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Sample records for anastrepha obliqua macquart

  1. Effect of sucrose ingestion on the performance of wild Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart) females (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fontellas, Tania M.L.; Zucoloto, Fernando S.

    2003-01-01

    Carbohydrates are the main source of energy for insects and the lack of these nutrients in the diet can cause serious damage to the biology of these arthropods. In order to better understand the effect of sucrose on the performance and dietary selection of adult Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart), the following experiments were carried out: 1) effect of different amount of sucrose on diet ingestion, longevity and egg production; 2) dietary selection that contains different amounts of sucrose, and 3) discrimination threshold for sucrose in adult individuals deprived or not of carbohydrates. The control diet showed the best results in relation to ingestion, longevity and egg production for these species, probably due to the fact that it presents an optimal nutritional balance between sucrose and yeast. The control diet was also the preferred diet of females, indicating a positive correlation between the nutritional value of a diet and chemical perception by A. obliqua. Sucrose-deprived females were able to perceive lower carbohydrate quantity than non-deprived females. This characteristic might represent a biological advantage since it reduces the food foraging time for these insects. (author)

  2. Use of gamma radiation against Ceratitis capitata (Wied., 1824), Anastrepha Fraterculus (Wied., 1830) and Anastrepha Obliqua (Macquart, 1835) (Diptera, Tephritidae) for disinfestation of mangoes for exportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raga, A.

    1990-04-01

    The gamma radiation doses to attend quarantine requirements of importing countries, by disinfecting mango fruits from Ceratitis capitata (Wied., 1824), Anastrepha Fraterculus (Wied., 1830) and Anastrepha Obliqua (Macquart, 1835) is studied. An increase of radiation resistance of C. capitata eggs was observed during the embryonic development. Doses up to 40 Gy for C. capitata and up to 100 Gy for A. Fraterculus and A. Obliqua did not affect pupation of 4-,5-,6- and 7-day-old larvae, irradiated 'in vitro'. Larvae of C. capitata were more resistant than A. Obliqua and A. Fraterculus. Larvae of A. Obliqua were more resistant than A. Fraterculus. The dose of 125.5 Gy fulfilled the criteria for efficacy, which prevented emergence of the adults of three fruit fly species studied. (author)

  3. The presence of the sexual partner and nutritional condition alter the Anastrepha obliqua MacQuart (Diptera: Tephritidae) protein discrimination threshold

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    Cresoni-Pereira, Carla; Zucoloto, Fernando S. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Filosofia, Ciencias e Letras. Dept. de Biologia

    2005-11-15

    The minimum protein amount that Anastrepha obliqua MacQuart can detect in its alimentary source is variable, though the causes of such variation are not very well known. In this study, the authors tested whether the sexual partners nutritional condition and presence devoid of direct contact alter the A. obliqua protein discrimination threshold. Male and female insects were assigned to groups as follows: (1) newly emerged, (2) deprived of protein source (yeast) during 18 days, (3) non-yeast-deprived during 18 days, (4) yeast-deprived in the presence of equally yeast-deprived sexual partners, (5) yeast-deprived in the presence of non-yeast-deprived partners, (6) non-yeast-deprived with yeast-deprived partners and (7) non-yeast-deprived with non-yeast-deprived partners. The sexual partners were maintained apart by a transparent plastic screen with small holes. Not only the males presence but also their nutritional condition have altered the females discrimination threshold, particularly when the females were deprived and when non- deprived females cohabited with deprived males. Therefore, the females threshold was determined by their own nutritional condition in addition to recognition of the males nutritional condition. The males discrimination threshold was higher for non-deprived subjects than for the deprived ones. The occurrence of responses in the absence of direct contact between males and females has shown that they may use a chemical mechanism for mutual recognition of the sexual partner nutritional condition. (author)

  4. The presence of the sexual partner and nutritional condition alter the Anastrepha obliqua MacQuart (Diptera: Tephritidae) protein discrimination threshold

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cresoni-Pereira, Carla; Zucoloto, Fernando S.

    2005-01-01

    The minimum protein amount that Anastrepha obliqua MacQuart can detect in its alimentary source is variable, though the causes of such variation are not very well known. In this study, the authors tested whether the sexual partners nutritional condition and presence devoid of direct contact alter the A. obliqua protein discrimination threshold. Male and female insects were assigned to groups as follows: (1) newly emerged, (2) deprived of protein source (yeast) during 18 days, (3) non-yeast-deprived during 18 days, (4) yeast-deprived in the presence of equally yeast-deprived sexual partners, (5) yeast-deprived in the presence of non-yeast-deprived partners, (6) non-yeast-deprived with yeast-deprived partners and (7) non-yeast-deprived with non-yeast-deprived partners. The sexual partners were maintained apart by a transparent plastic screen with small holes. Not only the males presence but also their nutritional condition have altered the females discrimination threshold, particularly when the females were deprived and when non- deprived females cohabited with deprived males. Therefore, the females threshold was determined by their own nutritional condition in addition to recognition of the males nutritional condition. The males discrimination threshold was higher for non-deprived subjects than for the deprived ones. The occurrence of responses in the absence of direct contact between males and females has shown that they may use a chemical mechanism for mutual recognition of the sexual partner nutritional condition. (author)

  5. Influence of Pupation Substrate on Mass Production and Fitness of Adult Anastrepha obliqua Macquart (Diptera: Tephritidae) for Sterile Insect Technique Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aceituno-Medina, Marysol; Rivera-Ciprian, José Pedro; Hernández, Emilio

    2017-12-05

    Tephritid mass-rearing systems require an artificial substrate for pupation. Pupation substrate characteristics influence the quality of insects produced. Coconut fiber, as an alternative to the conventional pupation substrate vermiculite, was evaluated for Anastrepha obliqua Macquart (Diptera: Tephritidae) pupation behavior (pupation patterns, distribution, respiration rate, and pupal weight) and adult fitness (adult eclosion time, flight ability, and male mating competitiveness). Pupation percentage at 24 h, pupal weight, and flight ability were not significantly affected by substrate type. Adult eclosion levels of 50% were reached at 29.7 and 41.6 h for coconut fiber and vermiculite, respectively. Pupae distribution patterns differed between substrates because the larval aggregation level was reduced during the pupation process in coconut fiber. The pupae aggregation was three times greater in vermiculite than in coconut fiber. A higher respiratory rate in the last days of pupation and adult eclosion were recorded in the insects maintained in coconut fiber. Coconut fiber suitability as a pupation substrate for quality mass production of pupae and its implications for sterile insect technique are discussed. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Selection of artificial hosts for oviposition by wild Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart (Diptera, Tephritidae: influence of adult food and effect of experience Seleção de hospedeiros artificiais para oviposição por Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart (Diptera, Tephritidae selvagem: influência do alimento do adulto e efeito da experiência

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    Thamara A. B. S. Leal

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Several factors influence the selection of oviposition substrates by insects. The aim of the present work was to find answers to the following questions related to the oviposition behavior of Anastrepha obliqua. Can carbohydrates (glucose or sucrose present in the adult diet have influence on the female preference for an oviposition substrate with similar composition? Can the previous experience with a host containing one of mentioned carbohydrates interfere in further selection of oviposition substrates? The results showed that the kind of carbohydrate present in the adult diet did not affect the female preference for an artificial oviposition substrate, neither when it was presented by itself nor in combination with brewer's yeast. The effect of experience in the oviposition behavior was observed when there was a previous contact with artificial oviposition substrates containing yeast and sucrose. The data are discussed in terms of the behavioral plasticity presented by this species in relation to feeding and oviposition behaviors.Vários fatores podem atuar durante a seleção de substratos para oviposição por insetos. O presente estudo teve por objetivo responder às seguintes questões relacionadas ao comportamento de oviposição de Anastrepha obliqua. O carboidrato presente na dieta do adulto (glicose ou sacarose pode influenciar a preferência da fêmea por um substrato para oviposição com composição semelhante? A experiência prévia com um hospedeiro que possui um dos dois carboidratos citados pode interferir em escolhas futuras entre substratos para oviposição? Os resultados indicaram que o tipo de carboidrato presente na dieta do adulto não exerceu influência sobre a preferência das fêmeas por um substrato artificial para oviposição, tanto quando em combinação com lêvedo de cerveja ou quando sozinho. O efeito da experiência no comportamento de oviposição foi notado quando o contato prévio foi com substratos

  7. Dispersal and longevity of wild and mass-reared Anastrepha Ludens and Anastrepha Obliqua (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez, E.; Orozco, D.; Flores Breceda, S.; Dominguez, J.

    2007-01-01

    The rates of dispersal and survival of sterile mass-reared laboratory flies and sterile wild flies of Anastrepha ludens (Loew) and Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart) were estimated and compared with a regular rectangular array of 64 food-baited traps spaced 60 m between traps around the release point in Tapachula Chiapas, Mexico. The traps were scored every day during the first week, and then every 3 d over a 30-d period. For A. obliqua, the number of males recaptured was higher than that of females, while for A. ludens, females were recaptured more frequently than males. The recapture rate for the wild strains ranged from 0.6-24.8% for A. ludens and 1.3-16.2% for A. obliqua and the corresponding ranges for the mass-reared strains were 0.5-7.1% and 0.5-3.0% respectively. The life expectancy was 4.7 d for wild and 4.3 d for mass-reared A. obliqua males but 3 and 2 d, respectively, for wild and mass-reared A. ludens males. The net displacement of A. ludens and A. obliqua ranged approximately from 100-250 m and took place mostly on the first day. Wild A. ludens moved to the northwest from the release point while the mass-reared strain moved to the west. The A. obliqua wild flies moved to the west, while the mass-reared strain shifted to the southwest. We discuss the implications of our findings as to the spacing and frequency of sterile fly releases for the suppression of wild populations. (author) [es

  8. Anastrepha ludens and Anastrepha serpentina (Diptera: Tephritidae) do not infest Psidium guajava (Myrtaceae), but Anastrepha obliqua occasionally shares this resource with Anastrepha striata in nature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birke, Andrea; Aluja, Martin

    2011-08-01

    This study examined whether economically important fruit fly species Anastrepha ludens (Loew), Anastrepha serpentina (Wiedemann), and Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart) (Diptera: Tephritidae) may opportunistically exploit guavas, Psidium guajava L. (Myrtaceae), growing near preferred natural hosts. We collected 3,459 kg of guavas and 895 kg of other known host species [sour orange, Citrus aurantium L.; grapefruit, Citrus paradisi Macfadyen; mango, Mangifera indica L.; white sapote, Casimiroa edulis La Llave and Lex.; sapote, Pouteria sapota (Jacq.); sapodilla, Manilkara zapota L.; and wild plum, Spondias purpurea L. and Spondias mombin L.] along an altitudinal gradient over a 4-yr period (2006-2009). Plants were growing in sympatry in 23 localities where the guavas are usually infested in the state of Veracruz, M6xico. The guava samples yielded 20,341 Anastrepha spp. pupae in total (overall mean, 5.88 pupae per kg of fruit). Confirming previous reports, Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann) and Anastrepha striata (Schiner) were found heavily infesting guavas in Veracruz. Importantly, although we did not find evidence that A. ludens and A. serpentina are able to attack this valuable commodity, we document for the first time in the agriculturally important state of Veracruz that P. guajava is an alternative natural host plant of A. obliqua. We recovered two fruit in the mango-growing locality of la Vibora, Tlalixcoyan, that harbored larvae of A. striata and A. obliqua. This finding has important practical implications for management of A. obliqua. Over the entire altitudinal gradient, when individual fruit infestation was examined, a dynamic pattern of species dominance was unveiled with guavas growing below 800 m above sea level mainly attacked by A. striata and a progressive replacement with increasing altitude by A. fraterculus. Interestingly, most individual fruit examined (97%) harbored a single species of fruit fly, a finding that may be taken as evidence of

  9. Best Host Age of Anastrepha obliqua (Diptera: Tephritidae) for Multiplication of Four Native Parasitoids from the Americas

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    Poncio, S; Montoya, P; Cancino, J; Nava, D E

    2018-01-01

    Abstract The success of the mass rearing of parasitoids is directly related to host quality, and it requires selecting the best biological host age to ensure the optimal performance of the parasitoids released into the field. The larval development of the parasitoids Utetes anastrephae (Viereck) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) and Odontosema anastrephae Borgmeier (Hymenoptera: Eucoilidae) and the pupal development of the parasitoids Coptera haywardi (Ogloblin) (Hymenoptera: Diapriidae) and Dirhinus sp. (Hymenoptera: Chalcididae) on the native host Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart) (Diptera: Tephritidae) in different larvae and pupae ages were investigated under laboratory conditions. Not all parasitoid species developed with the same efficiency in immature individuals of A. obliqua; U. anastrephae and C. haywardi showed the higher parasitism rates. The emergence and parasitism of U. anastrephae were equal using larvae from 5 to 8 d, while C. haywardi reared in 1- to 8-d-old pupae showed higher averages of parasitism. These results suggest that native parasitoids can be used to strengthen the implementation of biological control projects against A. obliqua, a pest of economic importance in South America.

  10. Effect of Resin Ducts and Sap Content on Infestation and Development of Immature Stages of Anastrepha obliqua and Anastrepha ludens (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Four Mango (Sapindales: Anacardiaceae) Cultivars.

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    Guillén, Larissa; Adaime, Ricardo; Birke, Andrea; Velázquez, Olinda; Angeles, Guillermo; Ortega, Fernando; Ruíz, Eliel; Aluja, Martín

    2017-04-01

    We determined the influence of resin ducts, sap content, and fruit physicochemical features of four mango cultivars (Criollo, Manila, Ataulfo, and Tommy Atkins) on their susceptibility to the attack of the two most pestiferous fruit fly species infesting mangoes in Mexico: Anastrepha ludens (Loew) and Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart). We performed three studies: 1) analysis of resin ducts in mango fruit exocarp to determine the density and area occupied by resin ducts in each mango cultivar, 2) assessment of mango physicochemical features including fruit sap content, and 3) a forced infestation trial under field conditions using enclosed fruit-bearing branches to expose mangoes to gravid A. ludens or A. obliqua females. Infestation rates, development time from egg to prepupae and pupae, pupal weight, and percent of adult emergence, were assessed. 'Ataulfo' and 'Tommy Atkins' cultivars exhibited the highest resin duct density and sap content, the lowest infestation rate, and had a negative effect on immature development and pupal weight. In sharp contrast, 'Manila' and 'Criollo' cultivars, with the lowest resin duct density and sap content, were highly susceptible to A. ludens and A. obliqua attack. We conclude that sap content and the number, size, and distribution of resin ducts as well as firmness in mango fruit exocarp are all involved in the resistance of mango to A. ludens and A. obliqua attack. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Procedures for mass rearing the West Indian fruit fly, Anastrepha obliqua

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreno, M.P.; Gomez Simuta, Y.; Zavala Lopez, J.L.

    1999-01-01

    A series of bioassays resulted in a promising colony of Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart) for artificial production. A new model circular cage has been designed to achieve an increase in density of adults per cages, thus resulting in an increase in egg production. A bioassay for best egg production as well as constant hydration of eggs until collection time was chosen. Cotton fabric gave the best results of the fabrics used in the oviposition panel. A new diet based on corn cob particles and with citrus acid instead of hydrochloric acid was tested and showed promising results in good production, quality and less risk in handling. The optimum humidity range for larva to pupa conversion was found to be 70-80%. (author)

  12. Influence of quantities of brewer yeast on the performance of Anastrepha obliqua wild females (Diptera, Tephritidae

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    Cresoni-Pereira Carla

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Using artificial solid diets, experiments were performed with Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart, 1835 wild females in order to verify the influence of different quantities of brewer yeast on the performance and compensation behavior to unbalanced diets ingestion. The observed parameters were egg production, ingestion, diet efficiency and survival in the reproductive phase. Results indicated that there was no compensatory ingestion to different quantities of yeast and that the diet with 12.5g of yeast provided the best performance. The absence of compensatory ingestion is discussed based on the yeast phagostimulation and on the costs involved in solid diets ingestion. The relation between the analyzed parameters and the protein quantities in the diet were discussed.

  13. Influence of quantities of brewer yeast on the performance of Anastrepha obliqua wild females (Diptera, Tephritidae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cresoni-Pereira, Carla; Zucoloto, Fernando Sergio [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Filosofia, Ciencias e Letras. Dept. de Biologia

    2001-11-15

    Using artificial solid diets, experiments were performed with Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart, 1835) wild females in order to verify the influence of different quantities of brewer yeast on the performance and compensation behavior to unbalanced diets ingestion. The observed parameters were egg production, ingestion, diet efficiency and survival in the reproductive phase. Results indicated that there was no compensatory ingestion to different quantities of yeast and that the diet with 12.5g of yeast provided the best performance. The absence of compensatory ingestion is discussed based on the yeast phagostimulation and on the costs involved in solid diets ingestion. The relation between the analyzed parameters and the protein quantities in the diet were discussed. (author)

  14. Influence of quantities of brewer yeast on the performance of Anastrepha obliqua wild females (Diptera, Tephritidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cresoni-Pereira, Carla; Zucoloto, Fernando Sergio

    2001-01-01

    Using artificial solid diets, experiments were performed with Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart, 1835) wild females in order to verify the influence of different quantities of brewer yeast on the performance and compensation behavior to unbalanced diets ingestion. The observed parameters were egg production, ingestion, diet efficiency and survival in the reproductive phase. Results indicated that there was no compensatory ingestion to different quantities of yeast and that the diet with 12.5g of yeast provided the best performance. The absence of compensatory ingestion is discussed based on the yeast phagostimulation and on the costs involved in solid diets ingestion. The relation between the analyzed parameters and the protein quantities in the diet were discussed. (author)

  15. Performance of Anastrepha obliqua (Diptera, Tephritidae larvae fed on artificial diets Desempenho das larvas de Anastrepha obliqua (Diptera, Tephritidae alimentadas com dietas artificiais

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    Tânia M. L. Fontellas-Brandalha

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Moscas das frutas do gênero Anastrepha Schiner, 1868 são conhecidas por sua importância econômica devido aos danos que elas causam nos frutos comerciais. As exigências nutricionais dos estágios imaturo e adulto são diferentes e as larvas não se desenvolvem bem utilizando a mesma dieta do adulto. Embora as necessidades nutricionais básicas dos insetos sejam bem conhecidas, existe ainda o problema de elaborar dietas de criação adequadas para espécies com necessidades específicas. O objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar o efeito de diferentes tipos e quantidades de carboidratos na dieta sobre a performance larval de Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart, 1835. Larvas foram criadas individualmente em tubos de ensaio contendo uma das dietas artificiais a serem testadas onde elas foram mantidas até a pupação. A composição básica das dietas testadas incluia 2,5 g de agar, 3,25 g de levedo de cerveja e quantidades variadas de sacarose e farinha de trigo. A adequação do meio artificial para A. obliqua foi testada pela avaliação da sobrevivência larval e pupal (% e o tempo de desenvolvimento larval, pupal e de larva-adulto. A dieta contendo farinha de trigo (2 g e sacarose (2 g e a dieta somente com sacarose (5,5 g foram as que apresentaram melhor performance larval. Todas as dietas testadas apresentaram resultados similares ou superiores às dietas utilizadas em outros trabalhos. A importância da presença da farinha de trigo e seu valor nutricional para as larvas são discutidos.Fruit flies of the genus Anastrepha Schiner, 1868 are well-known for having economical importance since they damage commercially cultivated fruits. Nutritional demands during the immature and adult stages are different, so the larvae do not develop well using the same diet as the adults. Although the insect basic nutritional needs are well-known, there is also the challenge to elaborate rearing diets adequate to species with specific needs. The aim of this study

  16. Preliminary studies for the colonization of Anastrepha obliqua and Anastrepha serpentina (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Celedonio H, H.; Enkerlin H, W.; Bruzzone, D.

    1999-01-01

    A series of trials were carried out with the aim of collecting preliminary data for the colonization of Anastrepha obliqua and Anastrepha serpentina. Trials were focused on evaluating adequate oviposition media as well as their effect on fly demographic parameters; the effect of cage population densities on demographic parameters was also considered; for A. serpentina, egg disinfection treatments by organic acids was assayed, and a screening study was carried out for suitable pupation media. Nylon-made egging mesh resulted in the most efficient oviposition medium, while low insect densities provided the best conditions for increased rates of fly fertility. Organic acids (methyl-p-hydroxy-benzoic) were found to hamper egg hatch, while a variety of pupation media provided improved fly emergence rates vs. the naked pupation method. (author)

  17. Associative learning in wild Anastrepha obliqua females (Diptera, Tephritidae related to a protein source Aprendizagem associativa em fêmeas selvagens de Anastrepha obliqua (Diptera, Tephritidae em relação a uma fonte protéica

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    Carla Cresoni-Pereira

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to determine whether wild adult Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart, 1835 females are able to associate a compound (quinine sulphate - QS not related to their habitual diet with a protein-enriched food. Females were first fed on diets based on brewer yeast and sucrose containing or not QS. The groups were then allowed to choose between their original diets and a diet with or without QS, depending on the previous treatment, and between a diet based on agar and a diet containing agar and QS. When the nutritional value of the diets was adequate, the females did not show any preference for the diet with or without QS. With respect to the agar diet and the agar + QS diet, females previously fed on a nutritive diet containing QS preferred the diet containing QS, indicating an association between the compound and the nutritional value of the diet. The importance of this behavioral strategy is discussed.O objetivo do presente estudo foi determinar se fêmeas adultas selvagens de Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart, 1835 são capazes de associar um composto (sulfato de quinino-SQ não-relacionado à sua dieta habitual com um alimento rico em proteínas. Primeiro, as fêmeas foram alimentadas com dietas à base de lêvedo de cerveja e sacarose contendo ou não SQ. Os grupos foram então colocados para escolher entre sua dieta original e dietas com ou sem SQ, dependendo do tratamento prévio, e entre uma dieta à base de agar somente e outra à base de agar e SQ. Quando o valor nutricional das dietas era adequado, as fêmeas não mostraram nenhuma preferência para a dieta com ou sem SQ. Em relação às dietas de agar e agar+SQ, fêmeas previamente alimentadas com uma dieta nutritiva contendo SQ preferiram a dieta contendo SQ, indicando uma associação entre o composto e o valor nutricional da dieta. A importância desta estratégia comportamental é discutida.

  18. Comparative Responses of Anastrepha ludens and Anastrepha obliqua (Diptera: Tephritidae) to the Synthetic Attractant BioLure.

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    Déctor, Nayeli; Malo, Edi A; Rojas, Julio C; Liedo, Pablo

    2016-10-01

    The responses of wild and sterile Anastrepha ludens (Loew) and Anastrepha obliqua (Mcquart) fruit flies to the synthetic attractant BioLure were determined by electroantennography (EAG), in field cage tests using MultiLure traps, and by release-recapture field experiments using sterile flies. In EAG bioassays, no differences were found between species, sexes, sterile and wild flies. There were only specific differences and interactions in dose responses. More A. ludens than A. obliqua individuals were captured in multilure traps in field cage test. In A. ludens, there was not significant difference between the number of females and males captured, whereas in A. obliqua more females than males were caught. Age showed a bimodal response in both species and both sexes, with peaks at 4 and 14 d old. In the release-recapture experiments, there were significant differences between species, sexes, and orchards and among the days after release. More individuals of A. ludens than A obliqua were recaptured. Only in A. obliqua the difference between the sexes was significant, with a 3.60:1 female:male ratio. Orchard conditions affected the recapture rate, but in both orchards the largest number of flies recaptured occurred during the first day after release (46 and 88% in each orchard). Our results show that the response to this synthetic lure is species-specific and contribute to better interpret trapping data. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Benzalkonium Chloride Provides Remarkable Stability to Liquid Protein Lures for Trapping Anastrepha obliqua (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasa, R; Williams, T

    2017-12-05

    Hydrolyzed protein lures are widely used to monitor fruit fly pests but are rapidly degraded by microbial activity and must be replaced frequently. To improve the stability of lures, the quaternary ammonium biocide, benzalkonium chloride (BC), was evaluated in mixtures with two hydrolyzed proteins commonly used to monitor Anastrepha spp. The mean number of Anastrepha obliqua adults captured during six consecutive weeks using Captor + borax with the addition of 240 mg BC/liter, not renewed during the test, was similar to Captor + borax that was replaced at weekly intervals and was more effective than Captor + borax without BC. Numbers of A. obliqua flies captured in 30% CeraTrap diluted in water containing 240 mg BC/liter were similar to those caught in traps baited with Captor + borax or 30% CeraTrap without BC in the first 9 d of evaluation but was significantly more effective than both lures after 56 d. After >2 mo of use, 30% CeraTrap containing 240 mg BC/liter remained as effective as newly prepared 30% CeraTrap. The addition of BC to lures reduced surface tension of liquid lures by ~40-50%. However, when BC was increased to 720 mg BC/liter, only a small additional reduction in surface tension was observed and higher concentrations of BC did not increase capture rates. These findings could contribute to reduced costs for trapping networks and the development of long-lasting formulations of liquid protein lures for bait stations and mass-trapping targeted at major tephritid pests. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Reference genes for accessing differential expression among developmental stages and analysis of differential expression of OBP genes in Anastrepha obliqua

    OpenAIRE

    Nakamura, Aline Minali; Chahad-Ehlers, Samira; Lima, Andr? Lu?s A.; Taniguti, Cristiane Hayumi; Sobrinho Jr., Iderval; Torres, Felipe Rafael; de Brito, Reinaldo Alves

    2016-01-01

    The West Indian fruit fly, Anastrepha obliqua, is an important agricultural pest in the New World. The use of pesticide-free methods to control invasive species such as this reinforces the search for genes potentially useful in their genetic control. Therefore, the study of chemosensory proteins involved with a range of responses to the chemical environment will help not only on the understanding of the species biology but may also help the development of environmentally friendly pest control...

  1. Sexual Competitiveness, Field Survival, and Dispersal of Anastrepha obliqua (Diptera: Tephritidae) Fruit Flies Irradiated at Different Doses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallardo-Ortiz, Uriel; Pérez-Staples, Diana; Liedo, Pablo; Toledo, Jorge

    2018-04-02

    The sterile insect technique (SIT) is used in area-wide pest management programs for establishing low pest prevalence and/or areas free of fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae). The aim of this technique is to induce high levels of sterility in the wild population, for this the released insects must have a high sexual competitiveness and field dispersal. However, radiation decreases these biological attributes that do not allow it to compete successfully with wild insects. In this study the sexual competitiveness, field survival and dispersal of Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart; Diptera: Tephritidae) irradiated at 0, 40, 50, 60, 70, and 80 Gy were evaluated in laboratory. A dose of 60 Gy produced 98% sterility, whereas doses of 70 and 80 Gy produced 99% sterility. Sexual competitiveness was assessed in field cages, comparing males irradiated at 0, 50, 60, 70, and 80 Gy against wild males for mating with wild fertile females. Males irradiated at 50 and 60 Gy achieved more matings than those irradiated at 70 and 80 Gy. Wild males were more competitive than mass-reared males, even when these were not irradiated (0 Gy). There was no effect of irradiation on mating latency, yet wild males showed significantly shorter mating latency than mass-reared males. Female remating did not differ among those that mated with wild males and those that mated with males irradiated with different doses. The relative sterility index (RSI) increased from 0.25 at 80 Gy to 0.37 at 60 Gy. The Fried competitiveness index was 0.69 for males irradiated at 70 Gy and 0.57 for those irradiated at 80 Gy, which indicates that a 10 Gy reduction in the irradiation dose produces greater induction of sterility in the wild population. There were no significant differences in field survival and dispersal between flies irradiated at 70 or 80 Gy. Reducing the irradiation dose to 60 or 70 Gy could improve the performance of sterile males and the effectiveness of the SIT. Our results also distinguish between the

  2. Midgut Protease Activity During Larval Development of Anastrepha obliqua (Diptera: Tephritidae) Fed With Natural and Artificial Diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera-Ciprian, José Pedro; Aceituno-Medina, Marysol; Guillen, Karina

    2017-01-01

    Abstract In this study, we examined the activity of two serine proteases (chymotrypsin and trypsin) and two metalloproteases (carboxypeptidases A and B) during larval development in Anastrepha obliqua fed natural (mango fruit) and artificial (formulation used in mass-rearing) diets. Proteolytic activity of chymotrypsin, trypsin, carboxypeptidase A, and carboxypeptidase B was detected in the midgut of different instars of A. obliqua and was strongly affected by the pH and diet type. The protein content of the natural and artificial diets was similar. Enzymatic activity was higher in the midgut of the larvae fed the natural diet than in larvae fed the artificial diet. The activity of the endopeptidases (chymotrypsin and trypsin) was lower than those of the exopeptidases (carboxypeptidases A and B). The pH of the midgut varied from acidic to neutral. The results indicate that in the midgut of the larvae reared on both types of diet, the level of carboxypeptidase activity was approximately 100-fold greater than the level of chymotrypsin activity and 10,000-fold greater than the level of trypsin. In conclusion, carboxypeptidase A and B are the main proteases involved in the digestion of proteins in the larvae of A. obliqua. The natural diet showed a high bioaccessibility. A clear tendency to express high activities of chymotrypsin and trypsin was observed by the third instar. Our research contributes to the planning and development of novel bioaccessibility assays to understand the nutrition processing of A. obliqua larvae under mass-rearing conditions for sterile insect technique.

  3. Susceptibility of 15 mango (Sapindales: Anacardiaceae) cultivars to the attack by Anastrepha ludens and Anastrepha obliqua (Diptera:Tephritidae) and the role of underdeveloped fruit as pest reservoirs: management implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    We evaluated the susceptibility of 15 mango cultivars to the attack of Anastrepha ludens and A. obliqua, the main Tephritid pests of this crop in Mexico. In a field experiment, bagged, fruit-bearing branches were exposed to gravid females of both fly species. Infestation rates, developmental time,...

  4. Reference genes for accessing differential expression among developmental stages and analysis of differential expression of OBP genes in Anastrepha obliqua

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Aline Minali; Chahad-Ehlers, Samira; Lima, André Luís A.; Taniguti, Cristiane Hayumi; Sobrinho Jr., Iderval; Torres, Felipe Rafael; de Brito, Reinaldo Alves

    2016-01-01

    The West Indian fruit fly, Anastrepha obliqua, is an important agricultural pest in the New World. The use of pesticide-free methods to control invasive species such as this reinforces the search for genes potentially useful in their genetic control. Therefore, the study of chemosensory proteins involved with a range of responses to the chemical environment will help not only on the understanding of the species biology but may also help the development of environmentally friendly pest control strategies. Here we analyzed the expression patterns of three OBP genes, Obp19d_2, Obp56a and Obp99c, across different phases of A. obliqua development by qPCR. In order to do so, we tested eight and identified three reference genes for data normalization, rpl17, rpl18 and ef1a, which displayed stability for the conditions here tested. All OBPs showed differential expression on adults and some differential expression among adult stages. Obp99c had an almost exclusive expression in males and Obp56a showed high expression in virgin females. Thereby, our results provide relevant data not only for other gene expression studies in this species, as well as for the search of candidate genes that may help in the development of new pest control strategies. PMID:26818909

  5. Visibility and Persistence of Marker Dyes and Effect on the Quality and Mating Competitiveness of Mass-Reared Flies (Diptera: Tephritidae): Anastrepha obliqua and Bisexual and Genetic Sexing (Tapachula-7) Strains of A. ludens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arredondo, José; Ruiz, Lia; López, Gladis; Díaz-Fleischer, Francisco

    2017-08-01

    Fluorescent dyes are commonly used in the sterile insect technique (SIT) for marking insects for a proper identification after recapture. However, the quality of the mark must be balanced against insect performance, because dyes can negatively affect some parameters of insect performance and reduce their effectiveness in control with the SIT. We determined the visibility and persistence and the effect of dyes on the quality of Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart) and Anastrepha ludens (Loew) (bisexual and genetic sexing strains) by testing four concentrations of a dye (Day-Glo) from 0 to 2.5 g dye/kg of pupae. Visibility and persistence of the mark were positively affected by dose and negatively affected by the length of time the samples were kept in a solution of 75% alcohol. However, upon dissection, even the lowest dose of dye was visible under a fluorescence microscope. Between dyed and undyed pupae (control), no significant differences were observed in rates of emergence, fliers and flight ability, and survival in two tests, with water and without food and without water and food, at any of the concentrations tested. Furthermore, no significant difference in mating competitiveness was detected between control pupae and those dyed at 1.0 and 2.5 g dye/kg pupae. We discuss our results with the possibility of reducing the dose of dye in these three flies, because the heads are large enough to capture sufficient particles to permit identification with the current methods of detection. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Parasitóides (Hymenoptera: Braconidae de Anastrepha Schiner (Diptera: Tephritidae no estado do Acre Parasitoids (Hymenoptera: Braconidae of Anastrepha Schiner (Diptera: Tephritidae in the state of Acre, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcílio José Thomazini

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho relata a primeira ocorrência de parasitóides em moscas-das-frutas do gênero Anastrepha Schiner no estado do Acre. No município de Bujari foram encontrados os braconídeos Opius bellus Gahan (72,5%, Doryctobracon areolatus (Szépligeti (26,8% e Utetes anastrephae (Viereck (0,7% associados a A. obliqua (Macquart em frutos de taperebá (Spondias mombin L., com parasitismo de 29,5%. No município de Rio Branco, em frutos de goiaba (Psidium guajava L., ocorreu somente D. areolatus em A. obliqua com parasitismo de 2,7%.This paper records the first parasitoids occurrence on Anastrepha Schiner fruit flies in the state of Acre, Brazil. In the Bujari County there occurred the braconids Opius bellus Gahan (72.5%, Doryctobracon areolatus (Szépligeti (26.8% e Utetes anastrephae (Viereck (0.7% associated with A. obliqua (Macquart in tapereba fruits (Spondias mombin L., with parasitism of 29.5%. In guajava fruits (Psidium guajava L. at Rio Branco County, only D. areolatus on A. obliqua occurred, with parasitism of 2.7%.

  7. Diversity of Anastrepha spp. (Diptera: Tephritidae) and associated braconid parasitoids from native and exotic hosts in southeastern Bahia, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Janisete G; Dutra, Vivian S; Santos, Mirian S; Silva, Nívea M O; Vidal, Daniela B; Nink, Ricardo A; Guimarães, Jorge A; Araujo, Elton L

    2010-10-01

    We documented fruit fly-host associations and infestation rates over 5 yr in the state of Bahia, Brazil, by systematically collecting native and introduced fruits in backyard and commercial orchards, experimental stations, and patches of native vegetation. Fruit were collected in multiple sites in the southern and southernmost regions of Bahia. A total of 942.22 kg from 27 fruit species in 15 plant families was collected throughout this study. Of these, 15 plant species from six families were infested by Anastrepha species. A total of 11,614 fruit flies was reared from the fruit (5,178 females and 6,436 males). No specimens of Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) were recovered. Eleven Anastrepha species were recovered from the collected fruit: Anastrepha antunesi Lima (0.04%), Anastrepha distincta Greene (0.1%), Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann) (53.5%), Anastrepha leptozona Hendel (4.5%), Anastrepha manihoti Lima (0.1%), Anastrepha montei Lima (1.0%), Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart) (33.0%), Anastrepha pickeli Lima (2.0%), Anastrepha serpentina (Wiedemann) (1.0%), Anastrepha sororcula Zucchi (3.0%), and Anastrepha zenildae Zucchi (1.8%). We recovered 1,265 parasitoids (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) from Anastrepha pupae. Three species of braconids were found to parasitize larvae of nine Anastrepha species. The most common parasitoid species recovered was Doryctobracon areolatus (Szépligeti) (81.7%), followed by Utetes anastrephae (Viereck) (12.2%) and Asobara anastrephae (Muesebeck) (6.1%). We report A. fraterculus infesting Malay apple Syzygium malaccense (L.) Merr. & L. M. Perry and A. fraterculus, A. sororcula, and A. zenildae infesting araza Eugenia stipitata McVaugh for the first time in Brazil.

  8. Application of feces extracts and synthetic analogues of the host marking pheromone of Anastrepha ludens significantly reduces fruit infestation by A. obliqua in tropical plum and mango backyard orchards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aluja, Martín; Díaz-Fleischer, F; Boller, E F; Hurter, J; Edmunds, A J F; Hagmann, L; Patrian, B; Reyes, J

    2009-12-01

    We determined the efficacy of three potential oviposition deterrents in reducing fruit infestation by Anastrepha obliqua in tropical plum and mango orchards. These were: (1) Extracts of feces of Mexican fruit fly, Anastrepha ludens, known to contain the A. ludens host marking pheromone (HMP) and (2) two fully synthetic simplified analogues of the naturally occurring compound, which we have named desmethyl A. ludens HMP (DM-HMP) and Anastrephamide. Two applications of feces extracts 2 or 3 wk before fruit color break reduced A. obliqua infestation in plums by 94.1, 75.9, and 72% when measured 8, 14, and 25 d, respectively, after application. The natural A. ludens-HMP containing extract retained its effectiveness despite considerable rainfall (112.5 mm) and high A. obliqua populations. The synthetic desmethyl HMP derivative (DM-HMP) also reduced infestation in plums by 53.3 and 58.7% when measured, 18 and 26 d, respectively, after application. Finally, applications of Anastrephamide resulted in fruit loss cut by half and an 80% reduction in numbers of fly larvae per fruit. Our results confirm previous findings indicating that there is interspecific cross-recognition of the HMP in two of the most pestiferous Anastrepha species and open the door for the development of a highly selective, biorational Anastrepha management scheme.

  9. Species of Anastrepha (Diptera: Tephritidae) captured in a guava orchard (Psidium guajava L., Myrtaceae) in Boa Vista, Roraima, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsaro Júnior, A L; Deus, E G; Ronchi-Teles, B; Adaime, R; Silva Júnior, R J

    2013-11-01

    The guava fruit (Psidium guajava) is among the most strongly affected by fruit flies in Brazil. In the Brazilian Amazon, 11 species of Anastrepha have been reported in guava orchards to date. This work aimed to identify the species of Anastrepha present in a guava orchard in the municipality of Boa Vista, determine the species infesting the fruits, and identify any parasitoids present. Two McPhail traps with food bait were installed and weekly collections were made between January and December 2008. Fruits were also collected systematically during this period, with a view to determining the association between host plant and tephritid species. Nine species of Anastrepha were identified, in addition to one specimen belonging to a probable new species. Anastrepha striata Schiner, Anastrepha sororcula Zucchi, Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart), and Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann) were the dominant species in the orchard, accounting for 84.8% of all captured individuals. All females collected directly from fruits were A. striata. Doryctobracon areolatus (Szépligeti) was the only parasitoid species obtained. In this work, Anastrepha ethalea (Walker) is reported for the first time in the state of Roraima.

  10. Biodiversidade de moscas-das-frutas do gênero Anastrepha (Diptera, Tephritidae no campus da ESALQ-USP, Piracicaba, São Paulo

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    Keiko Uramoto

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi conduzido na área abrangida pelo campus da Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz da Universidade de São Paulo, no município de Piracicaba, Estado de São Paulo. Teve como objetivos, determinar a composição do gênero Anastrepha Schiner e verificar a associação das espécies de plantas hospedeiras, estabelecidas na área, com as espécies de Anastrepha. Foram examinadas 23.277 fêmeas de Anastrepha coletadas por meio de armadilhas McPhail e 18 espécies pertencentes a nove grupos de espécies foram registradas. Um total de 563 amostras de frutos pertencentes a nove famílias e, pelo menos, 23 espécies de plantas foi coletado em 47 estações de capturas. Foram identificadas 10.243 fêmeas e das 18 espécies de Anastrepha capturadas em armadilhas somente seis emergiram das amostras de frutos: A. bistrigata Bezzi, A. fraterculus (Wied., A. obliqua (Macquart, A. pseudoparallela (Loew, A. serpentina (Wied. e A. sororcula Zucchi. A. fraterculus infestou maior diversidade de frutos. Os hospedeiros preferidos de A. obliqua foram as espécies da família Anacardiaceae. A. pseudoparallela e A. serpentina infestaram exclusivamente Passifloraceae e Sapotaceae, respectivamente. A. fraterculus é registrada pela primeira vez em sapoti (Manilkara zapota L. no Brasil.Biodiversity of fruit flies of the genus Anastrepha (Diptera, Tephritidae at the ESALQ-USP campus, Piracicaba, São Paulo. The aim of this study was to determine the number of species of Anastrepha Schiner at the campus and to verify the association between host plant species and Anastrepha species in this area. A total of 23,277 females of Anastrepha collected in McPhail traps was examined, and 18 species belonging to nine species groups were recorded. A total of 563 fruit samples representing at least 23 plant species from nine families was collected in 47 capture sites. A total of 10,243 females was identified. Of the 18 Anastrepha species captured in traps

  11. UTILIZAÇÃO DA ANÁLISE DISCRIMINANTE EM ESTUDOS TAXONÔMICOS DE MOSCAS-DAS-FRUTAS DO GÊNERO Anastrepha Schiner, 1868 (DIPTERA: TEPHRITIDAE

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    ARAUJO E.L.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available As moscas-das-frutas Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann, 1830, A. obliqua (Macquart, 1835, A. sororcula (Zucchi, 1979 e A. zenildae (Zucchi, 1979 foram submetidas a uma análise discriminante. Essas espécies do grupo fraterculus distinguem-se unicamente com base em detalhes do ápice do acúleo, que por serem muito semelhantes, dificultam a identificação específica. A análise discriminante permitiu a separação das quatro espécies de Anastrepha, com base em oito medidas do acúleo. Portanto, essa é mais uma técnica para auxiliar as identificações de espécies de Anastrepha, como já acontece em muitos outros grupos de insetos.

  12. Overlapping and co-occurrence pattern of Anastrepha species (Diptera, Tephritidae in anthropic areas

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    Tayron Sousa Amaral

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out in two anthropic areas (Fazenda Areão and Monte Olimpo on the “Luiz de Queiroz” campus, University of São Paulo, Piracicaba, SP. We analyzed data from 52 collections of 14 McPhail traps distributed in both areas. A total of 1,583 females belonging to 14 species were collected, including Anastrepha amita Zucchi, A. barbiellinii Lima, A. bistrigata Bezzi, A. daciformis Bezzi, A. distincta Greene, A. fraterculus (Wiedemann, A. grandis (Macquart, A. manihoti Lima, A. montei Lima, A. obliqua (Macquart, A. pickeli Lima, A. pseudoparallela (Loew, A. serpentina (Wiedemann and A. sororcula Zucchi. A greater number of specimens (1,041 were collected at the Fazenda Areão compared to Monte Olimpo (542. The mean niche overlap was greater than expected at random for both areas; therefore, the ecological niches of the species largely overlap. The pattern of co-occurrence indicates that segregation was not random between two pairs of species: A. pseudoparallela × A. obliqua (Fazenda Areão and A. fraterculus × A. pseudoparallela (Monte Olimpo. This segregation suggests that there may be competition for resources in each niche. The analysis also revealed three aggregated species pairs: A. bistrigata × A. montei, A. fraterculus × A. barbiellinii (Fazenda Areão, and A. fraterculus × A. bistrigata (Monte Olimpo, indicating that each pair occurs concomitantly without interfering with the permanence of the populations in these areas.

  13. Capture of Anastrepha species (Diptera: Tephritidae) with multilure traps and biolure attractants in Guatemala

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez, A.J.; Salinas, E.J.; Rendon, P.

    2007-01-01

    Two trapping systems were compared in a study in Guatemala during the wet season, May through Dec 2001. Trap/lure combinations consisting of green or yellow-based plastic McPhail-like traps baited with a synthetic 2-component lure (putrescine and ammonium acetate) and 300 mL of propylene glycol antifreeze as a preservative were compared to the traditional glass McPhail baited with torula yeast/borax and 300 mL of water. Both systems captured several key Anastrepha species including Anastrepha ludens Loew, A. obliqua, Macquart, A. serpentina Weidemann, A. striata Schiner, A. distincta Greene, A. fraterculus Weidemann as well as Ceratitis capitata Weidemann. Additionally, 13 other Anastrepha spp. were captured with the synthetic lure. The plastic traps captured more key flies than the McPhail trap except for A. distincta where there were no significant differences between the yellow-based plastic trap and the McPhail trap and no significant differences between any trap and lure for trapping A. fraterculus. The synthetic lure lasted 10 weeks. The sex ratio was female-biased for almost all captured key species in both systems. Moreover, there were significant numbers of captured nontarget insects in all traps; however, the captured flies in those traps with the synthetic lure were not adversely affected by these insects. Propylene glycol-based antifreeze was a superior preservative when compared to borax/water. (author) [es

  14. The South American fruit fly, Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann) in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zucchi, R.A.; Araujo, E.L.; Canal D, N.A.; Uchoa F, M.A.

    1999-01-01

    Anastrepha fraterculus, the South American fruit fly, is the most common and economically important pest for the fruit-bearing species in the Neotropical region. However, there are some species that are close to A. fraterculus and, sometimes they can be erroneously identified as A. fraterculus. The separation of A. fraterculus from A. obliqua, A. sororcula and A. zenildae, species closely related to South American fruit fly, is discussed. Also, information on the host plants and braconid parasitoids for A. fraterculus in Brazil is presented. (author)

  15. Behaviour of Anastrepha fraterculus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salles, L.A.

    1999-01-01

    A number of experiments and observations on the behaviour, host associations, attractants for adults and pupation of the South American fruit fly Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann), conducted under field or semi-natural conditions are presented here. (author)

  16. Biology of Anastrepha fraterculus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salles, L.A.

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents available (published) information on specific abiotic factors, such as temperature, humidity, and lighting on the life cycle of Anastrepha fraterculus, henceforth AF. AF displays holometabolous development: egg, larva (development is completed in three instars), pupa and free living adults. (author)

  17. Rearing of Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salles, L.A.

    1999-01-01

    A few attempts were conducted to establish basic needs, materials, conditions and procedures for artificial rearing of Anastrepha fraterculus, henceforth AF. A brief summary will be presented based on published and personal information. (author)

  18. Lonomia obliqua Walker (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae: hemostasis implications

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    Silviane Maggi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Summary In southern Brazil, since 1989, several cases of accidents produced by unwilling contact with the body of poisonous caterpillars of the moth species Lonomia obliqua Walker, 1855 (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae, were described. L. obliqua caterpillars have gregarious behavior and feed on leaves of host trees during the night, staying grouped in the trunk during the day, which favors the occurrence of accidents with the species. This caterpillar has the body covered with bristles that on contact with the skin of individuals, breaks and release their contents, inoculating the venom into the victim. The basic constitution of the venom is protein and its components produce physiological changes in the victim, which include disturbances in hemostasis. Hemorrhagic syndrome associated with consumption coagulopathy, intravascular hemolysis and acute renal failure are some of the possible clinical manifestations related to poisoning by L. obliqua. Specific laboratory tests for diagnosis of poisoning have not been described previously. The diagnosis of poisoning is made based on the patient's medical history, clinical manifestations, erythrocyte levels, and, primarily, parameters that evaluate blood coagulation. Treatment is performed with the use of supportive care and the administration of specific hyperimmune antivenom. Poisoning can be serious and even fatal.

  19. Nomenclatural Studies Toward a World List of Diptera Genus-Group Names. Part V: Pierre-Justin-Marie Macquart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evenhuis, Neal L; Pape, Thomas; Pont, Adrian C

    2016-09-30

    The Diptera genus-group names of Pierre-Justin-Marie Macquart are reviewed and annotated. A total of 399 available genus-group names in 69 families of Diptera are listed alphabetically, for each name giving author, year and page of original publication, originally included species, type species and method of fixation, current status of the name, family placement, and a list of any emendations of it that have been found in the literature. Remarks are given to clarify nomenclatural or taxonomic information. In addition, an index to all the species-group names of Diptera proposed by Macquart (3,611, of which 3,543 are available) is given with bibliographic reference (year and page) to each original citation.        The following type species are designated herein: Agculocera nigra Macquart, 1855 for Onuxicera Macquart, 1855, present designation [Tachinidae]; Trixa imhoffi Macquart, 1834, for Semiomyia Macquart, 1848, present designation [Tachinidae].        The following type species are designated herein with fixation under ICZN Code Art. 70.3.2: Azelia nebulosa Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830 for Atomogaster Macquart, 1835, present designation [Muscidae]; Tachydromia vocatoria Fallén, 1816 for Chelipoda Macquart, 1835, present designation [Empididae]; Eriocera macquarti Enderlein, 1912 for Eriocera Macquart, 1838, present designation [Limoniidae]; Limosina acutangula Zetterstedt, 1847 for Heteroptera Macquart, 1835, present designation [Sphaeroceridae]; Phryxe pavoniae Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830 for Masicera Macquart, 1834, present designation [Tachinidae]; Pachymyia macquartii Townsend, 1916 for Pachymyia Macquart, 1844, present designation [Tachinidae].        Earlier valid subsequent type-species designations have been found in this study for the following: Anisophysa Macquart, 1835 [Sepsidae]; Diphysa Macquart, 1838 [Stratiomyidae]; Pachyrhina Macquart, 1834 [Tipulidae]; Silbomyia Macquart, 1844 [Calliphoridae].        One name is raised from

  20. Establishment of the west indian fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) parasitoid Doryctobracon areolatus (Hymenoptera: Braconidae)in the Dominican Republic

    Science.gov (United States)

    The West Indian fruit fly, Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart), infests numerous fruit species, particularly Anacardiaceae and most importantly mango (Mangifera indica L.). Widespread in the Neotropics, it was first reported in Hispaniola nearly 70 years ago. Continental populations are attacked by the op...

  1. First record of Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart) (Diptera, Calliphoridae) from Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    José O. de Almeida Silva; Fernando da S. Carvalho-Filho; Maria C. Esposito; Geniana A. Reis

    2012-01-01

    First record of Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart) (Diptera, Calliphoridae) from Brazil. In addition to its native fauna, the Neotropical region is known to be inhabited by four introduced species of blow flies of the genus Chrysomya. Up until now, only three of these species have been recorded in Brazil - Chrysomya albiceps (Wiedemann), Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius), and Chrysomya putoria (Wiedemann). In South America, C. rufifacies (Macquart) has only been reported from Argentina and Colom...

  2. Solar sterilization of abscised fruit: a cultural practice to reduce infestations of Anastrepha obliqua around orchards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abscised mangoes, Mangifera indica L., of several varieties were stored under varying conditions of insolation, including no sun (stored in a laboratory), shade (stored under the shade of a mango tree), full sun (stored in direct view of the sun), and covered in a black plastic bag and stored in dir...

  3. Biology of Anastrepha grandis (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Different Cucurbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolzan, Anderson; Nava, Dori E; Garcia, Flávio R M; Valgas, Ricardo A; Smaniotto, Giovani

    2015-06-01

    Anastrepha grandis (Macquart) (Diptera: Tephritidae) is one of the main pests of cucurbits in Brazil. Losses occur due to the damage caused to the fruits and the embargo on exports, as A. grandis is considered a quarantine pest in countries that import Brazilian cucurbits. This study aimed to evaluate the development of A. grandis in hosts of the Cucurbitaceae family. The hosts used were stem squash (Cucurbita pepo L.), squash (Cucurbita moschata Duchesne), chayote [Sechium edule (Jacq.) Swartz], mini watermelon [Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum & Nakai], Spanish melon (Cucumis melo L.), hybrid squash "Tetsukabuto" (C. moschata×Cucurbita maxima Duchesne), and salad cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.). We evaluated the viability and duration of egg-to-pupa period, pupal weight, sex ratio, and average number of pupae per fruit under controlled conditions of temperature, relative humidity, and photophase. The preoviposition and oviposition periods, fecundity, fertility, and longevity of females were determined for adults. Hosts of the genus Cucurbita provided a better development of A. grandis in comparison with other hosts, and presented a greater number of insects on fruit as well as higher infestation rate. Fecundity and longevity were also higher for females that developed in hosts of the genus Cucurbita, although values of these biological parameters varied between stem squash, squash, hybrid squash "Tetsukabuto." © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Specific bibliography on Anastrepha fraterculus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salles, L.A.; Jaldo, H.

    1999-01-01

    Most publications on Anastrepha fraterculus are in the literature sources from South America, and papers were published in Spanish or Portuguese. Many literature sources mentioned in this list are not indexed in entomological abstracts and, consequently, are not easily available outside their home state or country. Due to this fact, the inclusion of a list of specific bibliography on A. fraterculus could be a help for researchers and students interested in fruit flies. In this list are included only references directly dealing with Anastrepha fraterculus. Obviously, many more references exist that consider this species, but general or non-specific work or data concerning A. fraterculus were not included in the present list. (author)

  5. Faunistic analysis of Anastrepha spp. (Diptera: Tephritidae) on a guava orchard under organic management in the municipality of Una, Bahia, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dutra, Vivian S.; Santos, Mirian S; Souza Filho, Zilton A.; Silva, Janisete G. [Universidade Estadual de Santa Cruz (UESC), Ilheus, BA (Brazil). Dept. de Ciencias Biologicas; Araujo, Elton L. [Universidade Federal Rural do Semi-Arido, Mossoro, RN (Brazil). Dept. de Ciencias Vegetais

    2009-01-15

    We carried out a study to characterize fruit fly populations on an organic guava orchard (Psidium guajava cv. Paluma) in the municipality of Una, southern region of the state of Bahia, Brazil, using faunistic analysis of the adult fruit f y specimens captured in McPhail traps from January 2004 through March 2007. A total of 22,673 specimens of Anastrepha (15,306 females and 7,367 males) were captured. Thirteen species of Anastrepha were recorded. A. fraterculus and A. obliqua were the more frequent and dominant species, accounting for 90.1% of all females captured in the traps. A. fraterculus was the predominant species (more frequent, constant and dominant). The high value of the Simpson index (0.62) and the low values of Shannon-Wiener (0.83) and equitability (0.49) indices indicated the dominance and high frequency of A. fraterculus and A. obliqua on the guava orchard despite the presence of other fruit species as potential hosts of fruit flies. (author)

  6. Faunistic analysis of Anastrepha spp. (Diptera: Tephritidae) on a guava orchard under organic management in the municipality of Una, Bahia, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dutra, Vivian S.; Santos, Mirian S; Souza Filho, Zilton A.; Silva, Janisete G.; Araujo, Elton L.

    2009-01-01

    We carried out a study to characterize fruit fly populations on an organic guava orchard (Psidium guajava cv. Paluma) in the municipality of Una, southern region of the state of Bahia, Brazil, using faunistic analysis of the adult fruit f y specimens captured in McPhail traps from January 2004 through March 2007. A total of 22,673 specimens of Anastrepha (15,306 females and 7,367 males) were captured. Thirteen species of Anastrepha were recorded. A. fraterculus and A. obliqua were the more frequent and dominant species, accounting for 90.1% of all females captured in the traps. A. fraterculus was the predominant species (more frequent, constant and dominant). The high value of the Simpson index (0.62) and the low values of Shannon-Wiener (0.83) and equitability (0.49) indices indicated the dominance and high frequency of A. fraterculus and A. obliqua on the guava orchard despite the presence of other fruit species as potential hosts of fruit flies. (author)

  7. Biochemical and biological properties of Lonomia obliqua bristle extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Chudzinski-Tavassi

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Lonomia obliqua caterpillar is frequently seen in accidents with humans especially in the south of Brazil. Patients develop a hemorrhagic syndrome that can be treated with specific antilonomic serum. A consumptive coagulopathy was found to be the main cause of bleeding complications observed in patients after contact with L. obliqua. Studies revealed that L. obliqua caterpillar bristle extract (LOCBE displays a procoagulant activity that leads to intravascular thrombin formation, resulting in a special form of disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC. Fibrinolysis seems to be secondary to the fibrin production, since no direct fibrinolytic activity was found in LOCBE. Two procoagulant toxins, a factor X activator (Losac and a prothrombin activator (Lopap, were isolated from LOCBE and characterized. Infusion of Lopap into experimental animals triggered a condition similar to that observed in human envenomation.

  8. Taxonomic status of Anastrepha fraterculus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steck, G.J.

    1999-01-01

    There has long been speculation that nominal Anastrepha fraterculus comprises more than a single biological species. Herein is a review of data supporting the hypothesis that multiple cryptic species are present. Evidence includes unusual variation in pest status, morphology, karyotypes, isozymes, mitochondrial DNA and cuticular hydrocarbon. The data strongly support the notion of multiple cryptic species. However, it is not yet possible to state how many species may be involved or to delineate them by diagnostic morphology, distribution, host plants or behavior. A combination of methodologies will be needed to resolve the complex. (author)

  9. First record of Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart (Diptera, Calliphoridae from Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José O. de Almeida Silva

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available First record of Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart (Diptera, Calliphoridae from Brazil. In addition to its native fauna, the Neotropical region is known to be inhabited by four introduced species of blow flies of the genus Chrysomya. Up until now, only three of these species have been recorded in Brazil - Chrysomya albiceps (Wiedemann, Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius, and Chrysomya putoria (Wiedemann. In South America, C. rufifacies (Macquart has only been reported from Argentina and Colombia. This study records C. rufifacies from Brazil for the first time. The specimens were collected in an area of cerrado (savanna-like vegetation in the municipality of Caxias in state of Maranhão, and were attracted by pig carcasses.

  10. Cordia dichotomoa Forst. f Syn. C. obliqua Willd. (English: Sebesten ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Cordia dichotomoa Forst. f Syn. C. obliqua Willd. (English: Sebesten plum; Hindi: Laslim or Lasora) of Boraginaceae is a medium-sized tree with a short crooked trunk and simple leaves. Flowers are small, white and are borne on small branched inflorescences. Fruits are yellowish brown or pink and when ripe, nearly black ...

  11. First Record of Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart) (Diptera, Calliphoridae) in Southeastern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Ribeiro, Antonia de Castro; UNIRIO; Cardoso, Debora; UESB; Lessa, Cláudia Soares dos Santos; UNIRIO; Moya-Borja, Gonzalo Efrain; UFRRJ; Aguiar, Valéria Magalhães; UNIRIO

    2013-01-01

    The present note reports the first record of Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart) in Southeastern Brazil, in the municipality of Seropédica, Rio de Janeiro. The collecting was conducted with Diptera traps using fresh fish as bait. Primeiro Registro de Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart) (Diptera, Calliphoridae) no Sudeste do Brasil Resumo. A presente nota relata o primeiro registro da espécie Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart), no Sudeste do Brasil, no Município de Serop&...

  12. Eucalyptus obliqua seedling growth in organic versus mineral soil horizons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen eBarry

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Eucalyptus obliqua, the most widespread timber tree in Tasmania, is a pioneer after fire which can eliminate the organic layer of forest soil, exposing the underlying mineral soil. We compared seedling growth, mycorrhiza formation, and mineral nutrient limitation in organic layer versus mineral soil. We grew E. obliqua seedlings separately in pots of organic layer and mineral soil in a glasshouse. Additional treatments of organic soil only, involved fully crossed methyl-bromide fumigation and fertilization. Fertilization comprised chelated iron for 121 days after transplant (DAT followed by soluble phosphorus. At 357 DAT, whole plant dry weight was three times greater in ambient organic than in mineral soil. In organic soil, fumigation halved ectomycorrhiza abundance and reduced seedling growth at 149 DAT, but by 357 DAT when negative effects of fumigation on seedling growth had disappeared, neither fumigation nor fertilization affected mycorrhiza abundance. Iron fertilization diminished seedling growth, but subsequent phosphorus fertilization improved it. E. obliqua seedlings grow much better in organic layer soil than in mineral soil, although phosphorus remains limiting. The prevalent forestry practice of burning to mineral soil after timber harvest exposes a poor growth medium likely only partially compensated by fire-induced mineral soil alterations.

  13. The South American fruit fly, Anastrepha fraterculus (Wied.); advances in artificial rearing, taxonomic status and biological studies. Proceedings of a workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    One of the fruit flies of major concern, because of its economic and quarantine importance in the Americas, is the exotic Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata, which is established throughout the Central and South American countries, excluding Chile. Chile, Mexico and the USA have conducted multi-million dollar campaigns to prevent the establishment of this and other exotic fruit flies in their respective territories, in support of the development of important fruit production and export industries. Other important fruit fly species, which are native to the American continent, are those of the genus Anastrepha. In this group, of most economic importance are A. obliqua and A. ludens for Mexico and some Central American countries and A. fraterculus and A. obliqua for South America. In this publication, attention is focused on A. fraterculus, the South American fruit fly. This species, as it is presently recognized, occurs from Mexico to Argentina and is reported from approximately 80 host plants, including commercial fruits of economic importance, such as mango, citrus, guava, apple and coffee. As A. fraterculus if considered to be of high economic and quarantine importance in many countries in South America, it is justifiable to recommend and promote the implementation of activities to strengthen knowledge of the species and develop techniques for its control and/or eradication. The development of sterile insect technique (SIT) and other biological control methods are very encouraging alternatives, as can be seen from examples in Mexico and the USA, where these approaches are in use against A. ludens and A. obliqua

  14. Head Transcriptomes of Two Closely Related Species of Fruit Flies of the Anastrepha fraterculus Group Reveals Divergent Genes in Species with Extensive Gene Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezende, Victor Borges; Congrains, Carlos; Lima, André Luís A.; Campanini, Emeline Boni; Nakamura, Aline Minali; de Oliveira, Janaína Lima; Chahad-Ehlers, Samira; Junior, Iderval Sobrinho; Alves de Brito, Reinaldo

    2016-01-01

    Several fruit flies species of the Anastrepha fraterculus group are of great economic importance for the damage they cause to a variety of fleshy fruits. Some species in this group have diverged recently, with evidence of introgression, showing similar morphological attributes that render their identification difficult, reinforcing the relevance of identifying new molecular markers that may differentiate species. We investigated genes expressed in head tissues from two closely related species: A. obliqua and A. fraterculus, aiming to identify fixed single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and highly differentiated transcripts, which, considering that these species still experience some level of gene flow, could indicate potential candidate genes involved in their differentiation process. We generated multiple libraries from head tissues of these two species, at different reproductive stages, for both sexes. Our analyses indicate that the de novo transcriptome assemblies are fairly complete. We also produced a hybrid assembly to map each species’ reads, and identified 67,470 SNPs in A. fraterculus, 39,252 in A. obliqua, and 6386 that were common to both species. We identified 164 highly differentiated unigenes that had a mean interspecific index (D¯) of at least 0.94. We selected unigenes that had Ka/Ks higher than 0.5, or had at least three or more highly differentiated SNPs as potential candidate genes for species differentiation. Among these candidates, we identified proteases, regulators of redox homeostasis, and an odorant-binding protein (Obp99c), among other genes. The head transcriptomes described here enabled the identification of thousands of genes hitherto unavailable for these species, and generated a set of candidate genes that are potentially important to genetically identify species and understand the speciation process in the presence of gene flow of A. obliqua and A. fraterculus. PMID:27558666

  15. Head Transcriptomes of Two Closely Related Species of Fruit Flies of the Anastrepha fraterculus Group Reveals Divergent Genes in Species with Extensive Gene Flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Borges Rezende

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Several fruit flies species of the Anastrepha fraterculus group are of great economic importance for the damage they cause to a variety of fleshy fruits. Some species in this group have diverged recently, with evidence of introgression, showing similar morphological attributes that render their identification difficult, reinforcing the relevance of identifying new molecular markers that may differentiate species. We investigated genes expressed in head tissues from two closely related species: A. obliqua and A. fraterculus, aiming to identify fixed single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs and highly differentiated transcripts, which, considering that these species still experience some level of gene flow, could indicate potential candidate genes involved in their differentiation process. We generated multiple libraries from head tissues of these two species, at different reproductive stages, for both sexes. Our analyses indicate that the de novo transcriptome assemblies are fairly complete. We also produced a hybrid assembly to map each species’ reads, and identified 67,470 SNPs in A. fraterculus, 39,252 in A. obliqua, and 6386 that were common to both species. We identified 164 highly differentiated unigenes that had a mean interspecific index (D¯ of at least 0.94. We selected unigenes that had Ka/Ks higher than 0.5, or had at least three or more highly differentiated SNPs as potential candidate genes for species differentiation. Among these candidates, we identified proteases, regulators of redox homeostasis, and an odorant-binding protein (Obp99c, among other genes. The head transcriptomes described here enabled the identification of thousands of genes hitherto unavailable for these species, and generated a set of candidate genes that are potentially important to genetically identify species and understand the speciation process in the presence of gene flow of A. obliqua and A. fraterculus.

  16. Pheromone communication in Anastrepha obliqua (Diptera: Tephritidae): A comparison of the volatiles and salivary gland extracts of two wild populations

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Goncalves, G. B.; Silva, C. E.; Mendonca, A. D. L.; Vaníčková, Lucie; Tomčala, Aleš; do Nascimento, R. R.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 96, č. 4 (2013), s. 1365-1374 ISSN 0015-4040 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : salivary glands * volatile compounds * sex attractant * wild population * gas chromatography - mass spectrometry Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 1.056, year: 2013

  17. Surface ultrastructure of Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart) larvae (Diptera: Calliphoridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukontason, Kabkaew L; Sukontason, Kom; Lertthamnongtham, Sirisuda; Kuntalue, Budsabong; Thijuk, Natchanart; Vogtsberger, Roy C; Olson, Jimmy K

    2003-05-01

    The surface ultrastructure of all larval instars of Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart) is described by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Morphological changes were greatest from the first to the second instar, but less from the second to the third instar. Most of these changes involved the structure of the anterior spiracle, posterior spiracle, integument of the body, and mouthhooks. Modification of the mouthhooks, especially in the third instar, are helpful in explaining the ferocious feeding ability of the older maggots. The common name of "hairy-maggot" for C. rufifacies is only appropriate for the second and third instars because of their elongated tubercles along the body, whereas this name is not descriptive of the first instar that lack tubercles.

  18. First Record of Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart (Diptera, Calliphoridae in Southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonia Ribeiro

    2013-12-01

    Resumo. A presente nota relata o primeiro registro da espécie Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart, no Sudeste do Brasil, no Município de Seropédica, Rio de Janeiro. As coletas foram realizadas com auxílio de armadilhas para dípteros e a isca utilizada foi peixe fresco.

  19. Two new species and a new record of Bactrocera Macquart (Diptera: Tephritidae: Dacinae: Dacini) from India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, K J; Ramani, S; Whitmore, Daniel; Ranganath, H R

    2016-04-11

    Two new species of Bactrocera Macquart, namely Bactrocera (Calodacus) harrietensis Ramani & David, sp. nov. and Bactrocera (Calodacus) chettalli David & Ranganath, sp. nov., are described from the Andaman and Nicobar Islands and Karnataka, India, respectively. Bactrocera (Zeugodacus) semongokensis Drew & Romig is recorded for the first time from India.

  20. FRUIT FLIES AND THEIR PARASITOIDS IN THE FRUIT GROWING REGION OF LIVRAMENTO DE NOSSA SENHORA, BAHIA, WITH RECORDS OF UNPRECEDENTED INTERACTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SUZANY AGUIAR LEITE

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Several fruit fly species (Diptera: Tephritidae and Lonchaeidae assume the status of primary pests in fruit trees grown in Brazil, causing direct production losses. The aims of the study were to know aspects of diversity of fruit flies and their parasitoids in the fruit growing region of Livramento de Nossa Senhora, Bahia. Fruit samples were collected from 19 plant species during November/2011 and June/2014. Infestation rates were calculated in pupae.kg-1 of fruit and pupae.fruit-1. The results indicate the occurrence of Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann and Neosilba pendula (Bezzi. Plant species Anacardium occidentale, Averrhoa carambola, Carica papaya, Eugenia uniflora, Malpighia emarginata, Mangifera indica var. “Haden”, “Rosa” and “Tommy Atkins”, Opuntia ficus indica, Pereskia bahiensis, Psidium guajava, Spondias lutea, Spondias purpurea and Spondias tuberosa are hosts of fruit flies in the region. Unprecedented bitrophic relationships between P. bahiensis and C. capitata and Anastrepha sp. and between Opuntia ficus indica and C. capitata and A. obliqua were recorded. Unprecedented tritrophic relationship for the state of Bahia Averrhoa carambola and C. capitata and parasitoid of the Pteromalidae Family were also recorded. Tritrophic associations between M. indica var. “Tommy Atkins” and S. purpurea and A. obliqua and Doryctobracon areolatus; and between S. purpurea and A. obliqua and Utetes anastrephae were observed.

  1. Dopaol 2-keto- and 2,3-diketo-glycosides from Chelone obliqua (Scrophulariaceae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Franzyk, Henrik; Olsen, Carl Erik; Jensen, Søren Rosendal

    2004-01-01

    Two unique 2-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)ethyl glycosides, namely, dopaol beta-D-2-ketoglucopyranoside and dopaol beta-D-2,3-diketoglucopyranoside, were isolated from Chelone obliqua together with the iridoid glucoside catalpol, dopaol beta-D-glucopyranoside, descaffeoylverbascoside, and verbascoside. G...

  2. Dopaol 2-keto- and 2,3-diketoglycosides from Chelone obliqua

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Franzyk, Henrik; Olsen, Carl Erik; Jensen, Søren Rosendal

    2004-01-01

    Two unique 2-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)ethyl glycosides, namely, dopaol beta-D-2-ketoglucopyranoside and dopaol beta-D-2,3-diketoglucopyranoside, were isolated from Chelone obliqua together with the iridoid glucoside catalpol, dopaol beta-D-glucopyranoside, descaffeoylverbascoside, and verbascoside. G...

  3. A revision of the Anastrepha robusta species group (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Anastrepha robusta species group is revised to include the following 29 species: A. amaryllis Tigrero (Ecuador), A. amazonensis, n. sp. (Brazil: Amazonas), A. bella, n. sp. (Panamá), A. binodosa Stone (Colombia, Brazil: Amazonas, Pará), A. concava Greene (Costa Rica to Ecuador and Brazil: Amazon...

  4. Breeding technique of Anastrepha fraterculus (Wied.) for genetic studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manso, F.

    1999-01-01

    Various samples of Anastrepha fraterculus from different areas in Argentina were obtained to develop artificial breeding in the laboratory. Based on a modification of Salles's method, an improved artificial rearing of the species was developed with satisfactory results for genetic analysis. The advances made will contribute towards the search for genetic mechanisms for control. (author)

  5. Lekking behavior of Anastrepha Fraterculus (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Segura, D.; Petit-Marty, N.; Cladera, J.; Sciurano, R.; Calcagno, G.; Gomez Cendra, P.; Vilardi, J.; Vera, T.; Allinghi, A.

    2007-01-01

    Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae) displays a lek mating system. Males form groups in which they simultaneously display signals (acoustical, visual, or chemical) to attract females with the purpose of mating. Females visit the lek and choose among signaling and courting males to mate. Scarce information is available in A. fraterculus about the main factors involved in female choice and the behavior of displaying males. This information could be important within the context of pest control programs with a sterile insect technique (SIT) component, because departures from normal sexual behavior caused by artificial rearing could affect males' performance in the field. In this study we assessed A. fraterculus male behavior within the leks and analyzed the importance of behavioral and morphological traits on their copulatory success. The existence of preferred places for lek formation was evaluated in field cages with trees inside and analyzed by dividing the trees in sectors according to a 3-dimensional system. Males were individually weighed, marked, and observed every 15 min. Morphometric and behavioral characteristics of successful and unsuccessful males were compared. Most successful males grouped in a region of the tree characterized by the highest light intensity in the first 2 h of the morning. Results showed that pheromone calling activity is positively associated with copulatory success. Copulations were more frequent for males calling inside the lek, indicating that pheromone calling activity and presence in the lek are key factors for copulatory success. A positive association between copulatory success and eye length was found; some characteristics of the face were also associated with copula duration and latency. (author) [es

  6. Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart) (Diptera: Calliphoridae) established in the vicinity of Knoxville, Tennessee, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahid, S A; Hall, R D; Haskell, N H; Merritt, R W

    2000-07-01

    The hairy maggot blow fly, Chrsomya rufifacies (Macquart) (Diptera: Calliphoridae) was collected in large numbers as both adults and immatures in the Knoxville, Tennessee, area during 1998 and is likely established there. The distribution of this species in the Old World, isothermal data, and its collection from mid-Michigan during 1998 suggest that it will eventually occupy most of the U.S. The forensic importance of C. rufifacies makes it probable that it will factor into an increasing number of medicolegal cases, but the expanding distribution of this species decreases its utility as a geographic indicator when postmortem movement of decedents is suspected.

  7. Chilled packing systems for fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) in the sterile insect technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez, Emilio; Escobar, Arseny; Bravo, Bigail; Montoya, Pablo [Instituto Interamericano de Cooperacion para la Agricultura (IICA), Chiapas (Mexico); Secretaria de Agricultura, Ganaderia, Desarrollo Rural, Pesca y Alimentacion (SAGARPA), Mexico, D.F. (Mexico). Programa Moscafrut

    2010-07-15

    We evaluated three packing systems (PARC boxes, 'GT' screen towers and 'MX' screen towers) for the emergence and sexual maturation of sterile fruit flies, at three adult fl y densities (1, 1.2 and 1.3 fly/cm 2) and three food types. At the lowest density, results showed no significant differences in the longevity and flight ability of adult Anastrepha ludens (Loew) and Anastrepha obliqua Macquart among the three packing systems. Higher densities resulted in a decrease in these parameters. In the evaluation of the three food types, no significant differences were found either on longevity or flight ability of A. ludens. However, the greatest longevity for both sexes A. obliqua was obtained with commercial powdered Mb and the mix of sugar, protein and corn starch on paper (SPCP) food types. The highest value for flight ability in A. obliqua males was obtained with powdered Mb and SPCP food types, and for females with Mb powdered food. Our data indicated that GT and MX screen tower packing systems are an alternative to the PARC boxes, since they were suitable for adult fl y sexual maturation without any harm to their longevity or flight ability. The tested foods were equivalent in both fruit fl y species, with the exception of the agar type for A. obliqua, which yielded the lowest biological parameters evaluated. Our results contribute to the application of new methods for the packing and release of sterile flies in large-scale programs. (author)

  8. Chilled packing systems for fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) in the sterile insect technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez, Emilio; Escobar, Arseny; Bravo, Bigail; Montoya, Pablo; Secretaria de Agricultura, Ganaderia, Desarrollo Rural, Pesca y Alimentacion

    2010-01-01

    We evaluated three packing systems (PARC boxes, 'GT' screen towers and 'MX' screen towers) for the emergence and sexual maturation of sterile fruit flies, at three adult fl y densities (1, 1.2 and 1.3 fly/cm 2) and three food types. At the lowest density, results showed no significant differences in the longevity and flight ability of adult Anastrepha ludens (Loew) and Anastrepha obliqua Macquart among the three packing systems. Higher densities resulted in a decrease in these parameters. In the evaluation of the three food types, no significant differences were found either on longevity or flight ability of A. ludens. However, the greatest longevity for both sexes A. obliqua was obtained with commercial powdered Mb and the mix of sugar, protein and corn starch on paper (SPCP) food types. The highest value for flight ability in A. obliqua males was obtained with powdered Mb and SPCP food types, and for females with Mb powdered food. Our data indicated that GT and MX screen tower packing systems are an alternative to the PARC boxes, since they were suitable for adult fl y sexual maturation without any harm to their longevity or flight ability. The tested foods were equivalent in both fruit fl y species, with the exception of the agar type for A. obliqua, which yielded the lowest biological parameters evaluated. Our results contribute to the application of new methods for the packing and release of sterile flies in large-scale programs. (author)

  9. Copula duration, insemination and sperm allocation in Anastrepha ludens (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The juxtaposition and functional relationship of the sperm storage organs in Anastrepha ludens is described. The spermatheca squash technique has been used to determine mated status in tephritid fruit flies and thus as a measure of compatability and coverage for SIT programs. Female Anastrepha luden...

  10. Proton activation studies of changes in mineral composition of Eucalyptus obliqua due to Phytophthora cinnamomi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaudhri, M.A.; Lee, M.M.; Rouse, J.L.; Weste, G.

    1978-01-01

    As part of a study of disease caused by Phytophthora cinnamomi in native vegetation, the mineral composition of diseased plants has been compared with those free from disease, but grown under the same conditions. Using proton activation it has been shown that a reduction of 70% in iron and 41% in titanium occurs for diseased Eucalytus obliqua compared with disease-free plants. The reduction in iron is associated with severe chlorosis which occurs as a primary symptom in most plants attacked by this pathogen. (author)

  11. Insect growth regulatory activity of Vitex trifolia and Vitex agnus-castus essential oils against Spilosoma obliqua.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tandon, Shishir; Mittal, Ashutosh K; Pant, A K

    2008-06-01

    Essential oils of Vitex trifolia and Vitex agnus-castus were evaluated against Vth instar larvae of Spilosoma obliqua, when applied topically on the dorsal side of mesothoracic region, for insect growth regulatory activity. This treatment caused extended larval period and pupal period, increase in larval mortality and adult deformity and decrease in adult emergence, fecundity of female and egg fertility of test insect.

  12. ESPÉCIES E FLUTUAÇÃO POPULACIONAL DE MOSCAS-DAS-FRUTAS EM UM POMAR COMERCIAL DE MANGUEIRA, NO LITORAL DO ESTADO DO CEARÁ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Jonathan Dantas de Oliveira

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to know the species and the population fluctuation of fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae in a commercial mango (Mangifera indica L. orchard in the coast of Ceará State. The study was developed from July of 2005 to July of 2007, in the municipality of Beberibe (CE. The capture of the fruit flies was performed using McPhail traps with 5% corn protein hydrolyzed solution as attractant. Weekly, the captured insects were sorted, the fruit flies were maintained in 70% alcohol solution and subsequently identified. The population fluctuation was estimated using the FTD (Fly/Trap/Day index. During the research, six fruit flies species were captured: Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart (63%, A. zenildae Zucchi (7%, A. sororcula Zucchi (5%, A. fraterculus (Wied. (2%, A. distincta Greene (2% and Ceratitis capitata (Wied. (21%. The Anastrepha spp. and C. capitata population peaked was between April and July, in both years of study.

  13. A new species of Anastrepha (Diptera: Tephritidae) from Colombia, Costa Rica and Panama

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anastrepha woodi, new species, is described and illustrated based on specimens from Colombia and Costa Rica. It is compared with A. loewi Stone, the most similar species, which is also redescribed....

  14. Notes on the present situation of Anastrepha fraterculus in Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manso, F.; Basso, A.

    1999-01-01

    Behavioural and karyotypical results from Anastrepha fraterculus samples received in our laboratory during the period 92-94 are discussed. The work represents the partial situation of this pest in Argentina. Data from guava fruits indicate 1) that the oviposition behaviour does not agree with the autocontrol mechanism via ODP previously described, 2) that a selection mechanism associated to fruit size and quality exists, allowing the female to choose the oviposition site, 3) if different varieties of fruits are available, then the fly shows preference for one of them. The oviposition behaviour in samples of peaches is different from that observed on guava samples and agrees with the ODP mechanism. In some localities, A. fraterculus and C. capitata share the same substrate or fruit (same unit). Samples from commercial oranges do not show evidence of Anastrepha attack. A more frequent karyotype fArg 1 (wild type karyotype) as well as high karyotypic variation, mainly measured through the polymorphism of sexual chromosomes, are present within different geographic populations sharing the same host species. To date, we do not have enough information to associate a particular behaviour to a karyotype. The chromosomal analysis is merely descriptive. (author)

  15. New species, new records and updated subgeneric key of Bactrocera Macquart (Diptera: Tephritidae: Dacinae: Dacini) from India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, K J; Hancock, D L; Singh, Shakti Kumar; Ramani, S; Behere, G T; Salini, S

    2017-05-30

    Two new species of genus Bactrocera Macquart, namely B. (Sinodacus) brevipunctata David and Hancock, sp. nov. and B. (Bactrocera) furcata David and Hancock, sp. nov., are described from India. B. (B.) aethriobasis Hardy, B. (B.) rubigina Wang & Zhao, B. (B.) syzygii Tsuruta & White and B. (B.) tuberculata (Bezzi) are recorded for the first time from India. Updated keys to twelve subgenera of Bactrocera and Indian species of Bactrocera (Bactrocera) are also provided.

  16. Identification and Expression Patterns of Putative Diversified Carboxylesterases in the Tea Geometrid Ectropis obliqua Prout

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Sun

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Carboxylesterases (CXEs belong to a family of metabolic enzymes. Some CXEs act as odorant-degrading enzymes (ODEs, which are reportedly highly expressed in insect olfactory organs and participate in the rapid deactivation of ester pheromone components and plant volatiles. The tea geometrid Ectropis obliqua Prout produces sex pheromones consisting of non-ester functional compounds but relies heavily on acetic ester plant volatiles to search for host plants and locate oviposition sites. However, studies characterizing putative candidate ODEs in this important tea plant pest are still relatively scarce. In the present study, we identified 35 candidate EoblCXE genes from E. obliqua chemosensory organs based on previously obtained transcriptomic data. The deduced amino acid sequences possessed the typical characteristics of the insect CXE family, including oxyanion hole residues, the Ser-Glu-His catalytic triad, and the Ser active included in the conserved pentapeptide characteristic of esterases, Gly-X-Ser-X-Gly. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that the EoblCXEs were diverse, belonging to several different insect esterase clades. Tissue- and sex-related expression patterns were studied via reverse-transcription and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction analyses (RT- and qRT-PCR. The results showed that 35 EoblCXE genes presented a diversified expression profile; among these, 12 EoblCXEs appeared to be antenna-biased, two EoblCXEs were non-chemosensory organ-biased, 12 EoblCXEs were ubiquitous, and nine EoblCXEs showed heterogeneous expression levels among different tissues. Intriguingly, two EoblCXE genes, EoblCXE7 and EoblCXE13, were not only strongly localized to antennal sensilla tuned to odorants, such as the sensilla trichodea (Str I and II and sensilla basiconica (Sba, but were also expressed in the putative gustatory sensilla styloconica (Sst, indicating that these two CXEs might play multiple physiological roles in the E. obliqua

  17. Proton activation studies of changes in mineral composition of eucalyptus obliqua due to phytophthora cinnamomi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaudri, M.A.; Lee, M.M.; Rouse, J.L.; Weste, G.

    1978-01-01

    As part of a study of disease caused by Phytophthora cinnamomi in native vegetation, the mineral composition of diseased plants was compared with those free from disease, but grown under the same conditions. Young plants of Eucalyptus obliqua, three years old and with well-formed lignotubers, were selected (a) diseased plant from soil containing a high concentration of P. cinnamomi, and (b) unaffected plant from an adjacent area where the soil was free from this pathogen. The plants were ashed and their mineral composition was compared by activation analysis using proton beams from the Melbourne University Cyclotron. Results showed a 70% reduction in iron and 41% in titanium from diseased plants compared with disease-free plants. The reduction in iron is associated with severe chlorosis which occurs as a primary symptom in most plants attacked by this pathogen

  18. First occurrence of Conura sp. (Hymenoptera: Chalcididae in pupae of Allograpta obliqua Say (Diptera: Syrphidae in Itumbiara, Goiás State, Brazil/ Primeira ocorrência do parasitóide Conura sp. (Hymenoptera: Chalcididae em pupas de Allograpta obliqua Say (Diptera: Syrphidae coletados em plantas de milho em Itumbiara, Goiás

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcio Cleiber Rabelo Costa

    2001-05-01

    Full Text Available First occurrence of Conura sp. (Hymenoptera: Chalcididae parasitizing pupae of Allograpta obliqua Say (Diptera: Syrphidae in Itumbiara, Goiás. This work reports, for the first time, Conura sp. (Hymenoptera: Chalcididae parasitizing pupae of Allograpta obliqua Say (Diptera: Syrphidae in a maize crops in Itumbiara, GO. The prevalence was of 33,3%.Este trabalho relata a primeira ocorrência, de Conura sp. (Hymenoptera: Chalcididae parasitando pupas de Allograpta obliqua Say (Diptera: Syrphidae em cultura de milho em Itumbiara, GO. A prevalência de parasitismo foi de 33,3%.

  19. Study on the pupal morphogenesis of Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart) (Diptera: Calliphoridae) for postmortem interval estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Ting; Huang, Jia; Wang, Jiang-Feng

    2015-08-01

    Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart) is one of the most common species of blow flies at the scene of death in Southern China. Pupae are useful in postmortem interval (PMI) estimation due to their sedentary nature and longer duration of association with the corpse. However, to determine the age of a pupa is more difficult than that of a larva, due to the fact that morphological changes are rarely visible during pupal development. In this study, eggs of C. rufifacies were reared in climatic chambers under four different constant temperatures (20, 24, 28 and 32°C each±1°C, respectively) with same rearing conditions such as foodstuff, substrate, photoperiod and relative humidity. Ten duplicate pupae were sampled at 8-h intervals from prepupae to emergence under the different constant temperatures, respectively. The pupae were sampled, killed, fixed, dissected and with the puparium removed, the external morphological changes of the pupae were observed, recorded and photographed. The morphological characters of C. rufifacies pupae were described. Based on the visible external morphological characters during pupal morphogenesis at 28°C±1°C, the developmental period of C. rufifacies was divided into nine developmental stages and recorded in detailed description. Based on above-mentioned nine developmental stages, some visible external morphological characters were selected as indications for developmental stages. These indications mapped to 8-h sampling intervals at the four different constant temperatures were also described in this study. It is demonstrated that generally the duration of each developmental stage of C. rufifacies pupae is inversely correlated to appropriate developmental temperatures. This study provides relatively systematic pupal developmental data of C. rufifacies for the estimation of PMI. In addition, further work may improve by focus on other environmental factors, histological analysis, more thorough external examination by shortening sampling

  20. Morphological characterization of the reproductive system of irradiated Anastrepha fraterculus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartolucci, Andrea, E-mail: andreabartolucci@iscamen.com.a [Instituto de Sanidad y Calidad Agropecuaria de Mendoza (ISCAMEN), Mendoza (Argentina); Vera, M. Teresa [Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas (CONICET), (Argentina); Yusef, Veronica [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica (Argentina). Centro Atomico Ezeiza; Oviedo, Andrea [Estacion Experimental Agroindustrial Obispo Colombres (EEAOC), Tucuman (Argentina)

    2006-07-01

    Field identification of released sterile insects is a major issue for eradication and suppression programs. Irradiated flies are normally identified by the presence of a fluorescent dye. When a fly lacks fluorescent dye, determination of gonadal state is necessary to identified between sterile or fertile flies. This is particularly relevant when population levels have decreased. Animal and identification is required to be as unequivocal as possible. Here we describe the reproductive system of irradiated Anastrepha fraterculus of different ages and we compare it with that of fertile flies in order to provide a diagnosis tool. Fertile and irradiated A. fraterculus were dissected from the day of emergence and until 15 days of age. Gross morphology was described and the gonads were measured. Germ cells were visualized in the testis. The reproductive systems of both males and females contained the same structures as other Anastrepha species. From day 1 to day 3, there were no detectable differences between irradiated and fertile males. The growing region encompassed half the testis total length and there was no free sperm in the seminal vesicle. On day 4 the presence of free sperm was seen in the seminal vesicle. At this stage irradiated males started differentiating from fertile ones: the growing region reduced in size and totally disappeared by day 11; sperm bundle zones occupied most of the testis; spermatids lost their triangular shape and sperm remained in the seminal vesicle without moving into the apical region. Testis length and width of irradiated males did not differ from fertile males. In females, the maturation of the ovaries involved a change in size that was more pronounced in the length of the ovary. This became noticeable at day 3. At this stage, the formation of yolk and the basal follicle began in fertile females and the oocyte had the same size as the trophocytes. From this point, the oocyte started growing. After day 8, the maturing oocyte reached

  1. Morphological characterization of the reproductive system of irradiated Anastrepha fraterculus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartolucci, Andrea; Vera, M. Teresa; Yusef, Veronica

    2006-01-01

    Field identification of released sterile insects is a major issue for eradication and suppression programs. Irradiated flies are normally identified by the presence of a fluorescent dye. When a fly lacks fluorescent dye, determination of gonadal state is necessary to identified between sterile or fertile flies. This is particularly relevant when population levels have decreased. Animal and identification is required to be as unequivocal as possible. Here we describe the reproductive system of irradiated Anastrepha fraterculus of different ages and we compare it with that of fertile flies in order to provide a diagnosis tool. Fertile and irradiated A. fraterculus were dissected from the day of emergence and until 15 days of age. Gross morphology was described and the gonads were measured. Germ cells were visualized in the testis. The reproductive systems of both males and females contained the same structures as other Anastrepha species. From day 1 to day 3, there were no detectable differences between irradiated and fertile males. The growing region encompassed half the testis total length and there was no free sperm in the seminal vesicle. On day 4 the presence of free sperm was seen in the seminal vesicle. At this stage irradiated males started differentiating from fertile ones: the growing region reduced in size and totally disappeared by day 11; sperm bundle zones occupied most of the testis; spermatids lost their triangular shape and sperm remained in the seminal vesicle without moving into the apical region. Testis length and width of irradiated males did not differ from fertile males. In females, the maturation of the ovaries involved a change in size that was more pronounced in the length of the ovary. This became noticeable at day 3. At this stage, the formation of yolk and the basal follicle began in fertile females and the oocyte had the same size as the trophocytes. From this point, the oocyte started growing. After day 8, the maturing oocyte reached

  2. Moscas-das-frutas (Diptera: Tephritidae em um pomar de goiabeira, no semiárido brasileiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elton Lucio Araujo

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available As moscas-das-frutas (Diptera: Tephritidae são pragas-chave na cultura da goiabeira Psidium guajava L., com predominância de diferentes espécies de acordo com a região produtora no Brasil. Os objetivos do presente trabalho foram conhecer a diversidade e analisar parâmetros faunísticos das moscas-das-frutas obtidas em um pomar de goiabeira, no município de Cruzeta, Rio Grande do Norte, situado no semiárido brasileiro. As moscas-das-frutas foram coletadas semanalmente, com auxílio de armadilhas McPhail, tendo como atrativo proteína hidrolisada a 5% v/v. Foram registradas cinco espécies no pomar estudado: Ceratitis capitata (Wied., Anastrepha zenildae Zucchi, Anastrepha sororcula Zucchi, Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart e Anastrepha dissimilis Stone. Ceratitis capitata foi a espécie mais frequente, constante e dominante, considerada como uma praga invasiva, potencial em pomares de goiabeira no semiárido brasileiro.

  3. Grape Juice as an Attractant for Anastrepha suspensa (Diptera: Tephritidae) and Zaprionus indianus (Diptera: Drosophilidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    In field tests conducted in south Florida to test grape juice as an alternative inexpensive bait for Anastrepha suspensa Loew, high numbers of Zaprionus indianus Gupta were captured in traps baited with aqueous grape juice. These experiments included comparisons of grape juice with standard A. susp...

  4. Monitoring and application of reduced-risk pesticides for managing Anastrepha suspensa (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tropical guava, Psidium guajava, is an important fruit crop that is rich in several nutrients including vitamin C. In the U. S. it is commonly cultivated in southern Florida, Texas and California. Caribbean fruit fly, Anastrepha suspensa Loew, is a key pest of tropical guava, causing significant yie...

  5. A new species of Anastrepha (Diptera: Tephritidae) from Euphorbia tehuacana (Euphorbiaceae) in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norrbom, Allen L; Castillo-Meza, Ana Lucía; García-Chávez, Juan Héctor; Aluja, Martín; Rull, Juan

    2014-03-24

    Anastrepha tehuacana, a new species of Tephritidae (Diptera) from Tehuacán, Puebla, Mexico reared from seeds of Euphorbia tehuacana (Brandegee) V.W. Steinm. (Euphorbiaceae), is described and illustrated. Its probable relationship to A. relicta Hernández-Ortiz is discussed.

  6. A new species of Anastrepha (Diptera: Tephritidae) from Euphorbia tehuacana (Euphorbiaceae) in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anastrepha tehuacana, a new species of Tephritidae (Diptera) from Tehuacán, Puebla, Mexico reared from seeds of Euphorbia tehuacana (Brandegee) V.W. Steinm. (Euphorbiaceae), is described and illustrated. Its probable relationship to A. relicta Hernández-Ortiz is discussed....

  7. Cuticular Hydrocarbons of the South American Fruit Fly Anastrepha fraterculus: Variability with Sex and Age

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vaníčková, Lucie; Svatoš, Aleš; Kroiss, J.; Kaltenpoth, M.; do Nascimento, R. R.; Hoskovec, Michal; Břízová, Radka; Kalinová, Blanka

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 38, č. 9 (2012), s. 1133-1142 ISSN 0098-0331 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : Anastrepha fratercules species complex * cuticular hydrocarbons * sex-specific differences * age-dependent production Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 2.462, year: 2012

  8. Reproductive parameters of Lonomia obliqua Walker, 1855 (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae in laboratory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisete Maria Lorini

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Lonomia obliqua is an insect that has urticant spines in the larval stage. This species may cause death as a result of haemorrhages caused by a toxin released from the caterpillar's spines onto the skin of the victim. Since 1989 when this species was identified in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, many accidents have happened. The aim of this study was to verify the oviposition, fecundity, fertility, viability of eggs and incubation period of the species. Adults were left in a moth's cage to mate and lay eggs. Thirteen couples were observed daily, and the number of eggs and the caterpillars emerged were recorded. The results showed a mean of 2.8 (± 1.3 ovipositions, a mean fecundity of 135.3 (± 54.4 eggs/female, a mean fertility of 111.9 (± 55.4 eggs/female, a mean egg viability of 80.9 (± 20.97 % and a mean incubation period of 31.8 (± 5.8 days.O objetivo desse trabalho foi estudar os parâmetros biológicos de oviposição, fecundidade, fertilidade, viabilidade dos ovos e período de incubação de Lonomia obliqua Walker, 1855, em laboratório. As lagartas foram coletadas no campo nos municípios de Santa Cruz do Sul, Erechim, Guaporé, Passo Fundo, Não-Me-Toque, São Jorge, Farroupilha e Vila Lângaro, no Rio Grande do Sul, e Concórdia em Santa Catarina. As lagartas foram mantidas em sala de criação, com a leitura diária da temperatura e umidade relativa do ar, até a emergência dos adultos. Após a sexagem, cada casal foi colocado em uma gaiola para acasalamento e postura. Acompanhou-se, diariamente, as posturas das fêmeas e a eclosão das lagartas, determinando-se o número de posturas por fêmea, a fecundidade, a fertilidade, a viabilidade e o período de incubação dos ovos. O número médio de oviposições foi de 2,8 (± 1,3, fecundidade média de 135,30 (± 54,4 ovos por fêmea, fertilidade média de 111,9 (± 55,4 ovos por fêmea. A viabilidade média dos ovos foi de 80,9 (± 21,0 % e obteve-se um período médio de incuba

  9. Toxicity and bioefficacy of individual and combination of diversified insecticides against jute hairy caterpillar, Spilarctia obliqua.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selvaraj, K; Ramesh, V; Gotyal, B S; Satpathy, S

    2015-11-01

    Toxicity of conventional (profenofos 50 EC and λ-cyhalothrin 5 EC) and non-conventional (flubendiamide 480 SC, chlorantraniliprole 18.5 SC, emamectin benzoate 5 SG) insecticides was determined on the basis of median lethal concentration (LC50) values on third instar larvae of jute hairy caterpillar, Spilarctia obliqua under laboratory conditions. Further, the promising binary insecticides combinations with lesser LC50 values and adequate synergistic activity were evaluated under field conditions. The LC50 values calculated for insecticides viz., chlorantraniliprole, flubendiamide emamectin benzoate, λ-cyhalothrin and profenophos were 0.212, 0.232, 0.511, 0.985 and 3.263 ppm, respectively. Likewise, the LC50 values for flubendiamide with λ-cyhalothrin in 3:1 proportion was most toxic (0.103 ppm) amongst all the other binary combinations with λ-cyhalothrin. Chlorantraniliprole in combination with λ-cyhalothrin at 1:1 proportion (0.209 ppm) was most toxic followed by 3:1 proportion (0.345 ppm). Similarly, emamectin benzoate in combination with λ-cyhalothrin at 1:1 proportion was more toxic (0.271 ppm) than 3:1 ratio (0.333 ppm). Toxicity index of flubendiamide + λ-cyhalothrin (3:1 ratio) was highest (970.87). Bioefficacy of synergistic binary combinations along with individual insecticides established the superiority of profenophos + λ-cyhalothrin (3:1) with 89.12% reduction in infestation and recorded maximum fibre yield 38.67qha' under field condition. Moreover, combination of diverse insecticides group might sustain toxicity against the target insect for longer period with least probability of resistance development.

  10. Biodiversidade de moscas-das-frutas (Diptera, Tephritoidea em matas nativas e pomares domésticos de dois municípios do Estado do Tocantins, Brasil Biodiversity of fruit flies (Diptera, Tephritoidea in native forests and orchards in two counties of the State of Tocantins, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darcy A. do Bomfim

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho apresenta análise faunística comparativa das espécies de moscas-das-frutas capturadas em armadilhas McPhail (junho a dezembro de 2002 com proteína hidrolisada de milho a 5%. Foram comparadas a riqueza de espécies e a estrutura populacional entre ambientes de mata e pomar dos municípios de Palmas e Porto Nacional, TO. Foram capturados 1.748 indivíduos de espécies de três gêneros de Tephritidae: Tomoplagia Coquillett, 1910, Anastrepha Schiner, 1868 e Ceratitis MacLeay, 1829. De Lonchaeidae foram capturadas espécies de três gêneros: Lonchaea Fallén, 1820, Neosilba McAlpine, 1962 e Dasiops Rondani, 1856. Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann, 1824. Dezenove espécies de Anastrepha foram coletadas, sendo a maioria dos indivíduos (69,1% de A. obliqua (Macquart, 1835. Não houve diferença significativa (P This paper presents comparative and faunistic analysis of the species of fruit flies captured in McPhail traps (from June to December 2002 baited with 5% corn protein hydrolyzed. Species richness and the patterns of population are compared between forest and orchard environments and between the counties of Palmas and Porto Nacional. A total of 1,748 individuals of Tephritidae belonging to species of three genera were collected: Tomoplagia Coquillett, 1910, Anastrepha Schiner, 1868 and Ceratitis MacLeay, 1829. Species of three genera of Lonchaeidae were also captured: Lonchaea Fallén, 1820, Neosilba McAlpine, 1962 and Dasiops Rondani, 1856. Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann, 1824 and nineteen species of the genus Anastrepha were collected. Most of the collected individuals (69.1% belonged to A. obliqua (Macquart, 1935. The average numbers of tephritid individuals in Palmas and native forests were significantly lower than Porto Nacional and orchards, respectively. According to the Shannon diversity index (H' and test t used for comparing the fruit flies fauna among the environments, it was verified that only one comparison showed

  11. Understanding long-term fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) population dynamics: implications for areawide management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aluja, Martín; Ordano, Mariano; Guillén, Larissa; Rull, Juan

    2012-06-01

    Fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) are devastating agricultural pests worldwide but studies on their long-term population dynamics are sparse. Our aim was to determine the mechanisms driving long-term population dynamics as a prerequisite for ecologically based areawide pest management. The population density of three pestiferous Anastrepha species [Anastrepha ludens (Loew), Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart), and Anastrepha serpentina (Wiedemann)] was determined in grapefruit (Citrus x paradisi Macfad.), mango (Mangifera indica L.), and sapodilla [Manilkara zapota (L.) P. Royen] orchards in central Veracruz, México, on a weekly basis over an 11-yr period. Fly populations exhibited relatively stable dynamics over time. Population dynamics were mainly driven by a direct density-dependent effect and a seasonal feedback process. We discovered direct and delayed influences that were correlated with both local (rainfall and air temperature) and global climatic variation (El Niño Southern Oscillation [ENSO] and North Atlantic Oscillation [NAO]), and detected differences among species and location of orchards with respect to the magnitude and nature (linear or nonlinear) of the observed effects, suggesting that highly mobile pest outbreaks become uncertain in response to significant climatic events at both global and local levels. That both NAO and ENSO affected Anastrepha population dynamics, coupled with the high mobility of Anastrepha adults and the discovery that when measured as rate of population change, local population fluctuations exhibited stable dynamics over time, suggests potential management scenarios for the species studied lie beyond the local scale and should be approached from an areawide perspective. Localized efforts, from individual growers will probably prove ineffective, and nonsustainable.

  12. Response of Anastrepha suspensa (Diptera: Tephritidae) to terminal diamines in a food-based synthetic attractant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendra, Paul E; Epsky, Nancy D; Montgomery, Wayne S; Heath, Robert R

    2008-10-01

    A current trapping system for Anastrepha fruit flies uses a two-component food-based synthetic attractant consisting of ammonium acetate and putrescine (1,4-diaminobutane). Development of more effective monitoring programs may be realized through identification of additional attractant chemicals. This study examined response of the Caribbean fruit fly, Anastrepha suspensa (Loew), to putrescine and four homologous terminal diamines, differing only in carbon chain length. Using a fixed dose of each diamine substrate, electroantennogram (EAG) responses from mature females to putrescine and cadaverine (1,5-diaminopentane) were not significantly different from each other but were significantly greater than responses to longer chain diamines. Over a range of doses tested, mean female EAG response was greater than male response to both putrescine and cadaverine. In an initial field test, capture of female flies in traps baited with ammonium acetate and either putrescine or cadaverine was higher than in traps baited with ammonium acetate and any of the other diamines. In a subsequent field test, traps baited with putrescine, cadaverine, or 1,6-diaminohexane in combination with ammonium acetate captured more female flies than traps baited with ammonium acetate alone. A significantly greater synergistic effect on female captures was observed with either putrescine or cadaverine than with 1,6-diaminohexane. Thus, of the diamines evaluated, cadaverine elicited both antennal and behavioral responses comparable to that of putrescine and will be studied further as a potential attractant for pest Anastrepha species.

  13. Physicochemical Evidence on Sublethal Neonicotinoid Imidacloprid Interacting with an Odorant-Binding Protein from the Tea Geometrid Moth, Ectropis obliqua.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hongliang; Zhao, Lei; Fu, Xiaobin; Song, Xinmi; Wu, Fan; Tang, Mingzhu; Cui, Hongchun; Yu, Jizhong

    2017-04-26

    Nowadays the excessive usage of neonicotinoid insecticides always results in residues in Chinese tea fields. It is not clear whether the insecticide residue at the sublethal level influences the physiological processes of tea pests. Here, we provide evidence of interaction between the neonicotinoid imidacloprid and a general odorant-binding protein, EoblGOBP2, from the tea geometrid moth, Ectropis obliqua. The interacting process was demonstrated through multiple fluorescence spectra, UV absorption spectra, circular dichroism (CD) spectra, molecular docking, etc. The binding mode was determined to be static (from 300 to 310 K) and dynamic quenching (from 290 to 300 K). The binding distance was calculated to be 6.9 nm on the basis of FRET theory. According to the thermodynamic analysis, the process was mainly driven by enthalpy (ΔH neonicotinoid insecticide at sublethal level may still affect the olfactory cognition of the tea geometrid moth to volatile compounds from tea leaves.

  14. Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Tucuman, Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaldo, H.E.

    1999-01-01

    Full text: In 1916, Rust recorded Anastrepha fraterculus, the ''South American fruit fly (SAFF)'', in Tucuman. Since 1910, the citrus area in the province has increased rapidly and SAFF has become an important pest. New varieties and management practices were also introduced in the region. Guavas (Psidium guajava) and peaches (Prunus persica) were the main host fruits of SAFF in Tucuman, but cherimoya (Anona chirimoya) and apricots (Prunus armeniaca) were also important. After the beginning of rains, populations increase in spring and develop mainly on peaches in November and December. Afterwards, SAFF attacks guava, where a peak population is attained in February or March. Guava is the principal wild host of SAFF in Tucuman. Compared with the forest where guava trees were frequent, citrus orchards covered a small area in the 1920's. Therefore SAFF populations increased in the wild guavas and invaded early oranges and grapefruits afterwards. Even though high numbers of punctures were observed in citrus skin, few larvae developed. The oils present in the skin kill high number of eggs. Moreover the larvae have to go through the albedo and hardly reach the pulp. Nevertheless the injury produced by the ovipositor allows microorganisms to rot the fruit. In 1918, rots produced 50% of damage in fruits which suffered premature ripening and fell. Only in very thin skinned and overripened fruit, larval development was registered. Some authors observed larval development in the field but Schult, in laboratory tests, found few eggs and never registered larval development. Between 1920 and 1945 studies with bait-traps were carried out to establish the seasonal occurrence of the fly and some control measures were tested. Poisoned baits were used against this pest, and biological control by inoculation of parasitoids were also employed. Cages with parasitized pupae were distributed to farmers. The emerged flies were kept within the cage and a sieve allowed the emerged parasites

  15. Eficiência de substâncias atrativas na captura de moscas-das-frutas (diptera: tephritidae em goiabeiras no município de Itapecuru-Mirim (MA Efficacy of attractants for fruits flies (diptera: tephritidae captures in guava crops in Itapecuru-Mirim (MA, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raimunda Nonata Santos Lemos

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available O experimento foi conduzido em pomar comercial de goiaba (Psidium guajava L. cultivar 'Pêra Vermelha', localizado no município de Itapecuru-Mirim (MA, na Comunidade Magnificat, visando a adotar um sistema de manejo integrado de moscas-das-frutas através do monitoramento com armadilhas do tipo frasco caça-moscas (modelo garrafa plástica e atraentes de alimentação. O delineamento estatístico adotado foi o de blocos inteiramente casualizados, com cinco tratamentos e quatro repetições, sendo: suco de laranja (50%, acerola (30%, goiaba (30%, maracujá (30% e solução de açúcar cristal a 10 %. Verificou-se que o suco de maracujá (30% e a solução de açúcar cristal (10% foram mais atrativos para os adultos de Anastrepha distincta Greene, A. sororcula Zucchi, A. striata Schiner, A. obliqua Macquart e A. serpentina Wiedemann.This research was carried out in a commercial guava orchard cv. 'Pera Vermelha' in the Magnificat Community, located at Itapecuru-Mirim (MA County, aiming to adopt an integrated management system for fruit flies, by trapping different food attractants. The experiment was arranged in a completely randomized block design with four replications. The attractants tested were: Sweet orange juice (50%, acerola juice (30%, guava juice (30%, passion fruit juice (30% and sugar solution (10%. The results showed that passion fruit juice (30% and sugar solution (10% were more attractive for adults fruit flies of Anastrepha distincta Greene, A. sororcula Zucchi, A. striata Schiner, A. obliqua Macquart and A. serpentina Wiedemann.

  16. Morphological comparison between Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart) and Chrysomya villeneuvi Patton (Diptera: Calliphoridae) puparia, forensically important blow flies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukontason, Kabkaew L; Narongchai, Paitoon; Kanchai, Chaturong; Vichairat, Karnda; Piangjai, Somsak; Boonsriwong, Worachote; Bunchu, Nophawan; Sripakdee, Duanghatai; Chaiwong, Tarinee; Kuntalue, Budsabong; Siriwattanarungsee, Sirisuda; Sukontason, Kom

    2006-12-20

    In Thailand, the hairy maggots of the blow flies, Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart) and Chrysomya villeneuvi Patton, are of forensic importance. Both flies are closely related species, not only in the morphological appearance of their larvae and puparia, but also on the aggressive feeding habit of the former. In our continuing studies of forensically important flies, identification of immature ones needs particular attention. In this study, we reported the morphological comparison between the puparia of these two blow fly species using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Observation revealed that the cuticular sculpture of tubercles along the dorsal and lateral segments had markedly different features: with C. rufifacies having many sharp spines assembling only at the tip, while of C. villeneuvi bore stout spines throughout the tubercle. A larger number of globules at the bubble membrane on the dorsolateral border of the fifth segment was found in C. villeneuvi (average 225) than in C. rufifacies (average 35), and more papillae was observed on the anterior spiracle in C. villeneuvi (13-15) than in C. rufifacies (9-12). However, the morphology of distinct net-like patches of the integument and structure of the posterior spiracle of both species were almost identical. Morphological comparison in this study permitted identification of the puparia of both fly species, particularly in areas where they co-exist.

  17. Fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae associated to native fruit of Spondias spp. (Anacardiaceae and Ximenia americana L. (Olacaceae and their parasitoids in the State of Piaui, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almerinda Amélia Rodrigues Araújo

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This work aims to identify the species of fruit flies and their parasitoids associated to native fruit of Spondias spp. (caja S. mombin L., umbu-caja Spondias sp., umbu S. tuberosa Arr. Câm. and wild plum Ximenia americana L., in the State of Piaui, Brazil. Samples (63 of fruits were collected from November 2009 to July 2010, totalizing 4,495 fruits and 46,906 kg. It was possible to obtain 10,617 puparia, from which 4,497 tephritids and 1,118 braconid parasitoids emerged. Regarding Spondias spp., the highest occurrence was Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart, with 100% for umbu and umbu-caja. Caja presented an average of 99.52% of A. obliqua, 0.46% of Anastrepha fraterculus (Wied. and 0.97% of Ceratitis capitata (Wied.. Wild plum percentages were 97.83% for A. alveata Stone and 2.17% for A. fraterculus. Infestation rates were 429.2, 178.4, 158.9 and 43.3 puparia/kg in umbu-caja, caja, wild plum and umbu, respectively. Pupal viability was 77.8%, 69.3%, 52.5% and 41.1% to umbu, wild plum, umbu-caja and caja, respectively. By analyzing the sample parasitoids, the percentage was 21.39% for the Doryctobracon areolatus (Szépligeti species and 78.61% for Opius bellus Gahan. For the first time, it was recorded in Brazil X. americana as a host to A. alveata, as well as D. aleolatus and O. bellus as parasitoids of A. obliqua and A. alveata in Piaui.

  18. Diversity and seasonality of fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae and Lonchaeidae) and their parasitoids (Hymenoptera: Braconidae and Figitidae) in orchards of guava, loquat and peach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza-Filho, M.F.; Raga, A. [Instituto Biologico, Campinas, SP (Brazil)], e-mail: miguelf@biologico.sp.gov.br; Azevedo-Filho, J.A. [Agencia Paulista de Tecnologia dos Agronegocios (APTA), Monte Alegre do Sul, SP (Brazil). Polo Regional do Leste Paulista; Strikis, P.C. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Biologia. Dept. de Parasitologia; Guimaraes, J.A. [EMBRAPA Agroindustria Tropical, Fortaleza, CE (Brazil); Zucchi, R.A. [Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz (ESALQ/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Entomologia, Fitopatologia e Zoologia Agricola

    2009-02-15

    This work was carried out in orchards of guava progenies, and loquat and peach cultivars, in Monte Alegre do Sul, SP, Brazil, in 2002 and 2003. Guavas and loquats were bagged and unbagged bi-weekly and weekly, respectively, for assessment of the infestation period. Peach was only bagged weekly. The assays started when the fruits were at the beginning of development, but still green. Ripe fruits were taken to the laboratory and placed individually into plastic cups. McPhail plastic traps containing torula yeast were hung from January 2002 to January 2004 to assess the fruit fly population in each orchard, but only the Ceratitis capitata population is here discussed. Five tephritid species were reared from the fruits: Anastrepha bistrigata Bezzi, A. fraterculus (Wiedemann), A. obliqua (Macquart), A. sororcula Zucchi, and C. capitata, in addition to six lonchaeid species: Neosilba certa (Walker), N. glaberrima (Wiedemann), N. pendula (Bezzi), N. zadolicha McAlpine and Steyskal, Neosilba sp. 4, and Neosilba sp. 10 (both species are in the process of being described by P. C. Strikis), as well as some unidentified Neosilba species. Ten parasitoid species were obtained from fruit fly puparia, of which five were braconids: Asobara anastrephae (Muesebeck), Doryctobracon areolatus (Szepligeti), D. brasiliensis (Szepligeti), Opius bellus Gahan, and Utetes anastrephae (Viereck), and five figitids: Aganaspis pelleranoi (Brethes), Dicerataspis grenadensis Ashmead, Lopheucoila anastrephae (Rhower), Leptopilina boulardi (Barbotin, Carlton and Kelner-Pillaut), and Trybliographa infuscata Diaz, Gallardo and Uchoa. Ceratitis capitata showed a seasonal behavior with population density peaking at the second semester of each year. Anastrepha and Neosilba species remained in the orchards throughout both years. (author)

  19. Effect of diet composition on the development of the floodwater Mosquito Ochlerotatus (Ochletotatus) albifasciatus (Macquart) (Diptera: Culicidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sy, Victoria E.; Campos, Raul E.

    2008-01-01

    One important step for the colonization of Ochlerotatus albifasciatus (Macquart) is to determine the optimal conditions for larval rearing, which makes possible the development of experiments comprising larval rearing in the laboratory. In this research the effect of diet composition on the development of O. albifasciatus was studied. For this purpose, cohorts of 20 fi rst instars were reared using fi ve diets: 1:1 mix of yeast and TetraMin R , 1:1 mix of fi ne and coarse organic matter, grass cuts soaked in water for 1 h or 24 h before larvae incorporation, and 1:1:1 mix of grass cuts, fi ne organic matter and coarse organic matter. Survival was recorded for each cohort, while development time from first instar to pupa, and adult wing length were recorded for each individual. The effects of the diet on the observed traits were analyzed by one way ANOVA. Both survival and wing length were affected by diet, being significantly higher (79-100% and ∼ 4.46 mm) on diets consisting of organic matter or organic matter plus grass than on those consisting of yeast plus TetraMin R or grass. Development time was not affected by the diet, although the shortest time (8.1 to 8.3 days) and lower variation between replicates were recorded when larvae were reared using organic matter or organic matter plus grass. Thus, it is concluded that the diets consisting of organic matter or a mix of it and grass are the most effective for O. albifasciatus rearing. (author)

  20. Effect of diet composition on the development of the floodwater Mosquito Ochlerotatus (Ochletotatus) albifasciatus (Macquart) (Diptera: Culicidae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sy, Victoria E.; Campos, Raul E. [Universidad Nacional de La Plata, Buenos Aires (Argentina). Inst. de Limnologia Dr. Raul A. Ringuelet]. E-mails: victoriasy9@yahoo.com.ar; rcampos@ilpla.edu.ar

    2008-11-15

    One important step for the colonization of Ochlerotatus albifasciatus (Macquart) is to determine the optimal conditions for larval rearing, which makes possible the development of experiments comprising larval rearing in the laboratory. In this research the effect of diet composition on the development of O. albifasciatus was studied. For this purpose, cohorts of 20 fi rst instars were reared using fi ve diets: 1:1 mix of yeast and TetraMin{sup R}, 1:1 mix of fi ne and coarse organic matter, grass cuts soaked in water for 1 h or 24 h before larvae incorporation, and 1:1:1 mix of grass cuts, fi ne organic matter and coarse organic matter. Survival was recorded for each cohort, while development time from first instar to pupa, and adult wing length were recorded for each individual. The effects of the diet on the observed traits were analyzed by one way ANOVA. Both survival and wing length were affected by diet, being significantly higher (79-100% and {approx} 4.46 mm) on diets consisting of organic matter or organic matter plus grass than on those consisting of yeast plus TetraMin{sup R} or grass. Development time was not affected by the diet, although the shortest time (8.1 to 8.3 days) and lower variation between replicates were recorded when larvae were reared using organic matter or organic matter plus grass. Thus, it is concluded that the diets consisting of organic matter or a mix of it and grass are the most effective for O. albifasciatus rearing. (author)

  1. Karyotype study of the South American fruit fly, Anastrepha fraterculus (Wied.) in Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lifschitz, E.; Manso, F.; Basso, A.

    1999-01-01

    The most frequent karyotype of Anastrepha fraterculus in Argentina is described here on the basis of mitotic metaphase morphology. It was named ''fraterculus Arg 1''. The diploid number is 2n=10+XX/XY and in males it comprises five homomorphic pairs and one heteomorphic pair, the latter being the sexual pair. Samples from different populations were cytologically analyzed, and ''fraterculus Arg 1'' is present in all of them at a high frequency (about 60%). A typical C band pattern of the X chromosome was found only in the Montecarlo (Misiones province) population. (author)

  2. A review of hymenopterous parasitoid guilds attacking Anastrepha spp. and Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ovruski, Sergio M.; Orono, Luis E.; Nunez-Campero, Segundo; Schliserman, Pablo; Albornoz-Medina, Patricia; Bezdjian, Laura P.; Nieuwenhove, Guido A. Van; Martin, Cristina B.

    2006-01-01

    This study provides detailed information on the diversity, abundance, guilds, host plant and host fly ranges, distribution, and taxonomic status of hymenopterous parasitoid species associated with Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) and Anastrepha spp. (A. fraterculus (Wiedemann) and A. schultzi Blanchard) in Argentina. Moreover, the article also argues future needs regarding the use of some parasitoid species as an alternative tool in fruit fly management programs of the National Fruit Fly Control and Eradication Program (PROCEM-Argentina). Data used for this work were obtained from numerous old and recent published articles on fruit fly parasitoids in Argentina. (author)

  3. A review of hymenopterous parasitoid guilds attacking Anastrepha spp. and Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Argentina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ovruski, Sergio M.; Orono, Luis E.; Nunez-Campero, Segundo; Schliserman, Pablo; Albornoz-Medina, Patricia; Bezdjian, Laura P.; Nieuwenhove, Guido A. Van; Martin, Cristina B. [Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas (CONICET), Tucuman (Argentina). Planta Piloto de Procesos Industriales Microbiologicos y Biotecnologia. Div. Control Biologico de Plagas

    2006-07-01

    This study provides detailed information on the diversity, abundance, guilds, host plant and host fly ranges, distribution, and taxonomic status of hymenopterous parasitoid species associated with Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) and Anastrepha spp. (A. fraterculus (Wiedemann) and A. schultzi Blanchard) in Argentina. Moreover, the article also argues future needs regarding the use of some parasitoid species as an alternative tool in fruit fly management programs of the National Fruit Fly Control and Eradication Program (PROCEM-Argentina). Data used for this work were obtained from numerous old and recent published articles on fruit fly parasitoids in Argentina. (author)

  4. Natural Parasitism in Fruit Fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) Populations in Disturbed Areas Adjacent to Commercial Mango Orchards in Chiapas and Veracruz, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montoya, Pablo; Ayala, Amanda; López, Patricia; Cancino, Jorge; Cabrera, Héctor; Cruz, Jassmin; Martinez, Ana Mabel; Figueroa, Isaac; Liedo, Pablo

    2016-04-01

    To determine the natural parasitism in fruit fly populations in disturbed areas adjacent to commercial mango orchards in the states of Chiapas and Veracruz, Mexico, we recorded over one year the fruit fly-host associations, fly infestation, and parasitism rates in backyard orchards and patches of native vegetation. We also investigated the relationship between fruit size, level of larval infestation, and percent of parasitism, and attempted to determine the presence of superparasitism. The most recurrent species in trap catches was Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart), followed by Anastrepha ludens (Loew), in both study zones. The fruit infestation rates were higher in Chiapas than in Veracruz, with A. obliqua again being the most conspicuous species emerging from collected fruits. The diversity of parasitoids species attacking fruit fly larvae was greater in Chiapas, with a predominance of Doryctobracon areolatus (Szépligeti) in both sites, although the exotic Diachasmimorpha longicaudata (Ashmead) was well established in Chiapas. Fruit size was positively correlated with the number of larvae per fruit, but this relationship was not observed in the level of parasitism. The number of oviposition scars was not related to the number of immature parasitoids inside the pupa of D. areolatus emerging from plum fruits. Mass releases of Di. longicaudata seem not to affect the presence or prevalence of the native species. Our findings open new research scenarios on the role and impact of native parasitoid species attacking Anastrepha flies that can contribute to the development of sound strategies for using these species in projects for augmentative biological control. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. An update of the blow flies (Diptera: Calliphoridae) of the Galápagos Islands, and first record of Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart) from mainland Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tantawi, Tarek I; Sinclair, Bradley J

    2013-12-19

    Seven species of Calliphoridae are reported from the Galápagos Islands, Ecuador: Lucilia pionia (Walker), L. setosa (James), L. deceptor (Curran), L. eximia (Wiedemann), Cochliomyia macellaria (Fabricius), Chrysomya albiceps (Wiedemann), and Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius). Lucilia eximia is newly recorded from the islands. Lucilia sp. near pionia is recorded from the island of Española. The distribution and collection records of these species are discussed and listed, and a key to their identification is provided. Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart) is reported for the first time from mainland Ecuador and the identification of this species is outlined.

  6. X-ray doses to safely release the parasitoid Diachasmimorpha longicaudata (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) reared on Anastrepha fraterculus larvae (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bachmann, G. E.; Carabajal Paladino, Leonela Z.; Conte, C. A.; Devescovi, F.; Milla, F. H.; Cladera, J. L.; Segura, D. F.; Viscarret, M. M.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 25, č. 9 (2015), s. 1092-1103 ISSN 0958-3157 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.30.0032 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : biological control * gamma rays * Anastrepha fraterculus Subject RIV: GF - Plant Pathology, Vermin, Weed, Plant Protection Impact factor: 0.848, year: 2015

  7. Male sexual behavior and pheromone emission is enhanced by exposure to guava fruit volatiles in Anastrepha fraterculus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Host plant chemicals can influence sex pheromone communication of tephritid fruit flies, and affect strategies optimizing mating and reproduction. Previous studies suggest that females of the South American fruit fly, Anastrepha fraterculus, prefer to mate with laboratory males previously exposed to...

  8. Effect of cryopreservation on the pre-hatching behavior in the Mexican fruit fly Anastrepha ludens Loew (Diptera, Tephritidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    In a sampling of untreated embryos of Mexican fruit fly, Anastrepha ludens, the cumulative hatch percentage was 84.77±7.8% of which ~70% of the larvae eclosed through the posterior pole of the egg. This is due to an unusual and seemingly energy demanding act of flipping of the fully developed pre-ha...

  9. Incipient speciation revealed in Anastrepha fraterculus (Diptera; Tephritidae) by studies on mating compatibility, sex pheromones, hybridisation and cytology

    Science.gov (United States)

    It is suggested that the nominal species Anastrepha fraterculus is a species complex and previous studies showed high levels of pre-zygotic isolation between two laboratory strains from Argentina and Peru. To further analyze this observation, experiments were carried out on the same populations and...

  10. A checklist of the species of Anastrepha with the families of their host plants and hymenopteran parasitoids in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zucchi, Roberto Antonio

    2000-01-01

    Many surveys on fruit flies have already been carried out by several researchers in Brazil while others are still going on. Most of these surveys were conducted in areas where no studies had been previously done. With these surveys, new species and new records of species were found in Brazil. Also, in this decade, several surveys on fruit fly braconid parasitoids were conducted. These data have been summarised recently, because of the great interest in the biological control of fruit flies in Brazil. Research on eucoilid fruit fly parasitoids have been largely neglected. However, taxonomic studies are being conducted on eucoilids associated with frugivorous flies (Tephritidae and Lonchaeidae) in Brazil. All the data on fruit flies, host plants and hymenopteran parasitoids are unfortunately scattered in the literature and frequently are only published as dissertations or congress abstracts which are not widely available. Even when submitted for publication, papers take a long time to come out in Brazil. Consequently, it is very difficult to get a list of the Anastrepha species in Brazil, or to determine which host plant species are associated with them. These data are of particular interest in the case of economically important species, especially those considered as quarantine pests. Therefore, such a list is very useful for regulatory entomologists and pest management programmes by listing the Anastrepha species in Brazil and their associated host plants and hymenopteran parasitoids. The objective of this paper is to gather some available records of the Anastrepha species, their host plants and hymenopteran parasitoids (Braconidae and Eucoilidae) published in Brazil. Due to the space limitation of this paper, only families of the host plants of the Anastrepha species are presented. In fact, this work is part of a research which deals with the preparation of a database for the Anastrepha species in Brazil

  11. Large scale artificial rearing of Anastrepha sp.1 aff. fraterculus (Diptera: Tephritidae in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Marcos Melges Walder

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Some species of the genus Anastrepha (Diptera: Tephritidae are successfully managed by matching the sterile insect technique with parasitoid releases. Such strategies used in integrated pest management can be implemented only where insect mass-rearing programs are feasible. In this study, we show the process of domestication, rearing technology and quality control data obtained from 54 generations of Anastrepha sp.1 aff. fraterculus (Wiedemann, 1830 kept under fully artificial conditions. Eggs were collected by an artificial oviposition panel consisting of one side of the cage made of blue voile fabric externally covered with a thin layer of silicon rubber. They were then air-bubbled in water at 25 ºC for 48 h before seeding. Larvae were reared on the regular laboratory artificial diet with 66 % of agar reduction turning over a semi-liquid diet, which reduced costs and improved insect quality. The adult and larval diets were composed of local ingredients including hydrolyzed yeast. When large-scale production of this fly is contemplated, the critical stage is larval development. This system of artificial rearing for A. fraterculus sp.1 developed in Brazil, allows for the production of a large number of insects of excellent quality using local ingredients and less agar in diet composition than the original medium used for this species. By reducing the interval of egg collection, the system might be optimized in terms of insect yield and, therefore, meet the demands of A. fraterculus sp.1 with regard to integrated pest management purposes.

  12. Larval Distribution and Behavior of Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart) (Diptera: Calliphoridae) Relative to Other Species on Florida Black Bear (Carnivora: Ursidae) Decomposing Carcasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swiger, S L; Hogsette, J A; Butler, J F

    2014-02-01

    Larval interactions of dipteran species, blow flies in particular, were observed and documented daily over time and location on five black bear carcasses in Gainesville, FL, USA, from June 2002 - September 2004. Cochliomyia macellaria (Fabricius) or Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius) larvae were collected first, after which Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart) oviposited on the carcasses in multiple locations (i.e., neck, anus, and exposed flesh) not inhabited already by the other blow fly larvae. Within the first week of decomposition, C. rufifacies larvae grew to ≥12 mm, filling the carcasses with thousands of larvae and replacing the other calliphorid larvae either through successful food source competition or by predation. As a result, C. macellaria and C. megacephala were not collected past their third instar feeding stage. The blow fly species, C. megacephala, C. macellaria, Lucilia caeruleiviridis (Macquart), Phormia regina (Meigen), Lucilia sericata (Meigen), and C. rufifacies, completed two developmental cycles in the 88.5-kg carcass. This phenomenon might serve to complicate or prevent the calculation of an accurate postmortem interval.

  13. Co-Infestation and Spatial Distribution of Bactrocera carambolae and Anastrepha spp. (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Common Guava in the Eastern Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deus, E. G.; Godoy, W. A. C.; Sousa, M. S. M.; Lopes, G. N.; Jesus-Barros, C. R.; Silva, J. G.; Adaime, R.

    2016-01-01

    Field infestation and spatial distribution of introduced Bactrocera carambolae Drew and Hancock and native species of Anastrepha in common guavas [Psidium guajava (L.)] were investigated in the eastern Amazon. Fruit sampling was carried out in the municipalities of Calçoene and Oiapoque in the state of Amapá, Brazil. The frequency distribution of larvae in fruit was fitted to the negative binomial distribution. Anastrepha striata was more abundant in both sampled areas in comparison to Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann) and B. carambolae. The frequency distribution analysis of adults revealed an aggregated pattern for B. carambolae as well as for A. fraterculus and Anastrepha striata Schiner, described by the negative binomial distribution. Although the populations of Anastrepha spp. may have suffered some impact due to the presence of B. carambolae, the results are still not robust enough to indicate effective reduction in the abundance of Anastrepha spp. caused by B. carambolae in a general sense. The high degree of aggregation observed for both species suggests interspecific co-occurrence with the simultaneous presence of both species in the analysed fruit. Moreover, a significant fraction of uninfested guavas also indicated absence of competitive displacement. PMID:27638949

  14. Co-Infestation and Spatial Distribution of Bactrocera carambolae and Anastrepha spp. (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Common Guava in the Eastern Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deus, E G; Godoy, W A C; Sousa, M S M; Lopes, G N; Jesus-Barros, C R; Silva, J G; Adaime, R

    2016-01-01

    Field infestation and spatial distribution of introduced Bactrocera carambolae Drew and Hancock and native species of Anastrepha in common guavas [Psidium guajava (L.)] were investigated in the eastern Amazon. Fruit sampling was carried out in the municipalities of Calçoene and Oiapoque in the state of Amapá, Brazil. The frequency distribution of larvae in fruit was fitted to the negative binomial distribution. Anastrepha striata was more abundant in both sampled areas in comparison to Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann) and B. carambolae The frequency distribution analysis of adults revealed an aggregated pattern for B. carambolae as well as for A. fraterculus and Anastrepha striata Schiner, described by the negative binomial distribution. Although the populations of Anastrepha spp. may have suffered some impact due to the presence of B. carambolae, the results are still not robust enough to indicate effective reduction in the abundance of Anastrepha spp. caused by B. carambolae in a general sense. The high degree of aggregation observed for both species suggests interspecific co-occurrence with the simultaneous presence of both species in the analysed fruit. Moreover, a significant fraction of uninfested guavas also indicated absence of competitive displacement. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Entomological Society of America.

  15. The South American fruit fly, Anastrepha fraterculus (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nunez Bueno, L.

    1999-01-01

    Anastrepha fraterculus (Wied) is the most important fruit fly in Colombia. It has been trapped from the sea level up to 2000 m of altitude, but is is more abundant in the coffee growing area located at 1300 to 1700 masl, with temperatures between 18 to 22 deg. C (-min 11 deg. C,-max 25 deg. C). The main host in that area is Coffea arabica L., but it also has 14 additional identified hosts that belong to 9 families. In the hot climates from 0 to 1000 m of altitude it breeds in mango (Mangifera indica L.) and guava (Psidium guayava L:). The pest has not been stabilised in the cultivated upper lands between 2300-2600 masl. (author)

  16. Update of host plant list of Anastrepha fraterculus and Ceratitis capitata in Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orono, Luis E.; Albornoz-Medina, Patricia; Nunez-Campero, Segundo; Nieuwenhove, Guido A. van; Bezdjian, Laura P.; Martin, Cristina B.; Schliserman, Pablo; Ovruski, Sergio M.

    2006-01-01

    The study displays a complete picture of the host range of the two economically important fruit fly species in Argentina, the native Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann) (South American Fruit Fly) and the exotic Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Mediterranean Fruit Fly or Medfly). This work provides information on the fruit type of each plant species, associated tephritid species, habitat where the fruit was collected, geographical location of each fruit collection area (latitude, longitude, and altitude), phyto geographic regions where each area is located, as well as a general description of the landscape characteristics of those habitats where the fruit samples with fly larvae were collected. A complete, detailed bibliographic review was made in order to provide all the relevant information needed for host use in natural setting. (author)

  17. Trials to determine levels of oviposition of Anastrepha fraterculus (Wied.) on fruit and artificial oviposition devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alama, D.

    1999-01-01

    The current work was conducted in order to determine the level of oviposition of Anastrepha fraterculus on fresh mangos and artificial oviposition devices. Four trials were carried out during which freshly harvested fruit was exposed to wild South American adult fruit flies. The following viable oviposition/day/kg of fruit (viable ovipositions = emerged adults) were established: 79.16, 71.25, 83.6 and 60.6. The trials were carried out at 25 deg. C - 28 deg. C and 60%-80% relative humidity. Beginning with the first generation one trial was carried out which confirmed the acceptance of sexually mature females to oviposit on red oviposition devices consisting of wax-covered cloth. However, red plastic containers with holes of 0.5 mm did not produce good results. (author)

  18. Volatile substances from male Anastrepha fraterculus wied. (Diptera: Tephritidae: identification and behavioural activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lima Ivanildo S.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Volatile compounds produced by calling males of Anastrepha species have previously been reported from A. ludens and A. suspensa. Both species mate in the afternoon, release a similar range of compounds in different proportions, and only differ in the production of monoterpenes. When calling, male A. fraterculus releases two isomers of the sesquiterpene alpha-farnesene, three lactones (anastrephin, epianastrephin and (E,E-suspensolide, and two monoterpenes (limonene and (Z-beta-ocimene. The dimorphic male salivary glands produce and/or store the same isomers of alpha-farnesene and suspensolide, and four pyrazines. Two of these compounds have been previously reported from male A. ludens and A. suspensa. Salivary glands from virgin calling male A. fraterculus showed behavioural activity when bioassayed with virgin mature female flies, but immature females were not attracted.

  19. Update of host plant list of Anastrepha fraterculus and Ceratitis capitata in Argentina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orono, Luis E.; Albornoz-Medina, Patricia; Nunez-Campero, Segundo; Nieuwenhove, Guido A. van; Bezdjian, Laura P.; Martin, Cristina B.; Schliserman, Pablo; Ovruski, Sergio M. [Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas (CONICET), Tucuman (Argentina). Planta Piloto de Procesos Industriales Microbiologicos y Biotecnologia. Div. Control Biologico de Plagas

    2006-07-01

    The study displays a complete picture of the host range of the two economically important fruit fly species in Argentina, the native Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann) (South American Fruit Fly) and the exotic Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Mediterranean Fruit Fly or Medfly). This work provides information on the fruit type of each plant species, associated tephritid species, habitat where the fruit was collected, geographical location of each fruit collection area (latitude, longitude, and altitude), phyto geographic regions where each area is located, as well as a general description of the landscape characteristics of those habitats where the fruit samples with fly larvae were collected. A complete, detailed bibliographic review was made in order to provide all the relevant information needed for host use in natural setting. (author)

  20. New species and host plants of Anastrepha (Diptera: Tephritidae) primarily from Peru and Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norrbom, Allen L; Rodriguez, Erick J; Steck, Gary J; Sutton, Bruce A; Nolazco, Norma

    2015-11-16

    Twenty-eight new species of Anastrepha are described and illustrated: A. acca (Bolivia, Peru), A. adami (Peru), A. amplidentata (Bolivia, Peru), A. annonae (Peru), A. breviapex (Peru), A. caballeroi (Peru), A. camba (Bolivia, Peru), A. cicra (Bolivia, Peru), A. disjuncta (Peru), A. durantae (Peru), A. echaratiensis (Peru), A. eminens (Peru), A. ericki (Peru), A. gonzalezi (Bolivia, Peru), A. guevarai (Peru), A. gusi (Peru), A. kimi (Colombia, Peru), A. korytkowskii (Bolivia, Peru), A. latilanceola (Bolivia, Peru), A. melanoptera (Peru), A. mollyae (Bolivia, Peru), A. perezi (Peru), A. psidivora (Peru), A. robynae (Peru), A. rondoniensis (Brazil, Peru), A. tunariensis (Bolivia, Peru), A. villosa (Bolivia), and A. zacharyi (Peru). The following host plant records are reported: A. amplidentata from Spondias mombin L. (Anacardiaceae); A. caballeroi from Quararibea malacocalyx A. Robyns & S. Nilsson (Malvaceae); A. annonae from Annona mucosa Jacq. and Annona sp. (Annonaceae); A. durantae from Duranta peruviana Moldenke (Verbenaceae); and A. psidivora from Psidium guajava L. (Myrtaceae).

  1. Biological Activity of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bacillales: Bacillaceae) in Anastrepha fraterculus (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Liliane Nachtigall; Lara, Ana Paula de Souza Stori de; Ferreira, Márcio Soares; Nunes, Adrise Medeiros; Bernardi, Daniel; Leite, Fábio Pereira Leivas; Garcia, Flávio Roberto Mello

    2018-01-18

    Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae) is considered to be one of the major pest insects in fruit orchards worldwide. Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner (Bacillales: Bacillaceae) strains are widely used as biological control agents and show high biological activity against different insect species. The objective of this study was to evaluate the biological activity of different strains of B. thuringiensis against A. fraterculus larvae and adults. Bioassays were performed using suspensions of bacterial spores/crystals of B. thuringiensis var. israelensis (Bti), kurstaki (Btk), and oswaldocruzi (Bto) strains at three concentrations [2 × 107, 2 × 108, and 2 × 109 colony-forming units per ml (CFU ml-1)]. At a concentration of 2 × 109 CFU ml-1, a significant larval effect (mortality 60%) was observed when compared with the control treatment. Larvae that ingested spore/crystal suspensions of Bti, Btk, or Bto bacterial strains exhibited significant larval and pupal deformations, leading to a significant decrease (~50%) in the completion of the insects' biological cycle (egg to adult). The B. thuringiensis strains (Bti, Btk, or Bto) at a concentration of 2 × 109 CFU ml-1 in combination with one food attractant (BioAnastrepha 3% or CeraTrap 1.5%) in formulations of toxic baits provided high mortality (mortality > 85%) of A. fraterculus adults 7 d after treatment. However, the Btk strain in combination with CeraTrap 1.5% caused mortality of 40%. On the basis of these results, the native bacterial strains Bti, Btk, and Bto were considered to be promising candidates as biological control agents against A. fraterculus. © The Author(s) 2018. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Anastrepha egg deposition induces volatiles in fruits that attract the parasitoid Fopius arisanus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, J; Rojas, J C; Montoya, P; Liedo, P; Castillo, A

    2013-06-01

    Fopius arisanus is a solitary egg-pupal endoparasitoid that attacks several species of tephritid fruit flies, particularly Bactrocera spp. This species, indigenous from the Indo-Australian region, was introduced into Mexico for biological control purposes. From the standpoint of the 'new associations' concept this parasitoid has been evaluated against fruit flies in the Anastrepha complex. We investigated the specificity of F. arisanus responses to fruits infested with two species of Anastrepha. We examined whether fruit volatiles attractive to this parasitoid are induced as a result of fruit fly oviposition. We also investigated whether F. arisanus females are able to discriminate between the oviposition-induced volatiles from host eggs parasitised by conspecifics and volatiles from unparasitised eggs. All experiments were performed in a wind tunnel. Results showed that mango fruits infested with A. ludens eggs (2-3 days after egg deposition) were significantly more attractive to naïve F. arisanus females compared with non-infested fruits or fruits infested with larvae. In addition, guava fruits harbouring A. striata eggs were significantly more attractive to the parasitoid than non-infested fruits or fruits infested with larvae. Thus, the parasitoid was attracted to fruits with eggs, but fruit and fly species did not influence the parasitoid attraction. We also found that F. arisanus females were more attracted to fruits exposed to fertile A. ludens females (i.e. fruits with eggs inside) compared with fruits exposed to sterile females (i.e. fruits with no eggs inside) or fruits with mechanical damage. Parasitoid females were not attracted to A. ludens eggs. The results suggest that the presence of eggs induces volatiles that attract parasitoids. Finally, we found that F. arisanus was able to discriminate between fruits with unparasitised eggs vs. eggs parasitised by conspecifics, indicating that host discrimination could be mediated by olfactory cues.

  3. The gene transformer of anastrepha fruit flies (Diptera, tephritidae and its evolution in insects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Fernanda Ruiz

    Full Text Available In the tephritids Ceratitis capitata and Bactrocera oleae, the gene transformer acts as the memory device for sex determination, via an auto-regulatory function; and functional Tra protein is produced only in females. This paper investigates the evolution of the gene tra, which was characterised in twelve tephritid species belonging to the less extensively analysed genus Anastrepha. Our study provided the following major conclusions. Firstly, the memory device mechanism used by this gene in sex determination in tephritids likely existed in the common ancestor of the Ceratitis, Bactrocera and Anastrepha phylogenetic lineages. This mechanism would represent the ancestral state with respect to the extant cascade seen in the more evolved Drosophila lineage. Secondly, Transformer2-specific binding intronic splicing silencer sites were found in the splicing regulatory region of transformer but not in doublesex pre-mRNAs in these tephritids. Thus, these sites probably provide the discriminating feature for the putative dual splicing activity of the Tra-Tra2 complex in tephritids. It acts as a splicing activator in dsx pre-mRNA splicing (its binding to the female-specific exon promotes the inclusion of this exon into the mature mRNA, and as a splicing inhibitor in tra pre-mRNA splicing (its binding to the male-specific exons prevents the inclusion of these exons into the mature mRNA. Further, a highly conserved region was found in the specific amino-terminal region of the tephritid Tra protein that might be involved in Tra auto-regulatory function and hence in its repressive splicing behaviour. Finally, the Tra proteins conserved the SR dipeptides, which are essential for Tra functionality.

  4. Mass rearing of the Mexican fruit fly, Anastrepha ludens, at the Fruit Flies Biofactory in Metapa de Dominguez, Chiapas, Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zavala Lopez, J.L.; Dominguez G, J.; Gomez S, Y.; Moreno, P.

    1999-01-01

    A description of the present methods for mass rearing Anastrepha ludens, known as the Mexican fruit fly, at the Fruit Flies Biofactory in Metapa de Dominguez, Chiapas, is given. Important contributions and improvements are described for the rearing stages, e.g. egg production and incubation, larvae diets, lab conditions for the development of larvae and pupae, larvae and pupae handling and environmental control. (author)

  5. Comportamento sexual de Anastrepha sororcula Zucchi (Diptera, Tephritidae em laboratório Sexual behavior of Anastrepha sororcula Zucchi (Diptera, Tephritidae in laboratory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelli C. N. Facholi-Bendassolli

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Anastrepha sororcula Zucchi, 1979, é uma das espécies de mosca-das-frutas mais disseminadas no País, sendo considerada a praga-chave que causa os maiores danos à produção de goiaba (Psidium guajava L., 1758 no Brasil. Em vista da importância desta espécie no complexo de pragas naturais da fruticultura brasileira e, em face à escassez de dados sobre sua biologia e comportamento, este trabalho teve por objetivo obter informações sobre a idade de maturação sexual de A. sororcula em laboratório e descrever seu comportamento reprodutivo. Os machos atingiram a maturidade sexual entre 7 e 18 dias após a emergência, com a maioria dos indivíduos tornando-se sexualmente maduros entre 10 e 13 dias de idade. Exibiram comportamento de sinalização às fêmeas, caracterizado pela distensão da região pleural do abdome, formando uma pequena bolsa de cada lado e, eversão de uma diminuta bolsa membranosa de cutícula retal que circunda a área anal. Durante este processo, os machos realizaram rápidos movimentos de vibração das asas, produzindo sinais audíveis. Uma gotícula foi liberada da região anal durante os movimentos de vibração alar. Após a atração das fêmeas, os machos realizaram uma série de movimentos elaborados de cortejo. As fêmeas alcançaram a maturação sexual entre 14 e 24 dias da emergência, com a maioria tornando-se sexualmente madura aos 19 dias de idade. A exibição diária das atividades sexuais foi confinada quase que exclusivamente ao período das 16:00-17:30h. A. sororcula apresentou um acentuado padrão de protandria.Anastrepha sororcula Zucchi, 1979, is a fruit fly species that can be considered a key pest to the production of guava (Psidium guajava L., 1758, fruit tree which has a wide distribution in Brazil. In view of the importance of this species as a natural pest of Brazilian horticulture and, considering the lack of data about its biology and behavior, the aim of this paper is to obtain

  6. Current status and perspectives for management of Anastrepha fraterculus (Wied.) in apple orchards in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovaleski, Adalecio; Sugayama, Regina L.; Malavasi, Aldo

    2000-01-01

    Pomiculture is a recent activity in southern Brazil. The first apple orchards were installed in the early 1970s. Recently, the area grown with apples exceeded 30,000 ha, concentrated in the regions of Fraiburgo and Sao Joaquim (state of Santa Catarina) and Vacaria and Bom Jesus (state of Rio Grande do Sul). Part of the 600,000 tons that are harvested every year is exported to the USA and European countries. Some exotic apple pests were unintentionally introduced, like the European red mite (Panonychuls ulmi Koch) and the Oriental fruit moth (Grapholita molesta Busck). Furthermore, some native species of insects became important pests, as in the South American apple leafroller (Bonagota cranaodes Meyrick) and the South American fruit fly (Anastrepha fraterculus Wiedemann). The South American fruit fly is the best-studied pest of apples in Brazil regarding its biology and ecology. In this paper, we synthesise the information available and discuss the feasibility of adopting new control methods. Most experiments were conducted in Vacaria where A. fraterculus populations reach levels as high as 150 flies/trap day in some years. Sixteen species of Anastrepha occur in the region of Vacaria and only A. fraterculus is considered economically important (Kovaleski et al., submitted). In addition to the typical morphology of A. fraterculus, the morphotype CSS (Selivon et al. 1996) was detected in McPhail traps and infested native fruits. The second most frequent species of Anastrepha is A. dissimilis Stone. It may be responsible for more than 20% of fruit flies in commercial apple orchards in some periods of the year (November-January) but does not attack apples (Kovaleski 1997). Adult population fluctuation has been studied for the last four years using plastic McPhail traps containing grape juice at 25% (v/v) as attractant. It is more efficient than corn protein hydrolysate, vinegar, and sugarcane molasses (Kovaleski et al. 1995) and is widely used by apple growers as the

  7. Irradiation of mangoes as a quarantine treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bustos R, M.E.; Enkerlin H, W.; Toledo A, J.; Reyes F, J.; Casimiro G, A.

    1991-06-01

    This research project was conducted following guidelines of research protocols for post-harvest treatments developed by the United States Department of Agriculture CUSA. Laboratory bioassays included the irradiation of mangoes infested with third instar larvae of Anastrepha serpentina (Wied), A. ludens (Loew), A. obliqua (Macquart) and Ceratitis capitata (Wied) , at doses from 10 to 250 Gy. Irradiation doses were applied using a Co-60 AECL Model JS-7400 irradiator. The design was chosen to obtain a maximum to minimum ratio equal to, or less than, 1.025. C. capitata was the species most tolerant to irradiation. A dose of 60 Gy applied to third instar fruit fly larvae sterilized this species and prevented emergence of adults of the other three species. A dose of 250 Gy was required to prevent emergence of C. capitata. In fertility tests using emerged adults of A . Iudens, and A. obliqua a dose of 30 Gy gave 45 % and 27 % fertility, respectively. Adults of A. serpentina that emerged, died before reaching sexual maturity. The confirmatory tests, at probit-9 security level, were done at 100 Gy for the three species of Anastrepha and at 150 Gy for C. capitata. The quality of mangoes irradiated up to 1000 Gy was evaluated by chemical, physiological, and sensorial tests. The determination of vitamin C indicated that there was no loss of the nutritive value of the fruit. It also was observed that fruit metabolism was not accelerated since no significant increase in respiration or transpiration was registered and consumers accepted both treated and untreated fruit in the same way. (Author)

  8. Irradiation of mangoes as a quarantine treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bustos R, M.E.; Enkerlin H, W.; Toledo A, J.; Reyes F, J.; Casimiro G, A

    1991-06-15

    This research project was conducted following guidelines of research protocols for post-harvest treatments developed by the United States Department of Agriculture CUSA. Laboratory bioassays included the irradiation of mangoes infested with third instar larvae of Anastrepha serpentina (Wied), A. ludens (Loew), A. obliqua (Macquart) and Ceratitis capitata (Wied) , at doses from 10 to 250 Gy. Irradiation doses were applied using a Co-60 AECL Model JS-7400 irradiator. The design was chosen to obtain a maximum to minimum ratio equal to, or less than, 1.025. C. capitata was the species most tolerant to irradiation. A dose of 60 Gy applied to third instar fruit fly larvae sterilized this species and prevented emergence of adults of the other three species. A dose of 250 Gy was required to prevent emergence of C. capitata. In fertility tests using emerged adults of A . Iudens, and A. obliqua a dose of 30 Gy gave 45 % and 27 % fertility, respectively. Adults of A. serpentina that emerged, died before reaching sexual maturity. The confirmatory tests, at probit-9 security level, were done at 100 Gy for the three species of Anastrepha and at 150 Gy for C. capitata. The quality of mangoes irradiated up to 1000 Gy was evaluated by chemical, physiological, and sensorial tests. The determination of vitamin C indicated that there was no loss of the nutritive value of the fruit. It also was observed that fruit metabolism was not accelerated since no significant increase in respiration or transpiration was registered and consumers accepted both treated and untreated fruit in the same way. (Author)

  9. A catalog for the transcripts from the venomous structures of the caterpillar Lonomia obliqua: identification of the proteins potentially involved in the coagulation disorder and hemorrhagic syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veiga, Ana B. G.; Ribeiro, José M. C.; Guimarães, Jorge A.; Francischetti, Ivo M.B.

    2010-01-01

    Accidents with the caterpillar Lonomia obliqua are often associated with a coagulation disorder and hemorrhagic syndrome in humans. In the present study, we have constructed cDNA libraries from two venomous structures of the caterpillar, namely the tegument and the bristle. High-throughput sequencing and bioinformatics analyses were performed in parallel. Over one thousand cDNAs were obtained and clustered to produce a database of 538 contigs and singletons (clusters) for the tegument library and 368 for the bristle library. We have thus identified dozens of full-length cDNAs coding for proteins with sequence homology to snake venom prothrombin activator, trypsin-like enzymes, blood coagulation factors and prophenoloxidase cascade activators. We also report cDNA coding for cysteine proteases, Group III phospholipase A2, C-type lectins, lipocalins, in addition to protease inhibitors including serpins, Kazal-type inhibitors, cystatins and trypsin inhibitor-like molecules. Antibacterial proteins and housekeeping genes are also described. A significant number of sequences were devoid of database matches, suggesting that their biologic function remains to be defined. We also report the N-terminus of the most abundant proteins present in the bristle, tegument, hemolymph, and "cryosecretion". Thus, we have created a catalog that contains the predicted molecular weight, isoelectric point, accession number, and putative function for each selected molecule from the venomous structures of L. obliqua. The role of these molecules in the coagulation disorder and hemorrhagic syndrome caused by envenomation with this caterpillar is discussed. All sequence information and the Supplemental Data, including Figures and Tables with hyperlinks to FASTA-formatted files for each contig and the best match to the Databases, are available at http://www.ncbi.nih.gov/projects/omes. PMID:16023793

  10. Identification and Comparative Study of Chemosensory Genes Related to Host Selection by Legs Transcriptome Analysis in the Tea Geometrid Ectropis obliqua.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Long Ma

    Full Text Available Host selection by female moths is fundamental to the survival of their larvae. Detecting and perceiving the non-volatile chemicals of the plant surface involved in gustatory detection determine the host preference. In many lepidopteran species, tarsal chemosensilla are sensitive to non-volatile chemicals and responsible for taste detection. The tea geometrid Ectropis obliqua is one devastating chewing pest selectively feeding on limited plants, requiring the specialized sensors to forage certain host for oviposition. In present study, we revealed the distribution of chemosensilla in the ventral side of female fifth tarsomere in E. obliqua. To investigate its molecular mechanism of gustatory perception, we performed HiSeq 2500 sequencing of the male- and female- legs transcriptome and identified 24 candidate odorant binding proteins (OBPs, 21 chemosensory proteins (CSPs, 2 sensory neuron membrane proteins (SNMPs, 3 gustatory receptors (GRs and 4 odorant receptors (ORs. Several leg-specific or enriched chemosensory genes were screened by tissue expression analysis, and clustered with functionally validated genes from other moths, suggesting the potential involvement in taste sensation or other physiological processes. The RPKM value analysis revealed that 9 EoblOBPs showed sex discrepancy in the leg expression, 8 being up-regulated in female and only 1 being over expressed in male. These female-biased EoblOBPs indicated an ecological adaption related with host-seeking and oviposition behaviors. Our work will provide basic knowledge for further studies on the molecular mechanism of gustatory perception, and enlighten a host-selection-based control strategy of insect pests.

  11. Sterility and Sexual Competitiveness of Tapachula-7 Anastrepha ludens Males Irradiated at Different Doses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orozco-Dávila, Dina; Adriano-Anaya, Maria de Lourdes; Quintero-Fong, Luis; Salvador-Figueroa, Miguel

    2015-01-01

    A genetic sexing strain of Anastrepha ludens (Loew), Tapachula-7, was developed by the Mexican Program Against Fruit Flies to produce and release only males in programs where the sterile insect technique (SIT) is applied. Currently, breeding are found at a massive scale, and it is necessary to determine the optimum irradiation dose that releases sterile males with minimum damage to their sexual competitiveness. Under laboratory and field conditions, we evaluated the effects of gamma irradiation at doses of 0, 20, 40, 60 and 80 Gy on the sexual competitiveness of males, the induction of sterility in wild females and offspring survivorship. The results of the study indicate that irradiation doses have a significant effect on the sexual behavior of males. A reduction of mating capacity was inversely proportional to the irradiation dose of males. It is estimated that a dose of 60 Gy can induce more than 99% sterility in wild females. In all treatments, the degree of offspring fertility was correlated with the irradiation dose of the parents. In conclusion, the results of the study indicate that a dose of 60 Gy can be applied in sterile insect technique release programs. The application of this dose in the new genetic sexing strain of A. ludens is discussed.

  12. Sexual selection on multivariate phenotypes in Anastrepha Fraterculus (Diptera: Tephritidae) from Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sciurano, R.; Rodriguero, M.; Gomez Cendra, P.; Vilardi, J.; Segura, D.; Cladera, J.L.; Allinghi, Armando

    2007-01-01

    Despite the interest in applying environmentally friendly control methods such as sterile insect technique (SIT) against Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae), information about its biology, taxonomy, and behavior is still insufficient. To increase this information, the present study aims to evaluate the performance of wild flies under field cage conditions through the study of sexual competitiveness among males (sexual selection). A wild population from Horco Molle, Tucuman, Argentina was sampled. Mature virgin males and females were released into outdoor field cages to compete for mating. Morphometric analyses were applied to determine the relationship between the multivariate phenotype and copulatory success. Successful and unsuccessful males were measured for 8 traits: head width (HW), face width (FW), eye length (EL), thorax length (THL), wing length (WL), wing width (WW), femur length (FL), and tibia length (TIL). Combinations of different multivariate statistical methods and graphical analyses were used to evaluate sexual selection on male phenotype. The results indicated that wing width and thorax length would be the most probable targets of sexual selection. They describe a non-linear association between expected fitness and each of these 2 traits. This non-linear relation suggests that observed selection could maintain the diversity related to body size. (author) [es

  13. Estimation of populations and sterility induction in Anastrepha ludens (Diptera: Tephritidae) fruit flies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flores, Salvador; Montoya, Pablo; Toledo, Jorge; Liedo, Pablo; Enkerlin, Walther

    2015-01-01

    The relationship between different release densities of sterile flies and fly trap captures, expressed as flies per trap per day, in the monitoring of Anastrepha ludens (Loew) populations was evaluated in mango orchards. The induction of sterility in fertile females was evaluated using different ratios of sterile: fertile males under field cage conditions. A direct relationship between recaptured flies and densities of release sterile flies was found. However, trap efficiency, expressed as percentage of recaptured flies, decreased as the density of released flies increased. Sterility induction was positively correlated to the ratio of sterile: fertile flies. A significant difference in egg fertility among treatments was observed. The trajectory of sterility induction slowed down after a sterile: wild ratio of 30:1, which suggests that this ratio could be appropriate in an sterile insect technique program with A. ludens. Sterility induction was greater when only sterile males were released than when releasing both sterile males and females, but the differences were not significant. Our findings contribute to a better interpretation of fly captures obtained from the field trapping networks, and to an improvement in the efficiency of sterile insect technique against A. ludens fruit flies, through the implementation of more rational sterile fly release densities. (author)

  14. Olfactory response of Anastrepha striata (Diptera: Tephritidae) to guava and sweet orange volatiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz-Santiz, Edvin; Rojas, Julio C; Cruz-López, Leopoldo; Hernández, Emilio; Malo, Edi A

    2016-10-01

    The behavioral responses of virgin and mated female Anastrepha striata Schiner (Diptera: Tephritidae) to guava (Psidium guajava L.) or sweet orange (Citrus sinensis L.) were evaluated separately using multilure traps in two-choice tests in field cages. The results showed that flies were more attracted to guava and sweet orange volatiles than to control (unbaited trap). The physiological state (virgin or mated) of females did not affect their attraction to the fruit volatiles. Combined analysis of gas chromatography coupled with electroantennography (GC-EAD) of volatile extracts of both fruits showed that 1 and 6 compounds from orange and guava, respectively elicited repeatable antennal responses from mated females. The EAD active compounds in guava volatile extracts were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) as ethyl butyrate, (Z)-3-hexenol, hexanol, ethyl hexanoate, hexyl acetate, and ethyl octanoate. Linalool was identified as the only antennal active compound in sweet orange extracts. In field cage tests, there were no significant differences between the number of mated flies captured by the traps baited with guava extracts and the number caught by traps baited with the 6-component blend that was formulated according to the relative proportions in the guava extracts. Similar results occurred when synthetic linalool was evaluated against orange extracts. From a practical point of view, the compounds identified in this study could be used for monitoring A. striata populations. © 2015 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  15. A novel attractant for Anastrepha ludens (Diptera: Tephritidae) from a Concord grape product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robacker, David C; Massa, Michelle J; Sacchetti, Patrizia; Bartelt, Robert J

    2011-08-01

    An attractant for Mexican fruit fly, Anastrepha ludens (Loew) (Diptera: Tephritidae), was developed from a commercial product called Sabor Uva containing processed Concord grape juice. The principal volatile components of Sabor Uva aroma were identified and an aqueous mixture of 15 components that was gas chromatographically similar to Sabor Uva was prepared. This mixture was equivalent to Sabor Uva in attractiveness by using wind-tunnel bioassays. After deleting chemicals that did not contribute to attractiveness, and increasing the concentrations of the remaining chemicals, the final attractant contained propylene glycol (90,000 ppm, vol/vol), acetic acid (4500), methyl anthranilate (1800), ethyl 2-methylpropionate (670), and one or both of the esters ethyl 3-methylbutyrate (44) and 2-methylbutyl propionate (44), in aqueous solution. This mixture was approximately 1.8X as attractive as Sabor Uva by indirect comparison. Deletion of propylene glycol, acetic acid, methyl anthranilate, or ethyl 2-methylpropionate from the mixture significantly decreased attractiveness. Deletion of either of the other two esters seemed to diminish attractiveness although effects were not statistically significant. Deletion of water from the mixture significantly decreased attractiveness. We conclude that propylene glycol, acetic acid, methyl anthranilate, water, and at least one or as many as all three of the methyl-branched esters are essential for complete attractiveness.

  16. Grape Juice as a Bait for Anastrepha suspensa (Diptera: Tephritidae) and Zaprionus indianus (Diptera: Drosophilidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epsky, Nancy D; Gill, Micah A; Mangan, Robert L

    2015-08-01

    In field tests conducted in south Florida to test grape juice as a bait for the Caribbean fruit fly, Anastrepha suspensa Loew, high numbers of Zaprionus indianus Gupta were captured in traps with aqueous grape juice. These experiments included comparisons of grape juice bait with established A. suspensa protein-based baits (ammonium acetate + putrescine lures, or torula yeast) or wine, a bait found previously to be attractive to Z. indianus. Effects of different preservatives (polypropylene glycol, polyethylene glycol, proxel, or sodium tetraborate) and bait age were also tested. Traps with grape juice baits captured more A. suspensa than unbaited traps, but more were captured in traps with grape juice plus preservative baits and the highest numbers were captured in traps containing the established protein-based baits. In contrast, grape juice baits without preservative that were prepared on the day of deployment (0 d) or that were aged for 3-4 d in the laboratory captured the highest numbers of Z. indianus, while solutions that were aged in the laboratory for 6 or 9 d captured fewer. Although these studies found that aqueous grape juice is a poor bait for A. suspensa, we found that actively fermenting aqueous grape juice may be an effective bait for Z. indianus. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America 2015. This work is written by US Government employees and is in the public domain in the US.

  17. A new blend of white sapote fruit volatiles as potential attractant to Anastrepha ludens (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Ricardo; Toledo, Jorge; Cruz-Lopez, Leopoldo; Virgen, Armando; Santiesteban, Antonio; Malo, Edi A

    2006-12-01

    The behavioral and electrophysiological responses of nonirradiated male and female Anastrepha ludens (Loew) (Diptera: Tephritidae), to white sapote, Casimiroa edulis Oerst. (Rutaceae), volatiles were investigated. Females flew upwind and landed more often on fruit than on artificial fruit in wind tunnel bioassays. Males flew upwind (but not landed) more frequently on fruit than on artificial fruit. Porapak Q volatile extracts of white sapote also elicited upwind flight and landing on artificial fruit for both sexes. Gas chromatography-electroantennographic detection analysis of white sapote extracts revealed that antennae of both sexes responded to eight compounds. Two peaks were unidentified because they did not separate from the solvent. Subsequent peaks were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry as styrene, myrcene, 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene, 1,8-cineole, and linalool in a proportion of 50: 21: 0.5: 27: 1.5, respectively. Eight peaks were tentatively identified as beta-trans-ocimene. The number of A. ludens captured in multilure traps baited with the synthetic white sapote blend was higher than the flies captured by the multilure unbaited traps (control) in field cages. However, the number of flies captured by traps baited with the white sapote blend was not different from that of flies captured by traps baited with hydrolyzed protein. Using standard chemical ecology techniques, we found potential attractants from wild sapote fruit for monitoring and management of A. ludens population.

  18. Progress on the artificial rearing of Anastrepha fraterculus (Wied.) (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nunez Bueno, L.; Guzman Duenas, R.

    1999-01-01

    With the purpose of evaluating post-harvest quarantine treatments for fruits in Colombia, we have established experimental colonies of fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) at the Colombian Agricultural Institute (ICA), plant quarantine Laboratory Ibague (Tol.) at 24 deg. C, 70-80% RH, and 10 hr light. The procedures and results refer only to A. fraterculus from September 1994 to September 1996. The first adults, obtained from Coffea arabica L. cherries, were initially multiplied in fruits and later put on artificial diet. The handling procedures, diets and data collected are adapted from those established by USDA-ARA 1981, Celedonio et al. 1989, Gonzalez et al. Martinez et al. 1987, and others, that were used for Anastrepha spp. The average percentages of recuperation between stages that were hatched 66.0±1.0; first to third instar larvae 28.12±14.4; third instar larvae to pupae 81.80±3.0; pupae to adult 75.82±3.4. Additional data related to partial mortality of the stages are also discussed. The average recuperation from eggs to third instar larvae of 17.57%, and from eggs to emerged adults of 9.5±4.9, is low and indicates the necessity of doing basic research to improve the procedures. (author)

  19. Demographic and quality control parameters of Anastrepha Fraterculus (Diptera: Tephritidae) maintained under artificial rearing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vera, T.; Abraham, S.; Oviedo, A.; Willink, E.

    2007-01-01

    The integration of the sterile insect technique (SIT) in the management of the South American fruit fly Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae) is a promising alternative to chemically-based control in those areas where it is sympatric with Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae) or other tephritid species for which the SIT is being used. Implementation of the SIT requires the development of a cost effective mass-rearing protocol. In this work, we present demographic and quality control parameters for the A. fraterculus strain reared at the Estacion Experimental Agroindustrial Obispo Colombres, Tucuman, Argentina. Considering the rearing cage as the reproduction unit, we observed that fecundity is optimal during the first 3 weeks after the onset of oviposition. Fertility was constant during this period. During 2003 and 2004, some improvements were made to the existing rearing protocol, which resulted in increased larval viability, pupal weight, and adult emergence. Current weekly egg production is 1 million per week. These eggs are used to maintain the colony and to assess quality parameters. Finally, research needs leading to improved yields and fly quality are discussed. (author) [es

  20. Contribución al Estudio de las Moscas Anastrephas en Colombia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    González Mendoza Rafael

    1952-11-01

    Full Text Available 1. Colombia tiene amplias posibilidades de desarrollar una industria frutícola floreciente dadas las excepcionales condiciones de ubicación geográfica, diversidad de climas y de suelos. 2. La deficiente producción frutera actual es el resultado de una reunión de factores adversos, entre los que resalta el desconocimiento de los problemas científicos que afectan a dicha industria. En este aspecto, los problemas fitosanitarios, abandonados y faltos de investigación, ocupan lugar preponderante. 3. Las moscas Anastrephas constituyen la plaga más importante de la fruticultura nacional, y por esta razón, un estudio sobre estos insectos es un tema de importancia. 4. Las principales "moscas de las frutas" pertenecen dentro de la familia Trypetidae, a los géneros: Dacus, Rhaglethis, Ceratitis, Dactrocera y Anastrepha. 5. Los nombres comunes con que se conocen las moscas Anastrephas varían de un país a otro y se relacionan particularmente con el lugar de origen de las distintas especies o la fruta determinada como preterida por la mosca en una localidad. En Colombia la denominación vernácula más difundida es la de "gusano de las frutas". También se nombra el insecto como "mosca o gusano del mango" o "gusano de la guayaba". 6. Los nombres científicos de las moscas distinguen a una, gran cantidad de especies. En Colombia, varios autores han reportado la existencia de las especies A.fraterculus, A. ludens, A. mombinpracoptans, A. pikeli y A. serpentina. Todas estas especies inciden en las regiones colombianas comprendidas entre 0 y 2000 metros de altura, es decir, en casi todas las regiones agrícolas importantes (frutales, café, cacao de temperaturas entre 14° y 30° C. 7. Las moscas Anastrephas están confinadas casi exclusivamente al continente americano entre las latitudes 27° N. y 35° S. Particularmente, la especie A. fraterculus, una de las más difundidas en Colombia, fué determinada por Wiedemann (1830

  1. Disinfestation of apples attacked by the fruit fly Anastrepha fraterculus (Wied.) (Diptera: Tephritidae) using gamma radiation of cobalt-60

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arthur, Valter; Wiendl, Frederico M.

    1996-01-01

    Apples, cv. Gala, artificially infested during 72 hours with adults of the fruit fly Anastrepha fraterculus (Wied.) were irradiated with the following gamma radiation doses: 0 (control), 25, 50, 75 and 100 Gy, at the dose rate of 1048 Gy per hour. After irradiation fruits were put in plastic bags with 80 ml of sugar cane bagasse. The bags were maintained in a rearing room at temperature 21 - 24 deg C, 65 - 75% R H, and photo period of 12 hours. Pupae obtained were sieved out and kept in small glass tubes. All doses tested did not allow emergence of adults. (author)

  2. Cool-weather activity of the forensically important hairy maggot blow fly Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart) (Diptera: Calliphoridae) on carrion in Upstate South Carolina, United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cammack, Jonathan A; Nelder, Mark P

    2010-02-25

    The hairy maggot blow fly Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart) (Diptera: Calliphoridae) has expanded its range in the United States since its introduction into Texas (ca. 1980) and has been collected in 15 states. We investigated the bionomics of immature and adult C. rufifacies collected from carcasses of a raccoon Procyon lotor (Linnaeus) and white-tailed deer Odocoileus virginianus Zimmerman in Upstate South Carolina during November 2007, and used these insects to estimate the minimum period of insect activity. Puparia of C. rufifacies were collected from deer carrion; 28% were parasitized by Nasonia vitripennis (Walker) (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae). The mean daily ambient temperature during this study was 11.4+/-1.02 degrees C, representing the lowest recorded mean temperature for adult activity of C. rufifacies; adults of C. rufifacies were observed flying among the carcasses at 9.0 degrees C. Although C. rufifacies is considered a warm-weather blow fly, researchers should be aware of its activity at suboptimal conditions, behavior that might aid its expansion into more northern areas. 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Compatibility and competitiveness of a laboratory strain of Anastrepha Fraterculus (Diptera: Tephritidae) after irradiation treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allinghi, A.; Calcagno, G.; Gomez Cendra, P.; Vilardi, J.C.; Petit-Marty, N.; Segura, D.; Cladera, J.; Vera, T.; Gramajo, C.; Willink, E.

    2007-01-01

    We evaluated under semi-natural field cage conditions sexual compatibility and competitiveness of a laboratory strain (LAB) compared to a wild population (TUC) of Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann). The LAB strain is produced under semi-mass rearing conditions at the Estacion Experimental Agroindustrial Obispo Colombres facility (Tucuman, Argentina). Wild flies were obtained at Horco Molle (Tucuman, Argentina) from infested guava fruits. LAB pupae were irradiated ( 60 Co) 48 h before adult emergence. The tested doses were 0 (control), 40, 70, and 100 Gy. Twenty-five males and 25 females each of TUC and LAB were released into cages and mating pairs collected. Only 1 irradiation dose was considered at a time. Females were separated and allowed to lay eggs into artificial fruits to estimate induced sterility from the corresponding hatching rate. Copulation start time did not differ significantly between strains nor among irradiation treatments. Copulation duration showed highly significant differences among irradiation doses, but no differences between strains. The index of sexual isolation (ISI) and the relative sterility index (RSI) indices indicated that LAB and TUC are fully compatible, males from TUC and LAB did not differ in mating competitiveness, and irradiation within the range tested did not affect these indices. Non-irradiated LAB females exhibited higher mating propensity than TUC ones. However, a significant reduction in the female relative performance index (FRPI) index was observed with increasing irradiation dose. The analysis of induced sterility indicated that treatment with 40 Gy reduces male fertility from about 80% to 0.75%, and higher doses produce total sterility. In females, the 40 Gy dose reduces fertility to about 2% and higher doses prevent egg laying. (author) [es

  4. [Phoretic association of the mites Myialges spp. (Astigmata: Epidermoptidae) and Ornitocheyletia hallae volgin (Prostigmata: Cheyletidae) with the fly Pseudolynchia canariensis (Macquart) (Diptera: Hippoboscidae)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcelino, Valter J F C; Arcoverde, Alessandro R; Daemon, Erik

    2009-01-01

    This study evaluated aspects of population ecology and community component of mites in Pseudolynchia canariensis (Macquart) of domestic pigeons Columba livia in Juiz de Fora, Minas Gerais, Brazil. A total of 236 forest mites were found in 74 out of 156 fl ies (47.4% infestation). The prevalence for Myialges anchora Sergent & Trouessart was 23.7%, with average intensity 1.5 +/- 0.90 and average abundance 0.4 +/- 0.76, mostly (94.4%) located on the abdomen; 75.9% of the mites (n = 41) surrounded by eggs, with a mean of 16.4 +/- 14.60 eggs per individual and 21.6 +/- 12.90 eggs per ovigerous female. The prevalence for M.lophortyx (Furmann & Tharshis) was 13.5% (n = 21) with 62 individuals, mean intensity 3.0 +/- 2.75 average abundance 0.4 +/- 1.41; 41.9% (n = 26) located at the right wing and 58.1% (n = 36) were in the left wing; 72.6% (n = 45) showed ovigerous mass, with 4.56 +/- 3.42 per each individual and 6.3 +/- 3.04 per ovigerous female. The prevalence of Ornithocheyletia hallae Volgin was 23.7% (n = 37) with 120 individuals, with mean intensity of 3.2 +/- 4.47, and mean abundance of 0.8 +/- 2.56. In 28.4% (n = 21) of flies occurred simultaneous mite infestations, mainly for M.anchora and O.hallae, present in 66.7% (n = 14) of flies with mixed effect. The component communities showed an aggregate distribution. The mite species O.hallae was more agregate, while M.anchora and M.lophortyx showed the same K value.

  5. Observations on the growth parameters of Spilosoma obliqua (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae) reared on artificial diets and reproductive competence of this irradiated pest and its progeny

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahman, R.; Rahman, M.M.; Islam, S.; Huque, R.

    2002-01-01

    Ten trials were conducted to standardize an artificial diet for Spilosoma oblique. The main ingredients included agar, mulberry leaves, yeast, casein, cellulose, sucrose, glucose, ascorbic acid, sorbic acid, antibiotics, vitamin C, Wesson's salt, and vitamin B complex in variable proportions. A diet formulation with increased amounts of Wesson's salt, choline chloride and iron supplement was found to be most suitable when growth parameters were measured. The deleterious effects when 6-day old pupae were treated with 100 and 150 Gy of gamma radiation were increased in the F 1 generation as compared to the parental generation. Various combinations of crosses between treated and untreated moths indicated that females were more sensitive to gamma radiation when compared to males. F 1 sterility was attained when male moths treated with 100 Gy were allowed to mate with untreated females. Two species of hymenopteran parasitoids of the genus Glyptapanteles and Meteorus were found to infest Spilosoma obliqua. These parasitoids may serve as an effective addition to an integrated pest management program for this pest in Bangladesh. (author)

  6. Examination of the ligand-binding and enzymatic properties of a bilin-binding protein from the poisonous caterpillar Lonomia obliqua.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana B G Veiga

    Full Text Available The bilin-binding proteins (BBP from lepidopteran insects are members of the lipocalin family of proteins and play a special role in pigmentation through the binding of biliverdin IXγ. Lopap, a BBP-like protein from the venom of the toxic caterpillar Lonomia obliqua has been reported to act as a serine protease that activates the coagulation proenzyme prothrombin. Here we show that BBPLo, a variant of lopap from the same organism binds biliverdin IXγ, forming a complex that is spectrally identical with previously described BBP proteins. Although BBPLo is nearly identical in sequence to lopap, no prothrombinase activity was detected in our recombinant preparations using reconstituted systems containing coagulation factors Xa and Va, as well as anionic phospholipids. In addition to biliverdin, BBPLo was found to form a 1:1 complex with heme prompting us to examine whether the unusual biliverdin IXγ ligand of BBPs forms as a result of oxidation of bound heme in situ rather than by a conventional heme oxygenase. Using ascorbate or a NADPH(+-ferredoxin reductase-ferredoxin system as a source of reducing equivalents, spectral changes are seen that suggest an initial reduction of heme to the Fe(II state and formation of an oxyferrous complex. The complex then disappears and a product identified as a 5-coordinate carbonyl complex of verdoheme, an intermediate in the biosynthesis of biliverdin, is formed. However, further reaction to form biliverdin was not observed, making it unlikely that biliverdin IXγ is formed by this pathway.

  7. Mass rearing methods for fruit fly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dominguez Gordillo, J.C.

    1999-01-01

    The most common rearing methods used for mass rearing of fruit flies, with emphasis on those of economic importance in Mexico such as Anastrepha ludens (the Mexican fruit fly). Anastrepha obliqua (the mango and plum fruit fly) and the exotic fruit fly Ceratitis capitata (the Mediterranean fruit fly) are described here. (author)

  8. Selection by mating competitiveness improves the performance of Anastrepha ludens males of the genetic sexing strain Tapachula-7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintero-Fong, L; Toledo, J; Ruiz, L; Rendón, P; Orozco-Dávila, D; Cruz, L; Liedo, P

    2016-10-01

    The sexual performance of Anastrepha ludens males of the Tapachula-7 genetic sexing strain, produced via selection based on mating success, was compared with that of males produced without selection in competition with wild males. Mating competition, development time, survival, mass-rearing quality parameters and pheromone production were compared. The results showed that selection based on mating competitiveness significantly improved the sexual performance of offspring. Development time, survival of larvae, pupae and adults, and weights of larvae and pupae increased with each selection cycle. Differences in the relative quantity of the pheromone compounds (Z)-3-nonenol and anastrephin were observed when comparing the parental males with the F4 and wild males. The implications of this colony management method on the sterile insect technique are discussed.

  9. Establishment of a colony of Anastrepha ludens (Diptera: Tephritidae) under relaxed mass-rearing conditions in Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orozco-Davila, Dina; Hernandez, Refugio; Solis, Eduardo; Quintero, J. Luis; Dominguez, Julio, E-mail: dorozco1@prodigy.net.m [United States Department of Agriculture, Gainesville, FL (United States). Agricultural Research Service. Center for Medical, Agricultural, and Veterinary Entomology; Sigma Space Corporation, MD(United States); Programa Moscamed Moscafrut-Desarrollo de Metodos, Chiapas (Mexico)

    2006-07-01

    Several studies have suggested that maintaining a line of insects under laboratory conditions reduces their biological attributes. With this principle in mind, the mass production of Anastrepha ludens originating from a colony raised under relaxed rearing conditions was evaluated over a period of three years. The results of the evaluation indicated that insects kept under these conditions reached their larval maturity in 10 days, and attained a greater weight, which has a direct influence on pupal quality. In adult cages having a fly density of 70,000 individuals, there was a lower level of stress which favored fecundity. Fertility was apparently not affected by the cage density. These results suggest that keeping a production line under relaxed conditions optimizes insect production and promotes higher quality. (author)

  10. Comparison of longevity between a laboratory strain and a natural population of Anastrepha Fraterculus (Diptera: Tephritidae) under field cage conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez Cendra, P.; Vilardi, J.; Segura, D.; Cladera, J.; Allinghi, A.

    2007-01-01

    The South American fruit fly Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann) is one of the most destructive fruit pests in this region, infesting major fruit crops. Implementation of the sterile insect technique (SIT) as part of an area-wide integrated approach against this species requires information on the survival of mass-reared and sterilized insects in the field and their ability to mate with wild females. The survival rates in field cages of both non-irradiated and irradiated laboratory flies were compared with that of wild flies. Both types of laboratory flies survived longer than their wild counterparts over the 8 days under the experimental conditions. The irradiation dose (70 Gy) did not affect survival of the laboratory reared flies. Our results improve the prospect of integrating the SIT into the control of A. fraterculus populations in Argentina. (author) [es

  11. Establishment of a colony of Anastrepha ludens (Diptera: Tephritidae) under relaxed mass-rearing conditions in Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orozco-Davila, Dina; Hernandez, Refugio; Solis, Eduardo; Quintero, J. Luis; Dominguez, Julio

    2006-01-01

    Several studies have suggested that maintaining a line of insects under laboratory conditions reduces their biological attributes. With this principle in mind, the mass production of Anastrepha ludens originating from a colony raised under relaxed rearing conditions was evaluated over a period of three years. The results of the evaluation indicated that insects kept under these conditions reached their larval maturity in 10 days, and attained a greater weight, which has a direct influence on pupal quality. In adult cages having a fly density of 70,000 individuals, there was a lower level of stress which favored fecundity. Fertility was apparently not affected by the cage density. These results suggest that keeping a production line under relaxed conditions optimizes insect production and promotes higher quality. (author)

  12. Precocious sexual signalling and mating in Anastrepha fraterculus (Diptera: Tephritidae) sterile males achieved through juvenile hormone treatment and protein supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liendo, M C; Devescovi, F; Bachmann, G E; Utgés, M E; Abraham, S; Vera, M T; Lanzavecchia, S B; Bouvet, J P; Gómez-Cendra, P; Hendrichs, J; Teal, P E A; Cladera, J L; Segura, D F

    2013-02-01

    Sexual maturation of Anastrepha fraterculus is a long process. Methoprene (a mimic of juvenile hormone) considerably reduces the time for sexual maturation in males. However, in other Anastrepha species, this effect depends on protein intake at the adult stage. Here, we evaluated the mating competitiveness of sterile laboratory males and females that were treated with methoprene (either the pupal or adult stage) and were kept under different regimes of adult food, which varied in the protein source and the sugar:protein ratio. Experiments were carried out under semi-natural conditions, where laboratory flies competed over copulations with sexually mature wild flies. Sterile, methoprene-treated males that reached sexual maturity earlier (six days old), displayed the same lekking behaviour, attractiveness to females and mating competitiveness as mature wild males. This effect depended on protein intake. Diets containing sugar and hydrolyzed yeast allowed sterile males to compete with wild males (even at a low concentration of protein), while brewer´s yeast failed to do so even at a higher concentration. Sugar only fed males were unable to achieve significant numbers of copulations. Methoprene did not increase the readiness to mate of six-day-old sterile females. Long pre-copulatory periods create an additional cost to the management of fruit fly pests through the sterile insect technique (SIT). Our findings suggest that methoprene treatment will increase SIT effectiveness against A. fraterculus when coupled with a diet fortified with protein. Additionally, methoprene acts as a physiological sexing method, allowing the release of mature males and immature females and hence increasing SIT efficiency.

  13. Nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) variation in the Anastrepha fraterculus cryptic species complex (Diptera, Tephritidae) of the Andean region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, Bruce D.; Steck, Gary J.; Norrbom, Allen L.; Rodriguez, Erick J.; Srivastava, Pratibha; Alvarado, Norma Nolazco; Colque, Fredy; Landa, Erick Yábar; Sánchez, Juan José Lagrava; Quisberth, Elizabeth; Peñaranda, Emilio Arévalo; Clavijo, P. A. Rodriguez; Alvarez-Baca, Jeniffer K.; Zapata, Tito Guevara; Ponce, Patricio

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) was sequenced for Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann, 1830) originating from 85 collections from the northern and central Andean countries of South America including Argentina (Tucumán), Bolivia, Perú, Ecuador, Colombia, and Venezuela. The ITS1 regions of additional specimens (17 collections) from Central America (México, Guatemala, Costa Rica, and Panamá), Brazil, Caribbean Colombia, and coastal Venezuela were sequenced and together with published sequences (Paraguay) provided context for interpretation. A total of six ITS1 sequence variants were recognized in the Andean region comprising four groups. Type I predominates in the southernmost range of Anastrepha fraterculus. Type II predominates in its northernmost range. In the central and northern Andes, the geographic distributions overlap and interdigitate with a strong elevational effect. A discussion of relationships between observed ITS1 types and morphometric types is included. PMID:26798259

  14. Mineralización del nitrógeno, carbono y actividad enzimática del suelo en un bosque de Nothofagus obliqua (Mirb Oerst y una plantación de Pinus radiata D. Don. del centro-sur de Chile Nitrogen and carbon mineralization and enzyme activity in soils of Nothofagus obliqua (Mirb Oerst stands and Pinus radiata D. Don plantation in south-central Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YESSICA RIVAS

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available En Chile, el establecimiento de plantaciones comerciales de rápido crecimiento ha sido sostenido en las últimas décadas mediante la sustitución de bosques nativos y conversión de suelos agrícolas. Pinus radiata D. Don es la principal especie productiva, debido a su crecimiento acelerado y adaptabilidad al clima y los suelos. En el presente estudio se plantea que la actividad biológica del suelo es variable a través del año, en respuesta a variaciones de precipitación, temperatura y contenido de humedad de suelo y que el cambio de uso de suelo desde un bosque templado de Nothofagus obliqua (Mirb Oerst a una plantación con coniferas exóticas, modifica la química del suelo y consecuentemente los procesos de N-min, C-min y la actividad biológica del suelo. Esta hipótesis fue examinada en un bosque de N. obliqua y una plantación de P. radiata del centro-sur de Chile (40°07' S, 72° O. Se evaluó mensualmente la tasa mineralización de nitrógeno (N-min, cabono (C-min y la actividad enzimática potencial del suelo (ureasa, proteasa e hidrólisis de la fluoresceína diacetato entre septiembre 2003 y mayo 2005. Los resultados demuestran que los niveles de las variables de actividad biológica del suelo fueron significativamente diferentes entre las parcelas de bosque y plantación (Lambda de Wilk = 0,022; F 5,80 = 733; P In Chile, commercial forests plantations have increased during the last decades due in part to replacement of native forests and conversion of agricultural soils. Pinus radiata D. Don has been the main tree planted, due to its rapid growth and adaptability. In the present study we proposed that biological activity varies along the year due to changes of precipitation, temperature and soil water content and mainly because the conversion of native forest to exotic P. radiata plantations alters the soil chemistry, N and C mineralization and the potential enzymatic activity in these soils. This hypothesis was examined in a

  15. Head Transcriptomes of Two Closely Related Species of Fruit Flies of the Anastrepha fraterculus Group Reveals Divergent Genes in Species with Extensive Gene Flow

    OpenAIRE

    Rezende, Victor Borges; Congrains, Carlos; Lima, Andr? Lu?s A.; Campanini, Emeline Boni; Nakamura, Aline Minali; de Oliveira, Jana?na Lima; Chahad-Ehlers, Samira; Junior, Iderval Sobrinho; Alves de Brito, Reinaldo

    2016-01-01

    Several fruit flies species of the Anastrepha fraterculus group are of great economic importance for the damage they cause to a variety of fleshy fruits. Some species in this group have diverged recently, with evidence of introgression, showing similar morphological attributes that render their identification difficult, reinforcing the relevance of identifying new molecular markers that may differentiate species. We investigated genes expressed in head tissues from two closely related species...

  16. The Mexican Fruit Fly Eradication Programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reyes F, Jesus; Santiago M, Guillermo; Hernandez M, Porfirio

    2000-01-01

    The goal of the Mexican Fruit Fly Eradication Programme is to control, suppress or eradicate from Mexico four species of fruit flies of economic and quarantine importance (Anastrepha ludens Loew, A. obliqua Macquart, A. serpentina Wied. and A. striata Schiner). These pests cause damage amounting to US$710 million per year. In addition to this cost, there are other expenses from pest control actions and the loss of international markets, because fruit importing countries have established stringent quarantine measures to restrict the entry of these pests. For purposes of the programme's implementation, Mexico was divided into three working zones, defined by agro-ecological characteristics, the number of fruit fly species present and the size of fruit growing regions. In addition, a cost:benefit analysis was carried out which indicated that the rate of return, in a 12-year time frame, might be as much as 33:1 in Northern Mexico, and 17:1 in the rest of the country, for an area over 100,000 hectares. Eradication technology involves: 1) surveys of pest populations by trapping and host fruit harvesting to monitor the presence and density of fruit flies, 2) reduction of pest populations applying cultural practices and using selective bait sprays, 3) mass release of sterile flies and augmentative release of parasitoids to eliminate populations and, 4) enforcement of quarantine measures to protect fruit fly free areas

  17. Sequence variation in the cytochrome oxidase subunit I and II genes of two commonly found blow fly species, Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius) and Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart) (Diptera: Calliphoridae) in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Siew Hwa; Aris, Edah Mohd; Surin, Johari; Omar, Baharudin; Kurahashi, Hiromu; Mohamed, Zulqarnain

    2009-08-01

    The mitochondiral DNA region encompassing the cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) and cytochrome oxidase subunit II (COII) genes of two Malaysian blow fly species, Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius) and Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart) were studied. This region, which spans 2303bp and includes the COI, tRNA leucine and partial COII was sequenced from adult fly and larval specimens, and compared. Intraspecific variations were observed at 0.26% for Ch. megacephala and 0.17% for Ch. rufifacies, while sequence divergence between the two species was recorded at a minimum of 141 out of 2303 sites (6.12%). Results obtained in this study are comparable to published data, and thus support the use of DNA sequence to facilitate and complement morphology-based species identification.

  18. Fungi that cause rot in bunches of grape identified in adult fruit flies (Anastrepha fraterculus (Diptera: Tephritidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruben Machota Jr

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann is the main species of frugivorous insect that damages berries of table grape (Vitis vinifera L. in Southern Brazil. This study was conducted to isolate and identify the fungi associated with bunch rot present in the body of adults of A. fraterculus collected in a commercial vineyard. From January to February 2011, adults of A. fraterculus were collected from a commercial vineyard of green grapes using adapted McPhail traps. In laboratory, flies bodies were divided into four parts (head, legs, wings, and ovipositor in Petri dishes with PDA medium to evaluate microorganisms associated. Six adult females of A. fraterculus collected in the field were also analyzed in a scanning electron microscope (SEM to identify spores of fungi. Phytopathogenic microorganisms were found in all sectioned parts. Fungal spores were recorded adhered to the body of adult females of A. fraterculus. The main species of fungi found in the body parts of A. fraterculus were Cladosporium spp. (20.2% of the obtained colonies, Botrytis cinerea Pers. (12.9%, Colletotrichum spp. (10.1%, Penicillium spp. (10.1%, Fusarium spp. (7.7%, followed by Rhizopus spp., Trichoderma spp. and Aspergillus spp., suggesting that the insect can serve as a mechanical vector of spores increasing damage in the vineyards.

  19. Male Sexual Behavior and Pheromone Emission Is Enhanced by Exposure to Guava Fruit Volatiles in Anastrepha fraterculus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachmann, Guillermo E; Segura, Diego F; Devescovi, Francisco; Juárez, M Laura; Ruiz, M Josefina; Vera, M Teresa; Cladera, Jorge L; Teal, Peter E A; Fernández, Patricia C

    2015-01-01

    Plant chemicals can affect reproductive strategies of tephritid fruit flies by influencing sex pheromone communication and increasing male mating competitiveness. We explored whether exposure of Anastrepha fraterculus males to guava fruit volatiles and to a synthetic blend of volatile compounds released by this fruit affects the sexual performance of wild and laboratory flies. By means of bioassays and pheromone collection we investigated the mechanism underlying this phenomenon. Guava volatile exposure enhanced male mating success and positively affected male calling behavior and pheromone release in laboratory and wild males. Changes in male behavior appear to be particularly important during the initial phase of the sexual activity period, when most of the mating pairs are formed. Exposure of laboratory males to a subset of guava fruit volatiles enhanced mating success, showing that the response to the fruit might be mimicked artificially. Volatiles of guava seem to influence male mating success through an enhancement of chemical and physical signals related to the communication between sexes. This finding has important implications for the management of this pest species through the Sterile Insect Technique. We discuss the possibility of using artificial blends to improve the sexual competitiveness of sterile males.

  20. Genetic diversity and population structure of Anastrepha striata (Diptera: Tephritidae) in three natural regions of southwestern Colombia using mitochondrial sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo-Franco, Jenny Johana; Velasco-Cuervo, Sandra Marcela; Aguirre-Ramirez, Elkin; González Obando, Ranulfo; Carrejo, Nancy Soraya; Toro-Perea, Nelson

    2017-02-01

    Anastrepha striata is widely distributed across the Americas and is a pest of economically important crops, especially crops of the Myrtaceae family. Insect population structures can be influenced by the presence of physical barriers or characteristics associated with habitat differences. This study evaluated the effect of the Western Andes on the population structure of A. striata. Individuals were collected from Psidium guajava fruits from three natural regions of southwestern Colombia (Pacific Coast, mountainous region and the inter-Andean valley of the Cauca River). Based on a 1318 bp concatenated of the genes Cytochrome Oxidase subunit I (COI) and NADH dehydrogenase subunit 6 (ND6), 14 haplotypes with few changes among them (between 1 and 3) were found. There was only one dominant haplotype in all three regions. No genetic structure associated with the three eco-geographical regions of the study was found. Moreover, the Western Andes are not an effective barrier for the genetic isolation of the populations from the Pacific Coast compared with the inter-Andean valley populations. This genetic homogeneity could be partially due to anthropogenic intervention, which acts as a dispersal agent of infested fruits. Another hypothesis to explain the lack of structure would be the relatively recent arrival of A. striata to the region, as indicated by an analysis of the demographic history, which reveals a process of population expansion. This study represents the first attempt to understand the population genetics of A. striata in Colombia and could contribute to the integral management of this pest.

  1. Viabilidad de huevos y modelo de jaula para la cría artificial masiva de Anastrepha fraterculus (Diptera: Tephritidae Viability of eggs and screen cage model for mass artificial rearing of Anastrepha fraterculus (Diptera: Tephritidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana García

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del presente trabajo fue determinar la viabilidad de huevos y el modelo de jaula apropiada para la cría artificial masiva de Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann. Los resultados muestran que el periodo de máxima oviposición ocurre durante los primeros 10 días en jaulas modelo Mediana, lo cual permite obtener el volumen de huevos necesario para alimentar el pie de cría de A. fraterculus en una cría masiva. Considerando que se encontró relación positiva entre el volumen de huevos ovipositados y el porcentaje de eclosión de huevos, en un periodo de 21 días de colecta, este periodo coincide además con los valores de eclosión más altos. Entre los modelos de jaulas evaluadas: Mediana, Grande y Mission; el modelo Mediana mostró los mejores resultados al evaluar el número de ía con un valor promedio de 11,4. La jaula que mostró menores resultados fue el modelo Mission, con un valor promedio de 4,6 huevos/hembra/día. Las jaulas grandes mostraron valores menores a las jaulas Medianas, pero las diferencias fueron no significativas. Los buenos valores registrados en las jaulas Medianas posiblemente se deban a la estructura de la jaula, que presentó la cara interna dividida en muchos compartimientos, lo cual mejora la distribución de las moscas adultas y previene la mortalidad temprana por hacinamiento en la base o en el techo de la jaula.The aim of this study was to determine the viability of eggs and cage model suitable for artificial mass rearing of Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann. The results show that the period of maximum oviposition occurs during the first 10 days in Medium cages which allows to obtain the necessary volume of eggs to feed the foot of rearing of A. fraterculus in a mass rearing. Considering that a positive relationship was found between the volume of eggs oviposited and the hatchability percentage in a period of 21 days of collection, this period coincides with the highest values of hatching. Among the

  2. Development and reproductive biology of the egg-pupal parasite, Fopius arisanus in Anastrepha suspensa, a new tephritid host

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawrence, Pauline O.; Harris, Ernest J.; Bautist, Renato C.

    2000-01-01

    Fopius (=Biosteres) arisanus (Sonan) (=Opius oophilus Fullaway) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) is a solitary egg parasite (parasitoid) that attacks tephritid fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) eggs and first instars (Haramoto 1953, Clausen et al. 1965, Harris and Okamoto 1991). It completes its development within the host's larva and pupa and emerges from the latter as an adult and as such, is an egg-pupal endoparasite. F. arisanus is known to attack at least seven tephritid fruit fly species (Wharton and Gilstrap 1983) and appears to be the only egg-pupal parasite of tephritids in the Western Hemisphere. It is considered to be the most successful of the parasites that attack the Oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) and the Mediterranean fruit fly (Medfly), Ceratitis capitata (Weidmann) in Hawaii (Knipling 1995), resulting in 74-92% of total parasites recovered from both host species (Wong and Ramadan 1987). However, in Malaysia, Palacio et al. (1992) found that F. arisanus was outcompeted by the larval endoparasite, Diachasmimorpha longicaudata (Ashmead) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) in multiple parasitised B. dorsalis. While several larval parasites of tephritids had been cultured successfully in the laboratory (Ramadan 1991) and utilised in inundative release programmes, F. arisanus proved difficult to maintain in culture. In recent years, a laboratory strain of F. arisanus (termed the 'Harris strain') has been established on B. dorsalis (Harris and Okamoto 1991). Efforts are currently in progress to mass rear this strain on the Medfly and other tephritid pests. F. arisanus was first released into Florida from Hawaii in 1974-75 as a biological control agent against the Caribbean fruit fly (Caribfly) Anastrepha suspensa (Loew) (Diptera: Tephritidae) but this was unsuccessful (Baranowski et al. 1993). Interestingly, it was also introduced into Costa Rica from Hawaii and was subsequently reared from puparia of Anastrepha spp. (Wharton et al. 1981), indicating its

  3. Fatores climáticos na dinâmica populacional de Anastrepha spp. (diptera: tephritidae e de Scymnus spp. (coleoptera: coccinellidae em um pomar experimental de goiaba (Psidium guajava L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Aparecido Calore

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho objetivou caracterizar a dinâmica populacional de Anastrepha spp. e de Scymnus spp. em pomar experimental semiorgânico de goiaba (Psidium guajava L., em Pindorama-SP, na Agência Paulista de Tecnologia dos Agronegócios (APTA e correlacioná-la com fatores meteorológicos. Para o levantamento da dinâmica populacional, os espécimes foram monitorados com armadilhas adesivas amarelas (25 cm x 9,5 cm, trocadas a cada 15 dias, no período de um ano (entre junho de 2009 e junho de 2010. Os insetos foram avaliados e quantificados no Laboratório de Seletividade Ecológica da UNESP-FCAV em Jaboticabal-SP. Observou-se a ocorrência de Anastrepha spp. e Scymnus spp. durante todo o período de amostragem. Com base nos resultados obtidos e nas condições de desenvolvimento do presente trabalho, foram possíveis as seguintes conclusões: a Ocorre aumento na densidade populacional de Anastrepha spp. com o aumento das temperaturas mínima, média e máxima; b Os picos populacionais de Anastrepha spp. ocorrem de janeiro a março e coincidem com o período de disponibilidade de frutos maduros no pomar de goiaba; c Constatam-se as maiores ocorrências do predador Scymnus spp. no período de setembro a dezembro, e as menores ocorrências, em fevereiro e março; d As precipitações não interferem na dinâmica populacional de Anastrepha spp. e de Scymnus spp..

  4. Status of the Caribbean fruit fly, Anastrepha suspensa (Loew), sterile insect technique programme in the state of Florida, USA - November 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holler, T.C.; Harris, D.L.; Burns, R.E.

    1999-01-01

    Status of the Caribbean fruit fly, Anastrepha suspensa, Loew, sterile insect technique program in the state of Florida, USA - November 1996. Application of sterilization techniques to Anastrepha suspensa in Florida was conducted as early as 1970 in Key West. In 1988-1990, releases of sterile flies were made in a 20 km 2 urban area in southwestern Florida adjacent to commercial citrus. With the intent to integrate a sterile insect technique system within a fly-free management program for the caribfly, additional tests are being conducted both within a major citrus production area and in an isolated urban location of the mid to lower Florida peninsula. Tests at the former site measures the synergistic effect of augmenting sterile fly releases with parasitoids, whereas the latter studies will define the efficacy of reduced numbers of sterile flies released per acre than is standard in medfly and medfly eradication and suppression programs. Discussed here is the progress of an ongoing project to measure the benefits of SIT as it applies to caribfly export protocols. (author)

  5. Assessment of Injuries Caused by Anastrepha fraterculus (Wied.) (Diptera: Tephritidae) on the Incidence of Bunch Rot Diseases in Table Grape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machota, R; Bortoli, L C; Cavalcanti, F R; Botton, M; Grützmacher, A D

    2016-08-01

    Anastrepha fraterculus (Wied.) is the main insect pest of table grapes (Vitis vinifera) in the Southern Region of Brazil. In this study, we aimed to investigate the effect of fruit puncturing by adult females and larval infestation by A. fraterculus on the occurrence of bunch rot disease in the grape (cultivar "Itália") by evaluating grapes (a) punctured for oviposition by females of A. fraterculus, sterilized in laboratory with novaluron (40 mg L(-1)) and further spray-inoculated separately with Botrytis cinerea (1 × 10(6) conidia mL(-1)), Glomerella cingulata (1 × 10(6) conidia mL(-1)), and bacteria and yeast that cause sour rot (1 × 10(5) cells mL(-1)), (b) grapes punctured for oviposition by non-sterilized females with pathogen spraying, (c) grapes with mechanical wounds and pathogen spraying, (d) grapes with no wounds and with pathogen spraying, (e) grapes punctured for oviposition by A. fraterculus chemically sterilized in laboratory with novaluron, (f) grapes punctured for oviposition by A. fraterculus non-sterilized in laboratory with novaluron, (g) grapes with mechanical wounds, and (h) grapes with no sterilization or pathogen spraying. Our data indicated that the mechanical and oviposition wounds caused by A. fraterculus increased the percentage of grapes infected by B. cinerea, G. cingulata, and microorganisms of acid rot. The grape puncturing by A. fraterculus and the mechanical wound allows the penetration of B. cinerea and microorganisms leading to acid rot. We conclude that the fruit fly A. fraterculus may facilitate phytopathogens penetration leading to bunch rots in the table grape Itália.

  6. Sexual Competitiveness of Anastrepha ludens (Diptera: Tephritidae) Males Exposed to Citrus aurantium and Citrus paradisi Essential Oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morató, Santiago; Shelly, Todd; Rull, Juan; Aluja, Martin

    2015-04-01

    Males of the Mediterranean fruit fly (Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann)) display increased mating competitiveness following exposure to the odor of certain host and nonhost plants, and this phenomenon has been used in the sterile insect technique to boost the mating success of released, sterile males. Here, we aimed to establish whether males of the Mexican fruit fly (Anastrepha ludens (Loew)) gain a mating advantage when exposed to the aroma of two preferred hosts, grapefruit (Citrus paradisi Macfadyen) and bitter orange (Citrus aurantium L.). Under seminatural conditions, we observed that, in trials using wildish males (from a young laboratory colony started with wild flies) exclusively, exposure to the aroma of bitter orange had no effect on male mating success but exposure to the odor grapefruit oil increased male mating success significantly. In a separate test involving both exposed and nonexposed wildish and mass-reared, sterile males, although wildish males were clearly more competitive than sterile males, exposure to grapefruit oil had no detectable effect on either male type. Exposure to oils had no effect on copulation duration in any of the experiments. We discuss the possibility that the positive effect of grapefruit essential oils on wildish male competitiveness may have been linked to exposure of females to grapefruit as a larval food, which may have imprinted them with grapefruit odors during pupal eclosion and biased their response as adults to odors of their maternal host. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Development of Anastrepha fraterculus (Diptera: Tephritidae) Related to the Phenology of Blueberry, Blackberry, Strawberry Guava, and Surinam Cherry Fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisognin, M; Nava, D E; Diez-Rodríguez, G I; Valgas, R A; Garcia, M S; Krolow, A C R; Antunes, L E C

    2015-02-01

    Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann, 1830) is the main pest of temperate climate orcharding. The study investigated the development of A. fraterculus related to phenological stage of blueberry, blackberry, strawberry guava, and Surinam cherry trees. The phenological stages I (green fruits), II (intermediate ripening stage of fruits), and III (fruits close to harvesting) were determined, and they are from 8th, 10th, and 11th week; 6th, 8th, and 9th week; 8th, 13th, and 16th week; and 5th, 6th, and 7th week after the first flowering of blueberry, blackberry, strawberry guava, and Surinam cherry trees, respectively. We collected fruits from orchards to determine the infestation index using the formula: number of pupa/fruit weight. To investigate the development of A. fraterculus, we determined the following biological parameters: egg-to-adult period, weight of pupae, oviposition period, fecundity, number of pupae, and number of infested fruits. The infestation index for the fruits collected in the field was greater in strawberry guava and Surinam cherry fruits. In the laboratory, the development of A. fraterculus occurred in stage III of blueberry. In blackberry, besides stage III, we also observed the development in stage II, however, at lower infestation. In strawberry guava, the development of A. fraterulus occurred in stages II and III, and the development in both stages was similar. For Surinam cherry, the development occurred in the three phenological stages with similar values for biological parameters. Overall, of the four hosts studied, the strawberry guava and Surinam cherry fruits allowed a better biological development of A. fraterculus, corroborating its preference for fruits native to Brazil. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Viabilidad de huevos y modelo de jaula para la cría artificial masiva de Anastrepha fraterculus (Diptera: Tephritidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JULIANA GARCÍA

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del presente trabajo fue determinar la viabilidad de huevos y el modelo de jaula apropiada para la cría artificial masiva de Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann. Los resultados muestran que el periodo de máxima oviposición ocurre durante los primeros 10 días en jaulas modelo Mediana, lo cual permite obtener el volumen de huevos necesario para alimentar el pie de cría de A. fraterculus en una cría masiva. Considerando que se encontró relación positiva entre el volumen de huevos ovipositados y el porcentaje de eclosión de huevos, en un periodo de 21 días de colecta, este periodo coincide además con los valores de eclosión más altos. Entre los modelos de jaulas evaluadas: Mediana, Grande y Mission; el modelo Mediana mostró los mejores resultados al evaluar el número de huevos/hembra/día con un valor promedio de 11,4. La jaula que mostró menores resultados fue el modelo Mission, con un valor promedio de 4,6 huevos/hembra/día. Las jaulas grandes mostraron valores menores a las jaulas Medianas, pero las diferencias fueron no significativas. Los buenos valores registrados en las jaulas Medianas posiblemente se deban a la estructura de la jaula, que presentó la cara interna dividida en muchos compartimientos, lo cual mejora la distribución de las moscas adultas y previene la mortalidad temprana por hacinamiento en la base o en el techo de la jaula.

  9. Effects of gamma radiation on the ovarian development of the south american fruit fly, Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann, 1830)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mastrangelo, Thiago; Botteon, Victor, E-mail: piaui@cena.usp.br, E-mail: victor.botteon@usp.br [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil); Scopel, Wanessa, E-mail: scopelw@usp.br [Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz (ESALQ/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    The South American fruit fly, Anastrepha fraterculus (Wied.) represents 98.5% of the flies captured in commercial apple orchards from Brazil. Looking for environmentally friendly alternatives to suppress this fruit fly pest, researchers from USP and EMBRAPA, along with the Brazilian Association of Apple Producers, created the MOSCASUL Biological Control Center, which intends to apply an Area-Wide Integrated Pest Management Program that integrates the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT). The assurance of sterility of the released flies is a critical assumption of an SIT program, since the unintentional release of thousands of fertile females could cause severe damages to the orchards nearby. Females of A. fraterculus are more radiosensitive than males, but the morphology of the ovaries of the sterile females was not investigated so far. The objective of this study, therefore, was to characterize the morphology of the ovaries of A. fraterculus treated with different doses of gamma radiation. Pupae with 48 h before adult emergence were irradiated with 0 (control), 15, 25, 35, and 45 Gy at the Gammabeam-650® irradiator from CENA/USP. Twelve hours after initial emergence, adults were sorted by sex, and for each radiation dose, 1 day old nonirradiated males were placed with irradiated females of the same age in cages. Adult females were then dissected in a saline solution at 1, 7, and 15 days of age, and the ovaries were examined under stereo microscope. The length, width and area of each ovary were measured from the images made. On the 1{sup st} day after the emergence of the adults, no morphological differences were observed among irradiated and nonirradiated ovaries. On the 7{sup th} day, however, the nonirradiated ovaries showed to be larger than the irradiated ones. Doses of 15 Gy or higher induced complete atrophy of the ovaries and, on the 15{sup th} day, no signs of regeneration of the ovaries were observed. On the last day of observation, the irradiated ovaries

  10. Effects of gamma radiation on the ovarian development of the south american fruit fly, Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann, 1830)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mastrangelo, Thiago; Botteon, Victor; Scopel, Wanessa

    2017-01-01

    The South American fruit fly, Anastrepha fraterculus (Wied.) represents 98.5% of the flies captured in commercial apple orchards from Brazil. Looking for environmentally friendly alternatives to suppress this fruit fly pest, researchers from USP and EMBRAPA, along with the Brazilian Association of Apple Producers, created the MOSCASUL Biological Control Center, which intends to apply an Area-Wide Integrated Pest Management Program that integrates the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT). The assurance of sterility of the released flies is a critical assumption of an SIT program, since the unintentional release of thousands of fertile females could cause severe damages to the orchards nearby. Females of A. fraterculus are more radiosensitive than males, but the morphology of the ovaries of the sterile females was not investigated so far. The objective of this study, therefore, was to characterize the morphology of the ovaries of A. fraterculus treated with different doses of gamma radiation. Pupae with 48 h before adult emergence were irradiated with 0 (control), 15, 25, 35, and 45 Gy at the Gammabeam-650® irradiator from CENA/USP. Twelve hours after initial emergence, adults were sorted by sex, and for each radiation dose, 1 day old nonirradiated males were placed with irradiated females of the same age in cages. Adult females were then dissected in a saline solution at 1, 7, and 15 days of age, and the ovaries were examined under stereo microscope. The length, width and area of each ovary were measured from the images made. On the 1 st day after the emergence of the adults, no morphological differences were observed among irradiated and nonirradiated ovaries. On the 7 th day, however, the nonirradiated ovaries showed to be larger than the irradiated ones. Doses of 15 Gy or higher induced complete atrophy of the ovaries and, on the 15 th day, no signs of regeneration of the ovaries were observed. On the last day of observation, the irradiated ovaries presented mean area

  11. Capture of Anastrepha sororcula (Diptera: Tephritidae in McPhail and Jackson traps with food attractant and virgin adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christiane dos Santos Felix

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available This stady evaluated the capture of A. sororcula in the traps baited with the conspecific virgin adults and food attractant in two orchards. The first was the orchard of the Universidade Federal da Grande Dourados (OUFGD and the second, the orchard of the Sindicato Rural de Dourados (OSRD. The capture of A. sororcula in McPhail and Jackson traps was carried out using the corn hydrolysed protein (CHP, control (no flies, virgin males (5, 10 and 15, five virgin females and five virgin couples. The average number of the flies caught in the traps with the corn hydrolysed protein was signifícantly higher than all the other treatments. There was no significant capture of A. sororcula females in the traps baited with the conspecific virgin males, females or the couples.As moscas-das-frutas constituem um grupo de pragas responsáveis por grandes prejuízos econômicos à fruticultura mundial. Anastrepha sororcula Zucchi, é a principal espécie de tefritídeo que ataca a goiaba em Mato Grosso do Sul. O objetivo desta pesquisa foi avaliar a captura de adultos de A. sororcula em armadilhas com atrativo alimentar e adultos virgens, em dois ambientes. Os bioensaios iniciaram-se com a criação de A. sororcula no Laboratório de Insetos Frugívoros da Universidade Federal da Grande Dourados (UFGD. As pesquisas de campo foram desenvolvidas nos pomares da UFGD e do Sindicato Rural de Dourados (SRD-MS. A captura de adultos de A. sororcula em armadilhas McPhail e Jackson foi avaliada para os tratamentos: proteína hidrolisada de milho, testemunha (sem moscas, machos virgens (5, 10 e 15, 5 fêmeas virgens e 5 casais. O número médio de indivíduos capturados nas armadilhas com proteína foi significativamente maior que nos demais tratamentos. O número médio de adultos de A. sororcula, capturado com o tratamento proteína no SRD foi significativamente superior ao do pomar da UFGD. Não ocorreu captura significativa de fêmeas de A. sororcula nas armadilhas com

  12. Genetics and biology of Anastrepha fraterculus: research supporting the use of the sterile insect technique (SIT) to control this pest in Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cladera, Jorge L; Vilardi, Juan C; Juri, Marianela; Paulin, Laura E; Giardini, M Cecilia; Gómez Cendra, Paula V; Segura, Diego F; Lanzavecchia, Silvia B

    2014-01-01

    Two species of true fruit flies (taxonomic family Tephritidae) are considered pests of fruit and vegetable production in Argentina: the cosmopolitan Mediterranean fruit fly (Ceratitis capitata Wiedemann) and the new world South American fruit fly (Anastrepha fraterculus Wiedemann). The distribution of these two species in Argentina overlaps north of the capital, Buenos Aires. Regarding the control of these two pests, the varied geographical fruit producing regions in Argentina are in different fly control situations. One part is under a programme using the sterile insect technique (SIT) for the eradication of C. capitata, because A. fraterculus is not present in this area. The application of the SIT to control C. capitata north of the present line with the possibility of A. fraterculus occupying the niche left vacant by C. capitata becomes a cause of much concern. Only initial steps have been taken to investigate the genetics and biology of A. fraterculus. Consequently, only fragmentary information has been recorded in the literature regarding the use of SIT to control this species. For these reasons, the research to develop a SIT protocol to control A. fraterculus is greatly needed. In recent years, research groups have been building a network in Argentina in order to address particular aspects of the development of the SIT for Anastrepha fraterculus. The problems being addressed by these groups include improvement of artificial diets, facilitation of insect mass rearing, radiation doses and conditions for insect sterilisation, basic knowledge supporting the development of males-only strains, reduction of male maturation time to facilitate releases, identification and isolation of chemical communication signals, and a good deal of population genetic studies. This paper is the product of a concerted effort to gather all this knowledge scattered in numerous and often hard-to-access reports and papers and summarize their basic conclusions in a single publication.

  13. Demographic analysis of mass-reared Anastrepha fraterculus (Diptera: Tephritidae in Tucumán, Argentina Análisis demográfico de la cría masiva de Anastrepha fraterculus (Diptera: Tephritidae en Tucumán, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor E. Jaldo

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The life cycle of a lab-adapted mass reared strain of Anastrepha fraterculus at 24°C constant temperature was 41 days, including the preoviposition period. Mortality rates of 8%, 22%, 22%, 5%, and 43% were recorded for eggs, larvae, pupae, adults (preoviposition stage and adults (reproductive stage, respectively. The intrinsic rate of increase was 0.065, the net fecundity rate was 120.4, and the gross fecundity rate was 328.4. In a stable population, 22% would be eggs, 53% larvae, 18% pupae, 4% preoviposition adults, and 3% reproductive adults.El ciclo de vida de Anastrepha fraterculus en cría masiva a temperatura constante de 24°C fue de 41 días, incluyendo el período de preoviposición. Las mortalidades para huevo, larva, pupa, adultos en preoviposición y adultos reproductivos fueron de 8%, 22%, 22%, 5% y 43%, respectivamente. La tasa intrínseca de incremento natural fue de 0,065, la tasa de fertilidad neta fue de 120,4, y la tasa de fertilidad bruta fue de 328,4. En una población estable 22% debería ser huevos, 53% larvas, 18% pupas, 4% adultos en preoviposición y 3% adultos en etapa reproductiva.

  14. Himenópteros parasitóides de larvas de Anastrepha spp. em frutos de carambola (Averrhoa carambola L. na região de Divinópolis, Minas Gerais, Brasil Himenopterous parasitoids of Anastrepha spp. larvae, in star fruit (Averrhoa carambola L. In divinópolis region, Minas Gerais, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudio Gonçalves Silva

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi conduzido com o objetivo de conhecer os parasitóides de moscas-da-fruta na região de Divinópolis-MG. As pupas foram obtidas pelo método de flutuação, sendo individualizadas em cápsulas de gelatina até a emergência das moscas adultas ou de seus parasitóides. A prevalência total de parasitismo foi de 14,8%. Trichopria anastrepha foi a espécie mais comum, com 44,5%.The objective of this work was to identify the parasitoids of fruit flies in Divinópolis-MG region. The pupae were obtained by the flotation method. They were individually placed in gelatin capsules until the emergency of the adult flies or their parasitoids. The overall prevalence of parasitism was 14,8%. Trichopria anastrepha was the most common specie with a frequency of 44,5%.

  15. Effects of gamma radiation on the sterility and behavioral quality of the caribbean fruit fly, Anastrepha suspensa (Loew (Diptera:Tephritidae Efeitos da radiação gama na esterilização e comportamento da mosca-do-caribe, Anastrepha suspensa (Low (Diptera:Tephritidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.M.M. Walder

    1993-09-01

    Full Text Available Pupae of Anastrepha suspensa (Loew were irradiated 2 days before adult eclosión in an air atmosphere with 15, 20, 25, 30, 50 and 70 Gy of gamma radiation (Co-60. The radiation effects on sterility and other parameters of quality and behavior of males and females of caribfly were established. Males became fully sterile with a dose of 50 Gy and females laid no eggs when exposed to 25 Gy. Radiation had no significant effect on adult eclosion, sex ratio, flight ability and irritability, but female mortality was affected significantly by radiation, showing higher survival rates in low dosage treatments. The mating behavior of the males was reduced significantly by increasing the radiation doses.Pupas de Anastrepha suspensa (Loew foram irradiadas dois dias antes da emergência dos adultos em atmosfera de ar com as doses de 15, 20, 25, 30, 50 e 70 Gy de radiação gama (Co-60. Foram avaliados os efeitos da radiação sobre a esterilidade e outros parâmetros de qualidade e comportamento de machos e fêmeas de mosca-do-caribe. Machos tornaram-se totalmente estéreis com uma dose de 50 Gy e as fêmeas não ovipositaram quando expostas a 25 Gy. A radiação não teve efeito significativo sobre a taxa de emergência de adultos, na razão sexual, na habilidade de vôo e na irritabilidade desses insetos. Somente a mortalidade das fêmeas foi afetada significativamente pela radiação, causando unia maior sobrevivência nas dosagens mais baixas. A atividade de acasalamento dos machos foi reduzida significativamente com o incremento da dosagem de radiação.

  16. Quarantine cold treatments for Ceratitis capitata and Anastrepha fraterculus (Diptera: Tephritidae) for citrus in Argentina: conclusions after 10 years of research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willink, Eduardo; Gastaminza, Gerardo; Salvatore, Analia; Gramajo, M. Cecilia; Acenolaza, Mariana; Avila, Rosana; Favre, Paola

    2006-01-01

    Argentina has quarantine restrictions in some markets due to the presence of two quarantine fruit fly pests: Ceratitis capitata and Anastrepha fraterculus. One alternative is the use of cold quarantine treatments during transport of the commodities. Since 1996, the Estacion Experimental Agroindustrial Obispo Colombres (EEAOC), Tucuman, Argentina, has developed different cold quarantine treatments for citrus. In the present work we present all the data the EEAOC generated in the last ten years in order to facilitate the development of such cold treatments. Fruit flies were obtained from the colonies reared at EEAOC. Four citrus species were analyzed: lemon, grapefruit, orange and tangerines. Different varieties were analyzed for each fruit species. Sensitivity trials aiming at determine the most tolerant stage as well as to asses if there is any influence of varieties on cold tolerance were performed. Finally we compared the tolerance to cold between the two species. Sensitivity trials showed that mature larvae (L3) are the most tolerant stage for both fruit fly species. There was no effect of the varieties and the two fruit fly species were equally sensible to cold. Our results provide strong evidence in favor of concluding that any cold treatment developed for C. capitata is effective for A. fraterculus. (author)

  17. Quarantine cold treatments for Ceratitis capitata and Anastrepha fraterculus (Diptera: Tephritidae) for citrus in Argentina: conclusions after 10 years of research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willink, Eduardo; Gastaminza, Gerardo; Salvatore, Analia; Gramajo, M. Cecilia; Acenolaza, Mariana; Avila, Rosana; Favre, Paola, E-mail: ewillink@eeaoc.org.a [Estacion Experimental Agroindustrial Obispo Colombres (EEAOC), Tucuman (Argentina)

    2006-07-01

    Argentina has quarantine restrictions in some markets due to the presence of two quarantine fruit fly pests: Ceratitis capitata and Anastrepha fraterculus. One alternative is the use of cold quarantine treatments during transport of the commodities. Since 1996, the Estacion Experimental Agroindustrial Obispo Colombres (EEAOC), Tucuman, Argentina, has developed different cold quarantine treatments for citrus. In the present work we present all the data the EEAOC generated in the last ten years in order to facilitate the development of such cold treatments. Fruit flies were obtained from the colonies reared at EEAOC. Four citrus species were analyzed: lemon, grapefruit, orange and tangerines. Different varieties were analyzed for each fruit species. Sensitivity trials aiming at determine the most tolerant stage as well as to asses if there is any influence of varieties on cold tolerance were performed. Finally we compared the tolerance to cold between the two species. Sensitivity trials showed that mature larvae (L3) are the most tolerant stage for both fruit fly species. There was no effect of the varieties and the two fruit fly species were equally sensible to cold. Our results provide strong evidence in favor of concluding that any cold treatment developed for C. capitata is effective for A. fraterculus. (author)

  18. Mixture-amount design and response surface modeling to assess the effects of flavonoids and phenolic acids on developmental performance of Anastrepha ludens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascacio-Villafán, Carlos; Lapointe, Stephen; Williams, Trevor; Sivinski, John; Niedz, Randall; Aluja, Martín

    2014-03-01

    Host plant resistance to insect attack and expansion of insect pests to novel hosts may to be modulated by phenolic compounds in host plants. Many studies have evaluated the role of phenolics in host plant resistance and the effect of phenolics on herbivore performance, but few studies have tested the joint effect of several compounds. Here, we used mixture-amount experimental design and response surface modeling to study the effects of a variety of phenolic compounds on the development and survival of Mexican fruit fly (Anastrepha ludens [Loew]), a notorious polyphagous pest of fruit crops that is likely to expand its distribution range under climate change scenarios. (+)- Catechin, phloridzin, rutin, chlorogenic acid, and p-coumaric acid were added individually or in mixtures at different concentrations to a laboratory diet used to rear individuals of A. ludens. No effect was observed with any mixture or concentration on percent pupation, pupal weight, adult emergence, or survival from neonate larvae to adults. Larval weight, larval and pupal developmental time, and the prevalence of adult deformities were affected by particular mixtures and concentrations of the compounds tested. We suggest that some combinations/concentrations of phenolic compounds could contribute to the management of A. ludens. We also highlight the importance of testing mixtures of plant secondary compounds when exploring their effects upon insect herbivore performance, and we show that mixture-amount design is a useful tool for this type of experiments.

  19. Acoustic courtship songs in males of the fruit fly Anastrepha ludens (Diptera: Tephritidae associated with geography, mass rearing and courtship success

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.D Briceño

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The Sterile Insect Technique (SIT has been used successfully to control or eradicate fruit flies. The commonly observed inferiority of mass-reared males, compared with wild males, when they are paired with wild females, is apparently due to their inadequate courtship. Anastrepha ludens males produce two types of wing vibration during courtship and mating, the "calling sound" and the "premating or precopulatory sound". There were clear differences in the calling songs between successful and unsuccessful courtships in sterile (irradiated and fertile Mexican flies. Among sterile flies, successful males produce longer buzzes, shorter interpulses and a higher power spectrum in the signal. Fertile flies showed the same trend. For mating songs a significant difference occurred in two parameters: power spectrum between sterile and fertile flies with respect to the type of song, and the signal duration and intensity were greater in non-irradiated flies. Calling songs of wild flies compared with laboratory grown flies from Mexico had shorter interpulses, longer pulses, and a greater power spectrum. However, in the case of premating songs, the only difference was in the intensity, which was significantly greater in wild males. An unexpected result was not observing pulses during pheromone deposition in wild males from Costa Rica. Comparing the premating songs of wild flies from Costa Rica and Mexico, no significant differences were observed in the duration, and the intensity of the signal was slightly greater in flies from Mexico. Rev. Biol. Trop. 57 (Suppl. 1: 257-265. Epub 2009 November 30.La técnica estéril del insecto (SIT se ha utilizado con éxito para controlar o para suprimir las moscas de fruta y su impacto en los cultivos. La inferioridad comúnmente observada de machos criados masivamente, comparada con los machos silvestres, cuando se aparean con las hembras silvestres es al parecer debido a su inadecuado cortejo. Los machos de Anastrepha

  20. Sexual competitiveness and compatibility between mass-reared sterile flies and wild populations of Anastrepha Ludens (Diptera: Tephritidae) from different regions in Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orozco-Davila, D.; Hernandez, R.; Meza, S.; Dominguez, J.

    2007-01-01

    The mass-reared colony of Anastrepha ludens (Loew) currently used in Mexico for suppression of the Mexican fruit fly has been in use for over 10 years. Sterile flies are released into a wide range of environmental conditions as part of an integrated area-wide approach to suppress diverse populations of this pest in the Mexican Republic. This paper assesses the performance of the sterile flies interacting with wild populations from the different environments. We investigated the sexual compatibility and competitiveness of the sterile flies when competing with wild populations from 6 representatives Mexican states: Nuevo Leon, Tamaulipas, Sinaloa, Nayarit, Michoacan, and Chiapas. Results show that the males of the wild populations differed in the time to the onset and peak of sexual activity. Nevertheless, the index of sexual isolation (ISI) reflected sexual compatibility between the populations and the mass-reared strain, indicating that the sterile individuals mate satisfactorily with the wild populations from the 6 states. The male relative performance index (MRPI) showed that the sterile male is as effective in copulating as the wild males. The female relative performance index (FRPI) reflected a general tendency for wild females to copulate in greater proportion than the sterile females, except for the strains from Tamaulipas and Chiapas. In general, the lower participation of the sterile females in copulation increases the possibilities of sterile males to mate with wild females. The relative sterility index (RSI) showed that the acceptance by wild females of the sterile males (25-55%) was similar to that of wild males. Females of the Chiapas strain showed the lowest acceptance of sterile males. Finally, the results obtained in the Fried test (which measures induced sterility in eggs) showed a competitiveness coefficient ranging from 0.2 to 0.5. This suggests that sterile males successfully compete and are compatible with flies from different geographic origins

  1. Flutuação populacional de Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann, 1830 (Diptera, Tephritidae na Região Oeste de Santa Catarina, Brasil Population fluctuation of Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann, 1830 (Diptera, Tephritidae in the Western Region of Santa Catarina State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávio Roberto Mello Garcia

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Fruit flies are the major pests in fruit orchards and require a frequent insecticide aplication control, which increases production cost and chemical residues in fruits. Adults of Anastrepha fraterculus were sampled from twelve peach, plum, orange, tangerine and acid lime orchards in four counties in the Western Region of Santa Catarina. Modified McPhail plastic traps, baited with glucose 10%, were used to collect the flies from October 1998 to September 2000. Trap monitoring, bait replacement and fruit flies sorting by species and sex were done weekly. A total of 4,164 specimens of A. fraterculus was collected and highest population was registered in the county of Chapecó (64,8% of all sampled flies. Adults were collected all year long, with the highest population peaks occurring from December and January, although the fluctuation was different for each fruit species due to their particular phenology and in different years. Positive correlation among temperature, atmospheric humidity and population levels of adults of A. fraterculus was observed. According to the degree days obtained for each year, 4851.9, 4632.9 and 4983.7, respectively in 1998, 1999 and 2000, it was established that A. fraterculus could present an average of 11.2 generations a year.

  2. SUSCETIBILIDADE DE GENÓTIPOS DE MACIEIRA A Anastrepha fraterculus (DIPTERA: TEPHRITIDAE EM DIFERENTES CONDIÇÕES DE INFESTAÇÃO

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    JANAÍNA PEREIRA DOS SANTOS

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO O estudo objetivou registrar as injúrias de Anastrepha fraterculus (Diptera: Tephritidae, em dois estádios de desenvolvimento dos frutos das macieiras M-11/00 e ‘Catarina’, submetidos a três condições de infestação a campo, na safra de 2011/2012. O experimento foi conduzido em pomar mantido sob manejo orgânico, na Estação Experimental da Epagri de Caçador-SC. O número médio de moscas foi avaliado semanalmente, com quatro armadilhas do tipo McPhail. Frutos imaturos e maduros da seleção M-11/00 e da cultivar Catarina foram submetidos às condições de infestação artificial, controlada e natural. No início da frutificação, após o raleio, em cada genótipo, 500 frutos foram aleatoriamente ensacados com embalagens de tecido não texturizado (TNT. Os frutos submetidos à infestação artificial foram envoltos, individualmente, por uma gaiola contendo duas fêmeas acasaladas de A. fraterculus, que permaneceram por três dias para oviposição. Na infestação controlada, no mesmo dia da instalação das gaiolas, frutos protegidos tiveram as embalagens retiradas para que ficassem por três dias expostos. Frutos não ensacados foram utilizados para avaliar a infestação natural. Em cada estádio de desenvolvimento, foram registrados os valores dos atributos físico-químicos dos frutos. O número médio de A. fraterculus durante a safra foi de 3,08 moscas/armadilha/ semana. Na seleção M-11/00, em todas as condições de infestação, o número médio de larvas e pupários foi maior em frutos maduros. Na cv. Catarina, estes números não diferiram entre as condições de infestação nem entre os estádios de desenvolvimento. Pupários de A. fraterculus não foram observados em frutos de ‘Catarina’, e nesta cultivar constatou-se maior acidez e menor relação sólidos solúveis/acidez.

  3. MOSCAS-DAS-FRUTAS (DIPTERA: TEPHRITIDAE EM POMARES DA ÁREA URBANA NO NORTE DE MINAS GERAIS

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    CLARICE DINIZ ALVARENGA

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim this work was know the species of fruit fly and host plants in orchards in the urban area in the north of Minas Gerais. Were selected 10 orchards with wide variety of fruit species, which were distributed in equidistant way in the urban area of Janaúba, MG. Weekly, were collected systematically fruit flies through trap type McPhail and ripe fruit and in ripening one, on those orchards. Were collected 7.016 tephritid obtained from trap (5.226 and fruit (1.790, from which 1.044 belonged to genus Anastrepha and 5.972 were Ceratitis capitata. The specimens number of C. capitata (85.1% was around six times superior to Anastrepha spp. (14.9%, demonstrating the preference of this species for urban orchards. Eight species of Anastrepha occur in urban orchards of Janaúba, MG. Ceratitis capitata was found infesting 10 species of host fruits, being the main S. purpurea and guava. In fruits were collected three species of Anastrepha (A. obliqua, A. sororcula and A. zenildae which were associated with five species of fruit (Malpighia glabra L, Psidium guayava L, S. dulcis, S. purpurea and S. tuberosa. The predominant species of Anastrepha was A. obliqua, and S. tuberosa and S. purpurea being the main hosts of this species in the urban area of Janaúba, MG.

  4. ANÁLISE FAUNÍSTICA DE ESPÉCIES DE MOSCA-DAS-FRUTAS (DIP., TEPHRITIDAE EM MINAS GERAIS

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    N.A. CANAL

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Em seis locais de quatro municípios (Janaúba, Jaíba, Nova Porteirinha e Itacarambí do norte do Estado de Minas Gerais, foram coletados 29.454 espécimes de mosca-das-frutas, pertencentes a Ceratitis capitata e a 20 espécies de Anastrepha. O levantamento foi feito entre janeiro de 94 e dezembro de 96, utilizando armadilhas plásticas tipo McPhail. Ceratitis capitata foi a espécie predominante em áreas urbanas. As espécies de Anastrepha predominaram em áreas rurais. A. obliqua, A. zenildae e Anastrepha n. sp.3 foram as espécies predominantes do gênero, entretanto, essa predominância variou de local para local em função da disponibilidade de hospedeiros. As comunidades apresentaram índices de diversidade baixos e quocientes de similaridade entre 73 e 100%.A total of 29,454 specimens of fruit fly were trapped in six sites of four counties (Janaúba, Jaíba, Nova Porteirinha and Itacarambí of the north of the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. The specimens were collected using McPhail plastic traps from January 1994 to December 1996. The trapped fruit flies belonged to Ceratitis capitata and to 20 species of Anastrepha. Ceratitis capitata was the predominant species in the urban areas and Anastrepha species were predominant in the field areas. A. obliqua, A. zenildae and Anastrepha n. sp.3 were the predominant species of the genera, whereas the predominant species differed among localities, according to host availability. The diversity indexes were low and the coefficient of similarity varied from 73 to 100%.

  5. Cordia dichotomoa Forst. f Syn. C. obliqua Willd. (English: Sebesten ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ropes, cordage and paper pulp. The fruit is an astringent and is used in affections o.f urinary passages, diseases o.llllngs and spleen. The decoction of bark is used infevers. The kernels are used in treating ring-worm. The leaves are used in treating ulcers and headache. The plant is used as an antidote to snake-bite.

  6. Review of existing species of fruit flies in Ecuador

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tigrero, Juan

    1998-01-01

    This study was carried out since 1990 to 1997. The goal was to figure out different species of fruit fly that inhabit in Ecuador. For the identification we put special emphasis in the female genitalia. We recommend to do more research into this subject, because of the few studies done in our country and the importance of fruit cultivation. We mention 32 genus in the family Tephritidae in Ecuador, including the introduced genus Ceratitis. Into Toxotrypaninae are pointing out the presence of one specie of the Toxotrypana genus and 31 species of the Anastrepha genus, detailing brilly the 27 species most common. General notions about taxonomic bases are mentioned in order to identify species of the Anastrepha Schiner, pointing out certain fenotipic characteristics that prove variability among the ecuadorian's population, mainly A. fraterculus, A. distincta, A. obliqua, A. striata, and others. (The author)

  7. Ocorrência de moscas-das-frutas (Diptera: Tephritidae em mangueiras (Mangifera indica L. em Boa Vista, Roraima = The occurrence of fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae in mango (Mangifera indica L. in Boa Vista, Roraima

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Bezerra Lima

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Um estudo foi conduzido no período de junho de 2007 a janeiro de 2008, em pomares comerciais de manga das variedades: Tommy Atkins, Haden e Palmer sendo 3 ha de cada cultivar, localizado na região do Bom Intento no Município de Boa Vista. Os espécimes de moscas-das-frutas foram coletados, por meio de armadilhas, confeccionadas com garrafas pet, que foram penduradas na copa das árvores a 1,60 m de altura. Como atrativo alimentar foi utilizado 200 mL de suco de maracujá a 30%. Foram utilizadas nove armadilhas, sendo uma armadilha por hectare. Semanalmente as armadilhas eram examinadas, ocasião em que se substituía o atrativo e os insetos capturados retirados e colocados em frascos de vidro devidamente etiquetados e transportados ao Laboratório de Entomologia do Centro de Ciências Agrárias da Universidade Federal de Roraima. As identificações dos espécimes foram feitas no Instituto Nacional de Pesquisa da Amazônia - INPA. No período de oito meses foram coletados 24 espécimes adultos do gênero Anastrepha (nove fêmeas e 15 machos. Quatro espécies foram identificadas: A. serpentina, A. striata, A. obliqua e A. turpinae. A maior frequência foi A. serpentina (44,44%, seguida de A. striata e A. obliqua ambas com 22,22% e A. turpinae com 11,11%. Os meses de maior ocorrência de Anastrepha spp. foram junho, julho e agosto. Este é o primeiro registro da espécie Anastrepha turpinae Stone, 1942, em Roraima. The study was done during th period of June 2007 to January of 2008, in commercial mango orchards having: 3 ha of cv. Tommy Atkins, 3 ha of cv. Haden. and 3 ha of cv. Palmer, located at Bom Intento in the municipal district of Boa Vista - RR. The specimens of fruit flies were collected, by trapping, made with transparent bottles pet, which were hung in the cup of the trees at 1.60 m of height. 200 mL of passion fruit juice (30% was used as an attractant feed; 9 traps were used, being one trap for hectare. Weekly The traps were

  8. Disinfestation of mangoes by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bustos R, M.E.

    1992-05-01

    The mango is a fruit-bearing very important in the mexican economy. Mexico is between the first positions of the world like country producing with an average export volume of 40,000 annual tons in the last years. For this reason it was decided to make this investigation, which was developed according to the investigation protocols proposed by the Agricultural Research Service of the USA (ARS - US DOA). The objective is to account with the technical and scientific necessary bases to propose to the US DOA the regulation of the irradiation process like quarantine treatment for Mexican export mango. The goals are: to determine in the laboratory the minimum dose (Dmin.) to inhibit the emergency of adults of the species of the fruit flies of more importance for Mexico. To confirm the least radiation dose Dmin. for quarantine treatment based on the safety value Probit-9. To evaluate the mango quality irradiated to 2 and 2.5 times the Dmin. proposal for quarantine treatment. According to information provided by the General Direction of Vegetable Sanity, it was determined that the fly species of the fruit of more economic importance for Mexico are of the genus Anastrepha ludens, Anastrepha serpentina, Anastrepha obliqua and Ceratitis capitata. (Author)

  9. Disinfestation of mangoes by irradiation; Desinfestacion de mango por irradiacion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bustos R, M.E

    1992-05-15

    The mango is a fruit-bearing very important in the mexican economy. Mexico is between the first positions of the world like country producing with an average export volume of 40,000 annual tons in the last years. For this reason it was decided to make this investigation, which was developed according to the investigation protocols proposed by the Agricultural Research Service of the USA (ARS - US DOA). The objective is to account with the technical and scientific necessary bases to propose to the US DOA the regulation of the irradiation process like quarantine treatment for Mexican export mango. The goals are: to determine in the laboratory the minimum dose (Dmin.) to inhibit the emergency of adults of the species of the fruit flies of more importance for Mexico. To confirm the least radiation dose Dmin. for quarantine treatment based on the safety value Probit-9. To evaluate the mango quality irradiated to 2 and 2.5 times the Dmin. proposal for quarantine treatment. According to information provided by the General Direction of Vegetable Sanity, it was determined that the fly species of the fruit of more economic importance for Mexico are of the genus Anastrepha ludens, Anastrepha serpentina, Anastrepha obliqua and Ceratitis capitata. (Author)

  10. On the predation of fly, Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart) by a spider, Oxyopes sp. Latreille (Oxyopidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heo, C C; Mohamad, A M; John, J; Baharudin, O

    2008-04-01

    During a forensic entomological study conducted in a palm oil plantation in Tg.Sepat, Selangor in September 2007, a spider (Arachnida), Oxyopes sp. (Oxyopidae) was found to predate on a calliphorid fly (Chrysomya rufifacies). The female spider laid a silk thread, or "drag line", behind it as it moved. This spider bites its prey by using a pairs of chelicerae, and injecting venom into the fly. The fly was moving its wing trying to escape, however, it succumbed to the deadly bite.

  11. Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart) as a forensically-important fly species in Thailand: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukontason, K L; Sukontason, K; Narongchai, P; Lertthamnongtham, S; Piangjai, S; Olson, J K

    2001-12-01

    The first documented use of the larvae of the hairy maggot blow fly, Chrysomya rufifacies, for estimating the postmortem interval (PMI) of a decomposing human corpse in Thailand is reported. A honeycomb-like wound observed on one leg of the corpse was infested with numerous third-stage C. rufifacies larvae. Based on the pupae and larvae present in accordance with the ambient temperature previously recorded, six days postmortem was estimated for a corpse at the time of its discovery and investigation. Since adult C. rufifacies specimens have been collected in many parts of both urban and mountainous areas in Thailand, more biological information about this blowfly species is needed to increase the accuracy of forensic investigations where the fly is present.

  12. Effects of temperature and tissue type on Chrysomya rufifacies (Diptera: Calliphoridae) (Macquart) development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Micah; Longnecker, Michael; Tomberlin, Jeffery K

    2014-12-01

    The hairy maggot blow fly, Chrysomya rufifacies (Diptera: Calliphoridae), is a forensically important fly often encountered on human and other vertebrate remains in temperate and tropic regions throughout the world including Australia, Asia, Central America and North America. C. rufifacies was reared under controlled laboratory conditions on three muscle types (i.e., porcine, equine and canine) at three temperatures (i.e., 20.8, 24.8 and 28.3°C). Rate of larval weight gain across time was statistically significant between muscle types (P≤0.0001) and approaching significance across time between temperatures (P=0.0511). This research represents the first development study for C. rufifacies from central Texas, USA and the first study to examine the impact of tissue type on its development. Furthermore, these data, when compared to those available in the literature, indicate developmental differences that could be due to genetic differences in populations or possibly methods employed during the studies. Caution should be emphasized when applying development data for this species from one region to forensic investigations in other ecoregions as such differences in development based on tissue fed upon by larvae, population genetics, and methodologies used in the studies could represent error in estimating the time of colonization. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. The biology of Aedes (Ochlerotatus albifasciatus Macquart, 1838 (Diptera: Culicidae in Central Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco F. Ludueña Almeida

    1995-08-01

    Full Text Available Aedes albifasciatus is a flood water mosquito ocurring in the southern countries of South America. It is a competent vector of the Western Equine Encephalitis (WEE and causes important losses on milk and beef production in central Argentina. Field work was carried out from December 1990 to March 1993, on a monthly basis during the dry season and biweekly during the rainy season. Larvae were collected using the 'dipping' technique and females with CDC traps baited with CO2. Field collected larvae were used to build laboratory cohorts, from which basic population parameters were estimated. Eggs survived up to six months on dry soil, although there was a linear decrease of viability with time. At 23ºC, larval development time was around nine days, and all adults emerged within one week. The estimation of larval development in the laboratory seems to be very near the development on the field, as larvae have been collected on average eight days after a rainfall. Egg to adult survival was 83%, with the highest mortality on fourth larval instar (6%. In the laboratory studies, sex proportion among the adults was 1:1, females lived longer than males (median 13 and five days, respectively, and adult survival pattern showed a constant number of individuals dying per unit time. Field collected females layed an average of 84 eggs per batch, and completing up to five gonotrophic cycles, suggesting an estimated survival of up to 35-50 days.

  14. Description of a new species and record of Bactrocera Macquart (Diptera,Tephritidae) from China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Li-bing; Chen, Xiao-lin; Deng, Yu-liang; Wang, Shao-jun

    2013-01-01

    One new species, Bactrocera (Zeugodacus) anala Chen et Zhou, sp.nov, and one newly recorded species, B. (Z.) armillata (Hering, 1938), from China are described and illustrated. The male of B. (Z.) armillata (Hering) was discovered for the first time and as a result the species is moved from subgenus Bactrocera to subgenus Zeugodacus. In addition, the morphological differences and comparing illustrations of B. (Z.) adusta (Wang et Zhao) and B. (Z.) biguttata (Bezzi), are provided.

  15. Irradiation of Anastrepha suspensa (Diptera: Tephritidae): new irradiation facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smittle, B.J.

    1993-01-01

    An irradiation facility financed by a Cooperative Agreement with the U.S. Dept. of Energy, is near completion in Gainesville, FL. It utilizes a GE-CGR linear accelerator as the irradiation source in a two level design. The lower level has a one meter horn for 10 Me V electrons to irradiate shallow layers of commodities. The upper level has a 2.5 meter horn equipped to produce 5 Me V X-rays to irradiate loads up to pallet size. Automated conveyors transport materials to be irradiated. The facility is divided for irradiated and unirradiated commodities with freezer and refrigerated storage on both sides. The facility is designed for both research and demonstration purposes and has the capacity to irradiate over 10 million Caribbean fruit fly larvae or pupae per minute

  16. Surface-bound phosphatase activity in living hyphae of ectomycorrhizal fungi of Nothofagus obliqua.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Maricel; Godoy, Roberto; Heyser, Wolfgang; Härtel, Steffen

    2004-01-01

    We determined the location and the activity of surface-bound phosphomonoesterase (SBP) of five ectomycorrhizal (EM) fungi of Nothofagus oblique. EM fungal mycelium of Paxillus involutus, Austropaxillus boletinoides, Descolea antartica, Cenococcum geophilum and Pisolithus tinctorius was grown in media with varying concentrations of dissolved phosphorus. SBP activity was detected at different pH values (3-7) under each growth regimen. SBP activity was assessed using a colorimetric method based on the hydrolysis of p-nitrophenyl phosphate (pNPP) to p-nitrophenol phosphate (pNP) + P. A new technique involving confocal laser-scanning microscopy (LSM) was used to locate and quantify SBP activity on the hyphal surface. EM fungi showed two fundamentally different patterns of SBP activity in relation to varying environmental conditions (P-concentrations and pH). In the cases of D. antartica, A. boletinoides and C. geophilum, changes in SBP activity were induced primarily by changes in the number of SBP-active centers on the hyphae. In the cases of P. tinctorius and P. involutus, the number of SBP-active centers per μm hyphal length changed much less than the intensity of the SBP-active centers on the hyphae. Our findings not only contribute to the discussion about the role of SBP-active centers in EM fungi but also introduce LSM as a valuable method for studying EM fungi.

  17. Evidence of Adaptive Evolution and Relaxed Constraints in Sex-Biased Genes of South American and West Indies Fruit Flies (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campanini, Emeline B; Torres, Felipe R; Rezende, Víctor B; Nakamura, Aline M; de Oliveira, Janaína L; Lima, André L A; Chahad-Ehlers, Samira; Sobrinho, Iderval S; de Brito, Reinaldo A

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Several studies have demonstrated that genes differentially expressed between sexes (sex-biased genes) tend to evolve faster than unbiased genes, particularly in males. The reason for this accelerated evolution is not clear, but several explanations have involved adaptive and nonadaptive mechanisms. Furthermore, the differences of sex-biased expression patterns of closely related species are also little explored out of Drosophila. To address the evolutionary processes involved with sex-biased expression in species with incipient differentiation, we analyzed male and female transcriptomes of Anastrepha fraterculus and Anastrepha obliqua, a pair of species that have diverged recently, likely in the presence of gene flow. Using these data, we inferred differentiation indexes and evolutionary rates and tested for signals of selection in thousands of genes expressed in head and reproductive transcriptomes from both species. Our results indicate that sex-biased and reproductive-biased genes evolve faster than unbiased genes in both species, which is due to both adaptive pressure and relaxed constraints. Furthermore, among male-biased genes evolving under positive selection, we identified some related to sexual functions such as courtship behavior and fertility. These findings suggest that sex-biased genes may have played important roles in the establishment of reproductive isolation between these species, due to a combination of selection and drift, and unveil a plethora of genetic markers useful for more studies in these species and their differentiation. PMID:29346618

  18. Molecular identification of Malaysian Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius) and Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart) using life stage specific mitochondrial DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavitha, R; Tan, T C; Lee, H L; Nazni, W A; Sofian, A M

    2013-06-01

    DNA identification of blow fly species can be a very useful tool in forensic entomology. One of the potential benefits that mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) has offered in the field of forensic entomology is species determination. Conventional identification methods have limitations for sibling and closely related species of blow fly and stage and quality of the specimen used. This could be overcome by DNA-based identification methods using mitochondrial DNA which does not demand intact or undamaged specimens. Mitochondrial DNA is usually isolated from whole blow fly and legs. Alternate sources for mitochondrial DNA isolation namely, egg, larva, puparium and empty puparium were explored in this study. The sequence of DNA obtained for each sample for every life cycle stage was 100% identical for a particular species, indicating that the egg, 1st instar, 2nd instar, 3rd instar, pupa, empty puparium and adult from the same species and obtained from same generation will exhibit similar DNA sequences. The present study also highlighted the usefulness of collecting all life cycle stages of blow fly during crime scene investigation with proper preservation and subsequent molecular analysis. Molecular identification provides a strong basis for species identification and will prove an invaluable contribution to forensic entomology as an investigative tool in Malaysia.

  19. Larval development rates of Chrysomya rufifacies Macquart, 1842 (Diptera: Calliphoridae) within its native range in South-East Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanmanee, Surasuk; Husemann, Martin; Benbow, Mark Eric; Suwannapong, Guntima

    2016-09-01

    Chrysomya rufifacies represents an important indicator species in forensic entomology that is often used to estimate the minimum postmortem interval (PMImin) in crime scene investigation. However, developmental rates differ locally, so that estimates should be based on regionally generated development data. Therefore, we determined the developmental rates of C. rufifacies within its native range in Thailand under nine constant temperature regimes: 15, 18, 21, 24, 27, 30, 33, 36 and 39°C. Developmental times from egg to adult varied among the temperatures and were longest at 15°C (618h) and shortest at 33°C (168h). No pupae emerged at 39°C. We used linear regression models to estimate the minimum development threshold temperatures for each life stage: egg stage=9.5°C, first to second instar=10.8°C, second to third instar=11.5°C, third instar to pupariation=11.4°C, pupariation to adults=5.0°C; the minimum threshold to complete all larvae stages was 11.1°C and to complete all life stages from eggs to adult was 9.5°C. We further generated isomorphen and isomegalen diagrams that can be used to quickly estimate the PMImin for forensic applications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. New protein sources in adults diet for mass-rearing of Anastrepha fraterculus (Diptera:Tephritidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Morelli

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to find alternatives to reduce the cost of mass production of the South American fruit fly (A. fraterculus by looking for locally available products as protein source in the diet of adults to replace the imported product without changing the quality parameters. Two yeast from a Brazilian company were evaluated. The quality parameters showed that the imported hydrolyzed yeast used in the adult diet could be perfectly replaced by the local products tested, with a reduction of over 80% of the cost of the diet. The quality of the produced insects remained the same and there were improvements in some quality parameters such as the volume of eggs produced, number of adults flying and longevity under the stress.

  1. Identification of male-borne attractants in Anastrepha fraterculus (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Milet-Pinheiro, P.; Navarro, D. M. A.; De Aquino, N. C.; Ferreira, L. L.; Tavares, R. F.; Correia da Silva, R. C.; Lima-Mendonca, A.; Vaníčková, Lucie; Mendonca, A. L.; do Nascimento, R. R.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 25, č. 3 (2015), s. 115-122 ISSN 0937-7409 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : South American fruit fly * sexual pheromone * male-borne attractants * GC-EAD * behavioral activity Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 1.863, year: 2015

  2. Pheromone analyses of the Anastrepha fraterculus (Diptera: Tephritidae) cryptic species complex

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Břízová, Radka; Mendonca, A. L.; Vaníčková, L.; Mendonca, Al. L.; Da Silva, C. E.; Tomčala, Aleš; Paranhos, B. A. J.; Dias, V. S.; Joachim-Bravo, I. S.; Hoskovec, Michal; Kalinová, Blanka; do Nascimento, R. R.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 96, č. 3 (2013), s. 1107-1115 ISSN 0015-4040 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : South American fruit fly * GCxGC/TOE-MS * principal component analysis (PCA) Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 1.056, year: 2013

  3. Response of Anastrepha suspensa to liquid protein baits and synthetic lure formulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Epsky, Nancy D.; Kendra, Paul E.; Heath, Robert R., E-mail: Nancy.Epsky@ars.usda.go, E-mail: Paul.Kendra@ars.usda.go, E-mail: Bob.Heath@ars.usda.go [U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA/ARS/SHRS), Miami, FL (United States). Agricultural Research Service. Subtropical Horticulture Research Station

    2006-07-01

    Traps baited with AAPt captured more A. suspensa than traps baited with ABPt even when the ammonia release rates were similar. Reducing dosage of ammonia by 50% of the commercially available AA lure slightly increased female capture, but reducing dosage to 25% tended to decrease female capture. The 5% CPH/3% borax bait captured the same number of flies as TYB, and was more effective than 10% CPH/3% borax. Further decreasing the amount of borax added to CPH may improve its effectiveness. As has been observed in field tests, fresh TYB captures more A. suspensa than fresh Nulure/borax but this difference decreases as the bait solutions age. EAG analysis indicates that volatiles from fresh Nulure/ borax elicit a higher antennal response than TYB, but this difference decreases as the TYB solution ages. Chemical analysis will be needed to determine the nature of reduced capture by fresh Nulure/borax and to identify additional attractive chemicals emitted by these protein baits. (author)

  4. Intraspecific variation of cuticular hydrocarbon profiles in the Anastrepha fraterculus (Diptera: Tephritidae) species complex

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vaníčková, Lucie; Břízová, Radka; Mendonca, A. L.; Pompeiano, A.; do Nascimento, R. R.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 139, č. 9 (2015), s. 679-689 ISSN 0931-2048 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : chemotaxonomy * GCxGC/TOFMS * multiple factorial analyses * putative species * South American fruit fly Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 1.517, year: 2015

  5. Response of Anastrepha suspensa to liquid protein baits and synthetic lure formulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Epsky, Nancy D.; Kendra, Paul E.; Heath, Robert R.

    2006-01-01

    Traps baited with AAPt captured more A. suspensa than traps baited with ABPt even when the ammonia release rates were similar. Reducing dosage of ammonia by 50% of the commercially available AA lure slightly increased female capture, but reducing dosage to 25% tended to decrease female capture. The 5% CPH/3% borax bait captured the same number of flies as TYB, and was more effective than 10% CPH/3% borax. Further decreasing the amount of borax added to CPH may improve its effectiveness. As has been observed in field tests, fresh TYB captures more A. suspensa than fresh Nulure/borax but this difference decreases as the bait solutions age. EAG analysis indicates that volatiles from fresh Nulure/ borax elicit a higher antennal response than TYB, but this difference decreases as the TYB solution ages. Chemical analysis will be needed to determine the nature of reduced capture by fresh Nulure/borax and to identify additional attractive chemicals emitted by these protein baits. (author)

  6. Current knowledge of the species complex Anastrepha fraterculus (Diptera, Tephritidae) in Brazil

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vaníčková, Lucie; Hernández-Ortiz, V.; Bravo, I. S. J.; Dias, V.; Roriz, A. K. P.; Laumann, R. A.; Mendonca, A. L.; Paranhos, B. A. J.; do Nascimento, R. R.

    -, č. 540 (2015), s. 211-237 ISSN 1313-2989 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : South American fruit fly * cryptic species * taxonomy * sexual behavior * chemical communication Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.938, year: 2015 http://zookeys.pensoft.net/articles.php?id=6228

  7. Mango resistance to fruit flies. II - resistance of the alfa cultivar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossetto, C.J.; Bortoletto, N.; Carvalho, C.R.L.; Castro, J.V. de; Pinto, A.C. de Q.; Cortelazzo, A.L.

    2006-01-01

    The percentage of infested mango fruits of five selected mango varieties was evaluated during three years under field conditions. Three varieties with field resistance to fruit flies had less then 10% of fruits infested. Tommy Atkins, the susceptible commercial check, had 42,9% and the susceptible check had 98.9 % of infested fruits. The three field resistant varieties plus the susceptible commercial check, Tommy Atkins, were further tested in laboratory, under caged conditions, with artificial infestation of Anastrepha obliqua. The attempts of oviposition and the number of pupae developed from each fruit were evaluated. Under caged conditions, the cultivar Alfa maintained its field resistance and Espada Stahl and IAC 111 lost the field resistance and were as susceptible as Tommy Atkins. The attempts of oviposition were positively and highly correlated with the number of pupae developed in the fruits. Non preference for oviposition was confirmed as the main mechanism of resistance of mango fruits to fruit flies. In the absence of a more susceptible variety (no choice test) the cultivar Alfa has kept the resistance (author)

  8. Mango resistance to fruit flies. II - resistance of the alfa cultivar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rossetto, C.J.; Bortoletto, N., E-mail: rossetto@iac.sp.gov.b [Agencia Paulista de Tecnologia dos Agronegocios (APTA), Votuporanga, SP (Brazil). Polo Regional do Noroeste Paulista; Walder, J.M.M.; Mastrangelo, T. de A., E-mail: jmwalder@cena.usp.b [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil); Carvalho, C.R.L.; Castro, J.V. de, E-mail: climonta@iac.sp.gov.b, E-mail: josalba@iac.sp.gov.b [Instituto Agronomico de Campinas, SP (Brazil); Pinto, A.C. de Q. [EMBRAPA, Brasilia, DF (Brazil); Cortelazzo, A.L., E-mail: angelo@unicamp.b [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Biologia

    2006-07-01

    The percentage of infested mango fruits of five selected mango varieties was evaluated during three years under field conditions. Three varieties with field resistance to fruit flies had less then 10% of fruits infested. Tommy Atkins, the susceptible commercial check, had 42,9% and the susceptible check had 98.9 % of infested fruits. The three field resistant varieties plus the susceptible commercial check, Tommy Atkins, were further tested in laboratory, under caged conditions, with artificial infestation of Anastrepha obliqua. The attempts of oviposition and the number of pupae developed from each fruit were evaluated. Under caged conditions, the cultivar Alfa maintained its field resistance and Espada Stahl and IAC 111 lost the field resistance and were as susceptible as Tommy Atkins. The attempts of oviposition were positively and highly correlated with the number of pupae developed in the fruits. Non preference for oviposition was confirmed as the main mechanism of resistance of mango fruits to fruit flies. In the absence of a more susceptible variety (no choice test) the cultivar Alfa has kept the resistance (author)

  9. Development of attractant systems for trapping female Ceratitis capitata (Wied.) (Diptera: Tephritidae) in the Soconusco region, Chiapas, Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montoya, P.; Miranda, H.; Paxtian, J.; Celedonio, H.; Orozco, D.

    1999-01-01

    With the aim of developing a system of attractants and trapping to optimize the capture of female Mediterranean fruit flies, Ceratitis capitata (Wied.) as well as other fruit flies, six experiments were carried out during the period 1994-1997, in a sterile-insect release zone in the Soconusco region of Chiapas, Mexico. Relating to the system of attractants, the evaluation focused on the comparison of food attractants (i.e. ammonium acetate, putrescine and trimethylamine) with standard attractants, such as Trimedlure and liquid hydrolyzed protein. For the trapping system, dry traps (Jackson trap, Open bottom dry trap, etc.) as well as wet traps (McPhail trap, Tephri trap, etc.) were tested alternately with the different kinds of attractants. The experiments were performed in agrosystems of coffee and groves of citrus and mango. Results consistently showed that a combination of ammonium acetate + putrescine + trimethylamine was the best for the capture of female Ceratitis capitata (Wied.) when used in traps such as the OBDT and the plastic McPhail trap (IPMT), while for Anastrepha spp., the McPhail trap baited with liquid hydrolyzed protein still appears to be the best option, although the combination of ammonium acetate with putrescine was quite consistent in the trapping of A. obliqua and A. ludens in traps such as the IPMT. (author)

  10. Patterns of oviposition and development of Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius) (Diptera: Calliphoridae) and Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart) (Diptera: Calliphoridae) on burned rabbit carcasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahat, N A; Zainol-Abidin, N L; Nordin, N H; Abdul-Wahab, R; Jayaprakash, P T

    2016-03-01

    Considering that crimes against animals such as illegal killing and cruelty have been alarmingly increasing and since burning is one of the common ways for disposing cadavers, ability to estimate minimum postmortem interval (PMI) using entomological data merits consideration. Chrysomya megacephala and Chrysomya rufifacies are common necrophagous species recovered from cadavers in many countries including Malaysia. Specific studies focusing on the oviposition and developmental patterns of both species on cadavers manifesting different levels of burn as described by the Crow-Glassman Scale (CGS) remain scarce. In four replicates, rabbit carcasses were burned to CGS levels #1, #2 and #3 by varying the amount of petrol used and duration of burning. Oviposition by C. megacephala and C. rufifacies was delayed by one day in the case of carcasses burned to the CGS level #3 (p0.05) in the duration of development were found between control and burned carcasses. These findings deserve consideration while estimating minimum PMI since burning as a mean for disposing animal and human cadavers is gaining popularity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Larval distribution and behavior of Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart) (Diptera:Calliphoridae) relative to other species on Florida black bear(Carnivora:Ursidae) carcasses decompsing in North Central Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larval interactions of blow flies were documented daily temporally and spatially on 5 black bear carcasses from June – November, 2002. Cochliomyia macellaria or Chrysomya megacephala larvae were collected first, then Chrysomya rufifacies oviposited in multiple locations on the carcasses uninhabited...

  12. THE LIFE OF GERVAISE MACQUART AS A LOWER WORKING CLASS WOMEN UNDER FRENCH SECOND EMPIRE IN THE NOVEL L’ASSOMMOIR BY ÉMILE ZOLA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teguh Basuki

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The industrialization which developed in the 19th century France had brought both positive and negative impacts. Some of the negative impacts are the rising number of labors, the emergence of inter class conflicts, social problems such as prostitution, and the oppression of lower class women. This research will discuss about the life of lower class women depicted in the novel L’Assommoir by Émile Zola, as the portrayal of the reality in the French Second Empire. The analysis uses qualitative descriptive technique and applies Foucaults’s theory on social exclusion, Beauvoir’s theory of second sex, and also gender theory. The analysis shown that Zola criticize the inequalities in the life of lower class women under Second Empire. It also shows that lower class women excluded from the ‘grand’ discourse in French society. The exclusion process which is done by society and supported by the State at that time regarded as a normal thing and ‘taken for granted’.

  13. Analise da deformação de componentes de protese fixa implantossuportada quando submetidos a cargas axiais e obliquas por meio de extensometria

    OpenAIRE

    Marcelo de Almeida Costa

    2009-01-01

    Resumo: Este trabalho teve como objetivo, avaliar através da extesometria, a resposta de forças aplicadas sobre abutments de infra-estrutruras implanto-retidas fundidas em ligas de cobalto-cromo, pela técnica de monobloco, simulando caso de protocolo mandibular, foram utilizados 06 implantes com distância de 10 mm entre implantes e com extremo livre Cantilever bilateral com tamanho do 20 mm. Em cada abutment foram colados 04 extensometros, fazendo uma ponte de Wheatstone, após apertamento de ...

  14. Empleo de microalga Scenedesmus obliquas en la eliminación de cromo presente en aguas residuales galvánicas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pellón, A.

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available Dumping wastewaters from plating industry with a high content in chromium is a potential hazard for people and environment. It is known that some metals, including the heavy metals, at low concentrations participate in different metabolic routes, but at high concentration are toxic for many living organisms. Some microorganism taking the heavy metals from the environment are capable of concentrating and accumulating large quantities of them in different citoplasmatic structures with no-toxic effects. Microalgae have affinity by the polyvalent metals making possible their use as depollutant agent in waters that contains dissolved metallic ions as alternative methods when others methods of recycle are unusable. In this report a chromium removal study from a plating wastewater, using scenedesmus obliquus culture was made. The removal efficiency of Cr (VI was 12 % and Cr (III was 27 % and for condition of algae's immobilization removal of Cr (III was 95 %.

    El vertido de aguas residuales con alto contenido de cromo, procedentes de las industrias galvanoplásticas, es un peligro potencial que se le presenta a la población y al medio ambiente. Se conoce que algunos metales, incluyendo los pesados, a concentraciones bajas participan en diferentes rutas metabólicas, pero en altas concentraciones pueden ser tóxicos para muchos organismos vivos. Algunos microorganismos toman los metales pesados del medio ambiente, siendo capaces de concentrar y acumular grandes cantidades de los mismos en diferentes estructuras citoplasmáticas, sin que lleguen a ocasionar efectos tóxicos en los mismos. Las microalgas son un ejemplo de este comportamiento, ya que tienen afinidad por los metales polivalentes, de ahí la posibilidad de su aplicación como agentes descontaminantes en aguas que contengan iones metálicos disueltos como método alternativo cuando no se pueda utilizar otro método de recuperación. En este trabajo se realizó un estudio de eliminación de cromo presente en las aguas residuales galvánicas, empleando un cultivo de scenedesmus obliquus. Se obtuvo una eficiencia de eliminación de Cr (VI del 12 % y del 27 % para el Cr (III, y en condiciones de inmovilización del alga fue del 95 % para el Cr (III.

  15. Characterisation of the chemical profiles of Brazilian and Andean morphotypes belonging to the Anastrepha fraterculus complex (Diptera, Tephritidae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vaníčková, Lucie; Břízová, Radka; Pompeiano, A.; Ferreira, L. L.; De Aquino, N. C.; Tavares, R. F.; Rodriguez, L. D.; Mendonca, A. L.; Canal, N. A.; do Nascimento, R. R.

    -, č. 540 (2015), s. 193-209 ISSN 1313-2989 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : cryptic species * chemotaxonomy * GCxGC/MS * PCA Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.938, year: 2015 http://zookeys.pensoft.net/articles.php?id=6224

  16. Capture of Anastrepha sororcula (Diptera: Tephritidae) in McPhail and Jackson traps with food attractant and virgin adults

    OpenAIRE

    Felix,Christiane dos Santos; Uchôa-Fernandes,Manoel Araécio; Faccenda,Odival

    2009-01-01

    This stady evaluated the capture of A. sororcula in the traps baited with the conspecific virgin adults and food attractant in two orchards. The first was the orchard of the Universidade Federal da Grande Dourados (OUFGD) and the second, the orchard of the Sindicato Rural de Dourados (OSRD). The capture of A. sororcula in McPhail and Jackson traps was carried out using the corn hydrolysed protein (CHP), control (no flies), virgin males (5, 10 and 15), five virgin females and five virgin coupl...

  17. Fitness cost implications of phiC31-mediated site-specific integrations in target-site strains of the Mexican fruit fly, Anastrepha ludens (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Site-specific recombination technologies are powerful new tools for the manipulation of genomic DNA in insects that can improve transgenesis strategies such as targeting transgene insertions, allowing transgene cassette exchange and DNA mobilization for transgene stabilization. However, understandin...

  18. Gamma radiation use as a quarantine treatment for Ceratitis capitata (Wied., 1824) and Anastrepha fraterculus (Wied., 1830) in papaya fruits (Carica papaya, Linnaeus), cultivar sunrise solo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faria, J.T. de.

    1989-01-01

    The gamma irradiation as treatment for control of the immature stages of fruit flies, C. capitata and A. fraterculus in papaya fruits, cultivar Sunrise Solo is studied. The gamma rays attenuation was observed by one and two papaya fruits placed between source and infested fruit, and this changed the radiation doses required to obtain mortality in eggs and larvae of the Medfly. The efficacy of irradiation was higher when the infested papayas were packed in paper box. The radiation dose determined using the Probit 9 concept, for immature stages mortality of C. capitata was 107,74 Gy and for A. fraterculus was 50,82 Gy. The sterilizing doses for adults of C. capitata and D. fraterculus, irradiated as pupae, was 60 Gy and 40 Gy, respectively. (author)

  19. Current initiatives in the mass production and field release of the Mexican fruit fly, Anastrepha ludens, in the lower Rio Grande valley of Texas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Worley, J.N.; Forrester, O.T.

    1999-01-01

    In order to reduce the program operating expenses in the South Texas Mexican Fruit Fly Sterile Release Program, four cost reduction initiatives are in progress at the U.S. Department of Agriculture's Mexican Fruit Fly Rearing Facility. These initiatives include implementation of a less expensive larval diet formulation, automation of the larval diet dispensing process, processing and reutilization of spent larval diet medium, and a more efficient system for emerging and feeding sterile flies prior to field release. (author)

  20. Biodemography of a long-lived tephritid: Reproduction and longevity in a large cohort of female Mexican fruit flies, Anastrepha ludens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, James R.; Liedoc, Pablo; Muüller, Hans-Georg; Wang, Jane-Ling; Senturke, Damla; Harshman, Lawrence

    2008-01-01

    Age of sexual maturity, daily and lifetime reproductive rates, and life span were recorded in a laboratory cohort of Mexican fruit flies consisting of over 1100 females maintained individually. The results revealed that, relative to the medfly, the Mexfly is slower maturing (14 vs 17 days), more fecund (1400 vs 650–1100 eggs/female), and longer lived (50 vs 35 days). The results reinforced the generality of several earlier findings on the medfly including the deceleration of mortality at older ages and the weakness of the correlation between the rate of egg laying at early ages and both subsequent reproduction and remaining longevity. Discussion includes perspectives on the role of artificial selection in shaping the demographic traits of the mass-reared strain of Mexfly used in this study, as well as the overall significance of large scale biodemographic studies in understanding aging and longevity. PMID:16154309

  1. Mass production in liquid diet and radiosterilization of South American fruit fly Anastrepha sp.1 aff. fraterculus (Wied., 1830) (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamiya, Aline Cristiane

    2010-01-01

    Both the biological control techniques as the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT), are used in many countries to control, suppress and even eradicate fruit flies and other pests in agriculture and public health. The use of such techniques minimizes the continuous employment of insecticides, protects the environment and conforms to standards for food safety. However, it is necessary to implement such programs, technology to produce millions of parasitoids and the pest in its own laboratory with biological quality similar to the insects found in nature and cost competitive with chemical control. The objectives of this study was to establish protocols for artificial rearing of A. sp. 1 aff. fraterculus in liquid larval diet that will achieve levels of mass production for a possible reduction in the cost of establishing and determining the dose of radiation sterilization of adult A. sp. 1 aff. fraterculus meeting the quality parameters required by the Sterile Insect Technique with insects from the creation of Radioentomology Laboratory of CENA/USP. Seven experimental diets compared to the conventional diet used in Radioentomology Lab. of CENA/USP, which was used as control. All seven diets have in common the exclusion of agar in its formulation. Only two of the diets tested were suitable for larval development of the fly, they compared with the standard diet, showed inferior results with respect to the volume of recovered larvae, pupae and weight of emergency, however, no significant differences regarding the periods of development , pupal recovery, sex ratio and longevity under stress. It is possible to replace the diet with agar for liquid diets for artificial creation of A. sp. 1 aff. fraterculus, reduced cost and greater convenience of handling, but due to their quality standards lower than the standard diet, more tests are needed especially regarding the adaptability of the insect to the new environment. To determine the sterilizing dose this study examined the fertility, fecundity, emergence, flight ability and longevity under stress in A. fraterculus irradiated with 40, 50, 60, 70 and 80 Gy. The radiation source was a gamma irradiator with a Co-60 (Gamma beam-650) located in the same laboratory. The tests were performed under the following environmental conditions: 26 +- 1 deg C, 70 +- 5% RH and photoperiod of 12:12. The dose of gamma radiation sterilization for male A. sp. 1 aff. fraterculus was determined with 70 Gy. Irradiates females, even with the lower dose of 40 Gy, laid no eggs, possibly due to atrophy of the ovaries caused by radiation. The radiation did not affect the other quality parameters such as insect emergence, longevity and ability to fly. (author)

  2. Mixture-Amount Design and Response Surface Modeling to Assess the Effects of Flavonoids and Phenolic Acids on Developmental Performance of Anastrepha ludens

    OpenAIRE

    Pascacio-Villafán, Carlos; Lapointe, Stephen; Williams, Trevor; Sivinski, John; Niedz, Randall; Aluja, Martín

    2014-01-01

    Host plant resistance to insect attack and expansion of insect pests to novel hosts may to be modulated by phenolic compounds in host plants. Many studies have evaluated the role of phenolics in host plant resistance and the effect of phenolics on herbivore performance, but few studies have tested the joint effect of several compounds. Here, we used mixture-amount experimental design and response surface modeling to study the effects of a variety of phenolic compounds on the development and s...

  3. AcMNPV

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-08-16

    Aug 16, 2010 ... to control this pest, resulting in serious pesticide residues in tea products. Although NPV was used to control E. obliqua in tea fields (Yin et al., 2004), it has not been widely acceptable because of its low virus efficacy. To enhance virus efficacy, a CHS conserved domain was cloned from E. obliqua and used ...

  4. Virus efficacy of recombined Autographa californica M ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ectropis obliqua is a major tea pest and chitin synthase (CHS) plays a key role in the pest growth and development. A 192 bp conserved domain from E. obliqua CHS gene was cloned and it was used to construct recombined Autographa californica M nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV) with double-stranded RNA interference ...

  5. Blow Flies Visiting Decaying Alligators: Is Succession Synchronous or Asynchronous?

    OpenAIRE

    Nelder, Mark P.; McCreadie, John W.; Major, Clinton S.

    2009-01-01

    Succession patterns of adult blow flies (Diptera: Calliphoridae) on decaying alligators were investigated in Mobile (Ala, USA) during August 2002. The most abundant blow fly species visiting the carcasses were Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart), Cochliomyia macellaria (Fabricus), Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricus), Phormia regina (Meigen), and Lucilia coeruleiviridis (Macquart). Lucilia coeruleiviridis was collected more often during the early stages of decomposition, followed by Chrysomya spp., C...

  6. Mass production in liquid diet and radiosterilization of South American fruit fly Anastrepha sp.1 aff. fraterculus (Wied., 1830) (Diptera: Tephritidae); Criacao massal em dieta liquida e radioesterilizacao da mosca-sulamericana Anastrepha sp.1 aff. fraterculus (Wied., 1830) (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamiya, Aline Cristiane

    2010-07-01

    Both the biological control techniques as the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT), are used in many countries to control, suppress and even eradicate fruit flies and other pests in agriculture and public health. The use of such techniques minimizes the continuous employment of insecticides, protects the environment and conforms to standards for food safety. However, it is necessary to implement such programs, technology to produce millions of parasitoids and the pest in its own laboratory with biological quality similar to the insects found in nature and cost competitive with chemical control. The objectives of this study was to establish protocols for artificial rearing of A. sp. 1 aff. fraterculus in liquid larval diet that will achieve levels of mass production for a possible reduction in the cost of establishing and determining the dose of radiation sterilization of adult A. sp. 1 aff. fraterculus meeting the quality parameters required by the Sterile Insect Technique with insects from the creation of Radioentomology Laboratory of CENA/USP. Seven experimental diets compared to the conventional diet used in Radioentomology Lab. of CENA/USP, which was used as control. All seven diets have in common the exclusion of agar in its formulation. Only two of the diets tested were suitable for larval development of the fly, they compared with the standard diet, showed inferior results with respect to the volume of recovered larvae, pupae and weight of emergency, however, no significant differences regarding the periods of development , pupal recovery, sex ratio and longevity under stress. It is possible to replace the diet with agar for liquid diets for artificial creation of A. sp. 1 aff. fraterculus, reduced cost and greater convenience of handling, but due to their quality standards lower than the standard diet, more tests are needed especially regarding the adaptability of the insect to the new environment. To determine the sterilizing dose this study examined the fertility, fecundity, emergence, flight ability and longevity under stress in A. fraterculus irradiated with 40, 50, 60, 70 and 80 Gy. The radiation source was a gamma irradiator with a Co-60 (Gamma beam-650) located in the same laboratory. The tests were performed under the following environmental conditions: 26 +- 1 deg C, 70 +- 5% RH and photoperiod of 12:12. The dose of gamma radiation sterilization for male A. sp. 1 aff. fraterculus was determined with 70 Gy. Irradiates females, even with the lower dose of 40 Gy, laid no eggs, possibly due to atrophy of the ovaries caused by radiation. The radiation did not affect the other quality parameters such as insect emergence, longevity and ability to fly. (author)

  7. First survey of fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae and parasitoid diversity among myrtaceae fruit across the state of Bahia, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidia Nogueira Silva

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the diversity of fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae species that use myrtaceous fruit, particularly guava, as hosts in several localities in the state of Bahia and to determine the infestation rates, pupal viability rates, and fruit fly-parasitoid associations. Sampling of myrtaceous fruit was carried out in 24 municipalities in different regions in the state of Bahia. Four fruit fly species, Anastrepha fraterculus, Anastrepha zenildae, Anastrepha sororcula, and Ceratitis capitata were obtained from the collected fruit. Three parasitoid species (Hymenoptera: Braconidae emerged from Anastrepha larvae/pupae, Doryctobracon areolatus, Utetes anastrephae, and Asobara anastrephae. Doryctobracon areolatus emerged from A. fraterculus, A. sororcula and A. zenildae; Utetes anastrephae emerged from A. fraterculus and A. zenildae; and Asobara anastrephae emerged from A. fraterculus. Fruit fly and myrtaceous fruit associations are reported for the first time in several municipalities in the state of Bahia. A. zenildae was found infesting Syzygium malaccense for the first time in Brazil.

  8. Ciliary and mucus-net filter feeding, with special reference to fluid mechanical characteristics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, C.B.; Kiørboe, Thomas; Møhlenberg, F.

    1984-01-01

    bivalves Dreissena polymorpha, Unio pictorum and Anodonta cygnea. The mucus-net feeders are the polychaete Chaetopterus variopedatus, the gastropod Crepidula fornicata and the ascidians Styela clava, Ciona intestinalis, Ascidia virginea, A. obliqua and A. mentula. Efficiencies of particle retention...

  9. Main predators of insect pests: screening and evaluation through comprehensive indices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Tingbang; Liu, Jie; Yuan, Longyu; Zhang, Yang; Peng, Yu; Li, Daiqin; Chen, Jian

    2017-11-01

    Predatory natural enemies play key functional roles in integrated pest management. However, the screening and evaluation of the main predators of insect pests has seldom been reported in the field. Here, we employed comprehensive indices for evaluating the predation of a common pest (Ectropis obliqua) by nine common spider species in Chinese tea plantations. We established the relative dominance of the spider species and their phenological overlap with the pest species, and analyzed DNA from the nine spider species using targeted real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction to identify the residual DNA of E. obliqua. The predation rates and predation numbers per predator were estimated by the positive rates of target fragments and the residual minimum number of E. obliqua in predators' guts, respectively. The results showed that only four spider species preyed on E. obliqua, and the order of potential of the spiders to control E. obliqua from greatest to smallest was Neoscona mellotteei, Xysticus ephippiatus, Evarcha albaria and Coleosoma octomaculatum by the Z-score method. The orb-weaving spider N. mellotteei has the maximum potential as a biological control agent of E. obliqua in an integrated pest management strategy. An approach of screening and evaluating main predators of insect pests through comprehensive indices was preliminarily established. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  10. Revisão de Triorla Parks e descrição de uma espécie nova, enfatizando o valor sistemático da espermateca (Diptera, Asilidae Revision of Triorla Parks and description of a new species enphasizing the systematic value of the spermatheca. (Diptera, Asilidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Medeiros Pamplona

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The redescription of Triorla interrupta (Macquart, 1834 and T. striola (Fabricius, 1805 and the description of T. parastriola sp.n. are presented with illustrations of the abdomens, inale and female terminalia and the spemiathecae.

  11. Intrinsic competition and competitor-free-space influence the coexistence of parasitoids (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Opiinae) of neotropical tephritidae (Diptera)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endoparasitoid larvae may eliminate heterospecific competitors by physical or physiological means. The outcomes of these intrinsic competitions are often predictable with one species typically eliminating the other. The opiine braconids Doryctobracon areolatus (Szepligeti) and Utetes anastrephae (Vi...

  12. Avaliação de atrativos alimentares utilizados no monitoramento de mosca-das-frutas em pessegueiro na lapa- PR Food attractants used in the monitoring of fruit flies in peach trees in lapa, Paraná (PR, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lino Bittencourt Monteiro

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available As moscas-das-frutas do gênero Anastrepha são uma praga-chave na cultura do pessegueiro no Paraná. Atrativos alimentares foram testados para determinar a sua eficiência no monitoramento de moscas-das-frutas capturadas em frascos caça-moscas McPhail. O experimento foi conduzido por três anos, sendo que, em 2002, foram testados como atrativo o suco de uva da marca Maguari®, o hidrolisado enzimático de proteína da marca BioAnastrepha® e o vinagre da marca Chemin Agrin®. Nos dois anos seguintes, o vinagre foi substituído pelo composto protéico hidrolisável da marca Torula®. As substâncias atrativas à base de proteína foram as mais eficientes na captura de Anastrepha spp., e as capturas ocorreram antecipadas em relação ao suco de uva. De acordo com os resultados, recomendam-se atrativos à base de proteína para monitoramento de Anastrepha spp em pessegueiro, na Lapa.Fruit flies of Anastrepha genus are a key pest in peach trees in Paraná. Food attractants were tested to determine their efficiency in monitoring fruit flies captured in McPhail fly traps. The experiment was conducted over a period of three years. In 2002 the following attractors were tested: Maguari® brand grape juice, BioAnastrepha® brand hydrolyzed enzymatic protein and Chemin Agrin® vinegar. Over the next two years, the vinegar was replaced by Torula® hydrolyzed protein compound. Protein-based attractants were the most efficient in trapping Anastrepha spp. and captured flies earlier comparing to grape juice. According to the results, the use of protein-based attractants for monitoring Anastrepha spp in the Lapa peach trees was recommended.

  13. Larval endoparasitoids (Hymenoptera of frugivorous flies (Diptera, Tephritoidea reared from fruits of the cerrado of the State of Mato Grosso do Sul , Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoel A. Uchôa-Fernandes

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a five years survey of endoparasitoids obtained from the larvae of frugivorous Tephritidae and Lonchaeidae flies. The insects were reared from cultivated and wild fruits collected in areas of the cerrado in the State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. The flies obtained from 14 host fruit species were eight Anastrepha species, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann, 1824 (Tephritidae; Dasiops sp. and Neosilba spp. (Lonchaeidae. Eleven parasitoid species were collected: Braconidae - Asobara anastrephae (Muesebek, 1958, Doryctobracon areolatus (Szépligeti, 1911, D. fluminensis (Costa Lima, 1938, Opius bellus Gahan, 1930 and Utetes anastrephae (Viereck, 1913; Figitidae - Aganaspis nordlanderi Wharton, 1998, Lopheucoila anastrephae (Rhower, 1919, Odontosema anastrephae (Borgmeier, 1935 and Trybliographa infuscata Gallardo, Díaz & Uchôa-Fernandes, 2000 and, Pteromalidae - Spalangia gemina Boucek, 1963 and S. endius Walker, 1839. In all cases only one parasitoid emerged per puparium. D. areolatus was the most abundant and frequent parasitoid of fruit fly species, as was L. anastrephae in Neosilba spp. larvae. This is the first record of A. nordlanderi in the midwestern Brazilian region.

  14. A pictorial key and diagnosis of the Brazilian genera of Micropezidae (Diptera, Nerioidea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Borges Ferro

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available A pictorial key and diagnosis of the Brazilian genera of Micropezidae (Diptera, Nerioidea. This paper provides the first pictorial key and diagnosis for the Brazilian genera of the Micropezidae, based on external morphological characters illustrated with photographs. The key includes 13 genera: Cardiacephala Macquart, Cliobata Enderlein, Grallipeza Rondani, Metasphen Frey, Micropeza Meigen, Parasphen Enderlein, Planipeza Marshall, Plocoscelus Enderlein, Poecilotylus Hennig, Ptilosphen Enderlein, Rainieria Rondani, Scipopus Enderlein and Taeniaptera Macquart. For each genus, the species known to occur in Brazil are listed and their distribution records, including new ones, are provided.

  15. Brown rot in inner heartwood: why large logs support characteristics saproxylic beetle assemblages of conservation concern

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marie Yee; Simon J. Grove; Alastair M.M. Richardson; Caroline L. Mohammed

    2006-01-01

    It is not clear why large diameter logs generally host saproxylic beetle assemblages that are different from those of small diameter logs. In a study in Tasmanian wet eucalypt forest, two size-classes of Eucalyptus obliqua logs (>100cm and 30-60cm diameter) were destructively sampled to assess their beetle fauna and the associations of this fauna...

  16. The effect of pesticides and aqueous extracts of Azadirachta indica ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    2014-08-31

    Aug 31, 2014 ... tabaci en Mesoamérica. Manejo Integrado de. Plagas (Costa Rica), 35 :46-54. Islam MD, Latif MA, Begum R, Razzaque MA, Akhtar. Akhy A, 2007. Effect of neem oil on food consumption, growth and development of Jute hairy caterpillar, Spilarctia obliqua (Walker). Int. J. Sustainable Agric. Technol., 3(4):1-5.

  17. The tribe Anthracini Latreille (Bombyliidae, Diptera) from Egypt ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hull also stated that “apart from the venation of ... Hull could not support the separation of Spongostylum by Bezzi and Engel because inadequate material of Macquart's type-species was available for him; consequently, ..... Eftlatoun Bey and John Bowden have been compared with the lectotype of A. hassani in ESC.

  18. A report on the pupae of Desmometopa sp. (Diptera: Milichiidae) recovered from a human corpse in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumara, T K; Abu Hassan, A; Che Salmah, M R; Bhupinder, S

    2010-04-01

    The pupae of Desmometopa sp. (Diptera: Milichiidae) were collected from a human corpse found indoor in active decay stage together with the larvae of Sarcophagidae, Synthesiomyia nudiseta (Wulp), Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius) and Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart). This research note is the first report of the Desmometopa sp. recovered from a human corpse in Malaysia.

  19. Avaliação de atrativos alimentares utilizados no monitoramento de mosca-das-frutas em pessegueiro na lapa- PR Food attractants used in the monitoring of fruit flies in peach trees in lapa, Paraná (PR), Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Lino Bittencourt Monteiro; Louise Larissa May De Mio; Antônio Carlos Vargas Motta; Beatriz Monte Serrat; Francine Lorena Cuquel

    2007-01-01

    As moscas-das-frutas do gênero Anastrepha são uma praga-chave na cultura do pessegueiro no Paraná. Atrativos alimentares foram testados para determinar a sua eficiência no monitoramento de moscas-das-frutas capturadas em frascos caça-moscas McPhail. O experimento foi conduzido por três anos, sendo que, em 2002, foram testados como atrativo o suco de uva da marca Maguari®, o hidrolisado enzimático de proteína da marca BioAnastrepha® e o vinagre da marca Chemin Agrin®. Nos dois anos seguintes, ...

  20. Avaliação de atrativos alimentares utilizados no monitoramento de mosca-das-frutas em pessegueiro na lapa- PR

    OpenAIRE

    Monteiro,Lino Bittencourt; May De Mio,Louise Larissa; Motta,Antônio Carlos Vargas; Serrat,Beatriz Monte; Cuquel,Francine Lorena

    2007-01-01

    As moscas-das-frutas do gênero Anastrepha são uma praga-chave na cultura do pessegueiro no Paraná. Atrativos alimentares foram testados para determinar a sua eficiência no monitoramento de moscas-das-frutas capturadas em frascos caça-moscas McPhail. O experimento foi conduzido por três anos, sendo que, em 2002, foram testados como atrativo o suco de uva da marca Maguari®, o hidrolisado enzimático de proteína da marca BioAnastrepha® e o vinagre da marca Chemin Agrin®. Nos dois anos seguintes, ...

  1. New records of fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae), wild hosts and parasitoids (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) in the Brazilian Amazon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jesus, Cristiane R. de; Oliveira, Manoela N. de; Silva, Ricardo A. da [EMBRAPA Amapa, Macapa, AP (Brazil); Pereira, Julia D.B. [Universidade Federal do Amapa, Macapa, AP (Brazil); Souza Filho, Miguel F. [Instituto Biologico, Campinas, SP (Brazil); Costa Neto, Salustiano V. da [Instituto de Pesquisas Cientificas e Tecnologicas do Amapa, Macapa, AP (Brazil); Marinho, Claudia F.; Zucchi, Roberto A. [Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz (ESALQ/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Entomologia, Fitopatologia e Zoologia Agricola

    2008-11-15

    Anastrepha anomala Stone was obtained from Parahancornia amapa (Huber) Ducke (Apocynaceae) fruits, and Anastrepha hastata Stone from Cheiloclinium cognatum (Miers.) (Hippocrateaceae) in the State of Amapa, Brazil. Two braconids, Doryctobracon sp. and Opius bellus Gahan, were reared from the latter fruit fl y species. This is the fi rst record of P. amapa as a fruit fl y host. C. cognatum is the fi rst host known to A. hastata. Both braconids are also the fi rst records of parasitoids for this species. (author)

  2. Ionizing radiation as a phytosanitary treatment against fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae): Efficacy in naturally versus artificially infested fruit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Some phytosanitary irradiation treatments against tephritid fruit flies have been developed using artificial infestation of fruit without first comparing its effect on efficacy. In this study, efficacy was compared using infestation of grapefruit with Mexican fruit fly, Anastrepha ludens (Loew), vi...

  3. Evaluating mating compatibility within fruit fly cryptic species complexes and the potential role of sex pheromones in pre-mating isolation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Juárez, M. L.; Devescovi, F.; Břízová, Radka; Bachmann, G.; Segura, D. F.; Kalinová, Blanka; Fernández, P.; Ruiz, M. J.; Yang, J.; Teal, P. E. A.; Cáceres, C.; Vreysen, M. J. B.; Hendrichs, J.; Vera, M. T.

    -, č. 540 (2015), s. 125-155 ISSN 1313-2989 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 7AMB13AR018 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : species delimitation * field cages * Tephritidae * Anastrepha fraterculus * Bactrocera dorsalis Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.938, year: 2015 http://zookeys.pensoft.net/articles.php?id=6133

  4. Shrub communities as inhibitors of plant succession in southern Quebec

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meilleur, A.; Veronneau, H.; Bouchard, A. (Institut de Recherche en Biologie Vegetale, Quebec (Canada))

    The purpose of our research was to identify shrub species growing in southern Quebec that inhibit ecological succession in power-line corridors. Results are presented in three parts. First, clonal characteristics that allowed the establishment of stable communities were identified. Second, successional vector analysis identified those species that have the potential to inhibit succession. In poorly drained sites those species were Cornus stolonifera, C. obliqua, Salix petiolaris, and Spiraea alba. In well-drained sites, those species were Zanthoxylum americanum, Rubus idaeus, Spiraea alba, Rhus typhina, and Thuja occidentalis. Third, analysis of variance showed that there is a significantly larger number of tree seedlings found in adjacent herbaceous communities than found under the dense cover of Cornus stolonifera, C. obliqua, Salix petiolaris, Spiraea alba, Rhus typhina, Rubus idaeus, Thuya occidentalis, and Zanthoxylum americanum. These results indicate that the planting of selected shrub species could, through biological control, delay reforestation. 58 refs., 6 figs., 6 tabs.

  5. DEZ ANOS DE PESQUISAS SOBRE MOSCAS-DAS-FRUTAS (DIPTERA: TEPHRITIDAE NO ESTADO DO AMAPÁ: AVANÇOS OBTIDOS E DESAFIOS FUTUROS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezequiel da Glória de Deus

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available As moscas-das-frutas (Diptera: Tephritidae estão entre as principais pragas da agricultura mundial, sendo motivo de preocupação especialmente para países tropicais em desenvolvimento, os quais têm na fruticultura um importante componente de sua balança comercial. Esta revisão tem por objetivo compilar informações geradas nos últimos 10 anos sobre moscas-das-frutasno estado do Amapá, com ênfase em distribuição, hospedeiros e parasitoides. Além disso, visa indicar as prioridades de pesquisa para os próximos anos.No estado do Amapá, os estudos com moscas-das-frutas e seus inimigos naturais apresentaram, nos últimos anos, significativo crescimento. Atualmente, além Bactrocera carambolae, estão assinaladas para o Estado 34 espécies de Anastrepha. Anastrepha distincta, Anastrepha coronilli, Anastrepha fraterculus e Anastrepha striata são as espécies mais amplamente distribuídas. Estão assinaladas para o estado 37 espécies vegetais hospedeiras (pertencentes a 19 famílias botânicas de moscas-das-frutas. Anastrepha striata é espécie mais polífaga, estando associada a 25 hospedeiros. Nove espécies de parasitoides específicos de moscas-das-frutas estão registrados, sendo Doryctobracon areolatuso mais abundante. Apesar do significativo avanço, novos estudos sobre biologia, genética, ecologia, distribuição e dispersão populacional, bem como fatores reguladores dos níveis populacionais são necessários, com vista a desenvolver estratégias de controle menos onerosas com efeitos não nocivos ao ambiente. Palavras-chave: Anastrepha, Bactrocera carambolae, parasitoides, Amazônia. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18561/2179-5746/biotaamazonia.v3n3p157-168

  6. Eficácia de atrativos alimentares na captura de moscas-das-frutas em pomar de citros Attractiveness of food baits to the fruit flies in citrus orchard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adalton Raga

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available As moscas-das-frutas (Diptera: Tephritoidea são importantes pragas de frutas cítricas no Estado de São Paulo, principalmente Anastrepha fraterculus (Wied. e Ceratitis capitata (Wied.. O objetivo deste estudo foi medir a eficiência dos atrativos alimentares para monitoramento de moscas-das-frutas, em pomar de citros. O delineamento experimental adotado foi de blocos ao acaso com cinco tratamentos e cinco repetições. O ensaio foi instalado em 30/9/2003 e desenvolvidopor nove semanas. Os atrativos testados foram: proteínas hidrolisadas comerciais Bio Anastrepha, Isca Mosca e Aumax®, todas diluídas em água a 5%; melaço a 7% isoladamente e melaço a 7% em mistura com suco de laranja a 10%. Foram utilizados semanalmente, 400mL da solução atrativa por frasco plástico McPhail instalado na copa de laranjeiras da variedade 'Pêra Rio'. As soluções eram renovadas semanalmente, ocasião em que os adultos eram coletados e çevados ao laboratório para contagem, sexagem e identificação. Foram capturados 1.821 adultos de Tephritoidea, sendo 892 de Anastrepha spp., 731 de C. capitata e 198 de Neosilba spp. Para essas espécies, as proteínas Bio Anastrepha e Isca Mosca foram altamente eficientes e semelhantes entre si, capturando 44,5% e 41,3% dos adultos de Tephritidae respectivamente. Não houve diferença entre as espécies de Tephritidae analisadas por sexo capturadas em Bio Anastrepha, Aumax® e melaço. Aumax®, melaço isoladamente e melaço + suco de laranja atraíram apenas 4,6%, 1,3% e 1,2% do total de adultos de Tephritidae, respectivamente. Melaço isoladamente e melaço com suco de laranja foram mais eficazes na atratividade de Zaprionus indianus (Gupta (Diptera: Drosophilidae.Fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritoidea are key pests in citrus production in the State of São Paulo, Brazil, mainly Anastrepha fraterculus (Wied. and Ceratitis capitata (Wied.. The objective of this study was to evaluate food baits to monitor fruit fly

  7. Blow Flies Visiting Decaying Alligators: Is Succession Synchronous or Asynchronous?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark P. Nelder

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Succession patterns of adult blow flies (Diptera: Calliphoridae on decaying alligators were investigated in Mobile (Ala, USA during August 2002. The most abundant blow fly species visiting the carcasses were Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart, Cochliomyia macellaria (Fabricus, Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricus, Phormia regina (Meigen, and Lucilia coeruleiviridis (Macquart. Lucilia coeruleiviridis was collected more often during the early stages of decomposition, followed by Chrysomya spp., Cochliomyia macellaria, and Phormia regina in the later stages. Lucilia coeruleiviridis was the only synchronous blow fly on the three carcasses; other blow fly species exhibited only site-specific synchrony. Using dichotomous correlations and analyses of variance, we demonstrated that blow fly-community succession was asynchronous among three alligators; however, Monte Carlo simulations indicate that there was some degree of synchrony between the carcasses.

  8. Abundância e riqueza de espécies de Syrphidae (Diptera em áreas de borda e interior de floresta no Parque Estadual de Vila Velha, Ponta Grossa, Paraná, Brasil Abundance and species richness of Syrphidae (Diptera in the interior and edges of forest in the State Park of Vila Velha, Ponta Grossa, Paraná, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciane Marinoni

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de caracterizar a fauna local de insetos foram obtidas amostras semanais, de setembro/1999 a agosto/2000, utilizando-se armadilhas Malaise instaladas na borda da floresta e no seu interior. Uma análise temporal foi realizada com as espécies de Syrphidae coletadas há, aproximadamente, dezessete anos no mesmo local, dentro da floresta. A abundância e a riqueza de espécies também foram avaliadas. Tanto a riqueza quanto a abundância foram maiores na borda da floresta. Comparando-se os dados atuais com aqueles obtidos em 1986/1987, observa-se um decréscimo na abundância e também na riqueza de espécies de Syrphidae. A espécie mais abundante na borda foi Allograpta neotropica Curran, 1936 e no interior (1999/2000, Ocyptamus sativus (Curran, 1941. Os espécimens de Toxomerus Macquart, 1855 foram os mais abundantes na armadilha localizada na borda da floresta e os de Ocyptamus Macquart, 1834 no interior. Noventa e cinco espécies foram identificadas em 22 gêneros. Ocyptamus foi o gênero com maior riqueza de espécies (23. Na seqüência estão Copestylum Macquart, 1846 (15, Toxomerus (15 e Microdon Meigen, 1803 (10. Sete espécies foram comuns aos três levantamentos: Allograpta neotropica; Copestylum selectum (Curran, 1939; Leucopodella gracilis (Williston, 1891; Mixogaster polistes Hull, 1954; Ocyptamus funebris Macquart, 1834; Toxomerus procrastinatus Metz, 2001 e Toxomerus tibicen (Wiedemann, 1830. Três novas espécies de Microdon, uma de Toxomerus, uma de Aristosyrphus Curran, 1941 e uma de Myolepta Newman, 1838 foram identificadas.To characterize the local insect fauna, samples were obtained weekly from September/1999 to August/2000 through Malaise traps installed at the edge and inside the forest. A temporal analysis of Syrphidae species collected approximately 17 years ago at the same local, inside the forest, was made. Also, the abundance and species richness between the areas were analyzed. The syrphids were more

  9. First data on Dolichopodidae (Diptera) of the West Kotlin Nature Reserve (Saint Petersburg, Russia)

    OpenAIRE

    Grichanov, I. Ya.; Ovsyannikova, E. I.

    2017-01-01

    First data on Dolichopodidae from the West Kotlin Nature Reserve resulted from the short-term visit (June, 2017) are presented. All 25 collected species are firstly recorded for the Kotlin Island. Lamprochromus semiflavus (Strobl, 1880) and Syntormon filiger Verrall, 1912 are new species for the Leningrad Region and Saint Petersburg. The old records of Lamprochromus bifasciatus (Macquart, 1827) and Syntormon pumilus (Meigen, 1824) from the Region are doubted.

  10. First data on Dolichopodidae (Diptera of the West Kotlin Nature Reserve (Saint Petersburg, Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Ya. Grichanov

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available First data on Dolichopodidae from the West Kotlin Nature Reserve resulted from the short-term visit (June, 2017 are presented. All 25 collected species are firstly recorded for the Kotlin Island. Lamprochromus semiflavus (Strobl, 1880 and Syntormon filiger Verrall, 1912 are new species for the Leningrad Region and Saint Petersburg. The old records of Lamprochromus bifasciatus (Macquart, 1827 and Syntormon pumilus (Meigen, 1824 from the Region are doubted.

  11. Establishing Lower Developmental Thresholds for a Common BlowFly: For Use in Estimating Elapsed Time since Death Using Entomologyical Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-01

    as those observed by Wells and LaMotte (2010) for Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart). Depending on its distribution, C. rufifacies has been noted to...Butler, J. F. (1997). Effects of temperature on Chrysomya rufifacies (Diptera:Calliphoridae) development. Journal of Medical Entomology, 34(3...of the time of death. Forensic Science International, 120, 89-109. O’Flynn, M. A., & Moorehouse, D. E. (1979). Species of Chrysomya as primary

  12. Nomenclatural studies toward a world list of Diptera genus-group names. Part V

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Evenhuis, Neal L.; Pape, Thomas; Pont, Adrian C.

    The Diptera genus-group names of Pierre-Justin-Marie Macquart are reviewed and annotated. A total of 399 available genus-group names in 69 families of Diptera are listed alphabetically, for each name giving author, year and page of original publication, originally included species, type species......,611, of which 3,543 are available) is given with bibliographic reference (year and page) to each original citation....

  13. Parasitóides associados às moscas-das-frutas (Diptera: Tephritoidea em café orgânico com e sem arborização em Valença, RJ, Brasil Parasitoids associated with fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritoidea in organic coffee plantation under shaded and unshaded management in Valença, RJ, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elen de Lima Aguiar-Menezes

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se, com esse trabalho, determinar as espécies de parasitóides associados às moscas-das-frutas infestando seis cultivares de café arábica (Coffea arabica L., em sistema de cultivo com e sem arborização, sob manejo orgânico. Uma amostra de 1 kg de frutos maduros por cultivar foi colhida em maio de 2005. Os frutos foram depositados em bandejas plásticas, contendo uma camada de areia, a qual serviu como substrato para a fase de pupa. Os pupários foram quantificados e mantidos em copos plásticos transparentes com areia até a emergência dos insetos. Sete espécies de parasitóides da ordem Hymenoptera foram identificadas, das quais cinco da família Braconidae: Asobara anastrephae (Muesebeck, Doryctobracon areolatus (Szépligeti, Utetes anastrephae (Viereck, Opius bellus Gahan e Opius sp., e duas da Figitidae: Aganaspis pelleranoi (Brèthes e Lopheucoila anastrephae Weld. Larvas de Tephritidae e Lonchaeidae infestando frutos dos seis cultivares foram parasitadas por Braconidae e Figitidae, com média de 14,2% e 7,7% nos sistemas sem e com arborização, respectivamente.The aim of this work was to determine the parasitoid species associated with fruit flies infesting six cultivars of arabic coffee under shaded and unshaded organic management. A 1kg-sample of maturing fruits per cultivar was harvested in May 2005. The fruits were placed in plastic trays containing a layer of thin sand, as a substrate for pupa phase. The puparia were quantified and kept in transparent plastic cups with sand until the emergence of the insects. Seven parasitoid species of the order Hymenoptera were identified, from which five belong to the family Braconidae: Asobara anastrephae (Muesebeck, Doryctobracon areolatus (Szépligeti, Utetes anastrephae (Viereck, Opius bellus Gahan and Opius sp., and two of the Figitidae: Aganaspis pelleranoi (Brèthes and Lopheucoila anastrephae Weld. Larvae of Tephritidae and Lonchaeidae infesting fruits of the six

  14. Occurrence and managing of fruit flies in Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vazquez, Luis L.; Perez, Isabel; Navarro, Aurelio; Casin, Juan C.

    2000-01-01

    Fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) are considered to be pests of potential importance because they damage fruits or limit their commercialisation. They therefore constitute one of the principal problems for the fruit industry world-wide. Of particular interest are the species of the genus Anastrepha Schiner widely distributed in the neotropical region where, according to Norrbom and Chung (1988), more than 180 species are known. In Cuba, five members of this genus are reported in addition to Toxotrypana curvicauda Gerstaeker and up to now, no other species are known (Alayo and Garcia, 1983). Although Ceratitis capitata Wiedeman or pest fruit flies from the genus Anastrepha and Bactrocera do not exist in the country, a defence programme has been operating for many years which includes among other measures, fruit sampling and trapping. The present work was undertaken in order to study the status of these insects in Cuba

  15. Mating disruption with low density diffusers for the management of oriental fruit moths (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in apple orchards under subtropical climate in southern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Monteiro, Lino Bittencourt; Souza, Alexander; Argenton, Jeferson

    2013-01-01

    The oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta Busck, and fruit flies, Anastrepha fraterculus L., are the important apple pests under Subtropical climate in Southern Brazil, and control is normally accomplished with insecticides. An alternative strategy for the control of G. molesta is mating disruption, through the use of pheromones. Mating disruption strategies using a low density of dispensers (20) per hectare were tested in comparison with conventional pesticides for control of G. molesta in...

  16. Parasitismo natural em moscas-das-frutas (Diptera: Tephritidae no semiárido do sudoeste da Bahia, Brasil Natural parasitism in fruit-flies in the fruticulture area of anagé, semi-arid of southwestern Bahia, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Falcão de Sá

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Parasitoides são importantes agentes de controle natural de tefritídeos, e os conhecimentos sobre as relações tritróficas podem subsidiar o manejo destas pragas. Este trabalho objetivou estimar índices de parasitismo em moscas-das-frutas, em 21 espécies vegetais, e identificar as espécies de parasitoides associados, nas condições do semiárido do sudoeste da Bahia. Oito hospedeiros apresentaram infestação por Anastrepha spp. e, destes, em quatro, ocorreu parasitismo superior a 20,0%, sendo: 20,8% (Ziziphus joazeiro L.; 21,3% (Spondias tuberosa L.; 32,4% (Spondias purpurea L. e 57,1% (Malpighia emarginata L.. Os parasitoides coletados pertencem à família Braconidae, sendo 89% de Doryctobracon areolatus e 11% de Asobara anastrephae.Parasitoids are important natural control agents of tephritids and knowledge about the tritrophic relationships can support the management of these pests. This study aimed to estimate of parasitism indexes in fruit flies in 21 plant species and identify the species of parasitoids associated, in semiarid conditions of Southwestern Bahia. Eight hosts showed infestation by Anastrepha spp. and, of these, four occurred parasitism above 20.0%, of which: 20.8% (Ziziphus joazeiro L.; 21.3% (Spondias tuberosa L.; 32.4% (Spondias purpurea L. and 57.1% (Malpighia emarginata L.. The collected parasitoids belong to the Braconidae family, 89% of Doryctobracon areolatus and 11% of Asobara anastrephae.

  17. The dipteran family Celyphidae in the New World, with discussion of and key to world genera (Insecta, Diptera

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    Stephen D. Gaimari

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The family Celyphidae (Diptera, Lauxanioidea is verified as part of the New World fauna, with a second specimen discovered of a species described from French Guiana in 1844 by P.J.M. Macquart. As this species possesses characteristics that clearly suggest a separate lineage from the Old World celyphids, a new genus is proposed, Atopocelyphus gen. n., with the type species, Celyphus ruficollis Macquart, in the new combination Atopocelyphus ruficollis (Macquart, comb. n. A key to world genera of Celyphidae is presented, along with discussion of generic concepts. Chamaecelyphus Frey is synonymized under Spaniocelyphus Hendel, syn. n., resulting in the following 10 new combinations: Spaniocelyphus africanus (Walker, comb. n.; S. dichrous (Bezzi, comb. n.; S. gutta (Speiser, comb. n.; S. halticinus (Frey, comb. n.; S. kalongensis (Vanschuytbroek, comb. n.; S. ruwenzoriensis (Vanschuytbroek, comb. n.; S. straeleni (Vanschuytbroek, comb. n.; S. upembaensis (Vanschuytbroek, comb. n.; S. violaceus (Vanschuytbroek, comb. n.; S. vrydaghi (Vanschuytbroek, comb. n. The subgenera of Celyphus Dalman are elevated to genus rank, as Paracelyphus Bigot, stat. rev., and Hemiglobus Frey, stat. rev., resulting in the following 17 new and revised combinations: Hemiglobus cheni (Shi, comb. n.; H. eos (Frey, comb. n.; H. lacunosus Frey, comb. rev.; H. pellucidus Frey, comb. rev.; H. planitarsalis (Shi, comb. n.; H. porosus (Tenorio, comb. n.; H. pulchmaculatus (Liu & Yang, comb. n.; H. quadrimaculatus (Tenorio, comb. n.; H. resplendens Frey, comb. rev.; H. rugosus (Tenorio, comb. n.; H. testaceus (Malloch, comb. n.; H. trichoporis (Shi, comb. n.; H. unicolor Frey, comb. rev.; H. violaceus Chen, comb. rev.; Paracelyphus hyacinthus Bigot, comb. rev.; P. medogis (Shi, comb. n.; P. vittalis (Shi, comb. n.

  18. Larval morphology of Chrysomya nigripes (Diptera: Calliphoridae), a fly species of forensic importance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukontason, Kabkaew L; Vogtsberger, Roy C; Boonchu, Noppawan; Chaiwong, Tarinee; Sripakdee, Duanghatai; Ngern-Klun, Radchadawan; Piangjai, Somsak; Sukontason, Kom

    2005-05-01

    The morphology of all instars of Chrysomya nigripes Aubertin, a blow fly species of forensic importance, is presented with the aid of both light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Morphological features of the cephalopharyngeal skeleton, anterior spiracle, posterior spiracle, and dorsal spines between the prothorax and mesothorax are highlighted. No consistent features were found, even using SEM, for distinguishing the first instar of C. nigripes from that of Chrysomya megacephala (F.) or Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart), two other commonly associated blow fly species in corpses in Thailand. Several features observed in second and third instars proved to be valuable characteristics for separating these species.

  19. Chrysomya albiceps and C. rufifacies (Diptera: Calliphoridae): contribution to an ongoing taxonomic problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tantawi, T I; Greenberg, B

    1993-05-01

    Until recently, the two biologically equivalent blow flies Chrysomya albiceps (Wiedemann) and Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart) had disjunct distributions outside the Americas; the former was Palaearctic, the latter Australasian and Oriental. The two species are now spreading throughout the Americas and coexist in Argentina. The predatory "hairy" larvae of both species are difficult to separate, which could result in taxonomic errors. New diagnostic characters are presented to differentiate the third instars of the two species. The usefulness of the prostigmatic bristle as a diagnostic taxonomic character in distinguishing adults of these species is questioned.

  20. Larval morphology of Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius) (Diptera: Calliphoridae) using scanning electron microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukontason, Kabkaew L; Sukontason, Kom; Piangjai, Somsak; Boonchu, Noppawan; Chaiwong, Tarinee; Vogtsberger, Roy C; Kuntalue, Budsabong; Thijuk, Natchanart; Olson, Jimmy K

    2003-06-01

    The larval morphology of Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius) is presented using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Extreme similarity of this species to Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart), a species usually found concurrently inhabiting decomposing human corpses in Thailand, is seen only in the first-instar larvae. The relative thickness of the branches of the posterior spiracular hairs in these species could be used to differentiate them in this developmental stage. In contrast, the "hairy" appearance of C. rufifacies allows second- and third-instar larvae to be easily distinguished. Results of this study should help in future endeavors to differentiate C. megacephala from other larvae found in decomposing human corpses in Thailand.

  1. The Tabanidae of the Mitaraka expedition, with an updated check list of French Guiana (Diptera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krolow, Tiago Kütter; Henriques, Augusto Loureiro; Pollet, Marc

    2017-01-01

    This paper documents the horse fly fauna collected in lowland rainforest in the southwesternmost part of French Guiana (Mitaraka). During this "Our Planet Revisited" survey nine tabanid species were recorded from French Guiana for the first time: Chrysops ecuadorensis Lutz, C. incisus Macquart, Catachlorops amazonicus Henriques & Gorayeb, Chlorotabanus flagellatus Krolow & Henriques, Cryptoylus cauri Stone, Phaeotabanus phaeopterus Fairchild, Philipotabanus stigmaticalis (Kröber), Stypommisa captiroptera (Kröber) and Tabanus amapaensis Fairchild. An updated check list of Tabanidae of French Guiana is presented, including 79 species and one unidentified Chrysops .

  2. Revision of the Neotropical Xanthandrus Verral (Diptera, Syrphidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuleica M. Borges

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The Neotropical genus Xanthandrus Verral, 1901 is revised. Six species are redescribed: X. bucephalus (Wiedemann, 1830, X. cubanus Fluke, 1936, X. mellinoides (Macquart, 1846, X. mexicanus Curran, 1930, X. nitidulus Fluke, 1937, and X. plaumanni Fluke, 1937. Three species are included based on original descriptions: X. flavomaculatus Shannon, 1927, X. palliatus (Fluke, 1945, and X. simplex (Loew, 1861. New synonyms proposed: Argentinomyia longicornis (Walker, 1837 = Xanthandrus biguttatus Hull, 1945 syn. nov., and Xanthandrus bucephalus (Wiedemann, 1830 = Melanostoma quadrinotata Bigot, 1884 syn. nov. Description of terminalia, a key for Neotropical species, and illustrations are also presented.

  3. Interaction between Tephritidae (Insecta, Diptera and plants of the family Asteraceae: new host and distribution records for the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcoandre Savaris

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Twenty species of Tephritidae (Diptera are recorded in association with capitula of plants in the family Asteraceae. The Tephritidae genus Tetreuaresta is registered for Rio Grande do Sul for the first time. Five species of Tephritidae are newly recorded for Rio Grande do Sul, and new hosts are recorded for the following fly species: Dioxyna chilensis (Macquart, Plaumannimyia dolores (Hering, Plaumannimyia imitatrix (Hering, Plaumannimyia miseta (Hering, Plaumannimyia pallens Hering, Tomoplagia incompleta (Williston, Tomoplagia matzenbacheri Prado, Norrbom & Lewinsohn, Tomoplagia reimoseri Hendel, Xanthaciura biocellata (Thomson and Xanthaciura chrysura (Thomson.

  4. Checklist of the Heleomyzidae, Neriidae and Oestridae (Insecta, Diptera in the State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Calhau

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT We provide a checklist of flies of the families Heleomyzidae, Neriidae, and Oestridae in the State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. Heleomyzidae are represented in Brazil by 13 species, and only Neorhinotora aristalis (Fischer is recorded to the state of Mato Grosso do Sul. The two reported species of Neriidae, Longina abdominalis Wiedemann and Nerius pilifer Fabricius, are among the 15 species now known in Brazil. The Oestridae family is represented by two species distributed in two genera: Dermatobia hominis (Linnaeus Jr. and Cuterebra rufiventris Macquart.

  5. Evaluation of ionizing radiation as quarantine treatment in Tephritidae (Diptera)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anjos Duarte, A.L. dos.

    1991-01-01

    Gamma irradiation was used to treat: eggs at different ages of C. capitata, third instar larvae of C. capitata, A. fraterculus and A. obliqua, papayas infested with a known number of C. capitata eggs; papayas and mangoes with C. capitata and A. fraterculus eggs and first instar and mangoes infested with third instar larvae of C. capitata and A. fraterculus. Third instar irradiated larvae of C. capitata were more sensitive than larvae of A. fraterculus and A. obliqua in terms of pupation rate. The pupation and emergence rate were different when C. capitata eggs of 24 and 48 h were irradiated in vitro and in papaya. C. capitata infesting either papaya or mango presented higher frequency of fruits heavily infested (more than 100 pupae per fruit), when compared with A. fraterculus. No emergence was found in C. capitata and A. fraterculus when infested fruits were irradiated at 40, 80 and 160 Gy. The dose of 150 Gy is recommended not only to provide no adult emergence but also to decrease the number of pupae when the commodity is infested by eggs and young larvae. (author)

  6. Virtual Screening of Plant Volatile Compounds Reveals a High Affinity of Hylamorpha elegans (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) Odorant-Binding Proteins for Sesquiterpenes From Its Native Host

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palma-Millanao, Rubén; Yáñez, Osvaldo; Rojas, Maximiliano; Mutis, Ana; Venthur, Herbert; Quiroz, Andrés; Ramírez, Claudio C.

    2016-01-01

    Hylamorpha elegans (Burmeister) is a native Chilean scarab beetle considered to be a relevant agricultural pest to pasture and cereal and small fruit crops. Because of their cryptic habits, control with conventional methods is difficult; therefore, alternative and environmentally friendly control strategies are highly desirable. The study of proteins that participate in the recognition of odorants, such as odorant-binding proteins (OBPs), offers interesting opportunities to identify new compounds with the potential to modify pest behavior and computational screening of compounds, which is commonly used in drug discovery, may help to accelerate the discovery of new semiochemicals. Here, we report the discovery of four OBPs in H. elegans as well as six new volatiles released by its native host Nothofagus obliqua (Mirbel). Molecular docking performed between OBPs and new and previously reported volatiles from N. obliqua revealed the best binding energy values for sesquiterpenic compounds. Despite remarkable divergence at the amino acid level, three of the four OBPs evaluated exhibited the best interaction energy for the same ligands. Molecular dynamics investigation reinforced the importance of sesquiterpenes, showing that hydrophobic residues of the OBPs interacted most frequently with the tested ligands, and binding free energy calculations demonstrated van der Waals and hydrophobic interactions to be the most important. Altogether, the results suggest that sesquiterpenes are interesting candidates for in vitro and in vivo assays to assess their potential application in pest management strategies. PMID:27012867

  7. Males of Hylamorpha elegans burmeister (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) are attracted to odors released from conspecific females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiroz, Andrés; Palma, Ruben; Etcheverría, Paulina; Navarro, Vicente; Rebolledo, Ramón

    2007-04-01

    The behavioral responses of Hylamorpha elegans L. (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae, Rutelinae) to the semiochemicals released from conspecific individual adults were studied, with particular attention paid to female attraction of males. Odors released from virgin females significantly attracted male conspecifics in both the field and laboratory olfactometer and wind tunnel bioassays. However, females did not attract other females, and males attracted no one. The response of male H. elegans to (1) compounds (1,4-hydroquinone and 1,4-benzoquinone) released only by unmated females; (2) the essential oil of the secondary host (Nothofagus obliqua); and (3) the blend of 1,4-hydroquinone and 1,4-benzoquinone with N. obliqua essential oil was studied. The blend of 1,4-benzoquinone mixed with essential oil at the trial concentration was attractive with males. The same response was found with 1,4-hydroquinone alone. The essential oil did not have the expected attractant effect on conspecific males. These results suggest that, when combined with essential oil, 1,4-benzoquinone may function in the sexual behavior of males and females. These findings are discussed in terms of the ecological role of this putative sexual pheromone and its potential use in a strategy of control of this pest.

  8. Elevation and vegetation influences on soil properties in Chilean Nothofagus forests Influencia de la elevación y la vegetación sobre las propiedades del suelo de los bosques chilenos de Nothofagus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KELLY L.M DECKER

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available We measured net nitrogen mineralization, net nitrification, proportional nitrification, and total inorganic nitrogen, available phosphorus, and soil organic carbon in five Andean forested stands in an attempt to resolve the relative influence of elevation and forest canopy composition on soil organic matter and nutrient dynamics in this ecosystem type. Our five forested study sites were within a contiguous Nothofagus forest that ranged from 1,280 to 1,700 m elevation in the central Chilean Andes. The five sites consisted of three single species stands, one each of the low elevation deciduous N. obliqua, the evergreen N. dombeyi, or the high elevation deciduous N. pumilio, as well as two mixed evergreen-deciduous stands. There was no statistically significant relationship of nitrogen mineralization or phosphorus with elevation. In contrast, there were statistically significant, though weak, negative relationships between elevation and net nitrification, proportional nitrification, soil pH and organic carbon. In general, soils from the N. obliqua stand had higher levels/rates of nitrification, soil organic carbon content, soil pH, and plant available phosphorus than soils form the other single species stands. In contrast, the N. dombeyi and N. pumilio stands had lower rates of nitrification and soil pH than did the N. obliqua stand. The evergreen-deciduous mixed stands tended to be intermediate in soil properties. These results demonstrate that vegetation, particularly the balance of evergreen and deciduous species, exerts stronger control over soil chemical and biochemical properties than the climate variations induced by 350 m in elevation, even where the evergreen and deciduous species are closely-related angiosperms.Medimos la mineralización neta de nitrógeno, la nitrificación, el total de nitrógeno disponible, el fósforo disponible y el carbono orgánico del suelo en cinco rodales forestales andinos con el propósito de separar la

  9. SPECIES COMPOSITION OF CARRION BLOW FLIES IN NORTHERN THAILAND: ALTITUDE APPRAISAL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moophayak, Kittikhun; Klong-Klaew, Tunwadee; Sukontason, Kom; Kurahashi, Hiromu; Tomberlin, Jeffery K.; Sukontason, Kabkaew L.

    2014-01-01

    Distribution and occurrence of blow flies of forensic importance was performed during 2007 and 2008 in Chiang Mai and Lampang Provinces, northern Thailand. Surveys were conducted in forested areas for 30 minutes using a sweep net to collected flies attracted to a bait. A total of 2,115 blow flies belonging to six genera and 14 species were collected; Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius) (44.7%), C. pinguis (Walker) (15.1%), C. chani Kurahashi (9.3%), C. thanomthini Kurahashi & Tumrasvin (0.3%); Achoetandrus rufifacies (Macquart) (10.5%), A. villeneuvi (Patton) (2.2%); Lucilia papuensis Macquart (2.2%), L. porphyrina (Walker) (12.4%), L. sinensis Aubertin (0.7%); Hemipyrellia ligurriens (Wiedemann) (1.3%), H. pulchra (Wiedemann) (0.1%); Hypopygiopsis infumata (Bigot) (0.6%), Hy. tumrasvini Kurahashi (0.2%) and Ceylonomyia nigripes Aubertin (0.4%). Among them, C. megacephala was the predominant species collected, particularly in the summer. The species likely to prevail in highland areas are C. pinguis, C. thanomthini, Hy. tumrasvini, L. papuensis and L. porphyrina. PMID:24626423

  10. Blowfly succession from possum (Trichosurus vulpecula) carrion in a sheep-farming zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, M D; Allen, G R; Horton, B J

    2006-12-01

    The significance of brushtail possum, Trichosurus vulpecula Kerr (Diprotodontia: Phalangeridae) carcasses to the succession and production of Diptera species and its relevance to fly strike management in Tasmania, Australia was examined. Calliphora stygia (Fabricius), Lucilia sericata (Meigen) and Calliphora vicina Robineau-Desvoidy (Diptera: Calliphoridae) were found to be the most abundant and Lucilia cuprina (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Calliphoridae) always the least abundant (Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart) (Diptera: Calliphoridae), Chrysomya varipes (Macquart) (Diptera: Calliphoridae) and putative tertiary flies (Hydrotaea rostrata Robineau-Desvoidy (Diptera: Muscidae)) to the number of C. vicina or C. stygia to emerge. There was enormous variability in the numbers of secondary/tertiary fly species to emerge from carcasses (0-11 450) that negatively correlated with the proportion of all flies to emerge that were primary, and with the mean size of adult L. sericata. Although carcass temperatures, especially those with a large larval population, were elevated, this did not appear to result in significant pre-adult fly mortality. The most important primary fly strike species L. cuprina was only found in insignificant numbers, whereas three other members of the fly strike fauna C. stygia, L. sericata and Ch. rufifacies did use possum carrion as an important breeding resource, but left implications for fly strike management inconclusive.

  11. Dataset of traumatic myiasis observed for three dominant screw worm species in North West Pakistan with first report of Wohlfahrtia magnifica (Schiner).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaidi, Farrah; Fatima, Syeda Hira; Gul, Ayesha

    2016-09-01

    Regional surveys were carried out in different parts of North West Pakistan among domestic animals (N=57,921) including pets and livestock identifying cases of traumatic myiasis (n=1037). A total of four surveys focused general livestock population during Eid ul Adha (Eid surveys; incidence=1.21%) while another four surveys (Miscellaneous surveys; incidence=7.34%) targeted animal population brought to veterinary hospitals and dispensaries. Timeframe spanned four years from 2012 to 2015. Maggots were sampled and location of the wound was recorded for each host. Taxonomic identification used light and electron microscopic techniques. Our dataset shows three species as principle agents of myiasis (n=882) including Chrysomya bezziana Villeneuve (n=394), Wohlfahrtia magnifica (n=244) and Lucilia cuprina Wiedemann (n=244). Others (n=155) including Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius), Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart), Lucilia sericata (Meigen), Lucilia illustris (Meigen), Lucilia porphyrina (Walker), Hemipyrellia ligguriens (Wiedemann), Calliphora vicina (Robineau-Desvoidy), Sarcophaga crassipalpalis (Macquart) and Sarcophaga species were identified as species of minor importance. The obligatory screwworm species W. magnifica is a first report from Pakistan. The results based on this dataset are presented in a recent publication "Distribution Modeling of three screwworm species in the ecologically diverse landscape of North West Pakistan" (Zaidi et al., 2016) [1].

  12. Dataset of traumatic myiasis observed for three dominant screw worm species in North West Pakistan with first report of Wohlfahrtia magnifica (Schiner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farrah Zaidi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Regional surveys were carried out in different parts of North West Pakistan among domestic animals (N=57,921 including pets and livestock identifying cases of traumatic myiasis (n=1037. A total of four surveys focused general livestock population during Eid ul Adha (Eid surveys; incidence=1.21% while another four surveys (Miscellaneous surveys; incidence=7.34% targeted animal population brought to veterinary hospitals and dispensaries. Timeframe spanned four years from 2012 to 2015. Maggots were sampled and location of the wound was recorded for each host. Taxonomic identification used light and electron microscopic techniques. Our dataset shows three species as principle agents of myiasis (n=882 including Chrysomya bezziana Villeneuve (n=394, Wohlfahrtia magnifica (n=244 and Lucilia cuprina Wiedemann (n=244. Others (n=155 including Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius, Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart, Lucilia sericata (Meigen, Lucilia illustris (Meigen, Lucilia porphyrina (Walker, Hemipyrellia ligguriens (Wiedemann, Calliphora vicina (Robineau-Desvoidy, Sarcophaga crassipalpalis (Macquart and Sarcophaga species were identified as species of minor importance. The obligatory screwworm species W. magnifica is a first report from Pakistan. The results based on this dataset are presented in a recent publication “Distribution Modeling of three screwworm species in the ecologically diverse landscape of North West Pakistan” (Zaidi et al., 2016 [1].

  13. Species composition of carrion blow flies in northern Thailand: altitude appraisal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moophayak, Kittikhun; Klong-Klaew, Tunwadee; Sukontason, Kom; Kurahashi, Hiromu; Tomberlin, Jeffery K; Sukontason, Kabkaew L

    2014-01-01

    Distribution and occurrence of blow flies of forensic importance was performed during 2007 and 2008 in Chiang Mai and Lampang Provinces, northern Thailand. Surveys were conducted in forested areas for 30 minutes using a sweep net to collected flies attracted to a bait. A total of 2,115 blow flies belonging to six genera and 14 species were collected; Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius) (44.7%), C. pinguis (Walker) (15.1%), C. chani Kurahashi (9.3%), C. thanomthini Kurahashi & Tumrasvin (0.3%); Achoetandrus rufifacies (Macquart) (10.5%), A. villeneuvi (Patton) (2.2%); Lucilia papuensis Macquart (2.2%), L. porphyrina (Walker) (12.4%), L. sinensis Aubertin (0.7%); Hemipyrellia ligurriens (Wiedemann) (1.3%), H. pulchra (Wiedemann) (0.1%); Hypopygiopsis infumata (Bigot) (0.6%), Hy. tumrasvini Kurahashi (0.2%) and Ceylonomyia nigripes Aubertin (0.4%). Among them, C. megacephala was the predominant species collected, particularly in the summer. The species likely to prevail in highland areas are C. pinguis, C. thanomthini, Hy. tumrasvini, L. papuensis and L. porphyrina.

  14. SPECIES COMPOSITION OF CARRION BLOW FLIES IN NORTHERN THAILAND: ALTITUDE APPRAISAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kittikhun Moophayak

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Distribution and occurrence of blow flies of forensic importance was performed during 2007 and 2008 in Chiang Mai and Lampang Provinces, northern Thailand. Surveys were conducted in forested areas for 30 minutes using a sweep net to collected flies attracted to a bait. A total of 2,115 blow flies belonging to six genera and 14 species were collected; Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius (44.7%, C. pinguis (Walker (15.1%, C. chani Kurahashi (9.3%, C. thanomthini Kurahashi & Tumrasvin (0.3%; Achoetandrus rufifacies (Macquart (10.5%, A. villeneuvi (Patton (2.2%; Lucilia papuensis Macquart (2.2%, L. porphyrina (Walker (12.4%, L. sinensis Aubertin (0.7%; Hemipyrellia ligurriens(Wiedemann (1.3%, H. pulchra(Wiedemann (0.1%; Hypopygiopsis infumata (Bigot (0.6%, Hy. tumrasvini Kurahashi (0.2% and Ceylonomyia nigripes Aubertin (0.4%. Among them, C. megacephala was the predominant species collected, particularly in the summer. The species likely to prevail in highland areas are C. pinguis, C. thanomthini, Hy. tumrasvini, L. papuensis and L. porphyrina.

  15. Ultrastructure of male genitalia of blow flies (Diptera: Calliphoridae) of forensic importance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sontigun, Narin; Sanit, Sangob; Wannasan, Anchalee; Sukontason, Kom; Amendt, Jens; Yasanga, Tippawan; Sukontason, Kabkaew L

    2018-03-01

    Male genitalia of blow flies (Diptera: Calliphoridae) are distinctive in their morphological features and are often used for species identification. The aim of this work was to investigate the male genitalia of blow flies of medical and forensic importance from Thailand at the ultrastructural level, using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Flies in two subfamilies were examined: Chrysomyinae [Chrysomya bezziana Villeneuve, Chrysomya chani Kurahashi, Chrysomya nigripes Aubertin, Chrysomya pinguis (Walker), Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart), Chrysomya thanomthini Kurahashi & Tumrasvin, and Chrysomya villeneuvi Patton] and Luciliinae [Hemipyrellia ligurriens (Wiedemann), Hypopygiopsis infumata (Bigot), Hypopygiopsis tumrasvini Kurahashi, Lucilia cuprina (Wiedemann), Lucilia papuensis Macquart, Lucilia porphyrina (Walker), and Lucilia sinensis Aubertin]. Particular attention was paid to the main distinguishing features such as the shapes of the cercus and the surstylus, and the complex structure of the distiphallus. The differentiation of the male genitalia of these species at the SEM level is discussed and compared to the conditions in closely related species such as Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius). A key for the identification of 14 blow fly species based on male genitalia is provided. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Advances and perspectives in the mass rearing of fruit fly parasitoids in Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cancino, Jorge; Montoya, Pablo [Secretaria de Agricultura, Ganaderia, Desarrollo Rural, Pesca y Alimentacion (DGSV/SENASICA/SAGARPA), Chiapas (Mexico). Servicio Nacional de Sanidad, Inocuidad y Calidad Agroalimentaria. Programa Moscamed-Moscafrut

    2006-07-01

    Biological control by augmentation is applied in Mexico as part of an integrated pest management program against native fruit flies of the genus Anastrepha Schiner. The exotic parasitoid Diachasmimorpha longicaudata has been the most important species used within this context. A program for the mass rearing of 50 million parasitized pupa per week has been established in southeast Mexico, and these are released into the field according to a yearly national plan based on industry requirements. In order to reduce costs and optimize procedures, important advances have been made in the technology for mass production, including an increase in the weight of host larvae (24 mg), changes in the management of host exposition, improvements in the management of environmental conditions, suitability in time and motions are the main areas addressed. Furthermore, a quality control program is routinely applied, and the key parameters under constant evaluation are: 1) weight and volume of host larvae, 2) host mortality after exposure, 3) weight and volume of pupae, and 4) percent parasitoid viability and percent emergence. Good performance in these parameters produces adults with adequate longevity and fecundity, high flight ability and good searching behavior. The introduced egg parasitoid Fopius arisanus and the native pupal parasitoid Coptera hawardi are being evaluated for use in the future as a complement to releases into the field of D. longicaudata. Manipulating host size and exposition time, the use of starting diet and suppressing host development by irradiation, have permitted the effective use of Anastrepha eggs as hosts for the rearing of F. arisanus. Further achievements in the mass rearing of C. haywardi (e.g., the suppression of unparasitized hosts after irradiation), could give us the opportunity to employ new options to reinforce the augmentative biological control of Anastrepha fruit flies in Mexico. (author)

  17. Advances and perspectives in the mass rearing of fruit fly parasitoids in Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cancino, Jorge; Montoya, Pablo

    2006-01-01

    Biological control by augmentation is applied in Mexico as part of an integrated pest management program against native fruit flies of the genus Anastrepha Schiner. The exotic parasitoid Diachasmimorpha longicaudata has been the most important species used within this context. A program for the mass rearing of 50 million parasitized pupa per week has been established in southeast Mexico, and these are released into the field according to a yearly national plan based on industry requirements. In order to reduce costs and optimize procedures, important advances have been made in the technology for mass production, including an increase in the weight of host larvae (24 mg), changes in the management of host exposition, improvements in the management of environmental conditions, suitability in time and motions are the main areas addressed. Furthermore, a quality control program is routinely applied, and the key parameters under constant evaluation are: 1) weight and volume of host larvae, 2) host mortality after exposure, 3) weight and volume of pupae, and 4) percent parasitoid viability and percent emergence. Good performance in these parameters produces adults with adequate longevity and fecundity, high flight ability and good searching behavior. The introduced egg parasitoid Fopius arisanus and the native pupal parasitoid Coptera hawardi are being evaluated for use in the future as a complement to releases into the field of D. longicaudata. Manipulating host size and exposition time, the use of starting diet and suppressing host development by irradiation, have permitted the effective use of Anastrepha eggs as hosts for the rearing of F. arisanus. Further achievements in the mass rearing of C. haywardi (e.g., the suppression of unparasitized hosts after irradiation), could give us the opportunity to employ new options to reinforce the augmentative biological control of Anastrepha fruit flies in Mexico. (author)

  18. Evaluating mating compatibility within fruit fly cryptic species complexes and the potential role of sex pheromones in pre-mating isolation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juárez, M. Laura; Devescovi, Francisco; Břízová, Radka; Bachmann, Guillermo; Segura, Diego F.; Kalinová, Blanka; Fernández, Patricia; Ruiz, M. Josefina; Yang, Jianquan; Teal, Peter E.A.; Cáceres, Carlos; Vreysen, Marc J.B.; Hendrichs, Jorge; Vera, M. Teresa

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The study of sexual behavior and the identification of the signals involved in mate recognition between con-specifics are key components that can shed some light, as part of an integrative taxonomic approach, in delimitating species within species complexes. In the Tephritidae family several species complexes have received particular attention as they include important agricultural pests such as the Ceratitis fasciventris (Bezzi), Ceratitis anonae (Graham) and Ceratitis rosa Karsch (FAR) complex, the Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) complex and the Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann) complex. Here the value and usefulness of a methodology that uses walk-in field cages with host trees to assess, under semi-natural conditions, mating compatibility within these complexes is reviewed, and the same methodology to study the role of chemical communication in pre-mating isolation among Anastrepha fraterculus populations is used. Results showed that under the same experimental conditions it was possible to distinguish an entire range of different outcomes: from full mating compatibility among some populations to complete assortative mating among others. The effectiveness of the methodology in contributing to defining species limits was shown in two species complexes: Anastrepha fraterculus and Bactrocera dorsalis, and in the case of the latter the synonymization of several established species was published. We conclude that walk-in field cages constitute a powerful tool to measure mating compatibility, which is also useful to determine the role of chemical signals in species recognition. Overall, this experimental approach provides a good source of information about reproductive boundaries to delimit species. However, it needs to be applied as part of an integrative taxonomic approach that simultaneously assesses cytogenetic, molecular, physiological and morphological traits in order to reach more robust species delimitations. PMID:26798257

  19. Biologia da mosca‑das‑frutas sul‑americana em frutos de mirtilo, amoreira‑preta, araçazeiro e pitangueira Biology of South American fruit fly in blueberry, blackberry, strawberry guava, and Surinam cherry crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maicon Bisognin

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi descrever a biologia de Anastrepha fraterculus em frutos de mirtilo (Vaccinium ashei, amoreira‑preta (Rubus spp., araçazeiro (Psidium cattleyanum e pitangueira (Eugenia uniflora. O experimento foi realizado em laboratório, em condições controladas de temperatura (25±2ºC, umidade relativa (70±10% e fotófase (12 horas, para determinação dos parâmetros biológicos do inseto nos estágios de desenvolvimento imaturos e adultos. Anastrepha fraterculus completa o ciclo biológico em todos hospedeiros estudados, embora os frutos nativos (pitanga e araçá ofereçam melhores condições para seu desenvolvimento. Os parâmetros biológicos determinados para as fases imaturas foram semelhantes nos quatro hospedeiros. Insetos criados em pitanga e araçá apresentam, na fase adulta, maior período de oviposição, fecundidade e longevidade de fêmeas, em comparação aos criados em mirtilo e amora‑preta. O ritmo diário de oviposição é mais prolongado e uniforme nos insetos criados em araçá e pitanga, o que mostra que A. fraterculus está mais bem adaptada a estas frutas, nativas da região Sul.The objective of this work was to describe the biology of Anastrepha fraterculus in blueberry (Vaccinium ashei, blackberry (Rubus spp., strawberry guava (Psidium cattleyanum and Surinam cherry (Eugenia uniflora fruits. The experiment was carried out in laboratory under controlled conditions of temperature (25±2ºC, relative humidity (70±10%, and photophase (12 hours to determine insect biological parameters in immature and adult development stages. Anastrepha fraterculus finishes its biological cycle in all studied hosts; however, the Brazilian native fruits (strawberry guava and Surinam cherry provide better conditions for development of the insect. Biological parameters determined for immature development stadium were similar in the four hosts. Insects reared in Surinam cherry and strawberry guava showed, in the

  20. Isolation, identification and determination of the biological activity of candidate fruit volatile components from Argania spinosa L. (Sapotacea)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bakri, A., E-mail: bakri@ucam.ac.m [University Cadi Ayyad, Marrakech (Morocco). Fac. of Science Semlalia. Insect Biological Control Unit; Dueben, B.D.; Proveaux, A.T.; Heath, R.R., E-mail: rheath@saa.ars.usda.go [U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA/REE-ARS), Miami, FL (United States). Agricultural Research Service

    2006-07-01

    This study provides detailed information on the diversity, abundance, guilds, host plant and host fly ranges, distribution, and taxonomic status of hymenopterous parasitoid species associated with Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) and Anastrepha spp. (A. fraterculus (Wiedemann) and A. schultzi Blanchard) in Argentina. Moreover, the article also argues future needs regarding the use of some parasitoid species as an alternative tool in fruit fly management programs of the National Fruit Fly Control and Eradication Program (PROCEM-Argentina). Data used for this work were obtained from numerous old and recent published articles on fruit fly parasitoids in Argentina. (author)

  1. Isolation, identification and determination of the biological activity of candidate fruit volatile components from Argania spinosa L. (Sapotacea)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakri, A.; Dueben, B.D.; Proveaux, A.T.; Heath, R.R.

    2006-01-01

    This study provides detailed information on the diversity, abundance, guilds, host plant and host fly ranges, distribution, and taxonomic status of hymenopterous parasitoid species associated with Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) and Anastrepha spp. (A. fraterculus (Wiedemann) and A. schultzi Blanchard) in Argentina. Moreover, the article also argues future needs regarding the use of some parasitoid species as an alternative tool in fruit fly management programs of the National Fruit Fly Control and Eradication Program (PROCEM-Argentina). Data used for this work were obtained from numerous old and recent published articles on fruit fly parasitoids in Argentina. (author)

  2. Eugenia stipitata McVaugh (Myrtaceae: food resource for frugivorous flies in the state of Amapá, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maiara Sabrine Martins Souza-Adaime

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This work was carried out to evaluate the infestation of fruits of Eugenia stipitata McVaugh (Myrtaceae by fruit flies in the state of Amapá, Brazil. There was 95% infestation of the green and ripe fruits. However, infestation (puparia/fruit was higher in ripe fruits than green fruits. Four species of Tephritidae and four species of Lonchaeidae were obtained. Bactrocera carambolae (Tephritidae predominated in ripe fruits. There was no difference in infestation by Anastrepha spp. (Tephritidae and Neosilba spp. (Lonchaeidae between green and ripe fruits.

  3. Desarrollo de herramientas moleculares para la evaluación de la calidad genética y productividad en la cría artificial de Diachasmimorpha longicaudata, agente de control biológico de moscas plaga de los frutos

    OpenAIRE

    Mannino, María Constanza

    2016-01-01

    Diachasmimorpha longicaudata Ashmead (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) es un endoparasitoide solitario de estadios larvales de moscas de la fruta perteneciente a la familia Tephritidae. Es criado a nivel masivo en bioplantas y utilizado en diversas partes del mundo para las estrategias de control biológico (CB) principalmente de dípteros de importancia económica de los géneros Ceratitis, Anastrepha y Bactrocera. Actualmente, se estudia su implementación en nuestro país para el control de Ceratitis ca...

  4. Gamma irradiation as a quarantine treatment for carambolas infested with Caribbean fruit flies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gould, W.P.; Windeguth, D.L. von

    1991-01-01

    Carambolas infested with the Caribbean fruit fly Anastrepha suspensa (Loew), eggs and larvae were exposed to ionizing gamma radiation. Probit 9 was estimated to be 22.95 Gy (95% fiducial limits 16.68 Gy - 49.73 Gy). Over 100,000 immature A. suspensa infesting carambolas were treated at 50 Gy with no adult survivors. This dose did not cause any observable damage to the fruit. The 50 Gy dose satisfies quarantine requirements for treatment of fruits exposed from fruit fly infested areas. (author) [es

  5. Regeneración de un bosque mixto de Nothofagus (Nothofagaceae después de una corta selectiva Regeneration of a Nothofagus (Nothofagaceae mixed forest after selective cutting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALEJANDRO DEZZOTTI

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available El estudio de la ecología de la regeneración natural del bosque constituye una parte esencial de la silvicultura. El cerro Tren Tren (40°12' S, 71°26' O, 1.367 m, Reserva Mapuche Curruhuinca, Argentina está ocupado por un bosque cerrado compuesto por Nothofagus dombeyi, N. nervosa y N. obliqua. En 1994 se estimó la densidad de renovales (diámetro en la base del tallo Understanding forest regeneration is essential to develop sound, ecologically-based silvicultural practices. Mount Tren Tren (40°12' S, 71°26' W, 1,367 m, Reservation Mapuche Curruhuinca, Argentina is occupied by a closed stand of Nothofagus dombeyi, N. obliqua, and N. nervosa. In 1994, tree regeneration (root collar diameter < 10 cm was estimated to be 90 ind ha-1. After that, a group selection silvicultural system was implemented and the resulting 10 artificial gaps of between 1,587 and 4,322 m² were enclosed to prevent grazing by domestic livestock. Size and age structure of regeneration were analysed based on systematic and random samplings. All tree species became established simultaneously within the artificial gaps. However, the less light demanding N. nervosa exhibited a mean age slightly larger given its differential persistence as "advanced regeneration" previous to cutting treatment. Tree regeneration was estimated in 97,006 ind ha-1 (68 % of N. dombeyi, 20 % of N. obliqua, and 12 % of N. nervosa. Regeneration abundance and composition were unrelated to shape and size of regeneration gaps, nor to abundance of adult trees within the stand and along the gap boundaries. A significant positive effect of the enclosure on plant was observed. The 86 % of juvenile Nothofagus were present when understory height and cover were low to intermediate. The management plan is considered adequate if the abundance of regeneration is compared before and after its implementation, and encourages the use and conservation of this forest type under the current silvicultural system

  6. Survey of ear flies (Diptera, Ulidiidae in maize (Zea mays L. and a new record of Euxesta mazorca Steyskal in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Cruz

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Survey of ear flies (Diptera, Ulidiidae in maize (Zea mays L. and a new record of Euxesta mazorca Steyskalin Brazil. Species of Euxesta (Diptera, Ulidiidae, known as silk flies or ear flies, are becoming increasingly important as maize insect pests in South America, although very little is known about them in Brazil. The larvae of some species of this genus initially damage female reproductive tissues, and then the developing kernels on the ear. As a result of feeding, fermentation and associated odors cause complete loss of the grain because it is no longer fit for human or livestock consumption. The main objective of this work was to evaluate the incidence of Euxesta spp. in Brazilian maize fields and to determine the most prevalent species using two different hydrolyzed protein foods attractants, BioAnastrepha® (hydrolyzed maize protein and Torula, placed inside McPhail traps. The two species identified were E. eluta Loew and E. mazorca Steyskal, the latter being a new record from Brazil. Between the two species, E. eluta was the more abundant in maize fields. Both attractants were efficient in capturing the two species. However, BioAnastrepha® captured significantly more insects than Torula.

  7. Hongos de importancia agrícola presentes en moscas de la fruta del valle de Ica, Perú

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    Carlos E. Tipismana

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del presente trabajo fue aislar e identificar hongos de especímenes de moscas de la fruta de los géneros Ceratitis (Macleay y Anastrepha (Schiner, del valle de Ica, Perú. Se aislaron hongos pertenecientes a los géneros Alternaria, Aspergillus, Cladosporium, Mucor, Penicillium, Rhizoctonia, Rhizopus y Trichoderma;así como levaduras y micelios estériles. Los recuentos de hongos presentaron rangos entre 8x103 a 8x104 UFC/g para el género Ceratitis; y 7x103 a 7x104 UFC/g para el género Anastrepha. El IVI% (Índice de Valor de Importancia demostró que Cladosporium es el género con mayor valor ecológico con un 78,05%. El Índice de Similitud de especies de hongos entre ambos géneros de mosca de la fruta analizados fue 0,5. Los resultados obtenidos confirman la presencia de hongos en moscas de la fruta; y se deduce el posible impacto de estos dípteros en el área agrícola como potenciales agentes vectores de enfermedades fúngicas para los cultivos locales de importancia económica.

  8. ESTUDIO DE LAS VISITAS DE LAS MOSCAS DE LAS FLORES (DIPTERA: SYRPHIDAE EN Salvia bogotensis (LAMIACEAE EN EL JARDÍN BOTÁNICO JOSÉ CELESTINO MUTIS (BOGOTÁ D.C., COLOMBIA

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    Zamora Monica

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de esta investigación fue describir la interacción entre Salvia bogotensis (Lamiaceae y las moscas de las flores (Diptera: Syrphidae en un ambiente urbano, el jardín botánico "José Celestino Mutis" (Bogotá D.C.. Una vez comprobada la existencia del síndrome de entomofilia, se caracterizó la morfología floral, la composición taxonómica, la riqueza y la abundancia de las especies de sírfidos identificadas como visitantes florales, así como la morfometría cefálica y bucal. S. bogotensis presenta el síndrome de la entomofilia con ausencia de autofecundación. La comunidad de sírfidos asociada con esta comprende nueve especies, agrupadas en cinco géneros. Las especies son Allograpta neotropica Curran, 1936, Allograpta exotica Wiedermann, 1830, Allograpta annulipes Macquart, 1850, Allograpta aenea Hull, 1937, Lejops mexicana Macquart, 1842, Platycheirus ecuadoriensis Fluke, 1945, Platycheirus fenestrata Macquart, 1842, Syrphus shoree Fluke, 1950 y Toxomerus sp. 1. Las especies de moscas identificadas presentan en su conjunto características conductuales y morfológicas asociadas a polinizadores de baja eficiencia, con una baja tasa de visitas, incapacidad de activación de los balancines y un mínimo contacto corporal del insecto con las anteras y el estigma de la flor. Adicionalmente, las moscas presentan una carga muy baja de granos de polen de S. bogotensis sobre el cuerpo y alta inversión de tiempo en la limpieza de su cuerpo (acicalamiento. Las flores visitadas por estos insectos no dieron origen a frutos. Todo lo anterior permite concluir que dichas moscas no son polinizadores efectivos de S. bogotensis. Además de dípteros, se observaron varias especies de insectos visitantes florales de S. bogotensis pertenecientes a las familias Apidae, Halictidae y Megachilidae. Los sírfidos se benefician por el consumo de polen de S. bogotensis, pero no interfieren en el crecimiento y el desarrollo de la planta, por lo cual

  9. Biological aspects of Periga circumstans Walker, 1855 (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae: Hemileucinae with larvae reared on khaki and mate-plant leaves

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    A. Specht

    Full Text Available The goal of the present study was to investigate biological aspects of Periga circumstans Walker, 1855 (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae: Hemileucinae whose larvae were fed on leaves of khaki-plant (Diospyros khaki Linnaeus - Ebenaceae and Mate-plant (Ilex paraguariensis Saint Hilaire - Aquifoliaceae leaves. The biological parameters were obtained from specimens kept under controlled conditions: temperature of 25 ± 1 °C, relative humidity of 70 ± 10%, and photoperiod of 12 hours. For each developmental stage, morphological and ethological parameters are described. The larvae passed through six instars with a growth average rate of 1.4 for each instar. The host plants influenced significantly only the total duration of the larval phase, which was prolonged for larvae fed on khaki-plant leaves. Several aspects related to the morphology and the ethology of P. circumstans are similar to those described for Lonomia obliqua Walker, 1855.

  10. Ectomycorrhizal fungal communities associated to Nothofagus species in Northern Patagonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nouhra, Eduardo; Urcelay, Carlos; Longo, Silvana; Tedersoo, Leho

    2013-08-01

    Ectomycorrhizal fungi constitute an important component of soil biota in Nothofagus forests in Patagonia. However, ectomycorrhizal fungal community is poorly known in this region. Here, we assess biodiversity and community compositions of ectomycorrhizal fungal species associated with Nothofagus dombeyi, N. obliqua and N. alpina. We selected three monospecific Nothofagus forest sites for each species within the boundaries of the Lanin National Park in Northern Patagonia. Ectomycorrhizal fungal species were identified based on morphotyping and rDNA (ITS and 28S rDNA) sequence analysis using both universal and taxon-specific primers. Contrary to previous studies on congeneric host trees, our results showed no significant differences among Nothofagus forest types in terms of fungal biodiversity and community composition. However, altitude had a strong effect on the structure of the ectomycorrhizal fungal community associated with Nothofagus spp.

  11. Plant species evaluated for new crop potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carr, M.E.

    1985-01-01

    Ninety-two plant species from various regions of the USA were screened for their energy-producing potential. Samples were analysed for oil, polyphenol, hydrocarbon and protein. Oil fractions of some species were analysed for classes of lipid constituents and yields of unsaponifiable matter and fatty acids were determined. Hydrocarbon fractions of some species were analysed for rubber, gutta and waxes. Average MW and MW distribution of rubber and gutta were determined. Complete analytical data for 16 species is presented. Large quantities of oil were obtained from Philadelphus coronarius, Cacalia muhlenbergii, Lindera benzoin and Koelreuteria paniculata. High yields of polyphenols came from Acer ginnala, Cornus obliqua and Salix caprea and maximum yields of hydrocarbon and protein were from Elymus virginicus and Lindera benzoin, respectively.

  12. Characterization of trace elements in Casearia medicinal plant by neutron activation analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, C I; Saiki, M; Vasconcellos, M B A; Sertié, J A A

    2005-01-01

    Leaves of Casearia sylvestris, Casearia decandra and Casearia obliqua plant species, collected at the Atlantic Forest in Brazil, were analyzed by using instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). Short and long irradiations using thermal neutron flux of the IEA-R1 nuclear reactor were carried out for these analyses. Concentrations of Ca, K and Mg were found in these samples at the percentage levels, Br, Cl, Fe, Mn, Na, Rb and Zn at the microg g(-1) levels and Co, Cr, Cs, La, and Sc at the microg kg(-1) levels. Comparisons were made among the element concentrations obtained in these three Casearia species and significant differences were found for the elements Cl, Co, Cs, Cr, La, Mn, Na and Sc. The precision and the accuracy of the results were evaluated by analyzing the certified reference materials NIST-1515 Apple Leaves and NIST-1573a Tomato Leaves.

  13. Efeitos do uso em sistema faxinal na florística e estrutura em duas áreas da Floresta Ombrófila Mista no munícipio de Rebouças, PR

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    Jey Marinho de Albuquerque

    2011-01-01

    distributed in 16 families, whereas in Faxinal Marmeleiro de Cima, 445 individuals were inventoried, pertaining to 22 species, 18 genera, distributed in 11 families. The species with highest importance value in Faxinal Marmeleiro de Baixo were Mosiera prismatica (26.46% and Campomanesia xanthocarpa (7.67%, while in Faxinal Marmeleiro de Cima they were Casearia obliqua (28.59% and Capsicodendron dinisii (13.27%. Taking into account the results of this study, it can be concluded that historical (phytophisiognomy and ecological factors (the area of the fragments and the occurrence of anthropic disturbances represent important elements that characterize the composition and richness of species in forest fragments using the forest under a Faxinal System.

  14. LEVANTAMENTO POPULACIONAL E ANÁLISE FAUNÍSTICA DE LEPIDOPTERA EM Eucalyptus spp. NO MUNICÍPIO DE PINHEIRO MACHADO, RS

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    Oderlei Bernardi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to collect, to study and to characterize the fauna of lepidopterous associated with Eucalyptus spp., plantation in the Municipality of Pinheiro Machado, in RS state. In the period of October 2005 to October 2007, every 15 days, collections of insects were accomplished with three light traps. After selection and transfixion procedures, the lepidopterous were identified based on entomological collections and specialized literature. Two thousand and twenty individuals belonging to 14 families, 106 genera and 220 species were collected. The families with the highest number of species collected were: Noctuidae (59, Geometridae (30, Arctiidae (28 and Saturniidae (14. According to the fauna classification the most species were considered not dominant, uncommon, rare and accidental. Among the species identified, there were some whose larvae are defoliators of the eucalypts: Oxydia agliata, (Geometridae, Sarsina violascens (Lymantriidae, Automeris illustris, Eacles imperialis magnifica and Lonomia obliqua (Saturniidae, which needs to have their populations monitored.

  15. Origin and diversification of hoverflies: a revision of the genera Asarkina and Allobaccha – A BIG4 Consortium PhD project

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    Trevor Burt

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This BIG4 PhD project involves the overall taxonomic revision of the genera Allobaccha Curran and Asarkina Macquart (Diptera: Syrphidae. The revisions will be divided by biogeographic region (Afrotropical and Indomalayan and published accordingly. The publications will be collated as a thesis for submission to the University of Bonn (Rheinische Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universität Bonn, Germany doctoral program of biology. The goal of this project is to resolve alpha taxonomy and to infer the phylogenetic placement of these genera within the Syrphidae using Next-Generation Sequencing and Anchored Hybrid Enrichment techniques. The techniques undertaken in this project will be applied to future systematic problems in Diptera and testing future phylogenetic hypotheses.

  16. Natural infection of Culex theileri (Diptera: Culicidae) with Dirofilaria immitis (Nematoda: Filarioidea) on Madeira Island, Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santa-Ana, Marta; Khadem, Manhaz; Capela, Ruben

    2006-01-01

    Field and laboratory studies were performed to verify whether Culex theileri Theobald functions as a natural vector of Dirofilaria immitis (Leidy) on Madeira Island, Portugal. CO2-baited light traps (EVS traps) were use to sample mosquitoes monthly basis between February 2002 and February 2003 in the area of Quebradas (Funchal). Three mosquito species were captured, including 58 Culex pipiens L., 790 Cx. theileri, and three Culiseta longiareolata (Macquart). Only C. theileri tested positive for D. immitis. The presence of this filarial worm was detected by direct observation, infectivity assay dissection technique, and polymerase chain reaction methods. Infected mosquitoes were recovered in October and December 2002 and January 2003. These data provide evidence that Cx. theileri could be the main vector of D. immitis in Funchal, Madeira.

  17. Development of the oriental latrine fly, Chrysomya megacephala (Diptera: Calliphoridae), at five constant temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruner, S. V.; Slone, D.H.; Capinera, J.L.; Turco, M. P.

    2017-01-01

    Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius) is a forensically important fly that is found throughout the tropics and subtropics. We calculated the accumulated development time and transition points for each life stage from eclosion to adult emergence at five constant temperatures: 15, 20, 25, 30, and 35 °C. For each transition, the 10th, 50th, and 90th percentiles were calculated with a logistic linear model. The mean transition times and % survivorship were determined directly from the raw laboratory data. Development times of C. megacephala were compared with that of two other closely related species, Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart) and Phormia regina (Meigen). Ambient and larval mass temperatures were collected from field studies conducted from 2001–2004. Field study data indicated that adult fly activity was reduced at lower ambient temperatures, but once a larval mass was established, heat generation occurred. These development times and durations can be used for estimation of a postmortem interval (PMI).

  18. Influence of rain and malathion on the oviposition and development of blowflies (Diptera: Calliphoridae) infesting rabbit carcasses in Kelantan, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahat, N A; Zafarina, Z; Jayaprakash, P T

    2009-11-20

    The influence of rain and malathion on the initial oviposition as well as development of blowfly species infesting rabbit carcasses decomposing in sunlit and shaded habitats were studied over a period of 1 year in Kelantan, Malaysia. Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius) was the most dominant species that infested the carcasses, followed by Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart). In general, rain, depending on its intensity, delayed initial oviposition by 1-2 days and prolonged the pupation period by 1-3 days. The presence of malathion in the carcasses delayed initial oviposition by 1-3 days and prolonged the pupation period by 2-3 days. These findings deserve consideration while estimating postmortem interval since rain is a commonplace occurrence in Malaysia and malathion is one of the common poisons as an agent for choice to commit suicide.

  19. Occurrence of oriental flies associated with indoor and outdoor human remains in the tropical climate of north Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumara, T K; Disney, R H L; Abu Hassan, A; Flores, Micah; Hwa, Tan Siew; Mohamed, Zulqarnain; CheSalmah, M R; Bhupinder, S

    2012-06-01

    Flies attracted to human remains during death investigations were surveyed in north Peninsular Malaysia. Six families, eight genera, and 16 species were identified from human remains, with the greatest fly diversity occurring on remains recovered indoors. The total relative frequency of species was led by Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius, 1794) (46%), followed by Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart, 1842) (22%), Sarcophaga (Liopygia) ruficornis (Fabricius, 1974) (5%), Sarcophaga spp. (4%), Synthesiomyia nudiseta Wulp, 1883 (6%), Megaselia spp. (3%), Megaselia scalaris (Loew, 1866), (2%), Megaselia spiracularis Schmitz, 1938 (2%), and Chrysomya villeneuvi Patton, 1922 (2%). Hemipyrellia tagaliana (Bigot, 1877), Desmometopa sp., Megaselia curtineura (Brues, 1909), Hemipyrellia ligurriens Wiedemann 1830, Ophyra sp., Sarcophaga princeps Wiedemann 1830, Piophila casei (Linnaeus, 1758), and unidentified pupae each represented 1%, respectively. © 2012 The Society for Vector Ecology.

  20. Hairy maggot of Chrysomya villeneuvi (Diptera: Calliphoridae), a fly species of forensic importance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukontason, Kom; Sukontason, Kabkaew L; Piangjai, Somsak; Chaiwong, Tarinee; Boonchu, Noppawan; Kurahashi, Hiromu

    2003-11-01

    We reported on the hairy maggot of Chrysomya villeneuvi Patton, collected from a human corpse in Thailand. Although the general morphology of the third instar closely resembled the more common hairy maggot blow fly, Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart), the spines along the tubercles of each body segment could be used as a feature to distinguish between these species, with those of C. villeneuri bearing sharp-ended spines that encircle the entire tubercle. Not only has the resemblance of a hairy appearance between C. villeneuvi and C. rufifacies larvae been documented but also their similarity in predacious feeding behavior. The differentiation between these two species is necessary for post-mortem interval estimation in the corpse.

  1. Identification of forensically important fly eggs using a potassium permanganate staining technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukontason, Kom; Sukontason, Kabkaew L; Piangjai, Somsak; Boonchu, Noppawan; Kurahashi, Hiromu; Hope, Michelle; Olson, Jimmy K

    2004-01-01

    Fly eggs found in corpses can be utilized as entomological evidence in forensic investigations of deaths if the species of fly and the developmental rate at a temperature similar to the death scene are known. The species identification of fly eggs is particularly important, and previously, scanning electron microscope has been used for this purpose. Herein, we report a simple technique, using light microscopy, to identify forensically important eggs of Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart), Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius), Chrysomya pacifica Kurahashi, Chrysomya nigripes Aubertin, Aldrichina grahami (Aldrich), Lucilia cuprina (Wiedemann), Musca domestica L. and Megaselia scalaris (Loew). A 1% potassium permanganate solution was used to stain egg surfaces for 1 min, followed by dehydration in 15, 70, and 95%, absolute alcohol (each solution for 1 min) and the eggs were permanently mounted. The characteristics are based on the width of plastron, morphology of plastron area surrounding the micropyle and chorionic sculpturing, with the length of egg being used as supplemental feature.

  2. Effects of temperature on Chrysomya rufifacies (Diptera:Calliphoridae) development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrd, J H; Butler, J F

    1997-05-01

    Growth curves were studied for the egg, larva, and pupa of Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart) under mean cyclic temperatures of 15.6, 21.1, 26.7, and 35.0 degrees C and a constant temperature of 25.0 degrees C. Development from egg to adult under all regimes ranged from 190 to 598 h. A constant temperature of 25 degrees C produced a range of pupation times from 134 to 162 h, with adult emergence ranging from 237 to 289 h. The maximal preferential temperature of 35.1 degrees C was determined for maggots using a gradient system. Highly predictable developmental time, minimal larval length variation, and low cohort variation emphasize the utility of this species in entomological-based postmortem interval determinations. Therefore, C. rufifacies should be of primary forensic importance when recovered alone or in conjunction with other species of Calliphoridae.

  3. Morphology of second and third instars of Chrysomya villeneuvi Patton (Diptera: Calliphoridae), a fly species of forensic importance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukontason, Kom; Sukontason, Kabkaew L; Piangjai, Somsak; Narongchai, Paitoon; Samai, Wirachai; Boonchu, Noppawan; Sripakdee, Duanghatai; Ngern-Klun, Radchadawan; Siriwattanarungsee, Sirisuda

    2005-11-25

    The morphology of the second and third instars of Chrysomya villeneuvi Patton, a fly species of forensic importance, was presented by use of light microscopy. Both instars were of hairy appearance, bearing elongated tubercles along the abdominal and caudal segments. The anterior spiracle had 13-15 papillae. Minute dark spots were observed to thoroughly cover the tubercle's surface, with 4-6 strong dark tips. Regarding the third instar, the intersegmental spines between the prothorax and mesothorax were heavily pigmented. The posterior spiracle had a thick and heavily pigmented incomplete peritreme. The surface and tip of the tubercles was covered with heavily pigmented sharp spines. The integument of the body was covered with numerous distinct net-like patches. A comparison with another well-known hairy maggot, Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart), was discussed.

  4. Blow fly maggots (Diptera: Calliphoridae)from a human corpse in a vehicle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sribanditmongkol, Pongruk; Monum, Tawachai; Wannasan, Anchalee; Tomberlin, Jeffery K; Sukontason, Kom; Sukontason, Kabkaew L

    2014-09-01

    Correct species identification and development data of insects associated with a cadaver can help estimate the time of colonization which could be used to infer a minimal post-mortem interval (minPMI) for forensic investigations. Human remains are found in a variety of locations ranging from open fields to inside automobiles. We report the investigation of blow fly larvae collected from a decomposing body located in the trunk of a car. There were two blow fly (Diptera: Calliphoridae) species: Achoetandrus rufifacies (Macquart) and Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius). Blow flies can enter the vehicle and colonize human remains. Based on age estimations of third stage larvae of A. rufifacies, the minPMI was estimated to be 4-5 days, which was within the range of 3-5 days estimated by other forensically relevant information.

  5. First report of human myiasis caused by Chrysomya megacephala and Chrysomya rufifacies (Diptera: Calliphoridae) in Thailand, and its implication in forensic entomology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukontason, Kabkaew L; Narongchai, Paitoon; Sripakdee, Duanghatai; Boonchu, Noppawan; Chaiwong, Tarinee; Ngern-Klun, Radchadawan; Piangjai, Somsak; Sukontason, Kom

    2005-07-01

    We report a forensic entomology case associated with human myiasis in Chiang Mai Province, northern Thailand. The remains of a 53-yr-old-male were concurrently infested with third instars of the two blow fly species, Chrysomya megacephala (F.) and Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart), near a severe tumor lesion presented on the lower right leg. The presence of third instars, approximately 5 d old, on the day following postmortem indicated that myiasis occurred before death. This is the first report of both fly species acting as a myiasis-producing agent in Thailand. Unsynchronized data between the age of fly larvae due to myiasis premortem and verified age/ condition of the corpse suggest a potential complication and error in the estimation of postmortem interval if other predisposition fly infestations are not considered.

  6. FAMILY PSYCHODIDAE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bejarano, Eduar Elías; Estrada, Luis Gregorio

    2016-06-14

    A catalogue is presented of the species of haematophagous and non-haematophagous psychodids recorded in Colombia. The list comprises 199 species distributed among five subfamilies and 16 genera, as follows: Subfamily Bruchomyiinae, genus Nemopalpus Macquart, 1838 (4 species); subfamily Phlebotominae, genera Brumptomyia França & Parrot, 1921 (8 species), Lutzomyia França, 1924 (153 species) and Warileya Hertig, 1948 (2 species); subfamily Psychodinae, genera Arisemus Satchell, 1955 (3 species), Australopericoma Vaillant, 1975 (1 species), Balbagathis Quate, 1996 (1 species), Clogmia Enderlein, 1937 (1 species), Didicrum Enderlein, 1937 (1 species), Feuerborniella Vaillant, 1971 (1 species), Lepidiella Enderlein, 1937 (1 species), Maruina Müller, 1895 (4 species), Paramormia Enderlein, 1935 (1 species), Parasetomima Duckhouse, 1968 (1 species) and Psychoda Latreille, 1796 (7 species); subfamily Sycoracinae, genus Sycorax Haliday, 1839 (5 species); and subfamily Trichomyiinae, genus Trichomyia Haliday, 1839 (5 species).

  7. Espécies de Syrphidae (Diptera visitantes das flores de Eryngium horridum (Apiaceae no Vale do Rio Pardo, RS, Brasil Species of Syrphidae (Diptera as flower visitors of Eryngium horridum (Apiaceae in Rio Pardo Valley, RS, Brazil

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    Mírian N. Morales

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available No período entre dezembro de 2001 a dezembro de 2003, realizaram-se coletas com rede entomológica de insetos visitantes das flores de Eryngium horridum (Apiaceae na Região do Vale do Rio Pardo, RS, Brasil. Esta planta é perene, freqüente em campos secos e apresenta expressiva dispersão. Possui, no Rio Grande do Sul, época de floração entre novembro e janeiro. Foram capturados 1.066 insetos visitantes, destes, 569 Syrphidae. Identificaram-se 60 espécies de Syrphidae, distribuídas em 16 gêneros. O gênero Palpada Macquart, 1834 foi dominante, e Ornidia Lepeletier & Serville, 1828 e Toxomerus Macquart, 1855 abundantes. Das espécies mais freqüentes, Palpada furcata (Wiedemann, 1819 ocupou posição mais elevada. Os sirfídeos apresentaram preferência pelas temperaturas entre 28 e 32ºC, e foram mais freqüentemente coletados entre as 10 e 14 horas, com picos entre as 10 e 11 horas. As fêmeas foram as mais freqüentes. O predomínio de sirfídeos robustos e mais ágeis sobre sirfídeos de menor porte como Toxomerus e Allograpta Osten Sacken, 1875, pode ter sido resultante de competição interespecífica. Eristalinus taeniops (Wiedemann, 1818 é pela primeira vez citada para o Estado do Rio Grande do Sul. A alta diversidade e abundância dos espécimes coletados nas flores de E. horridum são indicadores da importância desta na dieta dos sirfídeos, visto que possui grande número de inflorescências e floração ocorrendo nos meses de baixa oferta de recursos alimentares na área de estudo.Between December 2001 and December 2003, collections of flower visitors of Eryngium horridum (Apiaceae were carried out in areas of Rio Pardo Valley, RS, Brazil. This plant is perennial, commonly found in dry fields, presenting a wide distribution. Its flowering period ranges from November to January in Rio Grande do Sul. A total of 1,066 insects were captured, 569 of them belonging to Syrphidae. Sixty species of Syrphidae were identified

  8. Hippoboscidae (Diptera, Hippoboscoidea no Estado do Paraná, Brasil: chaves de identificação, hospedeiros e distribuição geográfica Hippoboscidae (Diptera, Hippoboscoidea in the State of Paraná, Brazil: keys, hosts and geographic distribution

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    Gustavo Graciolli

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available A survey of the louse flies species (Diptera, Hippoboscidae in the State of Paraná, Brazil was carried out. Keys to eight genera and 15 species found are given. The following species are recorded for the first time in Paraná: Lipoptena (Lipoptenella guimaraesi Bequaert, 1957; Stipolmetopoda legtersi Bequaert, 1955; Icosta (Ornithopomus latifacies Bequaert, 1955; Icosta (Ornithpomus rufiventris (Bigot, 1885; Icosta (Ardmoeca albipennis (Say, 1823 and Olfersia bisulcata Macquart, 1847. Baryphthengus ruficapillus (Vieillot, 1818 (Momotidae and Ciccaba virgata Carbin, 1849 (Strigidae are new host records for Ornithoica vicina (Walker, 1849 and I. (Ardmoeca albipennis; Chiroxiphia caudata (Shaw, 1793 and Schiffornis virescens (Lafresnaye, 1838 (Pipridae for Ornithoctona fusciventris (Wiedemann, 1830 and Gallus gallus domesticus (Linnaeus, 1758 (Phasianidae for S. legtersi.

  9. Observation of the morphological characters in slide-mounted simuliids (Diptera, Simuliidae deteriorated by age or fungus contamination Observação morfológica de caracteres de simulídeos (Diptera, Simuliidae em lâminas deterioradas pelo tempo ou pela contaminação de fungos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana M.R. do Amaral

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The homogeneity of the Simuliidae family has produced several taxonomic problems along the years. The studies of Brazilian Simulium Latreille, 1802 date from the beginning of the 20th century, with species described by Kollar, Macquart, Goeldi and Lutz. Lutz's scientific collection is a historical relic of scientific relevance, since it congregates types described from Brazil. Besides its taxonomic importance, this collection can now be used as a bio indicator. However, a lot of these slide-mounted specimens could not support the effects of time, constant handling, fungus and climatic conditions that occurred over the years. The development of a slide-mounted restoration technique had therefore become necessary for specimen preservation and observation.A homogeneidade da família Simuliidae tem resultado problemas taxonômicos ao longo dos anos. Os estudos sobre Simulium Latreille, 1802 no Brasil datam do início do século XX, com espécies descritas por Kollar, Macquart, Goeldi e Lutz. A coleção de Lutz possui relevância científica e histórica, possuindo exemplares tipo descritos do Brasil. Além da importância taxonômica, a coleção de simulídeos de Lutz pode ser usada como bioindicadora. No entanto, muitas lâminas não suportaram os efeitos do tempo, constante manuseio, presença de fungos e ação das condições climáticas ao longo dos anos. O desenvolvimento de uma técnica de restauração do material preservado em lâminas fez-se necessário para melhor preservação e observação do material.

  10. Reflectance-based determination of age and species of blowfly puparia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voss, Sasha C; Magni, Paola; Dadour, Ian; Nansen, Christian

    2017-01-01

    Forensic entomology is primarily concerned with the estimation of time since death and involves determination of the age of immature insects colonising decomposing remains. Accurate age determination of puparia is usually accomplished by dissection, which means destructive sampling of evidence. As part of improving abilities to correctly identify species and developmental age, it is highly desirable to have available non-destructive methods. In this study, we acquired external hyperspectral imaging (HSI) data (77 spectral bands, 389-892 nm) from the dorsal and ventral sides of individual puparia of two species of blowfly (Diptera: Calliphoridae), Calliphora dubia Macquart 1855 and Chrysomya rufifacies Macquart 1842. Puparia were dissected to determine the presence/absence of eight internal morphological development characteristics (legs, wings, labella, abdominal segments, antennae, thoracic bristles, orbital/facial bristles and eye colour and arista). Based on linear discriminant analysis and independent validation of HSI data, reflectance features from puparia could be used to successfully (1) distinguish the two species (classification accuracy = 92.5 %), (2) differentiate dorsal and ventral sides of puparia (classification accuracy C. dubia = 81.5 %; Ch. rufifacies = 89.2 %) and (3) predict the presence of these morphological characteristics and therefore the developmental stage of puparia (average classification accuracy using dorsal imaging: C. dubia = 90.3 %; Ch. rufifacies = 94.0 %). The analytical approach presented here provides proof of concept for a direct puparial age relationship (i.e. days since the onset of pupation) between external puparial reflectance features and internal morphological development. Furthermore, this approach establishes the potential for further refinement by using a non-invasive technique to determine the age and developmental stage of blowflies of forensic importance.

  11. Distribution Modeling of three screwworm species in the ecologically diverse landscape of North West Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaidi, Farrah; Fatima, Syeda Hira; Khisroon, Muhammad; Gul, Ayesha

    2016-10-01

    North West Pakistan (NWP) is characterized by four eco-zones: Northern Montane Region, North Western Hills, Submontane Region and Indus Plains. Present study identified 1037 cases of traumatic myiasis in the region during 2012-2015. Screw worm larvae were classified as 12 species: Chrysomya bezziana (Villeneuve), Chryomya megacephala (Fabricius), Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart), Lucilia cuprina (Wiedemann), Lucilia sericata (Meigen), Lucilia illustris (Meigen), Lucilia porphyrina (Walker), Hemipyrellia ligguriens (Wiedemann), Calliphora vicina (Robineau-Desvoidy), Wohlfahrtia magnifica (Schiner), Sarcophaga crassipalpalis (Macquart), Sarchophaga species. Among these C. bezziana, L. cuprina and W. magnifica with approximately 882 case reports were the principal agents of traumatic myiasis. The species W. magnifica is a first report from Pakistan. In order to investigate spatial distribution of these dominant species we used MaxEnt niche model. Our results revealed a well-established occurrence of C. bezziana and L. cuprina in the four eco-regions while W. magnifica is currently contained in the Submontane Region. Several hot spot areas of infestation were detected all characterized by high human population density showing synanthropic nature of these species. Wohlfahrtia magnifica was excluded from Northern Montane Region with severe winters and Southern Indus Plains with harsh summers revealing that invasive species are initially sensitive to extreme of temperatures. Presence of L. cuprina in the wet areas of North Humid Belt (Maximum annual precipitation: 1641mm) depicted a moisture preference of the species. In perspective of changing climate and future predictions of severe events such as droughts and flooding in NWP, W. magnifica can potentially alter the species composition. Considering these findings in an eco-geographically dynamic region of Pakistan we predict that two factors (1) Growing human population (2) Climatic conditions, equally contribute to range

  12. Evaluation of bait traps as a means to predict initial blow fly (Diptera: Calliphoridae) communities associated with decomposing swine remains in New Jersey, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weidner, Lauren M; Gemmellaro, M Denise; Tomberlin, Jeffery K; Hamilton, George C

    2017-09-01

    Information about blow fly (Diptera: Calliphoridae) species distributions can be valuable for criminal investigations, with regards to determining movement of remains from one location to another and time of colonization estimates, making these data extremely useful. Past work has been conducted on initial species community structure across New Jersey, USA using traps baited with beef liver; however, if these same species frequent vertebrate carrion remains unclear. In order to evaluate these data, piglet carcasses were placed out once every two weeks for a year in New Brunswick, New Jersey, USA. The same methods were implemented as those used for traps baited with beef liver, with length of collections being based on ADD values. Seven calliphorid species, Calliphora vicina (Robineau-Desvoidy), Lucilia sericata (Meigen), Lucilia coeruleiviridis (Macquart), Phormia regina (Meigen), Pollenia pediculata Macquart, Pollenia rudis (F.) and Protophormia terraenovae (Robineau-Desvoidy) were collected from the carcasses. During this experiment L. sericata, L. coeruleiviridis and P. regina were the dominant adult blow flies captured, totaling 38.2%, 29.2% and 29.2% respectively of all adults caught. All three species colonized the carcasses as well, although not all were dominant colonizers. C. vicina was recorded ovipositing in December, while the piglet was submerged in approximately 5cm of snow. All species that totaled at least 1% of the total collection (adults captured and larvae reared) were the same across baited traps and carcasses. This study supports the use of beef liver baits for surveying forensically important blow flies and the application of such information to forensic investigations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Thermoregulation in larval aggregations of carrion-feeding blow flies (Diptera: Calliphoridae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slone, D.H.; Gruner, Susan V.

    2007-01-01

    The growth and development of carrion-feeding calliphorid (Diptera Calliphoridae) larvae, or maggots, is of great interest to forensic sciences, especially for estimation of a postmortem interval (PMI). The development rate of calliphorid larvae is influenced by the temperature of their immediate environment. Heat generation in larval feeding aggregations (=maggot masses) is a well-known phenomenon, but it has not been quantitatively described. Calculated development rates that do not include internally generated temperatures will result in overestimation of PMI. Over a period of 2.5 yr, 80 pig, Sus scrofa L., carcasses were placed out at study sites in north central Florida and northwestern Indiana. Once larval aggregations started to form, multiple internal and external temperatures, and weather observations were taken daily or every few days between 1400 and 1800 hours until pupation of the larvae. Volume of each aggregation was determined by measuring surface area and average depth. Live and preserved samples of larvae were taken for species identification. The four most common species collected were Lucilia coeruleiviridis (=Phaenicia) (Macquart) (77%), Cochliomyia macellaria (F.) (8.3%), Chrysomya rufifaces (Macquart) (7.7%), and Phormia regina (Meigen) (5.5%). Statistical analyses showed that 1) volume of a larval mass had a strong influence on its temperature, 2) internal temperatures of masses on the ground were influenced by soil temperature and mass volume, 3) internal temperatures of masses smaller than 20 cm3 were influenced by ambient air temperature and mass volume, and 4) masses larger than 20 cm3 on the carcass had strongly regulated internal temperatures determined only by the volume of the mass, with larger volumes associated with higher temperatures. Nonsignificant factors included presence of rain or clouds, shape of the aggregation, weight of the carcass, species composition of the aggregation, time since death, or season.

  14. Taxonomia e morfologia de espécies neotropicais de Graphomya Robineau-Desvoidy (Diptera, Muscidae Taxonomic study of neotropical species of Graphomya Robineau-Desvoidy (Diptera, Muscidae

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    Bianca Marques

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Graphomya Robineau-Desvoidy (Diptera, Muscidae pode ser reconhecido por padrões cromáticos característicos no mesonoto e abdômen e pelas cerdas catepisternais 0:2. Das 14 espécies citadas na literatura para a Região Neotropical, sete são redescritas, com descrições das terminálias masculina e feminina - G. analis (Macquart, G. maculata (Scopoli, G. meridionalis Townsend, G. mexicana Giglio-Tos, G. occidentalis Arntfield, G. podexaurea(Enderlein e G. tropicalis Malloch, aqui revalidada. Ilustrações coloridas do mesonoto e do abdômen são apresentadas para facilitar o reconhecimento das espécies. O neótipo de G. maculata é designado. A fêmea de G. podexaurea é registrada pela primeira vez. O registro geográfico das seguintes espécies é ampliado: G. meridionalis para o Equador e Peru; G. mexicana e G. podexaurea para o Brasil; G. tropicalis para Colômbia e Brasil.Graphomya Robineau-Desvoidy (Diptera, Muscidae is recognized by characteristic color patterns on mesonotum and abdomen and by the disposition of the katepisternal setae 0:2. From the 14 species recorded in the Neotropical Region, seven are redescribed with the descriptions of male and female terminalia - G. analis (Macquart, G. maculata (Scopoli, G. meridionalis Townsend, G. mexicana Giglio-Tos, G. occidentalis Arntfield, G. podexaurea(Enderlein and G. tropicalis Malloch, herein revalidated. Colored illustrations of mesonotum and abdomen are presented in order to aid the recognition of the species. The neotype of G. maculata is designated. The female of G. podexaurea is recorded for the first time. The geographic record of the following species is enlarged: G. meridionalis for Ecuador and Peru; G. mexicana and G. podexaurea for Brazil and G. tropicalis for Colombia and Brazil.

  15. Isca tóxica e disrupção sexual no controle da mosca-da-fruta sul-americana e da mariposa-oriental em pessegueiro Toxic bait and mating disruption to control the American fruit fly and the oriental fruit moth on peach orchards

    OpenAIRE

    Wagner da Roza Härter; Anderson Dionei Grützmacher; Dori Edson Nava; Rafael da Silva Gonçalves; Marcos Botton

    2010-01-01

    O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o emprego simultâneo de isca tóxica e da técnica de disrupção sexual, com uso de feromônio sexual, para o controle de Anastrepha fraterculus e Grapholita molesta, em pomar comercial de pessegueiro. Foram utilizados três pomares de 0,5 ha, com os seguintes tratamentos: pomar 1, manejo com isca tóxica (Biofruit 3% + Malathion 500 CE a 200 mL por 100 L), aplicada nas plantas da borda do pomar quando o nível de controle era atingido, e uso da disrupção sexual...

  16. Apple biological and physiological disorders in the orchard and in postharvest according to production system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Roberto Martins

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to evaluate the incidence of biological and physiological disorders in the field and postharvested apples cvs. Gala, Fuji and Catarina grown in four production systems: conventional, organic transition, integrated and organic. Apples were evaluated for damages related to biological and physiological disorders in the orchard and after harvest. The greatest damages were attributed to pests, especially Anastrepha fraterculus in the organic system and Grapholita molesta in the organic transition. Apples produced in organic orchards had higher damage levels caused by postharvest physiological disorders than those grown in other production systems. For apples becoming from organic orchards most of the damage was due to lenticels breakdown and degeneration ('Gala', and bitter pit ('Fuji' and 'Catarina'. The incidence of postharvest rot was not influenced by apple production system.

  17. Tephritid Integrative Taxonomy: Where We Are Now, with a Focus on the Resolution of Three Tropical Fruit Fly Species Complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schutze, Mark K; Virgilio, Massimiliano; Norrbom, Allen; Clarke, Anthony R

    2017-01-31

    Accurate species delimitation underpins good taxonomy. Formalization of integrative taxonomy in the past decade has provided a framework for using multidisciplinary data to make species delimitation hypotheses more rigorous. We address the current state of integrative taxonomy by using as a case study an international project targeted at resolving three important tephritid species complexes: Bactrocera dorsalis complex, Anastrepha fraterculus complex, and Ceratitis FAR (C. fasciventris, C. anonae, C. rosa) complex. The integrative taxonomic approach has helped deliver significant advances in resolving these complexes: It has been used to identify some taxa as belonging to the same biological species as well as to confirm hidden cryptic diversity under a single taxonomic name. Nevertheless, the general application of integrative taxonomy has not been without issue, revealing challenges that must be considered when undertaking an integrative taxonomy project. Scrutiny of this international case study provides a unique opportunity to document lessons learned for the benefit of not only tephritid taxonomists, but also the wider taxonomic community.

  18. Determination of gamma radiation dose as a post-harvest treatment in mangos infested with the South American fruit fly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alama, D.

    1999-01-01

    Efforts are being made to determine a gamma radiation dose for mortality of third-instar larvae of Anastrepha fraterculus which infest mangos of the Haden variety of 400 g weight. Four radiation treatments were tested: 0.4 kGy, 0.6 kGy, 0.8 kGy and 1.0 kGy. Using as a criterium for mortality the interruption of the biological cycle between larva and pupa, the following results were achieved: 49.61%, 63.33%, 74.86% and 90.72%. The percentages obtained have been corrected using the Abbot formula. When the criterium was based on no adult emergence, 100% mortality was achieved for the four treatments. (author)

  19. Is sexually transmitted fungal infection evidence for size-related mating success in Neotropical guava fruit flies?

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    Ingemar Hedström

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available The influence of wing length on mate preference was examined in natural populations of the Neotropical guava fruit fly, Anastrepha striata Schiner, at two locations in Costa Rica. Based on evidence that the fungi are transmitted during mating, site-specific infection by Laboulbeniales fungi on the body surface was used to assess mating history. Males and females that carried fungi on the legs and/or on the ventral part of the thorax (males, and on both sides of the notum and/or the dorsal base of the abdomen (females, had significantly longer wings than males and females without fungi. This suggests that individuals of both sexes with longer wings (i.e. larger individuals enjoy higher mating success. Fungus infection is more frequent in the wet than in the seasonally dry forest, possibly because hosts are available year-round in the wet forest.

  20. Effects of irradiation on phenoloxidase levels in codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) larvae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neven, L.G.; Morford, M.

    1998-01-01

    Laboratory trials were conducted to determine if changes in phenoloxidase, a common hemolymph component in insects, could be detected in codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.). The 5 instars of codling moth were irradiated at doses of 0, 100, 300, 600, and 900 Gy and phenoloxidase levels were monitored at 0, 2, 4, and 6 d after treatment. The melanization method, protein electrophoresis, dot blot, and enzyme activity analyses were performed to determine phenoloxidase levels. No significant changes in the protein levels, enzymatic activity, or melanization rates in irradiated codling moth larvae were found. Although the melanization method may be adequate for determining whether larvae of the Caribbean fruit fly, Anastrepha suspensa (L.), were irradiated, it is not applicable to codling moth

  1. Standardization of Ceratitis capitata Wied. (Diptera: Tephritidae) female trapping for use in sterile insect programmes. Catamarca, Argentina, 1995-1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vattuone, M.

    1999-01-01

    The main objective of the study was to assess Ceratitis capitata Wied. (medfly) female trapping with new traps and attractants in varying ecological conditions as part of a co-ordinated international programme. Trials were carried out between 1995 and 1997, using seven types of traps baited with the various combination of sexual and food attractants. Different methods for insects retention were also tested. For these trials, protocols established by the International Atomic Energy Agency were followed. The Jackson Trap with Trimedlure plugs proved to be the most efficient for capture of medfly males, while International Pheromone's McPhail Trap was the most efficient for the capture of females, when used with a combination of all three new attractants (FA-3) consisting of ammonium acetate, putrescine, and trimethylamine plus the toxicant DDVP for insect retention. The new traps and attractants also captured flies belonging to genus Anastrepha (Diptera: Tephritidae). (author)

  2. SELETIVIDADE DE INSETICIDAS A Neoseiulus californicus MCGREGOR (ACARI: PHYTOSEIIDAE EM MACIEIRA, NO RIO GRANDE DO SUL AGROCHEMICAL SELECTIVITY TO Neoseiulus californicus MCGREGOR (ACARI: PHYTOSEIIDAE ON APPLE IN RIO GRANDE DO SUL

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    LINO BITTENCOURT MONTEIRO

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Testes para determinar os efeitos de agroquímicos homologados para macieira foram realizados em laboratório sobre Neoseiulus californicus (Acari: Phytoseiidae. Os indivíduos testados foram coletados de um pomar comercial da Agriflor Ltda, em Vacaria, Rio Grande do Sul, após várias liberações inoculativas. Os inseticidas utilizados foram os tradicionalmente recomendados para o controle de pragas, principalmente mosca-das-frutas Anastrepha fraterculus (Diptera: Tephritidae. A oviposição e a mortalidade dos ácaros foram avaliadas 12; 24; 48 e 96 horas após a pulverização, cujos produtos foram classificados em quatro classes de toxicidade (IOBC/WPRS. Azinphos ethyl, deltametrina e fenthion provocaram 100% de mortalidade, sendo que dimethoate, fenitrotion, paration, phosmet e triclorfon foram levemente nocivos (classe 2. Malation foi considerado neutro para esta população.The side-effects of agrochemical to Neoseiulus californicus (Acari: Phytoseiidae were studied in laboratory. The mites were collected in commercial apple orchard of Agropastoril Rincão das Flores, in Vacaria, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, after successive inoculative releases. The insecticids used were recommended to control of same pest, as Anastrepha fraterculus (Diptera: Tephritidae. The reproduction effect and mortality were evalued 12, 24, 48 and 96 hours after pulverization, while the agrochemical were ranked in toxicity classes, according to IOBC/WPRS. Azinphos ethyl, deltametrina e fenthion were harmful with ca. 100% of mortality in 24 hours, dimethoate, fenitrotion, paration, phosmet e triclorfon were slightly harmful (class 2. Malation was harmless.

  3. Diversity and Spatial Distribution of Extant Freshwater Ostracodes (Crustacea in Ancient Lake Ohrid (Macedonia/Albania

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    Julia Lorenschat

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available We carried out an intensive sampling survey in ancient Lake Ohrid (Macedonia/Albania, covering all seasons, to determine total species number, relative species abundances and spatial distribution of Ostracoda. We identified 32 living species that belong to seven families (Candonidae, Ilyocyprididae, Cyprididae, Leptocytheridae, Limnocytheridae, Cytherideidae, and Darwinulidae and 15 genera (Candona, Fabaeformiscandona, Candonopsis, Cypria, Cyclocypris, Ilyocypris, Eucypris, Prionocypris, Bradleystrandesia, Herpetocypris, Dolerocypris, Amnicythere, Paralimnocythere, Cytherissa, and Darwinula. Six additional species were identified from empty carapaces and valves. Dominant families in Lake Ohrid were Candonidae and Limnocytheridae, representing 53% and 16% of all species, respectively. Prevalence of species flocks in these two families confirms the “young” ancient status of the lake. Amnicythere displays a preference for oligo-haline to meso-haline waters, but some species are found in saline environments, which suggests Lake Ohrid has a marine history. Recent studies, however, indicate fluvial/glaciofluvial deposition at the onset of Lake Ohrid sedimentation. Candona is the most diverse genus in Lake Ohrid, represented by 12 living species. Paralimnocythere is represented by five living species and all other genera are represented by one or two species. Reports of Candona bimucronata, Ilyocypris bradyi, Eucypris virens, Eucypris sp., Prionocypris zenkeri, Bradleystrandesia reticulate, Herpetocypris sp. 2, and Dolerocypris sinensis are firsts for this lake. Living ostracodes were collected at the maximum water depth (280 m in the lake (Candona hadzistei, C. marginatoides, C. media, C. ovalis, C. vidua, Fabaeformiscandona krstici, Cypria lacustris, C. obliqua and Amnicythere karamani. Cypria lacustris was overall the most abundant species and Cypria obliqua displayed the highest abundance at 280 m water depth. Principal environmental variables

  4. DICKINSARTELLA FAUNA FROM THE SAIWAN FORMATION (OMAN: A BIVALVE FAUNA TESTIFYING TO THE LATE SAKMARIAN (EARLY PERMIAN CLIMATIC AMELIORATION ALONG THE NORTH-EASTERN GONDWANAN FRINGE.

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    CRISTIANO LARGHI

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available The transitional faunas of the Permian Huqf succession of Oman make it one of the key-sections for the intercalibration of Early to Middle Permian biostratigraphical scales. The abundance of fossils improved the knowledge of some marine faunas which populated the North-Eastern Gondwanan fringe during times of climatic changes in the Permian. A Sterlitamakian (upper Sakmarian, Lower Permian bivalve fauna from the Saiwan Formation in the Huqf area, informally named "Dickinsartella Fauna", is described in the present paper. The specimens examined were collected from the "Pachycyrtella Bed" (Auctorum, the basal bed of the Formation in its type locality. The Dickinsartella Fauna can be identified for the presence of the new genus Dickinsartella, which dominates the bivalve thanatocoenosis with D. pistacina sp. n. (type species. The bivalve fauna from the Pachycyrtella Bed includes the new species Stutchburia sangallii and Promytilus  mazzolenii, and also Astartella obliqua Dickins, 1963, Nuculopsis cf. bangarraensis Dickins, 1963, ?Oriocrassatella sp., and indeterminable aviculopectinids. This fauna shows a low taxonomic diversity. Nevertheless, some species are represented by a high number of generally well-preserved specimens, i.e. some specimens of S. sangallii sp. n. and A. obliqua show part of the ligament.  The good preservation of the shells permitted the microstructural analysis of D. pistacina sp. n. and S. sangallii sp. n. The microstructure of S. sangallii sp. n. supports the close phylogenetical link between modiomorphids and crassatelloids recognized by some previous authors.The new genus Dickinsartella includes the more recent species belonging to the important Paleozoic Order Cyrtodontida Scarlato & Starobogatov, 1971. The discovery of Dickinsartella gen. n. and other taxa of the Pachycyrtella Bed, present also in the Sakmarian levels of the Carnarvon and Perth Basins in Western Australia,  indicates a wider distribution of the

  5. Influence of native forest cover on water yield in southern Chile: a comparative study of small watersheeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Garretón, Camila; McPhee, James; Little, Christian; Lara, Antonio

    2010-05-01

    In this work we compare water yield in five small watersheds (surface area from 7 to 70 hectares) with different native forest cover, located in Southern Chile (39.5° Lat S). Forest covers include unmanaged second-growth forest of deciduous Nothofagus obliqua - Nothofagus nervosa ("Rsm", 7,4 ha), thinned second-growth forest of deciduous N. obliqua - N. nervosa with 35% of basal area extraction ("Rcm", 12,6 ha), altered evergreen old-growth forest dominated by Laurelia philippiana ("Tran", 7,5 ha), pristine old-growth forest of Nothofagus dombeyi ("Enc", 72,1 ha) and grassland as a control ("Prad", 12,3 ha). It is expected that differences in water yield are related mainly to differences in native forest structure, given that all watersheds have similar geomorphology and are located close to each other. We monitored daily streamflow and precipitation during four hydrological years (April 2003 through Dec 2006). Data were collected on each watershed and analyzed, first by recession curve classification, then by separating base flow and direct runoff. Subsequently, storm events were individualized, in order to isolate the effect of different antecedent soil moisture conditions. Variations in hydrograph recession curves as well as rainfall-runoff coefficients are analyzed in relation to differences in land cover type, storm magnitude and duration, antecedent soil moisture and presence of leafs. In agreement with the literature, all forested watersheds consume more water than a grassland watershed, but display a slower release of soil water storage. On the other hand, results show that managed forest basins yield more total, direct and base runoff in comparison to unmanaged watersheds. Further, unmanaged natural forests display flatter recession curves, implying a longer duration of base flow after storm events. This behavior has important implications for valuation and management of water yield, as an Ecosystem Service of native forest in Chile; it suggests that it

  6. The Importance of Habitat in the Ecology of Decomposition on Rabbit Carcasses in Malaysia: Implications in Forensic Entomology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silahuddin, Siti Aisyah; Latif, Baha; Kurahashi, Hiromu; Walter, David Evans; Heo, Chong Chin

    2015-01-01

    The stages of decomposition and the faunal succession on rabbit carcasses in three different habitats, namely jungle, rural, and highland areas, were studied. Three New Zealand White rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) carcasses weighing ∼2 kg were sampled daily until the decomposition process was completed. Representative specimens of adult flies, larvae, pupa, and mites were collected from the carcasses and processed in the laboratory. There were differences in decomposition rate and faunal succession between the carcasses. The fastest rate of decomposition was recorded in rural area, and the slowest rate of decomposition was recorded in highland area. The carcasses exhibited the same pattern of colonization by adult flies, but the dominant species of larvae and adult flies on each carcass in specific habitats were different. The primary species of flies recorded in jungle were Chrysomya megacephala F., Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart), Chrysomya chani Kurahashi, Chrysomya villenuevi Patton, Chrysomya nigripes Aubertin, Chrysomya pinguis (Walker), Hemipyrellia ligurriens (Wiedemann), Hemipyrellia tagaliana (Bigot), Hypopyiopsis fumipennis (Walker), Hypopygiopsis violacea (Macquart), and Hydrotaea spinigera Stein represented by both adults and larvae. Musca domestica L., Atherigona sp., Lioproctia pattoni (Senior-White), Lioproctia saprianovae Pape & Bänziger, and Seniorwhitea princeps (Wiedemann) were represented by adults only. The biodiversity of flies in the rural area were C. megacephala, C. rufifacies, H. ligurriens, Fannia canicularis L., Hydrotaea chalcogaster (Wiedemann), and Hyd. spinigera represented by both adults and larvae, meanwhile M. domestica, Atherigona sp., Boettcherisca peregrina (Robineau-Desvoidy), Parasarcophaga taenionota Wiedemann, Parasarcophaga scopariiformis Senior-White, and S. princeps were represented by adults only. The species of flies collected in the highland area were Lucilia porphyrina (Walker), C. megacephala, C. rufifacies, C

  7. Temperature-dependent development of the parasitoid Tachinaephagus zealandicus on five forensically important carrion fly species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voss, S C; Spafford, H; Dadour, I R

    2010-06-01

    The influences of temperature and host species on the development of the forensically important parasitoid Tachinaephagus zealandicus Ashmead (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) were studied at six constant temperatures in the range of 15-30 degrees C. T. zealandicus completed development successfully between 15 degrees C and 27 degrees C on five species of Calliphoridae, Calliphora albifrontalis Malloch, Calliphora dubia Macquart, Lucilia sericata Meigen, Chrysomya rufifacies Macquart and Chrysomya megacephala Fabricius. No adult parasitoids emerged from any of the host species reared at 30 degrees C. Temperature and host species significantly influenced development time, emergence success and progeny size. Development was significantly longer on Ch. megacephala and Ch. rufifacies at 18-24 degrees C and significantly longer on Ch. rufifacies and C. albifrontalis at 15 degrees C and 27 degrees C. Parasitoid emergence success was greatest at 21 degrees C, declined at the temperature extremes (15 degrees C and 27 degrees C) and was significantly lower on Ch. megacephala and Ch. rufifacies than on the three other host species. Progeny numbers per host pupa were highest at 21-24 degrees C, declined on either side of this temperature range and were significantly lower on L. sericata, Ch. rufifacies and Ch. megacephala than on either C. dubia or C. albifrontalis. An effect of host species on sex ratio was only observed at 27 degrees C, at which a higher proportion of T. zealandicus females emerged from Ch. megacephala and Ch. rufifacies than from the other host species. The thermal requirements for development (developmental thresholds, thermal constant, optimum temperature) of T. zealandicus in each host species were estimated using linear and non-linear models. Upper and lower developmental thresholds ranged between 29.90 degrees C and 31.73 degrees C, and 9.73 degrees C and 10.08 degrees C, respectively. The optimum temperature for development was estimated at between 25

  8. Émile Zola: a formação de um militante * Emile Zola: the making of a militant

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    RILTON FERREIRA BORGES

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Resumo: Este artigo tem como objetivo traçar uma biografia de Émile Zola do ponto de vista intelectual, buscando em sua formação, trajetória pessoal e profissional, os caracteres que possam ter contribuído para que sua obra, sobretudo a partir de Germinal, passasse a ser reconhecida por seus contemporâneos, e também posteriormente, como uma espécie de “militância”, termo que será utilizado em sentido amplo, como defesa de uma ideia ou causa. A partir de documentações de diferentes ordens, tentaremos demonstrar alguns itinerários possíveis para compreender esta questão, relacionando Émile Zola, o contexto histórico, social e intelectual em que viveu, e alguns traços de sua obra, sobretudo a série Os Rougon-Macquart. Para tanto, a trajetória de Zola será dividida em três momentos: a militância na arte, a militância pelo Naturalismo e a militância política.Palavras-chave: Zola – Militante – Intelectual. Abstract: This article aims to draw a biography of Emile Zola by an intellectual point of view, investigating his formation, personal and professional trajectory, the features that may contributed to his work, mainly from Germinal, started to be known by his contemporaries, and lately, as a kind of “militance”, term used meaning “the defense of an idea or a cause”. From distinct kinds of documents, we will try to demonstrate some possible ways to understand this point, relating Emile Zola's historical, social and intellectual context with some marks of his books, especially The Rougon-Macquart series. Therefore, the trajectory of Zola will be divided in three stages: militancy in art, militancy in the Naturalism and political militancy.Keywords: Zola – Militant – Intellectual.

  9. The deciduous lower dentition of Ouranopithecus macedoniensis (Primates, Hominoidea) from the late Miocene deposits of Macedonia, Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koufos, George D; de Bonis, Louis

    2004-06-01

    Two mandibular fragments with associated milk teeth assigned to the late Miocene hominoid primate Ouranopithecus macedoniensis are analyzed. The fossils, which belong to a single individual, were found in the Vallesian locality of "Ravin de la Pluie" of the Axios Valley (Macedonia, Greece). The material is described here and compared with extant and extinct hominoids, allowing assessment of the evolutionary trends in the deciduous lower dentition within the Hominoidea. Hylobatids represent the more primitive pattern. Gorilla is slightly more derived than hylobatids, but less derived than Pongo and Pan, the latter being the most derived. With relatively smaller deciduous canines and more molarized deciduous premolars, Ouranopithecus is more derived than both Pan and Gorilla. Among the fossil hominoids, Proconsul, representing the primitive condition, has a very simple dp(3)and a dp(4)that has a trigonid that is taller than the talonid and which lacks a hypoconulid. Griphopithecus is more derived than Proconsul in having a dp(4) with a lower trigonid, a hypoconulid, and a less oblique cristid obliqua. Australopithecus and Paranthropus possess a similar morphology to that of Homo, while Ardipithecus appears to be more primitive than the latter genera. Ouranopithecus has a more derived lower milk dentition than Proconsul and Griphopithecus, but less derived than Australopithecus and Paranthropus. The comparison of the lower milk dentition of Ouranopithecus confirms our previous conclusions suggesting that this fossil hominoid shares derived characters with Australopithecus and Homo.

  10. The spatial distribution of acid phosphatase activity in ectomycorrhizal tissues depends on soil fertility and morphotype, and relates to host plant phosphorus uptake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Maricel; Huygens, Dries; Díaz, Leila Milena; Villanueva, Claudia Añazco; Heyser, Wolfgang; Boeckx, Pascal

    2012-01-01

    Acid phosphatase (ACP) enzymes are involved in the mobilization of soil phosphorus (P) and polyphosphate accumulated in the fungal tissues of ectomycorrhizal roots, thereby influencing the amounts of P that are stored in the fungus and transferred to the host plant. This study evaluated the effects of ectomycorrhizal morphotype and soil fertility on ACP activity in the extraradical mycelium (ACP(myc)), the mantle (ACP(mantle)) and the Hartig net region (ACP(Hartig)) of ectomycorrhizal Nothofagus obliqua seedlings. ACP activity was quantified in vivo using enzyme-labelled fluorescence-97 (ELF-97) substrate, confocal laser microscopy and digital image processing routines. There was a significant effect of ectomycorrhizal morphotype on ACP(myc), ACP(mantle) and ACP(Hartig), while soil fertility had a significant effect on ACP(myc) and ACP(Hartig). The relative contribution of the mantle and the Hartig net region to the ACP activity on the ectomycorrhizal root was significantly affected by ectomycorrhizal morphotype and soil fertility. A positive correlation between ACP(Hartig) and the shoot P concentration was found, providing evidence that ACP activity at the fungus:root interface is involved in P transfer from the fungus to the host. It is concluded that the spatial distribution of ACP in ectomycorrhizas varies as a function of soil fertility and colonizing fungus. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  11. Chemical composition and fumigant toxicity of the essential oils from 16 species of Eucalyptus against Haematobia irritans (Diptera: Muscidae) adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juan, Laura W; Lucia, Alejandro; Zerba, Eduardo N; Harrand, Leonel; Marco, Martin; Masuh, Hector M

    2011-06-01

    Oils extracted from various species of Eucalyptus (Eucalyptus badjensis Beuzev & Welch, Eucalyptus badjensis x Eucalyptus nitens, Eucalyptus benthamii variety dorrigoensis Maiden & Cambage, Eucalyptus botryoides Smith, Eucalyptus dalrympleana Maiden, Eucalyptus fastigata Deane & Maiden, Eucalyptus nobilis L.A.S. Johnson & K. D. Hill, Eucalyptus polybractea R. Baker, Eucalyptus radiata ssp. radiata Sieber ex Spreng, Eucalyptus resinifera Smith, Eucalyptus robertsonii Blakely, Eucalyptus rubida Deane & Maiden, Eucalyptus smithii R. Baker, Eucalyptus elata Dehnh, Eucalyptus fraxinoides Deane & Maiden, E. obliqua L'Hér) were obtained by hydrodistillation. The chemical composition of essential oils was determined by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. Essential oils were mainly composed of 1,8-cineole, alpha-pinene, alpha-terpineol, 4-terpineol, and p-cymene. Vapors from these essential oils and their major components were found to be toxic to Haematobia irritans (L.) (Diptera: Muscidae) adults. An aliquot of each oil was placed in a cylindrical test chamber, and the number of knocked down flies was recorded as a function of time. Knockdown time 50% was then calculated. Results showed that essential oil of E. polybractea had the highest knockdown activity of 3.44 min. A correlation was observed between the content of 1,8-cineole in the Eucalyptus essential oils and the corresponding toxic effect.

  12. A new species of the archaic primate Zanycteris from the late Paleocene of western Colorado and the phylogenetic position of the family Picrodontidae

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    Benjamin John Burger

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available A new species of an archaic primate (Pleisadapiformes is described based on a maxilla containing the first and second upper molars from the Fort Union Formation, Atwell Gulch Member in northwestern Colorado. The preserved teeth show the unusual dental characteristics of members of the rare and poorly documented Picrodontidae family, including an elongated centrocrista and wide occlusal surface. The new species is placed within the genus Zanycteris (represented by a single specimen from southern Colorado. This placement is based on similarities in regard to the parastyle, curvilinear centrocrista, and wider anterior stylar shelf on the upper molars. However, the new species differs from the only known species of Zanycteris in exhibiting an upper first molar that is 30% larger in area, while retaining a similarly sized upper second molar. Phylogenetic analysis supports the separation of the Picrodontidae family from the Paromomyidae, while still recognizing picrodontids position within Pleisadapiformes. The unusual dental features of the upper molars likely functioned in life as an enhanced shearing surface between the centrocrista and cristid obliqua crests for a specialized diet of fruit. A similar arrangement is found in the living bat Ariteus (Jamaican fig-eating bat, which feeds on fleshy fruit. The new species showcases the rapid diversification of archaic primates shortly after the extinction of the dinosaurs during the Paleocene, and the unusual dental anatomy of picrodontids to exploit new dietary specializations.

  13. Descomposición de hojarasca de Pinus radiata y tres especies arbóreas nativas Decomposition of leaf litter of Pinus radiata and three native tree species

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    CHRISTOPHER H. LUSK

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available En el centro-sur de Chile, las últimas décadas han sido testigo de una conversión masiva de bosques, matorrales y tierras agrícolas a plantaciones de árboles exóticos. Aunque se ha estudiado la influencia de dichos cambios sobre el balance hídrico, los posibles efectos sobre otros procesos ecosistémicos han recibido poca atención. En esta breve comunicación se presentan datos de un estudio de la descomposición de hojarasca de Pinus radiata y tres especies arbóreas nativas, llevado a cabo con el fin de explorar los posibles efectos del reemplazo de bosque nativo por plantaciones exóticas sobre el ciclaje de nutrientes. Se incubaron muestras de las cuatro especies en dos ambientes distintos en sitios colindantes: bajo un bosque nativo secundario, y bajo un rodal de P. radiata. Se registró la pérdida de peso seco después de dos meses y seis meses. Las tasas diarias de descomposición fueron mucho mayores durante los primeros dos meses de incubación que durante los cuatro meses subsiguientes. En ambas fechas hubo diferencias significativas entre las especies y entre los sitios: todas las especies presentaron mayores tasas de descomposición bajo P. radiata que bajo el bosque nativo. No hubo evidencia de interacción entre sitio y especie. Después de seis meses, el orden de pérdida de peso seco fue Nothofagus obliqua > P. radiata > Peumus boldus > Cryptocarya alba. La variación interespecífica en la tasa de descomposición presentó más relación con el área foliar específica que con el contenido de nitrógeno en la hojarasca. Dado que la hojarasca de P. radiata se descompuso más lentamente que la de la especie caducifolia N. obliqua, pero más rápidamente que las especies esclerófilas, los efectos de la sustitución o invasión sobre descomposición dependerían de la composición original del bosque nativo en cuestiónRecent decades have seen widespread conversion of native forests, shrublands and farmland in south

  14. Estimation of the fustal diameter on the central knotty cylinder in oak basal logs, Chile

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    Patricio Corvalán Vera

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to determine the diameter of the central knotted cylinder both alive and dead, a total of 60 trees belonging to the upper quartile of diametric classes in unmanaged renewal of N. obliqua from the Maule foothills were sampled. It is assumed that these are determined by the lowest living and dead branch present in tree height, respectively. We analyzed the relationships between the diameter of the central knotty cylinder, and the diameters at the lower end of logs 1.2, 2.4 and 3.6 m above the stump, the normal diameter and the insertion height of the first branch. From the analysis it is deduced that: i the diameter of the live and dead central knotted cylinder increases linearly with the normal diameter of the tree, ii that the diameter at the smaller end of the logs increases as it does and decreases as increases in height above the ground and iii that the fustal diameter on the dead central knotty cylinder increases linearly with the normal diameter and the insertion height of the lowest dead branch of the tree, allowing to determine the zone of occlusion of the knots of the tree.

  15. New record for Woldstedtius flavolineatus (Ichneumonidae: Diplazontinae), a hymenopteran parasitoid of syrphid flies in Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappadonna, Justin; Euaparadorn, Melody; Peck, Robert W.; Banko, Paul C.

    2009-01-01

    The parasitoid wasp Woldstedtius flavolineatus (Gravenhorst) (Ichneumonidae) attacks the larvae of syrphid flies (Syrphidae). Woldstedtius flavolineatus was collected in Hawaii for the first time during an extensive malaise trap-based survey of parasitoids in Hawaiian forests. Since its initial collection on Hawaii Island in January 2006, it has been collected at five additional sites on Hawaii Island and at one site each on Maui and Oahu. Malaise trap results from Hakalau Forest National Wildlife Refuge showed a strong seasonal pattern of abundance, with peak population levels reached during July–September. Rearing of its host, Allograpta obliqua (Say), collected from koa (Acacia koa Gray) at Hakalau over two days, revealed a parasitism rate of approximately 95%. Broader impacts of this alien wasp are unknown, but a reduction in host syrphid abundance could result in an increase in numbers of psyllids and aphids (Homoptera) that are preyed upon by syrphid larvae. Furthermore, a reduction in adult syrphids could impact the reproductive success of some of the plants they pollinate.

  16. Triassic beds in the basement of the Adriatic-Dinaric carbonate platform of Mt. Svilaja (Croatia

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    Vladimir Jelaska

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available On the southwestern slope of Mt. Svilaja a Triassic sequence is exposed. It is composed of Lower Triassic carbonate siliciclastic shelf beds that are unconformably overlain by Anisian breccia. The overlying pelagic Anisian and Ladinian strata with pyroclastic rockscan be interpreted as a result of rift tectonics of Adria micro-plate. A 500 m thick sequence is capped by an emersion surface by karstification and terrigenous sediments including conglomerate as a result of Late Triassic transgression and marking the lower boundaryof a new, Late Mesozoic, megasequence of the External Dinarides.By means of conodont study, in the lowermost part of the studied Mesozoic sequence, a Lower Triassic shallow-water conodont fauna yielding Pachycladina obliqua apparatus was recorded. Pelagic limestone beds overlying the »Otarnik breccia« are marked byconodont elements of the Anisian constricta Zone. The Ladinian interval is characterized (from bottom to top: trammeri A. Z., hungaricus A. Z. and mungoensis A. Z. The uppermost part of the section below the emersion surface is identified by Pseudofurnishiusmurchianus, indicating the Upper Ladinian-Lower Carnian murchianus Zone.

  17. A survey of syrphid predators of Nasonovia ribisnigri in organic lettuce on the central coast of California.

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    Smith, Hugh A; Chaney, William E

    2007-02-01

    Organic lettuce, Lactuca sativa L., producers on California's Central Coast rely on endemic syrphid flies (Diptera: Syrphidae) to suppress populations of Nasonovia ribisnigri Mosley (Homoptera: Aphididae) and other aphids affecting lettuce. Growers are using various forms of habitat manipulation to enhance biological control. We surveyed syrphids collected from organic romaine in and around the Salinas Valley from March through September 2005 to gain a better understanding of the species responsible for aphid suppression and to examine possible implications for biocontrol. The primary species of syrphid fly reared were Toxomerus marginatus (Say) (39%), Platycheirus stegnus (Say) (27%), Sphaerophoria sulfuripes (Thomson) (13%), and Allograpta obliqua (Say) (10%). Syrphus opinator Osten Sacken (2%), Toxomerus occidentalis (Curran) (1.3%), and Eupeodes volucris Osten Sacken (1%) were less common. Sphaerophoria pyrrhina Bigot, Scaeva pyrastri (L.), Platycheirus obscurus Say, Allograpta exotica Wiedemann, and Eupeodes americanus Wiedemann each made up aphids. P. stegnus was observed to deposit in clusters of eggs, and was only reared in significant numbers from highly infested fields. Approximately 5% of syrphid larvae overall were parasitized by either Diplazon sp. (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae) or Pachyneuron sp. (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae).

  18. The Ordovician ostracodes established by Aurel Krause, Part II

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    R. Schallreuter

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The revision of ostracodes originally established by Aurel Krause is continued and finished with the description of the following species: Primitia distans, P. elongata, P. cincta, P. excavata, P. papillata, P. plicata, P. schmidtii, Strepula limbata, S. simplex, Entomis obliqua, E. plicata, E. sigma, E. sigma ornata, E. simplex, E. trilobata, Beyrichia erratica, B. erratica granulosa, B. erratica acuta, B. harpa, and B. marchica lata. Three of these species are younger primary homonyms. For Beyrichia erratica granulosa Krause, 1891 a respective decision of the ICZN according to art. 23.9.5 is presently unnecessary, because it has an older synonym (Beyrichia grewingkii Bock, 1867, and Primitia excavata Krause, 1892 has a younger synonym (Laccochilina paucigranosa Jaanusson, 1957. The third homonym, Beyrichia marchica lata Krause, 1891, is considered as a nomen protectum. Entomis sigma ornata, and E. plicata are presently considered as nomina dubia. Since the type material of the three species P. distans, E. sigma, and E. simplex is apparently lost, neotypes are designated. doi:10.1002/mmng.201300007

  19. The genus Rosalba Thomson, 1864 (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae, Lamiinae, Apomecynini).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos-Silva, Antonio; Galileo, Maria Helena M; Joly, Luis J; Tavakilian, GÉrard L

    2018-02-26

    Nineteen new species are described: Rosalba wappesi, from Bolivia; R. giesberti, from Bolivia; R. skillmani, from Bolivia; R. lingafelteri, from Bolivia; R. senecauxi, from French Guiana; R. dalensi, from French Guiana; R. giuglarisi, from French Guiana; R. nearnsi, from French Guiana; R. cerdai, from French Guiana; R. gaianii, from Venezuela; R. pittieri, from Venezuela; R. clinei, from Bolivia and Brazil; R. morrisi, from Costa Rica and Panama; R. schneppi, from Panama; R. birai, from Colombia; R. stenodesma, from Venezuela and French Guiana; R. similis, from Peru and Ecuador; R. bezarki, from Ecuador; and R.seraisorum, from Ecuador and Brazil (Amazonas). The following new synonymies are established: Aletretia dissimilis Belon, 1903 = A. fimbriata Belon, 1903; Aletretia consobrina Melzer, 1934, Rosalba gounellei Galileo Martins, 2013 and Rosalba vanini Galileo Martins, 2013 = Aletretia inscripta Bates, 1866; Aletretia mediofasciata Breuning, 1943 = Aletretia bucki Melzer, 1934; Aletretia peraffinis Breuning, 1940 = Aletretia approximata Melzer, 1934. The following species are redescribed: Rosalba strandiella (Breuning, 1940); and Rosalba rufescens (Breuning, 1940). The following new records are reported: Rosalba strandiella for Bolivia; R. strandi (Breuning, 1943) from the Brazilian states of São Paulo, Paraná and Santa Catarina; R. inscripta from Peru and the Brazilian state of Acre; R. smaragdina (Breuning, 1940) from the Brazilian state of Minas Gerais; R. obliqua (Thomson, 1868) from Brazil; and Rosalba fimbriata (Belon, 1903) from Ecuador.

  20. Alighting and feeding behaviour of tabanid flies on horses, kangaroos and pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muzari, M O; Skerratt, L F; Jones, R E; Duran, T L

    2010-05-28

    Successful mechanical transmission of surra between animals by tabanid flies (Diptera: Tabanidae) depends to a large extent on the blood-feeding behaviour of the tabanid species prevalent in the area. We studied tabanid-host interactions in Australia to better predict risk of surra transmission and design intervention strategies. At least six tabanid species were observed alighting on horses, pigs and kangaroos, but the most abundant were Tabanus pallipennis Macquart, Pseudotabanus silvester Bergroth and T. townsvilli Ricardo. The behaviour of tabanids in terms of landing location on the host body, duration of feeding and the proportion completing the blood-meal varied with fly species and host species. The findings predict that some species of tabanid such as T. pallipennis should be better vectors and some species of host such as pigs should be better reservoirs of surra based on the inability of flies to feed to repletion and longer feeding durations. This will result in multiple feeds and increased risk of exposure to the infectious agent, respectively, which increases the risk of transmission. Insecticide treatments should target preferred feeding sites on the host's body. (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Forensic entomology cases in Thailand: a review of cases from 2000 to 2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukontason, Kom; Narongchai, Paitoon; Kanchai, Chaturong; Vichairat, Karnda; Sribanditmongkol, Pongruk; Bhoopat, Tanin; Kurahashi, Hiromu; Chockjamsai, Manoch; Piangjai, Somsak; Bunchu, Nophawan; Vongvivach, Somsak; Samai, Wirachai; Chaiwong, Tarinee; Methanitikorn, Rungkanta; Ngern-Klun, Rachadawan; Sripakdee, Duanghatai; Boonsriwong, Worachote; Siriwattanarungsee, Sirisuda; Srimuangwong, Chaowakit; Hanterdsith, Boonsak; Chaiwan, Khankam; Srisuwan, Chalard; Upakut, Surasak; Moopayak, Kittikhun; Vogtsberger, Roy C; Olson, Jimmy K; Sukontason, Kabkaew L

    2007-10-01

    This paper presents and discusses 30 cases of cadavers that had been transferred for forensic entomology investigations to the Department of Forensic Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Chiang Mai University, northern Thailand, from 2000 to 2006. Variable death scenes were determined, including forested area and suburban and urban outdoor and indoor environments. The fly specimens found in the corpses obtained were the most commonly of the blow fly of family Calliphoridae, and consisted of Chrysomya megacephala (F.), Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart) Chrysomya villeneuvi Patton, Chrysomya nigripes Aubertin, Chrysomya bezziana Villeneuve, Chrysomya chani Kurahashi, Lucilia cuprina (Wiedemann), Hemipyrellia ligurriens (Wiedemann), and two unknown species. Flies of the family Muscidae [Hydrotaea spinigera Stein, Synthesiomyia nudiseta (Wulp)], Piophilidae [Piophila casei (L.)], Phoridae [Megaselia scalaris (Loew)], Sarcophagidae [Parasarcophaga ruficornis (F.) and three unknown species], and Stratiomyiidae (Sargus sp.) were also collected from these human remains. Larvae and adults of the beetle, Dermestes maculatus DeGeer (Coleoptera: Dermestidae), were also found in some cases. Chrysomya megacephala and C. rufifacies were the most common species found in the ecologically varied death scene habitats associated with both urban and forested areas, while C. nigripes was commonly discovered in forested places. S. nudiseta was collected only from corpses found in an indoor death scene.

  2. Effects of larval population density on rates of development and interactions between two species of Chrysomya (Diptera: Calliphoridae) in laboratory culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodbrod, J R; Goff, M L

    1990-05-01

    Rearing of Chrysomya megacephala (F.) and Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart) in pure cultures at seven different population densities (larvae per gram of liver) demonstrated an inverse relationship between density and the duration of the larval stage. In pure cultures, larval mortality rates decreased with increasing density until an optimum density was reached (8 larvae/g liver for C. megacephala and 10 larvae/g liver for C. rufifacies), then decreased directly with density. Puparial and adult weights varied inversely with density for both species in pure cultures. Internal feeding mass temperatures were above ambient temperatures for all cultures, with maximum temperatures recorded in cultures with 20 and 40 larvae/g liver for G. rufifacies and C. megacephala, respectively. In paired encounters, larvae of C. rufifacies were cannibalistic and predatory on C. megacephala larvae after the first instar. In mixed cultures of these two species, the larval mortality of C. rufifacies remained relatively stable, whereas the larval mortality of C. megacephala increased directly with population density.

  3. Development changes of cuticular hydrocarbons in Chrysomya rufifacies larvae: potential for determining larval age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, G H; Ye, G Y; Hu, C; Xu, X H; Li, K

    2006-12-01

    Age determination is the basis of determining the postmortem interval using necrophagous fly larvae. To explore the potential of using cuticular hydrocarbons for determining the ages of fly larvae, changes of cuticular hydrocarbons in developing larvae of Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart) (Diptera: Calliphoridae) were investigated using gas chromatography with flame-ionization detection and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. This study showed that the larvae produced cuticular hydrocarbons typical of insects. Most of the hydrocarbons identified were alkanes with the carbon chain length of 21-31, plus six kinds of alkenes. The hydrocarbon composition of the larvae correlated with age. The statistical results showed that simple peak ratios of n-C29 divided by another eight selected peaks increased significantly with age; their relationships with age could be modelled using exponential or power functions with R(2) close to or > 0.80. These results suggest that cuticular hydrocarbon composition is a useful indicator for determining the age of larval C. rufifacies, especially for post-feeding larvae, which are difficult to differentiate by morphology.

  4. Occurrence of blow fly species (Diptera: calliphoridae) in Phitsanulok Province, Northern Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunchu, Nophawan; Sukontason, Kom; Sanit, Sangob; Chidburee, Polprecha; Kurahashi, Hiromu; Sukontason, Kabkaew L

    2012-12-01

    Based on the current forensic importance of blow flies (Diptera: Calliphoridae), their biological aspects have been studied increasingly worldwide. The blow fly fauna in Phitsanulok Province, Northern Thailand was studied from May 2009 to April 2010 in the residential, agricultural, mountainous and forested areas of Muang, Wat Bot, Nakhon Thai and Wang Thong districts, respectively, in order to know the occurrence of blow flies in this province. Collections were carried out monthly using commercial funnel fly traps and sweeping methods, with 1-day tainted pork viscera as bait. Identification of adult blow flies exhibited 14 634 specimens, comprising of 5 subfamilies, 14 genera and 36 species. Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius, 1794) and Achoetandrus rufifacies (Macquart, 1843) were the most and second most abundant species trapped, respectively. These two species of carrion flies prevailed in all the types of land investigated. We calculated and compared the diversity indices, species evenness and richness, and similarity coefficients of the blow fly species in various areas. The data from this study may be used to identify the potential of forensicallyimportant fly species within Phitsanulok Province and fulfill the information on blow fly fauna in Thailand.

  5. Forensic entomology of high-rise buildings in Malaysia: Three case reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syamsa, R A; Omar, B; Zuha, R M; Faridah, M N; Swarhib, M S; Hidayatulfathi, O; Shahrom, A W

    2015-06-01

    The distributions of flies are not only confined to ground level but can also be at higher altitudes. Here, we report three forensic cases involving dipterans in high-rise buildings in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Case 1 involved a corpse of adult female found at the top floor of a fifteen-story apartment. Case 2 dealt with a body of a 75-year-old female discovered in a bedroom on the eleventh floor of an eighteen-story building, while Case 3 was a 52-year-old male found in his fifth floor shop house. Interestingly, entomological analysis revealed that all corpses were infested with similar Dipterans: Megaselia scalaris (Loew) (Diptera: Phoridae), Synthesiomyia nudiseta (Wulp) (Diptera: Muscidae) and sarcophagid (Diptera: Sarcophagidae). The first two species were commonly associated with corpses found indoors at ground level. We noted the additional occurrence of blowflies Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius) (Diptera: Calliphoridae) and Chrysomya rufifacies Macquart (Diptera: Calliphoridae) larvae in Case 2 and Case 3, respectively. Findings from this study are significant as they demonstrate that certain groups of fly can locate dead bodies even in high-rise buildings. Forensic entomofauna research on corpses found at high elevation is scarce and our study has highlighted the peculiarity of the fly species involved in Malaysia.

  6. Morphology and developmental rate of blowflies Chrysomya megacephala and Chrysomya rufifacies in Thailand: application in forensic entomology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukontason, Kom; Piangjai, Somsak; Siriwattanarungsee, Sirisuda; Sukontason, Kabkaew L

    2008-05-01

    The larval morphology and developmental rate of Chrysomya megacephala (F.) and Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart), the two most forensically important blowfly species in Thailand, are presented. Morphological comparison of the third instar of both species revealed different characteristics (e.g., body appearance, cephalopharyngeal skeleton, dorsal cuticular spines between the prothorax and mesothorax, and feature of the posterior spiracle), thereby, allowing correct identification. A data analysis was conducted in Chiang Mai province, Northern Thailand during 2000-2001 on the developmental rate of both flies under natural ambient temperature and a natural light-dark photoperiod. The results indicated that larvae of C. megacephala developed more rapidly in April, pupariation initiated at 84 h at temperatures averaging 31.4 degrees C, and the larvae grew slower in the rainy season and winter. Similarly, rapid development of C. rufifacies larvae appeared in the summer, with a pupariation period as short as 96 h in June (average temperature 27.4 degrees C). Analysis of the median body length of C. megacephala and C. rufifacies larvae in different seasons of the years 2000-2001 in Thailand revealed that both species developed rapidly in the summer; pupariation of C. rufifacies initiated at 144 h, while C. megacephala initiated pupariation at 156 h. This information is potentially useful for estimating the postmortem interval of a corpse in forensic investigations, where the corpse becomes infesting with these fly species.

  7. Interdisciplinary workshop yields new entomological data for forensic sciences: Chrysomya rufifacies (Diptera: Calliphoridae) established in North Carolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomberlin, Jeffery K; Albert, A Midori; Byrd, Jason H; Hall, David W

    2006-11-01

    ABSTRACT Workshops are used for educating law enforcement personnel on the application of entomological, anthropological, and botanical techniques to gather forensically important information from a body recovery site. From 8 to 11 June 2004, such a workshop was conducted in the metropolitan area of Charlotte, NC, by the American Academy of Applied Forensics at Central Piedmont Community College. For this workshop, three pig carcasses weighing individually between 40 and 60 kg were placed in the field 4 June, whereas three pigs similar in size were placed in the field 7 June. During the afternoon session on 11 June, workshop participants collected three Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart) (Diptera: Calliphoridae) third instar larvae from a pig carcass placed in the field on 7 June. These data represent the first records of this forensically important insect in North Carolina; furthermore, these data provide evidence of this species expansion into new geographic regions of the United States. This finding is an example of the benefits derived from an experiential and interdisciplinary approach to educating death scene investigators. Learners acquired new knowledge, put it into practice through the "body" recovery exercise, and ultimately contributed to science by way of the discovery and first documentation of a forensically important insect previously not known to inhabit North Carolina.

  8. Review of forensically important entomological specimens collected from human cadavers in Malaysia (2005-2010).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavitha, Rajagopal; Nazni, Wasi Ahmad; Tan, Tian Chye; Lee, Han Lim; Azirun, Mohd Sofian

    2013-07-01

    Forensic entomological specimens collected from human decedents during crime scene investigations in Malaysia in the past 6 years (2005-2010) are reviewed. A total of 80 cases were recorded and 93 specimens were collected. From these specimens, 10 species of cyclorrphagic flies were identified, consisting of Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart) -38 specimens (40.86%), Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius) -36 specimens (38.70%), Chrysomya villeneuvi (Patton) -2 specimens (2.15%), Chrysomya nigripes (Aubertin) -2 specimens (2.15%), Chrysomya pinguis (Walker) -1 specimen (1.08%), Hermetia illucens (Linnaeus) -1 specimen (1.08%), Hemipyrellia liguriens (Wiedemann) -5 specimens (5.37%), Synthesiomyia nudiseta (Wulp) -1 specimen (1.08%), Megaselia scalaris (Loew)-1 specimen (1.08%) and Sarcophaga ruficornis (Fabricius) -4 specimens (4.30%). In two specimens (2.15%), the maggots were not identifiable. Ch. megacephala and Ch. rufifacies were the commonest species found in human decedents from three different ecological habitats. S. nudiseta is an uncommon species found only on human cadavers from indoors. A total of 75 cases (93.75%) had a single fly infestation and 5 cases (6.25%) had double fly infestation. In conclusion, although large numbers of fly species were found on human decedents, the predominant species are still those of Chrysomya. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  9. Development of the Oriental Latrine Fly, Chrysomya megacephala (Diptera: Calliphoridae), at Five Constant Temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruner, S V; Slone, D H; Capinera, J L; Turco, M P

    2017-03-01

    Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius) is a forensically important fly that is found throughout the tropics and subtropics. We calculated the accumulated development time and transition points for each life stage from eclosion to adult emergence at five constant temperatures: 15, 20, 25, 30, and 35 °C. For each transition, the 10th, 50th, and 90th percentiles were calculated with a logistic linear model. The mean transition times and % survivorship were determined directly from the raw laboratory data. Development times of C. megacephala were compared with that of two other closely related species, Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart) and Phormia regina (Meigen). Ambient and larval mass temperatures were collected from field studies conducted from 2001-2004. Field study data indicated that adult fly activity was reduced at lower ambient temperatures, but once a larval mass was established, heat generation occurred. These development times and durations can be used for estimation of a postmortem interval (PMI). © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Human wound colonization by Lucilia eximia and Chrysomya rufifacies (Diptera: Calliphoridae): myiasis, perimortem, or postmortem colonization?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanford, Michelle R; Whitworth, Terry L; Phatak, Darshan R

    2014-05-01

    The infestation of human or animal tissues by fly larvae has been given distinctive terminology depending on the timing and location of colonization. Wounds and orifices colonized by Diptera in a living human or animal are typically referred to as myiasis. When the colonization occurs after death, it is referred to as postmortem colonization and can be used to estimate the minimum postmortem interval. What happens when the human, as in the case presented here, has a necrotic limb while the human remains alive, at least for a short period of time? The case presented here documents perimortem wound colonization by Lucilia eximia (Wiedemann) and Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart) and the considerations for approximating development temperatures and estimating the time of colonization (TOC). This represents the first record of L. eximia in human myiasis in the United States and the first record of the co-occurrence of L. eximia and C. rufifacies in human myiasis in the United States. The TOC was estimated using both ambient and body temperature. Insect colonization before death complicates the estimation of TOC and minimum postmortem interval and illustrates the problem of temperature approximation in forensic entomology casework.

  11. Impact of the 2010 Deepwater Horizon oil spill on population size and genetic structure of horse flies in Louisiana marshes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husseneder, Claudia; Donaldson, Jennifer R; Foil, Lane D

    2016-01-12

    The greenhead horse fly, Tabanus nigrovittatus Macquart, is frequently found in coastal marshes of the Eastern United States. The greenhead horse fly larvae are top predators in the marsh and thus vulnerable to changes in the environment, and the adults potentially are attracted to polarized surfaces like oil. Therefore, horse fly populations could serve as bioindicators of marsh health and toxic effects of oil intrusion. In this study, we describe the impact of the April 2010 Deep Water Horizon oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico on tabanid population abundance and genetics as well as mating structure. Horse fly populations were sampled biweekly from oiled and unaffected locations immediately after the oil spill in June 2010 until October 2011. Horse fly abundance estimates showed severe crashes of tabanid populations in oiled areas. Microsatellite genotyping of six pristine and seven oiled populations at ten polymorphic loci detected genetic bottlenecks in six of the oiled populations in association with fewer breeding parents, reduced effective population size, lower number of family clusters and fewer migrants among populations. This is the first study assessing the impact of oil contamination at the level of a top arthropod predator of the invertebrate community in salt marshes.

  12. Prevalence of parasitism and adult survival time of Aedes albifasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae) parasitized by Strelkovimermis spiculatus (Nematoda: Mermithidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Battista, Cristian M; Fischer, Sylvia; Campos, Raúl E

    2015-12-01

    We described the carryover of Strelkovimermis spiculatus (Poinar and Camino) (Nematoda: Mermithidae) from mosquito larvae, the primary site of maturation, to adults. We analyzed the survival time of male and female Aedes albifasciatus (Macquart) (Diptera: Culicidae) parasitized by S. spiculatus, the time of emergence of nematodes from adult mosquitoes, and the state of parasitism in the same mosquito cohorts during the immature stages. Mosquito larvae with single and multiple parasitism (up to 11 parasites) were observed. The mortality of mosquito larvae and adults was produced in all cases where at least one mermithid emerged. The mortality of S. spiculatus showed an increasing trend in mosquito larvae with larger numbers of nematodes and was higher in larvae parasitized by eight or more nematodes. Maximum survival of parasitized adult females of Ae. albifasciatus was 38 days, while non-parasitized adult males and females survived 39 and 41 days, respectively. Strelkovimermis spiculatus mortality was observed in Ae. albifasciatus larvae with single or multiple parasitisms. The spread of mermithid parasitism in adult mosquito populations is discussed. © 2015 The Society for Vector Ecology.

  13. Do fly parasites of bats and their hosts coevolve?speciation in Trichobius phyllostomae group (Diptera, Streblidae and their hosts (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae suggests that they do not

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Graciolli

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available We examined whether, like many parasite-host systems of coevolution, a group of obligate parasitic bat flies (Trichobius phyllostomae Kessel and related species cospeciate with their hosts. We first did a cladistic analysis of the T. phyllostomae group and combined that analysis with a phylogenetic hypothesis from the literature for the Stenodermatinae bats. The cladistic analysis included, as outgroups, one species from each morphological group and complex of Trichobius Gervais, and one species from the following genera: Paratrichobius Miranda-Ribeiro, Megistopoda Macquart, Megistapophysys Dick & Wenzel, Neotrichobius Wenzel & Aitken, Speiseria Kessel and Strebla Wiedemann. The cladogram was rooted with a species of Strebla in the subfamily Streblinae. One cladogram was obtained and which found Trichobius to be polyphyletic. The phylogenetic hypothesis as follows: (Paratrichobius, (Neotrichobius, (Megistopoda, Megistapophysis is the sister-group of the phyllostomae group and the following relationships within the ingroup, (((T. vampyropis Wenzel, Trichobius sp. 2 ((T. hispidus Wenzel, T. petersoni Wenzel ((Trichobius sp. 1 (T. phyllostomae, T. brennani Wenzel. When we compared phylogenies through historical association analyses, cospeciation was uncommon, while host-switching was more common and better explained the association between the phyllostomae group and their bat hosts.

  14. Taxonomic review of the species of Helina R.-D. (Diptera: Muscidae) from Andean-Patagonian forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patitucci, Luciano Damián; Mulieri, Pablo Ricardo; Mariluis, Juan Carlos

    2016-08-12

    Helina Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830 is the second genus of Muscidae in terms of richness. This genus includes several species collected at high altitudes and high latitudes, and is poorly studied in the Neotropical region. Only 12 species of Helina have been recorded in the southern limit of South America in the Andean-Patagonian forests. In the present work, we studied all the species known from the Andean-Patagonian forests, with the exception of H. viola Malloch, 1934, present three new species, H. araucana sp. nov., H. dorada sp. nov., and H. ouina sp. nov., and provide the first description of the females of H. australis Carvalho & Pont, 1993 and H. rufoapicata Malloch, 1934. We also propose four new synonymies: H. nigrimana basilaris (Carvalho & Pont, 1993) and H. nigrimana grisea (Malloch, 1934) as new junior synonyms of H. nigrimana (Macquart, 1851); and H. fulvocalyptrata Malloch, 1934 and H. simplex Malloch, 1934 as new junior synonyms of H. chilensis Malloch, 1934. Finally, we provide a generic diagnosis and a new key for the Helina species of the Andean-Patagonian forests, as well as notes on the biology and distribution maps of each specimen, and discuss a preliminary contruction of groups of species.

  15. Determination of Opiinae parasitoids (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) associated with crop infesting Bactrocera spp. (Diptera: Tephritidae) using COI and Cyt b sequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shariff, Safiah; Yaakop, Salmah; Zain, Badrul Munir Md.

    2013-11-01

    Members of the Opiinae subfamily (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) are well known as important parasitoids of fruit fly larvae (Diptera: Tephritidae). They are widely used as biological control agents of fruit flies, especially the Bactrocera Macquart species that infest fruits. In this study, the larvae of fruit flies were collected from infested crops including star fruit, guava, wax apple and ridge gourd. The parasitized larvae were then reared under laboratory conditions until emergence of the adult parasitoids. Additionally, Malaise trap also was used to collect parasitoid species. The general concept of the multiplex PCR has been performed is to amplify two mitochondrial DNA markers, namely cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) and cytochrome b (Cyt b) simultaneously. Therefore, the lengthy process of reaction will be reduced. The status of the fruit fly species has also been confirmed by using COI marker on the early stage of the larvae. Maximum parsimony (MP) and Bayesian Inference (BI) were implemented to help and support the identification of Opiinae species. The result obtained from this study showed three parasitoid genera of the Opiinae viz. Fopius Wharton, Psyttalia Walker and Diachasmimorpha Viereck. Each genus has been determined by clustering together in a similar clade according to their infested crops. Therefore, accurate determination of parasitoids and the fruit fries species was highly useful and necessary for successful biological control of Bactrocera species.

  16. Genetic characterization of Bactrocera fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) from Northeastern India based on DNA barcodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manger, Arpana; Behere, G T; Firake, D M; Sharma, Bhagawati; Deshmukh, N A; Firake, P D; Azad Thakur, N S; Ngachan, S V

    2017-07-31

    The Northeastern region of India, one of the mega biodiversity hot spots has enormous potential for the production of fruits and vegetables. Fruit flies of the genus Bactrocera Macquart are important pests of fruits and vegetables, and one of the limiting factors in successful production of these commodities. The relationship among some of the species is unclear due to their high molecular and morphological similarities. Moreover, due to the significant morphological resemblance between fruit fly species, reliable identification is very difficult task. We genetically characterized 10 fruit fly species of the genus Bactrocera by using standard DNA barcoding region of COI gene. The characterization and identification of eight species were straight forward. This study was unable to establish the molecular identity of Bactrocera sp. 2. Within the 547 bp region of partial COI gene, there were 157 variable sites of which 110 sites were parsimony informative, 153 were synonymous substitutions and 4 were non-synonymous substitutions. The estimate of genetic divergence among the ten species was in the range of 0-21.9% and the pairwise genetic distance of Bactrocera. (Bactrocera) dorsalis (Hendel) with B. (B.) carambolae was only 0.7%. Phylogenetic analysis formed separate clades for fruit and vegetable infesting fruit flies. B. (B.) aethriobasis Hardy, B. (B.) thailandica and B. (B.) tuberculata (Bezzi) have been reported for the first time from the Northeastern India. The information generated from this study would certainly have implications for pest management, taxonomy, quarantine and trade.

  17. The human nature between realism and naturalism in the nineteenth century الطبائع الإنسانية بين الواقعية و الطبيعية في القرن التاسع عشر

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    Ahmed abed abbas احمد عبد عباس

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available If realism is present in human beings since ancient times, it is necessarily present in literature as an expression of the nature of people and as a product of influences of race, time and place. Our research covered: The human nature between realism and naturalism in the nineteenth century The reasons for the emergence of realism and natural in literature, and then addressed a number of features, including the pessimism, which was represented in the work of its pioneer Balzac, who depicted some social diseases such as stinginess and access and hypocrisy and the search for money, as in the series of novels ("human comedy Which is acquired by the individual of his community. And then the research showed the advantages of naturalism, which sees its leader, Emil Zola, that man is evil and that the cause of his evil is due to the instincts he inherited from the fathers, which include a part of the inherited traditions and individualities as in the series of novels Rougon-Macquart.

  18. Apple biological and physiological disorders in the orchard and in postharvest according to production system Distúrbios biológicos e fisiológicos no pomar e na pós-colheita de maçãs em função do sistema de produção

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    Carlos Roberto Martins

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to evaluate the incidence of biological and physiological disorders in the field and postharvested apples cvs. Gala, Fuji and Catarina grown in four production systems: conventional, organic transition, integrated and organic. Apples were evaluated for damages related to biological and physiological disorders in the orchard and after harvest. The greatest damages were attributed to pests, especially Anastrepha fraterculus in the organic system and Grapholita molesta in the organic transition. Apples produced in organic orchards had higher damage levels caused by postharvest physiological disorders than those grown in other production systems. For apples becoming from organic orchards most of the damage was due to lenticels breakdown and degeneration ('Gala', and bitter pit ('Fuji' and 'Catarina'. The incidence of postharvest rot was not influenced by apple production system.O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a ocorrência de distúrbios biológicos e fisiológicos, tanto em nível de campo como em pós-colheita, de maçãs 'Gala', 'Fuji' e 'Catarina', produzidas em pomares conduzidos em quatro sistemas de produção: convencional, transição convencional-orgânico, integrado e orgânico. As maçãs foram avaliadas quanto à presença de danos ocasionados por distúrbios biológicos e fisiológicos no pomar e em pós-colheita. Os maiores danos foram atribuídos às pragas, principalmente à Anastrepha fraterculus em sistema orgânico e à Grapholita molesta em sistema de transição convencional-orgânico. As maçãs produzidas em sistema orgânico tiveram maiores danos em pós-colheita ocasionados por distúrbios fisiológicos do que as dos demais sistemas de produção. Nas frutas produzidas em sistema orgânico, os danos, em sua maioria foram com degenerescência e depressão lenticelar para a cv. Gala, e bitter pit para as cvs. Fuji e Catarina. A incidência de podridões pós-colheita não foi influenciada pelo sistema de

  19. Isca tóxica e disrupção sexual no controle da mosca-da-fruta sul-americana e da mariposa-oriental em pessegueiro Toxic bait and mating disruption to control the American fruit fly and the oriental fruit moth on peach orchards

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    Wagner da Roza Härter

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o emprego simultâneo de isca tóxica e da técnica de disrupção sexual, com uso de feromônio sexual, para o controle de Anastrepha fraterculus e Grapholita molesta, em pomar comercial de pessegueiro. Foram utilizados três pomares de 0,5 ha, com os seguintes tratamentos: pomar 1, manejo com isca tóxica (Biofruit 3% + Malathion 500 CE a 200 mL por 100 L, aplicada nas plantas da borda do pomar quando o nível de controle era atingido, e uso da disrupção sexual por meio da aplicação de feromônio (Splat Grafo em 1.000 pontos por ha; pomar 2, manejo convencional, constituído por pulverizações com inseticidas de contato e ingestão de 2 a 3 vezes ao ano; pomar 3, testemunha, sem controle. A população de adultos das duas espécies e o dano em ponteiros e frutos foram monitorados nas safras 2007/2008 e 2008/2009. O uso simultâneo da isca tóxica e da técnica de disrupção sexual reduziu em mais de 90% a captura de adultos de A. fraterculus e G. molesta. Nas duas safras, os danos reduziram de 62-85% em ponteiros, e de 98-99% nos frutos, em comparação à testemunha sem controle.The objective of this work was to evaluate the simultaneous use of toxic bait and mating disruption technique using sexual pheromone for Anastrepha fraterculus and Grapholita molesta control, in commercial peach orchards. Three 0.5-ha orchards were used, with the following treatments: orchad 1, toxic bait (Biofruit 3% + Malathion 500 CE, 200 mL in 100 L and mating disruption using sexual pheromone (Splat Grafo in 1,000 points ha-1; orchad 2, conventional management, using contact insecticides 2 to 3 times a year; orchad 3, no pest control. Adult populations of both species, and sprout and fruit damages were monitored during the 2007/2008 and 2008/2009 crop seasons. Simultaneous use of toxic bait and mating disruption technique decreased the captures of A. fraterculus and G. molesta in more than 90%. In the two crop seasons

  20. Incidence of fruit flies on coffee and citrus and quarantine treatment of citrus fruits by gamma radiation; Incidencia de moscas-das-frutas em cafe e citros e tratamento quarentenario de frutos citricos com radiacao gama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raga, Adalton

    1996-12-31

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the fruit fly infestation on coffee and citrus, and also to determine gamma radiation doses for immature stages of Ceratitis capitata and Anastrepha fraterculus, in order to satisfy quarantine regulations. Coffee arabica varieties Icatu Vermelho, Catuai Amarelo, Mundo Novo and Sarchimor showed the highest infestation indices (pupa/berry): 0.53; 0,41; 0.33 and 0.36. respectively Icatu Vermelho and Catuai Vermelho showed the highest values of pupa/berry weight (0.49 and 0.39, respectively), and Robusta (Coffea canephora) presented the lowest index (0.01). The following fruit flies were found in coffee berries: C. capitata (76.6%) Anastrepha spp. (7.4%) and Lonchaeidae (17.0%). In area near coffee plantation, fruit fly infestation indices in sweet oranges were of 4.77 larvae/kg and 0.55 larva/fruit. The infestation indices for sweet orange, collected from five regions of the State of Sao Paulo ranged from 0.73 to 7.60 pupa/kg and 0.12 to 1.27 pupa/fruit. The same species of fruit flies were found in oranges. In the case of C. capitata eggs with 24-48 hours old, 20 Gy prevented completely adult emergence (artificial diet and orange). No emergence of adult occurred when C. capitata larvae of third instar were irradiated at 20 Gy in their rearing medium. But at 25 Gy, the number of adults was reduced by 54% and 97% from larval infestation in oranges and grapefruit, respectively. A dose of 30 Gy was required to prevent medfly emergence from third instar larvae in grapefruit. A dose of 15 Gy was required for third instar, to prevent adult emergence of A. fraterculus. No adult emerged from C third instar, to prevent adult emergence of A. fraterculus. No adult emerged from C capitata pre-pupa irradiated at 30 Gy. One medfly adult emerged from pupa (3-4 days after pupating) irradiated at 120 Gy. At the same dose, sixteen A. fraterculus adults emergency from irradiated pupa with 5-6 days old. (author) 85 refs., 2 figs., 13 tabs.

  1. Incidence of fruit flies on coffee and citrus and quarantine treatment of citrus fruits by gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raga, Adalton

    1996-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the fruit fly infestation on coffee and citrus, and also to determine gamma radiation doses for immature stages of Ceratitis capitata and Anastrepha fraterculus, in order to satisfy quarantine regulations. Coffee arabica varieties Icatu Vermelho, Catuai Amarelo, Mundo Novo and Sarchimor showed the highest infestation indices (pupa/berry): 0.53; 0,41; 0.33 and 0.36. respectively Icatu Vermelho and Catuai Vermelho showed the highest values of pupa/berry weight (0.49 and 0.39, respectively), and Robusta (Coffea canephora) presented the lowest index (0.01). The following fruit flies were found in coffee berries: C. capitata (76.6%) Anastrepha spp. (7.4%) and Lonchaeidae (17.0%). In area near coffee plantation, fruit fly infestation indices in sweet oranges were of 4.77 larvae/kg and 0.55 larva/fruit. The infestation indices for sweet orange, collected from five regions of the State of Sao Paulo ranged from 0.73 to 7.60 pupa/kg and 0.12 to 1.27 pupa/fruit. The same species of fruit flies were found in oranges. In the case of C. capitata eggs with 24-48 hours old, 20 Gy prevented completely adult emergence (artificial diet and orange). No emergence of adult occurred when C. capitata larvae of third instar were irradiated at 20 Gy in their rearing medium. But at 25 Gy, the number of adults was reduced by 54% and 97% from larval infestation in oranges and grapefruit, respectively. A dose of 30 Gy was required to prevent medfly emergence from third instar larvae in grapefruit. A dose of 15 Gy was required for third instar, to prevent adult emergence of A. fraterculus. No adult emerged from C third instar, to prevent adult emergence of A. fraterculus. No adult emerged from C capitata pre-pupa irradiated at 30 Gy. One medfly adult emerged from pupa (3-4 days after pupating) irradiated at 120 Gy. At the same dose, sixteen A. fraterculus adults emergency from irradiated pupa with 5-6 days old. (author)

  2. Regional Suppression of Bactrocera Fruit Flies (Diptera: Tephritidae in the Pacific through Biological Control and Prospects for Future Introductions into Other Areas of the World

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    Roger I. Vargas

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Bactrocera fruit fly species are economically important throughout the Pacific. The USDA, ARS U.S. Pacific Basin Agricultural Research Center has been a world leader in promoting biological control of Bactrocera spp. that includes classical, augmentative, conservation and IPM approaches. In Hawaii, establishment of Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett in 1895 resulted in the introduction of the most successful parasitoid, Psyttalia fletcheri (Silvestri; similarly, establishment of Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel in 1945 resulted in the introduction of 32 natural enemies of which Fopius arisanus (Sonan, Diachasmimorpha longicaudata (Ashmead and Fopius vandenboschi (Fullaway were most successful. Hawaii has also been a source of parasitoids for fruit fly control throughout the Pacific region including Australia, Pacific Island Nations, Central and South America, not only for Bactrocera spp. but also for Ceratitis and Anastrepha spp. Most recently, in 2002, F. arisanus was introduced into French Polynesia where B. dorsalis had invaded in 1996. Establishment of D. longicaudata into the new world has been important to augmentative biological control releases against Anastrepha spp. With the rapid expansion of airline travel and global trade there has been an alarming spread of Bactrocera spp. into new areas of the world (i.e., South America and Africa. Results of studies in Hawaii and French Polynesia, support parasitoid introductions into South America and Africa, where B. carambolae and B. invadens, respectively, have become established. In addition, P. fletcheri is a candidate for biological control of B. cucurbitae in Africa. We review past and more

  3. Development of Myrmeleon brasiliensis (Navas) (Neuroptera, Myrmeleontidae), in laboratory, with different natural diets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Missirian, Giani L.B. [Centro Universitario da Grande Dourados, MS (Brazil). Curso de Ciencias Biologicas; Uchoa-Fernandes, Manoel A. [Universidade Federal da Grande Dourados, MS (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Biologicas e Ambientais]. E-mail: uchoa.fernandes@ufgd.edu.br; Fischer, Erich [Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso do Sul, Campo Grande, MS (Brazil). Dept. de Biologia

    2006-07-01

    Antlions larvae are sit-and-wait predators that capture arthropod prey in conical sand pits. The aim of this paper were to determine the effect of different natural diets [leaf-cutting ants (Atta spp.), fruit fly larvae (Anastrepha spp. and Ceratitis capitata) and mixed diet (Atta spp. plus fruit fly larvae)] on the development of larvae and pupae of M. brasiliensis (Navas, 1914) and to estimate the number and size of prey caught in each instar and on each kind of diet. The average duration (days) of the second and third instars of M. brasiliensis was longer when larvae of antlion were fed with leaf-cutting ants. The diets did not affect the duration of the pupal stage nor the pupae size. The different diets did not affect the mean width of head capsule (mm), the mean weight (mg) or the mean body size (mm) in the different instars of M. brasiliensis. In the second and third instars, the larvae of M. brasiliensis fed with leaf-cutting ants consumed more prey than larvae kept on other diets. Adults whose larvae were fed fruit fly larvae were larger than adults on other diets. Although Myrmeleontidae are few studied in Brazil, these results contribute to knowledge of M. brasiliensis biology, but also suggest the need of studies about the development of larvae and pupae in natural environments. (author)

  4. Assessment of differences between X and γ rays in order to validate a new generation of irradiators for insect sterilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mastrangelo, Thiago; Walder, Julio M.M.; Parker, Andrew G.; Jessup, Andrew; Orozco-Davila, Dina; Islam, Amirul; Dammalage, Thilakasiri; Pereira, Rui

    2009-01-01

    Recent fears of terrorism provoked an increase in delays and denials of transboundary shipments of radioisotopes. This represents a serious constraint to sterile insect technique (SIT) programs around the world as they rely on the use of ionizing energy from radioisotopes for insect sterilization. In order to validate a novel Xray irradiator, a series of studies on Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) and Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae) were carried out, comparing the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) between X-rays and traditional γ radiation from 60 Co. Male C. capitata pupae and pupae of both sexes of A. fraterculus, both 24 to 48 h before adult emergence, were irradiated with doses ranging from 15 to 120 Gy and 10 to 70 Gy respectively. Estimated mean doses of 91.2 Gy of X and 124.9 Gy of γ radiation induced 99% sterility in C. capitata males. Irradiated A. fraterculus were 99% sterile at about 40-60 Gy for both radiation treatments. Standard quality control parameters were not significantly affected by the two types of radiation. There were no significant differences between X and γ radiation regarding mating indices. The RBE did not differ significantly between the tested X and γ radiation, and X-rays are as biologically effective for SIT purposes as γ rays are. This work confirms the suitability of this new generation of X-ray irradiators for pest control programs in UN Member States. (author)

  5. Olfactory response of the Mexican fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) to Citrus aurantium volatiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasgado, Milton A; Malo, Edi A; Cruz-López, Leopoldo; Rojas, Julio C; Toledo, Jorge

    2009-04-01

    We investigated the behavioral and electrophysiological responses of male and female Mexican fruit fly, Anastrepha ludens (Loew) (Diptera: Tephritidae), to volatiles of bitter orange fruit, Citrus aurantium L. In field cage tests, the number of A. ludens caught in Multilure traps baited with mature green bitter orange fruit was significantly higher than the number captured in traps baited with ripe yellow bitter orange fruit and control (unbaited traps). Both sexes were more attracted to mature green bitter orange fruit extracts than to controls in both flight tunnel and field cage assays. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of the mature green bitter orange fruit volatiles identified 10 different compounds. Limonene was the most abundant volatile compound, followed by an unknown compound, tentatively identified as trans-ocimene. Linalool, beta-pinene, and methyl salicylate were found in lower proportions. Both sexes of A. ludens evoked higher antennal response to linalool, methyl salicylate, and to a blend of these four components in comparison with limonene, and beta-pinene. In flight tunnel, both sexes were more attracted and landed more often on spheres baited with the four-component blend compared with control spheres. In field cage tests, Multilure traps baited with the four-component blend captured significantly more A. ludens flies than traps baited with hydrolyzed protein or control traps.

  6. Reducing irradiation damage to 'Arkin' carambola by plastic packaging or storage temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, W.R.; McDonald, R.E.

    1998-01-01

    Carambolas (Averrhoa carambola L.) require quarantine treatment for control of the Caribbean fruit fly (Anastrepha suspensa Loew) (CFF) prior to shipment to certain domestic and export markets. Low-dose irradiation, less than or equal to kGy, is effective for sterilizing CFF and other fruit flies; however, carambolas are susceptible to irradiation-induced peel injury. Low-dose gamma irradiation treatment generally reduced fruit quality, but the effects were mitigated by packaging carambola fruit in ''clamshell'' polystyrene containers, rather than conventional fiberboard boxes, prior to treatment. Use of clamshell containers reduced peel pitting, stem-end breakdown, shriveling, and loss of mass after storage for 14 days at 5 or 7 degrees C. In addition, fruit held in clamshell containers were firmer, with slightly less green peel, and had lower total soluble solids, but the flavor was not quite as good as that of fruit stored in fiberboard boxes. There was no difference in the mastication texture or acidity of fruit by package type at final storage. Packing carambolas in clamshell containers increased their tolerance to irradiation-induced peel disorders and improved the potential for usage of low-dose irradiation for quarantine treatment

  7. Mating disruption with low density diffusers for the management of oriental fruit moths (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae in apple orchards under subtropical climate in southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lino Bittencourt Monteiro

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta Busck, and fruit flies, Anastrepha fraterculus L., are the important apple pests under Subtropical climate in Southern Brazil, and control is normally accomplished with insecticides. An alternative strategy for the control of G. molesta is mating disruption, through the use of pheromones. Mating disruption strategies using a low density of dispensers (20 per hectare were tested in comparison with conventional pesticides for control of G. molesta in commercial Gala apple orchards in Fraiburgo, SC, for a period of five years. The average field efficiency period of mating disruption formulation over five years was 113 days. In this period the mating interruption index on mating disruption plots was 84.8% over five years. Damage to Gala apples by oriental moth larvae was low (<0.1% in mating disruption plots but did not differ from conventional plots, except in the third year. The use of mating disruption allowed for an average reduction of 5.2 insecticide treatments per year in Gala orchards during field efficiency period. It was necessary to apply 1.0 and 1.2 applications of insecticide to control of G. molesta and A. fraterculus, respectively. Mating disruption with a low density of diffusers proved to be an effective alternative to conventional methods for control of G. molesta in Gala apple orchards in subtropical climate in southern Brazil.

  8. Genetic technologies to enhance the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alphey, Luke; Baker, Pam; Condon, George C.; Condon, Kirsty C.; Dafa' alla, Tarig H.; Fu, Guoliang; Jin, Li; Labbe, Genevieve; Morrison, Neil M.; Nimmo, Derric D.; O' Connell, Sinead; Phillips, Caroline E.; Plackett, Andrew; Scaife, Sarah; Woods, Alexander, E-mail: luke.alphey@zoo.ox.ac.u [Oxitec Ltd., Oxford (United Kingdom); Burton, Rosemary S.; Epton, Matthew J.; Gong, Peng [University of Oxford (United Kingdom). Dept. of Zoology

    2006-07-01

    The Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) has been used very successfully against range of pest insects, including various tephritid fruit flies, several moths and a small number of livestock pests. However, modern genetics could potentially provide several improvements that would increase the cost-effectiveness of SIT, and extend the range of suitable species. These include improved identification of released individuals by incorporation of a stable, heritable, genetic marker; built-in sex separation (genetic sexing); reduction of the hazard posed by non-irradiated accidental releases from mass-rearing facility (fail-safe); elimination of the need for sterilization by irradiation (genetic sterilization). We discuss applications of these methods and the state of the art, at the time of this meeting, in developing suitable strains. We have demonstrated, in several key pest species, that the required strains can be constructed by introducing a repressible dominant lethal genetic system, a method known as RIDL(trade mark). Based on field experience with Medfly, incorporation of a genetic sexing system into SIT programs for other tephritids could potentially provide a very significant improvement in cost-effectiveness. We have now been able to make efficient female-lethal strains for Medfly. One advantage of our approach is that it should be possible rapidly to extend this technology to other fruit fly species; indeed we have recently been able also to make genetic sexing strains of Medfly (Anastrepha ludens). (author)

  9. Biological Control of Tephritid Fruit Flies in Argentina: Historical Review, Current Status, and Future Trends for Developing a Parasitoid Mass-Release Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ovruski, Sergio M; Schliserman, Pablo

    2012-09-14

    In Argentina there are two tephritid fruit fly species of major economic and quarantine importance: the exotic Ceratitis capitata that originated from Southeast Africa and the native Anastrepha fraterculus. In recent years, the use of fruit fly parasitoids as biocontrol agents has received renewed attention. This increasing interest has recently led to the establishment of a program for the mass rearing of five million Diachasmimorpha longicaudata parasitoids per week in the BioPlanta San Juan facility, San Juan, Argentina. The first augmentative releases of D. longicaudata in Argentina are currently occurring on commercial fig crops in rural areas of San Juan as part of an integrated fruit fly management program on an area-wide basis. In this context, research is ongoing to assess the suitability of indigenous parasitoid species for successful mass rearing on larvae of either C. capitata or A. fraterculus. The purpose of this article is to provide a historical overview of the biological control of the fruit fly in Argentina, report on the strategies currently used in Argentina, present information on native parasitoids as potential biocontrol agents, and discuss the establishment of a long-term fruit fly biological control program, including augmentative and conservation modalities, in Argentina's various fruit growing regions.

  10. Biological Control of Tephritid Fruit Flies in Argentina: Historical Review, Current Status, and Future Trends for Developing a Parasitoid Mass-Release Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio M. Ovruski

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In Argentina there are two tephritid fruit fly species of major economic and quarantine importance: the exotic Ceratitis capitata that originated from Southeast Africa and the native Anastrepha fraterculus. In recent years, the use of fruit fly parasitoids as biocontrol agents has received renewed attention. This increasing interest has recently led to the establishment of a program for the mass rearing of five million Diachasmimorpha longicaudata parasitoids per week in the BioPlanta San Juan facility, San Juan, Argentina. The first augmentative releases of D. longicaudata in Argentina are currently occurring on commercial fig crops in rural areas of San Juan as part of an integrated fruit fly management program on an area-wide basis. In this context, research is ongoing to assess the suitability of indigenous parasitoid species for successful mass rearing on larvae of either C. capitata or A. fraterculus. The purpose of this article is to provide a historical overview of the biological control of the fruit fly in Argentina, report on the strategies currently used in Argentina, present information on native parasitoids as potential biocontrol agents, and discuss the establishment of a long-term fruit fly biological control program, including augmentative and conservation modalities, in Argentina’s various fruit growing regions.

  11. [Susceptibility of six Arabic coffee cultivars to fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritoidea) under shaded and unshaded organic management in Valença, State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguiar-Menezes, Elen L; Souza, Silvana A S; Santos, Carlos M A; Resende, André L S; Strikis, Pedro C; Costa, Janaína R; Ricci, Marta S F

    2007-01-01

    The infestation indices by fruit flies were determined for six cultivars of Coffea arabica L. in shaded and unshaded systems under organic management. The experiment was set in a completely randomized design with a split-split-plot arrangement and four replicates. A 250g-sample of maturing fruits per plot was harvested in May 2005. The cultivars Icatu Amarelo and Catucaí Amarelo were the least susceptible to attack by tephritids in both systems. As for lonchaeids, Oeiras, Catucaí Amarelo and Catuaí Vermelho were the least susceptible cultivars in the shaded system, and there was no difference among the cultivars in the unshaded system. The following tephritid species were obtained: Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann) and A. sororcula Zucchi (Tephritidae). Lonchaeids were represented by Neosilba bifida Strikis & Prado, N. certa (Walker), N. glaberrima (Wiedemann), N. pendula (Bezzi), N. pseudopendula (Korytkowski and Ojeda), Dasiops rugifrons Hennig, Neosilba n.sp.10 and Neosilba n.sp.14.

  12. Genetic technologies to enhance the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alphey, Luke; Baker, Pam; Condon, George C.; Condon, Kirsty C.; Dafa'alla, Tarig H.; Fu, Guoliang; Jin, Li; Labbe, Genevieve; Morrison, Neil M.; Nimmo, Derric D.; O'Connell, Sinead; Phillips, Caroline E.; Plackett, Andrew; Scaife, Sarah; Woods, Alexander; Burton, Rosemary S.; Epton, Matthew J.; Gong, Peng

    2006-01-01

    The Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) has been used very successfully against range of pest insects, including various tephritid fruit flies, several moths and a small number of livestock pests. However, modern genetics could potentially provide several improvements that would increase the cost-effectiveness of SIT, and extend the range of suitable species. These include improved identification of released individuals by incorporation of a stable, heritable, genetic marker; built-in sex separation (genetic sexing); reduction of the hazard posed by non-irradiated accidental releases from mass-rearing facility (fail-safe); elimination of the need for sterilization by irradiation (genetic sterilization). We discuss applications of these methods and the state of the art, at the time of this meeting, in developing suitable strains. We have demonstrated, in several key pest species, that the required strains can be constructed by introducing a repressible dominant lethal genetic system, a method known as RIDL(trade mark). Based on field experience with Medfly, incorporation of a genetic sexing system into SIT programs for other tephritids could potentially provide a very significant improvement in cost-effectiveness. We have now been able to make efficient female-lethal strains for Medfly. One advantage of our approach is that it should be possible rapidly to extend this technology to other fruit fly species; indeed we have recently been able also to make genetic sexing strains of Medfly (Anastrepha ludens). (author)

  13. Evaluation of the quality and shelf life of gamma irradiated blueberries by quarantine purposes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lires, Carla M. L.; Docters, Andrea; Horak, Celina I.

    2018-02-01

    Fresh blueberries (Vaccinium spp.) are considered one of the richest sources of phenolic compounds and are appreciated for their high antioxidant capacity. But they are hosts in Argentina of the quarantine pests Ceratitis capitata and Anastrepha fraterculus, and have to be treated to avoid its spreading. Irradiation is being introduced in the Agricultural World trade, increasing exponentially on the last years. In order to guarantee the success of this process, it is required previous to the rutinary treatment, to define the irradiation dose range to be applied. The minimum dose for these pests has been already approved in the IPPC standard 28. The maximum dose depends on the tolerance of the fruit cultivars, maturity, pre-harvest conditions, harvest time, storage conditions, and interactions among these factors. The postharvest quality of Argentina´s blueberry treated with irradiation doses of 150 (generic quarantine dose used for fruit flies) and 300 Gy (to evaluate tolerance) was evaluated. The studies included blueberries from different harvest seasons 2009-2012). Misty, O'Neal and Emeral varieties were chosen, because they represent the biggest volume of exported blueberry from Argentina. The results indicated that irradiation at 150 Gy and 300 Gy did not significantly affect the postharvest quality and slightly improved shelf life of the different blueberries varieties. Therefore, it is possible to use irradiation as an alternative quarantine treatment for Argentina´s blueberries, establishing a dose range appropriate to be applied on a commercial irradiation facility.

  14. Augmentative Biological Control Using Parasitoids for Fruit Fly Management in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávio R. M. Garcia

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The history of classical biological control of fruit flies in Brazil includes two reported attempts in the past 70 years. The first occurred in 1937 when an African species of parasitoid larvae (Tetrastichus giffardianus was introduced to control the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata and other tephritids. The second occurred in September 1994 when the exotic parasitoid Diachasmimorpha longicaudata, originally from Gainesville, Florida, was introduced by a Brazilian agricultural corporation (EMBRAPA to evaluate the parasitoid’s potential for the biological control of Anastrepha spp. and Ceratitis capitata. Although there are numerous native Brazilian fruit fly parasitoids, mass rearing of these native species is difficult. Thus, D. longicaudata was chosen due to its specificity for the family Tephritidae and its ease of laboratory rearing. In this paper we review the literature on Brazilian fruit fly biological control and suggest that those tactics can be used on a large scale, together creating a biological barrier to the introduction of new fruit fly populations, reducing the source of outbreaks and the risk of species spread, while decreasing the use of insecticides on fruit destined for domestic and foreign markets.

  15. Augmentative Biological Control Using Parasitoids for Fruit Fly Management in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Flávio R M; Ricalde, Marcelo P

    2012-12-21

    The history of classical biological control of fruit flies in Brazil includes two reported attempts in the past 70 years. The first occurred in 1937 when an African species of parasitoid larvae (Tetrastichus giffardianus) was introduced to control the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata and other tephritids. The second occurred in September 1994 when the exotic parasitoid Diachasmimorpha longicaudata, originally from Gainesville, Florida, was introduced by a Brazilian agricultural corporation (EMBRAPA) to evaluate the parasitoid's potential for the biological control of Anastrepha spp. and Ceratitis capitata. Although there are numerous native Brazilian fruit fly parasitoids, mass rearing of these native species is difficult. Thus, D. longicaudata was chosen due to its specificity for the family Tephritidae and its ease of laboratory rearing. In this paper we review the literature on Brazilian fruit fly biological control and suggest that those tactics can be used on a large scale, together creating a biological barrier to the introduction of new fruit fly populations, reducing the source of outbreaks and the risk of species spread, while decreasing the use of insecticides on fruit destined for domestic and foreign markets.

  16. Wolbachia in two populations of Melittobia digitata Dahms (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Copeland, Claudia S.; Sivinski, John [United States Dept. of Agriculture, Gainesville, FL (United States). Center for Medical, Agriculture and Veterinary Entomology]. E-mails: cclaudia@bioinf.uni-leipzig.de; john.sivinski@ars.usda.gov; Matthews, Robert W. [University of Georgia, Athens, GA (United States). Dept. of Entomology]. E-mail: rmatthew@uga.edu; Gonzalez, Jorge M. [Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States). Dept. of Entomology]. E-mail: jmgonzalez@neo.tamu.edu; Aluja, Martin [Instituto de Ecologia A.C., Veracruz (Mexico)]. E-mail: martin.aluja@inecol.edu.mx

    2008-11-15

    We investigated two populations of Melittobia digitata Dahms, a gregarious parasitoid (primarily upon a wide range of solitary bees, wasps, and flies), in search of Wolbachia infection. The first population, from Xalapa, Mexico, was originally collected from and reared on Mexican fruit fly pupae, Anastrepha ludens Loew (Diptera: Tephritidae); the other, from Athens, Georgia, was collected from and reared on prepupae of mud dauber wasps, Trypoxylon politum Say (Hymenoptera: Crabronidae). PCR studies of the ITS2 region corroborated that both parasitoid populations were the same species; this potentially provides a useful molecular taxonomic profile since females of Melittobia species are superficially similar. Amplification of the Wolbachia surface protein gene (wsp) confirmed the presence of this endosymbiont in both populations. Sequencing revealed that the Wolbachia harbored in both populations exhibited a wsp belonging to a unique subgroup (denoted here as Dig) within the B-supergroup of known wsp genes. This new subgroup of wsp may either belong to a different strain of Wolbachia from those previously found to infect Melittobia or may be the result of a recombination event. In either case, known hosts of Wolbachia with a wsp of this subgroup are only distantly related taxonomically. Reasons are advanced as to why Melittobia - an easily reared and managed parasitoid - holds promise as an instructive model organism of Wolbachia infection amenable to the investigation of Wolbachia strains among its diverse hosts. (author)

  17. Disinfestation by irradiation of mangoes (Manguifera Indica L.) Kent and oranges (Citrus sinensis O.) Valencia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bustos Ramirez, M.E.

    1987-01-01

    The objectives in this work were to determine the minimum dose for radiation disinfestation of mangoes and oranges infested with Mexican fruit fly (Anastrepha ludens Loew) and to evaluate the quality of the fruits by organoleptic, chemical and physiological analysis of mangoes irradiated to 0.3, 0.6 and 1.0 kGy and storaged at 12 0 C during 15 days and oranges irradiated to 0.25, 0.6 and 1.0 kGy and storaged at 15 0 C during 21 days. To inhibit the development of larvaes in mangoes the minimum dose was 0.3 kGy and for oranges the dose was 0.45 kGy. The dose for the probit 9 security test were 0.43 kGy for mangoes and 0.63 kGy for oranges. The results of sensorial analysis in mangoes, indicated that there are no significative differences for the two panels: consumers or trained judges. The differences in the physiological and chemical analysis are greater for storage fruits than for the irradiated ones. At the end of the storage period the appearance of the irradiated mangoes was better than for the control. The observed differences in irradiated oranges were the presence of dark zones on the oranges peel which affect their quality. This effect is due to the irradiation in oranges not completely ripen. (author)

  18. Generic ionizing radiation quarantine treatments against fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) proposed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallman, Guy J; Loaharanu, Paisan

    2002-10-01

    Tephritid fruit flies comprise the most important group of quarantined pests of fresh produce. Most quarantine treatments of fresh agricultural commodities are directed against these pests, and considerable effort in detection, trapping, and population control is expended worldwide to prevent these pests from invading new territories. Ionizing radiation has been studied for 70 yr for its possible use as a quarantine treatment against fruit flies, but has only been applied commercially on a limited basis since 1995. The treatment has great potential and will probably be used extensively in the future as it is tolerated by more species of fruits than any other major treatment. The U.S. Department Agriculture, Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service only recently proposed allowing irradiation for fresh agricultural imports from other countries, and other countries are studying proposals to do likewise. In 1991, the International Consultative Group on Food Irradiation recommended a generic dose against all tephritid fruit flies of 150 Gy. This article examines the literature dealing with irradiation quarantine treatments against fruit flies and recommends minimum absorbed doses of 70 Gy for Anastrepha spp., 101 Gy for Bactrocera jarvisi and B. tryoni, and 150 Gy for all Tephritidae except when fruits have been stored in hypoxic atmospheres.

  19. IMPROVING MASS REARING TECHNOLOGY FOR SOUTH AMERICAN FRUIT FLY (DIPTERA:TEPHRITIDAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raimundo Braga Sobrinho

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies on availability of suitable and economic diets for adults and larvae of the South American fruit fly Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann, 1830 were carried out at the Entomology Unit of the FAO/IAEA Agriculture and Biotechnology Laboratories in Seibersdorf, Austria with the aim to find the best diets to fit in a large scale mass rearing production. The best diet for adult was the combination of Hydrolysate Corn Protein + Yeast Hydrolysate Enzymatic + Sugar (3:1:3. This diet resulted in the highest numbers of egg/female/day, spermatozoid in the spermathecae, percentages of egg hatch, the lowest mortality rate of adults and the highest average mating duration compared with the standard adult diet based on Yeast Hydrolysate Enzymatic + Sugar (1:3. Among eleven larval diets tested, diets based on sugarcane and sugarbeet bagases plus 7% brewer yeast, 8% sugar, 0.2% sodium benzoate, 0.8% of hydrochloric acid and 60% water (adjusted, yielded the highest percentages of egg hatching, pupal recovery, pupal weight and adult emergence. There was no statistical difference with the standard larval diet based on wheat germ 3%, corncob 15%, corn flower 8%, brewer yeast 6%, sugar 8%, sodium benzoate 0.23%, hydrochloric acid 0.63%, nipagin 0.14% and water 59% (adjusted. The significant performance of these adult and larval diets open discussion for future researches on improvement of rearing techniques required for the establishment of sterile insect technique (SIT program focused on the South American fruit fly.

  20. Influence of irradiation on development of Caribbean fruit fly (diptera: tephritidae) larvae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nation, J.L.; Milne, K.; Dykstra, T.M.

    1995-01-01

    Larvae of the Caribbean fruit fly, Anastrepha suspensa (Loew), were irradiated at hatching with 0, 5, 10, 20, 50, 75, 100 and 150 Gy doses from a Cesium-137 source and dissected for measurements of the supraesophageal ganglion (brain) and proventriculus (B/Prv) as mature third instars. Cross-sectional area of a plane through the brain and proventriculus, and simple dorsal width measurements of the two organs were evaluated as indicators of radiation exposure. Brain area, brain width, and brain/proventriculus (B/Prv) ratios were significantly different from controls in insects treated with a dose ≥20 Gy. Detailed dissections of hatching larvae exposed to 50 Gy revealed reductions in brain growth, small and misshapen compound eye and leg imaginal disks, and a ventral nerve cord that was elongated and sinuous. Larvae irradiated on the 1st d of each of the three instars had smaller brains, with the percentage of reduction in brain size being greater the younger the larvae were at the time of exposure. Brain and proventriculus measurements and calculated B/Prv values are indicative of irradiation in Caribbean fruit fly larvae, but the procedure may not be adaptable for routine use by quarantine inspectors. 14 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs

  1. EFECTO DE LA VEGETACIÓN EN LA INTERCEPCIÓN DE LA PRECIPITACIÓN EN LA PRECORDILLERA DE LA REGIÓN DEL MAULE, CHILE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. S. Vallejos-Barra

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available En este estudio se comparó el comportamiento de un bosque secundario de Roble-Hualo, donde las especies predominantes son Nothofagus obliqua y Nothofagus glauca y una plantación de Pinus radiata D. Don de 12 años de edad, en el proceso precipitación - intercepción. El estudio se desarrolló en la Estación Experimental El Picazo, comuna de San Clemente, Región del Maule, Chile, entre el mes de julio de 2007 a julio de 2008, en dos microcuencas vecinas de dimensiones reducidas con condiciones similares de suelo, exposición y pendiente pero que diferían en la cobertura vegetal. Se caracterizó la vegetación de cada microcuenca y se establecieron indicadores de densidad de parcela. Los indicadores de la cobertura nativa superaron ampliamente a los de las coberturas exóticas. Para registrar la precipitación se instalaron dos pluviógrafos del tipo Hobo en cada microcuenca. Equidistante de ellas se ubicó otro pluviógrafo sin cobertura vegetal. Se registraron 21 tormentas caracterizando temporal y espacialmente el comportamiento de la precipitación abierta y bajo dosel. Los resultados indican que pese a tener diferencias numéricas las coberturas vegetales, éstas no se transforman en diferencias estadísticamente significativas. Además se observó que la intercepción depende en mayor medida de la arquitectura de copa, distribución espacial de los árboles y tipo de hojas, que de la cantidad de árboles por parcela.

  2. A putative 12-oxophytodienoate reductase gene CsOPR3 from Camellia sinensis, is involved in wound and herbivore infestation responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Zhaojun; Zhang, Jin; Ge, Lingang; Lei, Shu; Han, Juanjuan; Zhang, Xin; Li, Xiwang; Sun, Xiaoling

    2017-06-05

    12-Oxophytodienoate reductase (OPR) is a key enzyme in the biosynthesis of jasmonic acid (JA), which plays an important role in plant defense responses. Although multiple isoforms of OPRs have been identified in various annual herbaceous plants, genes encoding these enzymes in perennial woody plants have yet to be fully investigated. In the tea plant, Camellia sinensis (L.), no OPR genes have been isolated, and their possible roles in tea plant development and defense mechanism remain unknown. In this study, a putative OPR gene, designated as CsOPR3, was isolated from tea plants for the first time through the rapid amplification of cDNA ends. The open reading frame of CsOPR3 is 1197bp in length, and encodes a protein of 398 amino acids. Real-time qPCR analysis revealed that CsOPR3 was expressed in different organs. In particular, CsOPR3 was highly expressed in flowers, leaves and stems but was weakly expressed in roots and seeds. CsOPR3 expression could be rapidly induced by mechanical wounding, and increased JA levels were correlated with the wound-induced CsOPR3 expression. The infestation of the tea geometrid (TG) Ectropis obliqua Prout, regurgitant derived from TG and exogenous JA application could enhance the CsOPR3 expression. Our study is the first to report that CsOPR3 plays an important role in JA biosynthesis and tea plant defense against herbivorous insects. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Foraging behaviour of the exotic wasp Vespula germanica (Hymenoptera: Vespidae) on a native caterpillar defoliator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietrantuono, A L; Moreyra, S; Lozada, M

    2017-09-19

    Vespula germanica is a social wasp and an opportunistic predator. While foraging, these wasps learn and integrate different kinds of cues. They have successfully invaded many parts of the world, including native Nothofagus and Lophozonia forests located in the Andean-Patagonian region, where they forage on native arthropods. Perzelia arda, a lepidopteron defoliator of Lophozonia obliqua, uses the foliage to hide in and feed on. The purpose of this work is to study whether V. germanica use olfactory cues when foraging on P. arda. To do this, we used a Y-tube olfactometer and established three treatments to compare pairs of all combinations of stimuli (larvae, leaves with larval traces, and leaves without larval traces) and controls. Data were analysed via two developed models that showed decisions made by V. germanica and allowed to establish a scale of preferences between the stimuli. The analysis demonstrates that V. germanica wasps choose P. arda as larval prey and are capable of discriminating between the offered stimuli (deviance information criterion (DIC) null model = 873.97; DIC simple model = 84.5, n = 152). According to the preference scale, V. germanica preferred leaves with traces of larvae, suggesting its ability to associate these traces with the presence of the prey. This may be because, under natural conditions, larvae are never exposed outside their shelters of leaves and therefore V. germanica uses indirect signals. The presence of V. germanica foraging on P. arda highlights the flexible foraging behaviour of this wasp which may also act as a positive biological control, reducing lepidopteran populations.

  4. The morphology of the enamel-dentine junction in Neanderthal molars: Gross morphology, non-metric traits, and temporal trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Robert M G; Hublin, Jean-Jacques; Gunz, Philipp; Skinner, Matthew M

    2017-02-01

    This study explores the morphological differences between the enamel-dentine junction (EDJ) of maxillary and mandibular molars of Neanderthals (n = 150) and recent modern humans (n = 106), and between an earlier Neanderthal sample (consisting of Pre-Eemian and Eemian Neanderthals dating to before 115 ka) and a later Neanderthal sample (consisting of Post-Eemian Neanderthals dating to after 115 ka). The EDJ was visualised by segmenting microtomographic scans of each molar. A geometric morphometric methodology compared the positioning of the dentine horns, the shape of the marginal ridge between the dentine horns, and the shape of the cervix. We also examined the manifestation of non-metric traits at the EDJ including the crista obliqua, cusp 5, and post-paracone tubercle. Furthermore, we report on additional morphological features including centrally placed dentine horn tips and twinned dentine horns. Our results indicate that EDJ morphology can discriminate with a high degree of reliability between Neanderthals and recent modern humans at every molar position, and discriminate between the earlier and the later Neanderthal samples at every molar position, except for the M 3 in shape space. The cervix in isolation can also discriminate between Neanderthals and recent modern humans, except at the M 3 in form space, and is effective at discriminating between the earlier and the later Neanderthal samples, except at the M 2 /M 2 in form space. In addition to demonstrating the taxonomic valence of the EDJ, our analysis reveals unique manifestations of dental traits in Neanderthals and expanded levels of trait variation that have implications for trait definitions and scoring. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Bt Jute Expressing Fused δ-Endotoxin Cry1Ab/Ac for Resistance to Lepidopteran Pests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majumder, Shuvobrata; Sarkar, Chirabrata; Saha, Prosanta; Gotyal, Bheemanna S.; Satpathy, Subrata; Datta, Karabi; Datta, Swapan K.

    2018-01-01

    Jute (Corchorus sp.) is naturally occurring, biodegradable, lignocellulosic-long, silky, golden shiny fiber producing plant that has great demands globally. Paper and textile industries are interested in jute because of the easy availability, non-toxicity and high yield of cellulosic biomass produced per acre in cultivation. Jute is the major and most industrially used bast fiber-producing crop in the world and it needs protection from insect pest infestation that decreases its yield and quality. Single locus integration of the synthetically fused cry1Ab/Ac gene of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) in Corchorus capsularis (JRC 321) by Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated shoot tip transformation provided 5 potent Bt jute lines BT1, BT2, BT4, BT7 and BT8. These lines consistently expressed the Cry1Ab/Ac endotoxin ranging from 0.16 to 0.35 ng/mg of leaf, in the following generations (analyzed upto T4). The effect of Cry1Ab/Ac endotoxin was studied against 3 major Lepidopteran pests of jute- semilooper (Anomis sabulifera Guenee), hairy caterpillar (Spilarctia obliqua Walker) and indigo caterpillar (Spodoptera exigua Hubner) by detached leaf and whole plant insect bioassay on greenhouse-grown transgenic plants. Results confirm that larvae feeding on transgenic plants had lower food consumption, body size, body weight and dry weight of excreta compared to non-transgenic controls. Insect mortality range among transgenic feeders was 66–100% for semilooper and hairy caterpillar and 87.50% for indigo caterpillar. Apart from insect resistance, the transgenic plants were at par with control plants in terms of agronomic parameters and fiber quality. Hence, these Bt jutes in the field would survive Lepidopteran pest infestation, minimize harmful pesticide usage and yield good quality fiber. PMID:29354143

  6. Bt Jute Expressing Fused δ-Endotoxin Cry1Ab/Ac for Resistance to Lepidopteran Pests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuvobrata Majumder

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Jute (Corchorus sp. is naturally occurring, biodegradable, lignocellulosic-long, silky, golden shiny fiber producing plant that has great demands globally. Paper and textile industries are interested in jute because of the easy availability, non-toxicity and high yield of cellulosic biomass produced per acre in cultivation. Jute is the major and most industrially used bast fiber-producing crop in the world and it needs protection from insect pest infestation that decreases its yield and quality. Single locus integration of the synthetically fused cry1Ab/Ac gene of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt in Corchorus capsularis (JRC 321 by Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated shoot tip transformation provided 5 potent Bt jute lines BT1, BT2, BT4, BT7 and BT8. These lines consistently expressed the Cry1Ab/Ac endotoxin ranging from 0.16 to 0.35 ng/mg of leaf, in the following generations (analyzed upto T4. The effect of Cry1Ab/Ac endotoxin was studied against 3 major Lepidopteran pests of jute- semilooper (Anomis sabulifera Guenee, hairy caterpillar (Spilarctia obliqua Walker and indigo caterpillar (Spodoptera exigua Hubner by detached leaf and whole plant insect bioassay on greenhouse-grown transgenic plants. Results confirm that larvae feeding on transgenic plants had lower food consumption, body size, body weight and dry weight of excreta compared to non-transgenic controls. Insect mortality range among transgenic feeders was 66–100% for semilooper and hairy caterpillar and 87.50% for indigo caterpillar. Apart from insect resistance, the transgenic plants were at par with control plants in terms of agronomic parameters and fiber quality. Hence, these Bt jutes in the field would survive Lepidopteran pest infestation, minimize harmful pesticide usage and yield good quality fiber.

  7. Plant-Herbivore and Plant-Pollinator Interactions of the Developing Perennial Oilseed Crop, Silphium integrifolium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasifka, J R; Mallinger, R E; Hulke, B S; Larson, S R; Van Tassel, D

    2017-12-08

    Sampling in Kansas and North Dakota documented the plant-herbivore and plant-pollinator interactions of the developing perennial oilseed crop, Silphium integrifolium Michx. The larva of the tortricid moth, Eucosma giganteana (Riley), was the most damaging floret- and seed-feeding pest in Kansas, with infested heads producing ≈85% (2015) or ≈45% (2016) fewer seeds than apparently undamaged heads. Necrosis of apical meristems caused stunting and delayed bloom in Kansas; though the source of the necrosis is not known, observations of the tarnished plant bug, Lygus lineolaris (Palisot de Beauvois; Hemiptera: Miridae), in S. integrifolium terminals suggest a possible cause. In North Dakota, E. giganteana larvae were not found, but pupae of Neotephritis finalis (Loew; Diptera: Tephritidae), a minor pest of cultivated sunflower, were common in the heads of S. integrifolium. Bees appeared highly attracted to S. integrifolium, and in all but one observation, bees were seen actively collecting pollen. The most common bees included large apids (Apis mellifera L., Svastra obliqua [Say], Melissodes spp.) and small-bodied halictids (Lasioglossum [Dialictus] spp.). Controlled pollination experiments demonstrated that S. integrifolium is pollinator dependent, due to both mechanical barriers (imperfect florets and protogyny) and genetic self-incompatibility. Subsequent greenhouse tests and AFLP confirmation of putative self-progeny show that a low (<1%) level of self-pollination is possible. If genetic self-incompatibility is eventually reduced through breeding, mechanical barriers would maintain a reliance on bees to move pollen between male and female florets. Collectively, observations on S. integrifolium show that both herbivore and pollinator management are important to maximize seed production. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America 2017. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  8. Species choice, provenance and species trials among native Brazilian species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drumond, M.A.

    1982-01-01

    Six papers from the conference are presented. Drumond, M.A., Potential of species native to the semi-arid tropics, 766-781, (Refs. 18), reports on Anadenanthera macrocarpa, Mimosa species, Schinopsis brasiliensis, Spondias tuberosa, Ziziphus joazeiro, Cnidoscolus phyllacanthus, Bursera leptophleos (leptophloeos), Tabebuia impetiginosa, Astronium urundeuva, and Mimosa caesalpinia. Monteiro, R.F.R., Speltz, R.M., Gurgel, J.T. do A.; Silvicultural performance of 24 provenances of Araucaria angustifolia in Parana, 814-824, (Refs. 8). Pires, C.L. da S., Kalil Filho, A.N., Rosa, P.R.F. da, Parente, P.R., Zanatto, A.C.S.; Provenance trials of Cordia alliodora in the State of Sao Paulo, 988-995, (Refs. 9). Nogueira, J.C.B., Siqueira, A.C.M.F., Garrido, M.A.O., Gurgel Garrido, L.M. do A., Rosa, P.R.F., Moraes, J.L. de, Zandarin, M.A., Gurgel Filho, O.A., Trials of some native species in various regions of the State of Sao Paulo, 1051-1063, (Refs. 9) describes Centrolobium tomentosum, Peltophorum dubium, Tabebuia vellosoi, Cariniana legalis, and Balfourodendron riedelianum. Batista, M.P., Borges, J.F., Franco, M.A.B.; Early growth of a native species in comparison with exotics in northeastern Para, Brazil, 1105-1110, (Refs. 3). Jacaranda copaia is compared with Gmelina arborea, Pinus caribaea various hondurensis, Eucalyptus deglupta, and E. urophylla. Lima, P.C.F., Souza, S.M. de, Drumond, M.A.; Trials of native forest species at Petrolina, Pernambuco, 1139-1148, (Refs. 8), deals with Anadenanthera macrocarpa, Piptadenia obliqua, Pithecellobium foliolosum, Astronium urundeuva, Schinopsis brasiliensis, Cassia excelsa, Caesalpinia pyramidalis, Parkia platycephala, Pseudobombax simplicifolium, Tabebuia impetiginosa, Caesalpinia ferrea, and Aspidosperma pyrifolium. 18 references.

  9. Comparison of Airborne LiDAR and Satellite Hyperspectral Remote Sensing to Estimate Vascular Plant Richness in Deciduous Mediterranean Forests of Central Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Ceballos

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The Andes foothills of central Chile are characterized by high levels of floristic diversity in a scenario, which offers little protection by public protected areas. Knowledge of the spatial distribution of this diversity must be gained in order to aid in conservation management. Heterogeneous environmental conditions involve an important number of niches closely related to species richness. Remote sensing information derived from satellite hyperspectral and airborne Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR data can be used as proxies to generate a spatial prediction of vascular plant richness. This study aimed to estimate the spatial distribution of plant species richness using remote sensing in the Andes foothills of the Maule Region, Chile. This region has a secondary deciduous forest dominated by Nothofagus obliqua mixed with sclerophyll species. Floristic measurements were performed using a nested plot design with 60 plots of 225 m2 each. Multiple predictors were evaluated: 30 topographical and vegetation structure indexes from LiDAR data, and 32 spectral indexes and band transformations from the EO1-Hyperion sensor. A random forest algorithm was used to identify relevant variables in richness prediction, and these variables were used in turn to obtain a final multiple linear regression predictive model (Adjusted R2 = 0.651; RSE = 3.69. An independent validation survey was performed with significant results (Adjusted R2 = 0.571, RMSE = 5.05. Selected variables were statistically significant: catchment slope, altitude, standard deviation of slope, average slope, Multiresolution Ridge Top Flatness index (MrRTF and Digital Crown Height Model (DCM. The information provided by LiDAR delivered the best predictors, whereas hyperspectral data were discarded due to their low predictive power.

  10. Effects of continuous drought and immersion on hatchability of Ochlerotatus albifasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae eggs stored at low temperature Efecto de la sequía continua y la inmersión sobre la respuesta de eclosión de los huevos de Ochlerotatus albifasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae almacenados a baja temperatura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raúl E Campos

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available The role of environmental factors on the hatching response of O. albifasciatus (Macquart eggs is studied by simulating winter conditions in the laboratory. The hypothesis tested was that hatching response is affected by: (1 time that eggs remain at low temperature, (2 storage conditions, and (3 acclimatization time. Eggs were stored at 5ºC in drought and immersion conditions during 7, 21, 35, 90 and 146 days, immediately after, they were acclimatized at 22ºC during 24, 72, and 168 hours, and then eggs were flooded to induce hatching. Percent of hatched eggs was analyzed with a Generalized Lineal Model with a binomial distribution. Results show that: (1 a long storage period at cold temperature and long acclimatization periods improve the hatching response; (2 storage conditions have a moderate effect on hatching, being more evident in eggs stored dry; (3 a long time of acclimatization favors the hatching response in submerged eggs more than in eggs stored dry; (4 long time at cold favors the hatching response in eggs stored dry more than in submerged eggs; (5 the hatching response of eggs that remain for a long time at low temperature is higher when the time of acclimatization is long.Se estudió el rol de los factores ambientales sobre la eclosión de los huevos de O. albifasciatus (Macquart, simulando condiciones de invierno. La hipótesis planteada fue que la respuesta de eclosión de los huevos depende de: (1 tiempo de permanencia a baja temperatura, (2 condiciones de almacenamiento, y (3 tiempo de aclimatación. Los huevos fueron almacenados a 5º C en condiciones de sequía y sumergidos durante 7, 21, 35, 90 y 146 días; luego fueron aclimatados a 22º C durante 24, 72, y 168 horas y posteriormente inundados para inducir la eclosión. El porcentaje de huevos eclosionados se analizó con un Modelo Lineal Generalizado con distribución binomial. Los resultados mostraron que: (1 largos períodos de almacenamiento en frío y largos tiempos

  11. Potential impacts of climate change on stable flies, investigated along an altitudinal gradient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilles, J; David, J-F; Duvallet, G; Tillard, E

    2008-03-01

    Adult populations of stable flies were sampled along an altitudinal transect in Reunion Island to determine whether higher temperatures were associated with: (a) higher numbers of flies; (b) a longer season of infestation, and/or (c) different responses to warming in the cosmopolitan Stomoxys calcitrans (L) and the tropical Stomoxys niger niger Macquart (Diptera: Muscidae). Flies of both species were trapped at seven farms situated at four altitudes (100-1600 m a.s.l.) over a 90-week period. For both species, there were no relationships between the maximum or mean fly abundance and altitude. Only minimum abundance in winter was significantly higher at lower altitudes. Maximum and mean abundances differed significantly between nearby farms under similar climatic conditions. Seasonal fluctuations in fly abundance changed along the gradient. At lower altitudes, population growth started earlier after the winter but abundance declined earlier in summer, which resulted in a shift of the season of infestation. Seasonal fluctuations of both species were strongly related to climate variables at high altitude, mainly temperature. However, climate variables explained a decreasing proportion of the variations in abundance at lower altitudes. Stomoxys calcitrans was the most abundant species overall, but the proportion of S. n. niger increased significantly at lower altitudes and this species became predominant at 100 m a.s.l. It is concluded that stable fly infestations are unlikely to worsen in response to global warming. Maximum abundance is limited by local factors, possibly larval resources, which suggests that adequate husbandry practices could override the impact of climate change. Because S. n. niger tends to be the predominant pest at elevated temperatures, it is recommended that this species should not be introduced in areas where climate is changing.

  12. DNA barcoding of Neotropical black flies (Diptera: Simuliidae): Species identification and discovery of cryptic diversity in Mesoamerica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Triana, Luis M; Chaverri, Luis G; Rodríguez- Pérez, Mario A; Prosser, Sean W J; Hebert, Paul D N; Gregory, T Ryan; Johnson, Nick

    2015-03-18

    Although correct taxonomy is paramount for disease control programs and epidemiological studies, morphology-based taxonomy of black flies is extremely difficult. In the present study, the utility of a partial sequence of the COI gene, the DNA barcoding region, for the identification of species of black flies from Mesoamerica was assessed. A total of 32 morphospecies were analyzed, one belonging to the genus Gigantodax and 31 species to the genus Simulium and six of its subgenera (Aspathia, Eusimulium, Notolepria, Psaroniocompsa, Psilopelmia, Trichodagmia). The Neighbour Joining tree (NJ) derived from the DNA barcodes grouped most specimens according to species or species groups recognized by morphotaxonomic studies. Intraspecific sequence divergences within morphologically distinct species ranged from 0.07% to 1.65%, while higher divergences (2.05%-6.13%) in species complexes suggested the presence of cryptic diversity. The existence of well-defined groups within S. callidum (Dyar & Shannon), S. quadrivittatum Loew, and S. samboni Jennings revealed the likely inclusion of cryptic species within these taxa. In addition, the suspected presence of sibling species within S. paynei Vargas and S. tarsatum Macquart was supported. DNA barcodes also showed that specimens of species that are difficult to delimit morphologically such as S. callidum, S. pseudocallidum Díaz Nájera, S. travisi Vargas, Vargas & Ramírez-Pérez, relatives of the species complexes such as S. metallicum Bellardi s.l. (e.g., S. horacioi Okazawa & Onishi, S. jobbinsi Vargas, Martínez Palacios, Díaz Nájera, and S. puigi Vargas, Martínez Palacios & Díaz Nájera), and S. virgatum Coquillett complex (e.g., S. paynei and S. tarsatum) grouped together in the NJ analysis, suggesting they represent valid species. DNA barcoding combined with a sound morphotaxonomic framework provided an effective approach for the identification of medically important black flies species in Mesoamerica and for the

  13. Parasites of Columba livia (Aves: Columbiformes in Tenerife (Canary Islands and their role in the conservation biology of the Laurel pigeons

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    Foronda P.

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence and intensity of the parasites from 50 wild doves (Columba livia from the city of Santa Cruz de Tenerife, in the island of Tenerife (Canary Archipelago, were studied. The following ectoparasites were found in apparently healthy pigeons (prevalences are shown in percentage (% and mean intensities with their standard deviations: the acari Dermanyssus gallinae (De Geer, 1778 (6 241 .0 ± 138.9 and Tinaminyssus melloi Fain, 1962 (10 %, 218.3 ± 117.3; the louses, Columbicola columbae Linnaeus, 1758 (100 %, 111.4 ± 76.8 and Campanulotes bidentatus Scopoli, 1763 (94 %, 48.4 ± 26.6; and the pigeon fly, Pseudolynchia canariensis Macquart, 1839 (36 %, 6.2 ± 1.6. The endoparasites we found, were: a haemoprotozoan species, Haemoproteus columbae Kruze, 1890 (82 %, 14.8 ± 10.3 per 1000; coccidian oocysts, Eimeria sp. (50 %, 0.2 x 103 ± 1.7 x 103 per gr; a cestode species Raillietina micracantha (Fuhrmann, 1909 López Neyra, 1947 (44 %, 12.3 ± 9.4; and four nematode species, Tetrameres (Tetrameres fissispina (Diesing, 1861 Travassos, 1915 (4 %, 99.5 ± 34,1, Synhimantus (Dispharynx spiralis (Molin, 1858 (8 %, 46. 8 ± 11.6, Ascaridia columbae (Gmelin, 1790 Travassos, 1913 (40 %, 8.4 ± 8.8 and Aonchotheca sp. (18 %, 6.0 ± 3.1. Several species detected in our study can be pathogens for C. bollii and C. junoniae, which are endemic pigeons of the Canary Islands, considered endangered species. Parasites (ectoparasites, protozoa and helminths of C. livia found in Tenerife and others from wild and farm birds in the island were considered as healthy controls.

  14. Variation in the Time of Colonization of Broiler Carcasses by Carrion Flies in Nakhonsawan Province, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moophayak, Kittikhun; Sukontason, Kabkaew L; Ruankham, Watcharapong; Tomberlin, Jeffery K; Bunchu, Nophawan

    2017-09-01

    Carrion flies are the primary insects colonizing vertebrate carrion; however, limited information is available on the variation in the time of colonization (TOC) as related to time of placement (TOP) and time of death (TOD), particularly in Thailand. Three seasonal sets of nine broiler carcasses (euthanized and placed in field within 0.5 h after death) were placed in mesh enclosures within a disturbed deciduous dipterocarp forest at Nakhonsawan Province, upper-central Thailand, for 3 d to determine the colonization time by carrion flies. In total, 21,536 arthropods were collected using traps placed over each carcass. Carrion flies of the family Calliphoridae, Muscidae, and Sarcophagidae predominated (93.42%). Of these, Chrysomya megacephala (F.) (Diptera: Calliphoridae) and Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart) (Diptera: Calliphoridae) were the dominant species being 36.18% and 35.36%, respectively, across season. These species arrived immediately (5 min) after placement of the carrion in the field during the rainy season, while they were delayed 1-2 h during the dry season. Chrysomya megacephala, C. rufifacies, and Parasarcophaga dux (Thomson) colonized the remains. Time of colonization by C. megacephala and C. rufifacies occurred mostly at ∼1600-1700 hours (10-11 h after placement) for all seasons. In contrast, TOC by P. dux was delayed for 1 d during rainy and dry season. These results mark the first record of carrion fly colonization in this area and also may deserve important information for the further study as they demonstrate time of colonization differs from TOP and most importantly TOD. © Crown copyright 2017.

  15. Identifying fly puparia by clearing technique: application to forensic entomology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukontason, Kabkaew L; Ngern-Klun, Radchadawan; Sripakdee, Duanghatai; Sukontason, Kom

    2007-10-01

    In forensic investigations, immature stages of the fly (egg, larva, or puparia) can be used as entomological evidence at death scenes, not only to estimate the postmortem interval (PMI), analyze toxic substances, and to determine the manner of death but also to indicate the movement of a corpse in homicide cases. Of these immature stages, puparia represent the longest developmental time, which makes them of useful. However, in order for forensic entomologists to use puparia effectively, it is crucial that they are able to accurately identify the species of fly found in a corpse. Typically, these puparia are similar in general appearance, being coarctate and light brown to dark brown in color, which makes identification difficult. In this study, we report on the clearing technique used to pale the integument of fly puparia, thereby allowing observation of the anterior end (second to fourth segments) and the profile of the posterior spiracle, which are important clues for identification. We used puparia of the blowfly, Chrysomya megacephala (F.), as the model species in this experiment. With placement in a 20% potassium hydroxide solution daily and mounting on a clearing medium (Permount(R), New Jersey), the profile of the posterior spiracle could be clearly examined under a light microscope beginning on the fifth day after pupation, and the number of papillae in the anterior spiracle could be counted easily starting from the ninth day. Comparison of morphological features of C. megacephala puparia with those of other blowflies (Chrysomya nigripes [Aubertin], Chrysomya rufifacies [Macquart], Chrysomya villeneuvi [Patton], Lucilia cuprina [Wiedemann], and Hemipyrellia ligurriens [Wiedemann]) and a housefly (Musca domestica L.) revealed that the anterior ends and the profiles of the posterior spiracles had markedly distinguishing characteristics. Morphometric analysis of the length and width of puparia, along with the length of the gaps between the posterior spiracles

  16. Laboratory Colonization of the Blow Flies, Chrysomya megacephala (Diptera: Calliphoridae) and Chrysomya rufifacies (Diptera: Calliphoridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swiger, Sonja Lise; Hogsette, Jerome A; Butler, Jerry F

    2014-10-01

    Chrysomya megacephala (F.) and Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart) were colonized so that larval growth rates could be compared. Colonies were also established to provide insight into the protein needs of adult C. rufifacies and developmental rates of the ensuing larvae. The C. megacephala and C. rufifacies laboratory colonies were reared for five and six generations, respectively, at 28°C. C. megacephala developmental mean rate from egg to adult was 20.4 ± 0.38 d. First-instar larvae emerge in 1.4 ± 0.24 d, second-instar larvae develop in 2.6 ± 0.38 d and third instars occur at 6.3 ± 0.72 d. Development from egg to pupation occurred in 12 ± 1.10 d. C. rufifacies developed at a mean rate of 16.2 ± 0.78 d from egg to adult emergence. Each stage occurred in succession from first-instar larvae 1.1 ± 0.25 d, second-instar larvae developed 2.3 ± 0.25 d later, and the third-instar larvae developed 5.7 ± 0.41 d later. The larvae pupated 10.0 ± 0.57 d after oviposition. Both of these flies can be collected in the wild and easily colonized using conditioned chicken as an oviposition and larval medium. C. megacephala apparently prefers a lower development and maintenance temperature than C. rufifacies, as evidenced by the high pupal mortality. Laboratory-reared C. rufifacies benefited from bloodmeal as a protein supplement to enhance egg production. C. rufifacies larvae were not observed preying on each other and additional larval species were not provided to serve as prey. © 2014 Entomological Society of America.

  17. Hydrocarbon profiles throughout adult Calliphoridae aging: A promising tool for forensic entomology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pechal, Jennifer L; Moore, Hannah; Drijfhout, Falko; Benbow, M Eric

    2014-12-01

    Blow flies (Diptera: Calliphoridae) are typically the first insects to arrive at human remains and carrion. Predictable succession patterns and known larval development of necrophagous insects on vertebrate remains can assist a forensic entomologist with estimates of a minimum post-mortem interval (PMImin) range. However, adult blow flies are infrequently used to estimate the PMImin, but rather are used for a confirmation of larval species identification. Cuticular hydrocarbons have demonstrated potential for estimating adult blow fly age, as hydrocarbons are present throughout blow fly development, from egg to adult, and are stable structures. The goal of this study was to identify hydrocarbon profiles associated with the adults of a North American native blow fly species, Cochliomyia macellaria (Fabricius) and a North American invasive species, Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart). Flies were reared at a constant temperature (25°C), a photoperiod of 14:10 (L:D) (h), and were provided water, sugar and powdered milk ad libitum. Ten adult females from each species were collected at day 1, 5, 10, 20, and 30 post-emergence. Hydrocarbon compounds were extracted and then identified using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis. A total of 37 and 35 compounds were detected from C. macellaria and Ch. rufifacies, respectively. There were 24 and 23 n-alkene and methyl-branched alkane hydrocarbons from C. macellaria and Ch. rufifacies, respectively (10 compounds were shared between species), used for statistical analysis. Non-metric multidimensional scaling analysis and permutational multivariate analysis of variance were used to analyze the hydrocarbon profiles with significant differences (P<0.001) detected among post-emergence age cohorts for each species, and unique hydrocarbon profiles detected as each adult blow fly species aged. This work provides empirical data that serve as a foundation for future research into improving PMImin estimates made by forensic

  18. Ommatidia of blow fly, house fly, and flesh fly: implication of their vision efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukontason, Kabkaew L; Chaiwong, Tarinee; Piangjai, Somsak; Upakut, Sorawit; Moophayak, Kittikhun; Sukontason, Kom

    2008-06-01

    This work aims to elucidate the number of ommatidia or facets (the outwardly visible units of each ommatidium) for compound eyes in blow flies [Chrysomya megacephala (F.), Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart), Chrysomya nigripes (Aubertin), Lucilia cuprina (Wiedemann)], house flies (Musca domestica L.), and flesh flies (Liosarcophaga dux Thomson) by manual counts of the corneal spreads. The head of the fly in each species was soaked in 20% potassium hydroxide solution at room temperature for 7 days, and the clear compound eye was dissected into six small parts, each of which was placed onto a slide and flattened using a coverslip. Images of each part were obtained using a microscope connected to a computer. The printed images of each part were magnified, and the total number of ommatidia per eye was manually counted. For males, the mean number of ommatidia was statistically different among all flies examined: L. dux (6,032) > C. rufifacies (5,356) > C. nigripes (4,798) > C. megacephala (4,376) > L. cuprina (3,665) > M. domestica (3,484). Likewise, the mean number of facets in females was statistically different: L. dux (6,086) > C. megacephala (5,641) > C. rufifacies (5,208) > C. nigripes (4,774) > L. cuprina (3,608) > M. domestica (3433). Scanning electron microscopy analysis of adult flies revealed the sexual dimorphism in the compound eye. Male C. megacephala had large ommatidia in the upper two thirds part and small ommatidia in the lower one third part, whereas only small ommatidia were detected in females. Dense postulate appearance was detected in the external surface of the corneal lens of the ommatidia of C. megacephala, C. rufifacies, and C. nigripes, while a mix of dense postulate appearance and variable groove array length was detected in L. cuprina and M. domestica. The probable functions of ommatidia are discussed with reference to other literature.

  19. Nonconsumptive Effects of Predatory Chrysomya rufifacies (Diptera: Calliphoridae) Larval Cues on Larval Cochliomyia macellaria (Diptera: Calliphoridae) Growth and Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Micah; Crippen, Tawni L; Longnecker, Michael; Tomberlin, Jeffery K

    2017-09-01

    Forensic entomologists often rely on development data associated with a given species to estimate when it colonized human or other vertebrate remains. In most instances, these development studies are based on single species reared in isolation in the laboratory. This study examined the impact of excretions and secretions (ES) associated with third-instar Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart), a predator, on the development of its prey, Cochliomyia macellaria (F.). Not surprisingly, Ch. rufifacies ES did not impact the development of first- or second-instar C. macellaria, which are typically not preyed on by Ch. rufifacies. However, development of third-instar C. macellaria, which do experience predation, was impacted. First, larvae were longer than those in the control (deionized water, dH2O). Filtering the ES and removing the associated bacteria and byproducts >0.2 µm dampened the previous impact observed by the unfiltered ES on third-instar C. macellaria. Second, third-instar C. macellaria treated with unfiltered ES completed pupariation 8 h quicker than the controls. Filtering the ES lessened this effect by 50%. And finally, third-instar C. macellaria treated with filtered or unfiltered Ch. rufifacies ES reached adulthood ∼5 h faster than controls treated with dH2O. In summary, these data have large ramifications for forensic entomology, as multiple species being present on decomposing remains is not uncommon. Understanding the impact of associated ES produced by interspecific cohorts on associated development could lead to more precise estimates of the minimum postmortem interval for forensic investigation of decomposing remains. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Estimating the Number of Eggs in Blow Fly (Diptera: Calliphoridae) Egg Masses Using Photographic Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosati, J Y; Pacheco, V A; Vankosky, M A; Vanlaerhoven, S L

    2015-07-01

    Little work has been done to quantify the number of eggs oviposited by blow flies (Diptera: Calliphoridae) in studies examining colonization behavior. Egg counting methods currently available are time-consuming and destructive. This study used ImageJ software and analysis of covariance to relate the volume of egg masses to the number of eggs laid by three different blow fly species: Lucilia sericata (Meigen), Phormia regina (Meigen), and Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart). Egg mass volume, species, and the interaction of species and egg mass volume all affected the number of blow fly eggs deposited in egg masses. Both species identity and egg mass volume are important when predicting egg number, as such a single regression equation cannot be used to estimate egg number for these three species. Therefore, simple linear regression equations were determined for each species. The volume of individual eggs was incorporated into the model, yet differences between species were observed, suggesting that the orientation of the eggs oviposited by multiple conspecific females within egg masses influences egg estimates. Based on our results, we expect that imaging software can be used for other blow fly species, as well as other insect species; however, equations specific to each species must be developed. This study describes an important tool for quantifying egg deposition in a nondestructive manner, which is important in studying the colonization behavior and life history of insects of ecological and forensic importance. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Revision of the stiletto fly genera Acupalpa Kröber and Pipinnipons Winterton (Diptera, Therevidae, Agapophytinae) using cybertaxonomic methods, with a key to Australasian genera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winterton, Shaun L

    2011-05-04

    Australian stiletto flies of the sister-genera Acupalpa Kröber, 1912 and Pipinnipons Winterton, 2001 (Diptera: Therevidae: Agapophytinae) are revised. Twelve new species of Acupalpa are described, while Acupalpa imitans (White, 1915), comb. n. is transferred from Pipinnipons and Acupalpa albimanis (Kröber, 1914), comb. n. is transferred from Ectinorhynchus Macquart as a senior synonym of Acupalpa pollinosa Mann. The total number of species of Acupalpa is therefore increased to 19: Acupalpa albimanis (Kröber), comb. n., Acupalpa albitarsa Mann, Acupalpa bohartisp. n., Acupalpa divisa (Walker), Acupalpa dolichorhynchasp. n., Acupalpa glossasp. n., Acupalpa imitans (White), comb. n., Acupalpa irwini Winterton, Acupalpa melanophaeossp. n.,Acupalpa miaboolyasp. n., Acupalpa minutasp. n., Acupalpa minutoidessp. n., Acupalpa notomelassp. n., Acupalpa novayamarnasp. n., Acupalpa rostrata Kröber, Acupalpa semirufa Mann, Acupalpa westralicasp. n., Acupalpa yalgoosp. n. and Acupalpa yanchepsp. n. Three new species of Pipinnipons are described, increasing the total number of species to five: Pipinnipons chauncyvallissp. n., Pipinnipons fascipennis (Kröber), Pipinnipons kampmeieraesp. n., Pipinnipons kroeberi Winterton, and P. sphecodasp. n.Pipinnipons and Acupalpa are rediagnosed in light of the new species presented herein and revised keys to species are included. A dichotomous key to genera of Australasian Therevidae is included. As an empirical example of cybertaxonomy, taxonomic descriptions were composed using a character matrix developed in Lucid Builder (in Structured Descriptive Data (SDD) format) to generate natural language descriptions supplemented by online specimen and image databases. Web resources are provided throughout the document including: a) links to high resolution colour images of all species on Morphbank, b) registration of authors, publications, taxon names and other nomenclatural acts in Zoobank, with assignment of Life Science Identifiers (LSIDs

  2. Revision of the stiletto fly genera Acupalpa Kröber and Pipinnipons Winterton (Diptera, Therevidae, Agapophytinae using cybertaxonomic methods, with a key to Australasian genera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaun Winterton

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Australian stiletto flies of the sister-genera Acupalpa Kröber, 1912 and Pipinnipons Winterton, 2001 (Diptera: Therevidae: Agapophytinae are revised. Twelve new species of Acupalpa are described, while Acupalpa imitans (White, 1915, comb. n. is transferred from Pipinnipons and Acupalpa albimanis (Kröber, 1914, comb. n. is transferred from Ectinorhynchus Macquart as a senior synonym of Acupalpa pollinosa Mann. The total number of species of Acupalpa is therefore increased to 19: A. albimanis (Kröber, comb. n., A. albitarsa Mann, A. boharti sp. n., A. divisa (Walker, A. dolichorhyncha sp. n., A. glossa sp. n., A. imitans (White, comb. n., A. irwini Winterton, A. melanophaeos sp. n., A. miaboolya sp. n., A. minuta sp. n., A. minutoides sp. n., A. notomelas sp. n., A. novayamarna sp. n., A. rostrata Kröber, A. semirufa Mann, A. westralica sp. n., A. yalgoo sp. n. and A. yanchep sp. n. Three new species of Pipinnipons are described, increasing the total number of species to five: P. chauncyvallis sp. n., P. fascipennis (Kröber, P. kampmeierae sp. n., P. kroeberi Winterton, and P. sphecoda sp. n. Pipinnipons and Acupalpa are rediagnosed in light of the new species presented herein and revised keys to species are included. A dichotomous key to genera of Australasian Therevidae is included. As an empirical example of cybertaxonomy, taxonomic descriptions were composed using a character matrix developed in Lucid Builder (in Structured Descriptive Data (SDD format to generate natural language descriptions supplemented by online specimen and image databases. Web resources are provided throughout the document including: a links to high resolution colour images of all species on Morphbank, b registration of authors, publications, taxon names and other nomenclatural acts in Zoobank, with assignment of Life Science Identifiers (LSIDs for each, c links to Genbank accession records for DNA sequences, and d assignment of LSIDs to specimen records with links

  3. Host-feeding patterns of Culex pipiens and other potential mosquito vectors (Diptera: Culicidae) of West Nile virus (Flaviviridae) collected in Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osório, Hugo Costa; Zé-Zé, Líbia; Alves, Maria João

    2012-05-01

    The host blood-feeding patterns of mosquito vectors affects the likelihood of human exposure to zoonotic pathogens, including West Nile Virus (family Flaviviridae, genus Flavivirus, WNV). In Portugal, data are unavailable regarding the blood-feeding habits of common mosquito species, including Culex pipiens L., considered the primary vector of WNV to humans. The sources of bloodmeals in 203 blood-fed mosquitoes of nine species collected from June 2007 to November 2010 in 34 Portuguese counties were analyzed by sequencing cytochrome-b partial fragments. Cx. pipiens was the most common species collected and successfully analyzed (n = 135/78). In addition, blood-fed females of the following species were analyzed: Ochlerotatus caspius Pallas (n = 20), Culex theileri Theobald (n = 16), Anopheles maculipennis s.l. Meigen (n = 10), Culiseta longiareolata Macquart (n = 7), Aedes aegypti L. (n = 6), Culex perexiguus Theobald (n = 3), Culiseta annulata Schrank (n = 3), and Ochlerotatus detritus Haliday (n = 3). The Cx. pipiens mosquitoes fed predominantly on birds (n = 55/78, 70.5%), with a high diversity of avian species used as hosts, although human blood was identified in 18 specimens (18/78, 23.1%). No significant differences were found between the host-feeding patterns of blood-fed Cx. pipiens collected in residential and nonresidential habitats. The occurrence of human derived blood meals and the presence of a mix avian-human bloodmeal accordingly suggest this species as a potential vector of WNV. Therefore, in Portugal, Cx. pipiens may play a role both in the avian-to-avian enzootic WNV cycle and in the avian-to-mammal transmission. In this context, the identity of Cx. pipiens (considering the forms molestus and pipiens) and the potential consequence on feeding behavior and WNV transmission are discussed.

  4. The roles of predators, competitors, and secondary salinization in structuring mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) assemblages in ephemeral water bodies of the Wheatbelt of Western Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carver, Scott; Spafford, Helen; Storey, Andrew; Weinstein, Philip

    2010-06-01

    Studies that consider both biotic and abiotic determinants of organisms are rare, but critical to delineate underlying determinants of community richness (number of taxa) and abundance (number of larvae per water body). In this study, we consider the importance of disturbance (salinity) and predator and competitor variables on mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) in small ephemeral water bodies across the Wheatbelt of Western Australia. Similar to mosquitoes, and contrary to general perceptions, nonculicid aquatic fauna (aquatic fauna) had a common occurrence (number or percentage of water bodies occupied) and were abundant (average density) in ephemeral water bodies, albeit with a simplified trophic structure. The occurrence and density (number per unit area) of aquatic fauna between water bodies were highly variable, but general relationships of aquatic fauna with rainfall, water body surface area, salinity, and mosquitoes were apparent. In contrast to mosquitoes, the density of aquatic fauna declined with recent rainfall, implying mosquitoes may colonize newly created water bodies more quickly than aquatic fauna. Assemblages (richness and density of taxa) of aquatic fauna changed along a salinity gradient, as did mosquitoes, and this was pronounced for predator groups. Densities of mosquitoes were not limited by any single taxonomic group, by a negative relationship. However, the density and richness of mosquitoes generally declined in association with increased richness of predators and density of all other taxa (taxa not specifically classified as predators or competitors of mosquitoes). These relationships may account for higher densities of mosquitoes in smaller water bodies, where richness of predators is reduced and the density of other taxa does not differ from larger water bodies. Our results also suggest salinity in the Western Australia Wheatbelt may facilitate greater abundance of halotolerant mosquitoes, Aedes alboannulatus Macquart and Aedes

  5. Seasonal and Geographic Variation in Biodiversity of Forensically Important Blow Flies (Diptera: Calliphoridae) in New Jersey, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weidner, L M; Jennings, D E; Tomberlin, J K; Hamilton, G C

    2015-09-01

    Determining the time of colonization of human or other animal remains by blow flies (Diptera: Calliphoridae) can play an important role in criminal investigations. However, blow fly presence in a given area is strongly influenced by abiotic and biotic variables such as temperature and habitat. We wanted to assess the biodiversity of adult blow flies in New Jersey, USA, where very little is known about these taxa. Toward that end we collected adult blow flies biweekly from traps baited with bovine liver and placed across three regions in New Jersey over a 2-yr period (2011-2013). We collected and identified 9,257 adult calliphorids, comprising six genera and 12 species. Blow fly assemblages composed of these species varied by season, but community composition did not vary among regions within a given season. Three species, Lucilia coeruleiviridis (Macquart), Lucilia sericata (Meigen), and Phormia regina (Meigen) comprised 88.5% of all adult blow flies collected (42.6, 25.9, 20.0%, respectively). Combining all regions, the dominant species for both spring and summer was L. coeruleiviridis comprising 35.1% of all adults caught in spring and 64.1% in summer. P. regina was the dominant species in fall, totaling 40.1% of all adults caught and Calliphora vicina (Robineau-Desvoidy) was the dominant species for winter, totaling 44.8% of all adults caught. Our findings provide the first assessment of blow fly communities in New Jersey, and these results can be applied to surrounding states where data are severely lacking for forensic application. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Parasites of Columba livia (Aves: Columbiformes) in Tenerife (Canary Islands) and their role in the conservation biology of the laurel pigeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foronda, P; Valladares, B; Rivera-Medina, J A; Figueruelo, E; Abreu, N; Casanova, J C

    2004-09-01

    The prevalence and intensity of the parasites from 50 wild doves (Columba livia) from the city of Santa Cruz de Tenerife, in the island of Tenerife (Canary Archipelago), were studied. The following ectoparasites were found in apparently healthy pigeons (prevalences are shown in percentage (%) and mean intensities with their standard deviations): the acari Dermanyssus gallinae (De Geer, 1778) (6, 241.0 +/- 138.9) and Tinaminyssus melloi Fain, 1962 (10%, 218.3 +/- 117.3); the louses, Columbicola columbae Linnaeus, 1758 (100%, 111.4 +/- 76.8) and Campanulotes bidentatus Scopoli, 1763 (94%, 48.4 +/- 26.6); and the pigeon fly, Pseudolynchia canariensis Macquart, 1839 (36%, 6.2 +/- 1.6). The endoparasites we found were: a haemoprotozoan species, Haemoproteus columbae Kruze, 1890 (82%, 14.8 +/- 10.3 per 1000); coccidian oocysts, Eimeria sp. (50%, 0.2 x 10(3) +/- 1.7 x 10(3) per gr); a cestode species Raillietina micracantha (Fuhrmann, 1909) López Neyra, 1947 (44%, 12.3 +/- 9.4); and four nematode species, Tetrameres (Tetrameres) fissispina (Diesing, 1861) Travassos, 1915 (4%, 99.5 +/- 34.1), Synhimantus (Dispharynx) spiralis (Molin, 1858) (8%, 46.8 +/- 11.6), Ascaridia columbae (Gmelin, 1790) Travassos, 1913 (40%, 8.4 +/- 8.8) and Aonchotheca sp. (18%, 6.0 +/- 3.1). Several species detected in our study can be pathogens for C. bollii and C. junoniae, which are endemic pigeons of the Canary Islands, considered endangered species. Parasites (ectoparasites, protozoa and helminths) of C. livia found in Tenerife and others from wild and farm birds in the island were considered as healthy controls.

  7. Rehydration of forensically important larval Diptera specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanford, Michelle R; Pechal, Jennifer L; Tomberlin, Jeffery K

    2011-01-01

    Established procedures for collecting and preserving evidence are essential for all forensic disciplines to be accepted in court and by the forensic community at large. Entomological evidence, such as Diptera larvae, are primarily preserved in ethanol, which can evaporate over time, resulting in the dehydration of specimens. In this study, methods used for rehydrating specimens were compared. The changes in larval specimens with respect to larval length and weight for three forensically important blow fly (Diptera: Calliphoridae) species in North America were quantified. Phormia regina (Meigen), Cochliomyia macellaria (F.), and Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart) third-instar larvae were collected from various decomposing animals and preserved with three preservation methods (80% ethanol, 70% isopropyl alcohol, and hot-water kill then 80% ethanol). Preservative solutions were allowed to evaporate. Rehydration was attempted with either of the following: 80% ethanol, commercial trisodium phosphate substitute solution, or 0.5% trisodium phosphate solution. All three methods partially restored weight and length of specimens recorded before preservation. Analysis of variance results indicated that effects of preservation, rehydration treatment, and collection animal were different in each species. The interaction between preservative method and rehydration treatment had a significant effect on both P. regina and C. macellaria larval length and weight. In addition, there was a significant interaction effect of collection animal on larval C. macellaria measurements. No significant effect was observed in C. rufifacies larval length or weight among the preservatives or treatments. These methods could be used to establish a standard operating procedure for dealing with dehydrated larval specimens in forensic investigations.

  8. Larviposition in the ovoviviparous blowfly Calliphora dubia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, D F; Dadour, I R

    2011-03-01

    This study examined larviposition in Calliphora dubia Macquart (Diptera: Calliphoridae), an ovoviviparous blowfly of considerable forensic importance in Australia. Females in the field carried 22-83 live larvae, exhibiting a strong linear relationship between female size and the number of live larvae carried. Females took just over 1 min (mean 67.7 ± 7.7 s, n = 54) to larviposit live larvae on or near fresh liver in the laboratory. Females laid larvae at a mean rate of 1.2 ± 0.1 larvae/s, with the fastest rate being 3.4 larvae/s. Most females (70%) laid live larvae only, but 14% laid larvae and eggs at the same time and 16% laid eggs only (none of the eggs laid were viable). Females laying only live larvae laid a mean of 53.7 ± 2.3 larvae, whereas those laying only eggs laid a mean of 48.6 ± 2.8 eggs on each occasion. None of the eggs laid were viable. Most females (86%) laid all their larvae in a single spot, even if they engaged in several bouts of laying live larvae. Nearly one-third of females did not lay all the live larvae in their ovisacs, but retained half of their complement of developed larvae. Females may be opting to spread their larvae across several carcasses in order to increase their survival and not to overcrowd small, ephemeral carcasses. The fact that a blowfly can lay either eggs or live larvae has enormous implications for the accurate determination of the post-mortem interval (PMI) as the presence of larvae derived from eggs laid on the body add 6-18 h to the PMI. This paper represents the first report of the ability of female calliphorids to resorb some of their own live larvae. © 2010 The Authors. Medical and Veterinary Entomology © 2010 The Royal Entomological Society.

  9. Development of Myrmeleon brasiliensis (Navás (Neuroptera, Myrmeleontidae, in laboratory, with different natural diets Desenvolvimento de Myrmeleon brasiliensis (Navás (Neuroptera, Myrmeleontidae, em laboratório, com diferentes dietas naturais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giani L. B. Missirian

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Antlions larvae are sit-and-wait predators that capture arthropod prey in conical sand pits. The aim of this paper were to determine the effect of different natural diets [leaf-cutting ants (Atta spp., fruit fly larvae (Anastrepha spp. and Ceratitis capitata and mixed diet (Atta spp. plus fruit fly larvae] on the development of larvae and pupae of M. brasiliensis (Navás, 1914 and to estimate the number and size of prey caught in each instar and on each kind of diet. The average duration (days of the second and third instars of M. brasiliensis was longer when larvae of antlion were fed with leaf-cutting ants. The diets did not affect the duration of the pupal stage nor the pupae size. The different diets did not affect the mean width of head capsule (mm, the mean weight (mg or the mean body size (mm in the different instars of M. brasiliensis. In the second and third instars, the larvae of M. brasiliensis fed with leaf-cutting ants consumed more prey than larvae kept on other diets. Adults whose larvae were fed fruit fly larvae were larger than adults on other diets. Although Myrmeleontidae are few studied in Brazil, these results contribute to knowledge of M. brasiliensis biology, but also suggest the need of studies about the development of larvae and pupae in natural environments.Larvas de formiga-leão são conhecidas por suas armadilhas ("funis" que constroem em solo arenoso, sob as quais esperam por suas presas. Este trabalho teve como objetivos verificar o efeito de diferentes dietas naturais [formigas-cortadeiras (Atta spp., larvas de moscas-das-frutas (Anastrepha spp. e Ceratitis capitata e dieta mista (Atta spp. e larvas de moscas-das-frutas] sobre o desenvolvimento larval e pupal de M. brasiliensis (Navás, 1914 e estimar o número e tamanho de presas capturadas, por instar larval, em cada dieta. No segundo e terceiro instares, as larvas de M. brasiliensis alimentadas com formigas-cortadeiras consumiram um número maior de presas e a

  10. Confusão sexual para o controle de Grapholita molesta (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae, em pomares de macieira, em Fraiburgo (SC, Brasil Mating disruption for the control of Grapholita molesta (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae, in Fraiburgo, Santa Catarina, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lino B. Monteiro

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available O controle de Grapholita molesta (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae foi avaliado pela técnica de confusão sexual em macieira no município de Fraiburgo (SC. A formulação do feromônio sintético utilizada foi da marca Quant G.m. (400 mg do acetato de (Z/E - 8 - dodecenila 14% p/v, com 500 difusores por hectare, distribuídos em um pomar de macieira comercial 'Fuji' de 2,52 ha. O tratamento com confusão sexual foi comparado com a testemunha convencional. O monitoramento para moscas-das-frutas, Anastrepha fraterculus (Diptera: Tephritidae; mariposa oriental, Grapholita molesta e lagarta enroladeira, Bonagota cranaodes (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae foi realizado para decidir se haveria necessidade de pulverização de inseticidas. Não houve capturas de G. molesta na armadilha do Tipo Delta, instalada no tratamento com confusão sexual até 93 dias após a liberação do feromônio. Nesse período, realizaram-se duas pulverizações para moscas-das-frutas e lagarta-enroladeira no tratamento com confusão sexual e oito pulverizações no tratamento convencional. Os danos causados por G. molesta em ambos os tratamentos não ultrapassaram 0,5%, mesmo com a redução de 77% dos inseticidas no tratamento com confusão sexual. Verifica-se, portanto, que a técnica de confusão sexual é eficiente para o controle de G. molesta.The control of Grapholita molesta (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae was assessed by using the mating disruption technique in an apple orchard in Fraiburgo, SC. Quant G.m. synthetic pheromone formulation (400 mg of (Z/E - 8 - dodecenyl acetate 14% p/v was used, with 500 dispensers per hectare, distributed over a 2.52 hectare 'Fuji' commercial orchard. The mating disruption treatment was compared with a chemical control treatment. The action threshold was determined by monitoring fruit flies Anastrepha fraterculus (Diptera: Tephritidae, G. molesta and leafroller Bonagota cranaodes (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae. G. molesta was caught in the Delta traps

  11. Controle de pragas e doenças, maturação e qualidade de maçãs 'imperial gala' submetidas ao ensacamento Control of insect pests and diseases, maturity and quality of 'imperial gala' apples submitted to bagging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosângela Teixeira

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a eficiência de diferentes embalagens no ensacamento de maçãs para o controle de pragas e doenças, e sua influência na maturação e qualidade dos frutos, em pomar sob sistema orgânico. O experimento foi conduzido em pomar com plantas de dez anos de idade da cultivar Imperial Gala, sobre porta-enxerto 'Marubakaido', com filtro EM-9, localizado no município de São Joaquim-SC, nas safras 2007/2008 e 2008/2009. Os frutos foram ensacados, após o raleio, com embalagens plásticas transparentes microperfuradas ou de tecido não texturizado (TNT. Frutos não ensacados constituíram o tratamento-controle. Na colheita, os frutos foram avaliados quanto aos danos provocados por mosca-das-frutas (Anastrepha fraterculus, mariposa-oriental (Grapholita molesta, lagarta-enroladeira (Bonagota salubricola e pulgão-lanígero (Eriosoma lanigerum, incidência das doenças sarna-da-macieira (Venturia inaequalis e podridão-amarga (Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, e atributos físico-químicos de maturação e qualidade e teor de cálcio (Ca nos frutos. O ensacamento, independentemente do tipo de material utilizado, reduziu os danos de insetos-praga, porém não foi eficiente no controle de doenças nos frutos. O ensacamento não comprometeu o desenvolvimento de coloração vermelha na casca e o teor de Ca nos frutos. De modo geral, o ensacamento antecipou o processo de maturação, caracterizado pela redução na firmeza de polpa e na textura da casca e da polpa, e pelo aumento no índice de iodoamido.This work was carried out to evaluate the efficiency of different fruit bagging materials to insect pests and diseases control, and its influence on maturity and quality of the fruits in an organic apple orchard. The experiment was conducted in an orchard with ten years old 'Imperial Gala' apple trees grafted on 'Marubakaido' rootstock (with a filter of EM-9, in São Joaquim, State of Santa Catarina, in 2007/08 and 2008

  12. Novel insecticide strategies such as phototoxic dyes in adult fruit fly control and suppression programmes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreno, Daniel S.; Mangan, Robert L.

    2000-01-01

    The problems of public acceptance, ecological impact, and integration with pest management programmes associated with use of broad spectrum insecticides in bait sprays for fruit flies are being addressed in our laboratory by our development of more precisely targeted bait systems which use insecticides which are less toxic to non-target organisms. Historically, bait and insecticide sprays to control fruit flies have been used since the beginning of the 20th century. Initially, inorganic insecticides were recommended. After the Second World War, chlorinated hydrocarbon insecticides replaced inorganic ones only to be replaced by the organic ones that are used at present. Back and Pemberton (1918) stated that baits used for fruit fly control were first recommended by Mally in South Africa for the control of the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), in 1908-1909 and by Berlese in Italy for the control of the olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Gmelin). The methods were improved by Lounsboury in South Africa in 1912 for the control of C. capitata and by Newman during 1913-1914 in Australia for the control of the Queensland fruit fly, Bactrocera tryoni (Froggatt). In 1910, Marsh used low-volume insecticide applications against the melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett), in Hawaii. Thereafter, other investigators adopted the low-volume approach to kill fruit flies. Whenever baits were used, they added carbohydrates and fermenting substances such as sugars, molasses, syrups, or fruit juices. In the 1930s, McPhail (1937), while working with attractants, found that sugar-yeast solutions attracted flies, and, in 1939 found that protein lures were attractive to Anastrepha species, especially to the guava fruit fly, A. striata Schiner (Baker et al. 1944). It was not until 1952, however, when Steiner demonstrated the use of hydrolysed proteins and partially hydrolysed yeast in combination with organophosphate insecticides to control fruit flies, that

  13. Custos variáveis de produção de Diachasmimorpha longicaudata (Ashmead para controle de moscas-das-frutas = Variable costs of production for Diachasmimorpha longicaudata to control the fruit flies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Gisely Camargos

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available O controle biológico aplicado consiste em liberações em massa de predadores ou parasitoides após a criação laboratorial em larga escala. Avaliar o custo de produção do parasitoide Diachasmimorpha longicaudata para controle biológico de moscas-das-frutas irá fornecer uma ferramenta capaz de auxiliar o planejamento, controle e uma forma de apoiar as empresas quanto as suas tomadas de decisão. Este trabalho teve por objetivo identificar e analisar os custos variáveis de produção do parasitoideD. longicaudata, criado em larvas de Anastrepha fraterculus utilizando a ferramenta de Custeio Baseado em Atividade [ABC]. Foi acompanhado o processo produtivo para obter o custo variável total de produção em laboratório de pesquisa e biofábrica de inimigos naturais, localizado em Piracicaba, São Paulo. A capacidade de produção de pupas de A. fraterculus parasitadas por D. longicaudata é de um milhão por semana nesse laboratório, sendo que um milhão de pupas representa 34 L, e um mL contém aproximadamente 30 pupas. O custo variável de produção para produzir um milhão de pupas parasitadas por semana foi de R$ 5.919,65 ou R$0,0059 por pupa. O custo com mão de obra representa 57% do custo total, enquanto o custo com materiais representa 43%. A tomada de decisão do produtor em relação ao controle biológico utilizando D. longicaudatadependerá de estudos prévios sobre o parasitoide e cultura pretendida. = Applied biological control consists in the mass liberation of laboratory reared predators or parasitoids. Evaluating the variable cost of production of the fruit flies parasitoid Diachasmimorpha longicaudata for biological control will provide a tool to assist the planning, control and a way to support businesses as their decision-making. This study aims to identify and analyze the variable costs productionof D. longicaudata, created in larvas of Anastrepha fraterculus using the Activity-Based Costing Tool [ABC]. The total

  14. Trapping guidelines for area-wide fruit fly programmes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-11-01

    Different traps and lures have been developed and used over decades to survey fruit fly populations. The first attractant for male fruit flies was methyl eugenol (ME) (for Bactrocera zonata, Howlett, 1912) followed by kerosene for Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata, (medfly), Severin and Severin, 1913. In 1956, Angelica seed oil was used to trap medfly (Steiner et al, 1957). Beroza et al. (1961) discovered trimedlure (TML) to be effective for the same purpose. Beroza and Green, 1963, demonstrated cuelure to be an effective attractant for Bactrocera cucurbitae. Food baits based on protein solutions, fermenting sugar solutions, fruit juices, and vinegar have been used since 1918 for the capture of females of several species. The McPhail trap was the first device to be used with protein baits (McPhail, 1929). Steiner traps were developed in 1957 (Steiner et al., 1957) and Jackson traps in 1971 for TML (Harris et al., 1971). These traps are currently used in various countries for fruit fly surveys in support of control activities and eradication campaigns. The combination of a McPhail trap with a protein attractant, Jackson trap with TML, and the Steiner trap with ME or cuelure (CUE), has remained unchanged for several decades. Global trends in increasing food quality, revenue sources, and fruit and vegetable trade, has resulted in an increased worldwide movement of fruit fly species and requires refinement of survey systems. After years of validating trapping technology through coordinated research programmes (CRP's) and extensive technical assistance to member countries, the Joint Division FAO/IAEA proposes the use of proven technologies in improving trap sensitivity in area-wide fruit fly control programmes (IAEA 1996 and IAEA 1998). These proven technologies include the use of synthetic food lures such as female attractants that can be used for several species of Anastrepha, Bactrocera and Ceratitis. Other citations of information on these developments are

  15. Prolongevity effects of a botanical with oregano and cranberry extracts in Mexican fruit flies: examining interactions of diet restriction and age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Sige; Carey, James R; Liedo, Pablo; Ingram, Donald K; Yu, Binbing

    2012-04-01

    Botanicals rich with phytochemicals have numerous health benefits. Dietary restriction (DR) extends lifespan in diverse species. We previously demonstrated that an oregano-cranberry (OC) mixture can promote longevity in the Mexican Fruit fly (Mexfly, Anastrepha ludens Loew). However, little is known about the interaction between botanicals and DR, and the age-dependent effect of botanicals on lifespan and reproduction. Here we investigated these issues by feeding Mexflies a full or DR diet supplemented with or without 2% OC. Lifespan and daily egg production of individual flies were recorded. The effect of short-term OC supplementation was evaluated by implementing the supplementation at three age intervals-young, middle, and old age. We found that OC increased lifespan of Mexflies on the full or DR diet when compared to their respective controls. OC increased reproduction of females on the full diet and, to a lesser extent, on the DR diet. Short-term OC supplementation was not sufficient to extend lifespan for males at all three age intervals nor for females at young and old age intervals. However, OC supplementation at the middle age interval was sufficient to extend lifespan in females, while only OC supplementation at the young age interval increased reproduction in females. Our findings suggest that OC extends lifespan and promotes reproduction partly through DR-independent pathways, and short-term supplementation have varied impact on longevity and reproduction. This also suggests a positive interaction between non-genetic interventions in promoting longevity and provides guidance for using botanicals as aging interventions in humans.

  16. Temporal Overlap and Co-Occurrence in a Guild of Sub-Tropical Tephritid Fruit Flies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Gleidyane N; Souza-Filho, Miguel F; Gotelli, Nicholas J; Lemos, Leandro J U; Godoy, Wesley A C; Zucchi, Roberto A

    2015-01-01

    Studies of community assembly have emphasized snapshot comparisons of spatially replicated samples from "natural" assemblages. Agro-ecosystems are characterized by relatively little habitat heterogeneity and no dispersal barriers for actively flying insects. Therefore, dynamic patterns of species segregation and aggregation are more likely to reflect the direct or indirect effects of species interactions. We studied the temporal organization of a guild of 21 congeneric species of Anastrepha that colonized fruit orchards in Monte Alegre do Sul, São Paulo, Brazil. This assemblage also included the introduced Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata. One hundred six consecutive weekly censuses (11 Jan 2002-16 Jan 2004) of flies in guava, loquat, and peach orchards revealed a pattern of minimum abundance during the coldest months of each year (June and July) and a maximum abundance during periods of flowering and fruit ripening. Overall, phenological overlap was greater than expected by chance. However, conditioned on the pattern of seasonal abundances, temporal occurrence and abundance matrices exhibited patterns of significant species segregation and anti-nestedness. In each year, the 3 orchards contained a small number of species pairs that exhibited statistically significant temporal segregation or aggregation. Most aggregated and segregated pairs reflected seasonal shifts in species presences that were not related to variation in air temperature. Most of the significant pairwise associations involved C. capitata: 8 of the 11 segregated pairs and 2 of the 7 aggregated pairs. These results suggest that species interactions between introduced and native species can be an important determinant of species associations in agro-ecosystems.

  17. Product quality control, irradiation and shipping procedures for mass-reared tephritid fruit flies for sterile insect release programmes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-05-01

    This document represents the recommendations, reached by consensus of an international group of quality control experts, on the standard procedures for product quality control (QC) for mass reared tephritid flies that are to be used in Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) programs. In addition, the manual describes recommended methods of handling and packaging pupae during irradiation and shipment. Most of the procedures were designed specifically for use with Mediterranean fruit flies, Ceratitis capitata (Wied.), but they are applicable, with minor modification in some cases, for other tephritid species such as Caribbean fruit fly Anastrepha suspense, Mexican fruit fly A. ludens, and various Bactrocera species. The manual is evolving and subject to periodic updates. The future additions will include other fruit flies as the need is identified. If followed, procedures described in this manual will help ensure that the quality of mass-produced flies is measured accurately in a standardised fashion, allowing comparisons of quality over time and across rearing facilities and field programmes. Problems in rearing, irradiation and handling procedures, and strain quality can be identified and hopefully corrected before control programmes are affected. Tests and procedures described in this document are only part of a total quality control programme for tephritid fly production. The product QC evaluations included in this manual are, unless otherwise noted, required to be conducted during SIT programmes by the Field programme staff not the production staff. Additional product QC tests have been developed and their use is optional (see ancillary test section). Production and process QC evaluations (e.g., analysis of diet components, monitoring the rearing environment, yield of larvae, development rate, etc.) are not within the scope of this document. Quality specifications are included for minimum and mean acceptability of conventional strains of C. capitata, A. ludens, and A

  18. Eradication of tephritid fruit fly pest populations: outcomes and prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suckling, David Maxwell; Kean, John M.; Stringer, Lloyd D.; Cáceres-Barrios, Carlos; Hendrichs, Jorge; Reyes-Flores, Jesus; Dominiak, Bernard C.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The number of insect eradication programmes is rising in response to globalisation. A database of arthropod and plant pathogen eradications covers 1050 incursion responses, with 928 eradication programmes on 299 pest and disease taxa in 104 countries (global eradication database b3.net.nz/gerda). METHODS: A subset of the database was assembled with 211 eradication or response programmes against 17 species of fruit flies (Tephritidae) in 31 countries, in order to investigate factors affecting the outcome. RESULTS: The failure rate for fruit fly eradication programmes was about 7%, with 0% for Ceratitis capitata (n=85 programmes) and 0% for two Anastrepha species (n=12 programmes), but 12% for 13 Bactrocera species (n=108 programmes). A number of intended eradication programmesagainst long-established populations were not initiated because of cost and other considerations, or evolved during the planning phase into suppression programmes. Cost was dependent on area, ranged from $US 0.1 million to $US 240 million and averaged about $US 12 million (normalised to $US in 2012). In addition to the routine use of surveillance networks, quarantine and fruit destruction, the key tactics used in eradication programmes were male annihilation, protein bait sprays (which can attract both sexes), fruit destruction and the sterile insect technique. CONCLUSIONS: Eradication success generally required the combination of several tactics applied on an area-wide basis. Because the likelihood of eradication declines with an increase in the area infested, it pays to invest in effective surveillance networks that allow early detection and delimitation while invading populations are small, thereby greatly favouring eradication success. (author)

  19. Dietas artificiais para a criação de larvas e adultos da mosca-das-frutas sul-americana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrise Medeiros Nunes

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi adequar as dietas artificiais para o desenvolvimento dos estágios de larva e adulto da mosca-das-frutas sul-americana (Anastrepha fraterculus. Para o estágio larval, foram testadas as seguintes dietas: D1, original, com 10 g de ágar; D2, modificada, com 3,6 g de ágar; e, D3, modificada, com bagaço seco de cana-de-açúcar. Para os adultos, foram testadas quatro dietas: A, levedura de cerveja + mel (2:1; B, açúcar refinado + extrato de levedura + gérmen de trigo cru (3:1:1; C, extrato de soja + açúcar mascavo + gérmen de trigo cru (3:1:1; e D, levedura seca de cervejaria + mel (2:1. Avaliaram-se os parâmetros biológicos de duração do período ovo-pupa, duração e viabilidade do estágio de pupa, massa média de pupas, razão sexual e duração e viabilidade do período ovo-adulto. O desenvolvimento larval em D1 e D2 foi semelhante e indicou que a criação de larvas pode ser realizada com 1/3 da quantidade de ágar da utilizada em D1. A utilização do bagaço seco de cana-de-açúcar, na dieta artificial, afetou negativamente o desenvolvimento larval. As dietas artificiais com levedura de cerveja + mel e com açúcar refinado + extrato de levedura + gérmen de trigo cru são as mais adequadas para a criação de adultos.

  20. Controle de pragas e doenças, maturação e qualidade de maçãs 'imperial gala' submetidas ao ensacamento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosângela Teixeira

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a eficiência de diferentes embalagens no ensacamento de maçãs para o controle de pragas e doenças, e sua influência na maturação e qualidade dos frutos, em pomar sob sistema orgânico. O experimento foi conduzido em pomar com plantas de dez anos de idade da cultivar Imperial Gala, sobre porta-enxerto 'Marubakaido', com filtro EM-9, localizado no município de São Joaquim-SC, nas safras 2007/2008 e 2008/2009. Os frutos foram ensacados, após o raleio, com embalagens plásticas transparentes microperfuradas ou de tecido não texturizado (TNT. Frutos não ensacados constituíram o tratamento-controle. Na colheita, os frutos foram avaliados quanto aos danos provocados por mosca-das-frutas (Anastrepha fraterculus, mariposa-oriental (Grapholita molesta, lagarta-enroladeira (Bonagota salubricola e pulgão-lanígero (Eriosoma lanigerum, incidência das doenças sarna-da-macieira (Venturia inaequalis e podridão-amarga (Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, e atributos físico-químicos de maturação e qualidade e teor de cálcio (Ca nos frutos. O ensacamento, independentemente do tipo de material utilizado, reduziu os danos de insetos-praga, porém não foi eficiente no controle de doenças nos frutos. O ensacamento não comprometeu o desenvolvimento de coloração vermelha na casca e o teor de Ca nos frutos. De modo geral, o ensacamento antecipou o processo de maturação, caracterizado pela redução na firmeza de polpa e na textura da casca e da polpa, e pelo aumento no índice de iodoamido.

  1. Efficacy of 1,4-diaminobutane (putrescine) in a food-based synthetic attractant for capture of Mediterranean and Mexican fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heath, Robert R; Epsky, Nancy D; Midgarden, David; Katsoyannos, Byron I

    2004-06-01

    Field trials were conducted in Guatemala to evaluate the importance of 1,4 diaminobutane (putrescine) in traps baited with ammonium acetate, trimethylamine, and putrescine. For the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), there were no differences in percentage of females captured in coffee and citrus or in percentage of males captured in citrus in traps with ammonium acetate and trimethylamine lures (females in coffee, 26.4 +/- 6.27%; females in citrus, 35.7 +/- 5.35%; males in citrus, 37.7 +/- 7.48%) versus ammonium acetate, trimethylamine, and putrescine lures (females in coffee, 36.6 +/- 9.64%; females in citrus, 41.1 +/- 5.18%; males in citrus, 37.1 +/- 6.09%). Percentage of males captured in coffee was reduced significantly when putrescine was not used with the ammonium acetate and trimethylamine (39.9 +/- 4.34 versus 31.6 +/- 5.29%). Lower percentages were captured in traps baited with ammonium acetate and putrescine, and the lowest percentages were captured in traps baited with putrescine and trimethylamine. When population level as indicated by capture in traps baited with ammonium acetate, trimethylamine, and putrescine was considered, a higher percentage of C. capitata males were captured in traps baited with all three components when one or more flies per trap per day were captured in coffee, and a higher percentage of females were captured when less than one fly per trap per day was captured in citrus. Percentage of the Mexican fruit fly, Anastrepha ludens (Loew), captured was significantly higher in traps baited with ammonium acetate and putrescine and significantly lower in traps baited putrescine and trimethylamine than in all other treatments. Results indicate that putrescine may be deleted when monitoring established populations of C. capitata but should be used in traps used to monitor A. ludens or to detect new infestations of C. capitata.

  2. Eradication of tephritid fruit fly pest populations: outcomes and prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suckling, David Maxwell; Kean, John M; Stringer, Lloyd D; Cáceres-Barrios, Carlos; Hendrichs, Jorge; Reyes-Flores, Jesus; Dominiak, Bernard C

    2016-03-01

    The number of insect eradication programmes is rising in response to globalisation. A database of arthropod and plant pathogen eradications covers 1050 incursion responses, with 928 eradication programmes on 299 pest and disease taxa in 104 countries (global eradication database b3.net.nz/gerda). A subset of the database was assembled with 211 eradication or response programmes against 17 species of fruit flies (Tephritidae) in 31 countries, in order to investigate factors affecting the outcome. The failure rate for fruit fly eradication programmes was about 7%, with 0% for Ceratitis capitata (n = 85 programmes) and 0% for two Anastrepha species (n = 12 programmes), but 12% for 13 Bactrocera species (n = 108 programmes). A number of intended eradication programmes against long-established populations were not initiated because of cost and other considerations, or evolved during the planning phase into suppression programmes. Cost was dependent on area, ranged from $US 0.1 million to $US 240 million and averaged about $US 12 million (normalised to $US in 2012). In addition to the routine use of surveillance networks, quarantine and fruit destruction, the key tactics used in eradication programmes were male annihilation, protein bait sprays (which can attract both sexes), fruit destruction and the sterile insect technique. Eradication success generally required the combination of several tactics applied on an area-wide basis. Because the likelihood of eradication declines with an increase in the area infested, it pays to invest in effective surveillance networks that allow early detection and delimitation while invading populations are small, thereby greatly favouring eradication success. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  3. Fruit flies (Diptera, Tephritidae and their parasitoids on cultivated and wild hosts in the Cerrado-Pantanal ecotone in Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago Ledesma Taira

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Fruit flies (Diptera, Tephritidae and their parasitoids on cultivated and wild hosts in the Cerrado-Pantanal ecotone in Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. Information on frugivorous flies in cultivated or wild host plants and their parasitoids in the Cerrado-Pantanal ecotone in Aquidauana, Mato Grosso do Sul is presented and discussed. Fruit fly samples were collected weekly in specific fruit trees, and McPhail® traps were installed in the same trees for a period of two years. The fruit flies infested ripe and unripe fruits of Averrhoa carambola L., Schoepfia sp., Psidium guajava L. and Pouteria torta (Mart. Radlk and mature fruits of Anacardium occidentale L. and Inga laurina (Sw. Willd. Nineteen fruit fly species were obtained with the combination of sampling methods (collecting fruits and trapping, nine of them obtained with both methods, five found only in fruits and five only in traps. This is the first record of Anastrepha striata Schiner in a species of Sapotaceae, as well as for A. castanea Norrbom and A. daciformes Bezzi in Schoepfia sp. (Olacaceae, and for A. distincta Greene in fruits of P. guajava in the state of Mato Grosso do Sul. Fruit collections simultaneously associated with capture of fruit flies by McPhail traps in the same host plants are essential to understand the diversity of fruit flies and their relationship with hosts and parasitoids. Species of Braconidae and Pteromalidae were recovered, where Doryctobracon areolatus (Szépligeti was the most abundant parasitoid in larvae of tephritids infesting both cultivated and wild host fruits.

  4. Study of the inorganic constituents in different species of Casearia medicinal plant collected in distinct regions of the Atlantic Forest, SP State, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamashita, Celina Izumi

    2006-01-01

    The use of medicinal plants in the treatment of diseases has increased significantly in the last years, as has research concerning chemical characterization of these plants. In this study, inorganic constituents were determined in leaves and in extracts from three medicinal plant species of the Casearia genus (C. sylvestris, C. decandra and C. obliqua) collected in distinct regions of the Atlantic Forest, SP. The elemental compositions of the soils in which these plants were grown were also determined. Traditionally, these plants are used due to their antiinflammatory, antiacid, antiseptic and cicatrizing properties. The antiulcer and the antitumor activities of the Casearia genus and its capacity to neutralize snake and bee venoms, have also been scientifically confirmed. The analytical methodology used was neutron activation analysis. Long and short irradiation periods of the samples and the standards were carried out at IPEN's IEA-R1 nuclear research reactor. In the leaf K was found at the percentage levels, Ca, Cl, Mg and Na at mg g -1 levels and the elements Br, Fe, Mn, Rb and Zn at the μg g -1 levels. As, Co, Cr, Cs, La, Sb, Sc and Se at the ng g -1 levels. Results obtained in the extracts indicated that the same elements present in the leaves are also found in their extracts. The comparison between the inorganic composition of Casearia sylvestris leaves collected from three different regions of the Atlantic Forest showed that the elemental concentrations in the plants leaves varied depending on the place where they were grown. Different Casearia species cultivated in a same region presented similar elemental compositions. Based on these findings it can be concluded that the studies about the pharmacological effect of Casearia genus plants grown in different types of soil are of great importance. The quality of the obtained results was assured by the analyses of the certified reference materials NIST 1573a Tomato Leaves, NIST 1515 Apple Leaves, INCT-TL-1 Tea

  5. Can native plant species be preserved in an anthropogenic forest landscape dominated by aliens? A case study from Mediterranean Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steffi Heinrichs

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Plantations with fast growing exotic tree species can negatively affect native plant species diversity and promote the spread of alien species. Mediterranean Chile experienced major landscape changes with a vast expansion of industrial plantations of Pinus radiata in the past. However, with increasing knowledge of biodiversity effects on ecosystem services Chilean forest owners now aim to integrate the conservation of native biodiversity into forest management, but data on native species diversity and establishment within a plantation landscape is scarce. Here we investigated plant species diversity and composition in four forest management options applied within a landscape dominated by P. radiata plantations in comparison to an unmanaged reference: (i a clear cut, (ii a strip cut, (iii a native canopy of Nothofagus glauca and (iv a young P. radiata plantation. We wanted to assess if native plant species can be maintained either by natural regeneration or by planting of native tree species (Nothofagus glauca, N. obliqua, Quillaja saponaria within this landscape. Results show a high diversity of native and forest plant species within the different management options indicating a high potential for native biodiversity restoration within an anthropogenic landscape. In particular, herbaceous species can benefit from management. They are rare in unmanaged natural forests that are characterized by low light conditions and a thick litter layer. Management, however, also promoted a diversity of alien species. The rapid spread of alien grass species after management can deter an initial establishment of native tree species or the survival and growth after planting mainly under dry but less under sufficient moisture conditions. The most unsuccessful option for promoting native plant species was clear cutting in a dry area where alien grasses were abundant. For drought-tolerant tree species such as Quillaja saponaria, though

  6. Management of lepidopterans through irradiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhati, Dheeraj; Parvez, Asif; Kausar, Hina; Srivastava, Meera

    2012-01-01

    suppression by irradiation include Spodoptera litura, S.exigua, S.frugiperda, Helicoverpa armigera, H.zea, Pectinophora gossypiella, Diatraea saccharalis, Cydia pomonella, C.molesta, Ectomyelois ceratoniae, Ephestia kuehniella, Crocidolomia binotalis, Chilo suppressalis, Ostrinia furnacalis, O.nubilalis, Plutella xylostella and Spilosoma obliqua. (author)

  7. Study of the inorganic constituents in different species of Casearia medicinal plant collected in distinct regions of the Atlantic Forest, SP State, Brazil; Estudo sobre os constituintes inorganicos presentes em diferentes especies da planta medicinal do genero Casearia coletadas em regioes distintas da Mata Atlantica, SP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamashita, Celina Izumi

    2006-07-01

    The use of medicinal plants in the treatment of diseases has increased significantly in the last years, as has research concerning chemical characterization of these plants. In this study, inorganic constituents were determined in leaves and in extracts from three medicinal plant species of the Casearia genus (C. sylvestris, C. decandra and C. obliqua) collected in distinct regions of the Atlantic Forest, SP. The elemental compositions of the soils in which these plants were grown were also determined. Traditionally, these plants are used due to their antiinflammatory, antiacid, antiseptic and cicatrizing properties. The antiulcer and the antitumor activities of the Casearia genus and its capacity to neutralize snake and bee venoms, have also been scientifically confirmed. The analytical methodology used was neutron activation analysis. Long and short irradiation periods of the samples and the standards were carried out at IPEN's IEA-R1 nuclear research reactor. In the leaf K was found at the percentage levels, Ca, Cl, Mg and Na at mg g{sup -1} levels and the elements Br, Fe, Mn, Rb and Zn at the {mu}g g{sup -1} levels. As, Co, Cr, Cs, La, Sb, Sc and Se at the ng g{sup -1} levels. Results obtained in the extracts indicated that the same elements present in the leaves are also found in their extracts. The comparison between the inorganic composition of Casearia sylvestris leaves collected from three different regions of the Atlantic Forest showed that the elemental concentrations in the plants leaves varied depending on the place where they were grown. Different Casearia species cultivated in a same region presented similar elemental compositions. Based on these findings it can be concluded that the studies about the pharmacological effect of Casearia genus plants grown in different types of soil are of great importance. The quality of the obtained results was assured by the analyses of the certified reference materials NIST 1573a Tomato Leaves, NIST 1515 Apple

  8. Aggregate and soil organic carbon dynamics in South Chilean Andisols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huygens, D.; Boeckx, P.; Van Cleemput, O.; Oyarzún, C.; Godoy, R.

    2005-06-01

    Extreme sensitivity of soil organic carbon (SOC) to climate and land use change warrants further research in different terrestrial ecosystems. The aim of this study was to investigate the link between aggregate and SOC dynamics in a chronosequence of three different land uses of a south Chilean Andisol: a second growth Nothofagus obliqua forest (SGFOR), a grassland (GRASS) and a Pinus radiata plantation (PINUS). Total carbon content of the 0-10cm soil layer was higher for GRASS (6.7 kg C m-2) than for PINUS (4.3 kg C m-2, while TC content of SGFOR (5.8 kg C m-2) was not significantly different from either one. High extractable oxalate and pyrophosphate Al concentrations (varying from 20.3-24.4 g kg-1, and 3.9-11.1 g kg-1, respectively) were found in all sites. In this study, SOC and aggregate dynamics were studied using size and density fractionation experiments of the SOC, δ13C and total carbon analysis of the different SOC fractions, and C mineralization experiments. The results showed that electrostatic sorption between and among amorphous Al components and clay minerals is mainly responsible for the formation of metal-humus-clay complexes and the stabilization of soil aggregates. The process of ligand exchange between SOC and Al would be of minor importance resulting in the absence of aggregate hierarchy in this soil type. Whole soil C mineralization rate constants were highest for SGFOR and PINUS, followed by GRASS (respectively 0.495, 0.266 and 0.196 g CO2-Cm-2d-1 for the top soil layer). In contrast, incubation experiments of isolated macro organic matter fractions gave opposite results, showing that the recalcitrance of the SOC decreased in another order: PINUS>SGFOR>GRASS. We deduced that electrostatic sorption processes and physical protection of SOC in soil aggregates were the main processes determining SOC stabilization. As a result, high aggregate carbon concentrations, varying from 148 till 48 g kg-1, were encountered for all land use sites. Al

  9. Oviposition preferences of two forensically important blow fly species, Chrysomya megacephala and C. rufifacies (Diptera: Calliphoridae), and implications for postmortem interval estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shih-Tsai; Shiao, Shiuh-Feng

    2012-03-01

    Necrophagous blow fly species (Diptera: Calliphoridae) are the most important agents for estimating the postmortem interval (PMI) in forensic entomology. Nevertheless, the oviposition preferences of blow flies may cause a bias of PMI estimations because of a delay or acceleration of egg laying. Chrysomya megacephala (F.) and C. rufifacies (Macquart) are two predominant necrophagous blow fly species in Taiwan. Their larvae undergo rather intense competition, and the latter one can prey on the former under natural conditions. To understand the oviposition preferences of these two species, a dual-choice device was used to test the choice of oviposition sites by females. Results showed when pork liver with and without larvae of C. rufifacies was provided, C. megacephala preferred to lay eggs on the liver without larvae. However, C. megacephala showed no preference when pork liver with and without conspecific larvae or larvae of Hemipyrellia ligurriens (Wiedemann) was provided. These results indicate that females of C. megacephala try to avoid laying eggs around larvae of facultatively predaceous species of C. rufifacies. However, C. rufifacies showed significant oviposition preference for pork liver with larvae of C. megacephala or conspecific ones when compared with pork liver with no larvae. These results probably imply that conspecific larvae or larvae of C. megacephala may potentially be alternative food resources for C. rufifacies, so that its females prefer to lay eggs in their presence. When considering the size of the oviposition media, pork livers of a relatively small size were obviously unfavorable to both species. This may be because females need to find sufficient resources to meet the food demands of their larvae. In another experiment, neither blow fly species showed an oviposition preference for pork livers of different stages of decay. In addition, the oviposition preferences of both species to those media with larvae were greatly disturbed in a dark

  10. Cuelure but not zingerone make the sex pheromone of male Bactrocera tryoni (Tephritidae: Diptera) more attractive to females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumaran, Nagalingam; Hayes, R Andrew; Clarke, Anthony R

    2014-09-01

    In tephritid fruit flies of the genus Bactrocera Macquart, a group of plant derived compounds (sensu amplo 'male lures') enhance the mating success of males that have consumed them. For flies responding to the male lure methyl eugenol, this is due to the accumulation of chemicals derived from the male lure in the male rectal gland (site of pheromone synthesis) and the subsequent release of an attractive pheromone. Cuelure, raspberry ketone and zingerone are a second, related group of male lures to which many Bactrocera species respond. Raspberry ketone and cuelure are both known to accumulate in the rectal gland of males as raspberry ketone, but it is not known if the emitted male pheromone is subsequently altered in complexity or is more attractive to females. Using Bactrocera tryoni as our test insect, and cuelure and zingerone as our test chemicals, we assess: (i) lure accumulation in the rectal gland; (ii) if the lures are released exclusively in association with the male pheromone; and (iii) if the pheromone of lure-fed males is more attractive to females than the pheromone of lure-unfed males. As previously documented, we found cuelure was stored in its hydroxyl form of raspberry ketone, while zingerone was stored largely in an unaltered state. Small but consistent amounts of raspberry ketone and β-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-propionic acid were also detected in zingerone-fed flies. Males released the ingested lures or their analogues, along with endogenous pheromone chemicals, only during the dusk courtship period. More females responded to squashed rectal glands extracted from flies fed on cuelure than to glands from control flies, while more females responded to the pheromone of calling cuelure-fed males than to control males. The response to zingerone treatments in both cases was not different from the control. The results show that male B. tryoni release ingested lures as part of their pheromone blend and, at least for cuelure, this attracts more

  11. Additional records of vector mosquito diversity collected from Al Khor district of North-eastern Qatar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Mohammed Kardousha

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To survey mosquito diversity in the north-eastern area, which includes the most important gas industrial city in Qatar, and to investigate the potential mosquitoes for transmitting diseases. Methods: A study was performed from September 2009 until June 2011 in Al-Khor district of North-eastern Qatar. Five localities were selected for larval collection: Al Khor City (the main city, Al Dhakira, Ras Laffan (gas industrial city, Simsimah and Al Ghuwariyah. The survey was carried out by using different sampling methods and covering all expected natural breeding sites. The larvae were collected, preserved and transferred to the laboratory for identification. Results: Our findings revealed that 10 species of mosquito larvae had been detected from the area and five of them were new records in Qatar. The species encountered were: Ochlerotatus caspius (Pallas 1771, Anopheles stephensi (Liston 1901, Culex quinquefasciatus (Say 1823 (Cx. quinquefasciatus, Culex pipiens biotype molestus (Forskal 1775 (Cx. pipiens, Culex univittatus (Theobald 1901, Culex pusillus (Macquart 1850, Culex tritaeniorhynchus (Giles 1901 (Cx. tritaeniorhynchus, Culex laticinctus (Edwards 1913, Culex sitiens (Weidmann 1828 and Culex perexiguus (Theobald 1901. The new recorded species were Cx. quinquefasciatus, Cx. tritaeniorhynchus, Culex laticinctus, Culex sitiens and Culex perexiguus. The most prevalent type was Cx. pipiens molestus (31.29% and followed by Culex pusillus and Cx. quinquefasciatus which have relatively similar prevalence of 18.72% and 18.52% respectively. Anopheles stephensi was an established vector for malaria. Cx. pipiens molestus and Cx. quinquefasciatus were vectors of West Nile virus and filariasis. Cx. tritaeniorhynchus was established as a vector of Rift Valley virus and Culex univittatus was the main vector of Sindbis virus. Conclusions: The north-eastern area of Qatar harbors is the most important industrial city in the country, which has

  12. Systematics and phylogeny of the Neotropical treehopper subfamily Nicomiinae (Hemiptera, Membracidae Sistemática e filogenia das cigarrinhas neotropicais da subfamília Nicomiinae (Hemiptera, Membracidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesse L. Albertson

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Morphological characters of adults of the treehopper subfamily Nicomiinae Haupt, 1929 (Hemiptera, Membracidae including seven genera (Eudonica gen. nov.; Euwalkeria Goding, 1926; Holdgatiella Evans, 1962; Nicomia Stål, 1858; Nodonica Dietrich, McKamey& Deitz, 2001; Stalomia gen. nov.; and Tolania Stål, 1858 and 22 species (16 new are described and illustrated. Keys are provided for genera and for species of Euwalkeria, Holdgatiella, and Nicomia. Nomenclatural changes, based on study of the primary type material of 15 species, include three new combinations, one new synonymy, and reinstatement of one junior synonym. Eudonica has one species, Eudonica nanella sp. nov.; Euwalkeria has five species, including four new species: E. colorata sp. nov., E. distincta sp. nov., E. perdita sp. nov., E. rubrica sp. nov.; Holdgatiella has two species, one of which is described as new: Holdgatiella chiloensis sp. nov.; Nicomia has twelve species, nine of which are described as new: N. buccina sp. nov., N. harenosa sp. nov., N. inscripta sp. nov., N. jucunda sp. nov., N. monticola sp. nov., N. nigrifasciata sp. nov., N. notidana sp. nov., N. pulchella sp. nov., N. serrata sp. nov.; Nodonica has one species, Nodonica bispinigera Dietrich, McKamey & Deitz; and Stalomia has one species, Stalomia veruta sp. nov. Tolania contains eleven previously described species and nearly 60 new species, which will be treated in a later publication. Three new combinations are proposed: one species described in Nicomia is placed in the tribe Abelini (Centrotinae as Abelus retrospinosus (Lethierry comb. nov.; one species previously placed in Nicomia is transferred to the genus Tolania as T. obliqua (Walker, 1858, comb. nov.; one species described in Holdgatiella is placed in the genus Tolania as T. stria (Cryan & Deitz, 2002, comb. nov. One new synonymy is proposed: Hoplophera [sic] cicadoides Walker, 1862, syn. nov., a junior synonym of Nicomia interrupta Stål, 1858. Nicomia

  13. Revision of the Neotropical treehopper genus Tolania (Hemiptera, Membracidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesse L. Albertson

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The treehopper genus Tolania Stål (Hemiptera: Membracidae: Nicomiinae: Nicomiini and 69 valid species (59 new are described and illustrated based on adult morphology. Ten informal species groups are recognized based on a previously published phylogenetic analysis: (1 the dira species group comprising T. calista sp. nov., T. dira sp. nov., T. inca sp. nov., T. macaria sp. nov., T. secoya sp. nov., and T. zaparo sp. nov.; (2 the fasciata species group comprising T. fasciata (Walker, T. gracilis sp. nov., and T. laticlava sp. nov.; (3 the femoralis species group comprising T. femoralis Stål, T. fraterna Stål, and T. roberti sp. nov.; (4 the furcata species group comprising T. furcata sp. nov., T. tryphena sp. nov., and T. venezuelensis sp. nov.; (5 the hispida species group comprising T. alida sp. nov., T. hispida sp. nov., and T. periculosa sp. nov.; (6 the malefica species group comprising T. cactina sp. nov., T. curvata sp. nov., T. grallator sp. nov., T. jocosa sp. nov., T. mackameyi sp. nov., T. malefica sp. nov., T. obliqua (Walker, and T. terencia sp. nov.; (7 the obtusa species group comprising T. obtusa Fowler, T. obunca sp. nov., and T. torosa sp. nov.; (8 the opponens species group comprising T. alvira sp. nov., T. arcuata sp. nov., T. damia sp. nov., T. insolita sp. nov., T. lunata sp. nov., T. lurida sp. nov., T. opponens (Walker, T. oriana sp. nov., T. reflexa sp. nov., T. risa sp. nov., T. sinuata sp. nov., T. trilobata sp. nov., T. tumida sp. nov., T. umbella sp. nov., T. vitocensis sp. nov., T. woodi sp. nov., and T. xantha sp. nov.; (9 the peltacauda species group comprising T. brasiliensis sp. nov., T. iratafelis sp. nov., T. modesta sp. nov., T. peltacauda sp. nov., T. picta sp. nov., and T. thyrea sp. nov.; and (10 the semipellucida species group comprising T. atrata sp. nov., T. fimbriata sp. nov., T. nicia sp. nov., and T. semipellucida Stål. The following new species are not placed in species groups: T. anomala sp. nov

  14. Sterilization of fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) with X-rays for sterile insect technique programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mastrangelo, Thiago de Araujo

    2009-01-01

    Recent fear of acts of terrorism provoked an increase of delays and denials in the shipment of radioisotopes. This truly represented a menace to sterile insect production projects around the world. In order to validate the use of a new kind of low-energy Xray irradiator, a series of radiobiological studies on Ceratitis capitata (tsl-VIENNA 8 strain) (Wied., 1824) (Diptera: Tephritidae) and an Argentinean strain of Anastrepha fraterculus (Wied., 1830) (Diptera: Tephritidae) were carried out, also comparing biological effectiveness between X-rays and traditional γ radiation from 60 Co. Pupae 48- 24 h before adult emergence of C. capitata males and both sexes of A. fraterculus were irradiated with doses ranging from 15 to 120 Gy and 10 to 70 Gy respectively. Doses that induce 50, 90 and 99% of sterility were estimated and the hypothesis of Parallelism for the Probit equations was tested. Doses of 82.7 Gy of X-rays and 128.2 Gy of γ rays (thus, a RBE∼1.5) induced 99% sterility on medfly males. The fertility of A. fraterculus fertile females crossed with 41 Gy of X-rays and 62.7 Gy of γ rays decreased in 99% comparing with the control group (RBE∼1.5). 99% sterility of A. fraterculus irradiated females was achieved with 60-80 Gy (RBE∼0.7). The standard quality control parameters of fecundity, adult emergence, fliers and survival were not significantly affected by the two types of radiation (RBE∼1) either for medfly or A. fraterculus (p>0.01), being averages in conformity with the values required by FAO/IAEA/USDA. Only fecundity of irradiated A. fraterculus females was severely reduced with increasing doses and no egg was laid at 70 Gy of both radiations. There were no significant differences between X-rays and γ rays regarding mating indices (RSI for medfly, RII, ISI, MRPI and FRPI for A. fraterculus) (p>0.05), what indicated more random matings for fertile and sterile insects. The results demonstrated that no significant difference in biological

  15. Danos de moscas-das-frutas (Diptera, Tephritidae em citros, manejados no sistema orgânico de produção

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Felisberto da Silva

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available As moscas-das-frutas são as principais pragas da fruticultura mundial. Consideradas chaves para a produção de citros, torna-se necessário o seu monitoramento, visando a evitar os danos diretos. O experimento teve como objetivos conhecer a variação populacional de Anastrepha fraterculus e a relação de sua população com danos em pomares orgânicos de Citrus sinensis, cultivar Céu e de C. sinensis x Citrus reticulata tangor 'Murcott'. Os dados foram coletados em 2003 e 2004 durante o período de maturação dos frutos, na região do vale do Caí, RS, Brasil. O número de moscas-das-frutas foi registrado, semanalmente, por meio de armadilhas McPhail, contendo suco de uva, a 25%. Danos aos frutos foram determinados pela razão entre frutos sadios e frutos danificados pela mosca. Registros meteorológicos de temperatura, umidade relativa e precipitação pluviométrica foram obtidos, em estação meteorológica distante 30 km das áreas experimentais. Verificou-se que, em condições ideais de precipitação pluvial, maiores foram as populações de A. fraterculus, espécie predominante na região. A população estimada capaz de causar danos aos frutos variou de acordo com o cultivar, sendo a laranjeira 'Céu' a mais susceptível. Os maiores picos populacionais ocorrem na fase de mudança de coloração dos frutos. Porém, na fase de maturação, as moscas causaram os maiores danos, dada a intolerância dos frutos ao ataque. Conclui-se que a infestação dos frutos de citros por A. fraterculus está relacionada com espécie e cultivar e com fatores climáticos, principalmente com a precipitação pluvial. O monitoramento constante da população de mosca-das-frutas é importante na determinação da infestação na colheita.

  16. Incidência de podridão-branca em frutos de macieira com e sem ferimentos Incidence of white rot in apple fruits with and without wounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janaína Pereira dos Santos

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo teve como objetivo avaliar a incidência da podridão-branca (Botryosphaeria dothidea em frutos de dois genótipos de macieira submetidos à inoculação artificial, na ausência e na presença de ferimentos provocados pela mosca-das-frutas (Anastrepha fraterculus e por estilete. O experimento foi conduzido no laboratório de Entomologia da Epagri/Estação Experimental de Caçador, na safra 2005/2006. No estudo, foram utilizados frutos da cv. Catarina (grupo 'Fuji' e da seleção M-13/00 (grupo 'Gala'. Os tratamentos foram os seguintes: (1 frutos feridos por mosca-das-frutas; (2 frutos feridos com estilete; (3 frutos sem ferimentos, e (4 frutos sem ferimentos pulverizados com água destilada (testemunha. Os tratamentos 1; 2 e 3 foram inoculados com B. dothidea. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado, com quatro repetições, de quatro frutos por parcela. Na cv. Catarina, o número de lesões de podridão-branca foi maior em relação à M-13/00. Os ferimentos nos frutos favoreceram o estabelecimento e o desenvolvimento de lesões da doença.The relationship between damages of wounds, fruit fly and the incidence of white rot (Botryosphaeria dothidea, inoculated artificially in two apple genotypes was studied. The experiment was carried out at the laboratory of Entomology at Epagri/Caçador Experimental Station, during the 2005/2006 season. 'Catarina' (group 'Fuji' and the selection M-13/00 (group 'Gala' were tested with the following treatments: (1 fruit submitted to fruit fly; (2 fruit submitted to wounds by needle; (3 fruit without wounds; (4 fruit without wounds sprayed with distilled water (control. The treatments 1, 2 and 3 were inoculated with B. dothidea. The experiment was conducted under completely randomized design with four replications of four apple fruits each. The frequency of lesions of white rot was larger on cv. Catarina compared to M-13/00. Fruit wounds stimulate the establishment and the

  17. History of the sterile insect technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klassen, W.; Curtis, C.F.

    2005-01-01

    (Zeller), the cactus moth Cactoblastis cactorum (Berg), the Old World screwworm Chrysomya bezziana (Villeneuve), additional Glossina spp., other Anastrepha spp. and Bactrocera spp. fruit flies, and other pest insects. (author)

  18. Efeito do ensacamento dos frutos no controle de pragas e doenças e na qualidade e maturação de maçãs 'Fuji Suprema'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosângela Teixeira

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a eficiência de embalagens de diferentes materiais para a proteção contra pragas e doenças e seu efeito sobre a qualidade físico-química, maturação e teor de cálcio (Ca em maçãs 'Fuji Suprema'. O experimento foi desenvolvido nas safras de 2007/2008 e 2008/2009, em pomar manejado sob o sistema orgânico, localizado na região de São Joaquim (SC. O pomar era composto por plantas de dez anos de idade da cultivar Fuji Suprema, sobre porta-enxerto 'Marubakaido', com interenxerto 'EM-9'. Depois do raleio manual, aproximadamente 40 dias após a plena floração, os frutos foram ensacados com embalagens plásticas transparentes microperfuradas ou de tecido não texturizado (TNT. Os frutos foram mantidos ensacados até a colheita. A testemunha foi constituída por frutos não ensacados. Na colheita, os frutos foram avaliados quanto aos danos provocados por mosca-das-frutas (Anastrepha fraterculus, mariposa oriental (Grapholita molesta e lagarta enroladeira (Bonagota salubricola. As doenças foram avaliadas pela incidência de sarna da macieira (Venturia inaequalis, podridão amarga (Colletotrichum gloeosporioides e podridão carpelar (Alternaria sp., Fusarium sp.. Também foi avaliada a incidência de distúrbios fisiológicos "russeting" e "bitter pit", atributos físico-químicos de maturação e qualidade e o teor de Ca nos frutos. Independentemente do tipo de embalagem verificou-se que o ensacamento é prática eficaz na proteção contra o ataque de insetos, mas não reduz a incidência e o desenvolvimento de doenças nos frutos. Na safra de 2008/2009, o ensacamento dos frutos aumentou o teor de Ca e reduziu a incidência de "bitter pit", e aumentou a incidência do "russeting". O ensacamento dos frutos antecipou a maturação, especialmente com embalagem plástica transparente microperfurada, e reduziu a coloração vermelha, especialmente com embalagem TNT.

  19. Isolation and characterization of microsatellite markers from the olive fly, Bactrocera oleae, and their cross-species amplification in the Tephritidae family

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kakani Evdoxia G

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Tephritidae family of insects includes the most important agricultural pests of fruits and vegetables, belonging mainly to four genera (Bactrocera, Ceratitis, Anastrepha and Rhagoletis. The olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae, is the major pest of the olive fruit. Currently, its control is based on chemical insecticides. Environmentally friendlier methods have been attempted in the past (Sterile Insect Technique, albeit with limited success. This was mainly attributed to the lack of knowledge on the insect's behaviour, ecology and genetic structure of natural populations. The development of molecular markers could facilitate the access in the genome and contribute to the solution of the aforementioned problems. We chose to focus on microsatellite markers due to their abundance in the genome, high degree of polymorphism and easiness of isolation. Results Fifty-eight microsatellite-containing clones were isolated from the olive fly, Bactrocera oleae, bearing a total of sixty-two discrete microsatellite motifs. Forty-two primer pairs were designed on the unique sequences flanking the microsatellite motif and thirty-one of them amplified a PCR product of the expected size. The level of polymorphism was evaluated against wild and laboratory flies and the majority of the markers (93.5% proved highly polymorphic. Thirteen of them presented a unique position on the olive fly polytene chromosomes by in situ hybridization, which can serve as anchors to correlate future genetic and cytological maps of the species, as well as entry points to the genome. Cross-species amplification of these markers to eleven Tephritidae species and sequencing of thirty-one of the amplified products revealed a varying degree of conservation that declines outside the Bactrocera genus. Conclusion Microsatellite markers are very powerful tools for genetic and population analyses, particularly in species deprived of any other means of genetic analysis. The

  20. Sterilization of fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) with X-rays for sterile insect technique programs; Esterilizacao de moscas-das-frutas (Diptera: Tephritidae) com raios-X para programas de tecnica do inseto esteril

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mastrangelo, Thiago de Araujo

    2009-07-01

    Recent fear of acts of terrorism provoked an increase of delays and denials in the shipment of radioisotopes. This truly represented a menace to sterile insect production projects around the world. In order to validate the use of a new kind of low-energy Xray irradiator, a series of radiobiological studies on Ceratitis capitata (tsl-VIENNA 8 strain) (Wied., 1824) (Diptera: Tephritidae) and an Argentinean strain of Anastrepha fraterculus (Wied., 1830) (Diptera: Tephritidae) were carried out, also comparing biological effectiveness between X-rays and traditional {gamma} radiation from {sup 60}Co. Pupae 48- 24 h before adult emergence of C. capitata males and both sexes of A. fraterculus were irradiated with doses ranging from 15 to 120 Gy and 10 to 70 Gy respectively. Doses that induce 50, 90 and 99% of sterility were estimated and the hypothesis of Parallelism for the Probit equations was tested. Doses of 82.7 Gy of X-rays and 128.2 Gy of {gamma} rays (thus, a RBE{approx}1.5) induced 99% sterility on medfly males. The fertility of A. fraterculus fertile females crossed with 41 Gy of X-rays and 62.7 Gy of {gamma} rays decreased in 99% comparing with the control group (RBE{approx}1.5). 99% sterility of A. fraterculus irradiated females was achieved with 60-80 Gy (RBE{approx}0.7). The standard quality control parameters of fecundity, adult emergence, fliers and survival were not significantly affected by the two types of radiation (RBE{approx}1) either for medfly or A. fraterculus (p>0.01), being averages in conformity with the values required by FAO/IAEA/USDA. Only fecundity of irradiated A. fraterculus females was severely reduced with increasing doses and no egg was laid at 70 Gy of both radiations. There were no significant differences between X-rays and {gamma} rays regarding mating indices (RSI for medfly, RII, ISI, MRPI and FRPI for A. fraterculus) (p>0.05), what indicated more random matings for fertile and sterile insects. The results demonstrated that no

  1. Isolation and characterization of microsatellite markers from the olive fly, Bactrocera oleae, and their cross-species amplification in the Tephritidae family

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augustinos, Antonios A; Stratikopoulos, Elias E; Drosopoulou, Eleni; Kakani, Evdoxia G; Mavragani-Tsipidou, Penelope; Zacharopoulou, Antigone; Mathiopoulos, Kostas D

    2008-01-01

    Background The Tephritidae family of insects includes the most important agricultural pests of fruits and vegetables, belonging mainly to four genera (Bactrocera, Ceratitis, Anastrepha and Rhagoletis). The olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae, is the major pest of the olive fruit. Currently, its control is based on chemical insecticides. Environmentally friendlier methods have been attempted in the past (Sterile Insect Technique), albeit with limited success. This was mainly attributed to the lack of knowledge on the insect's behaviour, ecology and genetic structure of natural populations. The development of molecular markers could facilitate the access in the genome and contribute to the solution of the aforementioned problems. We chose to focus on microsatellite markers due to their abundance in the genome, high degree of polymorphism and easiness of isolation. Results Fifty-eight microsatellite-containing clones were isolated from the olive fly, Bactrocera oleae, bearing a total of sixty-two discrete microsatellite motifs. Forty-two primer pairs were designed on the unique sequences flanking the microsatellite motif and thirty-one of them amplified a PCR product of the expected size. The level of polymorphism was evaluated against wild and laboratory flies and the majority of the markers (93.5%) proved highly polymorphic. Thirteen of them presented a unique position on the olive fly polytene chromosomes by in situ hybridization, which can serve as anchors to correlate future genetic and cytological maps of the species, as well as entry points to the genome. Cross-species amplification of these markers to eleven Tephritidae species and sequencing of thirty-one of the amplified products revealed a varying degree of conservation that declines outside the Bactrocera genus. Conclusion Microsatellite markers are very powerful tools for genetic and population analyses, particularly in species deprived of any other means of genetic analysis. The presented set of

  2. Entomology Unit annual report 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    As described in the 2002 Annual Report an improved medfly genetic sexing strain (GSS) was developed, VIENNA 8. This strain shows improved production characteristics and will have a major impact on the production efficiency in SIT rearing facilities. During 2003 this strain was transferred to four rearing facilities in Guatemala, Peru, South Africa and Tunisia based on acceptable QC data developed for the strain in the Unit. For the first time the strain was transferred to the different facilities under an agreement that prevents further distribution to third parties without consent of the Unit. In the past, strains originating from the Unit have been freely exchanged within the medfly SIT community, sometimes with not always the best results. During 2003 there has been a substantial increase in the resources devoted to activities in fruit flies other than medfly e.g. Bactrocera oleae and Anastrepha fraterculus. Rearing of the olive fly, B. oleae has traditionally not been straightforward due to the very specific, and expensive, larval diet that is required by this monophagous pest. With the disappearance of an essential larval diet component from the commercial market an urgent search is underway for an alternative. In 2004, experiments will be carried out to identify improved larval diets. For A. fraterculus, a large-scale evaluation of mating compatibility between different geographical races has been carried out by a consultant. Progress has been made in the containerised rearing of tsetse fly colonies. The container required considerable work before the temperature and humidity controls were suitable for tsetse rearing and a closed colony of Glossina fuscipes is now being reared. Discussions are now underway to install a version of TPU 3.2 (an automated tsetse feeding and production unit) in the container. A protocol for the handling, irradiation and eventual release of large numbers of sterile male tsetse has been formulated and it will involve at least two

  3. Purification and partial characterization of an entomopoxvirus (DlEPV from a parasitic wasp of tephritid fruit flies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pauline O. Lawrence

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available An insect poxvirus [entomopoxvirus (EPV] occurs in the poison gland apparatus of female Diachasmimorpha longicaudata , a parasitic wasp of the Caribbean fruit fly, Anastrepha suspensa and other tephritid fruit flies. The DlEPV virion is 250-300 nm in diameter, has a "bumpy" appearance and a unipartite double stranded DNA genome of 290-300 kb. DlEPV DNA restriction fragment profiles differed from those reported for Amsacta moorei EPV (AmEPV and Melanoplus sanguinipes EPV (MsEPV, the only two EPVs whose genomes have been sequenced, and from those reported for vaccinia (Vac, a vertebrate poxvirus (chordopoxvirus, ChPV. Blast search and ClustalW alignment of the amino acids deduced from the 2316 nucleotides of a DlEPV DNA fragment cloned from an EcoR1 genomic library revealed 75-78% homology with the putative DNA-directed RNA polymerases of AmEPV, MsEPV, and two ChPV homologs of the Vac J6R gene. Of the deduced 772 amino acids in the DlEPV sequence, 28.4% are conserved/substituted among the four poxviruses aligned, 12.9% occur in at least one EPV, 6.5% in at least one ChPV, 3.1 % in at least one EPV and one ChPV, and 49.1% occur only in DlEPV. Although the RI-36-1 fragment represents a portion of the gene, it contains nucleotides that encode the NADFDGDE consensus sequence of known DNA-directed RNA polymerases. Western blots using a mouse polyclonal anti-DlEPV serum recognized six major protein bands in combined fractions of sucrose-purified DlEPV, at least one band in homogenates of male and female wasps, and at least two bands in host hemolymph that contained DlEPV virions. A digoxigenin-labeled DlEPV genomic DNA probe recognized DNA in dot-blots of male and female wasps. These results confirm that DlEPV is a true EPV and probably a member of the Group C EPVs. Unlike other EPVs, DlEPV does not express the spheroidin protein. Since it also replicates in both the wasp and fly, members of two different insect Orders, DlEPV may represent a new EPV

  4. Estudo radiológico do esôfago de chagásicos, em 25 anos do Projeto Mambaí Radiographic study of the oesophagus of chagasic patients in 25 years of the Mambaí Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosaura Peñaranda-Carrillo

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho relata os estudos do esôfago através da abreugrafia, de chagásicos do projeto Mambaí no período de 25 anos. Cada indivíduo realizou duas abreugrafias, em quatro períodos (1975-1976, 1980-1982, 1988-1991 e 1998-2000. A primeira abreugrafia foi realizada em posição obliqua anterior direita imediatamente após a ingestão de 75ml de sulfato de bário e a segunda um minuto após. Em todos os períodos foi utilizada a mesma metodologia, as abreugrafias foram lidas pelo mesmo pesquisador e os megaesôfagos foram classificadas em quatro grupos, segundo os critérios de Rezende e colaboradores. A prevalência de megaesôfago foi 5,2%; 5%; 18,6% e 13,9% em 1975-1976, 1980-1982, 1988-1991 e 1998-2000, respectivamente. A incidência de megaesôfago no período de 1975 a 2000 foi 11,5% (51/445. Durante 25 anos, 394 (84,2% chagásicos permaneceram com o esofagograma normal, 11 (2,3% diagnosticados com megaesôfago em 1975-1976, não progrediram, 61 (13% que eram normais, duvidosos ou já tinham megaesôfago em 1975-1976, progrediram e 2 (0,4% tiveram regressão do megaesôfago grupo I, diagnosticado em estudos anteriores.This work describes radiography studies of the esophagus in chagasic patients of the Mambaí project over a 25 year period. Each person realized two radiographs in four different periods (1975-1976, 1980-1982, 1988-1991 and 1998-2000. The first radiograph was realized in the right anterior oblique position after swallowing 75ml of barium sulphate solution and another 60 seconds later. In all periods the same methodology was used. The radiographs were read by the same researcher, and the megaesophagus was classified in four groups according to Rezende and colleagues. The prevalence of megaesophagus was 5.2%; 5.0%; 18.6% and 13.9% in 1975-1976, 1980-1982, 1988-1991 and 1998-2000 respectively. The incidence of megaesophagus from 1975 to 2000 was 11.5% (51/445. During 25 year, 394 (84.2% patients presented radiographs

  5. Transpiration and water use efficiency in native chilean and exotic species, a usefull tool for catchment management?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hervé-Fernández, P.; Oyarzun, C. E.

    2012-04-01

    Land-use and forest cover change play important roles in socio-economic processes and have been linked with water supply and other ecosystem services in various regions of the world. Water yield from watersheds is a major ecosystem service for human activities but has been altered by landscape management superimposed on climatic variability and change. Sustaining ecosystem services important to humans, while providing a dependable water supply for agriculture and urban needs is a major challenge faced by managers of human-dominated or increased antropical effect over watersheds. Since water is mostly consumed by vegetation (i.e: transpiration), which strongly depends on trees physiological characteristics (i.e: foliar area, transpiration capacity) are very important. The quantity of water consumed by plantations is influenced mainly by forest characteristics (species physiology, age and management), catchment water retention capacity and meteorological characteristics. Eventhough in Chile, the forest sector accounts for 3.6% of the gross domestic product (GDP) and 12.5% of total exports (INFOR, 2003), afforestation with fast growing exotic species has ended up being socially and politically questionable because of the supposed impact on the environment and water resources. We present data of trees transpiration and water use efficiency from three headwater catchments: (a) second growth native evergreen forest (Aetoxicon punctatum, Drimys winterii, Gevuina avellana, Laureliopsis philippiana); (b) Eucalyptus globulus plantation, and (c) a mixed native deciduous (Nothofagus obliqua and some evergreen species) forest and Eucalyptus globulus and Acacia melanoxylon plantation located at the Coastal Mountain Range in southern Chile (40°S). Annual transpiration rates ranged from 1.24 ± 0.41 mol•m-2•s-1 (0.022 ± 0.009 L•m-2•s-1) for E. globulus, while the lowest observed was for L. philippiana 0.44 ± 0.31 mol•m-2•s-1 (0.008 ± 0.006 L•m-2•s-1). However

  6. Contribution to the radiological study of the eosinophilic granuloma of the mandible (Unifocal granuloma due to Langherans' cell histiocytosis); Contributo allo studio radiologico del granuloma eosinofilo della mandibola (granuloma unifocale da istiocitosi delle cellule di Lagherhans)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chigi, Gino; Pastremoli, Alessandro; Pisi, Paolo; Pastremoli, Alfredo [Bologna Univ., Bologna (Italy). Dipartimento di scienze odontomastologiche; Bianchi, Giuseppe [Istituti Ortopedici Rizzoli, Bologna (Italy)

    2005-04-01

    non completamente risolto per talune condizioni patologiche, nelle quali i dati obiettivi ed anamnestici sono relativamente uniformi e il quadro radiologico privo di qualsiasi caratteristica. Materiale e metodi: Il materiale � costituito da sei casi di istiocitosi delle cellule di Langherans della mandibola osservati nell'arco di un decennio. Lo studio � basato sulla valutazione della documentazione radiologica tradizionale. Le radiografie sono state eseguite in proiezione latero-laterale-obliqua che, come noto, libera quasi completamente la porzione orizzontale della mandibola dalla sovrapposizione delle immagini di altre strutture ossee. Risultati: I risultati delle indagini radiologiche sono riportati nella tabella I. Si tratta di reticoloendoteliopatie capaci di dar luogo ad un processo granulomatoso costituito da polinucleati eosinofili, plasmacellule e linfociti e, fondamentalmente, da grandi cellule istiocitarie mononucleate dotate di attivit� granulopessica e fagocitaria, spiccatamente proliferanti nel tessuto osseo, identificabili con le cellule di Langherhans della pelle, delle mucose, degli spazi periodontali, del midollo osseo. Il tessuto granulomatoso che ne deriva si infiltra tra gli elementi costitutivi dell'organo colpito ed estendendosi comprime, atrofizza e tende a distruggere il tessuto, sostituendosi ad esso. Le alterazioni determinate dal granuloma isiocitario di Langherhans prevalgono nettamente nel sistema scheletrico e si verificano, in ordine di frequenza, nel cranio, nelle ossa lunghe dell'estremit�, nel piede, nelle coste e nella colonna vertebrale. L'interessamento della mucosa orale � eccezionale. Conclusioni: Nel granuloma istiocitario unifocale di Langherhans della mandibola l'indagine radiologica � indispensabile per l'approccio allo studio della tumefazione premandibolare fermo restando che la diagnosi di natura si basa esclusivamente sulla biopsia. Oltre all'esame radiologico digitale o

  7. Development of improved attractants and their integration into fruit fly SIT management programmes. Proceedings of a final research coordination meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-10-01

    Information provided by trapping systems is used to assess the presence, seasonal abundance, spatial distribution, host sequence and infestation levels of fruit fly pests. This information is key for implementation of effective fruit fly control programmes. Most trapping systems commercially available are based on para-pheromones which are male specific. These male specific trapping systems have been used as the main survey tool in area-wide fruit fly control programmes. Nevertheless, in recent years, scientists and programme managers have realized that, in order to improve the efficiency of fruit fly control, it is essential to have a female specific or at least a female biased trapping system. Until the late 1990s, the only fruit fly female biased attractants were based on natural protein baits such as Torula Yeast and hydrolysate proteins. Although these attractants tend to catch more females than males (in average 60% females against 40% males), the proportion in favor of females is insufficient and the attractants are considered to be weak and non-selective. In 1999, as a result of a previous Coordinated Research Project (CRP) entitled 'Development of Female Medfly Attractant Systems for Trapping and Sterility Assessment' the first effective female biased synthetic food lure was developed for the Mediterranean fruit fly (Ceratitis capitata, Wied.) (IAEA-TECDOC-1099). This lure, with the commercial name of Biolure, is now being used in large-scale medfly control programmes worldwide. Given this background, and in order to further advance this field, the Joint FAO/IAEA Programme approved in 2000 a five year CRP entitled 'Development of Improved Attractants and their Integration into Fruit Fly SIT Management Programmes'. The research conducted under this CRP focused mainly on developing female biased trapping systems for other fruit fly species of quarantine and economic importance within the Anastrepha, Bactrocera, Ceratitis and Dacus genera and on optimization

  8. Entomology Unit annual report 2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    Medfly genetic sexing strains (GSS) are now being used for all operational SIT programmes. In 2002, a new strain, VIENNA 8, was evaluated for stability, quality and production characteristics. The strain carries the inversion as described in the 2001 Annual Report and it can produce ca 10% more males for irradiation and release than could previous GSS. This strain will be transferred to several facilities in 2003. As a further improvement to the strain the visible marker, Sergeant, has been introduced into the strain following the successful field cage evaluations reported in the 2001 Annual Report. In 2003 this strain will be further analysed to assess the stability of the marker. There is considerable interest in the field of medfly SIT in developing procedures whereby eggs can be shipped between different rearing facilities. This could be especially relevant for GSS as a central facility could hold and maintain a specific strain and eggs could be sent to satellite facilities where only males would be reared for sterilization and release. During 2002 a series of egg shipments was received from the medfly mass rearing facility at El Pino, Guatemala and the effect of shipment on the quality parameters of the resultant flies was assessed. It was concluded that although there was some reduction in egg viability, especially for long shipments, it will be possible to develop an effective shipment protocol. In 2002 colonies of Bactrocera oleae and Anastrepha fraterculus were established, the former after some initial problems associated with the unsuitability of the larval diet. In 2003 these colonies will be used to develop improved mass rearing techniques for these species and for A. fraterculus a series of field cage evaluations will be carried out to assess the degree of mating compatibility of populations from the whole geographic range of this species in South and Central America. The development of tsetse mass rearing facilities in Africa is expanding and in

  9. Efecto de la práctica de embolsado sobre la calidad del fruto en feijoa (Acca sellowiana Berg tander

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fánor Casierra-Posada

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available El  cultivo de  feijoa  (Acca  sellowiana Berg.  se ha  extendido  durante  los últimos  años  en  el territorio colombiano, debido a que  la  fruta es muy apetecida en el mercado por las excelentes propiedades  organolépticas.  Sin  embargo,  la cal idad  y  sanidad  exigidas  para  la comercialización  se  ven  afectadas  por  varios factores,  entre  los  que  se  encuentra  el  daño causado  por  la mosca de  la  fruta  (Anastrepha spp..  Por  tanto,  la  evaluación  del  efecto  de embolsado sobre la calidad de la fruta de feijoa es un tema de gran interés. Además, esta técnica es comúnmente usada en guayaba que pertenecea la misma familia que la feijoa (Mirtáceae. Para el estudio, se embolsaron flores en el momento de  la caída de pétalos, y cada semana después hasta  cuat ro  semanas.   Los  frutos  que  se embolsaron a la caída de pétalos detuvieron su crecimiento; aquellos embolsados una, dos y tres semanas  después  de  la  caída  de  pétalos  no reportaron diferencias significativas en cuanto los parámetros  evaluados  (peso  fresco,  peso  seco, diámetro transversal y  longitudinal, intensidad de infestación,  sólidos  solubles  totales  y  acidez titulable Los frutos embolsados cuatro semanas después de la caída de pétalos fueron de mayor peso,  tamaño y más dulces con  respecto a  los demás. La efectividad en el control de mosca de la  fruta  fue evidente. El embolsado, además de mejorar la sanidad del fruto,  influyó en su calidad y permitió obtener un producto con características adecuadas para el mercado.

  10. The sterile insect technique: Cost-effective control of the Mediterranean fruit fly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez Riera, Pablo

    2001-01-01

    Fruit flies are one of the most important plant pests of the world, in terms of the number of fly species involved, the regions in which they are present, and the variety of hosts they infest. Anastrepha is present in the Americas; Bactrocera in Asia and Ceratitis in Africa; Dacus in Africa and South East Asia, Australia and South Pacific Islands; and Rhagoletis in Chile, Peru, Eastern and Western USA, Europe and Asia (from Sweden to Kyrgystan and from Russia to France). There is an important species of Bactrocera, the Olive Fruit Fly (B.oleae), present in all olive-growing regions of Africa, Europe, the Middle East and Arab countries. Seventy five species of plants of economic importance are infested by fruit flies. Among them are tropical fruits such mango, guava, banana, papaya, fig, passion fruit and avocado; temperate fruits such as citrus (orange, grapefruit, tangerine, etc.), stone fruits (peach, apricot, cherry, etc.), nuts, grape, apple and pear; and vegetable crops such as cucurbits (squash, melon, watermelon), tomato, and eggplant. Fruit flies are present in 178 countries and islands; they are ubiquitous throughout the world between 45 deg. North and 45 deg. South latitude. Twenty species of fruit flies are the most harmful because of the range of hosts they infest and the many countries affected. These 20 are subject to quarantine: trade in fresh produce is restricted to avoid the introduction of any one of these species. The Mediterranean Fruit Fly, or simply Med Fly, (Ceratitis capitata Weid.) is the most harmful of all. It is present in 77 countries and infests 22 hosts of economic importance. From its origin in Central Africa, it has invaded northern Africa, Mediterranean Europe, the Middle East, all the Americas, and Australia. All the countries affected devote major efforts to eradicate this pest or greatly reduce its prevalence. The Med Fly has been eradicated from the USA (except Hawaii), Mexico, and Chile. Nevertheless, ongoing reintroductions

  11. Ensaio monográfico da familia Cyathodiniidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Marques da Cunha

    1940-01-01

    Full Text Available 1 Os Cyathodiniidae são ciliados caracterisados morfologicamente pela existência de uma escavação de abertura antero-ventral, o pseudo-peristoma. A ciliatura é constituída por cilios uniformes dispostos em linhas transversas ou obliquas que revestem a parte externa do corpo situado ao nível do pseudo-peristoma onde penetram para revestir a superfície interna deste. Os Cyathodiniidae apresentam duplicidade nuclear nítida, que se manifesta morfologica e funcionalmente. 2 Os Cyathodiniidade não possuem boca e sua nutrição se faz por ormose através a membrana celular. 3 Os Cyathodiniidae não possuem boca e sua nutrição se faz por ormose através a membrana celular. 3 Os Cyathodiniidae se multiplicam por divisão binária que é acompanhada da perda dos cílios e fromação endógena de duas novas ciliaturas. O plano de divisão é longitudinal ou obliquo, isto é, se faz de acordo com as idéias de Chatton e Lwoff perpendicularmente á direção das cinelias. 4 A reorganização se faz exclusivamente por endomixia que é acompanhada da perda dos cílios e formação endógena da nova ciliatura. 5 A endomixia se passa em indivíduos que, quer pela sua morfologia, quer pelas dimensões, não diferem das fórmas neutras. 6 No processo de endomixia o micronúcleo por meio de duas mitoses sucessivas forma 4 nucleos, 3 dos quais degeneram, enquanto o restante vae formar por divisão o novo micronúcleo e a placenta que se transforma posteriormente no novo macro-nucleo. 7 O processo é identico, nos dois gêneros em que se sub-divide a família, diferindo apenas no modo por que se dá a degeneração do macronúcleo e dos restos da divisão do micronúcleo. 8 Enquanto no genero Cyathodinium a degeneração se faz por picnose, no gênero Cyathodinioides, o macronucleo degenera por desagregação em granulos e os restos de divisão do micronucleo, pelo processo de degeneração macronucleiforme descrito por Ivanic, terminando tambem por

  12. Regional programme for the eradication of the Carambola fruit fly in South America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malavasi, Aldo; Sauers-Muller, Alies van; Midgarden, David; Kellman, Victorine; Didelot, Dominique; Caplong, Phillippe; Ribeiro, Odilson

    2000-01-01

    Bactrocera carambolae Drew and Hancock, the Carambola fruit fly (CFF), was probably introduced into Suriname from Indonesia in the 1960s or 1970s. The most likely mechanism of introduction was people arriving at Suriname from Indonesia by air, through Amsterdam. Any other method of transport would be too lengthy. Air travel was not commonly available to the general Surinamese population before the 1960s. About one-fifth of the Surinamese population is of Indonesian origin, and many strong ties remained between the countries. These ties are loosening with the increasing number of generations after immigration, which occurred in the late nineteenth and early twentieth century. The first recorded Bactrocera found in Suriname was in 1975, when flies were reared from a market fruit and preserved unidentified in the Ministry of Agriculture's insect collection. Bactrocera were not recorded again until 1986, when infested fruits were brought to the attention of the Ministry by a homeowner. These specimens were sent to the United States for identification and were identified as Dacus dorsalis. B. carambolae was formally described in 1994 as a species belonging to the B. dorsalis complex (Drew and Hancock 1994). At that time, in 1986, little importance was given to the finding in the United States, perhaps because the identifier was unaware that Suriname is in South America rather than Asia. The international community would only become aware of the establishment of a Dacus/Bactrocera species in the Americas four years later. The population of flies in the Guyanas has now been identified as B. carambolae, and its establishment in South America is a threat to the production and marketing of fruits throughout the tropical and subtropical Americas and the Caribbean (Hancock 1989). It might be expected that the newly established B. carambolae would move rapidly into the tropical forests where there are many species of the native Anastrepha fruit flies and, presumably, many

  13. Mediterranean fruit fly preventative release programme in southern California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dowell, Robert V.; Meyer, Fred; Siddiqu, Isi A.; Leon Spaugy, E.

    2000-01-01

    California employs several area-wide pest management programmes that use the release of sterile insects to protect its commercial and dooryard agriculture. The first was developed in response to the discovery of the Mexican fruit fly, Anastrepha ludens, in Tijuana, Mexico and adjacent areas in San Diego County, California. Initially pesticide sprays of malathion and bait were applied to host plants around each fly find site. Additionally, soil sprays of diazion (0.05 kg per 93 m 2 ) were applied under every host plant around each fly find site. It soon became apparent that this approach was expensive and environmentally damaging. This led the interested parties, the California Department of Food and Agriculture (CDFA), the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) and the government of Mexico to develop a programme that utilises the release of sterile Mexican fruit flies over the city of Tijuana in order to prevent the establishment of a breeding population of this fly in the city. The belief is that preventing the Mexican fruit fly from breeding in Tijuana will help protect both that city and California. To date, no Mexican fruit fly larvae have been found in Tijuana or the adjacent areas of California. The second programme was developed in response to the discovery of the pink bollworm, Pectinophora gossypiella, in cotton in the Imperial Valley area of southern California. As the pink bollworm spread throughout the cotton growing region of southern California, it became a significant pest that threatened the 405,000 hectares of cotton grown in the San Joaquin Valley to the north. To keep this pest out of the San Joaquin Valley, the CDFA/USDA and California cotton growers use the large-scale releases of sterile pink bollworms in areas in which wild pink bollworms are captured each year. Thus far, the pink bollworm has been prevented from establishing a permanent presence in the San Joaquin Valley and the cotton growers in southern California, Arizona and

  14. Annotated catalogue of the Tachinidae (Insecta, Diptera) of the Afrotropical Region, with the description of seven new genera

    Science.gov (United States)

    O’Hara, James E.; Cerretti, Pierfilippo

    2016-01-01

    exiguum Villeneuve, 1935, status revived (as Trigonospila exigua (Villeneuve)); Wagneria rufitibia abbreviata Mesnil, 1950, status n. (as Periscepsia abbreviata (Mesnil)); and Wagneria rufitibia nudinerva Mesnil, 1950, status n. (as Periscepsia nudinerva (Mesnil)). The following 25 new or revived combinations are proposed: Afrophylax aureiventris (Villeneuve, 1910), comb. n.; Blepharella orbitalis (Curran, 1927), comb. n.; Bogosiella pomeroyi Villeneuve, 1923, comb. revived; Brachychaetoides violacea (Curran, 1927), comb. n.; Carceliathrix crassipalpis (Villeneuve, 1938), comb. n.; Charitella whitmorei (Cerretti, 2012), comb. n.; Dyshypostena edwardsi (van Emden, 1960), comb. n.; Dyshypostena tarsalis Villeneuve, 1939, comb. revived; Estheria buccata (van Emden, 1947), comb. n.; Estheria surda (Curran, 1933), comb. n.; Filistea aureofasciata (Curran, 1927), comb. n.; Madremyia setinervis (Mesnil, 1968), comb. n.; Mesnilotrix empiformis (Mesnil, 1976), comb. n.; Myxophryxe longirostris (Villeneuve, 1938), comb. n.; Nealsomyia chloronitens (Mesnil, 1977), comb. n.; Nealsomyia clausa (Curran, 1940), comb. n.; Nilea longicauda (Mesnil, 1970), comb. n.; Paratrixa aethiopica Mesnil, 1952, comb. revived; Paratrixa stammeri Mesnil, 1952, comb. revived; Perlucidina africana (Jaennicke, 1867), comb. n.; Perlucidina perlucida (Karsch, 1886), comb. revived; Prolophosia retroflexa (Villeneuve, 1944), comb. n.; Sturmia profana (Karsch, 1888), comb. n.; additionally, Ceromasia rufiventris Curran, 1927 is treated as an unplaced species of Goniini, comb. n. and Hemiwinthemia stuckenbergi Verbeke, 1973 is treated as an unplaced species of Leskiini, comb. n. New or revived generic and specific synonymies are proposed for the following nine names: Afrosturmia Curran, 1927 with Blepharella Macquart, 1851, syn. n.; Archiphania van Emden, 1945 with Catharosia Rondani, 1868, syn. revived; Besseria longicornis Zeegers, 2007 with Besseria fossulata Bezzi, 1908 (current name Besseria fossulata

  15. Doença de peixes fluviaes do Brasil Disease of fishes in Brazilian rivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Genesio Pacheco

    1935-12-01

    Full Text Available Nos ultimos annos teem sido observadas mortandades de peixes nos rios do Estado de S. Paulo. Vê-se, das informações obtidas pelo autor e por outros pesquisadores, que o phenomeno não parece novo entre nós; elle tem sido tambem verificado em outros rios do Brasil, embora não repetido com tanta regularidade como agora. Ficou demonstrado no presente trabalho, tratar-se de uma doença contagiosa, causada por um virus filtravel. Apparecem, a principio, alguns peixes doentes ou mortos; seu numero cresce muito nos dias seguintes. Parece serem atacados logo a maioria dos peixes do local onde ella surge porque, em 2 a 3 dias adoecem milhares e, em poucos, 8 a 15, decresce rapidamente o numero de animaes doentes e mortos. Nesse tempo a doença propagou-se a outros rios, relacionados com o primeiro, a montante ou a jusante delle, até muito distante do ponto onde começou a doença. A doença caracterisa-se clinicamente pela diminuição da capacidade motora dos peixes, que se movem com pouca actividade, deixando-se levar pela correnteza ou procurando permanecer nos pontos remansosos do rio; e pela tendencia a subir á superficie das aguas, em posição vertical ou obliqua, differente dos peixes sãos, que sobem horizontalmente. No inicio da doença os peixes defendem-se da captura, mais tarde são facilmente apprehendidos com a mão. As lesões se resumem em manchas, de tamanho variavel, situadas de cada lado do dorso. Essas manchas nem sempre são presentes. Mais constante é a congestão das nadadeiras, principalmente das nadadeiras peitoraes. Internamente ha augmento de muco na garganta, pallidez do figado e congestão da vesicula biliar, cuja bile é amarellada. Essas lesões internas tambem não são constantes. A doença transmitte-se: directamente, pela cohabitação de peixes seguramente sãos com peixes doentes, ou pela juncção de virus á água contendo peixes sãos; indirectamente, pela agua contaminada, ou pela agua filtrada em vela