) is transferred to Phycus. Actorthia pulchella Kröber, 1927 is recorded in Israel for the first time. The three Egyptian species of Actorthia are diagnosed and illustrated along with colour images of the type specimens, and a key to the Egyptian species is included. PMID:24698910

  11. Measuring the Size of the Vela Pulsar's Radio Emission Region

    CERN Document Server

    Gwinn, C R; Jauncey, D L; Hirabayashi, H; Kobayashi, H; Murata, Y; Edwards, P G; Carlson, B; Dougherty, S M; Britton, M C; McCulloch, P M; Lovell, J E J; Del Rizzo, D

    2000-01-01

    We describe measurements of the size of the Vela pulsar via scintillation,using both fits to the distribution of intensity and measurements of themodulation index. We briefly discuss systematic effects other than source sizethat can affect the distribution, including gain variations, self-noise,scintillation shot noise, and correlator saturation. Modulation index, a singlenumber, can be biased by all of these, whereas the distribution of intensity isaffected in different ways by different effects, providing means ofdistinguishing among them. Self-noise and gain variations are likely moreimportant at long observing wavelengths, and correlator saturation andscintillation shot noise at short wavelengths. We find a size of about 500 kmat decimeter wavelengths. Interestingly, this agrees with measurements ofmodulation index by Roberts & Ables at the same wavelength. Their results (andmore recently that reported by Macquart et al.) suggest that size decreaseswith increasing wavelength. Although consistent with ...

  12. Espécies de Syrphidae (Diptera visitantes das flores de Eryngium horridum (Apiaceae no Vale do Rio Pardo, RS, Brasil Species of Syrphidae (Diptera as flower visitors of Eryngium horridum (Apiaceae in Rio Pardo Valley, RS, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mírian N. Morales

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available No período entre dezembro de 2001 a dezembro de 2003, realizaram-se coletas com rede entomológica de insetos visitantes das flores de Eryngium horridum (Apiaceae na Região do Vale do Rio Pardo, RS, Brasil. Esta planta é perene, freqüente em campos secos e apresenta expressiva dispersão. Possui, no Rio Grande do Sul, época de floração entre novembro e janeiro. Foram capturados 1.066 insetos visitantes, destes, 569 Syrphidae. Identificaram-se 60 espécies de Syrphidae, distribuídas em 16 gêneros. O gênero Palpada Macquart, 1834 foi dominante, e Ornidia Lepeletier & Serville, 1828 e Toxomerus Macquart, 1855 abundantes. Das espécies mais freqüentes, Palpada furcata (Wiedemann, 1819 ocupou posição mais elevada. Os sirfídeos apresentaram preferência pelas temperaturas entre 28 e 32ºC, e foram mais freqüentemente coletados entre as 10 e 14 horas, com picos entre as 10 e 11 horas. As fêmeas foram as mais freqüentes. O predomínio de sirfídeos robustos e mais ágeis sobre sirfídeos de menor porte como Toxomerus e Allograpta Osten Sacken, 1875, pode ter sido resultante de competição interespecífica. Eristalinus taeniops (Wiedemann, 1818 é pela primeira vez citada para o Estado do Rio Grande do Sul. A alta diversidade e abundância dos espécimes coletados nas flores de E. horridum são indicadores da importância desta na dieta dos sirfídeos, visto que possui grande número de inflorescências e floração ocorrendo nos meses de baixa oferta de recursos alimentares na área de estudo.Between December 2001 and December 2003, collections of flower visitors of Eryngium horridum (Apiaceae were carried out in areas of Rio Pardo Valley, RS, Brazil. This plant is perennial, commonly found in dry fields, presenting a wide distribution. Its flowering period ranges from November to January in Rio Grande do Sul. A total of 1,066 insects were captured, 569 of them belonging to Syrphidae. Sixty species of Syrphidae were identified

  13. [Doctor Pascal Rougon. An imaginary predecessor].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malinas, Y; Malinas, C

    1993-06-01

    Through the Rougon-Macquart series and the cases described in the last volume (Le Docteur Pascal, 1893), clinical analysis of the 58 characters identifies only seven neurotics and six alcoholics (only three of whom were Rougon-Macquart by birth). All the other illness described are unrelated to hysteria in the family. It remains true, however, that Zola's interpretation of hereditary degeneracy follows that of contemporary medical teaching, as witnessed by the genealogics published by Charcot in 1893. Through the voice of Dr. Pascal, however, Zola does challenge the concepts of heredity advanced by his medical advisors: he envisages the concepts of dominance and recessiveness without devising any general scheme for the transmission of hereditary characteristics, but eight years before Vries he advanced the idea of mutations, which he interprets as accidents occurring at the beginning of the ovum's development. When faced by the lack of success of his opotherapy of degenerative diseases, Pascal initiates trials versus a placebo and puts forward a highly coherent theory of what we would now call the placebo effect. It appears, therefore, that contrary to the opinion of most commentators, Emile Zola was in fact capable of a remarkable subtleness when he ventured into medicine. Through Dr Pascal Rougon, and notwithstanding the mockery of Flaubert, Goncourt and France (and of many others), he was a brilliant trail-blazer in the fields of genetics and therapeutics. Six years later he was to strike again with Dr Boutan, who invented what we now know as the prophylactic care of mothers and children (Fécondité, 1898). PMID:8351463

  14. Thermoregulation in larval aggregations of carrion-feeding blow flies (Diptera: Calliphoridae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slone, D.H.; Gruner, Susan V.

    2007-01-01

    The growth and development of carrion-feeding calliphorid (Diptera Calliphoridae) larvae, or maggots, is of great interest to forensic sciences, especially for estimation of a postmortem interval (PMI). The development rate of calliphorid larvae is influenced by the temperature of their immediate environment. Heat generation in larval feeding aggregations (=maggot masses) is a well-known phenomenon, but it has not been quantitatively described. Calculated development rates that do not include internally generated temperatures will result in overestimation of PMI. Over a period of 2.5 yr, 80 pig, Sus scrofa L., carcasses were placed out at study sites in north central Florida and northwestern Indiana. Once larval aggregations started to form, multiple internal and external temperatures, and weather observations were taken daily or every few days between 1400 and 1800 hours until pupation of the larvae. Volume of each aggregation was determined by measuring surface area and average depth. Live and preserved samples of larvae were taken for species identification. The four most common species collected were Lucilia coeruleiviridis (=Phaenicia) (Macquart) (77%), Cochliomyia macellaria (F.) (8.3%), Chrysomya rufifaces (Macquart) (7.7%), and Phormia regina (Meigen) (5.5%). Statistical analyses showed that 1) volume of a larval mass had a strong influence on its temperature, 2) internal temperatures of masses on the ground were influenced by soil temperature and mass volume, 3) internal temperatures of masses smaller than 20 cm3 were influenced by ambient air temperature and mass volume, and 4) masses larger than 20 cm3 on the carcass had strongly regulated internal temperatures determined only by the volume of the mass, with larger volumes associated with higher temperatures. Nonsignificant factors included presence of rain or clouds, shape of the aggregation, weight of the carcass, species composition of the aggregation, time since death, or season.

  15. Advances and perspectives in the mass rearing of fruit fly parasitoids in Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biological control by augmentation is applied in Mexico as part of an integrated pest management program against native fruit flies of the genus Anastrepha Schiner. The exotic parasitoid Diachasmimorpha longicaudata has been the most important species used within this context. A program for the mass rearing of 50 million parasitized pupa per week has been established in southeast Mexico, and these are released into the field according to a yearly national plan based on industry requirements. In order to reduce costs and optimize procedures, important advances have been made in the technology for mass production, including an increase in the weight of host larvae (24 mg), changes in the management of host exposition, improvements in the management of environmental conditions, suitability in time and motions are the main areas addressed. Furthermore, a quality control program is routinely applied, and the key parameters under constant evaluation are: 1) weight and volume of host larvae, 2) host mortality after exposure, 3) weight and volume of pupae, and 4) percent parasitoid viability and percent emergence. Good performance in these parameters produces adults with adequate longevity and fecundity, high flight ability and good searching behavior. The introduced egg parasitoid Fopius arisanus and the native pupal parasitoid Coptera hawardi are being evaluated for use in the future as a complement to releases into the field of D. longicaudata. Manipulating host size and exposition time, the use of starting diet and suppressing host development by irradiation, have permitted the effective use of Anastrepha eggs as hosts for the rearing of F. arisanus. Further achievements in the mass rearing of C. haywardi (e.g., the suppression of unparasitized hosts after irradiation), could give us the opportunity to employ new options to reinforce the augmentative biological control of Anastrepha fruit flies in Mexico. (author)

  16. Advances and perspectives in the mass rearing of fruit fly parasitoids in Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cancino, Jorge; Montoya, Pablo [Secretaria de Agricultura, Ganaderia, Desarrollo Rural, Pesca y Alimentacion (DGSV/SENASICA/SAGARPA), Chiapas (Mexico). Servicio Nacional de Sanidad, Inocuidad y Calidad Agroalimentaria. Programa Moscamed-Moscafrut

    2006-07-01

    Biological control by augmentation is applied in Mexico as part of an integrated pest management program against native fruit flies of the genus Anastrepha Schiner. The exotic parasitoid Diachasmimorpha longicaudata has been the most important species used within this context. A program for the mass rearing of 50 million parasitized pupa per week has been established in southeast Mexico, and these are released into the field according to a yearly national plan based on industry requirements. In order to reduce costs and optimize procedures, important advances have been made in the technology for mass production, including an increase in the weight of host larvae (24 mg), changes in the management of host exposition, improvements in the management of environmental conditions, suitability in time and motions are the main areas addressed. Furthermore, a quality control program is routinely applied, and the key parameters under constant evaluation are: 1) weight and volume of host larvae, 2) host mortality after exposure, 3) weight and volume of pupae, and 4) percent parasitoid viability and percent emergence. Good performance in these parameters produces adults with adequate longevity and fecundity, high flight ability and good searching behavior. The introduced egg parasitoid Fopius arisanus and the native pupal parasitoid Coptera hawardi are being evaluated for use in the future as a complement to releases into the field of D. longicaudata. Manipulating host size and exposition time, the use of starting diet and suppressing host development by irradiation, have permitted the effective use of Anastrepha eggs as hosts for the rearing of F. arisanus. Further achievements in the mass rearing of C. haywardi (e.g., the suppression of unparasitized hosts after irradiation), could give us the opportunity to employ new options to reinforce the augmentative biological control of Anastrepha fruit flies in Mexico. (author)

  17. Evaluating mating compatibility within fruit fly cryptic species complexes and the potential role of sex pheromones in pre-mating isolation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juárez, M. Laura; Devescovi, Francisco; Břízová, Radka; Bachmann, Guillermo; Segura, Diego F.; Kalinová, Blanka; Fernández, Patricia; Ruiz, M. Josefina; Yang, Jianquan; Teal, Peter E.A.; Cáceres, Carlos; Vreysen, Marc J.B.; Hendrichs, Jorge; Vera, M. Teresa

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The study of sexual behavior and the identification of the signals involved in mate recognition between con-specifics are key components that can shed some light, as part of an integrative taxonomic approach, in delimitating species within species complexes. In the Tephritidae family several species complexes have received particular attention as they include important agricultural pests such as the Ceratitis fasciventris (Bezzi), Ceratitis anonae (Graham) and Ceratitis rosa Karsch (FAR) complex, the Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) complex and the Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann) complex. Here the value and usefulness of a methodology that uses walk-in field cages with host trees to assess, under semi-natural conditions, mating compatibility within these complexes is reviewed, and the same methodology to study the role of chemical communication in pre-mating isolation among Anastrepha fraterculus populations is used. Results showed that under the same experimental conditions it was possible to distinguish an entire range of different outcomes: from full mating compatibility among some populations to complete assortative mating among others. The effectiveness of the methodology in contributing to defining species limits was shown in two species complexes: Anastrepha fraterculus and Bactrocera dorsalis, and in the case of the latter the synonymization of several established species was published. We conclude that walk-in field cages constitute a powerful tool to measure mating compatibility, which is also useful to determine the role of chemical signals in species recognition. Overall, this experimental approach provides a good source of information about reproductive boundaries to delimit species. However, it needs to be applied as part of an integrative taxonomic approach that simultaneously assesses cytogenetic, molecular, physiological and morphological traits in order to reach more robust species delimitations. PMID:26798257

  18. Incidência de podridão-branca em frutos de macieira com e sem ferimentos Incidence of white rot in apple fruits with and without wounds

    OpenAIRE

    Janaína Pereira dos Santos; Adriana Regina Corrent; Onofre Berton; Lígia Loss Schwarz; Frederico Denardi

    2008-01-01

    Este estudo teve como objetivo avaliar a incidência da podridão-branca (Botryosphaeria dothidea) em frutos de dois genótipos de macieira submetidos à inoculação artificial, na ausência e na presença de ferimentos provocados pela mosca-das-frutas (Anastrepha fraterculus) e por estilete. O experimento foi conduzido no laboratório de Entomologia da Epagri/Estação Experimental de Caçador, na safra 2005/2006. No estudo, foram utilizados frutos da cv. Catarina (grupo 'Fuji') e da seleção M-13/00 (g...

  19. Isolation, identification and determination of the biological activity of candidate fruit volatile components from Argania spinosa L. (Sapotacea)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study provides detailed information on the diversity, abundance, guilds, host plant and host fly ranges, distribution, and taxonomic status of hymenopterous parasitoid species associated with Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) and Anastrepha spp. (A. fraterculus (Wiedemann) and A. schultzi Blanchard) in Argentina. Moreover, the article also argues future needs regarding the use of some parasitoid species as an alternative tool in fruit fly management programs of the National Fruit Fly Control and Eradication Program (PROCEM-Argentina). Data used for this work were obtained from numerous old and recent published articles on fruit fly parasitoids in Argentina. (author)

  20. Dispersal and longevity of mass-released, sterilized Mexican fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trap-back experiments using McPhail traps were conducted to study dispersal and longevity of mass-released, sterile Mexican fruit flies, Anastrepha ludens (Loew). The flies were released at 3 ecologically different sites in northern Mexico. Some flies were recaptured up to 9 km from the release point. However, standard distance was estimated using a regression model that indicated 240 m was the typical dispersal distance. The life expectancy of the released flies from the time of release varied from 5 to 10 d. Greatest longevity, up to 22 wk, occurred during the winter months

  1. Gamma irradiation as a quarantine treatment for carambolas infested with Caribbean fruit flies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carambolas infested with the Caribbean fruit fly Anastrepha suspensa (Loew), eggs and larvae were exposed to ionizing gamma radiation. Probit 9 was estimated to be 22.95 Gy (95% fiducial limits 16.68 Gy - 49.73 Gy). Over 100,000 immature A. suspensa infesting carambolas were treated at 50 Gy with no adult survivors. This dose did not cause any observable damage to the fruit. The 50 Gy dose satisfies quarantine requirements for treatment of fruits exposed from fruit fly infested areas. (author)

  2. Efficacy of sterile releases of Caribbean fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) against wild populations in urban hosts adjacent to commercial citrus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The sterile male release technique was tested either as an alternative to fumigation or as a supplement to a fly-free management program in 1988 for control of the Caribbean fruit fly, Anastrepha suspensa (Loew). The test area consisted of 19-28 sq. kilometers with a corresponding non-sterile fly release area. Releases began in January, 1988, and continued generally through June 1990. Efficacy was measured by determining the presence or absence of flies using an aggressive trapping program. Suppression of wild A. suspensa in the first year could not be measured easily but, by the end of the third year, measurable reduction was evident

  3. Biologia da mosca‑das‑frutas sul‑americana em frutos de mirtilo, amoreira‑preta, araçazeiro e pitangueira Biology of South American fruit fly in blueberry, blackberry, strawberry guava, and Surinam cherry crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maicon Bisognin

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi descrever a biologia de Anastrepha fraterculus em frutos de mirtilo (Vaccinium ashei, amoreira‑preta (Rubus spp., araçazeiro (Psidium cattleyanum e pitangueira (Eugenia uniflora. O experimento foi realizado em laboratório, em condições controladas de temperatura (25±2ºC, umidade relativa (70±10% e fotófase (12 horas, para determinação dos parâmetros biológicos do inseto nos estágios de desenvolvimento imaturos e adultos. Anastrepha fraterculus completa o ciclo biológico em todos hospedeiros estudados, embora os frutos nativos (pitanga e araçá ofereçam melhores condições para seu desenvolvimento. Os parâmetros biológicos determinados para as fases imaturas foram semelhantes nos quatro hospedeiros. Insetos criados em pitanga e araçá apresentam, na fase adulta, maior período de oviposição, fecundidade e longevidade de fêmeas, em comparação aos criados em mirtilo e amora‑preta. O ritmo diário de oviposição é mais prolongado e uniforme nos insetos criados em araçá e pitanga, o que mostra que A. fraterculus está mais bem adaptada a estas frutas, nativas da região Sul.The objective of this work was to describe the biology of Anastrepha fraterculus in blueberry (Vaccinium ashei, blackberry (Rubus spp., strawberry guava (Psidium cattleyanum and Surinam cherry (Eugenia uniflora fruits. The experiment was carried out in laboratory under controlled conditions of temperature (25±2ºC, relative humidity (70±10%, and photophase (12 hours to determine insect biological parameters in immature and adult development stages. Anastrepha fraterculus finishes its biological cycle in all studied hosts; however, the Brazilian native fruits (strawberry guava and Surinam cherry provide better conditions for development of the insect. Biological parameters determined for immature development stadium were similar in the four hosts. Insects reared in Surinam cherry and strawberry guava showed, in the

  4. Flutuação populacional de moscas-das-frutas em pomares de citros no oeste de Santa Catarina, Brasil Population fluctuation of fruit flies in citrus orchards in the West of Santa Catarina, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Antônio Chiaradia

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available As moscas-das-frutas (Diptera, Tephritidae causam danos econômicos em muitas frutíferas. Para conhecer a flutuação populacional destas moscas em pomares de citros da região Oeste de Santa Catarina, Brasil, e estudar as interferências de fatores climáticos sobre estes insetos, cinco frascos "caça-mosca", tendo vinagre de vinho tinto a 25% como atrativo, foram semanalmente instalados em dois pomares de laranjeiras da variedade Valência, em Águas de Chapecó e Chapecó, no período de outubro de 1999 a setembro de 2001. As moscas capturadas nas armadilhas foram triadas no Laboratório de Fitossanidade da Epagri de Chapecó. Análises de correlação e regressão polinomial foram realizadas entre o número mensal de moscas do gênero Anastrepha e os dados mensais de precipitação pluviométrica, insolação, umidade relativa do ar, velocidade do vento e temperatura ambiente. Temperatura máxima e mínima mostraram interferir na população destas moscas mais do que os outros fatores climáticos. O número mensal acumulado de moscas capturadas foi submetido à análise de regressão não linear, que revelou picos de captura destes insetos de março a junho. Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann, 1830 predominou sobre outras espécies de moscas-das-frutas.Fruit flies (Diptera, Tephritidae cause economic damages in many fruit orchards. To know the population fluctuation of these flies in Citrus orchards in the west of Santa Catarina, Brazil, and to study the environmental factor interferences on these insects, five traps with 25% vinegar were weekly installed in two orange Valência variety orchards, in Águas de Chapecó and Chapecó, from October of 1999 to September of 2001. The samples of flies trap captured were counted at Epagri Fitossanity Laboratory in Chapecó. A correlation and regression polynomial analyses between flies monthly captured of genus Anastrepha and monthly datas of rain precipitation, isolation, air humidity, wind speed

  5. Widespread distribution of the piggyBac transposon in various bactrocera species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The piggyBac transposable element from the Lepidopteran species Trichoplusia ni is currently the most widely used vector for insect transgenesis. Consequently, the presence of piggyBac-like sequences has been investigated, by PCR and Southern analysis, in different species of target genera such as Ceratitis, Bactrocera and Anastrepha, along with Tirhitromina and Rhagoletis. PiggyBac-like sequences were detected in several Bactrocera species. The evolution of the piggyBac-like sequences is discussed with respect to the phylogenies of the hosts. (author)

  6. Desarrollo de herramientas moleculares para la evaluación de la calidad genética y productividad en la cría artificial de Diachasmimorpha longicaudata, agente de control biológico de moscas plaga de los frutos

    OpenAIRE

    Mannino, María Constanza

    2016-01-01

    Diachasmimorpha longicaudata Ashmead (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) es un endoparasitoide solitario de estadios larvales de moscas de la fruta perteneciente a la familia Tephritidae. Es criado a nivel masivo en bioplantas y utilizado en diversas partes del mundo para las estrategias de control biológico (CB) principalmente de dípteros de importancia económica de los géneros Ceratitis, Anastrepha y Bactrocera. Actualmente, se estudia su implementación en nuestro país para el control de Ceratitis ca...

  7. Hongos patógenos asociados a “moscas de la fruta” (Diptera: Tephritidae) en el sector austral de Las Yungas del noroeste argentino

    OpenAIRE

    Albornoz Medina, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    La presencia en Argentina de Anastrepha fraterculus (Diptera: Tephritidae) (especie nativa) y Ceratitis capitata (especie exótica) limitan la exportación de frutas y hortalizas al estado fresco, ya que estas plagas son de importancia cuarentenaria. A nivel mundial existe una tendencia a disminuir el empleo de plaguicidas de sintesis contra “moscas de la fruta”, debido fundamentalmente a los efectos nocivos de estos sobre el ambiente y la salud humana, sumado a la necesidad de la conservación ...

  8. Mating experience and juvenile hormone enhance sexual signaling and mating in male Caribbean fruit flies

    OpenAIRE

    Teal, P. E. A.; Gomez-Simuta, Y.; Proveaux, A. T.

    2000-01-01

    Young mated male Caribbean fruit flies [Anastrepha suspensa (Loew)] have greater sexual prowess than their virgin counterparts. After mating for the first time, 6- to 7-day-old males released twice as much sex pheromone and acquired another mate in less than half the time required by virgin males of the same age. Mass spectroscopic analysis of extracts of hemolymph from mated and virgin 7-day-old males resulted in identification of juvenile hormone III bisepoxide and juvenile hormone III in a...

  9. Isolation, identification and determination of the biological activity of candidate fruit volatile components from Argania spinosa L. (Sapotacea)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bakri, A., E-mail: bakri@ucam.ac.m [University Cadi Ayyad, Marrakech (Morocco). Fac. of Science Semlalia. Insect Biological Control Unit; Dueben, B.D.; Proveaux, A.T.; Heath, R.R., E-mail: rheath@saa.ars.usda.go [U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA/REE-ARS), Miami, FL (United States). Agricultural Research Service

    2006-07-01

    This study provides detailed information on the diversity, abundance, guilds, host plant and host fly ranges, distribution, and taxonomic status of hymenopterous parasitoid species associated with Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) and Anastrepha spp. (A. fraterculus (Wiedemann) and A. schultzi Blanchard) in Argentina. Moreover, the article also argues future needs regarding the use of some parasitoid species as an alternative tool in fruit fly management programs of the National Fruit Fly Control and Eradication Program (PROCEM-Argentina). Data used for this work were obtained from numerous old and recent published articles on fruit fly parasitoids in Argentina. (author)

  10. Regeneración de un bosque mixto de Nothofagus (Nothofagaceae después de una corta selectiva Regeneration of a Nothofagus (Nothofagaceae mixed forest after selective cutting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALEJANDRO DEZZOTTI

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available El estudio de la ecología de la regeneración natural del bosque constituye una parte esencial de la silvicultura. El cerro Tren Tren (40°12' S, 71°26' O, 1.367 m, Reserva Mapuche Curruhuinca, Argentina está ocupado por un bosque cerrado compuesto por Nothofagus dombeyi, N. nervosa y N. obliqua. En 1994 se estimó la densidad de renovales (diámetro en la base del tallo Understanding forest regeneration is essential to develop sound, ecologically-based silvicultural practices. Mount Tren Tren (40°12' S, 71°26' W, 1,367 m, Reservation Mapuche Curruhuinca, Argentina is occupied by a closed stand of Nothofagus dombeyi, N. obliqua, and N. nervosa. In 1994, tree regeneration (root collar diameter < 10 cm was estimated to be 90 ind ha-1. After that, a group selection silvicultural system was implemented and the resulting 10 artificial gaps of between 1,587 and 4,322 m² were enclosed to prevent grazing by domestic livestock. Size and age structure of regeneration were analysed based on systematic and random samplings. All tree species became established simultaneously within the artificial gaps. However, the less light demanding N. nervosa exhibited a mean age slightly larger given its differential persistence as "advanced regeneration" previous to cutting treatment. Tree regeneration was estimated in 97,006 ind ha-1 (68 % of N. dombeyi, 20 % of N. obliqua, and 12 % of N. nervosa. Regeneration abundance and composition were unrelated to shape and size of regeneration gaps, nor to abundance of adult trees within the stand and along the gap boundaries. A significant positive effect of the enclosure on plant was observed. The 86 % of juvenile Nothofagus were present when understory height and cover were low to intermediate. The management plan is considered adequate if the abundance of regeneration is compared before and after its implementation, and encourages the use and conservation of this forest type under the current silvicultural system

  11. Characterization of trace elements in Casearia medicinal plant by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leaves of Casearia sylvestris, Casearia decandra and Casearia obliqua plant species, collected at the Atlantic Forest in Brazil, were analyzed by using instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). Short and long irradiations using thermal neutron flux of the IEA-R1 nuclear reactor were carried out for these analyses. Concentrations of Ca, K and Mg were found in these samples at the percentage levels, Br, Cl, Fe, Mn, Na, Rb and Zn at the μg g-1 levels and Co, Cr, Cs, La, and Sc at the μg kg-1 levels. Comparisons were made among the element concentrations obtained in these three Casearia species and significant differences were found for the elements Cl, Co, Cs, Cr, La, Mn, Na and Sc. The precision and the accuracy of the results were evaluated by analyzing the certified reference materials NIST-1515 Apple Leaves and NIST-1573a Tomato Leaves

  12. Bauhinia proteinase inhibitor-based synthetic fluorogenic substrates for enzymes isolated from insect midgut and caterpillar bristles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Sonia A; Santomauro-Vaz, Eugênio M; Lopes, Adriana R; Chudzinski-Tavassi, Ana M; Juliano, Maria A; Terra, Walter R; Sampaio, Misako U; Sampaio, Claudio A M; Oliva, Maria Luiza V

    2003-03-01

    Bauhinia ungulata factor Xa inhibitor (BuXI) inactivates factor Xa and LOPAP, a prothrombin activator proteinase isolated from the venom of Lonomia obliqua caterpillar bristles. The reactive site of the enzyme-inhibitor interaction was explored to design specific substrates for both enzymes. Methionine is crucial for LOPAP and factor Xa substrate interaction, since the change of both Met residues in the substrates abolished the hydrolysis. Synthetic substrates containing the sequence around the reactive site of BbKI, a plasma kallikrein inhibitor, were shown to be specific for trypsin hydrolysis. Therefore, these substrates may be an alternative in studies aiming at a characterization of trypsin-like enzyme activities, especially non-mammalian enzymes. PMID:12715900

  13. Estudio comparativo del crecimiento y la ramificación de brotes anuales en dos especies de Nothofagus (Nothofagaceae y en híbridos inter-específicos Comparative study of annual shoot growth and branching in two species of Nothofagus (Nothofagaceae and inter-specific hybrids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian Torres

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Las ramas principales y secundarias se diferencian en mayor o menor medida según las especies, lo cual puede observarse en base al crecimiento primario de los brotes que las originan. En ejemplares de vivero juveniles-adultos de Nothofagus obliqua, N. nervosa e híbridos entre ambas especies, se compararon la dinámica de alargamiento, el tamaño y la morfología de dos brotes distales de ramas principales: uno que continúa el alargamiento de la rama principal y el otro que inicia una rama secundaria. En N. alpina y en híbridos, los dos brotes más distales se diferencian más que en N. obliqua. A pesar de la homogeneidad ambiental en el vivero y el origen geográfico común para los ejemplares de N. nervosa y los híbridos, hubieron diferencias fenológicas y morfológicas entre estas entidades. La duración y tasa de alargamiento y la longitud final de los brotes fueron altamente variables en cada entidad. Las variaciones entre entidades en la diferenciación de ejes podrían indicar diferencias en sus capacidades de uso del espacio circundante. La diferenciación entre ramas principales y secundarias se iniciaría en el estado de yema. La variación intra-específica fenológica y morfológica es útil para programas de selección artificial de individuos.Main and secondary branches are more or less differentiated according to the species and this could be observed during the primary growth of the shoots that produce them. In young-adult trees of Nothofagus obliqua, N. nervosa and hybrids between them growing in a common garden, growth dynamics, size and morphology were compared between two distal shoots produced by main branches: one of these shoots continued the extension of the main branch whereas the other initiated a secondary branch. The two distal shoots differed from each other more notably in N. nervosa and in the hybrids than in N. obliqua. Despite the environmental homogeneities at the nursery and the common geographic origin of

  14. A survey of syrphid predators of Nasonovia ribisnigri in organic lettuce on the central coast of California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Hugh A; Chaney, William E

    2007-02-01

    Organic lettuce, Lactuca sativa L., producers on California's Central Coast rely on endemic syrphid flies (Diptera: Syrphidae) to suppress populations of Nasonovia ribisnigri Mosley (Homoptera: Aphididae) and other aphids affecting lettuce. Growers are using various forms of habitat manipulation to enhance biological control. We surveyed syrphids collected from organic romaine in and around the Salinas Valley from March through September 2005 to gain a better understanding of the species responsible for aphid suppression and to examine possible implications for biocontrol. The primary species of syrphid fly reared were Toxomerus marginatus (Say) (39%), Platycheirus stegnus (Say) (27%), Sphaerophoria sulfuripes (Thomson) (13%), and Allograpta obliqua (Say) (10%). Syrphus opinator Osten Sacken (2%), Toxomerus occidentalis (Curran) (1.3%), and Eupeodes volucris Osten Sacken (1%) were less common. Sphaerophoria pyrrhina Bigot, Scaeva pyrastri (L.), Platycheirus obscurus Say, Allograpta exotica Wiedemann, and Eupeodes americanus Wiedemann each made up parasitized by either Diplazon sp. (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae) or Pachyneuron sp. (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae). PMID:17370807

  15. Effect of Exogenous MJA Treatment of Tea Plants on the Growth of Geometrid Larvae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUI Lian-you; CHEN Zong-mao; LIU Shu-sheng

    2005-01-01

    The effect of tea plant Camellia sinensis induced by exogenous methyl jasmonate (MJA) on lipoxygenase (LOX), polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and proteinase inhibitor (PI) activity in the leaves of tea plants, as well as the growth and midgut proteinase activity of the geometrid Ectropis obliqua larvae were studied. MJA significantly induced LOX, PPO and PI activity in leaves of tea plants. When geometrid larvae have fed on leaves of tea plants treated with MJA, the activities of the high alkaline trypsin-like enzyme and chymotrypsin-like enzyme in their midgut were significantly inhibited, but the activities of the low alkaline trypsin-like enzyme in their midgut were unaffected, leading to imbalance between different types of proteinase activity in the midgut of the larvae and in turn, the growth were inhibited. These chains of response may be an important mechanism of the direct resistance induced by MJA-treatment of tea plant on geometrid larvae.

  16. Ciliary and mucus-net filter feeding, with special reference to fluid mechanical characteristics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, C.B.; Kiørboe, Thomas; Møhlenberg, F.;

    1984-01-01

    Filter characteristics were determined and compared in ciliary and mucus-net filter feeders. The ciliary feeders include the polychaete Sabella penicillus, the brachiopod Terebratulina retusa, the marine bivalves Monia squama, Cardium glaucum, and Petricola pholadiformis, and the freshwater...... bivalves Dreissena polymorpha, Unio pictorum and Anodonta cygnea. The mucus-net feeders are the polychaete Chaetopterus variopedatus, the gastropod Crepidula fornicata and the ascidians Styela clava, Ciona intestinalis, Ascidia virginea, A. obliqua and A. mentula. Efficiencies of particle retention as a...... function of particle size was determined by counting of particles in samples of inhalant and exhalant water. The lower threshold for efficient particle retention varied from .apprx. 6 .mu.m in T. retuso to .apprx. 1 .mu.m in D. polymorpha. Mucus nets efficiently retained particles down to 1-2 .mu.m. Filter...

  17. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U13958-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available hii ATCC ... 41 0.086 AB017194_1( AB017194 |pid:none) Plectonema boryanum ORF270, prolin... 41 0.086 BA00004...( AW759085 ) sl34e01.y1 Gm-c1027 Glycine max cDNA clone GENOME... 52 3e-11 4 ( FC674402 ) CAXW9990.rev CAXW Lottia gigantea from fem...pionase, bet... 362 2e-98 AY829756_1( AY829756 |pid:none) Lonomia obliqua hypothe...) Brevibacillus agri strain NCHU1002... 148 5e-34 BA000030_1957( BA000030 |pid:none) Streptomyces avermi...onas syringae pv. tomato... 72 6e-11 AE005673_211( AE005673 |pid:none) Caulobacter crescentus CB15, com

  18. Environmental effects on growth phenology of co-occurring Eucalyptus species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawal, Deepa S.; Kasel, Sabine; Keatley, Marie R.; Aponte, Cristina; Nitschke, Craig R.

    2014-05-01

    Growth is one of the most important phenological cycles in a plant's life. Higher growth rates increase the competitive ability, survival and recruitment and can provide a measure of a plant's adaptive capacity to climate variability and change. This study identified the growth relationship of six Eucalyptus species to variations in temperature, soil moisture availability, photoperiod length and air humidity over 12 months. The six species represent two naturally co-occurring groups of three species each representing warm-dry and the cool-moist sclerophyll forests, respectively. Warm-dry eucalypts were found to be more tolerant of higher temperatures and lower air humidity than the cool-moist eucalypts. Within groups, species-specific responses were detected with Eucalyptus microcarpa having the widest phenological niche of the warm-dry species, exhibiting greater resistance to high temperature and lower air humidity. Temperature dependent photoperiodic responses were exhibited by all the species except Eucalyptus tricarpa and Eucalyptus sieberi, which were able to maintain growth as photoperiod shortened but temperature requirements were fulfilled. Eucalyptus obliqua exhibited a flexible growth rate and tolerance to moisture limitation which enables it to maintain its growth rate as water availability changes. The wider temperature niche exhibited by E. sieberi compared with E. obliqua and Eucalyptus radiata may improve its competitive ability over these species where winters are warm and moisture does not limit growth. With climate change expected to result in warmer and drier conditions in south-east Australia, the findings of this study suggest all cool-moist species will likely suffer negative effects on growth while the warm-dry species may still maintain current growth rates. Our findings highlight that climate driven shifts in growth phenology will likely occur as climate changes and this may facilitate changes in tree communities by altering inter

  19. Survey of ear flies (Diptera, Ulidiidae in maize (Zea mays L. and a new record of Euxesta mazorca Steyskal in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Cruz

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Survey of ear flies (Diptera, Ulidiidae in maize (Zea mays L. and a new record of Euxesta mazorca Steyskalin Brazil. Species of Euxesta (Diptera, Ulidiidae, known as silk flies or ear flies, are becoming increasingly important as maize insect pests in South America, although very little is known about them in Brazil. The larvae of some species of this genus initially damage female reproductive tissues, and then the developing kernels on the ear. As a result of feeding, fermentation and associated odors cause complete loss of the grain because it is no longer fit for human or livestock consumption. The main objective of this work was to evaluate the incidence of Euxesta spp. in Brazilian maize fields and to determine the most prevalent species using two different hydrolyzed protein foods attractants, BioAnastrepha® (hydrolyzed maize protein and Torula, placed inside McPhail traps. The two species identified were E. eluta Loew and E. mazorca Steyskal, the latter being a new record from Brazil. Between the two species, E. eluta was the more abundant in maize fields. Both attractants were efficient in capturing the two species. However, BioAnastrepha® captured significantly more insects than Torula.

  20. Is sexually transmitted fungal infection evidence for size-related mating success in Neotropical guava fruit flies?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingemar Hedström

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available The influence of wing length on mate preference was examined in natural populations of the Neotropical guava fruit fly, Anastrepha striata Schiner, at two locations in Costa Rica. Based on evidence that the fungi are transmitted during mating, site-specific infection by Laboulbeniales fungi on the body surface was used to assess mating history. Males and females that carried fungi on the legs and/or on the ventral part of the thorax (males, and on both sides of the notum and/or the dorsal base of the abdomen (females, had significantly longer wings than males and females without fungi. This suggests that individuals of both sexes with longer wings (i.e. larger individuals enjoy higher mating success. Fungus infection is more frequent in the wet than in the seasonally dry forest, possibly because hosts are available year-round in the wet forest.Se estudió poblaciones naturales de la mosca frutera Anastrepha striata Schiner, en dos lugares de Costa Rica. Los hongos Laboulbeniales se transmiten en éstas durante la cópula. Hembras y machos con hongos en las patas y/o parte ventral del tórax (machos, y en ambos lados del noto y/o base dorsal del abdomen (hembras, tenían alas significativamente más largas que los individuos no parasitados. Esto sugiere que los individuos más grandes logran más apareamientos.

  1. Ocorrência precoce da mosca das frutas em ameixas Incidence of the southamerican fruit fly on plums

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Antonio Salles

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi verificar qual o estágio fenológico mais precoce da fruta de ameixeira em que ocorreria o ataque de mosca das frutas Anastrepha fraterculus. Os estudos foram conduzidos em plantas adultas de ameixeira, expondo-se fêmeas grávidas da mosca das frutas, confinadas em gaiolas com frutos protegidos do ataque natural. Cinco cultivares de ameixeira foram estudados (Amarelinha, Pluma 7, Reubennel, Santa Rosa e Wade. Essa praga ataca frutos de qualquer um dos cultivares logo nos primeiros estádios do desenvolvimento, quando os mesmos têm somente cerca de 2 a 3cm de diâmetro.The incidence of the southamerican fruit fly, Anastrepha fraterculus, on plum cultivars is reported. The objective of this study was to know the earliest fruit phase that fly attack could occur. Fertilized females were confined with fruits in plum trees in an orchard. Five plums cultivars were studied: Amarelinha; Pluma 7; Reubennel; Santa Rosa and Wade. This pest attack fruits during first stages of their development, mainly they have only from 2 to 3 centimeters of diameter.

  2. Biologia da mosca‑das‑frutas sul‑americana em frutos de mirtilo, amoreira‑preta, araçazeiro e pitangueira

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    Maicon Bisognin

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi descrever a biologia de Anastrepha fraterculus em frutos de mirtilo (Vaccinium ashei, amoreira‑preta (Rubus spp., araçazeiro (Psidium cattleyanum e pitangueira (Eugenia uniflora. O experimento foi realizado em laboratório, em condições controladas de temperatura (25±2ºC, umidade relativa (70±10% e fotófase (12 horas, para determinação dos parâmetros biológicos do inseto nos estágios de desenvolvimento imaturos e adultos. Anastrepha fraterculus completa o ciclo biológico em todos hospedeiros estudados, embora os frutos nativos (pitanga e araçá ofereçam melhores condições para seu desenvolvimento. Os parâmetros biológicos determinados para as fases imaturas foram semelhantes nos quatro hospedeiros. Insetos criados em pitanga e araçá apresentam, na fase adulta, maior período de oviposição, fecundidade e longevidade de fêmeas, em comparação aos criados em mirtilo e amora‑preta. O ritmo diário de oviposição é mais prolongado e uniforme nos insetos criados em araçá e pitanga, o que mostra que A. fraterculus está mais bem adaptada a estas frutas, nativas da região Sul.

  3. Émile Zola: a formação de um militante * Emile Zola: the making of a militant

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    RILTON FERREIRA BORGES

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Resumo: Este artigo tem como objetivo traçar uma biografia de Émile Zola do ponto de vista intelectual, buscando em sua formação, trajetória pessoal e profissional, os caracteres que possam ter contribuído para que sua obra, sobretudo a partir de Germinal, passasse a ser reconhecida por seus contemporâneos, e também posteriormente, como uma espécie de “militância”, termo que será utilizado em sentido amplo, como defesa de uma ideia ou causa. A partir de documentações de diferentes ordens, tentaremos demonstrar alguns itinerários possíveis para compreender esta questão, relacionando Émile Zola, o contexto histórico, social e intelectual em que viveu, e alguns traços de sua obra, sobretudo a série Os Rougon-Macquart. Para tanto, a trajetória de Zola será dividida em três momentos: a militância na arte, a militância pelo Naturalismo e a militância política.Palavras-chave: Zola – Militante – Intelectual. Abstract: This article aims to draw a biography of Emile Zola by an intellectual point of view, investigating his formation, personal and professional trajectory, the features that may contributed to his work, mainly from Germinal, started to be known by his contemporaries, and lately, as a kind of “militance”, term used meaning “the defense of an idea or a cause”. From distinct kinds of documents, we will try to demonstrate some possible ways to understand this point, relating Emile Zola's historical, social and intellectual context with some marks of his books, especially The Rougon-Macquart series. Therefore, the trajectory of Zola will be divided in three stages: militancy in art, militancy in the Naturalism and political militancy.Keywords: Zola – Militant – Intellectual.

  4. Generic classification of the Archiborborinae (Diptera: Sphaeroceridae), with a revision of Antrops Enderlein, Coloantrops gen. nov., Maculantrops gen. nov., Photoantrops gen. nov., and Poecilantrops gen. nov.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kits, Joel H; Marshall, Stephen A

    2013-01-01

    The Archiborborinae comprise a diverse clade of flies in the family Sphaeroceridae. We here revise the generic classification, redefining the genus Antrops Enderlein and naming 5 new genera: Boreantrops gen. nov., Coloantrops gen. nov., Maculantrops gen. nov., Photoantrops gen. nov., and Poecilantrops gen. nov. The genus Archiborborus, until recently a paraphyletic assemblage including most of the described species in the subfamily, is treated as a junior synonym of Antrops (syn. nov.) We revise the genera Antrops (53 species, including 40 sp. nov.: Antrops anovariegatus, Antrops aurantifemur, Antrops baeza, Antrops bellavista, Antrops biflavus, Antrops bucki, Antrops carpishensis, Antrops cochabamba, Antrops cochinoca, Antrops coniobaptos, Antrops coroico, Antrops cotopaxi, Antrops didactylos, Antrops diversipennis, Antrops eurus, Antrops fulgiceps, Antrops fuliginosus, Antrops guandera, Antrops guaramacalensis, Antrops inca, Antrops juninensis, Antrops mucarensis, Antrops niger, Antrops papallacta, Antrops pecki, Antrops podocarpus, Antrops quadrilobus, Antrops siberia, Antrops sierrazulensis, Antrops tachira, Antrops tequendama, Antrops tetrastichus, Antrops tumbrensis, Antrops unduavi, Antrops variegatus, Antrops versabilis, Antrops vittatus, Antrops yungas, and Antrops zongo and the following comb. nov.: Antrops annulatus (Richards), Antrops chaetosus (Richards), Antrops femoralis (Blanchard), Antrops hirtus (Bigot), Antrops maculipennis (Duda), Antrops maximus (Richards), Antrops microphthalmus (Richards), Antrops quadrinotus (Bigot), Antrops setosus (Duda), Antrops simplicimanus (Richards), Antrops nitidicollis (Becker), and Antrops orbitalis (Duda)), Coloantrops (1 species: Coloantrops daedalus, sp. nov.), Maculantrops (2 species, Maculantrops hirtipes (Macquart) comb. nov. and Maculantrops altiplanus, sp. nov.), Photoantrops (1 species: Pho-toantrops echinus sp. nov.), and Poecilantrops (10 species: Poecilantrops baorucensis, Poecilantrops boraceiensis

  5. Patrones de regeneración arbórea en claros a una década de la floración y muerte masiva de Chusquea quila (Poaceae en un remanente de bosque antiguo del valle central en el centro-sur de Chile Tree regeneration patterns in canopy gaps after a decade of Chusquea quila (Poaceae dieback in an old-growth remnant forest in the lake district of south-central Chile

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    ARIEL A MUÑOZ

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available En bosques de elevaciones bajas del centro-sur de Chile (38-42° S Chusquea quila (Poaceae es la especie del sotobosque de mayor influencia en el proceso de regeneración de especies arbóreas en claros naturales y antropogénicos. Su floración y muerte sincrónica, después de un extenso periodo en estado vegetativo, constituye una alteración de gran escala que puede afectar importantemente la dinámica de regeneración arbórea en claros. El último episodio de muerte masiva de C. quila (1989-1995, que afectó a los escasos remanentes de bosques antiguos dominados por Nothofagus obliqua y especies siempreverdes, ofreció la oportunidad de monitorear la respuesta de la regeneración arbórea en seis claros del dosel entre los años 1994 y 2003. El objetivo central de este estudio fue analizar, luego de 10 años desde dicho evento, los principales patrones de respuesta de la regeneración arbórea en claros. La regeneración avanzada -establecida en los claros previa a la floración y muerte de C. quila- estuvo dominada por las especies tolerantes Aextoxicon punctatum, Laureliopsis philippiana y Amomyrtus luma. Después de 10 años desde la muerte de C. quila en los claros, la mortalidad de la regeneración avanzada fue 42 % y ocurrió principalmente en individuos originados de semillas. Por su parte, la respuesta de los nuevos establecimientos estuvo marcada por la abundante regeneración de N. obliqua, Podocarpus saligna y Aristotelia chilensis durante los primeros años postdisturbio; sin embargo, al cabo de 10 años solo unos pocos individuos de estas especies sobrevivieron a la competencia de la nueva cohorte de C. quila. Los individuos originados por rebrotes de raíces de las especies Eucryphia cordifolia, Gevuina avellana y L. philippiana presentaron mayor sobrevivencia y crecimiento que aquellos originados de semillas. Finalmente, el aumento temporal de recursos asociado a la muerte de C. quila en claros, favorece a especies arb

  6. Standardization of Ceratitis capitata Wied. (Diptera: Tephritidae) female trapping for use in sterile insect programmes. Catamarca, Argentina, 1995-1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main objective of the study was to assess Ceratitis capitata Wied. (medfly) female trapping with new traps and attractants in varying ecological conditions as part of a co-ordinated international programme. Trials were carried out between 1995 and 1997, using seven types of traps baited with the various combination of sexual and food attractants. Different methods for insects retention were also tested. For these trials, protocols established by the International Atomic Energy Agency were followed. The Jackson Trap with Trimedlure plugs proved to be the most efficient for capture of medfly males, while International Pheromone's McPhail Trap was the most efficient for the capture of females, when used with a combination of all three new attractants (FA-3) consisting of ammonium acetate, putrescine, and trimethylamine plus the toxicant DDVP for insect retention. The new traps and attractants also captured flies belonging to genus Anastrepha (Diptera: Tephritidae). (author)

  7. Diversidade de moscas-das-frutas, suas plantas hospedeiras e seus parasitóides nas regiões Norte e Noroeste do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil Fruit fly diversity, their host plants and their parasitoids in the northern and northwestern regions of Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil

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    Michela Rocha Leal

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Em razão da exploração crescente da fruticultura nas regiões Norte e Noroeste do Estado do Rio de Janeiro e da importância econômica e quarentenária das moscas-das-frutas para essa atividade agrícola no mundo, este estudo foi conduzido em cinco municípios dessas regiões: Cambuci, Campos dos Goytacazes, Itaocara, São Francisco do Itabapoana e São João da Barra, com objetivo de registrar as espécies de moscas-das-frutas, suas plantas hospedeiras e seus parasitóides. Os espécimes foram coletados por meio de armadilhas McPhail com solução aquosa de proteína hidrolisada a 5% e em amostras de frutos. Nas armadilhas, 4% do total de moscas-das-frutas capturadas foram Ceratitis capitata e 96% eram do gênero Anastrepha, num total de 15 espécies. Das moscas capturadas nas armadilhas, apenas seis espécies infestaram frutos entre as 12 espécies de fruteiras amostradas. Fruteiras das famílias Anacardiaceae, Malpighiaceae, Myrtaceae, Oxalidaceae, Passifloraceae e Sapotaceae foram plantas hospedeiras de moscas-das-frutas. Apenas três espécies de Anastrepha (A. fraterculus, A. sororcula e A. zenildae infestaram goiabas da variedade comercial Paluma. Os parasitóides de larvas de moscas-das-frutas encontrados foram Doryctobracon areolatus e Aganaspis pelleranoi, parasitando-as em frutos de goiabeira e de outras fruteiras nessas regiões.Due to the increase in fruit crops acreage in the northern and northwestern regions of Rio de Janeiro State and to the economic and quarantine importance of the fruit flies to this agricultural activity in the world, this study was carried out in five municipalities of these regions: Cambuci, Campos dos Goytacazes, Itaocara, São Francisco do Itabapoana, and São João da Barra, aiming to study the fruit fly species, their host plants and their parasitoids. The specimens were collected using McPhail traps with aqueous solution of hydrolyzed protein to 5% and in fruit samples. In the traps, 4% of the total

  8. Is sexually transmitted fungal infection evidence for size-related mating success in Neotropical guava fruit flies?

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    Ingemar Hedström

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available The influence of wing length on mate preference was examined in natural populations of the Neotropical guava fruit fly, Anastrepha striata Schiner, at two locations in Costa Rica. Based on evidence that the fungi are transmitted during mating, site-specific infection by Laboulbeniales fungi on the body surface was used to assess mating history. Males and females that carried fungi on the legs and/or on the ventral part of the thorax (males, and on both sides of the notum and/or the dorsal base of the abdomen (females, had significantly longer wings than males and females without fungi. This suggests that individuals of both sexes with longer wings (i.e. larger individuals enjoy higher mating success. Fungus infection is more frequent in the wet than in the seasonally dry forest, possibly because hosts are available year-round in the wet forest.

  9. Quantification of tephritid fruit fly dispersal. Guidelines for a sterile release programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The dispersal of sterile Anastrepha ludens and Ceratitis capitata was studied in a mango and coffee plantation in Chiapas, S. Mexico. Flies were released at the centre of a rectangular array of McPhail and Jackson traps. There were small though significant downwind movements in very light winds (below 1 m/s). Fly distributions were significantly correlated in the x-y plane on several days and these orientations were also related to wind direction. Released flies disappeared quickly, more than 90 % were caught within 5 days of release. Methodology for the presentation and analysis of data is discussed in relation to the needs of a practical sterile release programme. Recommendations are made for routine studies of fly dispersal

  10. Fruit flies (Diptera, Tephritidae) and their associations with native host plants in a remnant area of the highly endangered Atlantic Rain Forest in the State of Espírito Santo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uramoto, K; Martins, D S; Zucchi, R A

    2008-10-01

    The results presented in this paper refer to a host survey, lasting approximately three and a half years (February 2003-July 2006), undertaken in the Vale do Rio Doce Natural Reserve, a remnant area of the highly endangered Atlantic Rain Forest located in Linhares County, State of Espírito Santo, Brazil. A total of 330 fruit samples were collected from native plants, representing 248 species and 51 plant families. Myrtaceae was the most diverse family with 54 sampled species. Twenty-eight plant species, from ten families, are hosts of ten Anastrepha species and of Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann). Among 33 associations between host plants and fruit flies, 20 constitute new records, including the records of host plants for A. fumipennis Lima and A. nascimentoi Zucchi. The findings were discussed in the light of their implications for rain forest conservation efforts and the study of evolutionary relationships between fruit flies and their hosts. PMID:18439337

  11. Determination of gamma radiation dose as a post-harvest treatment in mangos infested with the South American fruit fly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Efforts are being made to determine a gamma radiation dose for mortality of third-instar larvae of Anastrepha fraterculus which infest mangos of the Haden variety of 400 g weight. Four radiation treatments were tested: 0.4 kGy, 0.6 kGy, 0.8 kGy and 1.0 kGy. Using as a criterium for mortality the interruption of the biological cycle between larva and pupa, the following results were achieved: 49.61%, 63.33%, 74.86% and 90.72%. The percentages obtained have been corrected using the Abbot formula. When the criterium was based on no adult emergence, 100% mortality was achieved for the four treatments. (author)

  12. The smart aerial release machine, a universal system for applying the sterile insect technique.

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    Ruben Leal Mubarqui

    Full Text Available Beyond insecticides, alternative methods to control insect pests for agriculture and vectors of diseases are needed. Management strategies involving the mass-release of living control agents have been developed, including genetic control with sterile insects and biological control with parasitoids, for which aerial release of insects is often required. Aerial release in genetic control programmes often involves the use of chilled sterile insects, which can improve dispersal, survival and competitiveness of sterile males. Currently available means of aerially releasing chilled fruit flies are however insufficiently precise to ensure homogeneous distribution at low release rates and no device is available for tsetse.Here we present the smart aerial release machine, a new design by the Mubarqui Company, based on the use of vibrating conveyors. The machine is controlled through Bluetooth by a tablet with Android Operating System including a completely automatic guidance and navigation system (MaxNav software. The tablet is also connected to an online relational database facilitating the preparation of flight schedules and automatic storage of flight reports. The new machine was compared with a conveyor release machine in Mexico using two fruit flies species (Anastrepha ludens and Ceratitis capitata and we obtained better dispersal homogeneity (% of positive traps, p<0.001 for both species and better recapture rates for Anastrepha ludens (p<0.001, especially at low release densities (<1500 per ha. We also demonstrated that the machine can replace paper boxes for aerial release of tsetse in Senegal.This technology limits damages to insects and allows a large range of release rates from 10 flies/km2 for tsetse flies up to 600,000 flies/km2 for fruit flies. The potential of this machine to release other species like mosquitoes is discussed. Plans and operating of the machine are provided to allow its use worldwide.

  13. Perspectives on fruit fly expansion: A lesson from a global invader, Ceratitis capitata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Fruit flies are present worldwide, although the major pests such as species of the genera Ceratitis, Bactrocera, Anastrepha and Rhagoletis, each have a limited natural distribution. Mankind has played an important part in altering the natural distribution of some of the more polyphagous species, as well as certain oligophagous species. However, a question arises why only a few species have become or are becoming major pests. The major problem in approaching this question is the insufficient knowledge of invasive potential of different species in relation to their biological traits. The Mediterranean fruit fly (medfly), Ceratitis capitata, was the first fruit fly species that entered the scientific scene as a potential invader, given its extensive and relatively quick invasion potentials. Genetic analyses of its invasive processes, along with the knowledge of its life history and historical records, allowed us to interpret the biogeography of this species. In southeastern Africa, its home range, this species displays a vast reservoir of genetic variability, which provides a high potential for plasticity, increasing the likelihood of spreading, survival and genetic differentiation. Establishing a fine-scale map of the genetic variability in the species range, we highlighted a variety of evolutionary processes operating over different time scales: from the primary expansion in the Mediterranean area, to the more recent one in the Americas. In addition, secondary colonisation events as well as the origin of different outbreaks have been assessed. Knowledge and methods learnt from the medfly represent a model to approach and investigate the invasion processes of other fruit fly pests. Examples are different species within the genera Ceratitis, Bactrocera and Anastrepha, which represent potential threats to different geographic areas worldwide. (author)

  14. Determination of Opiinae parasitoids (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) associated with crop infesting Bactrocera spp. (Diptera: Tephritidae) using COI and Cyt b sequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shariff, Safiah; Yaakop, Salmah; Zain, Badrul Munir Md.

    2013-11-01

    Members of the Opiinae subfamily (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) are well known as important parasitoids of fruit fly larvae (Diptera: Tephritidae). They are widely used as biological control agents of fruit flies, especially the Bactrocera Macquart species that infest fruits. In this study, the larvae of fruit flies were collected from infested crops including star fruit, guava, wax apple and ridge gourd. The parasitized larvae were then reared under laboratory conditions until emergence of the adult parasitoids. Additionally, Malaise trap also was used to collect parasitoid species. The general concept of the multiplex PCR has been performed is to amplify two mitochondrial DNA markers, namely cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) and cytochrome b (Cyt b) simultaneously. Therefore, the lengthy process of reaction will be reduced. The status of the fruit fly species has also been confirmed by using COI marker on the early stage of the larvae. Maximum parsimony (MP) and Bayesian Inference (BI) were implemented to help and support the identification of Opiinae species. The result obtained from this study showed three parasitoid genera of the Opiinae viz. Fopius Wharton, Psyttalia Walker and Diachasmimorpha Viereck. Each genus has been determined by clustering together in a similar clade according to their infested crops. Therefore, accurate determination of parasitoids and the fruit fries species was highly useful and necessary for successful biological control of Bactrocera species.

  15. Performance of painted plywood and cloth Nzi traps relative to Manitoba and greenhead traps for tabanids and stable flies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihok, Steve; Carlson, David A

    2007-04-01

    Experiments were conducted to adapt the cloth Nzi trap to a format suitable for fixed applications in biting fly sampling or control. Catches of tabanids [Tabanus L., Chrysops (Meigen), and Hybomitra Enderlein], and stable flies [Stomoxys calcitrans (L.)] in painted plywood traps were compared with those in standard phthalogen blue cloth traps, and in similarly painted cloth traps. The Manitoba horse fly trap and the Tabanus nigrovittatus Macquart "greenhead" box trap were used as additional standards during one tabanid season. Shiny features of traps reduced catches, e.g., paint on cloth instead of wood, or use of aluminum screening instead of netting. Nevertheless, appropriately painted plywood Nzi traps caught as many biting flies as did standard cloth Nzi traps, if paint finishes were matte, and with the use of phthalogen blue colorants. Nzi traps collected about the same tabanid fauna as the Manitoba and T. nigrovittatus traps, but with improved catches of Chrysops and Tabanus. Recommendations are provided on appropriate color matching, and selection of readily-available materials for trap construction. PMID:17461091

  16. Do fly parasites of bats and their hosts coevolve?speciation in Trichobius phyllostomae group (Diptera, Streblidae and their hosts (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae suggests that they do not

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Graciolli

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available We examined whether, like many parasite-host systems of coevolution, a group of obligate parasitic bat flies (Trichobius phyllostomae Kessel and related species cospeciate with their hosts. We first did a cladistic analysis of the T. phyllostomae group and combined that analysis with a phylogenetic hypothesis from the literature for the Stenodermatinae bats. The cladistic analysis included, as outgroups, one species from each morphological group and complex of Trichobius Gervais, and one species from the following genera: Paratrichobius Miranda-Ribeiro, Megistopoda Macquart, Megistapophysys Dick & Wenzel, Neotrichobius Wenzel & Aitken, Speiseria Kessel and Strebla Wiedemann. The cladogram was rooted with a species of Strebla in the subfamily Streblinae. One cladogram was obtained and which found Trichobius to be polyphyletic. The phylogenetic hypothesis as follows: (Paratrichobius, (Neotrichobius, (Megistopoda, Megistapophysis is the sister-group of the phyllostomae group and the following relationships within the ingroup, (((T. vampyropis Wenzel, Trichobius sp. 2 ((T. hispidus Wenzel, T. petersoni Wenzel ((Trichobius sp. 1 (T. phyllostomae, T. brennani Wenzel. When we compared phylogenies through historical association analyses, cospeciation was uncommon, while host-switching was more common and better explained the association between the phyllostomae group and their bat hosts.

  17. Taxonomic review of the species of Helina R.-D. (Diptera: Muscidae) from Andean-Patagonian forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patitucci, Luciano Damián; Mulieri, Pablo Ricardo; Mariluis, Juan Carlos

    2016-01-01

    Helina Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830 is the second genus of Muscidae in terms of richness. This genus includes several species collected at high altitudes and high latitudes, and is poorly studied in the Neotropical region. Only 12 species of Helina have been recorded in the southern limit of South America in the Andean-Patagonian forests. In the present work, we studied all the species known from the Andean-Patagonian forests, with the exception of H. viola Malloch, 1934, present three new species, H. araucana sp. nov., H. dorada sp. nov., and H. ouina sp. nov., and provide the first description of the females of H. australis Carvalho & Pont, 1993 and H. rufoapicata Malloch, 1934. We also propose four new synonymies: H. nigrimana basilaris (Carvalho & Pont, 1993) and H. nigrimana grisea (Malloch, 1934) as new junior synonyms of H. nigrimana (Macquart, 1851); and H. fulvocalyptrata Malloch, 1934 and H. simplex Malloch, 1934 as new junior synonyms of H. chilensis Malloch, 1934. Finally, we provide a generic diagnosis and a new key for the Helina species of the Andean-Patagonian forests, as well as notes on the biology and distribution maps of each specimen, and discuss a preliminary contruction of groups of species. PMID:27515658

  18. Impact of the 2010 Deepwater Horizon oil spill on population size and genetic structure of horse flies in Louisiana marshes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husseneder, Claudia; Donaldson, Jennifer R.; Foil, Lane D.

    2016-01-01

    The greenhead horse fly, Tabanus nigrovittatus Macquart, is frequently found in coastal marshes of the Eastern United States. The greenhead horse fly larvae are top predators in the marsh and thus vulnerable to changes in the environment, and the adults potentially are attracted to polarized surfaces like oil. Therefore, horse fly populations could serve as bioindicators of marsh health and toxic effects of oil intrusion. In this study, we describe the impact of the April 2010 Deep Water Horizon oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico on tabanid population abundance and genetics as well as mating structure. Horse fly populations were sampled biweekly from oiled and unaffected locations immediately after the oil spill in June 2010 until October 2011. Horse fly abundance estimates showed severe crashes of tabanid populations in oiled areas. Microsatellite genotyping of six pristine and seven oiled populations at ten polymorphic loci detected genetic bottlenecks in six of the oiled populations in association with fewer breeding parents, reduced effective population size, lower number of family clusters and fewer migrants among populations. This is the first study assessing the impact of oil contamination at the level of a top arthropod predator of the invertebrate community in salt marshes. PMID:26755069

  19. Biting behaviour and potential vector status of anthropophilic blackflies in a new focus of human onchocerciasis at Minaçu, central Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelley, A J; Maia-Herzog, M; Dias, A P; Camargo, M; Costa, E G; Garritano, P; Lowry, C A

    2001-03-01

    Monthly collections were made of man-biting female blackflies: Simulium auripellitum Enderlein, S. guianense Wise, S. minusculum Lutz and S. nigrimanum Macquart (Diptera: Simuliidae) from four catching stations in the newly discovered focus of human onchocerciasis at Minaçu (13 degrees 35 minutes S 48 degrees 18 minutes W), 300 km north of Brasília in Goiás State. These provided baseline data on biting habits, population density and seasonal prevalence during the year before completion of the Serra da Mesa hydroelectric dam on the Rio Tocantins near Minaçu, in a project investigating the effect of dam construction on onchocerciasis transmission in the area. All four simuliid species were most abundant during the dry season, and only bit in low numbers (S. auripellitum S. minusculum, S. nigrimanum) or were absent (S. guianense) in the wet season. Simulium minusculum was the predominant species at all catching stations, being particularly abundant by the large River Tocantins. The other three species were mainly associated with smaller rivers. In the dry season, biting rhythms of S. minusculum varied with catching site, while S. nigrimanum showed peaks of activity in early morning and during the afternoon. Experimental infection with Onchocerca volvulus (Leuckart) (Nematoda: Onchocercidae), from a human volunteer, showed that this parasite could develop fully in the four simuliid species, which are all considered to be potential vectors in the area. PMID:11297099

  20. Diversity and Spatial Distribution of Extant Freshwater Ostracodes (Crustacea in Ancient Lake Ohrid (Macedonia/Albania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Lorenschat

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available We carried out an intensive sampling survey in ancient Lake Ohrid (Macedonia/Albania, covering all seasons, to determine total species number, relative species abundances and spatial distribution of Ostracoda. We identified 32 living species that belong to seven families (Candonidae, Ilyocyprididae, Cyprididae, Leptocytheridae, Limnocytheridae, Cytherideidae, and Darwinulidae and 15 genera (Candona, Fabaeformiscandona, Candonopsis, Cypria, Cyclocypris, Ilyocypris, Eucypris, Prionocypris, Bradleystrandesia, Herpetocypris, Dolerocypris, Amnicythere, Paralimnocythere, Cytherissa, and Darwinula. Six additional species were identified from empty carapaces and valves. Dominant families in Lake Ohrid were Candonidae and Limnocytheridae, representing 53% and 16% of all species, respectively. Prevalence of species flocks in these two families confirms the “young” ancient status of the lake. Amnicythere displays a preference for oligo-haline to meso-haline waters, but some species are found in saline environments, which suggests Lake Ohrid has a marine history. Recent studies, however, indicate fluvial/glaciofluvial deposition at the onset of Lake Ohrid sedimentation. Candona is the most diverse genus in Lake Ohrid, represented by 12 living species. Paralimnocythere is represented by five living species and all other genera are represented by one or two species. Reports of Candona bimucronata, Ilyocypris bradyi, Eucypris virens, Eucypris sp., Prionocypris zenkeri, Bradleystrandesia reticulate, Herpetocypris sp. 2, and Dolerocypris sinensis are firsts for this lake. Living ostracodes were collected at the maximum water depth (280 m in the lake (Candona hadzistei, C. marginatoides, C. media, C. ovalis, C. vidua, Fabaeformiscandona krstici, Cypria lacustris, C. obliqua and Amnicythere karamani. Cypria lacustris was overall the most abundant species and Cypria obliqua displayed the highest abundance at 280 m water depth. Principal environmental variables

  1. DICKINSARTELLA FAUNA FROM THE SAIWAN FORMATION (OMAN: A BIVALVE FAUNA TESTIFYING TO THE LATE SAKMARIAN (EARLY PERMIAN CLIMATIC AMELIORATION ALONG THE NORTH-EASTERN GONDWANAN FRINGE.

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    CRISTIANO LARGHI

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available The transitional faunas of the Permian Huqf succession of Oman make it one of the key-sections for the intercalibration of Early to Middle Permian biostratigraphical scales. The abundance of fossils improved the knowledge of some marine faunas which populated the North-Eastern Gondwanan fringe during times of climatic changes in the Permian. A Sterlitamakian (upper Sakmarian, Lower Permian bivalve fauna from the Saiwan Formation in the Huqf area, informally named "Dickinsartella Fauna", is described in the present paper. The specimens examined were collected from the "Pachycyrtella Bed" (Auctorum, the basal bed of the Formation in its type locality. The Dickinsartella Fauna can be identified for the presence of the new genus Dickinsartella, which dominates the bivalve thanatocoenosis with D. pistacina sp. n. (type species. The bivalve fauna from the Pachycyrtella Bed includes the new species Stutchburia sangallii and Promytilus  mazzolenii, and also Astartella obliqua Dickins, 1963, Nuculopsis cf. bangarraensis Dickins, 1963, ?Oriocrassatella sp., and indeterminable aviculopectinids. This fauna shows a low taxonomic diversity. Nevertheless, some species are represented by a high number of generally well-preserved specimens, i.e. some specimens of S. sangallii sp. n. and A. obliqua show part of the ligament.  The good preservation of the shells permitted the microstructural analysis of D. pistacina sp. n. and S. sangallii sp. n. The microstructure of S. sangallii sp. n. supports the close phylogenetical link between modiomorphids and crassatelloids recognized by some previous authors.The new genus Dickinsartella includes the more recent species belonging to the important Paleozoic Order Cyrtodontida Scarlato & Starobogatov, 1971. The discovery of Dickinsartella gen. n. and other taxa of the Pachycyrtella Bed, present also in the Sakmarian levels of the Carnarvon and Perth Basins in Western Australia,  indicates a wider distribution of the

  2. Contribution to the taxonomy of Garcinia (Clusiaceae in Africa, including two new species from Gabon and a key to the Lower Guinean species

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    Marc Sosef

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Garcinia has some 260 species and is often regarded as a genus with a difficult taxonomy. No recent treatment is available for the botanically rich Lower Guinea phytogeographical region. This study aims at partly filling this gap. First, several taxonomic problems are solved. G. chromocarpa is reduced to a variety of G. quadrifaria. G. gnetoides and G. granulata are both synonyms of G. quadrifaria. G. zenkeri is a synonym of G. densivenia and lectotypes are being designated for both names. G. brevipedicellata is a synonym of G. afzelii, as is G. antidysenterica for which a lectotype is designated. Second, two new species endemic to Gabon are described: Garcinia gabonensis Sosef & Dauby and Garcinia obliqua Sosef & Dauby. Finally, an identification key to all species present in the Lower Guinea region is provided. A few remaining West African species names could not be placed with certainty, because the type material was lost or not traced yet. One is a Rutaceae while the remaining three are provisionally to be regarded as synonyms of G. smeathmannii.

  3. New Early Eocene basal tapiromorph from southern China and its phylogenetic implications.

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    Bin Bai

    Full Text Available A new Early Eocene tapiromorph, Meridiolophus expansus gen. et sp. nov., from the Sanshui Basin, Guangdong Province, China, is described and discussed. It is the first reported Eocene mammal from the basin. The new taxon, represented by a left fragmentary mandible, is characterized by an expanded anterior symphyseal region, a long diastema between c1 and p1, a rather short diastema between p1 and p2, smaller premolars relative to molars, an incipient metaconid appressed to the protoconid on p3, a prominent entoconid on p4, molar metaconid not twinned, cristid obliqua extending mesially and slightly lingually from the hypoconid, inclined metalophid and hypolophid, and small hypoconulid on the lower preultimate molars. Meridiolophus is morphologically intermediate between basal Homogalax-like taxa and derived tapiromorphs (such as Heptodon. Phylogenetic analysis indicates Equidae is more closely related to Tapiromorpha than to Palaeotheriidae, although the latter is only represented by a single species Pachynolophus eulaliensis. 'Isectolophidae', with exception of Meridiolophus and Karagalax, has the closest affinity with Chalicotherioidea. Furthermore, the majority rule consensus tree shows that Meridiolophus is closer to Karagalax than to any other 'isectolophid', and both genera represent stem taxa to crown group Ceratomorpha.

  4. Triassic beds in the basement of the Adriatic-Dinaric carbonate platform of Mt. Svilaja (Croatia

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    Vladimir Jelaska

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available On the southwestern slope of Mt. Svilaja a Triassic sequence is exposed. It is composed of Lower Triassic carbonate siliciclastic shelf beds that are unconformably overlain by Anisian breccia. The overlying pelagic Anisian and Ladinian strata with pyroclastic rockscan be interpreted as a result of rift tectonics of Adria micro-plate. A 500 m thick sequence is capped by an emersion surface by karstification and terrigenous sediments including conglomerate as a result of Late Triassic transgression and marking the lower boundaryof a new, Late Mesozoic, megasequence of the External Dinarides.By means of conodont study, in the lowermost part of the studied Mesozoic sequence, a Lower Triassic shallow-water conodont fauna yielding Pachycladina obliqua apparatus was recorded. Pelagic limestone beds overlying the »Otarnik breccia« are marked byconodont elements of the Anisian constricta Zone. The Ladinian interval is characterized (from bottom to top: trammeri A. Z., hungaricus A. Z. and mungoensis A. Z. The uppermost part of the section below the emersion surface is identified by Pseudofurnishiusmurchianus, indicating the Upper Ladinian-Lower Carnian murchianus Zone.

  5. The Ordovician ostracodes established by Aurel Krause, Part II

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    R. Schallreuter

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The revision of ostracodes originally established by Aurel Krause is continued and finished with the description of the following species: Primitia distans, P. elongata, P. cincta, P. excavata, P. papillata, P. plicata, P. schmidtii, Strepula limbata, S. simplex, Entomis obliqua, E. plicata, E. sigma, E. sigma ornata, E. simplex, E. trilobata, Beyrichia erratica, B. erratica granulosa, B. erratica acuta, B. harpa, and B. marchica lata. Three of these species are younger primary homonyms. For Beyrichia erratica granulosa Krause, 1891 a respective decision of the ICZN according to art. 23.9.5 is presently unnecessary, because it has an older synonym (Beyrichia grewingkii Bock, 1867, and Primitia excavata Krause, 1892 has a younger synonym (Laccochilina paucigranosa Jaanusson, 1957. The third homonym, Beyrichia marchica lata Krause, 1891, is considered as a nomen protectum. Entomis sigma ornata, and E. plicata are presently considered as nomina dubia. Since the type material of the three species P. distans, E. sigma, and E. simplex is apparently lost, neotypes are designated. doi:10.1002/mmng.201300007

  6. Vascular epiphytes as regeneration indicators of disturbed forests of the Colombian Amazon region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to compare how the distribution and composition of vascular epiphytes varies, in three disturbed forests with different recovery times, and to verify whether these factors can indicate the regeneration state, three stubbles that had been abandoned during 12, 18 and 22 years were selected in the neighborhood of Leticia City (Amazons, Colombia). In each stubble 7 Cecropia sciadophylla (Cecropiaceae) individuals were selected, and a sampling of epiphytes was made in the first 3 m of each tree. The number of species, their abundance and covering were used as criteria to compare the three stubbles, because the sensitivity of epiphytes to environmental changes. The results show that the evaluated factors are useful for the characterization of the forest regeneration process. In spite of the fact that the number of species in the there stubbles was similar, the composition varied in such ways that about half the species of each stubble, were exclusive. The dominance of Monstera obliqua (Araceae) was evident, constituting more than 80% of the epiphytic covering of the total sample. The youngest stubble presented a denser covering and a high diversity index, whereas in the oldest stubbles these values diminish drastically

  7. The spatial distribution of acid phosphatase activity in ectomycorrhizal tissues depends on soil fertility and morphotype, and relates to host plant phosphorus uptake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Maricel; Huygens, Dries; Díaz, Leila Milena; Villanueva, Claudia Añazco; Heyser, Wolfgang; Boeckx, Pascal

    2012-01-01

    Acid phosphatase (ACP) enzymes are involved in the mobilization of soil phosphorus (P) and polyphosphate accumulated in the fungal tissues of ectomycorrhizal roots, thereby influencing the amounts of P that are stored in the fungus and transferred to the host plant. This study evaluated the effects of ectomycorrhizal morphotype and soil fertility on ACP activity in the extraradical mycelium (ACP(myc)), the mantle (ACP(mantle)) and the Hartig net region (ACP(Hartig)) of ectomycorrhizal Nothofagus obliqua seedlings. ACP activity was quantified in vivo using enzyme-labelled fluorescence-97 (ELF-97) substrate, confocal laser microscopy and digital image processing routines. There was a significant effect of ectomycorrhizal morphotype on ACP(myc), ACP(mantle) and ACP(Hartig), while soil fertility had a significant effect on ACP(myc) and ACP(Hartig). The relative contribution of the mantle and the Hartig net region to the ACP activity on the ectomycorrhizal root was significantly affected by ectomycorrhizal morphotype and soil fertility. A positive correlation between ACP(Hartig) and the shoot P concentration was found, providing evidence that ACP activity at the fungus:root interface is involved in P transfer from the fungus to the host. It is concluded that the spatial distribution of ACP in ectomycorrhizas varies as a function of soil fertility and colonizing fungus. PMID:21902696

  8. Antiprotozoal activities of Colombian plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weniger, B; Robledo, S; Arango, G J; Deharo, E; Aragón, R; Muñoz, V; Callapa, J; Lobstein, A; Anton, R

    2001-12-01

    In our search for therapeutical alternatives for antiprotozoal chemotherapy, we collected a selection of 44 plants from western Colombia upon ethnopharmacological and chemotaxonomic considerations. Polar and apolar extracts of these species were examined for antimalarial activity using in vitro tests with two clones of Plasmodium falciparum. Leishmanicidal and trypanocidal activity were determined in vitro using promastigote and amastigote forms of several strains of Leishmania sp. and epimastigotes of Trypanosoma cruzi. Among the selected plants, the 15 following species showed good or very good antiprotozoal activity in vitro: Aspidosperma megalocarpon, Campnosperma panamense, Conobea scoparioides, Guarea polymera, Guarea guidonia, Guatteria amplifolia, Huberodendron patinoi, Hygrophila guianensis, Jacaranda caucana, Marila laxiflora, Otoba novogranatensis, Otoba parviflora, Protium amplium, Swinglea glutinosa and Tabernaemontana obliqua. Cytotoxicity was assessed in U-937 cells and the ratio of cytotoxicity to antiprotozoal activity was determined for the active extracts. Ten extracts from eight species showed selectivity indexes > or = 10. Among the extracts that showed leishmanicidal activity, the methylene chloride extract of leaves from C. scoparioides showed a selectivity index in the same range that the one of the Glucantime control. Several of the active leishmanicidal plants are traditionally used against leishmaniasis by the population of the concerned area. PMID:11694364

  9. Environmental effects on germination phenology of co-occurring eucalypts: implications for regeneration under climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawal, Deepa S; Kasel, Sabine; Keatley, Marie R; Nitschke, Craig R

    2015-09-01

    Germination is considered one of the important phenological stages that are influenced by environmental factors, with timing and abundance determining plant establishment and recruitment. This study investigates the influence of temperature, soil moisture and light on the germination phenology of six Eucalyptus species from two co-occurring groups of three species representing warm-dry and cool-moist sclerophyll forests. Data from germination experiments were used to calibrate the germination module of the mechanistic model TACA-GEM, to evaluate germination phenology under a range of climate change scenarios. With the exception of E. polyanthemos, the optimal niche for all species was characterised by cool-moist stratification, low light, cool temperatures and high soil moisture. Model results indicated that of the warm-dry species, Eucalyptus microcarpa exhibited greater germination and establishment under projected changes of warmer drier conditions than its co-occurring species Eucalyptus polyanthemos and Eucalyptus tricarpa which suggests that E. microcarpa could maintain its current distribution under a warmer and drier climate in southeastern Australia. Among the cool-moist species, Eucalyptus radiata was the only species that established under projected climate change of the 2080s but at such a low probability that its persistence compared to Eucalyptus obliqua and Eucalyptus sieberi cannot be posited. For all cool-moist species, germination did not benefit from the phenological shifts they displayed. This study successfully demonstrated environmental effects on germination phenology and how a shift in climate can influence the timing and success of recruitment. PMID:25409871

  10. A new species of the archaic primate Zanycteris from the late Paleocene of western Colorado and the phylogenetic position of the family Picrodontidae

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    Benjamin John Burger

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available A new species of an archaic primate (Pleisadapiformes is described based on a maxilla containing the first and second upper molars from the Fort Union Formation, Atwell Gulch Member in northwestern Colorado. The preserved teeth show the unusual dental characteristics of members of the rare and poorly documented Picrodontidae family, including an elongated centrocrista and wide occlusal surface. The new species is placed within the genus Zanycteris (represented by a single specimen from southern Colorado. This placement is based on similarities in regard to the parastyle, curvilinear centrocrista, and wider anterior stylar shelf on the upper molars. However, the new species differs from the only known species of Zanycteris in exhibiting an upper first molar that is 30% larger in area, while retaining a similarly sized upper second molar. Phylogenetic analysis supports the separation of the Picrodontidae family from the Paromomyidae, while still recognizing picrodontids position within Pleisadapiformes. The unusual dental features of the upper molars likely functioned in life as an enhanced shearing surface between the centrocrista and cristid obliqua crests for a specialized diet of fruit. A similar arrangement is found in the living bat Ariteus (Jamaican fig-eating bat, which feeds on fleshy fruit. The new species showcases the rapid diversification of archaic primates shortly after the extinction of the dinosaurs during the Paleocene, and the unusual dental anatomy of picrodontids to exploit new dietary specializations.

  11. Environmental effects on germination phenology of co-occurring eucalypts: implications for regeneration under climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawal, Deepa S.; Kasel, Sabine; Keatley, Marie R.; Nitschke, Craig R.

    2015-09-01

    Germination is considered one of the important phenological stages that are influenced by environmental factors, with timing and abundance determining plant establishment and recruitment. This study investigates the influence of temperature, soil moisture and light on the germination phenology of six Eucalyptus species from two co-occurring groups of three species representing warm-dry and cool-moist sclerophyll forests. Data from germination experiments were used to calibrate the germination module of the mechanistic model TACA-GEM, to evaluate germination phenology under a range of climate change scenarios. With the exception of E. polyanthemos, the optimal niche for all species was characterised by cool-moist stratification, low light, cool temperatures and high soil moisture. Model results indicated that of the warm-dry species, Eucalyptus microcarpa exhibited greater germination and establishment under projected changes of warmer drier conditions than its co-occurring species Eucalyptus polyanthemos and Eucalyptus tricarpa which suggests that E. microcarpa could maintain its current distribution under a warmer and drier climate in southeastern Australia. Among the cool-moist species, Eucalyptus radiata was the only species that established under projected climate change of the 2080s but at such a low probability that its persistence compared to Eucalyptus obliqua and Eucalyptus sieberi cannot be posited. For all cool-moist species, germination did not benefit from the phenological shifts they displayed. This study successfully demonstrated environmental effects on germination phenology and how a shift in climate can influence the timing and success of recruitment.

  12. The Relationship Between Soil Air Filled Porosity and Soil Methane Oxidation is Almost Identical in Both Dry and Wet Temperate Eucalypt Forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fest, B. J.; Wardlaw, T.; Hinko-Najera, N.; Arndt, S. K.

    2015-12-01

    In order to gain a better understanding of the temporal variation in soil methane (CH4) exchange in temperate evergreen eucalypt forests in south-eastern Australia we measured soil CH4 exchange in high temporal resolution (every 2 hours or less) over two consecutive years (Wombat State Forest, Victoria, AUS) and over one year (Warra, Tasmania, AUS) in two temperate Eucalyptus obliqua (L. Her) forests with contrasting annual precipitation (Wombat State Forest = 870 mm yr-1, Warra = 1700 mm yr-1). Both forests were continuous CH4 sinks with the Victorian site having a sink strength of -1.79 kg CH4 ha-1 yr-1 and the Tasmanian site having a sink strength of -3.83 kg CH4 ha-1 yr-1. Our results show that CH4 uptake was strongly controlled by soil moisture at both sites and explained up to 90% of the temporal variability in CH4 uptake. Furthermore, when soil moisture was expressed as soil air filled porosity (AFP) we were able to predict the CH4 uptake of one site by the linear regression between AFP and CH4 uptake from the other site. Soil temperature only had an apparent control over seasonal variation in CH4 uptake during periods when soil moisture and soil temperature were closely correlated. The fluctuation of the generally low soil nitrogen levels did not influence soil CH4 uptake at either site.

  13. Descomposición de hojarasca de Pinus radiata y tres especies arbóreas nativas Decomposition of leaf litter of Pinus radiata and three native tree species

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    CHRISTOPHER H. LUSK

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available En el centro-sur de Chile, las últimas décadas han sido testigo de una conversión masiva de bosques, matorrales y tierras agrícolas a plantaciones de árboles exóticos. Aunque se ha estudiado la influencia de dichos cambios sobre el balance hídrico, los posibles efectos sobre otros procesos ecosistémicos han recibido poca atención. En esta breve comunicación se presentan datos de un estudio de la descomposición de hojarasca de Pinus radiata y tres especies arbóreas nativas, llevado a cabo con el fin de explorar los posibles efectos del reemplazo de bosque nativo por plantaciones exóticas sobre el ciclaje de nutrientes. Se incubaron muestras de las cuatro especies en dos ambientes distintos en sitios colindantes: bajo un bosque nativo secundario, y bajo un rodal de P. radiata. Se registró la pérdida de peso seco después de dos meses y seis meses. Las tasas diarias de descomposición fueron mucho mayores durante los primeros dos meses de incubación que durante los cuatro meses subsiguientes. En ambas fechas hubo diferencias significativas entre las especies y entre los sitios: todas las especies presentaron mayores tasas de descomposición bajo P. radiata que bajo el bosque nativo. No hubo evidencia de interacción entre sitio y especie. Después de seis meses, el orden de pérdida de peso seco fue Nothofagus obliqua > P. radiata > Peumus boldus > Cryptocarya alba. La variación interespecífica en la tasa de descomposición presentó más relación con el área foliar específica que con el contenido de nitrógeno en la hojarasca. Dado que la hojarasca de P. radiata se descompuso más lentamente que la de la especie caducifolia N. obliqua, pero más rápidamente que las especies esclerófilas, los efectos de la sustitución o invasión sobre descomposición dependerían de la composición original del bosque nativo en cuestiónRecent decades have seen widespread conversion of native forests, shrublands and farmland in south

  14. Abiotic alterations caused by forest fragmentation affect tree regeneration: a shade and drought tolerance gradient in the remnants of Coastal Maulino Forest Alteraciones abióticas causadas por la fragmentación del bosque afectan la regeneración arbórea: un gradiente de tolerancia a la sombra y la sequía en los remanentes del Bosque Maulino Costero

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    PABLO C GUERRERO

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Plant regeneration is strongly determined by light and soil moisture differences between habitáis; both variables are modified by large-scale forest fragmentation. Several studies have indicated this alteration as the mechanism involved in tropical forest community change. The effects of fragmentation may be much more severe in Mediterranean and deciduous forests, because plant species in these forests show a stress tolerance tradeoff between shade and drought. Our study was performed in the deciduous fragmented Coastal Maulino Forest: Reserva Nacional Los Queules (RNLQ and surrounding small fragments. We hypothesised that Aristotelia chilensis (shade intolerant but drought tolerant should increase its regeneration in small patches as a consequence of the change in habitat suitability (i.e. luminous and drier, while Cryptocarya alba (shade tolerant but drought intolerant should have less regeneration in small fragments. We also expected that Nothofagus glauca and N. obliqua, which have shade and drought tolerances intermedíate between A. chilensis and C. alba, should respond less to forest fragmentation. We used two estimations of plant regeneration: (i seedling and sapling densities via field observations and (ii seed germination and seedling establishment via a field-based experiment. Natural regeneration patterns of C. alba indicated a depressed regeneration within small forest fragments compared to RNLQ, although experimental germination, establishment and recruitment proportions did not vary between habitáis. In contrast, A. chilensis regeneration was favored by forest fragmentation, with increased seedling and sapling densities and germination in small forest fragments. Both N. glauca and N. obliqua were less affected by forest fragmentation in their natural and experimental regeneration. This study highlights the relevance of studying changes in abiotic factors as a consequence of human activities, and considering safe sites (defined

  15. A new species of the archaic primate Zanycteris from the late Paleocene of western Colorado and the phylogenetic position of the family Picrodontidae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, Benjamin John

    2013-01-01

    A new species of an archaic primate (Pleisadapiformes) is described based on a maxilla containing the first and second upper molars from the Fort Union Formation, Atwell Gulch Member in northwestern Colorado. The preserved teeth show the unusual dental characteristics of members of the rare and poorly documented Picrodontidae family, including an elongated centrocrista and wide occlusal surface. The new species is placed within the genus Zanycteris (represented by a single specimen from southern Colorado). This placement is based on similarities in regard to the parastyle, curvilinear centrocrista, and wider anterior stylar shelf on the upper molars. However, the new species differs from the only known species of Zanycteris in exhibiting an upper first molar that is 30% larger in area, while retaining a similarly sized upper second molar. Phylogenetic analysis supports the separation of the Picrodontidae family from the Paromomyidae, while still recognizing picrodontids position within Pleisadapiformes. The unusual dental features of the upper molars likely functioned in life as an enhanced shearing surface between the centrocrista and cristid obliqua crests for a specialized diet of fruit. A similar arrangement is found in the living bat Ariteus (Jamaican fig-eating bat), which feeds on fleshy fruit. The new species showcases the rapid diversification of archaic primates shortly after the extinction of the dinosaurs during the Paleocene, and the unusual dental anatomy of picrodontids to exploit new dietary specializations. PMID:24255808

  16. Aggregate structure and stability linked to carbon dynamics in a south Chilean Andisol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huygens, D.; Boeckx, P.; van Cleemput, O.; Godoy, R.; Oyarzún, C.

    2005-02-01

    The extreme vulnerability of soil organic carbon to climate and land use change emphasizes the need for further research in different terrestrial ecosystems. We have studied the aggregate stability and carbon dynamics in a chronosequence of three different land uses in a south Chilean Andisols: a second growth Nothofagus obliqua forest (SGFOR), a grassland (GRASS) and a Pinus radiata plantation (PINUS). The aim of this study was to investigate the role of Al as soil organic matter stabilizing agent in this Andisol. In a case study, we linked differences in carbon dynamics between the three land use treatments to physical protection and recalcitrance of the soil organic matter (SOM). In this study, C aggregate stability and dynamics were studied using size and density fractionation experiments of the SOM, δ13C and total carbon analysis of the different SOM fractions, and mineralization measurements. The results showed that electrostatic attractions between and among Al-oxides and clay minerals are mainly responsible for the stabilization of soil aggregates and the physical protection of the enclosed soil organic carbon. Whole soil C mineralization rate constants were highest for SGFOR and PINUS, followed by GRASS. In contrast, incubation experiments of isolated macro organic matter fractions showed that the recalcitrance of the SOM decreased in another order: PINUS > SGFOR > GRASS. We concluded that physical protection of soil aggregates was the main process determining whole soil C mineralization. Land use changes affected soil organic carbon dynamics in this south Chilean Andisol by altering soil pH and consequently available Al.

  17. Comunidade de Syrphidae (Diptera: diversidade e preferências florais no Cinturão Verde (Santa Cruz do Sul, RS, Brasil Syrphidae (Diptera community: diversity and floral preferences in the Green Belt (Santa Cruz do Sul, RS, Brazil

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    Mírian Nunes Morales

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se investigar a comunidade de Syrphidae, do Cinturão Verde de Santa Cruz do Sul, RS, Brasil, permitindo a obtenção de informações acerca da composição e estrutura desta comunidade, suas preferências florais e interações entre as espécies na utilização de recursos alimentares. Realizaram-se coletas com rede entomológica, entre setembro/2001 a janeiro/2005. Foram capturados 1.283 espécimes de Syrphidae, representados por 88 espécies, distribuídos em 21 gêneros. Eristalinae apresentou o maior número de espécies coletadas, seguida por Syrphinae e Microdontinae. O gênero Palpada Macquart e a espécie P. urotaenia (Curran foram os mais abundantes. As coletas alcançaram cerca de 80% do que se estima para a área de estudo. Coletaram-se 1.187 sirfídeos (74 espécies visitantes de 51 espécies de plantas, de 23 famílias, onde Apiaceae e Asteraceae apresentaram o maior número de visitantes. O grau de especialização alimentar variou de acordo com os tipos de flores visitadas. A facilidade do acesso aos recursos florais e a coloração clara das flores são os principais responsáveis pela atração dos sirfídeos em Apiaceae, Asteraceae, Lauraceae, Malvaceae, Meliaceae, Oleaceae, Poaceae e Solanaceae. A diversidade da comunidade de Syrphidae é regulada por interações locais entre as espécies, principalmente entre as condições ambientais e disponibilidade de recursos alimentares.The aim of this study was to investigate the Syrphidae community in the area of the Green Belt of Santa Cruz do Sul, RS, Brazil, as well as to obtain information on the structure and composition of this community, its floral preferences and the interactions between the species in the food resource utilization. The specimens were collected with entomological net, from September/2001 to January/2005. A total of 1.283 syrphid specimens were collected, totaling 88 species distributed in 21 genera. Eristalinae presented the highest number of

  18. Effects of continuous drought and immersion on hatchability of Ochlerotatus albifasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae eggs stored at low temperature Efecto de la sequía continua y la inmersión sobre la respuesta de eclosión de los huevos de Ochlerotatus albifasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae almacenados a baja temperatura

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    Raúl E Campos

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available The role of environmental factors on the hatching response of O. albifasciatus (Macquart eggs is studied by simulating winter conditions in the laboratory. The hypothesis tested was that hatching response is affected by: (1 time that eggs remain at low temperature, (2 storage conditions, and (3 acclimatization time. Eggs were stored at 5ºC in drought and immersion conditions during 7, 21, 35, 90 and 146 days, immediately after, they were acclimatized at 22ºC during 24, 72, and 168 hours, and then eggs were flooded to induce hatching. Percent of hatched eggs was analyzed with a Generalized Lineal Model with a binomial distribution. Results show that: (1 a long storage period at cold temperature and long acclimatization periods improve the hatching response; (2 storage conditions have a moderate effect on hatching, being more evident in eggs stored dry; (3 a long time of acclimatization favors the hatching response in submerged eggs more than in eggs stored dry; (4 long time at cold favors the hatching response in eggs stored dry more than in submerged eggs; (5 the hatching response of eggs that remain for a long time at low temperature is higher when the time of acclimatization is long.Se estudió el rol de los factores ambientales sobre la eclosión de los huevos de O. albifasciatus (Macquart, simulando condiciones de invierno. La hipótesis planteada fue que la respuesta de eclosión de los huevos depende de: (1 tiempo de permanencia a baja temperatura, (2 condiciones de almacenamiento, y (3 tiempo de aclimatación. Los huevos fueron almacenados a 5º C en condiciones de sequía y sumergidos durante 7, 21, 35, 90 y 146 días; luego fueron aclimatados a 22º C durante 24, 72, y 168 horas y posteriormente inundados para inducir la eclosión. El porcentaje de huevos eclosionados se analizó con un Modelo Lineal Generalizado con distribución binomial. Los resultados mostraron que: (1 largos períodos de almacenamiento en frío y largos tiempos

  19. Parasites of Columba livia (Aves: Columbiformes in Tenerife (Canary Islands and their role in the conservation biology of the Laurel pigeons

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    Foronda P.

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence and intensity of the parasites from 50 wild doves (Columba livia from the city of Santa Cruz de Tenerife, in the island of Tenerife (Canary Archipelago, were studied. The following ectoparasites were found in apparently healthy pigeons (prevalences are shown in percentage (% and mean intensities with their standard deviations: the acari Dermanyssus gallinae (De Geer, 1778 (6 241 .0 ± 138.9 and Tinaminyssus melloi Fain, 1962 (10 %, 218.3 ± 117.3; the louses, Columbicola columbae Linnaeus, 1758 (100 %, 111.4 ± 76.8 and Campanulotes bidentatus Scopoli, 1763 (94 %, 48.4 ± 26.6; and the pigeon fly, Pseudolynchia canariensis Macquart, 1839 (36 %, 6.2 ± 1.6. The endoparasites we found, were: a haemoprotozoan species, Haemoproteus columbae Kruze, 1890 (82 %, 14.8 ± 10.3 per 1000; coccidian oocysts, Eimeria sp. (50 %, 0.2 x 103 ± 1.7 x 103 per gr; a cestode species Raillietina micracantha (Fuhrmann, 1909 López Neyra, 1947 (44 %, 12.3 ± 9.4; and four nematode species, Tetrameres (Tetrameres fissispina (Diesing, 1861 Travassos, 1915 (4 %, 99.5 ± 34,1, Synhimantus (Dispharynx spiralis (Molin, 1858 (8 %, 46. 8 ± 11.6, Ascaridia columbae (Gmelin, 1790 Travassos, 1913 (40 %, 8.4 ± 8.8 and Aonchotheca sp. (18 %, 6.0 ± 3.1. Several species detected in our study can be pathogens for C. bollii and C. junoniae, which are endemic pigeons of the Canary Islands, considered endangered species. Parasites (ectoparasites, protozoa and helminths of C. livia found in Tenerife and others from wild and farm birds in the island were considered as healthy controls.

  20. Revision of the stiletto fly genera Acupalpa Kröber and Pipinnipons Winterton (Diptera, Therevidae, Agapophytinae using cybertaxonomic methods, with a key to Australasian genera

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    Shaun Winterton

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Australian stiletto flies of the sister-genera Acupalpa Kröber, 1912 and Pipinnipons Winterton, 2001 (Diptera: Therevidae: Agapophytinae are revised. Twelve new species of Acupalpa are described, while Acupalpa imitans (White, 1915, comb. n. is transferred from Pipinnipons and Acupalpa albimanis (Kröber, 1914, comb. n. is transferred from Ectinorhynchus Macquart as a senior synonym of Acupalpa pollinosa Mann. The total number of species of Acupalpa is therefore increased to 19: A. albimanis (Kröber, comb. n., A. albitarsa Mann, A. boharti sp. n., A. divisa (Walker, A. dolichorhyncha sp. n., A. glossa sp. n., A. imitans (White, comb. n., A. irwini Winterton, A. melanophaeos sp. n., A. miaboolya sp. n., A. minuta sp. n., A. minutoides sp. n., A. notomelas sp. n., A. novayamarna sp. n., A. rostrata Kröber, A. semirufa Mann, A. westralica sp. n., A. yalgoo sp. n. and A. yanchep sp. n. Three new species of Pipinnipons are described, increasing the total number of species to five: P. chauncyvallis sp. n., P. fascipennis (Kröber, P. kampmeierae sp. n., P. kroeberi Winterton, and P. sphecoda sp. n. Pipinnipons and Acupalpa are rediagnosed in light of the new species presented herein and revised keys to species are included. A dichotomous key to genera of Australasian Therevidae is included. As an empirical example of cybertaxonomy, taxonomic descriptions were composed using a character matrix developed in Lucid Builder (in Structured Descriptive Data (SDD format to generate natural language descriptions supplemented by online specimen and image databases. Web resources are provided throughout the document including: a links to high resolution colour images of all species on Morphbank, b registration of authors, publications, taxon names and other nomenclatural acts in Zoobank, with assignment of Life Science Identifiers (LSIDs for each, c links to Genbank accession records for DNA sequences, and d assignment of LSIDs to specimen records with links

  1. Revision of the stiletto fly genera Acupalpa Kröber and Pipinnipons Winterton (Diptera, Therevidae, Agapophytinae) using cybertaxonomic methods, with a key to Australasian genera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winterton, Shaun L

    2011-01-01

    Australian stiletto flies of the sister-genera Acupalpa Kröber, 1912 and Pipinnipons Winterton, 2001 (Diptera: Therevidae: Agapophytinae) are revised. Twelve new species of Acupalpa are described, while Acupalpa imitans (White, 1915), comb. n. is transferred from Pipinnipons and Acupalpa albimanis (Kröber, 1914), comb. n. is transferred from Ectinorhynchus Macquart as a senior synonym of Acupalpa pollinosa Mann. The total number of species of Acupalpa is therefore increased to 19: Acupalpa albimanis (Kröber), comb. n., Acupalpa albitarsa Mann, Acupalpa bohartisp. n., Acupalpa divisa (Walker), Acupalpa dolichorhynchasp. n., Acupalpa glossasp. n., Acupalpa imitans (White), comb. n., Acupalpa irwini Winterton, Acupalpa melanophaeossp. n.,Acupalpa miaboolyasp. n., Acupalpa minutasp. n., Acupalpa minutoidessp. n., Acupalpa notomelassp. n., Acupalpa novayamarnasp. n., Acupalpa rostrata Kröber, Acupalpa semirufa Mann, Acupalpa westralicasp. n., Acupalpa yalgoosp. n. and Acupalpa yanchepsp. n. Three new species of Pipinnipons are described, increasing the total number of species to five: Pipinnipons chauncyvallissp. n., Pipinnipons fascipennis (Kröber), Pipinnipons kampmeieraesp. n., Pipinnipons kroeberi Winterton, and P. sphecodasp. n.Pipinnipons and Acupalpa are rediagnosed in light of the new species presented herein and revised keys to species are included. A dichotomous key to genera of Australasian Therevidae is included. As an empirical example of cybertaxonomy, taxonomic descriptions were composed using a character matrix developed in Lucid Builder (in Structured Descriptive Data (SDD) format) to generate natural language descriptions supplemented by online specimen and image databases. Web resources are provided throughout the document including: a) links to high resolution colour images of all species on Morphbank, b) registration of authors, publications, taxon names and other nomenclatural acts in Zoobank, with assignment of Life Science Identifiers (LSIDs

  2. Nana: un regard sur la prostitution à Paris au XIXe siècle

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    Alberto da Silva

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Au XIXe siècle, le discours scientifique influence beaucoup la théorie littéraire. En France, l’écrivain et journaliste Émile Zola a joué un rôle très important à la tête d’un mouvement littéraire qui suit cette voie scientifique : le Naturalisme. Inspiré par les théories scientifiques de l’époque, en particulier le déterminisme héréditaire et social, Zola essaye, dans sa littérature et à travers un travail rigoureux de reconstitution historique, d'atteindre la vérité de la réalité socio-économique et de la « nature humaine ». Sur cette base, Zola élabore le projet d'une saga née du croisement de deux familles, les Rougon et les Macquart, qui vont traverser toute la période du Second Empire. Parmi les romans de ce cycle, Nana aborde la question de la prostitution à Paris, au XIXe siècle. Dans cet article, nous comptons soulever deux questions à travers l'analyse de cette oeuvre : celle de la prostitution à Paris, au XIX e siècle, en prenant comme support la littérature historique prostitutionnelle de la période ; et celle de la représentation de la femme donnée par l’auteur dans son livre.

  3. ECOLOGICAL SUCCESSION PATTERN OF THE INSECT SPECIES ASSOCIATED WITH THE CARCASS OF THE FREE-RANGING URBAN DOG, Canis domesticus (L.: A TOOL FOR FORENSIC ENTOMOLOGY

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    FARZANA PERVEEN

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The free-ranging urban dog, Canis domesticus (L. carcass decomposition in tropical region, i.e., Takht-i-Bahi, Mardan, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan during 15-25 May 2011 was characterized by 5 stages, i.e., fresh (12 h, bloated (13-48 h, active (49-96 h, advanced (97-144 h and dry (145-265 h and the ecological succession pattern of insect species collected were identified into 11 species of 3 orders. The insect species associated with the carcass of C. domesticus found that the blow flies, Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart and house fly, Musca domestica (Linnaeus, 1758 were found in the fresh, bloat and active decay stages. However, the blow fly, C. megacephala (Fabricius; flesh fly, Parasarcophaga ruficornis (Meigen and the hornet wasp, Vespa orientalis (Linnaeus were existed in the fresh and bloat stages. Moreover, cheese fly, Piophila casei (Linnaeus was found bloat and active decay stages. Further, the hide beetle, Dermestes maculates (Geer, clown beetle, Hister sp. (Gullenhal; ham beetle, Necrobia rufipes (Fabricus and skin beetle, Trox sp. (Harold completed their life cycle in active decay, advance decay and dry stages. Furthermore, the jummper ant, Myrmecia pilosula (Smith was collected from only fresh stage. The specimens of insect species were collected minimum 0.8% of V. orientalis and maximum 21.3% of 2 species, i.e., C. rufifacies and M. domestica. The temperature, humidity and rainfalls were found affected insect larvae, pupae and adults, and rate of decomposition of C. domesticus. The average temperature, humidity and rainfalls were 35.34±1.54, 38.8% and 3.8 mm, respectively, of 11 experimental days. This research will be helpful for forensic entomologist for a case study of death to investigate of crimes in tropical region of Pakistan.

  4. Introducción y producción en laboratorio de Diachasmimorpha tryon i y Diachasmimorpha longicaudata (Hymenoptera: Braconidae para el control biológico de Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae en la Argentina Introduction and laboratory production of Diachasmimorpha tryoni and Diachasmimorpha longicaudata (Hymenoptera: Braconidae for the biological control of Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae in Argentina

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    Sergio M. Ovruski

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Con el propósito de reanudar la utilización de enemigos naturales contra la especie exótica Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann, fueron introducidos a la Argentina en 1999 los agentes de control biológico Diachasmimorpha tryoni (Cameron y Diachasmimorpha longicaudata (Ashmead, dos endoparasitoides de larvas de tefrítidos. Por este motivo, en este trabajo se describen los procedimientos de cría en laboratorio del huésped y de ambas especies de parasitoides y, se presentan y discuten los resultados de un año de producción de D. tryoni y D. longicaudata a mediana escala (enero-diciembre/2000. Se realizó un análisis comparativo de los datos obtenidos sobre la producción de descendientes, proporción sexual, porcentaje de parasitismo y viabilidad de puparios por jaula de cría durante 15 generaciones entre ambas especies de parasitoides exóticos, utilizando como huésped larvas de C. capitata del tercer estadio de siete días de edad. Además, se discuten las posibilidades para implementar el control biológico aumentativo contra C. capitata y Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann en el país.The biocontrol agents Diachasmimorpha tryoni (Cameron and Diachasmimorpha longicaudata (Ashmead, two endoparasitoids of fruit fly larvae, were introduced to Argentina in 1999 with the purpose of renewing the employment of natural enemies against Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann. For this reason, the general procedure and maintenance of the host and parasitoids rearing in the laboratory are described, and the results of one year insectary production (January-December/2000 of both D. tryoni and D. longicaudata are discussed. Data are presented of the progeny production, offpring sex ratio, host parasitism percentage, and pupal viability per parasitoid rearing cage during 15 generations of D. longicaudata and D. tryoni reared using late third instar larvae of C. capitata. New perspectives are discussed on the establishment of a biological control program for C

  5. Levantamento de moscas-das-frutas e seus parasitoides em citros, no município de Viçosa, Minas Gerais Survey of fruit-flies and their parasitoids in citrus in Viçosa, Minas Gerais

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    Daniel Lucas Magalhães Machado

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available As moscas-das-frutas são responsáveis por grandes perdas em fruteiras comerciais no Brasil, por isso é fundamental conhecer as espécies predominantes na região. Objetivou-se com este trabalho estudar a ocorrência de moscas-das-frutas (Diptera: Tephritidae e seus parasitoides em laranjas doces (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck, tangerina Poncã (Citrus reticulata Blanco e mexerica Rio (Citrus deliciosa Ten, no município de Viçosa, Minas Gerais. Os frutos foram coletados em abril de 2008. No laboratório eles foram acondicionados em caixas plásticas contendo areia umedecida e em ambiente controlado para obtenção dos pupários, que foram contados, acondicionados em frascos de vidro com areia fina e mantidos em estufa até a emergência dos adultos. Somente uma espécie de mosca-das-frutas (Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann, 1830 e uma de parasitoide (Doryctobracon brasiliensis Szépligeti foram identificadas. Dentre as variedades, a laranja doce Baianinha apresentou o maior índice de infestação, e os menores foram atribuídos à mexerica Rio e à tangerina Poncã.Fruit flies are responsible for large losses in commercial orchards in Brazil, thus, it is important to know the predominant species in the region. The objective of this study was to study the occurrence of fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritoidae and of their parasitoids in sweet orange (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck, 'Poncã' mandarin (Citrus reticulate Blanco and 'Rio' tangerine (Citrus deliciosa Ten, in Viçosa, Minas Gerais. The fruits were collected in April 2008. In the laboratory, the fruits were stored in plastic boxes containing moist sand in a controlled environment, to obtain pupae. Then, the pupae were counted, placed in glass bottles with fine sand and kept in an oven until adult emergence. Only one species of fruit fly (Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann, 1830 and one species of parasitoid (Doryctobracon brasiliensis Szépligeti were identified. Among the varieties, the sweet

  6. Incidence of fruit flies on coffee and citrus and quarantine treatment of citrus fruits by gamma radiation; Incidencia de moscas-das-frutas em cafe e citros e tratamento quarentenario de frutos citricos com radiacao gama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raga, Adalton

    1996-12-31

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the fruit fly infestation on coffee and citrus, and also to determine gamma radiation doses for immature stages of Ceratitis capitata and Anastrepha fraterculus, in order to satisfy quarantine regulations. Coffee arabica varieties Icatu Vermelho, Catuai Amarelo, Mundo Novo and Sarchimor showed the highest infestation indices (pupa/berry): 0.53; 0,41; 0.33 and 0.36. respectively Icatu Vermelho and Catuai Vermelho showed the highest values of pupa/berry weight (0.49 and 0.39, respectively), and Robusta (Coffea canephora) presented the lowest index (0.01). The following fruit flies were found in coffee berries: C. capitata (76.6%) Anastrepha spp. (7.4%) and Lonchaeidae (17.0%). In area near coffee plantation, fruit fly infestation indices in sweet oranges were of 4.77 larvae/kg and 0.55 larva/fruit. The infestation indices for sweet orange, collected from five regions of the State of Sao Paulo ranged from 0.73 to 7.60 pupa/kg and 0.12 to 1.27 pupa/fruit. The same species of fruit flies were found in oranges. In the case of C. capitata eggs with 24-48 hours old, 20 Gy prevented completely adult emergence (artificial diet and orange). No emergence of adult occurred when C. capitata larvae of third instar were irradiated at 20 Gy in their rearing medium. But at 25 Gy, the number of adults was reduced by 54% and 97% from larval infestation in oranges and grapefruit, respectively. A dose of 30 Gy was required to prevent medfly emergence from third instar larvae in grapefruit. A dose of 15 Gy was required for third instar, to prevent adult emergence of A. fraterculus. No adult emerged from C third instar, to prevent adult emergence of A. fraterculus. No adult emerged from C capitata pre-pupa irradiated at 30 Gy. One medfly adult emerged from pupa (3-4 days after pupating) irradiated at 120 Gy. At the same dose, sixteen A. fraterculus adults emergency from irradiated pupa with 5-6 days old. (author) 85 refs., 2 figs., 13 tabs.

  7. Regional Suppression of Bactrocera Fruit Flies (Diptera: Tephritidae in the Pacific through Biological Control and Prospects for Future Introductions into Other Areas of the World

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    Roger I. Vargas

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Bactrocera fruit fly species are economically important throughout the Pacific. The USDA, ARS U.S. Pacific Basin Agricultural Research Center has been a world leader in promoting biological control of Bactrocera spp. that includes classical, augmentative, conservation and IPM approaches. In Hawaii, establishment of Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett in 1895 resulted in the introduction of the most successful parasitoid, Psyttalia fletcheri (Silvestri; similarly, establishment of Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel in 1945 resulted in the introduction of 32 natural enemies of which Fopius arisanus (Sonan, Diachasmimorpha longicaudata (Ashmead and Fopius vandenboschi (Fullaway were most successful. Hawaii has also been a source of parasitoids for fruit fly control throughout the Pacific region including Australia, Pacific Island Nations, Central and South America, not only for Bactrocera spp. but also for Ceratitis and Anastrepha spp. Most recently, in 2002, F. arisanus was introduced into French Polynesia where B. dorsalis had invaded in 1996. Establishment of D. longicaudata into the new world has been important to augmentative biological control releases against Anastrepha spp. With the rapid expansion of airline travel and global trade there has been an alarming spread of Bactrocera spp. into new areas of the world (i.e., South America and Africa. Results of studies in Hawaii and French Polynesia, support parasitoid introductions into South America and Africa, where B. carambolae and B. invadens, respectively, have become established. In addition, P. fletcheri is a candidate for biological control of B. cucurbitae in Africa. We review past and more

  8. Incidence of fruit flies on coffee and citrus and quarantine treatment of citrus fruits by gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the fruit fly infestation on coffee and citrus, and also to determine gamma radiation doses for immature stages of Ceratitis capitata and Anastrepha fraterculus, in order to satisfy quarantine regulations. Coffee arabica varieties Icatu Vermelho, Catuai Amarelo, Mundo Novo and Sarchimor showed the highest infestation indices (pupa/berry): 0.53; 0,41; 0.33 and 0.36. respectively Icatu Vermelho and Catuai Vermelho showed the highest values of pupa/berry weight (0.49 and 0.39, respectively), and Robusta (Coffea canephora) presented the lowest index (0.01). The following fruit flies were found in coffee berries: C. capitata (76.6%) Anastrepha spp. (7.4%) and Lonchaeidae (17.0%). In area near coffee plantation, fruit fly infestation indices in sweet oranges were of 4.77 larvae/kg and 0.55 larva/fruit. The infestation indices for sweet orange, collected from five regions of the State of Sao Paulo ranged from 0.73 to 7.60 pupa/kg and 0.12 to 1.27 pupa/fruit. The same species of fruit flies were found in oranges. In the case of C. capitata eggs with 24-48 hours old, 20 Gy prevented completely adult emergence (artificial diet and orange). No emergence of adult occurred when C. capitata larvae of third instar were irradiated at 20 Gy in their rearing medium. But at 25 Gy, the number of adults was reduced by 54% and 97% from larval infestation in oranges and grapefruit, respectively. A dose of 30 Gy was required to prevent medfly emergence from third instar larvae in grapefruit. A dose of 15 Gy was required for third instar, to prevent adult emergence of A. fraterculus. No adult emerged from C third instar, to prevent adult emergence of A. fraterculus. No adult emerged from C capitata pre-pupa irradiated at 30 Gy. One medfly adult emerged from pupa (3-4 days after pupating) irradiated at 120 Gy. At the same dose, sixteen A. fraterculus adults emergency from irradiated pupa with 5-6 days old. (author)

  9. Moscas frugívoras associadas a mirtáceas e laranjeira "Céu" na região do Vale do Rio Caí, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil Frugivorous flies in myrtaceans and orange trees 'Céu' in the region of Vale do Rio Caí, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil

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    Tacimara Gattelli

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo teve o objetivo de reconhecer as espécies de moscas frugívoras em mirtáceas: Eugenia uniflora L., Campomanesia xanthocarpa Berg., Psidium cattleianum Sabine, Psidium guajava L. e Acca sellowiana (Berg. Burret., bem como em Citrus sinensis (L. Osbeck (Rutaceae, na região do Vale do Caí, RS. Os frutos foram coletados no período de maturação de cada espécie frutífera, entre outubro de 2004 e julho de 2005, levados ao laboratório e acondicionados em potes com areia mantidos a 25 ± 1°C; 80 ± 10% UR e fotofase de 12 horas. Os pupários obtidos foram individualizados e suas características foram registradas. De Tephritidae foi registrada apenas Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann e de Lonchaeidae Neosilba n. sp. 3, Neosilba zadolicha McAlpine & Steyskal e Neosilba certa (Walker. As duas últimas são novos registros para o Rio Grande do Sul. Apenas em P. cattleianum foram registradas todas as espécies de moscas encontradas neste trabalho. Os resultados evidenciam que A. fraterculus é a espécie de mosca-das-frutas de maior ocorrência para a região do Vale do Caí, RS, nas frutíferas estudadas.This study aimed at recognizing frugivorous flies species in Myrtaceae: Eugenia uniflora L., Campomanesia xanthocarpa Berg. Psidium cattleianum Sabine, Psidium guajava L. and Acca sellowiana (Berg. Burret., as well as in Citrus sinensis (L. Osbeck (Rutaceae, at Vale do Cai region, Rio Grande do Sul. Fruits were collected at the maturation stage of each fruit species between October 2004 and July 2005, and at the laboratory they were placed in pots with sand and were kept at 12h photoperiod, 80 ± 10% RH and 25 ± 1°C. Pupae were individualized and their characteristics were recorded. In Tephritidae only Anastrepha fraterculus (Wied. was recorded and in Lonchaeidae, Neosilba n. sp. 3, Neosilba zadolicha McAlpine & Steyskal and Neosilba certa (Walker. These last two species were recorded for the first time in Rio Grande do Sul. Only on

  10. COMPARISON OF DRY DEPOSITION AND CANOPY EXCHANGE OF BASE CATIONS IN TEMPERATE HARDWOOD FORESTS IN FLANDERS AND CHILE ESTUDIO COMPARATIVO DE LA DEPOSITACION SECA E INTERCAMBIO EN EL DOSEL DE LOS CATIONES DE BASE EN BOSQUES TEMPLADOS DE FLANDERS Y CHILE

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    Jeroen Staelens

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Bulk precipitation, throughfall and stemflow of base cations Na+, K+, Mg2+ and Ca2+ were measured in two deciduous beech forests, located in regions with different air pollution characteristics and strongly differing in soil acidity and soil base saturation. The contribution of dry deposition and canopy leaching to net throughfall flux was estimated using Na+ as a tracer ion. The input of base cations via bulk precipitation was not significantly different between Nothofagus obliqua (Mirb. Bl. in southern Chile and Fagus sylvatica L. in Flanders. However, net throughfall input of Ca2+ and Mg2+ to the forest floor was significantly higher in Chile than in Flanders. Potassium fluxes were similar in both studied stands. Dry deposition of Ca2+ was higher in Chile, in absolute value as well as in relative contribution to net throughfall flux. A strong difference between the two Fagaceae-dominated forests was found for magnesium. In Chile, canopy leaching of Mg2+ (8.9 kg ha-1 y-1 was the major input source to the forest floor, while Mg2+ canopy leaching was close to zero in Flanders. As the availability of base cations in the soil solution determines the possibility of trees to exchange cations, we hypothesize that the lower Mg2+ canopy leaching in Flanders is mainly due to magnesium deficiency in the Flemish forest soilSe midieron las concentraciones de los cationes de base Na+, K+, Mg2+ y Ca2+ en la precipitación incidente, precipitación directa y escurrimiento fustal en dos bosques deciduos, localizados en regiones con diferente contaminación atmosférica, acidez del suelo y saturación de bases. La contribución de la depositación seca y el lavado del dosel en la precipitación efectiva se estimó utilizando el Na+ como un ion trazador. El ingreso de cationes de base vía precipitación incidente no fue significativamente diferente entre Nothofagus obliqua (Mirb. Bl. en el sur de Chile y Fagus sylvatica L. en Flanders. Sin embargo, las entradas

  11. Biogeochemistry of the Ballarat East goldfield

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stott, J.; Arne, D. [University of Ballarat, VIC (Australia). Minerals Industry Research Institute]|[Posgold Ltd, Tennant Creek, NT (Australia); Waldron, H. [Becquerel Laboratories, Lucas Heights, NSW (Australia)

    1998-12-31

    The gold deposits along the crest of the Whitehorse Range were extensively worked last century, and the area was revegetated during the 1930s with Monterey Pine (P. radiata). P. Radiata of different ages were sampled at 25m intervals along two east-west traverses roughly perpendicular to the strike of the Ballarat East field. Sampling occurred during the winter of 1995 following heavy rains. Blackwood (Acacia melanoxylon) and Chinese scrub (Cassinia aculeata) were also sampled for comparative purposes. A third traverse through a belt of remnant eucalyptus (E. obliqua, E. dives, and E. macrorhyncha) was sampled to the south of the pine plantation in 1996. These samples were washed in de-ionised water. Sample material included either leaves or needles, the tips of twigs, and outer bark. The samples were dried, pulverized and analysed using instrumental neutron activation at Lucas Heights, NSW. Gold and As from Cassinia leaves and twigs, and Eucalyptus bark show a good correlation with extensions of known mineralized trends inferred from aerial photographs, as do Ce, Cr, La, Sm, Sc and Th. Samples of P. radiata needles and bark show only a moderate correlation with mineralized trends for Au and As. Repeat sampling to determine sampling variance has revealed probable contamination of Eucalyptus outer bark by dust. Sequential washing experiments indicate that the dust is difficult to remove from fibrous outer bark. Therefore, while application of biogeochemistry to exploration in the central Victorian Goldfields appears feasible, caution must be exercised in the interpretation of data from outer bark for some Eucalyptus species

  12. Contribution to the knowledge of the freshwater Ostracoda fauna in continental Portugal, with an updated checklist of Recent and Quaternary species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco FATELA

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Ostracods have a ubiquitous distribution, a high diversity of life history strategies and an extensive fossil record. These characteristics make the group a useful study tool in multiple disciplines. In Portugal, very few studies on recent freshwater ostracods have been published. This is particularly important given the need for an accurate database of both autoecology and geographical distribution of the extant species for a correct use of these crustaceans as environmental proxies. Six temporary ponds were periodically sampled during the wet season 2005/2006, in the natural park "Parque Natural do Sudoeste Alentejano e Costa Vicentina" (PNSACV north of Vila Nova de Milfontes, SW Portugal. The relationship between ostracod assemblages and habitat features was analysed. In parallel, to assess relative ostracod species richness and diversity, faunistic results are also presented based on a regional (Alentejo survey carried out during the same season. The semi-permanent nature of the study area in PNSACV may contribute to the observed relative high ostracod richness. Yet other environmental factors, such as pH and pond hydroperiod variation, may restrict the local ostracod species distribution and its abundance. The most abundant and/or common ostracod species were eurytopic forms: Cypridopsis vidua, Cypris bispinosa and Herpetocypris chevreuxi. A total of 14 species was identified, of which three named and one most probably undescribed candonid species new to Portugal: Bradleycypris obliqua, C. bispinosa, Paralimnocythere psammophila and Fabaeformiscandona sp. ex gr. fabaeformis. In the regional survey nine species were identified. Heterocypris sp., Ilyocypris aff. lacustris and Tonnacypris lutaria were recorded in the regional survey but not present in PNSACV, with the latter two also new in Portugal. To favour further faunistic and ecological research on ostracods in Portugal, a distributional checklist of Recent and Quaternary freshwater

  13. Biogeochemistry of the Ballarat East goldfield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The gold deposits along the crest of the Whitehorse Range were extensively worked last century, and the area was revegetated during the 1930s with Monterey Pine (P. radiata). P. Radiata of different ages were sampled at 25m intervals along two east-west traverses roughly perpendicular to the strike of the Ballarat East field. Sampling occurred during the winter of 1995 following heavy rains. Blackwood (Acacia melanoxylon) and Chinese scrub (Cassinia aculeata) were also sampled for comparative purposes. A third traverse through a belt of remnant eucalyptus (E. obliqua, E. dives, and E. macrorhyncha) was sampled to the south of the pine plantation in 1996. These samples were washed in de-ionised water. Sample material included either leaves or needles, the tips of twigs, and outer bark. The samples were dried, pulverized and analysed using instrumental neutron activation at Lucas Heights, NSW. Gold and As from Cassinia leaves and twigs, and Eucalyptus bark show a good correlation with extensions of known mineralized trends inferred from aerial photographs, as do Ce, Cr, La, Sm, Sc and Th. Samples of P. radiata needles and bark show only a moderate correlation with mineralized trends for Au and As. Repeat sampling to determine sampling variance has revealed probable contamination of Eucalyptus outer bark by dust. Sequential washing experiments indicate that the dust is difficult to remove from fibrous outer bark. Therefore, while application of biogeochemistry to exploration in the central Victorian Goldfields appears feasible, caution must be exercised in the interpretation of data from outer bark for some Eucalyptus species

  14. Aggregate structure and stability linked to carbon dynamics in a south Chilean Andisol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Oyarzún

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available The extreme vulnerability of soil organic carbon to climate and land use change emphasizes the need for further research in different terrestrial ecosystems. We have studied the aggregate stability and carbon dynamics in a chronosequence of three different land uses in a south Chilean Andisols: a second growth Nothofagus obliqua forest (SGFOR, a grassland (GRASS and a Pinus radiata plantation (PINUS. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of Al as soil organic matter stabilizing agent in this Andisol. In a case study, we linked differences in carbon dynamics between the three land use treatments to physical protection and recalcitrance of the soil organic matter (SOM. In this study, C aggregate stability and dynamics were studied using size and density fractionation experiments of the SOM, δ13C and total carbon analysis of the different SOM fractions, and mineralization measurements. The results showed that electrostatic attractions between and among Al-oxides and clay minerals are mainly responsible for the stabilization of soil aggregates and the physical protection of the enclosed soil organic carbon. Whole soil C mineralization rate constants were highest for SGFOR and PINUS, followed by GRASS. In contrast, incubation experiments of isolated macro organic matter fractions showed that the recalcitrance of the SOM decreased in another order: PINUS > SGFOR > GRASS. We concluded that physical protection of soil aggregates was the main process determining whole soil C mineralization. Land use changes affected soil organic carbon dynamics in this south Chilean Andisol by altering soil pH and consequently available Al.

  15. 家蚕传染性软化病病毒(桐乡株)5′端非编码区基因的克隆及序列分析%Cloning and Sequence Analysis of 5′ Non-coding Region of Bombyx mori Infectious Flacherie Virus Isolated in Tongxiang,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李明乾; 苘娜娜; 蔡顺风; 陈孝学; 金伟; 鲁兴萌

    2009-01-01

    为了探讨家蚕传染性软化病病毒的复制与翻译机制,利用cDNA 5′末端快速扩增(5′-RACE)技术获得了家蚕传染性软化病病毒桐乡分离株(Bombyx mori infectious flacherie virus,BmIFV-2)的5′端非编码区(non-coding region,NCR).序列比较分析发现:BmIFV-2 的5′-NCR由155个核苷酸组成,A+U含量达60.64%,其中包含1个起始密码子AUG;与坂城分离株(BmIFV-1)的5′-NCR相比,BmIFV-2 的5′-NCR在5′末端缺少1个核苷酸,但核苷酸识别率为100%(即单核苷酸变异率为0),而且这个缺少的核苷酸并不影响其5′-NCR的二级结构.与已经证实具有内部核糖体进入位点(internal ribosome entry site,IRES)活性的Iflavirus属的2种病毒EoPV(Ectropis obliqua picorna-like virus)和VDV-1(Varroa destructor virus 1)的5′-NCR相比,BmIFV 的5′-NCR可能也具有IRES活性.

  16. Comparison of Airborne LiDAR and Satellite Hyperspectral Remote Sensing to Estimate Vascular Plant Richness in Deciduous Mediterranean Forests of Central Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Ceballos

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The Andes foothills of central Chile are characterized by high levels of floristic diversity in a scenario, which offers little protection by public protected areas. Knowledge of the spatial distribution of this diversity must be gained in order to aid in conservation management. Heterogeneous environmental conditions involve an important number of niches closely related to species richness. Remote sensing information derived from satellite hyperspectral and airborne Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR data can be used as proxies to generate a spatial prediction of vascular plant richness. This study aimed to estimate the spatial distribution of plant species richness using remote sensing in the Andes foothills of the Maule Region, Chile. This region has a secondary deciduous forest dominated by Nothofagus obliqua mixed with sclerophyll species. Floristic measurements were performed using a nested plot design with 60 plots of 225 m2 each. Multiple predictors were evaluated: 30 topographical and vegetation structure indexes from LiDAR data, and 32 spectral indexes and band transformations from the EO1-Hyperion sensor. A random forest algorithm was used to identify relevant variables in richness prediction, and these variables were used in turn to obtain a final multiple linear regression predictive model (Adjusted R2 = 0.651; RSE = 3.69. An independent validation survey was performed with significant results (Adjusted R2 = 0.571, RMSE = 5.05. Selected variables were statistically significant: catchment slope, altitude, standard deviation of slope, average slope, Multiresolution Ridge Top Flatness index (MrRTF and Digital Crown Height Model (DCM. The information provided by LiDAR delivered the best predictors, whereas hyperspectral data were discarded due to their low predictive power.

  17. Assessment of differences between X and gamma rays in order to validate a new generation of irradiators for insect sterilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mastrangelo, Thiago; Walder, Julio M.M., E-mail: piaui@cena.usp.b [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil); Parker, Andrew G.; Jessup, Andrew; Orozco-Davila, Dina; Islam, Amirul; Dammalage, Thilakasiri, E-mail: A.Jessup@iaea.or [Joint FAO/IAEA-UN A-2444, Seibersdorf (Austria). Insect Pest Control Subprogramme; Pereira, Rui, E-mail: R.Cardoso-Pereira@iaea.or [Joint FAO/IAEA-UN, Vienna (Austria). Insect Pest Control Subprogramme

    2009-07-01

    Recent fears of terrorism provoked an increase in delays and denials of transboundary shipments of radioisotopes. This represents a serious constraint to sterile insect technique (SIT) programs around the world as they rely on the use of ionizing energy from radioisotopes for insect sterilization. In order to validate a novel Xray irradiator, a series of studies on Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) and Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae) were carried out, comparing the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) between X-rays and traditional gamma radiation from {sup 60}Co. Male C. capitata pupae and pupae of both sexes of A. fraterculus, both 24 to 48 h before adult emergence, were irradiated with doses ranging from 15 to 120 Gy and 10 to 70 Gy respectively. Estimated mean doses of 91.2 Gy of X and 124.9 Gy of gamma radiation induced 99% sterility in C. capitata males. Irradiated A. fraterculus were 99% sterile at about 40-60 Gy for both radiation treatments. Standard quality control parameters were not significantly affected by the two types of radiation. There were no significant differences between X and gamma radiation regarding mating indices. The RBE did not differ significantly between the tested X and gamma radiation, and X-rays are as biologically effective for SIT purposes as gamma rays are. This work confirms the suitability of this new generation of X-ray irradiators for pest control programs in UN Member States. (author)

  18. Costly Nutritious Diets do not Necessarily Translate into Better Performance of Artificially Reared Fruit Flies (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascacio-Villafán, C; Williams, T; Sivinski, J; Birke, A; Aluja, M

    2015-02-01

    Protein, lipid, carbohydrate, and energy contents of three artificial diets (Xal2, Met1, and Met2) used for laboratory-rearing and mass-rearing the Mexican fruit fly, Anastrepha ludens (Loew), for a sterile insect technique program were measured. The larval survival, pupation, pupal weight, adult emergence, sex ratio, and flight capacity of the flies reared on each of these diets were also quantified. The diet with the highest nutrient and energy content was Xal2 followed by Met2 and Met1, but larval recovery and percent pupation was significantly higher in flies reared on either the Met1 or Met2 diets. A. ludens reared on Xal2 exhibited the highest proportion of adults capable of flight. No other response variable differed significantly among the three diets tested. This suggests that a high content of nutrients and multiple sources of protein (dried yeast and wheat germ in the case of the Xal2 diet) do not necessarily improve overall performance or fly quality. We conclude that nutritious diets for A. ludens can be modified to reduce their cost without compromising the performance of artificially reared flies. PMID:26470103

  19. Disinfestation by irradiation of mangoes (Manguifera Indica L.) Kent and oranges (Citrus sinensis O.) Valencia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objectives in this work were to determine the minimum dose for radiation disinfestation of mangoes and oranges infested with Mexican fruit fly (Anastrepha ludens Loew) and to evaluate the quality of the fruits by organoleptic, chemical and physiological analysis of mangoes irradiated to 0.3, 0.6 and 1.0 kGy and storaged at 120C during 15 days and oranges irradiated to 0.25, 0.6 and 1.0 kGy and storaged at 150C during 21 days. To inhibit the development of larvaes in mangoes the minimum dose was 0.3 kGy and for oranges the dose was 0.45 kGy. The dose for the probit 9 security test were 0.43 kGy for mangoes and 0.63 kGy for oranges. The results of sensorial analysis in mangoes, indicated that there are no significative differences for the two panels: consumers or trained judges. The differences in the physiological and chemical analysis are greater for storage fruits than for the irradiated ones. At the end of the storage period the appearance of the irradiated mangoes was better than for the control. The observed differences in irradiated oranges were the presence of dark zones on the oranges peel which affect their quality. This effect is due to the irradiation in oranges not completely ripen. (author)

  20. Genetic technologies to enhance the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) has been used very successfully against range of pest insects, including various tephritid fruit flies, several moths and a small number of livestock pests. However, modern genetics could potentially provide several improvements that would increase the cost-effectiveness of SIT, and extend the range of suitable species. These include improved identification of released individuals by incorporation of a stable, heritable, genetic marker; built-in sex separation (genetic sexing); reduction of the hazard posed by non-irradiated accidental releases from mass-rearing facility (fail-safe); elimination of the need for sterilization by irradiation (genetic sterilization). We discuss applications of these methods and the state of the art, at the time of this meeting, in developing suitable strains. We have demonstrated, in several key pest species, that the required strains can be constructed by introducing a repressible dominant lethal genetic system, a method known as RIDL(trade mark). Based on field experience with Medfly, incorporation of a genetic sexing system into SIT programs for other tephritids could potentially provide a very significant improvement in cost-effectiveness. We have now been able to make efficient female-lethal strains for Medfly. One advantage of our approach is that it should be possible rapidly to extend this technology to other fruit fly species; indeed we have recently been able also to make genetic sexing strains of Medfly (Anastrepha ludens). (author)

  1. Neem derivatives are not effective as toxic bait for tephritid fruit flies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, M A; Bezerra-Silva, G C D; Vendramim, J D; Mastrangelo, T; Forim, M R

    2013-08-01

    Neem derivatives have been widely touted as replacements for pesticides. A feasible replacement of synthetic insecticides in the management of fruit flies could be to use neem products in baits. This study evaluated the bioactivity of neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) derivatives in bait for adults of Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann) and Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann). The estimated LCs50 values for A. fraterculus and C. capitata were 7,522 ppm (18.40 ppm of azadirachtin) and 1,368 ppm (3.35 ppm of azadirachtin), respectively, using an aqueous extract of neem seeds in bait after 10 d of experimentation. No significant differences in the mortality of A. fraterculus and C. capitata adults exposed to baits made from different extracts and neem oil were observed after 3 h or 2 or 6 d; differences among the treatments were observed only on the 10th day of the evaluation. We conclude that neem derivatives applied as a bait spray over citrus plants did not demonstrate a toxic effect on A. fraterculus and C. capitata. The reasons for the low efficacy of the neem bait on Tephritid fruit flies are discussed. PMID:24020292

  2. Nutritional and non-nutritional food components modulate phenotypic variation but not physiological trade-offs in an insect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascacio-Villafán, Carlos; Williams, Trevor; Birke, Andrea; Aluja, Martín

    2016-01-01

    Our understanding of how food modulates animal phenotypes and mediate trade-offs between life-history traits has benefited greatly from the study of combinations of nutritional and non-nutritional food components, such as plant secondary metabolites. We used a fruit fly pest, Anastrepha ludens, to examine phenotypic variation across larval, pupal and adult stages as a function of larval food with varying nutrient balance and content of chlorogenic acid, a secondary metabolite. Larval insects that fed on carbohydrate-biased diets relative to protein exhibited longer larval and pupal developmental periods, were often heavier as pupae and resisted desiccation and starvation for longer periods in the adult stage than insects fed on highly protein-biased diets. Except for a potential conflict between pupal development time and adult desiccation and starvation resistance, we did not detect physiological trade-offs mediated by the nutritional balance in larval food. Chlorogenic acid affected A. ludens development in a concentration and nutrient-dependent manner. Nutrients and host plant secondary metabolites in the larval diet induced changes in A. ludens phenotype and could influence fruit fly ecological interactions. We provide a unique experimental and modelling approach useful in generating predictive models of life history traits in a variety of organisms. PMID:27406923

  3. Superparasitism in the Fruit Fly Parasitoid Diachasmimorpha longicaudata (Hymenoptera: Braconidae and the Implications for Mass Rearing and Augmentative Release

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Montoya

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Superparasitism, a strategy in which a female lays eggs in/on a previously parasitized host, was attributed in the past to the inability of females to discriminate between parasitized and non-parasitized hosts. However, superparasitism is now accepted as an adaptive strategy under specific conditions. In fruit fly parasitoids, superparasitism has mainly been studied as concerns the new association between Diachasmimorpha longicaudata (Ashmead (Hymenoptera: Braconidae and the Mexican fruit fly Anastrepha ludens (Loew (Diptera: Tephritidae, wherein this phenomenon is a common occurrence in both mass rearing and field conditions. Studies of this species have shown that moderate levels of superparasitism result in a female-biased sex ratio and that both massreared and wild females superparasitize their hosts without detrimental effects on offspring demographic parameters, including longevity and fecundity. These studies suggest that superparasitism in this species is advantageous. In this paper, we review superparasitism in D. longicaudata, discuss these findings in the context of mass rearing and field releases and address the possible implications of superparasitism in programs employing augmentative releases of parasitoids for the control of fruit fly pests.

  4. Biological Control of Tephritid Fruit Flies in Argentina: Historical Review, Current Status, and Future Trends for Developing a Parasitoid Mass-Release Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio M. Ovruski

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In Argentina there are two tephritid fruit fly species of major economic and quarantine importance: the exotic Ceratitis capitata that originated from Southeast Africa and the native Anastrepha fraterculus. In recent years, the use of fruit fly parasitoids as biocontrol agents has received renewed attention. This increasing interest has recently led to the establishment of a program for the mass rearing of five million Diachasmimorpha longicaudata parasitoids per week in the BioPlanta San Juan facility, San Juan, Argentina. The first augmentative releases of D. longicaudata in Argentina are currently occurring on commercial fig crops in rural areas of San Juan as part of an integrated fruit fly management program on an area-wide basis. In this context, research is ongoing to assess the suitability of indigenous parasitoid species for successful mass rearing on larvae of either C. capitata or A. fraterculus. The purpose of this article is to provide a historical overview of the biological control of the fruit fly in Argentina, report on the strategies currently used in Argentina, present information on native parasitoids as potential biocontrol agents, and discuss the establishment of a long-term fruit fly biological control program, including augmentative and conservation modalities, in Argentina’s various fruit growing regions.

  5. Assessment of differences between X and γ rays in order to validate a new generation of irradiators for insect sterilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent fears of terrorism provoked an increase in delays and denials of transboundary shipments of radioisotopes. This represents a serious constraint to sterile insect technique (SIT) programs around the world as they rely on the use of ionizing energy from radioisotopes for insect sterilization. In order to validate a novel Xray irradiator, a series of studies on Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) and Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae) were carried out, comparing the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) between X-rays and traditional γ radiation from 60Co. Male C. capitata pupae and pupae of both sexes of A. fraterculus, both 24 to 48 h before adult emergence, were irradiated with doses ranging from 15 to 120 Gy and 10 to 70 Gy respectively. Estimated mean doses of 91.2 Gy of X and 124.9 Gy of γ radiation induced 99% sterility in C. capitata males. Irradiated A. fraterculus were 99% sterile at about 40-60 Gy for both radiation treatments. Standard quality control parameters were not significantly affected by the two types of radiation. There were no significant differences between X and γ radiation regarding mating indices. The RBE did not differ significantly between the tested X and γ radiation, and X-rays are as biologically effective for SIT purposes as γ rays are. This work confirms the suitability of this new generation of X-ray irradiators for pest control programs in UN Member States. (author)

  6. Guidance for packing, shipping, holding and release of sterile flies in area-wide fruit fly control programmes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This guidance represents the recommendations, reached by consensus of an international group of experts, on the standard procedures for the packing, shipping, holding and release of mass reared and sterilized tephritid flies that are to be used in area-wide programmes that include the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT). The majority of the procedures were initially designed specifically for the Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (or Medfly), but they are applicable, with minor modifications, for other tephritid species such as those in the genera Anastrepha, Bactrocera and Dacus. The guidance is designed to be a working document that can be subject to periodic updates due to technological developments and research contributions. Future editions will endeavour to include more specific recommendations for other species of fruit flies as the relevant data become available. The procedures described in this guidance will help ensure that released sterile fruit flies will be of optimal quality and that the resulting field density of these flies will be as closely aligned to the individual programme needs. It is hoped that this guidance will help to quickly identify and correct problems in programme effectiveness, resulting from less than optimal emergence and release conditions

  7. Superparasitism in the Fruit Fly Parasitoid Diachasmimorpha longicaudata (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) and the Implications for Mass Rearing and Augmentative Release

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montoya, Pablo; Pérez-Lachaud, Gabriela; Liedo, Pablo

    2012-01-01

    Superparasitism, a strategy in which a female lays eggs in/on a previously parasitized host, was attributed in the past to the inability of females to discriminate between parasitized and non-parasitized hosts. However, superparasitism is now accepted as an adaptive strategy under specific conditions. In fruit fly parasitoids, superparasitism has mainly been studied as concerns the new association between Diachasmimorpha longicaudata (Ashmead) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) and the Mexican fruit fly Anastrepha ludens (Loew) (Diptera: Tephritidae), wherein this phenomenon is a common occurrence in both mass rearing and field conditions. Studies of this species have shown that moderate levels of superparasitism result in a female-biased sex ratio and that both massreared and wild females superparasitize their hosts without detrimental effects on offspring demographic parameters, including longevity and fecundity. These studies suggest that superparasitism in this species is advantageous. In this paper, we review superparasitism in D. longicaudata, discuss these findings in the context of mass rearing and field releases and address the possible implications of superparasitism in programs employing augmentative releases of parasitoids for the control of fruit fly pests. PMID:26466718

  8. Status of molecular genetic studies in the medfly, Ceratitis capitata, in relation to genetic sexing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A review of the current status of the molecular genetics of the Mediterranean fruit fly (medfly), Ceratitis capitata, with particular emphasis on the development of genetic sexing systems is presented. Rapid developments in the work on the molecular genetics of Drosophila melanogaster are beginning to play a prominent role in the expansion of genetic sexing to include molecular approaches. For example, the increasing availability of cloned genes from Drosophila has permitted the homologous sequences from the medfly genome to be identified. If homologous genes are identified, they can be rapidly mapped on the polytene chromosomes by in situ hybridization. Germ line transformation is now routine in Drosophila and many attempts have been made to transform the medfly using the same system, to date without success. A P-element excision assay in Anastrepha suspensa has indicated that in this species also, P-element transformation is unlikely to be successful. Target genes to be potentially used in transformation fall into two classes, sex killing and sex transformation, and progress in and possibilities for both are discussed. Recent data on sex regulation in Drosophila offer new approaches for sex killing systems. Finally, since the genome of the medfly is sparsely mapped, it is suggested that a search should be made for restriction fragment length polymorphisms. These could be rapidly assigned to chromosome position using in situ hybridization and mapped using conventional genetic analysis. (author). 58 refs, 1 fig., 1 tab

  9. Wolbachia in two populations of Melittobia digitata Dahms (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Copeland, Claudia S.; Sivinski, John [United States Dept. of Agriculture, Gainesville, FL (United States). Center for Medical, Agriculture and Veterinary Entomology]. E-mails: cclaudia@bioinf.uni-leipzig.de; john.sivinski@ars.usda.gov; Matthews, Robert W. [University of Georgia, Athens, GA (United States). Dept. of Entomology]. E-mail: rmatthew@uga.edu; Gonzalez, Jorge M. [Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States). Dept. of Entomology]. E-mail: jmgonzalez@neo.tamu.edu; Aluja, Martin [Instituto de Ecologia A.C., Veracruz (Mexico)]. E-mail: martin.aluja@inecol.edu.mx

    2008-11-15

    We investigated two populations of Melittobia digitata Dahms, a gregarious parasitoid (primarily upon a wide range of solitary bees, wasps, and flies), in search of Wolbachia infection. The first population, from Xalapa, Mexico, was originally collected from and reared on Mexican fruit fly pupae, Anastrepha ludens Loew (Diptera: Tephritidae); the other, from Athens, Georgia, was collected from and reared on prepupae of mud dauber wasps, Trypoxylon politum Say (Hymenoptera: Crabronidae). PCR studies of the ITS2 region corroborated that both parasitoid populations were the same species; this potentially provides a useful molecular taxonomic profile since females of Melittobia species are superficially similar. Amplification of the Wolbachia surface protein gene (wsp) confirmed the presence of this endosymbiont in both populations. Sequencing revealed that the Wolbachia harbored in both populations exhibited a wsp belonging to a unique subgroup (denoted here as Dig) within the B-supergroup of known wsp genes. This new subgroup of wsp may either belong to a different strain of Wolbachia from those previously found to infect Melittobia or may be the result of a recombination event. In either case, known hosts of Wolbachia with a wsp of this subgroup are only distantly related taxonomically. Reasons are advanced as to why Melittobia - an easily reared and managed parasitoid - holds promise as an instructive model organism of Wolbachia infection amenable to the investigation of Wolbachia strains among its diverse hosts. (author)

  10. Wolbachia in two populations of Melittobia digitata Dahms (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We investigated two populations of Melittobia digitata Dahms, a gregarious parasitoid (primarily upon a wide range of solitary bees, wasps, and flies), in search of Wolbachia infection. The first population, from Xalapa, Mexico, was originally collected from and reared on Mexican fruit fly pupae, Anastrepha ludens Loew (Diptera: Tephritidae); the other, from Athens, Georgia, was collected from and reared on prepupae of mud dauber wasps, Trypoxylon politum Say (Hymenoptera: Crabronidae). PCR studies of the ITS2 region corroborated that both parasitoid populations were the same species; this potentially provides a useful molecular taxonomic profile since females of Melittobia species are superficially similar. Amplification of the Wolbachia surface protein gene (wsp) confirmed the presence of this endosymbiont in both populations. Sequencing revealed that the Wolbachia harbored in both populations exhibited a wsp belonging to a unique subgroup (denoted here as Dig) within the B-supergroup of known wsp genes. This new subgroup of wsp may either belong to a different strain of Wolbachia from those previously found to infect Melittobia or may be the result of a recombination event. In either case, known hosts of Wolbachia with a wsp of this subgroup are only distantly related taxonomically. Reasons are advanced as to why Melittobia - an easily reared and managed parasitoid - holds promise as an instructive model organism of Wolbachia infection amenable to the investigation of Wolbachia strains among its diverse hosts. (author)

  11. Influence of irradiation on development of Caribbean fruit fly (diptera: tephritidae) larvae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larvae of the Caribbean fruit fly, Anastrepha suspensa (Loew), were irradiated at hatching with 0, 5, 10, 20, 50, 75, 100 and 150 Gy doses from a Cesium-137 source and dissected for measurements of the supraesophageal ganglion (brain) and proventriculus (B/Prv) as mature third instars. Cross-sectional area of a plane through the brain and proventriculus, and simple dorsal width measurements of the two organs were evaluated as indicators of radiation exposure. Brain area, brain width, and brain/proventriculus (B/Prv) ratios were significantly different from controls in insects treated with a dose ≥20 Gy. Detailed dissections of hatching larvae exposed to 50 Gy revealed reductions in brain growth, small and misshapen compound eye and leg imaginal disks, and a ventral nerve cord that was elongated and sinuous. Larvae irradiated on the 1st d of each of the three instars had smaller brains, with the percentage of reduction in brain size being greater the younger the larvae were at the time of exposure. Brain and proventriculus measurements and calculated B/Prv values are indicative of irradiation in Caribbean fruit fly larvae, but the procedure may not be adaptable for routine use by quarantine inspectors. 14 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs

  12. Hole diameters in pet bottles used for fruit fly capture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurico Paulo Batistella Pasini

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Two experiments were conducted during the period from 31 January to 6 March 2012 in Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil to determine the efficiency of different hole diameters in PET trap bottles on pests in guava and persimmon orchards. In a randomised block design in a factorial scheme, we assessed the average number adults of Anastrepha fraterculus, Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephitidae and Zaprionus indianus (Diptera: Drosophilidae infruits thatemerged in two situations (in the plant and on the soil; we also assessed the number of captured adults in trap bottlesunder two conditions, different hole diameters and different days after placement of the attractive solution. Smaller diameter sizescaptured more A. fraterculus, C. capitata and Z. indianusadults. The 1.0 cm diameter was the most efficient hole size in reducing the adult emergence of Tephritidae to Z. indianus, whereas the smallest diameter hole sizes, 0.6 and 0.8 cm, showed the highest efficiencies in controlling adult emergence in persimmon fruit and guava fruit.

  13. Nutritional and non-nutritional food components modulate phenotypic variation but not physiological trade-offs in an insect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascacio-Villafán, Carlos; Williams, Trevor; Birke, Andrea; Aluja, Martín

    2016-01-01

    Our understanding of how food modulates animal phenotypes and mediate trade-offs between life-history traits has benefited greatly from the study of combinations of nutritional and non-nutritional food components, such as plant secondary metabolites. We used a fruit fly pest, Anastrepha ludens, to examine phenotypic variation across larval, pupal and adult stages as a function of larval food with varying nutrient balance and content of chlorogenic acid, a secondary metabolite. Larval insects that fed on carbohydrate-biased diets relative to protein exhibited longer larval and pupal developmental periods, were often heavier as pupae and resisted desiccation and starvation for longer periods in the adult stage than insects fed on highly protein-biased diets. Except for a potential conflict between pupal development time and adult desiccation and starvation resistance, we did not detect physiological trade-offs mediated by the nutritional balance in larval food. Chlorogenic acid affected A. ludens development in a concentration and nutrient-dependent manner. Nutrients and host plant secondary metabolites in the larval diet induced changes in A. ludens phenotype and could influence fruit fly ecological interactions. We provide a unique experimental and modelling approach useful in generating predictive models of life history traits in a variety of organisms. PMID:27406923

  14. Moscas frugívoras e seus parasitoides nos municípios de Pelotas e Capão do Leão, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil Frugivorous flies and their parasitoids in the cities of Pelotas and Capão do Leão, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrise Medeiros Nunes

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available As moscas frugívoras (Tephritoidea são as principais pragas da fruticultura de clima temperado no Brasil. O objetivo do presente trabalho foi avaliar a infestação desses dípteros e a ocorrência de seus parasitoides em frutíferas nos municípios de Pelotas e Capão do Leão, localizados na região Sul, nas safras agrícolas de 2007/08 e 2008/09. Foram coletados frutos de araçazeiro-amarelo e vermelho (Psidium cattleianum Sabine, 1821, butiazeiro [Butia capitata (Mart. Becc., 1916], caquizeiro (Diospyros kaki Linnaeus, 1753, cerejeira-do-mato (Eugenia involucrata DC., 1828, goiabeira [Psidium guajava (Linnaeus, 1753], goiabeira-serrana [Acca sellowiana (Berg. Burret, 1941], nespereira [Eriobotrya japonica (Thunb. Lindley, 1822], pessegueiro [Prunus persicae (L. Batsch, 1801], pitangueira (Eugenia uniflora Linnaeus,1753 e uvalheira (Eugenia pyriformis Cambessèdes, 1832. Os frutos foram coletados e transportados para o laboratório, onde foram individualizados e determinados os seguintes parâmetros: índice de infestação das moscas, índice de parasitismo e frequência de indivíduos por espécie de parasitoide. Foram constatadas duas espécies de Tephritidae, Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann, 1830 (90,5% e Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann, 1824 (9,5% e duas de Lonchaeidae, Neosilba zadolicha McAlpine & Steyskal, 1982 (87,8% e uma espécie ainda não descrita, referida como Neosilba n. sp. 3 (12,2%. Anastrepha fraterculus é a espécie mais abundante nos dois municípios, sendo constatada na maioria das frutíferas coletadas. Caquizeiro e goiabeira foram os hospedeiros que apresentaram o maior índice de infestação por C. capitata. Quanto às espécies de Neosilba, a maior infestação ocorreu em frutos de goiabeira-serrana. Dos parasitoides emergidos, foram identificadas três espécies, sendo duas de Braconidae, Doryctobracon areolatus (Szépligeti, 1911 (52,6% e Opius bellus (Gahan, 1930 (27,5% e uma espécie de Figitidae, Aganaspis

  15. Variação na infestação de mosca-das-frutas (Diptera: Tephritidae e parasitismo em diferentes fases de frutificação em mirtaceas nativas no Rio Grande do Sul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diogo Ricardo Pereira Rêgo

    2013-07-01

    Abstract. The fruit fly Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann (Diptera: Tephritidae is an important pest of fruit production in Rio Grande do Sul. A. fraterculus presents native and exotic hosts, according to fruiting time. The objective of this study was compare infestation rate, the intensity of infestation of fruit fly and parasitism in four native Myrtaceae. The fruits were stored under ambient conditions until flies or parasitoids emergence. These evaluation were made in fruits collected from the canopy and soil, and between stages of ripening of the canopy. The largest infestation rate of fruit fly occurred in guava (89.5% and the lowest in feijoa (67%. The intensity of infestation per fruit was highest in guava (17.33 and lowest in red strawberry guava (1.62. The highest rate of puparia per gram of fruit was obtained in the feijoa (0.50 and the lowest in guava (0.22. The highest parasitism rate was in feijoa (21.40% and the lowest in yellow strawberry guava (2.81%. A greater occurrence of this pest in guava and feijoa revealing highest attractiveness in these hosts. Feijoa is a repository for native parasitodes species.

  16. Augmentative Biological Control Using Parasitoids for Fruit Fly Management in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávio R. M. Garcia

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The history of classical biological control of fruit flies in Brazil includes two reported attempts in the past 70 years. The first occurred in 1937 when an African species of parasitoid larvae (Tetrastichus giffardianus was introduced to control the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata and other tephritids. The second occurred in September 1994 when the exotic parasitoid Diachasmimorpha longicaudata, originally from Gainesville, Florida, was introduced by a Brazilian agricultural corporation (EMBRAPA to evaluate the parasitoid’s potential for the biological control of Anastrepha spp. and Ceratitis capitata. Although there are numerous native Brazilian fruit fly parasitoids, mass rearing of these native species is difficult. Thus, D. longicaudata was chosen due to its specificity for the family Tephritidae and its ease of laboratory rearing. In this paper we review the literature on Brazilian fruit fly biological control and suggest that those tactics can be used on a large scale, together creating a biological barrier to the introduction of new fruit fly populations, reducing the source of outbreaks and the risk of species spread, while decreasing the use of insecticides on fruit destined for domestic and foreign markets.

  17. Comparison of torula yeast and various grape juice products as attractants for Mexican fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangan, Robert L; Thomas, Donald B

    2014-04-01

    Early research investigating attractants for the Mexican fruit fly, Anastrepha ludens Loew, during the 1930s indicated that fermentation products were effective attractants for Mexican fruit flies and other tropical Tephritidae, but that attraction to fruit components was only of academic interest. Tests reported here were carried out on populations of Mexican fruit flies from 2004 to 2011. Trapping experiments carried out at sites in the states Nuevo Leon and San Luis Potosi compared grape juice, reconstituted grape concentrate and powdered grape mixes, and torula yeast extract in orchards at each site. The Nuevo Leon orchard was mixed with alternate rows of pears and surrounded by alternate hosts. The San Luis Potosi site was surrounded by other orange orchards or nonhosts. Each test was run for at least 10 mo and included highest and lowest trapping periods. Results showed that grape juice captured the most total flies and had the fewest samples with zero flies. However, in the series of experiments, each product had the most captures in at least one experiment. Hydrolyzed torula was superior in one of the six experiments. In five of the tests, polyethylene glycol was tested as an additive to the grape products but never improved capture rate compared with the product without the additive. These results indicate that grape juice is superior to grape concentrate or powder and grape juice is at least equal to torula yeast hydrolysate for trapping pest populations of Mexican fruit flies in commercial citrus orchards. PMID:24772538

  18. Radiation-induced changes in melanization and phenoloxidase in Caribbean fruit fly larvae (diptera:tephritidae) as the basis for a simple test of irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    First instars of the Caribbean fruit fly, Anastrepha suspensa (Loew), were irradiated with 0, 5, 10, 20, 50, 75, 100, and 150 Gy doses from a Cs-137 source, and observed for whole body melanization as late third instars. Control larvae rapidly melanized, whereas larvae irradiated at ≥20 Gy failed to show typical melanization after freezing and thawing. Assays of phenoloxidase in control and irradiated larvae showed greatly decreased enzyme activity at ≥20 Gy and substantial reduction at lower doses. Larvae were also irradiated on the 1st d of each instar, and phenoloxidase activity was determined when they became late third instars. Larvae irradiated on the 1st d of the first instar and on 1st d of the second instar has ∼90% or greater reduction in phenoloxidase activity as late third instars. Larvae irradiated on the 1st d of the instar had ∼50% reduction in phenoloxidase activity at the time they became late third instars leaving the food to pupate. A simple spot test for phenoloxidase was developed that produced a red color with a crushed control larvae and no color with a larva irradiated at ≥25 Gy. The radiation induced changes in melanization and phenoloxidase activity, and a simple spot test may serve as tests for irradiation treatment of Caribbean fruit fly larvae. 10 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs

  19. Genetic technologies to enhance the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alphey, Luke; Baker, Pam; Condon, George C.; Condon, Kirsty C.; Dafa' alla, Tarig H.; Fu, Guoliang; Jin, Li; Labbe, Genevieve; Morrison, Neil M.; Nimmo, Derric D.; O' Connell, Sinead; Phillips, Caroline E.; Plackett, Andrew; Scaife, Sarah; Woods, Alexander, E-mail: luke.alphey@zoo.ox.ac.u [Oxitec Ltd., Oxford (United Kingdom); Burton, Rosemary S.; Epton, Matthew J.; Gong, Peng [University of Oxford (United Kingdom). Dept. of Zoology

    2006-07-01

    The Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) has been used very successfully against range of pest insects, including various tephritid fruit flies, several moths and a small number of livestock pests. However, modern genetics could potentially provide several improvements that would increase the cost-effectiveness of SIT, and extend the range of suitable species. These include improved identification of released individuals by incorporation of a stable, heritable, genetic marker; built-in sex separation (genetic sexing); reduction of the hazard posed by non-irradiated accidental releases from mass-rearing facility (fail-safe); elimination of the need for sterilization by irradiation (genetic sterilization). We discuss applications of these methods and the state of the art, at the time of this meeting, in developing suitable strains. We have demonstrated, in several key pest species, that the required strains can be constructed by introducing a repressible dominant lethal genetic system, a method known as RIDL(trade mark). Based on field experience with Medfly, incorporation of a genetic sexing system into SIT programs for other tephritids could potentially provide a very significant improvement in cost-effectiveness. We have now been able to make efficient female-lethal strains for Medfly. One advantage of our approach is that it should be possible rapidly to extend this technology to other fruit fly species; indeed we have recently been able also to make genetic sexing strains of Medfly (Anastrepha ludens). (author)

  20. A new generation of X ray irradiators for insect sterilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent fears of terrorism have provoked an increase in delays and denials of transboundary shipments of radioisotopes. This represents a serious constraint to sterile insect technique (SIT) programmes around the world as they rely on the use of ionizing radiation from radioisotopes for insect sterilization. To validate a novel X ray irradiator, a series of studies on Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) and Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae) were carried out, comparing the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) between X rays and traditional γ radiation from 60Co. Male C. capitata pupae and pupae of both sexes of A. fraterculus, both 24-48 h before adult emergence, were irradiated with doses ranging from 15 to 120 Gy and 10-70 Gy, respectively. Estimated mean doses of 91.2 Gy of X and 124.9 Gy of γ radiation induced 99% sterility in C. capitata males. Irradiated A. fraterculus were 99% sterile at ∼ 40-60Gy for both radiation treatments. Standard quality control parameters and mating indices were not significantly affected by the two types of radiation. The RBE did not differ significantly between the tested X and γ radiation, and X rays are as biologically effective for SIT purposes as γ rays are. This work confirms the suitability of this new generation of X ray irradiators for pest control programmes that integrate the SIT. (author)

  1. Standardization of medfly trapping for use in sterile insect technique programmes: Experiments in Mexico with released mass-reared flies during 1987-1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The efficiency of traps for detection and monitoring of tepthrids may vary depending on the climatic and ecological conditions of a particular region. Based on this argument, the main objective of the standardization was to evaluate the capture of the Mediterranean fruit fly (Ceratitis capitata) with different trap designs, odor attractants and colors under tropical conditions. Seven different traps were evaluated over a period of five years (1987-1991) using a standard methodology recommended by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). The results, following statistical analysis, showed that under relative humidities from 36-98% and temperatures from 17-35 deg., the Jackson trap with white or yellow sticky insert was the most effective for catching the Mediterranean fruit fly. Other practical aspects, such as response to yellow color, position of trimedlure (TML) within the MacPhail trap, repellency of TML, the use of TML together with hydrolyzed protein, etc., that may be used to improve the efficiency of traps, were determined. The performance of the same traps for capture of Anastrepha fruit flies was also determined. (author). 13 refs, 9 figs, 5 tabs

  2. A compound produced by fruigivorous Tephritidae (Diptera) larvae promotes oviposition behavior by the biological control agent Diachasmimorpha longicaudata (Hymenoptera: Braconidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuhl, Charles; Sivinski, John; Teal, Peter; Paranhos, Beatriz; Aluja, Martin

    2011-06-01

    Tephritid fruit fly parasitoids use fruit-derived chemical cues and the vibrations that result from larval movements to locate hosts sequestered inside fruit. However, compounds produced by the larvae themselves have not been previously described nor their significance to parasitoid foraging determined. We collected the volatiles from four species of tropical and subtropical Tephritidae: Anastrepha suspensa (Loew), Bactrocera dorsalis Hendel, Bactrocera cucurbitae Coquillett, and Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), representing two subfamilies (Dacinae and Trypetinae). Para-ethylacetophenone, an analog of a known tephritid parasitoid attractant, was a major constituent of all four, and was not associated with larvae of another acalypterate fly, Drosophila melanogaster Meigen, or with the calypterate Musca domestica L. It also was present in volatiles from whole, A. suspensa infested fruits of Eugenia uniflora (L.). Para-ethylacetophenone was not necessarily produced as a direct consequence of fruit consumption because it also was detected from larvae that developed in two artificial diets and in spent diets subsequent to larval development. Sensillae on both the antennae and ovipositor of the opiine braconid fruit fly parasitoid, Diachasmimorpha longicaudata (Ashmead) responded to the para-ethylacetophenone in larval volatiles and as a synthetic. Although a potential cue to foraging parasitoids, para-ethylacetophenone showed no long range (>1m) attractiveness to the adult female parasitoid, but did stimulate ovipositor-insertion and oviposition into both a natural (fruit) and an artificial (parafilm) substrate. Thus it may prove useful in colonizing and mass-rearing opine fruit fly parasitoids. PMID:22251652

  3. Mating experience and juvenile hormone enhance sexual signaling and mating in male Caribbean fruit flies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teal, P E; Gomez-Simuta, Y; Proveaux, A T

    2000-03-28

    Young mated male Caribbean fruit flies [Anastrepha suspensa (Loew)] have greater sexual prowess than their virgin counterparts. After mating for the first time, 6- to 7-day-old males released twice as much sex pheromone and acquired another mate in less than half the time required by virgin males of the same age. Mass spectroscopic analysis of extracts of hemolymph from mated and virgin 7-day-old males resulted in identification of juvenile hormone III bisepoxide and juvenile hormone III in a ratio of 2.5:1. Extracts from mated males contained 3-fold more juvenile hormone than did extracts from virgins. Enhancement of sexual signaling, pheromone release, and mating was induced by topical application of juvenile hormone, methoprene, or fenoxycarb. Newly eclosed adult males treated with juvenoids engaged in sexual signaling, released pheromone, and mated at significantly earlier ages than control males. We conclude that juvenile hormone mediated a positive feedback system that imparted a competitive advantage, guaranteeing that males who mated at an early age would out-compete virgins of the same age for mating opportunities. Additionally, the results support the hypothesis that juvenile hormone is a pivotal hormone coordinating the development of sexual signaling and reproductive maturity in these flies. PMID:10706642

  4. Diagnóstico da área cultivada com uva fina de mesa (Vitis vinifera L sob cobertura plástica e do manejo de pragas Area grown with table grape (Vitis vinifera L under protected cultivation and pest management practices used by growers in Caxias do Sul, RS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Formolo

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho, foi realizado o censo das áreas cultivadas com uvas finas de mesa sob cultivo protegido e a identificação das principais espécies de pragas e estratégias de controle empregadas pelos produtores, no município de Caxias do Sul-RS. Na safra de 2007/2008, foram identificados os produtores envolvidos com a atividade no município e através de entrevista presencial e semiestruturada ao estabelecimento produtivo, registrou-se a área cultivada e variedades. Para produtores com cultivo de áreas superiores a 2.000m² da cultivar Itália, com dois anos ou mais de produção, foi aplicado outro questionário na safra de 2008/2009 com o objetivo de levantar as informações referentes: a espécies de insetos e ácaros-praga que danificam as uvas finas de mesa na propriedade, segundo o viticultor; b conhecer a realidade do manejo de insetos e ácaros-praga na cultura; c verificar os parâmetros que o produtor utiliza para a aplicação de inseticidas; d conhecer os produtos aplicados, e e identificar o tipo de assistência técnica recebida pelo viticultor. Foram identificados 43 produtores de uvas finas de mesa sob cultivo protegido com área total cultivada de 30,36 ha, sendo 70,31% desta área da cultivar Itália. As pragas mais importantes mencionadas pelos produtores foram tripes - Frankliniella rodeos Moulton e a mosca-das-frutas-sul-americana Anastrepha fraterculus (Wied. O manejo realizado para controle destas pragas é através da aplicação de inseticidas com os ingredientes ativos acefato e fentiona, respectivamente, com base em calendário. Os principais problemas enfrentados para implementar estratégias de manejo de pragas no cultivo são a falta de assistência técnica, a ausência de metodologias confiáveis para o monitoramento e o reduzido número de inseticidas autorizados para a cultura.The area grown with table grapes (Vitis vinifera under protected cultivation, pests associated with the crop and control

  5. Controle de pragas e doenças, maturação e qualidade de maçãs 'imperial gala' submetidas ao ensacamento Control of insect pests and diseases, maturity and quality of 'imperial gala' apples submitted to bagging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosângela Teixeira

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a eficiência de diferentes embalagens no ensacamento de maçãs para o controle de pragas e doenças, e sua influência na maturação e qualidade dos frutos, em pomar sob sistema orgânico. O experimento foi conduzido em pomar com plantas de dez anos de idade da cultivar Imperial Gala, sobre porta-enxerto 'Marubakaido', com filtro EM-9, localizado no município de São Joaquim-SC, nas safras 2007/2008 e 2008/2009. Os frutos foram ensacados, após o raleio, com embalagens plásticas transparentes microperfuradas ou de tecido não texturizado (TNT. Frutos não ensacados constituíram o tratamento-controle. Na colheita, os frutos foram avaliados quanto aos danos provocados por mosca-das-frutas (Anastrepha fraterculus, mariposa-oriental (Grapholita molesta, lagarta-enroladeira (Bonagota salubricola e pulgão-lanígero (Eriosoma lanigerum, incidência das doenças sarna-da-macieira (Venturia inaequalis e podridão-amarga (Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, e atributos físico-químicos de maturação e qualidade e teor de cálcio (Ca nos frutos. O ensacamento, independentemente do tipo de material utilizado, reduziu os danos de insetos-praga, porém não foi eficiente no controle de doenças nos frutos. O ensacamento não comprometeu o desenvolvimento de coloração vermelha na casca e o teor de Ca nos frutos. De modo geral, o ensacamento antecipou o processo de maturação, caracterizado pela redução na firmeza de polpa e na textura da casca e da polpa, e pelo aumento no índice de iodoamido.This work was carried out to evaluate the efficiency of different fruit bagging materials to insect pests and diseases control, and its influence on maturity and quality of the fruits in an organic apple orchard. The experiment was conducted in an orchard with ten years old 'Imperial Gala' apple trees grafted on 'Marubakaido' rootstock (with a filter of EM-9, in São Joaquim, State of Santa Catarina, in 2007/08 and 2008

  6. Novel insecticide strategies such as phototoxic dyes in adult fruit fly control and suppression programmes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The problems of public acceptance, ecological impact, and integration with pest management programmes associated with use of broad spectrum insecticides in bait sprays for fruit flies are being addressed in our laboratory by our development of more precisely targeted bait systems which use insecticides which are less toxic to non-target organisms. Historically, bait and insecticide sprays to control fruit flies have been used since the beginning of the 20th century. Initially, inorganic insecticides were recommended. After the Second World War, chlorinated hydrocarbon insecticides replaced inorganic ones only to be replaced by the organic ones that are used at present. Back and Pemberton (1918) stated that baits used for fruit fly control were first recommended by Mally in South Africa for the control of the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), in 1908-1909 and by Berlese in Italy for the control of the olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Gmelin). The methods were improved by Lounsboury in South Africa in 1912 for the control of C. capitata and by Newman during 1913-1914 in Australia for the control of the Queensland fruit fly, Bactrocera tryoni (Froggatt). In 1910, Marsh used low-volume insecticide applications against the melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett), in Hawaii. Thereafter, other investigators adopted the low-volume approach to kill fruit flies. Whenever baits were used, they added carbohydrates and fermenting substances such as sugars, molasses, syrups, or fruit juices. In the 1930s, McPhail (1937), while working with attractants, found that sugar-yeast solutions attracted flies, and, in 1939 found that protein lures were attractive to Anastrepha species, especially to the guava fruit fly, A. striata Schiner (Baker et al. 1944). It was not until 1952, however, when Steiner demonstrated the use of hydrolysed proteins and partially hydrolysed yeast in combination with organophosphate insecticides to control fruit flies, that

  7. Eradication of tephritid fruit fly pest populations: outcomes and prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BACKGROUND: The number of insect eradication programmes is rising in response to globalisation. A database of arthropod and plant pathogen eradications covers 1050 incursion responses, with 928 eradication programmes on 299 pest and disease taxa in 104 countries (global eradication database b3.net.nz/gerda). METHODS: A subset of the database was assembled with 211 eradication or response programmes against 17 species of fruit flies (Tephritidae) in 31 countries, in order to investigate factors affecting the outcome. RESULTS: The failure rate for fruit fly eradication programmes was about 7%, with 0% for Ceratitis capitata (n=85 programmes) and 0% for two Anastrepha species (n=12 programmes), but 12% for 13 Bactrocera species (n=108 programmes). A number of intended eradication programmesagainst long-established populations were not initiated because of cost and other considerations, or evolved during the planning phase into suppression programmes. Cost was dependent on area, ranged from $US 0.1 million to $US 240 million and averaged about $US 12 million (normalised to $US in 2012). In addition to the routine use of surveillance networks, quarantine and fruit destruction, the key tactics used in eradication programmes were male annihilation, protein bait sprays (which can attract both sexes), fruit destruction and the sterile insect technique. CONCLUSIONS: Eradication success generally required the combination of several tactics applied on an area-wide basis. Because the likelihood of eradication declines with an increase in the area infested, it pays to invest in effective surveillance networks that allow early detection and delimitation while invading populations are small, thereby greatly favouring eradication success. (author)

  8. Resistance of Mexican fruit fly to quarantine treatments of high-pressure processing combined with cold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castañón-Rodríguez, Juan F; Vargas-Ortiz, Manuel A; Montoya, Pablo; García, Hugo S; Velazquez, Gonzalo; Ramírez, José A; Vázquez, Manuel

    2011-07-01

    Mexican fruit fly Anastrepha ludens Loew (Diptera: Tephritidae) is one of the most important insects infesting fruits. Although high pressure has been proposed as an alternative quarantine process for this pest, conditions applied to destroy eggs and larvae can also damage the fruits. The objective of this study was to assess the biological viability of A. ludens eggs treated by high-pressure processing at 0°C, establishing whether nondestroyed eggs and larvae preserved their ability to develop and reproduce. One-, 2-, 3-, and 4-day-old eggs were pressurized at 50, 70, or 90 MPa for 0, 3, 6, or 9 min. The hatching ability of pressurized eggs and their capacity to develop larvae, pupae, and reproductive adults were evaluated. The ability of pressurized larvae to pupate was also registered. The results showed that most of the eggs that resisted the treatments were able to produce adults with capability to reproduce a new generation of A. ludens flies. Larvae were less resistant than eggs. All larvae were killed at 90 MPa for 9 min. The pressure induced the expression of heat shock proteins (HSP) in second- and third-instar larvae. The HSP showed a baroprotective effect in A. ludens larvae. These results are relevant to the industry because they show that eggs of insects infesting fruits treated by high-pressure processing were able to pupate after treatments. This indicates that efforts must be addressed to destroy all eggs because most of the surviving organisms could reach an adult stage and reproduce. PMID:21492022

  9. Ionizing radiation quarantine treatments against tephritid fruit flies: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fruit flies of the family Tephritidae are considered the most important insect pest risk carried by exported fruits worldwide. Fruits suspected of harboring fruit fly eggs and larvae must be treated to control virtually 100% of any tephritids present. Irradiation is unique among quarantine treatments in that it is the only treatment used which does not cause acute mortality; instead, insects are prevented from maturing or are sterilized. Tephritids have been the most studied group of quarantined pests as far as irradiation; minimum absorbed doses confirmed with large-scale testing to provide control to the probit 9 level (99.9968%) have ranged from 50 to 250 Gy. Considerable work has been done with the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), one of the most important quarantined pests worldwide, and doses suggested to provide quarantine security have varied widely. The fact that insects are still alive for some time after irradiation has been one of the major obstacles to its use. Irradiation may be the most widely applicable quarantine treatment from the standpoint of fruit quality. However, some important fruits shipped across quarantine barriers (mangoes, Mangifera indica L., and citrus) may suffer from doses as low as 150 Gy when applied on a commercial scale where much of the fruit load may receive 300 Gy. Fortunately, some of the important tephritids attacking these fruits, such as Anastrepha spp., can be controlled with lower doses. Mainland USA has begun to use irradiation as a quarantine treatment for some fruits imported from Hawaii since April 1995 and remains the only country using irradiation as a quarantine treatment, although on a very limited basis. Irradiation offers some additional risk abatement advantages over other quarantine treatments. © 1999 Published by Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved. (author)

  10. Trapping guidelines for area-wide fruit fly programmes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Different traps and lures have been developed and used over decades to survey fruit fly populations. The first attractant for male fruit flies was methyl eugenol (ME) (for Bactrocera zonata, Howlett, 1912) followed by kerosene for Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata, (medfly), Severin and Severin, 1913. In 1956, Angelica seed oil was used to trap medfly (Steiner et al, 1957). Beroza et al. (1961) discovered trimedlure (TML) to be effective for the same purpose. Beroza and Green, 1963, demonstrated cuelure to be an effective attractant for Bactrocera cucurbitae. Food baits based on protein solutions, fermenting sugar solutions, fruit juices, and vinegar have been used since 1918 for the capture of females of several species. The McPhail trap was the first device to be used with protein baits (McPhail, 1929). Steiner traps were developed in 1957 (Steiner et al., 1957) and Jackson traps in 1971 for TML (Harris et al., 1971). These traps are currently used in various countries for fruit fly surveys in support of control activities and eradication campaigns. The combination of a McPhail trap with a protein attractant, Jackson trap with TML, and the Steiner trap with ME or cuelure (CUE), has remained unchanged for several decades. Global trends in increasing food quality, revenue sources, and fruit and vegetable trade, has resulted in an increased worldwide movement of fruit fly species and requires refinement of survey systems. After years of validating trapping technology through coordinated research programmes (CRP's) and extensive technical assistance to member countries, the Joint Division FAO/IAEA proposes the use of proven technologies in improving trap sensitivity in area-wide fruit fly control programmes (IAEA 1996 and IAEA 1998). These proven technologies include the use of synthetic food lures such as female attractants that can be used for several species of Anastrepha, Bactrocera and Ceratitis. Other citations of information on these developments are

  11. Fruit flies (Diptera, Tephritidae and their parasitoids on cultivated and wild hosts in the Cerrado-Pantanal ecotone in Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago Ledesma Taira

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Fruit flies (Diptera, Tephritidae and their parasitoids on cultivated and wild hosts in the Cerrado-Pantanal ecotone in Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. Information on frugivorous flies in cultivated or wild host plants and their parasitoids in the Cerrado-Pantanal ecotone in Aquidauana, Mato Grosso do Sul is presented and discussed. Fruit fly samples were collected weekly in specific fruit trees, and McPhail® traps were installed in the same trees for a period of two years. The fruit flies infested ripe and unripe fruits of Averrhoa carambola L., Schoepfia sp., Psidium guajava L. and Pouteria torta (Mart. Radlk and mature fruits of Anacardium occidentale L. and Inga laurina (Sw. Willd. Nineteen fruit fly species were obtained with the combination of sampling methods (collecting fruits and trapping, nine of them obtained with both methods, five found only in fruits and five only in traps. This is the first record of Anastrepha striata Schiner in a species of Sapotaceae, as well as for A. castanea Norrbom and A. daciformes Bezzi in Schoepfia sp. (Olacaceae, and for A. distincta Greene in fruits of P. guajava in the state of Mato Grosso do Sul. Fruit collections simultaneously associated with capture of fruit flies by McPhail traps in the same host plants are essential to understand the diversity of fruit flies and their relationship with hosts and parasitoids. Species of Braconidae and Pteromalidae were recovered, where Doryctobracon areolatus (Szépligeti was the most abundant parasitoid in larvae of tephritids infesting both cultivated and wild host fruits.

  12. Report on the 4. Session of the Commission on Phytosanitary Measures, International Plant Protection Convention, FAO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    From March 30 to April 3, the Fourth Session of the Commission on Phytosanitary Measures (CPM) took place at FAO Headquarters in Rome, where the International Plant Protection Organization (IPPC) Secretariat is based. There were ca. 350 participants, including 109 out of 170 representatives of the Contracting Parties, regional plant protection organizations, specialized UN agencies and other international and regional institutions related to plant protection. During the meeting the CPM accepted to integrate the topic 'Establishment of Pest Free Places of Production and Pest Free Production Sites for Fruit Flies' into the recently drafted standard 'Systems Approaches for Pest Risk Management of Fruit Flies'. The following International Standards for Phytosanitary Measures (ISPM) were revised and adopted: 1) amendments to ISPM No. 5 'Glossary of Phytosanitary Terms' 2) appendix to ISPM No. 5 'Glossary of Phytosanitary Terms on Terminology of the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD)' in relation to the 'Glossary of Phytosanitary Terms' 3) revision of ISPM No. 15 'Guidelines for Regulating Wood Packaging Material in International Trade' 4) adoption as annexes to ISPM No. 28 'Phytosanitary Treatments for Regulated Pests' of eight irradiation treatments: six related to several species of fruit flies (Anastrepha ludens, A. obiqua, A. serpentina, Bactrocera jarvisi, B. tryoni and Rhagoletis pomonella), one related to the codling moth (Cydia pomonella), and most importantly one dealing with the generic irradiation treatment for fruit flies of the family Tephritidae 5) new standard 'Categorization of Commodities According to their Pest Risk' (ISPM No 32). To see the complete list of the 32 ISPMs and download the documents in various languages, please visit the IPPC website at: www.ippc.int/IPP/En/default.jsp

  13. Product quality control, irradiation and shipping procedures for mass-reared tephritid fruit flies for sterile insect release programmes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document represents the recommendations, reached by consensus of an international group of quality control experts, on the standard procedures for product quality control (QC) for mass reared tephritid flies that are to be used in Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) programs. In addition, the manual describes recommended methods of handling and packaging pupae during irradiation and shipment. Most of the procedures were designed specifically for use with Mediterranean fruit flies, Ceratitis capitata (Wied.), but they are applicable, with minor modification in some cases, for other tephritid species such as Caribbean fruit fly Anastrepha suspense, Mexican fruit fly A. ludens, and various Bactrocera species. The manual is evolving and subject to periodic updates. The future additions will include other fruit flies as the need is identified. If followed, procedures described in this manual will help ensure that the quality of mass-produced flies is measured accurately in a standardised fashion, allowing comparisons of quality over time and across rearing facilities and field programmes. Problems in rearing, irradiation and handling procedures, and strain quality can be identified and hopefully corrected before control programmes are affected. Tests and procedures described in this document are only part of a total quality control programme for tephritid fly production. The product QC evaluations included in this manual are, unless otherwise noted, required to be conducted during SIT programmes by the Field programme staff not the production staff. Additional product QC tests have been developed and their use is optional (see ancillary test section). Production and process QC evaluations (e.g., analysis of diet components, monitoring the rearing environment, yield of larvae, development rate, etc.) are not within the scope of this document. Quality specifications are included for minimum and mean acceptability of conventional strains of C. capitata, A. ludens, and A

  14. Controle de pragas e doenças, maturação e qualidade de maçãs 'imperial gala' submetidas ao ensacamento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosângela Teixeira

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a eficiência de diferentes embalagens no ensacamento de maçãs para o controle de pragas e doenças, e sua influência na maturação e qualidade dos frutos, em pomar sob sistema orgânico. O experimento foi conduzido em pomar com plantas de dez anos de idade da cultivar Imperial Gala, sobre porta-enxerto 'Marubakaido', com filtro EM-9, localizado no município de São Joaquim-SC, nas safras 2007/2008 e 2008/2009. Os frutos foram ensacados, após o raleio, com embalagens plásticas transparentes microperfuradas ou de tecido não texturizado (TNT. Frutos não ensacados constituíram o tratamento-controle. Na colheita, os frutos foram avaliados quanto aos danos provocados por mosca-das-frutas (Anastrepha fraterculus, mariposa-oriental (Grapholita molesta, lagarta-enroladeira (Bonagota salubricola e pulgão-lanígero (Eriosoma lanigerum, incidência das doenças sarna-da-macieira (Venturia inaequalis e podridão-amarga (Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, e atributos físico-químicos de maturação e qualidade e teor de cálcio (Ca nos frutos. O ensacamento, independentemente do tipo de material utilizado, reduziu os danos de insetos-praga, porém não foi eficiente no controle de doenças nos frutos. O ensacamento não comprometeu o desenvolvimento de coloração vermelha na casca e o teor de Ca nos frutos. De modo geral, o ensacamento antecipou o processo de maturação, caracterizado pela redução na firmeza de polpa e na textura da casca e da polpa, e pelo aumento no índice de iodoamido.

  15. Potential for gamma-radiation as a quarantine treatment for Caribbean fruit fly in citrus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The potential for using gamma-radiation as a quarantine treatment for the control of the Caribbean fruit fly (Anastrepha suspensa [Loew]) in citrus is being investigated by the Agricultural Research Service of the U.S. Department of Agriculture and the Florida Department of Citrus in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy and private industry. In dosage-mortality tests, pupae were recovered from infested grapefruits held at 250C for six weeks following irradiation at 0.l5 and 0.30 kGy. No insects were recovered from grapefruit irradiated at 0.60 and 0.90 kGy. Two adults emerged from the recovered pupae, one male at 0.15 kGy and one female at 0.30 kGy; both adults died without reproducing. Based on the number of pupae recovered, fly mortality was 98.9 percent at 0.l5 kGy percent at 0.30 kGy, and l00 percent at 60 and 90 kGy. In phytotoxicity tests, noninfested grapefruits were held for four weeks at l0 or l60C, followed by two weeks at 2l0C, and then examined for radiation injury. Injury was minimal at 0.30 kGy, and the grapefruit had acceptable taste, no adverse chemical changes, and met Grade A standards when examined by Florida inspectors. Injury to the rind and off-flavors in juice and sections were often severe at higher dosages (0.60 and 0.90 kGy). Grapefruit irradiated at 0.60 and 0.90 kGy) showed rind breakdown and scald after storage. Scald was the dominant injury in October and December tests, and rind breakdown was the dominant injury in February, April, and May tests. Generally, injured areas developed decay during holding at 2l0C

  16. Implementation of a medfly, fruit fly parasitoids and codling moth rearing facility in northeastern Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The medfly is a major pest for fruit crops worldwide and its presence in the countries means a threat for production and for export. The methodology that has been used in many countries to eradicate/suppress medfly population is the SIT (Sterile Insect Technique) that uses irradiation as a source for sterilisation. Besides medfly, Anastrepha species of quarantine relevance are important pests affecting the fruit crops in Brazil. Parasitoids that are natural enemies of fruit flies also will be reared in the facility for release in the production area. Finally, taking advantage of the large building area, the facility eventually will also produce sterile codling moths, a pest recently introduced into the south of Brazil and that affects the ever increasing apple and pear crops. The production of sterile medflies, natural enemies to control fruit flies and sterile codling moths - all of them using irradiation as sterilisation method and their release in the field is the most effective measure to control (suppression and eradication) such pests. The consumption of fresh fruits has increased worldwide and the production in Brazil either for domestic or export has been intensified in the last decade. As food safety is a major concern for the consumers, the use of environment-friendly technologies is always required. The SIT plays a major role for control fruit flies and other fruit pests. The final client for the sterile flies and moths will be the fruit growers in the tropical fruit growing areas in northern Brazil: Bahia, Pernambuco (Sao Francisco Valley), Ceara, north of Minas Gerais e north of Espirito Santo. Initially 200 million medflies and 10 million Diachasmimorpha longicaudata wasps will be released per week. The codling moths irradiated in the facility will be sent by air to the apple and stone fruit production areas in the south of Brazil, (Rio Grande do Sul and Santa Catarina), where the species is present. (author)

  17. Dietas artificiais para a criação de larvas e adultos da mosca-das-frutas sul-americana

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    Adrise Medeiros Nunes

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi adequar as dietas artificiais para o desenvolvimento dos estágios de larva e adulto da mosca-das-frutas sul-americana (Anastrepha fraterculus. Para o estágio larval, foram testadas as seguintes dietas: D1, original, com 10 g de ágar; D2, modificada, com 3,6 g de ágar; e, D3, modificada, com bagaço seco de cana-de-açúcar. Para os adultos, foram testadas quatro dietas: A, levedura de cerveja + mel (2:1; B, açúcar refinado + extrato de levedura + gérmen de trigo cru (3:1:1; C, extrato de soja + açúcar mascavo + gérmen de trigo cru (3:1:1; e D, levedura seca de cervejaria + mel (2:1. Avaliaram-se os parâmetros biológicos de duração do período ovo-pupa, duração e viabilidade do estágio de pupa, massa média de pupas, razão sexual e duração e viabilidade do período ovo-adulto. O desenvolvimento larval em D1 e D2 foi semelhante e indicou que a criação de larvas pode ser realizada com 1/3 da quantidade de ágar da utilizada em D1. A utilização do bagaço seco de cana-de-açúcar, na dieta artificial, afetou negativamente o desenvolvimento larval. As dietas artificiais com levedura de cerveja + mel e com açúcar refinado + extrato de levedura + gérmen de trigo cru são as mais adequadas para a criação de adultos.

  18. Study of the inorganic constituents in different species of Casearia medicinal plant collected in distinct regions of the Atlantic Forest, SP State, Brazil; Estudo sobre os constituintes inorganicos presentes em diferentes especies da planta medicinal do genero Casearia coletadas em regioes distintas da Mata Atlantica, SP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamashita, Celina Izumi

    2006-07-01

    The use of medicinal plants in the treatment of diseases has increased significantly in the last years, as has research concerning chemical characterization of these plants. In this study, inorganic constituents were determined in leaves and in extracts from three medicinal plant species of the Casearia genus (C. sylvestris, C. decandra and C. obliqua) collected in distinct regions of the Atlantic Forest, SP. The elemental compositions of the soils in which these plants were grown were also determined. Traditionally, these plants are used due to their antiinflammatory, antiacid, antiseptic and cicatrizing properties. The antiulcer and the antitumor activities of the Casearia genus and its capacity to neutralize snake and bee venoms, have also been scientifically confirmed. The analytical methodology used was neutron activation analysis. Long and short irradiation periods of the samples and the standards were carried out at IPEN's IEA-R1 nuclear research reactor. In the leaf K was found at the percentage levels, Ca, Cl, Mg and Na at mg g{sup -1} levels and the elements Br, Fe, Mn, Rb and Zn at the {mu}g g{sup -1} levels. As, Co, Cr, Cs, La, Sb, Sc and Se at the ng g{sup -1} levels. Results obtained in the extracts indicated that the same elements present in the leaves are also found in their extracts. The comparison between the inorganic composition of Casearia sylvestris leaves collected from three different regions of the Atlantic Forest showed that the elemental concentrations in the plants leaves varied depending on the place where they were grown. Different Casearia species cultivated in a same region presented similar elemental compositions. Based on these findings it can be concluded that the studies about the pharmacological effect of Casearia genus plants grown in different types of soil are of great importance. The quality of the obtained results was assured by the analyses of the certified reference materials NIST 1573a Tomato Leaves, NIST 1515 Apple

  19. Study of the inorganic constituents in different species of Casearia medicinal plant collected in distinct regions of the Atlantic Forest, SP State, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of medicinal plants in the treatment of diseases has increased significantly in the last years, as has research concerning chemical characterization of these plants. In this study, inorganic constituents were determined in leaves and in extracts from three medicinal plant species of the Casearia genus (C. sylvestris, C. decandra and C. obliqua) collected in distinct regions of the Atlantic Forest, SP. The elemental compositions of the soils in which these plants were grown were also determined. Traditionally, these plants are used due to their antiinflammatory, antiacid, antiseptic and cicatrizing properties. The antiulcer and the antitumor activities of the Casearia genus and its capacity to neutralize snake and bee venoms, have also been scientifically confirmed. The analytical methodology used was neutron activation analysis. Long and short irradiation periods of the samples and the standards were carried out at IPEN's IEA-R1 nuclear research reactor. In the leaf K was found at the percentage levels, Ca, Cl, Mg and Na at mg g-1 levels and the elements Br, Fe, Mn, Rb and Zn at the μg g-1 levels. As, Co, Cr, Cs, La, Sb, Sc and Se at the ng g-1 levels. Results obtained in the extracts indicated that the same elements present in the leaves are also found in their extracts. The comparison between the inorganic composition of Casearia sylvestris leaves collected from three different regions of the Atlantic Forest showed that the elemental concentrations in the plants leaves varied depending on the place where they were grown. Different Casearia species cultivated in a same region presented similar elemental compositions. Based on these findings it can be concluded that the studies about the pharmacological effect of Casearia genus plants grown in different types of soil are of great importance. The quality of the obtained results was assured by the analyses of the certified reference materials NIST 1573a Tomato Leaves, NIST 1515 Apple Leaves, INCT-TL-1 Tea

  20. Chilean and Southeast Pacific paleoclimate variations during the last glacial cycle: directly correlated pollen and δ18O records from ODP Site 1234

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heusser, Linda; Heusser, Cal; Mix, Alan; McManus, Jerry

    2006-12-01

    Joint pollen and oxygen isotope data from Ocean Drilling Program Site 1234 in the southeast Pacific provide the first, continuous record of temperate South American vegetation and climate from the last 140 ka. Located at ˜36°S, ˜65 km offshore of Concepcion, Chile, Site 1234 monitors the climatic transition zone between northern semi-arid, summer dry-winter wet climate and southern year-round, rainy, cool temperate climate. Dominance of onshore winds suggests that pollen preserved here reflects transport to the ocean via rivers that drain the region and integrate conditions from the coastal mountains to the Andean foothills. Down-hole changes in diagnostic pollen assemblages from xeric lowland deciduous forest (characterized by grasses, herbs, ferns, and trees such as deciduous beech, Nothofagus obliqua), mesic Valdivian Evergreen Forest (including conifers such as the endangered Prumnopitys andina), and Subantarctic Evergreen Rainforest (comprised primarily of southern beech, N. dombeyi) reveal large rapid shifts that likely reflect latitudinal movements in atmospheric circulation and storm tracks associated with the southern westerly winds. During glacial intervals (MIS 2-4, and 6), rainforests and parkland dominated by Nothofagus moved northward into the region. At the MIS 6/5e transition, coeval with the rapid shift to lower isotopic values, rainforest vegetation was rapidly replaced by xeric plant communities associated with Mediterranean-type climate. An increased prominence of halophytic vegetation suggests that MIS 5e was more arid and possibly warmer than MIS 1. Although rainforest pollen rises again at the end of MIS 5e, lowland deciduous forest pollen persists through MIS 5d and 5c, into MIS 5b. Substantial millennial-scale variations occur in both interglacial and glacial regimes, attesting to the sensitivity of the southern westerly belt to climate change. Comparison of the cool, mesic N. dombeyi rainforest assemblage from Site 1234 with δ18O in

  1. Hemolin triggers cell survival on fibroblasts in response to serum deprivation by inhibition of apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosch, Rosemary Viola; Alvarez-Flores, Miryam Paola; Maria, Durvanei Augusto; Chudzinski-Tavassi, Ana Marisa

    2016-08-01

    Fibroblasts are the main cellular component of connective tissues and play important roles in health and disease through the production of collagen, fibronectin and growth factors. Under certain conditions, such as wound healing, fibroblasts intensify their metabolic demand, while the restriction of nutrients affect matrix composition, cell metabolism and behavior. In lepidopterans, wound healing is regulated by ecdysteroid hormones, which upregulate multifunctional proteins such as hemolin. However, the role of hemolin in cell proliferation and wound healing is not clear. rLosac is a recombinant hemolin from the caterpillar Lonomia obliqua whose proliferative and cytoprotective effects on endothelial cells have been described. Here, we show that rLosac induces a marked cell survival effect on fibroblast submitted to serum deprivation, which is observable as early as 24h, as demonstrated through the MTT assay, as well as an increase in migration of human dermal fibroblasts (HDF). No effects on cell proliferation or cell cycle distribution of fibroblasts in normal conditions were observed, suggesting that rLosac induces an effect in stressful conditions such serum deprivation but not when nutrient are sufficient. By flow cytometry, rLosac caused an apparent dose-dependent increase in cells in the S phase of the cell cycle and a significant reduction of cells with fragmented DNA. Furthermore, treatment with rLosac results in a significant decrease in the production of reactive oxygen species and in the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, indicating that a reduction in oxidative stress is involved in rLosac-mediated cytoprotection. Our results also show an up-regulation of Bcl-2 and a down-regulation of Bax protein levels, inhibition of cytochrome c release and a reduction in caspase-3 levels, all considered critical factors for apoptosis. Moreover, rLosac treatment reduces the morphological changes induced by prolonged serum deprivation including the emergence

  2. Management of lepidopterans through irradiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    suppression by irradiation include Spodoptera litura, S.exigua, S.frugiperda, Helicoverpa armigera, H.zea, Pectinophora gossypiella, Diatraea saccharalis, Cydia pomonella, C.molesta, Ectomyelois ceratoniae, Ephestia kuehniella, Crocidolomia binotalis, Chilo suppressalis, Ostrinia furnacalis, O.nubilalis, Plutella xylostella and Spilosoma obliqua. (author)

  3. Aggregate and soil organic carbon dynamics in South Chilean Andisols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huygens, D.; Boeckx, P.; Van Cleemput, O.; Oyarzún, C.; Godoy, R.

    2005-06-01

    Extreme sensitivity of soil organic carbon (SOC) to climate and land use change warrants further research in different terrestrial ecosystems. The aim of this study was to investigate the link between aggregate and SOC dynamics in a chronosequence of three different land uses of a south Chilean Andisol: a second growth Nothofagus obliqua forest (SGFOR), a grassland (GRASS) and a Pinus radiata plantation (PINUS). Total carbon content of the 0-10cm soil layer was higher for GRASS (6.7 kg C m-2) than for PINUS (4.3 kg C m-2, while TC content of SGFOR (5.8 kg C m-2) was not significantly different from either one. High extractable oxalate and pyrophosphate Al concentrations (varying from 20.3-24.4 g kg-1, and 3.9-11.1 g kg-1, respectively) were found in all sites. In this study, SOC and aggregate dynamics were studied using size and density fractionation experiments of the SOC, δ13C and total carbon analysis of the different SOC fractions, and C mineralization experiments. The results showed that electrostatic sorption between and among amorphous Al components and clay minerals is mainly responsible for the formation of metal-humus-clay complexes and the stabilization of soil aggregates. The process of ligand exchange between SOC and Al would be of minor importance resulting in the absence of aggregate hierarchy in this soil type. Whole soil C mineralization rate constants were highest for SGFOR and PINUS, followed by GRASS (respectively 0.495, 0.266 and 0.196 g CO2-Cm-2d-1 for the top soil layer). In contrast, incubation experiments of isolated macro organic matter fractions gave opposite results, showing that the recalcitrance of the SOC decreased in another order: PINUS>SGFOR>GRASS. We deduced that electrostatic sorption processes and physical protection of SOC in soil aggregates were the main processes determining SOC stabilization. As a result, high aggregate carbon concentrations, varying from 148 till 48 g kg-1, were encountered for all land use sites. Al

  4. Aggregate and soil organic carbon dynamics in South Chilean Andisols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Huygens

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Extreme sensitivity of soil organic carbon (SOC to climate and land use change warrants further research in different terrestrial ecosystems. The aim of this study was to investigate the link between aggregate and SOC dynamics in a chronosequence of three different land uses of a south Chilean Andisol: a second growth Nothofagus obliqua forest (SGFOR, a grassland (GRASS and a Pinus radiata plantation (PINUS. Total carbon content of the 0-10cm soil layer was higher for GRASS (6.7 kg C m-2 than for PINUS (4.3 kg C m-2, while TC content of SGFOR (5.8 kg C m-2 was not significantly different from either one. High extractable oxalate and pyrophosphate Al concentrations (varying from 20.3-24.4 g kg-1, and 3.9-11.1 g kg-1, respectively were found in all sites. In this study, SOC and aggregate dynamics were studied using size and density fractionation experiments of the SOC, δ13C and total carbon analysis of the different SOC fractions, and C mineralization experiments. The results showed that electrostatic sorption between and among amorphous Al components and clay minerals is mainly responsible for the formation of metal-humus-clay complexes and the stabilization of soil aggregates. The process of ligand exchange between SOC and Al would be of minor importance resulting in the absence of aggregate hierarchy in this soil type. Whole soil C mineralization rate constants were highest for SGFOR and PINUS, followed by GRASS (respectively 0.495, 0.266 and 0.196 g CO2-Cm-2d-1 for the top soil layer. In contrast, incubation experiments of isolated macro organic matter fractions gave opposite results, showing that the recalcitrance of the SOC decreased in another order: PINUS>SGFOR>GRASS. We deduced that electrostatic sorption processes and physical protection of SOC in soil aggregates were the main processes determining SOC stabilization. As a result, high aggregate carbon concentrations, varying from 148 till 48 g kg-1, were encountered for all land use

  5. Revision of the Neotropical treehopper genus Tolania (Hemiptera, Membracidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesse L. Albertson

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The treehopper genus Tolania Stål (Hemiptera: Membracidae: Nicomiinae: Nicomiini and 69 valid species (59 new are described and illustrated based on adult morphology. Ten informal species groups are recognized based on a previously published phylogenetic analysis: (1 the dira species group comprising T. calista sp. nov., T. dira sp. nov., T. inca sp. nov., T. macaria sp. nov., T. secoya sp. nov., and T. zaparo sp. nov.; (2 the fasciata species group comprising T. fasciata (Walker, T. gracilis sp. nov., and T. laticlava sp. nov.; (3 the femoralis species group comprising T. femoralis Stål, T. fraterna Stål, and T. roberti sp. nov.; (4 the furcata species group comprising T. furcata sp. nov., T. tryphena sp. nov., and T. venezuelensis sp. nov.; (5 the hispida species group comprising T. alida sp. nov., T. hispida sp. nov., and T. periculosa sp. nov.; (6 the malefica species group comprising T. cactina sp. nov., T. curvata sp. nov., T. grallator sp. nov., T. jocosa sp. nov., T. mackameyi sp. nov., T. malefica sp. nov., T. obliqua (Walker, and T. terencia sp. nov.; (7 the obtusa species group comprising T. obtusa Fowler, T. obunca sp. nov., and T. torosa sp. nov.; (8 the opponens species group comprising T. alvira sp. nov., T. arcuata sp. nov., T. damia sp. nov., T. insolita sp. nov., T. lunata sp. nov., T. lurida sp. nov., T. opponens (Walker, T. oriana sp. nov., T. reflexa sp. nov., T. risa sp. nov., T. sinuata sp. nov., T. trilobata sp. nov., T. tumida sp. nov., T. umbella sp. nov., T. vitocensis sp. nov., T. woodi sp. nov., and T. xantha sp. nov.; (9 the peltacauda species group comprising T. brasiliensis sp. nov., T. iratafelis sp. nov., T. modesta sp. nov., T. peltacauda sp. nov., T. picta sp. nov., and T. thyrea sp. nov.; and (10 the semipellucida species group comprising T. atrata sp. nov., T. fimbriata sp. nov., T. nicia sp. nov., and T. semipellucida Stål. The following new species are not placed in species groups: T. anomala sp. nov

  6. Systematics and phylogeny of the Neotropical treehopper subfamily Nicomiinae (Hemiptera, Membracidae Sistemática e filogenia das cigarrinhas neotropicais da subfamília Nicomiinae (Hemiptera, Membracidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesse L. Albertson

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Morphological characters of adults of the treehopper subfamily Nicomiinae Haupt, 1929 (Hemiptera, Membracidae including seven genera (Eudonica gen. nov.; Euwalkeria Goding, 1926; Holdgatiella Evans, 1962; Nicomia Stål, 1858; Nodonica Dietrich, McKamey& Deitz, 2001; Stalomia gen. nov.; and Tolania Stål, 1858 and 22 species (16 new are described and illustrated. Keys are provided for genera and for species of Euwalkeria, Holdgatiella, and Nicomia. Nomenclatural changes, based on study of the primary type material of 15 species, include three new combinations, one new synonymy, and reinstatement of one junior synonym. Eudonica has one species, Eudonica nanella sp. nov.; Euwalkeria has five species, including four new species: E. colorata sp. nov., E. distincta sp. nov., E. perdita sp. nov., E. rubrica sp. nov.; Holdgatiella has two species, one of which is described as new: Holdgatiella chiloensis sp. nov.; Nicomia has twelve species, nine of which are described as new: N. buccina sp. nov., N. harenosa sp. nov., N. inscripta sp. nov., N. jucunda sp. nov., N. monticola sp. nov., N. nigrifasciata sp. nov., N. notidana sp. nov., N. pulchella sp. nov., N. serrata sp. nov.; Nodonica has one species, Nodonica bispinigera Dietrich, McKamey & Deitz; and Stalomia has one species, Stalomia veruta sp. nov. Tolania contains eleven previously described species and nearly 60 new species, which will be treated in a later publication. Three new combinations are proposed: one species described in Nicomia is placed in the tribe Abelini (Centrotinae as Abelus retrospinosus (Lethierry comb. nov.; one species previously placed in Nicomia is transferred to the genus Tolania as T. obliqua (Walker, 1858, comb. nov.; one species described in Holdgatiella is placed in the genus Tolania as T. stria (Cryan & Deitz, 2002, comb. nov. One new synonymy is proposed: Hoplophera [sic] cicadoides Walker, 1862, syn. nov., a junior synonym of Nicomia interrupta Stål, 1858. Nicomia

  7. Antipredator behavior of the new mass-reared unisexual strain of the Mexican Fruit Fly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-López, G I; Rao, D; Díaz-Fleischer, F; Orozco-Dávila, D; Pérez-Staples, D

    2016-06-01

    Tephritid pests controlled through the sterile insect technique (SIT) are mass-reared and subsequently released in affected areas. Several quality parameters are currently used to test adults, but none take into account interactions with a predator. When sterile males are released in the field, they will need to avoid predators until they reach sexual maturity and survive long enough to mate with wild females. Spiders are one of the most common predators that flies may encounter in release sites. In this study, we evaluated the antipredator behavior of a mass-reared sterile unisexual strain ('Tapachula-7') of the Mexican fruit fly Anastrepha ludens (Diptera: Tephritidae) against their spider predators. We sampled spiders in citrus trees to determine which families could be more common. We established the baseline activity rates of sterile Tapachula-7 (Tap-7) flies in comparison with wild flies. We also tested the behavior of the fertile and sterile bisexual strain and wild flies against hunting spiders (Family Salticidae) and orb building spiders (Family Tetragnathidae). We recorded 18 spider families, with Salticidae being the most dominant. Tap-7 flies diminished their activity in comparison with wild males at 1800 h but showed similar activity levels earlier in the day. When exposed to orb-web spiders (Leucauge venusta), Tap-7, fertile and sterile males from the bisexual strain had similar rates of survival, but Tap-7 males showed lower survival than wild males. Against hunting spiders (Phidippus audax), wild males had higher probability of defensive wing displays, but there was no difference in spider attack rates. In general, sterile Tap -7 males performed as well as males from the bisexual strain, although they had lower survival than wild males. This could be due to either mass-rearing and/or irradiation effects. We recommend the use of the defensive wing display behavior as a quality parameter and propose a rapid and effective method to evaluate fly

  8. Purification and partial characterization of an entomopoxvirus (DlEPV from a parasitic wasp of tephritid fruit flies

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    Pauline O. Lawrence

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available An insect poxvirus [entomopoxvirus (EPV] occurs in the poison gland apparatus of female Diachasmimorpha longicaudata , a parasitic wasp of the Caribbean fruit fly, Anastrepha suspensa and other tephritid fruit flies. The DlEPV virion is 250-300 nm in diameter, has a "bumpy" appearance and a unipartite double stranded DNA genome of 290-300 kb. DlEPV DNA restriction fragment profiles differed from those reported for Amsacta moorei EPV (AmEPV and Melanoplus sanguinipes EPV (MsEPV, the only two EPVs whose genomes have been sequenced, and from those reported for vaccinia (Vac, a vertebrate poxvirus (chordopoxvirus, ChPV. Blast search and ClustalW alignment of the amino acids deduced from the 2316 nucleotides of a DlEPV DNA fragment cloned from an EcoR1 genomic library revealed 75-78% homology with the putative DNA-directed RNA polymerases of AmEPV, MsEPV, and two ChPV homologs of the Vac J6R gene. Of the deduced 772 amino acids in the DlEPV sequence, 28.4% are conserved/substituted among the four poxviruses aligned, 12.9% occur in at least one EPV, 6.5% in at least one ChPV, 3.1 % in at least one EPV and one ChPV, and 49.1% occur only in DlEPV. Although the RI-36-1 fragment represents a portion of the gene, it contains nucleotides that encode the NADFDGDE consensus sequence of known DNA-directed RNA polymerases. Western blots using a mouse polyclonal anti-DlEPV serum recognized six major protein bands in combined fractions of sucrose-purified DlEPV, at least one band in homogenates of male and female wasps, and at least two bands in host hemolymph that contained DlEPV virions. A digoxigenin-labeled DlEPV genomic DNA probe recognized DNA in dot-blots of male and female wasps. These results confirm that DlEPV is a true EPV and probably a member of the Group C EPVs. Unlike other EPVs, DlEPV does not express the spheroidin protein. Since it also replicates in both the wasp and fly, members of two different insect Orders, DlEPV may represent a new EPV

  9. Effects of Ionizing Radiation on Insects and Other Arthropods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research into the possible application of the radiation sterilization method of population suppression is now under way on a number of insects that attack man, animals and a variety of crops. These exploratory investigations have shown that ionizing irradiation will induce sterility but there is considerable variation in the amounts needed. The research also suggests that radiation damage may in some cases prevent application of the method to some insects. A frequent obstacle that must be overcome is lack of practical mass-rearing methods. Some insects also appeartobeso abundant that the use of the technique may not be feasible without first processing the infested area with other control measures to bring wild populations within reach. Despite these difficulties, when conditions are favourable, few other approaches to the control of pests are so potentially rewarding. The radiation sterilization method may also be thought of as a possible means of delaying development of infestation until crops are harvested. The present paper reports on the influence-of gamma radiation on the reproductive potential, sexual aggressiveness, vigour and longevity of the oriental fruit fly, Dacus dorsalis Hendel, the melon fly, Dacus cucurbitae Coq., the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata Wied., the Mexican fruit fly, Anastrepha ludens Loew, and Anopheles quadrimaculatus Say, and results of practical field trials of the sterile-male release method of population suppression. Progress in the campaign to eradicate the screw-worm, Cochliomyia hominivora Cqrl., in the United States and in studies to develop vigorous genetically marked strains that will permit ready identifications of released sterile flies is reviewed. Results of irradiation research on six additional species that infest fruit, vegetable, field and forest crops, three that attack livestock, three that largely affect man, the effects of irradiation on the scorpion, Centruroides limpid us Karsch, and the Lone

  10. Isolation and characterization of microsatellite markers from the olive fly, Bactrocera oleae, and their cross-species amplification in the Tephritidae family

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    Kakani Evdoxia G

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Tephritidae family of insects includes the most important agricultural pests of fruits and vegetables, belonging mainly to four genera (Bactrocera, Ceratitis, Anastrepha and Rhagoletis. The olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae, is the major pest of the olive fruit. Currently, its control is based on chemical insecticides. Environmentally friendlier methods have been attempted in the past (Sterile Insect Technique, albeit with limited success. This was mainly attributed to the lack of knowledge on the insect's behaviour, ecology and genetic structure of natural populations. The development of molecular markers could facilitate the access in the genome and contribute to the solution of the aforementioned problems. We chose to focus on microsatellite markers due to their abundance in the genome, high degree of polymorphism and easiness of isolation. Results Fifty-eight microsatellite-containing clones were isolated from the olive fly, Bactrocera oleae, bearing a total of sixty-two discrete microsatellite motifs. Forty-two primer pairs were designed on the unique sequences flanking the microsatellite motif and thirty-one of them amplified a PCR product of the expected size. The level of polymorphism was evaluated against wild and laboratory flies and the majority of the markers (93.5% proved highly polymorphic. Thirteen of them presented a unique position on the olive fly polytene chromosomes by in situ hybridization, which can serve as anchors to correlate future genetic and cytological maps of the species, as well as entry points to the genome. Cross-species amplification of these markers to eleven Tephritidae species and sequencing of thirty-one of the amplified products revealed a varying degree of conservation that declines outside the Bactrocera genus. Conclusion Microsatellite markers are very powerful tools for genetic and population analyses, particularly in species deprived of any other means of genetic analysis. The

  11. Diagnóstico da área cultivada com uva fina de mesa (Vitis vinifera L sob cobertura plástica e do manejo de pragas

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    Rodrigo Formolo

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho, foi realizado o censo das áreas cultivadas com uvas finas de mesa sob cultivo protegido e a identificação das principais espécies de pragas e estratégias de controle empregadas pelos produtores, no município de Caxias do Sul-RS. Na safra de 2007/2008, foram identificados os produtores envolvidos com a atividade no município e através de entrevista presencial e semiestruturada ao estabelecimento produtivo, registrou-se a área cultivada e variedades. Para produtores com cultivo de áreas superiores a 2.000m² da cultivar Itália, com dois anos ou mais de produção, foi aplicado outro questionário na safra de 2008/2009 com o objetivo de levantar as informações referentes: a espécies de insetos e ácaros-praga que danificam as uvas finas de mesa na propriedade, segundo o viticultor; b conhecer a realidade do manejo de insetos e ácaros-praga na cultura; c verificar os parâmetros que o produtor utiliza para a aplicação de inseticidas; d conhecer os produtos aplicados, e e identificar o tipo de assistência técnica recebida pelo viticultor. Foram identificados 43 produtores de uvas finas de mesa sob cultivo protegido com área total cultivada de 30,36 ha, sendo 70,31% desta área da cultivar Itália. As pragas mais importantes mencionadas pelos produtores foram tripes - Frankliniella rodeos Moulton e a mosca-das-frutas-sul-americana Anastrepha fraterculus (Wied. O manejo realizado para controle destas pragas é através da aplicação de inseticidas com os ingredientes ativos acefato e fentiona, respectivamente, com base em calendário. Os principais problemas enfrentados para implementar estratégias de manejo de pragas no cultivo são a falta de assistência técnica, a ausência de metodologias confiáveis para o monitoramento e o reduzido número de inseticidas autorizados para a cultura.

  12. Sterilization of fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) with X-rays for sterile insect technique programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent fear of acts of terrorism provoked an increase of delays and denials in the shipment of radioisotopes. This truly represented a menace to sterile insect production projects around the world. In order to validate the use of a new kind of low-energy Xray irradiator, a series of radiobiological studies on Ceratitis capitata (tsl-VIENNA 8 strain) (Wied., 1824) (Diptera: Tephritidae) and an Argentinean strain of Anastrepha fraterculus (Wied., 1830) (Diptera: Tephritidae) were carried out, also comparing biological effectiveness between X-rays and traditional γ radiation from 60Co. Pupae 48- 24 h before adult emergence of C. capitata males and both sexes of A. fraterculus were irradiated with doses ranging from 15 to 120 Gy and 10 to 70 Gy respectively. Doses that induce 50, 90 and 99% of sterility were estimated and the hypothesis of Parallelism for the Probit equations was tested. Doses of 82.7 Gy of X-rays and 128.2 Gy of γ rays (thus, a RBE∼1.5) induced 99% sterility on medfly males. The fertility of A. fraterculus fertile females crossed with 41 Gy of X-rays and 62.7 Gy of γ rays decreased in 99% comparing with the control group (RBE∼1.5). 99% sterility of A. fraterculus irradiated females was achieved with 60-80 Gy (RBE∼0.7). The standard quality control parameters of fecundity, adult emergence, fliers and survival were not significantly affected by the two types of radiation (RBE∼1) either for medfly or A. fraterculus (p>0.01), being averages in conformity with the values required by FAO/IAEA/USDA. Only fecundity of irradiated A. fraterculus females was severely reduced with increasing doses and no egg was laid at 70 Gy of both radiations. There were no significant differences between X-rays and γ rays regarding mating indices (RSI for medfly, RII, ISI, MRPI and FRPI for A. fraterculus) (p>0.05), what indicated more random matings for fertile and sterile insects. The results demonstrated that no significant difference in biological effectiveness

  13. Current advances in the use of cryogenics and aerial navigation technologies for sterile insect delivery systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    species like screwworm, Anastrepha spp., or fruit fly parasitoids. The current aerial platform used on the programme allows for high-density releases of up to 50 million medflies per flight. The aircraft, a turboprop Cessna 208 or Grand Caravan, can stay airborne for 7 hours without reserve. This aircraft has proven highly dependable in mountainous or populated areas having outstanding slow flight and climb capabilities. The belly pod is used to carry some of the release equipment allowing the cabin to be used for the four fly containers. The pilot, aircraft, and machine performance is monitored by the use of a portable computer (Edac) that is attached before the flight and recovered after the aircraft returns. The information can be downloaded and analysed to determine system performance. (author)

  14. Entomology Unit annual report 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As described in the 2002 Annual Report an improved medfly genetic sexing strain (GSS) was developed, VIENNA 8. This strain shows improved production characteristics and will have a major impact on the production efficiency in SIT rearing facilities. During 2003 this strain was transferred to four rearing facilities in Guatemala, Peru, South Africa and Tunisia based on acceptable QC data developed for the strain in the Unit. For the first time the strain was transferred to the different facilities under an agreement that prevents further distribution to third parties without consent of the Unit. In the past, strains originating from the Unit have been freely exchanged within the medfly SIT community, sometimes with not always the best results. During 2003 there has been a substantial increase in the resources devoted to activities in fruit flies other than medfly e.g. Bactrocera oleae and Anastrepha fraterculus. Rearing of the olive fly, B. oleae has traditionally not been straightforward due to the very specific, and expensive, larval diet that is required by this monophagous pest. With the disappearance of an essential larval diet component from the commercial market an urgent search is underway for an alternative. In 2004, experiments will be carried out to identify improved larval diets. For A. fraterculus, a large-scale evaluation of mating compatibility between different geographical races has been carried out by a consultant. Progress has been made in the containerised rearing of tsetse fly colonies. The container required considerable work before the temperature and humidity controls were suitable for tsetse rearing and a closed colony of Glossina fuscipes is now being reared. Discussions are now underway to install a version of TPU 3.2 (an automated tsetse feeding and production unit) in the container. A protocol for the handling, irradiation and eventual release of large numbers of sterile male tsetse has been formulated and it will involve at least two

  15. History of the sterile insect technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    (Zeller), the cactus moth Cactoblastis cactorum (Berg), the Old World screwworm Chrysomya bezziana (Villeneuve), additional Glossina spp., other Anastrepha spp. and Bactrocera spp. fruit flies, and other pest insects. (author)

  16. Sterilization of fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) with X-rays for sterile insect technique programs; Esterilizacao de moscas-das-frutas (Diptera: Tephritidae) com raios-X para programas de tecnica do inseto esteril

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mastrangelo, Thiago de Araujo

    2009-07-01

    Recent fear of acts of terrorism provoked an increase of delays and denials in the shipment of radioisotopes. This truly represented a menace to sterile insect production projects around the world. In order to validate the use of a new kind of low-energy Xray irradiator, a series of radiobiological studies on Ceratitis capitata (tsl-VIENNA 8 strain) (Wied., 1824) (Diptera: Tephritidae) and an Argentinean strain of Anastrepha fraterculus (Wied., 1830) (Diptera: Tephritidae) were carried out, also comparing biological effectiveness between X-rays and traditional {gamma} radiation from {sup 60}Co. Pupae 48- 24 h before adult emergence of C. capitata males and both sexes of A. fraterculus were irradiated with doses ranging from 15 to 120 Gy and 10 to 70 Gy respectively. Doses that induce 50, 90 and 99% of sterility were estimated and the hypothesis of Parallelism for the Probit equations was tested. Doses of 82.7 Gy of X-rays and 128.2 Gy of {gamma} rays (thus, a RBE{approx}1.5) induced 99% sterility on medfly males. The fertility of A. fraterculus fertile females crossed with 41 Gy of X-rays and 62.7 Gy of {gamma} rays decreased in 99% comparing with the control group (RBE{approx}1.5). 99% sterility of A. fraterculus irradiated females was achieved with 60-80 Gy (RBE{approx}0.7). The standard quality control parameters of fecundity, adult emergence, fliers and survival were not significantly affected by the two types of radiation (RBE{approx}1) either for medfly or A. fraterculus (p>0.01), being averages in conformity with the values required by FAO/IAEA/USDA. Only fecundity of irradiated A. fraterculus females was severely reduced with increasing doses and no egg was laid at 70 Gy of both radiations. There were no significant differences between X-rays and {gamma} rays regarding mating indices (RSI for medfly, RII, ISI, MRPI and FRPI for A. fraterculus) (p>0.05), what indicated more random matings for fertile and sterile insects. The results demonstrated that no

  17. Efeito do ensacamento dos frutos no controle de pragas e doenças e na qualidade e maturação de maçãs 'Fuji Suprema'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosângela Teixeira

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a eficiência de embalagens de diferentes materiais para a proteção contra pragas e doenças e seu efeito sobre a qualidade físico-química, maturação e teor de cálcio (Ca em maçãs 'Fuji Suprema'. O experimento foi desenvolvido nas safras de 2007/2008 e 2008/2009, em pomar manejado sob o sistema orgânico, localizado na região de São Joaquim (SC. O pomar era composto por plantas de dez anos de idade da cultivar Fuji Suprema, sobre porta-enxerto 'Marubakaido', com interenxerto 'EM-9'. Depois do raleio manual, aproximadamente 40 dias após a plena floração, os frutos foram ensacados com embalagens plásticas transparentes microperfuradas ou de tecido não texturizado (TNT. Os frutos foram mantidos ensacados até a colheita. A testemunha foi constituída por frutos não ensacados. Na colheita, os frutos foram avaliados quanto aos danos provocados por mosca-das-frutas (Anastrepha fraterculus, mariposa oriental (Grapholita molesta e lagarta enroladeira (Bonagota salubricola. As doenças foram avaliadas pela incidência de sarna da macieira (Venturia inaequalis, podridão amarga (Colletotrichum gloeosporioides e podridão carpelar (Alternaria sp., Fusarium sp.. Também foi avaliada a incidência de distúrbios fisiológicos "russeting" e "bitter pit", atributos físico-químicos de maturação e qualidade e o teor de Ca nos frutos. Independentemente do tipo de embalagem verificou-se que o ensacamento é prática eficaz na proteção contra o ataque de insetos, mas não reduz a incidência e o desenvolvimento de doenças nos frutos. Na safra de 2008/2009, o ensacamento dos frutos aumentou o teor de Ca e reduziu a incidência de "bitter pit", e aumentou a incidência do "russeting". O ensacamento dos frutos antecipou a maturação, especialmente com embalagem plástica transparente microperfurada, e reduziu a coloração vermelha, especialmente com embalagem TNT.

  18. Endobronchial valves in severe emphysematous patients: CT evaluation of lung fissures completeness, treatment radiological response and quantitative emphysema analysis Valvas endobrônquicas em pacientes com enfisema grave: avaliação por TC da completude das fissuras pulmonares, resposta radiológica ao tratamento e análise quantitativa do enfisema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcel Koenigkam-Santos

    2013-02-01

    a resposta radiológica (atelectasia/perda volumétrica do lobo alvo foi avaliada. AQTC foi realizada nos exames pré e pós-tratamento utilizando programa completamente automático. RESULTADOS: Resposta radiológica positiva foi vista em 16/29 pacientes. Os 13 pacientes sem resposta à TC apresentavam fissuras incompletas e completude média das fissuras obliquas de 72,8%, contra 88,3% no outro grupo. Os resultados mais significativos da AQTC mostraram redução do volume pulmonar (VP total (média de 542 ml, VP tratado (700 ml e volume de enfisema (331,4 ml no grupo com resposta positiva, que também apresentou melhora nos testes funcionais. CONCLUSÃO: O benefício das VEB é maior em pacientes com fissuras completas e que desenvolvem atelectasia lobar. Nos pacientes sem resposta radiológica encontramos maior prevalência de fissuras incompletas e grau de incompletude das fissuras. Nossa AQTC automática detectou as alterações pós-tratamento, principalmente considerado a análise do pulmão tratado.

  19. Transpiration and water use efficiency in native chilean and exotic species, a usefull tool for catchment management?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hervé-Fernández, P.; Oyarzun, C. E.

    2012-04-01

    Land-use and forest cover change play important roles in socio-economic processes and have been linked with water supply and other ecosystem services in various regions of the world. Water yield from watersheds is a major ecosystem service for human activities but has been altered by landscape management superimposed on climatic variability and change. Sustaining ecosystem services important to humans, while providing a dependable water supply for agriculture and urban needs is a major challenge faced by managers of human-dominated or increased antropical effect over watersheds. Since water is mostly consumed by vegetation (i.e: transpiration), which strongly depends on trees physiological characteristics (i.e: foliar area, transpiration capacity) are very important. The quantity of water consumed by plantations is influenced mainly by forest characteristics (species physiology, age and management), catchment water retention capacity and meteorological characteristics. Eventhough in Chile, the forest sector accounts for 3.6% of the gross domestic product (GDP) and 12.5% of total exports (INFOR, 2003), afforestation with fast growing exotic species has ended up being socially and politically questionable because of the supposed impact on the environment and water resources. We present data of trees transpiration and water use efficiency from three headwater catchments: (a) second growth native evergreen forest (Aetoxicon punctatum, Drimys winterii, Gevuina avellana, Laureliopsis philippiana); (b) Eucalyptus globulus plantation, and (c) a mixed native deciduous (Nothofagus obliqua and some evergreen species) forest and Eucalyptus globulus and Acacia melanoxylon plantation located at the Coastal Mountain Range in southern Chile (40°S). Annual transpiration rates ranged from 1.24 ± 0.41 mol•m-2•s-1 (0.022 ± 0.009 L•m-2•s-1) for E. globulus, while the lowest observed was for L. philippiana 0.44 ± 0.31 mol•m-2•s-1 (0.008 ± 0.006 L•m-2•s-1). However

  20. Molecular Binding Characterization with Tea Plant Volatiles of a General Odorant-binding Protein EoblGOBP2 in the Tea Geometrid, Ectropis oblique Prout (Lepidoptera:Geometridae)%茶尺蠖普通气味结合蛋白EoblGOBP2与茶树挥发物的结合功能研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵磊; 崔宏春; 张林雅; 陈玲; 余继忠; 李红亮

    2014-01-01

    As one main Lepidopteran pest in tea garden, the larvae of tea geometrid damages mainly the tea leaves, which severely reduce the yield of tea products. The olfactory system of tea geometrid plays a very important role in terms of seeking host and food. Therefore, a general odorant binding protein-EoblGOBP2, existing in the olfactory system of tea geometrid, the function binding with tea plant volatiles was studied in vitro here. Based on the cloned EoblGOBP2 gene by RT-PCR, the recombinant protein EoblGOBP2 was successfully expressed in an optimized prokaryotic prokaryotic expression system, then the binding characteristics of the purified EoblGOBP2 with 1-NPN was measured by fluorescence spectrometry. Scatchard plot analysis indicated that the dissociation constant between EoblGOBP2 and 1-NPN was 2.310μmol·L-1. In the competitive binding assays, to the seven candidate ligands, all of the relative fluorescence intensity of 1-NPN decreased more than 50%, which suggested that all of the tested ligands have strong binding capability with EoblGOBP2. The compound of dibutyl phthalate showed the maximum binding capability with EoblGOBP2, and their dissociation constant was 4.353μmol·L-1. As all of the candidate chemical ligands belong to the tea volatiles secondary metabolites, indicating that EoblGOBP2 plays an important role in the odor recognition process of olfactory identification in the olfactory system of tea geometrid.%茶尺蠖是茶园中一种重要的鳞翅目害虫,主要以幼虫取食危害茶树叶片,给茶叶生产带来了严重威胁。茶尺蠖在寻找配偶、产卵地以及觅食活动中其嗅觉系统发挥了非常重要的作用。本研究以茶尺蠖Ectropis obliqua Prout嗅觉系统中的一个普通气味结合蛋白--EoblGOBP2为研究对象,在克隆得到的EoblGOBP2基因基础上,通过对 EoblGOBP2进行原核表达、分离纯化后,利用1-NPN 的荧光竞争结合法研究了体外重组EoblGOBP2与茶树挥发物

  1. Revision of the subfamily Opiinae (Hymenoptera, Braconidae from Hunan (China, including thirty-six new species and two new genera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Xi-Ying

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The species of the subfamily Opiinae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae from Hunan (Oriental China are revised and illustrated. Thirty-six new species are described: Apodesmia bruniclypealis Li & van Achterberg, sp. n., A. melliclypealis Li & van Achterberg, sp. n., Areotetes albiferus Li & van Achterberg, sp. n., Areotetes carinuliferus Li & van Achterberg, sp. n., A. striatiferus Li & van Achterberg, sp. n., Coleopioides diversinotum Li & van Achterberg, sp. n., C. postpectalis Li & van Achterberg, sp. n., Fopius dorsopiferus Li, van Achterberg & Tan, sp. n., Indiopius chenae Li & van Achterberg, sp. n., Opiognathus aulaciferus Li & van Achterberg, sp. n., O. brevibasalis Li & van Achterberg, sp. n., Opius crenuliferus Li & van Achterberg, sp. n., O. malarator Li, van Achterberg & Tan, sp. n., O. monilipalpis Li & van Achterberg, sp. n., O. pachymerus Li & van Achterberg, sp. n., O. songi Li & van Achterberg, sp. n., O. youi Li & van Achterberg, sp. n., O. zengi Li & van Achterberg, sp. n., Phaedrotoma acuticlypeata Li & van Achterberg, sp. n., P.angiclypeata Li & van Achterberg, sp. n., P. antenervalis Li & van Achterberg, sp. n., P. depressiclypealis Li & van Achterberg, sp. n., P. flavisoma Li & van Achterberg, sp. n., P. nigrisoma Li & van Achterberg, sp. n., P. protuberator Li & van Achterberg, sp. n., P. rugulifera Li & van Achterberg, sp. n., Li & van Achterberg, P. striatinota Li & van Achterberg, sp. n., P. vermiculifera Li & van Achterberg, sp. n., Rhogadopsis latipennis Li & van Achterberg, sp. n., R. longicaudifera Li & van Achterberg, sp. n., R. maculosa Li, van Achterberg & Tan, sp. n., R. obliqua Li & van Achterberg, sp. n., R. sculpturator Li & van Achterberg, sp. n., Utetes longicarinatus Li & van Achterberg, sp. n. and Xynobius notauliferus Li & van Achterberg, sp. n. Areotetes van Achterberg & Li, gen. n. (type species: Areotetes carinuliferus sp. n. and Coleopioides van Achterberg & Li, gen. n. (type species: Coleopioides

  2. Post-harvest irradiation treatments: Generic dose, high dose, and less-than-probit 9 applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Increased trade in fresh produce and durables has increased risk for inadvertently transporting quarantine pests to countries or regions where they do not already occur. A quarantine pest is a pest of potential economic importance to an area that is not yet present there, or present but not widely distributed and being officially controlled. Quarantine or phytosanitary treatments such as heat, cold, irradiation, and fumigation disinfest host commodities of insect pests before they are exported to areas where the pests do not occur. Whereas development of heat, cold, and fumigation treatments involves generating data for each commodity and pest combination, irradiation treatments are developed for a pest species irrespective of fruit host. This is possible because most commodities can tolerate irradiation at doses that kill the pest, whereas developing heat, cold and fumigation treatments involves finding a balance between killing the pest and minimising the adverse effects of the treatment process on commodity quality. Development of generic dose, high dose and less than probit 9 concepts with irradiation have the potential to promote the technology and rapidly expand exports. A generic quarantine treatment is one that provides quarantine security for a broad group of pests. For example, a generic treatment could be applied to all Diptera (flies), or to flies in the family Tephritidae (fruit flies), or to tephritid fruit flies in the genus Anastrepha. Irradiation is the ideal technology for developing generic treatments because it is effective against most insects and mites at dose levels that do not affect the quality of most commodities. USDA APHIS approved a generic irradiation treatment for tephritid fruit flies (150 Gy) based on data for Anastrepha, Bactrocera, Ceratitis, and Rhagoletis fruit flies. Before generic treatments can be recommended for more insect taxa, information from coordinated research projects and large-scale testing is needed on

  3. The sterile insect technique: Cost-effective control of the Mediterranean fruit fly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fruit flies are one of the most important plant pests of the world, in terms of the number of fly species involved, the regions in which they are present, and the variety of hosts they infest. Anastrepha is present in the Americas; Bactrocera in Asia and Ceratitis in Africa; Dacus in Africa and South East Asia, Australia and South Pacific Islands; and Rhagoletis in Chile, Peru, Eastern and Western USA, Europe and Asia (from Sweden to Kyrgystan and from Russia to France). There is an important species of Bactrocera, the Olive Fruit Fly (B.oleae), present in all olive-growing regions of Africa, Europe, the Middle East and Arab countries. Seventy five species of plants of economic importance are infested by fruit flies. Among them are tropical fruits such mango, guava, banana, papaya, fig, passion fruit and avocado; temperate fruits such as citrus (orange, grapefruit, tangerine, etc.), stone fruits (peach, apricot, cherry, etc.), nuts, grape, apple and pear; and vegetable crops such as cucurbits (squash, melon, watermelon), tomato, and eggplant. Fruit flies are present in 178 countries and islands; they are ubiquitous throughout the world between 45 deg. North and 45 deg. South latitude. Twenty species of fruit flies are the most harmful because of the range of hosts they infest and the many countries affected. These 20 are subject to quarantine: trade in fresh produce is restricted to avoid the introduction of any one of these species. The Mediterranean Fruit Fly, or simply Med Fly, (Ceratitis capitata Weid.) is the most harmful of all. It is present in 77 countries and infests 22 hosts of economic importance. From its origin in Central Africa, it has invaded northern Africa, Mediterranean Europe, the Middle East, all the Americas, and Australia. All the countries affected devote major efforts to eradicate this pest or greatly reduce its prevalence. The Med Fly has been eradicated from the USA (except Hawaii), Mexico, and Chile. Nevertheless, ongoing reintroductions

  4. Resolving cryptic species complexes of major tephritid pests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrichs, Jorge; Vera, M Teresa; De Meyer, Marc; Clarke, Anthony R

    2015-01-01

    An FAO/IAEA Co-ordinated Research Project (CRP) on "Resolution of Cryptic Species Complexes of Tephritid Pests to Overcome Constraints to SIT Application and International Trade" was conducted from 2010 to 2015. As captured in the CRP title, the objective was to undertake targeted research into the systematics and diagnostics of taxonomically challenging fruit fly groups of economic importance. The scientific output was the accurate alignment of biological species with taxonomic names; which led to the applied outcome of assisting FAO and IAEA Member States in overcoming technical constraints to the application of the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) against pest fruit flies and the facilitation of international agricultural trade. Close to 50 researchers from over 20 countries participated in the CRP, using coordinated, multidisciplinary research to address, within an integrative taxonomic framework, cryptic species complexes of major tephritid pests. The following progress was made for the four complexes selected and studied: Anastrepha fraterculus complex - Eight morphotypes and their geographic and ecological distributions in Latin America were defined. The morphotypes can be considered as distinct biological species on the basis of differences in karyotype, sexual incompatibility, post-mating isolation, cuticular hydrocarbon, pheromone, and molecular analyses. Discriminative taxonomic tools using linear and geometric morphometrics of both adult and larval morphology were developed for this complex. Bactrocera dorsalis complex - Based on genetic, cytogenetic, pheromonal, morphometric, and behavioural data, which showed no or only minor variation between the Asian/African pest fruit flies Bactrocera dorsalis, Bactrocera papayae, Bactrocera philippinensis and Bactrocera invadens, the latter three species were synonymized with Bactrocera dorsalis. Of the five target pest taxa studied, only Bactrocera dorsalis and Bactrocera carambolae remain as scientifically valid

  5. Efecto de la práctica de embolsado sobre la calidad del fruto en feijoa (Acca sellowiana Berg tander

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fánor Casierra-Posada

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available El  cultivo de  feijoa  (Acca  sellowiana Berg.  se ha  extendido  durante  los últimos  años  en  el territorio colombiano, debido a que  la  fruta es muy apetecida en el mercado por las excelentes propiedades  organolépticas.  Sin  embargo,  la cal idad  y  sanidad  exigidas  para  la comercialización  se  ven  afectadas  por  varios factores,  entre  los  que  se  encuentra  el  daño causado  por  la mosca de  la  fruta  (Anastrepha spp..  Por  tanto,  la  evaluación  del  efecto  de embolsado sobre la calidad de la fruta de feijoa es un tema de gran interés. Además, esta técnica es comúnmente usada en guayaba que pertenecea la misma familia que la feijoa (Mirtáceae. Para el estudio, se embolsaron flores en el momento de  la caída de pétalos, y cada semana después hasta  cuat ro  semanas.   Los  frutos  que  se embolsaron a la caída de pétalos detuvieron su crecimiento; aquellos embolsados una, dos y tres semanas  después  de  la  caída  de  pétalos  no reportaron diferencias significativas en cuanto los parámetros  evaluados  (peso  fresco,  peso  seco, diámetro transversal y  longitudinal, intensidad de infestación,  sólidos  solubles  totales  y  acidez titulable Los frutos embolsados cuatro semanas después de la caída de pétalos fueron de mayor peso,  tamaño y más dulces con  respecto a  los demás. La efectividad en el control de mosca de la  fruta  fue evidente. El embolsado, además de mejorar la sanidad del fruto,  influyó en su calidad y permitió obtener un producto con características adecuadas para el mercado.

  6. Entomology Unit annual report 2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medfly genetic sexing strains (GSS) are now being used for all operational SIT programmes. In 2002, a new strain, VIENNA 8, was evaluated for stability, quality and production characteristics. The strain carries the inversion as described in the 2001 Annual Report and it can produce ca 10% more males for irradiation and release than could previous GSS. This strain will be transferred to several facilities in 2003. As a further improvement to the strain the visible marker, Sergeant, has been introduced into the strain following the successful field cage evaluations reported in the 2001 Annual Report. In 2003 this strain will be further analysed to assess the stability of the marker. There is considerable interest in the field of medfly SIT in developing procedures whereby eggs can be shipped between different rearing facilities. This could be especially relevant for GSS as a central facility could hold and maintain a specific strain and eggs could be sent to satellite facilities where only males would be reared for sterilization and release. During 2002 a series of egg shipments was received from the medfly mass rearing facility at El Pino, Guatemala and the effect of shipment on the quality parameters of the resultant flies was assessed. It was concluded that although there was some reduction in egg viability, especially for long shipments, it will be possible to develop an effective shipment protocol. In 2002 colonies of Bactrocera oleae and Anastrepha fraterculus were established, the former after some initial problems associated with the unsuitability of the larval diet. In 2003 these colonies will be used to develop improved mass rearing techniques for these species and for A. fraterculus a series of field cage evaluations will be carried out to assess the degree of mating compatibility of populations from the whole geographic range of this species in South and Central America. The development of tsetse mass rearing facilities in Africa is expanding and in

  7. Resolving cryptic species complexes of major tephritid pests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrichs, Jorge; Vera, M. Teresa; De Meyer, Marc; Clarke, Anthony R.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract An FAO/IAEA Co-ordinated Research Project (CRP) on “Resolution of Cryptic Species Complexes of Tephritid Pests to Overcome Constraints to SIT Application and International Trade” was conducted from 2010 to 2015. As captured in the CRP title, the objective was to undertake targeted research into the systematics and diagnostics of taxonomically challenging fruit fly groups of economic importance. The scientific output was the accurate alignment of biological species with taxonomic names; which led to the applied outcome of assisting FAO and IAEA Member States in overcoming technical constraints to the application of the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) against pest fruit flies and the facilitation of international agricultural trade. Close to 50 researchers from over 20 countries participated in the CRP, using coordinated, multidisciplinary research to address, within an integrative taxonomic framework, cryptic species complexes of major tephritid pests. The following progress was made for the four complexes selected and studied: Anastrepha fraterculus complex – Eight morphotypes and their geographic and ecological distributions in Latin America were defined. The morphotypes can be considered as distinct biological species on the basis of differences in karyotype, sexual incompatibility, post-mating isolation, cuticular hydrocarbon, pheromone, and molecular analyses. Discriminative taxonomic tools using linear and geometric morphometrics of both adult and larval morphology were developed for this complex. Bactrocera dorsalis complex – Based on genetic, cytogenetic, pheromonal, morphometric, and behavioural data, which showed no or only minor variation between the Asian/African pest fruit flies Bactrocera dorsalis, Bactrocera papayae, Bactrocera philippinensis and Bactrocera invadens, the latter three species were synonymized with Bactrocera dorsalis. Of the five target pest taxa studied, only Bactrocera dorsalis and Bactrocera carambolae remain as

  8. Development of improved attractants and their integration into fruit fly SIT management programmes. Proceedings of a final research coordination meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Information provided by trapping systems is used to assess the presence, seasonal abundance, spatial distribution, host sequence and infestation levels of fruit fly pests. This information is key for implementation of effective fruit fly control programmes. Most trapping systems commercially available are based on para-pheromones which are male specific. These male specific trapping systems have been used as the main survey tool in area-wide fruit fly control programmes. Nevertheless, in recent years, scientists and programme managers have realized that, in order to improve the efficiency of fruit fly control, it is essential to have a female specific or at least a female biased trapping system. Until the late 1990s, the only fruit fly female biased attractants were based on natural protein baits such as Torula Yeast and hydrolysate proteins. Although these attractants tend to catch more females than males (in average 60% females against 40% males), the proportion in favor of females is insufficient and the attractants are considered to be weak and non-selective. In 1999, as a result of a previous Coordinated Research Project (CRP) entitled 'Development of Female Medfly Attractant Systems for Trapping and Sterility Assessment' the first effective female biased synthetic food lure was developed for the Mediterranean fruit fly (Ceratitis capitata, Wied.) (IAEA-TECDOC-1099). This lure, with the commercial name of Biolure, is now being used in large-scale medfly control programmes worldwide. Given this background, and in order to further advance this field, the Joint FAO/IAEA Programme approved in 2000 a five year CRP entitled 'Development of Improved Attractants and their Integration into Fruit Fly SIT Management Programmes'. The research conducted under this CRP focused mainly on developing female biased trapping systems for other fruit fly species of quarantine and economic importance within the Anastrepha, Bactrocera, Ceratitis and Dacus genera and on optimization

  9. Pyrgotid Flies Assigned to Apyrgota. III. Species of Afropyrgota gen. n. and Tylotrypes (Diptera, Pyrgotidae / Мухи-пирготиды, отнесённые к Apyrgota. III. Виды Afropyrgota gen. n. и Tylotrypes (Diptera, Pyrgotidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korneyev V. A.

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Установлен род Afropyrgota gen. n. (типовой вид: Apyrgota marshalli Hendel, 1914 включающий пять видов, Afropyrgota copelandi sp. n., Afropyrgota mambilla sp. n., Afropyrgota marshalli (Hendel, 1914 comb. n. (= Apyrgota marshalli Hendel, 1914, Afropyrgota ota sp. n. и Afropyrgota uzungwa sp. n., встречающиеся в тропической части Африки. Приведены иллюстриро- ванные описания и таблицы для определения видов. Новый род сходен с Eupyrgota Coquillett круп- ными размерами и осовидным телом, крыльями со шпорцевой жилкой, соединенной с R2+3 на глу- боком изломе последней, а также бедрами с двумя рядами укороченных и утолщённых апиковен- тральных щетинок, отличаясь отсутствием сосцевидных выростов престернума и склеротизиро- ванных крючьев на основном членике яйцеклада. Кроме того, показано, что четыре вида, ранее относившиеся к Apyrgota, принадлежат к роду Tylotrypes Bezzi: T. breviventris (Shi, 1996, comb. n.; T. fura (Shi, 1996, comb. n.; T. jiangleensis (Shi, 1994, comb. n. и T. longa (Shi, 1996, comb. n.; в до- полнение, два вида перемещены сюда из Campylocera Macquart и Adapsilia Waga: T. fuscipes (Wulp, 1885, comb. n. и T. hispida (Kim & Han, 2001, comb. n. Дан пересмотреный диагноз рода Tylotrypes

  10. Ensaio monográfico da familia Cyathodiniidae

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    A. Marques da Cunha

    1940-01-01

    Full Text Available 1 Os Cyathodiniidae são ciliados caracterisados morfologicamente pela existência de uma escavação de abertura antero-ventral, o pseudo-peristoma. A ciliatura é constituída por cilios uniformes dispostos em linhas transversas ou obliquas que revestem a parte externa do corpo situado ao nível do pseudo-peristoma onde penetram para revestir a superfície interna deste. Os Cyathodiniidae apresentam duplicidade nuclear nítida, que se manifesta morfologica e funcionalmente. 2 Os Cyathodiniidade não possuem boca e sua nutrição se faz por ormose através a membrana celular. 3 Os Cyathodiniidae não possuem boca e sua nutrição se faz por ormose através a membrana celular. 3 Os Cyathodiniidae se multiplicam por divisão binária que é acompanhada da perda dos cílios e fromação endógena de duas novas ciliaturas. O plano de divisão é longitudinal ou obliquo, isto é, se faz de acordo com as idéias de Chatton e Lwoff perpendicularmente á direção das cinelias. 4 A reorganização se faz exclusivamente por endomixia que é acompanhada da perda dos cílios e formação endógena da nova ciliatura. 5 A endomixia se passa em indivíduos que, quer pela sua morfologia, quer pelas dimensões, não diferem das fórmas neutras. 6 No processo de endomixia o micronúcleo por meio de duas mitoses sucessivas forma 4 nucleos, 3 dos quais degeneram, enquanto o restante vae formar por divisão o novo micronúcleo e a placenta que se transforma posteriormente no novo macro-nucleo. 7 O processo é identico, nos dois gêneros em que se sub-divide a família, diferindo apenas no modo por que se dá a degeneração do macronúcleo e dos restos da divisão do micronúcleo. 8 Enquanto no genero Cyathodinium a degeneração se faz por picnose, no gênero Cyathodinioides, o macronucleo degenera por desagregação em granulos e os restos de divisão do micronucleo, pelo processo de degeneração macronucleiforme descrito por Ivanic, terminando tambem por

  11. Revision of the subfamily Opiinae (Hymenoptera, Braconidae) from Hunan (China), including thirty-six new species and two new genera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xi-Ying; van Achterberg, Cornelis; Tan, Ji-Cai

    2013-01-01

    The species of the subfamily Opiinae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) from Hunan (Oriental China) are revised and illustrated. Thirty-six new species are described: Apodesmia bruniclypealis Li & van Achterberg, sp. n., Apodesmia melliclypealis Li & van Achterberg, sp. n., Areotetes albiferus Li & van Achterberg, sp. n., Areotetes carinuliferus Li & van Achterberg, sp. n., Areotetes striatiferus Li & van Achterberg, sp. n., Coleopioides diversinotum Li & van Achterberg, sp. n., Coleopioides postpectalis Li & van Achterberg, sp. n., Fopius dorsopiferus Li, van Achterberg & Tan, sp. n., Indiopius chenae Li & van Achterberg, sp. n., Opiognathus aulaciferus Li & van Achterberg, sp. n., Opiognathus brevibasalis Li & van Achterberg, sp. n., Opius crenuliferus Li & van Achterberg, sp. n., Opius malarator Li, van Achterberg & Tan, sp. n., Opius monilipalpis Li & van Achterberg, sp. n., Opius pachymerus Li & van Achterberg, sp. n., Opius songi Li & van Achterberg, sp. n., Opius youi Li & van Achterberg, sp. n., Opius zengi Li & van Achterberg, sp. n., Phaedrotoma acuticlypeata Li & van Achterberg, sp. n., Phaedrotoma angiclypeata Li & van Achterberg, sp. n., Phaedrotoma antenervalis Li & van Achterberg, sp. n., Phaedrotoma depressiclypealisLi & van Achterberg, sp. n., Phaedrotoma flavisoma Li & van Achterberg, sp. n., Phaedrotoma nigrisoma Li & van Achterberg, sp. n., Phaedrotoma protuberator Li & van Achterberg, sp. n., Phaedrotoma rugulifera Li & van Achterberg, sp. n., Li & van Achterberg,Phaedrotoma striatinota Li & van Achterberg, sp. n., Phaedrotoma vermiculifera Li & van Achterberg, sp. n., Rhogadopsis latipennis Li & van Achterberg, sp. n., Rhogadopsis longicaudifera Li & van Achterberg, sp. n., Rhogadopsis maculosa Li, van Achterberg & Tan, sp. n., Rhogadopsis obliqua Li & van Achterberg, sp. n., Rhogadopsis sculpturator Li & van Achterberg, sp. n., Utetes longicarinatus Li & van Achterberg, sp. n. and Xynobius notauliferus Li & van Achterberg, sp. n. Areotetes van

  12. Annotated catalogue of the Tachinidae (Insecta, Diptera) of the Afrotropical Region, with the description of seven new genera

    Science.gov (United States)

    O’Hara, James E.; Cerretti, Pierfilippo

    2016-01-01

    exiguum Villeneuve, 1935, status revived (as Trigonospila exigua (Villeneuve)); Wagneria rufitibia abbreviata Mesnil, 1950, status n. (as Periscepsia abbreviata (Mesnil)); and Wagneria rufitibia nudinerva Mesnil, 1950, status n. (as Periscepsia nudinerva (Mesnil)). The following 25 new or revived combinations are proposed: Afrophylax aureiventris (Villeneuve, 1910), comb. n.; Blepharella orbitalis (Curran, 1927), comb. n.; Bogosiella pomeroyi Villeneuve, 1923, comb. revived; Brachychaetoides violacea (Curran, 1927), comb. n.; Carceliathrix crassipalpis (Villeneuve, 1938), comb. n.; Charitella whitmorei (Cerretti, 2012), comb. n.; Dyshypostena edwardsi (van Emden, 1960), comb. n.; Dyshypostena tarsalis Villeneuve, 1939, comb. revived; Estheria buccata (van Emden, 1947), comb. n.; Estheria surda (Curran, 1933), comb. n.; Filistea aureofasciata (Curran, 1927), comb. n.; Madremyia setinervis (Mesnil, 1968), comb. n.; Mesnilotrix empiformis (Mesnil, 1976), comb. n.; Myxophryxe longirostris (Villeneuve, 1938), comb. n.; Nealsomyia chloronitens (Mesnil, 1977), comb. n.; Nealsomyia clausa (Curran, 1940), comb. n.; Nilea longicauda (Mesnil, 1970), comb. n.; Paratrixa aethiopica Mesnil, 1952, comb. revived; Paratrixa stammeri Mesnil, 1952, comb. revived; Perlucidina africana (Jaennicke, 1867), comb. n.; Perlucidina perlucida (Karsch, 1886), comb. revived; Prolophosia retroflexa (Villeneuve, 1944), comb. n.; Sturmia profana (Karsch, 1888), comb. n.; additionally, Ceromasia rufiventris Curran, 1927 is treated as an unplaced species of Goniini, comb. n. and Hemiwinthemia stuckenbergi Verbeke, 1973 is treated as an unplaced species of Leskiini, comb. n. New or revived generic and specific synonymies are proposed for the following nine names: Afrosturmia Curran, 1927 with Blepharella Macquart, 1851, syn. n.; Archiphania van Emden, 1945 with Catharosia Rondani, 1868, syn. revived; Besseria longicornis Zeegers, 2007 with Besseria fossulata Bezzi, 1908 (current name Besseria fossulata

  13. Annotated catalogue of the Tachinidae (Insecta, Diptera) of the Afrotropical Region, with the description of seven new genera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Hara, James E; Cerretti, Pierfilippo

    2016-01-01

    (as Trigonospila exigua (Villeneuve)); Wagneria rufitibia abbreviata Mesnil, 1950, status n. (as Periscepsia abbreviata (Mesnil)); and Wagneria rufitibia nudinerva Mesnil, 1950, status n. (as Periscepsia nudinerva (Mesnil)). The following 25 new or revived combinations are proposed: Afrophylax aureiventris (Villeneuve, 1910), comb. n.; Blepharella orbitalis (Curran, 1927), comb. n.; Bogosiella pomeroyi Villeneuve, 1923, comb. revived; Brachychaetoides violacea (Curran, 1927), comb. n.; Carceliathrix crassipalpis (Villeneuve, 1938), comb. n.; Charitella whitmorei (Cerretti, 2012), comb. n.; Dyshypostena edwardsi (van Emden, 1960), comb. n.; Dyshypostena tarsalis Villeneuve, 1939, comb. revived; Estheria buccata (van Emden, 1947), comb. n.; Estheria surda (Curran, 1933), comb. n.; Filistea aureofasciata (Curran, 1927), comb. n.; Madremyia setinervis (Mesnil, 1968), comb. n.; Mesnilotrix empiformis (Mesnil, 1976), comb. n.; Myxophryxe longirostris (Villeneuve, 1938), comb. n.; Nealsomyia chloronitens (Mesnil, 1977), comb. n.; Nealsomyia clausa (Curran, 1940), comb. n.; Nilea longicauda (Mesnil, 1970), comb. n.; Paratrixa aethiopica Mesnil, 1952, comb. revived; Paratrixa stammeri Mesnil, 1952, comb. revived; Perlucidina africana (Jaennicke, 1867), comb. n.; Perlucidina perlucida (Karsch, 1886), comb. revived; Prolophosia retroflexa (Villeneuve, 1944), comb. n.; Sturmia profana (Karsch, 1888), comb. n.; additionally, Ceromasia rufiventris Curran, 1927 is treated as an unplaced species of Goniini, comb. n. and Hemiwinthemia stuckenbergi Verbeke, 1973 is treated as an unplaced species of Leskiini, comb. n. New or revived generic and specific synonymies are proposed for the following nine names: Afrosturmia Curran, 1927 with Blepharella Macquart, 1851, syn. n.; Archiphania van Emden, 1945 with Catharosia Rondani, 1868, syn. revived; Besseria longicornis Zeegers, 2007 with Besseria fossulata Bezzi, 1908 (current name Besseria fossulata), syn. n.; Dexiomera Curran, 1933 with

  14. Colony maintenance and mass-rearing: Using cold storage technology for extending the shelf-life of insects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    . To date, 7 species of dipterans representing 4 families have been successfully cryopreserved as late stage embryos and, of these 7 species, protocols for Musca domestica, Cochliomyia hominivorax, Ceratitis capitata, Anastrepha suspensa, and A. ludens have been developed in our laboratory. Because of inherent barriers to using conventional cryopreservation techniques that these dipteran embryos exhibit, development of a protocol for liquid nitrogen storage requires that each protocol be customised to accommodate the characteristics of each species. Some of the major barriers to using cryopreservation technology include: membrane impermeability, chilling sensitivity, abundance of yolk, and post storage fragility. The techniques that are used to deal with membrane impermeability involve chorion removal and membrane lipid extraction. For overcoming the chilling sensitivity of embryos equipped with abundant yolk, correct stage selection and the use of vitrification technology is required. And, to combat post storage recovery weakness, providing an adequate thawing medium and a fortified larval diet is necessary for obtaining sufficient numbers of adults to recolonise a particular species. The yield of adults after cryopreservation during their embryonic stage varies between species and also among strains within species. Recent work with 15 different screwworm strains, including wild-type, mutant, and transgenic forms, showed that hatching of cryopreserved embryos can vary between 20-78%. Evaluation of the quality of the cryopreserved insects and their progeny has been conducted under laboratory and field conditions. These tests included assessments of pupal weight, sex ratio, survival, fertility, fecundity, mating propensity and competitiveness, flight ability and endurance, and genetic diversity. Of all these observations, we found that cryopreserved screwworms had a 15% lower pupal weight, which returned to the control level during the next generation. Also, there is an

  15. Mediterranean fruit fly preventative release programme in southern California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    California employs several area-wide pest management programmes that use the release of sterile insects to protect its commercial and dooryard agriculture. The first was developed in response to the discovery of the Mexican fruit fly, Anastrepha ludens, in Tijuana, Mexico and adjacent areas in San Diego County, California. Initially pesticide sprays of malathion and bait were applied to host plants around each fly find site. Additionally, soil sprays of diazion (0.05 kg per 93 m2) were applied under every host plant around each fly find site. It soon became apparent that this approach was expensive and environmentally damaging. This led the interested parties, the California Department of Food and Agriculture (CDFA), the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) and the government of Mexico to develop a programme that utilises the release of sterile Mexican fruit flies over the city of Tijuana in order to prevent the establishment of a breeding population of this fly in the city. The belief is that preventing the Mexican fruit fly from breeding in Tijuana will help protect both that city and California. To date, no Mexican fruit fly larvae have been found in Tijuana or the adjacent areas of California. The second programme was developed in response to the discovery of the pink bollworm, Pectinophora gossypiella, in cotton in the Imperial Valley area of southern California. As the pink bollworm spread throughout the cotton growing region of southern California, it became a significant pest that threatened the 405,000 hectares of cotton grown in the San Joaquin Valley to the north. To keep this pest out of the San Joaquin Valley, the CDFA/USDA and California cotton growers use the large-scale releases of sterile pink bollworms in areas in which wild pink bollworms are captured each year. Thus far, the pink bollworm has been prevented from establishing a permanent presence in the San Joaquin Valley and the cotton growers in southern California, Arizona and

  16. Regional programme for the eradication of the Carambola fruit fly in South America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bactrocera carambolae Drew and Hancock, the Carambola fruit fly (CFF), was probably introduced into Suriname from Indonesia in the 1960s or 1970s. The most likely mechanism of introduction was people arriving at Suriname from Indonesia by air, through Amsterdam. Any other method of transport would be too lengthy. Air travel was not commonly available to the general Surinamese population before the 1960s. About one-fifth of the Surinamese population is of Indonesian origin, and many strong ties remained between the countries. These ties are loosening with the increasing number of generations after immigration, which occurred in the late nineteenth and early twentieth century. The first recorded Bactrocera found in Suriname was in 1975, when flies were reared from a market fruit and preserved unidentified in the Ministry of Agriculture's insect collection. Bactrocera were not recorded again until 1986, when infested fruits were brought to the attention of the Ministry by a homeowner. These specimens were sent to the United States for identification and were identified as Dacus dorsalis. B. carambolae was formally described in 1994 as a species belonging to the B. dorsalis complex (Drew and Hancock 1994). At that time, in 1986, little importance was given to the finding in the United States, perhaps because the identifier was unaware that Suriname is in South America rather than Asia. The international community would only become aware of the establishment of a Dacus/Bactrocera species in the Americas four years later. The population of flies in the Guyanas has now been identified as B. carambolae, and its establishment in South America is a threat to the production and marketing of fruits throughout the tropical and subtropical Americas and the Caribbean (Hancock 1989). It might be expected that the newly established B. carambolae would move rapidly into the tropical forests where there are many species of the native Anastrepha fruit flies and, presumably, many

  17. The fruit fly programme in Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: country. In fact, no species of the genera Ceratitis, Bactrocera, Anastrepha, Dacus and Toxotrypana exist in the country. This programme uses the Fruit fly National Detection System, which includes detection of the pest by trapping and fruit sampling in different areas located between the I and XI Regions of the country. This system is approved by the Chilean trade partners on the basis of the fruit fly-free recognition. For the Chilean fresh fruit exports, this is an important advantage, because there is no need to apply quarantine treatments or any other restriction measure. Chile has also a huge fruit industry, whose export revenues last season reached USD 1,900 million. This fact has permitted to undertake continuously a big effort to maintain that phytosanitary condition. Since Chile is the only fruit-fly free Latin American country, it has to face a continuous biological pressure of fruit flies, mainly C. capitata, to invade its territory. But the country has also some important advantages to prevent flies migrating due to its natural isolation. These natural barriers are the Los Andes ranges in the east, thousands of kilometers of desert in the north, the Pacific Ocean in the west and finally an extremely cold, sub polar climate in the south. This isolation has led to the NPPO officials to believe that the passive spread, through smuggling and hidden fruit in passenger's baggage, to be the most likely source of fruit fly entries. Because of that, Chile has a very strict quarantine system with border control stations at every point of entry. The only exception to the mentioned isolation is Arica Province on the border with Peru. There, SAG applies an area-wide preventative approach through the rearing and release of sterile insects, as well as bait spraying in the border area, which is mainly desert, but has some 'green spots' that allow the fly to alight for resting and feeding. Additionally, through bi-national agreements, common activities are

  18. Doença de peixes fluviaes do Brasil Disease of fishes in Brazilian rivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Genesio Pacheco

    1935-12-01

    Full Text Available Nos ultimos annos teem sido observadas mortandades de peixes nos rios do Estado de S. Paulo. Vê-se, das informações obtidas pelo autor e por outros pesquisadores, que o phenomeno não parece novo entre nós; elle tem sido tambem verificado em outros rios do Brasil, embora não repetido com tanta regularidade como agora. Ficou demonstrado no presente trabalho, tratar-se de uma doença contagiosa, causada por um virus filtravel. Apparecem, a principio, alguns peixes doentes ou mortos; seu numero cresce muito nos dias seguintes. Parece serem atacados logo a maioria dos peixes do local onde ella surge porque, em 2 a 3 dias adoecem milhares e, em poucos, 8 a 15, decresce rapidamente o numero de animaes doentes e mortos. Nesse tempo a doença propagou-se a outros rios, relacionados com o primeiro, a montante ou a jusante delle, até muito distante do ponto onde começou a doença. A doença caracterisa-se clinicamente pela diminuição da capacidade motora dos peixes, que se movem com pouca actividade, deixando-se levar pela correnteza ou procurando permanecer nos pontos remansosos do rio; e pela tendencia a subir á superficie das aguas, em posição vertical ou obliqua, differente dos peixes sãos, que sobem horizontalmente. No inicio da doença os peixes defendem-se da captura, mais tarde são facilmente apprehendidos com a mão. As lesões se resumem em manchas, de tamanho variavel, situadas de cada lado do dorso. Essas manchas nem sempre são presentes. Mais constante é a congestão das nadadeiras, principalmente das nadadeiras peitoraes. Internamente ha augmento de muco na garganta, pallidez do figado e congestão da vesicula biliar, cuja bile é amarellada. Essas lesões internas tambem não são constantes. A doença transmitte-se: directamente, pela cohabitação de peixes seguramente sãos com peixes doentes, ou pela juncção de virus á água contendo peixes sãos; indirectamente, pela agua contaminada, ou pela agua filtrada em vela