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Sample records for anastomose esplenorrenal proximal

  1. Evolução das varizes esofagogástricas após anastomose esplenorrenal proximal versus esplenorrenal distal Esophagogastric variceal evolution after proximal vs distal splenorenal shunt

    OpenAIRE

    Raquel Aparecida Antunes; Ivana Duval-Araujo

    2000-01-01

    Avaliou-se, retrospectivamente, a evolução pós-operatória das varizes esofagogástricas em 40 pacientes submetidos a um dos seguintes procedimentos cirúrgicos: a (n=27) derivação esplenorrenal distal (ERD) e B (n=13) derivação esplenorrenal proximal (ERP). Todos os pacientes tinham hipertensão porta esquistossomótica com diagnóstico prévio de varizes do esôfago, presentes ou não no estômago, com um ou mais episódios de sangramento. Os pacientes foram submetidos a um dos procedimentos cirúrgico...

  2. Evolução das varizes esofagogástricas após anastomose esplenorrenal proximal versus esplenorrenal distal Esophagogastric variceal evolution after proximal vs distal splenorenal shunt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Aparecida Antunes

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se, retrospectivamente, a evolução pós-operatória das varizes esofagogástricas em 40 pacientes submetidos a um dos seguintes procedimentos cirúrgicos: a (n=27 derivação esplenorrenal distal (ERD e B (n=13 derivação esplenorrenal proximal (ERP. Todos os pacientes tinham hipertensão porta esquistossomótica com diagnóstico prévio de varizes do esôfago, presentes ou não no estômago, com um ou mais episódios de sangramento. Os pacientes foram submetidos a um dos procedimentos cirúrgicos de acordo com a preferência do cirurgião assistente. Foram realizadas, nesses pacientes, endoscopias no período pré-operatório e aos seis, 12 e 18 meses no pós-operatório. Os dados de cada endoscopia foram coletados e comparados entre os grupos, verificando-se a presença de varizes do esôfago e estômago nos diferentes períodos, comparando esses achados através do teste do qui-quadrado, com significância para pBleeding due to esophagogastric varices is the major cause of death in patients with hepatic disease. The most frequent treatment of these varices in elective conditions are based in mechanisms that interrupt the connection between splancnic and systemic venous bed. Surgical procedures are divided into portosystemic shunts (selective and non-selective and disconnection. In portasystemic shunt, the purpose is to derive the splancnic flux, diminishing the esophagogastric varices and prevent re-bleeding. But literature is controversial about the index of re-bleeding and hepatic encephalophaty after proximal or distal splenorenal shunts. We performed this study to evaluate the evolution of esophagogastric varices after proximal splenorenal (PS or distal splenorenal (DS shunt. Postoperative outcome of oesophageal and gastric varices were retrospectively evaluated in forty patients submitted to one of two following procedures: A (n=27, distal splenorenal shunt (DS, and B (n=13, proximal splenorenal shunt (PS. All patients had

  3. Unique Technique for Open Surgical Repair after Failed Endovascular Aneurysm Repair with Proximal Anastomoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takebayashi, Satoshi; Hirota, Jun; Mori, Kazuki; Shuto, Takashi; Okamoto, Keitaro; Sato, Aiko; Wada, Tomoyuki; Anai, Hirofumi; Miyamoto, Shinji

    2016-01-01

    Endovascular aortic aneurysm repair (EVAR) has revolutionized the management of abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs), with lower perioperative morbidity and mortality compared to conventional surgical repair. However, late secondary re-interventions after EVAR are still needed before aneurysm rupture in many cases. A patient with impending rupture of an AAA associated with a type I endoleak 7 years after EVAR who was successfully treated with a unique technique of fixation of the proximal aortic neck taking into account the structure of the stent graft is reported. This technique offers a safe solution to late open conversion after failed EVAR. PMID:27375808

  4. Estudo do efeito da colostomia proximal terminal na cicatrização de anastomoses colo-cólicas em ratos

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    Leme Marcelo Betim Paes

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Estudar os efeitos da colostomia proximal terminal na cicatrização de anastomoses colo-cólicas em ratos. MÉTODOS: 36 ratas foram divididas em 2 grupos: grupo controle (C com 12 animais submetidos à ressecção cólica segmentar seguida de anastomose colo-cólica primária, e grupo colostomizado (CZ com 24 animais submetidos ao mesmo procedimento do grupo C complementado com uma colostomia proximal. A cicatrização anastomótica foi avaliada em dois períodos distintos, 2º e 7º dias de pós-operatório (PO, em relação à deiscência anastomótica, aderências, epitelização mucosa, pressão de ruptura e variáveis histológicas. Os resultados foram submetidos a estudo estatístico considerando-se como significante valores de p<0,05. RESULTADOS: A deiscência, principal variável analisada nessa pesquisa, não ocorreu em ambos os grupos estudados. As aderências foram significantemente mais intensas no grupo C no 7º PO. Nos dois grupos, a ruptura intestinal sempre ocorreu ao nível da anastomose no 2º PO; no 7º PO, a maior parte das rupturas aconteceram na alça cólica fora da zona anastomótica (100% do grupo C e 70% do grupo CZ. A análise das demais variáveis demonstrou equivalência entre os dois grupos. CONCLUSÃO: Os resultados dessa pesquisa não demonstraram diferença significante entre anastomoses colo-cólicas em ratos associados ou não à colostomia proximal.

  5. Controlling Bleeding from Proximal and Coronary Ostial Anastomoses by Using Blood Cardioplegia Delivering Antegradely while Performing Bentall Procedure

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    Erol Şener

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Bentall procedure is one of the valved conduit techniques which is used in the treatment of aortic valve diseases accompanied by ascending aortic aneurysm and dissection and it is used commonly around the world. In Bentall procedure, which is a complicated and long surgery, the rate of mortality and morbidity are not only related to the operation itself but also to the complications like major neurological events, myocardial damage and bleeding which take place during the intraoperative and postoperative period. Although the quantity and frequency of bleeding is declined with teflon strips and biological tissue glues, modifications of Bentall procedure are still an important problem. This study was conducted retrospectively with 48 patients in terms of early results of complication of bleeding caused specifically by proximal suture line and coronary ostium anastomosis lines controlled by the method of blood cardioplegia while performing Bentall procedure and supracoronary aort replacement in our clinic.

  6. Avaliação do efeito da colostomia proximal na cicatrização de anastomoses colocólicas em ratos com obstrução intestinal Effects of proximal colostomy on the healing of colonic anastomosis in rats with intestinal obstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Betim Paes Leme

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar o efeito da colostomia proximal na cicatrização de anastomoses colocólicas em ratos com obstrução intestinal. MÉTODO: 72 ratos foram divididos em três grupos: grupo controle (C, submetido à anastomose colocólica e à colostomia proximal na ausência de oclusão intestinal; grupo sem colostomia (SC, submetido à oclusão intestinal de 72 horas e à anastomose colocólica primária; grupo com colostomia (CC submetido à oclusão intestinal de 72 horas, à anastomose colocólica primária e à colostomia proximal. A cicatrização anastomótica foi avaliada em dois períodos, nos 2º e 7º dias de pós-operatório, em relação à deiscência anastomótica, aderências, epitelização mucosa, pressão de ruptura e a variáveis histológicas por estudo convencional e informatizado. RESULTADOS: verificou-se maior tendência a deiscência anastomótica no grupo SC (12,5%, e elevada incidência de complicações da colostomia no grupo CC (13%, entretanto tais resultados não apresentaram diferença estatística significante. No que se refere às demais variáveis analisadas para verificação da cicatrização anastomótica deve-se considerar que houve equivalência entre os três grupos nos dois períodos analisados. CONCLUSÃO: Não há diferença entre a cicatrização de anastomoses colocólicas associadas ou não à colostomia proximal, em ratos com obstrução intestinal.BACKGROUND: Our objective is to evaluate the effects of the proximal colostomy on the healing of colonic anastomosis in rats with intestinal obstruction. METHOD: 72 rats were allocated into three goups: control group (C with no intestinal occlusion, was subjected to colonic anastomosis and proximal colostomy; non-colostomy group (SC with 72 hours left colon obstruction under went a colonic ressection and primary anastomosis; colostomy group (CC with a 72 hours left colon obstruction of and a colonic ressection, primary anastomosis and proximal colostomy

  7. External coating of colonic anastomoses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pommergaard, Hans-Christian; Achiam, Michael Patrick; Rosenberg, Jacob

    2012-01-01

    Colon anastomotic leakage remains both a frequent and serious complication in gastrointestinal surgery. External coating of colonic anastomoses has been proposed as a means to lower the rate of this complication. The aim of this review was to evaluate existing studies on external coating of colonic...

  8. Intravascular Stenting in Microvascular Anastomoses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Assersen, Kristine; Sørensen, Jens

    2015-01-01

    Background The effect of intravascular stenting (IVaS) on microvascular anastomoses has given adverse results. For experienced microsurgeons the benefit of IVaS is doubtful. We have investigated the potential benefit of the IVaS technique for two groups of inexperienced microsurgeons with different...... surgical levels of experience (medical students and young residents). Experienced microsurgeons acted as a control group. Materials and Methods In an experimental crossover study, 139 microsurgical anastomoses were performed on the femoral artery in 70 rats by 10 surgeons. On one side of the rat, the IVaS...... spent on the anastomosis. Results No significant difference in patency rates was seen between the stenting and conventional technique in all three groups. The experienced microsurgeons had 100% patency rate with both techniques. The medical students had 20/28 in the IVaS and 19/28 conventional group...

  9. Argon laser-welded arteriovenous anastomoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, R A; Kopchok, G; Donayre, C; White, G; Lyons, R; Fujitani, R; Klein, S R; Uitto, J

    1987-11-01

    This study compared the healing of laser-welded and sutured canine femoral arteriovenous anastomoses. Arteriovenous fistulas 2 cm in length were created bilaterally in the femoral vessels of 10 dogs and were studied at 1 (n = 2), 2 (n = 2), 4 (n = 3), and 8 (n = 3) weeks. In each animal, one anastomosis (control) was closed with running 6-0 polypropylene sutures, and the contralateral anastomosis (experimental) was sealed with an argon laser (0.5 watt, 4 minutes of exposure, 1830 J/cm2/1 cm length of anastomosis). At removal all experimental anastomoses were patent without hematomas, aneurysms, or luminal narrowing. Histologic examination at 4 weeks revealed that laser-welded anastomoses had less inflammatory response and almost normal collagen and elastin reorientation. At 8 weeks sutured anastomoses had significant intimal hyperplasia whereas laser repairs had normal luminal architecture. Tensile strength and collagen production, measured by the synthesis of hydroxyproline and the steady-state levels of type I and type III procollagen messenger ribonucleic acids, at the anastomoses and in adjacent vein and artery specimens were similar in sutured and laser-welded repairs at 2, 4, and 8 weeks. We conclude that argon laser welding of anastomoses is an acceptable alternative to suture techniques, with the advantage of improved healing without foreign body response and possible diminished intimal hyperplasia at the anastomotic line. PMID:3312648

  10. Anastomose carótido-basilar

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    Ricardo Reixach-Granés

    1965-09-01

    Full Text Available O autor relata um caso de anastomose carótido-basilar por persistência da artéria trigeminal, demonstrado angiogràficamente. O paciente apresentou hemiplegia súbita e era portador de transtornos mentais de tipo deficitário. A pneumencefalografia evidenciou atrofia do parênquima cerebral do lado da anomalia.

  11. Anastomoses arteriais: passado, presente e futuro

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    Kallás Ibrahim Elias

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available As anastomoses vasculares representam importante conquista da cirurgia moderna possibilitando a restauração vascular, as revascularizações e os transplantes. No presente artigo, os autores fazem uma retrospectiva histórica das principais contribuições e conquistas paralelas, no campo da medicina, que possibilitaram este avanço. Finalmente destacam alguns aspectos que ainda aguardam solução.

  12. Effects of radiation therapy in microvascular anastomoses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fried, M.P.

    1985-07-01

    The otolaryngologist, as a head and neck surgeon, commonly cares for patients with upper aerodigestive tract malignancies. Therapy of these neoplasms often requires wide excision. One standard reconstructive procedure utilizes pedicled regional flaps, both dermal and myodermal which have some disadvantages. The shortcomings of these pedicled regional flaps have led to the use of the vascularized free flap in certain cases. The occasional case may lead to catastrophe if microanastomoses fail when combined with radiation. Notwithstanding, many surgical series have reported success when radiation has been given. The present investigation was undertaken to assess the effects of radiation therapy on microvascular anastomoses when radiation is administered pre- or postoperatively or when nonradiated tissue is transferred to an irradiated recipient site. These effects were observed serially in an experimental rat model using a tubed superficial epigastric flap that adequately reflected tissue viability and vascular patency. The histologic changes were then noted over a three month period after completion of both radiation and surgery. This study adds credence to the observation of the lack of deleterious effects of radiation on experimental microvascular anastomotic patency whether the radiation is given before or after surgery or if radiated tissue is approximated to nonradiated vessels.

  13. Fallbericht: Intervention an der distalen Anastomose eines 20 Jahre alten Venenbypasses zum R. interventricularis anterior

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    Kerschner K

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Interventionen an alten degenerierten Venenbypässen sind ein spezielles Problem der interventionellen Kardiologie. Die Komplikationsrate bei Interventionen im Schaftbereich kann durch den Einsatz einer distalen Protektion reduziert werden. Die Restenoserate wird durch Verwendung von Drug-eluting-Stents (DES gesenkt. Bei Intervention von Stenosen an der distalen Anastomose besteht das Problem der Erhaltung des Flusses sowohl nach proximal als auch in das distale Stromgebiet. Es wird die Intervention an der distalen Anastomose eines 20 Jahre alten Venenbypasses zum Ramus interventricularis anterior (RIVA mit DES und Kissing-Ballontechnik demonstriert.br Anamnese br 64jährige Patientin mit PTCA RIVA 1984, aortokoronarer Single-Venenbypass-LAD 1985 wegen Restenose. Februar 2001: Bare-Stent A. circumflexa (RCX, März 2001: Bare-Stent rechte Koronararterie, Oktober 2002: PTCA mit Cutting-Ballon-Restenose RKA, November 2002: Cypher®-Stent, proximaler Abschnitt Venenbypass LAD, Juli 2004: fokale Bypass-In-Stent-Restenose, Taxus-Stentimplantation. Risikofaktoren: ehemals Raucherin, arterielle Hypertonie, Hypercholesterinämie. Als Begleiterkrankung besteht eine COPD. Neuerliche Aufnahme im September 2005 wegen seit einigen Wochen bestehender Crescendo-Angina. Im EKG geringe linksventrikuläre Erregungsrückbildungsstörung, die Herzenzyme waren negativ.br Angiographiebr Normale Linksventrikelfunktion (EF 70 % ohne regionale Kontraktionsstörung. Proximaler Verschluß der LAD, keine Restenosen der RCA und RCX sowie im proximalen Bypass-LAD, neu aufgetretene 90%ige Stenose an der distalen Anastomose des Bypasses (Abb. 1 und 2.br Interventionbr Sondierung des Bypasses mit einem 6F-Judkins re Zuma-Katheter (Medtronic, BMW-Guide Wire (Guidant in das distale Nativgefäß und Vordilatation der Stenose mit einem 2,5/15-mm-Voyager-Ballon (Guidant und Implantation eines 18 mm langen Cypher®-Stents (Cordis auf einem 2,75-mm-Ballon mit 16 bar (Abb. 3. Bei

  14. Exoscope Update: Automated Laser Welding Of Circumferential Tissue Anastomoses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauer, Jude S.; McGuire, Kevin P.; Hinshaw, J. Raymond

    1989-09-01

    The speed, accuracy and efficiency of using laser energy to fuse together or weld living tissue makes laser tissue welding one of the most exciting areas of medical research today. Numerous investigators using animal models and several surgeons conducting clinical studies have demonstrated many promising potential applications of laser tissue welding. Accurate tissue positioning and well controlled delivery of laser energy during laser welding are essential for consistently successful laser tissue repairs. Many surgical procedures involve the creation of functional anastomoses, which are patent connections between hollow, tubular tissue structures, like bowel, blood vessels or fallopian tubes. We are developing the Exoscope SystemTM to automate and simplify the production of laser welded end-to-end and end-to-side anastomoses. Any laser light that can be passed through an optical fiber can be used in this system. The Exoscope SystemTM employs a fiber optic Exoscope Device,TM which provides for the precise placement of laser energy onto the abutted tissue seam, and a biocompatible, dissolvable intraluminal PolySurgeTM stent, which holds the tissue in circumferential apposition during lasing. The feasibility of employing the Exoscope SystemTM technique for the construction of rabbit small bowel anastomoses was successfully demonstrated in a Phase I study comparing 30 Exoscope SystemTM laser welded anastomoses to 30 conventional sutured anastomoses.

  15. Fibrin Glue Does Not Improve Healing of Gastrointestinal Anastomoses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordentoft, Tyge; Pommergaard, Hans-Christian; Rosenberg, Jacob;

    2015-01-01

    glue (FG), and the results in individual studies have been varying. The positive effect of anastomotic sealing with FG might be due to the mechanical/physical properties, the increased healing of the anastomoses or both. The aim of this systematic review was to evaluate the existing evidence...... on the healing effects of FG on gastrointestinal anastomoses. METHODS: PubMed, EMBASE and the Cochrane databases were searched for studies evaluating the healing process of gastrointestinal anastomoses after any kind of FG application. The search period was from 1953 to December 2013. RESULTS: Twenty......-eight studies were included in the qualitative synthesis. These studies were all experimental studies, since no human studies used histological or biochemical evaluation of healing. In 7 of the 28 studies, a positive effect of FG on healing was found, while 8 studies reported a negative effect and 11 studies...

  16. A Different Method of Hepaticojejunostomy for Proximal Biliary Injuries

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    Diane M. Radford

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available The management of proximal biliary injuries presents a surgical challenge. Anastomoses can be difficult to perform and can have poor results. We describe a method of hepaticojejunostomy done from within the Roux-en-Y loop, which can be utilized in this situation.

  17. Scintiscanning in the evaluation of biliary enteric anastomoses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tidmore, H.; Ram, M.D.

    1985-03-01

    The evaluation of symptomatic patients who have undergone biliary enteric anastomoses, particularly when the diversion was into the jejunum, is difficult. Conventional techniques for evaluation, such as oral cholecystography (OCG), intravenous cholangiography (IVC), ultrasonography (US), computer-assisted tomography scanning (CT scanning), or endoscopy are not adequate to provide definitive information on the patency of the anastomoses. Hepatobiliary scintiscanning using /sup 99m/Tc-HIDA and BIDA (iminodiacetic acid derivatives) was performed on 12 patients. The patients were from 11 to 72 years of age and included ten men and two women. The scan results were correlated with US, CT scan, percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography (PTC), operative findings, and final diagnosis. Scanning was highly accurate in this group and could be performed successfully even in jaundiced patients (total serum bilirubin level up to 20.0 mg/dl). In patients in whom dilated bile ducts were demonstrated (by US, CT scan, or scintiscan), only the scintiscan revealed the true patency of the anastomoses. The advantages of the technique are that it is simple and noninvasive. Delayed transit of bile (scanning agent) to bowel is a very reliable indication of partial or complete obstruction. Scintiscanning is the only technique that demonstrated the functional state of biliary secretion and excretion into bowel in patients with previous biliary enteric anastomoses.

  18. Scintiscanning in the evaluation of biliary enteric anastomoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tidmore, H; Ram, M D

    1985-03-01

    The evaluation of symptomatic patients who have undergone biliary enteric anastomoses, particularly when the diversion was into the jejunum, is difficult. Conventional techniques for evaluation, such as oral cholecystography (OCG), intravenous cholangiography (IVC), ultrasonography (US), computer-assisted tomography scanning (CT scanning), or endoscopy are not adequate to provide definitive information on the patency of the anastomoses. Hepatobiliary scintiscanning using 99mTc-HIDA and BIDA (iminodiacetic acid derivatives) was performed on 12 patients. The patients were from 11 to 72 years of age and included ten men and two women. The scan results were correlated with US, CT scan, percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography (PTC), operative findings, and final diagnosis. Scanning was highly accurate in this group and could be performed successfully even in jaundiced patients (total serum bilirubin level up to 20.0 mg/dl). In patients in whom dilated bile ducts were demonstrated (by US, CT scan, or scintiscan), only the scintiscan revealed the true patency of the anastomoses. The advantages of the technique are that it is simple and noninvasive. Delayed transit of bile (scanning agent) to bowel is a very reliable indication of partial or complete obstruction. Scintiscanning is the only technique that demonstrated the functional state of biliary secretion and excretion into bowel in patients with previous biliary enteric anastomoses. PMID:3883866

  19. Scintiscanning in the evaluation of biliary enteric anastomoses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The evaluation of symptomatic patients who have undergone biliary enteric anastomoses, particularly when the diversion was into the jejunum, is difficult. Conventional techniques for evaluation, such as oral cholecystography (OCG), intravenous cholangiography (IVC), ultrasonography (US), computer-assisted tomography scanning (CT scanning), or endoscopy are not adequate to provide definitive information on the patency of the anastomoses. Hepatobiliary scintiscanning using /sup 99m/Tc-HIDA and BIDA (iminodiacetic acid derivatives) was performed on 12 patients. The patients were from 11 to 72 years of age and included ten men and two women. The scan results were correlated with US, CT scan, percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography (PTC), operative findings, and final diagnosis. Scanning was highly accurate in this group and could be performed successfully even in jaundiced patients (total serum bilirubin level up to 20.0 mg/dl). In patients in whom dilated bile ducts were demonstrated (by US, CT scan, or scintiscan), only the scintiscan revealed the true patency of the anastomoses. The advantages of the technique are that it is simple and noninvasive. Delayed transit of bile (scanning agent) to bowel is a very reliable indication of partial or complete obstruction. Scintiscanning is the only technique that demonstrated the functional state of biliary secretion and excretion into bowel in patients with previous biliary enteric anastomoses

  20. Computer dynamics to evaluate blood flow through the modified Blalock-Taussig shunt Estudo computadorizado do escoamento de sangue em modelo da anastomose de Blalock-Taussig modificada

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    João Ricardo M. Sant'Anna

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To study the influence of geometric factors upon the function of modified Blalock-Taussig anastomoses (mBT using a computational dynamic code based upon the method of finite elements. METHODS: The mBT operation, performed in 10 patients, was graphically reconstructed to create a parametric 3-dimensional geometric model. Using Streamline Upwind/Petrov-Galerkin approximations, blood flow and distribution were evaluated in different diameters of subclavian arteries and polytetrafluoroethylene grafts (PTFE and angles of proximal anastomoses. RESULTS: The percentage of blood flow derived through the PTFE grows as its diameter increases in relation to subclavian artery diameter. Variations in the PTFE diameter do not interfere with pulmonary artery flow distribution. An angle of 110º in proximal anastomoses results in a high percentage of blood derivation to the graft, while angles of 30º, 60ºand 90º present with almost similar flow rates. However, angles of 30º and 110º produce an excessive flow to one of the pulmonary arteries, in detriment of the other. Peak pressure in the PTFE is affected by the proximal angle of anastomosis, with 30º resulting in higher and 110º in lower values. As the angle increases, the region of higher pressure shifts from the PTFE to subclavian artery. CONCLUSION: In the experimental model, percentage of flow derived in the PTFE is directly related to the diameter of the graft. The ratio between the diameters of subclavian artery and graft is an important regulator of flow deviation to the anastomosis. Angles of the anastomosis between the subclavian artery and the PTFE of 60º to 90º result in favorable pulmonary artery flow distribution and the location of the peak pressure.OBJETIVO: Dinâmica computacional foi utilizada para avaliar a influência de fatores geométricos no funcionamento de modelo da cirurgia de Blalock-Taussig modificada (BTm, ou interposição de enxerto de politetrafluoretileno

  1. Effect of early preoperative 5-fluorouracil on the integrity of colonic anastomoses in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Leyla Ozel; M Sefa Ozel; Ahmet Burak Toros; Melih Kara; Kemal S(I)rr(I) Ozkan; Gurkan Tellioglu; Osman Krand; Meral Koyuturk; Ibrahim Berber

    2009-01-01

    AIM:To determine the effect of chemotherapy on wound healing by giving early preoperative 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) to rats with colonic anastomoses.METHODS: Sixty Albino-Wistar male rats (median weight,235 g) were used in this study. The rats were fed with standard laboratory food and given tap water ad libitum. The animals were divided into three groups:Group 1: Control group (chemotherapy was not administered),Group 2: Intraperitoneally (IP) administered 5-FU group (chemotherapy was administered IP to animals at a dose of 20 mg/kg daily during the 5 d preceeding surgery), Group 3: Intravenously (IV) administered 5-FU group. Chemotherapy was administered via the penil vein, using the same dosing scheme and duration as the second group. After a 3-d rest to minimize the side effects of chemotherapy, both groups underwent surgery. One centimeter of colon was resected 2 cm proximally from the peritoneal reflection, then sutured intermittently and subsequently end-to-end anastomosed. In each group, half the animals were given anaesthesia on the 3rd postoperative (PO) day and the other half on the 7th PO day, for in vivo analytic procedures. The abdominal incisions in the rats were dissected, all the new and old anastomotic segments were clearly seen and bursting pressures of each anastomotic segment, tissue hydroxyproline levels and DNA content were determined to assess the histologic tissue repair process.RESULTS: When the IV group was compared with the IP group, bursting pressures of the anastomotic segments on the 3rd and 7th PO days, were found to be significantly decreased, hydroxyproline levels at the anastomotic segment on the 7th PO day were signifi-cantly decreased ( P < 0.01).CONCLUSION: In this study, we conclude that early preoperative 5-FU, administered IV, negatively affects wound healing. However, IP administered 5-FU does not negatively affect wound healing.

  2. Efeito do choque hipovolêmico na anastomose do intestino delgado de ratos Effect of hypovolemic shock in anastomose of small intestine of rats

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    Marcus Vinicius Henriques BRITO

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available Racional — O choque hipovolêmico está incluído entre os fatores de risco para anastomoses intestinais, entretanto, sua ação sobre anastomoses do intestino delgado tem sido pouco estudada e, quando abordado, é avaliado como parâmetro de comparação com a cicatrização de cólons e não como alvo central das investigações. Objetivo - Estudar o efeito do choque hipovolêmico na anastomose do intestino delgado de ratos. Método - Foram utilizados 90 ratos machos adultos, distribuídos em cinco grupos: padrão, choque, anastomose, choque mais anastomose e choque mais anastomose mais reposição. O choque hipovolêmico foi obtido pela sangria de 30% da volemia do animal. Realizou-se anastomose término-terminal em plano único extra-mucoso, à média distância, entre o duodeno e a válvula ileocecal. A reposição volêmica no grupo choque, mais anastomose mais reposição foi realizada com o sangue autólogo. Resultados e Conclusão - Do ponto de vista histológico, o choque hipovolêmico provocou alterações progressivas na região da anastomose intestinal, quanto à lesão da túnica mucosa e o aumento na deposição de fibras colágenas na tela submucosa, com a evolução do período pós-operatório. Quanto à pressão de ruptura promoveu, em relação aos grupos controle, tendência a diminuição da resistência da parede intestinal e da anastomose intestinal com a evolução do período pós-operatório.Objective — Study the effect of hypovolemic shock on small intestinal anastomose in adult rats. Method — Ninety male rats were randomly divided into five groups: standard, hypovolemic shock, anastomose alone, hypovolemic shock + anastomose and hypovolemic shock + anastomose + blood reinfusion. Hypovolemic shock was achieved by bleeding 30% of the blood volume of the animal. A single layer extramucosal intestinal anastomose was performed. Following intestinal anastomose, the blood volume was restored in group shock, anastomose

  3. Sutureless microvascular anastomoses by a biodegradable laser-activated solid protein solder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maitz, P K; Trickett, R I; Dekker, P; Tos, P; Dawes, J M; Piper, J A; Lanzetta, M; Owen, E R

    1999-11-01

    A new sutureless technique to successfully anastomose the abdominal aorta of rats (1.3 mm in diameter) by using a fully biodegradable, laser-activated protein solder is presented. A total of 90 rats were divided into two groups randomly. In group one, the anastomoses were performed by using conventional microsuturing technique, whereas in group two, the anastomoses were performed by using a new laser welding technique. In addition, each of the two groups were divided into five subgroups and evaluated at different follow-up periods (10 minutes, 1 hour, 1 day, 1 week, and 6 weeks). At these intervals, the anastomoses were evaluated for patency and tensile strength. Three anastomoses in each subgroup were processed for light and electron microscopy. All anastomoses were found to be patent. The mean clamp time of the anastomoses performed with conventional suturing was 20.6 minutes compared with 7.2 minutes for the laser-activated welded anastomoses (p laser-welded anastomoses was higher compared with the conventional suture technique. Histologic evaluations revealed a near complete resorption of the solder after 6 weeks. The junction site of the vessel ends cannot be determined on the luminal side of the artery. In conclusion, a resorbable protein used as a solder, activated by a diode laser, can provide a reliable, safe, and rapid arterial anastomosis, which could be performed by any microsurgeon faster than conventional suturing after a short learning curve. PMID:10541175

  4. Proximal Hypospadias

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    Kate H. Kraft

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Hypospadias results from abnormal development of the penis that leaves the urethral meatus proximal to its normal glanular position. Meatal position may be located anywhere along the penile shaft, but more severe forms of hypospadias may have a urethral meatus located at the scrotum or perineum. The spectrum of abnormalities may also include ventral curvature of the penis, a dorsally redundant prepuce, and atrophic corpus spongiosum. Due to the severity of these abnormalities, proximal hypospadias often requires more extensive reconstruction in order to achieve an anatomically and functionally successful result. We review the spectrum of proximal hypospadias etiology, presentation, correction, and possible associated complications.

  5. Sealing of Gastrointestinal Anastomoses with a Fibrin Glue-Coated Collagen Patch: A Safety Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordentoft, Tyge; Rømer, John; Sørensen, Michael

    2007-01-01

    Sealing of anastomoses has previously been tested with several methods, including sealing with liquid fibrin glue. Sealing with a collagen patch coated with fibrin glue components has never been systematically examined. The aim of the present study was to determine the safety of sealing...... gastrointestinal anastomoses with a collagen patch coated with fibrin glue. The study is a prospective, experimental animal study comparing sealed and unsealed gastrointestinal anastomoses. Laparotomy was performed in 11 pigs under general anesthesia. In each pig two anastomoses were performed on the small...... intestine. One of the anastomoses was sealed with a collagen patch coated with fibrin glue components (TachoSil). The other anastomosis contained no sealing. The pigs were observed for 1 to 6 weeks. The observation period was followed by in vivo examination under general anesthesia and included observation...

  6. Methylene blue solder re-absorption in microvascular anastomoses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birch, Jeremy F.; Hepplewhite, J.; Frier, Malcolm; Bell, Peter R. F.

    2003-06-01

    Soldered vascular anastomoses have been reported using several chromophores but little is known of the optimal conditions for microvascular anastomosis. There are some indications of the optimal protein contents of a solder, and the effects of methylene blue on anastomotic strength. The effects of varying laser power density in vivo have also been described, showing a high rate of thrombosis with laser power over 22.9Wcm-2. However no evidence exists to describe how long the solder remains at the site of the anastomosis. Oz et al reported that the fibrin used in their study had been almost completely removed by 90 days but without objective evidence of solder removal. In order to address the issue of solder re-absorption from the site of an anastomosis we used radio-labelled albumin (I-125) incorporated into methylene blue based solder. This was investigated in both the situation of the patent and thrombosed anastomosis with anastomoses formed at high and low power. Iodine-125 (half life: 60.2 days) was covalently bonded to porcine albumin and mixed with the solder solution. Radio-iodine has been used over many years to determine protein turnover using either I-125 or I-131. Iodine-125 labelled human albumin is regularly used as a radiopharmaceutical tool for the determination of plasma volume. Radio-iodine has the advantages of not affecting protein metabolism and the label is rapidly excreted after metabolic breakdown. Labelling with chromium (Cr-51) causes protein denaturation and is lost from the protein with time. Labelled albumin has been reported in human studies over a 21-day period, with similar results reported by Matthews. Most significantly McFarlane reported a different rate of catabolism of I-131 and I-125 over a 22-day period. The conclusion from this is that the rate of iodine clearance is a good indicator of protein catabolism. In parallel with the surgery a series of blank standards were prepared with a known mass of solder to correct for isotope

  7. Efeito de aderências dirigidas em anastomoses cólicas isquêmicas em ratos Effect of conducted adhesions on ischemic colic anastomoses in rats

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    Miki Mochizuki

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar o efeito das aderências dirigidas sobre a resistência mecânica de anastomoses realizadas em cólon isquêmico através da aplicação dos testes Resistência à Pressão de Explosão e Resistência à Força de Tração. MÉTODOS: Quarenta ratos foram distribuídos igualmente em dois grupos. O Grupo 1 era constituído de vinte animais em que as anastomoses cólicas isquêmicas foram recobertas por uma película de polivinilcloreto (P.V.C. para impedir a formação de aderências sobre as linhas de sutura e o Grupo 2 era constituído por 20 animais em que as anastomoses cólicas isquêmicas foram recobertas pela gordura epididimal, de forma a constituir uma aderência dirigida sobre a linha de sutura, sendo ainda recobertas por uma película de P.V.C. para impedir a formação de outras aderências. RESULTADOS: A média da Pressão de Ruptura à Distensão por Líquidos da anastomose foi de 10 mmHg no grupo sem aderência e de 55,2 mmHg no grupo com aderência (p PURPOSE: Evaluate the effect of conducted adhesions on the mechanical resistance of anastomoses performed in ischemic colon through the Bursting Strength Test and Breaking Strength Test. METHODS: Forty rats were divided into two groups. Group 1 was composed of 20 rats in which the anastomoses were covered with P.V.C. (Polyvinyl Chloride to prevent the occurrence of adhesions over the anastomotic line. Group 2 was composed of 20 rats in which anastomotic line was covered with epididimal fat besides P.V.C. to prevent formation of other adhesions. RESULTS: The mean Bursting Strength of the anastomoses in the group without adhesion was 10 mmHg and this value was 55.2 mmHg in the group with adhesion (p < 0.05. The mean Breaking Strength of the anastomoses was 142.5 gf in the group without adhesion and 262 gf in the group with adhesion (p < 0.05. CONCLUSION: Based on those mechanical tests, adhesions were benefic to ischemic anastomoses, rising their intrinsic resistance

  8. Intrapulmonary arteriovenous anastomoses in humans with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: implications for cryptogenic stroke?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, H Cameron; Mangum, Tyler S; Kern, Julia P; Elliott, Jonathan E; Beasley, Kara M; Goodman, Randy D; Mladinov, Suzana; Barak, Otto F; Bakovic, Darija; Dujic, Zeljko; Lovering, Andrew T

    2016-08-01

    What is the central question of this study? Do individuals with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease have blood flow through intrapulmonary arteriovenous anastomoses at rest or during exercise? What is the main finding and its importance? Individuals with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease have a greater prevalence of blood flow through intrapulmonary arteriovenous anastomoses at rest than age-matched control subjects. Given that the intrapulmonary arteriovenous anastomoses are large enough to permit venous emboli to pass into the arterial circulation, patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and an elevated risk of thrombus formation may be at risk of intrapulmonary arteriovenous anastomosis-facilitated embolic injury (e.g. stroke or transient ischaemic attack). The pulmonary capillaries prevent stroke by filtering venous emboli from the circulation. Intrapulmonary arteriovenous anastomoses are large-diameter (≥50 μm) vascular connections in the lung that may compromise the integrity of the pulmonary capillary filter and have recently been linked to cryptogenic stroke and transient ischaemic attack. Prothrombotic populations, such as individuals with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), may be at increased risk of stroke and transient ischaemic attack facilitated by intrapulmonary arteriovenous anastomoses, but the prevalence and degree of blood flow through intrapulmonary arteriovenous anastomoses in this population has not been fully examined and compared with age-matched healthy control subjects. We used saline contrast echocardiography to assess blood flow through intrapulmonary arteriovenous anastomoses at rest (n = 29 COPD and 19 control subjects) and during exercise (n = 10 COPD and 10 control subjects) in subjects with COPD and age-matched healthy control subjects. Blood flow through intrapulmonary arteriovenous anastomoses was detected in 23% of subjects with COPD at rest and was significantly higher compared with age

  9. Anastomose esôfago-esofágica cervical por invaginação versus a em plano único extramucoso, no cão

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    Nigro Amaury José Teixeira

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo é verificar a eficácia da anastomose esôfago-esofágica por invaginação quando comparada à executada em plano único extramucoso. Utilizou-se 60 cães, sadios, sem raça deficida, de ambos os sexos, com peso médio de 15kg. Foram separados em dois grupos iguais; no GRUPO I será feita anastomose por invaginação e, no GRUPO II, a em um plano único extramucoso. Cada grupo foi subdividido em 3 subgrupos iguais, e para cada um deles foi estabelecido um determinado período de observação pós-operatório (PO de 7, 14 e 30 dias, respectivamente. Retirou-se no GRUPO I as túnicas adventícia e muscular para formar um tubo de submucosa-mucosa de 2 centímetros de comprimento que foi mantido em continuidade com o coto cervical proximal e no GRUPO II foram extirpadas todas as tunicas do esôfago cervical com a mesma extensão ressecada no grupo I. As suturas para aproximar os cotos esofágicos foram todas feitas com fio de polipropileno 4 zeros em um plano único extramucoso, mas nos animais do GRUPO I foi invaginado, previamente, o tubo de submucosa-mucosa no interior do coto esofágico caudal. Avaliou-se a incidência de complicações pós-operatórias imediatas e tardias e as características histológicas da cicatrização de cada tipo de anastomose. A análise estatística dos dados coletados permitiu verificar que na anastomose esôfago-esofágica cervical por invaginação não ocorreu fístula ao nível da sutura em nenhum cão da série e verificou-se estenose, muito leve, em apenas um animal. Por outro lado, os cães submetidos à anastomose em plano único extramucoso apresentaram 13% de fístulas e 30% de estenose. A cicatrização das estruturas da parede esofágica ao nível da anastomose foi significantemente melhor na anastomose por invaginação do que na executada em um plano único extramucoso. Pode-se concluir que a anastomose esôfago-esofágica cervical por invaginação é mais eficaz do que a feita em plano

  10. Anastomoses colônicas após mucosectomia química, em ratos Colonic anastomosis after chemical mucosectomy in rats

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    Ivana Duval-Araujo

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar, experimentalmente, os efeitos da mucosectomia química sobre a cicatrização de anastomoses colônicas. METODOLOGIA: Estudou-se 17 ratos Wistar machos divididos nos seguintes grupos: A (n=12, anastomose colônica; B (n=13, anastomose colônica após mucosectomia. A mucosectomia foi realizada através da introdução de um bastão de nitrato de prata a 10%, durante um minuto, através das duas bocas a serem anastomosadas, e as anastomoses realizadas em plano único total, evertente, com fio polivicril 6-0 em pontos separados. Os animais foram estudados após 7 dias (6 do grupo A1 e 6 do grupo B1 e 14 dias (7 do grupo A2 e 6 do grupo B2 da cirurgia, e realizadas observações macroscópicas da presença de aderências, fístulas (saída de secreção através da anastomose ou teste da pressão de ruptura igual a zero, estenose (dilatação intestinal proximal à anastomose, abscessos peri-anastomóticos e peritonite. Foi também avaliada a pressão de ruptura das anastomoses e histologia das anastomoses. Os resultados qualitativos foram avaliados pelo teste do Qui-quadrado (com correção de Yates e os quantitativos através do teste de Kruskall-Wallis, sendo considerados significativos valores de pOBJECTIVE: To evaluate, experimentally, the effects of chemical mucosectomy on colon healing in rats. METHODS: We studied 17 male Wistar rats divided into following groups: A (n=12, colonic anastomosis; B (n=13, colonic anastomosis after use of 10% silver nitrate. The mucosectomy in group B was made by means introduction of 10% silver nitrate pencil into anastomotic surfaces during 1 minute in an extension of 0.5 cm. The anastomosis was made in single plane with evertent sutures of polyvicryl 6-0 in separated sutures. The animals were evaluated in the seventh postoperative day (A1, 6 of the group A and B1, 6 of the group B and fourth postoperative day (A2, 7 of the group A and B2, 6 of the group B. The anastomosis was evaluated in

  11. Twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome : from placental anastomoses to long-term outcome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lopriore, Enrico

    2006-01-01

    Twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome (TTTS) is a severe complication of monochorionic twin pregnancies associated with high perinatal mortality and morbidity rates. Placental vascular anastomoses, almost invariably present in monochorionic placentas, are the essential anatomical substrate for the devel

  12. Anastomosing Haemangioma of the Kidney Involving a Segmental Branch of the Renal Vein

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    Ayodeji Oluwarotimi Omiyale

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Anastomosing variant of capillary haemangioma is a rare and recently described vascular tumour with a proclivity for the genitourinary tract. Here we present the case of a 64-year-old man with incidental finding of 3.4 cm renal mass on CT who had laparoscopic nephrectomy with a good postoperative recovery. Histopathological diagnosis of anastomosing haemangioma of the kidney was made and the patient was followed up for 10 months without evidence of tumour recurrence.

  13. Does preoperative analysis of intrahepatic venous anastomoses improve the surgeon's intraoperative decision making? Pilot data from a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meinzer Hans-Peter

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Three-dimensional (3D visualization is thought to improve the anatomical understanding of clinicians, thus improving patient safety. Case presentation A 58-year-old male was admitted to our hospital in April 2007 with a suspected metastasis of a sigmoid cancer in the Couinaud segment (CS 7. The anatomical situation of this patient was analyzed using both a CT scan and 3D images. The initial CT scan revealed that the proximal part of the middle hepatic vein was completely missing and the metastasis in the CS 7 was closely attached to the right hepatic vein. After analyzing additional 3D images, it became clear that due to the close proximity of metastasis and right hepatic vein, the resection of the right hepatic vein was inevitable. Based on this 3D analysis, it was decided to perform a right-sided hemihepatectomy. In this case report, 3D visualization resulted in a faster and clearer understanding of the unique anatomical situation in a patient with complicated liver anatomy than transversal CT images. Conclusion The here presented data shows for the first time 3D visualization of intravenous anastomoses in the human liver. The information offered by 3D visualization is not redundant but rather serves as a true source of additional information, indicating the potential benefit of 3D visualization in surgical operation planning.

  14. Anastomose mecânica esofagogástrica cervical látero-lateral após esofagectomias

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    João Batista Neto

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Dentre os desafios das esofagectomias, a fístula da anastomose cervical persiste desafiadora por suas consequências, sendo a principal, a estenose da anastomose. Os autores apresentam uma técnica de anastomose esofagogástrica cervical látero-lateral mecânica à Orringer, que reduz o índice de fístulas e de estenose.

  15. Proximal Gastrojejunal Reconstruction after Pancreaticoduodenal Resection

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    M. Wayne

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Reconstruction by proximal gastrojejunostomy, and distal biliary and pancreatic anastomoses is infrequently used after resection of the head of the pancreas because of fear of fistulas and cholangitis. Pancreaticoduodenectomy is being performed more frequently for cystic malignant and premalignant lesions. Because of this there is a need for endoscopic visualization and biopsy of the residual pancreatic duct, since multi-centricity is characteristic of some of these malignancies. Since endoscopic access of the bile duct and pancreatic duct is difficult and unsuccessful in 50–70% after B II or Roux Y reconstruction, we prospectively studied the merit and complications (early and late of proximal gastrojejunal (PGJ reconstruction after pancreaticoduodenal resection. Material and Methods. Thirty nine consecutive, non-radomized patients underwent pancreaticoduodenectomy and PGJ reconstruction over 14 mos. There were 21 males and 18 females. Results. 7 patients with IPMN have undergone repeat CT scanning for surveillance, with 3 requiring repeat EUS and ERCP. There were no technical difficulties accessing the pancreas or the pancreatic duct, supporting the PGJ reconstruction. Conclusion. Proximal gastrojejunal reconstruction following pancreaticoduodenal resection may be safely done with similar morbidity to traditional pancreaticojejunal reconstructions. PGJ reconstruction may be of greater value when direct visual access to the bile duct or pancreatic duct is necessary, and should be considered when doing resection for mucinous cysts or IPMN of the head of the pancreas.

  16. Proximal renal tubular acidosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renal tubular acidosis - proximal; Type II RTA; RTA - proximal; Renal tubular acidosis type II ... are neutralized by alkaline substances, mainly bicarbonate. Proximal renal tubular acidosis (Type II RTA) occurs when bicarbonate ...

  17. Sealing of Gastrointestinal Anastomoses with a Fibrin Glue-Coated Collagen Patch: A Safety Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordentoft, Tyge; Rømer, John; Sørensen, Michael

    2007-01-01

    for anastomotic leakage, signs of present or former peritonitis, abscess, adhesions to the anastomoses, and signs of intestinal obstruction. In addition, the anastomotic diameter was measured with barium and radiography. Finally, bursting pressure was measured in each segment. After the pigs were sacrificed...

  18. The matrix metalloproteinase inhibitor BB-94 improves the strength of intestinal anastomoses in the rat.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hingh, I.H.J.T. de; Siemonsma, M.A.; Man, B.M. de; Lomme, R.M.L.M.; Hendriks, T.

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The strength of intestinal anastomoses is relatively low in the first days after operation, possibly as a result of localized degradation of the supporting matrix by enzymes from the matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) family. This study examined whether BB-94, a broad spectrum inhib

  19. Avulsions, channel evolution and floodplain sedimentation rates of the anastomosing upper Columbia River, British Columbia, Canada

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Makaske, B.; Smith, D.G.; Berendsen, H.J.A.

    2002-01-01

    Ages of channels of the anastomosing upper Columbia River, south-eastern British Columbia, Canada, were investigated in a cross-valley transect by C-14 dating of subsurface floodplain organic material from beneath levees. The avulsion history within the transect was deduced from these data, and morp

  20. Effect of aging on the healing of colonic anastomoses in rats Efeitos do envelhecimento na cicatrização de anastomoses colônicas em ratos

    OpenAIRE

    Maria de Lourdes Pessole Biondo-Simões; Sergio Ossamu Ioshii; Letícia Kimura; Fábio Martynetz; Michele Lemos

    2004-01-01

    PURPOSE: To evaluate the healing of the colonic anastomoses in old and young adult rats. METHODS: Fifty six Wistar rats were allocated in two groups, the young animals aged on average 110 days and the old animals aged average 762 days. Under anesthesia, the rats underwent a midline laparotomy and the colon was sectioned 2 cm above the peritoneal deflection. An end-to-end interrupted one layer colonic anastomosis was performed and the animals sacrificed on the 3rd, 7th, 14th and 21st postopera...

  1. Thrombosis of anastomoses may affect the staging sequence of twin-twin transfusion syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wijngaard, Jeroen P H M van den; Gemert, Martin J C van [Laser Center, Academic Medical Center-University of Amsterdam, Meibergdreef 9, 1105 AZ, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Ross, Michael G [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Harbor-UCLA School of Medicine, Torrance, CA 90502 (United States)], E-mail: j.p.vandenwijngaard@amc.uva.nl

    2008-03-07

    Twin-twin transfusion syndrome (TTTS) is a severe complication of monozygotic (identical) twins, which share one single monochorionic placenta. It is caused by placental anastomoses which link the two fetoplacental circulations of the twins and allow a chronic net inter-twin transfusion to develop between the fetuses. Clinical presentation of TTTS manifestations has been classified into five different stages. In this paper, we used our computational model of TTTS and examined the possible differences between chronic and rapidly increasing inter-twin transfusion in the simulated TTTS staging sequence. Our results suggest that rapid alterations in the net inter-twin transfusion, e.g. due to thrombosis of placental anastomoses, may produce a different staging sequence than in TTTS caused by chronic inter-twin transfusion. These results may aid an improved knowledge of TTTS pathophysiology under conditions of a rapidly changing cardiovascular function, and contribute to the planning of optimal intervention under such circumstances. (note)

  2. Thrombosis of anastomoses may affect the staging sequence of twin-twin transfusion syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Twin-twin transfusion syndrome (TTTS) is a severe complication of monozygotic (identical) twins, which share one single monochorionic placenta. It is caused by placental anastomoses which link the two fetoplacental circulations of the twins and allow a chronic net inter-twin transfusion to develop between the fetuses. Clinical presentation of TTTS manifestations has been classified into five different stages. In this paper, we used our computational model of TTTS and examined the possible differences between chronic and rapidly increasing inter-twin transfusion in the simulated TTTS staging sequence. Our results suggest that rapid alterations in the net inter-twin transfusion, e.g. due to thrombosis of placental anastomoses, may produce a different staging sequence than in TTTS caused by chronic inter-twin transfusion. These results may aid an improved knowledge of TTTS pathophysiology under conditions of a rapidly changing cardiovascular function, and contribute to the planning of optimal intervention under such circumstances. (note)

  3. Rapidly resorbable vs. non-resorbable suture for experimental colonic anastomoses in rats--a randomized experimental study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klein, Mads; Pommergaard, Hans-Christian; Gögenur, Ismail;

    2011-01-01

    Anastomotic dehiscence remains an important challenge for colorectal surgeons worldwide. Extensive research focused on performing a safe anastomosis is conducted with rats being the most used model when examining colorectal anastomoses. In daily clinical practice resorbable sutures are used when ...

  4. Anastomose arterial com fio de polidioxanona e fio de polipropileno. Estudo comparativo em cães Arterial anastomose with polydioxanone and polypropilene suture. Comparative study in dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eloísa de Brida Tormena

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo teve por objetivo comparar os efeitos do fio absorvível de polidioxanona com o fio inabsorvível de polipropileno, em anastomoses término-terminais, em artérias femorais de cães. Foram utilizados 20 cães, separados em dois grupos, para observação no 7º e no 30º dia de pós-operatório. Cada cão teve suas artérias femorais seccionadas e aproximadas em um lado com pontos separados de fio de polidioxanona 6-0, e no lado contralateral com o fio de polipropileno 6-0. A escolha do fio foi feita por sorteio, totalizando 40 anastomoses. Para análise estatística dos resultados aplicaram-se os testes de Fisher, Mac Nemar, Wilcoxon, Mann-Witney e o teste T de Student (a ≤ 0,05. Nas avaliações clínicas não foram observadas diferenças significantes entre os fios utilizados. Os resultados obtidos nas avaliações arteriográfica e macroscópica dos segmentos arteriais foram semelhantes, assim como na análise histológica morfológica. Na análise histológica morfométrica o fio de polipropileno apresentou número de células gigantes de corpo estranho significativamente maior que o fio de polidioxanona aos 7 e 30 dias de pós-operatório. Os resultados nos permitem concluir que, apesar da maior reação de corpo estranho observada com o fio de polipropileno, o fio de polidioxanona apresentou resultados semelhantes ao fio de polipropileno, em anastomoses arteriais em cães.The objetive of this study was to compare the effects of the absorbable polidioxanone suture to the nonabsorbable polypropylene suture, in end-to-end anastomoses, using dog’s femoral arteries. Twenty dogs were separated in two groups for observation on the 7th and 30th post-operatory day. Each dog had its femoral arteries seccioned and then aproximated one side with separate stitches of polidioxanone 6-0 suture, and the other side with polypropylene 6-0 suture. For the statistical studies Fisher, Mac nemar, Wilsoxon, Mann-Witney and T of Student tests (a

  5. A study to analyze the prevalence of martin gruber anastomoses among medical students

    OpenAIRE

    Rupanjali B, Vijayalakshmi B, Chandrasekhar M

    2013-01-01

    The most frequently occurring anomaly in the upper extremities has been the Martin Gruber Anastomoses (MGA) which occurs due to the crossover of nerve fibers from the median nerve to ulnar nerve. This study was performed to investigate the prevalence of MGA in 100 healthy medical students as it acts as an etiology to carpal tunnel syndrome and other hand injuries. A nerve conduction study for median and ulnar nerve was performed by placing the surface electrodes on the Thenar, Hypothenar and ...

  6. Fibrinogen-thrombin collagen patch reinforcement of high-risk colonic anastomoses in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suárez-Grau, Juan Manuel; Bernardos García, Carlos; Cepeda Franco, Carmen; Mendez García, Cristina; García Ruiz, Salud; Docobo Durantez, Fernando; Morales-Conde, Salvador; Padillo Ruiz, Javier

    2016-01-01

    AIM To evaluate the effectiveness of human fibrinogen-thrombin collagen patch (TachoSil®) in the reinforcement of high-risk colon anastomoses. METHODS A quasi-experimental study was conducted in Wistar rats (n = 56) that all underwent high-risk anastomoses (anastomosis with only two sutures) after colectomies. The rats were divided into two randomized groups: Control group (24 rats) and treatment group (24 rats). In the treatment group, high-risk anastomosis was reinforced with TachoSil® (a piece of TachoSil® was applied over this high-risk anastomosis, covering the gap). Leak incidence, overall survival, intra-abdominal adhesions, and histologic healing of anastomoses were analyzed. Survivors were divided into two subgroups and euthanized at 15 and 30 d after intervention in order to analyze the adhesions and histologic changes. RESULTS Overall survival was 71.4% and 57.14% in the TachoSil® group and control group, respectively (P = 0.29); four rats died from other causes and six rats in the treatment group and 10 in the control group experienced colonic leakage (P > 0.05). The intra-abdominal adhesion score was similar in both groups, with no differences between subgroups. We found non-significant differences in the healing process according to the histologic score used in both groups (P = 0.066). CONCLUSION In our study, the use of TachoSil® was associated with a non-statistically significant reduction in the rate of leakage in high-risk anastomoses. TachoSil® has been shown to be a safe product because it does not affect the histologic healing process or increase intra-abdominal adhesions. PMID:27721926

  7. Intraperitoneal cytostatics impair early post-operative collagen synthesis in experimental intestinal anastomosesP6.

    OpenAIRE

    Martens, M F; Hendriks, T; Wobbes, T; DE PONT J.J.

    1992-01-01

    Collagen synthesis in intestinal anastomoses has been measured in rats after in vivo administration of cytostatics. The cytostatics were administered during 5 consecutive days either intravenously or intraperitoneally. On day 3 of the course the rats received both an ileal and a colonic anastomosis. The animals were sacrificed 3 and 7 days after operation. The cytostatics regimen used was a combination of 5-fluorouracil, bleomycin and cisplatinum in a dose of 10, 2 and 0.35 mg kg-1 day-1, res...

  8. Retinal vein-to-vein anastomoses in Sturge-Weber syndrome documented by ultra-widefield fluorescein angiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quan, Ann V; Moore, Grant H; Tsui, Irena

    2015-06-01

    We report the case of a 6-year-old boy with Sturge-Weber syndrome and unilateral glaucoma in his left eye. He was born with a port wine mark involving his upper left eyelid. On ultra-widefield fluorescein angiography, he was found to have several vein-to-vein anastomoses in his left retina. To our knowledge, this is the first documentation of retinal vein-to-vein anastomoses in Sturge-Weber syndrome. PMID:25944745

  9. Single Superficial versus Dual Systems Venous Anastomoses in Radial Forearm Free Flap: A Meta-Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuang Bai

    Full Text Available The radial forearm free flap (RFFF has been widely used with increasing frequency in head and neck reconstruction following extirpative surgery. The controversy of the venous anastomoses patterns still exists. Thus, we conducted a meta-analysis to assess the relationship between the venous anastomoses patterns and venous compromise.MEDLINE, PubMed, Web of Science, and Wanfang databases were searched for studies reporting the different venous anastomoses patterns of the RFFF. A meta-analysis was conducted using the random effects models. Publication bias and sensitivity analysis were also assessed.6 studies with 992 cases were included in this meta-analysis. The dual anastomosis group tended to have a lower incidence of venous compromise (RR = 1.39. However, the difference was not statistically significant (95%CI: 0.59, 3.24.This meta-analysis indicated that performing dual venous anatomoses consisting of superficial and deep systems conferred a tendency of the reduction with regard to venous compromise.

  10. Proximal Tibial Bone Graft

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Complications Potential problems after a PTBG include infection, fracture of the proximal tibia and pain related to the procedure. Frequently Asked Questions If proximal tibial bone graft is taken from my knee, will this prevent me from being able to ...

  11. Fibrinogen and thrombin concentrations are critical for fibrin glue adherence in rat high-risk colon anastomoses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliseo Portilla-de Buen

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Fibrin glues have not been consistently successful in preventing the dehiscence of high-risk colonic anastomoses. Fibrinogen and thrombin concentrations in glues determine their ability to function as sealants, healers, and/or adhesives. The objective of the current study was to compare the effects of different concentrations of fibrinogen and thrombin on bursting pressure, leaks, dehiscence, and morphology of high-risk ischemic colonic anastomoses using fibrin glue in rats. METHODS: Colonic anastomoses in adult female Sprague-Dawley rats (weight, 250-350 g treated with fibrin glue containing different concentrations of fibrinogen and thrombin were evaluated at post-operative day 5. The interventions were low-risk (normal or high-risk (ischemic end-to-end colonic anastomoses using polypropylene sutures and topical application of fibrinogen at high (120 mg/mL or low (40 mg/mL concentrations and thrombin at high (1000 IU/mL or low (500 IU/mL concentrations. RESULTS: Ischemia alone, anastomosis alone, or both together reduced the bursting pressure. Glues containing a low fibrinogen concentration improved this parameter in all cases. High thrombin in combination with low fibrinogen also improved adherence exclusively in low-risk anastomoses. No differences were detected with respect to macroscopic parameters, histopathology, or hydroxyproline content at 5 days post-anastomosis. CONCLUSIONS: Fibrin glue with a low fibrinogen content normalizes the bursting pressure of high-risk ischemic left-colon anastomoses in rats at day 5 after surgery.

  12. Ambiguous Proximity Distribution

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Quanquan; Li, Yongping

    2014-01-01

    Proximity Distribution Kernel is an effective method for bag-of-featues based image representation. In this paper, we investigate the soft assignment of visual words to image features for proximity distribution. Visual word contribution function is proposed to model ambiguous proximity distributions. Three ambiguous proximity distributions is developed by three ambiguous contribution functions. The experiments are conducted on both classification and retrieval of medical image data sets. The ...

  13. Comparison between absorbable and nonabsorbable sutures in arterial anastomoses in growing dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gersak, B

    1991-01-01

    Five dogs, 10 weeks old, underwent operation using ketamin-HCl anesthesia and end-to-end anastomoses of the femoral and brachial arteries were made using polyfilament nonabsorbable material (Ethibond), monofilament nonabsorbable material (Prolene), polyfilament absorbable material (Vicryl) and monofilament absorbable material (PDS). The arterial diameter using a micrometer and blood flow using an electromagnetic flow meter were determined. After six months another operation was performed and diameter and blood flow were measured again. No statistically significant differences were found between the different materials used with respect to growth related increases either in arterial diameter or blood flow.

  14. Lymphoscintigraphy as an adjunctive procedure in the perioperative assessment of patients undergoing microlymphaticovenous anastomoses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sacks, G.A.; Sandler, M.P.; Born, M.L.; Clanton, J.A.; Franklin, J.D.; Partain, C.L.

    1983-07-01

    Microlymphaticovenous anastomoses provide a potential for reducing lymphedema of the upper extremity complicating radical mastectomy or irradiation. Lymphoscintigraphy with technetium isotopes is a valuable investigative modality in the perioperative evaluation of patients undergoing this surgical procedure. The radionuclide studies provide information regarding structural change and physiologic derangement with a low radiation dose to the patient. It is a simple, painless procedure requiring minimal skill and no surgical intervention. In addition, a reproducible method for preparing a radiocolloid suitable for lymphatic imaging using an approved drug as a precursor has been developed.

  15. [Evaluation of a 20 years' experience of colo-anal anastomoses. Indications, results and pitfalls].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hautefeuille, P; Saab, M; Valleur, P

    1991-01-01

    Seventy nine anastomoses were performed over a 20 year period. Indications included 68 rectal adenocarcinomas and 11 benign lesions. There was no operative mortality. Anastomotic leak was the main cause of morbidity: 12 clinical (15%) and 4 radiological leaks. The 5-year actuarial disease-free survival was 70%, 7 local recurrences (10%) were observed; 6 were Dukes C and 1 Dukes B. Functional results were assessed in 61 patients. They were considered to be excellent in 35 (57%), good in 24 (39%) and bad in 2 (4%). Six failures were noted: 3 technical, 1 oncologic and 2 functional. Pitfalls of coloanal anastomosis are discussed. PMID:2064292

  16. Proximal Probes Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Proximal Probes Facility consists of laboratories for microscopy, spectroscopy, and probing of nanostructured materials and their functional properties. At the...

  17. NOTE: Thrombosis of anastomoses may affect the staging sequence of twin twin transfusion syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Wijngaard, Jeroen P. H. M.; Ross, Michael G.; van Gemert, Martin J. C.

    2008-03-01

    Twin-twin transfusion syndrome (TTTS) is a severe complication of monozygotic (identical) twins, which share one single monochorionic placenta. It is caused by placental anastomoses which link the two fetoplacental circulations of the twins and allow a chronic net inter-twin transfusion to develop between the fetuses. Clinical presentation of TTTS manifestations has been classified into five different stages. In this paper, we used our computational model of TTTS and examined the possible differences between chronic and rapidly increasing inter-twin transfusion in the simulated TTTS staging sequence. Our results suggest that rapid alterations in the net inter-twin transfusion, e.g. due to thrombosis of placental anastomoses, may produce a different staging sequence than in TTTS caused by chronic inter-twin transfusion. These results may aid an improved knowledge of TTTS pathophysiology under conditions of a rapidly changing cardiovascular function, and contribute to the planning of optimal intervention under such circumstances. Supported in part by the European Community Euro-twin-2-twin project (JPHMvdW) and by the National Institutes of Health, grant HL40899 (MGR).

  18. Superficial temporal artery to proximal posterior cerebral artery bypass through the anterior temporal approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoru Takeuchi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The superficial temporal artery (STA to proximal posterior cerebral artery (PCA (P2 segment bypass is one of the most difficult procedures to perform because the proximal PCA is located deep and high within the ambient cistern. STA to proximal PCA bypass is usually performed through a subtemporal approach or posterior transpetrosal approach, and rarely through a transsylvian approach. The aim of this study was to describe the operative technique of STA to proximal PCA bypass through a modified transsylvian approach (anterior temporal approach. Methods: STA to proximal PCA bypass was performed through an anterior temporal approach in three patients with intracranial aneurysm. We describe the details of the surgical technique. Results: The STA was successfully anastomosed to the proximal PCA in all cases. One patient suffered hemiparesis and aphasia due to infarction in the anterior thalamoperforating artery territory. Conclusions: STA to proximal PCA bypass can be performed through an anterior temporal approach in selected patients. We recommend that every precaution, including complete hemostasis, placement of cellulose sponges beneath the recipient artery to elevate the site of the anastomosis, and placement of a continuous drainage tube at the bottom of the operative field to avoid blood contamination during the anastomosis, should be taken to shorten the temporary occlusion time.

  19. Proximal humerus fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Matthew C; Horn, Pamela L; Latshaw, James C

    2013-01-01

    Proximal humerus fractures are among the most common fractures associated with osteoporosis. With an aging population, incidence of these fractures will only increase. The proximal humerus not only forms the lateral portion of the shoulder articulation but also has significant associations with musculoskeletal and neurovascular structures. As a result, fractures of the proximal humerus can significantly impact not only the function of the shoulder joint, but the health and function of the entire upper extremity as well. Understanding of these fractures, the management options, and associated nursing care, can help reduce morbidity rate and improve functional outcomes.

  20. Effects of circular myotomy on the healing of esophageal suture anastomosis: an experimental study Efeitos da miotomia circular na cicatrização das anastomoses esofágicas: estudo experimental

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uenis Tannuri

    1999-02-01

    Full Text Available For esophageal reconstruction in newborns with esophageal atresia, esophageal reunion with an end-to-end anastomosis is the ideal procedure, although it may result in leaks and strictures due to tension on the suture line, mainly in cases with a wide gap between the ends. Circular myotomy (Livaditis' procedure is the best method to elongate the proximal esophageal pouch and reduce anastomotic tension. This experimental investigation in dogs was undertaken to attempt to verify that circular myotomy decreases the anastomotic leak rate in newborns with wide gap esophageal atresia, and to analyze whether the technique promotes morphologic changes in the anastomotic scar. A pilot study demonstrated that it is necessary to resect more than 8 cm (40% of the total esophageal length in order to obtain high leak rates. In the experimental project, such resection was performed in dogs divided into two groups (control group, anastomosis only, and experimental group, anastomosis plus circular myotomy in the proximal esophageal segment. The animals were killed in the 14th postoperative day, submitted to autopsy, and were evaluated as to the presence of leaks and strictures, as well as to the features (macroscopic and microscopic aspects of the anastomosis. Leak rates were the same in both groups. Morphometric analysis revealed that in animals in the experimental group, the anastomotic scar was thinner than the control animals, and the isolated muscular manchette distal to the site of myotomy was replaced by fibrous tissue. Correspondingly, a decreased number of newly formed small vessels were noted in the experimental animals, compared to control animals. We concluded that circular myotomy does not decrease the incidence of anastomotic leaks, and it also promotes deleterious changes in anastomotic healing.A anastomose término-terminal entre os segmentos esofágicos, embora constitua a melhor solução para a atresia do esôfago do recém-nascido, pode

  1. Efeito do ultrasom terapêutico nas anastomoses colônicas. Estudo experimental em ratos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greca Fernando Hintz

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se conhecer a influência do ultra-som na cicatrização colônica em ratos e avaliar os fios de aço e náilon na vigência desta terapia. Utilizou-se 64 ratos machos Wistar divididos em protocolos. Protocolo 1 com 32 ratos submetidos a anastomose colônica com fio de náilon divididos em 2 grupos C (controle, e T (terapêutico. O grupo T realizou a terapia com ultra-som de alta freqüência, na região dorsal. O subgrupo sacrificado no 3o dia, recebeu ultra-som no 1o e 2o dias pós-operatório. E o no 7o, terapia no 4o, 5o e 6o P.O. No Protocolo 2 anastomoses com aço, subdivididos da mesma forma. E no Protocolo 3 comparou-se os grupos T do náilon e aço. Avaliou-se pressão de ruptura à insuflação (PRI e estudo histológico. Resultados: Protocolo 1 no 3o dia a PRI foi maior no grupo T (p=0,001 e no 7o dia não houve diferença (p=0,0950. No Protocolo 2 no 3o dia não houve diferença na PRI (p=0,3060 e no 7o dia a PRI foi maior no C (p=0,0010. No Protocolo 3 no 3o dia a PRI foi maior no NáilonT (p=0,0010 e no 7o dia não houve diferença (p=0,3100. Concluiu-se que o ultra-som não influencia a cicatrização de anastomoses feitas com náilon e não compromete a viabilidade das feitas com aço.

  2. Coal - proximate analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-06-14

    This Standard establishes a practice for the proximate analysis of coal, that is, the coal is analysed for the content of moisture, ash and volatile matter; fixed carbon is calculated. The standard provides a basis for the comparison of coals.

  3. Proximal wrist extensor tendinopathy

    OpenAIRE

    Ihm, Joseph

    2007-01-01

    Proximal wrist extensor tendinopathy, which is also known as tennis elbow, is pain at or just distal to the lateral humeral epicondyle within the proximal wrist extensor tendon. It occurs commonly in certain athletes but can also occur in people with jobs that require repetitive movements of the hand and upper limb. In most cases the tendon involved shows no signs of inflammation or tendonitis, but instead shows fibroblasts, vascular hyperplasia, and disorganized collagen. Diagnosis is often ...

  4. Preventing Clinical Leakage of Colonic Anastomoses with A Fibrin-Coated Collagen Patch Sealing - An Experimental Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tyge Nordentoft

    2014-08-01

    Conclusion: A collagen patch coated with fibrin glue components efficiently seals leaking gastrointestinal anastomoses in pigs. Whether these results may be applied to humans in order to prevent clinical anastomotic dehiscence must be investigated in future randomized clinical studies. [Arch Clin Exp Surg 2014; 3(4.000: 201-206

  5. Anastomose cavo-pulmonar total sem uso de material protético

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PINTO Jr. Valdester C.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Demonstrar a viabilidade na feitura de túnel cava inferior-cava superior com retalho da parede atrial direita, evitando o emprego de material protético. Casuística e Métodos: Foram operados 2 pacientes nos quais se empregou a técnica de anastomose cavo-pulmonar total, sem uso de material protético. O primeiro caso, A.L.M., masc, 4 anos, 15 kg, era portador de atresia tricúspide (EP, com comunicação interventricular (CIV restritiva. O segundo caso, M.E.N.O., fem, 15 anos, 47 kg, tinha doença de Ebstein. O controle pós-operatório dos pacientes foi feito com ecocardiograma e cateterismo cardíaco. As operações foram realizadas com o emprego de circulação extracorpórea (CEC, e cardioplegia sangüínea como método de proteção miocárdica. A canulação das cavas foi o mais distal possível. A tunelização foi realizada com retalho de tecido atrial direito, suturado ao septo interatrial, deixando-se o seio coronariano e a comunicação interatrial (CIA para a esquerda. Resultados: Ambos os pacientes evoluíram, sem complicações, na UTI. O primeiro apresentou derrame pleural discreto à direita, e o segundo mantém-se em estimulação artificial (VVI,R. Conclusões: A tunelização intra-atrial para anastomose cavo-pulmonar total pode ser realizada sem o uso de material protético, evitando-se os riscos advindos do seu emprego (calcificação, retração, embolização.

  6. Neighborhoods and manageable proximity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stavros Stavrides

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The theatricality of urban encounters is above all a theatricality of distances which allow for the encounter. The absolute “strangeness” of the crowd (Simmel 1997: 74 expressed, in its purest form, in the absolute proximity of a crowded subway train, does not generally allow for any movements of approach, but only for nervous hostile reactions and submissive hypnotic gestures. Neither forced intersections in the course of pedestrians or vehicles, nor the instantaneous crossing of distances by the technology of live broadcasting and remote control give birth to places of encounter. In the forced proximity of the metropolitan crowd which haunted the city of the 19th and 20th century, as well as in the forced proximity of the tele-presence which haunts the dystopic prospect of the future “omnipolis” (Virilio 1997: 74, the necessary distance, which is the stage of an encounter between different instances of otherness, is dissipated.

  7. Steerable Capacitive Proximity Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenstrom, Del T.; Mcconnell, Robert L.

    1994-01-01

    Steerable capacitive proximity sensor of "capaciflector" type based partly on sensing units described in GSC-13377 and GSC-13475. Position of maximum sensitivity adjusted without moving sensor. Voltage of each driven shield adjusted separately to concentrate sensing electric field more toward one side or other.

  8. Proximate Analysis of Coal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donahue, Craig J.; Rais, Elizabeth A.

    2009-01-01

    This lab experiment illustrates the use of thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) to perform proximate analysis on a series of coal samples of different rank. Peat and coke are also examined. A total of four exercises are described. These are dry exercises as students interpret previously recorded scans. The weight percent moisture, volatile matter,…

  9. Proximal femoral fractures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palm, Henrik; Teixidor, Jordi

    2015-01-01

    searched the homepages of the national heath authorities and national orthopedic societies in West Europe and found 11 national or regional (in case of no national) guidelines including any type of proximal femoral fracture surgery. RESULTS: Pathway consensus is outspread (internal fixation for un...

  10. Esternotomia mediana como via preferencial na anastomose de Blalock-Taussig modificada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogério ABRAHÃO

    1997-04-01

    Full Text Available A abordagem usual para a realização da anastomose de Blalock-Taussig modificada (ABTM tem sido a toracotomia lateral. Esta via acarreta necessariamente trauma ao parênquima pulmonar e acesso difícil por ocasião da operação definitiva. A esternotomia mediana (EM apresenta-se como uma alternativa com certas vantagens. Este trabalho visa avaliar a viabilidade técnica e os resultados da realização da ABTM por EM. Dez pacientes foram submetidos a esta técnica, interpondo-se enxertos de PTFE. A mortalidade imediata foi de 30%, e a tardia de 10%. Complicação imediata ocorreu em 10%. O tempo médio de internação foi 7,0 ± 0,5 dias. A variação da saturação da hemoglobina pré e pós-operatória foi 27,5 ± 11,7% (pThe usual approach for systemic-pulmonary shunts has been right or left thoracotomy and interposition of a PTFE vascular graft between the subclavian and pulmonary arteries. This approach, necessarily causes, trauma to the lungs and some difficulty for dissection and ligation later during definitive surgical correction. Median sternotomy has been used occasionally for right subclavian-pulmonary artery anastomosis with certain advantages over thoracotomy. In this series, 10 patients were submitted to systemic-pulmonary modified Blalock-Taussig shunts by median sternotomy as the first choice. There have been no technical difficulties. The grafts were anastomosed to the right subclavian artery or brachiocephalic trunk. The right pulmonary artery was preferred, but when infeasible, this side of the shunt was made to the pulmonary trunk or left pulmonary artery. There have been 3 early and 1 late death, unrelated to the shunt. Arterial saturation improved by 27.5 ± 11.7% (p<0.001 post-operatively. This technique is viable, with advantages over lateral approach due to easier access, avoiding lung trauma, permitting surgical alternatives and canulation if needed and may facilitate dissection for later ligation.

  11. Compression anastomotic ring-locking procedure (CARP) is a safe and effective method for intestinal anastomoses following left-sided colonic resection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vilhjalmsson, Dadi; Appelros, Stefan; Toth, Ervin;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Compression anastomotic ring-locking procedure (CARP) is a novel procedure for creating colonic anastomoses. The surgical procedure allows perioperative quantification of the compression pressure between the intestinal ends within the anastomosis and postoperative monitoring of the an...

  12. Seasonal evolution of subglacial drainage pathways within a soft bedded anastomosing system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Jane; Young, David; Martinez, Kirk

    2016-04-01

    We have studied the dynamic annual subglacial behavior associated with Skálafellsjökull, Iceland, a temperate glacier resting on a deformable sediment layer, using subglacial wireless probes to measure till water pressure and tilt, surface installations to measure glacier motion, and a camera to measure river discharge. We argue that the subglacial hydrology system changes throughout the year from a fast connected system in the spring and autumn (with balanced inputs and outputs), to a duel system in summer with fast channels and slow moving storage (with greater inputs than outputs). In winter there is an episodic fast system associated with high meltwater input accompanied by changes in till water pressure and ice velocity and releases of water from a heterogeneous storage sources to produce some of the largest annual discharges. We develop models to relate the observed summer and winter discharges to daily ice surface melt. We demonstrate that there is a subglacial anastomosing system, consisting of water sheets at the ice-bed interface, bedrock cavities, braided channels with associated back-water reservoir areas, which has the ability to rapidly change channel form depending on melt-water inputs, and easily access water stored within a series of linked subglacial reservoirs.

  13. Effect of aging on the healing of colonic anastomoses in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biondo-Simões Maria de Lourdes Pessole

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To evaluate the healing of the colonic anastomoses in old and young adult rats. METHODS: Fifty six Wistar rats were allocated in two groups, the young animals aged on average 110 days and the old animals aged average 762 days. Under anesthesia, the rats underwent a midline laparotomy and the colon was sectioned 2 cm above the peritoneal deflection. An end-to-end interrupted one layer colonic anastomosis was performed and the animals sacrificed on the 3rd, 7th, 14th and 21st postoperative days. A 4 cm segment of colon containing the anastomosis was submitted to bursting pressure tests. The paraffin-embedded tissue blocs were sectioned and stained with haematoxylin and eosin and Sirius Red. Histochemical methods such as PCNA, LCA and CD34 were also used. RESULTS: The colonic anastomosis resistance was greater in the old rats group on the 3rd postoperative day (p=0,0000. Collagen concentration was higher in the anastomosis of the young animals on the 14th and 21st postoperative days (p=0,0475, p=0,0346 respectively, with a significantly greater concentration of collagen type I. The concentration of collagen type III, the epithelial lining rate and the angiogenesis were similar in the study groups. CONCLUSION: Despite some differences between the two groups regarding the healing process and considering that failures in the colonic anastomosis wound healing could not be demonstrated, we can concluded that aging itself does not interfere in the wound healing process.

  14. Edema quantification by computerized morphometry as an evaluation parameter for the resistance of colon anastomoses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priolli Denise Gonçalves

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: This work had the objective of verifying the validity of using computerized morphometry as a method of quantitative analysis of the interference of edema in scar formation following colon anastomosis. METHODS: Forty-five adult female Wistar rats were utilized, divided into three groups of 15 animals according to whether sacrifice was performed on the first, second or seventh postoperative day. Each group was subdivided into a main group consisting of 10 animals, and a control group consisting of five animals. In the main group, in addition to the quantitative computerized morphometric analysis of the edema in the submucosal layer, the resistance of the colon anastomosis to bursting strength was verified. In the control group, edema quantification was studied alone. RESULTS: The results found via the computerized morphometry method showed that there is a 7% decrease in the presence of edema during the first postoperative week. They confirmed that there is an inverse statistically significant relationship (p< 0.001 between edema presence and the resistance of the anastomosis to bursting strength. CONCLUSION: The use of computerized morphometry is a reliable, fast, objective and low-cost methodology for the quantification of edema in colon anastomoses.

  15. Proximity Networks and Epidemics

    CERN Document Server

    Toroczkai, Z

    2007-01-01

    Disease spread in most biological populations requires the proximity of agents. In populations where the individuals have spatial mobility, the contact graph is generated by the "collision dynamics" of the agents, and thus the evolution of epidemics couples directly to the spatial dynamics of the population. We first briefly review the properties and the methodology of an agent-based simulation (EPISIMS) to model disease spread in realistic urban dynamic contact networks. Using the data generated by this simulation, we introduce the notion of dynamic proximity networks which takes into account the relevant time scales for disease spread: contact duration, infectivity period and rate of contact creation. This approach promises to be a good candidate for a unified treatment of epidemic types that are driven by agent collision dynamics. In particular, using a simple model, we show that it can can account for the observed qualitative differences between the degree distributions of contact graphs of diseases with ...

  16. Proximate analysis of coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donahue, C.J.; Rais, E.A. [University of Michigan, Dearborn, MI (USA)

    2009-02-15

    This lab experiment illustrates the use of thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) to perform proximate analysis on a series of coal samples of different rank. Peat and coke are also examined. A total of four exercises are described. These are dry exercises as students interpret previously recorded scans. The weight percent moisture, volatile matter, fixed carbon, and ash content are determined for each sample and comparisons are made. Proximate analysis is performed on a coal sample from a local electric utility. From the weight percent sulfur found in the coal (determined by a separate procedure the Eschka method) and the ash content, students calculate the quantity of sulfur dioxide emissions and ash produced annually by a large coal-fired electric power plant.

  17. Proximal Focal Femoral Deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vishal Kalia, Vibhuti

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Proximal focal femoral deficiency (PFFD is a developmental disorder of the proximal segment of thefemur and of acetabulum resulting in shortening of the affected limb and impairment of the function. It isa spectrum of congenital osseous anomalies characterized by a deficiency in the structure of the proximalfemur. The diagnosis is often made by radiological evaluation which includes identification and descriptionof PFFD and evaluation of associated limb anomalies by plain radiographs. Contrast arthrography orMagnetic Resonance Imaging is indicated when radiological features are questionable and to disclose thepresence and location of the femoral head and any cartilagenous anlage. The disorder is more commonlyunilateral and is apparent at birth. However, bilateral involvement is rarely seen. Therapy of the disorder isdirected towards satisfactory ambulation and specific treatment depending on the severity of dysplasia.

  18. Application of CT angiography in the diagnosis of persistent carotid-basilar artery anastomoses%永存颈内-基底动脉吻合的CTA诊断

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵海玲; 王之平; 王君松

    2012-01-01

    artery. According to Saltzman classification about the blood supply in posterior circulation;there were Saltzman type Ⅰ (4 cases) ,type Ⅱ (3 cases) ,and type Ⅲ (1 case). Two cases of PHA originated from internal carotid artery at the level of C1/C2 respectively,curved backwards passing through the ipsilateral hypoglossal canal, anastomosed with the basilar artery, the segment of basilar artery below the anastomosis was atrophied, posterior communicated artery was absent. Two patients with PTA had basilar artery and (or) vertebral artery hypoplasia at the point proximal to the anastomosis; one case complicated with ipsilateral internal carotid artery hypoplasia and ipsilateral an terior cerebral artery Al hypoplasia;one case complicated with moyamoya disease and an aneurysm formation of collateral vessels. One patient with PHA complicated with an aneurysm at the end of basilar artery. Conclusion:Persistent carotid bas ilar artery anastomoses and their complicating cerebral artery abnormalities could be clearly displayed on 16 slice spiral CTA. On the basis of CTA manifestations of arterial structure and morphology,hemodynamic characteristics could be evalu ated, which could provide a reference for the guidance of surgery and interventional treatment.

  19. Proximate Composition Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    The proximate composition of foods includes moisture, ash, lipid, protein and carbohydrate contents. These food components may be of interest in the food industry for product development, quality control (QC) or regulatory purposes. Analyses used may be rapid methods for QC or more accurate but time-consuming official methods. Sample collection and preparation must be considered carefully to ensure analysis of a homogeneous and representative sample, and to obtain accurate results. Estimation methods of moisture content, ash value, crude lipid, total carbohydrates, starch, total free amino acids and total proteins are put together in a lucid manner.

  20. Modelling streamflow in a large anastomosing river of the arid zone, Diamantina River, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costelloe, J. F.; Grayson, R. B.; McMahon, T. A.

    2006-05-01

    Anastomosing rivers form a subset of the anabranching family of river types and provide considerable challenges to modelling of their streamflow because of complex flow patterns across greatly varying floodplain widths. Estimates of distributed flow data are required for catchment management purposes and ecological studies of these rivers but are hindered by a paucity of measured discharge data. A grid-based, semi-distributed, conceptual model structure is applied to a 330 km reach of the arid zone Diamantina River of central Australia. Model complexity is constrained by data availability with only a single gauging station located at the downstream end of the reach to provide discharge data for model calibration. The model uses a simple conceptual bucket structure and accounts for exceptionally high transmission losses as well as flow patterns and wave speeds that vary with discharge within the reach. The intricate flow patterns across the floodplains widths of up to 50 km are simulated using a grid-based structure that required the following features: (i) cell connections that are explicitly defined using a code that allows for multi-directional flow from a cell; and (ii) each cell having a binary flow pattern, with the second connection pattern being triggered when the surface storage of the cell exceeds a calibrated level for a given land-type. Satellite images were used to define the flow paths, and hence cell connection patterns, utilised by various sized floods. The model was able to provide acceptable simulation of large floods but with decreasing model performance in the simulation of small to medium sized floods. Simulation suggested that incorrectly defined flow paths for the smaller floods were a major factor in this decreased performance. The capability of the model would be improved by further detailed mapping, using satellite imagery, of spatial patterns of inundation as discharge varies.

  1. Effects of bromopride on expression of metalloproteinases and interleukins in left colonic anastomoses: an experimental study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, S.M. [Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciências Médicas, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de Brasília, Brasília, DF (Brazil); Jerônimo, M.S. [Programa de Pós-Graduação em Patologia Molecular, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de Brasília, Brasília, DF (Brazil); Silva-Pereira, I.; Bocca, A.L. [Departamento de Biologia Celular, Instituto de Biologia, Universidade de Brasília, Brasília, DF (Brazil); Sousa, J.B. [Departamento de Clínica Cirúrgica, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de Brasília, Brasília, DF (Brazil)

    2014-08-15

    Anastomotic dehiscence is the most severe complication of colorectal surgery. Metalloproteinases (MMPs) and interleukins (ILs) can be used to analyze the healing process of anastomosis. To evaluate the effects of bromopride on MMP and cytokine gene expression in left colonic anastomoses in rats with or without induced abdominal sepsis, 80 rats were divided into two groups for euthanasia on the third or seventh postoperative day (POD). They were then divided into subgroups of 20 rats for sepsis induction or not, and then into subgroups of 10 rats for administration of bromopride or saline. Left colonic anastomosis was performed and abdominal sepsis was induced by cecal ligation and puncture. A colonic segment containing the anastomosis was removed for analysis of gene expression of MMP-1α, MMP-8, MMP-13, IL-β, IL-6, IL-10, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and interferon-γ (IFN-γ). On the third POD, bromopride was associated with increased MMP-1α, MMP-13, IL-6, IFN-γ, and IL-10 gene expression. On the seventh POD, all MMP transcripts became negatively modulated and all IL transcripts became positively modulated. In the presence of sepsis, bromopride administration increased MMP-8 and IFN-γ gene expression and decreased MMP-1, TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-10 gene expression on the third POD. On the seventh POD, we observed increased expression of MMP-13 and all cytokines, except for TNF-α. In conclusion, bromopride interferes with MMP and IL gene expression during anastomotic healing. Further studies are needed to correlate these changes with the healing process.

  2. Intrapulmonary arteriovenous anastomoses in humans--response to exercise and the environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovering, Andrew T; Duke, Joseph W; Elliott, Jonathan E

    2015-02-01

    Intrapulmonary arteriovenous anastomoses (IPAVA) have been known to exist in human lungs for over 60 years. The majority of the work in this area has largely focused on characterizing the conditions in which IPAVA blood flow (Q̇IPAVA ) is either increased, e.g. during exercise, acute normobaric hypoxia, and the intravenous infusion of catecholamines, or absent/decreased, e.g. at rest and in all conditions with alveolar hyperoxia (FIO2 = 1.0). Additionally, Q̇IPAVA is present in utero and shortly after birth, but is reduced in older (>50 years) adults during exercise and with alveolar hypoxia, suggesting potential developmental origins and an effect of age. The physiological and pathophysiological roles of Q̇IPAVA are only beginning to be understood and therefore these data remain controversial. Although evidence is accumulating in support of important roles in both health and disease, including associations with pulmonary arterial pressure, and adverse neurological sequelae, there is much work that remains to be done to fully understand the physiological and pathophysiological roles of IPAVA. The development of novel approaches to studying these pathways that can overcome the limitations of the currently employed techniques will greatly help to better quantify Q̇IPAVA and identify the consequences of Q̇IPAVA on physiological and pathophysiological processes. Nevertheless, based on currently published data, our proposed working model is that Q̇IPAVA occurs due to passive recruitment under conditions of exercise and supine body posture, but can be further modified by active redistribution of pulmonary blood flow under hypoxic and hyperoxic conditions. PMID:25565568

  3. Effects of bromopride on expression of metalloproteinases and interleukins in left colonic anastomoses: an experimental study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anastomotic dehiscence is the most severe complication of colorectal surgery. Metalloproteinases (MMPs) and interleukins (ILs) can be used to analyze the healing process of anastomosis. To evaluate the effects of bromopride on MMP and cytokine gene expression in left colonic anastomoses in rats with or without induced abdominal sepsis, 80 rats were divided into two groups for euthanasia on the third or seventh postoperative day (POD). They were then divided into subgroups of 20 rats for sepsis induction or not, and then into subgroups of 10 rats for administration of bromopride or saline. Left colonic anastomosis was performed and abdominal sepsis was induced by cecal ligation and puncture. A colonic segment containing the anastomosis was removed for analysis of gene expression of MMP-1α, MMP-8, MMP-13, IL-β, IL-6, IL-10, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and interferon-γ (IFN-γ). On the third POD, bromopride was associated with increased MMP-1α, MMP-13, IL-6, IFN-γ, and IL-10 gene expression. On the seventh POD, all MMP transcripts became negatively modulated and all IL transcripts became positively modulated. In the presence of sepsis, bromopride administration increased MMP-8 and IFN-γ gene expression and decreased MMP-1, TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-10 gene expression on the third POD. On the seventh POD, we observed increased expression of MMP-13 and all cytokines, except for TNF-α. In conclusion, bromopride interferes with MMP and IL gene expression during anastomotic healing. Further studies are needed to correlate these changes with the healing process

  4. Arterio-venous anastomoses in the human skin and their role in temperature control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walløe, Lars

    2016-01-01

    Arterio-venous anastomoses (AVAs) are direct connections between small arteries and small veins. In humans they are numerous in the glabrous skin of the hands and feet. The AVAs are short vessel segments with a large inner diameter and a very thick muscular wall. They are densely innervated by adrenergic axons. When they are open, they provide a low-resistance connection between arteries and veins, shunting blood directly into the venous plexuses of the limbs. The AVAs play an important role in temperature regulation in humans in their thermoneutral zone, which for a naked resting human is about 26°C to 36°C, but lower when active and clothed. From the temperature control center in the hypothalamus, bursts of nerve impulses are sent simultaneously to all AVAs. The AVAs are all closed near the lower end and all open near the upper end of the thermoneutral zone. The small veins in the skin of the arms and legs are also contracted near the lower end of the thermoneutral zone and relax to a wider cross section as the ambient temperature rises. At the cold end of the thermoneutral range, the blood returns to the heart through the deep veins and cools the arterial blood through a countercurrent mechanism. As the ambient temperature rises, more blood is returned through the superficial venous plexuses and veins and heats the skin surface of the full length of the 4 limbs. This skin surface is responsible for a large part of the loss of heat from the body toward the upper end of the thermoneutral zone. PMID:27227081

  5. Proximal collagenous gastroenteritides:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ole Haagen; Riis, Lene Buhl; Danese, Silvio;

    2014-01-01

    a systematic review of collagenous gastritis, collagenous sprue, and a combination thereof. METHOD: The search yielded 117 studies which were suitable for inclusion in the systematic review. Excluding repeated cases, 89 case reports and 28 case series were reported, whereas no prospective studies...... of these disorders is presented. The prognosis of both collagenous gastritis and sprue seems not to be as dismal as considered previously. Data point to involvement of immune or autoimmune mechanisms potentially driven by luminal antigens initiating the fibroinflammatory condition. CONCLUSIONS: To reach......AIM: While collagenous colitis represents the most common form of the collagenous gastroenteritides, the collagenous entities affecting the proximal part of the gastrointestinal tract are much less recognized and possibly overlooked. The aim was to summarize the latest information through...

  6. Ressecção do intestino grosso e anastomose íleo-retal em suínos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliveira H.P.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A anastomose íleo-retal término-terminal, após ressecção do intestino grosso, foi realizada em 13 suínos Large White x Landrace, com média de 15kg de peso e em torno de 67 dias de idade, sob anestesia pelo halotano, em circuito semifechado. A laparotomia constou de incisão na região paramediana esquerda, no sentido da bainha prepucial, seguida de incisão na linha branca. O intestino grosso foi liberado das suas relações com o intestino delgado e do mesentério até a sua posição relativa aos ligamentos laterais da bexiga. O íleo e o reto foram seccionados tão próximo quanto possível da válvula íleocecal e a 10 e 12cm do esfíncter anal, respectivamente, e as ligaduras dos vasos mesentéricos foram feitas em massa, a intervalos de 2-3cm. O intestino grosso foi removido, procedendo-se a anastomose íleo-retal, mediante sutura seromucosa, por pontos simples separados tipo Swift, com fio de seda preto n° 0, a 2-3mm das bordas, com os nós posicionados para o lume do órgão. Em suínos jovens, a anastomose íleo-retal após ressecção do intestino grosso é tecnicamente exeqüível e permite a sobrevivência dos animais por período adequado até sua utilização em pesquisas sobre digestibilidade. O material e o tipo de sutura utilizados permitiram adequada justaposição das bordas intestinais da anastomose, compensando pequenas diferenças entre os diâmetros do íleo e do reto. A remoção do intestino grosso conduziu a adaptações morfofuncionais marcantes, e a dilatação do segmento distal do intestino delgado constituiu a alteração macroscópica mais significativa. Observou-se redução no desenvolvimento e no peso corporal dos animais adaptados à nova condição fisiológica.

  7. Some Properties of Fuzzy Soft Proximity Spaces

    OpenAIRE

    İzzettin Demir; Oya Bedre Özbakır

    2015-01-01

    We study the fuzzy soft proximity spaces in Katsaras’s sense. First, we show how a fuzzy soft topology is derived from a fuzzy soft proximity. Also, we define the notion of fuzzy soft δ-neighborhood in the fuzzy soft proximity space which offers an alternative approach to the study of fuzzy soft proximity spaces. Later, we obtain the initial fuzzy soft proximity determined by a family of fuzzy soft proximities. Finally, we investigate relationship between fuzzy soft proximities and proximiti...

  8. Arterio-venous anastomoses in mice affect perfusion measurements with dynamic contrast enhanced CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Accurate measurement of perfusion with dynamic contrast enhanced CT requires an arterial input curve (AIC) uncontaminated by venous sources. Arterio-venous anastomoses (AVAs) are sources of contamination if contrast is injected intravenously. We seek to identify AVAs in mice and associated errors in perfusion measurements. Six transgenic mice with spontaneous prostate tumor were scanned with a micro-CT scanner (GE Healthcare (GE)) using a high resolution anatomical and a lower resolution perfusion protocol. For the anatomical protocol, a CT scan was performed during injection of an iodinated contrast agent (Hypaque) into a tail vein. Images covering the thoracic, abdominal and pelvic regions at an isotropic resolution of 175 µm were reconstructed and rendered in 3D to show the arterial and venous tree (Advantage Window, GE). For the perfusion protocol, each mouse was continuously scanned for 40 s and the contrast agent (Hypaque) was injected via a tail vein 5 s into scanning. Tumor images were reconstructed every second. Tumor blood flow (BF) and volume (BV) maps were calculated with CT perfusion software (GE) using AIC measured either from abdominal aorta (AA) or tail (caudal) artery (TA). In all mice, there was an AVA from the bifurcation of the inferior vena cava to the tail artery shunting venous blood and portion of the contrast agent injected into the tail vein into the TA. Contrast arrival time at the TA preceded that at the AA by 3.3 ± 0.5 s (P < 0.05). Mean tumor BV and BF values calculated with AA versus TA were 10.0 ± 1.8 versus 4.8 ± 2.1 ml (100 g)−1 (P < 0.05) and 108.8 ± 26.5 versus 33.0 ± 8.5 ml min−1 100 g−1 (P < 0.05), respectively. AVA in the murine pelvic region can result in inaccurate and more variable measurements of pelvic organ/tissue perfusion when the tail artery is used as the AIC

  9. PROXIMITY MANAGEMENT IN CRISIS CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion Dorin BUMBENECI

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to evaluate the level of assimilation for the terms "Proximity Management" and "Proximity Manager", both in the specialized literature and in practice. The study has two parts: the theoretical research of the two terms, and an evaluation of the use of Proximity management in 32 companies in Gorj, Romania. The object of the evaluation resides in 27 companies with less than 50 employees and 5 companies with more than 50 employees.

  10. Effect of swirling flow on platelet concentration distribution in small-caliber artificial grafts and end-to-end anastomoses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Fan; Fan, Yu-Bo; Deng, Xiao-Yan

    2011-10-01

    Platelet concentration near the blood vessel wall is one of the major factors in the adhesion of platelets to the wall. In our previous studies, it was found that swirling flows could suppress platelet adhesion in small-caliber artificial grafts and end-to-end anastomoses. In order to better understand the beneficial effect of the swirling flow, we numerically analyzed the near-wall concentration distribution of platelets in a straight tube and a sudden tubular expansion tube under both swirling flow and normal flow conditions. The numerical models were created based on our previous experimental studies. The simulation results revealed that when compared with the normal flow, the swirling flow could significantly reduce the near-wall concentration of platelets in both the straight tube and the expansion tube. The present numerical study therefore indicates that the reduction in platelet adhesion under swirling flow conditions in small-caliber arterial grafts, or in end-to-end anastomoses as observed in our previous experimental study, was possibly through a mechanism of platelet transport, in which the swirling flow reduced the near-wall concentration of platelets.

  11. Comparison of standard 4-row versus 6-row 3-D linear cutter stapler in creation of gastrointestinal system anastomoses: a prospective randomized trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sozutek, Alper; Colak, Tahsin; Dag, Ahmet; Olmez, Tolga

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This prospective study was conducted to compare the clinical outcomes of a 6-row 3-D linear cutter with the standard 4-row linear cutter in patients who underwent elective gastrointestinal surgery anastomosis. METHOD: Patients who underwent elective open gastrointestinal surgery that included stapled anastomosis using a linear cutter (Proximate®, Ethicon Endo-Surgery, Cincinnati, OH) between January 2011 and May 2011 were included in the study. The patients were randomly assigned to two groups according to the linear cutter that was used in the surgery: the standard 4-row cutter (the S group) or the new 6-row cutter (the N group). The groups were compared based on the patient demographic data, the laboratory parameters, the preoperative diagnosis, the surgery performed, the operation time, intra- or postoperative complications, the time to oral tolerance and the length of the hospital stay. RESULTS: The S group included 11 male and nine female patients with a mean age of 65±12 (35-84) years, while the N group included 13 male and eight female patients with a mean age of 62±11 (46-79) years (p = 0.448, p = 0.443, respectively). Anastomotic line bleeding was observed in eight (40%) patients in the S group and in one (4.7%) patient in the N group (p = 0.006). Dehiscence of the anastomosis line was observed in two (10%) patients in the S group and none in the N group (p = 0.131). Anastomotic leakage developed in three (15%) patients in the S group and in one (4.7%) patient in the N group (p = 0.269). The mean hospital stay was 12.65±6.1 days in the S group and 9.52±2.9 days in the N group (p = 0.043). CONCLUSION: The 6-row 3-D linear cutter is a safe and easily applied instrument that can be used to create anastomoses in gastrointestinal surgery. The new stapler provides some usage benefits and is also superior to the standard linear cutter with regard to anastomotic line bleeding. PMID:23018300

  12. Progression from stenosis to occlusion in the proximal native coronary artery after coronary artery bypass grafting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Akihito; Ishii, Hideki; Oshima, Hideki; Shibata, Yohei; Tatami, Yosuke; Osugi, Naohiro; Ota, Tomoyuki; Kawamura, Yoshihiro; Suzuki, Susumu; Usui, Akihiko; Murohara, Toyoaki

    2016-07-01

    Coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) is an established treatment for multivessel coronary artery disease. However, problematic situations are occasionally encountered after CABG, such as disease progression in the native coronary artery with graft occlusion, which causes difficulty in revascularization. The purpose of this study was to evaluate changes in the native coronary artery after CABG. Between 2009 and 2012 in our institution, 351 patients underwent CABG, and 768 bypass grafts were anastomosed to non-occluded coronary arteries. Of these, 489 bypass grafts had available early postoperative angiographic results (≤6 months) suitable for assessment in this study. We defined malignant graft failure after CABG to be bypass graft occlusion and de novo complete occlusion of the target native coronary artery proximal to the graft anastomosis site. In the early angiographic results, 17 grafts were occluded (17/489; 3.5 %). Two of the grafts displayed malignant graft failure (a saphenous vein graft to the right coronary artery and a saphenous vein graft to the diagonal branch) (2 of 17 occluded grafts, and 2 of 489 studied grafts). Of the patent bypass grafts, 24 involved progression to occlusion in the proximal native coronary artery (19 saphenous vein grafts, 4 left internal thoracic artery grafts, and 1 right internal thoracic artery graft). Malignant graft failure was uncommon during short-term follow-up after CABG. At the same time, disease progression in the proximal native coronary artery from stenosis to occlusion following patent bypass grafting was relatively common, especially for vein grafts.

  13. Interintestinal Anastomoses With New Generation Of Circular - Stapling Instrument Supporting At Surgical Treatment Of Inflammatory-Ulcer Diseases Of The Colon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Navruzov

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Surgical treatment of inflammatory diseases of intestine remains actual problem, despite the progress of conservative therapy. In our research it was etablished,  applying low and ultralow ileorectal anastomosis with circular - stapling apparatus allows to reach reliability of the generated anastomoses, it is essential reduce operation time, reduce number of postoperative complications and reduce duration of patients stay in hospital.

  14. Toward improving uniformity and standardization in the reporting of pancreatic anastomoses: a new classification system by the International Study Group of Pancreatic Surgery (ISGPS)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.J. Shukla; S.G. Barreto; A. Fingerhut; C. Bassi; M.W. Büchler; C. Dervenis; D. Gouma; J.R. Izbicki; J. Neoptolemos; R. Padbury; M.G. Sarr; W. Traverso; C.J. Yeo; M.N. Wente

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: To date, there is no uniform and standardized manner of defining pancreatic anastomoses after pancreatic resection. METHODS: A systematic search was performed to determine the various factors, either related to the pancreatic remnant after pancreatic resection or to types of pancreatoent

  15. The Association of Anastomosed fluvial deposits and dinosaur tracks, eggs, and nests: Implications for the interpretation of floodplain environments and a possible survival strategy for ornithopods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nadon, G.C. (Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison (United States))

    1993-02-01

    The St. Mary River Formation (Maastrichtian) consists of anastomosed fluvial deposits containing several hundred track-bearing beds. Paleontologic and sedimentologic analyses of these beds indicate that large herbivores, ornithopods, inhabited a seasonal wetland dominated by marshes and lakes. Shallow tracks in fine-grained sediments, formed as the sediments dewatered to the point of stiffness, display the highest resolution of detail. The preservation potential of tracks in anastomosed fluvial deposits is large because of the abundance of soft substrates to record the tracks and the occurrence of annual flooding to rapidly bury the footprints. Comparison of the St. Mary River Formation to other anastomosed fluvial deposits as old as the Early Jurassic confirms that tracks are common in this type of deposit. The variation in preservation of track types and depth of penetration raises the possibility that ornithopods employed a survival strategy involving seasonal wetlands. The wetlands provided an abundant food source and at the same time the combination of a soft substrate and flooded conditions would have effectively countered the superior speed and agility of large carnivores. The relatively common occurrence of ornithopod eggshells from anastomosed fluvial deposits suggests that the abundant food supply accompanying the wet season also made the wetlands an ideal location to rear young. These data can be used to refine the interpretations of depositional environment derived from the sediments by allowing estimates to be made regarding the early post-depositional conditions of the sediments. 95 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Hirayama Disease with Proximal Involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jinil; Kim, Yuntae; Kim, Sooa; Oh, Kiyoung

    2016-10-01

    Hirayama disease is a slowly progressing benign motor neuron disease that affects the distal upper limb. A 29-year-old man visited the hospital with a 1-year history of weakened left proximal upper limb. He was diagnosed with Hirayama disease 9 years ago, while there was no further progression of the muscle weakness afterward. Atrophy and weakness was detected in proximal upper limb muscles. Magnetic resonance imaging and somatosensory evoked potentials were normal. Needle electromyography showed abnormal findings in proximal upper limb muscles. Our patient had Hirayama disease involving the proximal portion through secondary progression. Clinical manifestation and accurate electromyography may be useful for diagnosis. Rare cases with progression patterns as described here are helpful and have clinical meaning for clinicians. PMID:27550499

  17. Fractures of the proximal humerus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brorson, Stig

    2013-01-01

    clinically significant differences in observer agreement were found at different levels of clinical experience, by reducing the number of categories, or by adding high quality radiographs, CT or 3D CT scans. A consistently low agreement on the Neer classification within and between untrained orthopaedic......, classification of proximal humeral fractures remains a challenge for the conduct, reporting, and interpretation of clinical trials. The evidence for the benefits of surgery in complex fractures of the proximal humerus is weak. In three systematic reviews I studied the outcome after locking plate osteosynthesis...

  18. Proximal Rectus Femoris Avulsion Repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Chase S; Arbeloa-Gutierrez, Lucas; Chahla, Jorge; Pascual-Garrido, Cecilia

    2016-06-01

    Proximal rectus femoris tendon avulsions are rare and occur mostly in male athletes. Currently, the standard of care for complete tendinous avulsions of the direct arm of the rectus femoris is nonoperative treatment. However, surgical repair may be considered in high-level athletes who have a high demand for repetitive hip flexion performed in an explosive manner or in patients in whom nonoperative treatment has failed. The purpose of this technical note is to describe the method for surgical repair of the proximal direct arm of the rectus femoris to its origin at the anterior inferior iliac spine using suture anchors. PMID:27656376

  19. Achados fonoaudiológicos em pacientes submetidos a anastomose hipoglosso facial Phonoaudiological findings in patients submitted to hypoglossal-facial anastomosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabete C. C. F. Silva

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available A anastomose hipoglosso-facial (AHF tem sido realizada em pacientes com lesão dos segmentos mais proximais do nervo facial em que outros procedimentos cirúrgicos não foram possíveis ou não obtiveram êxito. OBJETIVO: O objetivo atual da pesquisa é verificar as alterações na mobilidade dos órgãos fonoarticulatórios, quanto à função da fala, mastigação e da deglutição, em pacientes submetidos a AHF. FORMA DE ESTUDO: Clínico prospectivo. MATERIAL E MÉTODO: Foram avaliados 8 pacientes, com paralisia facial periférica (PFP, submetidos a AHF, na UNIFESP/EPM, no período de 1998 a 2000, sendo 6 do sexo feminino e 2 do sexo masculino, idades entre 21 e 71 anos e mediana de 50 anos. Desses, 5 pós-exerése do Schwannoma do Nervo Vestibular, 1 pós-exerése de Fibrossarcoma, 1 pós-ferimento por arma de fogo e 1 pós-paralisia facial idiopática de má evolução. Na avaliação fonoaudiológica, o protocolo consta de: dados de identificação; classificação da recuperação do nervo facial; tratamentos realizados; simetria facial no repouso e no movimento voluntário; sincinesias para olho, boca, nariz e bochechas; distúrbios fonoarticulatórios e da motricidade da língua; alteração na mastigação e do paladar, e questionário referente ao parecer dos respectivos distúrbios para serem respondidos pelo paciente. RESULTADO: O grau de paralisia pós-anastomose e reabilitação variou para os olhos entre II e V e para a boca entre III e V (House & Brackemann, 1985. Concluímos que recuperação foi satisfatória e importante, mas a expectativa de melhora foi inferior ao esperado pelos pacientes. Foram observados: imprecisão articulatória, disfunção mastigatória, escape bucal de alimentos e disfagia.The hypoglossal-facial anastomosis (HFA have been related in patients with facial nerve lesion where proximal segment more other surgical produceres had been faited or had not been possible success. AIM: The objective of the

  20. Driven shielding capacitive proximity sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vranish, John M. (Inventor); McConnell, Robert L. (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    A capacitive proximity sensing element, backed by a reflector driven at the same voltage as and in phase with the sensor, is used to reflect the field lines away from a grounded robot arm towards an intruding object, thus dramatically increasing the sensor's range and sensitivity.

  1. Fractures of the proximal humerus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brorson, Stig

    2013-01-01

    Fractures of the proximal humerus have been diagnosed and managed since the earliest known surgical texts. For more than four millennia the preferred treatment was forceful traction, closed reduction, and immobilization with linen soaked in combinations of oil, honey, alum, wine, or cerate...

  2. [FORMATION OF BILIODIGESTIVE AND INTERINTESTINAL ANASTOMOSES IN ENVIRONMENT OF BILIARY PERITONITIS, USING A HIGH FREQUENCY ELECTRIC WELDING IN EXPERIMENT].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nychytaylo, M Yu; Furmanov, Yu O; Gutsulyak, A I; Savytska, I M; Lopatkina, K G; Zagriychuk, M S; Goman, A V

    2016-01-01

    In experiment on 20 rabbits a diffuse biliary peritonitis was simulated, using intraabdominal injection of a laboratory culture of E. coli suspension and a medicinal bile. In 24 h on background of peritonitis on excluded loop of a small bowel in accordance to method of Roux, using a high frequency electric welding with the help of apparatus Patonmed EKB3-300 a one-layered everting cholecystoenteroanastomosis and enteroenteroanastomosis was formated. In a 6 mo postoperatively a connection line was not revealed from outside or from inside, the signs of stenosis were absent. In environment of a diffuse biliary peritonitis a welding technologies have permitted to form a hermetic and competent biliodigestive and interintestinal anastomoses, the processes of a welding suture regeneration postoperatively have a typical course. Using a high frequency-electric welding it is possible to perform a one-staged reconstructive interventions in environment of a pronounced inflammation of tissues due to subsequent precise conjunction of mucosal sheets of connected organs, preventing the anastomotic stricture formation.

  3. [FORMATION OF BILIODIGESTIVE AND INTERINTESTINAL ANASTOMOSES IN ENVIRONMENT OF BILIARY PERITONITIS, USING A HIGH FREQUENCY ELECTRIC WELDING IN EXPERIMENT].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nychytaylo, M Yu; Furmanov, Yu O; Gutsulyak, A I; Savytska, I M; Lopatkina, K G; Zagriychuk, M S; Goman, A V

    2016-01-01

    In experiment on 20 rabbits a diffuse biliary peritonitis was simulated, using intraabdominal injection of a laboratory culture of E. coli suspension and a medicinal bile. In 24 h on background of peritonitis on excluded loop of a small bowel in accordance to method of Roux, using a high frequency electric welding with the help of apparatus Patonmed EKB3-300 a one-layered everting cholecystoenteroanastomosis and enteroenteroanastomosis was formated. In a 6 mo postoperatively a connection line was not revealed from outside or from inside, the signs of stenosis were absent. In environment of a diffuse biliary peritonitis a welding technologies have permitted to form a hermetic and competent biliodigestive and interintestinal anastomoses, the processes of a welding suture regeneration postoperatively have a typical course. Using a high frequency-electric welding it is possible to perform a one-staged reconstructive interventions in environment of a pronounced inflammation of tissues due to subsequent precise conjunction of mucosal sheets of connected organs, preventing the anastomotic stricture formation. PMID:27249933

  4. Proximate analysis for amazon biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Antonio Geraldo de Paula; Feitosa Netto, Genesio Batista; Nogueira, Manoel Fernandes Martins; Coutinho, Manoel Fernandes Martins; Coutinho, Hebert Willian Martins; Rendeiro, Goncalo [Universidade Federal do Para (UFPA), Belem, PA (Brazil). Lab. de Engenharia Mecanica (LABGAS)], e-mail: ageraldo@ufpa.br, e-mail: mfmn@ufpa.br, e-mail: rendeiro@ufpa.br

    2006-07-01

    In order to asses the potentiality of Amazon biomass to generate power, either to supply electric energy to the grid or as fuel to plants supplying power for off-grid location, data for their proximate analysis must be available. A literature review on the subject indicated a lack of information and data concerning typical Amazon rain forest species. This work aimed to characterize (proximate analysis) 80 Amazon species in order to evaluate the energy resource from woody biomass wastes in Amazon region. Higher Heating Value, Carbon, Volatile and Ash contents were measured in a dry basis. The measurements were performed obeying the following Brazilian standards, NBR 6923, NBR 8112, NBR 8633, NBR 6922. (author)

  5. Proximity fingerprint of s+- superconductivity

    OpenAIRE

    Koshelev, A. E.; Stanev, V.

    2011-01-01

    We suggest a straightforward and unambiguous test to identify possible opposite signs of superconducting order parameter in different bands proposed for iron-based superconductors (s+- state). We consider proximity effect in a weakly coupled sandwich composed of a s+- superconductor and thin layer of s-wave superconductor. In such system the s-wave order parameter is coupled differently with different s+- gaps and it typically aligns with one of these gaps. This forces the other s+- gap to be...

  6. Plating of proximal humeral fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martetschläger, Frank; Siebenlist, Sebastian; Weier, Michael; Sandmann, Gunther; Ahrens, Philipp; Braun, Karl; Elser, Florian; Stöckle, Ulrich; Freude, Thomas

    2012-11-01

    The optimal treatment for proximal humeral fractures is controversial. Few data exist concerning the influence of the surgical approach on the outcome. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical and radiological outcomes of proximal humeral fractures treated with locking plate fixation through a deltopectoral vs an anterolateral deltoid-splitting approach. Of 86 patients who met the inclusion criteria, 70 were available for follow-up examination. Thirty-three patients were treated through a deltopectoral approach and 37 through an anterolateral deltoid-splitting approach. In all cases, open reduction and internal fixation with a PHILOS locking plate (Synthes, Umkirch, Germany) was performed. Clinical follow-up included evaluation of pain, shoulder mobility, and strength. Constant score and Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand (DASH) score were assessed. A clinical neurological examination of the axillary nerve was also performed. Consolidation, reduction, and appearance of head necrosis were evaluated radiographically. After a mean follow-up of 33 months, Constant scores, DASH scores, and American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons scores showed no significant differences between the groups. Clinical neurologic examination of the axillary nerve revealed no obvious damage to the nerve in either group. Deltopectoral and anterolateral detoid-splitting approaches for plate fixation of proximal humeral fractures are safe and provide similar clinical outcomes. The results of this study suggest that the approach can be chosen according to surgeon preference.

  7. Influência da peritonite sobre a síntese de colágeno em anastomoses do cólon distal: estudo experimental em ratos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biondo-Simões Maria de Lourdes Pessole

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de verificar a relação entre a concentração de colágeno e a capacidade de suportar pressão em anastomoses de cólon quando existe peritonite, utilizaram-se 40 ratos machos, Wistar-TECPAR, com idade média de 120 dias e peso médio de 302 g, os quais foram divididos em 2 lotes de 20 animais que compuseram os grupos controle e peritonite. Sob anestesia inalatória e submetidos à laparotomia os ratos do grupo peritonite tiveram infecção induzida pelo método de Wichterman e col. e os do grupo controle laparotomia com manipulação dos segmentos intestinais envolvidos no experimento. Após 24 horas eram relaparotomizados, sofriam colotomia transversa total esquerda à 2,0 cm da reflexão peritoneal e anastomose em plano único, extra-mucoso. As aferições foram realizadas nop tereciro e sétimo dias de pós-operatório. Ressecava-se 4,0 cm do cólon esquerdo contendo a anastomose e media-se a pressão de ruptura. Realizou-se estudo histopatológico, empregando-se a coloração do Sirius-red e análise da concentração de colágeno através de método computadorizado. Verificou-se que a capacidade de suportar pressão aumentou com o tempo de evolução de forma semelhante nos dois grupos. A concentração de colágeno foi menor no grupo com peritonite no terceiro dia (p = 0,000168 e no sétimo dia (p = 0,0020. Os percentuais de colágeno I e III foram semelhantes no terceiro dia. Já no sétimo dia, no grupo peritonite predominou o colágeno tipo III ( p = 0,000079. Os resultados analisados demonstram que existe diminuição da concentração e da maturação do colágeno nas anastomoses colo-cólicas realizadas quando existe peritonite porém esta alteração não interfere na capacidade da anastomose suportar pressão.

  8. Brachiocephalic Artery Cannulation in Proximal Aortic Surgery that Requires Circulatory Arrest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unal, Mehmet; Akar, Ilker; Ince, Ilker; Aslan, Cemal; Koc, Fatih; Kafali, Haluk

    2014-01-01

    The brachiocephalic artery is an alternative cannulation site in the repair of ascending aortic lesions that require circulatory arrest. We evaluate the effectiveness and safety of this technique. Proximal aortic surgery was performed in 32 patients from 2006 through 2012 via brachiocephalic artery cannulation and circulatory arrest. Twenty-four (75%) of the patients were men. The mean age was 48.69 ± 9.43 years (range, 30–68 yr). Twelve had type I dissection, 2 had type II dissection, and 18 had true aneurysms of the ascending aorta. All operations were performed through a median sternotomy. The arterial cannula was inserted through an 8-mm vascular graft anastomosed to the brachiocephalic artery in an end-to-side fashion. In dissections, the distal anastomosis was performed without clamping the aorta. The patients were cooled to 24 °C, and circulatory arrest was established. The brachiocephalic and left carotid arteries were clamped, and antegrade cerebral perfusion was started at a rate of 10 mL/kg/min. Cardiopulmonary bypass was resumed after completion of the distal anastomosis and the initiation of rewarming. The proximal anastomosis was then performed. None of the patients sustained a major neurologic deficit, but 5 patients experienced transient postoperative agitation (<24 hr). There were 2 early deaths (6.25%), on the 3rd and the 11th postoperative days, both unrelated to the cannulation technique. Brachiocephalic artery cannulation through a graft can be a safe and effective technique in proximal aortic surgical procedures that require circulatory arrest. PMID:25593522

  9. Rapid coal proximate analysis by thermogravimetric method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mao Jianxiong; Yang Dezhong; Zhao Baozhong

    1987-09-01

    A rapid coal proximate analysis by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) can be used as an alternative method for the standard proximate analysis. This paper presents a program set up to rapidly perform coal proximate analysis by using a thermal analyzer and TGA module. A comparison between coal proximate analyses by standard method (GB) and TGA is also given. It shows that most data from TGA fall within the tolerance limit of standard method.

  10. Active Targets For Capacitive Proximity Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenstrom, Del T.; Mcconnell, Robert L.

    1994-01-01

    Lightweight, low-power active targets devised for use with improved capacitive proximity sensors described in "Capacitive Proximity Sensor Has Longer Range" (GSC-13377), and "Capacitive Proximity Sensors With Additional Driven Shields" (GSC-13475). Active targets are short-distance electrostatic beacons; they generate known alternating electro-static fields used for alignment and/or to measure distances.

  11. Biomass proximate analysis using thermogravimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Roberto; Pizarro, Consuelo; Lavín, Antonio G; Bueno, Julio L

    2013-07-01

    This work proposes a 25 min-last thermogravimetric method as a tool to determine biomass sample's proximate analysis data (moisture, ash, volatile matter and fixed carbon contents) just by direct measure of weight changes on each sample's TG chart. Compared with international standards commonly used to that aim, TG is a faster and easier to develop technique. Obtained results were satisfactory, with AEE under 6% for moisture and volatile matter, close to 10% for fixed carbon determination and AAD of 1.6 points for ash content.

  12. Técnica do aproveitamento da papila íleo-cecal naileostomia definitiva e na anastomose íleo-retal Technique of preserving the ileum-caecal papilla in the definitive ileostomy and ileum-rectal anastomose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alcino Lázaro da Silva

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: Quando se faz ileostomia com a papila, a perda líquida é bem menor e a irritação local às vezes é nula, podendo o paciente viver sem o uso da bolsa. OBJETIVO: Mostrar uma técnica operatória em que se preserva a papila na ileostomia ou na anastomose íleo-retal. Ela consta da preservação da vasculatura do ceco e íleo terminal e secção do ceco deixando-se 1 cm de orla na papila ileal que é fixada na pele por contra-abertura para ileostomia definitiva. Quando se resseca o cólon, a papila é anastomosada ao reto (íleo-papilo-retostomia. RESULTADOS: São bons, pois há diminuição do número de evacuações, da perda de líquidos nas fezes e da irritação epidérmica. CONCLUSÃO: O procedimento é exequível e traz resultados que melhoram a qualidade de vida do paciente.INTRODUCTION: When ileostomy is done with the ileum-caecal papilla, the liquid is decreased and happens much less local irritation and its possible that the patient can live without the use of the bag. OBJECTIVE: To show a surgical technique that preserves the papilla in ileostomy or ileo-rectal cancer. METHOD: It is done with the preservation of the vasculature of the cecum and terminal ileum; cecum section is made leaving 1 cm border, coronal, on the ileal papilla, which is fixed on the skin for a counter-opening for permanent ileostomy. When a colectomy is needed, the anastomosis can be made with the rectal stump (papilla-ileum-retostomy. RESULTS: They are good because there is a decrease in the number of bowel movements, loss of fluid in the stool and less epidermal irritation. CONCLUSION: The procedure is feasible and brings results that improve the quality of life of patients.

  13. Hemorrhagic shock influence on colonic anastomoses in rats: evaluation of rupture by liquid distension resistance test Influência do choque hemorrágico na anastomose de cólon em ratos: avaliação com teste de resistência à pressão de ruptura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yara Ematne Amaral Pereira

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To evaluate the effect of hemorrhagic shock in colonic anastomoses in rats, with a rupture by liquid distension resistance test. METHODS: Wistar lineage rats, averaging 90 days old and weighing from 310 to 380 grams were divided into two groups. In the first group (G1, 10 animals were submitted to colonic anastomoses in normovolemic terms and the second group (G2, of 10 animals, was submitted to colonic anastomoses in hypovolemic conditions. The shock was caused by half milliliter of blood withdrawn, every two minutes, until the value of average 50mmHg arterial pressure or a total volume corresponding 30% withdrawal of volemia was reached. Serum lactate dosages were carried out at the beginning and end of the procedure. The average serum lactate values at the end of the surgery were 1.91 mmol/l in G1 group and 3.69 mmol/l in G2 group (p0.05. CONCLUSION: Hemorrhagic shock, under the established conditions of this study, had no influence on colonic anastomoses in rats evaluated with the rupture by liquid distention resistance test.OBJETIVO: Avaliar o efeito do choque hemorrágico em anastomoses de cólon em ratos, com teste de ruptura à distensão por líquido. MÉTODOS: Foram utilizados ratos da linhagem Wistar, com idade aproximada de 90 dias e peso variando de 310 gramas a 380 gramas. Os animais foram divididos em dois grupos, sendo o grupo G1, composto por 10 animais submetidos à anastomose de cólon em condições de normovolemia e o grupo G2, composto por 10 animais submetidos à anastomose de cólon em condições de hipovolemia. O choque foi instalado através da retirada de meio mililitro de sangue a cada dois minutos, até que se atingissem valores de pressão arterial média (PAM de 50mmHg ou volume total de retirada correspondente a 30% da volemia. Foram realizadas dosagens séricas de lactato (mmol/l no início do procedimento e ao término do mesmo. Os valores séricos médios de lactato ao término da cirurgia foram de 1

  14. Characterization of 5-HT receptors mediating constriction of porcine carotid arteriovenous anastomoses; involvement of 5-HT1B/1D and novel receptors

    OpenAIRE

    De Vries, Peter; Villalón, Carlos M; Heiligers, Jan P C; Saxena, Pramod R

    1998-01-01

    It was previously shown that porcine cranial arteriovenous anastomoses (AVAs) constrict to 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT), ergotamine, dihydroergotamine, as well as sumatriptan and that sumatriptan acts exclusively via 5-HT1B/1D receptors. The present study was devoted to establish the contribution of 5-HT1B/1D receptors in the constriction of AVAs elicited by 5-HT (in presence of 0.5 mg kg−1 ketanserin), ergotamine and dihydroergotamine in anaesthetized pigs.Intracarotid infusion of 5-HT (2 μg k...

  15. Proximate analysis by automated thermogravimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elder, J.P.

    1983-05-01

    A study has been made of the use of the Perkin-Elmer thermogravimetric instrument TGS-2, under the control of the System 4 microprocessor for the automatic proximate analysis of solid fossil fuels and related matter. The programs developed are simple to operate, and do not require detailed temperature calibration of the instrumental system. They have been tested with coals of varying rank, biomass samples and Devonian oil shales all of which were of special importance to the State of Kentucky. Precise, accurate data conforming to ASTM specifications were obtained. The simplicity of the technique suggests that it may complement the classical ASTM method and could be used when this latter procedure cannot be employed. However, its adoption as a standardized method must await the development of statistical data resulting from interlaboratory testing on a variety of fossil fuels. (9 refs.)

  16. Proximity effect correction sensitivity analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zepka, Alex; Zimmermann, Rainer; Hoppe, Wolfgang; Schulz, Martin

    2010-05-01

    Determining the quality of a proximity effect correction (PEC) is often done via 1-dimensional measurements such as: CD deviations from target, corner rounding, or line-end shortening. An alternative approach would compare the entire perimeter of the exposed shape and its original design. Unfortunately, this is not a viable solution as there is a practical limit to the number of metrology measurements that can be done in a reasonable amount of time. In this paper we make use of simulated results and introduce a method which may be considered complementary to the standard way of PEC qualification. It compares simulated contours with the target layout via a Boolean XOR operation with the area of the XOR differences providing a direct measure of how close a corrected layout approximates the target.

  17. The infrastructure of psychological proximity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nickelsen, Niels Christian Mossfeldt

    Main arguments: Telemedicine offers unique opportunities to improve the accessibility of health services. It is defined as diagnosis, treatment and monitoring among doctors, nurses and patients separated by spaces, but mediated through information and communication technologies (Mort & May, 2003......). The experience of psychological proximity between patient and nurse is provided through confidence, continuity and the practical set-up. This constitutes an important enactment of skillfulness, which may render telemedicine a convincing health service in the future. Methodology: The study draws on a pilot...... project in 2014 at four hospitals in Copenhagen in relation to 120 patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary syndrome. The material embraces 1) 13 transcribed interviews with nurses and medical doctors 2) two plenary sessions with nurses across hospitals, where photos and diaries were discussed 3...

  18. Cardiac involvement in proximal myotonic myopathy

    OpenAIRE

    von zur Muhlen, F; Klass, C; Kreuzer, H.; Mall, G; Giese, A.; Reimers, C

    1998-01-01

    Proximal myotonic myopathy (PROMM) is a recently described autosomal dominantly inherited disorder resulting in proximal muscle weakness, myotonia, and cataracts. A few patients with cardiac involvement (sinus bradycardia, supraventricular bigeminy, conduction abnormalities) have been reported. The cases of three relatives with PROMM (weakness of neck flexors and proximal extremity muscles, calf hypertrophy, myotonia, cataracts) are reported: a 54 year old man, his 73 year old mother, and 66 ...

  19. Proximal Priority Laser Therapy: PPLT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohshiro, Toshio

    2004-09-01

    The author has, in the past, classified treatment methods for pain geometrically as point, line, two-dimensional, three-dimensional treatment and has used these over the years. However as a practitioner of western medicine, the author originally treated pain only directed at the painful site, and encountered cases where local treatment did not suffice. The author proved with SPECT and the Rand Phantom that treating the neck which is the midpoint of the brain, the center of the nervous system and the heart, the center of circulation, increased cerebral blood flow and also that laser emitted to neck will reach the spinal chord no matter from where on the neck the laser is emitted. From such research and 25 years of clinical experience, the author has created an anatomy based, systemic treatment method called the Proximal Priority Laser Therapy (PPLT) where not only the cerebral cortex, spinal chord and peripheral nerves are treated but also the tracts of blood vessels and lymph ducts are treated as well. Treatment method and cases are presented herein.

  20. Grouping by proximity in haptic contour detection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krista E Overvliet

    Full Text Available We investigated the applicability of the Gestalt principle of perceptual grouping by proximity in the haptic modality. To do so, we investigated the influence of element proximity on haptic contour detection. In the course of four sessions ten participants performed a haptic contour detection task in which they freely explored a haptic random dot display that contained a contour in 50% of the trials. A contour was defined by a higher density of elements (raised dots, relative to the background surface. Proximity of the contour elements as well as the average proximity of background elements was systematically varied. We hypothesized that if proximity of contour elements influences haptic contour detection, detection will be more likely when contour elements are in closer proximity. This should be irrespective of the ratio with the proximity of the background elements. Results showed indeed that the closer the contour elements were, the higher the detection rates. Moreover, this was the case independent of the contour/background ratio. We conclude that the Gestalt law of proximity applies to haptic contour detection.

  1. DOES PROXIMITY TO A GOLF COURSE MATTER?

    OpenAIRE

    Owusu-Edusei, Kwame; Espey, Molly

    2003-01-01

    In this study, we augment an earlier study by estimating the effect of golf courses on housing values using a data set of single-family homes sold between 1994 and 2000. We find that there is generally a positive impact on houses proximate to open space (golf courses and neighborhood parks). The value of proximity to a golf course is found to be greater than figures reported in previous studies. Proximity impacts extend beyond abutting properties and go as far as to those within almost a quar...

  2. Design and ground verification of proximity operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobias, A.; Ankersen, F.; Fehse, W.; Pauvert, C.; Pairot, J.

    This paper describes the approach to guidance, navigation, and control (GNC) design and verification for proximity operations. The most critical part of the rendezvous mission is the proximity operations phase when the distance between chaser and target is below approximately 20 m. Safety is the overriding consideration in the design of the GNC system. Requirements on the GNC system also stem from the allocation of performance between proximity operations and the mating process, docking, or capture for berthing. Whereas the design process follows a top down approach, the verification process goes bottom up in a stepwise way according to the development stage.

  3. Deflazacort e cicatrização de anastomoses colônicas. Estudo experimental em ratos Deflazacort and colonic anastomotic healing. An experimental study in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.E. de Aguilar-Nascimento

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: O deflazacort é um novo corticóide com os mesmos efeitos antiinflamatórios dos demais, porém com menos efeitos colaterais. O objetivo deste estudo foi investigar os efeitos do deflazacort na cicatrização de anastomoses colônicas. MATERIAL E MÉTODO: 75 ratos Wistar foram randomizados em três grupos para receberem os seguintes tratamentos por gavagem: grupo controle (N=24= solução fisiológica; grupo deflazacort (N=25= 0,1 mg/Kg/dia dessa droga e, grupo dexametasona (N=26= 0,5 mg/Kg/dia substância. Após seis dias de tratamento, os animais foram submetidos à secção colônica, seguida de anastomose primária em um ponto situado a 2 cm acima da reflexão peritoneal. O tratamento com as soluções foi mantido até o sacrifício, que ocorreu no 3º ou no 6º dia de PO. Observou-se na necrópsia sinais de peritonite e deiscência de sutura. Realizou-se o teste de pressão de ruptura das anastomoses e dosou-se nessa região a concentração de hidroxiprolina e proteinas. RESULTADOS: Não houve diferença em relação à ocorrência de deiscência e peritonite. A pressão de ruptura foi semelhante no 3º dia. No 6º dia, ela foi maior (p BACKGROUND: Deflazacort, a new corticosteroid is claimed to induce less collateral effects than other corticoids. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of this drug on the healing of colonic anastomosis. MATERIAL AND METHOD: 75 Wistar rats were randomized to receive daily by gavage, one of the following treatments: control group (N=24 - 1 ml of saline; deflazacort (N=25 - 1 ml of this drug containing 0.15mg/ml (0,1 mg/kg/day, and dexamethasone (N=26 - 1 ml containing 0.03 mg/ml of this drug (0.5 mg/kg/day. After 6 days of treatment, the animals underwent laparotomy followed by section and immediate colonic anastomoses in a point 2 cm above peritoneal reflexion. Treatment in each group was carried out until the animals were killed on the third of a six postoperative day. At

  4. Ulceração de anastomose esôfago-entérica causada por alendronato Esophagus-enteric anastomosis ulceration caused by alendronate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro DUQUES

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available Introdução — O alendronato de sódio, um aminobifosfonado indicado para o tratamento da osteoporose em mulheres pós-menopausadas, tem sido associado em vários relatos à esofagite. Estenose esofágica e sintomas gastrointestinais como dispepsia, náuseas, vômitos e dor abdominal também podem estar presentes. Objetivo — Relato do caso de paciente submetida a gastrectomia total com anastomose em Y de Roux devido a carcinóide gástrico que desenvolveu ulceração em anastomose esôfago-entérica após tratamento com esta droga. Material e Método — Paciente de 63 anos de idade, sexo feminino, iniciou terapia com alendronato na dose diária de 10 mg pela manhã, vindo a apresentar sintomas disfágicos e dor abdominal um mês após. Submetida a exame endoscópico, demonstrou-se ulceração no esôfago, na mucosa da anastomose esôfago-entérica e estenose esofágica. O tratamento medicamentoso foi descontinuado, tendo o sintoma de dor abdominal desaparecido e a disfagia diminuído de intensidade. Resultados — Houve remissão das lesões ulceradas, entretanto a estenose esofágica permaneceu. A paciente subseqüentemente foi tratada por dilatação endoscópica, evoluindo com melhora clínica e estando atualmente livre de sintomas. Conclusão — O alendronato de sódio tanto pode causar lesões na porção inferior do esôfago, como em segmentos mais distais do tubo digestivo nos pacientes cujo trânsito gastrointestinal é acelerado. Especial atenção deve ser dada aos pacientes gastrectomizados que fazem uso desta droga, pela possibilidade do desenvolvimento de lesões na mucosa entérica anastomosada e do surgimento de complicações temíveis como a estenose.Background — Alendronate sodium is an aminobisphosphonate indicated for the treatment of osteoporosis in post-menopausal women and has been associated with esophagitis in many reports. Esophageal stenosis, gastrointestinal symptoms as dyspepsia, nausea, vomiting and abdominal pain

  5. Effect of thalidomide on the healing of colonic anastomosis, in rats Efeito da talidomida na cicatrização de anastomoses colônicas em ratos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Gama Veneziano

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Thalidomide, because of its anti-inflammatory properties, as re-emerged as an option for the treatment of Crohn's disease refractory to standard therapy. We studied the effect of thalidomide on the healing of colonic anastomosis. METHODS: Sixty male rats (Rattus norvegicus, were divided into 3 groups of 20 animals each, respectively receiving 0.5 or 1.0 mg/kg thalidomide by the oral route for 7 days, or saline solution (control. All animals were submitted to continuous end-to-end anastomosis with 6-0 Prolene sutures. After sacrifice the anastomoses were analyzed macroscopically and submitted to determination of hydroxyproline, to histology and to immunohistochemistry for metalloproteinase 1, metalloproteinase 1 inhibitor and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF. RESULTS: Statistical analysis of the data showed no significant difference in macroscopic aspect or hydroxyproline determination (p= 0.5403. In the immunohistochemical analysis, the following p values were obtained: p = 0.5817 for VEGF, p = 0.1854 for metalloproteinase 1, and p = 0.0023 for metalloproteinase 1 inhibitor, with this last value being considered statistically significant. CONCLUSION: We conclude that thalidomide influenced collagen maturation. There was a stronger action of metalloproteinases, possibly indicating a negative tendency for the healing process.OBJETIVO: Sabe-se que agentes farmacológicos podem influenciar no processo de cicatrização. A talidomida, devido às suas propriedades antiinflamatórias, tem ressurgido como uma opção no tratamento da doença de Cröhn refratária à terapêutica convencional. Neste trabalho, estudamos o efeito da talidomida na cicatrização de anastomoses colônicas no rato. MÉTODOS: Foram utilizados 60 animais Rattus norvegius, com peso médio de 300g. Organizou-se 3 grupos de 20 animais, sendo um grupo controle (AC, um grupo (BD, com administração de talidomida 0,5 mg/kg por 7 dias e um grupo (AD com administra

  6. The Life Saving Effects of Hospital Proximity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertoli, Paola; Grembi, Veronica

    We assess the lifesaving effect of hospital proximity using data on fatality rates of road-traffic accidents. While most of the literature on this topic is based on changes in distance to the nearest hospital triggered by hospital closures and use OLS estimates, our identification comes from...... the exogenous variation in the proximity to cities that are allowed by law to have a hospital based on their population size. Our instrumental variable results, based on Italian municipalities data from 2000 to 2012, show that an increase by a standard deviation of distance to the nearest hospital (5 km......) increases the fatality rate by 13.84% on the sample average. This is equal to a 0.92 additional death per every 100 accidents. We show that OLS estimates provide a downward biased measure of the real effect of hospital proximity because they do not fully solve spatial sorting problems. Proximity matters...

  7. Proximity and Collaboration in European Nanotechnology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cunningham, S.W.; Werker, C.

    2011-01-01

    Collaborations are particularly important for the development and deployment of technology. We analyze the influence of organizational, technological and geographical proximity on European nanotechnology collaborations with the help of a publication dataset and additional geographical information. W

  8. Promoting proximal formative assessment with relational discourse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherr, Rachel E.; Close, Hunter G.; McKagan, Sarah B.

    2012-02-01

    The practice of proximal formative assessment - the continual, responsive attention to students' developing understanding as it is expressed in real time - depends on students' sharing their ideas with instructors and on teachers' attending to them. Rogerian psychology presents an account of the conditions under which proximal formative assessment may be promoted or inhibited: (1) Normal classroom conditions, characterized by evaluation and attention to learning targets, may present threats to students' sense of their own competence and value, causing them to conceal their ideas and reducing the potential for proximal formative assessment. (2) In contrast, discourse patterns characterized by positive anticipation and attention to learner ideas increase the potential for proximal formative assessment and promote self-directed learning. We present an analysis methodology based on these principles and demonstrate its utility for understanding episodes of university physics instruction.

  9. [Proximity, intimacy and promiscuity in care].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flicourt, Nadia

    2015-04-01

    Lying at the heart of the intimacy of the other person, the nature of care supposes that the caregiver identifies the components resulting from the proximity and the invasion of the patient's personal space, where perceptions and representations give rise to reactive emotions and behaviour. Between modesty and nudity, proximity and promiscuity, caregivers have to adjust their approach of proper care, limiting the risks of intrusion. PMID:26043630

  10. Transverse Stress Fracture of the Proximal Patella

    OpenAIRE

    ATSUMI, SATORU; Arai, Yuji; Kato, Ko; Nishimura, Akinobu; Nakazora, Shigeto; Nakagawa, Shuji; Ikoma, Kazuya; Fujiwara, Hiroyoshi; Sudo, Akihiro; Kubo, Toshikazu

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Among stress fractures associated with sports activities, patellar stress fracture is rare. Regarding patella stress fractures, so far only distal transverse or lateral longitudinal fractures have been reported, but there are no reports of transverse fractures occurring in the proximal patella. We describe an extremely rare case of transverse stress fracture of proximal patella in a 9-year-old athlete. A 9-year old boy, who participated in sports (sprints and Kendo) presented with le...

  11. Painful Spastic Hip Dislocation: Proximal Femoral Resection

    OpenAIRE

    Albiñana, Javier; Gonzalez-Moran, Gaspar

    2002-01-01

    The dislocated hip in a non-ambulatory child with spastic paresis tends to be a painful interference to sleep, sitting upright, and perineal care. Proximal femoral resection-interposition arthroplasty is one method of treatment for this condition. We reviewed eight hips, two bilateral cases, with a mean follow-up of 30 months. Clinical improvement was observed in all except one case, with respect to pain relief and sitting tolerance. Some proximal migration was observed in three cases, despit...

  12. Geography of Scientific Knowledge: A Proximity Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Frenken, K Koen

    2010-01-01

    The geography of scientific knowledge is defined as the replication process of locally produced knowledge claims. Proximity in social, cognitive, and physical dimensions promotes the sharing of tacit knowledge. Thus, given the complementarity between tacit and codified knowledge, proximity supports the replication of codified knowledge claims. Distinguishing between controversial and uncontroversial contexts, one can understand the sociology of science as explaining the behaviour of scientist...

  13. An evaluation of proximal surface cleansing agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolffe, G N

    1976-08-01

    The effectiveness of the Interspace brush, Inter-Dens, and waxed dental floss as proximal surface cleansing agents was compared in 35 subjects. Each subject used all three methods of cleansing in random order of selection. Statistical analysis of the results showed that there was no difference in the effectiveness of any one of these three agents. However, proximal surfaces of anterior teeth where cleaned more effectively than posterior teeth. The coronal half of the proximal surfaces was cleaned more effectively than the apical half and the facial half more effectively than the lingual half when Inter-Dens was used. Comparison of cleansing effectiveness between facial and lingual halves of proximal surfaces for the Interspace brush and waxed dental floss showed no significant difference. Mesial and distal proximal surfaces were cleaned with similar effectiveness. Plaque control was only satisfactory on approximately half of the proximal surfaces, though a wide variation occurred. Significantly lower plaque scores were found 1 week after the initial instruction session, irrespective of the agent used. The majority of subjects preferred Inter-Dens whilst waxed dental floss was the least-liked method of cleansing. PMID:1067276

  14. Locking plates in proximal humerus fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strohm, P C; Helwig, P; Konrad, G; Südkamp, N P

    2007-12-01

    It is well known that proximal humerus fractures are among the three most frequent fracture types. Epidemiological invetsigations show that in people elder than 60 years the fracture of the proximal humerus is more frequent than fractures of the hip region (17). Over the last decades several techniques have been applied for treatment of proximal humerus fractures. Widely accepted is the initiation of a conservative treatment regimen for undisplaced fractures, however, the standard treatment for displaced fractures, especially three and four part fractures, is still the center of scientific debate. Many different implants have been tested and investigated, thus demonstrating lack of sufficient results. Over the last years the development of angle stable, locking implants started and clinical studies demonstrated encouraging results. In our clinic the locking proximal humerus plate and the PHILOS plate advanced to the implant of choice for treatment of displaced proximal humerus fractures. There are still cases of implant failure and humerus head necrosis, but most of these complications were caused by the fracture type and not an implant specific problem. However the overall results with these new implants are encouraging. Key words: locking plates, proximal humerus fracture, humerus, humerus fracture, PHILOS, PHP.

  15. Proximity sensor system development. CRADA final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lockheed Martin Energy Research Corporation (LMERC) and Merritt Systems, Inc. (MSI) entered into a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) for the development and demonstration of a compact, modular proximity sensing system suitable for application to a wide class of manipulator systems operated in support of environmental restoration and waste management activities. In teleoperated modes, proximity sensing provides the manipulator operator continuous information regarding the proximity of the manipulator to objects in the workspace. In teleoperated and robotic modes, proximity sensing provides added safety through the implementation of active whole arm collision avoidance capabilities. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), managed by LMERC for the United States Department of Energy (DOE), has developed an application specific integrated circuit (ASIC) design for the electronics required to support a modular whole arm proximity sensing system based on the use of capacitive sensors developed at Sandia National Laboratories. The use of ASIC technology greatly reduces the size of the electronics required to support the selected sensor types allowing deployment of many small sensor nodes over a large area of the manipulator surface to provide maximum sensor coverage. The ASIC design also provides a communication interface to support sensor commands from and sensor data transmission to a distributed processing system which allows modular implementation and operation of the sensor system. MSI is a commercial small business specializing in proximity sensing systems based upon infrared and acoustic sensors

  16. Flow structures at the proximal side-to-end anastomosis. Influence of geometry and flow division.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, P E; How, T V

    1995-05-01

    Flow structures were visualized in transparent polyurethane models of proximal side-to-end vascular anastomoses, using planar illumination of suspended tracer particles. Both the effects of geometry and flow division were determined under steady and pulsatile flow conditions, for anastomosis angles of 15, 30, and 45 degrees. The flow patterns were highly three-dimensional and were characterized by a series of vortices in the fully occluded distal artery and two helical vortices aligned with the axis of the graft. In steady flow, above a critical Reynolds number, the flow changed from a laminar regime to one displaying time-dependent behavior. In particular, significant fluctuating velocity components were observed in the distal artery and particles were shed periodically from the occluded artery into the graft. Pairs of asymmetric flow patterns were also observed in the graft, before the onset of the time-dependent flow regime. The critical Reynolds number ranged from 427 to 473 and appeared to be independent of anastomosis angle. The presence of a patent distal artery had a significant effect on the overall flow pattern and led to the formation of a large recirculation region at the toe of the anastomosis. The main structures observed in steady flow, such as vortices in the distal artery and helical flow in the graft, were also seen during the pulsatile cycle. However, the secondary flow components in the graft were more pronounced in pulsatile flow particularly during deceleration of the flow waveform. At higher mean Reynolds numbers, there was also a greater mixing between fluid in the occluded arterial section and that in the graft. PMID:7666660

  17. Locking plate fixation for proximal humerus fractures.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Burke, Neil G

    2012-02-01

    Locking plates are increasingly used to surgically treat proximal humerus fractures. Knowledge of the bone quality of the proximal humerus is important. Studies have shown the medial and dorsal aspects of the proximal humeral head to have the highest bone strength, and this should be exploited by fixation techniques, particularly in elderly patients with osteoporosis. The goals of surgery for proximal humeral fractures should involve minimal soft tissue dissection and achieve anatomic reduction of the head complex with sufficient stability to allow for early shoulder mobilization. This article reviews various treatment options, in particular locking plate fixation. Locking plate fixation is associated with a high complication rate, such as avascular necrosis (7.9%), screw cutout (11.6%), and revision surgery (13.7%). These complications are frequently due to the varus deformation of the humeral head. Strategic screw placement in the humeral head would minimize the possibility of loss of fracture reduction and potential hardware complications. Locking plate fixation is a good surgical option for the management of proximal humerus fractures. Complications can be avoided by using better bone stock and by careful screw placement in the humeral head.

  18. Industrial Computed Tomography using Proximal Algorithm

    KAUST Repository

    Zang, Guangming

    2016-04-14

    In this thesis, we present ProxiSART, a flexible proximal framework for robust 3D cone beam tomographic reconstruction based on the Simultaneous Algebraic Reconstruction Technique (SART). We derive the proximal operator for the SART algorithm and use it for minimizing the data term in a proximal algorithm. We show the flexibility of the framework by plugging in different powerful regularizers, and show its robustness in achieving better reconstruction results in the presence of noise and using fewer projections. We compare our framework to state-of-the-art methods and existing popular software tomography reconstruction packages, on both synthetic and real datasets, and show superior reconstruction quality, especially from noisy data and a small number of projections.

  19. Proximity assays for sensitive quantification of proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Greenwood

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Proximity assays are immunohistochemical tools that utilise two or more DNA-tagged aptamers or antibodies binding in close proximity to the same protein or protein complex. Amplification by PCR or isothermal methods and hybridisation of a labelled probe to its DNA target generates a signal that enables sensitive and robust detection of proteins, protein modifications or protein–protein interactions. Assays can be carried out in homogeneous or solid phase formats and in situ assays can visualise single protein molecules or complexes with high spatial accuracy. These properties highlight the potential of proximity assays in research, diagnostic, pharmacological and many other applications that require sensitive, specific and accurate assessments of protein expression.

  20. Dislocation of the proximal tibiofibular joint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milankov Miroslav

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Dislocation of the proximal tibiofibular joint is a rare injury. It occurs during a sports activity that includes rough twisting movements of the bent knee. The role of the proximal tibiofibular joint is to reduce torsional loads to the ankle, to distribute the bending moment of the outer side of tibia, and transfer the vertical load while standing. In the literature there is no larger series; only several cases of the proximal tibiofibular joint dislocation treated by different methods have been published so far. Case Report. A 23-year-old male soccer player sustained an injury after he had joined the game without previous warming-up. He fell on his right side because of a sudden change of direction while his foot was fixed to the base. He felt a severe pain and had a sensation as if something had snapped in his right knee. Pain and swelling at the head of fibula were found by physical examination, which, however, did not reveal any pain, swelling and instability of the ankle or peroneal nerve palsy. The x-ray showed anterolateral dislocation of the proximal tibiofibular joint, Ogden type II. Since manual reposition in general anesthesia failed, open reduction internal fixation was performed and proximal tibiofibular joint was transfixed with a screw. After the wound closure, the above-the-knee plaster cast was applied. The screw was extracted six weeks later, full weight bearing was allowed and he started with physical therapy. Four months after the injury he returned to sports activities. On the follow- up one year after the injury he had the full range of motion of the knee, no complains, and continued with active soccer playing. X-ray showed no signs of arthrosis of the proximal tibiofibular joint. Conclusion. The proximal tibiofibular joint dislocation may be the cause of the chronic pain of the knee so it has to be taken into account when making differential diagnosis in case of the pain at the lateral side of the knee. The

  1. Isolated Dislocation of Proximal Tibiofibular Joint

    OpenAIRE

    Oktay, Alper; Baysal, Ozgur; Ecevız, Engin; Elmalı, Nurzat

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Proximal tibiofibular joint luxation is very rare condition and usually missed in the ED. The aim of the study is if a patient is brought to ED with knee injury, we should keep in mind this pathology. Methods: A 23 year old man was admitted to emergency department with knee pain and restricted movement of the knee during the football match. Physical examination revealed mild swelling and limited ROM on his knee. We took AP and lateral X-rays immediately. We diagnosed the proximal ...

  2. The developmental spectrum of proximal radioulnar synostosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliott, Alison M. [University of Manitoba, Winnipeg Regional Health Association Program of Genetics and Metabolism, Winnipeg, MB (Canada); University of Manitoba, Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, Winnipeg, MB (Canada); University of Manitoba, Department of Biochemistry and Medical Genetics, Winnipeg, MB (Canada); University of Manitoba, WRHA Program of Genetics and Metabolism, Departments of Paediatrics and Child Health, Biochemistry and Medical Genetics, Winnipeg, MB (Canada); Kibria, Lisa [University of Manitoba, Department of School of Medical Rehabilitation, Winnipeg, MB (Canada); Reed, Martin H. [University of Manitoba, Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, Winnipeg, MB (Canada); University of Manitoba, Department of Biochemistry and Medical Genetics, Winnipeg, MB (Canada); University of Manitoba, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Winnipeg, MB (Canada)

    2010-01-15

    Proximal radioulnar synostosis is a rare upper limb malformation. The elbow is first identifiable at 35 days (after conception), at which stage the cartilaginous anlagen of the humerus, radius and ulna are continuous. Subsequently, longitudinal segmentation produces separation of the distal radius and ulna. However, temporarily, the proximal ends are united and continue to share a common perichondrium. We investigated the hypothesis that posterior congenital dislocation of the radial head and proximal radioulnar fusion are different clinical manifestations of the same primary developmental abnormality. Records were searched for ''proximal radioulnar fusion/posterior radial head dislocation'' in patients followed at the local Children's Hospital and Rehabilitation Centre for Children. Relevant radiographic, demographic and clinical data were recorded. Ethics approval was obtained through the University Research Ethics Board. In total, 28 patients met the inclusion criteria. The majority of patients (16) had bilateral involvement; eight with posterior dislocation of the radial head only; five had posterior radial head dislocation with radioulnar fusion and two had radioulnar fusion without dislocation. One patient had bilateral proximal radioulnar fusion and posterior dislocation of the left radial head. Nine patients had only left-sided involvement, and three had only right-sided involvement.The degree of proximal fusion varied, with some patients showing 'complete' proximal fusion and others showing fusion that occurred slightly distal to the radial head: 'partially separated.' Associated disorders in our cohort included Poland syndrome (two patients), Cornelia de Lange syndrome, chromosome anomalies (including tetrasomy X) and Cenani Lenz syndactyly. The suggestion of a developmental relationship between posterior dislocation of the radial head and proximal radioulnar fusion is supported by the fact that both anomalies

  3. Infiltrating/sealing proximal caries lesions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martignon, S; Ekstrand, K R; Gomez, J;

    2012-01-01

    This randomized split-mouth controlled clinical trial aimed at assessing the therapeutic effects of infiltration vs. sealing for controlling caries progression on proximal surfaces. Out of 90 adult students/patients assessed at university clinics and agreeing to participate, 39, each with 3...... differences in lesion progression between infiltration and placebo (P = 0.0012) and between sealing and placebo (P = 0.0269). The study showed that infiltration and sealing are significantly better than placebo treatment for controlling caries progression on proximal lesions. No significant difference...

  4. Anastomose entre artéria carótida externa e artéria vertebral em dois casos de trombose de artéria carótida interna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro H. Longo

    1958-12-01

    Full Text Available São apresentados dois casos com trombose de carótida interna, com anastomose entre as artérias occipital e vertebral. São tecidas considerações sôbre a possível eficácia da suplência por essa via e sôbre o estabelecimento dessa anastomose, particularmente em relação ao primeiro dos casos em que foi feito estudo angiográfico bastante extenso. Revendo a bibliografia até a presente data, os autores só encontraram o registro de três casos semelhantes, documentados angiográficamente.

  5. Influence of omentoplasty on colonic anastomosis in animals submitted to hemorrhagic shock in rats Influência da omentoplastia na anastomose cólica de animais submetidos a choque hemorrágico em ratos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Bolzam-Nascimento

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To analyze influence of omentoplasty on anastomosis in descending colon of rats. Rats were submitted to the hypovolemic shock of the hemorrhagic type by the Biomechanical Test of Pressure of Rupture by Liquid Distension (BTPRLD. In addition, establish a type of acute anemia in rats that are provided to the study. METHODS: Comparative study between two groups of animals with ten rats in each one, all submitted to hemorrhagic shock for 30% volemic removal by the carotid artery. An anastomosis was performed in left colon. An anastomosis was performed in the left colon. Group 1 took place anastomosis with Polyvinyl Chloride (P.V.C film to prevent the adhesions formation on sature line. Group 2 placed the great omentum around the anastomosis. Euthanasia occurred on the fifth day, when the anastomoses were submitted to the biomechanical test of pressure of rupture by liquid distension (BTPRLD. RESULTS: High rupture pressure was gained with omentoplasty group in relation to the group in which anastomosis was protected from adhesions formation. A statistical significance was noted. CONCLUSION: Protection by great omentum has increased the anastomosis resistance of the shocked animals. Also, the proposed hemorrhagic shock type has proven to be useful for this study.OBJETIVO: Analisar a influência da omentoplastia sobre anastomose realizada em cólon descendente de ratos que foram submetidos a choque hipovolêmico do tipo hemorrágico, por meio do Teste Biomecânico de Pressão de Ruptura à Distensão por Líquido. Além disso, estabelecer modelo de anemia aguda em rato que se preste ao referido estudo. MÉTODOS: Estudo comparativo entre dois grupos de animais com 10 ratos em cada, todos submetidos a choque hemorrágico por retirada volêmica de 30% através da artéria carótida, sendo realizada anastomose em cólon esquerdo. No grupo 1 realizou-se proteção da anastomose com película de polivinilcloreto para impedir a formação de ader

  6. Efeitos da terapia de reposição hormonal na cicatrização de anastomoses de cólon Effects of hormonal replacement therapy on colon anastomosis healing in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria de Lourdes Pessole Biondo-Simões

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Existe coincidência entre os sintomas do climatério e o aparecimento acentuado dos sinais de envelhecimento da pele. Estudos, em modelos animais, mostraram que o estrógeno é uma espécie de mediador crítico na cicatrização de feridas. Os autores apresentam um estudo da influência da terapia de reposição hormonal (TRH em anastomoses de cólon, feitas em ratas. MÉTODOS: Utilizam 3 grupos de ratas Wistar, um grupo de ooforectomizadas com TRH feita com 50mg de estrógeno e 2 mg de acetato de medroxiprogesterona, um de ooforectomizadas e sem TRH e um de ratas laparotomizadas e não ooforectomizadas. Realizaram a ooforectomia e a confirmação da condição hormonal após 28 dias. Em seguida instituíram a TRH ou de solução fisiológica, diariamente. Após 2 meses fizeram uma colotomia esquerda com anastomose término-terminal e estudaram a resistência e a densidade de colágeno com 7 e 14 dias. RESULTADOS: As anastomoses dos cólons das ratas sem TRH eram menos resistentes do que as do grupo controle tanto no 7.º dia (p=0,0488 como no 14.º dia (p=0,0115. A densidade de colágeno foi menor no 7.º dia (p=0,0210 com menor presença de colágeno I (p=0,0023 e de colágeno III (p=0,0470. No 14.º dia estas diferenças permaneceram significantes. Nas anastomoses dos cólons das ratas com TRH as diferenças, em relação ao grupo controle, não foram significantes. CONCLUSÃO: A falta dos hormônios ovarianos leva à menor resistência e atrasa a maturação de anastomoses do cólon, em ratas e estas deficiências são compensadas pela TRH.PURPOSE: The symptoms of the climacteric coincide with the marked appearance of signs of skin aging. Studies on animal models have shown that estrogen is a critical mediator in wound healing. The authors report a study of the influence of hormonal replacement therapy (HRT on colon anastomoses performed in female rats. METHODS: Three groups of Wistar rats were used: one submitted to oophorectomy

  7. Proximal minimization in CAT$(\\kappa)$ spaces

    OpenAIRE

    Espínola, Rafa; Nicolae, Adriana

    2016-01-01

    In this note, we provide convergence results for the proximal point algorithm and a splitting variant thereof in the setting of CAT$(\\kappa)$ spaces with $\\kappa > 0$ using a recent definition for the resolvent of a convex, lower semi-continuous function due to Kimura and Kohsaka (J. Fixed Point Theory Appl. 18 (2016), 93-115).

  8. Capacitive Proximity Sensors With Additional Driven Shields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcconnell, Robert L.

    1993-01-01

    Improved capacitive proximity sensors constructed by incorporating one or more additional driven shield(s). Sensitivity and range of sensor altered by adjusting driving signal(s) applied to shield(s). Includes sensing electrode and driven isolating shield that correspond to sensing electrode and driven shield.

  9. Thermogravimetry speeds up proximate analysis of coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baur, P.

    1983-03-01

    Thermogravimetric analysis is not an ASTM standard method for proximate analysis of coal and coke, but it is widely used in US laboratories because of its speed, accuracy and flexibility. Equipment available from different manufacturers is compared and the experience of a number of users is recounted.

  10. Disability occurrence and proximity to death

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. Klijs; J.P. Mackenbach; A.E. Kunst

    2010-01-01

    Purpose. This paper aims to assess whether disability occurrence is related more strongly to proximity to death than to age. Method. Self reported disability and vital status were available from six annual waves and a subsequent 12-year mortality follow-up of the Dutch GLOBE longitudinal study. Logi

  11. Proximity Graphs for Crowd Movement Sensors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chilipirea, Cristian; Petre, Andreea-Cristina; Dobre, Ciprian; Steen, van Maarten

    2015-01-01

    Sensors are now common, they span over different applications, different purposes and some over large geospatial areas. Most data produced by these sensors needs to be linked to the physical location of the sensor itself. By using the location of a sensor we can construct (mathematically) proximity

  12. Characteristics of He II Proximity Profiles

    CERN Document Server

    Zheng, W; Meiksin, A; Kriss, G A; Schneider, D P; York, D G; Anderson, S F

    2015-01-01

    The proximity profile in the spectra of z~3 quasars, where fluxes extend blueward of the He II Lya wavelength 304 (1+z) A, is one of the most important spectral features in the study of the intergalactic medium. Based on the HST spectra of 24 He II quasars, we find that the majority of them display a proximity profile, corresponding to an ionization radius as large as 20 Mpc in the source's rest frame. In comparison with those in the H i spectra of the quasars at z~6, the He II proximity effect is more prominent and is observed over a considerably longer period of reionization. The He II proximity zone sizes decrease at higher redshifts, particularly at z > 3.3. This trend is similar to that for H I, signaling an onset of He II reionization at z~4. For quasar SDSS1253+6817 (z=3.48), the He II absorption trough displays a gradual decline and serves a good case for modeling the He II reionization. To model such a broad profile requires a quasar radiation field whose distribution between 4 and 1 Rydberg is consi...

  13. Goal-Proximity Decision-Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veksler, Vladislav D.; Gray, Wayne D.; Schoelles, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    Reinforcement learning (RL) models of decision-making cannot account for human decisions in the absence of prior reward or punishment. We propose a mechanism for choosing among available options based on goal-option association strengths, where association strengths between objects represent previously experienced object proximity. The proposed…

  14. Regeneração de nervo periférico após anastomose término-lateral, com manutenção do epineuro, em ratos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosseto Marcelo

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available A reinervação dos nervos periféricos pode ser realizada através de anastomoses término - terminais ou término-laterais, e este fenômeno tem sido amplamente estud ado. As anastomoses nervosas término-laterais tem sido utilizadas com pouca freqüência em relação as anastomoses término-terminais e contestada por alguns autores quanto a possibilidade de reinervação, quando a integridade do epineuro é mantida. Devido a estas divergências, estudou-se o efeito do epineuro na reinervação em anastomoses término-laterais, em ratos. Foram utilizados 20 ratos Wistar, adultos, distribuídos em dois grupos (A e B. No grupo A, 10 animais foram submetidos à secção do nervo fibular no membro pélvico direito e fixação desde à musculatura; no membro pélvico esquerdo foi realizada a secção do nervo fibular e anastomasado término-lateral com o nervo tibial. No grupo B, os procedimentos foram idênticos aos realizados no grupo A, sendo somente invertido os membros pélvicos. No nonagésimo dia do ato operatório, foi realizada uma biópsia em cada nervo fibular para análise histológica à microscópia óptica, onde a reinervação foi objeto de estudo. A reinervação ocorreu mostrando que a integridade do epineuro não impediu a regeneração axonal.

  15. Surgical treatment of familial adenomatous polyposis: ileoretal anastomosis or restorative proctolectomy? Tratamento cirúrgico da polipose adenomatosa familiar: anastomose íleo-retal ou bolsa ileal?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Guilherme Campos

    2009-12-01

    (clinical, endoscopic, genetic indicate that the best choice for operative treatment should be based on individual features discussed by a specialist; 5. all patients require continuous and long-term surveillance during postoperative follow-up.CONTEXTO: As controvérsias quanto a melhor forma de tratamento da polipose adenomatosa familiar confrontam a morbidade da proctocolectomia restauradora contra a suposta mortalidade decorrente de câncer retal após íleo-reto anastomose. OBJETIVOS: Avaliar as complicações operatórias e a evolução oncológica dos pacientes submetidos a íleo-reto anastomose ou proctocolectomia restauradora. MÉTODOS: Analisaram-se os dados dos doentes tratados entre 1977 e 2006, procedendo ao levantamento de dados clínicos gerais, endoscópicos, resultados do tratamento cirúrgico, dados anatomopatológicos e informações sobre a evolução precoce e tardia dos pacientes. RESULTADOS: Foram tratados 88 pacientes, sendo 41 homens (46,6% e 47 mulheres (53,4%. Por ocasião do diagnóstico, 53 pacientes (60,2% já tinham câncer colorretal associado à polipose. Registraram-se complicações operatórias em 25 doentes (29,0 % dentre os 86 operados, sendo 17 (19,7% precoces e 8 (9,3% tardias. Houve mais complicações após proctocolectomia restauradora (48,1% em comparação às proctocolectomias com ileostomia (26,6% e íleo-reto anastomose (19,0% (P = 0,03. Não houve mortalidade operatória. O risco cumulativo de câncer retal após íleo-reto anastomose foi de 17,2% após 5 anos, 24,1% após 10 anos e 43,1% após 15 anos de seguimento pós-operatório. Já o risco cumulativo idade-dependente começou a existir a partir de 30 anos (4,3%, passando para 9,6% aos 40 anos, 20,9% aos 40 anos e 52% aos 60 anos. Entre os pacientes submetidos a bolsa ileal com seguimento (26, apenas 1 doente (3,8% desenvolveu câncer na bolsa ileal. CONCLUSÕES: 1. Ocorreram complicações operatórias em cerca de 1/3 dos pacientes, sendo mais frequentes após a confec

  16. Anastomose mamária-coronária: análise de 2923 casos Mammary-coronary artery anastomosis: analysis of 2923 cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarbas J Dinkhuysen

    1987-04-01

    Full Text Available Foi a partir de 1972 que, no Instituto Dante Pazzanese de Cardiologia, se iniciou o emprego da anastomose mamária-coronária associada, ou não, a pontes de safena, ou a outros procedimentos. Nessa época, apenas a artéria mamária interna esquerda (AMIE foi usada (57 casos para a revascularização da descendente anterior (DA ou diagonal. No período 1973/1974 (386 casos, já ocorreram as primeiras anastomoses seqüenciais AMIE-DA/DA, assim como a artéria mamária interna direita (AMID passou a ser empregada para ramos diagonais. Com a finalidade de verificar a evolução tardia desta técnica, sua aplicação foi praticamente interrompida, entre 1975/1982, restringindo-se a apenas 43 casos, nesse período. Entretanto, a partir de 1982 até junho de 1986, ocorreu significativo incremento na sua aplicação (2374 casos, sendo que, desde então, a quase totalidade (93% das cirurgias de revascularização do miocárdio tem uma ou mais coronárias tratadas com anastomose mamária-coronária. A combinação mais freqüente é AMIE/DA nos casos de mamária isolada e AMIE/DA e AMID/Mg Cx nos casos de dupla mamária. Contudo, observaram-se, na casuística, as mais variadas combinações (71 e associações, abrangendo, praticamente, todas as artérias coronárias. Analisando-se o pós-operatório imediato de um grupo isolado de 177 pacientes operados em 1984, observou-se que esta técnica não influiu na ocorrência de deiscência parcial, ou total, de esterno, em reoperação por sangramento; todavia, ocorreram, em 25% dos casos, elevação transitória da cúpula frénica, atelectasia em 17% e derrame pleural residual em 27,6%, geralmente concomitantes. Em relação à evolução tardia, num grupo de 754 pacientes com mamária e safena e com evolução até 9 anos, em 924 (71,8% dos enxertos reestudados, constataram-se índices de permeabilidade de 91,5% nas mamárias versus 70,6% (826 das pontes de safena. Em outro grupo (102 pacientes, com evolu

  17. Functional outcome following proximal humeral interlocking system plating for displaced proximal humeral fractures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thyagarajan David

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To assess the functional outcome following internal fixation with the PHILOS (proximal humeral interlocking system for displaced proximal humeral fractures. Patients and Methods: We reviewed 30 consecutive patients treated surgically with the proximal humeral locking plate for a displaced proximal humeral fracture. Functional outcome was determined using the American Shoulder and Elbow Society (ASES score and Constant Murley score. Results: Average age of the patients was 58 years (range, 19-92 years. The average overall ASES score was 66.5. The average overall Constant score was 57.5. Conclusion: Our results show that good fracture stability was achieved, and the functional outcome was very good in younger patients and it declined with increasing age. Early mobilization of the shoulder can be achieved without compromising fracture union.

  18. Correlation between social proximity and mobility similarity

    CERN Document Server

    Fan, Chao; Huang, Junming; Rong, Zhihai; Zhou, Tao

    2016-01-01

    Human behaviors exhibit ubiquitous correlations in many aspects, such as individual and collective levels, temporal and spatial dimensions, content, social and geographical layers. With rich Internet data of online behaviors becoming available, it attracts academic interests to explore human mobility similarity from the perspective of social network proximity. Existent analysis shows a strong correlation between online social proximity and offline mobility similari- ty, namely, mobile records between friends are significantly more similar than between strangers, and those between friends with common neighbors are even more similar. We argue the importance of the number and diversity of com- mon friends, with a counter intuitive finding that the number of common friends has no positive impact on mobility similarity while the diversity plays a key role, disagreeing with previous studies. Our analysis provides a novel view for better understanding the coupling between human online and offline behaviors, and will...

  19. Juvenile xanthogranuloma of the proximal nail fold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piraccini, Bianca Maria; Fanti, Pier Alessandro; Iorizzo, Matilde; Tosti, Antonella

    2003-01-01

    An 18-month-old Caucasian boy presented with a firm 0.5 mm nodule, pink-red in color, with a yellow hue and some telangiectases on the surface, localized on the right thumbnail. The nodule involved all of the proximal nail fold and covered the proximal third of the nail. Pathology showed a dense dermal infiltrate of histiocytes, some of which had foamy nuclei, and multinucleated Touton giant cells. The lesion progressively decreased in size and had completely disappeared after 3 years. Periodic follow-up was important not only to monitor evolution of the juvenile xanthogranuloma, but also to avoid excessive growth of the lesion with possible definitive nail matrix damage.

  20. Proximity Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy/Spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Hwang, Ing-Shouh

    2016-01-01

    Here a new microscopic method is proposed to image and characterize very thin samples like few-layer materials, organic molecules, and nanostructures with nanometer or sub-nanometer resolution using electron beams of energies lower than 20 eV. The microscopic technique achieves high resolution through the proximity (or near-field) effect, as in scanning tunneling microscopy (STM), while it also allows detection of transmitted electrons for imaging and spectroscopy, as in scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM). This proximity transmission electron microscopy (PSTEM) does not require any lens to focus the electron beam. It also allows detailed characterization of the interaction of low-energy electron with materials. PSTEM can operate in a way very similar to scanning tunneling microscopy, which provides high-resolution imaging of geometric and electronic structures of the sample surface. In addition, it allows imaging and characterization of the interior structures of the sample based on the detected...

  1. Proximal humeral fractures treated with arthroplasty

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIAN Qi-rong; WU Hai-shan; ZHOU Wei-jiang; LI Xiao-hua; WU Yu-li

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To explore arthroplasty in treating 3- and 4-part fractures of the proximal humerus.Methods: A total of 132 patients with proximal humeral fractures were treated in our hospital from July 1997 to February 2003. According to Neer's classification, the fractures of 45 patients (14 males and 31 females, aged 31-78 years, 56.1 years±7.8 years on an average) belonged to 3- or 4-part fractures (10 patients with 4-part fracture and 35 with 3-part comminuted fracture) and they were treated with shoulder joint arthroplasty. Unipolar prosthesis replacement of the head of humerus was made in 28 cases, while bipolar prosthesis replacement in 2 cases and total shoulder joint replacement in 15 cases. Results: During the follow-up period (range: 12-72 months, mean: 37.3 months±4.1 months), among the 45 patients who suffered from fractures of the proximal humerus and underwent arthroplasty surgery, 44 patients (97.8%) had no postoperative pain and were satisfied with the active range of motion and with the whole treatment results. And radiography showed that the prostheses were at their good position. One patient had postoperative pain because he had so narrow medullary cavity that the humeral prosthesis could not be put deeply enough and the prosthesis head was a little higher over the anatomic level. He did not have good postoperative active range of motion, either. Then he received a review surgery and got satisfied results. Temporary shoulder stiffness was observed in one patient. Manual release of these adhesions improved the shoulder function. No evidence of nonunion of the fracture segments around the humeral prosthesis stem was found. Conclusions: Shoulder arthroplasty is a dependable method to restore the comfort and function of the should joints of the patients with 3- or 4-part fractures of the proximal humerus.

  2. Social capital, proximity and team performance improvement

    OpenAIRE

    Wojnar, Jakub

    2011-01-01

    Social capital, proximity and team performance improvement Jakub Wojnar Ph.D. student of the Systems Research Institute of the Polish Academy of Sciences ul. Newelska 6, 01-447 Warsaw, Poland email: The purpose of this paper is twofold. The first part translates some theoretical concepts of social capital into business terms and explains its daily usage in international corporations. The second and main objective of the paper is a description of a method of recruiting new me...

  3. Proximal relationships between PTSD and drinking behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Kaysen, Debra; Stappenbeck, Cynthia; Rhew, Issac; Simpson, Tracy

    2014-01-01

    Co-morbid PTSD and alcohol use disorders are both common and debilitating. However, many of these studies rely on cross-sectional studies that obscure more complex relationships between PTSD and drinking. Event-level studies allow for examination of proximal relationships between PTSD and drinking. Among women (n=136 with past sexual victimization, n=40 no past trauma history), a two-part mixed hurdle model was used to examine daily PTSD and drinking. On days women experienced more intrusive ...

  4. Enabling Multiple QR Codes in Close Proximity

    OpenAIRE

    Topkara, Mercan; Erickson, Thomas; Topkara, Umut; Narayanaswami, Chandrasekhar

    2015-01-01

    Quick response codes - 2D patterns that can be scanned to access online resources - are being used in a variety of industrial and consumer applications. However, it is problematic to use multiple QR codes in close proximity: scans can fail or result in access to the wrong resource. While this problem is, strictly speaking, due to the design of the scanning software, the very large number of extant scanning applications makes changing the software a difficult logistical challenge. Instead, we ...

  5. Female labour supply in india: proximate determinants

    OpenAIRE

    Majumder, Rajarshi

    2011-01-01

    Traditional official definition of ‘work’ in developing countries excludes large number of activities that are predominantly performed by women. Naturally official Female Labour Force Participation Rate is quite low in such countries. Women who are officially in the labourforce must therefore have compelling reasons for doing so. This paper fills the research gap arising due to dearth of econometric analysis of female labour supply in Indian context by identifying proximate determinants. Apar...

  6. Capacitive Proximity Sensor Has Longer Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vranish, John M.

    1992-01-01

    Capacitive proximity sensor on robot arm detects nearby object via capacitive effect of object on frequency of oscillator. Sensing element part of oscillator circuit operating at about 20 kHz. Total capacitance between sensing element and ground constitutes tuning capacitance of oscillator. Sensor circuit includes shield driven by replica of alternating voltage applied to sensing element. Driven shield concentrates sensing electrostatic field in exterior region to enhance sensitivity to object. Sensitivity and dynamic range has corresponding 12-to-1 improvement.

  7. Isolated Proximal Tibiofibular Dislocation during Soccer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Casey Chiu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Proximal tibiofibular dislocations are rarely encountered in the Emergency Department (ED. We present a case involving a man presenting to the ED with left knee pain after making a sharp left turn on the soccer field. His physical exam was only remarkable for tenderness over the lateral fibular head. His X-rays showed subtle abnormalities of the tibiofibular joint. The dislocation was reduced and the patient was discharged from the ED with orthopedic follow-up.

  8. Bilateral Brodie's abscess at the proximal tibia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buldu, Halil; Bilen, Fikri Erkal; Eralp, Levent; Kocaoglu, Mehmet

    2012-08-01

    Brodie's abscess is a form of subacute osteomyelitis, which typically involves the metaphyses of the long tubular bones, particularly in the tibia. The diagnosis is usually made incidentally, as there are no accompanying symptoms or laboratory studies. Bilateral involvement at the proximal tibia is unusual. However, orthopaedic surgeons should be aware of this entity, as it may present without symptoms. Checking the contralateral limb for concomitant Brodie's abscess is recommended.

  9. Proximate Analysis of Dragon Fruit (Hylecereus polyhizus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruzainah A. Jaafar

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Dragon fruit (Hylecereus polyhizus is well known for the rich nutrient contents and it is commercially available worldwide for improving many health problems. Several studies show the proximity value of red pitaya fruits but the nutrient composition of the stem has not been extensively studied. Approach: This study was carried out to measure the proximate analysis of moisture content, water activity, ash, crude protein, crude fat, crude fiber, glucose and ascorbic acids content in premature and mature of dragon fruit. The dried powder was produced from the stem of dragon fruit and the proximate analysis of dragon fruit stem was compared between freeze drying process and drying oven process. Results: Results of this study showed that 96% moisture; 0.270 g of protein; 0.552 g L-1 glucose and 132.95 mg L-1 ascorbic acid of dragon fruit stem found higher than the fruit flesh of the dragon fruit. Conclusion: The premature stem had higher values than the mature stem of the dragon fruit which may helpful in preventing the risk factors of certain diseases.

  10. Management of proximal humerus fractures in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vachtsevanos, Leonidas; Hayden, Lydia; Desai, Aravind S; Dramis, Asterios

    2014-11-18

    The majority of proximal humerus fractures are low-energy osteoporotic injuries in the elderly and their incidence is increasing in the light of an ageing population. The diversity of fracture patterns encountered renders objective classification of prognostic value challenging. Non-operative management has been associated with good functional outcomes in stable, minimally displaced and certain types of displaced fractures. Absolute indications for surgery are infrequent and comprise compound, pathological, multi-fragmentary head-splitting fractures and fracture dislocations, as well as those associated with neurovascular injury. A constantly expanding range of reconstructive and replacement options however has been extending the indications for surgical management of complex proximal humerus fractures. As a result, management decisions are becoming increasingly complicated, in an attempt to provide the best possible treatment for each individual patient, that will successfully address their specific fracture configuration, comorbidities and functional expectations. Our aim was to review the management options available for the full range of proximal humerus fractures in adults, along with their specific advantages, disadvantages and outcomes.

  11. Parâmetros dopplervelocimétricos na avaliação da perviedade da anastomose portossistêmica intra-hepática transjugular (TIPS: estudo prospectivo Doppler flowmeter parameters for evaluation of transjugular intrahepatic porto-systemic shunts (TIPS patency: prospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Sergio Zafred Marcelino

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Estudar as alterações hemodinâmicas consideradas normais após a realização da anastomose portossistêmica intra-hepática transjugular (TIPS e a eficácia dos parâmetros sugestivos de estenose do TIPS com o ultra-som Doppler. MATERIAIS E MÉTODOS: Dezesseis pacientes foram avaliados de maneira prospectiva, no período de dezembro de 2001 a março de 2003. As avaliações foram realizadas 24-48 horas após o TIPS e a seguir em intervalos regulares de 30 dias, três meses, seis meses e um ano, com ultra-som modo B, Doppler pulsado, Doppler colorido e de amplitude em diferentes pontos da prótese relacionados ao TIPS. A angiografia foi realizada apenas para a confirmação dos resultados e terapêutica pertinente. RESULTADOS: Até o momento apenas os achados de fluxo contínuo no terço proximal da prótese e o gradiente de velocidade entre dois pontos da prótese apresentaram significância estatística para o diagnóstico de estenose do TIPS (p OBJECTIVE: To assess the hemodynamic changes considered normal after transjugular intrahepatic porto-systemic shunt (TIPS placement and the efficacy of TIPS parameters suggestive of stenosis using Doppler sonography. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sixteen patients were prospectively evaluated from December, 2001 to March, 2003 after TIPS placement. Evaluations were performed 24 to 48 hours after the procedure and then at intervals of 30 days, three months, six months and one year using B mode, color Doppler, power Doppler and spectral Doppler in different TIPS related sites. Angiography was performed only to confirm Doppler findings and treatment. RESULTS: To date the only statistically significant parameters for diagnosis of TIPS stenosis were continuous flow pattern in the proximal third of TIPS and the velocity gradient between the two sites (p < 0.001. Different non-statistically significant parameters were also observed. CONCLUSION: Doppler sonography is an efficient tool for the diagnosis of

  12. A Regularized Algorithm for the Proximal Split Feasibility Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhangsong Yao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The proximal split feasibility problem has been studied. A regularized method has been presented for solving the proximal split feasibility problem. Strong convergence theorem is given.

  13. Treatment of proximal ulna and olecranon fractures by dorsal plating

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P. Kloen; G.A. Buijze

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE : Anatomic reconstruction of proximal ulna and olecranon fractures allowing early mobilization and prevention of ulnohumeral arthritis. INDICATIONS : Comminuted olecranon or proximal ulna fractures (including Monteggia fractures), olecranon fractures extending distally from the coronoid pr

  14. Proof-of-Concept Studies for Marker-Based Ultrasound Doppler Analysis of Microvascular Anastomoses in a Modified Large Animal Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coon, Devin; Chen, Lei; Boctor, Emad M; Prince, Jerry L; Bojovic, Branko

    2016-05-01

    Background Despite attempts to solve the problem of flap monitoring, assessing the patency of vascular anastomoses postoperatively remains challenging. In addition, experimental data suggest that near-total vessel occlusion is necessary to produce significant changes in clinical appearance or monitoring devices. We sought to develop an ultrasound-based system that would provide definitive data on anastomotic function. Methods A system was developed consisting of a resorbable marker made from poly-lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA) implanted during the time of surgery coupled with ultrasound software to detect the anastomotic site and perform Doppler flow analysis. Surgical procedures consisting of microvascular free tissue transfer or femoral vessel cutdown were performed followed by marker placement, closure, and ultrasound monitoring. Transient vascular occlusion was produced via vessel-loop constriction. Permanent thrombosis was induced via an Arduino-controlled system applying current to the vessel intima. Results Four surgeries (one femoral vessel cutdown and three microvascular tissue transfer) were successfully performed in Yorkshire swine. The markers were readily visualized under ultrasound and provided a bounding area for Doppler analysis as well as orientation guidance. Transient spasm and partial occlusion were detected based on changes in Doppler data, while complete occlusion was evident as the total loss of color Doppler. Conclusion In this preliminary report, we have conceptualized and developed a novel system that enables the real-time visualization of vascular pedicle flow at the bedside using Doppler ultrasound and a surgically implanted marker. In a large animal model, use of the system allowed identification of the anastomosis, flow analysis, and real-time detection of flow loss. PMID:26645155

  15. 肠管吻合愈合参数的研究进展%Progress on the parameters of the healing of intestinal anastomoses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭春辉; 陈亚军

    2008-01-01

    肠管吻合口漏是结肠直肠手术严重的并发症,肠管愈合仍是目前研究的热点.评价肠管愈合的方法主要有机械法、生化法、免疫组化法和组织学法.评估参数主要有爆破压、断裂强度、胶原量、金属基质酶量和病理分级.胶原和金属基质酶的测量是评估肠管愈合最重要的指标.胶原是最主要的细胞外基质蛋白,它在伤口愈合中决定连续组织的机械强度.肠管的胶原主要是Ⅰ、Ⅲ胶原,胶原的降解是几种金属基质酶协同作用的结果.%Anastomotic leakage is a serious complication in colorectal surgery;The healing of intestine is still the hot spot of current research.Methods of estimating intestinal healing mainly include mechanical,biochemical,immunohistochemical and hitological Method.The estimating parameters mainly Comprise bursting pressure,breaking strength,the amount of collangen and matrix metalloproteinase(MMP),and the scale for histology.The measurement of collagen and MMP is the nost import ant index for estimating healing of intestinal anastomoses.Collagen is the most abundant extracellular matrix protein that determines the mechanical stability of the connective tissue during wound healing.Collagen degradation is usually the result of the synergistic action of several MMPs.

  16. A RETROSPECTIVE STUDY OF PROXIMAL HUMERUS INTERNAL LOCKING SYSTEM PLATING FOR DISPLACED PROXIMAL HUMERUS FRACTURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumarswami Ramulu

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available AIM The aim of the present study was to evaluate the functional outcome, benefits and complications of open reduction and internal fixation of displaced proximal humerus fractures with proximal humerus locking plate. METHODS We studied the functional outcome of 40 patients aged between 15 to 65 years from September 2013 to February 2015, who had displaced proximal humerus fracture and underwent PHILOS plate fixation for the same. Fractures were classified according to NEER’s and AO classification. Patients were followed up for a minimum period of 1 year. Functional outcomes and shoulder range of movement were assessed based on the Constant and Murley scoring system. RESULTS Patients were followed up for 12 months. All fractures healed satisfactorily; 12 weeks (27.5% was the most common union time (radiological finding in the study population followed by 8 weeks (22.5% and 10 weeks (20%. Avascular necrosis was noted in 1 patient, mild infection in 2 patients and stiffness in 2 patients. The mean Constant score at 6 weeks was 40.39, at 12 weeks was 59.24, at 6 months was 73.88 and at one year was 75.62. Constant score continues to improve till 1 year. CONCLUSION Proximal humerus locking plate gives a reliable, stable fixation for fractures of proximal humerus with a good radiological union and good functional outcome.

  17. 75 FR 5009 - Proximity Detection Systems for Underground Mines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-01

    ...-approved proximity detection systems is available on the Internet at http://www.msha.gov/Accident... Safety and Health Administration 30 CFR Parts 57 and 75 RIN 1219-AB65 Proximity Detection Systems for... use of proximity detection systems would reduce the risk of accidents where mobile equipment...

  18. Bicarbonate secretion by rabbit proximal colon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, S K; Smith, P L

    1986-10-01

    Stripped segments of proximal colon (1-6 cm distal to the ampulla caecalis coli) were studied in vitro in Ussing chambers under short-circuit conditions using the pH-stat technique. With glucose and HCO3-CO2 present in the serosal bathing solution only, proximal colon alkalinizes the luminal bathing solution at a rate of 2.1 +/- 0.2 mu eq X h-1 X cm-2 (n = 36). With HCO3-CO2 present in the luminal bathing solution alone, proximal colon does not significantly acidify or alkalinize the serosal bathing solution. Addition of glucose (10 mM) to the luminal bathing solution abolished luminal alkalinization. Removal of HCO3 and CO2 from the serosal bathing solution or replacement of O2 with N2 also abolished luminal alkalinization. Acetazolamide (0.1 mM) added to both bathing solutions did not alter the rate of luminal alkalinization. Ion-replacement studies revealed that the alkalinization process was highly dependent on the presence of Na in the bathing solutions and much less dependent on the presence of Cl. Furthermore, ouabain (0.1 mM) significantly reduced luminal alkalinization. As in rabbit ileum, serosal epinephrine (0.1 mM) did not alter luminal alkalinization but increased serosal alkalinization by a Na-dependent mechanism. These results suggest that luminal alkalinization results from a Na-dependent, active transcellular HCO3 transport process and that a Na-dependent HCO3 absorptive process is activated by adrenergic stimuli. PMID:3766731

  19. Delayed homicides and the proximate cause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Peter; Gill, James R

    2009-12-01

    Delayed homicides result from complications of remote injuries inflicted by "the hands of another." The investigation of delayed homicides may be a challenge due to a number of factors including: failure to report the death to the proper authorities, lack of ready and adequate documentation of the original injury and circumstances, and jurisdictional differences between the places of injury and death. The certification of these deaths also requires the demonstration of a pathophysiologic link between the remote injury and death. In sorting through these issues, it is helpful to rely upon the definition of the proximate cause of death. Over a 2-year period in New York City, there were 1211 deaths certified as homicide of which 42 were due to injuries sustained greater than 1 year before death. The survival interval ranged from 1.3 to 43.2 years. The most common immediate causes of death were: infections (22), seizures (7), and intestinal obstructions/hernias (6). Common patterns of complications included infection following a gunshot wound of the spinal cord, seizure disorder due to blunt head trauma, and intestinal obstruction/hernia due to adhesions from an abdominal stab wound. Spinal cord injuries resulted in paraplegia in 14 instances and quadriplegia in 8. The mean survival interval for paraplegics was 20.3 years and 14.8 years for quadriplegics; infections were a frequent immediate cause of death in both groups, particularly infections due to chronic bladder catheterization. The definition of proximate cause originated with civil law cases and was later applied to death certification as the proximate cause of death. The gradual extinction of the "year and a day rule" for the limitation of bringing homicide charges in delayed deaths may result in more of these deaths going to trial. Medical examiners/coroners must be able to explain the reasoning behind these death certifications and maintain consistent standards for the certification of all delayed deaths due

  20. Impacted valgus fractures of the proximal humerus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Fabiano Rebouças; Takesian, Fernando Hovaguim; Bezerra, Luiz Eduardo Pimentel; Filho, Rômulo Brasil; Júnior, Antonio Carlos Tenor; da Costa, Miguel Pereira

    2016-01-01

    Impacted valgus fractures of the proximal humerus are considered to be a special type fracture, since impaction of the humeral head on the metaphysis with maintenance of the posteromedial periosteum improves the prognosis regarding occurrences of avascular necrosis. This characteristic can also facilitate the reduction maneuver and increase the consolidation rate of these fractures, even in more complex cases. The studies included were obtained by searching the Bireme, Medline, PubMed, Cochrane Library and Google Scholar databases for those published between 1991 and 2013. The objective of this study was to identify the most common definitions, classifications and treatment methods used for these fractures in the orthopedic medical literature. PMID:27069878

  1. Casimir forces beyond the proximity approximation

    CERN Document Server

    Bimonte, G; Jaffe, R L; Kardar, M

    2011-01-01

    The proximity force approximation (PFA) relates the interaction between closely spaced, smoothly curved objects to the force between parallel plates. Precision experiments on Casimir forces necessitate, and spur research on, corrections to the PFA. We use a derivative expansion for gently curved surfaces to derive the leading curvature modifications to the PFA. Our methods apply to any homogeneous and isotropic materials; here we present results for Dirichlet and Neumann boundary conditions and for perfect conductors. A Pad\\'e extrapolation constrained by a multipole expansion at large distance and our improved expansion at short distances, provides an accurate expression for the sphere-plate Casimir force at all separations.

  2. Proximal iliotibial band syndrome: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Guadagnini Falotico

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The overuse injuries in the hip joint occur commonly in sports practitioners and currently due to technical advances in diagnostic imaging, especially magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, are often misdiagnosed. Recently, a group of people were reported, all female, with pain and swelling in the pelvic region.T2-weighted MRI showed increased signal in the enthesis of the iliotibial band (ITB along the lower border of the iliac tubercle. We report a case of a 34 year old woman, non-professional runner, with pain at the iliac crest with no history of trauma and whose MRI was compatible with the proximal iliotibial band syndrome.

  3. Ewing's sarcoma of proximal humeral epiphysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esmaili, Heydar Ali; Niknejad, Mohammad Taghi; Mohajeri, Shiva

    2015-02-01

    Ewing's sarcoma is one of the most common primary bone tumors of childhood. The tumor is almost always metaphyseal or diaphyseal, within long bones. In children, lesions of the epiphysis are often benign, with the most common diagnosis being chondroblastoma. Rarely, 1%-2% of Ewing sarcomas may involve epiphysis. We present a case of Ewing's sarcoma of the proximal humeral epiphysis in a 13-year-old boy. This case adds to previously reported cases of epiphyseal Ewing sarcoma and suggests that the diagnosis should be considered for pediatric epiphyseal lesions. PMID:25644805

  4. Paramagnetic Reentrance Effect in NS Proximity Cylinders

    OpenAIRE

    Maki, Kazumi; Haas, Stephan

    2000-01-01

    A scenario for the unusual paramagnetic reentrance behavior at ultra-low temperatures in Nb-Ag, Nb-Au, and Nb-Cu cylinders is presented. For the diamagnetic response down to temperatures of the order 15 mK, the standard theory (quasi-classical approximation) for superconductors appears to work very well, assuming that Ag, Au, and Cu remain in the normal state except for the proximity-induced superconductivity. Here it is proposed that these noble metals may become p-wave superconductors with ...

  5. Impacted valgus fractures of the proximal humerus☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Fabiano Rebouças; Takesian, Fernando Hovaguim; Bezerra, Luiz Eduardo Pimentel; Filho, Rômulo Brasil; Júnior, Antonio Carlos Tenor; da Costa, Miguel Pereira

    2016-01-01

    Impacted valgus fractures of the proximal humerus are considered to be a special type fracture, since impaction of the humeral head on the metaphysis with maintenance of the posteromedial periosteum improves the prognosis regarding occurrences of avascular necrosis. This characteristic can also facilitate the reduction maneuver and increase the consolidation rate of these fractures, even in more complex cases. The studies included were obtained by searching the Bireme, Medline, PubMed, Cochrane Library and Google Scholar databases for those published between 1991 and 2013. The objective of this study was to identify the most common definitions, classifications and treatment methods used for these fractures in the orthopedic medical literature. PMID:27069878

  6. Keldysh proximity action for disordered superconductors

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M V Feigel'man; A I Larkin; M A Skvortsov

    2005-06-01

    We review a novel approach to the superconductive proximity effect in disordered normal–superconducting (N–S) structures. The method is based on the multicharge Keldysh action and is suitable for the treatment of interaction and fluctuation effects. As an application of the formalism, we study the subgap conductance and noise in two-dimensional N–S systems in the presence of the electron–electron interaction in the Cooper channel. It is shown that singular nature of the interaction correction at large scales leads to a nonmonotonuos temperature, voltage and magnetic field dependence of the Andreev conductance.

  7. Congenital anomalies and proximity to landfill sites.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Boyle, E

    2004-01-01

    The occurrence of congenital anomalies in proximity to municipal landfill sites in the Eastern Region (counties Dublin, Kildare, Wicklow) was examined by small area (district electoral division), distance and clustering tendancies in relation to 83 landfills, five of which were major sites. The study included 2136 cases of congenital anomaly, 37,487 births and 1423 controls between 1986 and 1990. For the more populous areas of the region 50% of the population lived within 2-3 km of a landfill and within 4-5 km for more rural areas. In the area-level analysis, the standardised prevalence ratios, empirical and full Bayesian modelling, and Kulldorff\\'s spatial scan statistic found no association between the residential area of cases and location of landfills. In the case control analysis, the mean distance of cases and controls from the nearest landfill was similar. The odds ratios of cases compared to controls for increasing distances from all landfills and major landfills showed no significant difference from the baseline value of 1. The kernel and K methods showed no tendency of cases to cluster in relationship to landfills. In conclusion, congenital anomalies were not found to occur more commonly in proximity to municipal landfills.

  8. Obesity and Supermarket Access: Proximity or Price?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, Anju; Hurvitz, Philip M.; Monsivais, Pablo; Moudon, Anne V

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. We examined whether physical proximity to supermarkets or supermarket price was more strongly associated with obesity risk. Methods. The Seattle Obesity Study (SOS) collected and geocoded data on home addresses and food shopping destinations for a representative sample of adult residents of King County, Washington. Supermarkets were stratified into 3 price levels based on average cost of the market basket. Sociodemographic and health data were obtained from a telephone survey. Modified Poisson regression was used to test the associations between obesity and supermarket variables. Results. Only 1 in 7 respondents reported shopping at the nearest supermarket. The risk of obesity was not associated with street network distances between home and the nearest supermarket or the supermarket that SOS participants reported as their primary food source. The type of supermarket, by price, was found to be inversely and significantly associated with obesity rates, even after adjusting for individual-level sociodemographic and lifestyle variables, and proximity measures (adjusted relative risk = 0.34; 95% confidence interval = 0.19, 0.63) Conclusions. Improving physical access to supermarkets may be one strategy to deal with the obesity epidemic; improving economic access to healthy foods is another. PMID:22698052

  9. Updated Classification System for Proximal Humeral Fractures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guix, José M. Mora; Pedrós, Juan Sala; Serrano, Alejandro Castaño

    2009-01-01

    Proximal humeral fractures can restrict daily activities and, therefore, deserve efficient diagnoses that minimize complications and sequels. For good diagnosis and treatment, patient characteristics, variability in the forms of the fractures presented, and the technical difficulties in achieving fair results with surgical treatment should all be taken into account. Current classification systems for these fractures are based on anatomical and pathological principles, and not on systematic image reading. These fractures can appear in many different forms, with many characteristics that must be identified. However, many current classification systems lack good reliability, both inter-observer and intra-observer for different image types. A new approach to image reading, following a well-designed set and sequence of variables to check, is needed. We previously reported such an image reading system. In the present study, we report a classification system based on this image reading system. Here we define 21 fracture characteristics and apply them along with classical Codman approaches to classify fractures. We base this novel classification system for classifying proximal humeral fractures on a review of scientific literature and improvements to our image reading protocol. Patient status, fracture characteristics and surgeon circumstances have been important issues in developing this system. PMID:19574487

  10. Are classifications of proximal radius fractures reproducible?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    dos Santos João BG

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fractures of the proximal radius need to be classified in an appropriate and reproducible manner. The aim of this study was to assess the reliability of the three most widely used classification systems. Methods Elbow radiographs images of patients with proximal radius fractures were classified according to Mason, Morrey, and Arbeitsgemeinschaft für osteosynthesefragen/Association for the Study of Internal Fixation (AO/ASIF classifications by four observers with different experience with this subject to assess their intra- and inter-observer agreement. Each observer analyzed the images on three different occasions on a computer with numerical sequence randomly altered. Results We found that intra-observer agreement of Mason and Morrey classifications were satisfactory (κ = 0.582 and 0.554, respectively, while the AO/ASIF classification had poor intra-observer agreement (κ = 0.483. Inter-observer agreement was higher in the Mason (κ = 0.429-0.560 and Morrey (κ = 0.319-0.487 classifications than in the AO/ASIF classification (κ = 0.250-0.478, which showed poor reliability. Conclusion Inter- and intra-observer agreement of the Mason and Morey classifications showed overall satisfactory reliability when compared to the AO/ASIF system. The Mason classification is the most reliable system.

  11. Efeito da desnutrição na cicatrização de anastomoses colônicas: estudo experimental em ratos Effects of malnutrition on colonic anastomosis healing: an experimental study in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuela Molina Ferreira

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available A deiscência de anastomose é uma das mais graves complicações advindas de operações do tubo gastrintestinal. Algumas condições gerais podem prejudicar o processo de cicatrização, tais como: desnutrição e hipoalbuminemia. Este estudo experimental teve como objetivo avaliar a cicatrização de anastomoses colônicas na vigência de desnutrição protéico-calórica e hipoalbuminemia. Dividimos os animais em dois grupos, sendo um deles o controle e o outro desnutrido (ingestão diária de metade da ração do grupo controle por vinte dias. O peso corporal, a albumina sérica, a evolução clínica, a cavidade abdominal, os aspectos macro e microscópicos da anastomose, a esteatose hepática e a concentração tecidual de hidroxiprolina foram observadas em cada animal. Pudemos notar que o método utilizado para desnutrir os animais mostrou-se eficaz, uma vez que houve redução significativa do peso do grupo experimental. Observamos que o grupo desnutrido apresentou dados necroscópicos de pior prognóstico e mortalidade superior ao grupo controle. Concluímos que a desnutrição influencia negativamente na cicatrização de anastomoses colônicas e aumenta significativamente a mortalidade.Dehiscence of colonic anastomosis is one of the most severe complications after gastrointestinal surgery. The intestinal anastomosis healing complication is associated to several factors like malnutrition and hypoalbuminemia. This is an experimental study that aimed to evaluate the colonic anastomosis healing in malnutrition and hypoalbuminemia conditions. Animals were separated in two experimental groups: control and submitted to malnutrition (daily food intake as half of the control group per 20 days. Body weight, clinical outcome, serum albumin, abdominal cavity aspects, gross and microscopic aspects of the anastomosis, hepatic steatosis and tissue hydroxyproline dosage were compared between groups. Our results show that malnutrition development was

  12. Efeitos da terapia de reposição hormonal na cicatrização de anastomoses de cólon Effects of hormonal replacement therapy on colon anastomosis healing in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Maria de Lourdes Pessole Biondo-Simões; Elise Zimmermann; Tatiana Sato Daher; Karin Soldatelli Borsato; Lucia Noronha

    2005-01-01

    OBJETIVO: Existe coincidência entre os sintomas do climatério e o aparecimento acentuado dos sinais de envelhecimento da pele. Estudos, em modelos animais, mostraram que o estrógeno é uma espécie de mediador crítico na cicatrização de feridas. Os autores apresentam um estudo da influência da terapia de reposição hormonal (TRH) em anastomoses de cólon, feitas em ratas. MÉTODOS: Utilizam 3 grupos de ratas Wistar, um grupo de ooforectomizadas com TRH feita com 50mg de estrógeno e 2 mg de acetato...

  13. The value of percutaneous catheter cholangiography in postoperative diagnostics after biliobiliary and biliodigestive anastomoses; Wertigkeit der perkutanen Kathetercholangiographie in der postoperativen Diagnostik biliodigestiver und biliobiliaerer Anastomosen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barkhausen, J. [Zentralinstitut fuer Roentgendiagnostik, Universitaetsklinikum Essen (Germany); Bidlingmaier, J. [Zentralinstitut fuer Roentgendiagnostik, Universitaetsklinikum Essen (Germany); Mueller, R.D. [Zentralinstitut fuer Roentgendiagnostik, Universitaetsklinikum Essen (Germany); Langer, R. [Zentralinstitut fuer Roentgendiagnostik, Universitaetsklinikum Essen (Germany)

    1996-09-01

    nach der Operation. Beurteilt wurden die Lage des Katheters, die Funktion der Anastomose, die Fuellung der Gallenwege und der Abfluss des Kontrastmittels. Ergebnisse: 45 der ausgewerteten Untersuchungen waren unauffaellig, bei 24 Untersuchungen fand sich eine Abflussstoerung, und 8mal wurden intraluminale Kontrastmittelaussparungen nachgewiesen. Eine Dislokation des Katheters zeigte sich bei 5 Cholangiographien und bei 19 Untersuchungen fand sich ein Kontrastmittelextravasat. Schlussfolgerung: Mit der perkutanen Kathetercholangiographie werden postoperative Komplikationen nach Anlage biliodigestiver und biliobiliaerer Anastomosen schnell, sicher, kostenguenstig und fuer den Patienten schonend nachgewiesen. (orig.)

  14. Coronary anastomoses over intraluminal occluders

    OpenAIRE

    Stanford, William

    1980-01-01

    A simplified technique with the use of intraluminal vessel occluders to prevent collateral flow of blood and cardioplegic solution during saphenous vein distal coronary artery anastomosis is presented here. Additional advantages of this technique are the stenting of vessels to facilitate vessel approximation and the assurance of anastomotic patency.

  15. Severity and Frequency of Proximal Tubule Injury Determines Renal Prognosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takaori, Koji; Nakamura, Jin; Yamamoto, Shinya; Nakata, Hirosuke; Sato, Yuki; Takase, Masayuki; Nameta, Masaaki; Yamamoto, Tadashi; Economides, Aris N; Kohno, Kenji; Haga, Hironori; Sharma, Kumar; Yanagita, Motoko

    2016-08-01

    AKI increases the risk of developing CKD, but the mechanisms linking AKI to CKD remain unclear. Because proximal tubule injury is the mainstay of AKI, we postulated that proximal tubule injury triggers features of CKD. We generated a novel mouse model to induce proximal tubule-specific adjustable injury by inducing the expression of diphtheria toxin (DT) receptor with variable prevalence in proximal tubules. Administration of high-dose DT in mice expressing the DT receptor consistently caused severe proximal tubule-specific injury associated with interstitial fibrosis and reduction of erythropoietin production. Mild proximal tubule injury from a single injection of low-dose DT triggered reversible fibrosis, whereas repeated mild injuries caused sustained interstitial fibrosis, inflammation, glomerulosclerosis, and atubular glomeruli. DT-induced proximal tubule-specific injury also triggered distal tubule injury. Furthermore, injured tubular cells cocultured with fibroblasts stimulated induction of extracellular matrix and inflammatory genes. These results support the existence of proximal-distal tubule crosstalk and crosstalk between tubular cells and fibroblasts. Overall, our data provide evidence that proximal tubule injury triggers several features of CKD and that the severity and frequency of proximal tubule injury determines the progression to CKD. PMID:26701981

  16. Parallel Proximity Detection for Computer Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinman, Jeffrey S. (Inventor); Wieland, Frederick P. (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    The present invention discloses a system for performing proximity detection in computer simulations on parallel processing architectures utilizing a distribution list which includes movers and sensor coverages which check in and out of grids. Each mover maintains a list of sensors that detect the mover's motion as the mover and sensor coverages check in and out of the grids. Fuzzy grids are included by fuzzy resolution parameters to allow movers and sensor coverages to check in and out of grids without computing exact grid crossings. The movers check in and out of grids while moving sensors periodically inform the grids of their coverage. In addition, a lookahead function is also included for providing a generalized capability without making any limiting assumptions about the particular application to which it is applied. The lookahead function is initiated so that risk-free synchronization strategies never roll back grid events. The lookahead function adds fixed delays as events are scheduled for objects on other nodes.

  17. Parallel Proximity Detection for Computer Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinman, Jeffrey S. (Inventor); Wieland, Frederick P. (Inventor)

    1997-01-01

    The present invention discloses a system for performing proximity detection in computer simulations on parallel processing architectures utilizing a distribution list which includes movers and sensor coverages which check in and out of grids. Each mover maintains a list of sensors that detect the mover's motion as the mover and sensor coverages check in and out of the grids. Fuzzy grids are includes by fuzzy resolution parameters to allow movers and sensor coverages to check in and out of grids without computing exact grid crossings. The movers check in and out of grids while moving sensors periodically inform the grids of their coverage. In addition, a lookahead function is also included for providing a generalized capability without making any limiting assumptions about the particular application to which it is applied. The lookahead function is initiated so that risk-free synchronization strategies never roll back grid events. The lookahead function adds fixed delays as events are scheduled for objects on other nodes.

  18. An improved proximity force approximation for electrostatics

    CERN Document Server

    Fosco, C D; Mazzitelli, F D

    2012-01-01

    A quite straightforward approximation for the electrostatic interaction between two perfectly conducting surfaces suggests itself when the distance between them is much smaller than the characteristic lengths associated to their shapes. Indeed, in the so called "proximity force approximation" the electrostatic force is evaluated by first dividing each surface into a set of small flat patches, and then adding up the forces due two opposite pairs, the contribution of which are approximated as due to pairs of parallel planes. This approximation has been widely and successfully applied to different contexts, ranging from nuclear physics to Casimir effect calculations. We present here an improvement on this approximation, based on a derivative expansion for the electrostatic energy contained between the surfaces. The results obtained could be useful to discuss the geometric dependence of the electrostatic force, and also as a convenient benchmark for numerical analyses of the tip-sample electrostatic interaction i...

  19. Proximity induced superconductivity in bilayer graphene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bordaz, Julien; Wu, Fan [Institute of Nanotechnology, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (Germany); Wolf, Michael; Beckmann, Detlef [Institute of Nanotechnology, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (Germany); DFG Center for Functional Nanostructures, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (Germany); Loehneysen, Hilbert von [Institute of Nanotechnology, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (Germany); DFG Center for Functional Nanostructures, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (Germany); Institute of Physics, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (Germany); Institute for Solid-State Physics, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (Germany); Watanabe, Kenji; Taniguchi, Takashi [Advanced Materials Laboratory, National Institute for Materials Science, Tsukuba (Japan); Danneau, Romain [Institute of Nanotechnology, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (Germany); Institute of Physics, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (Germany)

    2013-07-01

    Proximity induced superconductivity effect occurs when graphene is connected with close enough superconducting electrodes. Observations of Andreev reflection and induced supercurrents flowing through graphene sheets have already been reported in graphene. However, these effects have not been explored in bilayer graphene so far. By applying a perpendicular electric field, it is possible to open a gap in a bilayer graphene. This can be achieved in practice by designing a top gate in addition to the usual back gate. Our devices are produced on top of sapphire wafers by using transfer techniques and standard electron-beam lithography. The bilayers are sandwiched between two atomically flat hexagonal boron nitride multilayers which are both used as gate dielectric. By inducing a band gap into a bilayer graphene connected by two superconducting leads, the supercurrent could be switched off inducing a superconductor-insulator transition.

  20. [Ophthalmologists in the proximity of Adolf Hitler].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohrbach, J M

    2012-10-01

    Adolf Hitler met or at least knew about 5 ophthalmologists. The chair of ophthalmology in Berlin, Walther Löhlein, personally examined Hitler's eyes at least two times. The chair of ophthalmology in Breslau, Walter Dieter, developed "air raid protection spectacles" with the aid of high representatives of the NS-system and probably Adolf Hitler himself. Heinrich Wilhelm Kranz became rector of the universities of Giessen and Frankfurt/Main. He was known as a very strict advocate of the NS-race hygiene. Werner Zabel made plans for Hitler's diet and tried to interfere with Hitler's medical treatment. Finally, Hellmuth Unger was an influential representative of the medical press and a famous writer. Three of his novels with medical topics were made into a film which Hitler probably saw. Hitler had, so to say, a small "ophthalmological proximity" which, however, did not play a significant role for himself or the NS-state.

  1. Proximity to mining industry and cancer mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Navarro, Pablo; García-Pérez, Javier; Ramis, Rebeca; Boldo, Elena; López-Abente, Gonzalo

    2012-10-01

    Mining installations are releasing toxic substances into the environment which could pose a health problem to populations in their vicinity. We sought to investigate whether there might be excess cancer-related mortality in populations residing in towns lying in the vicinity of Spanish mining industries governed by the Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control Directive, and the European Pollutant Release and Transfer Register Regulation, according to the type of extraction method used. An ecologic study was designed to examine municipal mortality due to 32 types of cancer, across the period 1997 through 2006. Population exposure to pollution was estimated on the basis of distance from town of residence to pollution source. Poisson regression models, using the Bayesian conditional autoregressive model proposed by Besag, York and Molliè and Integrated Nested Laplace Approximations for Bayesian inference, were used: to analyze risk of dying from cancer in a 5-kilometer zone around mining installations; effect of type of industrial activity; and to conduct individual analyses within a 50-kilometer radius of each installation. Excess mortality (relative risk, 95% credible interval) of colorectal cancer (1.097, 1.041-1.157), lung cancer (1.066, 1.009-1.126) specifically related with proximity to opencast coal mining, bladder cancer (1.106, 1.016-1.203) and leukemia (1.093, 1.003-1.191) related with other opencast mining installations, was detected among the overall population in the vicinity of mining installations. Other tumors also associated in the stratified analysis by type of mine, were: thyroid, gallbladder and liver cancers (underground coal installations); brain cancer (opencast coal mining); stomach cancer (coal and other opencast mining installations); and myeloma (underground mining installations). The results suggested an association between risk of dying due to digestive, respiratory, hematologic and thyroid cancers and proximity to Spanish mining

  2. Critical Proximity as a Methodological Move in Techno-Anthropology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birkbak, Andreas; Petersen, Morten Krogh; Elgaard Jensen, Torben

    2015-01-01

    proximity.’ Critical proximity offers an alternative to critical distance, especially with respect to avoiding premature references to abstract panoramas such as democratization and capitalist exploitation in the quest to conduct ‘critical’ analysis. Critical proximity implies, instead, granting the beings......, fields, and objects we study their own rights and abilities to problematize grand scale claims. Critical proximity further entails that we as researchers are implicated in issues and their formation in ways that allow us to register these critiques and methods, and to emphasize or supplement them. We...... work through two cases—one on the involvement of users in innovation projects and another on commercial web technologies for tracing issues—to show how critical proximity may be practiced. We sum up the lessons derived in four methodological guidelines for doing research with critical proximity....

  3. Relationship between uniform connectedness and proximity in perceptual grouping

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAN; Shihui; (韩世辉); Glyn; W.; Humphreys

    2003-01-01

    Palmer and Rock proposed that uniform connectedness (UC) occurs prior to classical Gestalt factors to define the primitive units for visual perception. Han, Humphreys and Chen, however, found that grouping by proximity can take place as quickly as that based on UC in a letter discrimination task. The present study employed a letter detection task to examine the relationship between UC and proximity grouping in 3 experiments. We showed that reaction times to targets defined by proximity or UC were equally fast when one or two global objects were presented in the visual field. However, as the number of global objects was increased, responses were faster to targets defined by UC than to targets defined by proximity. In addition, the advantage of UC over proximity was not affected by the space between global objects. The results suggest that UC was more effective than proximity in forming perceptual units under multiple object conditions. Possible reasons for this finding are discussed.

  4. SURGICAL MANAGEMENT OF PROXIMAL HUMERUS FRACTURES BY PHILOS PLATTING

    OpenAIRE

    Anand; Kamareddy; Hanu Tej

    2015-01-01

    Proximal humerus fractures are common and debilitating injuries and incidence of them are increasing especially in elderly. Treatment of unstable, displaced, and comminuted fractures of the proximal humerus remains challenging. Various operative procedures are carried out, recent trend in internal fixation has moved on to locking plates. The goal of the study is to test the efficacy and functional outcome of PHILOS plating in proximal humerus fractures.To evaluate the inc...

  5. Network proximity in the geography of research collaboration

    OpenAIRE

    Laurent R. Bergé

    2015-01-01

    This paper deals with the questions of how network proximity influences the structure of inter-regional collaborations and how it interacts with geography. I first introduce a new, theoretically grounded measure of inter-regional network proximity. Then, I use data on European scientific co-publications in the field of chemistry between 2001 and 2005 to assess those questions. The main findings reveal that inter-regional network proximity is important in determining future collaborations but ...

  6. Proximality and pure point spectrum for tiling dynamical systems

    CERN Document Server

    Barge, Marcy

    2011-01-01

    We investigate the role of the proximality relation for tiling dynamical systems. Under two hypotheses, namely that the minimal rank is finite and the set of fiber distal points has full measure we show that the following conditions are equivalent: (i) proximality is topologically closed, (ii) the minimal rank is one, (iii) the continuous eigenfunctions of the translation action span the L^2-functions over the tiling space. We apply our findings to model sets and to Meyer substitution tilings. It turns out that the Meyer property is crucial for our analysis as it allows us to replace proximality by the a priori stronger notion of strong proximality.

  7. Effect of hyperbaric oxygen therapy on esophagojejunal anastomosis healing in rats O efeito da oxigenoterapia hiperbárica na cicatrização da anastomose esofagojejunal em ratos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Domingos Lionço

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To evaluate hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBO after esophagojejunal anastomosis in a rat experimental model and the effect of HBO on the healing of esophagojejunal anastomosis in gastrectomized rats. METHODS: Forty adult male Wistar rats, weighing 322 g to 506 g, were divided into two random groups. In group A (control group, 20 rats were subjected to total gastrectomy. In group B, 20 rats were similarly gastrectomized, but also received postoperative HBO treatment for 90 minutes/day for seven days. All rats were sacrificed on the eighth postoperative day and evaluated according to the following study variables: a presence of anastomotic fistula; b evaluation of esophagojejunal anastomosis healing by measuring the breaking strength at the suture line as per Hendriks & Mastboom; and c determining the collagen concentration in the anastomosis, as per Kovács criteria. For the comparative statistical analysis between groups, Student's "t" test was used. A value of pOBJETIVO: Avaliar o efeito da oxigenoterapia hiperbárica na cicatrização da anastomose esôfagojejunal em ratos gastrectomizados. MÉTODOS: 40 ratos Wistar, adultos machos, pesando entre 322g e 506g, foram divididos aleatoriamente em dois grupos. No grupo A (grupo controle 20 ratos foram submetidos à gastrectomia total. No grupo B, 20 ratos foram gastrectomizados e receberam tratamento pós-operatório com oxigênio hiperbárico, 90 minutos/dia durante sete dias. Todos os ratos foram sacrificados no oitavo dia pós-operatório e avaliados de acordo com as seguintes variáveis: a presença de fístula anastomótica; b avaliação da cicatrização da anastomose esôfagojejunal pela medida da força de ruptura à tração na linha da sutura conforme Hendriks & Mastboom; c determinação da concentração de colágeno na anastomose pelos critérios de Kovács. Para análise estatística comparativa entre os grupos foi utilizado o teste "t" de Student, considerando-se como

  8. Proximity in context: an empirically grounded computational model of proximity for processing topological spatial expression.

    OpenAIRE

    Kelleher, John; Kruijff, Geert-Jan; Costello, Fintan

    2006-01-01

    The paper presents a new model for context-dependent interpretation of linguistic expressions about spatial proximity between objects in a natural scene. The paper discusses novel psycholinguistic experimental data that tests and verifies the model. The model has been implemented, and enables a conversational robot to identify objects in a scene through topological spatial relations (e.g. ''X near Y''). The model can help motivate the choice between topological and projective prepositions.

  9. ESTUDO COMPARATIVO DAS ANASTOMOSES ARTERIAIS COM FIO ABSORVÍVEL E NÃO ABSORVÍVEL EM SUÍNOS EM CRESCIMENTO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IBRAHIM ELIAS KALLÁS

    1998-07-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi observar a evolução, após 12 meses, das artérias anastomosadas com polipropileno e com fios de poliglactina 910, nos suínos em fase de crescimento. A amostra foi composta por 16 fêmeas da raça Landrace, distribuídas em dois grupos : A e B. Os animais devidamente pesados, foram submetidos a secção transversal da aorta abdominalis, abaixo das arteriae renalis dextra et sinistra,que após a medida dos diâmetros internos foram anastomosadas com os fios correspondentes, mediante suturas contínuas. Após um ano os animais foram submetidos à eutanásia e novas medidas realizadas. Em ambos os grupos ficou evidenciado que pesos maiores estão relacionados a diâmetros maiores das artérias. Houve aumento médio de 1027,5 % no peso final dos animais do grupo A e 1242,9 % nos animais do grupo B. Houve aumento médio de 98,6 % no diâmetro final das artérias dos animais do Grupo A e de 102,7% nas animais do grupo B. Para a análise estatística valeu-se dos testes de WILCOXON e MANN-WHITNEY, com cálculo de D %. Os fios de polipropileno permaneceram nas artérias dos animais do grupo A sendo identificados de duas formas: rotos ou em alça, mas sempre fazendo proeminência na luz arterial. Os fios de poliglactina 910 não foram identificados. Concluiu-se que o fios de polipropileno e de poliglactina 910 permitem o crescimento das artérias ao nível das anastomoses término-terminais na aorta abdominalis de suínos.The aim of this study is to observe polypropylene and polyglactine 910 anastomosis, in growing pigs after twelve months. Sixteen female "Landrace" piglets were distributed into two groups : A and B. After being weighed, the animals underwent aorta abdominalis transversal section under arteria renalis dextra and sinistra, diameter measurement, and anastomosis in continuous suture with the above mentioned threads. One year later, the animals were euthanized and new measurement was performed. In both groups

  10. Proximate and mineral composition of industrialized biscuits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Eliza Assis dos Passos

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to analyze the proximate and mineral composition of 21 types of biscuits. All biscuits showed high fat contents, significantly different (P < 0.05 from those described on the labels, except for three brands. Insoluble fiber fractions were predominant in the analyzed samples. Among the 21 biscuits analyzed, 16 showed food label values 20% higher than those allowed by law, according to RDC 360, for fat, protein, total fiber, calcium, and sodium levels. This difference reached 273% for the sodium content. The calcium content was included only on the label of three samples analyzed, and the values described were significantly lower than those obtained analytically. Considering that biscuits are consumed by people of all age groups and of different socioeconomic levels, the results can contribute to the plans for health policies, such as surveillance of nutritional labeling, ensuring the reliability of the information provided by the food industry and enabling the identification of the relationship between dietary factors and the occurrence of non-transmissible chronic diseases.

  11. Proximal relationships between PTSD and drinking behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debra Kaysen

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Co-morbid PTSD and alcohol use disorders are both common and debilitating. However, many of these studies rely on cross-sectional studies that obscure more complex relationships between PTSD and drinking. Event-level studies allow for examination of proximal relationships between PTSD and drinking. Among women (n=136 with past sexual victimization, n=40 no past trauma history, a two-part mixed hurdle model was used to examine daily PTSD and drinking. On days women experienced more intrusive and behavioral avoidance symptoms, they were more likely to drink. For a 2 SD increase in symptoms, there was a 5% increased likelihood of drinking, and for a 2 SD increase in dysphoric symptoms or negative affect, women drank approximately half drink less. Daily-level coping self-efficacy moderated the association between distress and drinking (IRR=0.91, p<0.01. Women who reported less coping drank more as their distress increased on a certain day whereas women who reported more coping drank about the same regardless of distress. Overall, findings suggest that specific PTSD symptoms are associated with higher alcohol use and that these relationships are moderated by daily coping self-efficacy. Implications of these findings for informing models of PTSD/AUD comorbidity, as well as clinical implications will be discussed.

  12. Proximal relationships between PTSD and drinking behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaysen, Debra; Stappenbeck, Cynthia; Rhew, Issac; Simpson, Tracy

    2014-01-01

    Co-morbid PTSD and alcohol use disorders are both common and debilitating. However, many of these studies rely on cross-sectional studies that obscure more complex relationships between PTSD and drinking. Event-level studies allow for examination of proximal relationships between PTSD and drinking. Among women (n=136 with past sexual victimization, n=40 no past trauma history), a two-part mixed hurdle model was used to examine daily PTSD and drinking. On days women experienced more intrusive and behavioral avoidance symptoms, they were more likely to drink. For a 2 SD increase in symptoms, there was a 5% increased likelihood of drinking, and for a 2 SD increase in dysphoric symptoms or negative affect, women drank approximately half drink less. Daily-level coping self-efficacy moderated the association between distress and drinking (IRR=0.91, pself-efficacy. Implications of these findings for informing models of PTSD/AUD comorbidity, as well as clinical implications will be discussed. PMID:25511723

  13. Proximate and elemental analysis of infant formula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanner, J T

    1982-11-01

    The Nutrient Surveillance Branch has been conducting a survey of infant formula products for Fiscal Year 1981. Each product has been carefully analyzed and the results compared to the label declaration and the minimum-maximum limits specified by the American Academy of Pediatrics' Committee on Nutrition (CON/AAP). Proximate and elemental analyses were made. Protein, fat, ash, and total solids (moisture) were determined by AOAC methods. Osmolality, density, and fatty acids (linoleic) were also determined. Carbohydrates were calculated by difference and caloric content was calculated by using the general Atwater factors. Elemental analysis for Ca, P, Mg, Fe, Zn, Cu, Mn, Na, and K were performed by induction coupled plasma absorption spectroscopy. Chloride was assayed by potentiometric titration with AgNO3. A summary of the findings from the infant formula survey have been compared with CON/AAP recommendations. In general, there were only a few exceptions where the label claims and the CON/AAP requirements were not met. However, in none of these cases was the difference considered to be of public health significance.

  14. Methods for the proximate analysis of peat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheppard, J.D.; Tibbetts, T.E.; Forgeron, D.W.

    1986-01-01

    An investigation was conducted into methods for determining the percentages of volatile matter and ash in peat. Experiments were performed on two types of sphagnum peat, a decomposed fuel peat and a commercial horticultural grade peat. The heating apparatus consisted of both a standard programmable furnace (Fisher Coal Analyser) and a thermogravimetric analyser with a module for differential scanning calorimetry (Mettler TA 3000 system). The results indicate that the seven minute test for volatile matter at either 900 C or 950 C does not fully differentiate volatiles from fixed carbon and, depending on the degree of decomposition, up to sixty minutes at 900 C may be required. The TGA system is very useful in discriminating between different fractions of volatile matter. The relative fractions are more important in determining burning characteristics than the total percentage of volatiles. Ashing must be performed under conditions sufficiently severe to ensure complete combustion of organics. The severity that is required is mainly dependent on the degree of decomposition and sample size. Use of TGA and DSC for studying the combustion of peat provides much more information than the standard proximate analysis. 14 refs.

  15. Proximity effects in cold atom artificial graphene

    CERN Document Server

    Grass, Tobias; Tarruell, Leticia; Pellegrini, Vittorio; Lewenstein, Maciej

    2016-01-01

    Cold atoms in an optical lattice with brick-wall geometry have been used to mimic graphene, a two-dimensional material with characteristic Dirac excitations. Here we propose to bring such artificial graphene into the proximity of a second atomic layer with a square lattice geometry. For non-interacting fermions, we find that such bilayer system undergoes a phase transition from a graphene-like semi-metal phase, characterized by a band structure with Dirac points, to a gapped band insulator phase. In the presence of attractive interactions between fermions with pseudospin-1/2 degree of freedom, a competition between semi-metal and superfluid behavior is found at the mean-field level. Upon tuning the coupling between the layers, the system exhibits re-entrant superfluid phases. Using the quantum Monte Carlo method, we also investigate the case of strong repulsive interactions. In the Mott phase, each layer exhibits a different amount of long-range magnetic order. Upon coupling both layers, a valence-bond crysta...

  16. Proximity Resonance and Localized Surface Plasmons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bo; Heller, Eric

    2014-03-01

    The collective excitation of conduction electrons in subwavelength nanostructures is known as Localized Surface Plasmon(LSP)[1]. Such plasmon modes has been intensively studied using noble nanoparticles . More recently, the possibility of building terahertz metamaterials supporting such LSP modes has been explored in graphene microribbons and microdisks. Unlike Surface Plasmon Polaritons(SPPs) at metal-insulator interface, LSP can be directly excited by light illumination and holds promise for applications in ultrasensitive biosensing, nano-optical tweezers and improved photovoltaic devices. In this paper, we consider the interaction of two LSPs in the weak coupling regime and show how an effect similar to the proximity resonance in the quantum scattering theory) gives rise to an asymmetric(quadrupole) mode with increased damping rate. The existence of this asymmetric mode relies on a small phase retardation between the two LSPs. This phase retardation, though small, is key to both increased damping rate for the asymmetric mode and reduced damping rate for the symmetric mode. When this small phase retardation is removed by changing the polarization of the exciting light,we show that the asymmetric mode can not be excited and the symmetric mode shows increased damping.

  17. Anatomic Reconstruction of the Proximal Tibiofibular Joint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, Brent T; Moulton, Samuel G; Cram, Tyler R; LaPrade, Robert F

    2016-02-01

    Proximal tibiofibular joint (PTFJ) instability can be easily missed or confused for other, more common lateral knee pathologies such as meniscal tears, fibular collateral ligament injury, biceps femoris pathology, or iliotibial band syndrome. Because of this confusion, some authors believe that PTFJ instability is more common than initially appreciated. Patients with PTFJ subluxation may have no history of inciting trauma or injury, and it is not uncommon for these patients to have bilateral symptoms and generalized ligamentous laxity. Currently, the optimal surgical treatment for patients with chronic PTFJ instability is unknown. Historically, a variety of surgical treatments have been reported. Initially, joint arthrodesis and fibular head resection were recommended. More recently, temporary screw fixation, nonanatomic reconstruction with strips of the biceps femoris tendon or iliotibial band, and reconstruction with free hamstring autograft have been described. The purpose of this report is to present our surgical technique for treatment of chronic PTFJ instability using an anatomic reconstruction of the posterior ligamentous structures of the PTFJ with a semitendinosus autograft. PMID:27274455

  18. Imaging of rectus femoris proximal tendinopathies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pesquer, Lionel; Poussange, Nicolas; Meyer, Philippe; Dallaudiere, Benjamin; Feldis, Matthieu [Clinique du Sport de Bordeaux, Centre d' Imagerie Osteo-articulaire, Merignac (France); Sonnery-Cottet, Bertrand [Groupe Ramsay Generale de Sante - Hopital Prive Jean Mermoz, Centre Orthopedique Santy, Lyon (France); Graveleau, Nicolas [Clinique du Sport de Bordeaux, Centre de Chirurgie Orthopedique et Sportive, Merignac (France)

    2016-07-15

    The rectus femoris is the most commonly injured muscle of the anterior thigh among athletes, especially soccer players. Although the injury pattern of the muscle belly is well documented, less is known about the anatomy and specific lesions of the proximal tendons. For each head, three distinctive patterns may be encountered according to the location of the injury, which can be at the enthesis, within the tendon, or at the musculotendinous junction. In children, injuries correspond most commonly to avulsion of the anteroinferior iliac spine from the direct head and can lead to subspine impingement. Calcific tendinitis and traumatic tears may be encountered in adults. Recent studies have shown that traumatic injuries of the indirect head may be underdiagnosed and that injuries of both heads may have a surgical issue. Finally, in the case of tears, functional outcome and treatment may vary if the rupture involves one or both tendons and if the tear is partial or complete. Thus, it is mandatory for the radiologist to know the different ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) patterns of these lesions in order to provide accurate diagnosis and treatment. The purpose of this article is to recall the anatomy of the two heads of rectus femoris, describe a reliable method of assessment with ultrasound and MRI and know the main injury patterns, through our own experience and literature review. (orig.)

  19. Quasar Proximity Zones and Patchy Reionization

    CERN Document Server

    Lidz, A; Zaldarriaga, M; Hernquist, L; Dutta, S; Lidz, Adam; Quinn, Matthew Mc; Zaldarriaga, Matias; Hernquist, Lars; Dutta, Suvendra

    2007-01-01

    Lyman-alpha forest absorption spectra towards quasars at z ~ 6 show regions of enhanced transmission close to their source. Several authors have argued that the apparently small sizes of these regions indicate that quasar ionization fronts at z >~ 6 expand into a largely or partly neutral intergalactic medium (IGM). Assuming that the typical region in the IGM is reionized by z <= 6, as is suggested by Ly-a forest observations, we argue that at {\\em least} 50% of the volume of the IGM was reionized before the highest redshift quasars turned on. Further, even if the IGM is as much as 50% neutral at quasar turn-on, the quasars are likely born into large galaxy-generated HII regions. The HII regions during reionization are themselves clustered, and using radiative transfer simulations, we find that long skewers through the IGM towards quasar progenitor halos pass entirely through ionized bubbles, even when the IGM is half neutral. These effects have been neglected in most previous analyses of quasar proximity ...

  20. Proximal spinal muscular atrophy: current orthopedic perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haaker G

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Gerrit Haaker, Albert Fujak Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg, Erlangen, Germany Abstract: Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA is a hereditary neuromuscular disease of lower motor neurons that is caused by a defective "survival motor neuron" (SMN protein that is mainly associated with proximal progressive muscle weakness and atrophy. Although SMA involves a wide range of disease severity and a high mortality and morbidity rate, recent advances in multidisciplinary supportive care have enhanced quality of life and life expectancy. Active research for possible treatment options has become possible since the disease-causing gene defect was identified in 1995. Nevertheless, a causal therapy is not available at present, and therapeutic management of SMA remains challenging; the prolonged survival is increasing, especially orthopedic, respiratory and nutritive problems. This review focuses on orthopedic management of the disease, with discussion of key aspects that include scoliosis, muscular contractures, hip joint disorders, fractures, technical devices, and a comparative approach of conservative and surgical treatment. Also emphasized are associated complications including respiratory involvement, perioperative care and anesthesia, nutrition problems, and rehabilitation. The SMA disease course can be greatly improved with adequate therapy with established orthopedic procedures in a multidisciplinary therapeutic approach. Keywords: spinal muscular atrophy, scoliosis, contractures, fractures, lung function, treatment, rehabilitation, surgery, ventilation, nutrition, perioperative management

  1. Estudo comparativo, em cães, entre a anastomose esôfago-esofágica cervical em dois planos de sutura e a em um plano único extramucoso Study in dogs comparing esophagus-esophageal cervical anastomosis in two planes of suture versus a single extramucosal plane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amaury José Teixeira Nigro

    1997-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo é comparar a eficácia entre as anastomoses esôfago-esofágicas cervicais em dois planos de sutura com as feitas em um plano único extramucoso. Utilizou-se 60 cães, sadios, sem raça definida, de ambos os sexos, com peso médio de 15 kg. Foram separados em dois grupos iguais: no GRUPO I será feita a anastomose em dois planos de sutura e, no GRUPO II, a em um plano único extramucoso. Cada grupo foi subdividido em 3 subgrupos iguais, e para cada um deles foi estabelecido um determinado período de observação pós-operatório (PO de 7, 14 e 30 dias, respectivamente. As suturas foram feitas sempre com fio de polipropileno 4 zeros. Avaliou-se a incidência de complicações pós-operatórias imediatas e tardias e às características histológicas da cicatrização de cada tipo de anastomose. A análise estatística dos dados coletados permitiu verificar que na anastomose esôfago-esofágica cervical executada em um plano único extramucoso a porcentagem de fistulas (13,6%, e de estenoses (30% ao nível da zona de sutura foi significantemente menor do que a observada na sutura realizada em dois planos de sutura em que as porcentagens foram de (26,7% e (63,4%, respectivamente. A cicatrização das estruturas da parede esofágica ao nível da anastomose também foi significantemente melhor na anastomose em plano único extramucoso do que na em dois planos de sutura. Os resultados observados permitiram concluir que a anastomose em plano único extramucoso é mais eficaz do que a executada em dois planos de sutura.The objective of our study was to compare the efficacy of two types of cervical esophagus-esophageal anastomoses: two planes of suture versus a single extramucosal suture. Sixty healthy mongrel dogs of both sexes with a medium body weight of 15 kg. Were separated into two groups. Group one: anastomosis using two planes of suture; and Group two: anastomosis using one plane of extramucosal suture. Each group was divided into

  2. Proximity and inter-organizational collaboration: a literature review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knoben, J.; Oerlemans, L.A.G.

    2006-01-01

    The proximity concept is used in many different ways in the literature. These dimensions of proximity are, however, defined and measured in many different (sometimes even contradictory) ways, show large amounts of overlap, and often are under- or over-specified. The goal of this paper is to specify

  3. Analysis of pattern density on process proximity compensation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Sunwook; Lo, Fred; Yang, Tien-Chu; Yang, Ta-Hong; Chen, Kuang-Chao; Lu, Chih-Yuan

    2007-03-01

    The challenges of ever-smaller CD (Critical Dimension) budget for advanced memory product requires tight ACLV (Across-Chip Line-width Variation) control. In addition to the lithographic MOPC (Model-based Optical Proximity Correction) for DCD (photo CD) control, the process correction for etch proximity effect can no longer be ignored. To meet on our requirement on final CD accuracy for critical layer, a set of test pattern, that represents memory array in one of our critical layers, has been generated for both photo and etch process characterizations. Through the combination of different pattern-coverage areas in the test mask and wafer map design, various local (chip-level) pattern densities of 40%~70% and global (wafer-level) pattern densities of 35%~65% were achieved for optical and etch proximity study. The key contributors to the process proximity effect were identified and voluminous data has been extracted from the memory block like patterns for statistical analysis. The photo and etch proximity effects were hence modeled as function of memory block separation, local pattern density as well as global pattern density. Finally, the respective photo and etch proximity effects through model-based proximity correction and rule-based proximity correction were applied in a multi-step flow to products.

  4. Proximity approach to problems in topology and analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Naimpally, Somashekhar

    2009-01-01

    Dieses Buch konzentriert das aktuelle Gesamtwissen zum Proximity-Konzept und stellt es dem Leser in gut strukturierter Form dar. Hauptaugenmerk liegt auf den vielfältigen Möglichkeiten, die sich aus dem Proximity-Konzept der räumlichen Nähe und seiner Verallgemeinerung im Nearness-Konzept ergeben.

  5. Comparative studies for different proximity potentials applied to α decay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yao, Y.J.; Zhang, G.L. [Beihang University, School of Physics and Nuclear Energy Engineering, Beijing (China); Beihang University, International Research Center for Nuclei and Particles in the Cosmos, Beijing (China); Qu, W.W. [Medical College of Soochow University, School of Radiation Medicine and Protection, Soochow (China); Qian, J.Q. [Beihang University, School of Physics and Nuclear Energy Engineering, Beijing (China)

    2015-09-15

    Half-lives of α decay of even-even nuclei calculated by using fourteen different versions of proximity potentials are compared to experimental data. The results show that the results of the generalized proximity potential 1977 are very much in agreement with the experimental data. In comparison with the distributions of nuclear potentials at small distances and the distributions of total potentials above the released energy Q{sub α}, it is found that at small distances the distributions of nuclear potentials have large difference and the distributions of total potentials are different among the listed proximity potentials. The different potential distributions affect the penetration probability of α, which is related to the half-life of the α decay for each nucleus. The generalized proximity potential 1977 is also used to calculate the half-lives of α decay of nuclei with odd mass numbers. The results show that the generalized proximity potential 1977 can calculate the half-lives of the α decay of almost all nuclei, which underlines and supports the use of the generalized proximity potential 1977 by Santhosh et al. in the Coulomb and proximity potential model (CPPM) and the Coulomb and proximity potential model for deformed nuclei (CPPMDN). (orig.)

  6. Nanocrystal Bioassembly: Asymmetry, Proximity, and Enzymatic Manipulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Claridge, Shelley A. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2008-05-01

    Research at the interface between biomolecules and inorganic nanocrystals has resulted in a great number of new discoveries. In part this arises from the synergistic duality of the system: biomolecules may act as self-assembly agents for organizing inorganic nanocrystals into functional materials; alternatively, nanocrystals may act as microscopic or spectroscopic labels for elucidating the behavior of complex biomolecular systems. However, success in either of these functions relies heavily uponthe ability to control the conjugation and assembly processes.In the work presented here, we first design a branched DNA scaffold which allows hybridization of DNA-nanocrystal monoconjugates to form discrete assemblies. Importantly, the asymmetry of the branched scaffold allows the formation of asymmetric2assemblies of nanocrystals. In the context of a self-assembled device, this can be considered a step toward the ability to engineer functionally distinct inputs and outputs.Next we develop an anion-exchange high performance liquid chromatography purification method which allows large gold nanocrystals attached to single strands of very short DNA to be purified. When two such complementary conjugates are hybridized, the large nanocrystals are brought into close proximity, allowing their plasmon resonances to couple. Such plasmon-coupled constructs are of interest both as optical interconnects for nanoscale devices and as `plasmon ruler? biomolecular probes.We then present an enzymatic ligation strategy for creating multi-nanoparticle building blocks for self-assembly. In constructing a nanoscale device, such a strategy would allow pre-assembly and purification of components; these constructs can also act as multi-label probes of single-stranded DNA conformational dynamics. Finally we demonstrate a simple proof-of-concept of a nanoparticle analog of the polymerase chain reaction.

  7. Interactive orbital proximity operations planning system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grunwald, Arthur J.; Ellis, Stephen R.

    1990-01-01

    An interactive graphical planning system for on-site planning of proximity operations in the congested multispacecraft environment about the space station is presented. The system shows the astronaut a bird's eye perspective of the space station, the orbital plane, and the co-orbiting spacecraft. The system operates in two operational modes: (1) a viewpoint mode, in which the astronaut is able to move the viewpoint around in the orbital plane to range in on areas of interest; and (2) a trajectory design mode, in which the trajectory is planned. Trajectory design involves the composition of a set of waypoints which result in a fuel-optimal trajectory which satisfies all operational constraints, such as departure and arrival constraints, plume impingement constraints, and structural constraints. The main purpose of the system is to present the trajectory and the constraints in an easily interpretable graphical format. Through a graphical interactive process, the trajectory waypoints are edited until all operational constraints are satisfied. A series of experiments was conducted to evaluate the system. Eight airline pilots with no prior background in orbital mechanics participated in the experiments. Subject training included a stand-alone training session of about 6 hours duration, in which the subjects became familiar with orbital mechanics concepts and performed a series of exercises to familiarize themselves with the control and display features of the system. They then carried out a series of production runs in which 90 different trajectory design situations were randomly addressed. The purpose of these experiments was to investigate how the planning time, planning efforts, and fuel expenditures were affected by the planning difficulty. Some results of these experiments are presented.

  8. Effect of age on proximal esophageal response to swallowing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Oliveira Dantas

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: It has been demonstrated that the ageing process affects esophageal motility. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effect of the age on the proximal esophageal response to wet swallows. METHOD: We measured the proximal esophageal response to swallows of a 5 mL bolus of water in 69 healthy volunteers, 20 of them aged 18-30 years (group I, 27 aged 31-50 years (group II, and 22 aged 51-74 years (group III. We used the manometric method with continuous perfusion. The proximal esophageal contractions were recorded 5 cm from a pharyngeal recording site located 1 cm above the upper esophageal sphincter. The time between the onset of the pharyngeal and of the proximal esophageal recording (pharyngeal-esophageal time and the amplitude, duration and area under the curve of the proximal esophageal contraction were measured. RESULTS: The pharyngeal-esophageal time was shorter in group I subjects than in group II and III subjects (P<0.05. The duration of proximal esophageal contractions was longer in group I than in groups II and III (P<0.001. There was no differences between groups in the amplitude or area under the curve of contractions. There were no differences between groups II and III for any of the measurements. CONCLUSION: We conclude that the age may affects the response of the proximal esophagus to wet swallows.

  9. Dual pathology proximal median nerve compression of the forearm.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Murphy, Siun M

    2013-12-01

    We report an unusual case of synchronous pathology in the forearm- the coexistence of a large lipoma of the median nerve together with an osteochondroma of the proximal ulna, giving rise to a dual proximal median nerve compression. Proximal median nerve compression neuropathies in the forearm are uncommon compared to the prevalence of distal compression neuropathies (eg Carpal Tunnel Syndrome). Both neural fibrolipomas (Refs. 1,2) and osteochondromas of the proximal ulna (Ref. 3) in isolation are rare but well documented. Unlike that of a distal compression, a proximal compression of the median nerve will often have a definite cause. Neural fibrolipoma, also called fibrolipomatous hamartoma are rare, slow-growing, benign tumours of peripheral nerves, most often occurring in the median nerve of younger patients. To our knowledge, this is the first report of such dual pathology in the same forearm, giving rise to a severe proximal compression of the median nerve. In this case, the nerve was being pushed anteriorly by the osteochondroma, and was being compressed from within by the intraneural lipoma. This unusual case highlights the advantage of preoperative imaging as part of the workup of proximal median nerve compression.

  10. Uso do adesivo de fibrina na anastomose esôfago-esofágica cervical, em cães The use of fibrin adhesive in the esophagus-esophageal cervical anastomosis, in dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlando Ribeiro Prado Filho

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Estudar os efeitos da associação do adesivo cirúrgico de fibrina à técnica operatória da invaginação submucosa, em anastomoses esofagianas. MÉTODO: Trinta e dois cães submetidos à anastomose esôfago-esofágica foram alocados em dois grupos: I com sutura em doze pontos e II com sutura em quatro pontos e vedação com adesivo de fibrina. Os animais foram avaliados no sétimo e décimo-quarto dias de pós-operatório. Foram analisados: a evolução ponderal, o índice de estenose, a incidência de deiscências e fístulas, a presença de secreções na tela subcutânea, a presença de líquido intersticial, matriz protêica, celularidade, fibroblastos, fibras de colágeno e concentração de hidroxiprolina. RESULTADOS: O índice de estenose foi menor para os animais do grupo I no sétimo dia de observação. Nos animais do grupo II a incidência de deiscências, secreção serosa e purulenta foram signitivamente maiores aos sete e quatorze dias, enquanto a presença de fístulas foi maior no sétimo dia. Quanto à concentração tecidual de hidroxiprolina não houve diferença estatística entre os grupos. Os fibroblastos e fibras de colágeno tiveram presença mais acentuada no grupo II no décimo-quarto dia. Ocorreram quatro óbitos em animais do grupo II. CONCLUSÕES: A anastomose por invaginação submucosa-mucosa com vedação com adesivo de fibrina apresentou piores resultados que a anastomose convencional de doze pontos circunferenciais.BACKGROUND: The aim of this research was to study the effects of the use of fibrin adhesive with the surgical technique of submucosa invagination, in esophageal anastomosis. METHODS: Thirty two dogs operated on for esophageal anastomosis, were distributed in two groups: group I with encircling suture of twelve stitches, and group II with encircling suture of four stitches and fibrin sealant. The anastomosis was evaluated in the 7th and 14th post-operative day. Weight evolution, stenosis

  11. Influência do ácido ascórbico em anastomoses e alças jejunais íntegras de rato Influence of ascorbic acid on anastomotic and jejunal resistance in rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andy PETROIANU

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Racional - O efeito do ácido ascórbico sobre os processos cicatriciais anastomóticos apresenta resultados conflitantes na literatura. Objetivo - Comparar a resistência cicatricial de anastomoses e de segmentos íntegros jejunais de ratos submetidos a administração de vitamina C, em distintos períodos pós-operatórios. Método - Foram estudados 50 ratos Wistar, submetidos a secção e subseqüente anastomose término-terminal de segmento jejunal, a 10 cm da flexura duodenojejunal. Os animais foram divididos em dois grupos (n = 25: Grupo I - controle; Grupo II - administração de vitamina C oral, 100 mg/kg. Avaliaram-se as pressões de ruptura anastomótica e do segmento íntegro jejunal nos 3º, 5º, 7º, 21º e 28º dias pós-operatórios. Resultados - Os ratos que receberam vitamina C apresentaram uma pressão de ruptura anastomótica maior nos 5º, 7º e 28º dias pós-operatórios. O mesmo ocorreu com as pressões de ruptura do segmento íntegro jejunal dos ratos. Conclusões - A vitamina C aumentou a resistência das anastomoses jejunais dos ratos, tanto no pós-operatório imediato, quanto no tardio. Além disso, a resistência final dos segmentos jejunais íntegros dos ratos submetidos a administração de vitamina C foi significativamente maior do que no Grupo Controle.Backgroud - The effects of vitamin C on anastomotic healing process are controversial. Objective - To compare the jejunal anastomotic tension and in the upright segment in different postoperative periods. Method - Fifty male rats weighing 250 to 400 grams were submitted to laparotomy. The jejunum was transversally cut 10 cm from the duodenojejunal flexure, and subsequently anastomosed. The rats were divided into two groups (n = 25. Group I - control, Group II - oral administration of vitamin C (100 mg/kg. The anastomotic and the upright segment resistance was determined by using bursting pressure test on the 3rd, 5th , 7th , 21st and 28th postoperative days

  12. Os ácidos graxos de cadeia curta na cicatrização de anastomoses colônicas: estudo experimental em ratos The short chain fatty acids on colonic anastomosis healing: experimental study on rats

    OpenAIRE

    Fernando Hintz Greca; Maria de Lourdes Pessole Biondo-Simões; Vanessa Dello Monaco Martins; Fábio Henrique Araújo; Jerônimo Buzetti Milano

    2003-01-01

    OBJETIVO: Avaliar a ação dos ácidos graxos de cadeia curta (AGCC) na cicatrização de anastomoses colônicas em ratos. MÉTODO: Utilizaram-se 50 ratos divididos em 4 grupos. Dois desses grupos, vinte e seis animais, foram submetidos à operação de Hartmann; metade destes (grupo HF) recebeu infusões retais diárias, no pós-operatório, de solução fisiológica a 0,9% ; a outra metade (grupo HA) recebeu solução de butirato de sódio à 80mmol/l (AGCC) (HA). Os dois grupos restantes, vinte e quatro animai...

  13. Anastomose do nervo facial de coelhos com cola de fibrina: estudo da velocidade de condução nervosa Rabbit facial nerve anastomosis with fibrin glue: nerve conduction velocity evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Aurelio Lucchesi Sandrini

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Este estudo tem o objetivo de avaliar através da velocidade de condução nervosa com eletrodos de superfície a utilização da cola de fibrina na anastomose nervosa. MÉTODOS: Neste experimento, foram avaliadas as diferenças entre as velocidades de condução nervosa pré e pós-operatória do nervo facial esquerdo de 12 coelhos. Foi verificada a existência de correlação entre a velocidade de condução nervosa e o número de axônios regenerados no pós-operatório. Os nervos transeccionados foram unidos com cola de fibrina. O potencial de ação motora foi obtido com o uso de eletrodos de superfície. O eletrodo de estimulação foi colocado imediatamente à frente do pavilhão auditivo (tronco do nervo facial e o eletrodo de gravação foi colocado no músculo quadrado do lábio inferior. RESULTADOS: A média normal da velocidade de condução nervosa foi de 36,53 m/seg. Ao final do período, a velocidade de condução nervosa atingiu um valor de aproximadamente 81% do valor normal. Não foi observada correlação significativa entre a velocidade de condução nervosa pós-operatória e o número de axônios regenerados (p=0,146. CONCLUSÃO: A anastomose com cola de fibrina pode ser utilizada para anastomose nervosa no modelo animal e nervo estudados.AIM: The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of fibrin glue on nerve anastomosis, and study conduction velocity obtained by surface electrodes. METHODS: In this experimental model we evaluated nerve conduction velocity differences in the preoperative and postoperative periods, for the left facial nerve of 12 rabbits. Then, we evaluated whether there were correlations between conduction velocity and the number of postoperative regenerated axons. The sectioned nerves were anastomosed with fibrin glue. The muscle action potentials were obtained from surface electrodes. The stimulation electrode was placed immediately before the ear pinna (facial nerve trunk and the recording

  14. HEMATOMA OF THE PROXIMAL NAIL FOLD. REPORT OF 41 CASES

    OpenAIRE

    Chang Patricia; Rodas Diaz Cecilia

    2011-01-01

    Background: The proximal fold is an important part of the nail apparatus it contributes to the formation of the nail plate and through the cuticle acts as an impermeable barrier protecting it from any cause.Objective: To know the proximal nail fold hematoma caused by the use of pulse oximeter.Material and Methods: A descriptive study was conducted in 41 patients with proximal nail hematoma secondary to the use of oximetry in patients hospitalized in the Intermediate and Intensive Care Unit at...

  15. Open reduction and internal fixation of proximal humerus fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drosdowech, Darren S; Faber, Kenneth J; Athwal, George S

    2008-10-01

    Open reduction of proximal humeral fractures has the advantage of providing direct control over each fracture fragment and permitting anatomic reduction and fixation with advanced devices. Modern fixed-angle locking plates designed specifically for proximal humerus fractures have allowed the expansion of surgical indications permitting surgeons to address more complicated fractures. Advanced preoperative imaging and fluoroscopy allow a better understanding of fracture patterns and permit the surgeon to use this knowledge intraoperatively. Research is required to further validate fracture classification systems, to develop surgical guidelines for decision making, and to compare the outcomes of the various treatments options for proximal humerus fractures.

  16. Efeitos do fator de crescimento de fibroblasto básico (FCFbeta na cicatrização de anastomoses do esôfago Effects of fibroblast growth factor-beta (FCFbeta on esophageal anastomosis healing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldo da Cunha Medeiros

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Os fatores de crescimento são substâncias moduladoras do processo de cicatrização. O fator de crescimento de fibroblastos básico (FCFbeta liberado pelas plaquetas, macrófagos e pelos próprios fibroblastos, estimulam a proliferação celular, a produção de colágeno e de outros elementos da matriz celular, favorecendo o processo da cicatrização, mesmo em situações adversas, como diabetes e uso de corticosteróides. O presente estudo objetivou determinar a influência do FCFbeta no processo de cicatrização de anastomoses esofageanas em modelo de experimentação animal, avaliando-se a resistência à pressão, formação de tecido de granulação e deposição de colágeno. MÉTODO: Foram estudados dois grupos A e B, ambos com 10 ratos de linhagem Wistar, separados de forma aleatória, todos submetidos à secção e anastomose do esôfago por via abdominal. Nos animais do grupo A, foi feita aplicação tópica na linha de sutura de 10ng de FCFbeta. No grupo B (controle foi aplicado igual volume de solução salina. Os animais foram sacrificados no 7º dia, o esôfago ressecado para teste de resistência da anastomose, estudo qualitativo do aporte de células inflamatórias, da angiogênese e quantificação do colágeno na zona da anastomose, através de sistema digital. RESULTADO: A densidade média dos parâmetros histológicos do grupo A foi 9095,51±1284,5, maior que no grupo B, que teve densidade 7162,4±1273,19 (p=0,013. A resistência da anastomose do grupo A teve a média 210±18,88 mmHg, significativamente maior que no grupo B, que atingiu o valor 157±29,55 mmHg (p=0,0024. CONCLUSÃO: Este estudo concluiu que o FCFbeta atuou melhorando a cicatrização e aumentando significativamente a resistência de anastomoses do esôfago realizadas em ratos.BACKGROUND: Growth factors are substances that modulates tissue healing. Fibroblast growth factor is produced by platelets, macrofages and fibroblasts itself, stimulates

  17. Proportional proximity sensing for telerobots using Coherent Laser Radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vazquez, Sixto L.; Goode, Plesent W.; Slotwinski, Anthony R.

    1992-01-01

    The ability of a telerobotic manipulator to operate in confined spaces while avoiding unwanted collisions is enhanced by the accurate sensing of its proximate environment. To achieve the fidelity required for precise manipulator control, a proportional proximity sensor system with a sufficiently large measurement envelope is required. Current proximity sensors provide a binary indication of the presence of obstacles within a small envelope with coarse or no proportional measurement of their location. A proportional proximity sensor system configured as a Frequency Modulated Continuous Wave (FMCW) Coherent Laser Radar (CLR) using a semiconductor laser as the energy source is described and analyzed. The source and reflected energies mix coherently to generate a radio frequency (RF) signal whose frequency is proportional to the range. The system is tested for accuracy, range, depth of range, speed, and sensitivity and the results are presented. Techniques to derive orientation information and an application to telerobotic control are also described.

  18. Analysis on the characteristics of pulsed laser proximity fuze's echo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kun; Chen, Huimin

    2011-06-01

    With the rapid development of semiconductor technology and laser technology, a kind of proximity fuze named pulsed laser proximity fuze has been applied. Compared with other fuzes, pulsed laser proximity fuze has high ranging precision and strong resistance to artificial active interference. It is an important development tendency of proximity fuze. The paper analyze the characteristic of target echo of laser signal, and then make theoretical analysis and calculation on the laser signal transmission in the smog. Firstly, use the pulse width of 10ns semiconductor laser fuze to do typical targets experiment, to get the echo information of target distance is 5m; then to do smog interference experiment, by comparing the pulse width amplitude and backscattering signal amplitude of laser fuze in simulation and experiment, analyzing the effect of anti-clutter, providing the evidence for the subsequent of circuit of signal amplification and processing.

  19. Oscillations in the proximal intratubular pressure: a mathematical model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holstein-Rathlou, N H; Leyssac, P P

    1987-01-01

    This study presents a dynamic continuous time model of the regulation of the renal proximal intratubular pressure in the rat. The model integrates a functional model of the glomerulus, a tubular model, a feedback model, and an afferent arteriolar model. The model has one equilibrium solution for...... stable oscillations in proximal pressure are present. For sustained oscillations to appear, it is necessary for the system's operating point to be located on a sufficiently steep portion of the tubuloglomerular feedback curve. The model analyses are compared with various experimental recordings of the...... proximal intratubular pressure. The model simulations show both spontaneous and induced oscillations in the proximal pressure in close agreement with the experimental results; but the steady-state mean pressure regulation is found to be less efficient in the model than that apparent from the experimental...

  20. Computational proximity excursions in the topology of digital images

    CERN Document Server

    Peters, James F

    2016-01-01

    This book introduces computational proximity (CP) as an algorithmic approach to finding nonempty sets of points that are either close to each other or far apart. Typically in computational proximity, the book starts with some form of proximity space (topological space equipped with a proximity relation) that has an inherent geometry. In CP, two types of near sets are considered, namely, spatially near sets and descriptivelynear sets. It is shown that connectedness, boundedness, mesh nerves, convexity, shapes and shape theory are principal topics in the study of nearness and separation of physical aswell as abstract sets. CP has a hefty visual content. Applications of CP in computer vision, multimedia, brain activity, biology, social networks, and cosmology are included. The book has been derived from the lectures of the author in a graduate course on the topology of digital images taught over the past several years. Many of the students have provided important insights and valuable suggestions. The topics in ...

  1. Institutions, organizations and space: forms of proximity (In French)

    OpenAIRE

    Talbot, Damien

    2011-01-01

    Opposing heterogeneous agents, imposing choices, and making divergent interests compatible, are all political prerequisites for agent coordination. Although these political prerequisites are not entirely ignored in proximity literature, such literature does tend to insist, for the most part, on cognitive perspective: the biggest beneficial effect of proximity is that of facilitating knowledge-sharing between agents. The principal objective of this paper is to propose both political and cognit...

  2. Thyroid hormone modulates rabbit proximal straight tubule paracellular permeability

    OpenAIRE

    Baum, Michel; Quigley, Raymond

    2003-01-01

    Proximal straight tubules (PST) from both neonatal and hypothyroid adult rabbits have a lower rate of passive volume absorption when perfused with a high-chloride solution simulating late proximal tubular fluid than adult rabbit PST. We hypothesized that the maturational increase in serum thyroid hormone levels mediates the developmental changes in PST paracellular permeability. Neonatal tubules had lower chloride permeability, higher transepithelial resistance, but comparable mannitol permea...

  3. Rapid method to determine proximate analysis and pyritic sulfur

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rowe, M.W.; Hyman, M.

    1985-05-01

    The use of thermomagnetogravimetry has been proposed as an alternative to the ASTM methods for measuring the pyritic sulphur content of coal and for proximate analysis. This paper presents a comparison of the results of thermogravimetry for proximate analysis and thermomagnetometry for pyritic sulphur with ASTM values on the same samples. The thermomagnetogravimetric technique is quicker and easier than the ASTM methods, and of comparable accuracy.

  4. Use of thermogravimetry for proximate analysis of coals and cokes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ottaway, M.

    1982-08-01

    An alternative method for the proximate analysis of coals and cokes using a thermobalance is described. The test measures water content, volatile matter, fixed carbon, and ash residue and takes <10 min to complete. The variety of coals and cokes tested in this investigation have given results which showed good correlation with values from the prescribed method. The thermogravimetric technique appears to be a feasible rapid alternative to standard methods for proximate analysis. (11 refs.)

  5. Bringing Proximate Neighbours into the Study of US Residential Segregation

    OpenAIRE

    Friedman, Samantha

    2011-01-01

    The race and ethnicity of neighbours are thought to be critical in shaping household mobility underlying residential segregation. However, studies on this topic have used data at the census-tract level of analysis rather than at the proximate-neighbour level. Using a non-publicly available version of the neighbour-cluster sample within the American Housing Survey, this study incorporates data on the race, ethnicity and socioeconomic characteristics of the proximate neighbours of White, Black ...

  6. Surgical treatment of fibrous dysplasia in the proximal femur

    OpenAIRE

    TONG, ZHICHAO; Zhang, Wentao; Jiao, Ning; Wang, Kunzheng; Chen, Bo; Yang, Tuanmin

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to summarize oncological and functional results and to investigate surgical treatment methods and efficacies by conducting a retrospective study of patients with fibrous dysplasia (FD) in the proximal femur. A total of 15 patients with FD in the proximal femur were selected. Among them, 12 cases were monostotic and 3 cases were polyostotic. In addition, 2 cases were accompanied by shepherd’s crook deformity. All cases received internal fixation following focus curett...

  7. Proximity functions for electrons up to 10 keV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chmelevsky, D. (Institut fuer Medizinische Strahlenkunde der Universitaet Wuerzburg, Germany); Kellerer, A.M.; Terrissol, M.; Patau, J.P.

    1980-11-01

    Proximity functions for electrons up to 10 keV in water are computed from simulated particle tracks. Numerical results are given for the differential functions t(x) and the integral functions T(x). Basic characteristics of these functions and their connections to other microdosimetric quantities are considered. As an example of the applicability of the proximity functions, the quantity y/sub D/ for spheres is derived from t(x).

  8. A Surviving Child With Complete Proximal Tracheal Atresia

    OpenAIRE

    Haight, Ken; Sankaran, Koravangattu; Shokeir, Mohamed

    1984-01-01

    An infant was born with an unusual combination of primitive foregut anomalies consisting of complete proximal tracheal atresia, proximal esophageal atresia and distal tracheoesophageal fistula. Before the birth, the family physician suspected an anomaly of the upper airway or esophageal occlusion on the basis of hydramnios evident at the thirty-third to thirty-fourth week of gestation, and earlier amniocentesis which indicated a normal level of α-fetoprotein. He consulted the hospital obstetr...

  9. Psychological responses to the proximity of climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brügger, Adrian; Dessai, Suraje; Devine-Wright, Patrick; Morton, Thomas A.; Pidgeon, Nicholas F.

    2015-12-01

    A frequent suggestion to increase individuals' willingness to take action on climate change and to support relevant policies is to highlight its proximal consequences, that is, those that are close in space and time. But previous studies that have tested this proximizing approach have not revealed the expected positive effects on individual action and support for addressing climate change. We present three lines of psychological reasoning that provide compelling arguments as to why highlighting proximal impacts of climate change might not be as effective a way to increase individual mitigation and adaptation efforts as is often assumed. Our contextualization of the proximizing approach within established psychological research suggests that, depending on the particular theoretical perspective one takes on this issue, and on specific individual characteristics suggested by these perspectives, proximizing can bring about the intended positive effects, can have no (visible) effect or can even backfire. Thus, the effects of proximizing are much more complex than is commonly assumed. Revealing this complexity contributes to a refined theoretical understanding of the role that psychological distance plays in the context of climate change and opens up further avenues for future research and for interventions.

  10. Design and Clinical Application of Proximal Humerus Memory Connector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Shuo-Gui; Zhang, Chun-Cai

    2011-02-01

    Treatment for comminuted proximal humerus fractures and nonunions are a substantial challenge for orthopedic surgeons. Plate and screw fixation does not provide enough stability to allow patients to begin functional exercises early after surgery. Using shape memory material nickel titanium alloy, we designed a new device for treating severe comminuted proximal humerus fractures that accommodates for the anatomical features of the proximal humerus. Twenty-two cases of comminuted fracture, malunion, and nonunion of the proximal humerus were treated with the proximal humeral memory connector (PHMC). No external fixation was needed after the operation and patients began active shoulder exercises an average of 8 days after the operation. Follow-up evaluation (mean 18.5 months) revealed that bone healing with lamellar bone formation occurred an average of 3.6 months after surgery for the fracture cases and 4.5 months after surgery for the nonunion cases. Average shoulder function was 88.5 according to the criteria of Michael Reese. PHMC is an effective new device to treat comminuted proximal humerus fractures and nonunions. The use of this device may reduce the need for shoulder joint arthroplasty.

  11. Tubularized incised plate urethroplasty results in patients with proximal hypospadias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasin Aydoğmuş

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the results of the patients with primary proximal hypospadias repaired by “tubularized incised plate” urethroplasty (TIPU. Methods: Thirty-three patients who were operated with TIPU technique in our clinic between 2003-2011 for primary hypospadias with proximal penile and penoscrotal meatus were retrospectively evaluated. Evaluation of the success in this study was, “voiding without fistula”. Results: Mean age was 6.82±3.07 (1-13. Fifteen patients (45.4% had penoscrotal and 18 patients (54.6% had proximal penil meatus. Postoperative success was evaluated with direct vision of voiding at the time of un-catheterization, 2 weeks and 6 months after un-catheterization. Success rates were 5/15 and 10/18 after the first repair in the level penoscrotal and proximal penil, respectively. Overall success rate was 45.5% after the first repair. Patients with urethral fistula after first repair were undergone second repair, success rates were increased to 9/15 and 16/18 in the levels of penoscrotal and proximal penil, respectively. Overall success rate after second repair was 75.8%. Conclusion: TIPU may be confidently applied for the patients with proximal hypopadias in experienced clinics, if there is not an uretral cordi or/and abnormality in the development of urethral plate.

  12. HEMATOMA OF THE PROXIMAL NAIL FOLD. REPORT OF 41 CASES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Patricia

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: The proximal fold is an important part of the nail apparatus it contributes to the formation of the nail plate and through the cuticle acts as an impermeable barrier protecting it from any cause.Objective: To know the proximal nail fold hematoma caused by the use of pulse oximeter.Material and Methods: A descriptive study was conducted in 41 patients with proximal nail hematoma secondary to the use of oximetry in patients hospitalized in the Intermediate and Intensive Care Unit at the Hospital General de Enfermedades from December 1, 2007 to December 31, 2010.Results: We studied 41 patients with proximal nail fold hematoma secondary to the use of oximeter, 30 (73.1% were males and 11 (26.8% females. The numbers of fingers affected by pulse oximeter were in one digit. 30 (73.1% cases, in two digits 6 (14.6%, in three digits 3 (7.3%, in 4 digits 1 (2.4% and in 5 digits 1 (2.4% case. The most affected proximal nail fold was right index: 24 (58.5%, right middle 11 (26.8%, right ring 6 (14.6%, left index 12 (29.2%, and left middle 6 (14.6% cases.Conclusions: Hematomas of the proximal nail fold may be caused by different traumatisms. The use of pulse oximeter is one of them.

  13. Proximity strategies in outsourcing relations: The role of geographical, cultural and relational proximity in the European automotive industry

    OpenAIRE

    Alexander Schmitt; Johannes Van Biesebroeck

    2013-01-01

    Several trends that affect the manufacturing of sophisticated goods - increasing international fragmentation of production, and lean and modular process technologies - have increased the importance of proximity in the supply chain. We use the case of the European automotive industry to simultaneously evaluate the relative importance of three dimensions: geographical, cultural, and relational proximity. Using a rich and novel data set, we find that carmakers value some aspects of each dimensio...

  14. Ejecta emplacement: from distal to proximal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artemieva, N.

    2008-09-01

    Introduction Most part of impact ejecta is deposited ballistically at some distance from a crater, defined by ejection velocity V and ejection angle α: d=v2sinα/g. In case of giant impacts, planetary curvature should be taken into account [1]. Combined with ejecta scaling [2], these relations allow to define ejecta thickness as a function of distance. Ejecta from large craters are deposited at velocity high enough to mobilize substrate material and to thicken ejecta deposits [3]. Ballistic approximation is valid for airless bodies (if impact vaporization is not vast) or for proximal ejecta of large impact craters, where ejecta mass per unit area is substantially greater than the mass of involved vapor/atmosphere (M-ratio). Deposition of distal ejecta, in which ejecta mass is negligible compared to the atmosphere, may be also treated in a simplified manner, i.e. as 1) passive motion of ejected particles within an impact plume and 2) later, as sedimentation of particles in undisturbed atmosphere (equilibrium between gravity and drag). In all intermediate M-ratio values, impact ejecta move like a surge, i.e. dilute suspension current in which particles are carried in turbulent flows under the influence of gravity. Surges are well-known for near-surface explosive tests, described in detail for volcanic explosions (Plinian column collapse, phreato-magmatic eruption, lateral blast), and found in ejecta from the Chicxulub [4] and the Ries [5]. Important aspects of surge transport include its ability to deposit ejecta over a larger area than that typical of continuous ballistic ejecta and to create multiple ejecta layers. Numerical model Two-phase hydrodynamics. Surges should be modeled in the frame of two-phase hydrodynamics, i.e. interaction between solid/molten particles and atmospheric gas/impact vapor should be taken into account. There are two techniques of solving equations for dust particle motion in a gas flow. The first one describes solid/molten particles as a

  15. Effective reinnervation of the quadriceps femoris by spinal ventral root cross-anastomosis in rats Reinervação efetiva do quadríceps femoral pela anastomose cruzada via raiz espinhal ventral em ratos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Song

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To study the effective recovery of the quadriceps femoris by spinal ventral root cross-anastomosis in rats. METHODS: End-to-end anastomosis was performed between the left L1 and L3 ventral roots using autogenous nerve graft ,and the right L1 and L3 roots were left intact. In control animals, the left L3 ventral root was cut and shortened, and anastomosis was not performed. Six months postoperatively, the movement of low extremities was detected by electrophysiological examination, hindlimb locomotion and basso, beattie and bresnahan (BBB scoring at one, three, seven, 14, 21 and 28 days after SCI. Fluorescence retrograde tracing with TRUE BLUE (TB and HE staining were performed to observe the nerve regeneration. RESULTS: Six months after surgery, the anastomotic nerve was smooth and not atrophic. The amplitudes of action potential were 7.63±1.86 mV and 6.0±1.92 mV respectively before and after the spinal cord hemisection. The contraction of left quadriceps femoris was induced by a single stimulation of the anastomotic nerve. The locomotion of left hindlimb was partially restored after spinal cord hemisection while creeping and climbing. In addition, there was significant difference in the BBB score at one, three and seven days after SCI. TB retrograde tracing and neurophysiologic observation indicated efficient reinnervation of the quadriceps femoris. CONCLUSION: The cross-anastomosis between spinal ventral root can partially reconstruct the function of quadriceps femoris following SCI and may have clinical implication for the treatment of human SCI.OBJETIVO: Investigar a recuperação efetiva do músculo quadríceps femoral pela anastomose cruzada via raiz espinhal ventral em ratos. MÉTODOS: Anastomose término-terminal foi realizada entre as raízes ventrais L1 e L3 à esquerda usando enxerto autógeno de nervo e, à direita, as raízes L1 e L3 foram mantidas intactas. Nos animais controles, à esquerda, a raiz ventral de L3 foi

  16. Efeitos das vitaminas A e C em anastomoses intestinais de ratos tratados com corticosteróide Effects of vitamines A and C on the healing of intestinal anastomosis of rats treated with corticosteroid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldo da Cunha Medeiros

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Estudo experimental realizado com o propósito de verificar a possibilidade das vitaminas A e C reverterem os efeitos deletérios do corticosteróide na cicatrização de anastomoses do intestino delgado. MÉTODOS: Foram utilizados 50 ratos Wistar, pesando 247± 22g, divididos aleatoriamente em cinco grupos de dez animais, observados em gaiolas individuais com água e alimento ad libitum. A anestesia foi feita com pentobarbital sódico na dose de 20 mg/Kg e operados sob condições assépticas. Durante sete dias no pré-operatório e por sete dias no pós-operatório, os grupos foram assim tratados com doses farmacológicas: I-controle; II-metilprednisolona IM; III- metilprednisolona + vitamina A; IV- metilprednisolona + vitamina C; V- metilprednisolona + Vit. A + Vit. C. Foi feita ressecção de segmento de 1 cm do íleo terminal e anastomose em pontos simples separados. Após sete dias de observação foi determinada a pressão de ruptura das anastomoses, que foram em seguida ressecadas, fixadas em formol 10%, processadas com técnica padrão para histopatologia com coloração HE e tricrômico de Masson. Os dados foram analisados pelo teste t de Student com significância 0,05. A pressão de ruptura das anastomoses do controle não mostrou diferença com o grupo V (p>0,05 e foi significativamente maior que a dos grupos II, III e IV (p0,05. O controle apresentou histopatologia uniforme atingindo escore 142± 17, significativamente maior que no grupo II (95± 22 e não mostrou diferença significante nos escores com o grupo V (153± 15. CONCLUSÃO: Concluiu-se que a metilprednisolona exerce um efeito deletério sobre a cicatrização de anastomoses intestinais em ratos e as vitaminas A e C, quando usadas associadas, contribuíram para reverter esse efeito.OBJETIVE: There is a need to clearly define the affect of A and C vitamines in the healing of intestinal anastomosis on individuals under corticosteroid treatment, and this is the

  17. MANAGEMENT OF PROXIMAL HUMERUS FRACTURE WITH LOCKING COMPRESSION PLATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shivananda

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Proximal humeral fractures, particularly in osteoporotic patients, remain an unsolved problem. The objective of the study is to test the efficacy and functional outcome of locking compression plate in proximal humerus fractures and to evaluate the incidence of complication that may occur with locking compression plate in proximal humerus fractures. METHODS: Prospective study involving Adults with proximal humerus fractures admitted from November 2010 to November 2012. In this study period 30 cases of fractures of proximal humerus were treated by open reduction and internal fixation with Locking Compression Plate was evaluated. Clinical outcome was measured using neer’s score. RESULTS: In our study proximal humerus fracture was common in age group of 41 to 60 years (63% and the commonest mode of injury was Road traffic accident (53.3%. Mean follow up time was 12 month. Radiological union was achieved within 8 to 12 weeks in all cases. Most of these fractures were two part (n-21 followed by three part (n-6 and four part (n-3. We had 4 excellent (13.3% and 19 satisfactory (63.4% results and 7 had unsatisfactory (13.3% according to Neer’s criteria. Out of 30 patients, 7(23.4% had complication.3 patients had plate impingement, 2 patients had varus malunion, 2 patients had stiffness of shoulder with pain and functional restriction of movement. CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion locking compression plate is mechanically and biologically an advantageous implant in proximal humeral fractures particularly in comminuted fractures and in osteoporotic bones in elderly patients, thus allowing early mobilization.

  18. Induced spectral gap and pairing correlations from superconducting proximity effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Ching-Kai; Cole, William S.; Das Sarma, S.

    2016-09-01

    We theoretically consider superconducting proximity effect, using the Bogoliubov-de Gennes (BdG) theory, in heterostructure sandwich-type geometries involving a normal s -wave superconductor and a nonsuperconducting material with the proximity effect being driven by Cooper pairs tunneling from the superconducting slab to the nonsuperconducting slab. Applications of the superconducting proximity effect may rely on an induced spectral gap or induced pairing correlations without any spectral gap. We clarify that in a nonsuperconducting material the induced spectral gap and pairing correlations are independent physical quantities arising from the proximity effect. This is a crucial issue in proposals to create topological superconductivity through the proximity effect. Heterostructures of three-dimensional topological insulator (TI) slabs on conventional s -wave superconductor (SC) substrates provide a platform, with proximity-induced topological superconductivity expected to be observed on the "naked" top surface of a thin TI slab. We theoretically study the induced superconducting gap on this naked surface. In addition, we compare against the induced spectral gap in heterostructures of SC with a normal metal or a semiconductor with strong spin-orbit coupling and a Zeeman splitting potential (another promising platform for topological superconductivity). We find that for any model for the non-SC metal (including metallic TI) the induced spectral gap on the naked surface decays as L-3 as the thickness (L ) of the non-SC slab is increased in contrast to the slower 1 /L decay of the pairing correlations. Our distinction between proximity-induced spectral gap (with its faster spatial decay) and pairing correlation (with its slower spatial decay) has important implications for the currently active search for topological superconductivity and Majorana fermions in various superconducting heterostructures.

  19. Avaliação da anastomose de artéria torácica interna esquerda com artéria interventricular anterior pela ecodopplercardiografia Evaluation of left internal thoracic artery anastomosis with left anterior descending coronary artery by Doppler echocardiography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adelaide Arruda

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar o valor do ecocardiograma Doppler(ECO transtorácico na identificação de perviabilidade da anastomose entre artéria torácica interna esquerda (ATIE e interventricular anterior, realizada pela técnica de revascularização miocárdica pela minitoracotomia sem circulação extracorpórea. MÉTODOS: Estudaram-se os primeiros 12 pacientes, consecutivos, no período de pós-operatório intra-hospitalar pelo ECO, utilizando-se transdutores de 5MHz, pela via paraesternal esquerda, preferencialmente. Foram analisadas velocidades máximas e integrais de velocidade dos componentes sistólico e diastólico das curvas espectrais de fluxo Doppler. Todos pacientes foram submetidos à cinecoronariografia, enquanto hospitalizados. RESULTADOS: O ECO foi exeqüível em 93% dos pacientes. Nos com anastomose pérvia (6/7, observou-se ao estudo Doppler amplo componente diastólico (padrão A. Naqueles com anastomose obstruída (4/4 o padrão observado foi de predomínio sistólico (padrão B (p=0,003*. CONCLUSÃO: O ECO da ATIE anastomosada com a artéria interventricular anterior, após cirurgia de revascularização miocárdica pela técnica de minitoracotomia, permitiu caracterizar precocemente, com precisão, a perviabilidade da anastomose.PURPOSE: To study the value of Doppler echocardiography as a tool for the evaluation of left internal thoracic artery graft (LITAG patency in patients who underwent coronary revascularization using minimally invasive bypass surgery without extracorporeal circulation. METHODS: The first 12 consecutive patients were studied after coronary artery bypass surgery using a 5MHz Doppler transducer. Doppler signals for the systolic and diastolic flow velocities were preferably obtained in the second intercostal space. All patients underwent coronary angiography while hospitalized. RESULTS: The exam was feasible in 93% of patients. Doppler flow pattern was predominantly diastolic (pattern A in patients with patent

  20. Symmetry-based reciprocity: evolutionary constraints on a proximate mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campennì, Marco; Schino, Gabriele

    2016-01-01

    Background. While the evolution of reciprocal cooperation has attracted an enormous attention, the proximate mechanisms underlying the ability of animals to cooperate reciprocally are comparatively neglected. Symmetry-based reciprocity is a hypothetical proximate mechanism that has been suggested to be widespread among cognitively unsophisticated animals. Methods. We developed two agent-based models of symmetry-based reciprocity (one relying on an arbitrary tag and the other on interindividual proximity) and tested their ability both to reproduce significant emergent features of cooperation in group living animals and to promote the evolution of cooperation. Results. Populations formed by agents adopting symmetry-based reciprocity showed differentiated "social relationships" and a positive correlation between cooperation given and received: two common aspects of animal cooperation. However, when reproduction and selection across multiple generations were added to the models, agents adopting symmetry-based reciprocity were outcompeted by selfish agents that never cooperated. Discussion. In order to evolve, hypothetical proximate mechanisms must be able to stand competition from alternative strategies. While the results of our simulations require confirmation using analytical methods, we provisionally suggest symmetry-based reciprocity is to be abandoned as a possible proximate mechanism underlying the ability of animals to reciprocate cooperative interactions. PMID:26998412

  1. Intramedullary nailing of the proximal humerus: evolution, technique, and results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dilisio, Matthew F; Nowinski, Robert J; Hatzidakis, Armodios M; Fehringer, Edward V

    2016-05-01

    Proximal humerus fractures are the third most common fracture in the elderly. Although most fractures can be treated conservatively with acceptable outcomes, certain fracture patterns are at high risk for progression to humeral malunions, nonunions, stiffness, and post-traumatic arthrosis. The goal of antegrade humeral nailing of proximal humerus fractures is to provide stability to a reduced fracture that allows early motion to optimize patient outcomes. Certain technical pearls are pivotal in managing these difficult fractures with nails; these include rotator cuff management, respect of the soft tissues, anatomic tuberosity position, blood supply maintenance, knowledge of the deforming forces on the proximal humerus, fracture reduction, and rehabilitation strategies. Modern proximal humeral nail designs and techniques assist the surgeon in adhering to these principles and have demonstrated promising outcomes. Humeral nail designs have undergone significant innovation during the past 40 years and now can provide stable fixation in the humeral shaft distally as well as improved stability in the head and tuberosity fragments, which were the common site of fixation failure with earlier generation implants. Compared with other fixation strategies, such as locking plate fixation, no compelling evidence exists to suggest one technique over another. The purpose of this review is to describe the history, results, new designs, and techniques that make modern intramedullary nailing of proximal humerus fractures a viable treatment option. PMID:26895601

  2. Proximal femur fractures: the pioneer era of 1818 to 1925.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartonícek, Jan

    2004-02-01

    The foundations of the modern era of the treatment of proximal femur fractures were laid by Cooper who in 1819 published the first therapeutically oriented classification of these fractures. During the following 100 years the clinical diagnostics were further developed; five classifications of proximal femur fractures were formulated including the terminology used until now (peritrochanteric, intertrochanteric), and surgical treatment was started. The first attempt at internal fixation of the proximal femur in the 1850s was by Langenbeck. His patient died of sepsis. The first successful internal fixation of proximal femur fractures was done in 1875 by König. At the beginning of the twentieth century the method of surgical treatment for proximal femur fractures was improved by Lambotte, Delbet, and Putti. However, the time was not ready yet for this method of treatment. Only technologic progress (stainless steel, new technology), the additional development of anesthesia and asepsis, improvement of xray apparatus, and introduction of the traction table created the prerequisites for successful gradation of Smith-Petersen's method from 1925 to 1931, and which a few years later was used worldwide. PMID:15021169

  3. FUNCTIONAL OUTCOME OF PHILOS PLATE FIXATION FOR PROXIMAL HUMERUS FRACTURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ch. Venkateswarlu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Treating a proximal humerus fracture remained a challenging problem until proximal humeral internal locking system has been developed. Our study aims at evaluating the functional outcome of 30 consecutive patients with proximal humeral fracture treated by Philos plate fixation; 30 patients with proximal humeral fractures who attended our hospital between December 2013 and December 2015 were included in the study; 18 women and 12 men with a mean age of 47.5years (30-60 years are included. Data was collected prospectively and outcomes were assessed using constant shoulder score. The mean follow-up period was 12 months (6-18 months. Mean union time of all the fractures was 11.4 weeks (8-20 weeks. The mean constant shoulder score at final review was 70.5 (52-92. Philos plate provides stable fracture fixation for proximal humerus fracture in both young and elderly patients, which enables for early mobilisation and achieves acceptable functional results.

  4. Topology of digital images visual pattern discovery in proximity spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Peters, James F

    2014-01-01

    This book carries forward recent work on visual patterns and structures in digital images and introduces a near set-based a topology of digital images. Visual patterns arise naturally in digital images viewed as sets of non-abstract points endowed with some form of proximity (nearness) relation. Proximity relations make it possible to construct uniform topolo- gies on the sets of points that constitute a digital image. In keeping with an interest in gaining an understanding of digital images themselves as a rich source of patterns, this book introduces the basics of digital images from a computer vision perspective. In parallel with a computer vision perspective on digital images, this book also introduces the basics of prox- imity spaces. Not only the traditional view of spatial proximity relations but also the more recent descriptive proximity relations are considered. The beauty of the descriptive proximity approach is that it is possible to discover visual set patterns among sets that are non-overlapping ...

  5. Reconstituição do trato digestivo após falha de esofagogastro ou esofagocolo anastomose Digestive tract reconstitution after failed esophago-gastro or esophago-coloanastomosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Italo Braghetto

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available RACIONAL: Disfagia grave ou mesmo afagia pode ocorrer após esofagectomia secundária à necrose do órgão ascendido com estenose severa ou separação completa dos cotos. Ruptura catastrófica esofágica ou gástrica impulsiona a decisão de "desconectar" o esôfago, a fim de evitar graves complicações sépticas. As operações utilizadas para restabelecer a descontinuidade do esôfago não são padronizadas e reoperações para restabelecimento do trânsito digestivo superior são um verdadeiro desafio. MÉTODOS: Este é estudo retrospectivo da experiência dos autores durante 17 anos incluindo 18 pacientes, 14 previamente submetidos à esofagectomia e quatro esofagogastrectomia. Eles foram operados com o fim de restabelecer o trato digestivo superior. RESULTADOS: Refazer esofagogastro anastomose foi possível em 12 pacientes, 10 por meio da abordagem cervical e combinando esternotomia em quatro, a fim de realizar a nova anastomose. Em cinco pacientes esofagocolo anastomose foi novamente realizada. Interposição de enxerto livre de jejuno foi realizada em um paciente. As complicações ocorreram em 10 pacientes (55,5%: deiscência anastomótica em três, estenose em quatro, condrite esternal em dois e abscesso cervical em um. Não se observou mortalidade. CONCLUSÃO: Existem diferentes opções cirúrgicas para o tratamento desta situação clínica difícil e arriscada; deve ser tratada com procedimentos adaptados de acordo com o segmento anatômico disponível para ser usado, escolhendo o procedimento mais conservador.BACKGROUND: Severe dysphagia or even aphagia can occur after esophagectomy secondary to necrosis of the ascended organ with severe stricture or complete separation of the stumps. Catastrophic esophageal or gastric disruption drives the decision to "disconnect" the esophagus in order to prevent severe septic complications. The operations employed to re-establish esophageal discontinuity are not standardized and reoperations

  6. Morbimortalidade relacionada à técnica de anastomose pancreática (ducto-mucosa x telescopagem após cirurgia de Whipple Morbimortality related to pancreatic anastomosis technique (duct-to-mucosa vs. telescopic after Whipple's surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Mali Junior

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: A gastroduodenopancreatectomia (GDP é atualmente a única forma de tratamento segura e eficaz para pacientes selecionados com doenças benignas e malignas do pâncreas e da região periampular. Entre as complicações pós-operatórias, a fístula pancreática continua sendo a mais importante, com uma incidência que varia de 5 a 25% nas grandes séries. Os objetivos deste trabalho são os de avaliar a morbimortalidade relacionada a duas técnicas de anastomoses pancreatojejunais (ducto-mucosa X telescopagem, e comparar seus resultados. MÉTODO: Foram analisados retrospectivamente 64 pacientes submetidos à GDP, no Serviço de Cirurgia Abdômino-Pélvica, do INCA, no período de 1987 a 2002. Destes doentes, 42 foram submetidos à anastomose tipo ducto-mucosa e 22 à telescopagem. A análise estatística foi realizada através do teste de Fischer. RESULTADOS: A taxa de fístula pancreática no grupo ducto-mucosa foi de 12% e no telescopagem foi 36%. Esta diferença percentual se mostrou estatisticamente significativa (p = 0,02. A mortalidade operatória relacionada à fístula pancreática foi de 2,4% para o grupo ducto-mucosa e 4,5% para o telescopagem, com nível de significância estatística > 5%. CONCLUSÕES: A técnica de anastomose pancreatojejunal tipo ducto-mucosa é associada a menores índices de fístula pancreática em relação a técnica de telescopagem, enquanto que a mortalidade operatória relacionada a fístula não mostrou diferença estatística entre os dois grupos estudados.BACKGROUND: Pancreaticoduodenectomy has been used as a safe and appropriate surgical option in selected patients with malignant and benign disorders of the pancreas and periampullary region. Among the complications of the pancreatoduodenectomy, pancreatic anastomosis failure is the most important and sometimes fatal complication. According to recent reports, the incidence of leakage of pancreatic anastomosis after PD is high (between 5% and

  7. Methodology for proximal wear evaluation in posterior resin composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziemiecki, T L; Wendt, S L; Leinfelder, K F

    1992-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to utilize a methodology to measure proximal wear of posterior resin composites with respect to time. A group of 10 teeth (5 premolars and 5 molars) were restored with P-30, a posterior resin composite restorative. At placement the proximal contacts were judged to be closed visually, and with unwaxed dental floss. The patients were then recalled at intervals of 6, 12, and 36 months for indirect wear evaluations. Resin composite transfer copings were made and indexed on baseline models. A zoom stereomicroscope, at 20 microns resolution, was used to determine proximal wear. For the posterior restorative material the premolar and molar teeth wore at the same rate. The amount of wear was statistically greater for premolar teeth at 6 and 12-month evaluation periods than molar teeth. At 36 months, there was no statistical difference in wear between premolar and molar teeth.

  8. The thermometer of social relations: mapping social proximity on temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ijzerman, Hans; Semin, Gün R

    2009-10-01

    "Holding warm feelings toward someone" and "giving someone the cold shoulder" indicate different levels of social proximity. In this article, we show effects of temperature that go beyond these metaphors people live by. In three experiments, warmer conditions, compared with colder conditions, induced (a) greater social proximity, (b) use of more concrete language, and (c) a more relational focus. Different temperature conditions were created by either handing participants warm or cold beverages (Experiment 1) or placing them in comfortable warm or cold ambient conditions (Experiments 2 and 3). These studies corroborate recent findings in the field of grounded cognition revealing that concrete experiences ground abstract concepts with which they are coexperienced. Our studies show a systemic interdependence among language, perception, and social proximity: Environmentally induced conditions shape not only language use, but also the perception and construal of social relationships. PMID:19732385

  9. Fractures of the proximal humerus involving the intertubercular groove

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahovuo, J.; Paavolainen, P.; Bjoerkenheim, J.M. (Helsinki Univ. Central Hospital (Finland). Dept. of Radiology; Helsinki Univ. Central Hospital (Finland). Div. of Traumatology and Orthopaedic Surgery)

    The purpose of this study was to analyse the involvement of the gliding surface of the biceps tendon in fractures of the proximal humerus. Fifteen patients had a fracture of the proximal humerus verified with antero-posterior and axillary radiographs. Tangential radiographs of the intertubercular groove, obtained from the shoulder joint, showed involvement of the intertubercular groove in 13 patients (87%), which could not be shown with other projections. Groove radiographs revealed in 3 patients a dislocation of the fragments of the greater tuberosity large enough to require surgical treatment, but which had not been found using conventional techniques. Therefore, a groove radiograph should be used to precise fractures of the proximal humerus. (orig.).

  10. The thermometer of social relations: mapping social proximity on temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ijzerman, Hans; Semin, Gün R

    2009-10-01

    "Holding warm feelings toward someone" and "giving someone the cold shoulder" indicate different levels of social proximity. In this article, we show effects of temperature that go beyond these metaphors people live by. In three experiments, warmer conditions, compared with colder conditions, induced (a) greater social proximity, (b) use of more concrete language, and (c) a more relational focus. Different temperature conditions were created by either handing participants warm or cold beverages (Experiment 1) or placing them in comfortable warm or cold ambient conditions (Experiments 2 and 3). These studies corroborate recent findings in the field of grounded cognition revealing that concrete experiences ground abstract concepts with which they are coexperienced. Our studies show a systemic interdependence among language, perception, and social proximity: Environmentally induced conditions shape not only language use, but also the perception and construal of social relationships.

  11. A Flexible Proximity Sensor Fully Fabricated by Inkjet Printing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chin-Tsan Wang

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available A flexible proximity sensor fully fabricated by inkjet printing is proposed in this paper. The flexible proximity sensor is composed of a ZnO layer sandwiched in between a flexible aluminum sheet and a web-shaped top electrode layer. The flexible aluminum sheet serves as the bottom electrode. The material of the top electrode layer is nano silver. Both the ZnO and top electrode layers are deposited by inkjet printing. The fully inkjet printing process possesses the advantages of direct patterning and low-cost. It does not require photolithography and etching processes since the pattern is directly printed on the flexible aluminum sheet. The prototype demonstrates that the presented flexible sensor is sensitive to the human body. It may be applied to proximity sensing or thermal eradiation sensing.

  12. Aromatase immunolocalization in human ductuli efferentes and proximal ductus epididymis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpino, A; Romeo, F; Rago, V

    2004-03-01

    Abstract Cytochrome P450 aromatase is a terminal enzyme that catalyses the conversion of androgens into oestrogens. This study investigated the immunohistochemical localization of aromatase in human efferent ductules and proximal ductus epididymis using a mouse anti-human monoclonal P450arom IgG as primary antibody and a goat anti-mouse biotinylated IgG as secondary antibody. A strong immunoreaction was observed in the epithelial cell cytoplasm of both ductuli efferentes and proximal ductus epididymis, whereas the smooth muscle cells were immunonegative in the two regions. The results show, for the first time in humans, that epithelial cells of ductuli efferentes and proximal caput epididymis express aromatase, suggesting that locally produced oestrogens may have a role in epididymal function. PMID:15032911

  13. Proximal arm kinematics affect grip force-load force coordination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermillion, Billy C; Lum, Peter S; Lee, Sang Wook

    2015-10-01

    During object manipulation, grip force is coordinated with load force, which is primarily determined by object kinematics. Proximal arm kinematics may affect grip force control, as proximal segment motion could affect control of distal hand muscles via biomechanical and/or neural pathways. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of proximal kinematics on grip force modulation during object manipulation. Fifteen subjects performed three vertical lifting tasks that involved distinct proximal kinematics (elbow/shoulder), but resulted in similar end-point (hand) trajectories. While temporal coordination of grip and load forces remained similar across the tasks, proximal kinematics significantly affected the grip force-to-load force ratio (P = 0.042), intrinsic finger muscle activation (P = 0.045), and flexor-extensor ratio (P joint cannot fully explain the observed changes, as task-related changes in intrinsic hand muscle activation were greater than in extrinsic hand muscles. Rather, between-task variation in grip force (highest during task 3) appears to contrast to that in shoulder joint velocity/acceleration (lowest during task 3). These results suggest that complex neural coupling between the distal and proximal upper extremity musculature may affect grip force control during movements, also indicated by task-related changes in intermuscular coherence of muscle pairs, including intrinsic finger muscles. Furthermore, examination of the fingertip force showed that the human motor system may attempt to reduce variability in task-relevant motor output (grip force-to-load force ratio), while allowing larger fluctuations in output less relevant to task goal (shear force-to-grip force ratio). PMID:26289460

  14. Study on the proximal femoral parameters in the healthy Chinese

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To explore the characteristics of proximal femoral parameter in the healthy Chinese and provide anatomic basis for the design and research of the domestic prosthesis. Methods: One hundred computed radiographs perpendicular to the hip joint were selected randomly and the proximal femoral parameter were measured by means of Unisight software. These parameters include diameter of femoral head, length of femoral neck, neck-shaft angle, offset, high of femoral head, the width of bone medullary cavity at the plane of lesser trochanter, 20mm above and below the lesser trochanter, diameter and height of the narrow cavity, canal flare index(CFI) and metaphyseal canal flare index (MCFI). The proximal femoral parameters among the Chinese, American and European were compared. Results: There were significant differences in the proximal femoral parameters between ours and American and European, especially in aspect of offset, height of femoral head, diameter of femoral head, the width of bone medullary cavity at the plane of lesser trochanter, 20mm above and below the lesser trochanter and diameter of the narrow cavity. The percentage of funnel-shaped femora (CFI>4.7) in our group was larger than that of the American or the European (P<0.01), which was 20%, 8%, and 11.5% respectively, but there was no significant difference between ours and other domestic scholar's. Conclusion: Computed radiograph system facililates to the research of the morphology of the proximal femur and the measurement of relative parameters and the survey of the characteristics of Chinese femoral. It is important for research and manufacture of the domestic prosthesis fitting the features of the femurs of the Chinese femoral to set up a database of the healthy Chinese proximal femora. (authors)

  15. PROXIMAL POINT ALGORITHM FOR MINIMIZATION OF DC FUNCTION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wen-yu Sun; Raimundo. J.B. Sampaio; M.A.B. Candido

    2003-01-01

    In this paper we present some algorithms for minimization of DC function (difference of two convex functions). They are descent methods of the proximal-type which use the convex properties of the two convex functions separately. We also consider an approximate proximal point algorithm. Some properties of the ε-subdifferential and the ε-directional derivative are discussed. The convergence properties of the algorithms are established in both exact and approximate forms. Finally, we give some applications to the concave programming and maximum eigenvalue problems.

  16. FINITE PROXIMATE METHOD FOR CONVECTION-DIFFUSION EQUATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Ming-deng; LI Tai-ru; HUAI Wen-xin; LI Liang-liang

    2008-01-01

    A finite proximate method was presented to solve the convection-diffusion equation in curvilinear grids. The method has characteristics of automatic upwind effect and the good stability. It was verified through exact solution and other calculation results of two-dimensional dam-break flow in a frictionless, horizontal channel. The calculation results are in good agreement with the exact solution and other calculation results, which show that the finite proximate method can be applied to solve the convection-diffusion equation directly not only in the rectangular grids, but also in the curvilinear grids.

  17. Double-driven shield capacitive type proximity sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vranish, John M. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    A capacity type proximity sensor comprised of a capacitance type sensor, a capacitance type reference, and two independent and mutually opposing driven shields respectively adjacent to the sensor and reference and which are coupled in an electrical bridge circuit configuration and driven by a single frequency crystal controlled oscillator is presented. The bridge circuit additionally includes a pair of fixed electrical impedance elements which form adjacent arms of the bridge and which comprise either a pair of precision resistances or capacitors. Detection of bridge unbalance provides an indication of the mutual proximity between an object and the sensor. Drift compensation is also utilized to improve performance and thus increase sensor range and sensitivity.

  18. Proximal antecedents to violent events in adolescent dating relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, Pamela S; Martsolf, Donna S; Draucker, Claire Burke

    2011-01-01

    Dating violence affects 25-60% of adolescents. This study developed a typology of proximal antecedents to violent events in adolescent dating relationships. Descriptions of 307 dating violence events were extracted from transcribed interviews with 87 young adults who experienced dating violence as adolescents. Verbatim text preceding the description of each violent event was identified as a proximal antecedent. Cross-case analysis was used to develop a typology of five antecedent categories: "pulling away,"  "demanding obedience," "discovering involvement with a rival," "defining the relationship," "demonstrating disrespect." Practitioners can use this typology to engage teens in discussions of factors that precede dating violence events. PMID:21992258

  19. Premaceral contents of peats correlated with proximate and ultimate analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, A.D.; Andrejko, M.J.

    1983-01-01

    Preliminary correlations of petrographic characteristics of peats (i.e., peat types, premaceral proportions, and premaceral types) with proximate analysis, ultimate analysis, and Btu content are reported. These correlations suggest the following trends: (1) peats with the highest proportions of birefringent macerals tend to have highest volatile matter (and H and O contents); (2) fluorescence of macerals seems to correlate only slightly with proximate and ultimate analyses; (3) higher previtrinite contents tend to correlate with higher volatile matter contents; (4) peats with higher preinertinities, prephlobaphenites (and precorpocollinites), and presclerotinites have the highest fixed carbon; and (5) Btu correlates strongly with ash content and only slightly with maceral content. (BLM)

  20. Modelling and Analysis of Proximity Effect in IGBT Fuses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iov, Florin; Blaabjerg, Frede; Rasmussen, Henrik

    2005-01-01

    . Even with an active protection, a high power IGBT still has a risk of exhibiting a violent rupture in the case of a fault if e.g. IGBT fuses are not protecting it. By introducing fuses into voltage source converters a better protection of IGBT's can be achieved. However, skin and proximity effects...... affect the current distribution in a fuse due to the high frequency currents and thus a need for de-rating the fuse. This paper shows an analytical model for studying the proximity effect into a fuse. The results obtained using this model are compared with experiments....

  1. Inverse Proximity Effect in Superconductor-ferromagnet Bilayer Structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xia, Jing

    2010-04-05

    Measurements of the polar Kerr effect using a zero-area-loop Sagnac magnetometer on Pb/Ni and Al/(Co-Pd) proximity-effect bilayers show unambiguous evidence for the 'inverse proximity effect,' in which the ferromagnet (F) induces a finite magnetization in the superconducting (S) layer. To avoid probing the magnetic effects in the ferromagnet, the superconducting layer was prepared much thicker than the light's optical penetration depth. The sign and size of the effect, as well as its temperature dependence agree with recent predictions by Bergeret et al.[1].

  2. Ectrodactyly and proximal/intermediate interstitial deletion 7q

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McElveen, C.; Carvajal, M.V.; Moscatello, D. [Louisiana State Univ. Medical Center, New Orleans, LA (United States)] [and others

    1995-03-13

    We report on an individual with severe mental retardation, seizures, microcephaly, unusual face, scoliosis, and cleft feet and cleft right hand. The chromosomal study showed a proximal interstitial deletion 7q (q11.23q22). From our review of the literature, 11 patients have been reported with ectrodactyly (split hand/split foot malformation) and proximal/intermediate interstitial deletions or rearrangements of 7q. The critical segment for ectrodactyly seems to be located between 7q21.2 and 7q22.1. This malformation is present in 41% of the patients whose deletion involves the critical segment. 37 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  3. Technique, indications, and results of proximal medial gastrocnemius lengthening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barouk, Pierre

    2014-12-01

    Gastrocnemius proximal lengthening was first performed to correct spasticity in children, and was adapted for the patient with no neuromuscular condition in the late 1990s. Since then, the proximal gastrocnemius release has become less invasive and has evolved to include only the fascia overlying the medial head of the gastrocnemius muscle. The indications for performing this procedure are a clinically demonstrable gastrocnemius contracture that influences a variety of clinical conditions in the forefoot, hindfoot, and ankle. It is a safe and easy procedure that can be performed bilaterally simultaneously, and does not require immobilization of the ankle after surgery. PMID:25456723

  4. Short- and long-term outcomes of ileal pouch-anal anastomosis for ulcerative colitis Resultado precoce e tardio da anastomose íleoanal com reservatório ileal na retocolite ulcerativa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magaly Gemio Teixeira

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Ileal pouch-anal anastomosis was an important advancement in the treatment of ulcerative colitis. The aim of this study was to determine whether early complications of ileal pouch-anal anastomosis in patients with ulcerative colitis are associated with poor late functional results. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Eighty patients were operated on from 1986 to 2000, 62 patients with ileostomy and 18 without. The early and late complications were recorded. Specific emphasis has been placed on the incidence of pouchitis with prolonged follow-up. RESULTS: The ileostomy was closed an average of 9.2 months after the first operation. Fourteen patients were excluded from the long-term evaluation; 6 patients were lost to regular follow-up, 4 died, and 4 patients still have the ileostomy. Of the 4 patients that died, 1 died from surgical complications. Early complications after operation (41 occurred in 34 patients (42.5%. Late complications (29 occurred in 25 patients as follows: 16 had pouchitis, 3 associated with stenosis and 1 with sexual dysfunction; 5 had stenosis; and there was 1 case each of incisional hernia, ileoanal fistula, hepatic cancer, and endometriosis. Pouchitis occurred in 6 patients (9.8% 1 year after ileal pouch-anal anastomosis, 9 (14.8% after 3 years, 13 (21.3% after 5 years, and 16 (26.2% after more than 6 years. The mean daily stool frequency was 12 before and 5.8 after operation. One pouch was removed because of fistulas that appeared 2 years later. CONCLUSIONS: Ileal pouch-anal anastomosis is associated with a considerable number of early complications. There was no correlation between pouchitis and severe disease, operation with or without ileostomy, or early postoperative complications. The incidence of pouchitis was directly proportional to duration of time of follow-up.A anastomose íleo-anal com reservatório ileal foi um importante avanço no tratamento da retocolite ulcerativa. O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar se os maus

  5. Proximity focusing RICH detector based on multilayer silica aerogel radiator

    CERN Document Server

    De Leo, R; Bellunato, T; Calvi, M; Cisbani, E; Cusanno, F; Garibaldi, F; Lagamba, L; Marra, M; Marrone, S; Matteuzzi, C; Musico, P; Nappi, E; Perego, D L; Torrioli, S; Vilardi, I

    2010-01-01

    The performance of a proximity focusing Ring Imaging Cherenkov detector equipped with a radiator of silica aerogel is presented. The aerogel tile used is a monolith with variable index of refraction. Cherenkov photons are detected with high granularity by eight Hamamatsu H9500 flat panel multi anode phototubes.

  6. Children's Attentional Processing of Mother and Proximity Seeking.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guy Bosmans

    Full Text Available Attachment expectations regarding the availability of mother as a source for support are supposed to influence distressed children's support seeking behavior. Because research is needed to better understand the mechanisms related to support seeking behavior, this study tested the hypothesis that the cognitive processing of mother-related information is linked to proximity and support seeking behavior. Uncertainty in maternal support has been shown to be characterized by a biased attentional encoding of mother, reducing the breadth of children's attentional field around her. We investigated whether this attentional bias is related to how long distressed children wait before seeking their mother's proximity. Thirty-three children (9-11 years participated in this study that consisted of experimental tasks to measure attentional breadth and to observe proximity seeking behavior and of questionnaires to measure confidence in maternal support and experienced distress. Results suggested that distressed children with a more narrow attentional field around their mother wait longer to seek her proximity. Key Message: These findings provide a first support for the hypothesis that the attentional processing of mother is related to children's attachment behavior.

  7. Correction of Misclassifications Using a Proximity-Based Estimation Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemistö, Antti; Shmulevich, Ilya; Lukin, Vladimir V.; Dolia, Alexander N.; Yli-Harja, Olli

    2004-12-01

    An estimation method for correcting misclassifications in signal and image processing is presented. The method is based on the use of context-based (temporal or spatial) information in a sliding-window fashion. The classes can be purely nominal, that is, an ordering of the classes is not required. The method employs nonlinear operations based on class proximities defined by a proximity matrix. Two case studies are presented. In the first, the proposed method is applied to one-dimensional signals for processing data that are obtained by a musical key-finding algorithm. In the second, the estimation method is applied to two-dimensional signals for correction of misclassifications in images. In the first case study, the proximity matrix employed by the estimation method follows directly from music perception studies, whereas in the second case study, the optimal proximity matrix is obtained with genetic algorithms as the learning rule in a training-based optimization framework. Simulation results are presented in both case studies and the degree of improvement in classification accuracy that is obtained by the proposed method is assessed statistically using Kappa analysis.

  8. Implant-Root Proximity and Pulp Vitality of the Tooth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tasharoie

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background When dental implants are applied in partially edentulous patients, there is the risk of placing the implants in close proximity or in direct contact with the adjacent roots. In this situation assurance of pulp vitality of the adjacent tooth is neessary. Objectives The current study aimed to assess pulp response of the tooth after root proximity with dental implant. Patients and Methods After investigating 2800 records of patients, 31 implants in 29 patients were included in this study. A parallel peri-apical radiography was taken and pulp vitality tests (cold, heat and electrical pulp tests were conducted for each patient. Results Among the 31 assessed implants and the adjacent intact teeth, 13 implants had direct contact and 18 implants had proximity of less than 1 mm with the adjacent root. All of the teeth had positive (normal pulp response to all tests. The most prevalent areas for proximity of implant-tooth were upper first premolar implants and upper canine teeth. The most approximation area was apical third of root of the teeth. Conclusions Based on the clinical and radiographic examinations, implant-tooth approximation (less than 1 mm or direct contact is not related to pulp vitality of the tooth. Further studies with larger sample sizes are necessary to confirm the results of the study.

  9. Interlanguage Pragmatics in the Zone of Proximal Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohta, Amy Snyder

    2005-01-01

    Vygotsky's zone of proximal development (ZPD) has been fruitfully applied in L2 research that examines second and foreign language learning. This paper considers the applicability of the ZPD to interlanguage pragmatics instruction and research. First, the ZPD is defined [Vygotsky, L.S., 1978. Mind in Society: The Development of Higher…

  10. Proximity to coast is linked to climate change belief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milfont, Taciano L; Evans, Laurel; Sibley, Chris G; Ries, Jan; Cunningham, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Psychologists have examined the many psychological barriers to both climate change belief and concern. One barrier is the belief that climate change is too uncertain, and likely to happen in distant places and times, to people unlike oneself. Related to this perceived psychological distance of climate change, studies have shown that direct experience of the effects of climate change increases climate change concern. The present study examined the relationship between physical proximity to the coastline and climate change belief, as proximity may be related to experiencing or anticipating the effects of climate change such as sea-level rise. We show, in a national probability sample of 5,815 New Zealanders, that people living in closer proximity to the shoreline expressed greater belief that climate change is real and greater support for government regulation of carbon emissions. This proximity effect held when adjusting for height above sea level and regional poverty. The model also included individual differences in respondents' sex, age, education, political orientation, and wealth. The results indicate that physical place plays a role in the psychological acceptance of climate change, perhaps because the effects of climate change become more concrete and local. PMID:25047568

  11. PROXIMAL RADIUS RECONSTRUCTION BY METATARSAL OSTEOCHONDRAL AUTO GRAFT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kammar

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available 17 Year Old student, Pavan presents with swelling since 8 months. Swelling was diffuse over forearm. Tenderness was present. No local rise of temperature. Range of m ovement at elbow was restricted and painful terminally. No distal neurovascular deficits. X - ray reveale d it to be an a neurysmal bone cyst of proximal right radius. FNAC showed Aneurysmal bone cyst for which curettage and bone grafting was done. Post 6 months tumour recurred with a swelling around upper third of right fo rearm. FNAC and J - needle biopsy showed it to be a neurysmal bone cyst. MRI showed ABC of proximal radius without soft tissue involvement. Excision of proximal third of radius with reconstruction by 3 rd metatarsal and augmented with fib ular graft and stabili zed with dynamic c ompression plate and screws . Tumour specimen was sent for h istopathology a t 2 weeks p ost operatively patient had good range of movements. At present patient has full range of flexion , extension , supination & pronation . He is able to carry out his ADL. In the literature proximal radius reconstruction has been tried in traumatic communited radial head fractures. Here it done for r ecurrent benign tumour like aneurysmal bone cyst, as the base of 3rd metatarsal anatomically coincides with radial head and hence a better radio - capital articulation

  12. Interventions for treating proximal humeral fractures in adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Handoll, Helen H G; Brorson, Stig

    2015-01-01

    and harms) of treatment and rehabilitation interventions for proximal humeral fractures in adults. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Bone, Joint and Muscle Trauma Group Specialised Register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, EMBASE, and other databases, conference...

  13. Reflections on the Ecolab and the Zone of Proximal Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luckin, Rosemary; du Boulay, Benedict

    2016-01-01

    In 1999 we reported a study that explored the way that Vygotsky's Zone of Proximal Development could be used to inform the design of an Interactive Learning Environment called the Ecolab. Two aspects of this work have subsequently been used for further research. Firstly, there is the interpretation of the ZPD and its associated theory that was…

  14. Bridging Pedagogies: Drama, Multiliteracies, and the Zone of Proximal Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macy, Leonora

    2016-01-01

    This article examines how one educator embraced Vygotsky's concept of the zone of proximal development (ZPD) while using drama to scaffold learning about Dr. Seuss's "The Lorax" for first-grade students. This learning event is interpreted with reference to the ZPD and the New London Group's pedagogy of multiliteracies. The author asserts…

  15. The Grammaticalization of the Proximative in Tok Pisin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romaine, Suzanne

    1999-01-01

    Discusses grammaticalization of "laik" in Tok Pisin, meaning "want/like/desire" (from English "like") and "klostu," meaning "near" (from English "close to") as markers of proximative. Shows although "klostu" was more generally a feature of Pacific Pidgin English and began to grammaticalize in mid-19th century, is now in competition with "laik," a…

  16. Glutamatergic signaling maintains the epithelial phenotype of proximal tubular cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bozic, M.; de Rooij, J.; Parisi, E.; Ortega, M.R.; Fernandez, E.; Valdivielso, J.M.

    2011-01-01

    Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) contributes to the progression of renal tubulointerstitial fibrosis. The N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR), which is present in proximal tubular epithelium, is a glutamate receptor that acts as a calcium channel. Activation of NMDAR induces actin rearrange

  17. Monitoring Cost Reduction in Sensor Networks using Proximity Queries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Rakibul Haque

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Event detection and notification is a common task in a Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN. Efficient data aggregation and the minimization of energy consumption are the great research challenges in WSN. In WSN, normally the events are detected by more than one node and it is more reliable if the consistent event information is received from more than one node. Therefore, aggregated event information is more important than individual event information for energy saving and reliability. Proximity queries can be used to reduce the complexity of data aggregation and energy consumption. This paper presents an efficient and scalable hybrid framework for processing spatial and temporal proximity queries in WSN which we call Spatial and Temporal Processing (STP. STP builds tree structure with less overhead and reduces the event propagation cost through proximity queries. STP reduces energy consumption by reducing the number of aggregator nodes, which ultimately increases the network life time. STP eliminates the unnecessary aggregation of events using a tunable temporal proximity threshold. We compare STP’s performance with another spatial query processing method and we show that STP performs better.

  18. Worlds largest particle physics laboratory selects Proxim Wireless Mesh

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    "Proxim Wireless has announced that the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), the world's largest particle physics laboratory and the birthplace of the World Wide Web, is using it's ORiNOCO AP-4000 mesh access points to extend the range of the laboratory's Wi-Fi network and to provide continuous monitoring of the lab's calorimeters" (1/2 page)

  19. Private and Flexible Proximity Detection in Mobile Social Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siksnys, Laurynas; Thomsen, Jeppe Rishede; Saltenis, Simonas;

    2010-01-01

    A privacy-aware proximity detection service determines if two mobile users are close to each other without requiring them to disclose their exact locations. Existing proposals for such services provide weak privacy, give low accuracy guarantees, incur high communication costs, or lack flexibility...

  20. Do Proximate Micro-Swimmers Synchronize their Gait?

    CERN Document Server

    Yuan, Jinzhou; Raizen, David M; Bau, Haim H

    2012-01-01

    In this fluid dynamics video, we show that low Reynolds number swimmers, such as Caenorhabditis (C.) elegans, synchronize their gait when swimming in close proximity to maximize utilization of space. Synchronization most likely results from steric hindrance and enhances the propulsive speed only marginally.

  1. Correction of Misclassifications Using a Proximity-Based Estimation Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shmulevich Ilya

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available An estimation method for correcting misclassifications in signal and image processing is presented. The method is based on the use of context-based (temporal or spatial information in a sliding-window fashion. The classes can be purely nominal, that is, an ordering of the classes is not required. The method employs nonlinear operations based on class proximities defined by a proximity matrix. Two case studies are presented. In the first, the proposed method is applied to one-dimensional signals for processing data that are obtained by a musical key-finding algorithm. In the second, the estimation method is applied to two-dimensional signals for correction of misclassifications in images. In the first case study, the proximity matrix employed by the estimation method follows directly from music perception studies, whereas in the second case study, the optimal proximity matrix is obtained with genetic algorithms as the learning rule in a training-based optimization framework. Simulation results are presented in both case studies and the degree of improvement in classification accuracy that is obtained by the proposed method is assessed statistically using Kappa analysis.

  2. Megalin and cubilin in proximal tubule protein reabsorption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Rikke; Christensen, Erik Ilsø; Birn, Henrik

    2016-01-01

    with receptor gene knockout, the implications of receptor dysfunction in acute and chronic kidney injury have been explored and have pointed to potential new roles of these receptors. Based on data from animal models, this paper will review current knowledge on proximal tubule endocytic receptor...... kidney disease, diabetes, and hypertension....

  3. Conservative Treatment for Bilateral Displaced Proximal Humerus Head Fracture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Corlay, Ruy E; Velutini-Becker, Ricardo; Aguilar-Alcalá, Luis D

    2016-01-01

    Proximal humerus fracture represents five to eight percent of all fractures and is twice as common in women than in men. Most cases of displaced fracture of the proximal humerus are treated surgically; it is probable that more cases are preferred to be treated surgically greater than required. The optimal treatment for these fractures remains controversial, but physicians have a tendency to treat via open reduction and fixation with angular locking plates or glenohumeral arthroplasty.  We present a case of a 71-year-old woman with bilateral displaced proximal humeral fracture. Conservative treatment was initiated with two hanging casts, achieving radiological reduction on week one. After two additional weeks of casting, treatment continued with radiologic control and home physical therapy, ultimately an excellent functional outcome and adequate radiological reduction was obtained.    Even in bilaterally displaced proximal humerus fractures, conservative treatment can be an efficient option, reducing complications, reaching adequate functional results and acceptable radiographic reduction.​. PMID:27489750

  4. Loading on a rigid target from close proximity underwater explosions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Riley, M.; Smith, M.; Aanhold, J.E. van; Alin, N.

    2012-01-01

    The study describes recent simulation results for underwater explosions in close-proximity to rigid targets. Simulations are performed using Chinook, an Eulerian computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code. Predicted target loadings are compared with measurements taken from a series of experiments condu

  5. Loading on a rigid target from close proximity underwater explosions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aanhold, J.E. van; Alin, N.; Riley, M.; Smith, M.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract. The study describes recent simulation results for underwater explosions in close-proximity to rigid targets. Simulations are performed using Chinook, an Eulerian computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code. Predicted target loadings are compared with measurements taken from a series of experim

  6. User's proximity effects for talk mode in mobile phones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pelosi, Mauro; B. Knudsen, Mikael; Pedersen, Gert Frølund

    Thanks to a recent grip study, 3D CAD model of the human hand have been generated, investigating user's proximity effects for talk mode in mobile phones. The simulation results show that the human hand exhibits a major contribution in determining the total loss when compared to the phantom head...

  7. Proximal dup(10q): Case report and literature review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barritt, J.A.; Teague, K.E.; Bodurtha, J.N. [Virginia Commonwealth Univ., Richmond, VA (United States)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    We report a case of a proximal dir dup(10q) in a female with multiple congenital anomalies. During infancy she was noted to gave growth retardation, microcephaly, microphthalmia, coloboma, a long, beaked nose, posteriorly rotated ears with simple helices, full bowed lips, widely-spaced nipples, broad first toes, hypermobile and proximally placed thumbs, a heart murmur, PDA, and coarctation of the aorta. Additional findings at age 13 included a full columella, short philtrum, thin limbs, bilateral blindness, and mental retardation, as well as continued growth retardation. Her medical history included precocious puberty at age 8 and a diagnosis of hyperactivity. Using FISH with multiple probes combined with GTG-banding, the aberrant chromosome was determined to be a dir dup(10)(q21{r_arrow}q22). Parental chromosomes were normal and the family history was unremarkable. The parental origin of the dir dup(10) is being assessed using DNA markers. Five similar cases of proximal dup(10q) have been reported previously. Consistent characteristics include low birth weight, developmental and psychomotor delay, growth retardation, and microcephaly. Also found in most cases were short prominent philtrum, bowed mouth, PDA, thin limbs, coloboma, micropthalmia, deep set eyes, and other ocular anomalies. Our case is unique in that she has a long, beaked nose, precocious puberty, and hyperactivity. Future studies such as this, using molecular cytogenetic techniques to better define the chromatin involved in proximal dup(10q), may lead to its recognition as a distinct clinical phenotype.

  8. Predicting Performance in Higher Education Using Proximal Predictors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niessen, A Susan M; Meijer, Rob R; Tendeiro, Jorge N

    2016-01-01

    We studied the validity of two methods for predicting academic performance and student-program fit that were proximal to important study criteria. Applicants to an undergraduate psychology program participated in a selection procedure containing a trial-studying test based on a work sample approach,

  9. Proximity to coast is linked to climate change belief.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taciano L Milfont

    Full Text Available Psychologists have examined the many psychological barriers to both climate change belief and concern. One barrier is the belief that climate change is too uncertain, and likely to happen in distant places and times, to people unlike oneself. Related to this perceived psychological distance of climate change, studies have shown that direct experience of the effects of climate change increases climate change concern. The present study examined the relationship between physical proximity to the coastline and climate change belief, as proximity may be related to experiencing or anticipating the effects of climate change such as sea-level rise. We show, in a national probability sample of 5,815 New Zealanders, that people living in closer proximity to the shoreline expressed greater belief that climate change is real and greater support for government regulation of carbon emissions. This proximity effect held when adjusting for height above sea level and regional poverty. The model also included individual differences in respondents' sex, age, education, political orientation, and wealth. The results indicate that physical place plays a role in the psychological acceptance of climate change, perhaps because the effects of climate change become more concrete and local.

  10. A procedure to estimate proximate analysis of mixed organic wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaher, U; Buffiere, P; Steyer, J P; Chen, S

    2009-04-01

    In waste materials, proximate analysis measuring the total concentration of carbohydrate, protein, and lipid contents from solid wastes is challenging, as a result of the heterogeneous and solid nature of wastes. This paper presents a new procedure that was developed to estimate such complex chemical composition of the waste using conventional practical measurements, such as chemical oxygen demand (COD) and total organic carbon. The procedure is based on mass balance of macronutrient elements (carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen, and phosphorus [CHNOP]) (i.e., elemental continuity), in addition to the balance of COD and charge intensity that are applied in mathematical modeling of biological processes. Knowing the composition of such a complex substrate is crucial to study solid waste anaerobic degradation. The procedure was formulated to generate the detailed input required for the International Water Association (London, United Kingdom) Anaerobic Digestion Model number 1 (IWA-ADM1). The complex particulate composition estimated by the procedure was validated with several types of food wastes and animal manures. To make proximate analysis feasible for validation, the wastes were classified into 19 types to allow accurate extraction and proximate analysis. The estimated carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, and inerts concentrations were highly correlated to the proximate analysis; correlation coefficients were 0.94, 0.88, 0.99, and 0.96, respectively. For most of the wastes, carbohydrate was the highest fraction and was estimated accurately by the procedure over an extended range with high linearity. For wastes that are rich in protein and fiber, the procedure was even more consistent compared with the proximate analysis. The new procedure can be used for waste characterization in solid waste treatment design and optimization.

  11. Indices of risk assessment of fracture of the proximal humerus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannotti, Stefano; Bottai, Vanna; Dell’osso, Giacomo; Donati, Daniela; Bugelli, Giulia; De Paola, Gaia; Guido, Giulio

    2012-01-01

    Summary Osteoporotic fractures are now a social problem for incidence and costs. Fractures of the proximal humerus events are frequent and constantly increasing. It is estimated that they are 20% of all osteoporotic fractures. Bone densitometry in most cases underestimates the real humeral bone density. There is little information about osteoporotic changes in the proximal humerus and their association with the cortical thickness of the humeral shaft. The ratio between the thickness of the cortical and the total diameter of the humeral diaphysis is the cortical index. Fracture risk limit value is 0.231. Convinced of the need to quantify in a reproducible way the real local humerus bone density, we performed a comparative evaluation of bone density of the humerus and femur in patients admitted to our clinic for fractures of the humerus and femur. We evaluated 28 women treated surgically for a fragility fracture of the proximal humerus or femur neck in 2010. All cortical index obtained were lower than the limit for fracture risk set at 0.231, so the IC was more predictive of neck medial fractures of the femur than had DEXA and the U.S. The information about the cortical index may provide a simple way of determining the bone quality of the proximal humerus and of facilitating decision-making in the surgical treatment of patients with fractures of the humerus. So we want to emphasize the importance of therapy for osteoporosis even in patients with fractures of the proximal humerus, which often have not critical densitometric values of femur or column, but they are at risk of new fractures. PMID:22783334

  12. Surgical treatment of proximal humerus fractures using PHILOS plate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijay Sharma

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available 【Abstract】Objective: To evaluate functional outcome and complications of open reduction and internal fixation with proximal humeral internal locking system (PHILOS plate for proximal humerus fractures. Methods: We reviewed 51 patients who underwent open reduction and internal fixation with PHILOS plate between the years 2007 to 2012. There were 35 men and 16 women with a mean age of 38 years (range 24-68. There were 41 patients in the age group of <60 years and 10 patients in the age group of >60 years. According to Neer classification system, 8, 15 and 23 patients had 2-part, 3-part, and 4-part fractures, respectively and 5 patients had 4-part fracture dislocation. All surgeries were carried out at our tertiary care trauma centre. Functional evaluation of the shoulder at final follow-up was done using Constant-Murley score. Results: The mean follow-up period was 30 months (range 12-44 months. Two patients were lost to followup. Of the remaining 49 patients, all fractures were united clinically and radiologically. The mean time for radiological union was 12 weeks (range 8-20 weeks. At the final follow-up the mean Constant-Murley score was 79 (range 50-100. The results were excellent in 25 patients, good in 13 patients, fair in 6 atients and poor in 5 patients. During the follow-up, four cases of varus malunion, one case of subacromial impingement, one case of deep infection, one case of intraarticular screw penetration and one case of failure of fi xation were noted. No cases of avascular necrosis, hardware failure, locking screw loosening or nonunion were noted. Conclusion: PHILOS provides stable fixation in proximal humerus fractures. To prevent potential complications like avascular necrosis, meticulous surgical dissection to preserve vascularity of humeral head is necessary. Key words: Proximal humerus fracture; Fracture fixation, internal; Proximal humeral internal locking system

  13. SURGICAL MANAGEMENT OF PROXIMAL HUMERUS FRACTURES BY PHILOS PLATTING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anand

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Proximal humerus fractures are common and debilitating injuries and incidence of them are increasing especially in elderly. Treatment of unstable, displaced, and comminuted fractures of the proximal humerus remains challenging. Various operative procedures are carried out, recent trend in internal fixation has moved on to locking plates. The goal of the study is to test the efficacy and functional outcome of PHILOS plating in proximal humerus fractures.To evaluate the incidence of complication that may occur with PHILOS pla ting in proximal humerus fractures . MATERIALS AND METHODS: It is a prospective study conducted in our institute from 2013 to 2015. The study purpose to include patients with proximal humerus fractures. Clinical and radiological evaluation done. Fractures c lassified using Neer s classification. Patients will undergo Open reduction internal fixation with philos plating for the sustained fracture under general anesthesia .Post - operative physiotherapy followed according to protocol. Patients will be followed up at 6 weekly intervals until fracture union and, at once at 1yr after the surgery. A minimum of 20 cases studied without any sampling procedure. RESULTS: In our study most common age group was 51 - 60 yrs and male:female ratio 3:1 and 55% were 2 part fractur es were treated by philos plating final functional outcome is assessed with NEER’S score. 5(25% of 20 patients had excellent results, 10(50% had satisfactory results and 5(25% had unsatisfactory results.All cases of unsatisfactory results were had compl ication and elderly patients. None of patients in our study were failure. CONCLUSION : In conclusion, fracture of the proximal humerus is still a debatable and controversial subject in orthopaedics. The common mode of injury in these fractures is fall on shoulder in elderly and RTA in young population, open reduction and internal fixation with LOCKING COMPRESSION PLATES has given good results and it is the implant

  14. Shoulder arthroplasty in complex acute and chronic proximal humeral fractures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frich, Lars Henrik; Søjbjerg, J.O.; Sneppen, O.

    1991-01-01

    From 1983 to 1988, 42 shoulder arthroplasties were performed on comminuted acute or chronic proximal humeral fractures. Patients were categorized according to the post-fracture operative delay; there were 15 four-part fractures, with median post-fracture delay of 13 days (range: 7 to 21), and 27......-system and classified into four groups. Pain relief was satisfactory in the acute group, but was unpredictable in the chronic group. The results in the acute group were significantly superior (P less than .05). In the acute group, 3 (20%) patients had an excellent result and 6 patients (40%) had a good result, compared...... instability were seen in shoulders formerly treated with osteosynthesis (one acute and four chronic cases). Two of these cases developed an infection. Good results can be expected after prosthetic replacement in acute proximal humeral fractures. Failed primary treatment reduces the possibility of a good...

  15. Ulnar neuropathy with prominent proximal Martin-Gruber anastomosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burakgazi, Ahmet Z; Russo, Mary; Bayat, Elham; Richardson, Perry K

    2014-07-01

    Martin-Gruber anastomosis (MGA) is the most common nerve anastomosis in the upper extremities and it crosses from the median nerve to the ulnar nerve. Proximal MGA is an under recognized anastomosis between the ulnar and median nerves at or above the elbow and should not be missed during nerve conduction studies. We presented two patients with ulnar neuropathy mimicking findings including numbness and tingling of the 4th and 5th digits and mild weakness of intrinsic hand muscles. However, both cases had an apparently remarkable conduction block between the below- and above-elbow sites that was disproportionate to their clinical findings. To explain this discrepancy, a large MGA was detected with stimulation of the median nerve at the elbow. Thus, proximal MGA should be considered in ulnar neuropathy at the elbow when apparent conduction block or/and discrepancy between clinical and electrodiagnostic findings is found. PMID:24147570

  16. Proximate analysis of New Zealand and Australian coals by thermogravimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beamish, B.B. [University of Auckland, Auckland (New Zealand). Dept. of Geology

    1994-12-31

    A technique has been developed at The University of Auckland for proximate analysis of coals by thermogravimetry using sample weights of {lt}20 mg. Samples from three New Zealand coalfields and the Bowen Basin of Queensland, Australia, have been analysed. Coals tested range in rank from subbituminous to semianthracite, and have ash contents from 3.1 to 21.4% on a dry basis. Results obtained using the technique are within acceptable precision limits of the standard procedure. Volatile matter content of the coal shows a logarithmic increase with decreasing sample weight. To minimise this effect on repeatability, and to optimise the equipment capabilities, sample weights of 15.5 +/- 0.5 mg should be used. The technique is ideally suited to (1) analysing samples where insufficient material is available for standard proximate analysis, and (2) correlation with microstudies of coal.

  17. Proximate composition analysis posterior to the cryopreservation of Chaetoceros calcitrans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joan Salas-Leiva

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The effect of cryopreservation on the proximate composition of microalgae Chaetoceros calcitrans was evaluated. Materials and methods. C. calcitrans was cultured and cryopreserved using 5% (v/v dimethylsulfoxide as cryoprotectant. The freezing was controlled at a rate of 3°C/min, up to -60°C and then the microalgae were immersed in liquid nitrogen (-196°C. After storage in liquid nitrogen, microalgae were rapidly thawed out and subcultured. The percentage of proteins, lipids and carbohydrates was analyzed using absorption spectrophotometry and the organic matter was studied by gravimetric analysis. Results. There was no significant variation between the proximate composition of C. calcitrans cryopreserved and the controls (p>0.05. Conclusion. Our results show that, despite low cell recovery after the preservation of this organism at low temperatures, there is no apparent loss of nutritional characteristics caused by the storing process at low temperatures.

  18. Physical Proximity and Spreading in Dynamic Social Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Stopczynski, Arkadiusz; Lehmann, Sune

    2015-01-01

    Most infectious diseases spread on a dynamic network of human interactions. Recent studies of social dynamics have provided evidence that spreading patterns may depend strongly on detailed micro-dynamics of the social system. We have recorded every single interaction within a large population, mapping out---for the first time at scale---the complete proximity network for a densely-connected system. Here we show the striking impact of interaction-distance on the network structure and dynamics of spreading processes. We create networks supporting close (intimate network, up to ~1m) and longer distance (ambient network, up to ~10m) modes of transmission. The intimate network is fragmented, with weak ties bridging densely-connected neighborhoods, whereas the ambient network supports spread driven by random contacts between strangers. While there is no trivial mapping from the micro-dynamics of proximity networks to empirical epidemics, these networks provide a telling approximation of droplet and airborne modes o...

  19. Laser Proximity Sensor for Fuel-air Explosive Bomb

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Durga Singh

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Present study deals with design and development aspects of a diode laser proximity sensorbased on principle of optical triangulation. This sensor incorporates a laser transmitter and anoptical receiver. The beam divergence of laser transmitter and look angle of receiver are orientedin such a way that they intersect at a predetermined measuring segment. The sensor can be setto give signal output at predetermined distance from the target. Theoretical studies have beencarried out to determine the minimum power required for transmitter with a trade-off between S/Nratio, aperture of receiver optics, reflectivity of target and range requirement. The scattered laserradiation from the target in this segment is utilised in deriving a signal output to detonate thebomb at a predetermined distance from the target. The laser proximity sensor has been developedfor 3 ± 0.5 m operational range and has qualified various environmental tests and live fuel-airexplosive bomb trials.

  20. Perceptual grouping in Gabor lattices: proximity and alignment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claessens, Peter M; Wagemans, Johan

    2005-11-01

    We propose the Gabor lattice as a new stimulus designed to deal with multiple organizations in perceptual grouping, allowing both comparison between psychophysical data and neural findings and a systematic investigation of grouping based on several low-level characteristics and their interactions. A Gabor lattice is a geometric lattice with Gabor patches, evoking a multistable global orientation percept. Visual grouping in Gabor lattices with elements aligned in a global orientation was compared with grouping of nonaligned Gabor patches and of Gaussian blobs. The effect sizes of proximity and alignment were estimated in logistic regression analyses. The results confirmed the importance of proximity and local element alignment as factors in dynamic grouping. We also found a small but consistent enhancement of grouping along the global vector orthogonal to the local patch orientations. In light of these results, we further motivate the relevance of these stimuli and the associated experimental paradigm.

  1. Alternating proximal gradient method for nonnegative matrix factorization

    CERN Document Server

    Xu, Yangyang

    2011-01-01

    Nonnegative matrix factorization has been widely applied in face recognition, text mining, as well as spectral analysis. This paper proposes an alternating proximal gradient method for solving this problem. With a uniformly positive lower bound assumption on the iterates, any limit point can be proved to satisfy the first-order optimality conditions. A Nesterov-type extrapolation technique is then applied to accelerate the algorithm. Though this technique is at first used for convex program, it turns out to work very well for the non-convex nonnegative matrix factorization problem. Extensive numerical experiments illustrate the efficiency of the alternating proximal gradient method and the accleration technique. Especially for real data tests, the accelerated method reveals high superiority to state-of-the-art algorithms in speed with comparable solution qualities.

  2. Proximal Limb Weakness Reverting After CSF Diversion In Intracranial Hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinha S

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available We report about two young girls who developed progressive visual failure secondary to increased intracranial pressure and had significant proximal muscle weakness of limbs. Patients with elevated intracranial pressure (ICP may present with "false localizing signs", besides having headache, vomiting and papilledema. Radicular pain as a manifestation of raised ICP is rare and motor weakness attributable to polyradiculopathy is exceptional. Two patients with increased intracranial pressure without lateralizing signs′ had singnificant muscle weakness. Clinical evaluation and laboratory tests did not disclose any other cause for weakness. Following theco-peritoneal shunt, in both patients, there was variable recovery of vision but the proximal weakness and symptoms of elevated ICP improved rapidly. Recognition of this uncommon manifestation of raised ICP may obviate the need for unnecessary investigation and reduce morbidity due to weakness by CSF diversion procedure.

  3. Quality of life in old patients with proximal femoral fractures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T A Raskina

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to study quality of life in Kemerovo old patients with proximal femoral fractures. Patients and methods. Quality of life in osteoporotic fractures was analyzed in 219 patients (173 women and 46 men who had sustained the injury in January 2004 to December 2008. Results. In the patients with hip fractures, the lowest (41.94+31.16 scores values were recorded by the physical functioning scale reflecting the degree to which their health limited the performance of physical exercises (self-service, walking, going upstairs, weight carriage, etc.. The role functioning and life activity scales showed the highest values (50.96+19.04 and 51.44+26.51 scores, respectively. The mean value of the physical component scale was 46.42+28.26 scores. That of the psychological component scale was 49.56+19.55 scores. Conclusion. The patients with proximal femoral fractures were found to have lower scores on all SF-36 dimensions.

  4. Proximity nanovalve with large phase-tunable thermal conductance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strambini, E., E-mail: e.strambini@sns.it; Giazotto, F., E-mail: f.giazotto@sns.it [NEST Istituto Nanoscienze-CNR and Scuola Normale Superiore, I-56127 Pisa (Italy); Bergeret, F. S., E-mail: sebastian-bergeret@ehu.es [Centro de Física de Materiales (CFM-MPC), Centro Mixto CSIC-UPV/EHU, Manuel de Lardizabal 4, E-20018 San Sebastián (Spain); Donostia International Physics Center (DIPC), Manuel de Lardizabal 5, E-20018 San Sebastián (Spain); Institut für Physik, Carl von Ossietzky Universität, D-26111 Oldenburg (Germany)

    2014-08-25

    We propose a phase-controlled heat-flux quantum valve based on the proximity effect driven by a superconducting quantum interference proximity transistor (SQUIPT). Its operation relies on the phase-dependent quasiparticle density of states in the Josephson weak-link of the SQUIPT which controls thermal transport across the device. In a realistic Al/Cu-based setup the structure can provide efficient control of thermal current inducing temperature swings exceeding ∼100 mK, and flux-to-temperature transfer coefficients up to ∼500 mK/Φ{sub 0} below 100 mK. The nanovalve performances improve by lowering the bath temperature, making the proposed structure a promising building-block for the implementation of coherent caloritronic devices operating below 1 K.

  5. Restorative Treatment Thresholds for Proximal Caries in Dental PBRN

    OpenAIRE

    Kakudate, N.; Sumida, F.; Matsumoto, Y.; Manabe, K.; Yokoyama, Y.; Gilbert, G.H.; Gordan, V.V.

    2012-01-01

    This study was conducted to assess caries treatment thresholds among Japanese dentists and to identify characteristics associated with their decision to intervene surgically in proximal caries lesions within the enamel. Participants (n = 189) were shown radiographic images depicting interproximal caries and asked to indicate the lesion depth at which they would surgically intervene in both high- and low-caries-risk scenarios. Differences in treatment thresholds were then assessed via chi-squa...

  6. Acute tumor lysis syndrome after proximal splenic artery embolization

    OpenAIRE

    Jason T. Salsamendi; Mehul H. Doshi; Francisco J. Gortes; Levi, Joe U; Govindarajan Narayanan

    2016-01-01

    Preoperative splenic artery embolization for massive splenomegaly has been shown to reduce intraoperative hemorrhage during splenectomy. We describe a case of tumor lysis syndrome after proximal splenic artery embolization in a patient with advanced mantle cell lymphoma and splenic involvement. The patient presented initially with hyperkalemia two days after embolization that worsened during splenectomy. He was stabilized, but developed laboratory tumor lysis syndrome with renal failure and e...

  7. Transboundary diagnostic analysis. Vol. 1. Issues, proximate and root causes

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    The Transboundary Diagnostic Analysis(TDA) quantifies and ranks water-related environmental transboundary issues and their causes according to the severity of environmental and/or socio-economic impacts. The three main issues in BOBLME are; overexploitation of marine living resources; degradation of mangroves, coral reefs and seagrasses; pollution and water quality. Volume 1 describes the transboundary issues in BOBLME and their proximate and underlying root causes. These will be used to deve...

  8. A numerical study of airplanes flying in proximity

    OpenAIRE

    Porter, David B.

    1993-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited During an emergency such as an unsafe landing gear indication, a second aircraft is often used to perform an airborne visual inspection of the landing gear. The chase airplane may be quite dissimilar in size and wing loading and consequently experience unexpected aerodynamic forces and moments caused by the other airplane. A numerical study of the inherent danger involved with the aerodynamic interaction of aircraft flying in proximity...

  9. Surgical outcome of delayed presentation of congenital proximal radioulnar synostosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garg Gaurav

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Presentation of proximal radioulnar synostosis varies from cosmetic concerns with no functional limitations to significant pronation deformity which hampers activities of daily living. Surgical management must be considered based on the position of the forearm and functional limitations. We describe the surgical technique, results, and complications of excision of the radial head along with the proximal radius up to the distal extent of the synostosis site and securing the osteotomized radial shaft with a tensor fascia lata graft. Materials and methods: Four patients having six affected elbows with delayed presentation of congenital proximal radioulnar synostosis with dislocated radial head managed surgically were included in the study. There were three males and one female with an average age of 20.25 years (ranging from 16 to 25 years. Preoperatively wrists were locked in the mean pronation position of 51.6° (ranging from 30° to 70°. The indications for surgery were limitation in activities of daily living and an obvious cosmetic deformity. Results: All patients were satisfied with the surgery and showed significant improvement in functional status. Mean active supination was 15° (ranging from 5 to 32° with passive supination was a mean of 24.8° (ranging from 11° to 44°. Similarly, mean active pronation was 58.5° (ranging from 50° to 71° with further passive correction up to a mean of 64.16° (ranging from 57° to 87° at last follow up. Conclusions: This procedure is simple, cost effective, and a reasonable option for treatment of proximal radioulnar synostosis with a dislocated radial head in adult patients. The operation does not require any specialized team or implants, and can be performed in a moderately equipped hospital.

  10. Proximal soil sensors and geostatistical tools in precision agriculture applications

    OpenAIRE

    Shaddad, Sameh

    2014-01-01

    Recognition of spatial variability is very important in precision agriculture applications. The use of proximal soil sensors and geostatistical techniques is highly recommended worldwide to detect spatial variation not only in fields but also within-field (micro-scale). This study involves, as a first step, the use of visible and near infrared (vis-NIR) spectroscopy to estimate soil key properties (6) and obtain high resolution maps that allow us to model the spatial variability in the soil. ...

  11. DIABETIC NEUROPATHY PART 2: PROXIMAL AND ASSYMMETRIC PHENOTYPES

    OpenAIRE

    Pasnoor, Mamatha; Dimachkie, Mazen M.; Barohn, Richard J.

    2013-01-01

    Diabetic neuropathies consist of a variety of syndromes resulting from different types of damage to peripheral or cranial nerves. Although distal symmetric polyneuropathy is most common type of diabetic neuropathy, there are many other subtypes of diabetic neuropathies which have been defined since the 1800’s. Included in these descriptions are patients with proximal diabetic, truncal, cranial, median, and ulnar neuropathies. Various theories have been proposed for the pathogenesis of these n...

  12. Fully automated apparatus for the proximate analysis of coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukumoto, K.; Ishibashi, Y.; Ishii, T.; Maeda, K.; Ogawa, A.; Gotoh, K.

    1985-01-01

    The authors report the development of fully-automated equipment for the proximate analysis of coals, a development undertaken with the twin aims of labour-saving and developing robot applications technology. This system comprises a balance, electric furnaces, a sulfur analyzer, etc., arranged concentrically around a multi-jointed robot which automatically performs all the necessary operations, such as sampling and weighing the materials for analysis, and inserting and removing them from the furnaces. 2 references.

  13. Proximity breakdown of hydrides in superconducting niobium cavities

    OpenAIRE

    Romanenko, A.; Barkov, F.; Cooley, L. D.; Grassellino, A.

    2012-01-01

    Many modern and proposed future particle accelerators rely on superconducting radio frequency cavities made of bulk niobium as primary particle accelerating structures. Such cavities suffer from the anomalous field dependence of their quality factors Q0. High field degradation - so-called high field Q-slope - is yet unexplained even though an empirical cure is known. Here we propose a mechanism based on the presence of proximity-coupled niobium hydrides, which can explain this effect. Further...

  14. Proximal Interruption of the Pulmonary Artery: A Case Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anand, S H; Jasper, Anitha; Mani, Sunithi Elizabeth; Joseph, Elizabeth; Mathai, John

    2015-12-01

    We present a few cases of Proximal Interruption of the Pulmonary Artery, an uncommon developmental anomaly associated with congenital heart disease. The cases had varied clinical presentations. Chest radiograph showed a hypoplastic lung with an ipsilateral small hilum on the side of the interruption and hyperinflation of the contralateral lung. Contrast CT confirmed the diagnosis, demonstrating non-visualization of the left or right pulmonary artery, and other related findings. PMID:26816968

  15. Hemiarthroplasty in the management of the comminuted proximal humeral fractures

    OpenAIRE

    Demirhan, Mehmet; Akpinar, Sercan; Akman, Senol; Yazicioglu, Onder

    2004-01-01

    There are problems in the surgical treatment of the comminuted proximal humeral fractures since they are technically demanding and they have poor postoperative functional results. The most common problems are the disturbance of the vascular circulation, difficulty of the anatomic reconstruction and the difficulty to perform a stable osteosynthesis that will allow early rehabilitation. In the recent years these cases are treated with partial or total endoprosthesis. Our aim in this study is to...

  16. Function-Orientated Structural Analysis of the Proximal Human Femur

    OpenAIRE

    Skuban, Tobias P.; Vogel, Tobias; Baur-Melnyk, Andrea; Jansson, Volkmar; Heimkes, Bernhard

    2009-01-01

    In his model of the biomechanics of the proximal human femur, Friedrich Pauwels assumes a resultant force acting on the femoral head that is created by the partial body weight and the force of the abductor muscles inserting at the greater trochanter. This model suggests a tensile force in the region of the greater trochanter. An exact examination of the muscle insertions at the greater trochanter resulted in a contrasting hypothesis assuming a local compression stress in the region of the gre...

  17. Transverse Stress Fracture of the Proximal Patella: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atsumi, Satoru; Arai, Yuji; Kato, Ko; Nishimura, Akinobu; Nakazora, Shigeto; Nakagawa, Shuji; Ikoma, Kazuya; Fujiwara, Hiroyoshi; Sudo, Akihiro; Kubo, Toshikazu

    2016-02-01

    Among stress fractures associated with sports activities, patellar stress fracture is rare. Regarding patella stress fractures, so far only distal transverse or lateral longitudinal fractures have been reported, but there are no reports of transverse fractures occurring in the proximal patella. We describe an extremely rare case of transverse stress fracture of proximal patella in a 9-year-old athlete.A 9-year old boy, who participated in sports (sprints and Kendo) presented with left knee pain without any external injury. In plain radiographs, a fracture line was observed in the proximal 1/3 of the left patella, and a patella stress fracture was diagnosed. For treatment, because 7 months of conservative therapy showed no improvement, internal fixation was carried out using Acutrak screws, and bone union was thus achieved. Three months after the operation, he was able to return to his previous level of athletic sports activity.Regarding the mechanism of onset, it is believed that the causes are longitudinal traction force and patellofemoral contact pressure. On the other hand, the contact region of the patella with the femur changes with the flexion angle of the knee. In the current case, the fracture occurred at a site where the patella was in contact with the femur at a flexion angle of >90°, so it is believed that it occurred as a clinical condition from being subjected to repeated longitudinal traction force and patellofemoral contact pressure at a flexion angle of >90°, during the sports activities of sprints and Kendo. The nonunion of the transverse stress fracture of his proximal patella was successfully treated with internal fixation using Acutrak screws. PMID:26871789

  18. Street Marketing: How Proximity and Context drive Coupon Redemption

    OpenAIRE

    Spiekermann, Sarah; Rothensee, Matthias; Klafft, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Purpose - In 2009, U.S. coupons set a new record of 367 billion coupons distributed. Yet, while coupon distribution is on the rise, redemption rates remain below 1%. This article shows how recognizing context variables, such as proximity, weather, part of town and financial incentives interplay to determine a coupon campaigns' success. Design/methodology/approach - The paper reports an empirical study conducted in cooperation with a restaurant chain: 9.880 Subway coupons were d...

  19. Outcome Analysis of Locking Plate Fixation in Proximal Humerus Fracture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathak, Abhishek; Gaur, Sanjiv

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Proximal humerus fractures account for approximately 5% of all fractures. Stable minimally displaced fractures can be treated nonoperatively but the management of displaced fractures remain controversial with various modalities of treatment available. Locking plates provide stable fixation and enable early postoperative mobilization specially in osteoporotic proximal humerus fracture. Aim To evaluate the functional outcome of locking plate fixation and to compare the results of two approaches used for fixation. Materials and Methods This prospective study was conducted at a tertiary level hospital between September 2011 to December 2013. PHILOS plates were used for internal fixation of displaced proximal humerus fractures Neer’s type 2 part, 3 part and 4 part fractures on 26 patients (M/F ratio 1.36:1; mean age 46 years). According to Neer classification, 5,12 and 9 patients had displaced 2, 3 and 4 part fractures respectively. Deltopectoral and deltoid splitting approaches were used for fixation on 13 patients each. Functional outcome was assessed using Constant-Murley shoulder score. Graphpad software version 6.0 was used with Chi-square test and Fisher-exact test are used to compare data. The p-value .05) and all fractures were united. Conclusion Our study demonstrates that locking plate fixation gives good functional outcomes in treatment of proximal humerus fractures. There was no significant difference in the two approaches used for exposure. Our results are comparable to various studies conducted by other authors which states that locking plates provide better functional and radiological outcomes as compared to other fixation methods like Tension band wiring, percutaneous K-wire fixation, non-locking plates, intramedullary nails. PMID:27656515

  20. Hierarchical e-beam proximity correction in mask making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, Ulrich; Kalus, Christian K.; Rosenbusch, Anja; Jonckheere, Rik M.; Hourd, Andrew C.

    1996-05-01

    Both e-beam and optical proximity effects are still a major barrier in the transfer of an ULSI design from the CAD station to the printed result on wafer. Optical proximity effect correction (OPC) is shown to be a strong tool to improve the printing latitudes for i-line lithography of 0.35 micrometers feature sizes and below, but leads to fractal geometries around 0.1 micrometers (corresponding to 0.5 micrometers on a 5x reticle). This quantum leap in required minimum linewidth on the mask may urge mask makers to apply e-beam proximity effect correction (PEC), even more than a decrease in the reticle magnification from 5x to 4x (and further) would. For raster scan e-beams, which are typically used in mask making, correction by dose variation is not practical. Hence, PEC for these systems must be tackled by modifying the geometry of the design, in a way similar to OPC techniques. Both corrections must compromise between the accuracy achieved, which is dominated by the selected (correction and exposure) grid size, and the resulting throughput loss, caused by the use of a smaller grid size. Sigma-C now introduces a new algorithm, which enables the proximity effect correction by shape variation. It is included into CAPROX and supports hierarchy in the same manner as the other postprocessing operations. The exposure of the shape corrected pattern on a raster scan machine requires only one beam pass, whereas dose variation would require one pass for each dose. Exposures were made at IMEC and at Compugraphics. The first results on Leica EBMF10.5 and MEBES III are promising. The pure shape correction increases the line width uniformity and opens the process window for critical dimensions below 1 micrometers . Performance measurements show that the 64 Mb DRAM is a job of a few hours.

  1. Spacecraft Collision Probability Estimation for Rendezvous and Proximity Operations

    OpenAIRE

    Phillips, Michael R

    2012-01-01

    The topic of this thesis is on-board estimation of spacecraft collision probability for orbital rendezvous and proximity operations. All of the examples shown in this work assume that the satellite dynamics are described by the Clohessy-Wiltshire equations, and that the spacecraft are spherical. Several collision probability metrics are discussed and compared. Each metric can be placed into one of three categories. The first category provides an estimate of the instantaneous probability of co...

  2. How to tell the History. Proximity strategies on Argentine television

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Galán Fajardo

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the analysis of a television documentary Algo habrán hecho (por la historia argentina, broadcast on Telefe and Canal 13, between 2005 and 2008. The interrelationship of discursive tools and informative and evocation strategies are very relevant in this text. Its effectiveness is related to a combined use of resources that appeal to different meanings of proximity, with the objective to make accessible the history to a popular audience.

  3. Restoring proximal caries lesions conservatively with tunnel restorations

    OpenAIRE

    Chu CH; Mei ML; Cheung C; Nalliah RP

    2013-01-01

    Chun-Hung Chu1, May L Mei,1 Chloe Cheung,1 Romesh P Nalliah2 1Faculty of Dentistry, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, People's Republic of China; 2Department of Restorative Dentistry and Biomaterials Sciences, Harvard School of Dental Medicine, Boston, MA, USA Abstract: The tunnel restoration has been suggested as a conservative alternative to the conventional box preparation for treating proximal caries. The main advantage of tunnel restoration over the conventional box or slot pre...

  4. Restoring proximal caries lesions conservatively with tunnel restorations

    OpenAIRE

    Chu, Chun-Hung

    2013-01-01

    Chun-Hung Chu1, May L Mei,1 Chloe Cheung,1 Romesh P Nalliah2 1Faculty of Dentistry, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, People's Republic of China; 2Department of Restorative Dentistry and Biomaterials Sciences, Harvard School of Dental Medicine, Boston, MA, USA Abstract: The tunnel restoration has been suggested as a conservative alternative to the conventional box preparation for treating proximal caries. The main advantage of tunnel restoration over the conventional box or slo...

  5. Restoring proximal caries lesions conservatively with tunnel restorations

    OpenAIRE

    Chu, CH; Mei, L.; Cheung, C.; Nalliah, RP

    2013-01-01

    The tunnel restoration has been suggested as a conservative alternative to the conventional box preparation for treating proximal caries. The main advantage of tunnel restoration over the conventional box or slot preparation includes being more conservative and increasing tooth integrity and strength by preserving the marginal ridge. However, tunnel restoration is technique-sensitive and can be particularly challenging for inexperienced restorative dentists. Recent advances in technology, suc...

  6. The imaging and clinical significance of persistent carotid-basilar artery anastomoses%永存颈内-基底动脉吻合的影像学特点及其意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁飞; 崔翔; 刘银社; 赵军; 顾欣

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨永存颈内-基底动脉吻合的影像学特点,提高对此类异常吻合血管的认识。方法回顾性分析12例经头颈CT血管造影(CTA)及MR血管造影(MRA)诊断为永存颁内-基底动脉吻合患者的影像学资料。其中9例病人行头颈联合CTA检查,3例行头和/或颈部MR血管造影(MRA)检查。结果12例中,9例为永存三叉动脉,3例为永存舌下动脉。永存三叉动脉中,外侧型8例,内侧型1例;按Saltzman分型Ⅰ型3例,Ⅱ型2例,Ⅲ型4例;吻合点近端的基底动脉及双侧椎动脉发育不良4例,吻合点近端基底动脉完全萎缩1例;1例合并动脉瘤,2例合并大脑中动脉成窗。3例永存舌下动脉中,2例伴同侧椎动脉缺如,1例伴对侧椎动脉发育不良,1例伴对侧椎动脉发育不良及成窗变异。结论(1)CTA及MRA能清晰、快速、准确地显示永存三叉动脉和永存舌下动脉等颈内-基底动脉吻合的走行、毗邻关系及其合并症;(2)熟悉这些原始吻合血管的特征有助于指导临床制定合理的治疗方案,提高相应治疗中的安全性。%Objective To explore the imaging characteristics of persistent carotid-basilar artery anastomoses in an effort to improve our understanding of this anomaly. Methods 9 craniocervical CT angiography(CT A), 3 cranial and/or cervical MR angiography (MRA) in 12 patients of persistent carotid-basilar artery anastomoses were retrospectively reviewed. Results These 12 patients had 9 persistent trigeminal arteries and 3 persistent hypoglossal arteries. Based on the position of the persistent trigeminal artery, 8 patients were the lateral type, 1 was the medial type. According to the configuration of the ipsilateral posterior cerebral artery, 3 cases were Saltzman type I persistent trigeminal arteries,2 cases were Saltzman type II ,4 were Saltzman type Ⅲ . The veretral artery and basilar artery caudal to the anastomosis with the trigeminal artery were

  7. Shoulder hemiarthroplasty for the treatment of complex proximal humeral fractures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Shu-hua; WANG Jing; XU Wei-hua; LI Jin; LIU Guo-hui; YANG Can; YE Shu-nan; YE Zhe-wei; LIU Yong

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the indication, perioperative announcements, selection of prosthesis and clinical results of shoulder hemiarthroplasty for the treatment of complex proximal humeral fractures.Methods: A total of 55 patients who suffered from com-plex proximal humeral fractures were treated by shoulder hemiarthroplasty. The mean age was 55.6 years and mean follow-up period was 25.1 months. The scoring system modi-fication for hemiarthroplasty (SSMH) had been adopted for evaluation at the latest follow-up.Results: The pain was obviously relieved in all patients. Fifty patients were painless and 5 patients had slight pain. The mean range of motion was 100°(90°-110°) in abduction, 95°(80°-100°) in forward flexion, 35°(30°-40°) in extemal rotation and internal rotation was confined at L2 level (L1-L3). The mean SSMH score was 27.9 (24-29). Fifty patients (90.1%) were satisfied with the clinical outcome.Conclusions: Shoulder hemiarthroplasty is an effective method to treat complex proximal humeral fractures. The proper selection of patients and prosthesis, good operation skill and enough functional exercise are the key points of successful treatment.

  8. Proximal focal femoral deficiency: evaluation by MR imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biko, David M. [National Naval Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Bethesda, MD (United States); Uniformed Services University of Health Sciences, Department of Radiology and Radiological Sciences, Bethesda, MD (United States); Davidson, Richard [The Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Pena, Andres; Jaramillo, Diego [The Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Department of Radiology, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2012-01-15

    Proximal focal femoral deficiency (PFFD) is a rare congenital anomaly characterized by abnormal development of the proximal femur. The most common radiographic classification (Aitken) does not evaluate the cartilaginous and soft-tissue abnormalities. To demonstrate MR findings of PFFD focusing on features not seen with radiographs. Nine MR examinations of the hip and femurs of seven children with PFFD were retrospectively reviewed. Imaging was quantitatively and qualitatively assessed comparing the affected limb to the contralateral limb and age-matched controls. The children were classified via the Aitken classification. All children had at least mild acetabular dysplasia, and one type D patient had no acetabulum. MR demonstrated that 4/6 children had labral hypertrophy with a decreased distance from the greater trochanter to the acetabular rim, suggesting impingement (P < 0.05). The proximal femoral physis was abnormal in all cases. The connection between the femoral head and shaft if present was fibrous or fibrocartilaginous. MRI can help in evaluation of PFFD by defining the anatomy. MR demonstrates features of the acetabulum and cartilaginous femoral epiphysis and depicts ligamentous abnormalities of the knee. (orig.)

  9. Effect of Oven Drying On Proximate Composition of Ginger

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.S Agu

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Ginger root (ZingiberOfficinale was analyzed to identify its proximate composition. The effects of drying as a processing technique on ginger were investigated with respect to the proximate composition of the produce. Ginger rhizomes were collected, sorted, sliced and dried using the oven at 500C for five (5 hours. Fresh ginger slices were successfully dried from initial moisture content of 70% to 18 %. Ginger composition before drying were 1.81% ash, 7.85% fat, 3.06% protein, 9% fiber, and 8.18% carbohydrate. The analysis of the results of proximate composition showed that the moisture content of ginger reduced after oven drying while the ash, protein, crude fiber increased after drying. On the other hand, the ash content, crude fiber, protein, fat and carbohydrates were 2.35%, 11%, 13.13%, 8.20% and47.32% respectively. The oven-drying technique however was a better option for the drying process as it was more effective in removing sufficient moisture and more so enhanced some nutritional parameter of the produce.

  10. Hand proximity facilitates spatial discrimination of auditory tones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip eTseng

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The effect of hand proximity on vision and visual attention has been well documented. In this study we tested whether such effect(s would also be present in the auditory modality. With hands placed either near or away from the audio sources, participants performed an auditory-spatial discrimination (Exp 1: left or right side, pitch discrimination (Exp 2: high, med, or low tone, and spatial-plus-pitch (Exp 3: left or right; high, med, or low discrimination task. In Exp 1, when hands were away from the audio source, participants consistently responded faster with their right hand regardless of stimulus location. This right hand advantage, however, disappeared in the hands-near condition because of a significant improvement in left hand’s reaction time. No effect of hand proximity was found in Exp 2 or 3, where a choice reaction time task requiring pitch discrimination was used. Together, these results suggest that the effect of hand proximity is not exclusive to vision alone, but is also present in audition, though in a much weaker form. Most important, these findings provide evidence from auditory attention that supports the multimodal account originally raised by Reed et al. in 2006.

  11. Concomitant physeal fractures of the distal femur and proximal tibia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sferopoulos, N.K. [Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Department of Pediatric Orthopaedics, Thessaloniki (Greece)

    2005-07-01

    Concomitant physeal fractures of the distal femur and proximal tibia are very rare in children and adolescents. They are included in the classification of the ''floating knee'' injuries. Two cases with this combined injury are reported. They were closed injuries and in both patients the fracture of the proximal tibial epiphyseal plate was nondisplaced. In the first, a six-year-old girl, an early diagnosis was made radiographically. The intra-articular femoral fracture was operatively reduced and fixed. No growth abnormality was encountered 12 years later. The second patient, a 16-year-old boy, was conservatively treated for a displaced fracture-separation of the distal femoral epiphysis. Four weeks later there was physeal widening on both sides of the knee which indicated an associated fracture of the proximal tibial epiphyseal plate. One year after injury there was a varus deformity of the knee that was treated with a corrective osteotomy. Ten years later there is normal alignment of the leg. (orig.)

  12. SLAP tear associated with a minimally displaced proximal humerus fracture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendall, Corey B; Tanner, Stephanie L; Tolan, Stefan J

    2007-12-01

    Nondisplaced proximal humerus fracture may be associated with soft tissue injury. This case report examines 2 cases of superior labral anterior-posterior (SLAP) tears in association with nondisplaced fractures of the proximal humerus. In the first case, the patient fell from a jet ski, causing a traction injury to his arm. A greater tuberosity fracture was identified. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) did not reveal a definitive labral tear. After conservative management had failed, a type IV SLAP tear and a small rotator cuff tear were arthroscopically identified and repaired. In the second case, a power company lineman fell from a lift and attempted to hold on with his dominant arm. A nondisplaced greater tuberosity and a surgical neck fracture were discovered. MR arthrography revealed no evidence of SLAP tear. Four months after injury, a type II SLAP tear was arthroscopically identified and repaired. In these 2 cases, the presence of the fracture likely slowed operative intervention because pain was attributed to the fracture itself, and not to the SLAP tear. If patients do not follow the usual course of improvement after a proximal humerus fracture from a superior traction mechanism, consideration should be given to associated superior labral tears that may require surgical intervention.

  13. Relationships proximate analysis results and higher heating values of lignites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demirbas, A. [Sila Science, Trabzon (Turkey)

    2008-07-01

    In this study, the higher heating values (HHVs) of 26 lignite samples were calculated by using the proximate and elemental analyses data. The proximate analysis results such as volatile materials (VM), fixed carbon (FC) and HHV and the elemental analysis results such as carbon, hydrogen (H), oxygen (O), nitrogen (N) and sulfur (S) were determined for 26 lignite samples from different areas of Turkey. The lignite samples have been tested with particle size of 0-0.05 mm. The HHVs of 26 lignite samples obtained from different Turkish sources were determined experimentally and calculated from both ultimate and proximate analyses. HHVs of 26 the lignite samples can be calculated from the equation based modeling. The HHVs (MJ/kg) of the lignite samples as a function of fixed carbon (FC, wt%) or volatile materials (VM, %) was calculated from the following equations: HHV = 0.300FC + 11.117 (1) HHV = -0.323VM + 42.223 (2) where the correlation coefficients for Eqs. (1) and (2) were 0.9907 and 0.9862, respectively. The combustion heats calculated from Eqs. (1) and (2) showed mean differences of +3.9% and +0.3%, respectively. The HHVs (MJ/kg) of the lignite samples as a function of C, H, O, N, and S were calculated from a given equation where the correlation coefficients for the equation was 0.9891. HHVs calculated from this equation showed a mean deviation of +0.1.

  14. Proximate and elemental analyses of Tinospora cordifolia stem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahima; Rahal, Anu; Prakash, Atul; Verma, Amit Kumar; Kumar, Vinod; Roy, Debashish

    2014-05-01

    Tinospora cordifolia also known as Giloy or Guduchi, is an indigenous climber plant indigenous to tropical areas of India, Myanmar and Sri Lanka. Its stem is used for treatment of fever, jaundice, emaciation, skin ailments, diabetes, anaemia and various infectious diseases. The study was undertaken to evaluate the proximate and elemental analysis of the stems of Tinospora cordifolia. The proximate analyses were carried out using standard methods, while mineral elements were analyzed using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer, equipped with air acetylene flame. The proximate analysis of the stems of Tinospora cordifolia showed that it contained moisture 34.39%, ether extract 0.912%, crude protein 7.74%, crude fibre 56.42%, total ash 7.96%, nitrogen free extract 26.97%, cellulose 23.02% and hemicellulose 3.70%. The mineral analysis of the stems showed that they contain the following essential minerals: Calcium (102.23 ppm), phosphorous (24.81 ppm), iron (26.058 ppm), copper (3.733 ppm), zinc (7.342 ppm) and manganese (12.242 ppm). The study revealed that Tinospora cordifolia stems to be a potential source of nutrition and minerals for man as well as animals. PMID:26031012

  15. Adenosine, type 1 receptors: role in proximal tubule Na+ reabsorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, W J

    2015-01-01

    Adenosine type 1 receptor (A1 -AR) antagonists induce diuresis and natriuresis in experimental animals and humans. Much of this effect is due to inhibition of A1 -ARs in the proximal tubule, which is responsible for 60-70% of the reabsorption of filtered Na(+) and fluid. Intratubular application of receptor antagonists indicates that A1 -AR mediates a portion of Na(+) uptake in PT and PT cells, via multiple transport systems, including Na(+) /H(+) exchanger-3 (NHE3), Na(+) /PO4(-) co-transporter and Na(+) -dependent glucose transporter, SGLT. Renal microperfusion and recollection studies have shown that fluid reabsorption is reduced by A1 -AR antagonists and is lower in A1 -AR KO mice, compared to WT mice. Absolute proximal reabsorption (APR) measured by free-flow micropuncture is equivocal, with studies that show either lower APR or similar APR in A1 -AR KO mice, compared to WT mice. Inhibition of A1 -ARs lowers elevated blood pressure in models of salt-sensitive hypertension, partially due to their effects in the proximal tubule. PMID:25345761

  16. Multiple intramedullary nailing of proximal phalangeal fractures of hand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patankar Hemant

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Proximal phalangeal fractures are commonly encountered fractures in the hand. Majority of them are stable and can be treated by non-operative means. However, unstable fractures i.e. those with shortening, displacement, angulation, rotational deformity or segmental fractures need surgical intervention. This prospective study was undertaken to evaluate the functional outcome after surgical stabilization of these fractures with joint-sparing multiple intramedullary nailing technique. Materials and Methods: Thirty-five patients with 35 isolated unstable proximal phalangeal shaft fractures of hand were managed by surgical stabilization with multiple intramedullary nailing technique. Fractures of the thumb were excluded. All the patients were followed up for a minimum of six months. They were assessed radiologically and clinically. The clinical evaluation was based on two criteria. 1. total active range of motion for digital functional assessment as suggested by the American Society for Surgery of Hand and 2. grip strength. Results: All the patients showed radiological union at six weeks. The overall results were excellent in all the patients. Adventitious bursitis was observed at the point of insertion of nails in one patient. Conclusion: Joint-sparing multiple intramedullary nailing of unstable proximal phalangeal fractures of hand provides satisfactory results with good functional outcome and fewer complications.

  17. Proximity hybridization regulated DNA biogate for sensitive electrochemical immunoassay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Kewei; Wu, Jie; Zhang, Yue; Yan, Feng; Ju, Huangxian

    2014-08-01

    An electrochemical DNA biogate was designed for highly sensitive homogeneous electrochemical immunoassay by combining target-induced proximity hybridization with a mesoporous silica nanoprobe (MSN). The electroactive methylene blue (MB) was sealed in the inner pores of MSN with single-stranded DNA. In the presence of target protein and two DNA-labeled antibodies, the formed proximate complex could hybridize with the DNA strand to form a rigid double-stranded structure and thus open the biogate, which led to the release of MB entrapped in the MSN. The target protein-dependent amount of released MB could be conveniently monitored with a screen-printed carbon electrode. Moreover, the detachment process of MB could be further amplified with an in situ enzymatic recycling binding of the proximate complex with the single-stranded DNA. Using prostate-specific antigen as a model target, the proposed assay showed a wide detection range from 0.002 to 100 ng mL(-1) with a detection limit of 1.3 pg mL(-1). This strategy was simple and universal for various analytes with different affinity ligands. This method possessed great potential for convenient point-of-care testing and commercial application.

  18. Os ácidos graxos de cadeia curta na cicatrização de anastomoses colônicas: estudo experimental em ratos The short chain fatty acids on colonic anastomosis healing: experimental study on rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Hintz Greca

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a ação dos ácidos graxos de cadeia curta (AGCC na cicatrização de anastomoses colônicas em ratos. MÉTODO: Utilizaram-se 50 ratos divididos em 4 grupos. Dois desses grupos, vinte e seis animais, foram submetidos à operação de Hartmann; metade destes (grupo HF recebeu infusões retais diárias, no pós-operatório, de solução fisiológica a 0,9% ; a outra metade (grupo HA recebeu solução de butirato de sódio à 80mmol/l (AGCC (HA. Os dois grupos restantes, vinte e quatro animais foram submetidos à anastomose colônica término-terminal a 4 cm da borda anal. Destes, 12 animais (grupo AF receberam infusões retais de soro fisiológico a 0,9% e 12 animais (grupo AA receberam a solução com AGCC. Os animais foram avaliados no 7º e 14º dia do pós-operatório. Foi realizada análise histológica da densitometria do colágeno pela coloração do sirius red, utilizando-se a microscopia de polarização com método computadorizado. RESULTADOS: Comparando-se os grupos submetidos à cirurgia de Hartmann, portanto na ausência do trânsito intestinal, observou-se concentração significativamente maior de colágeno I e total no grupo que recebeu AGCC (p=0,001. Comparando-se os grupos submetidos à anastomose término-terminal, com interferência do trânsito intestinal, não se encontrou diferença significante da concentração de colágeno I e total (p=0,056 e p=0,397, respectivamente. A ação isolada do trânsito intestinal promoveu também aumento da produção de colágeno, quando comparado ao grupo sem atuação do trânsito intestinal. CONCLUSÃO: A administração via retal de AGCC, na ausência do trânsito intestinal mostrou-se de grande valia, promovendo aumento da síntese do colágeno. Independentemente da interferência do trânsito intestinal, o principal efeito do AGCC esteve relacionado com o aumento da maturação do colágeno.BACKGROUND: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the intraluminal

  19. Interleukin-6 (IL-6 influence on colonic anastomosis healing in rats A influência da Interleucina-6 (IL-6 na cicatrizaç��o de anastomoses colônicas em ratos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Hintz Greca

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE:To observe the effect of pro-inflamatory citokin, Interleukin-6 (IL-6, administration on the healing of colonic anastomosis in rats. METHODS: Thirty Wistar rats were divided into 2 groups of 15 animals each: a control group and an experiment group. The animals of the experiment group were submitted to injection of 500µg/kg of IL-6 Recombinant (Sandoz Phamarceutical® subcutaneously 24 and 12 hours preceding the surgery, and the control group, were submitted to the injection of saline solution, using the same volume of solution as well as the way of administration. The rats were submitted to an end to end colonic anastomosis, being sacrificed in the 7th post-operative day, the site of the anastomosis was evaluated regarding to the adhesions that was quantified and the presence of complications was observed. The colon containing the anastomosis was submitted to a tensiometric study and a sample were sent for histological studies with HE and Sirius Red dye. RESULTS: The macroscopic and the tensiometric study did not demonstrate any significant differences between the control and experiment group. Regarding the histological evaluation, there was a significant reduction of the chronic inflammatory process in the experiment group (p=0,0209 and a lesser granulation area (p=0,0099. The total amount of collagen was similar in both groups, however, the experimental group showed a predominant area of immature collagen (p=0.009. CONCLUSIONS: The longer persistence of the acute phase of wound healing in the experiment group, as well as a decreased of the mature collagen type I, demonstrating that the IL-6 was harmful to the colonic healing anastomosis in rats.OBJETIVO: Verificar a influência da administração da citocina pró-inflamatória, Interleucina-6 (IL-6, na cicatrização de anastomoses colônicas em ratos. MÉTODOS: Utilizaram-se 30 ratos Wistar, divididos em 2 grupos, controle e experimento, de 15 animais cada. Os animais do grupo

  20. Comparação entre ressecção com anastomose primária e ressecção em estágios nos tumores obstrutivos do cólon esquerdo Comparison between resection and primary anastomosis and staged resection in obstructing adenocarcinoma of the left colon

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    José Eduardo de Aguilar-Nascimento

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available RACIONAL: A melhor opção no tratamento cirúrgico do câncer obstrutivo do cólon esquerdo ainda é controversa. OBJETIVO: Relatar a experiência de três hospitais de Cuiabá, MT, no tratamento da obstrução neoplásica do cólon esquerdo, enfocando os resultados imediatos com a ressecção e anastomose primária e com a ressecção em estágios. CASUÍSTICA E MÉTODOS: Estudaram-se retrospectivamente 23 pacientes (idade mediana = 52 [39-84] anos com adenocarcinomas ressecáveis obstrutivos do cólon esquerdo, sendo 10 (43,5% do gênero masculino e 13 (56,5% do feminino. Em 14 (60,9%, o tratamento foi realizado em um tempo, com ressecção e anastomose primária, e em 9 (39,1% realizou-se ressecção em estágios. Nos 14 pacientes submetidos a ressecção e anastomose primária, realizou-se ressecção segmentar com preparo intra-operatório do cólon (n = 10 ou colectomia subtotal (n = 4. Nos doentes submetidos a ressecção em estágios, quatro casos foram submetidos a operação de Hartmann (ressecção em dois tempos e cinco casos a colostomia em alça no ângulo hepático (ressecção em três tempos. RESULTADOS: Dois pacientes (8,7% que pertenciam ao grupo da ressecção em estágios, faleceram no pós-operatório. Quatro (44,4% dos pacientes com ressecção em estágios não completaram o tratamento com o fechamento da colostomia. A incidência de complicações foi de 28,6% nos casos submetidos a ressecção e anastomose primária (4/14 e de 66,7% nos operados com a ressecção em estágios (6/9. Ocorreram três casos de fístula, sendo um caso (7,1% com a ressecção e a anastomose primária e dois (22,2% com a ressecção em estágios. CONCLUSÃO: O conjunto dos resultados sugere que o tratamento em um tempo na obstrução do cólon esquerdo é seguro e pode ser indicado na maioria dos casos.BACKGROUND: The surgical option to deal with obstruction of the left side of the large bowel is still controversial. OBJECTIVE: To report the

  1. Clinical results of using the proximal humeral internal locking system plate for internal fixation of displaced proximal humeral fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norouzi, Masoud; Naderi, Mohammad Nasir; Komasi, Mehdi Hemmati; Sharifzadeh, Seyyed Reza; Shahrezaei, Mostafa; Eajazi, Alireza

    2012-05-01

    Proximal humerus fractures are accounting for 4-5% of all fractures with increasing incidence. Proximal Humeral Internal Locking System (PHILOS) plate is a new plate which permits early mobility and lowers the risk of complications. The aim of this study was to evaluate the functional outcome and the complication rate after using this plate. Between 2006-2008, 37 patients with displaced 2-, 3-, and 4-part fractures of the proximal humerus underwent surgery using PHILOS plate. The mean range of follow-up was 12 months. Twenty patients were aged 60 years and younger, and 17 were aged older than 60 years. The average American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons (ASES) score at the final follow-up was 77.62. According to Michener and colleagues classification, 5.4% of patients had an excellent outcome, 72.9% were minimally functionally limited, 16.2% were moderately functionally limited, and 5.4% were maximally functionally limited. The average ASES score between patients 60 years and older and those 60 years and younger was not different significantly. One patient developed avascular necrosis of the humeral head, 2 patients developed an infection, and no patients developed a nonunion. Fixation with PHILOS plate can be considered a good method with high union rates for this kind of fracture, especially in the older population with osteoporotic bone.

  2. Les institutions créatrices de proximités. Institutions as creators of proximities

    OpenAIRE

    Damien Talbot

    2008-01-01

    Using contributions of American institutionalists and philosophers of mind, we propose to look further into the definitions of the three traditional forms of the proximity. First, we define geographical proximity as relational availability. Second, we explain that institutional proximity is an effect of institutions. In this case, actors share common significances and play complementary roles in collective action. Third, organisational proximity, according to distinction suggested by COMMONS ...

  3. Proximity relationships and entrepreneurship: some reflections based on an applied case study

    OpenAIRE

    André Torre

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this article is to draw some lines about the application of proximity analysis in business relations, be there face to face exchanges or distant relations, with a peculiar attention to innovative behaviors, whether they imply local interactions, virtual exchanges or mobility of white collars and engineers. We first give a broad definition of various types of proximity relations, especially the most important ones: geographical proximity, organized proximity, and temporary geographi...

  4. Minimal Invasive Percutaneous Osteosynthesis for Elderly Valgus Impacted Proximal Humeral Fractures with the PHILOS

    OpenAIRE

    Hang Chen; Xiaochuan Hu; Haochen Tang; Guoyong Yang; Ming Xiang

    2015-01-01

    There is a growing concern about elderly valgus impacted proximal humeral fractures. The aim of this study was to evaluate the treatment and clinical outcomes following minimal invasive percutaneous plate osteosynthesis (MIPPO) with the proximal humeral internal locking system (PHILOS) for the treatment of elderly valgus impacted proximal humeral fracture. Between May 2008 and May 2012, 27 patients (average age 67.3, range 61–74) with valgus impacted proximal humeral fractures were enrolled i...

  5. Bluetooth Low Energy and Smartphones for Proximity-Based Automatic Door Locks

    OpenAIRE

    Andersson, Tim

    2014-01-01

    Bluetooth Low Energy is becoming increasingly popular in mobile applications due to the possibility of using it for proximity data. Proximity can be estimated by measuring the strength of the Bluetooth signal, and actions can then be performed based on a user's proximity to a certain location or object. One of the most interesting applications of proximity information is automating common tasks; this paper evaluates Bluetooth Low Energy in the context of using smartphones to automatically unl...

  6. Proximity Utilizing Biotinylation of Nuclear Proteins in vivo

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    Arman Kulyyassov

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The human genome consists of roughly 30,000 genes coding for over 500,000 different proteins, of which more than 10,000 proteins can be produced by the cell at any given time (the cellular “proteome”. It has been estimated that over 80% of proteins do not operate alone, but in complexes. These protein-protein interactions (PPI are regulated by several mechanisms. For example, post-translational modifications (methylation, acetylation, phosphorylation, or ubiquitination or metal-binding can lead to conformational changes that alter the affinity and kinetic parameters of the interaction. Many PPIs are part of larger cellular networks of interactions or interactomes. Indeed, these interactions are at the core of the entire interactomics system of any living cell, and so, aberrant PPIs are the basis of multiple diseases, such as neurodegenerative diseases and cancer. The objective of this study was to develop a method of monitoring protein-protein interactions and proximity dependence in vivo.Methods. The biotin ligase BirA was fused to the protein of interest, and the Biotin Acceptor Peptide (BAP was fused to an interacting partner to make the detection of its biotinylation possible by western blot or mass spectrometry.Results. Using several experimental systems (BirA.A + BAP.B, we showed that the biotinylation is interaction/proximity dependent. Here, A and B are the next nuclear proteins used in the experiments – 3 paralogues of heterochromatin protein HP1a (CBX5, HP1b (CBX1, HP1g (CBX3, wild type and transcription mutant factor Kap1, translesion DNA polymerase PolH and E3, ubiquitin ligase RAD18, Proliferative Cell Nuclear Antigen (PCNA, ubiquitin Ub, SUMO-2/3, different types and isoforms of histones H2A, H2Az, H3.1, H3.3, CenpA, H2A.BBD, and macroH2A. The variant of this approach is termed PUB-NChIP (Proximity Utilizing Biotinylation with Native Chromatin Immuno-precipitation and is designed to purify and study the protein

  7. Fístulas de anastomose superior pós-gastroplastia redutora pela técnica de Higa para tratamento da obesidade mórbida: aspectos por imagem Anastomotic leaks after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery by Higa's technique for treatment of morbid obesity: radiological findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ester Moraes Labrunie

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Descrever os principais aspectos radiológicos encontrados nas fístulas pós-operatórias de anastomose superior em pacientes submetidos a derivação gastrintestinal em Y de Roux pela técnica de Higa. MATERIAIS E MÉTODOS: Foram estudados 24 pacientes com fístula de anastomose no pós-operatório de gastroplastia redutora, avaliados por tomografias computadorizadas e/ou seriografias esofagogastrojejunais. RESULTADOS: As fístulas de anastomose superior ocorreram até o 30º dia de pós-operatório. Dezenove pacientes realizaram exame radiológico no momento do diagnóstico, sendo observado extravasamento de contraste, considerado sinal direto de fístula de anastomose, em dez pacientes. Dos nove restantes, em sete foi evidenciado extravasamento em exames subseqüentes, sendo ainda identificados sinais indiretos de fístula em seis destes. Sinais indiretos foram observados também em pacientes com extravasamento de contraste nos exames iniciais, sendo o pneumoperitônio o aspecto mais freqüente. Dos cinco pacientes sem exame radiológico no momento do diagnóstico, exames subseqüentes evidenciaram extravasamento de contraste em um e sinais indiretos em quatro pacientes. CONCLUSÃO: O achado radiológico mais comum foi o extravasamento de contraste (sinal direto de fístula. Os sinais indiretos foram: nível líquido bizarro, coleção intracavitária, pneumoperitônio desproporcional ao tempo pós-operatório, líquido na cavidade peritoneal, edema da anastomose inferior e distensão de delgado.OBJECTIVE: The present study was aimed at describing main radiological findings in patients who developed leaks as a complication of Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery by the Higa's technique. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty-four patients with post-gastric bypass anastomotic leaks were evaluated by means of computed tomography or gastrointestinal series. RESULTS: Leaks of superior anastomoses generally occurred within 30 postoperative days

  8. STARVATION INDUCED PROXIMAL GUT MUCOSAL ATROPHY DIMINISHED WITH AGING

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Juquan; Wolf, Steven E.; Wu, Xiao-Wu; Finnerty, Celeste C.; Gauglitz, Gerd G.; Herndon, David N.; Jeschke, Marc G.

    2013-01-01

    Background Starvation induces small bowel atrophy with increased intestinal epithelial apoptosis and decreased proliferation. Here, we examined these parameters after starvation in aged animals. Methods Sixty-four 6 week-old and 26 month-old C57BL/6 mice were randomly assigned to either an ad libitum fed or fasted group. The small bowel was harvested at 12, 48, and 72 hours following starvation. Proximal gut mucosal height was measured and epithelial cells counted. Apoptosis was identified by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) staining. Proliferation was determined by immunohistochemical staining for proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA). Comparison of fed vs. fasted and adult vs. old groups was done by one-way ANOVA with Tukey’s test and unpaired t-test. Significance was accepted at p<0.05. Results Aged mice had higher proximal gut weights, mucosal heights and cell numbers at baseline compared with the adult group (p<0.05). The rate of apoptosis was lower in the aged (p<0.05) while proliferation was not different between groups before starvation. After starvation, proximal gut wet weight decreased only in adult mice (p<0.05); Gut mucosal height and mucosal cell number decreased greater in adult than in aged mice (p<0.05). This was related to decreased proliferation only in the adult group (p<0.05). The fold of epithelial apoptosis increased was higher in the aged group than in the adult after starvation (p<0.05). Conclusions Gut mucosal kinetics change with age had lower rates of apoptosis and greater mucosal mass; the character of starvation-induced atrophy is diminished with aging. PMID:19126762

  9. Periosteal chondroma of the proximal phalanx of the ring finger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Introduction: Periosteal chondroma is an uncommon benign chondroid tumour of bone that was first described by Lichtenstein and Hall in 1952. The more common sites of involvement are the metaphyseal region of a long tubular bone, especially the proximal humerus, femur, and phalanges. Roentgenographically this benign tumor can mimic chondrosarcoma. Awareness of this fact is important in order to avoid over diagnosis and resultant overtreatment of the benign lesion. Objectives and tasks: In this report, we aimed to present clinical, radiological and pathological findings of a case with periosteal chondroma. Material and methods: A 20-year-old man presented with a small painless mass on the radial side of his right ring finger of 3 months duration. Results: Physical examination revealed a slightly protuberant, subcutaneous mass, located in the radial aspect of the proximal phalanx of the right ring finger Radiographs of the ring finger showed a mild cortical irregularity in the dorso-radial aspect of the proximal phalanx. There was soft tissue calcification. There was a lucent lesion that eroded the underlying cortex and caused a reactive sclerosis at the base of the saucershaped defect in the bone. In Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) lesion was isointense to the muscle tissue in T1WI and high intensity in T2WI. Based on the clinical, radiological and histological findings, a diagnosis of periosteal chondroma was made. Conclusion: Periosteal chondroma is a slow growing, benign, chondroid tumor that arises under or in the periosteum on the surface of cortical bone. In considering the differential diagnosis perhaps the most important tumour to distinguish from periosteal chondroma is periosteal chondrosarcoma. Treatment of these lesions is surgical, with a wide excision performed for chondrosarcoma and a local (marginal or intralesional) excision for chondroma. Differentiation from a malignant lesion is therefore crucial to prevent more extensive unnecessary

  10. [Proximate analysis of straw by near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Cai-jin; Han, Lu-jia; Liu, Xian; Yang, Zeng-ling

    2009-04-01

    Proximate analysis is one of the routine analysis procedures in utilization of straw for biomass energy use. The present paper studied the applicability of rapid proximate analysis of straw by near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) technology, in which the authors constructed the first NIRS models to predict volatile matter and fixed carbon contents of straw. NIRS models were developed using Foss 6500 spectrometer with spectra in the range of 1,108-2,492 nm to predict the contents of moisture, ash, volatile matter and fixed carbon in the directly cut straw samples; to predict ash, volatile matter and fixed carbon in the dried milled straw samples. For the models based on directly cut straw samples, the determination coefficient of independent validation (R2v) and standard error of prediction (SEP) were 0.92% and 0.76% for moisture, 0.94% and 0.84% for ash, 0.88% and 0.82% for volatile matter, and 0.75% and 0.65% for fixed carbon, respectively. For the models based on dried milled straw samples, the determination coefficient of independent validation (R2v) and standard error of prediction (SEP) were 0.98% and 0.54% for ash, 0.95% and 0.57% for volatile matter, and 0.78% and 0.61% for fixed carbon, respectively. It was concluded that NIRS models can predict accurately as an alternative analysis method, therefore rapid and simultaneous analysis of multicomponents can be achieved by NIRS technology, decreasing the cost of proximate analysis for straw.

  11. Uncemented allograft-prosthetic composite reconstruction of the proximal femur

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    Li Min

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Allograft-prosthetic composite can be divided into three groups names cemented, uncemented, and partially cemented. Previous studies have mainly reported outcomes in cemented and partially cemented allograft-prosthetic composites, but have rarely focused on the uncemented allograft-prosthetic composites. The objectives of our study were to describe a surgical technique for using proximal femoral uncemented allograft-prosthetic composite and to present the radiographic and clinical results. Materials and Methods: Twelve patients who underwent uncemented allograft-prosthetic composite reconstruction of the proximal femur after bone tumor resection were retrospectively evaluated at an average followup of 24.0 months. Clinical records and radiographs were evaluated. Results: In our series, union occurred in all the patients (100%; range 5-9 months. Until the most recent followup, there were no cases with infection, nonunion of the greater trochanter, junctional bone resorption, dislocation, allergic reaction, wear of acetabulum socket, recurrence, and metastasis. But there were three periprosthetic fractures which were fixed using cerclage wire during surgery. Five cases had bone resorption in and around the greater trochanter. The average Musculoskeletal Tumor Society (MSTS score and Harris hip score (HHS were 26.2 points (range 24-29 points and 80.6 points (range 66.2-92.7 points, respectively. Conclusions: These results showed that uncemented allograft-prosthetic composite could promote bone union through compression at the host-allograft junction and is a good choice for proximal femoral resection. Although this technology has its own merits, long term outcomes are yet not validated.

  12. Percutaneous Stabilization of Impending Pathological Fracture of the Proximal Femur

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deschamps, Frederic, E-mail: frederic.deschamps@igr.fr; Farouil, Geoffroy, E-mail: g.farouil@gmail.com; Hakime, Antoine, E-mail: thakime@yahoo.com; Teriitehau, Christophe, E-mail: cteriitehau@me.com; Barah, Ali, E-mail: ali.barah@gmail.com; Baere, Thierry de, E-mail: debaere@igr.fr [Institut Gustave Roussy, Interventional Radiology Department (France)

    2012-12-15

    Objective: Percutaneous osteosynthesis plus cementoplasty (POPC) is a minimally invasive technique that has never been reported before and that we have prospectively evaluated for patients with impending pathological fracture of the proximal femur. Methods: We performed POPC in 12 patients (3 males, 9 females) with metastasis of the proximal femur with a high risk of fracture (Mirels' score {>=}8) between February 2010 and July 2011. Patients were not candidates for standard surgical stabilization. We analyzed the feasibility, duration, and complication of the procedure, the risk of fracture, the decrease in pain (Visual Analog Scale, VAS), and length of stay in hospital. Data were prospectively collected in all patients. Results: The mean Mirels' score was 9.8 {+-} 1.2 (range, 8-11). The technical success was 100%. POPC was performed under general anesthesia (n = 6) or conscious sedation (n = 6). The mean duration was 110 {+-} 43 (range, 60-180) minutes. All patients stood up and walked the second day after the procedure. The average length of stay in the hospital was 4 {+-} 1.6 (range, 2-7) days. We experienced two hematomas in two patients and no thromboembolic complication. For symptomatic patients (n = 8), VAS decreased from 6.5/10 (range, 2-9) before treatment to 1/10 (range, 0-3) 1 month after. No fracture occurred after a median follow-up of 145 (range, 12-608) days. Conclusions: POPC for impending pathological fracture of the proximal femur seems to be a promising alternative for cancer patients who are not candidates for surgical stabilization. Further studies are required to confirm this preliminary experience.

  13. Morphological characteristics of the developing proximal femur: A biomechanical perspective

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    Đurić Marija

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. In contrast to a plethora of studies on the proximal femur in adults, its external and internal morphology in growing children has not been sufficiently analyzed. Objective. We analyzed changes in external and internal morphology of the proximal femur during growth and development to interpret the links between them and concepts of the human femoral biomechanics. Methods. We assessed external geometry, internal trabecular and cortical arrangement, and bone mineral density (BMD of the proximal femur in 29 children (age at death from 1 month to 14 years from archaeological context by using microscopic and radiographic methods. Results. The results showed that both the femoral neck width and length increased with age, with the femoral neck becoming more elongated, while the collo-diaphyseal angle decreased. A strong relationship between age and adjusted areal BMD was found, showing continuous increase during childhood. Parallel trabecular pattern at birth changed to mature three distinct trabecular groups (longitudinal – principal compressive, transversal – tensile and randomly scattered starting from the age of 8 months. In older children the superior and inferior aspects of the femoral neck differently changed with growth, with medial neck having thicker cortex and trabeculae. Conclusion. In the light of bone adaptation principle, the observed changes in external and internal morphology are governed by mechanical forces acting on the developing femur. Our findings on the development of trabecular pattern and cortical distribution are compatible with recent views on the femoral biomechanics which point out the predominance of compressive stresses in the femoral neck, adaptation to shear stresses, multiaxial loading perspective, prevalence of muscle effects over body weight, and existence of adaptational eccentricity. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 45005

  14. Surgical treatment of proximal humerus fractures using PHILOS plate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GN Kiran Kumar; Gaurav Sharma; Vijay Sharma; Vaibhav Jain; Kamran Farooque; Vivek Morey

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate functional outcome and complications of open reduction and internal fixation with proximal humeral internal locking system (PHILOS) plate for proximal humerus fractures.Methods:We reviewed 51 patients who underwent open reduction and internal fixation with PHILOS plate between the years 2007 to 2012.There were 35 men and 16 women with a mean age of 38 years (range 24-68).There were 41 patients in the age group of <60 years and 10 patients in the age group of >60 years.According to Neer classification system,8,15 and 23 patients had 2-part,3-part,and 4-part fractures,respectively and 5 patients had 4-part fracture dislocation.All surgeries were carried out at our tertiary care trauma centre.Functional evaluation of the shoulder at final follow-up was done using Constant-Murley score.Results:The mean follow-up period was 30 months (range 12-44 months).Two patients were lost to followup.Of the remaining 49 patients,all fractures were united clinically and radiologically.The mean time for radiological union was 12 weeks (range 8-20 weeks).At the final follow-up the mean Constant-Murley score was 79 (range 50-100).The results were excellent in 25 patients,good in 13 patients,fair in 6 patients and poor in 5 patients.During the follow-up,four cases of varus malunion,one case of subacromial impingement,one case of deep infection,one case of intraarticular screw penetration and one case of failure of fixation were noted.No cases of avascular necrosis,hardware failure,locking screw loosening or nonunion were noted.Conclusion:PHILOS provides stable fixation in proximal humerus fractures.To prevent potential complications like avascular necrosis,meticulous surgical dissection to preserve vascularity of humeral head is necessary.

  15. Complications of the locking plate for displaced proximal humeral fractures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Yi; WANG Man-yi; ZHU Yi-ming; JIANG Chun-yan

    2010-01-01

    Background Although the locking plate has become popular for treating displaced proximal humeral fractures in recent years, the complications of this method are still underestimated. We tried to evaluate the factors that have an influence on the complications experienced after proximal humeral fractures fixed by locking plates and compare the results from patients having complications with those having no complications.Methods From September 2004 to September 2007, 92 out of 111 displaced proximal humeral fractures treated by open reduction and internal fixation with a locking plate were available for follow-up, with an average time of 15.2months (12-36 months). The range of motion, Visual Analog Score (VAS) for pain, American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons' Form (ASES), Constant-Murley, University of California-Los Angles scoring system (UCLA) score, and Simple Shoulder Test (SST) for function evaluation was all recorded at the latest follow-up. The results from patients with complications were evaluated according to the indices listed above and compared with those patients without any complications.Results There were 17 patients with complications, an 18.5% complication rate. Among them, the forward flexion,external rotation and internal rotation were 139.1°±24.3°, 24.1°±19.6°, and up to T10 level on average. The mean VAS score was 1.0±1.1, the ASES score was 82.9±13.8, the Constant 82.1±11.8, the UCLA 28.5±4.1 and the mean SST 9.5on average. There was no significant difference of complication rate among different age, sex, and injured side, fresh or delayed fracture, combined with other injury or not groups. Compared with the group without complications, patients with complications showed significantly less external rotation and lower Constant-Murley and UCLA functional scores (P <0.05). A significant difference in results was seen between patients with complications and those without complications.Conclusion The indication control and appropriate

  16. Proximity effect in a shielded symmetrical three-phase line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipović Dragan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present an approximate analysis of the proximity effect in a shielded symmetrical three-phase line with conductors of circular cross section. The system of two integral equations for current densities is solved approximately by assuming them in the form of two finite series with properly chosen basic functions. The unknown coefficients in these series are found by applying the point matching procedure. Numerical results are given for the AC to DC resistance ratio of the line conductors and for the power loss in the shield.

  17. Productivity and proximate content of Pleurotus sajor-caju

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patil S S

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Experment was conducted to study the effect of different agro wastes viz. soybean straw, paddy straw, wheat straw, jowar straw, sunflower stalk and pigeaon pea stalk on productivity and proximate content of Pleurotus sajor-caju. Soybean straw showed significantly highest yield (with 83.00% B.E., maximum protein (25.80%, fat (2.82%, and ash (7.30% content. Significantly maximum moisture content was found (88.25% on wheat straw, carbohydrate content on Jowar (58.50% straw, crude fiber content (7.90 % on paddy straw.

  18. Missed posterior shoulder dislocation with malunited proximal humerus fracture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sunil Kumar; Rajesh Kumar Chopra; Abhishek Kashyap; Sumit Arora

    2013-01-01

    Posterior dislocation of the shoulder may be missed or neglected at initial presentation especially in developing countries.We present a case of 40-year-old Indian man who had 3-month missed posterior dislocation of the right shoulder along with malunited fracture of the anatomical neck of the humerus.Open reduction and stabilization with modified McLaughlin procedure was performed.Rotational osteotomy of proximal humerus had to be performed as supplementary procedure to keep the humeral head stable in glenoid cavity during functional range of movements.The patient had excellent result of the shoulder at 3 years follow-up.

  19. Diabetic neuropathy part 2: proximal and asymmetric phenotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasnoor, Mamatha; Dimachkie, Mazen M; Barohn, Richard J

    2013-05-01

    Diabetic neuropathies consist of a variety of syndromes resulting from different types of damage to peripheral or cranial nerves. Although distal symmetric polyneuropathy is the most common type of diabetic neuropathy, many other subtypes have been defined since the 1800s, including proximal diabetic, truncal, cranial, median, and ulnar neuropathies. Various theories have been proposed for the pathogenesis of these neuropathies. The treatment of most requires tight and stable glycemic control. Spontaneous recovery is seen in most of these conditions with diabetic control. Immunotherapies have been tried in some of these conditions however are controversial. PMID:23642718

  20. Nonequilibrium and proximity effects in superconductor-normal metal junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauppila, V. J.; Nguyen, H. Q.; Heikkilä, T. T.

    2013-08-01

    We study the consequences of nonequilibrium heating and inverse proximity effect in normal metal-insulator-superconductor-insulator-normal metal (NISIN) junctions with a simple quasi-one-dimensional model. We especially focus on observables and parameter regions that are of interest in the design of SINIS coolers with quasiparticle traps. We present numerical results calculated by solving the Usadel equation and also present analytical approximations in two limiting cases: a short junction with a non-negligible resistance in both ends and a long junction with a transparent contact at one end.

  1. Acute tumor lysis syndrome after proximal splenic artery embolization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason T. Salsamendi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Preoperative splenic artery embolization for massive splenomegaly has been shown to reduce intraoperative hemorrhage during splenectomy. We describe a case of tumor lysis syndrome after proximal splenic artery embolization in a patient with advanced mantle cell lymphoma and splenic involvement. The patient presented initially with hyperkalemia two days after embolization that worsened during splenectomy. He was stabilized, but developed laboratory tumor lysis syndrome with renal failure and expired. High clinical suspicion of tumor lysis syndrome in this setting is advised. Treatment must be started early to avoid serious renal injury and death. Lastly, same day splenectomy and embolization should be considered to decrease the likelihood of developing tumor lysis syndrome.

  2. Acute tumor lysis syndrome after proximal splenic artery embolization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salsamendi, Jason T; Doshi, Mehul H; Gortes, Francisco J; Levi, Joe U; Narayanan, Govindarajan

    2016-06-01

    Preoperative splenic artery embolization for massive splenomegaly has been shown to reduce intraoperative hemorrhage during splenectomy. We describe a case of tumor lysis syndrome after proximal splenic artery embolization in a patient with advanced mantle cell lymphoma and splenic involvement. The patient presented initially with hyperkalemia two days after embolization that worsened during splenectomy. He was stabilized, but developed laboratory tumor lysis syndrome with renal failure and expired. High clinical suspicion of tumor lysis syndrome in this setting is advised. Treatment must be started early to avoid serious renal injury and death. Lastly, same day splenectomy and embolization should be considered to decrease the likelihood of developing tumor lysis syndrome. PMID:27257458

  3. Groups as units of functional analysis, individuals as proximate mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, David Sloan

    2014-06-01

    Whenever selection operates at a given level of a multitier hierarchy, units at that level should become the object of functional analysis, and units at lower levels should be studied as proximate mechanisms. This intuition already exists for the study of genes in individuals, when individuals are the unit of selection. It is only beginning to be applied for the study of individuals in groups, when groups are the unit of selection. Smaldino's target article is an important step in this direction with an emphasis on human cultural evolution, but the same algorithm applies to all multilevel evolutionary processes.

  4. Rapid method of proximate analysis of coals from Indian coalfields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alam, N.; Paul, S.K. [CFRI, Dhanbad (India)

    2001-07-01

    The proximate analysis has been useful in finding out the percentage of ash in coal, which is the threshold requirement by which the commercial value of coal is adjudged. In the present study, a rapid method for determination of ash percentage in coal has been discussed. Rapid method is always warranted to release more quality parameters within scheduled time. The results obtained by this method were found to be satisfactory and comparable with the results obtained by the British Standard specifications. It is concluded that this method can be effectively adopted where sulphur, carbonates and alkalis are present in low amounts. 4 refs., 3 tabs.

  5. Proximate analysis of coal by Leco MAC-400

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, S.T. (British Steel Corporation, London (UK). Ravenscraig Works)

    1988-01-01

    Discussion is presented of the use of the Leco Mac-400 Proximate Analyser at the Ravenscraig Steel Works, UK. It is used for the analysis of in-plant coals and the determination of ash in coke. The instrument does not meet the British Standard requirement for repeatability, so is not used for 'value in use' coal analysis. It has recently been overhauled, however, and will be re-evaluated to see if the overhaul has brought an improvement in performance. 6 figs., 7 tabs.

  6. Different approaches to proximate analysis by thermogravimetry analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayoral, M.C.; Izquierdo, M.T.; Andres, J.M.; Rubio, B. [Instituto de Carboquimica, CSIC, Maria de Luna, n. 12, 50015- Zaragoza (Spain)

    2001-04-04

    The experimental optimization by the simplex method of the proximate analysis of coal and biomass by thermogravimetry analysis (TGA) is reported. Heating rate, final temperature, holding time, Ar flow rate and sample size were the control variables. The response function used was chosen to minimize the difference in percentage of volatile matter with the ASTM characterization. The relative accuracy of the method was demonstrated by determination of the volatile matter contents of a number of coals in parallel with the ASTM certified method. The method is successfully used with biomass samples.

  7. [The complications of selective proximal vagotomy and their dietetic correction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matveeva, I I

    1990-01-01

    Complications of selective proximal vagotomy (SPV) in patients operated on for duodenal ulcer were considered in relation to the operation type and the time since it has been performed. The syndromes directly related to parasympathetic denervation of the stomach and varying concomitant digestive disorders were revealed in these patients that necessitated administration of adequate diets. All the patients responded well to the dietotherapy. The observations conducted have proved that to prevent the ulcer relapsing, and digestive disorders, and to maintain working capacity, the patients with SPV complications should keep the diet recommended for a long term. PMID:2346006

  8. Early proximal junctional failure in patients with preoperative sagittal imbalance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Micah W; Annis, Prokopis; Lawrence, Brandon D; Daubs, Michael D; Brodke, Darrel S

    2013-10-01

    Study Type Retrospective review. Introduction Sagittal imbalance has been associated with lower health-related quality of life outcomes, and restoration of imbalance is associated with improved outcomes.123 The long constructs used in adult spinal deformity have potential consequences such as proximal junctional kyphosis (PJK). Clinically, the development of PJK may not be as important as failure of the construct or vertebrae at the proximal end. As PJK does not lead to worse clinical outcomes,45 we define the term early proximal junctional failure (EPJF) as fracture, implant failure, or myelopathy due to stenosis at the upper instrumental vertebra (UIV) or UIV + 1 within 6 months of surgery. Objective The purpose of this study is to report the incidence of EPJF in patients who are sagittally imbalanced preoperatively and to identify risk factors postoperatively that correlate with EPJF using commonly reported sagittal balance parameters. Methods We reviewed 197 patients with preoperative sagittal imbalance by at least one of the following: sagittal vertical axis more than 5 cm, global sagittal alignment more than 45 degrees, pelvic incidence-lumbar lordosis more than 10 degrees, or spine-sacral angle less than 120 degrees. Radiographic measurements also included proximal junctional angle, thoracic kyphosis, lumbar lordosis, pelvic parameters, and sagittal balance parameters/formulas, as well as UIV angle, UIV spinosacral angle, and UIV plumb line to assess as potential risk factors. EPJF incidence was calculated postoperatively for each of the accepted sagittal balance parameters/formulas. Results EPJF was observed in 49 of 197 patients (25%) with preoperative sagittal imbalance and was more common in fusions with UIV in the lower thoracic spine (TS) (35%) than in those with UIV in the upper TS (10%) or lumbar (25%) (p = 0.007). Of the 49 EPJF patients, 16 patients (33%) required revision surgery within the first year, for an overall early revision

  9. Down the Rabbit Hole: Robust Proximity Search in Sublinear Space

    CERN Document Server

    Har-Peled, Sariel

    2011-01-01

    For a set of n points in $\\Re^d$, and parameters k and {\\epsilon}, we present a data structure that answers (1 + {\\epsilon})-approximate k nearest neighbor queries in logarithmic time. Surprisingly, the space used by the data-structure is O(n/k), that is, the space used is sublinear in the input size if k is sufficiently large. Our approach provides a novel way to summarize geometric data, such that meaningful proximity queries on the data can be carried out using this sketch.

  10. Proximal Humerus Fracture Plating Through the Extended Anterolateral Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Michael J

    2016-08-01

    Several approaches to the proximal humerus for fracture fixation are possible. The traditional utilitarian approach to the shoulder, the deltopectoral, has distinct disadvantages when performing fracture reduction and locked plating. The anterolateral acromial approach exploits the intermuscular plane between the anterior and middle heads of the deltoid. After identifying the position of the axillary nerve as it crosses this interval, fracture reduction and fixation is performed. Direct access to both the greater and the lesser tuberosities is facilitated. The cancellous surface of the humeral head fragment provides an excellent surface for direct manipulation without further endangering the extraosseous soft tissue attachments. PMID:27441923

  11. Retained Urethral Catheter Secondary to Placement in Proximal Ureter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas B. McGregor

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We present an unusual complication secondary to indwelling urethral catheter placement. Routine catheter placement by the obstetrics team in a postpartum female leads to retention of the catheter and inability of its removal by both the obstetrics and urology teams. Although a retained urinary catheter is relatively common, inability to remove a catheter secondary to placement inadvertently into a ureter is extremely rare. In this paper we will discuss the options in removing a retained catheter and present our case of a retained catheter secondary to placement within the right proximal ureter.

  12. Retained Urethral Catheter Secondary to Placement in Proximal Ureter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGregor, Thomas B; Sharda, Rajan

    2016-01-01

    We present an unusual complication secondary to indwelling urethral catheter placement. Routine catheter placement by the obstetrics team in a postpartum female leads to retention of the catheter and inability of its removal by both the obstetrics and urology teams. Although a retained urinary catheter is relatively common, inability to remove a catheter secondary to placement inadvertently into a ureter is extremely rare. In this paper we will discuss the options in removing a retained catheter and present our case of a retained catheter secondary to placement within the right proximal ureter.

  13. Models of proximate and ultimate causation in psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alessi, G

    1992-11-01

    B. F. Skinner saw behavior as a product of three levels of evolution. J. R. Kantor and Gregory Bateson noted similar relations. This article describes and applies basic evolutionary concepts to each level: (a) phylogenic, (b) ontogenic, and (c) cultural evolution. Each level is analyzed in terms of (a) units of selection, (b) variety of units required for the selection process, (c) selection pressures, (d) interactions among levels, and (e) implications for understanding and predicting behavior. Distinguishing between models of proximate and ultimate causation, as in biology, may help clarify research problems posed by, and facilitate better communication among, psychologists.

  14. The Proximal Trajectory Algorithm in SVM Cross Validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astorino, Annabella; Fuduli, Antonio

    2016-05-01

    We propose a bilevel cross-validation scheme for support vector machine (SVM) model selection based on the construction of the entire regularization path. Since such path is a particular case of the more general proximal trajectory concept from nonsmooth optimization, we propose for its construction an algorithm based on solving a finite number of structured linear programs. Our methodology, differently from other approaches, works directly on the primal form of SVM. Numerical results are presented on binary data sets drawn from literature. PMID:27101080

  15. SGLT2 Mediates Glucose Reabsorption in the Early Proximal Tubule

    OpenAIRE

    Vallon, Volker; Platt, Kenneth A.; Cunard, Robyn; Schroth, Jana; Whaley, Jean; Thomson, Scott C.; Koepsell, Hermann; Rieg, Timo

    2011-01-01

    Mutations in the gene encoding for the Na+-glucose co-transporter SGLT2 (SLC5A2) associate with familial renal glucosuria, but the role of SGLT2 in the kidney is incompletely understood. Here, we determined the localization of SGLT2 in the mouse kidney and generated and characterized SGLT2-deficient mice. In wild-type (WT) mice, immunohistochemistry localized SGLT2 to the brush border membrane of the early proximal tubule. Sglt2−/− mice had glucosuria, polyuria, and increased food and fluid i...

  16. Diabetic neuropathy part 2: proximal and asymmetric phenotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasnoor, Mamatha; Dimachkie, Mazen M; Barohn, Richard J

    2013-05-01

    Diabetic neuropathies consist of a variety of syndromes resulting from different types of damage to peripheral or cranial nerves. Although distal symmetric polyneuropathy is the most common type of diabetic neuropathy, many other subtypes have been defined since the 1800s, including proximal diabetic, truncal, cranial, median, and ulnar neuropathies. Various theories have been proposed for the pathogenesis of these neuropathies. The treatment of most requires tight and stable glycemic control. Spontaneous recovery is seen in most of these conditions with diabetic control. Immunotherapies have been tried in some of these conditions however are controversial.

  17. DIABETIC NEUROPATHY PART 2: PROXIMAL AND ASSYMMETRIC PHENOTYPES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasnoor, Mamatha; Dimachkie, Mazen M.; Barohn, Richard J.

    2014-01-01

    Diabetic neuropathies consist of a variety of syndromes resulting from different types of damage to peripheral or cranial nerves. Although distal symmetric polyneuropathy is most common type of diabetic neuropathy, there are many other subtypes of diabetic neuropathies which have been defined since the 1800’s. Included in these descriptions are patients with proximal diabetic, truncal, cranial, median, and ulnar neuropathies. Various theories have been proposed for the pathogenesis of these neuropathies. The treatment of most of these requires tight and stable glycemic control. Spontaneous recovery is seen in most of these conditions with diabetic control Immunotherapies have been tried in some of these conditions but are quite controversial. PMID:23642718

  18. Electrodiagnosis of brachial plexopathies and proximal upper extremity neuropathies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Zachary

    2013-02-01

    This article describes the normal anatomy of the brachial plexus and its major terminal branches, as well as the major causes and clinical presentations of lesions of these structures. An approach to electrodiagnosis of brachial plexopathies and proximal upper extremity neuropathies is provided, with an emphasis on those nerve conduction studies and portions of the needle examination, which permit localization of lesions to specific trunks, cords, and terminal branches. The importance of specific sensory nerve conduction studies for differentiating plexopathies from radiculopathies and mononeuropathies is emphasized.

  19. Bilateral traumatic proximal humerus fractures managed by open reduction and internal fixation with locked plates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Atin Jaiswal; Naiman Deepak Kachchhap; Rupak Chaterjee; Yashwant Singh Tanwar; Masood Habib; Satya Prakash Singh

    2013-01-01

    Fractures of the proximal humerus are uncommon in young patients.Although bilateral fracture of proximal humerus itself is rare,association with epilepsy and electrocution is frequent.Only one case of traumatic bilateral proximal humerus fracture has been reported in the literature.We report a rare case of bilateral traumatic displaced proximal humerus fractures in a 40 years old male patient,which was treated by means of open reduction and internal fixation with proximal humerus locked pates on both sides and obtained a good functional outcome.

  20. Bilateral traumatic proximal humerus fractures managed by open reduction and internal fixation with locked plates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaiswal Atin

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available 【Abstract】Fractures of the proximal humerus are uncommon in young patients. Although bilateral fracture of proximal humerus itself is rare, association with epilepsy and electrocution is frequent. Only one case of traumatic bilateral proximal humerus fracture has been reported in the literature. We report a rare case of bilateral traumatic dis- placed proximal humerus fractures in a 40 years old male patient, which was treated by means of open reduction and internal fixation with proximal humerus locked pates on both sides and obtained a good functional outcome. Key words: Humeral fractures; Shoulder fractures; Fracture fixation, internal

  1. Bilateral traumatic proximal humerus fractures managed by open reduction and internal fixation with locked plates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaiswal, Atin; Kachchhap, Naiman Deepak; Chaterjee, Rupak; Tanwar, Yashwant Singh; Habib, Masood; Singh, Satya Prakash

    2013-01-01

    Fractures of the proximal humerus are uncommon in young patients. Although bilateral fracture of proximal humerus itself is rare, association with epilepsy and electrocution is frequent. Only one case of traumatic bilateral proximal humerus fracture has been reported in the literature. We report a rare case of bilateral traumatic displaced proximal humerus fractures in a 40 years old male patient, which was treated by means of open reduction and internal fixation with proximal humerus locked pates on both sides and obtained a good functional outcome.

  2. Group Problem Solving as a Zone of Proximal Development activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewe, Eric

    2006-12-01

    Vygotsky described learning as a process, intertwined with development, which is strongly influenced by social interactions with others that are at differing developmental stages.i These interactions create a Zone of Proximal Development for each member of the interaction. Vygotsky’s notion of social constructivism is not only a theory of learning, but also of development. While teaching introductory physics in an interactive format, I have found manifestations of Vygotsky’s theory in my classroom. The source of evidence is a paired problem solution. A standard mechanics problem was solved by students in two classes as a homework assignment. Students handed in the homework and then solved the same problem in small groups. The solutions to both the group and individual problem were assessed by multiple reviewers. In many cases the group score was the same as the highest individual score in the group, but in some cases, the group score was higher than any individual score. For this poster, I will analyze the individual and group scores and focus on three groups solutions and video that provide evidence of learning through membership in a Zone of Proximal Development. Endnotes i L. Vygotsky -Mind and society: The development of higher mental processes. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. (1978).

  3. Posteromedial approach to proximal tibia for corticotomy in callus distractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heiss, C; Meissner, S A; Hoesel, L M; Pfeil, J; Schnettler, R

    2006-10-01

    Corticotomy of the tibia using Ilizarov's anterolateral approach is used routinely for callus distraction. This method is associated with impaired callus formation and delayed healing because of marginal soft tissue covering and blood supply to the proximal tibia. We presumed a newly designed posteromedial approach would result in less callus defects and improved healing. In this prospective, randomized study, 31 patients had callus distraction using an anterolateral approach or the newly designed posteromedial approach. Callus formation was assessed radiographically and histologically. Callus defects were classified using serial radiographs. Biopsy specimens were taken from high-grade defect (Grades 3-4) zones to examine the osteogenic potential. Radiographic evaluation showed 13 callus defects; 12 occurred after the anterolateral approach and only one occurred after the posteromedial method. Although low-grade defects (Grades 1-2) healed spontaneously, biopsy specimens taken from Grades 3-4 defects revealed no osteogenic potential and requiring operative revision. Because of low soft tissue covering and impaired blood supply to the anterior tibia during surgical exposure for corticotomy, less callus formation occurred after the anterolateral approach compared with the posteromedial approach. We recommend the less invasive posteromedial approach to reduce callus defects and impaired healing in callus distraction of the proximal tibia. PMID:16760808

  4. Proximity of arteries to the anterior ulna with changing flexion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enad, Jerome G; Douglas, Thomas J; Ruland, Robert T

    2015-04-01

    During surgery for elbow fracture, wires and screws crossing the elbow from posterior to anterior place the brachial and ulnar arteries at risk for inadvertent penetration. The authors' goal was to define the sagittal proximity of the brachial and ulnar arteries to the proximal ulna throughout an arc of elbow motion using dynamic fluoroscopy. The brachial artery was injected with barium in 10 fresh-frozen cadaveric elbows. Sagittal fluoroscopic images were obtained at elbow flexion angles of 0°, 30°, 60°, 90°, and 120°. Two measurements were obtained at each flexion angle: (1) the distance between the coronoid tip and the brachial artery and (2) the distance between the coronoid base and the ulnar artery. One-way analysis of variance was used to compare mean distances for each flexion angle within each measurement group. A coronal image identified the mediolateral course of the brachial artery. The distance from the coronoid tip to the brachial artery significantly increased with increasing flexion from 0° to 60° (P120° (P<.002). The brachial artery traversed lateral to the coronoid in 9 of 10 specimens. The brachial and ulnar arteries are located further from the coronoid with increasing elbow flexion to at least 60°, and the brachial artery is typically located lateral to the coronoid in the coronal plane. These measurements can be used as surgical guides to reduce the risk of arterial injury during olecranon fracture surgery. PMID:25901616

  5. Proximity to pollution sources and risk of amphibian limb malformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Brynn; Skelly, David; Demarchis, Livia K; Slade, Martin D; Galusha, Deron; Rabinowitz, Peter M

    2005-11-01

    The cause of limb deformities in wild amphibian populations remains unclear, even though the apparent increase in prevalence of this condition may have implications for human health. Few studies have simultaneously assessed the effect of multiple exposures on the risk of limb deformities. In a cross-sectional survey of 5,264 hylid and ranid metamorphs in 42 Vermont wetlands, we assessed independent risk factors for nontraumatic limb malformation. The rate of nontraumatic limb malformation varied by location from 0 to 10.2%. Analysis of a subsample did not demonstrate any evidence of infection with the parasite Ribeiroia. We used geographic information system (GIS) land-use/land-cover data to validate field observations of land use in the proximity of study wetlands. In a multiple logistic regression model that included land use as well as developmental stage, genus, and water-quality measures, proximity to agricultural land use was associated with an increased risk of limb malformation (odds ratio = 2.26; 95% confidence interval, 1.42-3.58; p < 0.001). The overall discriminant power of the statistical model was high (C = 0.79). These findings from one of the largest systematic surveys to date provide support for the role of chemical toxicants in the development of amphibian limb malformation and demonstrate the value of an epidemiologic approach to this problem. PMID:16263502

  6. Analysis of proximal radial nerve injury in the arm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duz Bulent

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Radial nerve is the most frequently injured major nerve in the upper extremity. Proximal part of the radial nerve involvement can result from a humerus fracture, direct nerve trauma, compression and rarely from tumors. Objectives: The aim of the study is to determine the clinical characteristics and electrodiagnostic findings in patients with proximal radial nerve injuries, and also the outcome of surgical treatment. Materials and Methods: The study subjects included 46 patients with radial nerve injuries seen between June 2000 and June 2008 at our hospital. The analysis included demographics, clinical features, etiology, pre-and postoperative EMNG (Electromyoneurography findings. Results: Surgical decompression resulted in neurological improvement in patients with radial entrapment neuropathies. Good neurological recovery was observed from decompression of callus of old humeral fracture. The worst results were observed in the direct missile injuries of the radial nerve. Conclusions: A detailed clinical and electrodiagnostic evaluation is of importance in patients with radial nerve injury to ensure an appropriate treatment. The choice of treatment, conservative or surgical, depends on the clinical presentation and the type of injury.

  7. A method for sex estimation using the proximal femur.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curate, Francisco; Coelho, João; Gonçalves, David; Coelho, Catarina; Ferreira, Maria Teresa; Navega, David; Cunha, Eugénia

    2016-09-01

    The assessment of sex is crucial to the establishment of a biological profile of an unidentified skeletal individual. The best methods currently available for the sexual diagnosis of human skeletal remains generally rely on the presence of well-preserved pelvic bones, which is not always the case. Postcranial elements, including the femur, have been used to accurately estimate sex in skeletal remains from forensic and bioarcheological settings. In this study, we present an approach to estimate sex using two measurements (femoral neck width [FNW] and femoral neck axis length [FNAL]) of the proximal femur. FNW and FNAL were obtained in a training sample (114 females and 138 males) from the Luís Lopes Collection (National History Museum of Lisbon). Logistic regression and the C4.5 algorithm were used to develop models to predict sex in unknown individuals. Proposed cross-validated models correctly predicted sex in 82.5-85.7% of the cases. The models were also evaluated in a test sample (96 females and 96 males) from the Coimbra Identified Skeletal Collection (University of Coimbra), resulting in a sex allocation accuracy of 80.1-86.2%. This study supports the relative value of the proximal femur to estimate sex in skeletal remains, especially when other exceedingly dimorphic skeletal elements are not accessible for analysis.

  8. Quantitive analysis of the proximity effect in optical lithographic process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Sang-Man; Kim, Hung-Eil; Ham, Young-Mog; Moon, Seung-Chan; Choi, Soo-Han

    1994-05-01

    As the density of VLSI circuits increases, the proximity effect has been one of the critical issues in optical lithography. In general, the linewidth difference between dense and isolated patterns corresponds to 0.08 micrometers when a conventional i-line single resist process using a 0.54 NA is applied to the half-micron geometry on a flat wafer. Therefore, this linewidth difference has significantly affected the process stability in the real process applications. This paper describes the dependency of the proximity effects on the pattern size, line and space duty ratio, kinds of substrate film, defocus effect during exposure, and resist process conditions related to the variation of the resist thickness and develop time. Critical dimension (CD) deviation caused by the different latent image contrast is also experimentally monitored using two different photoresists. A simulation is performed for the purpose of obtaining the optimum resist thickness to reduce CD difference caused by the variations of resist thickness in the real topography.

  9. Analysis of Spatial Data Structures for Proximity Detection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Anupreet Walia; Jochen Teizer

    2008-01-01

    Construction is a dangerous business.According to statistics,in every of the past thirteen years more than 1000 workers died in the USA construction industry.In order to minimize the overall number of these incidents,the research presented in this paper investigates to monitor and analyze the trejectories of construction resources first in a simulated environment and later on the actual job site.Due to the complex nature of the construction environment,three dimensional (3D) positioning data of workers is hardly col-lected.Although technology is available that allows tracking construction assets in real-time,indoors and outdoors,in 3D,at the same time,the continuously changing spatial and temporal arrangement of job sites requires any successfully working data processing system to work in real-time.This research paper focuses is safety on spatial data structures that offer the capability of realigning itself and reporting the distance of the closest neighbor in real-time.This paper presents results to simulations that allow the processing of real-time location data for collision detection and proximity analysis.The presented data structures and perform-ance results to the developed algorithms demonstmte that real-time tracking and proximity detection of re-sources is feasible.

  10. Two Proximal Skin Electrodes — A Respiration Rate Body Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktor Avbelj

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available We propose a new body sensor for extracting the respiration rate based on the amplitude changes in the body surface potential differences between two proximal body electrodes. The sensor could be designed as a plaster-like reusable unit that can be easily fixed onto the surface of the body. It could be equipped either with a sufficiently large memory for storing the measured data or with a low-power radio system that can transmit the measured data to a gateway for further processing. We explore the influence of the sensor’s position on the quality of the extracted results using multi-channel ECG measurements and considering all the pairs of two neighboring electrodes as potential respiration-rate sensors. The analysis of the clinical measurements, which also include reference thermistor-based respiration signals, shows that the proposed approach is a viable option for monitoring the respiration frequency and for a rough classification of breathing types. The obtained results were evaluated on a wireless prototype of a respiration body sensor. We indicate the best positions for the respiration body sensor and prove that a single sensor for body surface potential difference on proximal skin electrodes can be used for combined measurements of respiratory and cardiac activities.

  11. Conservative resection for benign tumors of the proximal pancreas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hai Huang; Xin Dong; Shun-Liang Gao; Yu-Lian Wu

    2009-01-01

    AIM:To evaluate the safety and long-term prognosis of conservative resection (CR) for benign or borderline tumor of the proximal pancreas.METHODS:We retrospectively analyzed 20 patients who underwent CR at the Second Affiliated Hospital of Zhejiang University School of Medicine between April 2000 and October 2008.For pancreaticojejunostomy,a modified invagination method,continuous circular invaginated pancreaticojejunostomy (CCI-PJ) was used.Modified continuous closed lavage (MCCL) was performed for patients with pancreatic fistula.RESULTS:The indications were:serous cystadenomas in eight patients,insulinomas in six,non-functional islet cell tumors in three and solid pseudopapillary tumors in three.Perioperative mortality was zero and morbidity was 25%.Overall,pancreatic fistula was present in 25% of patients.At a mean follow up of 42.7 mo,all patients were alive with no recurrence and no new-onset diabetes mellitus or exocrine dysfunction.CONCLUSION:CR is a safe and effective procedure for patients with benign tumors in the proximal pancreas,with careful CCI-PJ and postoperative MCCL.

  12. He II Proximity Effect and the Lifetime of Quasars

    CERN Document Server

    Khrykin, I S; McQuinn, M; Worseck, G

    2015-01-01

    The lifetime of quasars is fundamental for understanding the growth of supermassive black holes, and is an important ingredient in models of the reionization of the intergalactic medium. However, despite various attempts to determine quasar lifetimes, current estimates from a variety of methods are uncertain by orders of magnitude. This work combines cosmological hydrodynamical simulations and 1D radiative transfer to investigate the structure and evolution of the He II Ly$\\alpha$ proximity zones around quasars at $z \\simeq 3-4$. We show that the time evolution in the proximity zone can be described by a simple analytical model for the approach of the He II fraction $x_{\\rm HeII}\\left( t \\right)$ to ionization equilibrium, and use this picture to illustrate how the transmission profile depends on the quasar lifetime, quasar UV luminosity, and the ionization state of helium in the ambient IGM (i.e. the average He II fraction, or equivalently the metagalactic He II ionizing background). A significant degeneracy...

  13. Modulation of hydrophobic interactions by proximally immobilized ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, C Derek; Wang, Chenxuan; Acevedo-Vélez, Claribel; Gellman, Samuel H; Abbott, Nicholas L

    2015-01-15

    The structure of water near non-polar molecular fragments or surfaces mediates the hydrophobic interactions that underlie a broad range of interfacial, colloidal and biophysical phenomena. Substantial progress over the past decade has improved our understanding of hydrophobic interactions in simple model systems, but most biologically and technologically relevant structures contain non-polar domains in close proximity to polar and charged functional groups. Theories and simulations exploring such nanometre-scale chemical heterogeneity find it can have an important effect, but the influence of this heterogeneity on hydrophobic interactions has not been tested experimentally. Here we report chemical force microscopy measurements on alkyl-functionalized surfaces that reveal a dramatic change in the surfaces' hydrophobic interaction strengths on co-immobilization of amine or guanidine groups. Protonation of amine groups doubles the strength of hydrophobic interactions, and guanidinium groups eliminate measurable hydrophobic interactions in all pH ranges investigated. We see these divergent effects of proximally immobilized cations also in single-molecule measurements on conformationally stable β-peptides with non-polar subunits located one nanometre from either amine- or guanidine-bearing subunits. Our results demonstrate the importance of nanometre-scale chemical heterogeneity, with hydrophobicity not an intrinsic property of any given non-polar domain but strongly modulated by functional groups located as far away as one nanometre. The judicious placing of charged groups near hydrophobic domains thus provides a strategy for tuning hydrophobic driving forces to optimize molecular recognition or self-assembly processes.

  14. A positioned +1 nucleosome enhances promoter-proximal pausing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimeno-González, Silvia; Ceballos-Chávez, María; Reyes, José C

    2015-03-31

    Chromatin distribution is not uniform along the human genome. In most genes there is a promoter-associated nucleosome free region (NFR) followed by an array of nucleosomes towards the gene body in which the first (+1) nucleosome is strongly positioned. The function of this characteristic chromatin distribution in transcription is not fully understood. Here we show in vivo that the +1 nucleosome plays a role in modulating RNA polymerase II (RNAPII) promoter-proximal pausing. When a +1 nucleosome is strongly positioned, elongating RNAPII has a tendency to stall at the promoter-proximal region, recruits more negative elongation factor (NELF) and produces less mRNA. The nucleosome-induced pause favors pre-mRNA quality control by promoting the addition of the cap to the nascent RNA. Moreover, the uncapped RNAs produced in the absence of a positioned nucleosome are degraded by the 5'-3' exonuclease XRN2. Interestingly, reducing the levels of the chromatin remodeler ISWI factor SNF2H decreases +1 nucleosome positioning and increases RNAPII pause release. This work demonstrates a function for +1 nucleosome in regulation of transcription elongation, pre-mRNA processing and gene expression.

  15. Restoring proximal caries lesions conservatively with tunnel restorations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chu CH

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Chun-Hung Chu1, May L Mei,1 Chloe Cheung,1 Romesh P Nalliah2 1Faculty of Dentistry, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, People's Republic of China; 2Department of Restorative Dentistry and Biomaterials Sciences, Harvard School of Dental Medicine, Boston, MA, USA Abstract: The tunnel restoration has been suggested as a conservative alternative to the conventional box preparation for treating proximal caries. The main advantage of tunnel restoration over the conventional box or slot preparation includes being more conservative and increasing tooth integrity and strength by preserving the marginal ridge. However, tunnel restoration is technique-sensitive and can be particularly challenging for inexperienced restorative dentists. Recent advances in technology, such as the contemporary design of dental handpieces with advanced light-emitting diode (LED and handheld comfort, offer operative dentists better vision, illumination, and maneuverability. The use of magnifying loupes also enhances the visibility of the preparation. The advent of digital radiographic imaging has improved dental imaging and reduced radiation. The new generation of restorative materials has improved mechanical properties. Tunnel restoration can be an option to restore proximal caries if the dentist performs proper case selection and pays attention to the details of the restorative procedures. This paper describes the clinical technique of tunnel restoration and reviews the studies of tunnel restorations. Keywords: operative, practice, tunnel preparation, composite, amalgam, glass ionomer

  16. Cassini at Saturn Proximal Orbits - Attitude Control Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burk, Thomas A.

    2013-01-01

    The Cassini mission at Saturn will come to an end in the spring and summer of 2017 with a series of 22 orbits that will dip inside the rings of Saturn. These are called proximal orbits and will conclude with spacecraft disposal into the atmosphere of the ringed world on September 15, 2017. These unique orbits that cross the ring plane only a few thousand kilometers above the cloud tops of the planet present new attitude control challenges for the Cassini operations team. Crossing the ring plane so close to the inner edge of the rings means that the Cassini orientation during the crossing will be tailored to protect the sensitive electronics bus of the spacecraft. This orientation will put the sun sensors at some extra risk so this paper discusses how the team prepares for dust hazards. Periapsis is so close to the planet that spacecraft controllability with RCS thrusters needs to be evaluated because of the predicted atmospheric torque near closest approach to Saturn. Radiation during the ring plane crossings will likely trigger single event transients in some attitude control sensors. This paper discusses how the attitude control team deals with radiation hazards. The angular size and unique geometry of the rings and Saturn near periapsis means that star identification will be interrupted and this paper discusses how the safe mode attitude is selected to best deal with these large bright bodies during the proximal orbits.

  17. The reliability and accuracy of two methods for proximal caries detection and depth on directly visible proximal surfaces: an in vitro study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekstrand, K R; Alloza, Alvaro Luna; Promisiero, L;

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the reliability and accuracy of the ICDAS and radiographs in detecting and estimating the depth of proximal lesions on extracted teeth. The lesions were visible to the naked eye. Three trained examiners scored a total of 132 sound/carious proximal surfaces from 106 p...

  18. The Carbofix™ "Piccolo Proximal femur nail": A new perspective for treating proximal femur lesion. A technique report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoccali, Carmine; Soriani, Antonella; Rossi, Barbara; Salducca, Nicola; Biagini, Roberto

    2016-12-01

    Metastases to proximal femur are common and surgery is often suggested to prevent fractures; otherwise it is necessary in cases where this has already occurred. Adjuvant radiotherapy is necessary to reduce the risk of local progression. Nevertheless, the success or failure of radiation therapy treatments depends upon the accuracy in which target identification is correct and dose prescription is fulfilled. Unfortunately, the use of titanium nails consistently limits radiation dose; indeed, the presence of ferromagnetic artifacts interferes with target identification. We present the technique for implant a new carbon fiber nail useful to reduce the ferromagnetic artifacts which allows a better adjuvant radiotherapy. PMID:27436924

  19. What Is the Best Proximal Anastomosis for the Free Right Internal Thoracic Artery during Bilateral Internal Thoracic Artery Revascularization? A Prospective, Randomized Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Neragi-Miandoab

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Bilateral internal thoracic artery (BITA grafting provides improved graft patency and potential survival advantage in selected patients as compared to single left internal thoracic artery (LITA revascularization. The ideal functional BITA configuration remains controversial. Methods. Patients undergoing planned BITA revascularization with greater than 75% stenosis in both the left anterior descending artery (LAD and in a circumflex branch were prospectively randomized to one of two proximal free right internal thoracic artery (RITA connections directly off the aorta (Ao (n=12 or as a “t” graft off the LITA (t (n=12. The LITA was placed to the LAD in all cases, and the RITA was placed to a single lateral wall vessel. Intraoperative transit time flow measurements of all arterial grafts were performed, and RITA fractional flow parameters were compared between the 2 groups. Results. There were no differences in preoperative patient variables between the two groups. Cross-clamp times (91.5+15.3 versus 68.0+12.5 minutes, P<0.01 and total cardiopulmonary bypass times (109.0+16.2 versus 85.0+15.1 minutes, P<0.01 were shorter in the t group. The Ao group demonstrated significantly higher mean RITA flow (38.3±13.5 versus 22.1±9.5, P<0.01, mean RITA conductance (flow/mean arterial pressure (0.45±0.16 versus 0.28±0.11, P<0.01, RITA fractional flow (0.52 ± 0.15 versus 0.36 ± 0.11, P<0.01, and RITA fractional conductance (0.51 ± 0.15 versus 0.36 ± 0.11, P<0.01 than the “t” grafted patients. Thirty-day mortality and wound infection were 0% for each group. Over an average of 42.8+6.6 months of followup there were no mortalities in either group. Repeat angiography were performed in 4 patients (33% in the Ao group and 2 patients in the t group (16%. One occluded RITA graft and one ostial RITA stenosis were detected in the Ao group. Conclusions. Acute flow measurements indicate that the free RITA anastomosed to the aorta

  20. Dilatação endoscópica de anastomose gastrojejunal após bypass gástrico Endoscopic dilation of gastrojejunal anastomosis after gastric bypass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josemberg Marins Campos

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: Bypass gástrico em Y-de-Roux pode resultar em estenose de anastomose gastrojejunal. Não há protocolo de tratamento bem definido para essa complicação. OBJETIVO: Analisar os resultados da dilatação endoscópica em pacientes com estenose, através de revisão sistemática, incluindo complicações e taxa de sucesso. MÉTODOS: Foi realizada busca dos estudos relevantes publicados de 1988 a 2010 na base de dados do PubMed, sendo identificados 23 estudos para análise. Apenas os que descreviam o tratamento de estenose de anastomose após bypass gástrico em Y-de-Roux foram incluídos e relatos de caso que apresentavam menos de três pacientes foram excluídos. RESULTADOS: A idade média da população foi de 42,3 anos e o índice de massa corpórea pré-operatório médio foi de 48,8 kg/m². No total, 760 pacientes (81% feminino foram submetidos a 1298 procedimentos, sendo realizadas 1,7 dilatações por paciente. Balões Through-the-scope foram utilizados em 16 estudos (69,5% e dilatador de Savary-Gilliard em quatro. Apenas 2% dos pacientes necessitaram revisão cirúrgica após a dilatação; a taxa de complicações reportada foi de 2,5% (n=19. A taxa de sucesso anual foi maior que 98% nos anos 1992 a 2010, exceto por uma de 73% em 2004. Sete estudos relataram complicações, sendo perfuração a mais comum, relatada em 14 pacientes (1,82%, necessitando operação imediata em dois pacientes. Outras complicações foram também relatadas: um hematoma esofágico, uma lesão de Mallory-Weiss, um caso grave de náusea e vômito, e dois casos de dor abdominal importante. CONCLUSÃO: Tratamento endoscópico de estenose é seguro e eficaz; entretanto, mais estudos controlados randomizados devem ser realizados a fim de confirmar esses achados.INTRODUCTION: Roux-en-Y gastric bypass may result in stenosis of the gastrojejunal anastomosis. There is currently no well-defined management protocol for this complication. AIM: Through

  1. Pragmatic RCT on the Efficacy of Proximal Caries Infiltration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer-Lueckel, H; Balbach, A; Schikowsky, C; Bitter, K; Paris, S

    2016-05-01

    Proximal caries infiltration has been shown to be efficacious in hampering caries lesion progression when performed by dentists working in a university setting. The aim of this randomized split-mouth, placebo-controlled clinical trial was to assess the efficacy of resin infiltration of proximal caries lesions being performed by several dentists in private practices, in combination with individualized oral hygiene plus noninvasive measures compared with these alone. In this study, 87 children and young adults (with 238 pairs of proximal caries lesions radiographically extending into the inner half of the enamel [E2] or the outer third of the dentin [D1]) were randomly allocated to either 1 of 2 treatments. Test lesions were infiltrated, and a mock treatment was performed in control lesions by 5 German private practitioners. All patients received instructions for a noncariogenic diet, flossing and fluoridation, and individualized noninvasive interventions. The primary outcome was radiographic lesion progression (pairwise comparison) evaluated independently by 2 evaluators who were blinded to treatment allocation. After approximately 10 mo (mean ± SD 307 ± 43 d), 92 of 148 lesion pairs in 24 of 38 treated patients who were at high caries risk could be re-evaluated clinically as well as radiographically using individualized bitewing holders, as at baseline; 186 of 204 lesion pairs in 70 of 77 patients (35 of 38 high-risk patients) could be evaluated after 18 mo (mean 542 ± 110 d). No unwanted effects were observed. After 10 mo, progression was recorded in 2 of 92 test lesions (2%) and in 22 of 92 control lesions (24%) (P= 0.001, McNemar/Obuchowski test; relative risk reduction, 91; 95% confidence interval, 62%-98%). After 18 mo, lesion progression was recorded in all included patients in 10 of 186 test lesions (5%) and in 58 of 186 control lesions (31%) (P< 0.001; relative risk reduction, 83; 95% confidence interval, 67%-91%). Thus, resin infiltration seems to be

  2. Childhood leukemia and residential proximity to industrial and urban sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    García-Pérez, Javier, E-mail: jgarcia@isciii.es [Cancer and Environmental Epidemiology Unit, National Center for Epidemiology, Carlos III Institute of Health, Madrid (Spain); CIBER Epidemiología y Salud Pública (CIBERESP) (Spain); López-Abente, Gonzalo, E-mail: glabente@isciii.es [Cancer and Environmental Epidemiology Unit, National Center for Epidemiology, Carlos III Institute of Health, Madrid (Spain); CIBER Epidemiología y Salud Pública (CIBERESP) (Spain); Gómez-Barroso, Diana, E-mail: dgomez@externos.isciii.es [CIBER Epidemiología y Salud Pública (CIBERESP) (Spain); National Center for Epidemiology, Carlos III Institute of Health, Madrid (Spain); Morales-Piga, Antonio, E-mail: amorales@isciii.es [Rare Disease Research Institute (IIER), Carlos III Institute of Health, Madrid (Spain); Consortium for Biomedical Research in Rare Diseases (CIBERER), Madrid (Spain); Pardo Romaguera, Elena, E-mail: elena.pardo@uv.es [Spanish Registry of Childhood Tumors (RETI-SEHOP), University of Valencia, Valencia (Spain); Tamayo, Ibon, E-mail: ibontama@gmail.com [Public Health Division of Gipuzkoa, BIODonostia Research Institute, Department of Health of the Regional Government of the Basque Country, Donostia (Spain); Fernández-Navarro, Pablo, E-mail: pfernandezn@isciii.es [Cancer and Environmental Epidemiology Unit, National Center for Epidemiology, Carlos III Institute of Health, Madrid (Spain); CIBER Epidemiología y Salud Pública (CIBERESP) (Spain); and others

    2015-07-15

    Background: Few risk factors for the childhood leukemia are well established. While a small fraction of cases of childhood leukemia might be partially attributable to some diseases or ionizing radiation exposure, the role of industrial and urban pollution also needs to be assessed. Objectives: To ascertain the possible effect of residential proximity to both industrial and urban areas on childhood leukemia, taking into account industrial groups and toxic substances released. Methods: We conducted a population-based case–control study of childhood leukemia in Spain, covering 638 incident cases gathered from the Spanish Registry of Childhood Tumors and for those Autonomous Regions with 100% coverage (period 1990-2011), and 13,188 controls, individually matched by year of birth, sex, and autonomous region of residence. Distances were computed from the respective subject’s residences to the 1068 industries and the 157 urban areas with ≥10,000 inhabitants, located in the study area. Using logistic regression, odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CIs) for categories of distance to industrial and urban pollution sources were calculated, with adjustment for matching variables. Results: Excess risk of childhood leukemia was observed for children living near (≤2.5 km) industries (OR=1.31; 95%CI=1.03–1.67) – particularly glass and mineral fibers (OR=2.42; 95%CI=1.49–3.92), surface treatment using organic solvents (OR=1.87; 95%CI=1.24–2.83), galvanization (OR=1.86; 95%CI=1.07–3.21), production and processing of metals (OR=1.69; 95%CI=1.22–2.34), and surface treatment of metals (OR=1.62; 95%CI=1.22–2.15) – , and urban areas (OR=1.36; 95%CI=1.02–1.80). Conclusions: Our study furnishes some evidence that living in the proximity of industrial and urban sites may be a risk factor for childhood leukemia. - Highlights: • We studied proximity to both industrial and urban sites on childhood leukemia. • We conducted a case–control study in

  3. Childhood leukemia and residential proximity to industrial and urban sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: Few risk factors for the childhood leukemia are well established. While a small fraction of cases of childhood leukemia might be partially attributable to some diseases or ionizing radiation exposure, the role of industrial and urban pollution also needs to be assessed. Objectives: To ascertain the possible effect of residential proximity to both industrial and urban areas on childhood leukemia, taking into account industrial groups and toxic substances released. Methods: We conducted a population-based case–control study of childhood leukemia in Spain, covering 638 incident cases gathered from the Spanish Registry of Childhood Tumors and for those Autonomous Regions with 100% coverage (period 1990-2011), and 13,188 controls, individually matched by year of birth, sex, and autonomous region of residence. Distances were computed from the respective subject’s residences to the 1068 industries and the 157 urban areas with ≥10,000 inhabitants, located in the study area. Using logistic regression, odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CIs) for categories of distance to industrial and urban pollution sources were calculated, with adjustment for matching variables. Results: Excess risk of childhood leukemia was observed for children living near (≤2.5 km) industries (OR=1.31; 95%CI=1.03–1.67) – particularly glass and mineral fibers (OR=2.42; 95%CI=1.49–3.92), surface treatment using organic solvents (OR=1.87; 95%CI=1.24–2.83), galvanization (OR=1.86; 95%CI=1.07–3.21), production and processing of metals (OR=1.69; 95%CI=1.22–2.34), and surface treatment of metals (OR=1.62; 95%CI=1.22–2.15) – , and urban areas (OR=1.36; 95%CI=1.02–1.80). Conclusions: Our study furnishes some evidence that living in the proximity of industrial and urban sites may be a risk factor for childhood leukemia. - Highlights: • We studied proximity to both industrial and urban sites on childhood leukemia. • We conducted a case–control study in

  4. The Proximate Unit in Chinese Handwritten Character Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenn-Yeu eChen

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In spoken word production, a proximate unit is the first phonological unit at the sublexical level that is selectable for production (O’Seaghdha, Chen, & Chen, 2010. The present study investigated whether the proximate unit in Chinese handwritten word production is the stroke, the radical, or something in between. A written version of the form preparation task was adopted. Chinese participants learned sets of two-character words, later were cued with the first character of each word, and had to write down the second character (the target. Response times were measured from the onset of a cue character to the onset of a written response. In Experiment 1, the target characters within a block shared (homogeneous or did not share (heterogeneous the first stroke. In Experiment 2, the first two strokes were shared in the homogeneous blocks. Response times in the homogeneous blocks and in the heterogeneous blocks were comparable in both experiments (Exp. 1: 687 ms vs. 684 ms, Exp. 2: 717 vs. 716. In Experiment 3 and 4, the target characters within a block shared or did not share the first radical. Response times in the homogeneous blocks were significantly faster than those in the heterogeneous blocks (Exp. 3: 685 vs. 704, Exp. 4: 594 vs. 650. In Experiment 5 and 6, the shared component was a Gestalt-like form that is more than a stroke, constitutes a portion of the target character, can be a stand-alone character itself, can be a radical of another character but is not a radical of the target character (e.g., 士in聲, 鼓, 穀, 款; called a logographeme. Response times in the homogeneous blocks were significantly faster than those in the heterogeneous blocks (Exp. 5: 576 vs. 625, Exp. 6: 586 vs. 620. These results suggest a model of Chinese handwritten character production in which the stroke is not a functional unit, the radical plays the role of a morpheme, and the logographeme is the proximate unit.

  5. Optical proximity correction: A cross road of data flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Bisschop, Peter

    2016-06-01

    This paper reviews the various data flows that occur in the generation and verification of optical proximity correction (OPC) for an optical lithography photomask. First we review the models that are or can be used in the OPC model-calibration flow, with some emphasis on those models that are not yet standard practice. Through an efficient selection of calibration structures, the data amounts needed for model calibrations can be usually kept reasonably small. This is much less the case in the OPC verification step (computationally first and on-wafer afterwards), where data volumes can be very large. Especially the inspection of printed test wafer, where the printability of large number of structures needs to be assessed throughout the intended process window, currently presents important challenges as “hotspot” detection and printability quantification needs to be combined with a short turn-around time. We will discuss some of the approaches that are being employed to deal with these conflicting requirements.

  6. Material dependence of Casimir forces: gradient expansion beyond proximity

    CERN Document Server

    Bimonte, G; Kardar, M

    2011-01-01

    The widely used method for estimating Casimir interactions between gently curved material surfaces at short distances is the proximity force approximation (PFA). While this approximation is asymptotically exact at vanishing separations, quantifying corrections to PFA has been notoriously difficult. Here we use a derivative expansion to compute the leading curvature correction to PFA for metals (gold) and insulators (SiO$_2$) at room temperature. We derive an explicit expression for the amplitude $\\hat\\theta_1$ of the PFA correction to the force gradient for axially symmetric surfaces. In the non-retarded limit, the corrections to the Casimir free energy are found to scale logarithmically with distance. For gold, $\\hat\\theta_1$ has an unusually large temperature dependence.

  7. Detection of Protein SUMOylation In Situ by Proximity Ligation Assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin, Umut; Jollivet, Florence; Berthier, Caroline; de Thé, Hugues; Lallemand-Breitenbach, Valérie

    2016-01-01

    Sumoylation is a posttranslational process essential for life and concerns a growing number of crucial proteins. Understanding the influence of this phenomenon on individual proteins or on cellular pathways in which they function has become an intense area of research. A critical step in studying protein sumoylation is to detect sumoylated forms of a particular protein. This has proven to be a challenging task for a number of reasons, especially in the case of endogenous proteins and in vivo studies or when studying rare cells such as stem cells. Proximity ligation assays that allow detection of closely interacting protein partners can be adapted for initial detection of endogenous sumoylation or ubiquitination in a rapid, ultrasensitive, and cheap manner. In addition, modified forms of a given protein can be detected in situ in various cellular compartments. Finally, the flexibility of this technique may allow rapid screening of drugs and stress signals that may modulate protein sumoylation. PMID:27631803

  8. Omeprazole promotes proximal duodenal mucosal bicarbonate secretion in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mertz-Nielsen, Anette; Hillingsø, J; Bukhave, Klaus;

    1996-01-01

    The proton pump inhibitor, omeprazole, surprisingly resulted in higher rates of proximal duodenal mucosal bicarbonate secretion than previously reported using an H-2 receptor antagonist for gastric acid inhibition. Gastroduodenal perfusions were performed in healthy volunteers to evaluate whether...... this incidental finding is explained by more potent gastric acid inhibition by omeprazole or might be caused by the different mode of drug action. Basal and stimulated gastric and duodenal bicarbonate secretion rates were measured in the same subjects in control experiments (n=17) and after...... pretreatment with high dose omeprazole (n=17) and ranitidine (n=9), respectively, by use of a technique permitting simultaneous measurements. Concentrations of bicarbonate were measured in the respective effluents by the method of back titration. Both omeprazole and ranitidine completely inhibited gastric acid...

  9. Relative Entropy and Proximity of Quantum Field Theories

    CERN Document Server

    Balasubramanian, Vijay; Maloney, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    We study the question of how reliably one can distinguish two quantum field theories (QFTs). Each QFT defines a probability distribution on the space of fields. The relative entropy provides a notion of proximity between these distributions and quantifies the number of measurements required to distinguish between them. In the case of nearby conformal field theories, this reduces to the Zamolodchikov metric on the space of couplings. Our formulation quantifies the information lost under renormalization group flow from the UV to the IR and leads us to a quantification of fine-tuning. This formalism also leads us to a criterion for distinguishability of low energy effective field theories generated by the string theory landscape.

  10. Granger causality stock market networks: Temporal proximity and preferential attachment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Výrost, Tomáš; Lyócsa, Štefan; Baumöhl, Eduard

    2015-06-01

    The structure of return spillovers is examined by constructing Granger causality networks using daily closing prices of 20 developed markets from 2nd January 2006 to 31st December 2013. The data is properly aligned to take into account non-synchronous trading effects. The study of the resulting networks of over 94 sub-samples revealed three significant findings. First, after the recent financial crisis the impact of the US stock market has declined. Second, spatial probit models confirmed the role of the temporal proximity between market closing times for return spillovers, i.e. the time distance between national stock markets matters. Third, a preferential attachment between stock markets exists, i.e. the probability of the presence of spillover effects between any given two markets increases with their degree of connectedness to others.

  11. Factors affecting minority population proximity to hazardous facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nieves, L.A. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Nieves, A.L. [Wheaton Coll., IL (United States)]|[Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1995-04-01

    Disproportionate exposure of minority groups to environmental hazards has been attributed to ``environmental racism`` by some authors, without systematic investigation of the factors underlying this exposure pattern. This study examines regional differences in the proximity of African-Americans, Hispanics, Asians, and non-Hispanic Whites to a broad range of facility types and explores the effects of urban and income factors. A statistically significant inverse relationship is found between the percentage of non-Hispanic Whites and virtually all facility categories in all regions. Except for Hispanics in the South, all such associations for minority groups show a direct relationship, though some are nonsignificant. The geographic concentration of facilities is more closely tied to urbanization than to economic factors. Controlling for both urban and economic factors, minority population concentration is still a significant explanatory variable for some facility types in some regions. This finding is most consistent for African-Americans.

  12. Missed posterior shoulder dislocation with malunited proximal humerus fracture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar Sunil

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available 【Abstract】Posterior dislocation of the shoulder may be missed or neglected at initial presentation especially in developing countries. We present a case of 40-year-old In- dian man who had 3-month missed posterior dislocation of the right shoulder along with malunited fracture of the ana- tomical neck of the humerus. Open reduction and stabiliza- tion with modified McLaughlin procedure was performed. Rotational osteotomy of proximal humerus had to be per- formed as supplementary procedure to keep the humeral head stable in glenoid cavity during functional range of movements. The patient had excellent result of the shoulder at 3 years follow-up. Key words: Shoulder dislocation; Humerus; Osteotomy

  13. Proximal Hamstring Tendinopathy: Clinical Aspects of Assessment and Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goom, Thomas S H; Malliaras, Peter; Reiman, Michael P; Purdam, Craig R

    2016-06-01

    Synopsis Proximal hamstring tendinopathy (PHT) typically manifests as deep buttock pain at the hamstring common origin. Both athletic and nonathletic populations are affected by PHT. Pain and dysfunction are often long-standing and limit sporting and daily functions. There is limited evidence regarding diagnosis, assessment, and management; for example, there are no randomized controlled trials investigating rehabilitation of PHT. Some of the principles of management established in, for example, Achilles and patellar tendinopathy would appear to apply to PHT but are not as well documented. This narrative review and commentary will highlight clinical aspects of assessment and management of PHT, drawing on the available evidence and current principles of managing painful tendinopathy. The management outline presented aims to guide clinicians as well as future research. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2016;46(6):483-493. Epub 15 Apr 2016. doi:10.2519/jospt.2016.5986. PMID:27084841

  14. Photoresponse experiments on NbN proximized nanostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Among superconducting materials used in developing high performance nanowire detectors, NbN demonstrated to have unique characteristics in terms of fast response time, quantum efficiency and photon-number resolving capability. We investigated the role of proximity effect on superconducting NbN thin films covered by a weak ferromagnetic NiCu thin layer. Hetero-structures NbN/NiCu have been deposited by DC magnetron sputtering on MgO substrates without any heating. Characterization in terms of morphological, transport, and ultra-fast optical properties has been done. Superconducting nanowires with meander-type geometries (48 micron lengths and <500 nm widths) have been designed and fabricated. Preliminary results concerning their photoresponse to 1550nm laser irradiation are presented.

  15. Fractures of the proximal femoral physis in dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fractures of the proximal femoral physis are common in dogs, particularly young ones. The goals of surgical treatment are accurate anatomicreduction; rigid fracture stability to promote rapid fracture healing; early return to function and activity; and, in the case of articularfractures, preservation of a normal pain-free joint. Early repair techniques centered around the use of external coaptation but are no longer accepted as appropriate options. Today, internal fracture fixation is the treatment of choice. To realize successful repair, the surgeon must understand the development and anatomy of the coxofemoral joint and the structure of the normal physis. The anatomy of and blood supplyto the coxofemoral joint are reviewed, as is the anatomy of the normal physis in dogs. Treatment and repair options are presented, complications are addressed, and prognostic indicators are discussed

  16. Chemical gas analyzers for proximate analysis of mine atmosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pochenkova, T.K.; Klassovskaya, N.A.; Zlenko, A.G.; Gus' kova, A.N. (Vsesoyuznyi Nauchno-Issledovatel' skii Institut Gornogo Dela, Donetsk (Ukraine))

    1992-09-01

    Describes a series of chemical gas analyzers developed by the VNIIGD institute for proximate analysis of mine atmosphere in coal mines. The new GKh-4, GKh-5, GKh-6, GKh CO-5 use detector tubes for carbon monoxide and dioxide, nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxide, oxygen and hydrogen sulfide. These devices allow miners to determine gas concentrations in the mine atmosphere in less than 4 minutes with an accuracy of +/-25%. The series is now complemented by the GKh-M CH[sub 2]O-0.004 gas analyzer for measuring formaldehyde content in mine air during mine rescue operations conducted with the use of carbamide-formaldehyde resins. Key technical data on the gas analyzers are given.

  17. FUNCTIONAL OUTCOME OF PROXIMAL HUMERUS FRACTURES TREATED WITH LOCKING PLATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lokesh

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION For more displaced fractures and osteopenic bone, techniques of internal fixation, which emphasise less disruptive soft tissue dissection, and minimal fixation with wire and non-absorbable sutures have been successful with a low complication rate. Even AO type buttress plates are being used, but they require more soft tissue dissection and may lead to infection. Management of these fractures is associated with some morbidity and undesirable sequelae. They include complications like avascular necrosis, malunion, non-union, infection, neurovascular injury, loss of motion of shoulder from adhesive capsulitis, chronic oedema, elbow stiffness and atrophy of the soft tissues of the immobilised limb causing significant disability during healing and afterwards. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the functional outcome of the surgical management of fresh displaced three- and four-part proximal humerus fractures with locking plate system. MATERIAL AND METHODS The present study was carried out from August 2012 to December 2014 at Orthopaedic Department in Bangalore Medical College and Hospital. During this period, 25 patients of proximal humerus fractures were treated with locking plates. All patients were followed up for every 4 weeks. Local examination of the affected shoulder for tenderness, instability, deformity and shoulder movements were assessed. X-rays were taken at each visit to know about progressive fracture union and implant position. Rehabilitation of the affected extremity was done according to the stage of fracture union and time duration from surgery. Patients were followed up till radiological union. RESULTS The present study consists of 25 patients of fresh three- and four-part fractures of proximal humerus which were treated surgically with locking plates from August 2012 to December 2014. All the patients were available for follow-up and they were followed every month for first 3 months then once in 3 months. In this

  18. Rendezvous, proximity operations and capture quality function deployment report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamkin, Stephen L. (Editor)

    1991-01-01

    Rendezvous, Proximity Operations, and Capture (RPOC) is a missions operations area which is extremely important to present and future space initiatives and must be well planned and coordinated. To support this, a study team was formed to identify a specific plan of action using the Quality Function Deployment (QFD) process. This team was composed of members from a wide spectrum of engineering and operations organizations which are involved in the RPOC technology area. The key to this study's success is an understanding of the needs of potential programmatic customers and the technology base available for system implementation. To this end, the study team conducted interviews with a variety of near term and future programmatic customers and technology development sponsors. The QFD activity led to a thorough understanding of the needs of these customers in the RPOC area, as well as the relative importance of these needs.

  19. Photoresponse experiments on NbN proximized nanostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pepe, G P; Parlato, L; Pagliarulo, V; Marrocco, N; De Lisio, C; Peluso, G; Barone, A [CNR-INFM Coherentia and University of Naples Federico II, Napoli (Italy); Taino, T; Myoren, H [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Saitama University, Saitama (Japan); Casaburi, A; Ejrnaes, M; Cristiano, R, E-mail: gpepe@na.infn.i [CNR - Institute of Cybernetics E. Caianiello, Pozzuoli (Namibia) (Italy)

    2010-06-01

    Among superconducting materials used in developing high performance nanowire detectors, NbN demonstrated to have unique characteristics in terms of fast response time, quantum efficiency and photon-number resolving capability. We investigated the role of proximity effect on superconducting NbN thin films covered by a weak ferromagnetic NiCu thin layer. Hetero-structures NbN/NiCu have been deposited by DC magnetron sputtering on MgO substrates without any heating. Characterization in terms of morphological, transport, and ultra-fast optical properties has been done. Superconducting nanowires with meander-type geometries (48 micron lengths and <500 nm widths) have been designed and fabricated. Preliminary results concerning their photoresponse to 1550nm laser irradiation are presented.

  20. Interventions for treating proximal humeral fractures in adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Handoll, Helen H G; Brorson, Stig

    2015-01-01

    harms) of treatment and rehabilitation interventions for proximal humeral fractures in adults. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Bone, Joint and Muscle Trauma Group Specialised Register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, EMBASE, and other databases, conference...... review authors performed independent study selection, risk of bias assessment and data extraction. Only limited meta-analysis was performed. MAIN RESULTS: We included 31 heterogeneous RCTs (1941 participants). Most of the 18 separate treatment comparisons were tested by small single-centre trials. The...... displacement and non-union (2/52 versus 1/54; 2 trials).One quasi-randomised trial (28 participants) found the Gilchrist-type sling was generally more comfortable than the Desault-type sling (body bandage). One trial (48 participants) testing pulsed electromagnetic high-frequency energy provided no evidence...

  1. Cushing proximal symphalangism and the NOG and GDF5 genes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plett, Sara K. [Columbia University, College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York, NY (United States); Berdon, Walter E.; Oklu, Rahmi [Columbia Presbyterian Medical Center, Department of Radiology, New York, NY (United States); Cowles, Robert A. [Morgan Stanley Children' s Hospital of New York-Presbyterian, Division of Pediatric Surgery, Department of Surgery, New York, NY (United States); Campbell, John B. [Arnold Palmer Hospital for Children, Department of Radiology, Orlando, FL (United States)

    2008-02-15

    Proximal symphalangism (SYM1) is an autosomal-dominant developmental disorder of joint fusion. This disorder is best known from famous historical descriptions of two large kindred: Cushing's description in 1916 of the ''straight-fingered'' Brown family of Virginia and Drinkwater's description in 1917 of the British Talbot family of noble blood, descended from the English war hero John Talbot, the first Earl of Shrewsbury (1388-1453). Recent genetic studies link this phenotype to expression of abnormal genes at future joint sites: too little expression of NOG, a growth antagonist, or overexpression of GDF5, a growth agonist, results in cartilage overgrowth and bony fusion. This review unites in depth the first historical accounts of SYM1 with a clinical description and reviews the current understanding of the molecular mechanism underlying what is likely the oldest dominant trait ever studied. (orig.)

  2. ANN BASED ONLINE ESTIMATION OF VOLTAGE COLLAPSE PROXIMITY INDICATOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Balamurugan

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Voltage stability has recently become a challenging issue in many power systems. There are different methods used to study the voltage collapse phenomenon but most of them take significant computation time and are not suitable for on-line applications. Fast voltage stability assessment tools are required in order to ensure the secureoperation of the present day power systems, as voltage collapse can occur quite abruptly in systems. Therefore a new ANN based on-line approach that requires minimum input for estimation of voltage collapse proximity indicator for each critical bus under normal and contingent conditions is developed in this paper. Test results onIEEE-14 bus system are presented to show its computational accuracy.

  3. Proximity fingerprint of s{plus_minus} superconductivity.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koshelev, A. E.; Stanev, V. (Materials Science Division)

    2011-01-01

    We suggest a straightforward and unambiguous test to identify possible opposite signs of the superconducting order parameter in different bands proposed for iron-based superconductors (s{sub {+-}}-state). We consider the proximity effect in a weakly coupled sandwich composed of a s{sub {+-}}-superconductor and a thin layer of the s-wave superconductor. In such system the s-wave order parameter is coupled differently with different s{sub {+-}}-gaps and it typically aligns with one of these gaps. This forces the other s{sub {+-}}-gap to be anti-aligned with the s-wave gap. In such situation the aligned band induces a peak in the s-wave density of states (DoS), while the anti-aligned band induces a dip. Observation of such contact-induced negative feature in the s-wave DoS would provide a definite proof for s{sub {+-}}-superconductivity.

  4. Variable reluctance proximity sensors for cryogenic valve position indication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cloyd, R. A.

    1982-01-01

    A test was conducted to determine the performance of a variable reluctance proximity sensor system when installed in a space shuttle external tank vent/relief valve. The sensors were used as position indicators. The valve and sensors were cycled through a series of thermal transients; while the valve was being opened and closed pneumatically, the sensor's performance was being monitored. During these thermal transients, the vent valve was cooled ten times by liquid nitrogen and two times by liquid hydrogen. It was concluded that the sensors were acceptable replacements for the existing mechanical switches. However, the sensors need a mechanical override for the target similar to what is presently used with the mechanical switches. This override could insure contact between sensor and target and eliminate any problems of actuation gap growth caused by thermal gradients.

  5. A new approximate proximal point algorithm for maximal monotone operator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE; Bingsheng(何炳生); LIAO; Lizhi(廖立志); YANG; Zhenhua(杨振华)

    2003-01-01

    The problem concerned in this paper is the set-valued equation 0 ∈ T(z) where T is a maximal monotone operator. For given xk and βk > 0, some existing approximate proximal point algorithms take xk+1 = xk such that xk +ek∈ xk + βkT(xk) and||ek|| ≤ηk||xk - xk||, where {ηk} is a non-negative summable sequence. Instead of xk+1 = xk, the new iterate of the proposing method is given by xk+1 = PΩ[xk - ek], where Ω is the domain of T and PΩ(@) denotes the projection on Ω. The convergence is proved under a significantly relaxed restriction supk>0 ηk < 1.

  6. Semiclassical approximation to neutron star superfluidity corrected for proximity effects.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barranco, F.; Broglia, R. A.; Esbensen, H.; Vigezzi, E.; Physics; Univ. of Seville; Univ. of Milan and INFN; Univ. of Copenhagen

    1998-08-01

    The inner crust of a neutron star is a superfluid and inhomogeneous system, consisting of a lattice of nuclei immersed in a sea of neutrons. We perform a quantum calculation of the associated pairing gap and compare it to the results one obtains in the local density approximation (LDA). It is found that the LDA overestimates the spatial dependence of the gap, and leads to a specific heat of the system which is too large at low temperatures, as compared with the quantal result. This is caused by the neglect of proximity effects and the delocalized character of the single-particle wave functions close to the Fermi energy. It is possible to introduce an alternative, simple semiclassical approximation of the pairing gap which leads to a specific heat that is in good agreement with the quantum calculation.

  7. Proximal Tubule Cell Hypothesis for Cardiorenal Syndrome in Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akihiko Saito

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Incidence of cardiovascular disease (CVD is remarkably high among patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD, even in the early microalbuminuric stages with normal glomerular filtration rates. Proximal tubule cells (PTCs mediate metabolism and urinary excretion of vasculotoxic substances via apical and basolateral receptors and transporters. These cells also retrieve vasculoprotective substances from circulation or synthesize them for release into the circulation. PTCs are also involved in the uptake of sodium and phosphate, which are critical for hemodynamic regulation and maintaining the mineral balance, respectively. Dysregulation of PTC functions in CKD is likely to be associated with the development of CVD and is linked to the progression to end-stage renal disease. In particular, PTC dysfunction occurs early in diabetic nephropathy, a leading cause of CKD. It is therefore important to elucidate the mechanisms of PTC dysfunction to develop therapeutic strategies for treating cardiorenal syndrome in diabetes.

  8. Displaced proximal humeral fractures: an Indian experience with locking plates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aggarwal Sameer

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The treatment of displaced proximal humerus fractures, especially in elderly, remains controversial. The objective of this study was to evaluate functional outcome of locking plate used for fixation of these fractures after open reduction. We also attempted to evaluate the complications and predictors of loss of fixation for such an implant. Methods Over two and a half years, 56 patients with an acute proximal humerus fracture were managed with locking plate osteosynthesis. 47 of these patients who completed a minimum follow up of 1 year were evaluated using Constant score calculation. Statistical analysis was done using SPSS 16 and a p value of less than 0.05 was taken as statistically significant. Results The average follow up period was around 21.5 months. Outcomes were excellent in 17%, good in 38.5%, moderate in 34% while poor in 10.5%. The Constant score was poorer for AO-OTA type 3 fractures as compared to other types. The scores were also inferior for older patients (> 65 years old. Complications included screw perforation of head, AVN, subacromial impingement, loss of fixation, axillary nerve palsy and infection. A varus malalignment was found to be a strong predictor of loss of fixation. Conclusion Locking plate osteosynthesis leads to satisfactory functional outcomes in all the patients. Results are better than non locking plates in osteoporotic fractures of the elderly. However the surgery has steep learning curve and various complications could be associated with its use. Nevertheless we believe that a strict adherence to the principles of locking plate use can ensure good result in such challenging fractures.

  9. Feasibility and outcome of proximal catheter ileostomy - A pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maulana M Ansari

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim: Loop ileostomy has high complication rates and causes much patient inconvenience. This study was carried out to evaluate the feasibility and outcome of a proximal catheter ileostomy in place of loop ileostomy in patients treated by intestinal repair and/or resection-anastomosis. Design: Prospective study. Setting: J. N. Medical College Hospital, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh, India. Patients and Methods: From November 2006 to November 2009, in all patients treated surgically by primary repair and/or resection-anastomosis of small and/or large bowel, we constructed a catheter ileostomy when a defunctioning proximal protective loop ileostomy was considered advisable. Catheter ileostomy was constructed in the fashion of catheter jejunostomy, with postoperative saline irrigation. Results: Catheter ileostomy was performed in 20 patients in the 3-year period. The mean age of the subjects was 28.6 years and the male: female ratio was 1.86:1. Four patients died of septicemia and multiple organ failure unrelated to catheter ileostomy in the immediate postoperative period. Catheter ileostomy started functioning within 48 hours of the operation, and twice-daily irrigation was found sufficient in 81.25% of the surviving patients. Only one patient developed peritubal leak with mild skin excoriation that cleared within 5 days. Another patient with Koch′s abdomen underwent conversion to loop colostomy on re-exploration for postoperative adhesive obstruction. There was no instance of intestinal leak. Ileostomy wounds closed spontaneously within 7-14 days of catheter removal, and none required formal closure. Hospital stay ranged from 12-35 days (mean: 23 days. Conclusions: Catheter ileostomy is effective in protecting intestinal anastomosis/repair; there is minimal morbidity and no catheter-related leak/mortality, and we recommend the procedure.

  10. Crown dimensions and proximal enamel thickness of mandibular second bicuspids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Augusto Fernandes

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available To achieve proper recontouring of anterior and posterior teeth, to obtain optimal morphology during enamel stripping, it is important to be aware of dental anatomy. This study aimed at evaluating crown dimensions and proximal enamel thickness in a sample of 40 extracted sound, human, mandibular, second bicuspids (20 right and 20 left. Mesiodistal, cervico-occlusal and buccolingual crown dimensions were measured using a digital caliper, accurate to 0.01 mm. Teeth were embedded in acrylic resin and cut along their long axes through the proximal surfaces to obtain 0.7 mm-thick central sections. Enamel thickness on the cut sections was measured using a perfilometer. Comparative analyses were carried out using the Student's-t test (α= 5%. The mean mesiodistal crown widths for right and left teeth were 7.79 mm (± 0.47 and 7.70 mm (± 0.51, respectively. Mean cervico-occlusal heights ranged from 8.31 mm (± 0.75 on the right to 8.38 mm (± 0.85 on the left teeth. The mean values for the buccolingual dimension were 8.67 mm (± 0.70 on the right and 8.65 mm (± 0.54 on the left teeth. The mean enamel thickness on the mesial surfaces ranged from 1.35 mm (± 0.22 to 1.40 mm (± 0.17, on the left and right sides, respectively. On the distal surfaces, the corresponding values were 1.44 mm (± 0.21 and 1.46 mm (± 0.12. No significant differences were found between measurements for right and left teeth. However, enamel thickness was significantly greater on the distal surfaces, compared with the mesial surfaces.

  11. Age estimation by radiological assessment of proximal tibial epiphysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swapnil Patond

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The age estimation of living individual is of critical importance in forensic practice, there is no statistical data to establish variation in epiphyseal fusion in population of central India. This significant oversight can lead to exclusion of persons of interest in a forensic investigation. Methodology: Epiphyseal fusion of proximal end of Tibia in 150 individuals was analyzed on radiological basis to assess the range of variation of epiphyseal fusion at each age. In the study the X ray films of the subjects were divided into three groups on the basis of degree of fusion. Firstly, those which were showing No Epiphyseal Fusion (N, secondly those showing Partial Union (PC, and thirdly those showing Complete Fusion (C. Result: Observations made were compared with the previous radiological studies. The process of ossification was completed remarkably faster in females than males. The ossification at proximal end of Tibia at the Knee joint in males and Females is completed in all instances (100% at the age groups of 18-20 years and 16-20 year respectively.From this study; range of 1-2 years of margin of error can be concluded. Conclusion: By comparing the available literature about ossification of long bones, fusion was delayed one to three years in this study with population of Central India than those parts of south India and population of Bengal. By comparing the available literature the age of skeletal maturity in both males and females in this region are nearly similar to those in population of Madhya Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh Rajasthan and Karnataka.

  12. Effects of preoperative pelvic irradiation on colonic anastomosis healing: an experimental study in rats Efeito da radioterapia pélvica pré-operatória na cicatrização de anastomoses colônicas: estudo experimental em ratos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Franca

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Colorectal anastomosis is a constant worry-issue among surgeons because of high rates of complications, specially the dehiscence. The preoperative irradiation on cancer surgeries might interfere in the healing process, leading to an unfavorable outcome. METHODS: In the present study, two groups of rats were irradiated previously to a colorectal anastomosis surgery, with intervals of 4 and 8 weeks between the procedures. Seven days after the surgery, healing process was evaluated for dehiscence presence and histologic inflammatory characteristics. Also, levels of hydroxyproline, metalloproteinases and vascular endothelial growth factor were measured. RESULTS: Our results showed a higher incidence of dehiscences on the animals submitted to irradiation, compared to controls, with a reduced inflammatory activity in the healing tissue. DISCUSSION: Comparing both irradiated groups, those irradiated 8 weeks before surgery showed higher levels of hydroxyproline and metalloproteinases, indicating higher efficiency of the healing process. In conclusion, preoperative irradiation interferes with intestinal anastomosis healing and a larger time interval between both procedures is safer in terms of the healing quality.INTRODUÇÃO: As anastomoses colorretais são motivos constante de preocupação por parte dos cirurgiões, em virtude do alto índice de complicações, principalmente as deiscências. O uso da radioterapia previamente à cirurgia, nos casos de doença neoplásica, pode interferir no processo cicatricial das anastomoses, e levar a uma evolução desfavorável. MÉTODOS: Os autores estudaram dois grupos de ratos, submetidos a radioterapia e à confecção de uma anastomose no cólon, com intervalo de 04 e de 08 semanas entre os dois procedimentos, comparando com um grupo controle. Após 07 dias da cirurgia, estudaram-se vários aspectos do processo cicatricial: presença de deiscência, características inflamatórias do tecido, dosagem

  13. Tratamento cirúrgico do megacólon chagásico: retocolectomia abdominal com anastomose colorretal mecânica término-lateral Surgical treatment of chagasic megacolon: abdominal rectocolectomy with mechanical colo-rectal end- to-side anastomosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Hyppolito da Silva

    1999-10-01

    Full Text Available Trinta e cinco doentes portadores de megacólon chagásico foram operados pela técnica da retocolectomia abdominal com anastomose colorretal mecânica término-lateral durante o período de 1993 a 1997. Vinte (57,14% doentes eram do sexo feminino e 15 (42,85% do masculino. A idade variou de 27 a 76 anos, com média de 51 anos. A operação constou de ressecção do segmento dilatado, sepultamento do coto retal na altura da reflexão peritoneal com grampeador, dissecção do espaço retrorretal até o plano dos músculos elevadores e anastomose colorretal mecânica término-lateral posterior. Em quatro (11,42% doentes a anastomose foi anterior. Em três (8,57% doentes, o teste de escape da anastomose foi positivo, o que obrigou a complementação manual da sutura em dois (5,71 % e sutura e ostomia derivativa em um (2,85%. Ocorreram sete (20,00% complicações pós-operatórias precoces, sendo quatro consideradas relevantes (11,42% e quatro (11,42% complicações tardias. Houve um (2,85% óbito por complicação clínica. Os doentes submetidos a colostomia foram reoperados para fechamento da mesma sem intercorrências. A totalidade dos doentes apresenta hábito intestinal normal. Não houve referências a alterações gênito-urinárias, nem a incontinência fecal. A anastomose foi tocada ou visibilizada em todos os pacientes examinados, durante o seguimento ambulatorial. Não houve casos de fecaloma no coto retal. Embora os resultados iniciais sejam bastante satisfatórios, é necessário maior tempo de observação para se avaliar a possibilidade de recidiva.Thirty five patients with chagasic megacolon were operated on by the technique of recto-colectomy with colo-rectal mechanical end-to-side anastomosis, anterior or posterior during the period of 1993 to 1997. Twenty (57.14% patients were female and 15 (42.85% male. The age ranged from 27 to 76 years, with a mean of 51years. The operation consisted of resection of the dilated colon, closure

  14. Computational fluid dynamics in three dimensional angiography: Preliminary hemodynamic results of various proximal geometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ha Youn; Park, Sung Tae; Bae, Won Kyoung; Goo, Dong Erk [Dept. of Radiology, Soonchunhyang University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-12-15

    We studied the influence of proximal geometry on the results of computational fluid dynamics (CFD). We made five models of different proximal geometry from three dimensional angiography of 63-year-old women with intracranial aneurysm. CFD results were analyzed as peak systolic velocity (PSV) at inlet and outlet as well as flow velocity profile at proximal level of internal carotid artery (ICA) aneurysm. Modified model of cavernous one with proximal tubing showed faster PSV at outlet than that at inlet. The PSV of outlets of other models were slower than that of inlets. The flow velocity profiles at immediate proximal to ICA aneurysm showed similar patterns in all models, suggesting that proximal vessel geometries could affect CFD results.

  15. Hematoma of the proximal nail fold due to oximeter in a child

    OpenAIRE

    Patricia Chang; Monica Vanesa Vásquez Acajabón

    2014-01-01

    Boy 4 years old, hospitalized due to hemorrhagic chickenpox and sepsis during his clinical examination besides hemorrhagic crust, vesicles and bullous he has also a cutaneous red lesion localized at the right proximal nail fold of the big toenail (Fig. 1), dermatoscopic view of the lesion (Fig. 2). The diagnosis of hematoma of the proximal nail fold due to oximeter was done. The proximal nail fold hematomas due to oximeter are uncommon dermatoses at this level that are caused for the pressure...

  16. Does Close Count? School Proximity, School Quality, and Residential Property Values

    OpenAIRE

    Owusu-Edusei, Kwame; Espey, Molly; Lin, Huiyan

    2007-01-01

    This study jointly estimates the impact of school quality and school proximity on residential property values in Greenville, South Carolina. While quality is found to be capitalized into residential property values, the degree of capitalization depends on school level and proximity to each school for which the house is zoned for attendance. In general, there is positive value associated with closer proximity to schools of all levels, and negative value associated with a significantly longer t...

  17. The results of internal fixation of proximal humeral fractures with the PHILOS locking plate

    OpenAIRE

    Korkmaz, Mehmet Fatih; Aksu, Neslihan; Gogus, Abdullah; Debre, Mursel; Kara, Ayhan Nedim; Isiklar, Zekeriya Ugur

    2004-01-01

    Objectives: Proximal and diaphyseal humeral fractures are common especially in the elderly, presenting as a challenging problem due to their high complication rates following surgical treatment. In this prospective study, we evaluated the results of patients treated with the PHILOS (Proximal Humeral Internal Locking System) locking plate, a new technique recently developed by the AO/ASIF. Methods: Forty-one patients who were treated with the PHILOS plate for proximal humeral fractures were...

  18. [Change of the shape of the proximal metaepiphysis of the femoral bone after corrective osteotomy

    OpenAIRE

    Olijnik O.E.

    2015-01-01

    Background. The changes of the shape of the proximal part of the femur due to the pathological process and consequences of osteotomy have the significant influence on the steps of surgical intervention and on the choice of the construction of endoprosthesis stem. Objective. To determine the shape of the proximal part of femoral channel after the correcting osteotomy from the viewpoint of the following hip joint replacement. Methods. Criteria of evaluation of changes of the shape of the proxim...

  19. A PROSPECTIVE STUDY ON TREATMENT OF PROXIMAL HUMERUS FRACTURES IN ADULTS

    OpenAIRE

    Bhavani Prasad; Sasi Bhushan Reddy; Vennela; Santhosh MR; Sandeep

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Treatment of proximal humerus has been subject of much controversy and confusion with diversity of opinion regarding the care of fractures of proximal end of humerus. The aim of this study was to review the outcome, results and complications of the operat ive procedure in a series of thirty patients. INTRODUCTION: Proximal humerus fractures are one of the commonest fractures occurring in the skeleton. They accou...

  20. A dual-mode proximity sensor with integrated capacitive and temperature sensing units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Shihua; Huang, Ying; He, Xiaoyue; Sun, Zhiguang; Liu, Ping; Liu, Caixia

    2015-10-01

    The proximity sensor is one of the most important devices in the field of robot application. It can accurately provide the proximity information to assistant robots to interact with human beings and the external environment safely. In this paper, we have proposed and demonstrated a dual-mode proximity sensor composed of capacitive and resistive sensing units. We defined the capacitive type proximity sensor perceiving the proximity information as C-mode and the resistive type proximity sensor detecting as R-mode. Graphene nanoplatelets (GNPs) were chosen as the R-mode sensing material because of its high performance. The dual-mode proximity sensor presents the following features: (1) the sensing distance of the dual-mode proximity sensor has been enlarged compared with the single capacitive proximity sensor in the same geometrical pattern; (2) experiments have verified that the proposed sensor can sense the proximity information of different materials; (3) the proximity sensing capability of the sensor has been improved by two modes perceive collaboratively, for a plastic block at a temperature of 60 °C: the R-mode will perceive the proximity information when the distance d between the sensor and object is 6.0-17.0 mm and the C-mode will do that when their interval is 0-2.0 mm additionally two modes will work together when the distance is 2.0-6.0 mm. These features indicate our transducer is very valuable in skin-like sensing applications.

  1. A dual-mode proximity sensor with integrated capacitive and temperature sensing units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The proximity sensor is one of the most important devices in the field of robot application. It can accurately provide the proximity information to assistant robots to interact with human beings and the external environment safely. In this paper, we have proposed and demonstrated a dual-mode proximity sensor composed of capacitive and resistive sensing units. We defined the capacitive type proximity sensor perceiving the proximity information as C-mode and the resistive type proximity sensor detecting as R-mode. Graphene nanoplatelets (GNPs) were chosen as the R-mode sensing material because of its high performance. The dual-mode proximity sensor presents the following features: (1) the sensing distance of the dual-mode proximity sensor has been enlarged compared with the single capacitive proximity sensor in the same geometrical pattern; (2) experiments have verified that the proposed sensor can sense the proximity information of different materials; (3) the proximity sensing capability of the sensor has been improved by two modes perceive collaboratively, for a plastic block at a temperature of 60 °C: the R-mode will perceive the proximity information when the distance d between the sensor and object is 6.0–17.0 mm and the C-mode will do that when their interval is 0–2.0 mm; additionally two modes will work together when the distance is 2.0–6.0 mm. These features indicate our transducer is very valuable in skin-like sensing applications. (paper)

  2. A scoping review of biomechanical testing for proximal humerus fracture implants

    OpenAIRE

    Cruickshank, David; Lefaivre, Kelly A.; Johal, Herman; MacIntyre, Norma J; Sprague, Sheila A; Scott, Taryn; Guy, Pierre; Cripton, Peter A.; McKee, Michael; Bhandari, Mohit; Slobogean, Gerard P

    2015-01-01

    Background Fixation failure is a relatively common sequela of surgical management of proximal humerus fractures (PHF). The purpose of this study is to understand the current state of the literature with regard to the biomechanical testing of proximal humerus fracture implants. Methods A scoping review of the proximal humerus fracture literature was performed, and studies testing the mechanical properties of a PHF treatment were included in this review. Descriptive statistics were used to summ...

  3. Spatio-Temporal Proximity Characteristics in 3D μ-Printing via Multi-Photon Absorption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik Hagen Waller

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available One of the major challenges in high-resolution μ-printing is the cross-talk between features written in close proximity—the proximity effect. This effect prevents, e.g., gratings with periods below a few hundred nanometers. Surprisingly, the dependence of this effect on space and time has not thoroughly been investigated. Here, we present a spatial-light-modulator based method to dynamically measure the strength of the proximity effect on length and timescales typical to μ-printing. The proximity strength is compared in various photo resists. The results indicate that molecular diffusion strongly contributes to the proximity effect.

  4. The functional results of tibial shaft fractures treated with intramedullary nail compressed by proximal tube.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaarslan, Ahmet Adnan; Acar, Nihat; Aycan, Hakan; Sesli, Erhan

    2016-04-01

    Nailing of tibial shaft fractures is considered the gold standard surgical method by many surgeons. The aim of this retrospective study was to investigate and compare the clinical outcome of tibial shaft fractures treated with intramedullary nails compressed by proximal tube and conventional intramedullary interlocking nails. Fifty-seven patients with tibial shaft fractures, treated with intramedullary nails compressed by proximal tube (n = 32) and the conventional interlocking nails (n = 25), were reviewed. All fractures except for one were united without any additional surgical intervention in the proximal compression tube nail group, whereas in the conventional interlocking nail group, six patients needed dynamization surgery (p = 0.005) and three cases of nonunion were recorded. In the proximal compression tube nail group, faster union occurred in 20 ± 2 (16-24) weeks (mean ± SD; range) without failure of locking screws and proximal nail migration, whereas in the conventional interlocking nail group, union occurred in 22 ± 2.5 (17-27) weeks (p = 0.001) with two failures of locking screws and two proximal nail migration. The proximal compression tube nail system is safer than the conventional nailing methods for the treatment for transverse and oblique tibial shaft fractures with a less rate of nonunion, proximal locking screw failure and proximal nail migration. PMID:26837377

  5. Assessing the Performance of the Laser Fluorescence Technique in Detecting Proximal Caries Cavities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Akbari

    Full Text Available Introduction: Diagnosing the necessity of cavity preparation and restoration in demineralized proximal areas is always considered as a challenge in restorative treatment planning. The purpose of this study was to assess the performance of the laser fluorescence (LF technique in detection of proximal cavities.Materials & Methods: In this clinical trial, 44 proximal surfaces in 38 dental students were evaluated. The selected patients had radiolucent proximal lesions restricted to inner half of enamel or outer third of dentine in bitewing radiographs (BW. DIAGNOdent pen (LF pen device was used to determine the presence or absence of caries cavities in suspected proximal surfaces. Orthodontic elastic separators were then placed in the contact areas to provide enough space for direct visual and tactile examination. The sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of the laser fluorescence technique were calculated versus the reference standard. The ROC curve was drawn and the best cut-off to determine the presence or absence of proximal cavities was determined.Results: Using DIAGNOdent pen, the optimal cut-off for detecting proximal cavities was 18. The sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of DIAGNOdent pen for diagnosing proximal caries cavities were 100 per cent, 97.3 per cent and 97.7 per cent, respectively. Conclusion: Due to the high diagnostic accuracy of DIAGNOdent pen in detecting proximal caries cavities, it can be used as a valuable supplement in restorative treatment planning.

  6. Two-Step Proximal Gradient Algorithm for Low-Rank Matrix Completion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiuyu Wang

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we  propose a two-step proximal gradient algorithm to solve nuclear norm regularized least squares for the purpose of recovering low-rank data matrix from sampling of its entries. Each iteration generated by the proposed algorithm is a combination of the latest three points, namely, the previous point, the current iterate, and its proximal gradient point. This algorithm preserves the computational simplicity of classical proximal gradient algorithm where a singular value decomposition in proximal operator is involved. Global convergence is followed directly in the literature. Numerical results are reported to show the efficiency of the algorithm.

  7. Proximity effects in cold gases of multiply charged atoms (Review)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chikina, I.; Shikin, V.

    2016-07-01

    Possible proximity effects in gases of cold, multiply charged atoms are discussed. Here we deal with rarefied gases with densities nd of multiply charged (Z ≫ 1) atoms at low temperatures in the well-known Thomas-Fermi (TF) approximation, which can be used to evaluate the statistical properties of single atoms. In order to retain the advantages of the TF formalism, which is successful for symmetric problems, the external boundary conditions accounting for the finiteness of the density of atoms (donors), nd ≠ 0, are also symmetrized (using a spherical Wigner-Seitz cell) and formulated in a standard way that conserves the total charge within the cell. The model shows that at zero temperature in a rarefied gas of multiply charged atoms there is an effective long-range interaction Eproxi(nd), the sign of which depends on the properties of the outer shells of individual atoms. The long-range character of the interaction Eproxi is evaluated by comparing it with the properties of the well-known London dispersive attraction ELond(nd) 0 and for the alkali and alkaline-earth elements Eproxi theory through the temperature dependence of the different versions of Eproxi. The anomaly in the thermal proximity effect shows up in the following way: for T ≠ 0 there is no equilibrium solution of TS statistics for single multiply charged atoms in a vacuum when the effect is present. Instability is suppressed in a Wigner-Seitz model under the assumption that there are no electron fluxes through the outer boundary R3 ∝ n-1d of a Wigner-Seitz cell. Eproxi corresponds to the definition of the correlation energy in a gas of interacting particles. This review is written so as to enable comparison of the results of the TF formalism with the standard assumptions of the correlation theory for classical plasmas. The classic example from work on weak solutions (including charged solutions)—the use of semi-impermeable membranes for studies of osmotic pressure—is highly appropriate for

  8. Proximity effects in cold gases of multiply charged atoms (Review)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chikina, I.; Shikin, V.

    2016-07-01

    Possible proximity effects in gases of cold, multiply charged atoms are discussed. Here we deal with rarefied gases with densities nd of multiply charged (Z ≫ 1) atoms at low temperatures in the well-known Thomas-Fermi (TF) approximation, which can be used to evaluate the statistical properties of single atoms. In order to retain the advantages of the TF formalism, which is successful for symmetric problems, the external boundary conditions accounting for the finiteness of the density of atoms (donors), nd ≠ 0, are also symmetrized (using a spherical Wigner-Seitz cell) and formulated in a standard way that conserves the total charge within the cell. The model shows that at zero temperature in a rarefied gas of multiply charged atoms there is an effective long-range interaction Eproxi(nd), the sign of which depends on the properties of the outer shells of individual atoms. The long-range character of the interaction Eproxi is evaluated by comparing it with the properties of the well-known London dispersive attraction ELond(nd) 0 and for the alkali and alkaline-earth elements Eproxi thermal decay are interesting in themselves as they determine the important phenomenon of dissociation of neutral complexes into charged fragments. This phenomenon appears consistently in the TF theory through the temperature dependence of the different versions of Eproxi. The anomaly in the thermal proximity effect shows up in the following way: for T ≠ 0 there is no equilibrium solution of TS statistics for single multiply charged atoms in a vacuum when the effect is present. Instability is suppressed in a Wigner-Seitz model under the assumption that there are no electron fluxes through the outer boundary R3 ∝ n-1d of a Wigner-Seitz cell. Eproxi corresponds to the definition of the correlation energy in a gas of interacting particles. This review is written so as to enable comparison of the results of the TF formalism with the standard assumptions of the correlation theory for

  9. Influência da invasão tumoral da linha de anastomose na sobrevivência de pacientes com câncer de coto gástrico The influence of tumor invasion in anastomotic line on survival of patient with gastric stump cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Lúcia Granja Scarabel Nogueira Carrasco

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available RACIONAL: O câncer do coto gástrico desenvolve- se no remanescente gástrico de gastrectomia realizada há pelo menos 5 anos por doença benigna e os sítios mais comuns de acometimento são próximo à anastomose e na pequena curvatura. Considera-se que o coto gástrico é estado pré-canceroso. OBJETIVOS: Identificar o padrão de disseminação de linfonodos acometidos, quantificar a invasão tumoral da linha de anastomose e correlacionar: a invasão da linha de anastomose com o comprometimento linfonodal e mesenterial, o acometimento linfonodal com sobrevivência e o acometimento da linha de anastomose com sobrevivência. MÉTODOS: Estudo retrospectivo com revisão de prontuários, peças cirúrgicas e exames anátomo-patológicos de 113 pacientes com diagnóstico de câncer de coto gástrico definido como adenocarcinoma desenvolvido no remanescente gástrico de gastrectomia realizada há pelo menos cinco anos por doença benigna. RESULTADOS: A disseminação linfonodal não se mostrou específica; 75% dos pacientes apresentaram invasão tumoral da linha de anastomose; em 66,7% dos casos ocorreu invasão da linha anastomótica e linfonodal concomitantes; menos de 10% dos casos exibiam invasão mesenterial; houve óbito em 86,5% dos casos com invasão linfonodal e 64,7% com invasão da linha de anastomose e em 100% com invasão mesenterial. CONCLUSÕES: 1 O câncer de coto gástrico não tem padrão de disseminação linfonodal específico; 2 a linha de anastomose sofre freqüente invasão tumoral; 3 apesar de freqüente a invasão da linha anastomótica, não apresenta correlação estatística significante com o comprometimento linfonodal regional ou mesenterial; 4 a presença de invasão linfonodal implica em sobrevida menor, em especial a de linfonodos do mesentério; 5 a presença de acometimento neoplásico da linha anastomótica não se correlaciona com pior resultado de sobrevivência.AIM: To identify the lymph node metastatic

  10. Osteofibrous dysplasia of the proximal tibia: an illustrative case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sastha K. Sharan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A 5 years old girl presented 3 years back with pain and swelling over the upper right leg for 2 years duration. X-ray, CT and MRI revealed osteolytic well defined lesion 2.5 and times; 2 cm in the meta-diaphyseal region of the proximal tibia with pathological fracture of anterolateral cortex. Child underwent thorough curettage of the lesion and the defect was filled with allograft (iliac crest graft from mother which was harvested in an adjacent operation theatre. The limb was protected with a plaster splint for a period of 3 months. The graft gradually consolidated and new bone formation was apparent by 6 months. Remodelling of the medullary canal occurred at 1 year follow up. Child has been followed up to 3 years (till date and there is no evidence of recurrence. The case illustrates that osteofibrous dyplasia can be effectively treated by curettage and replacement of defect by allograft from parents. [Int J Res Med Sci 2015; 3(6.000: 1518-1520

  11. Proximity semiconducting nanowire junctions from Josephson to quantum dot regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gharavi, Kaveh; Holloway, Gregory; Baugh, Jonathan

    Experimental low-temperature transport results are presented on proximity-effect Josephson junctions made from low bandgap III-V semiconductor nanowires contacted with Nb. Two regimes are explored in terms of the Nb/nanowire interface transparency t. (i) High t allows a supercurrent to flow across the junction with magnitude Ic, which can be modulated using the voltage Vg on a global back gate or a local gate. Relatively high values are obtained for the figure-of-merit parameter IcRN / (eΔ) ~ 0 . 5 , and t ~ 0 . 75 , where RN is the normal state resistance and Δ the superconducting gap of the Nb leads. With the application of an axial magnetic field, Ic decays but exhibits oscillations before being fully suppressed. The period and amplitude of the oscillations depend on Vg. Possible explanations for this behaviour are presented, including Josephson interference of the orbital subbands in the nanowire. (ii) Lower transparency correlates with a spontaneous quantum dot (QD) formed in the nanowire channel. Pairs of Andreev Bound States (ABS) appear at energies | E | < Δ , with one pair unexpectedly pinned at E = 0 for a wide range of Vg. A description of the QD-ABS system beyond the Anderson model is presented to explain the latter results.

  12. Bumblebee flight performance in environments of different proximity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linander, Nellie; Baird, Emily; Dacke, Marie

    2016-02-01

    Flying animals are capable of navigating through environments of different complexity with high precision. To control their flight when negotiating narrow tunnels, bees and birds use the magnitude of apparent image motion (known as optic flow) generated by the walls. In their natural habitat, however, these animals would encounter both cluttered and open environments. Here, we investigate how large changes in the proximity of nearby surfaces affect optic flow-based flight control strategies. We trained bumblebees to fly along a flight and recorded how the distance between the walls--from 60 cm to 240 cm--affected their flight control. Our results reveal that, as tunnel width increases, both lateral position and ground speed become increasingly variable. We also find that optic flow information from the ground has an increasing influence on flight control, suggesting that bumblebees measure optic flow flexibly over a large lateral and ventral field of view, depending on where the highest magnitude of optic flow occurs. A consequence of this strategy is that, when flying in narrow spaces, bumblebees use optic flow information from the nearby obstacles to control flight, while in more open spaces they rely primarily on optic flow cues from the ground.

  13. Do proximate, C. elegans swimmers synchronize their gait?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Jinzhou; Raizen, David; Bau, Haim

    2012-11-01

    We imaged two C. elegans swimming, one after the other, in a tapered conduit. The conduit was subjected to a DC electric field, with the negative pole at the narrow end and applied flow directed from the narrow end. As a result of their attraction to the negative pole (electrotaxis), both animals swam upstream. As the conduit narrowed, the average adverse flow velocity increased and the swimming speed of the leading animal decreased faster than that of the trailing animal, allowing the latter to catch up with the former. We quantified synchronization by measuring the phase lag between the gait of one animal and the extended wave pattern of the other as a function of the distance between the two animals. Only when the distance between the two animals' body centers was nearly equal to or smaller than one body length were the animals' motions synchronized. When the nematodes were parallel to one another, synchronization was essential to prevent the animals from colliding. Direct numerical simulations indicate that when the trailing animal's head is immediately downstream of the leading animal's tail, the animals derive just a slight hydrodynamic advantage from their proximity compared to a single swimmer. We thank Kun He Lee from the University of Pennsylvania for preparing C. elegans.

  14. Bumblebee flight performance in environments of different proximity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linander, Nellie; Baird, Emily; Dacke, Marie

    2016-02-01

    Flying animals are capable of navigating through environments of different complexity with high precision. To control their flight when negotiating narrow tunnels, bees and birds use the magnitude of apparent image motion (known as optic flow) generated by the walls. In their natural habitat, however, these animals would encounter both cluttered and open environments. Here, we investigate how large changes in the proximity of nearby surfaces affect optic flow-based flight control strategies. We trained bumblebees to fly along a flight and recorded how the distance between the walls--from 60 cm to 240 cm--affected their flight control. Our results reveal that, as tunnel width increases, both lateral position and ground speed become increasingly variable. We also find that optic flow information from the ground has an increasing influence on flight control, suggesting that bumblebees measure optic flow flexibly over a large lateral and ventral field of view, depending on where the highest magnitude of optic flow occurs. A consequence of this strategy is that, when flying in narrow spaces, bumblebees use optic flow information from the nearby obstacles to control flight, while in more open spaces they rely primarily on optic flow cues from the ground. PMID:26614094

  15. A multi-channel fiber optic proximity sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this investigation, we propose an efficient multi-channel optical proximity sensor based on the spectrally-resolved interferometric principle. This sensor consists of a single optical source, a spectrometer and fiber optic components such as an optical circulator, a coarse wavelength division multiplexer (CWDM) and fiber optic probes. A spectrometer is used to detect the spectral interferograms of the measuring probes according to their own spectral bandwidths and the interference signals can be separated by the spectral filtering by a CWDM. The principle of the proposed sensor system was verified with feasibility experiments with the home-built 4 channel sensor system. The measuring range of each channel was 1 mm and the resolution was a few tens of nanometers determined by the deviation of linear motions. The stability of the sensor was less than 30 nm. With the aid of a broadband source and a spectrometer, the measurement channel can be extended further by using a suitable CWDM. (paper)

  16. [Proximal and distal ruptures of the biceps brachii tendon].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klonz, A; Loitz, D; Reilmann, H

    2003-09-01

    Proximal ruptures. Ruptures of the long head of the M. biceps humeri are commonly caused by degenerative changes within the tendon. Non-operative treatment gives good results, the loss of power regarding elbow flexion and supination amounts to only 8-21%. Refixation may be indicated for cosmetic reasons and offers a small but evident improvement of flexion and supination power. Deformity of the slipped muscle can be corrected effectively. Residual complaints after conservative treatment often result from associated subacromial problems. Distal ruptures. Ruptures of the distal tendon should be treated operatively. The loss of power after conservative treatment is evident (30-40% for flexion, >50% for supination). Extra-anatomical tenodesis to the brachialis muscle or anatomical fixation to the radial tuberosity can be applied. Flexion power and cosmesis can be addressed by both techniques. If supination strength is to be restored, the tendon has to be fixed anatomically. Preparation of the tuberosity bears the risk of heterotopic ossification or nerve damage. Mini-open techniques, using only a limited anterior approach, may decrease risks. PMID:14959750

  17. Proximal hypospadias: we aren’t always keeping our promises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Christopher J.; Canning, Douglas A.

    2016-01-01

    Hypospadias surgery is a humbling art form. The evolution of surgical techniques has made distal hypospadias outcomes favorable, but recent publications suggest that our complication rates for proximal hypospadias are much higher than previously reported. To explain these shortcomings, we examine the literature and focus on the lack of standardized documentation, the subsequent inability to objectify the severity of the phenotype, and the underestimation of complications due to lack of long-term follow up. The variability in surgical technique and the fact that the literature abounds with small case series from single institutions also limits our ability to compare outcomes. We believe that the use of standardized and scored phenotype assessments from diagnosis through the extended postoperative period will allow for improved scientific assessment of outcomes. This will facilitate multi-institution collaboration and tabulation of outcomes, allowing rapid data accumulation and assessment for this rare disorder. As surgeons, we must follow boys through puberty into adulthood and must honestly report our results in order to advance our surgical approach to this complicated problem.

  18. [An analysis of major proximate determinants of our fertility].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, W

    1989-01-01

    The sample survey of fertility, in Shanghai city and Shanxi and Hebei provinces of China in 1985, provided plentiful data about fertility, marriage, contraceptive usage and breastfeeding in terms of The World Fertility Survey Model. The data, along with Bongaarts' model, was utilized to analyze the relation between several proximate determinants and fertility changes. When comparing these three geographic areas, the largest difference was breastfeeding and the smallest one was non- contraceptive usage. It was very different from the results of The World Fertility Survey in developing countries in 1977. The difference of marriage indexes among three areas was close to that of breastfeeding; but for the effects on induction of fertility, marriage index surpassed breastfeeding. There were two models showing effective efficacy on fertility decline. One was the Shanghai model, in which much more effect came from marriage delay, accounting for 71%; another was the Hebei model, induction of fertility was caused by contraceptive usage, about 53%. Both indicated that the major factor affecting fertility decline was the family planning program. Otherwise, it seemed to indicate that different factors such as social, economic development indirectly decreased fertility through family planning programs.

  19. Sensitivity analysis for high accuracy proximity effect correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thrun, Xaver; Browning, Clyde; Choi, Kang-Hoon; Figueiro, Thiago; Hohle, Christoph; Saib, Mohamed; Schiavone, Patrick; Bartha, Johann W.

    2015-10-01

    A sensitivity analysis (SA) algorithm was developed and tested to comprehend the influences of different test pattern sets on the calibration of a point spread function (PSF) model with complementary approaches. Variance-based SA is the method of choice. It allows attributing the variance of the output of a model to the sum of variance of each input of the model and their correlated factors.1 The objective of this development is increasing the accuracy of the resolved PSF model in the complementary technique through the optimization of test pattern sets. Inscale® from Aselta Nanographics is used to prepare the various pattern sets and to check the consequences of development. Fraunhofer IPMS-CNT exposed the prepared data and observed those to visualize the link of sensitivities between the PSF parameters and the test pattern. First, the SA can assess the influence of test pattern sets for the determination of PSF parameters, such as which PSF parameter is affected on the employments of certain pattern. Secondly, throughout the evaluation, the SA enhances the precision of PSF through the optimization of test patterns. Finally, the developed algorithm is able to appraise what ranges of proximity effect correction is crucial on which portion of a real application pattern in the electron beam exposure.

  20. Phytochemical, proximate and elemental analysis of acalypha wilkesiana leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Kingsley

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Acalypha wilkesiana,commonly called Irish petticoat, is native to the south pacific islands andbelongs to the family Euphorbiaceae. Apart from its use as a vegetable, theplant is also used in traditional medicine as a diuretic plant and is eaten inthe management of hypertension. In this study, three samples (ethanol extract,aqueous extract and dried powder of Acalypha wilkesiana leaves were analyzedfor the presence of phytochemicals according to standard methods. Apart fromflavonoids, steroids, anthraquinones and phytate, all the phytochemicals testedfor are present in the three samples. This qualitative analysis showed thepresence of flavonoids only in the ethanol extract and powdered leave, steroidsonly in the ethanol extract, anthraquinones and phytate in the aqueous extractand powdered leave only. Proximate analysis revealed the presence of ash [4.16%(aqueous extract,13.98% (ethanol extract and 13.65% (powdered leaves],moisture [66.0% (aqueous extract, 30.89% (ethanol extract and 12.0% (powderedleaves], total lipid [1.75% (aqueous extract, 4.25% (ethanol extract and2.20% (powdered leaves], as well as fiber, crude protein and energy, whileelemental analysis revealed the presence of sodium [0.0086% (aqueous extract,0.024% (ethanol extract and 0.015% (powdered leaves], potassium [0.49%(aqueous extract, 1.36% (ethanol extract and 1.44% (powdered leaves], aswell as chloride and calcium. The various phytochemical compounds detected areknown to have beneficial use in industries and medical sciences, and alsoexhibit physiological activity.

  1. LXR regulate cholesterol homeostasis in the proximal mouse epididymis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Marc A Lobaccaro

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Oxysterol nuclear receptors liver x receptors (LXRalpha and LXRbeta regulate lipid homeostasis when cells have to face high amounts of cholesterol and/or fatty acids. Male mice invalidated for both lxr (LXR-/- are infertile by 5 months of age, and become sterile by the age of 9 months. The epididymis was previously shown to be affected by the gene invalidation, a phenotype specifically located in the two proximal segments of this organ. We demonstrate here that cholesteryl esters are accumulated in a specific cell type of the epididymal epithelium, the apical cells, in these two first segments, in LXR-/- male mice. These accumulations are correlated to a decrease in the amount of a specific membrane cholesterol transporter, ATP-binding cassette A1 (ABCA1 in the caput epididymidis of LXR-/- mice. This decrease is due to a transcriptional down-regulation, and we further demonstrate that ABCA1, in the two first segments of the caput epididymidis, is located in the apical cells, and that its accumulation is lost in these cells for LXR-/- male mice as soon as 4 months of age. These data bring new elements in the cholesterol trafficking pathways in the epididymis, and will help a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms occurring in this organ in relation to the sperm cells maturation process.

  2. Event-triggered Decision Propagation in Proximity Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soumik eSarkar

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a novel event-triggered formulation as an extension of the recently develo-ped generalized gossip algorithm for decision/awareness propagation in mobile sensor networksmodeled as proximity networks. The key idea is to expend energy for communication (messagetransmission and reception only when there is any event of interest in the region of surveillance.The idea is implemented by using an agent’s belief about presence of a hotspot as feedback tochange its probability of (communication activity. In the original formulation, the evolution ofnetwork topology and the dynamics of decision propagation were completely decoupled whichis no longer the case as a consequence of this feedback policy. Analytical results and numeri-cal experiments are presented to show a significant gain in energy savings with no change inthe first moment characteristics of decision propagation. However, numerical experiments showthat the second moment characteristics may change and theoretical results are provided forupper and lower bounds for second moment characteristics. Effects of false alarms on networkformation and communication activity are also investigated.

  3. Interactive orbital proximity operations planning system instruction and training guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grunwald, Arthur J.; Ellis, Stephen R.

    1994-01-01

    This guide instructs users in the operation of a Proximity Operations Planning System. This system uses an interactive graphical method for planning fuel-efficient rendezvous trajectories in the multi-spacecraft environment of the space station and allows the operator to compose a multi-burn transfer trajectory between orbit initial chaser and target trajectories. The available task time (window) of the mission is predetermined and the maneuver is subject to various operational constraints, such as departure, arrival, spatial, plume impingement, and en route passage constraints. The maneuvers are described in terms of the relative motion experienced in a space station centered coordinate system. Both in-orbital plane as well as out-of-orbital plane maneuvering is considered. A number of visual optimization aids are used for assisting the operator in reaching fuel-efficient solutions. These optimization aids are based on the Primer Vector theory. The visual feedback of trajectory shapes, operational constraints, and optimization functions, provided by user-transparent and continuously active background computations, allows the operator to make fast, iterative design changes that rapidly converge to fuel-efficient solutions. The planning tool is an example of operator-assisted optimization of nonlinear cost functions.

  4. Proximal tubular dysfunction as an indicator of chronic graft dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.O.S. Câmara

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available New strategies are being devised to limit the impact of renal sclerosis on graft function. Individualization of immunosuppression, specifically the interruption of calcineurin-inhibitors has been tried in order to promote better graft survival once chronic graft dysfunction has been established. However, the long-term impact of these approaches is still not totally clear. Nevertheless, patients at higher risk for tubular atrophy and interstitial fibrosis (TA/IF development should be carefully monitored for tubular function as well as glomerular performance. Since tubular-interstitial impairment is an early event in TA/IF pathogenesis and associated with graft function, it seems reasonable that strategies directed at assessing tubular structural integrity and function would yield important functional and prognostic data. The measurement of small proteins in urine such as α-1-microglobulin, N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminidase, alpha/pi S-glutathione transferases, β-2 microglobulin, and retinol binding protein is associated with proximal tubular cell dysfunction. Therefore, its straightforward assessment could provide a powerful tool in patient monitoring and ongoing clinical assessment of graft function, ultimately helping to facilitate longer patient and graft survival associated with good graft function.

  5. Studying in the region of proximal learning reduces mind wandering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Judy; Metcalfe, Janet

    2016-07-01

    Insofar as mind wandering has been linked to poor learning, finding ways to reduce the propensity to mind wander should have implications for improving learning. We investigated the possibility that studying materials at an appropriate level of difficulty with respect to the individual's capabilities-that is, studying in the region of proximal learning (RPL)-might reduce mind wandering. In Experiments 1 and 2, participants were probed for their attentional state while they studied blocks of English-Spanish word pairs that were (a) easy, (b) in the RPL, or (c) difficult. We found that studying materials in the RPL was associated with reduced mind wandering. Test performance on items studied while mind wandering was also poorer. In Experiment 3, we investigated the relation between differences in participants' mastery and mind wandering. We found that high performers mind wandered more when studying the easier word pairs, whereas low performers mind wandered more when studying the difficult items. These results indicate that the RPL is specific to the individual's level of mastery and that mind wandering occurs when people are outside that region.

  6. Collaboration range: Effects of geographical proximity on article impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apolloni, Andrea; Rouquier, Jean-Baptiste; Jensen, Pablo

    2013-09-01

    Spatial scientometrics studies how geography influences knowledge creation. In the recent years there has been a surge in this kind of studies, due to the increase of international collaborations. Most of the work in this field has been focused on the geographical distribution of researchers, whilst few have considered how proximity between coauthors influences research quality. In this work we leverage a dataset of geolocalized articles to assess the effect of geographical distance on article impact. More precisely, the dataset, provided by the Observatory of Science and Technology (O.S.T.), consists of roughly 106 scientific articles, gathering all European articles written in 2000 and 2007, spanning 9 disciplines. We evaluate under which geographical extent coauthorships have higher probability of resulting in high impact articles ("high impact" is here approximated by "being in the top 10% most cited articles of its discipline"). We also describe spatial distribution of coauthorship, delineating geographical areas where the production is proportionally higher. The distribution is evaluated both in term of km (as the crow flies), and in terms of administrative partitions (authors' cities, regions, countries).

  7. Predicting Performance in Higher Education Using Proximal Predictors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niessen, A Susan M; Meijer, Rob R; Tendeiro, Jorge N

    2016-01-01

    We studied the validity of two methods for predicting academic performance and student-program fit that were proximal to important study criteria. Applicants to an undergraduate psychology program participated in a selection procedure containing a trial-studying test based on a work sample approach, and specific skills tests in English and math. Test scores were used to predict academic achievement and progress after the first year, achievement in specific course types, enrollment, and dropout after the first year. All tests showed positive significant correlations with the criteria. The trial-studying test was consistently the best predictor in the admission procedure. We found no significant differences between the predictive validity of the trial-studying test and prior educational performance, and substantial shared explained variance between the two predictors. Only applicants with lower trial-studying scores were significantly less likely to enroll in the program. In conclusion, the trial-studying test yielded predictive validities similar to that of prior educational performance and possibly enabled self-selection. In admissions aimed at student-program fit, or in admissions in which past educational performance is difficult to use, a trial-studying test is a good instrument to predict academic performance.

  8. Multilayered graphene acquires ferromagnetism in proximity with magnetite particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seifu, Dereje, E-mail: Dereje.seifu@morgan.edu; Neupane, Suman [Department of Physics, Morgan State University, Baltimore, Maryland 21251 (United States); Giri, Lily; Karna, Shashi P. [Army Research Laboratory, Weapons and Materials Research Directorate, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland 21005 (United States); Hong, Haiping [Department of Material and Metallurgical Engineering, South Dakota School of Mines and Technology, Rapid City, South Dakota 57701 (United States); Seehra, M. S. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, West Virginia University, Morgantown, West Virginia 26506 (United States)

    2015-05-25

    Anisotropic diamagnetism of pristine graphite and graphene is well known. Here, evidence of significant induced ferromagnetism in multilayer graphene (MLG) decorated with ferrimagnetic Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} particles is reported. This MLG-Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nano-composite was prepared by a one-step ultrasonic treatment at 75 °C in the surfactant sodium dodecyl-benzene-sulfonate. To verify the phase structure and morphology of the composite, X-ray diffraction, scanning and transmission electron microscopy, scanning tunneling electron microscopy, and Raman spectroscopy were employed. Room temperature data of magnetization versus magnetic field showed that the saturation magnetization M{sub S} = 58.6 emu/gm for pristine Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} increased to M{sub S} = 158.4 emu/gm for a 1:1 composite of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} to MLG. These results lead to induced M{sub S} = 253 emu/gm in MLG resulting from its proximity to Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}. Similar experiments on Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} to single walled carbon nanotubes (SWNT) composite did not show any induced magnetism in SWNT.

  9. 永存颈内-椎基底动脉吻合的三维增强磁共振血管成像显示%Display of persistent carotid-vertebrobasilar anastomoses at three-dimensional contrast-enhanced MR angiography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈超; 刘崎; 陆建平; 沈碧霞; 王飞; 王莉

    2013-01-01

    目的:探讨三维增强磁共振血管成像(3D CE-MRA)对永存颈内-椎基底动脉吻合显示的临床应用价值.方法:回顾性分析32例经3D CE-MRA诊断为永存颈内-椎基底动脉吻合患者的影像资料.结果:3D CE-MRA能清楚显示3种永存颈内-椎基底动脉吻合血管的起源及其走行.32例中,22例为永存三叉动脉,7例为永存舌下动脉,3例为寰前节间动脉.结论:较之DSA、CTA和常规非增强MRA(时间飞跃法/3D-TOF-MRA),3D CE-MRA能无创、安全、便捷、可靠地显示永存颈内-椎基底动脉吻合图像,为临床该区域疾病诊断及手术或介入治疗提供有价值的影像解剖资料.%Objective: To explore the clinical utility of three-dimensional contrast-enhanced MR angiography (3D CE-MRA) for the display of persistent cariod-vertebrobasilar artery anastomoses. Methods: 3D CE-MRA in 32 patients of persistent carotid-basilar artery anastomoses were retrospectively reviewed. Results: 3D CE-MRA could detect arterial variations of the head and neck which had never been detected previously. These 32 patients had 22 persistent trigeminal arteries, 7 persistent hypoglossal arteries and 3 proatlantal intersegmental arteries. Conclusion: Compared with DSA, CTA and 3D-TOF-MRA, 3D CE-MRA is noninvasive, safe, simple and reliable at detecting clinically significant imaging of persistent cariod-vertebrobasilar artery anastomoses. The technique can provide anatomic data for clinical diagnosis and surgical practices.

  10. Bringing employees closer: the effect of proximity on communication when teams function under time pressure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.S.F. Chong; W. van Eerde; C.G. Rutte; K.H. Chai

    2012-01-01

    Some studies have assumed close proximity to improve team communication on the premise that reduced physical distance increases the chance of contact and information exchange. However, research showed that the relationship between team proximity and team communication is not always straightforward a

  11. Fracture of the proximal humerus with disruption of the tendon of the pectoralis major

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bart M Berghs

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Combined pectoralis major disruption and proximal humeral fractures are uncommon. A simple radiologic diagnostic tool which consists of the measurement of the displacement from the humeral shaft to the lateral side of the humeral head (lateral to the outer proximal cortex can help to diagnose this combined lesion.

  12. Proximal Point Method for a Special Class of Nonconvex Functions on Hadamard Manifolds

    CERN Document Server

    Bento, G C; Oliveira, P R

    2008-01-01

    The proximal point method for special class of nonconvex optimization problems on Hadamard manifold is presented in this paper. The well definiteness of the sequence generated by the proximal point method is guaranteed. Moreover, is proved that each accumulation point of this sequence satisfies the necessary optimality conditions and, under additional assumptions, the convergence of it for a minimizer is obtained.

  13. Active lithium transport by rat renal proximal tubule: a micropuncture study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leyssac, P P; Frederiksen, O; Holstein-Rathlou, N H;

    1994-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that proximal tubular Li+ reabsorption is due to passive transport. Clearances of [14C]inulin (CIn) and Li+ (CLi), proximal transepithelial electrical potential difference (PD), and tubular fluid-to-plasma Li+ concentration ratios [(TF/P)Li] were measured in anesthetized...

  14. Immediate weight-bearing after osteosynthesis of proximal tibial fractures may be allowed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haak, Karl Tobias; Palm, Henrik; Holck, Kim;

    2012-01-01

    Immediate weight-bearing following osteosynthesis of proximal tibial fractures is traditionally not allowed due to fear of articular fracture collapse. Anatomically shaped locking plates with sub-articular screws could improve stability and allow greater loading forces. The purpose of this study...... was to investigate if immediate weight-bearing can be allowed following locking plate osteosynthesis of proximal tibial fractures....

  15. Proximity and scientific collaboration in Northern European “cross-border regional innovation systems”

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Makkonen, Teemu; Williams, Allan

    2015-01-01

    and cultural statistics together with measures for accessibility and institutional and organisational similarity. These measures are linked to the varying types of proximity discussed in the literature on innovation and scientific collaboration; the impacts of proximity on the volume of cross-border scientific...

  16. Magnetic resonance neurography of median neuropathies proximal to the carpal tunnel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thawait, Gaurav K. [Johns Hopkins Hospital, The Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Baltimore, MD (United States); The Johns Hopkins Hospital, Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Baltimore, MD (United States); Subhawong, Ty K.; Eng, John; Carrino, John A.; Chhabra, Avneesh [Johns Hopkins Hospital, The Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Baltimore, MD (United States); Thawait, Shrey K. [Yale University, Bridgeport Hospital, Department of Radiology, Bridgeport, CT (United States); Andreisek, Gustav [University Hospital Zurich, Department of Radiology, Zurich (Switzerland); Belzberg, Alan J. [Johns Hopkins Hospital, Department of Neurosurgery, Baltimore, MD (United States)

    2012-06-15

    This review provides magnetic resonance neurography (MRN) imaging appearances of median neuropathy proximal to the carpal tunnel. Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) and its imaging have been extensively described in the literature; however, there is a relative paucity of information on the MR imaging appearances of different pathologies of the median nerve proximal to the carpal tunnel. (orig.)

  17. 76 FR 70075 - Proximity Detection Systems for Continuous Mining Machines in Underground Coal Mines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-10

    ... Period On August 31, 2011 (76 FR 54163), MSHA published a proposed rule, Proximity Detection Systems for... Mining Machines in Underground Coal Mines AGENCY: Mine Safety and Health Administration, Labor. ACTION... addressing Proximity Detection Systems for Continuous Mining Machines in Underground Coal Mines....

  18. Detailed investigations of proximal tubular function in Imerslund-Grasbeck syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storm, Tina; Zeitz, Christina; Cases, Olivier;

    2013-01-01

    expressed in the small intestine as well as the proximal tubules of the kidney and exhibit an interdependent relationship for post-translational processing and trafficking. In the proximal tubules cubilin is involved in the reabsorption of several filtered plasma proteins including vitamin carriers...

  19. Digital three-dimensional reconstruction and ultrastructure of the mouse proximal tubule

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhai, X.Y.; Birn, H.; Jensen, K.B.;

    2003-01-01

    each kidney from the surface to the inner stripe of the outer zone of medulla. All tubules were reconstructed in 3D and visualized by interactive computer graphics. A quantitative ultrastructural analysis of the mouse proximal tubule at every 300 to 400 micro m was performed. The 3D representation......, detailed analyses of normal mouse kidney structure and organization are lacking. This study describes the 3D organization and ultrastructural, segmental variation of the mouse kidney proximal tubule. A total of 160 proximal tubules in three C57/BL/6J mouse kidneys were analyzed on 800 serial sections from...... revealed a distinct organization of the mouse proximal tubule, each occupying a separate domain within the cortex. Superficial proximal tubules have long straight parts converging into clusters within the medullary rays. Tubules originating deeper within the cortex become longer and increasingly tortuous...

  20. Analysis of methods for detecting the proximity effect in quasar spectra

    CERN Document Server

    Dall'Aglio, Aldo

    2009-01-01

    Using numerical simulations of structure formation, we investigate multiple methods of determining the strength of the proximity effect in the HI Lyalpha forest. We analyze three high resolution (~10kpc) redshift snapshots (z=4,3,2.25) of a Hydro-Particle-Mesh simulation to obtain realistic absorption spectra of the HI Lyalpha forest. We begin our analysis investigating the intrinsic biases thought to arise in the widely adopted standard technique of combining multiple lines of sight when searching for the proximity effect. We confirm the existence of this biases. We then concentrate on the analysis of the proximity effect along individual lines of sight. We construct the proximity effect strength distribution (PESD) and confirm that the PESD inferred from a simple averaging technique accurately recovers the input strength of the proximity effect at all redshifts. Moreover, the PESD closely follows the behaviors found in observed samples of quasar spectra. However, the PESD obtained from our new simulated sig...