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Sample records for anaplastic thyroid cancer

  1. Anaplastic thyroid cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000352.htm Anaplastic thyroid cancer To use the sharing features on this page, ... carcinoma is a rare and aggressive form of cancer of the thyroid gland. Causes Anaplastic thyroid cancer is an invasive ...

  2. Anaplastic thyroid cancer, tumorigenesis and therapy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Neill, J P

    2010-03-01

    Anaplastic thyroid cancer (ATC) is a fatal endocrine malignancy. Current therapy fails to significantly improve survival. Recent insights into thyroid tumorigenesis, post-malignant dedifferentiation and mode of metastatic activity offer new therapeutic strategies.

  3. Anaplastic Thyroid Cancer with Uncommon Long-term Survival

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ai-Hung Liu

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available In general, most thyroid cancers are indolent and have a slowly progressive course. The exception is anaplastic thyroid cancer. It is one of the most fatal neoplasms in humans, with median survival of 4-12 months. Here, we present a patient with anaplastic thyroid cancer who survived for more than 10 years after diagnosis. A 68-year-old man was incidentally found to have anaplastic thyroid cancer during operation for follicular neoplasm. Total thyroidectomy was performed and hyperfractionated radiotherapy was carried out. After operation, annual follow-up examinations were negative for residual tumor or metastatic lesions. The patient also had chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and unfortunately died of pneumonia in a local hospital 10 years after thyroid operation.

  4. Anaplastic Thyroid Cancer: A Review of Epidemiology, Pathogenesis, and Treatment

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    Govardhanan Nagaiah

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Anaplastic thyroid cancer (ATC is an uncommon malignancy of the thyroid. Only 1-2% of thyroid cancers are anaplastic, but the disease contributes to 14–50% of the mortality with a median survival of 3 to 5 months. Most patients diagnosed with this disease are 65 years of age or older. The incidence of anaplastic thyroid cancer is decreasing worldwide. Most patients present with a rapidly growing neck mass, dysphagia, or voice change. We performed a comprehensive literature search using PubMed focusing on the treatment of anaplastic thyroid cancer including historical review of treatment and outcomes and investigations of new agents and approaches. A total of sixteen chart review and retrospective studies and eleven prospective studies and/or clinical trials were reviewed. The current standard therapeutic approach is to consider the disease as systemic at time of diagnosis and pursue combined modality therapy incorporating cytoreductive surgical resection where feasible and/or chemoradiation either concurrently or sequentially. Doxorubicin is the most commonly used agent, with a response rate of 22%. Several new agents are currently under investigation. Referral of patients for participation in clinical trials is needed.

  5. The effect of low level laser on anaplastic thyroid cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhee, Yun-Hee; Moon, Jeon-Hwan; Ahn, Jin-Chul; Chung, Phil-Sang

    2015-02-01

    Low-level laser therapy (LLLT) is a non-thermal phototherapy used in several medical applications, including wound healing, reduction of pain and amelioration of oral mucositis. Nevertheless, the effects of LLLT upon cancer or dysplastic cells have been so far poorly studied. Here we report that the effects of laser irradiation on anaplastic thyroid cancer cells leads to hyperplasia. 650nm of laser diode was performed with a different time interval (0, 15, 30, 60J/cm2 , 25mW) on anaplastic thyroid cancer cell line FRO in vivo. FRO was orthotopically injected into the thyroid gland of nude mice and the irradiation was performed with the same method described previously. After irradiation, the xenograft evaluation was followed for one month. The thyroid tissues from sacrificed mice were undergone to H&E staining and immunohistochemical staining with HIF-1α, Akt, TGF-β1. We found the aggressive proliferation of FRO on thyroid gland with dose dependent. In case of 60 J/ cm2 of energy density, the necrotic bodies were found in a center of the thyroid. The phosphorylation of HIF-1α and Akt was detected in the thyroid gland, which explained the survival signaling of anaplastic cancer cell was turned on the thyroid gland. Furthermore, TGF-β1 expression was decreased after irradiation. In this study, we demonstrated that insufficient energy density irradiation occurred the decreasing of TGF-β1 which corresponding to the phosphorylation of Akt/ HIF-1α. This aggressive proliferation resulted to the hypoxic condition of tissue for angiogenesis. We suggest that LLLT may influence to cancer aggressiveness associated with a decrease in TGF-β1 and increase in Akt/HIF-1α.

  6. Recent Progress of Genome Study for Anaplastic Thyroid Cancer

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    Jieun Lee

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Anaplastic thyroid cancer (ATC belongs to the most malignant and rapidly progressive human thyroid cancers and its prognosis is very poor. Also, it shows high resistance to cancer treatments, so that effective treatment for ATC has not been found to date, and virtually all patients terminate their life rapidly after diagnosis. Although targeted treatment of genetic alterations has emerged as an extremely promising approach to human cancers, such as BRAF in metastatic melanoma, it remains unclear that how commonly genomic alterations are influenced in ATC tumorigenesis. In recent years, genome wide approaches have been exploited to find genetic alterations associated with complex diseases, including cancer. Here, we reviewed the comprehensive genetic alterations in ATC and recent approaches in the context of identifying genomic alterations associated with ATC. Since surprisingly few reports have been published on the genome wide study of ATC, this review puts emphasis on the urgent needs of genomic research for the prevention and treatment of ATC.

  7. Update on Anaplastic Thyroid Carcinoma: Morphological, Molecular, and Genetic Features of the Most Aggressive Thyroid Cancer

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    Moira Ragazzi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC is the most aggressive form of thyroid cancer. It shows a wide spectrum of morphological presentations and the diagnosis could be challenging due to its high degree of dedifferentiation. Molecular and genetic features of ATC are widely heterogeneous as well and many efforts have been made to find a common profile in order to clarify its cancerogenetic process. A comprehensive review of the current literature is here performed, focusing on histopathological and genetic features.

  8. Anaplastic Thyroid Cancer in Sicily: The Role of Environmental Characteristics

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    Martina Tavarelli

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundAnaplastic thyroid cancer (ATC is a rare but extremely aggressive cancer of the thyroid, contributing up to 30–40% of thyroid cancer-specific mortality. We analyzed ATC characteristics and survival rates in Sicily to evaluate the possible influence of environmental factors. With this aim, data regarding ATC incidences in urban/rural and industrial, iodine-deficient, and volcanic vs control areas were compared in Sicily as well as ATC data from Sicily and USA.MethodsUsing the Sicilian Register of Thyroid Cancer (SRTC database incidence, age, gender, tumor size and histotype, extrathyroidal extension, stage, and coexistence with pre-existing differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC were evaluated in different areas of Sicily and also compared with Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results data in USA.ResultsForty-three ATCs were identified in Sicily in the period 2002–2009. In our series only age <70 years at diagnosis (p = 0.01, coexistence with DTC (p = 0.027 and tumor size ≤6 cm (p = 0.012 were significant factors for increased survival at univariate analysis (only age at multivariate analysis. No difference in ATC incidence was found in urban vs rural areas and in iodine-deficient and industrial vs control areas. By contrast, in the volcanic area of Sicily, where DTC incidence is doubled relative to the rest of the island, also ATC incidence was increased. ATC data in Sicily were similar to those reported in the same period in the USA where overall survival rate at 6 and 12 months, however, was smaller.ConclusionThe similar ATC data observed in Sicily and USA (having different genetic background and lifestyle and the increased ATC incidence in the volcanic area of Sicily paralleling the increased incidence of papillary thyroid cancer are compatible with the possibility that casual additional mutations, more frequent in a background of increased cell replication like DCT, are the major causes of ATC rather than

  9. Anaplastic Thyroid Cancer: Experience of the Philippine General Hospital.

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    Lo, Tom Edward; Jimeno, Cecilia Alegado; Paz-Pacheco, Elizabeth

    2015-06-01

    Anaplastic thyroid cancer (ATC) is a rare type of thyroid malignancy and one of the most aggressive solid tumors, responsible for between 14% and 50% of the total annual mortality associated with thyroid cancer. A retrospective study was made of all ATC cases diagnosed by biopsy in the Philippine General Hospital between 2008 and 2013. A total of 15 patients were identified, with a median age at diagnosis of 63 years. All tumors were at least 6 cm in size upon diagnosis. All patients had a previous history of thyroid pathology, presenting with an average duration of 11 years. Eleven patients presented with cervical lymphadenopathies, whereas seven exhibited signs of distant metastases, for which the lungs appeared to be the most common site. More than 70% of the patients presented with a rapidly growing neck mass, leading to airway obstruction. Only three patients were treated using curative surgery; the majority received palliative and supportive forms of treatment. In addition, only three patients were offered radiotherapy. Chemotherapy was not offered to any patient. Only two patients were confirmed to still be alive during the study period. The median survival time for the other patients was 3 months; in the majority of cases the patient died within the first year following diagnosis. Our experience with ATC demonstrated concordance with other institutions with respect to current clinical profile, presentation, and prognosis. An absence of distant metastases and lymph node involvement was associated with improved survival outcomes, whereas age at diagnosis and tumor size did not affect survival. Curative surgery offers the most effective means of prolonging survival. Radiotherapy and chemotherapy in combination with surgery represents a promising treatment strategy.

  10. Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma Metastatic to the Thyroid, Presenting Like Anaplastic Thyroid Cancer

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    Natasha Pollak

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Metastasis of uterine cancer to the head and neck is extremely rare. We report what we believe to be the first documented case of endometrioid adenocarcinoma metastasizing to the thyroid gland. An 80-year-old woman was referred to the otolaryngology service with a rapidly growing neck mass. The mass appeared to originate from the thyroid gland. Her clinical presentation was consistent with anaplastic thyroid carcinoma. A tracheostomy was performed. An open biopsy established the diagnosis of moderately differentiated adenocarcinoma, consistent with a gynecologic primary. The patient had undergone a hysterectomy 5 years prior for endometrioid adenocarcinoma. The thyroid tumor histology and immunophenotype corresponded well with her prior endometrial carcinoma, indicating that the thyroid mass was a metastasis from the endometrial primary. Radiotherapy appears to offer good local disease control in this rare case of endometrioid adenocarcinoma metastatic to the thyroid.

  11. Salvage Lenvatinib Therapy in Metastatic Anaplastic Thyroid Cancer.

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    Iñiguez-Ariza, Nicole M; Ryder, Mabel M; Hilger, Crystal R; Bible, Keith C

    2017-07-01

    Historical anaplastic thyroid cancer (ATC) outcomes have been terrible, with a median survival of only five months and <20% one-year survival. Improved outcomes are now achieved with aggressive initial therapy in stages IVA and IVB disease, but patients with distant metastatic disease (stage IVC) still do poorly; improved therapies are sorely needed. Kinase inhibitors have emerged as promising agents in the therapy of advanced medullary and differentiated thyroid cancer, but there are limited data regarding the use of lenvatinib in ATC. The aim of this study was to delineate clinical outcomes in a series of patients with advanced ATC in response to lenvatinib therapy. A retrospective analysis was conducted involving all lenvatinib-treated Mayo Clinic ATC patients in 2015. Of 28 distinct ATC patients seen in 2015, three (11%) with metastatic disease of ECOG performance status 2-3 were treated with lenvatinib. Two patients were male; age range at ATC diagnosis was 57-84 years. All three patients attained successful local control of their disease with surgery and/or combined chemoradiotherapy. Lenvatinib was offered as the second, third, or fourth line of therapy at the time of metastatic disease progression. Two patients incurred minor responses to therapy, with structural regression of distant metastatic tumor disease soon after starting lenvatinib treatment (at one to two months), while one patient achieved stable disease, but no Response Evaluation Criteria In Solid Tumors partial responses resulted. Overall survival after starting lenvatinib was two, six, and seven months. Fatigue and hypertension were prominent, and one patient developed pulmonary emboli while on lenvatinib. This initial single-institution experience suggests that lenvatinib may have some disease-modifying activity in metastatic ATC that is otherwise refractory to cytotoxic chemotherapy. Unfortunately, observed benefits were transient, and toxicities were prominent. Clinical trials are required

  12. Survival in Response to Multimodal Therapy in Anaplastic Thyroid Cancer.

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    Prasongsook, Naiyarat; Kumar, Aditi; Chintakuntlawar, Ashish V; Foote, Robert L; Kasperbauer, Jan; Molina, Julian; Garces, Yolanda; Ma, Daniel; Wittich, Michelle A Neben; Rubin, Joseph; Richardson, Ronald; Morris, John; Hay, Ian; Fatourechi, Vahab; McIver, Bryan; Ryder, Mabel; Thompson, Geoffrey; Grant, Clive; Richards, Melanie; Sebo, Thomas J; Rivera, Michael; Suman, Vera; Jenkins, Sarah M; Smallridge, Robert C; Bible, Keith C

    2017-12-01

    Historical outcomes in anaplastic thyroid cancer (ATC) have been dismal. To determine whether an initial intensive multimodal therapy (MMT) is associated with improved ATC survival. MMT was offered to all patients with newly diagnosed ATC treated at the Mayo Clinic from 2003 through 2015; MMT vs care with palliative intent (PI) was individualized considering clinical status and patient preferences. Outcomes were retrospectively analyzed by American Joint Committee on Cancer stage and treatments compared with patient cohort data from 1949 through 1999. Forty-eight patients (60% male; median age, 62 years); 18 treated with PI, 30 with MMT. Overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival determined by Kaplan-Meier method. Median OS and 1-year survival for the later cohort were 9 months [95% confidence interval (CI), 4 to 22 months] and 42% (95% CI, 28% to 56%) vs 3 months and 10% for the earlier cohort. Median OS was 21 months compared with 3.9 months in the pooled MMT vs PI groups for the later cohort [hazard ratio (HR), 0.32; P = 0.0006]. Among only patients in the later cohort who had stage IVB disease, median OS was 22.4 vs 4 months (HR, 0.12; 95% CI, 0.03 to 0.44; P = 0.0001), with 68% vs 0% alive at 1 year (MMT vs PI). Among patients with stage IVC cancer, OS did not differ by therapy. MMT appears to convey longer survival in ATC among patients with stage IVA/B disease. Copyright © 2017 Endocrine Society

  13. Selective activity of BS-RNase against Anaplastic Thyroid Cancer

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Matoušek, Josef

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 21, č. 2 (2001), s. 1035-1042 ISSN 0250-7005 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA523/01/0114; GA AV ČR KSK5052113 Keywords : thyroid cancer * BS-RNase * apoptosis Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 1.416, year: 2001

  14. [Incidence of anaplastic tumor in structure of other histologic forms of the thyroid gland cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinnik, Iu A; Gorbenko, V N; Vas'ko, A R; Kikhtenko, E V; Gargin, V V

    2014-01-01

    The degrees of invasiveness, proliferative activity, morphofunctional activity of nuclei in the thyroidal gland tumors were studied, while analyzing material, obtained in 1343 patients, suffering thyroidal gland cancer (THGC) and operated on in 2000-2013 yrs. Morphological point quantity of malignancy (as a criterion of the tumor progression grade) and mitotic activity in cellular population were determined in various kinds of THGC. Undifferentiated (anaplastic carcinoma) type of THGC is the most malignant one. There were determined a spindle-like, giant-cell and squamous-cell forms of undifferentiated THGC. The presence of sites of differentiated cancer in 33% of histological preparations witnesses the interrelationship with the earlier existed pathological process.

  15. Doxorubicin fails to eradicate cancer stem cells derived from anaplastic thyroid carcinoma cells: characterization of resistant cells.

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    Zheng, Xuqin; Cui, Dai; Xu, Shuhang; Brabant, Georg; Derwahl, Michael

    2010-08-01

    Current chemotherapy with doxorubicin fails to eradicate anaplastic thyroid cancer or even to stop tumor progress which may be due to the failure of these drugs to effectively target putative cancer stem cells. To test this hypothesis, anaplastic thyroid cell lines were characterized by FACS for their content of cancer stem cells, their in vitro sphere-forming capacity and their expression of multidrug resistance transporters of the ABC gene family which may confer drug resistance to the cells. Cells were treated with doxorubicin in short-term and long-term culture up to 6 months to establish a resistant cell line. The survival of cancer and cancer stem cells and the differential expression of transporters were analyzed. Anaplastic thyroid cancer cell lines that consisted of 0.4-0.8% side population cells, expressed ABCG2 and multi-drug-resistant 1 (MDR1) transporters. Treatment with doxorubicin gradually killed the non-side population of cancer cells derived from anaplastic thyroid carcinoma cells. This conferred a growth advantage to cancer stem cells which in turn overgrew the culture. Resistant cell line consisted of a 70% side population fraction enriched with Oct4-positive cancer stem cells. Inhibition of ABCG2 and/or MDR1 revealed that resistance of cancer stem cells to doxorubicin may be mainly due to the expression of these ABC transporters that were highly up-regulated in the resistant subline. The poor outcome of chemotherapy with doxorubicin in anaplastic thyroid carcinoma may be partly explained by up-regulation of ABCG2 and MDR1 transporters that confers resistance to cancer stem cells. Thus an effective treatment of anaplastic thyroid cancer has not only to destroy cancer cells that represent the bulk of tumor cell population but also cancer stem cells that may drive tumor progression.

  16. Prognostic Factors for Survival in Patients Treated with Multimodal Therapy for Anaplastic Thyroid Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Käsmann, Lukas; Bolm, Louisa; Janssen, Stefan; Rades, Dirk

    2016-09-01

    To identify predictors of survival after multimodal treatment including surgery plus postoperative radio(chemo)therapy) for anaplastic thyroid cancer. Nine potential factors were evaluated in nine patients regarding survival after 6, 12 and 24 months. These factors were age, gender, Karnofsky performance score, tumour stage, nodal stage, resection margin status, radiation dose, concurrent chemotherapy administered with irradiation and symptom control at the end of radiotherapy. Survival rates were 67% at 6 months, 56% at 12 months and 22% at 24 months. On univariate survival analysis, concurrent radiochemotherapy (p=0.018) and controlled symptoms at the end of radiotherapy (p=0.03) were associated with improved survival. A trend for better survival was seen in patients with microscopically (R1) versus macroscopically (R2) residual disease (p=0.058). Prognostic factors for survival after multimodal treatment for anaplastic thyroid cancer were identified. Concurrent radio-chemotherapy resulted in significantly better survival and should be recommended. Copyright© 2016 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  17. p53 constrains progression to anaplastic thyroid carcinoma in a Braf-mutant mouse model of papillary thyroid cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFadden, David G.; Vernon, Amanda; Santiago, Philip M.; Martinez-McFaline, Raul; Bhutkar, Arjun; Crowley, Denise M.; McMahon, Martin; Sadow, Peter M.; Jacks, Tyler

    2014-01-01

    Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC) has among the worst prognoses of any solid malignancy. The low incidence of the disease has in part precluded systematic clinical trials and tissue collection, and there has been little progress in developing effective therapies. v-raf murine sarcoma viral oncogene homolog B (BRAF) and tumor protein p53 (TP53) mutations cooccur in a high proportion of ATCs, particularly those associated with a precursor papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC). To develop an adult-onset model of BRAF-mutant ATC, we generated a thyroid-specific CreER transgenic mouse. We used a Cre-regulated BrafV600E mouse and a conditional Trp53 allelic series to demonstrate that p53 constrains progression from PTC to ATC. Gene expression and immunohistochemical analyses of murine tumors identified the cardinal features of human ATC including loss of differentiation, local invasion, distant metastasis, and rapid lethality. We used small-animal ultrasound imaging to monitor autochthonous tumors and showed that treatment with the selective BRAF inhibitor PLX4720 improved survival but did not lead to tumor regression or suppress signaling through the MAPK pathway. The combination of PLX4720 and the mapk/Erk kinase (MEK) inhibitor PD0325901 more completely suppressed MAPK pathway activation in mouse and human ATC cell lines and improved the structural response and survival of ATC-bearing animals. This model expands the limited repertoire of autochthonous models of clinically aggressive thyroid cancer, and these data suggest that small-molecule MAPK pathway inhibitors hold clinical promise in the treatment of advanced thyroid carcinoma. PMID:24711431

  18. Precision Medicine Approach to Anaplastic Thyroid Cancer: Advances in Targeted Drug Therapy Based on Specific Signaling Pathways.

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    Samimi, Hilda; Fallah, Parviz; Naderi Sohi, Alireza; Tavakoli, Rezvan; Naderi, Mahmood; Soleimani, Masoud; Larijani, Bagher; Haghpanah, Vahid

    2017-03-01

    Personalized medicine is a set of diagnostic, prognostic and therapeutic approaches in which medical interventions are carried out based on individual patient characteristics. As life expectancy increases in developed and developing countries, the incidence of diseases such as cancer goes up among people in the community. Cancer is a disease that the response to treatment varies from one person to another and also it is costly for individuals, families, and society. Among thyroid cancers, anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC) is the most aggressive, lethal and unresponsive form of the disease. Unfortunately, current drugs are not targetable, and therefore they have restricted role in ATC treatment. Consequently, mortality of this cancer, despite advances in the field of diagnosis and treatment, is one of the most important challenges in medicine. Cellular, molecular and genetic evidences play an important role in finding more effective diagnostic and therapeutic approaches. Review of these evidences confirms the application of personalized medicine in cancer treatment including ATC. A growing body of evidence has elucidated that cellular and molecular mechanisms of cancer would pave the way for defining new biomarkers for targeted therapy, taking into account individual differences. It should be noted that this approach requires further progress in the fields of basic sciences, pharmacogenetics and drug design. An overview of the most important aspects in individualized anaplastic thyroid cancer treatment will be discussed in this review.

  19. Thyroiditis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Anaplastic Thyroid Cancer Complementary and Alternative Medicine in Thyroid Disease FNA Biopsy of Thyroid Nodules Goiter Graves’ Disease ... Cancer Nuclear Radiation & the Thyroid Older Patients and Thyroid Disease Papillary & Follicular Thyroid Cancer Postpartum Thyroiditis Pregnancy and ...

  20. The Next Generation of Orthotopic Thyroid Cancer Models: Immunocompetent Orthotopic Mouse Models of BRAFV600E-Positive Papillary and Anaplastic Thyroid Carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanden Borre, Pierre; McFadden, David G.; Gunda, Viswanath; Sadow, Peter M.; Varmeh, Shohreh; Bernasconi, Maria; Jacks, Tyler

    2014-01-01

    Background: While the development of new treatments for aggressive thyroid cancer has advanced in the last 10 years, progress has trailed headways made with other malignancies. A lack of reliable authenticated human cell lines and reproducible animal models is one major roadblock to preclinical testing of novel therapeutics. Existing xenograft and orthotopic mouse models of aggressive thyroid cancer rely on the implantation of highly passaged human thyroid carcinoma lines in immunodeficient mice. Genetically engineered models of papillary and undifferentiated (anaplastic) thyroid carcinoma (PTC and ATC) are immunocompetent; however, slow and stochastic tumor development hinders high-throughput testing. Novel models of PTC and ATC in which tumors arise rapidly and synchronously in immunocompetent mice would facilitate the investigation of novel therapeutics and approaches. Methods: We characterized and utilized mouse cell lines derived from PTC and ATC tumors arising in genetically engineered mice with thyroid-specific expression of endogenous BrafV600E/WT and deletion of either Trp53 (p53) or Pten. These murine thyroid cancer cells were transduced with luciferase- and GFP-expressing lentivirus and implanted into the thyroid glands of immunocompetent syngeneic B6129SF1/J mice in which the growth characteristics were assessed. Results: Large locally aggressive thyroid tumors form within one week of implantation. Tumors recapitulate their histologic subtype, including well-differentiated PTC and ATC, and exhibit CD3+, CD8+, B220+, and CD163+ immune cell infiltration. Tumor progression can be followed in vivo using luciferase and ex vivo using GFP. Metastatic spread is not detected at early time points. Conclusions: We describe the development of the next generation of murine orthotopic thyroid cancer models. The implantation of genetically defined murine BRAF-mutated PTC and ATC cell lines into syngeneic mice results in rapid and synchronous tumor formation. This

  1. Rearranged anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) gene found for the first time in adult-onset papillary thyroid cancer cases among atomic bomb survivors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamatani, K.; Mukai, M.; Takahashi, K.; Nakachi, K.; Kusunoki, Y. [Radiobiology/Molecular Epidemiology, Radiation Effects Research Foundation, Hiroshima (Japan); Hayashi, Y. [Geriatric Health Service Facility Hidamari, Hiroshima (Japan)

    2012-07-01

    Full text of the publication follows: Thyroid cancer is one of the malignancies most strongly associated with ionizing radiation in humans. Epidemiology studies of atomic bomb (A-bomb) survivors have indicated that excess relative risk of papillary thyroid cancer per Gy was remarkably high in the survivors. We therefore aim to clarify mechanisms linking A-bomb radiation exposure and development of papillary thyroid cancer. Toward this end, we intend to clarify characteristics of gene alterations occurring in radiation-associated adult-onset papillary thyroid cancer from the Life Span Study cohort of A-bomb survivors. We have thus far found that with increased radiation dose, papillary thyroid cancer cases with chromosomal rearrangements (mainly RET/PTC rearrangements) significantly increased and papillary thyroid cancer cases with point mutations (mainly BRAF-V600E) significantly decreased. Papillary thyroid cancer cases with non-detected gene alterations that carried no mutations in RET, NTRK1, BRAF or RAS genes tended to increase with increased radiation dose. In addition, we found that relative frequency of these papillary thyroid cancer cases significantly decreased with time elapsed since exposure. Through analysis of papillary thyroid cancer cases with non-detected gene alterations, we recently discovered a new type of rearrangement for the first time in papillary thyroid cancer, i.e., rearranged anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) gene, although identification of any partner gene(s) is needed. Specifically, rearrangement of ALK was found in 10 of 19 exposed papillary thyroid cancer cases with non-detected gene alterations but not in any of the six non-exposed papillary thyroid cancer cases. Furthermore, papillary thyroid cancer with ALK rearrangement was frequently found in the cases with high radiation dose or with short time elapsed since A-bomb exposure. These results suggest that chromosomal rearrangement, typically of RET and ALK, may play an important

  2. Rearranged anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) gene found for the first time in adult-onset papillary thyroid cancer cases among atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamatani, K.; Mukai, M.; Takahashi, K.; Nakachi, K.; Kusunoki, Y.; Hayashi, Y.

    2012-01-01

    Full text of the publication follows: Thyroid cancer is one of the malignancies most strongly associated with ionizing radiation in humans. Epidemiology studies of atomic bomb (A-bomb) survivors have indicated that excess relative risk of papillary thyroid cancer per Gy was remarkably high in the survivors. We therefore aim to clarify mechanisms linking A-bomb radiation exposure and development of papillary thyroid cancer. Toward this end, we intend to clarify characteristics of gene alterations occurring in radiation-associated adult-onset papillary thyroid cancer from the Life Span Study cohort of A-bomb survivors. We have thus far found that with increased radiation dose, papillary thyroid cancer cases with chromosomal rearrangements (mainly RET/PTC rearrangements) significantly increased and papillary thyroid cancer cases with point mutations (mainly BRAF-V600E) significantly decreased. Papillary thyroid cancer cases with non-detected gene alterations that carried no mutations in RET, NTRK1, BRAF or RAS genes tended to increase with increased radiation dose. In addition, we found that relative frequency of these papillary thyroid cancer cases significantly decreased with time elapsed since exposure. Through analysis of papillary thyroid cancer cases with non-detected gene alterations, we recently discovered a new type of rearrangement for the first time in papillary thyroid cancer, i.e., rearranged anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) gene, although identification of any partner gene(s) is needed. Specifically, rearrangement of ALK was found in 10 of 19 exposed papillary thyroid cancer cases with non-detected gene alterations but not in any of the six non-exposed papillary thyroid cancer cases. Furthermore, papillary thyroid cancer with ALK rearrangement was frequently found in the cases with high radiation dose or with short time elapsed since A-bomb exposure. These results suggest that chromosomal rearrangement, typically of RET and ALK, may play an important

  3. Effects of BP-14, a novel cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor, on anaplastic thyroid cancer cells

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Allegri, L.; Baldan, F.; Mio, F.; Puppin, C.; Russo, D.; Kryštof, Vladimír; Damante, G.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 35, č. 4 (2016), s. 2413-2418 ISSN 1021-335X R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA15-15264S Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : mTOR * thyroid cancer * cell proliferation Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.662, year: 2016

  4. Immunoexpression of TTF-1 and Ki-67 in a coexistent anaplastic and follicular thyroid cancer with rare long-life surviving.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerzy Sowinski

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the immunohistochemical diagnosis, including TTF-1 (thyroid transcription factor 1 and Ki-67, of a rare mixed thyroid neoplasm composed of minimally invasive well differentiated follicular areas and highly aggressive undifferentiated anaplastic areas. A 75 old female presented to our clinic with a rapidly growing neck mass. Considering the dynamics of the disease and the multiple challenges presented by the patient: advanced age, tumor size, history of a longstanding goiter we decided to transfer her to the department of surgery. The intraoperative findings were an enlarged right lobe with tracheal and surrounding tissues infiltration. Total thyroidectomy, radical neck lymph nodes dissection and tracheostomy were performed. The histopathological and immunohistochemical examination revealed a coexistent anaplastic and follicular thyroid carcinoma. The proliferation index Ki-67, a cell proliferation marker, was found to be significantly higher in the anaplastic areas (30 +/- 5% in the comparison with the follicular areas (2 +/- 1%. The evaluation of the thyroid transcription factor 1 (TTF-1 expression revealed a correlation with the tumor cells aggressiveness accordingly to the cancer areas. After a radical surgery an external adjuvant radiation was applied. The patient is alive and more than five years after diagnosis she presented an increase of the serum thyroglobulin level suggesting, probably, a recurrence of the follicular form of the cancer. According to our survey we suggest that in thyroid cancers TTF-1 and Ki-67 could provides useful information on the differentiation activities of thyroid tumor cells and may be helpful to distinguish well differentiated and undifferentiated areas in a mixed thyroid cancer.

  5. Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma in Denmark 1996-2012

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvilsom, Gitte Bjørn; Londero, Stefano Christian; Hahn, Christoffer Holst

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC) is the least common but most malignant thyroid cancer. We aimed to examine the characteristics as well as evaluate the incidence, prognostic factors, and if introduction of a fast track cancer program might influence survival in a cohort of ATC...... patients. METHODS: A cohort study based on prospective data from the national Danish thyroid cancer database DATHYRCA and the national Danish Pathology Register including 219 patients diagnosed from 1996 to 2012, whom were followed until death or through September 2014. RESULTS: We found the median age...... in the 7th decade, the majority of patients being women presenting with a growing mass at the neck, diagnosed with stage T4b disease. At diagnosis, 56% of the patients had lymph node metastasis and 38% distant metastasis. We observed one- and five-year survival of 20.7% and 11.0%, respectively. Both...

  6. (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography to assess response after radiation therapy in anaplastic thyroid cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Antonin; Leboulleux, Sophie; Lepoutre-Lussey, Charlotte; Baudin, Eric; Ghuzlan, Abir Al; Hartl, Dana; Deutsch, Eric; Deandreis, Désirée; Lumbroso, Jean; Tao, Yungan; Schlumberger, Martin; Blanchard, Pierre

    2015-04-01

    To assess the interest of (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography ((18)F-FDG PET/CT) to evaluate the tumor response after radiotherapy (RT) in anaplastic thyroid cancer (ATC) patients. 92 patients were treated for ATC at our institution from 1987 to 2012, out of which 64 (70%) received an aggressive multimodal treatment and 28 (30%) a palliative treatment. In the multimodal treatment group, curative-intended surgery, chemotherapy, and RT were delivered in 35 (55%), 59 (92%), and 56 (88%) patients. The maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax) was determined in tumor (T), nodes (N) and metastases (M) in each available (18)F-FDG PET/CT. The median follow-up was 3.2years. The 1-year actuarial overall survival (OS) was 18% (median: 5.2months) in the entire population and 27% (median: 7months) in the multimodal treatment group. In the multivariate analysis, RT, surgery, and pre-RT chemotherapy independently predicted for OS, with HRs respectively of 0.1, 0.3, and 0.5. Quantification of FDG uptake with SUVmax was assessable in 26 (40%), 19 (30%), and 25 (39%) of (18)F-FDG PET/CT performed initially (prior to any treatment), prior to RT, and after RT, respectively. Mean SUVmax significantly decreased in T (p<0.001), but not in N (p=0.1) and M (p=0.3) during the assessment period, which might be related to the local effect of RT. Comparing pre- and post-RT (18)F-FDG PET/CT, the T mean relative SUVmax decrease was lower (23±54%) in the 4 patients that had a local relapse (LR) as compared with others in the 12 others patients (62±33%; p=0.3). A relative SUVmax decrease inferior to 20% significantly predicted for LR (p=0.02). The prognosis of ATC patients remains dismal despite an aggressive multimodal treatment. Although our results were not significant, (18)F-FDG PET/CT could potentially serve as a surrogate marker of treatment response in ATC. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Radiotherapy in anaplastic thyroid carcinoma: An Australian experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    So, Kevin; Smith, Robin E.; Davis, Sidney R.

    2017-01-01

    Anaplastic thyroid cancer is a rare and fatal malignancy, associated with significant local tumour and often treatment related morbidity. We report our experience in treating this cancer over a 20-year period. A retrospective review of prospectively collected data from a single Australian Institution (Alfred Health Radiation Oncology) was carried out on patients referred with anaplastic thyroid carcinoma between 1992 and 2013. Thirty patients (17 females and 13 males) were identified with a median age at presentation of 72 years. At presentation, six (20%), 14 (47%) and 10 (33%) patients had stage IVA, IVB and IVC disease respectively. Thirteen patients underwent radical surgical resection with five having microscopic residual (R1) and eight having macroscopic residual (R2) disease. Twenty-eight patients were offered radiotherapy with 27 proceeding with treatment. Of those who received radiotherapy, three, six and 18 were treated with adjuvant, definitive and palliative intent respectively. Six patients had concomitant chemotherapy of which three received trimodality therapy. Only one patient experienced a grade 3 toxicity (oesophagitis). Median survival was 5.3 months and at last follow-up or time of death, 19 of 27 (70.4%) maintained loco-regional control. All patients who had R1 surgical resections and radiotherapy had loco-regional control. Seven of nine (77.8%) and 12 of 18 (66.7%) achieved loco-regional control after receiving definitive or palliative radiotherapy, respectively. Our study suggests that radiotherapy with or without surgery or chemotherapy is well-tolerated and results in durable loco-regional control in a high proportion of patients with anaplastic thyroid carcinoma.

  8. [Analysis of long-term survivors in anaplastic thyroid carcinoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Akira; Matuzu, Kenichi

    2012-07-01

    We analyzed the clinicopathologic and therapeutic factors associated with long-term survival in 449 patients with anaplastic carcinoma registered with the Anaplastic Thyroid Carcinoma Consortium of Japan. Univariate analysis showed a significant relationship between long-term survival of more than 1 year and the following factors: the appearance of acute symptom; WBC thyroid gland after surgery; no distant metastasis at initial diagnosi; complete resection of gross tumor; and administration of external irradiation (40 Gy) and chemotherapy. In multivariate analysis, only tumor diameter (disease.

  9. Expression of PD-1 and PD-L1 in Anaplastic Thyroid Cancer Patients Treated With Multimodal Therapy: Results From a Retrospective Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chintakuntlawar, Ashish V; Rumilla, Kandelaria M; Smith, Carin Y; Jenkins, Sarah M; Foote, Robert L; Kasperbauer, Jan L; Morris, John C; Ryder, Mabel; Alsidawi, Samer; Hilger, Crystal; Bible, Keith C

    2017-06-01

    Anaplastic thyroid cancer (ATC) is rare and a highly fatal malignancy. The role of programmed death-1 (PD-1) and programmed death ligand-1 (PD-L1) as prognostic and/or predictive markers in ATC is unknown. Multimodal therapy offers the best chance at tumor control. The objective of this study was to detect potential associations of PD-1/PD-L1 axis variables with outcome data in ATC. Retrospective study of a uniformly treated cohort. Single institution retrospective cohort study. Sixteen patients who received intensity-modulated radiation therapy (15 had preceding surgery) were studied. Patients treated with multimodal therapy were followed and assessed for overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS). All samples demonstrated PD-1 expression in inflammatory cells whereas tumor cells were primarily negative. PD-L1 was expressed on ATC tumor cells in most samples and showed mainly membranous staining. High PD-1 expression (>40% staining) in inflammatory cells was associated with worse overall survival (OS; hazard ratio, 3.36; 95% confidence interval, 1.00 to 12.96; P 33% staining) trended toward worse PFS and OS. PD-1/PD-L1 pathway proteins are highly expressed in ATC tumor samples and appear to represent predictive markers of PFS and OS in multimodality-treated ATC patients. Copyright © 2017 Endocrine Society

  10. Valproic Acid, a Histone Deacetylase Inhibitor, in Combination with Paclitaxel for Anaplastic Thyroid Cancer: Results of a Multicenter Randomized Controlled Phase II/III Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Graziella Catalano

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Anaplastic thyroid cancer (ATC has a median survival less than 5 months and, to date, no effective therapy exists. Taxanes have recently been stated as the main drug treatment for ATC, and the histone deacetylase inhibitor valproic acid efficiently potentiates the effects of paclitaxel in vitro. Based on these data, this trial assessed the efficacy and safety of the combination of paclitaxel and valproic acid for the treatment of ATC. This was a randomized, controlled phase II/III trial, performed on 25 ATC patients across 5 centers in northwest Italy. The experimental arm received the combination of paclitaxel (80 mg/m2/weekly and valproic acid (1,000 mg/day; the control arm received paclitaxel alone. Overall survival and disease progression, evaluated in terms of progression-free survival, were the primary outcomes. The secondary outcome was the pharmacokinetics of paclitaxel. The coadministration of valproic acid did not influence the pharmacokinetics of paclitaxel. Neither median survival nor median time to progression was statistically different in the two arms. Median survival of operated-on patients was significantly better than that of patients who were not operated on. The present trial demonstrates that the addition of valproic acid to paclitaxel has no effect on overall survival and disease progression of ATC patients. This trial is registered with EudraCT 2008-005221-11.

  11. Targeting of slug sensitizes anaplastic thyroid carcinoma SW1736 cells to doxorubicin via PUMA upregulation

    OpenAIRE

    Dong, Anbing; Jiao, Xuelong; Chen, Dong; Hao, Fengyun; Zhang, Kejun

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC) is one of the most aggressive human cancers and often shows resistance to multimodal therapeutic approaches. It has been shown that the transcriptional repressor Slug inhibits the chemotherapeutic agent-induced apoptosis of cancer cells. We evaluated whether targeting of Slug could augment doxorubicin (DOX)-induced apoptosis of ATC cells. We also determined changes in PUMA (p53-upregulated modulator of apoptosis) expression levels to identify poss...

  12. Use of tracheal stenting in the palliation of anaplastic thyroid carcinoma: tertiary centre experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varadharajan, K; Mathew, R; Odutoye, B; Williamson, P; Madden, B

    2015-06-01

    Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma is rare but carries a poor prognosis. Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma leads to tracheal compression, airway compromise and eventually death. Airway compromise, a particularly distressing symptom, can be palliated with tracheal stenting. A retrospective case note analysis was conducted of patients diagnosed with anaplastic thyroid carcinoma between July 2003 and July 2013. Twelve patients with anaplastic thyroid carcinoma were identified. Four patients underwent palliative tracheal stenting. Three patients had no dyspnoea at the time of stenting. Two stented patients subsequently developed dyspnoea secondary to stent migration; this was managed successfully with stent exchange. The other stented patient remained asymptomatic with regards to dyspnoea. All non-stented patients died with or from airway compromise. Tracheal stenting is a relatively safe and effective method for palliation of distressing airway symptoms in patients with anaplastic thyroid carcinoma. Early prophylactic tracheal stenting in anaplastic thyroid carcinoma may be an effective option to prevent development of airway compromise as the disease progresses.

  13. Thyroid Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... body work normally. There are several types of cancer of the thyroid gland. You are at greater ... imaging tests, and a biopsy to diagnose thyroid cancer. Treatment depends on the type of cancer you ...

  14. Anaplastic carcinoma of thyroid gland with widespread soft tissue metastasis: an unusual presentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Muhammad; Janjua, Taimoor Khalid; Afridi, Hira Khan; Zahid, Naila Anjum

    2017-07-13

    Anaplastic thyroid cancer is the rarest tumour of the thyroid gland, representing only 2% of clinically recognised thyroid cancers. The most common metastatic sites are lungs, followed by the intrathoracic and neck lymph nodes. We report the case of a 62-year-old woman who presented to our setting with multiple soft tissue nodules, thyroid mass, head swelling and weight loss. Radiological investigation showed a large thyroid mass with widespread metastasis in subcutaneous tissues of both upper limbs, chest and abdomen. Metastasis was also found in lungs, skull and adrenal glands after which the patient was diagnosed with stage IVc anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC). After careful consideration of patient's clinical condition with multiple poor prognostic factors, medical therapy was withheld and she was discharged on hospice care. The patient expired after 1 month. In ATC, metastasis to subcutaneous tissue is an extremely rare occurrence of which there is hardly any evidence in literature. © BMJ Publishing Group Ltd (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  15. Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma with rhabdomyoblastic differentiation : A case report with a good clinical outcome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olthof, Marijke; Persoon, Adrienne C. M.; Plukker, John T. M.; van der Wal, Jacqueline E.; Links, Thera P.

    2008-01-01

    Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma is a rare and highly malignant disease. Usually, this type of tumor is irresectable, and almost all patients die within 1 year after diagnosis. We present a case of anaplastic thyroid carcinoma with rhabdomyoblastic differentiation and good therapeutic outcome. A

  16. A case of concurrent several forms of thyroid cancer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Simultaneous occurrence of papillary and follicular thyroid cancer, known as differentiated thyroid cancer, has been reported with various presentations, but presence of an anaplastic cancer, as an undifferentiated cancer, in addition to differentiated thyroid cancer is rarely reported. We here report a 40-year-old man with ...

  17. Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma: 91 patients treated by surgery and radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Junor, E.J.; Paul, J.; Reed, N.S.

    1992-01-01

    Ninety-one patients with histologically proven anaplastic carcinoma of the thyroid were referred to the Beatson Oncology Centre between 1961 and 1986. The female:male ratio was 2.4:1 and the median age at presentation was 70 (range 38-92) years. All patients had a thyroid mass at presentation and the most common symptoms were dyspnoea, dyspnagia and dysphonia. Five patients had a total thyroidectomy and 28 partial thyroidectomy. Ninety five per cent of patients received external beam radiotherapy. Results show dyspnoea to be the only symptom strongly influencing survival. Total or partial thyroidectomy is associated with increased survival. This association is most marked for patients presenting without dyspnoea. Eighty per cent of patients responded to radiotherapy. (Author)

  18. Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma: 91 patients treated by surgery and radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Junor, E.J.; Paul, J.; Reed, N.S. (Beatson Oncology Centre, Glasgow (United Kingdom))

    1992-04-01

    Ninety-one patients with histologically proven anaplastic carcinoma of the thyroid were referred to the Beatson Oncology Centre between 1961 and 1986. The female:male ratio was 2.4:1 and the median age at presentation was 70 (range 38-92) years. All patients had a thyroid mass at presentation and the most common symptoms were dyspnoea, dyspnagia and dysphonia. Five patients had a total thyroidectomy and 28 partial thyroidectomy. Ninety five per cent of patients received external beam radiotherapy. Results show dyspnoea to be the only symptom strongly influencing survival. Total or partial thyroidectomy is associated with increased survival. This association is most marked for patients presenting without dyspnoea. Eighty per cent of patients responded to radiotherapy. (Author).

  19. Clinicopathological study of anaplastic carcinoma of the thyroid gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maeda, Akiteru; Umeno, Hirohito; Chijiwa, Hideki; Mihashi, Hiroyuki; Chitose, Shunichi; Nakashima, Tadashi

    2010-01-01

    Seventeen cases (5 males and 12 females) of anaplastic carcinoma of the thyroid gland treated at the Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Kurume University School of Medicine, between January 1999 and January 2009 were reviewed. Ages of the patients ranged from 54 to 94 years. Six cases were treated by radical surgery. All cases were treated by radiotherapy and 5 cases received additional chemotherapy. The 6 cases treated by radical surgery were able to experience home life. Survival time of the radical surgery cases ranged from 8 to 36 months, with a median of 17 months. In cases without surgery, the survival time ranged from 1 to 8 months, with a median of 4 months. As the final outcome, only 1 case is alive after 36 months; 8 cases died by primary tumor, 7 by lung metastasis and 1 by suicide. Although the prognosis of anaplastic carcinoma of the thyroid gland is generally poor, radical surgery, if possible, may provide better survival results. (author)

  20. Renal Cell Carcinoma Metastatic to Thyroid Gland, Presenting Like Anaplastic Carcinoma of Thyroid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalid Riaz

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Renal cell carcinoma (RCC has unpredictable and diverse behavior. The classic triad of hematuria, loin pain, and abdominal mass is uncommon. At time of diagnosis, 25%–30% of patients are found to have metastases. Bones, lungs, liver, and brain are the frequent sites of metastases. RCC with metastasis to the head and neck region and thyroid gland is the rarest manifestation and anaplastic carcinoma behaving metastatic thyroid mass is an extremely rare presentation of RCC. Case Presentation. A 56-year-old Saudi man with past history of right radical nephrectomy 5 years back presented with 3 months history of rapid increasing neck mass with dysphagia, presenting like anaplastic thyroid carcinoma. Tru-cut biopsy turned out to be metastatic renal cell carcinoma. Patient was treated with radiation therapy 30 Gy in 10 fractions to mass. Patient died 4 months after the discovery of anaplastic thyroid looking metastasis. Conclusion. Rapidly progressing thyroid metastases secondary to RCC are rare and found often unresectable which are not amenable to surgery. Palliative radiotherapy can be considered for such patients.

  1. Acute exacerbation of Hashimoto thyroiditis mimicking anaplastic carcinoma of the thyroid: A complicated case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanaya, Hiroaki; Konno, Wataru; Fukami, Satoru; Hirabayashi, Hideki; Haruna, Shin-ichi

    2014-12-01

    The fibrous variant of Hashimoto thyroiditis is uncommon, accounting for approximately 10% of all cases of Hashimoto thyroiditis. We report a case of this variant that behaved like a malignant neoplasm. The patient was a 69-year-old man who presented with a right-sided anterior neck mass that had been rapidly growing for 2 weeks. Fine-needle aspiration cytology revealed clusters of large multinucleated cells suggestive of an anaplastic carcinoma. A week after presentation, we ruled out that possibility when the mass had shrunk slightly. Instead, we diagnosed the patient with an acute exacerbation of Hashimoto thyroiditis on the basis of laboratory findings. We performed a right thyroid lobectomy, including removal of the isthmus, to clarify the pathology and alleviate pressure symptoms. The final diagnosis was the fibrous variant of Hashimoto thyroiditis, with no evidence of malignant changes. Physicians should keep in mind that on rare occasions, Hashimoto thyroiditis mimics a malignant neoplasm.

  2. [Thyroid cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagayama, Yuji

    2012-03-01

    The thyroid glands are a vulnerable organ to ionizing radiation. Indeed the epidemiological studies have revealed an increase in the incidences of thyroid cancer among atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki and radiation casualties in Chernobyl. The carcinogenic risk for the thyroids is dependent on radiation dose, and higher in younger people. Recent advances in molecular biology contribute to clarify the mechanisms for thyroid carcinogenesis at genetic and molecular levels. Here radiation-induced thyroid carcinogenesis is reviewed from epidemiological data to basic research.

  3. Thyroid cancer: experiences of Cancer Institute, Madras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kannan, R. Ravi; Mahajan, V.; Ganesh, M.S.; Ayyappan, S.; Suresh, V.; Suryasen, S.

    1999-01-01

    It has been long recognized that Thyroid Cancer (TC) envelopes under its umbrella a spectrum of cancers from the relatively indolent well differentiated papillary and follicular cancers to the aggressive and rapidly fatal anaplastic cancers. Medullary cancers fall in between the two extremes. Recently, poor prognostic variants of well-differentiated cancers have been described. There is also a move to define a group of poorly differentiated TC including the insular variants distinguishing them from anaplastic carcinomas. Of the 1168 patients with thyroid nodules seen at the Cancer Institute (WIA), Chennai between 1956 and 1996, 670 cases proved to be malignant either cytologically or histologically. This report is based on the follow-up of these patients which at 10 years was 75%

  4. Outcome after intensity modulated radiotherapy for anaplastic thyroid carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, Xiayun; Li, Duanshu; Hu, Chaosu; Wang, Zhuoying; Ying, Hongmei; Wu, Yi

    2014-01-01

    Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC) is a malignancy with one of the highest fatality rates. We reviewed our recent clinical experience with intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) combined with surgery and chemotherapy for the management of ATC. 13 patients with ATC who were treated by IMRT in our institution between October 2008 and February 2011, have been analyzed. The target volume for IMRT was planned to include Gross tumor volume (GTV): primary tumor plus any N + disease (66 Gy/33 F/6.6 W), with elective irradiation of thyroid bed, bilateral level II through VI and mediastinal lymph nodes to the level of the carina (54-60 Gy). Seven patients received surgical intervention and eleven patients had chemotherapy. The median radiotherapy dose to GTV was 60 Gy/30 fractions/6 weeks. The median survival time of the 13 patients was 9 months. The direct causes of death were distant metastases (75%) and progression of the locoregional disease (25%). Ten patients were spared dyspnea and tracheostomy because their primary neck lesion did not progress. The results showed that IMRT combined by surgery and chemotherapy for ATC might be beneficial to improve locoregional control. Further new therapies are needed to control metastases

  5. Pediatric Thyroid Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Find an ENT Doctor Near You Pediatric Thyroid Cancer Pediatric Thyroid Cancer Patient Health Information News media interested in ... and neck issues, should be consulted. Types of thyroid cancer in children: Papillary : This form of thyroid cancer ...

  6. Thyroid cancer - medullary carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thyroid - medullary carcinoma; Cancer - thyroid (medullary carcinoma); MTC; Thyroid nodule - medullary ... National Cancer Institute. PDQ thyroid cancer treatment. Bethesda, ... February 4, 2016. www.cancer.gov/cancertopics/pdq/treatment/ ...

  7. THE ASSOCIATION OF WELL-DIFFERENTIATED THYROID-CARCINOMA WITH INSULAR OR ANAPLASTIC THYROID-CARCINOMA - EVIDENCE FOR DEDIFFERENTIATION IN TUMOR PROGRESSION

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Laan, Bernard F.A.M.; FREEMAN, JL; TSANG, RW; ASA, SL

    1993-01-01

    The sequence of tumorigenesis in the thyroid is unclear. It has been proposed that anaplastic carcinomas of the thyroid develop by dedifferentiation in pre-existing differentiated carcinomas. We reviewed all anaplastic and insular (poorly differentiated) thyroid carcinomas in a consultation practice

  8. Clinical impact of molecular analysis on thyroid cancer management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wreesmann, Volkert B.; Singh, Bhuvanesh

    2008-01-01

    Thyroid cancer constitutes a progressive continuum of disease ranging from indolent well-differentiated carcinomas to aggressive poorly differentiated carcinomas and universally fatal anaplastic carcinomas. The wide divergence in clinical behavior is poorly predicted for by current

  9. 131I therapy for hyperthyroidism and consequent appearing of anaplastic carcinoma of the thyroid: simple case-report or real pathophysiologic link?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Scanelli

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND 131I is usually employed for the therapy of hyperfunctioning thyroid diseases. This β-emitting radioisotope acts releasing its radiations in small tissue volumes, but it is mandatory to consider, also for the small doses, the carcinogenic risk, well documented with the high 131I dosages used to cure differentiated thyroid cancers. METHODS We describe a case of anaplastic thyroid carcinoma appeared 4 years after therapy with 131I for Graves’ disease. The patient was treated both surgically and with thyonamides for Graves’ disease 20 years before; thereafter she underwent simple nephrectomy owing to Grawitz disease. After some years of well being, she was treated with 131I for a relapse of Graves’ disease. Four years later, she was treated with interleukin-2 and TNF-α, owing to distant metastases (pancreas, liver and lung of Grawitz cancer. Some months later, because of a rapid enlargement of the thyroid gland, she was thyroidectomized and anaplastic thyroid cancer was histologically documented. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS It is very difficult to investigate the possible transformation of a benign thyroid lesion to a malignant one, and data from the literature are conflicting. Fractioned doses of 131I are known to induce less cancers than high doses: they allow DNA to repair. Nevertheless, in patients with altered or non valid genetic repair’s mechanisms (i.e. patients with p53 mutations and, for this reason, prone to develop cancers, even low doses of 131I can induce carcinogenetic effects. In a patient with a history of cancer, who subsequently develops hyperthyroidism, even low doses of 131I can induce anaplastic thyroid cancer; in these subjects, therefore, other treatments than 131I could be preferred for the therapy of Graves’ disease. In our peculiar case, moreover, some studies have noteworthy demonstrated that certain cytokines (IL-1, TGF-β1 e TNF-α can, rather than inhibit, induce anaplastic thyroid cancer cells

  10. Thyroid Function Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... hyperthyroid patient, the most likely diagnosis is autoimmune thyroid disease. THYROGLOBULIN Thyroglobulin (Tg) is a protein produced by ... Anaplastic Thyroid Cancer Complementary and Alternative Medicine in Thyroid Disease FNA Biopsy of Thyroid Nodules Goiter Graves’ Disease ...

  11. Thyroid cancer - papillary carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000331.htm Thyroid cancer - papillary carcinoma To use the sharing features on ... does not increase the risk of developing thyroid cancer. Symptoms Thyroid cancer often begins as a small lump (nodule) ...

  12. Thyroid Hormone Deiodinases and Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio eBianco

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Deiodinases constitute a group of thioredoxin-containing selenoenzymes that play an important function in thyroid hormone homeostasis and control of thyroid hormone action. There are three known deiodinases: D1 and D2 activate the pro-hormone thyroxine (T4 to T3, the most active form of thyroid hormone, while D3 inactivates thyroid hormone and terminates T3 action. A number of studies indicate that deiodinase expression is altered in several types of cancers, suggesting that (i they may represent a useful cancer marker and/or (ii could play a role in modulating cell proliferation - in different settings thyroid hormone modulates cell proliferation. For example, although D2 is minimally expressed in human and rodent skeletal muscle, its expression level in rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS-13 cells is 3-4 fold higher. In basal cell carcinoma (BCC cells, sonic hedgehog (Shh-induced cell proliferation is accompanied by induction of D3 and inactivation of D2. Interestingly a 5-fold reduction in the growth of BCC in nude mice was observed if D3 expression was knocked down. A decrease in D1 activity has been described in renal clear cell carcinoma, primary liver cancer, lung cancer, and some pituitary tumors, while in breast cancer cells and tissue there is an increase in D1 activity. Furthermore D1 mRNA and activity were found to be decreased in papillary thyroid cancer while D1 and D2 activities were significantly higher in follicular thyroid cancer tissue, in follicular adenoma and in anaplastic thyroid cancer. It is conceivable that understanding how deiodinase dysregulation in tumor cells affect thyroid hormone signaling and possibly interfere with tumor progression could lead to new antineoplastic approaches.

  13. Carcinoembryonic antigen in thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weissel, M.; Hoefer, R.

    1982-01-01

    In order to investigate the usefulness of determining the serum concentrations of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) as a specific tumor marker in thyroid cancer, CEA serum levels were measured (enzymeimmunoassay, Abbott-Kit) repeatedly at the routine followup checks performed at various intervals after total thyroidectomy, in 65 patients with papillary, 82 with follicular, 25 with mixed type (papillary/follicular), 8 with anaplastic, and in 18 patients with medullary thyroid cancer. The postoperative observation period of these patients ranged from 2 to 36 months. Calcitonin serum levels were additionally determined in patients with medullary carcinoma (radioimmunoassay kit of Immuno-Nuclear Corp.). In the family of one patient with medullary carcinoma we also had an opportunity to investigate, within the framework of family screening (pentagastrin tests, etc.), the value of preoperative CEA determination. In the patients with ''non-medullary'' histological types of thyroid cancer, the maximum CEA serum concentration was 9.8 ng/ml. 6% of the patients with papillary, 9% of the patients with follicular, and 8% of those with mixed type thyroid cancer had serum levels above the upper limit of our normal range (5 ng/ml). All patients with anaplastic carcinoma had values below 3 ng/ml. The values quoted represent maximal values and were confirmed at various follow-up checks. However, 1 year after thyroidectomy, a female patient with follicular thyroid carcinoma developed an adenocarcinoma of the rectum: The CEA levels measured in this patient were: 4.2 ng/ml 3 weeks after thyroidectomy, 8.4 ng/ml 6 months later, and 37 ng/ml 1 week before operation on the rectum. In none of the other patients with elevated CEA levels were metastases of thyroid cancer, or any other malignancy, detected. (orig.) [de

  14. Spanish consensus for the management of patients with anaplastic cell thyroid carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez Sáez, José Manuel; Jiménez-Fonseca, Paula; Santamaría Sandi, Javier; Capdevila Castillón, Jaume; Navarro González, Elena; Zafón Llopis, Carles; Ramón Y Cajal Asensio, Teresa; Riesco Eizaguirre, Garcilaso; Grande Pulido, Enrique; Galofré Ferrater, Juan Carlos

    2015-03-01

    Anaplastic thyroid cancer (ATC) is the most aggressive solid tumour known and is a rare but highly lethal form of thyroid cancer that requires a multidisciplinary team approach. No Spanish consensus exists for management of patients with ATC. The Thyroid Cancer Group of the Spanish Society of Endocrinology and Nutrition and the GETHI (Grupo Español de Enfermedades Huérfanas e Infrecuentes) of the Spanish Society of Oncology, in agreement with the Boards of these Societies, commissioned an independent task force to develop a wide consensus on ATC. The relevant literature was reviewed, including serial PubMed searches supplemented with additional articles. The consensus includes the characteristics, diagnosis, initial evaluation, establishment of treatment goals, approaches to locoregional disease (surgery, radiotherapy, systemic therapy, supportive care during active treatment), approaches to advanced/metastatic disease, palliative care options, monitoring, and long-term follow-up of ATC. For operable disease, a combination of radical surgery with adjuvant radiotherapy or chemotherapy, using agents such as doxorubicin, cisplatin and paclitaxel, is the best treatment strategy. Cytotoxic drugs are poorly effective for advanced/metastatic ATC. On the other hand, targeted agents may represent a viable therapeutic option. Patients with stage IVA/IVB resectable disease have the best prognosis, particularly if a multimodal approach is used, and some stage IVB unresectable patients may respond to aggressive therapy. Patients with stage IVC disease should be considered for clinical trials or for hospice/palliative care depending on their preference. This is the first Spanish consensus for ATC, and provides recommendations for management of this extremely aggressive malignancy. Novel systemic therapies are being tested, and more effective combinations are needed to improve patient outcomes. Although more aggressive radiotherapy has reduced locoregional recurrence, mean

  15. Comparison of primary thyroid lymphoma with anaplastic thyroid carcinoma on computed tomographic imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishikawa, Hitoshi; Mitsuhashi, Norio; Niibe, Hideo

    2002-01-01

    Primary non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (LY) and anaplastic carcinoma (AC) of the thyroid gland are rare malignant tumors, and the initial symptoms of these diseases are very similar. The aim of our study was to compare the characteristics of the two diseases using computed tomographic (CT) scans in order to make an accurate differential diagnosis. Ten patients with LY and 10 with AC were analyzed. Differences in the CT findings of the two diseases were evaluated before treatment and statistically tested with either Student's t-test or the chi-square test. In the analysis of characteristics of CT imaging, the existence of calcification and necrosis, and heterogeneous tumor were dominant findings in AC, and there was a statistically significant difference in frequency between the two diseases (p<0.01). Calcification detected in AC was usually multiple and/or gross (mean size: φ8.2 mm). All lymphadenopathies were delineated as having the same homogeneous attenuation as the tumors in the thyroid gland in LY, but were shown as irregular rim enhancement in AC. The CT features of the two diseases are characteristic in terms of calcification, necrosis, and tumor composition. Evaluation by means of CT imaging is useful in distinguishing between LY and AC. (author)

  16. Glycerol as a chemical chaperone enhances radiation-induced apoptosis in anaplastic thyroid carcinoma cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emoto Mie

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma, which is one of the most aggressive, malignant tumors in humans, results in an extremely poor prognosis despite chemotherapy and radiotherapy. The present study was designed to evaluate therapeutic effects of radiation by glycerol on p53-mutant anaplastic thyroid carcinoma cells (8305c cells. To examine the effectiveness of glycerol in radiation induced lethality for anaplastic thyroid carcinoma 8305c cells, we performed colony formation assay and apoptosis analysis. Results Apoptosis was analyzed with Hoechst 33342 staining and DNA ladder formation assay. 8305c cells became radiosensitive when glycerol was added to culture medium before X-ray irradiation. Apoptosis was induced by X-rays in the presence of glycerol. However, there was little apoptosis induced by X-ray irradiation or glycerol alone. The binding activity of whole cell extracts to bax promoter region was induced by X-rays in the presence of glycerol but not by X-rays alone. Conclusion These findings suggest that glycerol is effective against radiotherapy of p53-mutant thyroid carcinomas.

  17. Lipoamino acid prodrugs of paclitaxel: synthesis and cytotoxicity evaluation on human anaplastic thyroid carcinoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pignatello, R; Paolino, D; Pantò, V; Pistară, V; Calvagno, M G; Russo, D; Puglisi, G; Fresta, M

    2009-03-01

    Lipophilic derivatives of the anticancer drug paclitaxel (PTX) were prepared by means of its conjugation to lipoamino acid (LAA) residues, with the aim of increasing drug accumulation in tumor cells. PTX was linked to the methyl esters of norleucine (C6) or 2-aminodecanoic acid (C10). A succinic acid group was used as a spacer to link the 2'-hydroxyl group of PTX and the LAA residue, respectively by means of an ester and an amide bond. The in vitro anticancer activity of the prodrugs was tested on a human thyroid anaplastic cancer cell line (ARO). The intracellular uptake kinetics of free PTX and its prodrugs was assessed by HPLC. PTX-LAA prodrugs showed a noticeable cytotoxic activity against ARO cells at shorter incubation time (12 h) and lower doses (0.01-0.1 microM) than PTX. Intracellular accumulation experiments indicated an improvement of drug concentration inside these cells, related to the block of the cellular expulsion by means of multi drug resistance efflux complex and improved physicochemical features that allowed the greater passive cellular membrane permeation. The enhanced activity of PTX-LAA prodrugs, in terms of potency and onset of the effect, as well as the interesting intracellular accumulation data suggest that these compounds can be further tested as possible alternatives to PTX for the treatment of resistant cancer cells.

  18. Hemangioendothelioma of the thyroid gland--true endothelioma or anaplastic carcinoma?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krisch, K; Holzner, J H; Kokoschka, R; Jakesz, R; Niederle, B; Roka, R

    1980-12-01

    After a critical histological re-examination of 26 cases of malignant hemangioendothelioma of the thyroid, and a comparison with 51 cases of anaplastic spindle and giant cell carcinoma, it becomes obvious that traumatic and shrinkage artefacts due to fixation, as well as superimposition of neoplastic and repair processes due to regressive changes--almost always seen in malignant hemangioendothelioma associated nodular goiter--may be misinterpreted as neoplastic vascular spaces (and therefore angioblastic tumour differentiation). Focal epithelial arrangements of tumour cells often observed in these malignant hemangioendotheliomas and the lack of objective light microscopic differential diagnostic criteria of anaplastic spindle and giant cell carcinoma make the high incidence of endotheliomas of the thyroid in European endemic goiter regions very questionable. Compared with anaplastic spindle and giant cell carcinoma, the incidence for (1) extrathyroid tumours that infiltrate into the trachea or the oesophagus, (2) lymph node metastases and (3) distant metastases is not statistically different in malignant hemangioendothelioma. Therefore we conclude that the tumours classified as malignant hemangioendothelioma in goitrous areas represent a special growth pattern of anaplastic spindle and giant cell carcinoma within adenomatous glands rather than a distinct tumour type.

  19. Anaplastic transformation of metastatic papillary thyroid carcinoma at shoulder mimicking soft tissue sarcoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seema Kaushal

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A 52-year-old woman presented with fracture upper end of the left humerus after trivial trauma and aspiration cytology from the lytic lesion in the upper humerus seen on X-ray revealed a metastatic papillary carcinoma from the thyroid. Total thyroidectomy confirmed the papillary carcinoma thyroid. Post-operatively, she was given radioactive iodine (I-131 ablation therapy for 8 years and was asymptomatic during this period; however, for the last 1 year, she has been complaining of swelling in the shoulder, which did not respond to palliative radiotherapy and rapidly increased in size. Disarticulation of the shoulder joint was performed, which showed anaplastic carcinoma on histopathological examination. Anaplastic transformation of papillary carcinoma at the metastatic sites is well documented in the literature and is rare. However, the same has not been reported at the shoulder and from India before. Although soft tissue sarcomas are most common at this site, however, the possibility of anaplastic transformation should be kept in the differential diagnosis of rapidly enlarging painful mass in a known case of metastatic thyroid carcinoma to prevent misdiagnosis.

  20. Emergency total thyroidectomy for bleeding anaplastic thyroid carcinoma: A viable option for palliation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil Kumar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC is a rare and highly aggressive thyroid neoplasm. Bleeding from tumor is an uncommon, but potentially life-threatening complication requiring sophisticated intervention facilities which are not usually available at odd hours in emergency. We report the case of a 45-year-old woman who presented with exsanguinating hemorrhage from ATC and was treated by emergency total thyroidectomy. The patient is well three months postoperatively. Emergency total thyroidectomy is a viable option for palliation in ATC presenting with bleeding.

  1. Identification of novel therapeutic targets in anaplastic thyroid carcinoma using functional genomic mRNA-profiling: Paving the way for new avenues?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonker, Pascal K C; van Dam, Gooitzen M; Oosting, Sjoukje F; Kruijff, Schelto; Fehrmann, Rudolf S N

    2017-01-01

    Currently, anaplastic thyroid carcinoma has a very poor prognosis and there is an unmet need for new therapeutic options. Therefore, this study aims to identify upregulated genes in anaplastic thyroid carcinoma with known drug interactions that could serve as new therapeutic targets. Publicly available microarray expression profiles of anaplastic thyroid carcinoma and normal thyroid tissue were collected. FGmRNA-profiling was applied, which is a recently developed method that enhances the ability to capture the downstream effects of genomic alterations on gene expression levels. Next, a comparison between FGmRNA-profiles of anaplastic thyroid carcinoma and normal thyroid samples was performed. Significantly upregulated genes in ATC were prioritized based on: 1) known interaction with antineoplastic drugs, 2) current drug development status in human, and 3) association with biologic pathways known to be involved in anaplastic thyroid carcinoma carcinogenesis. In the study, 25 anaplastic thyroid carcinoma and 80 normal thyroid samples were included for FGmRNA-profiling. Class comparison identified 301 significantly upregulated genes. Following prioritization, MTOR, MET, WEE1, PSMD1, MERTK, FGFR3, RARG, and ESR2 were identified as potential therapeutic targets. We prioritized 8 potential therapeutic druggable targets in anaplastic thyroid carcinoma. Ultimately, inhibition of these therapeutic targets might improve patient outcome in anaplastic thyroid carcinoma by reducing locoregional disease and distant metastases. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Cabozantinib (thyroid cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is used to treat a certain type of thyroid cancer that is getting worse and that has spread ... only gives information about cabozantinib capsules (Cometriq) for thyroid cancer. If you are using this medication for advanced ...

  3. [Anaplastic Thyroid Carcinoma in a 17-Year-Old Female Patient].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanišević, P; Čolović, Z; Pešutić-Pisac, V; Škrabić, V; Kontić, M; Kljajić, Z

    2016-04-01

    Anaplastic carcinoma of thyroid gland is one of the four most malignant tumors in humans. It appears in one or two patients per million per year. It is very rare in children. A 17-year-old female patient was admitted to the Clinical Department of ENT and Head and Neck Surgery, Split University Hospital Center, for thyroid gland surgery due to rapid growth of a node in the thyroid gland left lobe. Preoperative examination indicated benign nature of changes. Total thyroidectomy with levels VI and VII neck dissection was done. Intraoperative slide of the left lobe was malignant. Positron emission tomography and computed tomography were also done. The finding was negative. The patient was examined by an ENT-oncology team and juvenile radiotherapy was administered. It was found to be carcinoma stage IVa according to TNM classification. One year after the operation, the patient was well and had no signs of illness. This case report is a contribution to the existing but scarce knowledge of anaplastic carcinoma of thyroid gland in young patients in the world.

  4. Targeting of slug sensitizes anaplastic thyroid carcinoma SW1736 cells to doxorubicin via PUMA upregulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Anbing; Jiao, Xuelong; Chen, Dong; Hao, Fengyun; Zhang, Kejun

    2016-01-01

    Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC) is one of the most aggressive human cancers and often shows resistance to multimodal therapeutic approaches. It has been shown that the transcriptional repressor Slug inhibits the chemotherapeutic agent-induced apoptosis of cancer cells. We evaluated whether targeting of Slug could augment doxorubicin (DOX)-induced apoptosis of ATC cells. We also determined changes in PUMA (p53-upregulated modulator of apoptosis) expression levels to identify possible mechanisms of their combined actions. Methods SW1736 cells were transfected with Slug siRNA or/and PUMA siRNA and then exposed to DOX (0.1, 1, and 5 mM) for selected times. Scrambled siRNA was used as a control. The effects on cell viability were determined via MTT assay. Apoptosis was assessed using TUNEL assays and annexin V staining, and was confirmed by flow cytometry analyses. Slug and PUMA levels were determined using western blotting and immunofluorescence analyses. We used a subcutaneous implanted tumor model of SW1736 cells in nude mice to assess the effects of Slug silencing in combination with DOX on tumor development. Apoptosis was assessed via TUNEL assay. Results Targeting of Slug using siRNA combined with DOX led to lower cell viability than treatment with DOX alone in SW1736 cells. TUNEL and flow cytometry analyses showed that targeting of Slug enhanced DOX-induced apoptosis of SW1736 cells. In addition, targeting of Slug increased PUMA expression, and targeting of PUMA restored the chemoresistance of SW1736/Slug siRNA cells to DOX. Conclusions Knockdown of Slug enhanced the antitumor activity of DOX in SW1736 cells via induction of PUMA upregulation. Our results suggest that targeting of Slug has good potential for the development of new therapeutic strategies for ATC.

  5. Drugs Approved for Thyroid Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Lung Cancer Lymphoma Pancreatic Cancer Prostate Cancer Skin Cancer Thyroid Cancer Uterine Cancer All Cancer Types A to ... Ask about Your Treatment Research Drugs Approved for Thyroid Cancer This page lists cancer drugs approved by the ...

  6. Endosonographic examination of thyroid gland among patients with nonthyroid cancers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkhatib, Amer A.; Mahayni, Abdulah A.; Chawki, Ghaleb R.; Yoder, Leon; Elkhatib, Fateh A.; Al-Haddad, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: There is limited endosonographic literature regarding thyroid gland pathology, which is frequently visualized during upper endoscopic ultrasound (EUS). Our objective was to assess the prevalence of benign and malignant thyroid lesions encountered during routine upper EUS within a cancer center setting. Materials and Methods: The data were prospectively collected and retrospectively analyzed. All upper EUS procedures performed between October 2012 and July 2014 were reviewed at a large referral cancer center. Data collected included patient demographics, preexisting thyroid conditions, thyroid gland dimensions, the presence or absence of thyroid lesions, and EUS morphology of lesions if present, and interventions performed to characterize thyroid lesions and pathology results when applicable. Results: Two hundred and forty-five EUS procedures were reviewed. Of these, 100 cases reported a detailed endosonographic examination of the thyroid gland. Most of the thyroid glands were endosonographically visualized when the tip of the scope was at 18 cm from the incisors. Twelve cases showed thyroid lesions, out of which three previously undiagnosed thyroid cancers were visualized during EUS (two primary papillary thyroid cancers and one anaplastic thyroid cancer). Transesophageal EUS-guided fine needle aspiration of thyroid lesions was feasible when the lesion was in the inferior portion of the thyroid gland, and the tip of the scope was at 18 cm or more from the incisors. Conclusions: Routine EUS examination may detect unexpected thyroid lesions including malignant ones. We encourage endosonographers to screen the visualized portions of the thyroid gland during routine withdrawal of the echoendoscope. PMID:27803906

  7. Endosonographic examination of thyroid gland among patients with nonthyroid cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkhatib, Amer A; Mahayni, Abdulah A; Chawki, Ghaleb R; Yoder, Leon; Elkhatib, Fateh A; Al-Haddad, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    There is limited endosonographic literature regarding thyroid gland pathology, which is frequently visualized during upper endoscopic ultrasound (EUS). Our objective was to assess the prevalence of benign and malignant thyroid lesions encountered during routine upper EUS within a cancer center setting. The data were prospectively collected and retrospectively analyzed. All upper EUS procedures performed between October 2012 and July 2014 were reviewed at a large referral cancer center. Data collected included patient demographics, preexisting thyroid conditions, thyroid gland dimensions, the presence or absence of thyroid lesions, and EUS morphology of lesions if present, and interventions performed to characterize thyroid lesions and pathology results when applicable. Two hundred and forty-five EUS procedures were reviewed. Of these, 100 cases reported a detailed endosonographic examination of the thyroid gland. Most of the thyroid glands were endosonographically visualized when the tip of the scope was at 18 cm from the incisors. Twelve cases showed thyroid lesions, out of which three previously undiagnosed thyroid cancers were visualized during EUS (two primary papillary thyroid cancers and one anaplastic thyroid cancer). Transesophageal EUS-guided fine needle aspiration of thyroid lesions was feasible when the lesion was in the inferior portion of the thyroid gland, and the tip of the scope was at 18 cm or more from the incisors. Routine EUS examination may detect unexpected thyroid lesions including malignant ones. We encourage endosonographers to screen the visualized portions of the thyroid gland during routine withdrawal of the echoendoscope.

  8. Identification of novel therapeutic targets in anaplastic thyroid carcinoma using functional genomic mRNA-profiling : Paving the way for new avenues?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonker, Pascal K. C.; van Dam, Gooitzen M.; Oosting, Sjoukje E.; Kruijff, Schelto; Fehrmann, Rudolf S. N.

    Background. Currently, anaplastic thyroid carcinoma has a very poor prognosis and there is an unmet need for new therapeutic options. Therefore, this study aims to identify upregulated genes in anaplastic thyroid carcinoma with known drug interactions that could serve as new therapeutic targets.

  9. [Autoimmune thyroiditis and thyroid cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krátký, Jan; Jiskra, Jan

    2015-10-01

    Association between autoimmune thyroiditis (CLT) and thyroid cancer remains not clear. Although both diseases often occur simultaneously in histological samples, it is not yet clear whether CLT can be regarded as a risk factor for thyroid malignancy. This review focus on the known epidemiological and molecular genetics links between both diseases. Most studies have shown a significant association between thyroid cancer and positive antibodies to thyroglobulin and histological evidence of CLT, as well. Both disorders share some risk factors (greater incidence in women, in areas with adequate supply of iodine and in patients after radiotherapy of the neck) and molecular genetics linkage. For example: RET/PTC rearrangements could be more often found in carcinomas associated with CLT, but this mutation could be found in benign lesions such as CLT, as well. CLT seems to be a positive prognostic factor in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer. It is associated with less invasive forms of tumor, lower occurrence of infiltrated lymphatic nodes and a lower risk of recurrence.

  10. Thyroid Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to Content ASCO.org Conquer Cancer Foundation ASCO Journals Donate eNews Signup f Cancer.net on Facebook t Cancer.net on Twitter q Cancer.net on YouTube g Cancer.net on Google Menu Home Types of Cancer Navigating Cancer Care Coping With Cancer Research and Advocacy Survivorship Blog About ...

  11. Anaplastic Thyroid Carcinoma: Current Treatments and Potential New Therapeutic Options with Emphasis on TfR1/CD71

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosalba Parenti

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC is one of the most aggressive human cancers. Actually, ATC is refractory to conventional therapies, including surgery, chemotherapy, radiotherapy, and radioiodine (131I therapy. Accordingly, genetic and molecular characterizations of ATC have been frequently and periodically reviewed in order to identify potential biological markers exploitable for target therapy. This review briefly focuses on main molecular events that characterize ATC and provides an update about preclinical studies. In addition, the overexpression of transferrin receptor 1 (TfR1/CD71 by neoplastic cells of ATC is emphasized in that it could represent a potential therapeutic target. In this regard, new therapeutic approaches based on the use of monoclonal or recombinant antibodies, or transferrin-gallium-TfR1/CD71 molecular complexes, or lastly small interfering RNAs (siRNAs are proposed.

  12. Investigation of the results of therapy of anaplastic thyroid gland carcinomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ooijen, M. van.

    1979-01-01

    The results of the treatment of 28 patients with an anaplastic thyroid gland carcinoma are investigated, to see whether an optimal therapy is indicated. The execution of an operation before radiotherapy does not appear to improve the prognosis (statistically this conclusion is not wholly justified). The presence of metastases at the beginning of the therapy gave rise to a worse prognosis than the absence of metastases. The combination treatment of chemotherapy and either surgery or radiotherapy was only applied to two patients so no conclusions can be made about its benefit. (C.F.)

  13. Abnormal number cell division of human thyroid anaplastic carcinoma cell line, SW 1736

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keiichi Ikeda

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Cell division, during which a mother cell usually divides into two daughter cells during one cell cycle, is the most important physiological event of cell biology. We observed one-to-four cell division during imaging of live SW1736 human thyroid anaplastic carcinoma cells transfected with a plasmid expressing the hybrid protein of green fluorescent protein and histone 2B (plasmid eGFP-H2B. Analysis of the images revealed a mother cell divided into four daughter cells. And one of the abnormally divided daughter cells subsequently formed a dinucleate cell.

  14. Thyroid cancer: Natural history, management strategies and outcomes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaha, Ashok R.

    1997-01-01

    Objectives: To understand the natural history of thyroid cancer and high risk groups; To define the biological behavior of thyroid cancer and relate it to various prognostic factors and risk groups; To divide the management strategies into conservation, radical surgery and radioactive iodine treatment; To define the role of external radiation therapy and the management of complex and advanced thyroid cancer; To analyze the results of management of anaplastic thyroid cancer and make a plea for combined modality treatment; To define the current role of genetic studies in medullary thyroid cancer. At the end of this refresher course, the attendees will be able to understand the natural history, the prognostic factors and risk groups and surgical and combined modality treatment in thyroid cancer

  15. Radioiodine and radiotherapy in the management of thyroid cancers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simpson, W.J.

    1990-01-01

    Radioiodine is an important adjuvant treatment in the management of resectable papillary and follicular thyroid cancers in all patients except those with the best prognostic features. External radiation is also an important adjuvant therapy in these patients, especially those with tumors that extend beyond the thyroid gland and invade the trachea, esophagus, nerves, and blood vessels; it is especially important in treating patients whose tumors do not concentrate radioiodine. Radioiodine may be curative in patients with microscopic distant metastases demonstrated by radioiodine scanning. Even unresectable primary papillary and follicular cancers may be eradicated by combined therapy with radioiodine and radiotherapy. Radioiodine plays no significant role in the treatment of medullary or anaplastic thyroid cancers, but external radiation may eradicate microscopic thyroid bed or nodal disease when persistent disease is indicated by elevated calcitonin levels in medullary thyroid cancer patients. Anaplastic thyroid cancers are usually unresectable and are not eradicated by conventional radiotherapy or by any of the novel radiation techniques, with or without chemotherapy. In all types of thyroid cancer, external radiotherapy may produce beneficial palliative results in patients with distant metastases, but the use of radioiodine should always be explored in papillary and follicular thyroid cancer patients. 30 references

  16. Thyroid cancer around Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beral, V.

    1997-01-01

    The author's presentation on thyroid cancer around Chernobyl will focus on four different things. First will be the time trends, or the pattern of thyroid cancer occurrence before and after the accident. It is now very well known that the increase in thyroid cancer in children in several areas has been unprecedented. Second, the author discusses thyroid cancer in general and patterns of thyroid cancer around the world before the Chernobyl accident, including differences by age and pathology. Third, the author presents relatively crude analyses of risk according to dose to the thyroid gland. And last, the author attempts to contrast the findings for thyroid cancer in relation to the internal radioiodine dose in Chernobyl studies with analyses of the effects of external dose on thyroid cancer incidence. The bottom line to be developed is similar to that presented by Elaine Ron with regard to effects of external dose on thyroid cancer. The similarities between the childhood finding from Chernobyl studies and external radiation studies appear more remarkable than the differences

  17. [Lymph node and distant metastases of thyroid gland cancer. Metastases in the thyroid glands].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, K W

    2015-11-01

    The different biological features of the various major entities of thyroid cancer, e.g. papillary, follicular, poorly differentiated, anaplastic and medullary, depend to a large extent on their different metastatic spread. Papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) has a propensity for cervical lymphatic spread that occurs in 20-50 % of patients whereas distant metastasis occurs in symptom particularly of (micro) PTC. In contrast follicular thyroid cancer (FTC) has a marked propensity for vascular but not lymphatic invasion and 10-20 % of FTC develop distant metastases. At the time of diagnosis approximately one third of medullary thyroid cancer (MTC) cases show lymph node metastases, in 10-15 % distant metastases and 25 % develop metastases during the course of the disease. Poorly differentiated (PDTC) and anaplastic thyroid cancer (ATC) spread via both lymphatic and vascular invasion. Thus distant metastases are relatively uncommon in DTC and when they occur, long-term stable disease is the typical clinical course. The major sites of distant metastases are the lungs and bone. Metastases to the brain, breasts, liver, kidneys, muscle and skin are relatively rare or even rare. The thyroid gland itself can be a site of metastases from a variety of other tumors. In autopsy series of patients with disseminated cancer disease, metastases to the thyroid gland were found in up to 10 % of cases. Metastases from other primary tumors to the thyroid gland have been reported in 1.4-3 % of patients who have surgery for suspected cancer of the thyroid gland. The most common primary cancers that metastasize to the thyroid gland are renal cell (48.1 %), colorectal (10.4 %), lung (8.3 %) and breast cancer (7.8 %) and surprisingly often sarcomas (4.0 %).

  18. Update on epidemiology classification, and management of thyroid cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heitham Gheriani

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Thyroid cancer represents approximately 0.5–1% of all human malignancy1. In the UK the incidence of thyroid cancer is 2-3 per 100,000 populations 2. In geographical areas of low iodine intake and in areas exposed to nuclear disasters the incidence of thyroid cancer is higher. Benign thyroid conditions are much more common. In the UK approximately 8 % of the population have nodular thyroid disease2. Nodular thyroid disease increases with age and is also more common in females and in geographical areas of low iodine intake. Primary thyroid malignancy can be broadly divided into 2 groups. The first group, which generally have much better prognosis, are the well-differentiated thyroid carcinoma, which includes papillary carcinoma, follicular carcinoma and Hürthle cell tumours. The second group includes the poorly differentiated thyroid carcinoma like medullary thyroid carcinoma and the anaplastic thyroid carcinoma. Other rare tumours such as sarcomas, lymphomas and the extremely rare primary squamous cell carcinoma of the thyroid should be included in the second group. Secondary or metastatic thyroid cancer can be from breast, lung, colon and kidney malignancies.

  19. Thyroid cancer: a lethal endocrine neoplasm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robbins, J.; Merino, M.J.; Boice, J.D. Jr.; Ron, E.; Ain, K.B.; Alexander, H.R.; Norton, J.A.; Reynolds, J.

    1991-01-01

    This conference focuses on the controversies about managing thyroid cancer, emphasizing the possibility that the treatment of patients with potentially fatal thyroid cancer may be improved. Although the mortality rate from thyroid cancer is low, it is the highest among cancers affecting the endocrine glands (excluding the ovary). Exposure to radiation during childhood in the 1930s and 1940s increased the incidence of but not the mortality from thyroid cancer, because these tumors are mainly papillary cancers developing in young adults. These rates may change as the exposed cohort ages. Risk factors that increase mortality include older patient age and the growth characteristics of the tumor at diagnosis, the presence of distant metastases, and cell type (for example, the tall-cell variants of papillary cancer, follicular cancer [to be distinguished from the more benign follicular variant of papillary cancer], medullary cancer, and anaplastic cancer). Local metastases in lymph nodes do not seem to increase the risk for death from papillary cancer, but they do increase the risk for death from follicular and medullary cancer. In the latter, mortality is decreased by the early detection and treatment of patients with the familial multiple endocrine neoplasia syndrome 2a. There are excellent tumor markers for differentiated cancer of the parafollicular and of the follicular cells. Measuring the calcitonin level allows early diagnosis of familial medullary cancer, whereas measuring the thyroglobulin level, although useful only after total thyroidectomy, allows early recognition of recurrence or metastases of papillary or follicular cancer. Initial surgery, protocols for follow-up, and the use of radioiodine for the ablation of any residual thyroid and the treatment of metastatic cancer are discussed.128 references

  20. Radiation and thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazo, Edward

    2014-01-01

    An International Workshop on Radiation and Thyroid Cancer took place on 21-23 February 2014 in Tokyo, Japan, to support the efforts of the Fukushima Prefecture and the Japanese government in enhancing public health measures following the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident in March 2011. The workshop, which was designed to develop a state-of-the-art scientific understanding of thyroid cancer in children and of radiation-induced thyroid cancer (papillary carcinoma) in particular, was co-organised by the Japanese Ministry of the Environment (MOE), the Fukushima Medical University (FMU) and the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA). It brought together the world's top experts in the field, including medical doctors, epidemiologists and radiological risk assessment specialists from ten countries. Although rare, thyroid cancer occurs naturally, with the risk of developing a thyroid cancer increasing with age. Cases are usually identified when a thyroid carcinogenic nodule grows enough to be felt with a patient's fingers, at which point the patient visits a medical doctor to identify the nature of the growth. In many countries around the world, the incidence rate of naturally occurring thyroid cancer is on the order of less than 1 per year per 100 000 children (from ages 0 to 18). Statistically, this rate appears to be increasing in many countries, with young girls slightly more at risk than young boys. A second but very different means of detecting thyroid cancer cases is through thyroid ultrasound screening examinations on subjects who do not demonstrate any symptoms. Ultrasound screening is a more sensitive approach that can detect very small nodules (< 5 mm) and cysts (< 20 mm) which would not normally be perceived through simple palpitation. However, because thyroid ultrasound screening examinations are much more effective, the number of thyroid cancer cases per examination will normally be larger than the number per capita found through national cancer

  1. Metronomic chemotherapy in anaplastic thyroid carcinoma: A potentially feasible alternative to therapeutic nihilism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swaroop Revannasiddaiah

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC is one of the most aggressive malignancies and prognostic outlook remains very dismal. Treatment most often is palliative in intent attempting to relieve the patients from local compressive symptoms in the neck. Radical surgery, radiotherapy (RT, and chemotherapy have not been tested in large prospective trials, and current evidence from retrospective series and small trials indicate only marginal survival benefits. Given the poor prognostic and therapeutic outlook, patients must be encouraged to be actively involved in the decision making process. We report the case of an elderly patient who had no response to palliative RT, and was treated with oral metronomic chemotherapy. The response to oral metronomic chemotherapy was dramatic, and the patient has enjoyed complete freedom from symptoms as well as radiologically exhibits a complete regression. Thus, we document the first ever use of a simple, cost-effective, and convenient oral metronomic chemotherapeutic regimen delivering a remarkable response in an elderly patient with ATC.

  2. Metronomic chemotherapy in anaplastic thyroid carcinoma: a potentially feasible alternative to therapeutic nihilism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revannasiddaiah, Swaroop; Madabhavi, Irappa; Bodh, Anita; Thakur, Priyanka; Sharma, Mukesh

    2015-01-01

    Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC) is one of the most aggressive malignancies and prognostic outlook remains very dismal. Treatment most often is palliative in intent attempting to relieve the patients from local compressive symptoms in the neck. Radical surgery, radiotherapy (RT), and chemotherapy have not been tested in large prospective trials, and current evidence from retrospective series and small trials indicate only marginal survival benefits. Given the poor prognostic and therapeutic outlook, patients must be encouraged to be actively involved in the decision making process. We report the case of an elderly patient who had no response to palliative RT, and was treated with oral metronomic chemotherapy. The response to oral metronomic chemotherapy was dramatic, and the patient has enjoyed complete freedom from symptoms as well as radiologically exhibits a complete regression. Thus, we document the first ever use of a simple, cost-effective, and convenient oral metronomic chemotherapeutic regimen delivering a remarkable response in an elderly patient with ATC.

  3. Radionuclides in thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahadev, V.

    1980-01-01

    The three main areas of application of radionuclides in thyroid disease will be reviewed. Firstly thyroid radionuclide imaging in thyroid swellings, in relationship to lumps in the neck and ectopic thyroid tissue such as retrosternal goitre, and lingual goitre will be described. Future developments in the field including tomographic scanning, using the coded aperture method, and fluorescent scans and ultrasound are reviewed. The second area of application is the assessment and evaluation of thyroid function and the therapy of Grave's Disease and Plummer's Disease using radioiodine. The importance of careful collection of the line of treatment, results of treatment locally and the follow-up of patients after radioiodine therapy will be described. The third area of application is in the diagnosis and therapy of thyroid cancer. Investigation of thyroid swelling, and the diagnosis of functioning metastases are reported. The therapeutic iodine scan as the sole evidence of functioning metastatic involvement is recorded. Histological thyroid cancer appears to be increasingly encountered in clinical practice and the plan of management in relation to choice of cases for therapeutic scanning is discussed with case reports. Lastly the role of whole body scanning in relationship to biochemical markers is compared. In the changing field of nuclear medicine radionuclide applications in thyroid disease have remained pre-eminent and this is an attempt to reassess its role in the light of newer developments and local experience in the Institute of Radiotherapy, Oncology and Nuclear Medicine. (author)

  4. In Vitro Antitumor Activity of Aloperine on Human Thyroid Cancer Cells through Caspase-Dependent Apoptosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying-Ray Lee

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The global incidence of thyroid cancer, one of the most common endocrine malignancies, is especially high among women. Although most patients with thyroid cancers exhibit a good prognosis with standard treatment, there are no effective therapies for patients with anaplastic thyroid cancers or cancers that have reached an advanced or recurrent level. Therefore, it is important to develop highly effective compounds for treating such patients. Aloperine, a natural compound isolated from Sophora alopecuroides, has been reported to possess antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-neuronal injury, anti-renal injury, antitumor, anti-allergic, and antiviral properties. In this study, we show that aloperine can inhibit cell growth in human anaplastic thyroid cancers and multidrug-resistant papillary thyroid cancers. Moreover, it could suppress in vitro tumorigenesis and promote cellular apoptosis. Further analysis demonstrated the involvement of caspase-dependent apoptosis, including intrinsic and/or extrinsic pathways, in aloperine-induced cellular apoptosis. However, cell cycle regulation was not detected with aloperine treatment. This study suggests the potential therapeutic use of aloperine in human anaplastic thyroid cancers and multidrug-resistant papillary thyroid cancers.

  5. Thyroid Cancer Risk Assessment Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    The R package thyroid implements a risk prediction model developed by NCI researchers to calculate the absolute risk of developing a second primary thyroid cancer (SPTC) in individuals who were diagnosed with a cancer during their childhood.

  6. The incidence of thyroid cancer at thyroidectomy materials in Malatya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurhan Şahin

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Thyroid cancers are the most common malignancyof the endocrine organs. It accounts for 1% of allcancer. Environmental, genetic and hormonal factors playan important role in its etiology. The aim of this study is toinvestigate the incidence of thyroid cancer and types atthyroidectomy materials in the city of Malatya.Methods: The pathology reports of thyroid surgical materials,which were sent to Inonu University Medical FacultyPathology Department retrospectively from the archivesbetween the years January 2007 and May 2013. Postoperativehistopathologic examinations of 543 cases wereevaluated for 6 years period.Results: 128 (23.5% of 543 cases male and 415 (76.5%were female. The youngest patient was 10, the oldest patientwas 89 years-old, and the average age is 48.1±15.2.Histopathological examination of 346 (64% cases of nodularhyperplasia, 20 (4% cases of diffuse hyperplasia, 13(2.4% cases of lymphocytic thyroiditis, 164 (30.2% patienthad thyroid tumors. The 164 tumors on the 57 (35%cases benign, 107 (65% cases were malign. As a typeof cancer 88 (53.6% cases papillary carcinoma, 10 (6%cases follicular carcinoma, 1 (0.6% case medullary carcinoma,3 (1.8% cases were anaplastic carcinoma.Conclusion: Thyroid cancer incidence is 19.7% at thyroidectomymaterials in the city of Malatya and most cancersis seen as a type of thyroid papillary carcinoma.Key words: Goitre, thyroid cancer, papillary carcinoma

  7. Small interfering RNA (siRNA) against Slug induces apoptosis and sensitizes human anaplastic thyroid carcinoma cells to doxorubicin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Yinghua; Liu, Peiji; Chen, Deng; Dou, Linying

    2017-01-01

    Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC) is one of the most aggressive human cancers and often shows resistance to multimodal therapeutic approaches. It has been shown that the transcriptional repressor Slug inhibits the chemotherapeutic agent-induced apoptosis of cancer cells. We evaluated whether targeting of Slug could augment doxorubicin (DOX)-induced apoptosis of ATC cells. We also determined changes in PUMA (p53-upregulated modulator of apoptosis) expression levels to identify possible mechanisms of their combined actions. SW1736 cells were transfected with Slug siRNA or/and PUMA siRNA and then exposed to DOX (0.1, 1, and 5 μ M) for selected times. Scrambled siRNA was used as a control. The effects on cell viability were determined via MTT assay. Apoptosis was assessed using TUNEL assays and annexin V staining, and was confirmed by flow cytometry analyses. Slug and PUMA levels were determined using western blotting, RT-PCR and immunofluorescence analyses. We used a subcutaneous implanted tumor model of SW1736 cells in nude mice to assess the effects of Slug silencing in combination with DOX on tumor development. Apoptosis was assessed via TUNEL assay. Targeting of Slug using siRNA inhibits growth of SW1736 cells and sensitizes SW1736 cells to DOX in vitro and vivo. Targeting of Slug combined with DOX led to lower cell viability than treatment with DOX alone in SW1736 cells. TUNEL and flow cytometry analyses showed that targeting of Slug enhanced DOX-induced apoptosis of SW1736 cells. In addition, targeting of Slug increased PUMA expression, and targeting of PUMA restored the chemoresistance of SW1736/Slug siRNA cells to DOX. Knockdown of Slug enhanced the antitumor activity of DOX in SW1736 cells via induction of PUMA upregulation. Our results suggest that targeting of Slug has good potential for the development of new therapeutic strategies for ATC.

  8. Thyroid cancer: The Kuala Lumpur experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, Muhammad

    2002-09-01

    There have been few detailed studies on thyroid cancer (TC) in Malaysia, a multiethnic country with three major races - Malays, Chinese and Indians. The paper retrospectively audits the records of 107 consecutive cases with histologically proven thyroid cancer between 1995 and 2000 presenting to University Hospital, Kuala Lumpur. The demographic distribution, histological variants, mode of presentation, sensitivity of fine needle aspiration cytology and the modalities of treatment are examined in the present paper. Of a total of 107 cases of TC, 74 were papillary, 23 follicular, one Hurthle Cell, seven medullary and two anaplastic. There were 91 women and 16 men; the corresponding median age of presentation being 34.0 and 40.0 years. The median age at presentation of TC was 36 years in the Malay population, 37 in the Chinese population and 33 in the Indian population. Fifty-six per cent of follicular cancer incidence was in the Malay population alone, the remaining in the other populations. Solitary thyroid nodule was seen in 75 patients, generalized enlargement in 20 and no goiter in 11. Local symptoms were reported in population. Total thyroidectomy in WDTC, although controversial, remains the mainstay of surgical treatment in Malaysia.

  9. Treatment and prognosis of anaplastic thyroid carcinoma: experience from a single institution in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuanzheng Sun

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC, a highly aggressive malignancy, has a poor prognosis, and the consensus on the most effective treatment is needed. METHODS: Clinical data from all ATC patients treated in our institution over a 30-year period (between May 1980 and May 2010 were analyzed retrospectively with regard to mortality and survival rates (Kaplan-Meier. Multivariate analysis was performed using a Cox proportional hazards model. RESULTS: Sixty cases were analyzed. The overall 1- and 3-year survival rates were 35.0% and 22.9%, respectively. Univariate analysis showed that the best prognosis was seen in patients younger than 55 years, those without distant metastases, those with white blood cell (WBC counts < 10.0 × 10(9/L or blood platelet (PLT counts < 300.0 × 10(9/L at presentation, those who did not receive chemotherapy, and those who received radiotherapy doses ≥ 40 Gy or underwent surgery plus postoperative radiotherapy. According to multivariate analysis, the WBC count at first presentation and the type of therapeutic regimen independently influenced survival. CONCLUSIONS: We found that the elevated peripheral PLT count may be an adverse prognostic factor of ATC patients. The prognosis for ATC is especially poor for patients with distant metastasis, a WBC count ≥ 10.0×10(9/L, a PLT count ≥ 300.0 × 10(9/L, or age ≥ 55 years. WBC count at presentation and surgery with or without postoperative radiotherapy independently influenced the prognosis. Intensive treatment combining surgery with postoperative radiotherapy is recommended for ATC patients with stage IVA/B disease.

  10. [Anaplastic carcinoma of the thyroid at the Instituto Nacional de la Nutrición Salvador Zubirán].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sierra, M; Gamboa-Domínguez, A; Herrera, M F; Barredo-Prieto, B; Alvarado de la Barrera, C; Llorente, L; Pérez-Enriquez, B; Rivera, R; González, O; Rull, J A

    1997-01-01

    Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC) is a highly aggressive tumor with a median survival rate of 6 months. To analyze presentation, treatment, morphology, immunohistochemistry, and nuclear DNA analysis of a cohort of patients with ATC. Twelve patients with ATC (11 female) with a mean age of 65 years were seen at our hospital from 1970-1995. The data were obtained from the clinical records and the morphology, immunohistochemic studies and DNA pattern were performed in slides obtained from archival specimens. Previous or coexisting thyroide disease was documented in 10 patients (9 multinodular goiters and one Grave's). The most frequent presentation was a rapidly growing tumor associated with dysphagia, cervical pain, hoarseness and dyspnea. A cold thyroid nodule was detected by thyroid scan in 10 patients. The most frequent subtype was the spindle cell variety. Papillary thyroid carcinoma coexisted in eight cases, two of them corresponded to the tall cell variant. Reactivity for S-100 protein and vimentin was studied in six patients: all were positive for S-100 protein and vimentin, 5/6 for epithelial membrane antigen, half for carcinoembriogenic antigen, 2/6 for thyroglobulin and calcitonin, and one for neuronal specific enolase. These six tumors showed a diploid DNA pattern. Tumor resection was achieved in 2/11 and none survived six years after diagnosis. ATC is a highly aggressive tumor coexisting with thyroid pathologies. Spindle cell variant is the most frequent with positive reactivity for S-100 protein, vimentin and epithelial membrane antigen. Most tumors have a diploid DNA content.

  11. Anaplastic carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parikh, D.M.; Agarwal, S.; Rao, R.S.

    1999-01-01

    Thyroid carcinoma (TC) is a slow growing tumor with an indolent course and has an excellent prognosis. However, a sharp contrast exists in the biological behavior of TC, which in its well-differentiated form is associated with long-term survival, but in its undifferentiated form is one of the most lethal neoplasms known. The anaplastic carcinoma (ANC) form has a fulminanat course with poor prognosis and almost invariably, a fatal outcome

  12. miR-4295 promotes cell proliferation and invasion in anaplastic thyroid carcinoma via CDKN1A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shao, Mingchen; Geng, Yiwei [Oncology Department, The First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou (China); Laboratory of Tumor Biology, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou (China); Lu, Peng [Gastrointestinal Surgery Department, People' s Hospital of Zhengzhou, Zhengzhou (China); Xi, Ying [Oncology Department, The First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou (China); Laboratory of Tumor Biology, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou (China); Wei, Sidong [Liver Transplantation Hepatobiliary Surgery Department, People' s Hospital of Zhengzhou, Zhengzhou (China); Wang, Liuxing; Fan, Qingxia [Oncology Department, The First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou (China); Laboratory of Tumor Biology, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou (China); Ma, Wang, E-mail: doctormawang@126.com [Oncology Department, The First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou (China); Laboratory of Tumor Biology, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou (China)

    2015-09-04

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play important roles in the pathogenesis of many types of cancers by negatively regulating gene expression at posttranscriptional level. However, the role of microRNAs in anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC), has remained elusive. Here, we identified that miR-4295 promotes ATC cell proliferation by negatively regulates its target gene CDKN1A. In ATC cell lines, CCK-8 proliferation assay indicated that the cell proliferation was promoted by miR-4295, while miR-4295 inhibitor significantly inhibited the cell proliferation. Transwell assay showed that miR-4295 mimics significantly promoted the migration and invasion of ATC cells, whereas miR-4295 inhibitors significantly reduced cell migration and invasion. luciferase assays confirmed that miR-4295 directly bound to the 3'untranslated region of CDKN1A, and western blotting showed that miR-4295 suppressed the expression of CDKN1A at the protein levels. This study indicated that miR-4295 negatively regulates CDKN1A and promotes proliferation and invasion of ATC cell lines. Thus, miR-4295 may represent a potential therapeutic target for ATC intervention. - Highlights: • miR-4295 mimics promote the proliferation and invasion of ATC cells. • miR-4295 inhibitors inhibit the proliferation and invasion of ATC cells. • miR-4295 targets 3′UTR of CDKN1A in ATC cells. • miR-4295 negatively regulates CDKN1A in ATC cells.

  13. Presence of anaplastic lymphoma kinase in inflammatory breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Fredika M; Petricoin Iii, Emanuel F; Van Laere, Steven J; Bertucci, Francois; Chu, Khoi; Fernandez, Sandra V; Mu, Zhaomei; Alpaugh, Katherine; Pei, Jianming; Circo, Rita; Wulfkuhle, Julia; Ye, Zaiming; Boley, Kimberly M; Liu, Hui; Moraes, Ricardo; Zhang, Xuejun; Demaria, Ruggero; Barsky, Sanford H; Sun, Guoxian; Cristofanilli, Massimo

    2013-01-01

    Although Inflammatory Breast Cancer (IBC) is recognized as the most metastatic variant of locally advanced breast cancer, the molecular basis for the distinct clinical presentation and accelerated program of metastasis of IBC is unknown. Reverse phase protein arrays revealed activation of the receptor tyrosine kinase, anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) and biochemically-linked downstream signaling molecules including JAK1/STAT3, AKT, mTor, PDK1, and AMPKβ in pre-clinical models of IBC. To evaluate the clinical relevance of ALK in IBC, analysis of 25 IBC patient tumors using the FDA approved diagnostic test for ALK genetic abnormalities was performed. These studies revealed that 20/25 (80%) had either increased ALK copy number, low level ALK gene amplification, or ALK gene expression, with a prevalence of ALK alterations in basal-like IBC. One of 25 patients was identified as having an EML4-ALK translocation. The generality of gains in ALK copy number in basal-like breast tumors with IBC characteristics was demonstrated by analysis of 479 breast tumors using the TGCA data-base and our newly developed 79 IBC-like gene signature. The small molecule dual tyrosine kinase cMET/ALK inhibitor, Crizotinib (PF-02341066/Xalkori®, Pfizer Inc), induced both cytotoxicity (IC50 = 0.89 μM) and apoptosis, with abrogation of pALK signaling in IBC tumor cells and in FC-IBC01 tumor xenograft model, a new IBC model derived from pleural effusion cells isolated from an ALK(+) IBC patient. Based on these studies, IBC patients are currently being evaluated for the presence of ALK genetic abnormalities and when eligible, are being enrolled into clinical trials evaluating ALK targeted therapeutics.

  14. Melatonin suppresses thyroid cancer growth and overcomes radioresistance via inhibition of p65 phosphorylation and induction of ROS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen-Wei Zou

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Thyroid cancer is the most common endocrine carcinoma with increasing incidence worldwide and anaplastic subtypes are frequently associated with cancer related death. Radioresistance of thyroid cancer often leads to therapy failure and cancer-related death. In this study, we found that melatonin showed potent suppressive roles on NF-κB signaling via inhibition of p65 phosphorylation and generated redox stress in thyroid cancer including the anaplastic subtypes. Our data showed that melatonin significantly decreased cell viability, suppressed cell migration and induced apoptosis in thyroid cancer cell lines in vitro and impaired tumor growth in the subcutaneous mouse model in vivo. By contrast, irradiation of thyroid cancer cells resulted in elevated level of phosphorylated p65, which could be reversed by cotreatment with melatonin. Consequently, melatonin synergized with irradiation to induce cytotoxicity to thyroid cancer, especially in the undifferentiated subgroups. Taken together, our results suggest that melatonin may exert anti-tumor activities against thyroid carcinoma by inhibition of p65 phosphorylation and induction of reactive oxygen species. Radio-sensitization by melatonin may have clinical benefits in thyroid cancer. Keywords: Melatonin, Thyroid cancer, Radioresistance, p65, Reactive oxygen species

  15. External radiotherapy in thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samuel, A.M.; Shah, D.H.

    1999-01-01

    In the management of thyroid carcinoma (TC) of any histological type, surgery is the primary mode of treatment. The second modality for the management is treatment with radioactive iodine ( 131 I), especially, when the tumor has the ability to concentrate 131 I. External radiotherapy has a limited use in differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC). It is useful in the management of bulky residual tissue which is not completely resected, metastatic disease which does not concentrated radioiodine and as a palliative treatment for reliving pain in patients with distant metastases. The ER as an adjuvant treatment in both anaplastic and medullary carcinoma has a significant role to play and should be used more frequently than is presently being advocated and practiced

  16. Unusual manifestations of well-differentiated thyroid cancer: case reports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jesus, E.M.; Barrenechea, E.A.

    2004-01-01

    Purpose: To present two unusual cases of well-differentiated thyroid carcinomas Methods:Data gathering thru medical records, diagnostic examinations and laboratory results. Well-differentiated thyroid cancer (WDTC) are among the most common type of all thyroid cancers. These case reports were done because of the fact that both cases showed unusual presentations clinically. The first case had a histopathologic report of papillary cancer of the thyroid with some of the typical features of WDTC but within a month's time from the near-total thyroidectomy procedure, there was progression of the neck enlargement, compression symptoms and eventually stridor. I-131 total body scan showed only a small focus of residual neck tissues in the neck with no distant metastasis. Tracheostomy was done and another debulking of the multiple nodules which showed papillary cancer again this time with some anaplastic cells. The second case is a follicular WDTC who also underwent total thyroidectomy after presenting symptoms of soft tissue metastasis at the left buttocks which turned out to be follicular in origin. After total thyroidectomy, I-131 total body scan showed multiple skeleta/soft tissue metastases. These cases are presented to keep in mind that well-differentiated thyroid cancer may not be all the time slow growing and that it should not be taken for granted in terms of treatment. (authors)

  17. Stitch Abscess Masquerading as Recurrent Thyroid Cancer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Recurrent thyroid cancer after remnant ablation is a known entity in follow up of differentiated thyroid cancer. It is however unusual for a stitch abscess to present as a recurrent thyroid cancer. We highlight the diagnostic dilemma of a stitch abscess masquerading as a recurrent thyroid cancer in a young female adult in the ...

  18. What You Need to Know about Thyroid Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Lung Cancer Lymphoma Pancreatic Cancer Prostate Cancer Skin Cancer Thyroid Cancer Uterine Cancer All Cancer Types A to ... Publications Reports What You Need To Know About™ Thyroid Cancer This booklet is about thyroid cancer. Learning about ...

  19. Emerging therapies for thyroid carcinoma.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Walsh, S

    2012-02-01

    Thyroid carcinoma is the most commonly diagnosed endocrine malignancy. Its incidence is currently rising worldwide. The discovery of genetic mutations associated with the development of thyroid cancer, such as BRAF and RET, has lead to the development of new drugs which target the pathways which they influence. Despite recent advances, the prognosis of anaplastic thyroid carcinoma is still unfavourable. In this review we look at emerging novel therapies for the treatment of well-differentiated and medullary thyroid carcinoma, and advances and future directions in the management of anaplastic thyroid carcinoma.

  20. Thyroid Cancer Statistics | Did You Know?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thyroid cancer represents the 8th most common cancer in the United States. Did you know that this cancer, located at the base of the throat in the thyroid gland, is highly treatable and usually curable?

  1. Clinical presentation of thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samuel, A.M.; Shah, D.H.

    1999-01-01

    The clinical manifestation of thyroid cancer (TC) as seen at the Nuclear Medicine Department, where the patients investigated prior to diagnosis of disease are clinically suspected to harbor malignancy and mostly referred for scintigraphic investigations are presented

  2. CD133-expressing thyroid cancer cells are undifferentiated, radioresistant and survive radioiodide therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ke, Chien-Chih [National Yang Ming University, Institute of Clinical Medicine, Taipei (China); Liu, Ren-Shyan [National Yang Ming University, Institute of Clinical Medicine, Taipei (China); NRPGM, Molecular and Genetic Imaging Core, Taipei (China); National Yang-Ming University, School of Medicine, Taipei (China); Taipei Veterans General Hospital, National PET/Cyclotron Center, Taipei (China); National Yang-Ming University, Department of Biomedical Imaging and Radiological Sciences, Taipei (China); Yang, An-Hang [Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Taipei (China); National Yang-Ming University, Department of Pathology, School of Medicine, Taipei (China); Liu, Ching-Sheng [National Yang-Ming University Medical School, Department of Nuclear Medicine, School of Medicine, Taipei (China); Chi, Chin-Wen [National Yang-Ming University, Institute of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Taipei (China); Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Department of Medical Research and Education, Taipei (China); Tseng, Ling-Ming [National Yang Ming University, Institute of Clinical Medicine, Taipei (China); Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Department of Surgery, Taipei (China); Tsai, Yi-Fan [Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Department of Surgery, Taipei (China); Ho, Jennifer H. [Taipei Medical University, Graduate Institute of Clinical Medicine, Taipei (China); Taipei Medical University-Wan Fang Medical Center, Department of Ophthalmology, Taipei (China); Taipei Medical University-Wan Fang Medical Center, Center for Stem Cell Research, Taipei (China); Lee, Chen-Hsen [NRPGM, Molecular and Genetic Imaging Core, Taipei (China); National Yang-Ming University, School of Medicine, Taipei (China); Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Department of Surgery, Taipei (China); Lee, Oscar K. [Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Department of Orthopedics, Taipei (China); National Yang-Ming University, Stem Cell Research Center, Taipei (China); Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Department of Medical Research and Education, Taipei (China)

    2013-01-15

    {sup 131}I therapy is regularly used following surgery as a part of thyroid cancer management. Despite an overall relatively good prognosis, recurrent or metastatic thyroid cancer is not rare. CD133-expressing cells have been shown to mark thyroid cancer stem cells that possess the characteristics of stem cells and have the ability to initiate tumours. However, no studies have addressed the influence of CD133-expressing cells on radioiodide therapy of the thyroid cancer. The aim of this study was to investigate whether CD133{sup +} cells contribute to the radioresistance of thyroid cancer and thus potentiate future recurrence and metastasis. Thyroid cancer cell lines were analysed for CD133 expression, radiosensitivity and gene expression. The anaplastic thyroid cancer cell line ARO showed a higher percentage of CD133{sup +} cells and higher radioresistance. After {gamma}-irradiation of the cells, the CD133{sup +} population was enriched due to the higher apoptotic rate of CD133{sup -} cells. In vivo {sup 131}I treatment of ARO tumour resulted in an elevated expression of CD133, Oct4, Nanog, Lin28 and Glut1 genes. After isolation, CD133{sup +} cells exhibited higher radioresistance and higher expression of Oct4, Nanog, Sox2, Lin28 and Glut1 in the cell line or primarily cultured papillary thyroid cancer cells, and lower expression of various thyroid-specific genes, namely NIS, Tg, TPO, TSHR, TTF1 and Pax8. This study demonstrates the existence of CD133-expressing thyroid cancer cells which show a higher radioresistance and are in an undifferentiated status. These cells possess a greater potential to survive radiotherapy and may contribute to the recurrence of thyroid cancer. A future therapeutic approach for radioresistant thyroid cancer may focus on the selective eradication of CD133{sup +} cells. (orig.)

  3. Anaplastic Thyroid Carcinoma: A ceRNA Analysis Pointed to a Crosstalk between SOX2, TP53, and microRNA Biogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter Arancio

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available It has been suggested that cancer stem cells (CSC may play a central role in oncogenesis, especially in undifferentiated tumours. Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC has characteristics suggestive of a tumour enriched in CSC. Previous studies suggested that the stem cell factor SOX2 has a preeminent hierarchical role in determining the characteristics of stem cells in SW1736 ATC cell line. In detail, silencing SOX2 in SW1736 is able to suppress the expression of the stem markers analysed, strongly sensitizing the line to treatment with chemotherapeutic agents. Therefore, in order to further investigate the role of SOX2 in ATC, a competing endogenous RNA (ceRNA analysis was conducted in order to isolate new functional partners of SOX2. Among the interactors, of particular interest are genes involved in the biogenesis of miRNAs (DICER1, RNASEN, and EIF2C2, in the control cell cycle (TP53, CCND1, and in mitochondrial activity (COX8A. The data suggest that stemness, microRNA biogenesis and functions, p53 regulatory network, cyclin D1, and cell cycle control, together with mitochondrial activity, might be coregulated.

  4. Thyroid Cancer: Current Molecular Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Giusti

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The thyroid cancer is a rare oncological entity, representing no more than 1% of all human malignant neoplasms. Recently, it has been demonstrated a sharp increase in incidence of differentiated thyroid carcinoma, equally occurring in both sexes. So far, multiple genetic alterations have been identified in differentiated thyroid carcinoma, leading to investigate the clinical utility of genetic studies. In particular, molecular genetic approaches searching for gene mutations in the material collected by fine needle ago-biopsy may have a particular utility in small nodules and in those specimens with an indeterminate cytology. The expansion of knowledge about genetic mutations occurring in different thyroid tumors has characterized recent years, allowing the identification of a correlation between specific mutations and phenotypic characteristics of thyroid cancers, essential for their prognosis. This review will briefly report on the histological features and the new entity represented by thyroid microcarcinoma and will focus on both environmental and genetic aspects associated with the occurrence of thyroid cancer.

  5. Pathophysiology of thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajan, M.G.R.; Nadkarni, G.D.

    1999-01-01

    The main physiological function of the thyroid gland is to produce thyroid hormones. The primary physiological control over iodine transport, organification and hormone synthesis appears to be through thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH). Regulation of tumor cells, biochemical studies in experimental tumors, role of oxygen free radical and antioxidants, role of proteases in metastasis, influence of growth factors and influence of sex hormones and receptors are discussed

  6. Epigenetics modifications and therapeutic prospects in human thyroid cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Graziella eCatalano

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available At present no successful treatment is available for advanced thyroid cancer, which comprises poorly differentiated, anaplastic, and metastatic or recurrent differentiated thyroid cancer not responding to radioiodine. In the last few years, biologically targeted therapies for advanced thyroid carcinomas have been proposed on the basis of the recognition of key oncogenic mutations. Although the results of several phase II trials look promising, none of the patients treated had a complete response, and only a minority of them had a partial response, suggesting that the treatment is, at best, effective in stabilizing patients with progressive disease. Epigenetic refers to the study of heritable changes in gene expression that occur without any alteration in the primary DNA sequence. The epigenetic processes establish and maintain the global and local chroma¬tin states that determine gene expression. Epigenetic abnormalities are present in almost all cancers and, together with genetic changes, drive tumour progression. Various genes involved in the control of cell proliferation and invasion (p16INK4A, RASSF1A,PTEN, Rap1GAP, TIMP3, DAPK, RARβ2, E-cadherin, and CITED1 as well as genes specific of thyroid differentiation (Na+/I- symport, TSH receptor, pendrin, SL5A8, and TTF-1 present aberrant methylation in thyroid cancer.This review deals with the most frequent epigenetic alterations in thyroid cancer and focuses on epigenetic therapy, whose goal is to target the chromatin in rapidly dividing tumour cells and potentially restore normal cell functions. Experimental data and clinical trials, especially using deacetylase inhibitors and demethylating agents, are discussed.

  7. Use of Ultrasound in the Management of Thyroid Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Lew, John I.; Solorzano, Carmen C.

    2010-01-01

    The article examines the utility of ultrasound in evaluating thyroid nodules, staging thyroid cancer, determining the extent of surgery needed in thyroid cancer patients, and the surveillance of patients treated for thyroid cancer.

  8. Thyroid cancer: experiences at Uttar Pradesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varma, K.D.

    1999-01-01

    The highest incidence of goitre and also carcinoma of the thyroid was found to be in Terai. Although patients having thyroid carcinoma are being treated since 1964, because of the poor follow-up of the patients, only 1140 patients seen over 20 years (1978-1997) have been included in the study. Of the 217 cases of anaplastic carcinomas, surgery was feasible in only 19.4% (43/217) of cases. Even in these cases, the disease recurred within a short period to poor results. The main treatment has been external beam radiotherapy with doxorubicin as a radiosensitiser

  9. Mediastinal Lymph Node Metastases in Thyroid Cancer: Characteristics, Predictive Factors, and Prognosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting-ting Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Mediastinal lymph node metastases (MLNM have not been extensively studied. The aim of this study is to investigate the characteristics, predictive factors, and prognosis of MLNM in thyroid cancer. Methods. This is a retrospective study based on the thyroid cancer patients with MLNM at our institution from 2008 to 2015. Results. In total, 73 thyroid cancer patients with positive MLNM were included in this study. It contained sixty patients (82.2% with papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC, twelve (16.4% with medullary thyroid carcinoma, and one (1.4% with anaplastic thyroid carcinoma. Forty-eight patients had the surgery as initial treatment. Fifty-three (72.6% patients remained disease-free, and fifteen (20.5% developed a regional recurrence. Distant metastases occurred in four (5.5% patients and five (6.8% patients died. Five-year overall survival rate and disease-free survival (DFS rate of the PTC patients for initial treatment are 95.4% and 77.2%, respectively. Extrathyroidal extension and multiple lymph nodes involved were associated with DFS in PTC patients. Conclusions. Initial therapeutic control is very important for the thyroid cancer patients. Extrathyroidal extension and multiple mediastinal lymph nodes involved were the influence factors of prognosis in the thyroid cancer patients with MLNM.

  10. Nodal metastasis in thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samuel, A.M.

    1999-01-01

    The biological behavior and hence the prognosis of thyroid cancer (TC) depends among other factors on the extent of spread of the disease outside the thyroid bed. This effect is controversial, especially for nodal metastasis of well differentiated thyroid carcinoma (WDC). Nodal metastasis at the time of initial diagnosis behaves differently depending on the histology, age of the patient, presence of extrathyroidal extension, and the sex of the individual. The type of the surgery, administration of 131 I and thyroxin suppression also to some extent influence the rate of recurrence and mortality. Experience has shown that it is not as innocuous as a small intrathyroidal tumor without any invasion outside the thyroid bed and due consideration should be accorded to the management strategies for handling patients with nodal metastasis

  11. A cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor, dinaciclib in preclinical treatment models of thyroid cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Fu Lin

    Full Text Available We explored the therapeutic effects of dinaciclib, a cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK inhibitor, in the treatment of thyroid cancer.Seven cell lines originating from three pathologic types of thyroid cancer (papillary, follicular and anaplastic were studied. The cytotoxicity of dinaciclib was measured using a lactate dehydrogenase assay. The expression of proteins associated with cell cycle and apoptosis was assessed using Western blot analysis and immunofluorescence microscopy. Cell cycle distribution was measured by flow cytometry and immunofluorescence microscopy. Apoptosis and caspase-3 activity were measured by flow cytometry and fluorometric assay. Mice bearing flank anaplastic thyroid cancer (ATC were treated with intraperitoneal injections of dinaciclib.Dinaciclib inhibited thyroid cancer cell proliferation in a dose-dependent manner. Dinaciclib had a low median-effect dose (≤ 16.0 nM to inhibit cell proliferation in seven thyroid cancer cell lines. Dinaciclib decreased CDK1, cyclin B1, and Aurora A expression, induced cell cycle arrest in the G2/M phase, and induced accumulation of prophase mitotic cells. Dinaciclib decreased Mcl-1, Bcl-xL and survivin expression, activated caspase-3 and induced apoptosis. In vivo, the growth of ATC xenograft tumors was retarded in a dose-dependent fashion with daily dinaciclib treatment. Higher-dose dinaciclib (50 mg/kg caused slight, but significant weight loss, which was absent with lower-dose dinaciclib (40 mg/kg treatment.Dinaciclib inhibited thyroid cancer proliferation both in vitro and in vivo. These findings support dinaciclib as a potential drug for further studies in clinical trials for the treatment of patients with refractory thyroid cancer.

  12. Sonographic appearance of thyroid cancer in patients with Hashimoto thyroiditis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durfee, Sara M; Benson, Carol B; Arthaud, Dylan M; Alexander, Erik K; Frates, Mary C

    2015-04-01

    To determine whether the sonographic appearance of thyroid cancer differs in patients with and without Hashimoto thyroiditis. Patients with histologically proven thyroid cancer who had thyroid peroxidase (TPO) antibodies measured and sonography performed preoperatively were included. We evaluated each nodule for size, echogenicity, composition, margins, halo, and vascularity and evaluated the background heterogeneity of the gland. There were 162 thyroid cancers in 145 patients. Forty-two patients (29.0%) had Hashimoto thyroiditis with positive TPO antibodies, and 103 patients (71.0%) had negative TPO antibodies. The background echogenicity was more often heterogeneous in TPO antibody-positive patients compared to those who had negative TPO antibodies (57.1% versus 26.2%; P= .0005). Comparing cancers in TPO antibody-positive to TPO antibody-negative patients, there was no significant difference in the size, echogenicity, composition, margins, halo presence, calcification presence and type, or vascularity of the cancerous nodule (P > .05). Among TPO antibody-positive patients, comparing thyroid cancerous nodules in patients with heterogeneous glands to those with homogeneous glands, there was no significant difference in any sonographic characteristic except the margin of the nodule, which was more often irregular or poorly defined in heterogeneous glands and more often smooth in homogeneous glands (PHashimoto thyroiditis. Among patients with Hashimoto thyroiditis and thyroid cancer, the sonographic appearance of the cancerous nodule is similar, except that cancerous nodule margins are more likely to be irregular or poorly defined when the gland is heterogeneous. © 2015 by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine.

  13. Thyroid autoantibodies and differentiated thyroid cancer: revue of 662 cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Izembart, M.; Dagousset, F.; Chevalier, A.; Hassid, V.; Leger, A.; Barritault, L.; Clerc, J.

    1999-01-01

    The incidence of thyroid autoantibodies is clearly increased in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer. The aim of this study was to re-evaluate frequency and evolution of anti-thyroglobulin and anti-microsomal (anti-peroxidase) autoantibodies in 662 patients with thyroid carcinoma treated with 131 radioiodine. Ours results obtained with 'classical' methods confirmed others earlier reports. When using more sensitive methods to detect thyroglobulin antibodies we obtained an increase in positive results and a more frequent association with anti-microsomal antibodies. Antibodies became undetectable with a variable period, ranging from a few months to 13 years in one case. If we suppose that the disappearance of antibodies is linked to the thyroid tissue disappearance, thyroid cancer follow up ought to include anti-thyroglobulin and anti-peroxidase antibodies, both directed against thyroid antigens. A decrease of both antibodies seems to indicate a favorable prognostic factor whereas an increase may suggest relapse. (author)

  14. Thyroid Hormones as Renal Cell Cancer Regulators

    OpenAIRE

    Szyma?ski, ?ukasz; Matak, Damian; Bartnik, Ewa; Szczylik, Cezary; Czarnecka, Anna M.

    2016-01-01

    It is known that thyroid hormone is an important regulator of cancer development and metastasis. What is more, changes across the genome, as well as alternative splicing, may affect the activity of the thyroid hormone receptors. Mechanism of action of the thyroid hormone is different in every cancer; therefore in this review thyroid hormone and its receptor are presented as a regulator of renal cell carcinoma.

  15. Epigenetic modulators of thyroid cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Rodero, Sandra; Delgado-Álvarez, Elías; Díaz-Naya, Lucía; Martín Nieto, Alicia; Menéndez Torre, Edelmiro

    2017-01-01

    There are some well known factors involved in the etiology of thyroid cancer, including iodine deficiency, radiation exposure at early ages, or some genetic changes. However, epigenetic modulators that may contribute to development of these tumors and be helpful to for both their diagnosis and treatment have recently been discovered. The currently known changes in DNA methylation, histone modifications, and non-coding RNAs in each type of thyroid carcinoma are reviewed here. Copyright © 2016 SEEN. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  16. Galectin-3 induced by hypoxia promotes cell migration in thyroid cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jiaojiao; Lu, Weihui; Wang, Cong; Xing, Yang; Chen, Xiaoning; Ai, Zhilong

    2017-11-24

    The aim of this study is to investigate the role of Galectin-3 in human thyroid cancer migration. The expression of Galectin-3 in surgical specimens was investigated using immunohistochemistry and western blot. A papillary thyroid cancer cell line (B-cpap) and an anaplastic thyroid cancer cell line (8305c) were transfected with short-hairpin RNA against Galectin-3 (Gal-3-shRNA). Low-molecular citrus pectin (LCP) was also used to antagonize Galectin-3. The migration and invasion of the cell lines were examined. The related signaling pathways were investigated to explore the Galectin-3 mechanism of action. Galectin-3 was highly expressed in metastasized thyroid cancers. Knocking down and antagonizing Galectin-3 significantly suppressed the migration of thyroid cancer cells. Knocking down Galectin-3 inhibited the activity of Wnt, MAPK, Src and Rho signaling pathways. Galectin-3 was up-regulated via HIF-1α in a hypoxic environment. Galectin-3 knockdown could reduce cell motility in hypoxic environments. This study suggests that Galectin-3 could act as a modulator of thyroid cancer migration, especially in hypoxic microenvironments. This regulation function of Galectin-3 may work through multiple signaling pathways.

  17. Thyroid cancer: some basic considerations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wanebo, H.J.; Andrews, W.; Kaiser, D.L.

    1981-10-01

    From these data and data from the literature, our recommended treatment for well-differentiated cancer is as follows: For papillary cancer, resection should be adequate to encompass the entire tumor, which in most cases would be complete lobectomy and possibly isthmusectomy. Prophylactic neck dissection is of no value; therapeutic modified neck dissection should be done for stage II disease. Follicular cancer can be treated by lobectomy (for small lesions) or subtotal thyroidectomy. Although total or near-total thyroidectomy may be required in selected patients with large primary cancers or in those with extensive capsular invasion or extrathyroid extension, the number of cases indicating this is small. There were only a few such patients with large primaries requiring total thyroidectomy in this study. Total thyroidectomy is best avoided in most cases. considering the price of hypoparathyroidism and the lack of a significant improvement in survival compared with lesser ablative techniques. Postoperative ablation with iodine-131 did not improve survival in staged patients with papillary cancer (the number of patients with follicular cancer was too small for analysis). Postoperative thyroid suppression by exogenous thyroid hormone postoperatively appeared to improve survival. Although the data were not adequate for evaluation in follicular cancer, there seems to be no reason not to use this postoperatively in high risk patients with either papillary or follicular cancer.

  18. Thyroid cancer: some basic considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wanebo, H.J.; Andrews, W.; Kaiser, D.L.

    1981-01-01

    From these data and data from the literature, our recommended treatment for well-differentiated cancer is as follows: For papillary cancer, resection should be adequate to encompass the entire tumor, which in most cases would be complete lobectomy and possibly isthmusectomy. Prophylactic neck dissection is of no value; therapeutic modified neck dissection should be done for stage II disease. Follicular cancer can be treated by lobectomy (for small lesions) or subtotal thyroidectomy. Although total or near-total thyroidectomy may be required in selected patients with large primary cancers or in those with extensive capsular invasion or extrathyroid extension, the number of cases indicating this is small. There were only a few such patients with large primaries requiring total thyroidectomy in this study. Total thyroidectomy is best avoided in most cases. considering the price of hypoparathyroidism and the lack of a significant improvement in survival compared with lesser ablative techniques. Postoperative ablation with iodine-131 did not improve survival in staged patients with papillary cancer (the number of patients with follicular cancer was too small for analysis). Postoperative thyroid suppression by exogenous thyroid hormone postoperatively appeared to improve survival. Although the data were not adequate for evaluation in follicular cancer, there seems to be no reason not to use this postoperatively in high risk patients with either papillary or follicular cancer

  19. DNA Methylation in Thyroid Tumorigenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria J. Worsham

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Thyroid cancer is the most common endocrine cancer with 1,690 deaths each year. There are four main types of which the papillary and follicular types together account for >90% followed by medullary cancers with 3% to 5% and anaplastic carcinomas making up

  20. HMGB1-Induced Cross Talk between PTEN and miRs 221/222 in Thyroid Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Mardente

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available High mobility group box 1 (HMGB1 is an ubiquitous protein that plays different roles in the nucleus, cytoplasm, and extracellular space. It is an important DAMP molecule that allows communication between damaged or tumor cells and the immune system. Tumor cells exploit HMGB1’s ability to activate intracellular pathways that lead to cell growth and migration. Papillary thyroid cancer is a well-differentiated tumor and is often used to study relationships between cells and the inflammatory microenvironment as the latter is characterized by high levels of inflammatory cells and cytokines. Anaplastic thyroid cancer is one of the most lethal human cancers in which many microRNAs and tumor suppressor genes are deregulated. Upregulation of microRNAs 221 and 222 has been shown to induce the malignant phenotype in many human cancers via inhibition of PTEN expression. In this study we suggest that extracellular HMGB1 interaction with RAGE enhances expression of oncogenic cluster miR221/222 that in turn inhibits tumor suppressor gene PTEN in two cell lines derived from human thyroid anaplastic and papillary cancers. The newly identified pathway HMGB1/RAGE/miR221/222 may represent an effective way of tumor escape from immune surveillance that could be used to develop new therapeutic strategies against anaplastic tumors.

  1. Unmodifiable variables related to thyroid cancer incidence

    OpenAIRE

    Cornelia Nitipir; Lucian Alecu; Iulian Slavu; Raluca Tulin; Radu C. Jecan

    2018-01-01

    The incidence of thyroid cancer is significantly different between male and female patients. Thyroid cancer is also the only form of cancer where age can be considered a staging variable. Identifying biological prognostic factors such as age or sex is important as it helps select an optimal personalized therapy. The present analysis is an observational, prospective study that enrolled all patients with thyroid disease who were operated upon at a single center. The study aimed to determine the...

  2. Etiology of thyroid cancer: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narkar, A.A.

    1999-01-01

    Thyroid cancer, although a relatively rare tumor, is the most common cancer of the endocrine glands. The identification of genetic factors important in the pathogesis of thyroid cancer could provide molecular tools for a better differential diagnosis between the different histotypes. Characterisation of mechanisms by which mutated proteins transduce mitogenic and de-differentiating signals might suggest novel therapeutic approaches for controlling cell growth and restoring thyroid differentiated functions

  3. Stages of Thyroid Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of cancer. Tracheostomy : Surgery to create an opening ( stoma ) into the windpipe to help you breathe. The ... information on cancer prevention, detection, genetics, treatment, supportive care, and complementary and alternative medicine. Most summaries come ...

  4. Recovery of NIS expression in thyroid cancer cells by overexpression of Pax8 gene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Presta, Ivan; Filetti, Sebastiano; Russo, Diego; Arturi, Franco; Ferretti, Elisabetta; Mattei, Tiziana; Scarpelli, Daniela; Tosi, Emanuele; Scipioni, Angela; Celano, Marilena; Gulino, Alberto

    2005-01-01

    Recovery of iodide uptake in thyroid cancer cells by means of obtaining the functional expression of the sodium/iodide symporter (NIS) represents an innovative strategy for the treatment of poorly differentiated thyroid cancer. However, the NIS gene expression alone is not always sufficient to restore radioiodine concentration ability in these tumour cells. In this study, the anaplastic thyroid carcinoma ARO cells were stably transfected with a Pax8 gene expression vector. A quantitative RT-PCR was performed to assess the thyroid specific gene expression in selected clones. The presence of NIS protein was detected by Western blot and localized by immunofluorescence. A iodide uptake assay was also performed to verify the functional effect of NIS induction and differentiation switch. The clones overexpressing Pax8 showed the re-activation of several thyroid specific genes including NIS, Pendrin, Thyroglobulin, TPO and TTF1. In ARO-Pax8 clones NIS protein was also localized both in cell cytoplasm and membrane. Thus, the ability to uptake the radioiodine was partially restored, associated to a high rate of efflux. In addition, ARO cells expressing Pax8 presented a lower rate of cell growth. These finding demonstrate that induction of Pax8 expression may determine a re-differentiation of thyroid cancer cells, including a partial recovery of iodide uptake, fundamental requisite for a radioiodine-based therapeutic approach for thyroid tumours

  5. Brigatinib in Patients With Crizotinib-Refractory Anaplastic Lymphoma Kinase-Positive Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, Dong-Wan; Tiseo, Marcello; Ahn, Myung-Ju

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Most crizotinib-treated patients with anaplastic lymphoma kinase gene ( ALK)-rearranged non-small-cell lung cancer (ALK-positive NSCLC) eventually experience disease progression. We evaluated two regimens of brigatinib, an investigational next-generation ALK inhibitor, in crizotinib-refra...

  6. Anaplastic lymphoma kinase inhibition in metastatic non-small cell lung cancer: clinical impact of alectinib

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muller IB

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Ittai B Muller,1 Adrianus J de Langen,2,3 Elisa Giovannetti,4,5 Godefridus J Peters4 1Department of Clinical Chemistry, 2Department of Pulmonology, VU University Medical Center, 3Department of Thoracic Oncology, Netherlands Cancer Institute, 4Department of Medical Oncology, VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam, the Netherlands; 5Cancer Pharmacology Lab, AIRC Start-Up Unit, University of Pisa, Pisa, Italy Abstract: A subset of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC tumors (5% harbors an anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK translocation that drives tumorigenesis. The clinically approved first-line treatment crizotinib specifically inhibits ALK and improves progression-free survival (PFS in treated and untreated patients by 4 months compared to standard chemotherapy. While some patients relapse after crizotinib treatment due to resistance mutations in ALK, second-generation ALK inhibitors effectively induce tumor response and prolong PFS. Alectinib, a second-generation ALK inhibitor, has recently been approved for ALK-rearranged NSCLC after patients progressed on crizotinib. Alectinib is able to inhibit several crizotinib- and ceritinib-resistant ALK mutations in vitro. Furthermore, alectinib is a more potent tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI, with favorable safety profile, and has increased penetration into the central nervous system, inhibiting crizotinib-resistant brain metastases. The discovery of effective personalized therapies to combat ALK-rearranged NSCLC such as alectinib is an example of the importance of genomic profiling of NSCLC and provides an excellent template for future discoveries in managing these tumors. Keywords: crizotinib, acquired resistance, alectinib, anaplastic lymphoma kinase, tyrosine kinase inhibitors, non-small cell lung cancer

  7. Radiofrequency Ablation of Benign Thyroid Nodules and Recurrent Thyroid Cancers: Consensus Statement and Recommendations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Na, Dong Gyu [Human Medical Imaging and Intervention Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jeong Hyun [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Jung, So Lyung [Seoul St. Marys Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-06-15

    Radiofrequency ablation is a new non-surgical treatment modality for patients with benign thyroid nodules and recurrent thyroid cancers. The Task Force Committee of the Korean Society of Thyroid Radiology has developed recommendations for the treatment of benign thyroid nodules and recurrent thyroid cancers using radiofrequency ablation. These recommendations are based on evidence from the current literature and expert consensus

  8. Screening for thyroid cancer in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagataki, S.; Ashizawa, K.

    1996-01-01

    In the screening of the thyroid diseases in the radiation exposed cohort, it is essential to make correct diagnosis and to measure radiation dose in every subjects in the cohort and to analyze the dose response relationship by the most appropriate statistical method. Thus, thyroid cancer, thyroid adenoma and autoimmune hypothyroidism were confirmed to be radiation-induced thyroid diseases among atomic bomb survivors. A group of investigators from Nagasaki university have been working in the thyroid part of Chernobyl Sasakawa Health and Medical Cooperation Project, and more than 80000 children were screened in 5 diagnostic centers (Mogilev, Gomel, Kiev, Korosten and Klincy). In order to make correct diagnosis, thyroid echo-tomography, measurements of serum levels of free thyroxine, TSH, titers of anti-thyroid antibodies were performed in every children in the cohort and aspiration biopsy was performed when necessary. Whole body Cs 137 radioactivity was also determined in every subjects. Children with thyroid cancer confirmed by histology (biopsy or operation) were 2 in Mogilev, 19 in Gomel, 6 in Kiev, 5 in Korosten and 4 in Klincy (until 1994). Since children screened in each center were less than 20000, prevalence of thyroid cancer was remarkably high (lowest 100 and highest 1000/million children) when compared to the other parts of the world (0.2 to 5/million/year). However, there was no dose response relationship between the prevalence of cancer or nodule and whole body Cs 137 radioactivity. Although a significant correlation between thyroid cancer and reconstructed thyroid I 131 dose was presented, there are no previous reports to prove that I 131 produces thyroid cancer in human. Investigation on external radiation and short lived isotopes along with I 131 may be important to elucidate the cause of thyroid cancer

  9. Thyroid Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your thyroid gland does not make enough thyroid hormones Thyroid cancer Thyroid nodules - lumps in the thyroid gland Thyroiditis - swelling of the thyroid To diagnose thyroid diseases, doctors use a medical history, physical exam, and thyroid tests. They sometimes also ...

  10. Anaplastic Lymphoma Kinase Rearrangement in Digestive Tract Cancer: Implication for Targeted Therapy in Chinese Population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianming Ying

    Full Text Available Anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK rearrangements define a subgroup of lung cancer which is eligible to targeted kinase inhibition. The aim of this study is to observe the incidence rate of ALK fusion in a large cohort of Chinese digestive tract cancer patients.Tissue microarray (TMA was constructed from 808 digestive tract cancer cases, including 169 esophageal squamous cell carcinoma, 182 gastric cancer and 457 colorectal cancer (CRC cases. We tested all cases for ALK expression via a fully automated immunohistochemistry (IHC assay. The IHC-positive cases were subjected to fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH, real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR, target gene enrichment and sequencing for confirmation of ALK gene rearrangement and discovery of novel fusion partner.Among the tested cases, 2 (0.44% CRC cases showed positive both by IHC and FISH. By qRT-PCR, EML4-ALK fusion was found in one IHC-positive CRC case. In another IHC-positive CRC case, target gene enrichment and sequencing revealed ALK was fused to a novel partner, spectrin beta non-erythrocytic 1 (SPTBN1. One gastric cancer case showed partially positive IHC result, but no fusion was found by FISH and gene sequencing.The incidence rate of ALK gene fusion in Chinese CRC patients was 0.44%,but not detectable in gastric and esophageal cancers. The novel SPTBN1 -ALK fusion, together with other ALK fusion genes, may become a potential target for anti-ALK therapy.

  11. Thyroglobulin in differentiated thyroid cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Carol; Tennant, Sarah; Perros, Petros

    2015-04-15

    Identification of differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) is becoming increasingly common. Patients usually have an excellent prognosis. Most undergo total thyroidectomy, radioiodine ablation and treatment with suppressive doses of levothyroxine. Patients require long term follow-up which includes measurement of serum thyroglobulin (Tg). Interpretation of serum Tg requires knowledge of the concurrent thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) concentration, as secretion is TSH dependant, and an awareness of the limitations of the methods used to measure it. These limitations include the heterogeneity of Tg in serum, the ability of assays to recognise forms of Tg secreted by a tumour, assay biases and not least the potential for interference in immunoassays for Tg from endogenous thyroglobulin antibodies (TgAbs) in patient serum. This review considers what the clinician wants to know and how Tg results can be interpreted in light of an awareness of assay limitations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Imaging strategy in differentiated thyroid cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Phan, Thi Thanh Ha

    2007-01-01

    This thesis focuses on clinical dilemmas, which the clinician faces in the management of patients with differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) with a specific emphasis on the role of current and new diagnostic imaging. Thyroid cancer is a rare disease, but it is the most common endocrine malignancy of

  13. Thyroid cancer in children in Belarus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demidchik, E.P.; Drobyshevskaya, I.M.; Cherstvoy, E.D.; Astakhova, L.N.; Vorontsova, T.V.; Okeanov, A.E.; Germenchuk, M.

    1996-01-01

    Pediatric thyroid cancer was diagnosed in 390 patients in Belarus after the Chernobyl accident. The morbidity rates increased by 55.7 times as compared with the 10 year pre-accident period. Thyroid cancer in children is highly aggressive disease accompanied by surrounding tissues and metastatic involvement of lymph nodes

  14. Chemotherapy in thyroid carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samuel, A.M.; Shah, D.H.

    1999-01-01

    Chemotherapy alone, either as a single drug or a combination of drugs with or without external radiation (ER) is useful for treatment of locally advanced disease and non iodine concentrating metastasis in differentiated thyroid cancers (DTC). The reported response is not encouraging, but the absence of better alternatives leave no choice for the treatment of such cases. However, for treatment of anaplastic thyroid cancers (ANC), chemotherapy (CT) in combination with ER results in local control. In medullary thyroid cancers (MTC), the results obtained with multimodal treatment are encouraging

  15. Thyroid Cancer Presenting with Concomitant Metastatic Breast Cancer in the Thyroid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung-Chen Wang

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The thyroid is an unusual site to find cancer metastasis. When it does occur, such cancer spread is often manifested in multiple metastases and generally suggests a poor prognosis. We presented here a 49-year-old woman recently diagnosed with thyroid cancer, who had been treated for stage IIA breast cancer 8 years ago. After radical right thyroidectomy and left subtotal thyroidectomy, her pathological report showed papillary thyroid carcinoma, right thyroid, with concomitant metastatic breast carcinoma. This is the first case of which we are aware involving coexisting thyroid cancer and metastatic breast cancer in the ipsilateral lobe. Moreover, the circumstances of this case show a very unique clinical course compared with previous studies. Given the unusual circumstances of our case, we further discuss the relationship between thyroid cancer and breast cancer.

  16. Risk of thyroid cancer in euthyroid asymptomatic patients with thyroid nodules with an emphasis on family history of thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    JHwang, Shin Hye; Kim, Eun Kyung; Moon, Hee Jung; Yoon, Jung Hyun; Kwak, Jin Young

    2016-01-01

    To determine the factors associated with thyroid cancer, focusing on first-degree family history and ultrasonography (US) features, in euthyroid asymptomatic patients with thyroid nodules. This retrospective study included 1310 thyroid nodules of 1254 euthyroid asymptomatic patients who underwent US-guided fine-needle aspiration biopsy between November 2012 and August 2013. Nodule size and clinical risk factors- such as patient age, gender, first-degree family history of thyroid cancer, multiplicity on US and serum thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) levels - were considered together with US features to compare benign and malignant nodules. Multiple logistic regression analysis was performed to assess the risk of thyroid malignancy according to clinical and US characteristics. Although all of the clinical factors and US findings were significantly different between patients with benign and malignant nodules, a solitary lesion on US (p = 0.041–0.043), US features and male gender (p < 0.001) were significant independent risk factors for thyroid malignancy in a multivariate analysis. Patient age, a first-degree family history of thyroid cancer and high normal serum TSH levels did not independently significantly increase the risk of thyroid cancer. However, multicollinearity existed between US assessment and patient age, first-degree family history of thyroid cancer and serum TSH values. Ultrasonography findings should be the primary criterion used to decide the management of euthyroid asymptomatic patients with thyroid nodules. The concept of first-degree family history as a risk factor for thyroid malignancy should be further studied in asymptomatic patients

  17. Risk of thyroid cancer in euthyroid asymptomatic patients with thyroid nodules with an emphasis on family history of thyroid cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JHwang, Shin Hye; Kim, Eun Kyung; Moon, Hee Jung; Yoon, Jung Hyun; Kwak, Jin Young [Dept. of Radiology, Research Institute of Radiological Science, Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-04-15

    To determine the factors associated with thyroid cancer, focusing on first-degree family history and ultrasonography (US) features, in euthyroid asymptomatic patients with thyroid nodules. This retrospective study included 1310 thyroid nodules of 1254 euthyroid asymptomatic patients who underwent US-guided fine-needle aspiration biopsy between November 2012 and August 2013. Nodule size and clinical risk factors- such as patient age, gender, first-degree family history of thyroid cancer, multiplicity on US and serum thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) levels - were considered together with US features to compare benign and malignant nodules. Multiple logistic regression analysis was performed to assess the risk of thyroid malignancy according to clinical and US characteristics. Although all of the clinical factors and US findings were significantly different between patients with benign and malignant nodules, a solitary lesion on US (p = 0.041–0.043), US features and male gender (p < 0.001) were significant independent risk factors for thyroid malignancy in a multivariate analysis. Patient age, a first-degree family history of thyroid cancer and high normal serum TSH levels did not independently significantly increase the risk of thyroid cancer. However, multicollinearity existed between US assessment and patient age, first-degree family history of thyroid cancer and serum TSH values. Ultrasonography findings should be the primary criterion used to decide the management of euthyroid asymptomatic patients with thyroid nodules. The concept of first-degree family history as a risk factor for thyroid malignancy should be further studied in asymptomatic patients.

  18. Chernobyl accident and thyroid cancers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertin, M.; Lallemand, J.; Hubert, D.

    1995-01-01

    The principle consequence of Chernobyl accident, on the plan of the long term effects, is a very important increase of thyroid cancers frequency on children. The cause is certainly the very important thyroid contamination by radioactive iodine released in atmosphere during this accident. The excess in five years is about 500 cases for Belarus, Ukraine and Russia republics; the incidence has been multiplied by 50 in Belarus. These cancers, appeared in the great majority on children contaminated before they were five years old, are very invasive; local and regional extensions are important, metastasis are numerous. They are cured in an unperfect manner. It is impossible to tell what will be the future of this epidemic. It seems that children epidemic is going to decrease; the increase of adult epidemic is modest but it can become more serious. If stable iodine distribution had been correctly made, it is likely that the number of cases would have been lower. Iodine storages have been constituted in France, but distribution rules are not still defined. No augmentation of others cancers appeared especially for leukemia. 15 refs., 3 tabs

  19. Pulmonary metastasis in thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samuel, A.M.; Rajashekharrao, B.; Shah, D.H.

    1999-01-01

    Although thyroid cancer (TC) in its differentiated form is generally associated with a good prognosis and a near normal life expectancy, a subset of patients especially with distant metastatic disease may run an aggressive course leading to poor survival and early death. The clinical presentation and the manner in which the disease progresses differs with the site and type of the metastatic disease. The behaviour and course of skeletal metastasis has been described elsewhere. The biological behaviour and treatment of pulmonary metastatic disease is focussed on

  20. Flavonoids, Thyroid Iodide Uptake and Thyroid Cancer-A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Carlos F L; de Freitas, Mariana L; Ferreira, Andrea C F

    2017-06-12

    Thyroid cancer is the most common malignant tumor of the endocrine system and the incidence has been increasing in recent years. In a great part of the differentiated carcinomas, thyrocytes are capable of uptaking iodide. In these cases, the main therapeutic approach includes thyroidectomy followed by ablative therapy with radioiodine. However, in part of the patients, the capacity to concentrate iodide is lost due to down-regulation of the sodium-iodide symporter (NIS), the protein responsible for transporting iodide into the thyrocytes. Thus, therapy with radioiodide becomes ineffective, limiting therapeutic options and reducing the life expectancy of the patient. Excessive ingestion of some flavonoids has been associated with thyroid dysfunction and goiter. Nevertheless, studies have shown that some flavonoids can be beneficial for thyroid cancer, by reducing cell proliferation and increasing cell death, besides increasing NIS mRNA levels and iodide uptake. Recent data show that the flavonoids apingenin and rutin are capable of increasing NIS function and expression in vivo. Herein we review literature data regarding the effect of flavonoids on thyroid cancer, besides the effect of these compounds on the expression and function of the sodium-iodide symporter. We will also discuss the possibility of using flavonoids as adjuvants for therapy of thyroid cancer.

  1. The 'rings of fire' and thyroid cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duntas, Leonidas H; Doumas, Christos

    2009-01-01

    Several studies have revealed an increased incidence of thyroid cancer in volcanic areas around the world. Hawaii and the Philippines on the rim of the Pacific Ocean, where the greatest number of volcanoes are located at convergent plate boundaries, are among the regions with the highest incidence of thyroid carcinoma worldwide. Iceland is another region also rich in volcanoes in which the highest incidence of thyroid cancer in Europe is found. The common denominator of these regions is their numerous volcanoes and the fact that several constituents of volcanic lava have been postulated as being involved in the pathogenesis of thyroid cancer. This article aims at presenting pertinent data that could link a volcanic environment to thyroid cancer.

  2. Stemness is derived from thyroid cancer cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Risheng eMa

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: One hypothesis for thyroid cancer development is its derivation from thyroid cancer stem cells (CSCs. Such cells could arise via different paths including from mutated resident stem cells within the thyroid gland or via epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT from malignant cells since EMT is known to confer stem-like characteristics. Methods: To examine the status of stemness in thyroid papillary cancer we employed a murine model of thyroid papillary carcinoma and examined the expression of stemness and EMT using qPCR and histochemistry in mice with a thyroid-specific knock-in of oncogenic Braf (LSL-Braf(V600E/TPO-Cre. This construct is only activated at the time of thyroid peroxidase (TPO expression in differentiating thyroid cells and cannot be activated by undifferentiated stem cells which do not express TPO.Results: There was decreased expression of thyroid specific genes such as Tg and NIS and increased expression of stemness markers such as Oct4, Rex1, CD15 and Sox2 in the thyroid carcinoma tissue from 6 week old BRAFV600E mice. The decreased expression of the epithelial marker E-cadherin and increased EMT regulators including Snail, Slug, and TGF-β1 and TGF-β3, and the mesenchymal marker vimentin demonstrated the simultaneous progression of EMT and the CSC-like phenotype. Stemness was also found in a derived cancer thyroid cell line in which overexpression of Snail caused up-regulation of vimentin expression and up regulation of stemness markers Oct4, Rex1, CD15 with enhanced migration ability of the cells. Conclusions: Our findings support our earlier hypothesis that stemness in thyroid cancer is derived via EMT rather than from resident thyroid stem cells. In mice with a thyroid-specific knock-in of oncogenic Braf (LSL-Braf(V600E/TPO-Cre the neoplastic changes were dependent on thyroid cell differentiation and the onset of stemness must have been derived from differentiated thyroid epithelial cells.

  3. The WHO activities on thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baverstock, K.; Cardis, E.

    1996-01-01

    The WHO has been involved in activities related to thyroid disease in populations exposed to Chernobyl fallout since 1991. The International Programme on the Health Effects of the Chernobyl Accident, based in Geneva, undertook a pilot project on screening for thyroid disease and the WHO European Centre for Environment and Health responded to claims from Belarus of an increase of childhood thyroid cancer. Since then the WHO has been developing the public health response in partnership with scientists and physicians in Belarus and a number of centres of excellence outside the CIS specializing in the disciplines relevant to the problem. In 1993 the International Thyroid Project was initiated in partnership with the International Agency for Cancer Research. The activities developed with scientists and physicians in Belarus to respond to the increase are described. The increase in thyroid cancer and its implications for future accidents have been addressed. Revised advice on stable iodine prophylaxis has been formulated

  4. Benign Thyroid Conditions Associated with Increased Risk of Thyroid Cancer Later in Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    In a new study from the National Cancer Institute and Aarhus University Hospital in Denmark, researchers report an association between diagnosis of hyperthyroidism and thyroiditis (inflammation of the thyroid gland), two benign thyroid conditions, and increased risk of differentiated thyroid cancer.

  5. Hashimoto's Thyroiditis Pathology and Risk for Thyroid Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paparodis, Rodis; Imam, Shahnawaz; Todorova-Koteva, Kristina; Staii, Anca

    2014-01-01

    Background: Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT) has been found to coexist with differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) in surgical specimens, but an association between the two conditions has been discounted by the medical literature. Therefore, we performed this study to determine any potential relationship between HT and the risk of developing DTC. Methods: We collected data for thyrotropin (TSH), thyroxine (T4), thyroid peroxidase antibody (TPO-Ab) titers, surgical pathology, and weight-based levothyroxine (LT4) replacement dose for patients who were referred for thyroid surgery. Patients with HT at final pathology were studied further. To estimate thyroid function, patients with preoperative hypothyroid HT (Hypo-HT) were divided into three equal groups based on their LT4 replacement: LT4-Low (1.43 μg/kg). A group of preoperatively euthyroid (Euth-HT) patients but with HT by pathology was also studied. All subjects were also grouped based on their TPO-Ab titer in TPO-high (titer >1:1000) or TPO-low/negative (titer thyroid glands (LT4-Low) but not in fully hypothyroid HT (LT4-Mid and LT4-High). High TPO-Ab titers appear to protect against DTC in patients with HT. PMID:24708347

  6. Thyroid cancer following diagnostic iodine-131 administration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, P.; Holm, L.-E.; Boice, J.D.

    1996-01-01

    To provide quantitative data on the risk of thyroid cancer following 131 I exposure, 34104 patients administered 131 I for diagnostic purposes were followed for up to 40 years. Mean thyroid dose was estimated as 1.1 Gy, and 67 thyroid cancers occurred in contrast to 49.7 expected [standardized incidence ratio (SIR)=1.35; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.05-1.71]. Excess cancers were apparent only among patients referred because of a suspected thyroid tumor and no increased risk was seen among those referred for other reasons. Further, risk was not related to radiation dose to the thyroid gland, time since exposure, or age at exposure. The slight excess of thyroid cancer, then appeared due to the underlying thyroid condition and not radiation exposure. Among those under age 20 years when 131 I was administered, a small excess risk (3 cancers vs 1.8 expected) was about 2-10 times lower than that predicted from A-bomb data. These data suggest that protraction of dose may result in a lower risk than acute x-ray exposure of the same total dose

  7. Thyroid cancer incidence in Corsica. 1998 - 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pascal, Laurence; Lasalle, Jean-Luc

    2012-07-01

    In France, Corsica appears to be one of the most exposed regions to the fallout from the Chernobyl accident. Taking into account the scientific knowledge at that time, it was decided to focus studies on thyroid cancers. A study was carried out in order to estimate thyroid cancer incidence in Corsica for the periods 1998-2001 and 2002-2006. The study identified incident thyroid cancer cases between 1998 and 2006 among residents in Corsica. Data were collected using information from the hospitals (PMSI) and the local health insurance funds (ALD). Cases were validated through medical records before inclusion in the study. Over the period of study, 342 cases of thyroid cancer, rather women and relatively young patients, were identified in Corsica. Incidence rate of the thyroid cancer was high, but stable among men, and with a slight increase among women, particularly between 2002 and 2006. However, incidence rate and clinical characteristics of thyroid cancer in Corsica are not exceptional and are similar to those in other French districts. (authors)

  8. Thyroid cancer incidence in Lithuania over the period of 1978-2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulakiene, I.; Kuprionis, G.; Makstiene, J.

    2004-01-01

    significantly in both sexes and varied from 0.3 to 1.0 in men and from 0.8 to 1.5 in women. Almost half of all thyroid cancer patients newly included into Lithuanian Cancer Registry were admitted to our hospital: 98 in the year 2001, 147 in 2002 and 109 during 7 months of 2003. We analysed 354 new cases of thyroid carcinoma admitted to the Kaunas Medical University Hospital during the period of 2001 - July 2003. Mean age of female patients was 52.4 years and 54.2 of male patients (range 11-88 years). The predominant type of thyroid cancer was papillary carcinoma - 289 (81.6%). Follicular carcinoma was present in 52 (14.7%), medullary - 11 (3.1%) and anaplastic/undifferentiated in 2 (0.6%) cases. The papillary to follicular carcinoma ratio during the period from 2001 to July 2003 was 6.92, 5.52 and 4.68 respectively. The extent of disease, expressed by TNM classification was as follows: T1 in 120 (28.8 %), T2 in 101 (24.2%), T3 in 43 (10.3%), T4 in 153 (36.7%); regional lymph nodes involvement in 46 (11.0 %), distant metastasis in 3 (0.7 %) cases. According to our data, the annual incidence of thyroid cancer is increasing mainly in women and the papillary to follicular carcinoma ratio is unlike in iodine deficient regions. Thus, we come to the conclusion that one of the main reasons of the increase in thyroid cancer incidence is due to the improved diagnostic activity. (author)

  9. Thyroid cancer treatment : Long-term effects and new developments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klein Hesselink, Esther

    2016-01-01

    Thyroid cancer is increasingly common. This is especially the case for differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC), which has a favorable prognosis. Treatment consists of surgical removal of the thyroid gland, radioiodine treatment, and life-long administration of relatively high doses of thyroid hormone.

  10. Introduction to European comments on "Medullary Thyroid Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jarzab, Barbara; Feldt-Rasmussen, Ulla

    2013-01-01

    Guest Editors of Thyroid Research supplement devoted to medullary thyroid cancer present the history on how the discussion about "Medullary Thyroid Cancer: management guidelines of the American Thyroid Association" was initiated and subsequently widely commented before and during European Thyroid...... Association - Cancer Research Network Meeting in Lisbon. It is explained why it has been decided to publish the manuscripts within the supplement - to document voices from the discussion and popularize them....

  11. Increased thyroid cancer risk in acromegaly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagdelen, Selcuk; Cinar, Nese; Erbas, Tomris

    2014-08-01

    Acromegaly increases cancer risk. We aimed to determine the prevalence and the predictors of tumors in acromegalic patients treated at our department. We retrospectively evaluated 160 acromegalic patients [79 female (mean age 52.0 ± 10.4 years) and 81 male (mean age 49.1 ± 12.4 years)] between 1990 and 2012, with a mean follow up period of 7.1 ± 5.7 years. The patients were screened with colonoscopy, mammography, thyroid and prostate ultrasonography. Malignancy was found in 34 (21.3%) patients. No significant difference was observed in the distribution of malignancy among sexes (20.3% in F vs. 22.2% in M). Thyroid cancer was the most frequent (n = 17, 10.6%) followed by the breast cancer (n = 4, 2.5%) and colorectal cancer (n = 3, 1.8%). Renal cell cancer in two patients, bladder cancer in two patients, periampullary tumor, rectal carcinoid tumor, malignant melanoma, prostate cancer, lung cancer, parotid mucoepidermoid carcinoma and malignant mesenchymal tumor in brain in one patient were detected. One patient had both thyroid and renal cell cancer. Age of patients at diagnosis of acromegaly was significantly higher in patients with cancer (45.8 ± 9.9 vs. 40.9 ± 11.3 years, p cancer. In logistic regression analysis, older age at diagnosis was associated with malignancy risk. The risk of cancer in acromegaly especially the thyroid cancer risk seems to be more increased than known in the literature. Therefore, acromegaly patients should be screened routinely for cancer, especially for thyroid cancer due to it being up to four times higher prevalence than breast and colorectal cancer.

  12. Controversial Issues in Thyroid Cancer Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuttle, R Michael

    2018-04-13

    The lack of prospective randomized clinical trials for most management topics in differentiated thyroid cancer force us to make management recommendations based on retrospective observational data which is often incomplete, subject to selection bias, and conflicting. Therefore, it is not surprising that many aspects of thyroid cancer management remain controversial and not well defined. This review will examine the controversies surrounding three important topics in thyroid cancer management: (1) the option of thyroid lobectomy as initial therapy for thyroid cancer, (2) the proper use of preoperative neck imaging to optimize the completeness of the initial surgical procedure, and (3) the selective use RAI therapy as remnant ablation, adjuvant treatment or treatment of known persistent/recurrent disease. As thyroid cancer management moves toward a much more risk adapted approach to personalized management recommendations, clinicians and patients must balance the risks and benefits of the potential management options to arrive at a management plan that is optimized based on both patient preferences/values and the philosophy/experience of the local disease management team. Copyright © 2018 by the Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Inc.

  13. The role of oestrogen receptor {alpha} in human thyroid cancer: contributions from coregulatory proteins and the tyrosine kinase receptor HER2.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kavanagh, Dara O

    2012-02-01

    Epidemiological, clinical, and molecular studies suggest a role for oestrogen in thyroid cancer. How oestrogen mediates its effects and the consequence of it on clinical outcome has not been fully elucidated. The participation of coregulatory proteins in modulating oestrogen receptor (ER) function and input of crosstalk with the tyrosine kinase receptor HER2 was investigated. Oestrogen induced cell proliferation in the follicular thyroid cancer (FTC)-133 cells, but not in the anaplastic 8305C cell line. Knockdown of the coactivator steroid receptor coactivator (SRC)-1 inhibited FTC-133 basal, but not oestrogen induced, cell proliferation. Oestrogen also increased protein expression of SRC-1 and the ER target gene cyclin D1 in the FTC-133 cell line. ERalpha, ERbeta, the coregulatory proteins SRC-1 and nuclear corepressor (NCoR), and the tyrosine kinase receptor HER2 were localised by immunohistochemistry and immnofluorescence in paraffin-embedded tissue from thyroid tumour patients (n=111). ERalpha was colocalised with both SRC-1 and NCoR to the nuclei of the tumour epithelial cells. Expression of ERalpha and NCoR was found predominantly in non-anaplastic tumours and was significantly associated with well-differentiated tumours and reduced incidence of disease recurrence. In non-anaplastic tumours, HER2 was significantly associated with SRC-1, and these proteins were associated with poorly differentiated tumours, capsular invasion and disease recurrence. Totally, 87% of anaplastic tumours were positive for SRC-1. Kaplan-Meier estimates of disease-free survival indicated that in thyroid cancer, SRC-1 strongly correlates with reduced disease-free survival (P<0.001), whereas NCoR predicted increased survival (P<0.001). These data suggest opposing roles for the coregulators SRC-1 and NCoR in thyroid tumour progression.

  14. Radiation-induced thyroid cancer after radiotherapy for childhood cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiravova, M.

    2012-01-01

    Full text of the publication follows: The thyroid gland in children is among the most sensitive organs to the carcinogenic effects of ionizing radiation, and very young children are at especially high risk. Due to extreme sensitivity of the thyroid gland in children, there is a risk of radiation - induced thyroid cancer even when the thyroid gland is outside the irradiated field. Increased incidence of thyroid cancer has been noted following radiotherapy not only for childhood Hodgkin disease (majority of observed patients), but also for non-Hodgkin lymphoma, neuroblastoma, Wilms tumor, acute lymphocytic leukemia and tumors of the central nervous system also. Radiation-induced tumors begin to appear 5-10 years after irradiation and excess risk persists for decades, perhaps for the remainder of life. The incidence of thyroid cancer is two- to threefold higher among females than males. Most of the thyroid cancers that occur in association with irradiation are of the papillary type, for which the cure rate is high if tumors are detected early. Our Department in co-operation with Department of Children Hematology and Oncology Charles University Second Faculty of Medicine and Faculty Hospital Motol monitors patients after therapy for cancer in childhood for the long term period. The monitoring is focused on detection of thyroid disorders that occur as last consequences of oncology therapy, especially early detection of nodular changes in thyroid gland and thyroid carcinogenesis. The survey presents two patients observed in our department that were diagnosed with the papillary thyroid carcinoma which occurred 15 and more years after radiotherapy for childhood cancer. After total thyroidectomy they underwent therapy with radioiodine. After radiotherapy it is necessary to pursue a long-term following and assure interdisciplinary co-operation which enables early detection of last consequences of radiotherapy, especially the most serious ones as secondary carcinogenesis

  15. Radiation-induced thyroid cancer after radiotherapy for childhood cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiravova, M. [Department of Nuclear Medicine and Endocrinology, Faculty Hospital Motol, Uk, Prague (Czech Republic)

    2012-07-01

    Full text of the publication follows: The thyroid gland in children is among the most sensitive organs to the carcinogenic effects of ionizing radiation, and very young children are at especially high risk. Due to extreme sensitivity of the thyroid gland in children, there is a risk of radiation - induced thyroid cancer even when the thyroid gland is outside the irradiated field. Increased incidence of thyroid cancer has been noted following radiotherapy not only for childhood Hodgkin disease (majority of observed patients), but also for non-Hodgkin lymphoma, neuroblastoma, Wilms tumor, acute lymphocytic leukemia and tumors of the central nervous system also. Radiation-induced tumors begin to appear 5-10 years after irradiation and excess risk persists for decades, perhaps for the remainder of life. The incidence of thyroid cancer is two- to threefold higher among females than males. Most of the thyroid cancers that occur in association with irradiation are of the papillary type, for which the cure rate is high if tumors are detected early. Our Department in co-operation with Department of Children Hematology and Oncology Charles University Second Faculty of Medicine and Faculty Hospital Motol monitors patients after therapy for cancer in childhood for the long term period. The monitoring is focused on detection of thyroid disorders that occur as last consequences of oncology therapy, especially early detection of nodular changes in thyroid gland and thyroid carcinogenesis. The survey presents two patients observed in our department that were diagnosed with the papillary thyroid carcinoma which occurred 15 and more years after radiotherapy for childhood cancer. After total thyroidectomy they underwent therapy with radioiodine. After radiotherapy it is necessary to pursue a long-term following and assure interdisciplinary co-operation which enables early detection of last consequences of radiotherapy, especially the most serious ones as secondary carcinogenesis

  16. THYROID CANCER AMONG SILESIA FEMALES POPULATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brunon Zemła

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: During the past several decades an increasing incidence of thyroid cancer has been reported especially among women in very many parts of the world including Silesia Voivodeship. Materials and methods: Based on thyroid cancer data (and demographic data following incidence rates were estimated: age-specific rates (for 5-year age groups, ie. 0–4, 5–9, etc. up until the age of 85+, crude rates (for all ages and age standardized rates (ASR – with the application of M. Spiegelman’s direct method as well as age structure of “world population “ for direct comparison. Results: Thyroid cancer age-adjusted rates (ASR among Silesia females have increased by about 20% from 1999 to 2008. The incidence of thyroid cancer has been estimated taking into account histopathological types (carcinoma papillare, carcinoma folliculare and others and time-trends according to age groups (20–44 years of age, 45–59 years of age and ‡60 years of age. Conclusion: The observation is being made of distinct increase of thyroid papilloma cancer and other types of cancer particularly among young women.

  17. [Intracellular signaling mechanisms in thyroid cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondragón-Terán, Paul; López-Hernández, Luz Berenice; Gutiérrez-Salinas, José; Suárez-Cuenca, Juan Antonio; Luna-Ceballos, Rosa Isela; Erazo Valle-Solís, Aura

    2016-01-01

    Thyroid cancer is the most common malignancy of the endocrine system, the papillary variant accounts for 80-90% of all diagnosed cases. In the development of papillary thyroid cancer, BRAF and RAS genes are mainly affected, resulting in a modification of the system of intracellular signaling proteins known as «protein kinase mitogen-activated» (MAPK) which consist of «modules» of internal signaling proteins (Receptor/Ras/Raf/MEK/ERK) from the cell membrane to the nucleus. In thyroid cancer, these signanling proteins regulate diverse cellular processes such as differentiation, growth, development and apoptosis. MAPK play an important role in the pathogenesis of thyroid cancer as they are used as molecular biomarkers for diagnostic, prognostic and as possible therapeutic molecular targets. Mutations in BRAF gene have been correlated with poor response to treatment with traditional chemotherapy and as an indicator of poor prognosis. To review the molecular mechanisms involved in intracellular signaling of BRAF and RAS genes in thyroid cancer. Molecular therapy research is in progress for this type of cancer as new molecules have been developed in order to inhibit any of the components of the signaling pathway (RET/PTC)/Ras/Raf/MEK/ERK; with special emphasis on the (RET/PTC)/Ras/Raf section, which is a major effector of ERK pathway. Copyright © 2016 Academia Mexicana de Cirugía A.C. Publicado por Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  18. Management of thyroid cancer: United Kingdom National Multidisciplinary Guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, A L; Gandhi, A; Scott-Coombes, D; Perros, P

    2016-05-01

    thyroid-stimulating hormone assessments. (R) • Patients with suspected medullary thyroid cancer (MTC) should be investigated with calcitonin and carcino-embryonic antigen levels (CEA), 24 hour catecholamine and nor metanephrine urine estimation (or plasma free nor metanephrine estimation), serum calcium and parathyroid hormone. (R) • Relevant imaging studies are advisable to guide the extent of surgery. (R) • RET (Proto-oncogene tyrosine-protein kinase receptor) proto-oncogene analysis should be performed after surgery. (R) • All patients with known or suspected MTC should have serum calcitonin and biochemical screening for phaeochromocytoma pre-operatively. (R) • All patients with proven MTC greater than 5 mm should undergo total thyroidectomy and central compartment neck dissection. (R) • Patients with MTC with lateral nodal involvement should undergo selective neck dissection (IIa-Vb). (R) • Patients with MTC with central node metastases should undergo ipsilateral prophylactic lateral node dissection. (R) • Prophylactic thyroidectomy should be offered to RET-positive family members. (R) • All patients with proven MTC should have genetic screening. (R) • Radiotherapy may be useful in controlling local symptoms in patients with inoperable disease. (R) • Chemotherapy with tyrosine kinase inhibitors may help in controlling local symptoms. (R) • For individuals with anaplastic thyroid carcinoma, initial assessment should focus on identifying the small proportion of patients with localised disease and good performance status, which may benefit from surgical resection and other adjuvant therapies. (G) • The surgical intent should be gross tumour resection and not merely an attempt at debulking. (G).

  19. Thyroid Cancer in Children of Eastern Anatolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Kaya

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The incidence of thyroid cancer has been increasing in recent years. In this study, the clinical and laboratory findings of 14 patients with thyroid cancer were analysed retrospectively. They were admitted to our clinic with complaints of swelling of the neck. Methods: This study was performed in the Paediatric Endocrinology Polyclinics of Ataturk University Faculty of Medicine between 2008 and 2013. Patients with a diagnosis of thyroid cancer/hyperplasia were included. Patients’ age and gender, a family history of goitre and thyroid cancer, and exposure to radiation were elicited. Free thyroxine (T4, thyroid stimulating hormone, thyroglobulin and urinary iodine levels were measured. Ultrasonographic characteristics of nodules were determined. Fine-needle aspiration biopsy was performed if nodules were ≥ 10 mm in diameter. Results: The number of males and females was equal. There was no history of neck radiation. Grade 4 and grade 3 goitres were detected in four (28.5% and 10 (71.4% of 14 patients, respectively. The use of rock and iodized salt was determined in nine (64.2% and three (21.4% patients, respectively, while two (14.2% patients have been using both forms of salt. According to biopsy findings, benign thyroid tissue was present in three (21.4% patients, while papillary cancer, follicular carcinoma and hyperplasia were determined in six (42.8%, three (21.4% and five (35.7% patients, respectively. Conclusion: Even if the biopsy findings are normal, surgery must be done in the presence of a history of bleeding in a nodule, fixation of a nodule and cervical lymphadenopathy. Iodine deficiency is an important risk factor for thyroid cancer. People should be informed about iodine deficiency and iodized products should be provided to those who live in areas with endemic iodine deficiency.

  20. Molecular pathogenesis and mechanisms of thyroid cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Mingzhao

    2013-01-01

    Thyroid cancer is a common endocrine malignancy. There has been exciting progress in understanding its molecular pathogenesis in recent years, as best exemplified by the elucidation of the fundamental role of several major signalling pathways and related molecular derangements. Central to these mechanisms are the genetic and epigenetic alterations in these pathways, such as mutation, gene copy-number gain and aberrant gene methylation. Many of these molecular alterations represent novel diagnostic and prognostic molecular markers and therapeutic targets for thyroid cancer, which provide unprecedented opportunities for further research and clinical development of novel treatment strategies for this cancer. PMID:23429735

  1. Laboratory investigations in thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajan, M.G.R.

    1999-01-01

    The usefulness of in vitro tests for diagnosis of primary thyroid tumor is negligible. However, monitoring the adequacy of thyroxin replacement and assess the functional aspects of metastatic disease is necessary using the routinely available hormonal tests. Serum thyroglobulin as a tumor marker for monitoring metastatic disease is a well-established and indispensable procedure in all thyroid clinics worldwide

  2. Unmodifiable variables related to thyroid cancer incidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelia Nitipir

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of thyroid cancer is significantly different between male and female patients. Thyroid cancer is also the only form of cancer where age can be considered a staging variable. Identifying biological prognostic factors such as age or sex is important as it helps select an optimal personalized therapy. The present analysis is an observational, prospective study that enrolled all patients with thyroid disease who were operated upon at a single center. The study aimed to determine the most frequent age at presentation, the predominance of one sex over the other, the incidence of malignant thyroid disease, and the relative risk for each sex to develop thyroid carcinoma. The incidence of thyroid carcinoma was higher for women than for men, with a higher relative risk in the female subgroup. Incidence was also highest in the 50-60-year-old group. Given that studies show better survival for women and for younger patients, even when presenting with advanced disease, compared with older, male patients, such prognostic indicators should be a factor in the treatment decision.

  3. Hazard of the radiation induced thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buglova, Ye.Ye.

    2001-01-01

    The level of thyroid cancer in Belarus before Chernobyl accident was low and made in different age and sex groups 0,03-2,5 (male) and 0,1-3,9 (female) per 100000 correspondingly. Different risk factors, which can influence the thyroid cancer development, are being taken into account. They are the factors of environment (strong external irradiation, long-time irradiation for medical purposes or in result of disaster), endo gen factors (hormonal, reproductive, genetic predisposition), some medicinal preparations and other. The protective effect of vegetable and fish consumption was found out. Among the factors of thyroid cancer development one of the most important is radiation. There is a point of view, which assumes that one of the reasons of thyroid cancer cases increase among the population of developed countries is increase of radiation induced thyroid cancer. The results of first research testify the influence of radiation factor on thyroid cancer development. During the period 1920 -1960 in the USA X-ray therapy was applied for the treatment of different good-quality diseases. Thyroid got in the zone of irradiation during the complex treatment with using of radiation. The results of the research of 1970 revealed that 70% of children with thyroid cancer were exposed to radiation in children's age. The subsequent researches of by-effects from the side of a thyroid at beam therapy of various diseases alongside with the results of the estimation of consequences of inhabitants of Hiroshima and Nagasaki irradiation owing to nuclear bombardment have shown the influence of irradiation of a thyroid on cancer development. High quantity of radio-epidemiological researches was directed to the studying of the consequences of thyroid external irradiation at young age. In all carried out researches the quantity of observed thyroid cancer cases among irradiated people has exceeded number of expected. The influence of thyroid internal irradiation by I-131 at young age was

  4. Role of anaplastic lymphoma kinase inhibition in the treatment of non-small-cell lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croegaert, Katie; Kolesar, Jill M

    2015-09-01

    Published data on the clinical efficacy, safety, dosage and administration, and costs of the anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) inhibitors crizotinib and ceritinib in the treatment of non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) are reviewed and compared. The ALK protein functions as a transmembrane receptor tyrosine kinase; rearrangements of the ALK gene are associated with the development of NSCLC with adenocarcinoma histology. Crizotinib is an oral tyrosine kinase inhibitor approved in 2011 as a first-line therapy for patients with metastatic ALK mutation-driven NSCLC. Significantly improved response rates and progression-free survival (PFS) have been reported with the use of crizotinib therapy versus standard chemotherapy, but mutations conferring resistance to treatment develop in most cases. The second-generation ALK inhibitor ceritinib was approved in 2014 for the treatment of ALK-mutated NSCLC in patients who are intolerant or develop resistance to crizotinib. In a clinical trial of ceritinib involving 130 patients with ALK-positive NSCLC, the majority of whom had experienced disease progression during crizotinib use, patients receiving at least 400 mg of ceritinib daily had an overall response rate of 56% and median PFS of seven months. Adverse effects commonly reported with the use of either drug include visual disturbances, gastrointestinal disorders (e.g., diarrhea), and liver enzyme abnormalities. The tyrosine kinase inhibitors crizotinib and ceritinib provide an effective treatment approach for patients with ALK-mutated NSCLC. Efficacy data for both crizotinib and ceritinib indicate improved response rates and PFS with the use of either drug as an alternative to standard chemotherapy. Copyright © 2015 by the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Clinical characteristics and molecular pathology of skull ectopic thyroid cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Longxing; Wang, Zhongyong; Ma, Jiawei; Chen, Jinsheng; Zhu, Haojiang; Zhou, Xiaohua; Zhu, Qing; Dong, Jun; Huang, Qiang

    2016-01-01

    Thyroid cancer is very common, but skull ectopic thyroid cancer has not been reported in 50 years of literatures in foreign countries. There are only four cases of the skull ectopic thyroid cancer reported in more than 30 years of domestic literature including the cases in this report. This paper aims to investigate the clinical characteristics and possible molecular mechanisms of this rare disease. Five keywords of “thyroid gland”, “ectopic thyroid”, “thyroid cancer”, “ectopic thyroid cancer” and “metastatic thyroid cancer” were included and 50 years of literatures in the PubMed-MEDLINE and Wanfang database were reviewed. By combining the test data of 2 cases of surgical patient tissue microarray specimens-molecular immunology pathology, the possible molecular mechanisms were analyzed and molecular regulation network diagram was drawn. The skull ectopic thyroid cancer has not been reported in 50 years of literatures in foreign countries and there are only four cases of the skull ectopic thyroid cancer reported in more than 30 years of domestic literature including the cases in this report. The molecular expressions of skull ectopic thyroid cancer, orthotopic thyroid cancer, and metastatic thyroid cancer were not the same: (I) AKT (P=0.012, 0.002) and mTOR (P=0.002, 0.004) were highly expressed in the skull ectopic thyroid cancer; (II) BRAF (P=0.029, 0.014) and ERK (P=0.002, 0.001) were highly expressed in orthotopic thyroid cancer; (III) MMP-9 (P=0.023, 0.016) was highly expressed in metastatic thyroid cancer. According to the molecular information base, the PI3K is predicted to be a key crossing gene of the above three signaling pathways, which showed no significant differences in these three thyroid cancers (P=0.692, 0.388, 0.227), but PI3K has regulation roles in the three signaling pathways of Akt/mTOR, MAPK, and NF-κB. PI3K gene is an important starting gene of thyroid cancers. After the canceration starts, due to the fact that the local

  6. Measuring Quality in Thyroid Cancer Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David F. Schneider

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Many of the surgical quality measures currently in use are not disease specific. For thyroid cancer, mortality and even recurrence are difficult to measure since mortality is rare and recurrence can take decades to occur. Therefore, there is a critical need for quality indicators in thyroid cancer surgery that are easily measured and disease specific. Here we will review recent research on two potential quality indicators in thyroid cancer surgery. The uptake percentage on postoperative radioactive iodine scans indicates the completeness of resection. Another measure, the lymph node ratio, is the proportion of metastatic nodes to the total number of nodes dissected. This serves as a more global measure of quality since it indicates not only the completeness of lymph node dissection but also the preoperative lymph node evaluation and decision-making. Together, these two quality measures offer a more accurate, disease-specific oncologic indicator of quality that can help guide quality assurance and improvement.

  7. Association of telomerase reverse transcriptase promoter mutations with clinicopathological features and prognosis of thyroid cancer: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Xingyun; Jiang, Xiaoxia; Wang, Weibin; Wang, Haiyong; Xu, Xin; Lin, Aihui; Teng, Xiaodong; Wu, Huiling; Teng, Lisong

    2016-01-01

    The clinicopathological and prognostic significance of telomerase reverse transcriptase ( TERT ) promoter mutations have been widely investigated in thyroid cancer; however, the results are still discrepant. Systematic searches were performed in PubMed, Web of Science, Scopus, Ovid, and the Cochran Library databases for relevant articles prior to April 2016. Mutation rates were synthesized by R statistical software. The odds ratio or standardized mean difference with 95% confidence interval was pooled by Stata. A total of 22 studies with 4,907 cases were included in this meta-analysis. TERT promoter mutations tended to present in aggressive histological types including poorly differentiated thyroid cancer (33.37%), anaplastic thyroid cancer (38.69%), and tall-cell variant papillary thyroid cancer (30.23%). These promoter mutations were likely to exist in older patients and males and were well associated with larger tumor size, extrathyroidal extension, vascular invasion, lymph node metastasis, distant metastasis, advanced tumor stage, disease recurrence/persistence, and mortality. In addition, TERT promoter mutations (especially C228T) tended to coexist with BRAF V600E mutation, which indicated more aggressive tumor behavior. Therefore, TERT promoter mutations may be promising biomarkers for early diagnosis, risk stratification, prognostic prediction, and management of thyroid cancer.

  8. 2015 American Thyroid Association Management Guidelines for Adult Patients with Thyroid Nodules and Differentiated Thyroid Cancer: The American Thyroid Association Guidelines Task Force on Thyroid Nodules and Differentiated Thyroid Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Haugen, Bryan R; Alexander, Erik K; Bible, Keith C; Doherty, Gerard M; Mandel, Susan J; Nikiforov, Yuri E; Pacini, Furio; Randolph, Gregory W; Sawka, Anna M; Schlumberger, Martin; Schuff, Kathryn G; Sherman, Steven I; Sosa, Julie Ann; Steward, David L; Tuttle, R. Michael

    2016-01-01

    Background: Thyroid nodules are a common clinical problem, and differentiated thyroid cancer is becoming increasingly prevalent. Since the American Thyroid Association's (ATA's) guidelines for the management of these disorders were revised in 2009, significant scientific advances have occurred in the field. The aim of these guidelines is to inform clinicians, patients, researchers, and health policy makers on published evidence relating to the diagnosis and management of thyroid nodules and d...

  9. Concurrent Intrathyroidal Thyroid Cancer and Thyroid Cancer in Struma Ovarii: A Case Report and Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middelbeek, Roeland J W; O'Neill, Brian T; Nishino, Michiya; Pallotta, Johanna A

    2017-05-01

    The presence of differentiated thyroid cancer in mature cystic teratomas in the ovaries is rare, and usually incidentally found on surgical pathology specimens. We present a case of simultaneous intrathyroidal thyroid cancer and thyroid cancer within a struma ovarii, presenting specific diagnostic challenges. A 55-year-old woman had an intrathyroidal, encapsulated 1.2-cm papillary thyroid carcinoma, follicular variant, which was resected. Laboratory studies showed an elevated thyroglobulin level of 35 ng/mL while on suppressive levothyroxine therapy. During preparation for radioactive iodine ablation, thyroglobulin increased dramatically to 3490 ng/mL. A pretreatment whole-body scan showed residual tracer uptake in the thyroid bed and increased radiotracer uptake in the pelvis that raised concern for a pelvic metastasis, given the marked thyroglobulin elevation. After ablation, the posttreatment scan showed intense focal uptake in the pelvis. Single-photon emission computed tomography-computed tomography confirmed that the tracer uptake corresponded to a right adnexal mass. The patient underwent a laparoscopic bilateral salpingo-oophorecotomy with pelvic washings. The final pathology of the right ovary showed papillary thyroid carcinoma arising in a mature cystic teratoma. In addition, there was abundant normal thyroid tissue with colloid surrounding the carcinoma, indicating a source for the dramatic rise in thyroglobulin levels and suggesting that the ovarian papillary thyroid cancer arose within the teratoma and was not metastatic disease. Thyroglobulin measurements have been undetectable for 5 years since surgery and radioiodine treatment. Concurrent intrathyroidal thyroid cancer and differentiated thyroid cancer in struma ovarii are very rare, but can often be distinguished on clinical grounds.

  10. EpCAM nuclear localization identifies aggressive Thyroid Cancer and is a marker for poor prognosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MacMillan Christina

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Proteolytic cleavage of the extracellular domain (EpEx of Epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM and nuclear signaling by its intracellular oncogenic domain Ep-ICD has recently been implicated in increased proliferation of cancer cells. The clinical significance of Ep-ICD in human tumors remains an enigma. Methods EpEx, Ep-ICD and β-catenin immunohistochemistry using specific antibodies was conducted on 58 archived thyroid cancer (TC tissue blocks from 34 patients and correlated with survival analysis of these patients for up to 17 years. Results The anaplastic (ATC and aggressive thyroid cancers showed loss of EpEx and increased nuclear and cytoplasmic accumulation of Ep-ICD. In contrast, the low grade papillary thyroid cancers (PTC showed membranous EpEx and no detectable nuclear Ep-ICD. The ATC also showed concomitant nuclear expression of Ep-ICD and β-catenin. Kaplan-Meier Survival analysis revealed reduced overall survival (OS for TC patients showing nuclear Ep-ICD expression or loss of membranous EpEx (p Conclusion We report reciprocal loss of membrane EpEx but increased nuclear and cytoplasmic accumulation of Ep-ICD in aggressive TC; nuclear Ep-ICD correlated with poor OS of TC patients. Thus nuclear Ep-ICD localization may serve as a useful biomarker for aggressive TC and may represent a novel diagnostic, prognostic and therapeutic target for aggressive TC.

  11. Progress in molecular-based management of differentiated thyroid cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Mingzhao; Haugen, Bryan R; Schlumberger, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Substantial developments have occurred in the past 5–10 years in clinical translational research of thyroid cancer. Diagnostic molecular markers, such as RET-PTC, RAS, and BRAFV600E mutations; galectin 3; and a new gene expression classifier, are outstanding examples that have improved diagnosis of thyroid nodules. BRAF mutation is a prognostic genetic marker that has improved risk stratification and hence tailored management of patients with thyroid cancer, including those with conventionally low risks. Novel molecular-targeted treatments hold great promise for radioiodine-refractory and surgically inoperable thyroid cancers as shown in clinical trials; such treatments are likely to become a component of the standard treatment regimen for patients with thyroid cancer in the near future. These novel molecular-based management strategies for thyroid nodules and thyroid cancer are the most exciting developments in this unprecedented era of molecular thyroid-cancer medicine. PMID:23668556

  12. Primary hyperparathyroidism and nonmedullary thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linos, D.A.; van Heerden, J.A.; Edis, A.J.

    1982-01-01

    Of 2,058 patients who had surgically proven primary hyperparathyroidism at the Mayo Clinic from 1965 through 1979, 51 or 2.5 percent had associated nonmedullary thyroid carcinoma. A history of radiation exposure to the head and neck was obtained in 14 of 43 patients questioned. Thyroid disease consisted of grade 1 papillary adenocarcinoma in 48 cases and pure follicular adenocarcinoma in 3 cases. The parathyroid disease included 41 single adenomas and 5 cases of parathyroid hyperplasia; 5 patients had 2 adenomas. At follow-up, none of the patients had evidence of metastatic thyroid carcinoma. Ten patients were receiving calcium or vitamin D supplementation for protracted hypocalcemia presumably due to the increased insult to the parathyroids from combined bilateral thyroidectomy and parathyroidectomy. More consecutive thyroidectomy, along with parathyroid autotransplantation when indicated, will provide definitive treatment of the thyroid cancer and at the same time minimize the risk of postoperative hypoparathyroidism

  13. Primary hyperparathyroidism and nonmedullary thyroid cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linos, D.A.; van Heerden, J.A.; Edis, A.J.

    1982-03-01

    Of 2,058 patients who had surgically proven primary hyperparathyroidism at the Mayo Clinic from 1965 through 1979, 51 or 2.5 percent had associated nonmedullary thyroid carcinoma. A history of radiation exposure to the head and neck was obtained in 14 of 43 patients questioned. Thyroid disease consisted of grade 1 papillary adenocarcinoma in 48 cases and pure follicular adenocarcinoma in 3 cases. The parathyroid disease included 41 single adenomas and 5 cases of parathyroid hyperplasia; 5 patients had 2 adenomas. At follow-up, none of the patients had evidence of metastatic thyroid carcinoma. Ten patients were receiving calcium or vitamin D supplementation for protracted hypocalcemia presumably due to the increased insult to the parathyroids from combined bilateral thyroidectomy and parathyroidectomy. More consecutive thyroidectomy, along with parathyroid autotransplantation when indicated, will provide definitive treatment of the thyroid cancer and at the same time minimize the risk of postoperative hypoparathyroidism.

  14. Investigative procedures in thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samuel, A.M.

    1999-01-01

    One of the main objectives of the procedures is to establish the likelihood of malignancy in the thyroid gland prior to surgery and detect metastases after surgery. Thyroid imaging is discussed in the context of (a) its role in the diagnosis of the primary disease (b) in the investigation of post-operative residual disease and (c) its role in the follow-up of patients after radioiodine therapy

  15. Risk of second primary cancer following differentiated thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berthe, Emmanuelle; Berthet, Pascaline; Bardet, Stephane; Henry-Amar, Michel; Michels, Jean-Jacques; Rame, Jean-Pierre; Babin, Emmanuel; Icard, Philippe; Samama, Guy; Galateau-Salle, Francoise; Mahoudeau, Jacques

    2004-01-01

    Concerns remain over the risk of cancer following differentiated thyroid carcinoma and its causes. Iodine-131 ( 131 I) and external irradiation are known to have potential carcinogenic effects. Thyroid carcinoma is a polygenic disease which may be associated with other malignancies. We investigated the incidence of second cancer and its aetiology in a cohort of 875 patients (146 men, 729 women) with differentiated thyroid carcinoma originating from Basse-Normandie, France. Cancer incidence was compared with that of the general population of the Departement du Calvados matched for age, gender and period. The cumulative proportion of second cancer was estimated using the life-table method. Factors that correlated with the risk of second cancer were studied using the Cox model. After a median follow-up of 8 years, 58 second cancers had been observed. Compared with general population incidence rates, there was an overall increased risk of second cancer in women [standardised incidence ratio (SIR)=1.52; P 0.20). Increased risk related to cancers of the genitourinary tract (SIR=3.31; P 131 I was related to the risk. These data confirm that women with differentiated thyroid carcinoma are at risk of developing a second cancer of the genitourinary tract and kidney. Only age and medical history of primary cancer before thyroid carcinoma are risk factors for second cancer. Common environmental or genetic factors as well as long-term carcinogenic effects of primary cancer therapy should be considered. (orig.)

  16. Thyroid cancer in children living near Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karaoglou, A.; Chadwick, K.H.

    1995-01-01

    In January 1992, under the Radiation Protection Research Action, a Panel of experts was set up to evaluate the current situation concerning reported increased incidence of thyroid cancer in children living near Chernobyl at the time of the nuclear reactor accident on 26 April 1986. The report written by this Panel documents their findings with their respect to the occurrence of childhood thyroid cancer in Belarus and the Northern Ukraine. The Panel arrives to a consensus opinion and makes strong recommendations for urgent technical and humanitarian assistance and research cooperation. The Panel report and the response of the European Commission to these recommendations are discussed. (Author). 1 ref

  17. Thyroid cancer in lingual thyroid and thyroglossal duct cyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturniolo, Giacomo; Vermiglio, Francesco; Moleti, Mariacarla

    2017-01-01

    Ectopy is the most common embryogenetic defect of the thyroid gland, representing between 48 and 61% of all thyroid dysgeneses. Persistence of thyroid tissue in the context of a thyroglossal duct remnant and lingual thyroid tissue are the most common defects. Although most cases of ectopic thyroid are asymptomatic, any disease affecting the thyroid may potentially involve the ectopic tissue, including malignancies. The prevalence of differentiated thyroid carcinoma in lingual thyroid and thyroglossal duct cyst is around 1% of patients affected with the above thyroid ectopies. We here review the current literature concerning primary thyroid carcinomas originating from thyroid tissue on thyroglossal duct cysts and lingual thyroid. Copyright © 2016 SEEN. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  18. Radioiodine therapy for differentiated thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samuel, A.M.; Rajashekharrao, B.

    1999-01-01

    Radioiodine ( 131 I) therapy has been in use for the treatment of thyroid diseases. Although the use of 131 I has been in vogue for a long time, its use in therapy for well-differentiated thyroid cancer is still controversial. This is because, thyroid cancers (TC) are generally slow growing tumors, with low mortality and normal spans of survival. To record recurrence and mortality, long-term follow-up studies over a period of two to three decades are needed to establish definite conclusions on the acceptable modes of treatment. The most reliable conclusions regarding 131 I treatment are obtained from studies reported on a large series of patients followed over a period of 3 decades or more from a single institute with a more or less unchanged protocol of management

  19. Pre-operative diagnosis of thyroid cancer: Clinical, radiological and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The diagnosis or exclusion of cancer in the thyroid nodule remains a clinical dilemma for general surgeons and endocrinologists. Nodular disease of the thyroid is very common, while cancer is rare; a definite diagnosis of either is difficult to make. The general prevalence of thyroid nodules is very high. They are detectable ...

  20. Papillary thyroid cancer: sporadic or inherited? | Mogili | Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) is one of the most common thyroid malignancies, with an increase in incidence rates over the past few decades. Although the exact cause of thyroid cancer in most patients is still unclear, the possibility of genetic predisposition to PTC cannot be overlooked. Here, we report a case ...

  1. Sorafenib makes headway on metastatic thyroid cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-01

    In a randomized phase III clinical trial, patients with metastatic differentiated cancer of the thyroid who were treated with sorafenib achieved median progression-free survival of 10.8 months, compared with 5.8 months among patients treated with placebo.

  2. Over-concern can equal hysteria: thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tristan, T.A.

    1976-01-01

    A method for screening patients for thyroid cancer is discussed. If the patient is known to have had prior irradiation, a thyroid scan must be performed. A set of guidelines are presented for screening patients

  3. Medullary Thyroid Carcinoma Program | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medullary Thyroid Carcinoma Program Multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) types 2A and 2B are rare genetic diseases, which lead to the development of medullary thyroid cancer, usually in childhood. Surgery is the only standard treatment.

  4. Thyroid cancer: experiences at the Regional Cancer Centre, Trivandrum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pradeep, V.M.; Gangadharan, P.; Nair, Krishnan M.

    1999-01-01

    Above 300 thyroid cancers are seen at the Regional Cancer Centre annually. There has been an increase in the number of TC registered over the years. This is at least partly due to improved diagnostic services and availability of 131 I therapy. Almost 90 % of the cases seen at the Centre are well-differentiated cancers

  5. Surgical management of metastatic differentiated thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fakih, A.R.; Mistry, R.C.

    1999-01-01

    The differentiated management of metastatic differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) with lymph node and/or systemic metastases is very much a treatable cancer. Interaction between the surgeon and the nuclear medicine specialist is essential to ensure quality survival in these patient. This review is confined to surgical aspects and is based on experience with 417 patients who were operated for DTC at the Tata Memorial Hospital between 1971 and 1985

  6. Radiofrequency Ablation of Benign Thyroid Nodules and Recurrent Thyroid Cancers: Consensus Statement and Recommendations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jeong Hyun [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Na, Dong Gyu [Human Medical Imaging and Intervention Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Jung, So Lyung [Seoul St. Mary' s Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-03-15

    Thermal ablation using radiofrequency is a new, minimally invasive modality employed as an alternative to surgery in patients with benign thyroid nodules and recurrent thyroid cancers. The Task Force Committee of the Korean Society of Thyroid Radiology has developed recommendations for the optimal use of radiofrequency ablation for thyroid nodules. These recommendations are based on a comprehensive analysis of the current literature, the results of multicenter studies, and expert consensus.

  7. Clinical And Pathological Implications Of Concurrent Autoimmune Thyroid Disorders And Papillary Thyroid Cancer.

    OpenAIRE

    Cunha, L L; Ferreira, R C; Marcello, M A; Vassallo, J; Ward, L S

    2011-01-01

    Cooccurrences of chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis (CLT) and thyroid cancer (DTC) have been repeatedly reported. Both CLT and DTC, mainly papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC), share some epidemiological and molecular features. In fact, thyroid lymphocytic inflammatory reaction has been observed in association with PTC at variable frequency, although the precise relationship between the two diseases is still debated. It also remains a matter of debate whether the association with a CLT or even an a...

  8. Motesanib diphosphate in progressive differentiated thyroid cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sherman, Steven I; Wirth, Lori J; Droz, Jean-Pierre

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is characteristic of differentiated thyroid cancer and is associated with aggressive tumor behavior and a poor clinical outcome. Motesanib diphosphate (AMG 706) is a novel oral inhibitor of VEGF receptors, platelet-derived gr......BACKGROUND: The expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is characteristic of differentiated thyroid cancer and is associated with aggressive tumor behavior and a poor clinical outcome. Motesanib diphosphate (AMG 706) is a novel oral inhibitor of VEGF receptors, platelet......-derived growth-factor receptor, and KIT. METHODS: In an open-label, single-group, phase 2 study, we treated 93 patients who had progressive, locally advanced or metastatic, radioiodine-resistant differentiated thyroid cancer with 125 mg of motesanib diphosphate, administered orally once daily. The primary end...... point was an objective response as assessed by an independent radiographic review. Additional end points included the duration of the response, progression-free survival, safety, and changes in serum thyroglobulin concentration. RESULTS: Of the 93 patients, 57 (61%) had papillary thyroid carcinoma...

  9. Editorial: Thyroid cancer and the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, D.

    1996-01-01

    The accident at the Chernobyl power station nearly 10 years ago was unprecedented in the exposure of a very large population to high levels of fallout including high levels of isotopes of iodine, predominantly 131 I. An increase in incidence of childhood thyroid cancer was first observed in 1990 in Belarus and in the Ukraine, and the first reports in the Western literature were published in 1992. At a symposium in Nagasaki in June 1994, the numbers of cases that had occurred between 1990 and 1993 in Belarus, a country with a population of just over 10 million, was reported to be 233, and in the heavily contaminated northern parts of the Ukraine, with a population of about 7 million, 36 cases occurred in the same period. To put these figures into perspective, the number of childhood thyroid cancers registered in England and Wales over a 30-year period was 154, an average of 5 cases per yr in a population of 50 million people, with about 10 million children under 15 yr of age. The initial reports of such a great increase in childhood thyroid cancers in the areas exposed to fallout from Chernobyl were at first greeted in the West with some skepticism. The latent period between exposure and development of thyroid cancer was surprisingly short, based on experience with thyroid carcinomas developing after external radiation to the neck. The reliability of the figures based on the pathological diagnosis was questioned because the cases had not been confirmed by Western pathologists, and because the known high frequency of papillary microcarcinoms in adults raised the possibility that the reported incidence was resulted form increased ascertainment and not a true increase in incidence. 14 refs

  10. Molecular markers for thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marrero Rodriguez, Maria Teresa; Sinconegui Gomez, Belkys; Cruz Cruz, Anaisa

    2015-01-01

    The importance of the study of the thyroid nodule lies in excluding the possibility of a malignant lesion because the majority of lesions are benign but there is a malignancy risk of 5 to 10%. Most of them are well differentiated carcinomas originating in the follicular epithelium. In spite of the fact that the majority are benign lesions, distinguishing them from carcinomas is crucial to treatment and adequate follow-up. Fine-needle biopsy allows making the diagnosis in most of cases. However, this method is restricted, particularly when diagnosing follicular lesions. In an effort to improve the diagnostic accuracy of biopsy and to provide new diagnosing criteria, a number of molecular markers have been put forward, some of which has wide range of approval whereas others still awaits to be validated for further implementation. This article presented an updated review of molecular markers with higher number of evidence, more accessible and potentially usable from a methodological viewpoint for diagnosis of the thyroid nodule before surgery. The importance of the study of the thyroid nodule lies in excluding the possibility of a malignant lesion because the majority of lesions are benign but there is a malignancy risk of 5 to 10%. Most of them are well differentiated carcinomas originating in the follicular epithelium. In spite of the fact that the majority are benign lesions, distinguishing them from carcinomas is crucial to treatment and adequate follow-up. Fine-needle biopsy allows making the diagnosis in most of cases. However, this method is restricted, particularly when diagnosing follicular lesions. In an effort to improve the diagnostic accuracy of biopsy and to provide new diagnosing criteria, a number of molecular markers have been put forward, some of which has wide range of approval whereas others still awaits to be validated for further implementation. This article presented an updated review of molecular markers with higher number of evidence, more

  11. Sialolithiasis mimicking metastatic thyroid cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Hwan Jeong; Bom, Hee Seung; Song, Ho Cheon; Min, Jung Jun; Kim, Seung Min; Kim, Ji Yeul [Chonnam Univ. Hospital, Kwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-02-01

    We report a false positive case of I-131 scan due to a sialolithiasis in right submandibular gland. I-131 images showed not only remnant thyroid tissues and functional metastases in the anterior neck but also a hot uptake near right submandibular gland. We confirmed the sialolithiasis by radiologic studies. Sialolithiasis should be regarded as a false positive cause when I-131 scan shows a hot spot near salivary bed.

  12. Anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) gene rearrangements in radiation-related human papillary thyroid carcinoma after the Chernobyl accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arndt, Annette; Steinestel, Konrad; Rump, Alexis; Sroya, Manveer; Bogdanova, Tetiana; Kovgan, Leonila; Port, Matthias; Abend, Michael; Eder, Stefan

    2018-04-06

    Childhood radiation exposure has been associated with increased papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) risk. The role of ALK gene rearrangements in radiation-related PTC remains unclear, but STRN-ALK fusions have recently been detected in PTCs from radiation-exposed persons after Chernobyl using targeted next-generation sequencing and RNA-seq. We investigated ALK and RET gene rearrangements as well as known driver point mutations in PTCs from 77 radiation-exposed patients (mean age at surgery 22.4 years) and PTCs from 19 non-exposed individuals after the Chernobyl accident. ALK rearrangements were detected by fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH) and confirmed with immunohistochemistry (IHC); point mutations in the BRAF and RAS genes were detected by FISH and DNA pyrosequencing, respectively. Among the 77 tumours from exposed persons, we identified 7 ALK rearrangements and none in the unexposed group. When combining ALK and RET rearrangements, we found 10 in the exposed (31.2%) compared to two (10.5%) in the unexposed group. Odds ratios increased significantly in a dose-dependent manner up to 6.2 (95%CI: 1.1, 34.7; p=0.039) at Iodine-131 thyroid doses >500 mGy. In total, 27 cases carried point mutations of BRAF or RAS genes, yet logistic regression analysis failed to identify significant dose association. To our knowledge we are the first to describe ALK rearrangements in post-Chernobyl PTC samples using routine methods such as FISH and IHC. Our findings further support the hypothesis that gene rearrangements, but not oncogenic driver mutations, are associated with ionizing radiation-related tumour risk. IHC may represent an effective method for ALK-screening in PTCs with known radiation aetiology, which is of clinical value since ALK fusions might represent a valuable target for small molecule inhibitors. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. © 2018 The Authors The Journal of Pathology: Clinical Research published by The Pathological Society

  13. The Association between Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and Thyroid Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-Gyun Seo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. The incidence of thyroid cancer is increasing worldwide. The prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM is also increasing. Therefore, we aimed to analyze the effect of T2DM on thyroid cancer. Methods. A case-control study was performed. A total of 415 healthy controls with thyroid ultrasound screening and physician consultation were selected from the Thyroid Cancer Longitudinal Study (T-CALOS. Among patients with thyroid cancer who were enrolled in T-CALOS, 415 patients were matched to the control group according to age and sex. We assessed the effects of T2DM, T2DM duration, and T2DM medication on thyroid cancer. Results. Women with T2DM had lower odds of thyroid cancer than women without T2DM (odds ratio [OR]: 0.40, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.20–0.81. Individuals receiving T2DM medication had higher odds of thyroid cancer compared to those without T2DM medication (OR: 5.21, 95% CI: 1.58–17.15. Individuals with T2DM duration <6 years had lower odds of thyroid cancer compared to those without T2DM (OR: 0.58, 95% CI: 0.34–0.97. Conclusions. Individuals with early T2DM are presumed to have a low incidence of thyroid cancer, and this effect seems to last up to 6 years after diagnosis of T2DM.

  14. Hyperfunction thyroid nodules: Their risk for becoming or being associated with thyroid cancers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Eun Sun; Kim, Ji Hoon; Na, Dong Gyu; Paeng, Jin Chul; Min, Hye Sook; Choi, Seung Hong; Sohn, Chul Ho; Chang, Ki Hyun [Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-08-15

    To retrospectively evaluate the risk of thyroid cancer in patients with hyperfunctioning thyroid nodules through ultrasonographic-pathologic analysis. Institutional review board approval was obtained and informed consent was waived. From 2003 to 2007, 107 patients consecutively presented with hot spots on thyroid scans and low serum thyroid-stimulating hormone levels. Among them, 32 patients who had undergone thyroid ultrasonography were analyzed in this study. Thyroid nodules depicted on ultrasonography were classified based on size and categorized as benign, indeterminate, or suspicious malignant nodules according to ultrasonographic findings. The thyroid nodules were determined as either hyperfunctioning or coexisting nodules and were then correlated with pathologic results. In 32 patients, 42 hyperfunctioning nodules (mean number per patient, 1.31; range, 1-6) were observed on thyroid scans and 68 coexisting nodules (mean, 2.13; range, 0-7) were observed on ultrasonography. Twenty-five patients (78.1%) had at least one hyperfunctioning (n = 17, 53.1%) or coexisting (n = 16, 50.0%) nodule that showed a suspicious malignant feature larger than 5 mm (n = 8, 25.0%), or an indeterminate feature 1 cm or greater (n = 20, 62.5%) in diameter, which could have been indicated by using fine needle aspiration (FNA). Seven patients were proven to have 11 thyroid cancers in 3 hyperfunctioning and 8 coexisting nodules. All of these had at least one thyroid cancer, which could have been indicated by using FNA. The estimated minimal risk of thyroid cancer was 6.5% (7/107). Patients with hyperfunctioning nodules may not be safe from thyroid cancer because hyperfunctioning nodules can coexist with thyroid cancer nodules. To screen out these cancers, ultrasonography should be performed.

  15. New strategies for the treatment of undifferentiated thyroid cancer and poorly differentiated thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juvenal, Guillermo J.

    2006-01-01

    Undifferentiated thyroid cancer, which accounts for about 5-10% of thyroid cancer cases, is a very aggressive tumor with no effective treatment, since it lacks iodine uptake and does not respond to radio or chemotherapy. The prognosis of these patients is bad, due to the rapid growth of the tumor and the early development of metastasis. Oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes are involved in the genetic changes that underlie thyroid cancer, as all kinds of tumors. The characterization of these proteins is being exploited to delineate new therapeutic strategies for the treatment of this cancer. This work is focused on those compounds or therapeutic approaches that are being used in clinical essays or in animal models. (author) [es

  16. 2012 European Thyroid Association Guidelines for Metastatic Medullary Thyroid Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V V Voskoboynikov

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Distant metastases are the main cause of death in patients with medullary thyroid cancer (MTC. These 21 recommendations focus on MTC patients with distant metastases and a detailed followup protocol of patients with biochemical or imaging evidence of disease, selection criteria for treatment, and treatment modalities, including local and systemic treatments based on the results of recent trials. Asymptomatic patients with low tumor burden and stable disease may benefit from local treatment modalities and can be followed up at regular intervals of time. Imaging is usually performed every 6–12 months, or at longer inter vals of time depending on the doubling times of serum calcitonin and carcinoembryonic antigen levels. Patients with symptoms, large tumor burden and progression on imaging should receive systemic treatment. Indeed, major progress has recently been achieved with novel targeted therapies using kinase inhibitors directed against RET and VEGFR, but further research is needed to improve the outcome of these patients.

  17. Total Thyroidectomy for Thyroid Cancer Followed by Thyroid Storm due to Thyrotropin Receptor Antibody Stimulation of Metastatic Thyroid Tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Folkestad, Lars; Brandt, Frans; Brix, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Graves disease (GD) is an autoimmune condition characterized by the presence of antibodies against the thyrotropin receptor (TRAB), which stimulate the thyroid gland to produce excess thyroid hormone. Theoretically, TRAB could stimulate highly differentiated thyroid cancer tissue and....../or metastases to produce thyroid hormone. CASE: A 68-year-old male, with weight loss and palpitations, was diagnosed with thyrotoxicosis. A later MRI, due to persistent shoulder pain, revealed multiple bone metastases. A biopsy was diagnostic for follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma, and total...... treatment continued until after the fourth RAI dose. Hypothyroidism did not occur until following the fifth RAI treatment. SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS: We present a patient initially diagnosed with thyrotoxicosis and subsequently with metastatic follicular variant of papillary thyroid cancer. It is suggested...

  18. Association of telomerase reverse transcriptase promoter mutations with clinicopathological features and prognosis of thyroid cancer: a meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su X

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Xingyun Su,1 Xiaoxia Jiang,1 Weibin Wang,1 Haiyong Wang,1 Xin Xu,2 Aihui Lin,1 Xiaodong Teng,3 Huiling Wu,4 Lisong Teng1 1Department of Surgical Oncology, 2Department of Medical Oncology, 3Department of Pathology, 4Department of Plastic Surgery, First Affiliated Hospital, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang, People’s Republic of China Abstract: The clinicopathological and prognostic significance of telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT promoter mutations have been widely investigated in thyroid cancer; however, the results are still discrepant. Systematic searches were performed in PubMed, Web of Science, Scopus, Ovid, and the Cochran Library databases for relevant articles prior to April 2016. Mutation rates were synthesized by R statistical software. The odds ratio or standardized mean difference with 95% confidence interval was pooled by Stata. A total of 22 studies with 4,907 cases were included in this meta-analysis. TERT promoter mutations tended to present in aggressive histological types including poorly differentiated thyroid cancer (33.37%, anaplastic thyroid cancer (38.69%, and tall-cell variant papillary thyroid cancer (30.23%. These promoter mutations were likely to exist in older patients and males and were well associated with larger tumor size, extrathyroidal extension, vascular invasion, lymph node metastasis, distant metastasis, advanced tumor stage, disease recurrence/persistence, and mortality. In addition, TERT promoter mutations (especially C228T tended to coexist with BRAFV600E mutation, which indicated more aggressive tumor behavior. Therefore, TERT promoter mutations may be promising biomarkers for early diagnosis, risk stratification, prognostic prediction, and management of thyroid cancer. Keywords: TERT promoter mutations, thyroid cancer, clinicopathological features, prognosis, BRAFV600E mutation

  19. Neutron therapy of resistant thyroid gland cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choynzonov, E. L.; Gribova, O. V.; Startseva, Zh. A.; Lisin, V. A.; Novikov, V. A.; Musabaeva, L. I.

    2017-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the results of the combined modality treatment and radiation therapy using 6.3 MeV fast neutrons c. The study included 45 patients with thyroid gland cancers who received the combined modality treatment and radiation therapy alone with the use of 6.3 MeV fast neutrons generated within U-120 cyclotron. The clinical trial of neutron-photon therapy used alone and in combination with the surgery for the patients with aggressive forms of thyroid cancer showed feasibility of increasing the effectiveness of treatment due to the reduction in the incidence of local recurrences. In addition, satisfactory treatment tolerance and absence of severe specific complications dictate the necessity of prospective studies to improve treatment outcomes.

  20. Treatment Option Overview (Thyroid Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of cancer. Tracheostomy : Surgery to create an opening ( stoma ) into the windpipe to help you breathe. The ... information on cancer prevention, detection, genetics, treatment, supportive care, and complementary and alternative medicine. Most summaries come ...

  1. General Information about Thyroid Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of cancer. Tracheostomy : Surgery to create an opening ( stoma ) into the windpipe to help you breathe. The ... information on cancer prevention, detection, genetics, treatment, supportive care, and complementary and alternative medicine. Most summaries come ...

  2. Breast cancer metastasis to thyroid: a retrospective analysis.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract: Background: Breast cancers metastasizing to thyroid gland are relatively uncommon in clinical practice. Objective: Retrospective analysis of data from breast cancer patients with thyroid metastasis (TM). Methods: The US suspected, fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) confirmed TM in breast cancer patients, ...

  3. Breast cancer metastasis to thyroid: a retrospective analysis | Zhou ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Breast cancers metastasizing to thyroid gland are relatively uncommon in clinical practice. Objective: Retrospective analysis of data from breast cancer patients with thyroid metastasis (TM). Methods: The US suspected, fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) confirmed TM in breast cancer patients, treated ...

  4. Thyroid cancer in children and adolescents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ceccarelli, C.; Pacini, F.; Lippi, F.; Elisei, R.; Arganini, M.; Miccoli, P.; Pinchera, A.

    1988-01-01

    We report on 49 patients younger than 18 years at diagnosis, of 776 patients with thyroid cancer, seen in our institution in the last 17 years. Female/male ratio was 2.2:1. Histologic type was papillary in 44, follicular in 4, and medullary in 1. Initial treatment was near-total thyroidectomy with or without neck dissection. Surgical complications (vocal cord palsy, permanent hypoparathyroidism, or both) were found in 25 patients and were usually associated with more advanced primary tumors. At surgery, node metastases were present in 73% of the patients and lung metastases, detected by chest x ray films, in 6%. Patients were treated with thyroid suppressive therapy and, except the one with medullary cancer, with radioiodine (131I) therapy. After a mean follow-up of 7.7 +/- 4.4 years (range, 1 to 17 years), one patient with lung metastases died of respiratory failure. Of 36 patients who have been followed up more than 4 years, 22 (61.1%) are now cured, and 14 have metastases (to lymph nodes, 2; to nodes and lung, 10; and to lung, 2). Since 1977 serum thyroglobulin (Tg) was used routinely as a tumor marker for differentiated thyroid cancer. After operation, Tg was elevated in all patients both not receiving (mean +/- SE, 902 +/- 380 ng/ml) and receiving (44 +/- 15 ng/ml) suppressive therapy; after 131I treatment, serum Tg dropped to 104 +/- 50 and 7.3 +/- 1.7 ng/ml, without and with suppressive therapy, respectively. Of 11 patients with lung metastases treated with 131I, respiratory function, as assessed by means of spirometry, was normal in three, mildly reduced in six, and severely impaired in two (including the one who died). In conclusion, our study indicates that thyroid cancer in young patients is rather advanced at initial examination and usually associated with node and, less frequently, lung metastases

  5. Thyroid cancer in children and adolescents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ceccarelli, C.; Pacini, F.; Lippi, F.; Elisei, R.; Arganini, M.; Miccoli, P.; Pinchera, A.

    1988-12-01

    We report on 49 patients younger than 18 years at diagnosis, of 776 patients with thyroid cancer, seen in our institution in the last 17 years. Female/male ratio was 2.2:1. Histologic type was papillary in 44, follicular in 4, and medullary in 1. Initial treatment was near-total thyroidectomy with or without neck dissection. Surgical complications (vocal cord palsy, permanent hypoparathyroidism, or both) were found in 25 patients and were usually associated with more advanced primary tumors. At surgery, node metastases were present in 73% of the patients and lung metastases, detected by chest x ray films, in 6%. Patients were treated with thyroid suppressive therapy and, except the one with medullary cancer, with radioiodine (131I) therapy. After a mean follow-up of 7.7 +/- 4.4 years (range, 1 to 17 years), one patient with lung metastases died of respiratory failure. Of 36 patients who have been followed up more than 4 years, 22 (61.1%) are now cured, and 14 have metastases (to lymph nodes, 2; to nodes and lung, 10; and to lung, 2). Since 1977 serum thyroglobulin (Tg) was used routinely as a tumor marker for differentiated thyroid cancer. After operation, Tg was elevated in all patients both not receiving (mean +/- SE, 902 +/- 380 ng/ml) and receiving (44 +/- 15 ng/ml) suppressive therapy; after 131I treatment, serum Tg dropped to 104 +/- 50 and 7.3 +/- 1.7 ng/ml, without and with suppressive therapy, respectively. Of 11 patients with lung metastases treated with 131I, respiratory function, as assessed by means of spirometry, was normal in three, mildly reduced in six, and severely impaired in two (including the one who died). In conclusion, our study indicates that thyroid cancer in young patients is rather advanced at initial examination and usually associated with node and, less frequently, lung metastases.

  6. Targeted Therapy Shows Benefit in Rare Type of Thyroid Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treatment with the multitargeted agent vandetanib (Caprelsa) improved progression-free survival in patients with medullary thyroid cancer (MTC), according to findings from a randomized clinical trial.

  7. A nanocomplex that is both tumor cell-selective and cancer gene-specific for anaplastic large cell lymphoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zu Youli

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many in vitro studies have demonstrated that silencing of cancerous genes by siRNAs is a potential therapeutic approach for blocking tumor growth. However, siRNAs are not cell type-selective, cannot specifically target tumor cells, and therefore have limited in vivo application for siRNA-mediated gene therapy. Results In this study, we tested a functional RNA nanocomplex which exclusively targets and affects human anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL by taking advantage of the abnormal expression of CD30, a unique surface biomarker, and the anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK gene in lymphoma cells. The nanocomplexes were formulated by incorporating both ALK siRNA and a RNA-based CD30 aptamer probe onto nano-sized polyethyleneimine-citrate carriers. To minimize potential cytotoxicity, the individual components of the nanocomplexes were used at sub-cytotoxic concentrations. Dynamic light scattering showed that formed nanocomplexes were ~140 nm in diameter and remained stable for more than 24 hours in culture medium. Cell binding assays revealed that CD30 aptamer probes selectively targeted nanocomplexes to ALCL cells, and confocal fluorescence microscopy confirmed intracellular delivery of the nanocomplex. Cell transfection analysis showed that nanocomplexes silenced genes in an ALCL cell type-selective fashion. Moreover, exposure of ALCL cells to nanocomplexes carrying both ALK siRNAs and CD30 RNA aptamers specifically silenced ALK gene expression, leading to growth arrest and apoptosis. Conclusions Taken together, our findings indicate that this functional RNA nanocomplex is both tumor cell type-selective and cancer gene-specific for ALCL cells.

  8. Thyroid cancer in child (about 9 cases)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ech-Charraq, I.; Ben Rais, N.

    2009-01-01

    Children thyroid cancer is a very uncommon affection. Its incidence has sharply risen among the patients who underwent therapeutic irradiation and after the Chernobylsk accident in the contaminated regions. Our study consists of emphasizing the distinctive features of children thyroid cancer on the epidemiological, clinical and para clinical aspects, in order to discuss diagnostic difficulties, prognostic elements as well as a therapeutic approach. Through a study conducted in the nuclear medical department of Rabat, we brought together 9 cases of thyroid cancer in children aged between 11 and 15 years old. In our series, the average age is 13 years, with a feminine prevalence. A family notion of goitre is reported in one case, without notion of irradiation, the revealing mode is mainly an euthyroid goitre and the cervical adenopathies, with good general health conditions being maintained. The scintigraphy showed a cold nodule, witch anatomo-pathological examination is papillary carcinoma. Extensive surgery, ira therapy and substitute hormonal treatment combined allowed a high recovery rate among our patients, with no side effects. The medium-term evolution was positive even in metastases cases. The prognostic is generally good, especially in the differentiated forms. (authors)

  9. Expression of stanniocalcin 1 in thyroid side population cells and thyroid cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayase, Suguru; Sasaki, Yoshihito; Matsubara, Tsutomu; Seo, Daekwan; Miyakoshi, Masaaki; Murata, Tsubasa; Ozaki, Takashi; Kakudo, Kennichi; Kumamoto, Kensuke; Ylaya, Kris; Cheng, Sheue-yann; Thorgeirsson, Snorri S; Hewitt, Stephen M; Ward, Jerrold M; Kimura, Shioko

    2015-04-01

    Mouse thyroid side population (SP) cells consist of a minor population of mouse thyroid cells that may have multipotent thyroid stem cell characteristics. However the nature of thyroid SP cells remains elusive, particularly in relation to thyroid cancer. Stanniocalcin (STC) 1 and 2 are secreted glycoproteins known to regulate serum calcium and phosphate homeostasis. In recent years, the relationship of STC1/2 expression to cancer has been described in various tissues. Microarray analysis was carried out to determine genes up- and down-regulated in thyroid SP cells as compared with non-SP cells. Among genes up-regulated, stanniocalcin 1 (STC1) was chosen for study because of its expression in various thyroid cells by Western blotting and immunohistochemistry. Gene expression analysis revealed that genes known to be highly expressed in cancer cells and/or involved in cancer invasion/metastasis were markedly up-regulated in SP cells from both intact as well as partial thyroidectomized thyroids. Among these genes, expression of STC1 was found in five human thyroid carcinoma-derived cell lines as revealed by analysis of mRNA and protein, and its expression was inversely correlated with the differentiation status of the cells. Immunohistochemical analysis demonstrated higher expression of STC1 in the thyroid tumor cell line and thyroid tumor tissues from humans and mice. These results suggest that SP cells contain a population of cells that express genes also highly expressed in cancer cells including Stc1, which warrants further study on the role of SP cells and/or STC1 expression in thyroid cancer.

  10. Redifferentiating Thyroid Cancer: Selumetinib-enhanced Radioiodine Uptake in Thyroid Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph R. Osborne

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In a recent article, we reported a restorative therapeutic intervention that turned individual thyroid cancer lesions into more efficient tissues for taking up radioactive iodine (RAI, resulting in clinically significant and durable responses. A group of Iodine-131 refractory thyroid cancer patients were treated with the MEK tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI selumetinib, and RAI uptake was restored in a subset of patients. We employed Iodine-124 positron emission tomography to measure radiation absorbed dose, on a lesion by lesion basis. The process can be thought of as a re-differentiation of the cancer toward a more nearly normal state most like the tissue from which the cancer arose. Remarkably, in its own way, a change was detected within a few weeks of treatment, restoring uptake with therapeutically effective levels of RAI and in some patients, previously completely refractory to radioiodine treatment. In this article, we summarize the basic work that led to this seminal study, and make the case for lesional dosimetry in thyroid cancer with Iodine-124 as a new optimal radiotracer for precision medicine in patients with well differentiated thyroid cancer.

  11. Thyroid Hormone Receptor Mutations in Cancer and Resistance to Thyroid Hormone: Perspective and Prognosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meghan D. Rosen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Thyroid hormone, operating through its receptors, plays crucial roles in the control of normal human physiology and development; deviations from the norm can give rise to disease. Clinical endocrinologists often must confront and correct the consequences of inappropriately high or low thyroid hormone synthesis. Although more rare, disruptions in thyroid hormone endocrinology due to aberrations in the receptor also have severe medical consequences. This review will focus on the afflictions that are caused by, or are closely associated with, mutated thyroid hormone receptors. These include Resistance to Thyroid Hormone Syndrome, erythroleukemia, hepatocellular carcinoma, renal clear cell carcinoma, and thyroid cancer. We will describe current views on the molecular bases of these diseases, and what distinguishes the neoplastic from the non-neoplastic. We will also touch on studies that implicate alterations in receptor expression, and thyroid hormone levels, in certain oncogenic processes.

  12. Association between Hashimoto's Thyroiditis and Thyroid Cancer in 64,628 Patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Resende de Paiva, Christina; Grønhøj, Christian; Feldt-Rasmussen, Ulla

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The incidence of thyroid cancer (TC) is increasing although explanatory causes are lacking. A link between cancer and inflammation is well documented but unclear for autoimmune thyroid diseases and TC. We aimed to systematically review the association between Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT...... in TC and of TC in HT. RESULTS: We identified 36 studies (64,628 subjects) published between 1955 and 2016 from 13 countries. We found a relative risk (RR) of HT among papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) of 2.36 [95% confidence intervals (CIs) 1.55-3.29, p ....07-1.85, p = 0.016), and an RR of TL among HT of 9.74 (95% CI 3.93-24.13, p thyroid cancer....

  13. Thyroid Cancer and Tumor Collaborative Registry (TCCR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shats, Oleg; Goldner, Whitney; Feng, Jianmin; Sherman, Alexander; Smith, Russell B; Sherman, Simon

    2016-01-01

    A multicenter, web-based Thyroid Cancer and Tumor Collaborative Registry (TCCR, http://tccr.unmc.edu) allows for the collection and management of various data on thyroid cancer (TC) and thyroid nodule (TN) patients. The TCCR is coupled with OpenSpecimen, an open-source biobank management system, to annotate biospecimens obtained from the TCCR subjects. The demographic, lifestyle, physical activity, dietary habits, family history, medical history, and quality of life data are provided and may be entered into the registry by subjects. Information on diagnosis, treatment, and outcome is entered by the clinical personnel. The TCCR uses advanced technical and organizational practices, such as (i) metadata-driven software architecture (design); (ii) modern standards and best practices for data sharing and interoperability (standardization); (iii) Agile methodology (project management); (iv) Software as a Service (SaaS) as a software distribution model (operation); and (v) the confederation principle as a business model (governance). This allowed us to create a secure, reliable, user-friendly, and self-sustainable system for TC and TN data collection and management that is compatible with various end-user devices and easily adaptable to a rapidly changing environment. Currently, the TCCR contains data on 2,261 subjects and data on more than 28,000 biospecimens. Data and biological samples collected by the TCCR are used in developing diagnostic, prevention, treatment, and survivorship strategies against TC.

  14. Thyroid cancers and benign thyroid pathologies among Chernobyl clean-up workers from Latvia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurjane, N.; Orlikov, G.; Ritenberga, R.; Lemanis, N.; Lemane, R.

    1998-01-01

    The aim of the work is to detect the frequency and the character of thyroid diseases manly with thyroid cancer diagnosed among Chernobyl clean-up workers from Latvia. Conclusions: Usually, in Latvia every year there are 2-3 thyroid cancer cases per 100 thousand inhabitants, but there are 3 cases per 5 thousands Chernobyl clean-up workers - that mean 20 times more than in general population. The first case of thyroid follicular and papillary carcinoma in the Chernobyl clean-up workers from Latvia was diagnosed after a latent period of 10 years. Among benign thyroid lesions, cystic colloid goiter and nodular colloid goiter seem to be commonly associated with radiation exposure to the thyroid gland

  15. 2015 American Thyroid Association Management Guidelines for Adult Patients with Thyroid Nodules and Differentiated Thyroid Cancer: The American Thyroid Association Guidelines Task Force on Thyroid Nodules and Differentiated Thyroid Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haugen, Bryan R; Alexander, Erik K; Bible, Keith C; Doherty, Gerard M; Mandel, Susan J; Nikiforov, Yuri E; Pacini, Furio; Randolph, Gregory W; Sawka, Anna M; Schlumberger, Martin; Schuff, Kathryn G; Sherman, Steven I; Sosa, Julie Ann; Steward, David L; Tuttle, R Michael; Wartofsky, Leonard

    2016-01-01

    Thyroid nodules are a common clinical problem, and differentiated thyroid cancer is becoming increasingly prevalent. Since the American Thyroid Association's (ATA's) guidelines for the management of these disorders were revised in 2009, significant scientific advances have occurred in the field. The aim of these guidelines is to inform clinicians, patients, researchers, and health policy makers on published evidence relating to the diagnosis and management of thyroid nodules and differentiated thyroid cancer. The specific clinical questions addressed in these guidelines were based on prior versions of the guidelines, stakeholder input, and input of task force members. Task force panel members were educated on knowledge synthesis methods, including electronic database searching, review and selection of relevant citations, and critical appraisal of selected studies. Published English language articles on adults were eligible for inclusion. The American College of Physicians Guideline Grading System was used for critical appraisal of evidence and grading strength of recommendations for therapeutic interventions. We developed a similarly formatted system to appraise the quality of such studies and resultant recommendations. The guideline panel had complete editorial independence from the ATA. Competing interests of guideline task force members were regularly updated, managed, and communicated to the ATA and task force members. The revised guidelines for the management of thyroid nodules include recommendations regarding initial evaluation, clinical and ultrasound criteria for fine-needle aspiration biopsy, interpretation of fine-needle aspiration biopsy results, use of molecular markers, and management of benign thyroid nodules. Recommendations regarding the initial management of thyroid cancer include those relating to screening for thyroid cancer, staging and risk assessment, surgical management, radioiodine remnant ablation and therapy, and thyrotropin suppression

  16. 2015 American Thyroid Association Management Guidelines for Adult Patients with Thyroid Nodules and Differentiated Thyroid Cancer: The American Thyroid Association Guidelines Task Force on Thyroid Nodules and Differentiated Thyroid Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Erik K.; Bible, Keith C.; Doherty, Gerard M.; Mandel, Susan J.; Nikiforov, Yuri E.; Pacini, Furio; Randolph, Gregory W.; Sawka, Anna M.; Schlumberger, Martin; Schuff, Kathryn G.; Sherman, Steven I.; Sosa, Julie Ann; Steward, David L.; Tuttle, R. Michael; Wartofsky, Leonard

    2016-01-01

    Background: Thyroid nodules are a common clinical problem, and differentiated thyroid cancer is becoming increasingly prevalent. Since the American Thyroid Association's (ATA's) guidelines for the management of these disorders were revised in 2009, significant scientific advances have occurred in the field. The aim of these guidelines is to inform clinicians, patients, researchers, and health policy makers on published evidence relating to the diagnosis and management of thyroid nodules and differentiated thyroid cancer. Methods: The specific clinical questions addressed in these guidelines were based on prior versions of the guidelines, stakeholder input, and input of task force members. Task force panel members were educated on knowledge synthesis methods, including electronic database searching, review and selection of relevant citations, and critical appraisal of selected studies. Published English language articles on adults were eligible for inclusion. The American College of Physicians Guideline Grading System was used for critical appraisal of evidence and grading strength of recommendations for therapeutic interventions. We developed a similarly formatted system to appraise the quality of such studies and resultant recommendations. The guideline panel had complete editorial independence from the ATA. Competing interests of guideline task force members were regularly updated, managed, and communicated to the ATA and task force members. Results: The revised guidelines for the management of thyroid nodules include recommendations regarding initial evaluation, clinical and ultrasound criteria for fine-needle aspiration biopsy, interpretation of fine-needle aspiration biopsy results, use of molecular markers, and management of benign thyroid nodules. Recommendations regarding the initial management of thyroid cancer include those relating to screening for thyroid cancer, staging and risk assessment, surgical management, radioiodine remnant ablation and therapy

  17. A Recurrent Episode of Dermatomyositis Associated with Papillary Thyroid Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijay Gopal Eranki

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. It is uncommon for dermatomyositis to be associated with papillary thyroid cancer. We report an unusual case of papillary thyroid cancer presenting with dermatomyositis. Methods. The case history, imaging and laboratory data is reviewed. Results. We report the case of a 62-year-old female with a prior history of dermatomyositis and breast cancer who presented with a recurrent episode of dermatomyositis. Extensive evaluation of the cause of the dermatomyositis recurrence revealed no recurrence of the breast cancer but a thyroid nodule was identified. The nodule was biopsied and the patient was noted to have papillary thyroid cancer. The patient subsequently underwent total thyroidectomy and had gradual improvement in her dermatomyositis. Conclusion. It is very uncommon for dermatomyositis to be associated with papillary thyroid cancer.

  18. Thyroid cancer characteristics in the population surrounding Three Mile Island.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, Neerav; Camacho, Fabian; Mangano, Joseph; Goldenberg, David

    2012-06-01

    To determine differences in disease characteristics between the thyroid cancer populations in the area around the Three Mile Island (TMI) nuclear power plant and the rest of the state of Pennsylvania. Retrospective cross-sectional study. Data from the Pennsylvania Cancer Registry from 1985 to 2008 were reviewed and information regarding age at diagnosis, sex, race, residential status, county of residence, thyroid pathology, thyroid surgery, and staging was recorded. Dauphin, Lancaster, and York counties were defined as the TMI area. Records of 26,357 thyroid cancer patients were reviewed, with 2,611 patients within the TMI area. A higher proportion of papillary thyroid cancer (P < .001) and lower proportion of follicular thyroid cancer (P < .001) were noted in the TMI area population. Thyroid cancer cases from the TMI area were found to be more likely to be diagnosed before the age of 65 years (P < .001), be Pennsylvania born (P < .001), be well differentiated (P < .001), be <10 mm in size (P < .001), and be localized without spread (P < .001). Although the TMI area shows a higher incidence of thyroid cancer as compared to the rest of the state, this was not statistically significant. The TMI population showed a higher proportion of papillary thyroid cancer and less aggressive pathology and earlier diagnosis compared to the rest of Pennsylvania. No statistically significant difference in thyroid cancer incidence was noted. Overall, the study does not show a clear link with more advanced thyroid cancer and proximity to the TMI nuclear reactors. Copyright © 2012 The American Laryngological, Rhinological, and Otological Society, Inc.

  19. The effect of chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis on patients with thyroid cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yi; Ma, Xiao-Peng; Deng, Fu-Sheng; Liu, Zheng-Rong; Wei, Hou-Qing; Wang, Xi-Hong; Chen, Hao

    2014-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis (CLT) and malignant tumors of the thyroid. A retrospective review of 647 patients who underwent thyroid surgery at the Department of Breast and Thyroid Surgery in Anhui Provincial Hospital, China in 2012 was performed. The clinicopathological characteristics of patients with thyroid malignancies and CLT were collected. CLT was diagnosed by histopathological method. Among 647 patients, 144 patients had thyroid malignancies and 108 patients had been diagnosed with CLT. Moreover, in total, 44 patients had thyroid malignancies coexistent with CLT: forty-one (93.2%) patients had been diagnosed with the papillary thyroid cancer (PTC); two (4.5%) patients suffered from medullary carcinoma; and one (2.3%) patient suffered from lymphoma. The morbidity of thyroid malignancies in patients with CLT was significantly higher than that in patients without CLT (40.7% versus 18.6%; P CLT compared with those without CLT (P CLT and without CLT. Female predominance was observed in patients with CLT. CLT may have no effect on the progression of thyroid malignant tumor. Nevertheless, the influences of CLT on the prognosis of the thyroid carcinoma still need to be investigated with a larger sample size.

  20. Rare behavior of follicular variant of papillary thyroid cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Helmi, Hadeel; Idrees, Hend; Alshehri, Ameen; Alsaif, Abdulaziz

    2017-01-01

    Key Clinical Message Follicular variant of papillary thyroid cancer typically favors nodal spread. We report a case with hematogenous spread including multi‐organ involvement and describe our staged management approach. This is the first case to report follicular variant of papillary thyroid cancer with simultaneous adrenal and renal involvement.

  1. Mutant HABP2 Causes Non-Medullary Thyroid Cancer | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    The thyroid is a butterfly-shaped gland that lies at the base of the throat in front of the windpipe. A member of the endocrine system, the thyroid secretes hormones to regulate heart rate, blood pressure, temperature, and metabolism. Cancer of the thyroid is the most common endocrine cancer and the eighth most common cancer in the U.S. An estimated 63,450 Americans will be diagnosed with thyroid cancer this year. The vast majority is of follicular cell origin, and the remaining cancer originates from parafollicular cells, so called medullary thyroid cancer.

  2. Molecular mechanisms of thyroid tumorigenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krause, K.; Fuehrer, D.

    2008-01-01

    Thyroid nodules are the most frequent endocrine disorder and occur in approximately 30% of the German population. Thyroid nodular disease constitutes a very heterogeneous entity. A striking diversity of possible functional and morphological features of a thyroid tumour derived from the same thyroid ancestor cell, is a hallmark of thyroid tumorigenesis and is due to specific genetic alterations. Defects in known candidate genes can be found in up to 70% of differentiated thyroid carcinomas and determine the respective cancer phenotype. Papillary thyroid cancers (PTC) harbour BRAF (or much less frequently RAS) mutations in sporadically occurring tumours, while radiation-induced PTC display chromosomal rearrangements such as RET, TRK, APR9 / BRAF. These genetic events results in constitutive MAPKinase activation. Follicular thyroid cancers (FTC) harbour RAS mutations or PAX8/ PPARγ rearrangements, both of which, however have also been identified in follicular adenoma. In addition, recent studies show, that activation of PI3K/AKT signalling occurs with high frequency in follicular thyroid tumours. Undifferentiated (anaplastic) thyroid cancers (ATC) display genetic features of FTC or PTC, in addition to aberant activation of multiple tyrosinkinase pathways (overexpression or mutations in PI3K and MAPK pathways). This underscores the concept of a sequential evolution of ATC from differentiated thyroid cancer, a process widely conceived to be triggered by p53 inactivation. In contrast, the molecular pathogenesis of benign thyroid tumours, in particular cold thyroid nodules is less known, except for toxic thyroid nodules, which arise from constitutive activation of cAMP signalling, predominantly through TSHR mutations. (orig.)

  3. EpCAM nuclear localization identifies aggressive Thyroid Cancer and is a marker for poor prognosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ralhan, Ranju; Cao, Jun; Lim, Terence; MacMillan, Christina; Freeman, Jeremy L; Walfish, Paul G

    2010-01-01

    Proteolytic cleavage of the extracellular domain (EpEx) of Epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM) and nuclear signaling by its intracellular oncogenic domain Ep-ICD has recently been implicated in increased proliferation of cancer cells. The clinical significance of Ep-ICD in human tumors remains an enigma. EpEx, Ep-ICD and β-catenin immunohistochemistry using specific antibodies was conducted on 58 archived thyroid cancer (TC) tissue blocks from 34 patients and correlated with survival analysis of these patients for up to 17 years. The anaplastic (ATC) and aggressive thyroid cancers showed loss of EpEx and increased nuclear and cytoplasmic accumulation of Ep-ICD. In contrast, the low grade papillary thyroid cancers (PTC) showed membranous EpEx and no detectable nuclear Ep-ICD. The ATC also showed concomitant nuclear expression of Ep-ICD and β-catenin. Kaplan-Meier Survival analysis revealed reduced overall survival (OS) for TC patients showing nuclear Ep-ICD expression or loss of membranous EpEx (p < 0.0004), median OS = 5 months as compared to 198 months for patients who did not show nuclear Ep-ICD or demonstrated only membranous EpE. We report reciprocal loss of membrane EpEx but increased nuclear and cytoplasmic accumulation of Ep-ICD in aggressive TC; nuclear Ep-ICD correlated with poor OS of TC patients. Thus nuclear Ep-ICD localization may serve as a useful biomarker for aggressive TC and may represent a novel diagnostic, prognostic and therapeutic target for aggressive TC

  4. Neutron therapy for salivary and thyroid gland cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gribova, O. V.; Musabaeva, L. I.; Choynzonov, E. L.; Lisin, V. A.; Novikov, V. A.

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the results of the combined modality treatment and radiation therapy using 6.3 MeV fast neutrons for salivary gland cancer and prognostically unfavorable thyroid gland cancer. The study group comprised 127 patients with salivary gland cancer and 46 patients with thyroid gland cancer, who received neutron therapy alone and in combination with surgery. The results obtained demonstrated that the combined modality treatment including fast neutron therapy led to encouraging local control in patients with salivary and thyroid gland cancers.

  5. Neutron therapy for salivary and thyroid gland cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gribova, O. V., E-mail: gribova79@mail.ru; Choynzonov, E. L., E-mail: nii@oncology.tomsk.ru [Tomsk Cancer Research Institute, Kooperativny Street 5, Tomsk, 634050 (Russian Federation); National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University, Lenina Avenue 30, Tomsk, 634050 (Russian Federation); Musabaeva, L. I., E-mail: musabaevaLI@oncology.tomsk.ru; Lisin, V. A., E-mail: Lisin@oncology.tomsk.ru; Novikov, V. A., E-mail: dr.vanovikov@gmail.com [Tomsk Cancer Research Institute, Kooperativny Street 5, Tomsk, 634050 (Russian Federation)

    2016-08-02

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the results of the combined modality treatment and radiation therapy using 6.3 MeV fast neutrons for salivary gland cancer and prognostically unfavorable thyroid gland cancer. The study group comprised 127 patients with salivary gland cancer and 46 patients with thyroid gland cancer, who received neutron therapy alone and in combination with surgery. The results obtained demonstrated that the combined modality treatment including fast neutron therapy led to encouraging local control in patients with salivary and thyroid gland cancers.

  6. Delayed luminescence to monitor programmed cell death induced by berberine on thyroid cancer cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scordino, Agata; Campisi, Agata; Grasso, Rosaria; Bonfanti, Roberta; Gulino, Marisa; Iauk, Liliana; Parenti, Rosalba; Musumeci, Francesco

    2014-11-01

    Correlation between apoptosis and UVA-induced ultraweak photon emission delayed luminescence (DL) from tumor thyroid cell lines was investigated. In particular, the effects of berberine, an alkaloid that has been reported to have anticancer activities, on two cancer cell lines were studied. The FTC-133 and 8305C cell lines, as representative of follicular and anaplastic thyroid human cancer, respectively, were chosen. The results show that berberine is able to arrest cell cycle and activate apoptotic pathway as shown in both cell lines by deoxyribonucleic acid fragmentation, caspase-3 cleavage, p53 and p27 protein overexpression. In parallel, changes in DL spectral components after berberine treatment support the hypothesis that DL from human cells originates mainly from mitochondria, since berberine acts especially at the mitochondrial level. The decrease of DL blue component for both cell lines could be related to the decrease of intra-mitochondrial nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide and may be a hallmark of induced apoptosis. In contrast, the response in the red spectral range is different for the two cell lines and may be ascribed to a different iron homeostasis.

  7. Autoimmunity in differentiated thyroid cancer: significance and related clinical problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feldt-Rasmussen, Ulla; Rasmussen, Ase Krogh

    2011-01-01

    Coexistence of differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) and thyroid autoimmune diseases could represent a mere coincidence due to the frequent occurrence of autoimmunity, but there may also be a pathological and causative link between the two conditions. The coincidence of DTC with Hashimoto's disease...... has been variably reported at between 0.5 and 22.5% and of DTC with Graves' disease between 0 and 9.8%. In this review available evidence for thyroid autoimmunity in DTC is summarized and it is concluded that thyroid cancer does coexist with thyroid autoimmunity, implying that patients treated...... TgAb measurements may be used as a surrogate marker for recurrence of thyroid cancer during the long-term monitoring of DTC patients....

  8. Autoimmunity in differentiated thyroid cancer: significance and related clinical problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feldt-Rasmussen, Ulla; Rasmussen, Ase Krogh

    2010-01-01

    Coexistence of differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) and thyroid autoimmune diseases could represent a mere coincidence due to the frequent occurrence of autoimmunity, but there may also be a pathological and causative link between the two conditions. The coincidence of DTC with Hashimoto's disease...... has been variably reported at between 0.5 and 22.5% and of DTC with Graves' disease between 0 and 9.8%. In this review available evidence for thyroid autoimmunity in DTC is summarized and it is concluded that thyroid cancer does coexist with thyroid autoimmunity, implying that patients treated...... TgAb measurements may be used as a surrogate marker for recurrence of thyroid cancer during the long-term monitoring of DTC patients....

  9. Cari Kitahara Explores Medical Radiation Exposures and Thyroid Cancer Etiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dr. Cari Kitahara has built a multidisciplinary research program to explore cancer risks from occupational and medical radiation exposures, and to investigate the etiology of radiosensitive tumors, including thyroid cancer.

  10. Surgery of thyroid gland in Mongolia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishdorj, Ts

    2007-01-01

    Full text: The surgery department of Central Hospital no.1 operated on 1690 thyroid disease patients in last 7 years (2000-2007). Patients' ages were 9-80 years. Female : Male ratio 10 : 1. In the last years morbidity is changed, Diffuse toxic Goiter has decreased, Thyroid nodule and cancer has increased. During last 7 years we have operated 164 patients for thyroid mass. 69 cases (51.54%) of them were thyroid carcinoma. In this 69 cases include Anaplastic carcinoma 3, Papillary carcinoma 36, follicular carcinoma 30 cases. 80 percent patients from thyroid cancer cases were diagnosed in pre-operative period, 20 percent were diagnosed in inter and post-operation period. For thyroid cancer cases we made the following operations: - Total thyroidectomy 20 cases, Hemithyroidectomy 30 cases, Hemithyroidectomy 29 cases. After operation 49 patients were sent for radioactive I-131 treatment and 3 cases which recurred, were operated a second time. In the treatment of DTG, there has been a decrease in the number of surgeries, while great increase in the use of I-131. From 1990 to 1999 have been done 1307 operations, because of thyroid disease: - 580 (44.37%) for DTG, 636 (48.66%) for thyroid nodule, 37 ( 2.83%) for thyroid cancer. From 2000 to 2007 we have conducted 1608 operations, because of thyroid disease: 473 (29.41%) for DTG, 919 (57.15%) for thyroid nodule and 134 (8.33%) for thyroid cancer. All operations were done by O.V.Nicolaev's method. (intracapsular resection). Conclusion: 1. the numbers of thyroid cases which have been treated by operation is changing. There are an increasing number of cases of Thyroid nodule and thyroid cancer. 2. There is need to improve preoperative diagnostics. 3. Combination of surgery treatment and radioactive I131 treatment gave good results for thyroid cancer. (author)

  11. Phytoestrogens and thyroid cancer risk: the San Francisco Bay Area thyroid cancer study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn-Ross, Pamela L; Hoggatt, K J; Lee, Marion M

    2002-01-01

    Epidemiological and pathological data suggest that thyroid cancer may well be an estrogen-dependent disease. The relationship between thyroid cancer risk and dietary phytoestrogens, which can have both estrogenic and antiestrogenic properties, has not been previously studied. We present data from a multiethnic population-based case-control study of thyroid cancer conducted in the San Francisco Bay Area. Of 817 cases diagnosed between 1995 and 1998 (1992 and 1998 for Asian women), 608 (74%) were interviewed. Of 793 controls identified through random-digit dialing, 558 (70%) were interviewed. Phytoestrogen consumption was assessed via a food-frequency questionnaire and a newly developed nutrient database. The consumption of traditional and nontraditional soy-based foods and alfalfa sprouts were associated with reduced risk of thyroid cancer. Consumption of "western" foods with added soy flour or soy protein did not affect risk. Of the seven specific phytoestrogenic compounds examined, the isoflavones, daidzein and genistein [odds ratio (OR), 0.70; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.44-1.1; and OR, 0.65, 95% CI, 0.41-1.0, for the highest versus lowest quintile of daidzein and genistein, respectively] and the lignan, secoisolariciresinol (OR, 0.56; 95% CI, 0.35-0.89, for the highest versus lowest quintile) were most strongly associated with risk reduction. Findings were similar for white and Asian women and for pre- and postmenopausal women. Our findings suggest that thyroid cancer prevention via dietary modification of soy and/or phytoestrogen intake in other forms may be possible but warrants further research at this time.

  12. Epidemiological studies on postpartum thyroid dysfunction and thyroid cancer in Southeastern Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.L.P. Kuijpens (Hans)

    1998-01-01

    textabstractThe studies described in this thesis concentrate OIl epidemiological and pathogenetic aspects of postpartum thyroid dysfunction (PPTD) and related topics, and on epidemiological and treatment aspects of thyroid cancer. The studies were petfonned in the southeastern part of the

  13. Procedure guidelines for radioiodine therapy of differentiated thyroid cancer (version 2); Verfahrensanweisung zur Radioiodtherapie (RIT) beim differenzierten Schilddruesenkarzinom (Version 2)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dietlein, M.; Dressler, J.; Farahati, J.; Gruenwald, F.; Leisner, E.; Moser, E.; Reiners, C.; Schicha, H.; Schober, O. [Deutsche Gesellschaft fuer Nuklearmedizin e.V., Hannover (Germany)

    2004-08-01

    The procedure guidelines for radioiodine therapy (RIT) of differentiated thyroid cancer (version 2) are the counterpart to the procedure guidelines for {sup 131}I whole-body scintigraphy (version 2) and specify the interdisciplinary guidelines for thyroid cancer of the Deutsche Krebsgesellschaft and the Deutsche Gesellschaft fuer Chirurgie concerning the nuclear medicine part. Compared with version 1 facultative options for RIT can be chosen in special cases: ablative RIT for papillary microcarcinoma {<=} 1 cm, ablative RIT for mixed forms of anaplastic and differentiated thyroid cancer, and RIT in patients with a measurable or increasing thyroglobulin concentration but without detectable metastases by imaging. The description of the pretherapeutic dosimetry now includes the isotopes {sup 123}I and {sup 124}I as well as a broader range of the activity of {sup 131}I. Activities of 2-5 GBq {sup 131}I are recommended for the first ablative RIT. If high accumulative activities of {sup 131}I are expected, men who have not yet finished their family planning should be advised to the option of sperm cryoconservation. An interdisciplinary consensus is necessary whether the new TNM-classification (UICC, 6{sup th} edition, 2002) will lead to modified recommendations for surgical or nuclear medicine therapy, especially for the surgical completeness and for the ablative RIT of pT1 papillary cancer. (orig.)

  14. Temporary ovarian failure in thyroid cancer patients after thyroid remnant ablation with radioactive iodine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raymond, J.P.; Izembart, M.; Marliac, V.; Dagousset, F.; Merceron, R.E.; Vulpillat, M.; Vallee, G.

    1989-01-01

    We studied ovarian function retrospectively in 66 women who had regular menstrual cycles before undergoing complete thyroidectomy for differentiated thyroid cancer and subsequent thyroid remnant ablation with 131 I. Eighteen women developed temporary amenorrhea accompanied by increased serum gonadotropin concentrations during the first year after 131 I therapy. No correlation was found between the radioactive iodine dose absorbed, thyroid uptake before treatment, oral contraceptive use, or thyroid autoimmunity. Only age was a determining factor, with the older women being the most affected. We conclude that radioiodine ablation therapy is followed by transient ovarian failure, especially in older women

  15. Temporary ovarian failure in thyroid cancer patients after thyroid remnant ablation with radioactive iodine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raymond, J.P.; Izembart, M.; Marliac, V.; Dagousset, F.; Merceron, R.E.; Vulpillat, M.; Vallee, G.

    1989-07-01

    We studied ovarian function retrospectively in 66 women who had regular menstrual cycles before undergoing complete thyroidectomy for differentiated thyroid cancer and subsequent thyroid remnant ablation with /sup 131/I. Eighteen women developed temporary amenorrhea accompanied by increased serum gonadotropin concentrations during the first year after /sup 131/I therapy. No correlation was found between the radioactive iodine dose absorbed, thyroid uptake before treatment, oral contraceptive use, or thyroid autoimmunity. Only age was a determining factor, with the older women being the most affected. We conclude that radioiodine ablation therapy is followed by transient ovarian failure, especially in older women.

  16. P-glycoprotein Mediates Ceritinib Resistance in Anaplastic Lymphoma Kinase-rearranged Non-small Cell Lung Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryohei Katayama

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK fusion oncogene is observed in 3%–5% of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC. Crizotinib and ceritinib, a next-generation ALK tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI active against crizotinib-refractory patients, are clinically available for the treatment of ALK-rearranged NSCLC patients, and multiple next-generation ALK-TKIs are currently under clinical evaluation. These ALK-TKIs exhibit robust clinical activity in ALK-rearranged NSCLC patients; however, the emergence of ALK-TKI resistance restricts the therapeutic effect. To date, various secondary mutations or bypass pathway activation-mediated resistance have been identified, but large parts of the resistance mechanism are yet to be identified. Here, we report the discovery of p-glycoprotein (P-gp/ABCB1 overexpression as a ceritinib resistance mechanism in ALK-rearranged NSCLC patients. P-gp exported ceritinib and its overexpression conferred ceritinib and crizotinib resistance, but not to PF-06463922 or alectinib, which are next-generation ALK inhibitors. Knockdown of ABCB1 or P-gp inhibitors sensitizes the patient-derived cancer cells to ceritinib, in vitro and in vivo. P-gp overexpression was identified in three out of 11 cases with in ALK-rearranged crizotinib or ceritinib resistant NSCLC patients. Our study suggests that alectinib, PF-06463922, or P-gp inhibitor with ceritinib could overcome the ceritinib or crizotinib resistance mediated by P-gp overexpression.

  17. Development of anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK inhibitors and molecular diagnosis in ALK rearrangement-positive lung cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iwama E

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Eiji Iwama,1,2 Isamu Okamoto,3 Taishi Harada,2 Koichi Takayama,2 Yoichi Nakanishi2,3 1Department of Comprehensive Clinical Oncology, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, 2Research Institute for Diseases of the Chest, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, 3Center for Clinical and Translational Research, Kyushu University Hospital, Fukuoka, Japan Abstract: The fusion of echinoderm microtubule-associated protein-like 4 with anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK was identified as a transforming gene for lung cancer in 2007. This genetic rearrangement accounts for 2%–5% of non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC cases, occurring predominantly in younger individuals with adenocarcinoma who are never- or light smokers. A small-molecule tyrosine-kinase inhibitor of ALK, crizotinib, was rapidly approved by the US Food and Drug Administration on the basis of its pronounced clinical activity in patients with ALK rearrangement-positive NSCLC. Next-generation ALK inhibitors, such as alectinib, LDK378, and AP26113, are also being developed in ongoing clinical trials. In addition, the improvement and validation of methods for the detection of ALK rearrangement in NSCLC patients will be key to the optimal clinical use of ALK inhibitors. We here summarize recent progress in the development of new ALK inhibitors and in the molecular diagnosis of ALK rearrangement-positive NSCLC. Keywords: ALK, rearrangement, NSCLC, ALK inhibitor, targeted therapy, diagnosis

  18. Developments in the use of ultrasound for thyroid cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lew, John I; Rodgers, Steven E; Solorzano, Carmen C

    2010-01-01

    This article reviews the recent developments in neck ultrasound for thyroid cancer published in the last 18 months, with emphasis on the emerging role of surgeon-performed ultrasound in clinical endocrine practice. Ultrasound has evolved beyond the simple differentiation of solid and cystic thyroid nodules and their measurement. Although no single ultrasound feature has the highest accuracy in distinguishing between benign and malignant thyroid lesions, the combination of several ultrasound characteristics (e.g. hypoechogenicity, irregular borders and microcalcifications) within such thyroid nodules may have a stronger correlation for thyroid cancer. Based on these ultrasound features and risk for thyroid malignancy, the need for ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration, preoperative staging, lymph node mapping and extent of surgery can subsequently be determined and performed. Furthermore, ultrasound has an additional value intraoperatively and in the postoperative surveillance of patients treated for thyroid cancer. Surgeon-performed ultrasound has recently become indispensible in clinical practice where endocrine surgeons have integrated this versatile imaging modality in the evaluation and treatment of patients with thyroid cancer. Ultrasound is an essential modality in the evaluation of thyroid malignancy. Surgeon-performed ultrasound has proved invaluable in the preoperative, intraoperative and postoperative setting. Future developments in ultrasound may lead to further improvement in the diagnostic accuracy of this modality.

  19. Proceedings of the International Workshop on Radiation and Thyroid Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reiners, Christoph; Yasumura, Seiji; Ishikawa, Tetsuya; Suzuki, Shinichi; Shimura, Hiroki; Matsui, Shiro; Ohtsuru, Akira; Sakai, Akira; Kamiya, Kenji; Abe, Masafumi; Schuez, Joachim; Miyauchi; Gamhewage, Gaya; Van Deventer, Emilie; Kurihara, Osamu; Tokonami, Shinji; Hosoda, M.; Akiba, S.; Chung, Jae Hoon; Jacob, Peter; Ulanovsky, Alexander; Kaiser, Christian; Bouville, Andre; Hatch, Maureen; Drozdovitch, Vladimir; Shore, Roy; Furukawa, Kyoji; Imaizumi, Misa; Ivanov, Victor; Tronko, Mykola; Bogdanova, T.; Oliynik, V.; Shpak, V.; Tereshchenko, V.; Zurnadzgy, L.; Zamotaeva, G.; Mabuchi, K.; Hatch, M.; Bouville, A.; Brenner, A.; Likhtarev, I.; Gulak, L.; Shchepotin, I.; Demidchik, Yuri; Fridman, M.; Vaswani, Ashok; Sobue, Tomotaka; Yoshinaga, Shinji; Taniguchi, Nobuyuki; Miyakawa, Megumi; Momose, Takumaro; Siemann, Michael; Lazo, Ted; ); Lochard, Jacques; Schneider, Thierry; Takamura, Noboru; Bolch, Wesley

    2014-02-01

    The objective of this workshop was to develop a state-of-the-art scientific understanding of radiation-induced thyroid cancer, and to share knowledge and experience in this area in order to support the efforts of the Japanese government and the Fukushima Prefecture to enhance public health. Experience in holding effective social dialogues, in order to best understand and appropriately address social concerns, was also a workshop focus. The workshop began with a half-day tutorial session, followed by two days of plenary presentations and discussion, including panel sessions summarising the results of each session. A closing panel provided overall results and conclusions from the workshop. A Rapporteur provided a workshop summary report and assisted the session co-chairs in summarising key points. This document brings together the available presentations (slides), dealing with: 1.1 - Overview of Radiation-induced Thyroid Cancer (C. Reiners); 1.2 - Overview of the Fukushima Health Management Survey (S. Yasumura); 1.3 - Overview of Epidemiology of Thyroid Cancer in the Context of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Accident (J. Schuez); 1.4 - Overview of the Clinical Features of Thyroid Cancer (Miyauchi); 1.5 - Dialogue with Stakeholders in Complex Radiological Circumstances (G. Gamhewage); 1.6 - Session 1 (tutorial session): Radiation and Thyroid Cancer - Summary Discussion and Questions. 2.1 - WHO Thyroid Dose Estimation (E. van Deventer); 2.2 - Basic Survey External Dose Estimation (T. Ishikawa); 2.3 - NIRS Estimation of Internal Dose to the Thyroid (O. Kurihara); 2.4 - Estimation of Internal Dose to the Thyroid (S. Tokonami); 3.1 - FMU Thyroid Ultrasound Surveys in the Fukushima Prefecture (S. Suzuki); 3.2 - FMU Thyroid Ultrasound Surveys in the Yamanashi Prefecture and Review of Latent Thyroid (H. Shimura); 3.3 - Childhood Thyroid Cancer in Korea: Results of Recent Surveys (J. H. Chung); 4.1 - Ultrasonography Surveys and Thyroid Cancer in the Fukushima Prefecture (P

  20. On the cells of origin of radiogenic thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clifton, K.H.; Domann, F.E.; Groch, K.M.

    1991-01-01

    A major effort has been devoted to studies of the origins of radiogenic and hormonally-induced cancer at the cellular level in vivo. The studies has provided evidence that the functional thyroid follicules (follicular units, FU) which are formed in grafts of monodispersed rat thyroid cells, and hence the thyroid tumors which later develop in such grafts, are clonal in origin. Transplantation assays indicate that the clonogens comprise 1% of the cells in monodispersed suspensions of normal thyroid tissue. Carcinogenesis studies show that neoplastic initiation of thyroid clonogens by radiation is a commo event. Promotion-progression to cancer from radiation initiated clonogens has, however, been shown to be inversely related to the total grafted thyroid cell number. It is thus important to further define the physiology and population kinetics of the thyroid clonogens under different hormonal conditions both in situ and following transplantion. This report briefly summarizes recent data on (a) local cell-cell and remote hormonal feedback interactions during neoplastic promotion of initiated cells among the progeny of grafted clonogens in multicellular FU; (b) clonogenic cell population kinetics in situ during goitrogenesis and goiter involution; and (c) the reestablishment of the thyroid-hypothalamus-pituitary hormonal feedback system in thyroid cell-grafted thyroidectomized rats and its dependence on the formation of FU by the grafted clonogens. These results support the conclusion that the thyroid gland contains a small sub-population of clonogenic epithelial cells which posess many stem cell-like characteristics. (N.K.)

  1. Determinants of papillary cancer of the thyroid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wingren, G.; Hatschek, T.; Axelson, O. (University Hospital, Linkoeping (Sweden))

    1993-10-01

    Determinants of papillary thyroid cancer were evaluated in a questionnaire-based case-control study from southeastern Sweden. A total of 104 cases, diagnosed from 1977 to 1987, and 387 randomly selected controls were included in the analyses. Female subjects with papillary cancer reported a work history as dentists/dental assistants, telephone operators, teachers, and day nursery personnel, and an occupational contact with chemicals and video display terminals more often than did controls. The 11 male cases more often reported working as mechanics and metal workers and having occupational contact with solvents. Other factors associated with increased risk for female papillary cancer were having private well water at the birth address; leisure time exposure to combustion smoke; low intake of cruciferous vegetables and seafood; and a family history of goiter, heart disease, biliary disorder, or female genital cancer. Diagnostic radiographic examinations, especially to the head, neck, or upper back/chest area, or repeated dental examinations, were also found to be associated with this form of cancer. With regard to the possible influence from hormonal factors among women less than age 50 years at time of diagnosis, an increased risk was found for a pregnancy soon after puberty. Tendencies toward a decreasing risk with increasing age at first pregnancy as well as an increasing risk with increasing number of pregnancies were found as well. Multiparity seemed to potentiate the effect from prior radiographic examinations.

  2. The Role of STAT3 in Thyroid Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sosonkina, Nadiya; Starenki, Dmytro; Park, Jong-In, E-mail: jipark@mcw.edu [Department of Biochemistry, Medical College of Wisconsin, 8701 Watertown Plank Road, Milwaukee, WI 53226 (United States)

    2014-03-06

    Thyroid cancer is the most common endocrine malignancy and its global incidence rates are rapidly increasing. Although the mortality of thyroid cancer is relatively low, its rate of recurrence or persistence is relatively high, contributing to incurability and morbidity of the disease. Thyroid cancer is mainly treated by surgery and radioiodine remnant ablation, which is effective only for non-metastasized primary tumors. Therefore, better understanding of the molecular targets available in this tumor is necessary. Similarly to many other tumor types, oncogenic molecular alterations in thyroid epithelium include aberrant signal transduction of the mitogen-activated protein kinase, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/AKT (also known as protein kinase B), NF-κB, and WNT/β-catenin pathways. However, the role of the Janus kinase (JAK)/signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT3) pathway, a well-known mediator of tumorigenesis in different tumor types, is relatively less understood in thyroid cancer. Intriguingly, recent studies have demonstrated that, in thyroid cancer, the JAK/STAT3 pathway may function in the context of tumor suppression rather than promoting tumorigenesis. In this review, we provide an update of STAT3 function in thyroid cancer and discuss some of the evidences that support this hypothesis.

  3. The Role of STAT3 in Thyroid Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sosonkina, Nadiya; Starenki, Dmytro; Park, Jong-In

    2014-01-01

    Thyroid cancer is the most common endocrine malignancy and its global incidence rates are rapidly increasing. Although the mortality of thyroid cancer is relatively low, its rate of recurrence or persistence is relatively high, contributing to incurability and morbidity of the disease. Thyroid cancer is mainly treated by surgery and radioiodine remnant ablation, which is effective only for non-metastasized primary tumors. Therefore, better understanding of the molecular targets available in this tumor is necessary. Similarly to many other tumor types, oncogenic molecular alterations in thyroid epithelium include aberrant signal transduction of the mitogen-activated protein kinase, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/AKT (also known as protein kinase B), NF-κB, and WNT/β-catenin pathways. However, the role of the Janus kinase (JAK)/signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT3) pathway, a well-known mediator of tumorigenesis in different tumor types, is relatively less understood in thyroid cancer. Intriguingly, recent studies have demonstrated that, in thyroid cancer, the JAK/STAT3 pathway may function in the context of tumor suppression rather than promoting tumorigenesis. In this review, we provide an update of STAT3 function in thyroid cancer and discuss some of the evidences that support this hypothesis

  4. Ultrasonography survey and thyroid cancer in the Fukushima Prefecture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacob, Peter; Kaiser, Jan Christian; Ulanovsky, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    Thyroid cancer is one of the major health concerns after the accident in the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power station (NPS). Currently, ultrasonography surveys are being performed for persons residing in the Fukushima Prefecture at the time of the accident with an age of up to 18 years. Here, the expected thyroid cancer prevalence in the Fukushima Prefecture is assessed based on an ultrasonography survey of Ukrainians, who were exposed at an age of up to 18 years to 131 I released during the Chernobyl NPS accident, and on differences in equipment and study protocol in the two surveys. Radiation risk of thyroid cancer incidence among survivors of the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki and preliminary estimates of thyroid dose due to the Fukushima accident were used for the prediction of baseline and radiation-related thyroid cancer risks. We estimate a prevalence of thyroid cancer of 0.027 % (95 % CI 0.010 %; 0.050 %) for the first screening campaign in the Fukushima Prefecture. Compared with the incidence rate in Japan in 2007, the ultrasonography survey is predicted to increase baseline thyroid cancer incidence by a factor of 7.4 (95 % CI 0.95; 17.3). Under the condition of continued screening, thyroid cancer during the first fifty years after the accident is predicted to be detected for about 2 % of the screened population. The prediction of radiation-related thyroid cancer in the most exposed fraction (a few ten thousand persons) of the screened population of the Fukushima Prefecture has a large uncertainty with the best estimates of the average risk of 0.1-0.3 %, depending on average dose. (orig.)

  5. Bronchoscopic management of critical central airway obstruction by thyroid cancer: Combination airway stenting using tracheal and inverted-Y carinal self-expanding metallic stents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madan, Karan; Shrestha, Prajowl; Garg, Rakesh; Hadda, Vijay; Mohan, Anant; Guleria, Randeep

    2017-01-01

    Central airway obstruction (CAO) can result from various benign and malignant etiologies. Anaplastic thyroid cancer (ATC) is the most aggressive form of thyroid cancer. Rapid airway compromise is the main cause of death in ATC. We report a patient with ATC who presented with a large neck mass leading to CAO with long segment tracheal and right main bronchial compression and respiratory failure. Urgent Rigid Bronchoscopy was performed for airway stabilization and patient was managed with a combination airway stenting approach. A combination of self expanding, metallic, covered inverted Y and straight tracheal stents was used to stabilize the near complete airway structure. We herein highlight the role of therapeutic rigid bronchoscopy with airway stenting as an efficacious treatment modality for management of malignant CAO. PMID:28360477

  6. Bronchoscopic management of critical central airway obstruction by thyroid cancer: Combination airway stenting using tracheal and inverted-Y carinal self-expanding metallic stents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karan Madan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Central airway obstruction (CAO can result from various benign and malignant etiologies. Anaplastic thyroid cancer (ATC is the most aggressive form of thyroid cancer. Rapid airway compromise is the main cause of death in ATC. We report a patient with ATC who presented with a large neck mass leading to CAO with long segment tracheal and right main bronchial compression and respiratory failure. Urgent Rigid Bronchoscopy was performed for airway stabilization and patient was managed with a combination airway stenting approach. A combination of self expanding, metallic, covered inverted Y and straight tracheal stents was used to stabilize the near complete airway structure. We herein highlight the role of therapeutic rigid bronchoscopy with airway stenting as an efficacious treatment modality for management of malignant CAO.

  7. Thyroid cancers: a three year retrospective histopathological study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Than-Than-Htwe; Maung-Ko

    2001-01-01

    A laboratory based retrospective study was done on thyroid tissue specimen that were received from the surgically removed thyroid swellings of various reasons. It was a three year study from 1996-1998 with a total number of cases as (n=1690). Cases were between the age range of 8-88 years including both sexes. A routine histopathological examination was done according to the standard WHO classification, using conventional methods and techniques of specimen sectioning and processing. Occurrence of thyroid cancer among total cases of thyroid dysfunction is highly significant (P 0.860). The results obtained were discussed. (author)

  8. Non-medical exposure to radioiodines and thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hindie, Elif; Leenhardt, Laurence; Aurengo, Andre; Vitaux, Francoise; Colas-Linhart, Nicole; Bok, B.; Grosclaude, Pascale; Galle, Pierre

    2002-01-01

    The Chernobyl accident, which occurred 32 years after the accidental exposure of Marshall islanders, resulted in the exposure of neighbouring populations to a mixture of iodine isotopes and in an increased incidence of thyroid cancer. The highest thyroid doses were received by the youngest age groups. This review describes the existing evidence, and examines factors that may have increased the risk. It also stresses problems with contemporary thyroid measurements, and the lack of information on the sensitivity of the thyroid to short-lived iodine isotopes and iodine-131. Practical considerations for nuclear physicians, epidemiologists and thyroidologists are discussed in the light of this major accident. (orig.)

  9. Radiation and clinical medicine of thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimizu, Kazuo

    2013-01-01

    Described are the comparison of Accidents of Chernobyl and Fukushima (CA in 1986 and FA in 2011, respectively), effect of radiation on thyroid (Th), clinical feature and therapy of Th cancer, based on author's experience of lasting (from 1999) Chernobyl and daily clinical practices. Radioiodine, once incorporated in Th, is converted to organic Th hormones, stored in the cell, and gives the radiation damage to DNA leading to cancer formation. In Belarus near Chernobyl, well known are 3- and 72.5-fold increases of incidence of Th cancer in adults and children, respectively, after CA. Th cancer is observed in as many as 770 cases (52.5%) of the age 0-6 y in total 1,467 patients of 0-19 y at CA. The prevalence of pediatric Th cancer begins to increase 4 years after CA, reaches a peak in 1995 and then declines while adult prevalence is elevating still at 2004. In general, most of the pediatric cancer including radiation-induced one are more advanced than that in adult at the first diagnosis, but surgical treatment similar to the method for sporadic papillary carcinoma results in good prognosis. Authors' low invasive video-assisted neck surgery (VANS) of endoscopic thyroidectomy can be applicable to the <1 cm small cancer, after which recurrence has been scarcely seen. FA differs from CA in the scale of the accident (1/6-10 of CA), in the nature (critical explosion in CA vs radioactive contamination), and in iodine environment (CA/ FA, in poor/rich iodine region, respectively). The effect of radioiodine on Th may be smaller in FA than CA possibly due to the third factor. Means are taken as the Prefectural Health Management Survey for all prefectural residents, and as the periodical ultrasonic test of Th for 360 thousands residents of age <18 y at FA to be continued for their whole lifetime. (T.T.)

  10. Validation of dynamic risk stratification in pediatric differentiated thyroid cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohn, Seo Young; Kim, Young Nam; Kim, Hye In; Kim, Tae Hyuk; Kim, Sun Wook; Chung, Jae Hoon

    2017-10-01

    There has been increasing interest in a risk-adopted management strategy known as dynamic risk stratification following the revised American Thyroid Association guidelines for differentiated thyroid cancer. We aimed to evaluate the usefulness of dynamic risk stratification for predicting structural disease in pediatric differentiated thyroid cancer patients. We retrospectively reviewed 130 pediatric differentiated thyroid cancer patients (≤19 years) who were treated between 1996 and 2015 at Samsung Medical Center. Patients were stratified according to three American Thyroid Association initial risk group (low, intermediate, or high risk) and four dynamic risk stratification group (excellent, indeterminate, biochemical incomplete, or structural incomplete). Based on dynamic risk stratification strategy, structural disease was identified 3.9% in the excellent group, 9.7% in the indeterminate group, 76.9% in the biochemical incomplete group, and 100% in the structural incomplete group. The hazard ratios of the structural disease were 18.10 (P Dynamic risk stratification based on patient responses to initial therapy was able to effectively predict the risk of structural disease in a pediatric population, and as a follow-up strategy, may work as well in pediatric differentiated thyroid cancer patients as it does in adult differentiated thyroid cancer patients.

  11. On the RET Rearrangements in Chernobyl-Related Thyroid Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergei V. Jargin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a consensus that Chernobyl accident has induced thyroid cancer increase in children and adolescents. The UNSCEAR report concluded that no somatic disorders other than thyroid cancer were caused by radiation exposure due to the accident except for acute radiation sickness occurred to the people within the Power Plant at the time of the accident. A hypothesis is discussed in this paper that the increase of thyroid cancer was caused predominantly by the screening, overdiagnosis, and registration of nonirradiated persons as Chernobyl victims. A mechanism of thyroid cancer overdiagnosis is described that can be active even today, causing hypertherapy. Older neglected tumors found by the screening shortly after the Chernobyl accident or brought from noncontaminated areas were misclassified as aggressive radiation-induced cancers. Therefore, supposed markers of the radiation-induced thyroid cancer, such as the RET rearrangements, are probably associated with disease duration and tumor progression. The screening effect is obviously dependent on the basis level of medical surveillance: the higher the level, the smaller the screening effect. Absence of any significant increase of thyroid cancer after the Fukushima accident in spite of the vigorous screening would certify the high level of health care in Japan especially for children.

  12. High incidence of thyroid cancer among patients with acromegaly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaldrymidis, Dimitrios; Papadakis, Georgios; Tsakonas, Georgios; Kaldrymidis, Philippos; Flaskas, Theofanis; Seretis, Andreas; Pantazi, Eleni; Kostoglou-Athanassiou, Ifigenia; Peppa, Melpomeni; Roussou, Paraskevi; Diamanti-Kandarakis, Evanthia

    2016-01-01

    Several studies have suggested that patients with acromegaly have an increased risk of thyroid, colorectal, breast and prostate cancers. In this study we determined the prevalence of malignant neoplasms in patients with acromegaly. Cancer risk was evaluated in a cohort of 110 patients (M/F 48/62, age 58.63±13.8 years, range 30-86) with acromegaly. Mean age at diagnosis of acromegaly was 46.37±13.11 years. Mean period of time since diagnosis of acromegaly was 12.26+9.6 years. From 110 patients, cancer was diagnosed in 26 (23.6%) patients. Thyroid cancer was the most common cancer and was diagnosed in 13 patients (11.8%); other cancers encountered were gastric cancer (N=2), endometrial cancer (N-2), and breast cancer, colon cancer, prostate cancer (N-2), myelodysplastic syndrome, renal cell carcinoma, lung cancer and pancreatic carcinoma, one case each. Age, gender, age at the time of diagnosis of acromegaly, tumor size of pituitary adenoma and duration of disease were not associated with cancer development. This study suggests that patients with acromegaly have an increased risk of thyroid cancer and therefore they should undergo regular screening with hormonal and ultrasound evaluation of the thyroid and FNAB when required.

  13. New predictions for Chernobyl childhood thyroid cancers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, P.J. [School of Engineering and Mathematical Sciences, City University, Northampton Square, London (United Kingdom); Zwissler, R. [Laboratory for Safety Analysis, ETH Zurich, ETH Zentrum, Zurich (Switzerland)

    2003-08-01

    New, firmer predictions are presented for the number of childhood thyroid cancers caused by Chernobyl: between 3300 and 7600 over all time, with a central estimate of 4400. The high efficacy of medical treatment suggests that at least 70% of the sufferers should survive the illness, with 95% or better survival a realistic target given early and skilled surgery and treatment. In view of the reported lack of evidence for other long-term health effects and the comparatively small number of early deaths, the total figure for deaths attributable to the Chernobyl accident may currently be estimated as from a few hundreds to a few thousands, with one thousand as a reasonable central estimate. (author)

  14. Colon cancer metastasis to the thyroid gland: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.I. Coelho

    2017-01-01

    Conclusion: A low threshold of suspicion is crucial to make a timely diagnosis of thyroid metastases from colorectal cancer. Treatment is controversial, but, without surgery, the need may arise for tracheostomy.

  15. Uptodate view on diagnostics and treatment of medullary thyroid cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D O Gazizova

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available During last 4 years leading endocrine societies of the world published clinical recommendations on diag nostics and treatment of medullary thyroid cancer. The article covers most aspects of following patients with this pathology.

  16. Management Guidelines for Children with Thyroid Nodules and Differentiated Thyroid Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waguespack, Steven G.; Bauer, Andrew J.; Angelos, Peter; Benvenga, Salvatore; Cerutti, Janete M.; Dinauer, Catherine A.; Hamilton, Jill; Hay, Ian D.; Luster, Markus; Parisi, Marguerite T.; Rachmiel, Marianna; Thompson, Geoffrey B.; Yamashita, Shunichi

    2015-01-01

    Background: Previous guidelines for the management of thyroid nodules and cancers were geared toward adults. Compared with thyroid neoplasms in adults, however, those in the pediatric population exhibit differences in pathophysiology, clinical presentation, and long-term outcomes. Furthermore, therapy that may be recommended for an adult may not be appropriate for a child who is at low risk for death but at higher risk for long-term harm from overly aggressive treatment. For these reasons, unique guidelines for children and adolescents with thyroid tumors are needed. Methods: A task force commissioned by the American Thyroid Association (ATA) developed a series of clinically relevant questions pertaining to the management of children with thyroid nodules and differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC). Using an extensive literature search, primarily focused on studies that included subjects ≤18 years of age, the task force identified and reviewed relevant articles through April 2014. Recommendations were made based upon scientific evidence and expert opinion and were graded using a modified schema from the United States Preventive Services Task Force. Results: These inaugural guidelines provide recommendations for the evaluation and management of thyroid nodules in children and adolescents, including the role and interpretation of ultrasound, fine-needle aspiration cytology, and the management of benign nodules. Recommendations for the evaluation, treatment, and follow-up of children and adolescents with DTC are outlined and include preoperative staging, surgical management, postoperative staging, the role of radioactive iodine therapy, and goals for thyrotropin suppression. Management algorithms are proposed and separate recommendations for papillary and follicular thyroid cancers are provided. Conclusions: In response to our charge as an independent task force appointed by the ATA, we developed recommendations based on scientific evidence and expert opinion for the

  17. Management Guidelines for Children with Thyroid Nodules and Differentiated Thyroid Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Gary L; Waguespack, Steven G; Bauer, Andrew J; Angelos, Peter; Benvenga, Salvatore; Cerutti, Janete M; Dinauer, Catherine A; Hamilton, Jill; Hay, Ian D; Luster, Markus; Parisi, Marguerite T; Rachmiel, Marianna; Thompson, Geoffrey B; Yamashita, Shunichi

    2015-07-01

    Previous guidelines for the management of thyroid nodules and cancers were geared toward adults. Compared with thyroid neoplasms in adults, however, those in the pediatric population exhibit differences in pathophysiology, clinical presentation, and long-term outcomes. Furthermore, therapy that may be recommended for an adult may not be appropriate for a child who is at low risk for death but at higher risk for long-term harm from overly aggressive treatment. For these reasons, unique guidelines for children and adolescents with thyroid tumors are needed. A task force commissioned by the American Thyroid Association (ATA) developed a series of clinically relevant questions pertaining to the management of children with thyroid nodules and differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC). Using an extensive literature search, primarily focused on studies that included subjects ≤18 years of age, the task force identified and reviewed relevant articles through April 2014. Recommendations were made based upon scientific evidence and expert opinion and were graded using a modified schema from the United States Preventive Services Task Force. These inaugural guidelines provide recommendations for the evaluation and management of thyroid nodules in children and adolescents, including the role and interpretation of ultrasound, fine-needle aspiration cytology, and the management of benign nodules. Recommendations for the evaluation, treatment, and follow-up of children and adolescents with DTC are outlined and include preoperative staging, surgical management, postoperative staging, the role of radioactive iodine therapy, and goals for thyrotropin suppression. Management algorithms are proposed and separate recommendations for papillary and follicular thyroid cancers are provided. In response to our charge as an independent task force appointed by the ATA, we developed recommendations based on scientific evidence and expert opinion for the management of thyroid nodules and DTC in

  18. Epidemiological studies of thyroid cancer in the CIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beebe, G.W.

    1996-01-01

    Despite the great international interest in Chernobyl and the need for quantitative risk information on the carcinogenic effectiveness of the radio iodines, there has been relatively little epidemiological research on thyroid cancer following the Chernobyl accident. The reasons for this are many, diverse, and difficult to eliminate, although some progress is being made. Among them are the natural priority of public health concerns, a weak infrastructure for conducting studies in chronic disease epidemiology, and the difficulty of assigning thyroid dose estimates to individuals for study. In spite of the difficulties a number of significant studies have been begun or are planned, and several valuable reports have appeared. From the descriptive studies it is now known that the latent period for thyroid cancer in children exposed to radio iodines is not 5 to 10, but probably three years, that the magnitude of the increase in thyroid cancer among children is beyond anything previously experienced or expected, and that there is a strong correlation between thyroid cancer and environmental radiocesium contamination levels in the Gomel region of Belarus, and between thyroid cancer and average regional levels of I 131 dose to the thyroid in Ukraine. However, even today, there is very little hard scientific information on the relation of thyroid cancer in children and their exposure to the radio iodines in the fallout from the Chernobyl accident. This is information that only well-designed scientific epidemiological studies, based on firm dose estimates, could be expected to provide. With that purpose in mind, the US has planned with Belarus and Ukraine long-term cohort studies of many thousands of subjects with thyroid activity measurements

  19. Perspectives of development of thyroid cancers in Belarus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kenigsberg, J.; Buglova, E.; Paretzke, H.G.; Heidenreich, W.

    1996-01-01

    This paper gives an overview on the total number if thyroid cancers observed in Belarus after the Chernobyl accident among children, discusses possible sources of the observed increase over expected cases and compares these observations with predictive calculations using different risk coefficients published in the literature. To this purpose exposure estimates of the thyroid are made for children living in three selected areas. Different radioecological, dosimetric and other reasons make it very difficult to obtain reliable dose estimates for these victims, and the use of published risk coefficients for the assessment of future developments of the thyroid cancer incidence rates results in predictions which do not agree too well with the observations

  20. Uptake of I-131 MIBG by medullary thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endo, K.; Koizumi, M.; Sakahara, H.

    1985-01-01

    I-131 MIBG scans are useful for the localization of pheochromocytoma and neuroblastoma with high catecholamine levels. Recently the authors have found that medullary thyroid cancer also showed an uptake of I-131 MIBG in both primary neck tumors and metastatic sites. Up to now scintigraphic studies were performed in 5 patients with medullary thyroid cancer. Scintigraphy was done at 24 and 48 hours after the administration of 0.5 mCi of I-131 MIBG, thyroid uptake of dissociated I-131 being prevented by Lugol's solution. Four out of 5 cases were familial type and uptake of I-131 MIBG was similarly observed in medullary thyroid cancer as well as in pheochromocytoma. Bone metastasis of medullary thyroid cancer was also detected with I-131 MIBG. However, one case of sporadic form was negative with I-131 MIBG, whereas there was a high uptake of Tc(V)-99m dimercaptosuccinic acid: a newly developed radiopharmaceutical for medullary thyroid cancer, visualizing a different uptake mechanism of both reagents (J Nucl Med 25: 323-325, 1984). After adrenalectomy high uptake of I-131 MIBG was still observed in medullary thyroid cancer, in spite of normal catecholamine levels. The tumor to blood ratio was estimated in vivo to be about several hundreds at 24 hours after the administration. These cells are of neural crest origin and the mechanism of uptake of I-131 MIBG may not be related to the catechamine uptake mechanism. This paper concludes that I-131 MIBG is useful not only for the localization but also for the treatment of medullary thyroid cancer, as preliminary performed in pheochromocytoma and neuroblastoma

  1. Radiation and risk for thyroid cancer: atypical findings of a community thyroid recall program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Straub, W.; Miller, M.; Sanislow, C.; Fishbeck, W.

    1982-01-01

    Screening of 553 persons for thyroid disease by scan and physical exam was performed. Group I (245) had documented irradiation, with most (85%) receiving 300 R for lymphoid hyperplasia. Group II (308) had only a history of prior irradiation. Abnormal glands were found in 17 of 245 (7%) of Group I with 7 of 245 (3%) having nodular disease. No cancers were found in six of eight (75%) persons with nodular disease having surgery. Abnormal glands were found in 45/308 (14.6%) of Group II with 16/308 (5.2%) having nodular disease. Twelve of 16 (75%) with nodular disease from Group II had surgery and three thyroid cancers were found; in addition, one person from this group had a history of prior surgery for thyroid cancer. The incidence of thyroid cancer in Group I was 0%, Group II was 1.3%, and the combined incidence was 0.7%. The relatively low incidence of thyroid cancer observed is attributed to the relatively late average age at time of irradiation; 22 years for Group 1, 13 years for Group II

  2. Pattern of second primary malignancies in thyroid cancer patients

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-07-02

    Jul 2, 2012 ... kidney cancers has received less attention.[24] In this study, we found only one case of renal cancer and one case of prostatic cancer as second malignancies in patients with thyroid carcinoma and treated with radioiodine. Some workers consistently report a substantial increased risk of two or more fold for ...

  3. Thyroid cancer in South Africa - an indicator of regional iodine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective. Because follicular thyroid cancers predominate in iodine-deficient and papillary cancers predominate in iodine·replete populations. we have analysed national and regional (former Transvaal) incidences of these cancer types as a surrogate measure of the population iodine nutritional status in South Africa.

  4. Thyroid cancer in South Africa - an indicator of regional iodine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective. Because follicular thyroid cancers predominate in iodine-deficient and papillary cancers predominate in iodine replete populations. we have analysed national and regional (former Transvaal) incidences of these cancer types as a surrogate measure of the population iodine nutritional status in South Africa.

  5. Analysis of Recurrence Factor of Postoperative Papillary Thyroid Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    XING Lan-lan;CHEN Song;LI Ya-ming

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the factors that influences the recurrence of papillary thyroid cancer,69 patients with papillary thyroid cancer since January 1, 2011 to march 30, 2013 were analyzed respectively. They meet the inclusion criteria and complete clinical data, 18 males and 51 females,average age: 40.17±12.97.Thyroid ultrasonography, thyroid function test, thyroglobulin and antibody measurement were performed on all patients and thyroid function were checked three or more times on the premise of continuously levothyroxine. Single factor analysis were performed using SPSS17.0 in these respects including patients' gender, age, tumor size, type of opetation, the inhibition degree of TSH with taking levothyroxine postoperative and whether to perform 131I thyroid remnant ablation. Binary Logistic regression analysis were used for studying recurrence factors in multivariate analysis. The ROC curve were drawn, and then determine the threshold of TSH to evaluate tumor recurrence using Youden index method. Unvaried analysis showed that there was no statistically significance between papillary thyroid cancer recurrence and patients' age, surgical approach (P =0.373, P = 0.226,but were related to patient's gender, tumor size, postoperative TSH suppression degree and the removal of residual thyroid tissue postoperative(P= 0.031, P = 0.004, P = 0.000 01, P = 0.000 05. Males, large tumors, high postoperative TSH values and patients who didn't remove the residual thyroid tissue after surgery had higher recurrence rate. Logistic regression analysis showed that tumor size, postoperative TSH suppression degree and whether to remove the residual thyroid tissue were the influencing factors of tumor recurrence. The postoperative TSH supressive degree evaluation of critical point of tumor recurrence was determined by 0.223 5 mU/L using the Yueden index method. Large tumors, high postoperative TSH values,and no removal of the residual thyroid tissue had more influence

  6. Clinical Experiences with Radiation Induced Thyroid Cancer after Chernobyl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Reiners

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The risk of developing thyroid cancer increases considerably after exposure to external or internal radiation, especially in children below the age of 10. After the Chernobyl reactor accident, the yearly incidence of childhood thyroid cancer in Belarus increased to approximately 40 per 1.000.000 in girls and to roughly 20 per 1.000.000 in boys compared to approximately 0.5 cases per 1.000.000 prior to the accident. Typically, young children with thyroid cancer after radiation exposure present in ≈95% of the cases as papillary cancers, in ≈50% as invasive tumors growing outside the thyroid capsule, in ≈65% with lymph node metastases and in ≈15% with distant metastases. A joint Belarusian-German project starting in April 1993 that combined treatment with surgery and radioiodine was organized in 237 selected children from Belarus who were exposed to the Chernobyl fallout and had advanced stages of thyroid cancer. The study group included 141 girls and 96 boys. Their median age at the time of the accident was 1.7 years; whereas the median age at the time of diagnosis was 12.4 years. With the exception of two cases with follicular histology, the majority of the patients had been diagnosed with papillary thyroid cancers. In 63%, the tumor had grown outside the thyroid capsule and invaded the tissue of the neck (pT4. Nearly all of the selected cases (96% showed-up with lymph node metastases (pN1 and 43% of the patients with distant metastases mainly to the lungs (pM1. In 58% of the children, complete remissions of thyroid cancer could be achieved until December 31st 2010 and in 34% of the children, stable partial remissions; in the remaining 8% of the patients, partial remissions were observed. The risk of radiation-induced thyroid cancer increased considerably in children and adolescents who were affected by the Chernobyl reactor accident. In spite of the fact, that thyroid cancers in young children seem to behave more aggressively than in

  7. Tc-99m-Labeled-rhTSH Analogue (TR1401) for Imaging Poorly Differentiated Metastatic Thyroid Cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Galli, Filippo; Manni, Isabella; Piaggio, Giulia; Balogh, Lajos; Weintraub, Bruce D.; Szkudlinski, Mariusz W.; Fremont, Valerie; Dierckx, Rudi A. J. O.; Signore, Alberto

    2014-01-01

    Background: Differentiated thyroid carcinomas originating from thyroid follicular cells are frequent tumors of the thyroid with relatively good prognosis due to improved surgical techniques and follow-up procedures. Poorly differentiated thyroid cancers, which lose iodine uptake ability, in most

  8. Thyroid cancer and multiple primary tumors in the SEER cancer registries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ronckers, Cécile M.; McCarron, Peter; Ron, Elaine

    2005-01-01

    Thyroid cancer incidence rates have increased steadily in the United States and elsewhere. Radiation exposure at a young age is a strong risk factor, but otherwise the etiology is unclear. To explore etiologic clues, we studied the risk of thyroid cancer after an earlier primary cancer, as well as

  9. Thyroid cancer in childhood cancer survivors: a detailed evaluation of radiation dose response and its modifiers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ronckers, Cécile M.; Sigurdson, Alice J.; Stovall, Marilyn; Smith, Susan A.; Mertens, Ann C.; Liu, Yan; Hammond, Sue; Land, Charles E.; Neglia, Joseph P.; Donaldson, Sarah S.; Meadows, Anna T.; Sklar, Charles A.; Robison, Leslie L.; Inskip, Peter D.

    2006-01-01

    Radiation exposure at a young age is a strong risk factor for thyroid cancer. We conducted a nested case-control study of 69 thyroid cancer cases and 265 controls from a cohort of 14,054 childhood cancer survivors to evaluate the shape of the radiation dose-response relationship, in particular at

  10. Use of ultrasound in the management of thyroid cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lew, John I; Solorzano, Carmen C

    2010-01-01

    The use of ultrasound for thyroid cancer has evolved dramatically over the last few decades. Since the late 1960s, ultrasound has become essential in the examination of the thyroid gland with the increased availability of high-frequency linear array transducers and computer-enhanced imaging capabilities of modern day portable ultrasound equipment in a clinic- or office-based setting. As a noninvasive, rapid, and easily reproducible imaging study, ultrasound has been demonstrated to have a broadened utility beyond the simple confirmation of thyroid nodules and their sizes. Recently, office-based ultrasound has become an integral part of clinical practice, where it has demonstrated overwhelming benefits to patients being evaluated and treated for thyroid cancer. Ultrasound has become useful in the qualitative characterization of thyroid nodules based on benign or malignant features. On the basis of such classifications and the relative risk for thyroid malignancy, the need for ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration, preoperative and intraoperative staging, lymph node mapping, and the extent of surgery can subsequently be determined. Furthermore, ultrasound has additional value in the surveillance of patients treated for thyroid cancer.

  11. Is there loss or qualitative changes in the expression of thyroid peroxidase protein in thyroid epithelial cancer?

    OpenAIRE

    Czarnocka, B; Pastuszko, D; Janota-Bzowski, M; Weetman, A P; Watson, P F; Kemp, E H; McIntosh, R S; Asghar, M S; Jarzab, B; Gubala, E; Wloch, J; Lange, D

    2001-01-01

    There is disagreement concerning the expression of thyroid peroxidase (TPO) in thyroid cancer, some studies finding qualitative as well as quantitative differences compared to normal tissue. To investigate TPO protein expression and its antigenic properties, TPO was captured from a solubilizate of thyroid microsomes by a panel of murine anti-TPO monoclonal antibodies and detected with a panel of anti-human TPO IgG? Fab. TPO protein expression in 30 samples of malignant thyroid tissue was comp...

  12. Thyroid cancer in Belarus: the epidemiological situation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abelin, T.; Bleuer, J.P.; Averkin, J.I.; Okeanov, A.E.

    1996-01-01

    Starting in 1990, an increasing number of children were diagnosed as suffering from thyroid cancer in regions close to the Chernobyl nuclear accident site, and this increase is continuing. But still today, doubts about the significance of this increase are being voiced. Using data from the Belarus epidemiological cancer registration system up to 1994, the geographic distribution, time and cohort trends, age distribution and other characteristics of this epidemic are reviewed. Results show that the geographic distribution is similar to that of iodine-131 following the accident; that when looking at cohorts of children born in the same years incidence has steadily increased since 1990; and that deviations from this pattern might be explained by active case finding.The most likely interpretation of these results is that of a causal association with radiation exposure related to the Chernobyl accident, but possible modifying factors should be examined closely. The most likely future course of the epidemic is an increasing number of cases among those exposed in childhood, and public health measures should take this into account

  13. Diffuse thyroid metastases and bilateral internal jugular vein tumor thrombus from renal cell cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Jha, Priyanka; Shekhar, Mallika; Wan, Jennifer; Mari-Aparici, Carina

    2016-01-01

    Renal cell cancer rarely metastasizes to the thyroid gland, and it has been reported to present as a solitary mass. We present a case of diffuse thyroid cancer metastases from renal cell cancer. Bilateral internal jugular vein tumor thrombi were also present. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first description of diffuse thyroid metastases from renal cell cancer in the English literature. Renal cell cancer metastases should be considered in the differential of thyroid imaging abnormal...

  14. A new standardized data collection system for interdisciplinary thyroid cancer management: Thyroid COBRA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tagliaferri, Luca; Gobitti, Carlo; Colloca, Giuseppe Ferdinando; Boldrini, Luca; Farina, Eleonora; Furlan, Carlo; Paiar, Fabiola; Vianello, Federica; Basso, Michela; Cerizza, Lorenzo; Monari, Fabio; Simontacchi, Gabriele; Gambacorta, Maria Antonietta; Lenkowicz, Jacopo; Dinapoli, Nicola; Lanzotti, Vito; Mazzarotto, Renzo; Russi, Elvio; Mangoni, Monica

    2018-02-21

    The big data approach offers a powerful alternative to Evidence-based medicine. This approach could guide cancer management thanks to machine learning application to large-scale data. Aim of the Thyroid CoBRA (Consortium for Brachytherapy Data Analysis) project is to develop a standardized web data collection system, focused on thyroid cancer. The Metabolic Radiotherapy Working Group of Italian Association of Radiation Oncology (AIRO) endorsed the implementation of a consortium directed to thyroid cancer management and data collection. The agreement conditions, the ontology of the collected data and the related software services were defined by a multicentre ad hoc working-group (WG). Six Italian cancer centres were firstly started the project, defined and signed the Thyroid COBRA consortium agreement. Three data set tiers were identified: Registry, Procedures and Research. The COBRA-Storage System (C-SS) appeared to be not time-consuming and to be privacy respecting, as data can be extracted directly from the single centre's storage platforms through a secured connection that ensures reliable encryption of sensible data. Automatic data archiving could be directly performed from Image Hospital Storage System or the Radiotherapy Treatment Planning Systems. The C-SS architecture will allow "Cloud storage way" or "distributed learning" approaches for predictive model definition and further clinical decision support tools development. The development of the Thyroid COBRA data Storage System C-SS through a multicentre consortium approach appeared to be a feasible tool in the setup of complex and privacy saving data sharing system oriented to the management of thyroid cancer and in the near future every cancer type. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. Survey on Paediatric Differentiated Thyroid Cancer Care in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekker, Bernadette L; Newbold, Kate L; Führer, Dagmar; Waguespack, Steven G; Handkiewicz-Junak, Daria; Links, Thera P

    2018-01-01

    Thyroid cancer among children is a very rare disease. Although survival is favourable, morbidity caused by the treatment remains considerable, so there is a great need to optimize management by international cooperation. For this reason, the 2016 European Thyroid Association-Cancer Research Network (ETA-CRN) meeting in Copenhagen, Denmark, paid considerable attention to this topic and aimed to give an overview of the care for this paediatric patient group in different European countries. An inventory of data on thyroid cancer treatment among children in Europe was generated by questionnaires focused on treatment and organization of care. The treatment of paediatric thyroid cancer appears to be scattered in each European country with limited centralization of care, and different European countries use different treatment and follow-up protocols. Collaboration in a European network to optimize treatment and minimize long-term consequences for paediatric thyroid cancer survivors is necessary. During this meeting, the ETA-CRN has endorsed the initiative to collaborate on this rare endocrine cancer within a European network. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  16. Thyroid Cancer: Burden of Illness and Management of Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca L. Brown, Jonas A. de Souza, Ezra EW Cohen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The incidence of thyroid cancer, the most common endocrine malignancy, has increased dramatically in the last fifty years. This article will review the standard approach to thyroid cancer treatment as well as novel therapies under investigation. We will also address potential cost considerations in the management of thyroid cancer.Study Design: A comprehensive literature search was performed.Methods: Review article.Results: The high prevalence of thyroid cancer and the availability of novel therapies for patients with metastatic disease have potential economic implications that have not been well-studied. Because many patients likely have very low morbidity from their cancers, better tools to identify the lowest risk patients are needed in order to prevent overtreatment. Improved risk stratification should include recognizing patients who are unlikely to benefit from radioactive iodine therapy after initial surgery and identifying those with indolent and asymptomatic metastatic disease that are unlikely to benefit from novel therapies. In patients with advanced incurable disease, randomized-controlled studies to assess the efficacy of novel agents are needed to determine if the costs associated with new agents are warranted.Conclusions: Health care costs associated with the increased diagnosis of thyroid cancer remain unknown but are worthy of further research.

  17. Detecting thyroid cancer: utopia or reality; possibilities for thallium 201

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hermans, J.; Beauduin, M.; Gigot, J.F.; Schmitz, A.

    1986-01-01

    Faced with a diagnosis of cold thyroid nodule as evidenced by routine scintigraphy, the clinician has to determine whether this nodule is malignant or not. This is a serious problem since, according to literature, 7-20 per cent of cold thyroid nodules are malignant. In 1982 some Japanese authors demonstrated the possibility of using 201 T1 in diagnosing thyroid tumors. This study refers to 120 patients who underwent an operation for thyroid disorders characterized by the presence of one or several cold nodules (as evaluated with conventional scintigraphy) and enables a comparison between a thorough evaluation of the thyroidal status and the 201 T1 scintigrams. These were obtained with a gamma-camera using a pinhole collimator. If a cold nodule is positive with 201 T1, surgery is incontestably indicated, as such a finding correlates with the existence of a thyroid tumor (benign follicular adenoma or carcinoma) in 89.5 per cent of the observed cases. In the cancer group the sensibility of the Thallium test is of 85 per cent and its specificity 80 per cent. We may assert that there is a very low risk of Thallium negative (old) nodules being malignant. The pre-operative 201 T1 scintigraphy is easy to perform in any Nuclear Medicine department. Nowadays, the combination of aspiration cytology and 201 T1 scintigraphy should make it possible to make an accurate diagnosis in the vast majority of differentiated and undifferentiated thyroid cancers [fr

  18. Screening for early detection of radiation-associated thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ron, E.; Modan, B.; Lubin, E.

    1984-01-01

    In the 1950s, approximately 20,000 Israeli children received scalp irradiation as treatment for tinea capitis (ringworm of the scalp). To evaluate the necessity and feasibility of early screening of these individuals for thyroid cancer, a small pilot program was undertaken. The examination consisted of a thorough palpation of the thyroid gland and the surrounding area. A sup(99m)Tc thyroid scan and thyroid function tests were performed on individuals in whom palpation suggested a nodular abnormality. A multidisciplinary committee then made a recommendation for or against surgery. A total of 443 persons were screened, and nodular abnormalities of the thyroid were detected in 24 (5.4%). Of these persons, nine displayed symptomatology or reported knowledge of a thyroid condition; despite this, three of them were not receiving treatment. This left 18 subjects - 15 new cases and 3 previously untreated patients - needing follow-up care. Altogether nine persons were recommended for surgery, but one refused. All eight of the excised lesions were benign: four colloid nodules and four adenomas. While the screening program was feasible, the fact that no cancers were detected suggested that in a population exposed to a very low dose of radiation, thyroid screening may not be justified on a large scale.

  19. Completeness and validity in a national clinical thyroid cancer database

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Londero, Stefano Christian; Mathiesen, Jes Sloth; Krogdahl, Annelise

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Although a prospective national clinical thyroid cancer database (DATHYRCA) has been active in Denmark since January 1, 1996, no assessment of data quality has been performed. The purpose of the study was to evaluate completeness and data validity in the Danish national clinical thyroid...... was around or above 90% in most instances. Perfect agreement on the diagnosis of thyroid carcinoma was found, both inter- and intra-observer, and κ values of selected variables showed overall good to excellent agreement. CONCLUSION: In a setup with public health insurance, personal identity numbers...

  20. Nuclear medicine in the assessment of differentiated thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rutherford, G.-C.; Franc, B.; O'Connor, A.

    2008-01-01

    Despite modern multi-modality treatment, 10-30% of patients treated for differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) ultimately develop local recurrence or metastatic disease. These malignancies are frequently slow-growing and secondary surgical resection is often undertaken along with radioactive iodine treatment. Correlation of radiological imaging with nuclear medicine studies is essential for individualized treatment planning, and to optimize this management. Radiologists should be familiar with the interpretation of various nuclear medicine studies used to image differentiated thyroid neoplasms

  1. Metastases to the thyroid gland from renal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cesaretti, Manuela; Trotta, Manuela; Varaldo, Emanuela; Ansaldo, Gianluca; Leale, Irene; Borgonovo, Giacomo

    2013-01-01

    Metastases to the thyroid gland from renal cancer pose a challenge to physicians, due in part to the rarity of the phenomenon, the prolonged time interval between removal of the primary renal cancer and the appearance of metastases, the difficulty in diagnosis, and the uncertainty regarding long-term prognosis. We report our experience with diagnosis and management of patients affected by thyroid metastases from renal clear cell carcinoma. We report herein three clinical cases of thyroid metastases from renal clear cell carcinoma. We also present a review of the literature and examine common features of clinical presentation and management recommendations. Over the past 17 years, 918 patients underewent surgery for thyroid cancer in our institution. Histological examination demonstrated a thyroid secondary malignancy from kidney cancer in 3 cases. Two patients underwent total thyroidectomy, whereas in the third patient a palliative right lobectomy with homolateral latero-cervical lymphoadenectomy was performed. At a 5-year follow-up, only one patient survived and was disease-free. Thyroid metastases from renal clear cell carcinoma are a rare occurrence but should be taken into consideration in the differential diagnosis of a thyroid nodule. Preoperative diagnosis is often difficult. Nevertheless, an extensive diagnostic workup is recommended because the subsequent therapy must be tailored on the basis of the local extension of metastases. Surgical treatment of solitary thyroid metastases is recommended. However, patients with disseminated disease have a poor prognosis, and palliative care is the indicated recommendation. In these patients and in surgically untreatable patients, prolonged survival may be achieved by adjuvant medical therapy.

  2. Radioiodine therapy of differentiated thyroid cancer: AIIMS experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Padhy, A.K.; Nair, P.G.G.; ); Bal, C.S.; Pant, G.S.; Basu, A.K.

    1999-01-01

    After a slow start in late sixties, the procedure of 131 I therapy for Differentiated Thyroid Cancer (DTC) has gained increasing popularity with every passing year at All India Institute of Medical Sciences. This has become an integral part of TC management at AIIMS like at most other centres all over the world. There is a general consensus that near total thyroidectomy along with 131 I therapy and suppressive doses of thyroid hormones provide the best mode of treatment for DTC

  3. Thyroglobulin and metastases after thyroidectomy in differentiated thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trinh Thi Minh Chau; Nguyen Xuan Canh; Nguyen Thi Loc

    2004-01-01

    Full text: Measurement Thyroglobulin (Tg), an iodo-protein specific to the thyroid gland, is very useful to study the pathogenesis, establish the diagnosis and follow the course of thyroid disorders. In thyroid cancer, Tg is a valuable tumor marker for diagnosing, as well as for following-up and evaluating the status of thyroid cancer after surgical and radioiodine therapy. We retrospectively analysed the relation of serum thyroglobulin concentration and the post-surgical status of thyroid in patients with papillary or follicular thyroid cancer. 321 patients who underwent thyroidectomy due to thyroid cancer were included in this study. They were divided into groups such as group-1 (no metastases), group-2 (neck lymph node metastases) and group-3 (distant metastases) as well as subgroup of lung, bone and combined lung and bone metastases. All the patients were asked to stop T4 for 6 weeks and T3 for 2 weeks before performing a whole body scan with 2 mCi of radioiodine-131. Radioimmuno-assay measurement of FT3, FT4, TSH, serum thyroglobulin (Tg) and serum anti-thyroglobulin antibody (TgAb) was also done. Mean serum Tg concentration in patients with follicular cancer was higher than that of papillary but there was not statistically significant difference (p>0.05). However, there was a significant difference in mean serum Tg concentration between distal metastases group and no metastases group as well as neck lymph node metastases group (p 0.05). In general, serum Tg concentration was proportionate to the amount of functional thyroid tissue remaining in the neck or metastatic sites in the body. Although conventional diagnostic methods such as ultrasound, X-ray, bone scan were helpful to detect and evaluate the progression of thyroid cancer, but were poor indicators for detecting micro-metastases in early stage. Therefore, it is very important to combine the above-mentioned method with serum Tg measurements. In conclusion serum thyroglobulin measurement was really

  4. The positive clinical therapeutically effects of Escin on advanced thyroid cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Mei, Jin?Yu; Zhang, Ming?Jun; Wang, Yuan?Yuan; Liu, Ye?Hai

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The incidences of thyroid cancer keep rising worldwide over the past few decades. Although most thyroid cancers are indolent and highly curable, the treatment for advanced thyroid cancer remains challengeable in clinical practice. We performed two separate cohorts to evaluate the safety and efficiency of Escin in patients with advanced thyroid cancer . In cohort 1, 120 patients were divided into four groups equally and were administrated with placebo or different dosages of Escin. Th...

  5. Papillary Thyroid Cancer: The Good and Bad of the "Good Cancer".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randle, Reese W; Bushman, Norah M; Orne, Jason; Balentine, Courtney J; Wendt, Elizabeth; Saucke, Megan; Pitt, Susan C; Macdonald, Cameron L; Connor, Nadine P; Sippel, Rebecca S

    2017-07-01

    Papillary thyroid cancer is often described as the "good cancer" because of its treatability and relatively favorable survival rates. This study sought to characterize the thoughts of papillary thyroid cancer patients as they relate to having the "good cancer." This qualitative study included 31 papillary thyroid cancer patients enrolled in an ongoing randomized trial. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with participants at the preoperative visit and two weeks, six weeks, six months, and one year after thyroidectomy. Grounded theory was used, inductively coding the first 113 interview transcripts with NVivo 11. The concept of thyroid cancer as "good cancer" emerged unprompted from 94% (n = 29) of participants, mostly concentrated around the time of diagnosis. Patients encountered this perception from healthcare providers, Internet research, friends, and preconceived ideas about other cancers. While patients generally appreciated optimism, this perspective also generated negative feelings. It eased the diagnosis of cancer but created confusion when individual experiences varied from expectations. Despite initially feeling reassured, participants described feeling the "good cancer" characterization invalidated their fears of having cancer. Thyroid cancer patients expressed that they did not want to hear that it's "only thyroid cancer" and that it's "no big deal," because "cancer is cancer," and it is significant. Patients with papillary thyroid cancer commonly confront the perception that their malignancy is "good," but the favorable prognosis and treatability of the disease do not comprehensively represent their cancer fight. The "good cancer" perception is at the root of many mixed and confusing emotions. Clinicians emphasize optimistic outcomes, hoping to comfort, but they might inadvertently invalidate the impact thyroid cancer has on patients' lives.

  6. Tumour suppressive function of HUWE1 in thyroid cancer

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    It has been found to be dysregulated in various cancer typeand its functions in tumorigenesis remain controversial. The potential tumour suppressive role of HUWE1 in thyroidcancer development was investigated by knocking down HUWE1 in three authentic thyroid cancer cell lines, WRO,FTC133 and BCPAP, followed by ...

  7. Tumour suppressive function of HUWE1 in thyroid cancer

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-07-14

    Jul 14, 2016 ... Tumour suppressive function of HUWE1 in thyroid cancer. HUWE1 (the HECT, UBA, and WWE domain-containing protein 1) is an ubiquitin E3 ligase which plays an important role in coordinating diverse cellular processes. It has been found to be dysregulated in various cancer type and its functions in ...

  8. [Consensus statement for accreditation of multidisciplinary thyroid cancer units].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díez, Juan José; Galofré, Juan Carlos; Oleaga, Amelia; Grande, Enrique; Mitjavila, Mercedes; Moreno, Pablo

    2016-03-01

    Thyroid cancer is the leading endocrine system tumor. Great advances have recently been made in understanding of the origin of these tumors and the molecular biology that makes them grow and proliferate, which have been associated to improvements in diagnostic procedures and increased availability of effective local and systemic treatments. All of the above makes thyroid cancer a paradigm of how different specialties should work together to achieve the greatest benefit for the patients. Coordination of all the procedures and patient flows should continue throughout diagnosis, treatment, and follow-up, and is essential for further optimization of resources and time. This manuscript was prepared at the request of the Working Group on Thyroid Cancer of the Spanish Society of Endocrinology and Nutrition, and is aimed to provide a consensus document on the definition, composition, requirements, structure, and operation of a multidisciplinary team for the comprehensive care of patients with thyroid cancer. For this purpose, we have included contributions by several professionals from different specialties with experience in thyroid cancer treatment at centers where multidisciplinary teams have been working for years, with the aim of developing a practical consensus applicable in clinical practice. Copyright © 2015 SEEN. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  9. Stereotactic Radiation Therapy can Safely and Durably Control Sites of Extra-Central Nervous System Oligoprogressive Disease in Anaplastic Lymphoma Kinase-Positive Lung Cancer Patients Receiving Crizotinib

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gan, Gregory N., E-mail: gregory.gan@ucdenver.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Colorado, Aurora, Colorado (United States); Weickhardt, Andrew J.; Scheier, Benjamin; Doebele, Robert C. [Department of Medical Oncology, University of Colorado, Aurora, Colorado (United States); Gaspar, Laurie E.; Kavanagh, Brian D. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Colorado, Aurora, Colorado (United States); Camidge, D. Ross [Department of Medical Oncology, University of Colorado, Aurora, Colorado (United States)

    2014-03-15

    Purpose: To analyze the durability and toxicity of radiotherapeutic local ablative therapy (LAT) applied to extra-central nervous system (eCNS) disease progression in anaplastic lymphoma kinase-positive non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. Methods and Materials: Anaplastic lymphoma kinase-positive NSCLC patients receiving crizotinib and manifesting ≤4 discrete sites of eCNS progression were classified as having oligoprogressive disease (OPD). If subsequent progression met OPD criteria, additional courses of LAT were considered. Crizotinib was continued until eCNS progression was beyond OPD criteria or otherwise not suitable for further LAT. Results: Of 38 patients, 33 progressed while taking crizotinib. Of these, 14 had eCNS progression meeting OPD criteria suitable for radiotherapeutic LAT. Patients with eCNS OPD received 1-3 courses of LAT with radiation therapy. The 6- and 12-month actuarial local lesion control rates with radiation therapy were 100% and 86%, respectively. The 12-month local lesion control rate with single-fraction equivalent dose >25 Gy versus ≤25 Gy was 100% versus 60% (P=.01). No acute or late grade >2 radiation therapy-related toxicities were observed. Median overall time taking crizotinib among those treated with LAT versus those who progressed but were not suitable for LAT was 28 versus 10.1 months, respectively. Patients continuing to take crizotinib for >12 months versus ≤12 months had a 2-year overall survival rate of 72% versus 12%, respectively (P<.0001). Conclusions: Local ablative therapy safely and durably eradicated sites of individual lesion progression in anaplastic lymphoma kinase-positive NSCLC patients receiving crizotinib. A dose–response relationship for local lesion control was observed. The suppression of OPD by LAT in patients taking crizotinib allowed an extended duration of exposure to crizotinib, which was associated with longer overall survival.

  10. A raridade histológica no câncer da tireoide The histological rarity of thyroid cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Débora Modelli Vianna

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available O câncer da tireoide é a neoplasia endócrina mais comum, correspondendo a cerca de 1% de todos os tipos de câncer. Sarcomas, linfomas e metástases para a glândula tireoide são raros e pouco descritos na literatura. OBJETIVO: Descrever tipos histológicos raros de câncer de tireoide em serviço de referência. MÉTODOS: Revisão de prontuários de pacientes admitidos com diagnóstico de câncer de tireoide no período de 1977 a 2010. Foram coletadas informações demográficas, diagnósticas, terapêuticas e histopatológicas. RESULTADOS: Foram revisados 3018 prontuários de pacientes admitidos com doença tireoidiana. Dos casos com diagnóstico de tumores raros, predominou o tipo histológico carcinoma anaplásico, com 22 casos (0,7%, seguido por 11 casos de carcinoma medular (0,36%, dois de sarcoma (0,07%, dois de linfoma (0,07% e um de tumor carcinoide metastático (0,03%. Houve predomínio do gênero feminino (57% e de caucasianos (84%. A apresentação clínica com nódulo tireoídeo palpável foi a mais frequente. Todos os casos de linfoma, sarcoma e carcinoma anaplásico evoluíram a óbito. CONCLUSÃO: Sarcomas, linfomas e metástases em tireoide são incomuns e tendem à evolução desfavorável.Thyroid cancer is the most common endocrine cancer, accounting for about 1% of all cancers. Sarcomas, lymphomas and metastases to the thyroid gland are rare and only with a handful of descriptions in the literature. OBJECTIVE: To describe rare histological types of thyroid cancer found in a reference center. METHODS: Medical chart review from admitted patients diagnosed with thyroid cancer in the period from 1977 to 2010. Demographic, diagnostic, therapeutic and histopathological information were collected. RESULTS: 3,018 records of patients admitted with thyroid disease were reviewed. Among the cases diagnosed with rare tumors there was a predominance of: anaplastic carcinoma: 22 cases (0.7%, followed by 11 cases of medullary carcinoma

  11. American Thyroid Association Statement on Preoperative Imaging for Thyroid Cancer Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Andrew J.; Bernet, Victor A.; Ferris, Robert L.; Loevner, Laurie A.; Mandel, Susan J.; Orloff, Lisa A.; Randolph, Gregory W.; Steward, David L.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The success of surgery for thyroid cancer hinges on thorough and accurate preoperative imaging, which enables complete clearance of the primary tumor and affected lymph node compartments. This working group was charged by the Surgical Affairs Committee of the American Thyroid Association to examine the available literature and to review the most appropriate imaging studies for the planning of initial and revision surgery for thyroid cancer. Summary: Ultrasound remains the most important imaging modality in the evaluation of thyroid cancer, and should be used routinely to assess both the primary tumor and all associated cervical lymph node basins preoperatively. Positive lymph nodes may be distinguished from normal nodes based upon size, shape, echogenicity, hypervascularity, loss of hilar architecture, and the presence of calcifications. Ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration of suspicious lymph nodes may be useful in guiding the extent of surgery. Cross-sectional imaging (computed tomography with contrast or magnetic resonance imaging) may be considered in select circumstances to better characterize tumor invasion and bulky, inferiorly located, or posteriorly located lymph nodes, or when ultrasound expertise is not available. The above recommendations are applicable to both initial and revision surgery. Functional imaging with positron emission tomography (PET) or PET-CT may be helpful in cases of recurrent cancer with positive tumor markers and negative anatomic imaging. PMID:25188202

  12. FAP Associated Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma: A Peculiar Subtype of Familial Nonmedullary Thyroid Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Cetta

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Familial Nonmedullary Thyroid Carcinoma (FNMTC makes up to 5–10% of all thyroid cancers, also including those FNMTC occurring as a minor component of familial cancer syndromes, such as Familial Adenomatous Polyposis (FAP. We give evidence that this extracolonic manifestation of FAP is determined by the same germline mutation of the APC gene responsible for colonic polyps and cancer but also shows some unusual features (F : M ratio = 80 : 1, absence of LOH for APC in the thyroid tumoral tissue, and indolent biological behaviour, despite frequent multicentricity and lymph nodal involvement, suggesting that the APC gene confers only a generic susceptibility to thyroid cancer, but perhaps other factors, namely, modifier genes, sex-related factors, or environmental factors, are also required for its phenotypic expression. This great variability is against the possibility of classifying all FNMTC as a single entity, not only with a unique or prevalent causative genetic factor, but also with a unique or common biological behavior and a commonly dismal prognosis. A new paradigm is also suggested that could be useful (1 for a proper classification of FAP associated PTC within the larger group of FNMTC and (2 for making inferences to sporadic carcinogenesis, based on the lesson from FAP.

  13. American Thyroid Association statement on preoperative imaging for thyroid cancer surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Michael W; Bauer, Andrew J; Bernet, Victor A; Ferris, Robert L; Loevner, Laurie A; Mandel, Susan J; Orloff, Lisa A; Randolph, Gregory W; Steward, David L

    2015-01-01

    The success of surgery for thyroid cancer hinges on thorough and accurate preoperative imaging, which enables complete clearance of the primary tumor and affected lymph node compartments. This working group was charged by the Surgical Affairs Committee of the American Thyroid Association to examine the available literature and to review the most appropriate imaging studies for the planning of initial and revision surgery for thyroid cancer. Ultrasound remains the most important imaging modality in the evaluation of thyroid cancer, and should be used routinely to assess both the primary tumor and all associated cervical lymph node basins preoperatively. Positive lymph nodes may be distinguished from normal nodes based upon size, shape, echogenicity, hypervascularity, loss of hilar architecture, and the presence of calcifications. Ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration of suspicious lymph nodes may be useful in guiding the extent of surgery. Cross-sectional imaging (computed tomography with contrast or magnetic resonance imaging) may be considered in select circumstances to better characterize tumor invasion and bulky, inferiorly located, or posteriorly located lymph nodes, or when ultrasound expertise is not available. The above recommendations are applicable to both initial and revision surgery. Functional imaging with positron emission tomography (PET) or PET-CT may be helpful in cases of recurrent cancer with positive tumor markers and negative anatomic imaging.

  14. Growth inhibition of thyroid follicular cell-derived cancers by the opioid growth factor (OGF - opioid growth factor receptor (OGFr axis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donahue Renee N

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Carcinoma of the thyroid gland is an uncommon cancer, but the most frequent malignancy of the endocrine system. Most thyroid cancers are derived from the follicular cell. Follicular carcinoma (FTC is considered more malignant than papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC, and anaplastic thyroid cancer (ATC is one of the most lethal human cancers. Opioid Growth Factor (OGF; chemical term - [Met5]-enkephalin and its receptor, OGFr, form an inhibitory axis regulating cell proliferation. Both the peptide and receptor have been detected in a wide variety of cancers, and OGF is currently used clinically as a biotherapy for some non-thyroid neoplasias. This study addressed the question of whether the OGF-OGFr axis is present and functional in human thyroid follicular cell - derived cancer. Methods Utilizing human ATC (KAT-18, PTC (KTC-1, and FTC (WRO 82-1 cell lines, immunohistochemistry was employed to ascertain the presence and location of OGF and OGFr. The growth characteristics in the presence of OGF or the opioid antagonist naltrexone (NTX, and the specificity of opioid peptides for proliferation of ATC, were established in KAT-18 cells. Dependence on peptide and receptor were investigated using neutralization studies with antibodies and siRNA experiments, respectively. The mechanism of peptide action on DNA synthesis and cell survival was ascertained. The ubiquity of the OGF-OGFr axis in thyroid follicular cell-derived cancer was assessed in KTC-1 (PTC and WRO 82-1 (FTC tumor cells. Results OGF and OGFr were present in KAT-18 cells. Concentrations of 10-6 M OGF inhibited cell replication up to 30%, whereas NTX increased cell growth up to 35% relative to cultures treated with sterile water. OGF treatment reduced cell number by as much as 38% in KAT-18 ATC in a dose-dependent and receptor-mediated manner. OGF antibodies neutralized the inhibitory effects of OGF, and siRNA knockdown of OGFr negated growth inhibition by OGF. Cell survival

  15. Evolution of thyroid cancer occurrence in metropolitan France. Assessment over 25 years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogel, Agnes; Caserio-Schonemann, Celine; Cherie-Challine, Laurence; Rudant, Jeremie; Bloch, Juliette; Thuret, Anne; Colonna, Marc; Uhry, Zoe; Kudjawu, Yao; Danzon, Arlette; Lacour, Brigitte; Schvartz, Claire; Pascal, Laurence; Lasalle, Jean-Luc; Borson-Chazot, Francoise; Sassolas, Genevieve; Hafdi-Nejjari, Zakia; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Guenel, Pascal; Vathaire, Florent de; Guillas, Gwenaelle; Mesrine, Sylvie; Clavel-Chapelon, Francoise; Clero, Enora; Adjadj, Elisabeth; Bedouche, Lallia; Belot, Aurelien; Fieffe, Sandrine; Dalac, Audrey; Goncalves, Katia; Kaplan, Martine; Pochart, Jean-Marie; Desenclos, Jean-Claude

    2011-04-01

    After a presentation of the epidemiological context of thyroid cancer in France, this report, based on cancer record data, analyzes the occurrence of thyroid cancers between 1982 and 2006. It discusses the contribution and limits of medical-administrative data for the epidemiological monitoring of thyroid cancer occurrence between 1997 and 2009. It proposes a descriptive analysis of thyroid cancers in two districts (Marne and Ardennes) between 1975 and 2008, and a descriptive analysis of thyroid cancer for children under 14 between 2000 and 2008. It proposes an estimation of thyroid cancer occurrence in Corsica between 1998 and 2006. It reports and discusses a pilot study performed in two regions (Ile de France and Nord Pas-de-Calais), based on a multi-source system of cancer monitoring (SMSC), and comments studies on risk factors for differentiated thyroid cancers in France

  16. The incidence of second primary tumors in thyroid cancer patients is increased, but not related to treatment of thyroid cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verkooijen, Robbert B. T.; Smit, Jan W. A.; Romijn, Johannes A.; Stokkel, Marcel P. M.

    2006-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to assess the prevalence of second primary tumors in patients treated for thyroid cancer. Furthermore, we wanted to assess the standardized risk rates for all second primary tumors, but especially for breast cancer, as data in the literature indicate an excessive risk

  17. Thyroid gland removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Total thyroidectomy; Partial thyroidectomy; Thyroidectomy; Subtotal thyroidectomy; Thyroid cancer - thyroidectomy; Papillary cancer - thyroidectomy; Goiter - thyroidectomy; Thyroid nodules - thyroidectomy

  18. Thyroglobulin in thyroid cancer: does it make a difference?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    San Luis, T.O.L.; Santiago, J.F.Y.

    1996-01-01

    Thyroid cancer is a disease with varied rates of growth and prognosis. A number of factors, including adequacy of follow-up after surgery, impact on the overall morbidity and mortality. Thyroglobulin (Tg) as tumor marker has been used in the surveillance of thyroid cancer particularly the differentiated type. It has a distinctive role in influencing decision-making whether to monitor thyroid medical suppression periodically or to implement further therapeutic interventions in the face of recurrent disease. We have made an anlysis of 60 thyroid cancer cases where Tg was used to discriminate between those likely to have recurrence or not. A Tg value of 10 ng/ml showed recurrences (83.3%) (p<0.001). On this basis, a practical guide in the form of an algorithm was formulated to help physicians in resolving contentious issues in post-operative management. In summary, Tg makes a lot of difference in the approach to diagnosis and further treatment of recurrent thyroid cancer and offers itself as a cost-effective and efficient determinant for long-term optimal outcome. (author)

  19. Thyroid cancer after exposure to radioactive 131I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holm, Lars-Erik

    2006-01-01

    The thyroid gland is susceptible to radiation carcinogenesis, and the thyroid cancer risk decreases with increasing age at exposure, with a low risk above 20 years of age at exposure. The risk is best described be a linear dose-response relationship down to 0.1 Gy. Epidemiological studies of patients have not observed any increased risk for thyroid cancer after 131 I exposure, but the statistical power to detect risks in children is limited. The Chernobyl accident led to substantial 131 I exposure in Belarus, the Russian Federation and Ukraine. About 4,000 cases of thyroid cancer have been diagnosed among those who were children and adolescents in 1986, including about 3,000 in the age group 0-14 years. The risk per Gy from 131 I in young subjects may be less than that seen after external low-LET radiation. A recent case-control study found a threefold risk for thyroid cancer among children from severely iodine-deficient areas, as compared with those living in lesser iodine-deficient areas. A threefold risk reduction was observed among those children receiving stable iodine compared with those not receiving iodine

  20. Occuptional radiation exposures and thyroid cancer risk among radiologic technologists

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moon, Eun Kyeong; Lee, Won Jin [Korea University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Ha, Mina [Dankook University Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jae Young [Keimyung University, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Jun, Jae Kwan [National Cancer Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Jin, Young Won [Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-04-15

    Medical radiation workers were among the earliest occupational groups exposed to external ionizing radiation due to their administration of a range of medical diagnostic procedures and accounted for 7.4 million worldwide in 2008. Ionizing radiation is the confirmed human carcinogen for most organ sites. The aims of the study is to evaluate the association between occupational practices including radiation exposure and thyroid cancer risk among radiologic technologists. We found no significant association between the risk of thyroid cancer and the majority of work practices among diagnostic radiation technologists in general. However workers performing fluoroscopy and interventional procedures showed increased risks although the lack of a clear exposure– response gradient makes it difficult to draw clear conclusions. Future studies with larger sample size and detailed work practices implementation are needed to clarify the role of occupational radiation work in thyroid cancer carcinogenesis.

  1. Resveratrol Sensitizes Selectively Thyroid Cancer Cell to 131-Iodine Toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Jalal Hosseinimehr

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. In this study, the radiosensitizing effect of resveratrol as a natural product was investigated on cell toxicity induced by 131I in thyroid cancer cell. Methods. Human thyroid cancer cell and human nonmalignant fibroblast cell (HFFF2 were treated with 131I and/or resveratrol at different concentrations for 48 h. The cell proliferation was measured by determination of the percent of the survival cells using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT assay. Results. Findings of this study show that resveratrol enhanced the cell death induced by 131I on thyroid cancer cell. Also, resveratrol exhibited a protective effect on normal cells against 131I toxicity. Conclusion. This result indicates a promising effect of resveratrol on improvement of cellular toxicity during iodine therapy.

  2. Updated guidelines on the preoperative staging of thyroid cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hye Jung [Dept. of Radiology, Kyungpook National University Medical Center, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-10-15

    Recent studies have provided prognostic information and recommendations for staging thyroid cancers that have changed the staging and management guidelines for the disease. Consequently, minimal extrathyroidal extension (ETE) was removed from the T3 stage classification in the eighth edition of the TNM staging system by the American Joint Committee on Cancer. New T categories have been subsequently added, including T3a, defined as a tumor >4 cm in its greatest dimension, limited to the thyroid gland, and T3b, defined as a tumor of any size with gross ETE invading only the strap muscles. In this article, the author reviews the changes in the TNM staging system for thyroid cancer, with an emphasis on ultrasonography in preoperative staging.

  3. Differentiated Thyroid Cancer Multidisciplinary Management at the Colombian National Cancer Institute

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garavito, Gloria; Llamas O, Augusto; Cadena, Enrique; De Los Reyes, Amelia

    2009-01-01

    Thyroid cancer is the most common malignant disease of the endocrine system. Two hundred and twenty-one new cases were diagnosed at the National Cancer Institute of Colombia (NCI) in 2006, roughly 4% of all new cancer cases. Weekly multidisciplinary decision-making meetings on thyroid cancer management have been held at the NCI since 1994. This article covers the body of knowledge gathered through 14 years of interdisciplinary collaboration where experience has been combined with the best available evidence.

  4. Thyroid cancer in a patient with a germline MSH2 mutation. Case report and review of the Lynch syndrome expanding tumour spectrum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stulp Rein P

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Lynch syndrome (HNPCC is a dominantly inherited disorder characterized by germline defects in DNA mismatch repair (MMR genes and the development of a variety of cancers, predominantly colorectal and endometrial. We present a 44-year-old woman who was shown to carry the truncating MSH2 gene mutation that had previously been identified in her family. Recently, she had been diagnosed with an undifferentiated carcinoma of the thyroid and an adenoma of her coecum. Although the thyroid carcinoma was not MSI-high (1 out of 5 microsatellites instable, it did show complete loss of immunohistochemical expression for the MSH2 protein, suggesting that this tumour was not coincidental. Although the risks for some tumour types, including breast cancer, soft tissue sarcoma and prostate cancer, are not significantly increased in Lynch syndrome, MMR deficiency in the presence of a corresponding germline defect has been demonstrated in incidental cases of a growing range of tumour types, which is reviewed in this paper. Interestingly, the MSH2-associated tumour spectrum appears to be wider than that of MLH1 and generally the risk for most extra-colonic cancers appears to be higher for MSH2 than for MLH1 mutation carriers. Together with a previously reported case, our findings show that anaplastic thyroid carcinoma can develop in the setting of Lynch syndrome. Uncommon Lynch syndrome-associated tumour types might be useful in the genetic analysis of a Lynch syndrome suspected family if samples from typical Lynch syndrome tumours are unavailable.

  5. Treatment of non-uptaking 131I thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Yongli

    2005-01-01

    Normally, thyroid cancer is a disease with a good prognosis, but about 30% the of tumors dedifferentiate and may finally develop into highly malignant thyroid carcinoma with a mean survival time of less than 8 months. Due to the loss of thyroid-specific functions associated with dedifferentiation. These tumors are inaccessible to standard therapeutic procedures such as radioiodine therapy and thyroxine-mediated thyrotropin suppression. Medullary thyroid carcinomas are also highly aggressive. Here, therapy is limited to surgery, and no alternative is left if patients do not respond to this standard procedures. Several novel approaches are currently being tested for the treatment of thyroid cancer. Many of them utilize methods of gene therapy: 1) reintroduction of the tumor suppressor p53; 2) suicide gene therapy; 3) antitumor immune response by expression of an adenovirus-delivered interleukin-2 (IL-2) gene; 4) immune response by DNA vaccination against the tumor marker calcitonin; 5) transduction of the thyroid sodium/iodine transporter gene to make tissues that do not accumulate iodide treatable by radioiodide therapy; 6) blocking of the expression of the oncogene c-myc by antisense oligonuleotides; 7) radioimmunotherapy by a radiolabelled antibody; 8) retinoic acid is used for a redifferentiation therapy, and 9) somatostatin. (authors)

  6. Expression of human beta-defensins-1-4 in thyroid cancer cells and new insight on biologic activity of hBD-2 in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuravel, O V; Gerashchenko, O L; Khetsuriani, M R; Soldatkina, M A; Pogrebnoy, P V

    2014-09-01

    The study was aimed on analysis of human beta-defensin-1-4 (hBDs) mRNA expression in cultured thyroid cancer cells and evaluation of effects of recombinant hBD-2 (rec-hBD-2) on growth patterns, migration properties and expression of E-cadherin and vimentin in these cells. The study was performed on cultured follicular thyroid cancer WRO cells, papillary thyroid cancer TPC1 cells, and anaplastic thyroid cancer KTC-2 cells. For analysis of hBD-1-4 mRNA expression in thyroid cancer cells, semiquantitative RT-PCR was used. Effects of rec-hBD-2 on cell proliferation, viability, and migration were analyzed using direct cell counting, MTT test, and scratch assay respectively. Expression of vimentin and E-cadherin was evaluated by quantitative PCR (qPCR). By the data of RT-PCR, all three studied thyroid cancer cell lines express hBD-1 and -4 mRNA, but not hBD-2 mRNA, while hBD-3 expression was detected in WRO and KTC-2 cells. The treatment of TPC-1, WRO, and KTC-2 cells with 100-1000 nM rec-hBD-2 resulted in significant concentration-dependent suppression of cell proliferation, viability, and migratory property. By the data of qPCR, significant up-regulation of vimentin expression was registered in KTC-2 and WRO cells treated with 500 nM rec-hBD-2. Significant down-regulation of E-cadherin expression (p cells treated with the defensin. Also, it has been shown that TPC-1 cells treated with 500 nM rec-hBD-2 acquired more elongated morphology. The data demonstrate that hBD-2 in concentrations higher than 100 nM exerts significant concentration-dependent suppression of thyroid cancer cell growth and migration, and affects vimentin and E-cadherin expression dependent on histologic type of thyroid cancer cells.

  7. History of thyroid disease and survival of ovarian cancer patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Minlikeeva, Albina N; Freudenheim, Jo L; Cannioto, Rikki A

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Findings from in vitro studies suggest that increased exposure to thyroid hormones can influence progression of ovarian tumours. However, epidemiologic evidence on this topic is limited. METHODS: We pooled data from 11 studies from the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium. Using......=624 cases) and mortality (HR=1.16; 95% CI=1.03-1.31). Neither duration of hypothyroidism nor use of thyroid medications was associated with survival. CONCLUSIONS: In this large study of women with ovarian cancer, we found that recent history of hyperthyroidism and overall history of hypothyroidism...

  8. Radioiodine treatment in children with thyroid cancer from Belarus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reiners, C.; Biko, J.; Geworski, L.; Olthoff, M.; Demidchik, E.P.; Streffer, C.; Paretzke, H.; Voigt, G.; Kenigsberg, Y.; Bauer, W.; Heinemann, G.; Pfob, H.

    1996-01-01

    Between 1st of April 1993 and 15th of November 1995, 95 children from Belarus with most advanced stages of thyroid cancer have been treated totally 305 times with radioiodine in Germany. In spite of a high frequency of advanced tumor stages pT4 (82%), lymph node metastases (95%) and distant metastases (55%) in those selected children, the preliminary results of radioiodine treatment are promising. In 55% of the children complete remission and in 44% partial remission of thyroid cancer could be achieved. In no case progressive disease under treatment has been observed

  9. Risk of thyroid cancer, brain cancer, and non-Hodgkin lymphoma after adult leukemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sune F; Bojesen, Stig E; Birgens, Henrik S

    2011-01-01

    are at increased risk of developing thyroid cancer, brain cancer, and NHL. We included the entire adult Danish population (14 years of age or older), in a 28-year follow-up period from 1980 through 2007, composed of 6 542 639 persons; during this period, 18 834 developed adult leukemia, 4561 developed thyroid......Patients with childhood leukemia surviving into adulthood have elevated risk of developing thyroid cancer, brain cancer, and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL); these risks cannot automatically be extrapolated to patients surviving adult leukemia. We tested whether survivors of adult leukemia...... cancer, 13 362 developed brain cancer, and 15 967 developed NHL. In nested studies using Cox regression models on individual participant data, we found that, after adult leukemia, the multivariate adjusted hazard ratios were 4.9 (95% confidence interval [CI], 2.8-8.5) for thyroid cancer, 1.9 (95% CI, 1...

  10. Risk of thyroid cancer, brain cancer, and non-Hodgkin lymphoma after adult leukemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sune F; Bojesen, Stig E; Birgens, Henrik S

    2011-01-01

    Patients with childhood leukemia surviving into adulthood have elevated risk of developing thyroid cancer, brain cancer, and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL); these risks cannot automatically be extrapolated to patients surviving adult leukemia. We tested whether survivors of adult leukemia...... are at increased risk of developing thyroid cancer, brain cancer, and NHL. We included the entire adult Danish population (14 years of age or older), in a 28-year follow-up period from 1980 through 2007, composed of 6 542 639 persons; during this period, 18 834 developed adult leukemia, 4561 developed thyroid...... cancer, 13 362 developed brain cancer, and 15 967 developed NHL. In nested studies using Cox regression models on individual participant data, we found that, after adult leukemia, the multivariate adjusted hazard ratios were 4.9 (95% confidence interval [CI], 2.8-8.5) for thyroid cancer, 1.9 (95% CI, 1...

  11. Impact of chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis on the prognosis of differentiated thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boughattas, S.; Chatti, K.; Degdegui, M.; Hasine, H.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: The association of chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis (CLT) and differentiated thyroid cancer, and its prognosis significance remain controversial. We investigate the prognosis impact of this association by reviewing our series of patients being followed for differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) at the department of nuclear medicine of Sahloul. Among the 350 patients followed in our department, 30 (8.5%) had histologically proved CLT, with infiltration of the non- tumoral thyroid tissue. A second group of 60 patients (without evidence of lymphocytic infiltration) was selected randomly and used as controls. The median of follow-up for these two groups was 4 years. The frequency of papillary thyroid cancer was significantly higher in the group with CTL (90% vs 74%; p=0.05). The larger diameter of the tumor didn't differ significantly (p= 0.36) between the group with TLC (mean=2.7; SD=1.98) and the control group 3.08 (SD=1.66). There was also no significant difference in capsular infiltration (37% vs 36%; p=0.96), nodal metastases (47% vs 43%; p=0.74), multicentric tumors (37% vs 38%; p=0.99) and bilateral tumors (20% vs 22%; p=0.9). At initial presentation, distant metastases were less frequent in patients with coexisting CLT and DTC (3% vs 12%, p<1%). Nevertheless, if we consider only patients with papillary thyroid cancer, the difference was not statistically significant (0% vs 6%; p=0.23). During the follow-up (mean 4 years), there was no significant difference in nodal relapse (20% vs 8% p=0.1), and distant metastasis (6% vs 3%: p=0.45). No death was noted in the first group, and two were observed in the second (patients with follicular thyroid cancer). The most striking result of this study is the total absence of significant impact of CLT on the prognosis of DTC. Our results seem to be on opposite to those of the majority of authors, underlying the complexity of this entity. We think that some factors specific to our population (iodine diet, ethnical

  12. Methylation of the thyroid stimulating hormone receptor: diagnostic marker of malignity in thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marrero Rodriguez, Maria Teresa

    2007-01-01

    The methylation state of the gene promoter for the receptor of the thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) in the diagnosis of thyroid tumors of epithelial origin was analyzed. The study was conducted in thyroid tissue obtained from paraffin blocks of different thyroid pathologies (papillary, follicular and undifferentiated carcinoma and follicular adenomas). The work was done by using the DNA modification technique with sodium bisulfite, and polymerase chain reaction was applied to analyze the gene methylation state. Methylation of the promoter for the gene of the TSH receptor was found in the papillary carcinomas (33 of 40; 82.5 %), in 10 undifferentiated carcinomas (100 %), and in 10 of the 15 follicular carcinomas analyzed (66.6 %). No methylation was observed in the 8 follicular adenomas under study. The methylation of the gene for the TSH receptor was proposed as a new diagnostic marker of malignity and as a basis for using demethylating agents together with radioiodine therapy in patients with thyroid cancer of epithelial origin that do not respond to therapy. (Author)

  13. Population-based study evaluating and predicting the probability of death resulting from thyroid cancer and other causes among patients with thyroid cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Limin; Shen, Weidong; Sakamoto, Naoko

    2013-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the probability of death for patients with thyroid cancer and construct a comprehensive nomogram based on a competing risks model to predict cumulative incidence of death resulting from thyroid cancer, other cancers, and non-cancer-related causes. Patients diagnosed with thyroid cancer between 1988 and 2003 were selected for the study from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results program. We estimated probabilities of death resulting from thyroid cancer, other cancers, and noncancer causes and analyzed associations of patient and tumor characteristics with probability of death. A nomogram for predicting probability of death was built using a proportional subdistribution hazard competing risks model. The entire cohort comprised 29,225 patients with malignant thyroid cancer. Median duration of follow-up until censoring or death was 85 months (range, 0 to 239 months). Five-year probabilities of death resulting from thyroid cancer, other cancer, and noncancer causes were 1.9%, 0.8%, and 1.7%, respectively. Increasing age and tumor size, male sex, poorly differentiated carcinoma, lymph node involvement, and regional and metastatic disease were associated with increased cumulative incidence of death resulting from thyroid cancer. A nomogram based on a competing risks model was developed for predicting the probability of death for patients with thyroid cancer. Performance of the model was excellent. This nomogram may be useful for patients and clinicians when predictions are needed.

  14. Biotinidase is a novel marker for papillary thyroid cancer aggressiveness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony K-C So

    Full Text Available Biotinidase was identified in secretome analysis of thyroid cancer cell lines using proteomics. The goal of the current study was to analyze the expression of biotinidase in thyroid cancer tissues and fine needle aspiration (FNA samples to evaluate its diagnostic and prognostic potential in thyroid cancer. Immunohistochemical analysis of biotinidase was carried out in 129 papillary thyroid cancer (PTC, 34 benign thyroid tissues and 43 FNA samples and correlated with patients' prognosis. Overall biotinidase expression was decreased in PTC compared to benign nodules (p = 0.001. Comparison of aggressive and non-aggressive PTC showed decrease in overall biotinidase expression in the former (p = 0.001. Loss of overall biotinidase expression was associated with poor disease free survival (p = 0.019, Hazards ratio (HR = 3.1. We examined the effect of subcellular compartmentalization of nuclear and cytoplasmic biotinidase on patient survival. Decreased nuclear expression of biotinidase was observed in PTC as compared to benign tissues (p<0.001. Upon stratification within PTC, nuclear expression was reduced in aggressive as compared to non-aggressive tumors (p<0.001. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis showed significant association of loss of nuclear biotinidase expression with reduced disease free survival (p = 0.014, HR = 5.4. Cytoplasmic biotinidase expression was reduced in aggressive thyroid cancers in comparison with non-aggressive tumors (p = 0.002, Odds ratio (OR = 0.29 which was evident by its significant association with advanced T stage (p = 0.003, OR = 0.28, nodal metastasis (p<0.001, OR = 0.16, advanced TNM stage (p<0.001, OR = 0.21 and extrathyroidal extension (p = 0.001, OR = 0.23. However, in multivariate analysis extrathyroidal extension emerged as the most significant prognostic marker for aggressive thyroid carcinomas (p = 0.015, HR = 12.8. In conclusion, loss of overall

  15. Clinical utility of TERT promoter mutations and ALK rearrangement in thyroid cancer patients with a high prevalence of the BRAF V600E mutation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Ja Seong; Kim, Yourha; Jeon, Sora; Kim, Se Hee; Kim, Tae Jung; Lee, Sohee; Kim, Min-Hee; Lim, Dong Jun; Lee, Youn Soo; Jung, Chan Kwon

    2016-02-09

    Mutations in the TERT promoter, ALK rearrangement, and the BRAF V600E mutation are associated with aggressive clinicopathologic features in thyroid cancers. However, little is known about the impact of TERT promoter mutations and ALK rearrangement in thyroid cancer patients with a high prevalence of BRAF mutations. We performed Sanger sequencing to detect BRAF V600E and TERT promoter mutations and both immunohistochemistry and fluorescence in situ hybridization to identify ALK rearrangement on 243 thyroid cancers. TERT promoter mutations were not present in 192 well-differentiated thyroid carcinomas (WDTC) without distant metastasis or in 9 medullary carcinomas. However, the mutations did occur in 40 % (12/30) of WDTC with distant metastasis, 29 % (2/7) of poorly differentiated carcinomas and 60 % (3/5) of anaplastic carcinomas. ALK rearrangement was not present in all thyroid cancers. The BRAF V600E mutation was more frequently found in WDTC without distant metastasis than in WDTC with distant metastasis (p = 0.007). In the cohort of WDTC with distant metastasis, patients with wild-type BRAF and TERT promoter had a significantly higher response rate after radioiodine therapy (p = 0.024), whereas the BRAF V600E mutation was significantly correlated with progressive disease (p = 0.025). The TERT promoter mutation is an independent predictor for distant metastasis of WDTC, but ALK testing is not useful for clinical decision-making in Korean patients with a high prevalence of the BRAF V600E mutation. Radioiodine therapy for distant metastasis of WDTC is most effective in patients without BRAF V600E and TERT promoter mutations.

  16. Heavy metals in the volcanic environment and thyroid cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigneri, R; Malandrino, P; Gianì, F; Russo, M; Vigneri, P

    2017-12-05

    In the last two decades thyroid cancer incidence has increased worldwide more than any other cancer. Overdiagnosis of subclinical microcarcinomas has certainly contributed to this increase but many evidences indicate that a true increase, possibly due to environmental factors, has also occurred. Thyroid cancer incidence is markedly increased in volcanic areas. Thus, the volcanic environment is a good model to investigate the possible factors favoring thyroid cancer. In the volcanic area of Mt. Etna in Sicily, as well as in other volcanic areas, a non-anthropogenic pollution with heavy metals has been documented, a consequence of gas, ash and lava emission. Soil, water and atmosphere contamination, via the food chain, biocontaminate the residents as documented by high levels in the urines and the scalp hair compared to individuals living in adjacent non-volcanic areas. Trace amounts of metals are essential nutrients but, at higher concentrations, can be toxic for living cells. Metals can behave both as endocrine disruptors, perturbing the hormonal system, and as carcinogens, promoting malignant transformation. Similarly to other carcinogens, the transforming effect of heavy metals is higher in developing organisms as the fetus (contaminated via the mother) and individuals in early childhood. In the last decades environment metal pollution has greatly increased in industrialized countries. Although still within the "normal" limits for each single metal the hormesis effect (heavy metal activity at very low concentration because of biphasic, non linear cell response) and the possible potentiation effect resulting from the mixture of different metals acting synergistically can explain cell damage at very low concentrations. The effect of metals on the human thyroid is poorly studied: for some heavy metals no data are available. The scarce studies that have been performed mainly focus on metal effect as thyroid endocrine disruptors. The metal concentration in tissues has

  17. The management of differentiated thyroid cancer in Europe in 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baldet, L.; Jaffiol, C.; Percheron, C.; Manderscheid, J.-C.; Coste-Seignovert, B.; Glinoer, D.

    1989-01-01

    In order to know how thyroid nodules and differentiated thyroid cancers are investigated and treated in 1988, an international inquiry was performed by mean of a questionnaire based on a well-defined case report of a 35-year-old female with a solitary small thyroid nodule. Clinicians were asked to indicate their diagnostic and therapeutic approaches to the reported case and to some variations. Analysis of the 157 responses from thyroid experts showed that three in vitro tests (sensitive-TSH, free T 4 and total T 4 ) and three in vivo tests ( 99m Tc or radioiodide scintiscan, fine needle aspiration and ultrasonography) were performed most frequently. In the case of a solid and cold nodule and in the absence of fine needle aspiration results, 19% of respondents advocated suppressive therapy and 81% surgery. In the same clinical case, but whom fine needle aspiration had been performed and cytology was benign, surgery was advocated by 24%, suppressive therapy by 48% and a regular follow-up without treatment by 28% of respondents. When surgery was performed and the diagnosis was a differentiated thyroid cancer, (near) total thyroidectomy was more frequently chosen than partial thyroidectomy in both papillary (60 and 40%, respectively, of respondents) and follicular (74 and 26%, respectively, of respondents) cancers; 80% of clinicians did not change their surgical technique in relation to histological type of the tumour. Total thyroidectomy was more often recommended in most of the clinical or anatomical variations compared with the basic case repot. Pre- og postoperative hormonal therapy was initiated with L-T 4 and TSH suppression was controlled by sensitive-TSH and thyroblobulin determinations. After total thyroidectomy, 131 I was used with similar modalities for papillary and follicular cancers to ablate a thyroid remnant. (author)

  18. Well-Differentiated Thyroid Cancer: The Philippine General Hospital Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Tom Edward N; Uy, Abigail T; Maningat, Patricia Deanna D

    2016-03-01

    Well-differentiated thyroid cancer (WDTC) is the most common form of thyroid malignancy. While it is typically associated with good prognosis, it may exhibit higher recurrence and mortality rates in selected groups, particularly Filipinos. This paper aims to describe the experience of a Philippine Hospital in managing patients with differentiated thyroid cancer. We performed a retrospective cohort study of 723 patients with WDTC (649 papillary and 79 follicular), evaluating the clinicopathologic profiles, ultrasound features, management received, tumor recurrence, and eventual outcome over a mean follow-up period of 5 years. The mean age at diagnosis was 44±13 years (range, 18 to 82), with a majority of cases occurring in the younger age group (<45 years). Most tumors were between 2 and 4 cm in size. The majority of papillary thyroid cancers (PTCs, 63.2%) and follicular thyroid cancers (FTCs, 54.4%) initially presented as stage 1, with a greater proportion of FTC cases (12.7% vs. 3.7%) presenting with distant metastases. Nodal metastases at presentation were more frequent among patients with PTC (29.9% vs. 7.6%). A majority of cases were treated by complete thyroidectomy, followed by radioactive iodine therapy and thyroid stimulating hormone suppression, resulting in a disease-free state. Excluding patients with distant metastases at presentation, the recurrence rates for papillary and FTC were 30.1% and 18.8%, respectively. Overall, PTC among Filipinos was associated with a more aggressive and recurrent behavior. FTC among Filipinos appeared to behave similarly with other racial groups.

  19. Well-Differentiated Thyroid Cancer: The Philippine General Hospital Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom Edward N. Lo

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundWell-differentiated thyroid cancer (WDTC is the most common form of thyroid malignancy. While it is typically associated with good prognosis, it may exhibit higher recurrence and mortality rates in selected groups, particularly Filipinos. This paper aims to describe the experience of a Philippine Hospital in managing patients with differentiated thyroid cancer.MethodsWe performed a retrospective cohort study of 723 patients with WDTC (649 papillary and 79 follicular, evaluating the clinicopathologic profiles, ultrasound features, management received, tumor recurrence, and eventual outcome over a mean follow-up period of 5 years.ResultsThe mean age at diagnosis was 44±13 years (range, 18 to 82, with a majority of cases occurring in the younger age group (<45 years. Most tumors were between 2 and 4 cm in size. The majority of papillary thyroid cancers (PTCs, 63.2% and follicular thyroid cancers (FTCs, 54.4% initially presented as stage 1, with a greater proportion of FTC cases (12.7% vs. 3.7% presenting with distant metastases. Nodal metastases at presentation were more frequent among patients with PTC (29.9% vs. 7.6%. A majority of cases were treated by complete thyroidectomy, followed by radioactive iodine therapy and thyroid stimulating hormone suppression, resulting in a disease-free state. Excluding patients with distant metastases at presentation, the recurrence rates for papillary and FTC were 30.1% and 18.8%, respectively.ConclusionOverall, PTC among Filipinos was associated with a more aggressive and recurrent behavior. FTC among Filipinos appeared to behave similarly with other racial groups.

  20. Decreased staging of differentiated thyroid cancer in patients with chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borowczyk, M; Janicki, A; Dworacki, G; Szczepanek-Parulska, E; Danieluk, M; Barnett, J; Antonik, M; Kałużna, M; Bromińska, B; Czepczyński, R; Bączyk, M; Ziemnicka, K; Ruchała, M

    2018-04-04

    The biological association between chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis (CLT) and differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) has not been elucidated yet. The aim of the study was to assess whether the presence of CLT exerts any influence on clinical or histological presentation of DTC. Nine hundred and seven consecutive patients with DTC treated in the years 1998-2016 were divided into two groups according to the presence or absence of concomitant CLT. The statistical differences were analysed. Out of 907 patients included in the study, 331 were diagnosed with DTC and CLT (studied group), while 576 patients with DTC but without CLT constituted a control group. The distribution of papillary and follicular thyroid cancer did not differ. In CLT group, the prevalence of pT1 was greater than for pT2-pT4 DTC (P = 0.0003; OR = 1.69, 95% CI 1.27-2.24) compared to controls (68.3 vs. 56.1%, respectively). The presence of multifocal lesions was similar. The thyroid capsule infiltration without extrathyroidal invasion (P CLT (P = 0.004; OR = 1.66; 95% CI 1.17-2.34) as well as nodal involvement (P = 0.048; OR = 0.65, 95% CI 0.42-0.99). The collected data indicate a protective role of CLT in preventing the spread of the DTC. The presence of CLT might limit tumour growth to the primary site.

  1. External radiotherapy prior to thyroid cancer: A case-control study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hallquist, A.; Loefroth, P.O.; Hardell, L.

    1993-01-01

    The aim of this investigation was to study previous radiotherapy of malignant diseases as a risk factor for thyroid cancer. By using the Swedish Cancer Registry all cases of thyroid cancer with another malignant disease at least one year previously and living within the catchment area of the hospital were traced. During 1959-1989 a total of 1056 cases of thyroid cancer were identified. Of these, 37 had had another previous malignant disease and they constituted the cases in this study. As controls four persons with at least two malignant diseases, thyroid cancer excluded, were selected for each case from the same cancer registry. Ten (27.0%) of the 37 patients with thyroid cancer as a second tumor had earlier been irradiated with the treatment dose including the thyroid gland as compared with 34 (24.5%) of the 139 control patients. Eight of the ten cases with previous irradiation of the thyroid gland had papillary cancer. The median latency was 13 years. The estimated radiation dose in the thyroid varied between 3 and 40 Gy. External radiotherapy gave a crude odds ratio of 1.1 with 95% confidence interval = 0.5-2.8 for thyroid cancer. The weighted odds ratio was calculated to 2.3 with confidence interval = 0.5-8.9. This case-control study gave a nonsignificantly increased odds ratio for thyroid cancer in patients with external radiotherapy including the thyroid gland. 26 refs., 4 tabs

  2. Screening between normal and cancer human thyroid cells through comparative adhesion studies using the Quartz Crystal Microbalance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitra Chronaki

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the Quartz Crystal Microbalance with Dissipation monitoring (QCM-D was used to distinguish the dynamic cell adhesion behavior of human normal (Nthy thyroid epithelial cells from poorly differentiated anaplastic carcinoma cells (ARO. The surfaces used to facilitate cell adhesion were bare titanium (Ti, gold (Au and fibrinogen-coated gold (Fg-Au. The pattern of cell adhesion for both cell lines was that the largest acoustic signals were observed on Ti, followed by Au and last by Fg-Au; in addition, ARO cells always produced smaller acoustic signals than Nthy cells on the same surface and for the same number of cells in suspension. Moreover, the calculated acoustic ratio of energy dissipation over frequency change suggests a higher ability of Nthy cells to spread and potentially form more attachment points on the surface than the ARO cells, something observed in SEM images. Finally, we demonstrated that the application of two surfaces for cell adhesion experiments, one of which is Au and the other either Ti or Fg-Au, can discriminate with accuracy between the two particular cell types and potentially form a platform for differentiation between normal and cancer thyroid cell types.

  3. New approaches to image thyroid cancer cells and microenvironment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galli, F.; Iodice, V.; Signore, A.; Lauri, C.

    2015-01-01

    Poorly differentiated thyroid cancer (PDTC) and undifferentiated thyroid cancer (UDTC) are still life-threatening pathologies, because of the lack of well-established diagnostic and therapeutic approaches. In the past, many attempts have been made to develop radiopharmaceutical to diagnose or treat radioactive iodine (RAI)-refractory metastases or recurrences, with limited results. Indeed, it was not possible to find a specific and over expressed marker to be used as target of radiopharmaceuticals or targeted therapies. Nowadays, with novel advances in the field of tumor microenvironment, many new markers are available to be used as suitable targets for targeted therapies interfering with signalling pathways of cells involved in the mechanisms that favour tumor growth and metastatization. This opened new perspective in the use of radiopharmaceuticals targeting components of tumor microenvironment for early diagnosis, pre-operative staging or therapy planning and follow up with targeted drugs. In the present review we present the state of novel approaches to image thyroid cancer and its microenvironment, focusing on RAI-refractory thyroid cancer as a real clinical problem to be solved.

  4. Investigating Chernobyl-induced thyroid cancer: Politics vs science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kotz, D.

    1995-09-01

    Nearly ten years after the nuclear power plant disaster, scientists from around the world are trying to track the incidence of childhood thyroid cancer and treat the young victims. Their efforts seem promising, but a lack of coordination may stymie the research. 5 figs., 1 tab.

  5. Pattern of second primary malignancies in thyroid cancer patients ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Most of these tumors have very short detection intervals (including synchronous occurrences), suggesting that therapy with internal radiation was not contributory to the tumor development. When thyroid malignancies were the second primary cancers, they usually follow radiotherapy to the head and neck region for ...

  6. Nuclear medicine in thyroid cancer management: A practical approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-03-01

    Thyroid cancers are now being diagnosed at an earlier stage and treatments together with follow-up strategies are more effective. However this is not consistent throughout the world. The practice does differ considerably from country to country and region to region. Many International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Members States can benefit from the lessons learned and improve overall patient management of thyroid cancers. The IAEA has significantly enhanced the capabilities of many Member States in the field of nuclear medicine. Functional imaging using nuclear medicine procedures has become an indispensable tool for the diagnosis, treatment planning and management of patients. In terms of treatment, the use of radioiodine ( 131 I) has been central to thyroid cancer and has been successfully used for over six decades. Over the years the IAEA has also assisted many Member States to develop indigenous manufacturing of radioiodine therefore reducing the barriers for the care of patients. This publication is a culmination of efforts by more than twenty international experts in the field to produce a global perspective on the subject. Views expressed are those of individual experts involved and are intended to assist national or regional authorities in decisions regarding the frameworks for effective treatment of thyroid cancer

  7. Thyroid cancers amongst goiter population in a Nigerian tertiary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    . Thyroid cancer is known to be commoner in whites than in blacks and in females than in males. Bone metastasis is a common occurrence and may be the initial manifestation in a small subset. We hope to determine the incidence and the ...

  8. Patterns of thyroid cancers in Zaria | Ahmed | Highland Medical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background Thyroid cancers are not uncommon and frequently affect the middle age population. The frequency of the various histopathological types vary among regions, with follicular carcinoma predominating in iodine-deficient regions. This is the first histopathological review study from this centre, in the recent past.

  9. Tumour suppressive function of HUWE1 in thyroid cancer

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-07-14

    Jul 14, 2016 ... Small-interfering RNA mediated knockdown of HUWE1 promoted cell proliferation, cell migration and invasion in thyroid cancer cells. Overexpression of HUWE1 conferred partial sensitivity to chemo drugs interfering with DNA replication in these cells. Moreover, HUWE1 was found to be down-regulated in ...

  10. Rising incidence of thyroid cancer in Singapore not solely due to micropapillary subtype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shulin, J H; Aizhen, J; Kuo, S M; Tan, W B; Ngiam, K Y; Parameswaran, R

    2018-04-01

    Introduction The annual incidence of thyroid cancer is known to vary with geographic area, age and gender. The increasing incidence of thyroid cancer has been attributed to increase in detection of micropapillary subtype, among other factors. The aim of the study was to investigate time trends in the incidence of thyroid cancer in Singapore, an iodine-sufficient area. Materials and methods Data retrieved from the Singapore National Cancer Registry on all thyroid cancers that were diagnosed from 1974 to 2013 were reviewed. We studied the time trends of thyroid cancer based on gender, race, pathology and treatment modalities where available. Results The age-standardised incidence rate of thyroid cancer increased to 5.6/100,000 in 2013 from 2.5/100,000 in 1974. Thyroid cancer appeared to be more common in women, with a higher incidence in Chinese and Malays compared with Indians. Papillary carcinoma is the most common subtype. The percentage of papillary microcarcinoma has remained relatively stable at around 38% of all papillary cancers between 2007 and 2013. Although the incidence of thyroid cancer has increased since 1974, the mortality rate has remained stable. Conclusion This trend of increase in incidence of thyroid cancer in Singapore compares with other published series; however, the rise seen was not solely due to micropapillary type. Thyroid cancer was also more common in Chinese and Malays compared with Indians for reasons that needs to be studied further.

  11. p53 in differentiation of thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seyama, Toshio; Ito, Takashi; Akiyama, Mitoshi; Hayashi, Yuzo; Dohi, Kiyohiko.

    1993-01-01

    P53 is a tumor suppressor gene with such a recessive nature and is inactivated in many carcinomas. DNA was extracted from 10 primary papillary adenocarcinomas and eight undifferentiated carcinomas of the thyroid, using three 5 μm sliced paraffin segments, and then amplified by PCR. The products were analyzed for mutations in the p53 gene exons 5 to 8 by the direct sequencing method and for allelic deletion by the RFLP method. In five human thyroid carcinomas, DNA was extracted from each tissue and analyzed. Mutations in the p53 gene exons 5 to 8 and p53 gene deletions were not detected in the 10 papillary adenocarcinomas, mutations were detected in seven of eight cases and allelic deletions was detected in three of the five cases examined. In each of the five cases which had both differentiated and undifferentiated tissues in the same tumor, p53 gene mutations were not detected in the differentiated tissues while mutations and gene deletions were detected in the undifferentiated sections. The p53 gene was analyzed using paraffin-embedded tissues by the combined use of the direct sequencing and PCR methods and by the RFLP method. It was found that the progression of human thyroid carcinoma is closely related to the p53 genetic changes. Furthermore, the analysis of differentiated and undifferentiated tissues in the same tumor showed that human undifferentiated thyroid carcinomas develop from differentiated carcinomas. (J.P.N.)

  12. Screening for thyroid cancer in survivors of childhood and young adult cancer treated with neck radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonorezos, Emily S; Barnea, Dana; Moskowitz, Chaya S; Chou, Joanne F; Sklar, Charles A; Elkin, Elena B; Wong, Richard J; Li, Duan; Tuttle, R Michael; Korenstein, Deborah; Wolden, Suzanne L; Oeffinger, Kevin C

    2017-06-01

    The optimal method of screening for thyroid cancer in survivors of childhood and young adult cancer exposed to neck radiation remains controversial. Outcome data for a physical exam-based screening approach are lacking. We conducted a retrospective review of adult survivors of childhood and young adult cancer with a history of neck radiation followed in the Adult Long-Term Follow-Up Clinic at Memorial Sloan Kettering between November 2005 and August 2014. Eligible patients underwent a physical exam of the thyroid and were followed for at least 1 year afterwards. Ineligible patients were those with prior diagnosis of benign or malignant thyroid nodules. During a median follow-up of 3.1 years (range 0-9.4 years), 106 ultrasounds and 2277 physical exams were performed among 585 patients. Forty survivors had an abnormal thyroid physical exam median of 21 years from radiotherapy; 50% of those with an abnormal exam were survivors of Hodgkin lymphoma, 60% had radiation at ages 10-19, and 53% were female. Ultimately, 24 underwent fine needle aspiration (FNA). Surgery revealed papillary carcinoma in seven survivors; six are currently free of disease and one with active disease is undergoing watchful waiting. Among those with one or more annual visits, representing 1732 person-years of follow-up, no cases of thyroid cancer were diagnosed within a year of normal physical exam. These findings support the application of annual physical exam without routine ultrasound for thyroid cancer screening among survivors with a history of neck radiation. Survivors with a history of neck radiation may not require routine thyroid ultrasound for thyroid cancer screening. Among adult survivors of childhood and young adult cancer with a history of radiation therapy to the neck, annual physical exam is an acceptable thyroid cancer screening strategy.

  13. Association of Insurance Expansion With Surgical Management of Thyroid Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loehrer, Andrew P; Murthy, Shilpa S; Song, Zirui; Lubitz, Carrie C; James, Benjamin C

    2017-08-01

    To our knowledge, thyroid cancer incidence is increasing faster than any other cancer type and is currently the fifth most common cancer among women. While this rise is likely multifactorial, there has been scarce consideration of the effect of insurance statuses on the treatment of thyroid cancer. We evaluate the association of insurance expansion with thyroid cancer treatment using the 2006 Massachusetts health reform, which serves as a unique natural experiment. We used the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality State Inpatient Databases to identify patients with government-subsidized or self-pay insurance or private insurance who were admitted to a hospital with thyroid cancer and underwent a thyroidectomy between 2001 and 2011 in Massachusetts (n = 8534) and 3 control states (n = 48 047). Difference-in-differences models were used to evaluate an association between the 2006 Massachusetts health care reform and thyroid cancer treatment, and participants were controlled for age, sex, comorbidities, and secular trends. Change in the thyroidectomy rate for thyroid cancer treatment was the primary outcome evaluated. The Massachusetts cohort consisted of 6443 women (75.5%) and 2091 men (24.5%), of whom 6388 (79.6%) were white, 391 (4.9%) were black, 527 (6.6%) were Hispanic, 424 (5.3%) were Asian/Pacific Islander, 63 (0.8%) were Native American, and 228 (2.8%) were other. The participants from control states included 36 818 women (76.6%) and 11 229 men (23.4%), of whom 30 432 (65.5%) were white, 3818 (8.2%) were black, 6462 (13.9%) were Hispanic, 2591 (5.6%) were Asian/Pacific Islander, 211 (0.5%) were Native American, and 2947 (6.3%) were other. Before the 2006 Massachusetts insurance expansion, patients with government-subsidized or self-pay insurance had lower thyroidectomy rates for thyroid cancer in Massachusetts and the control states compared with patients with private insurance. The Massachusetts insurance expansion was associated with a

  14. Molecular mechanisms of thyroid tumorigenesis; Molekulare Mechanismen der Schilddruesentumorgenese

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krause, K.; Fuehrer, D. [Universitaetsklinikum Leipzig (Germany). Abt. fuer Endokrinolgoie, Diabetologie und Nephrologie

    2008-09-15

    Thyroid nodules are the most frequent endocrine disorder and occur in approximately 30% of the German population. Thyroid nodular disease constitutes a very heterogeneous entity. A striking diversity of possible functional and morphological features of a thyroid tumour derived from the same thyroid ancestor cell, is a hallmark of thyroid tumorigenesis and is due to specific genetic alterations. Defects in known candidate genes can be found in up to 70% of differentiated thyroid carcinomas and determine the respective cancer phenotype. Papillary thyroid cancers (PTC) harbour BRAF (or much less frequently RAS) mutations in sporadically occurring tumours, while radiation-induced PTC display chromosomal rearrangements such as RET, TRK, APR9 / BRAF. These genetic events results in constitutive MAPKinase activation. Follicular thyroid cancers (FTC) harbour RAS mutations or PAX8/ PPAR{gamma} rearrangements, both of which, however have also been identified in follicular adenoma. In addition, recent studies show, that activation of PI3K/AKT signalling occurs with high frequency in follicular thyroid tumours. Undifferentiated (anaplastic) thyroid cancers (ATC) display genetic features of FTC or PTC, in addition to aberant activation of multiple tyrosinkinase pathways (overexpression or mutations in PI3K and MAPK pathways). This underscores the concept of a sequential evolution of ATC from differentiated thyroid cancer, a process widely conceived to be triggered by p53 inactivation. In contrast, the molecular pathogenesis of benign thyroid tumours, in particular cold thyroid nodules is less known, except for toxic thyroid nodules, which arise from constitutive activation of cAMP signalling, predominantly through TSHR mutations. (orig.)

  15. Incidence of thyroid cancer in women in relation to previous exposure to radiation therapy and history of thyroid disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McTiernan, A.M.; Weiss, N.S.; Daling, J.R.

    1984-01-01

    Female residents of 13 counties of Western Washington, in whom papillary, follicular, or mixed papillary-follicular thyroid carcinomas had been diagnosed between 1974 and 1979 were interviewed regarding their medical and reproductive histories and past exposure to radiation treatments. For comparison, a random sample of women from the same population was interviewed. Women who had received radiation treatments to the head or neck prior to 5 years before interview were 16.5 times (95% confidence interval . 8.1-33.5) more likely than unexposed women to develop cancer. The relative risk (RR) was highest for papillary cancer (19.4) but also was elevated substantially for follicular and mixed papillary-follicular tumors. Women first irradiated at age 19 years or younger had a much higher RR than did women irradiated at age 20 or older. Regardless of prior radiation exposure, women who ever had had a goiter were at increased risk of developing thyroid cancer. Women who had ever developed a goiter had 17 times the risk of developing follicular cancer and almost 7 times the risk of developing papillary cancer as compared with women who never had had a goiter. Risk of thyroid cancer was elevated even among women who had had a history of goiter many years prior to diagnosis. A history of thyroid nodules was also a risk factor for papillary and mixed thyroid cancer. Neither a history of hypothyroidism nor hyperthyroidism was found to increase the risk of thyroid cancer

  16. Thyroid and hypophysial function in radiation therapy of breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yakimova, T.P.; Lozinskaya, I.N. (Khar' kovskij Nauchno-Issledovatel' skij Inst. Meditsinskoj Radiologii (Ukrainian SSR))

    1984-04-01

    In breast cancer a decrease in triiodothyronine concentration was revealed with the normal level of thyroxine that may be associated with the disturbed peripharal metabolism into triiodothyronine. The lowering of thyroid functional activity is noted during radiation therapy of patients at menopause. Administration of thyroidin during radiation therapy to elderly patients with the 3 stage of the disease compensated for hormone deficiency producing a sparing effect on the thyroid, and influenced the therapeutic results favorably. A high level of the somatotropic hormone was observed in patients, of the reproductive age and at menopause, the level of insulin was increased in all the patients.

  17. Thyroid and hypophysial function in radiation therapy of breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yakimova, T.P.; Lozinskaya, I.N.

    1984-01-01

    In breast cancer a decrease in triiodothyronine concentration was revealed with the normal level of thyroxine that may be associated with the disturbed peripharal metabolism into triiodothyronine. The lowering of thyroid functional activity is noted during radiation therapy of patients at menopause. Administration of thyroidin during radiation therapy to elderly patients with the 3 stage of the disease compensated for hormone deficiency producing a sparing effect on the thyroid, and influenced the therapeutic results favorably. A high level of the somatotropic hormone was observed in patients, of the reproductive age and at menopause, the level of insulin was increased in all the patients

  18. American Thyroid Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Professionals Thyroid Information Find out more information on Thyroid Disease. learn more Meetings ATA meeting dates, information, and ... News Press Releases & Announcements Thyroid Information (Brochures & FAQ's / Thyroid Diseases & Conditions) Cancer of the Thyroid Public Health Statements ...

  19. Affinity of tri-iodothyronine(T3) to lymphocytes in thyroid cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeevanram, R.K.; Narkar, A.A.; Ganatra, R.D.; Shah, D.H.

    1978-01-01

    Peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) of thyroid cancer patients and 5 normal subjects were studied for their affinity towards 125 I labelled tri-iodothyronine ( 125 I-T 3 ). The mean affinity constant K for PBL of normal subjects was 2.94 + 0.47 x 10 11 litre/mole and for thyroid cancer patients was 1.75 + 0.44 x 10 11 litre/mole. The binding affinity of the PBL of thyroid cancer patients should have been greater because of (a) lack of thyroid hormones resulting from removal of thyroid gland, and (b) higher levels of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) which is known to increase the binding of T 3 to the cells. The lowered T 3 binding of PBL of thyroid cancer patients is explained on the basis of the morphological changes on the lymphocytes of cancer patients. (auth.)

  20. Local reactions to radioiodine in the treatment of thyroid cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burmeister, L.A.; du Cret, R.P.; Mariash, C.N. (Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis (USA))

    1991-02-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare the rate of local complications resulting from radioiodine ablation of thyroid cancer in patients with a residual intact thyroid lobe to that in patients who had more extensive surgical treatment prior to radioiodine administration. We retrospectively studied 59 patients who had received 131I between 1979 and 1989. The patients were divided into two groups, depending on the extent of their previous surgical thyroid excision. Group 1 comprised 10 patients with a lobectomy or hemithyroidectomy before the ablative radioiodine dose, and Group 2 comprised 49 patients with more extensive thyroid excision (near-total or subtotal thyroidectomy) before the radioiodine treatment. Sixty percent of the 10 patients in Group 1 experienced some degree of neck pain or tenderness following radioiodine ablation of their residual thyroid. In one case, the local reaction was very severe and accompanied by the development of transient hyperthyroidism. There was only a 6% local complication rate in the patients who had undergone more extensive thyroid excision before ablative therapy (p less than 0.001), and none had a severe reaction. Patients with only unilateral surgical excision before radioiodine therapy have a higher rate of local complications than do patients treated with more extensive surgery prior to radioiodine ablation. If radioiodine is to be employed in such patients, they should be informed of this possible complication. Since evidence supports a dose effect in the pathogenesis of the complications, we recommend using a dose of less than 30 mCi for the initial ablation in these patients even though it may be necessary to repeat this dose to complete thyroid ablation.

  1. Local reactions to radioiodine in the treatment of thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burmeister, L.A.; du Cret, R.P.; Mariash, C.N.

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare the rate of local complications resulting from radioiodine ablation of thyroid cancer in patients with a residual intact thyroid lobe to that in patients who had more extensive surgical treatment prior to radioiodine administration. We retrospectively studied 59 patients who had received 131I between 1979 and 1989. The patients were divided into two groups, depending on the extent of their previous surgical thyroid excision. Group 1 comprised 10 patients with a lobectomy or hemithyroidectomy before the ablative radioiodine dose, and Group 2 comprised 49 patients with more extensive thyroid excision (near-total or subtotal thyroidectomy) before the radioiodine treatment. Sixty percent of the 10 patients in Group 1 experienced some degree of neck pain or tenderness following radioiodine ablation of their residual thyroid. In one case, the local reaction was very severe and accompanied by the development of transient hyperthyroidism. There was only a 6% local complication rate in the patients who had undergone more extensive thyroid excision before ablative therapy (p less than 0.001), and none had a severe reaction. Patients with only unilateral surgical excision before radioiodine therapy have a higher rate of local complications than do patients treated with more extensive surgery prior to radioiodine ablation. If radioiodine is to be employed in such patients, they should be informed of this possible complication. Since evidence supports a dose effect in the pathogenesis of the complications, we recommend using a dose of less than 30 mCi for the initial ablation in these patients even though it may be necessary to repeat this dose to complete thyroid ablation

  2. Current practice of radioiodine treatment in the management of differentiated thyroid cancer in Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoelzer, S.; Dudeck, J. [Inst. of Medical Informatics, Justus-Liebig-Univ. Giessen (Germany); Steiner, D.; Bauer, R. [Clinic for Nuclear Medicine, Justus-Liebig-Univ. Giessen (Germany); Reiners, C.; Farahati, J. [Clinic and Policlinic for Nuclear Medicine, Univ. of Wuerzburg (Germany); Hundahl, S.A. [Commission on Cancer, American Coll. of Surgeons, Chicago (United States)

    2000-10-01

    This prospective, observational study of a cohort of thyroid cancer patients in Germany focusses on the ''real-world'' practice in the management of thyroid cancer patients. This report includes data from 2376 patients with primary differentiated thyroid carcinoma first diagnosed in the year 1996. The study reveals considerable differences in actual practice concerning surgery and radioiodine treatment. The results indicate that consensus is lacking with respect to the multimodality treatment approach for differentiated thyroid carcinoma. Our analysis represents the most current and comprehensive national assessment of presenting patient characteristics, diagnostic tests, treatment and complications for thyroid cancer. (orig.)

  3. An unusual case of recurrent hyperparathyroidism and papillary thyroid cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morita, Shane Y; Brownlee, Noel A; Dackiw, Alan P B; Westra, William H; Clark, Douglas P; Zeiger, Martha A

    2009-01-01

    To report an unusual occurrence of recurrent hyperparathyroidism due to papillary thyroid carcinoma. We describe the clinical history, physical examination findings, laboratory values, imaging findings, and pathologic findings of a woman who developed recurrent hyperparathyroidism 13 years after successful parathyroidectomy. A 59-year-old woman presented to our clinic with recurrent primary hyperparathyroidism. In 1994, she presented with nephrolithiasis and underwent resection of a right superior parathyroid adenoma that resulted in clinical and biochemical cure. Her clinical course had been followed at periodic intervals, and she had been symptom-free and normocalcemic. In 2007, she again developed nephrolithiasis and was documented to have recurrent hyperparathyroidism. Imaging studies suggested a parathyroid adenoma near the right inferior pole of the thyroid. The patient had reoperative neck exploration. No obvious parathyroid adenoma was found and a right thyroid lobectomy was performed, which resulted in normalization of intraoperative intact parathyroid hormone levels, and the incision was closed. Final pathology demonstrated no parathyroid adenoma, but instead, a 1-cm papillary thyroid carcinoma that stained positive for parathyroid hormone. More than 6 months after surgery, she remains clinically and biochemically cured. Recurrent hyperparathyroidism occurs secondary to multiple causes. This case demonstrates the challenge a surgeon faces in managing recurrent disease and highlights a rare phenomenon of papillary thyroid cancer causing recurrent hyperparathyroidism.

  4. Risk of thyroid cancer, brain cancer, and non-Hodgkin lymphoma after adult leukemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sune F; Bojesen, Stig E; Birgens, Henrik S

    2011-01-01

    Patients with childhood leukemia surviving into adulthood have elevated risk of developing thyroid cancer, brain cancer, and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL); these risks cannot automatically be extrapolated to patients surviving adult leukemia. We tested whether survivors of adult leukemia are at incr......Patients with childhood leukemia surviving into adulthood have elevated risk of developing thyroid cancer, brain cancer, and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL); these risks cannot automatically be extrapolated to patients surviving adult leukemia. We tested whether survivors of adult leukemia...... cancer, 13 362 developed brain cancer, and 15 967 developed NHL. In nested studies using Cox regression models on individual participant data, we found that, after adult leukemia, the multivariate adjusted hazard ratios were 4.9 (95% confidence interval [CI], 2.8-8.5) for thyroid cancer, 1.9 (95% CI, 1...

  5. The Breast-Thyroid Cancer Link: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Sarah M.; White, Michael G.; Hong, Susan; Aschebrook-Kilfoy, Briseis; Kaplan, Edwin L.; Angelos, Peter; Kulkarni, Swati A.; Olopade, Olufunmilayo I.; Grogan, Raymon H.

    2015-01-01

    Rates of thyroid cancer in women with a history of breast cancer are higher than expected. Similarly, rates of breast cancer in those with a history of thyroid cancer are increased. Explanations for these associations include detection bias, shared hormonal risk factors, treatment effect, and genetic susceptibility. With increasing numbers of breast and thyroid cancer survivors clinicians should be particularly cognizant of this association. Here we perform a systematic review and meta-analysis of the literature utilizing PubMed and Scopus search engines to identify all publications studying the incidence of breast cancer as a secondary malignancy following a diagnosis of thyroid cancer or thyroid cancer following a diagnosis of breast cancer. This demonstrated an increased risk of thyroid cancer as a secondary malignancy following breast cancer (OR=1.55, 95% CI [1.44,1.67]) and an increased risk of breast cancer as a secondary malignancy following thyroid cancer (OR= 1.32, 95% CI [1.23,1.42]). There is a clear increase in the odds of developing either thyroid or breast cancer as a secondary malignancy after diagnosis with the other. Here we review this association and current hypothesis as to the cause of this correlation. PMID:26908594

  6. Thyroid cancer risk is not increased in diabetic patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chin-Hsiao Tseng

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This study evaluated thyroid cancer risk with regards to diabetes status and diabetes duration, and with the use of anti-diabetic drugs including sulfonylurea, metformin, insulin, acarbose, pioglitazone and rosiglitazone, by using a population-based reimbursement database in Taiwan. METHODS: A random sample of 1,000,000 subjects covered by the National Health Insurance was recruited. After excluding patients with type 1 diabetes, 999730 subjects (495673 men and 504057 women were recruited into the analyses. Logistic regression estimated the odds ratios (OR and their 95% confidence intervals (CI for independent variables including age, sex, diabetes status/duration, anti-diabetic drugs, other medications, comorbidities, living regions, occupation and examinations that might potentially lead to the diagnosis of thyroid cancer in various models. RESULTS: The diabetic patients had a significantly higher probability of receiving potential detection examinations (6.38% vs. 5.83%, P<0.0001. After multivariable-adjustment, the OR (95% CI for diabetes status was 0.816 (0.652-1.021; and for diabetes duration <1 year, 1-3 years, 3-5 years and ≥ 5 years vs. non-diabetes was 0.071 (0.010-0.507, 0.450 (0.250-0.813, 0.374 (0.203-0.689 and 1.159 (0.914-1.470, respectively. Among the anti-diabetic agents, only sulfonylurea was significantly associated with thyroid cancer, OR (95% CI: 1.882 (1.202-2.947. The OR (95% CI for insulin, metformin, acarbose, pioglitazone and rosiglitazone was 1.701 (0.860-3.364, 0.696 (0.419-1.155, 0.581 (0.202-1.674, 0.522 (0.069-3.926 and 0.669 (0.230-1.948, respectively. Furthermore, patients with benign thyroid disease or other cancer, living in Kao-Ping/Eastern regions, or receiving potential detection examinations might have a significantly higher risk; and male sex, hypertension, dyslipidemia, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, vascular complications or use of statin, aspirin or non-steroidal anti

  7. The thyroid cancer policy model: A mathematical simulation model of papillary thyroid carcinoma in The U.S. population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carrie Lubitz

    Full Text Available Thyroid cancer affects over ½ million people in the U.S. and the incidence of thyroid cancer has increased worldwide at a rate higher than any other cancer, while survival has remained largely unchanged. The aim of this research was to develop, calibrate and verify a mathematical disease model to simulate the natural history of papillary thyroid cancer, which will serve as a platform to assess the effectiveness of clinical and cancer control interventions.Herein, we modeled the natural pre-clinical course of both benign and malignant thyroid nodules with biologically relevant health states from normal to detected nodule. Using established calibration techniques, optimal parameter sets for tumor growth characteristics, development rate, and detection rate were used to fit Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results (SEER incidence data and other calibration targets.Model outputs compared to calibration targets demonstrating sufficient calibration fit and model validation are presented including primary targets of SEER incidence data and size distribution at detection of malignancy. Additionally, we show the predicted underlying benign and malignant prevalence of nodules in the population, the probability of detection based on size of nodule, and estimates of growth over time in both benign and malignant nodules.This comprehensive model provides a dynamic platform employable for future comparative effectiveness research. Future model analyses will test and assess various clinical management strategies to improve patient outcomes related to thyroid cancer and optimize resource utilization for patients with thyroid nodules.

  8. Lenvatinib and other tyrosine kinase inhibitors for the treatment of radioiodine refractory, advanced, and progressive thyroid cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorusso L

    2016-10-01

    statistically significant difference in the overall survival of the entire group, this result was observed when the analysis was restricted to both the follicular histotype and the group of senior patients (>65 years. The study confirmed that the most common side effects of this drug are hypertension, diarrhea, decreased appetite, weight loss, nausea, and proteinuria. In this review, we report the results of the main studies on lenvatinib efficacy in patients with advanced and progressive thyroid cancer, mainly in DTCs but also in medullary and anaplastic thyroid cancer. We also compared the efficacy of lenvatinib with that of other tyrosine kinase inhibitors, mainly sorafenib, already tested in the same type of patient population. Keywords: lenvatinib, E7080, tyrosine kinase inhibitor, radioiodine refractory thyroid cancer

  9. Emerging therapeutics for advanced thyroid malignancies: rationale and targeted approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Pamela Jo; Bible, Keith C

    2011-10-01

    Thyroid cancer is an emerging public health concern. In the USA, its incidence has doubled in the past decade, making it the eighth most commonly diagnosed neoplasm in 2010. Despite this alarming increase, most thyroid cancer patients benefit from conventional approaches (surgery, radioiodine, radiotherapy, TSH suppression with levothyroxine) and are often cured. Nevertheless, a minority have aggressive tumors resistant to cytotoxic and other historical therapies; these patients sorely need new treatment options. Herein the biology and molecular characteristics of the common histological types of thyroid cancer are reviewed to provide context for subsequent discussion of recent developments and emerging therapeutics for advanced thyroid cancers. Several kinase inhibitors, especially those targeting VEGFR and/or RET, have already demonstrated promising activity in differentiated and medullary thyroid cancers (DTC, MTC). Although of minimal benefit in DTC and MTC, cytotoxic chemotherapy with anti-microtubule agents and/or anthracyclines in combination with intensity-modulated radiation therapy appears to extend survival for patients with locoregionally confined anaplastic thyroid cancer (ATC), but to have only modest benefit in metastatic ATC. Further discovery and development of novel agents and combinations of agents will be critical to further progress in treating advanced thyroid cancers of all histotypes.

  10. Radiation risk assessment of the thyroid cancer in Ukrainian children exposed due to Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sobolev, B.; Likhtarev, I.; Kairo, I.; Tronko, N.; Oleynik, V.; Bogdanova, T.

    1996-01-01

    The children's thyroid exposure to radioiodine is one of the most serious consequences of the Chernobyl accident. The collective dose to children aged 0-18 in the entire Ukraine was estimated to be 400000 person-Gy. The dose estimates were calculated on the basis of measurements of thyroid content of 131 I for about 108000 people in Ukraine aged 0-18 years in May-June 1986. Up to the end of 1994, 542 thyroid cancers throughout the Ukraine have been reported in children and young adults who were aged 0-18 at the time of the accident. Rates of thyroid cancer have climbed, from about 0.7 per million children aged 0-14 in 1986 to more 7 per million in 1994. Rates increased most in region closest to Pripyat'. Between 1990 and 1994, 9 of the 14,580 people who had been children at the time of the accident in Pripyat' developed thyroid cancer. This corresponds to an annual incidence of 123 cases per million persons. The estimated average thyroid dose in Ukrainian children varies by several orders of magnitude. There is a more than 30-fold gradient in thyroid cancer incidence rates corresponding to the gradient in thyroid doses from 131 I. A preliminary investigation shows an excess in the annual incidence rate of thyroid cancer, throughout the northern territory of Ukraine, corresponding to the average doses to thyroid from 131 I. Coefficients of regression of excess cancers versus thyroid dose have been calculated

  11. Radiotherapy and subsequent thyroid cancer in German childhood cancer survivors: a nested case–control study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finke, Isabelle; Scholz-Kreisel, Peter; Hennewig, Ulrike; Blettner, Maria; Spix, Claudia

    2015-01-01

    Radiotherapy is associated with a risk of subsequent neoplasms (SN) in childhood cancer survivors. It has been shown that children’s thyroid glands are especially susceptible. The aim is to quantify the risk of a second neck neoplasm after primary cancer radiotherapy with emphasis on thyroid cancer. We performed a nested case–control study: 29 individuals, diagnosed with a solid SN in the neck region, including 17 with thyroid cancer, in 1980–2002 and 57 matched controls with single neoplasms were selected from the database of the German Childhood Cancer Registry. We investigated the risk associated with radiotherapy exposure given per body region, adjusted for chemotherapy. 16/17 (94.1 %) thyroid SN cases, 9/12 (75 %) other neck SN cases and 34/57 (59.6 %) controls received radiotherapy, with median doses of 27.8, 25 and 24 Gy, respectively. Radiotherapy exposure to the neck region increased the risk of the other neck SNs by 4.2 % (OR = 1.042/Gy (95 %-CI 0.980-1.109)) and of thyroid SN by 5.1 % (OR = 1.051/Gy (95 %-CI 0.984-1.123)), and radiotherapy to the neck or spine region increased the thyroid risk by 6.6 % (OR = 1.066/Gy (95 %-CI 1.010-1.125)). Chemotherapy was not a confounder. Exposure to other body regions was not associated with increased risk. Radiotherapy in the neck or spine region increases the risk of thyroid cancer, while neck exposure increases the risk of any other solid SN to a similar extent. Other studies showed a decreasing risk of subsequent thyroid cancer for very high doses; we cannot confirm this

  12. Sericeous thyroglobulin and whole body thyroid scan in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendoza, G.; Cano, R.; Morales, R.; Huanca, M.; Postigo, J.; Farfan, J.

    1994-01-01

    Thyroid cancer is the most frequent malignant tumor among endocrine diseases. it has an incidence of 1,87 cases per hundred thousand habitants. Thyroglobulin is an iodo glycoprotein useful in the follow-up of patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma. Total body scan is a well established method to localize distant functioning metastases. We report the concordance of this two methods in 22 patients attending to the Nuclear Medicine Center and proceeding from the Head and Neck Department of INEN, which had undergone total thyroidectomy, received a I-131 ablative dose, performed a total body scan and determined the thyroglobulin concentration fourteen were female patients and the same number were accounted as high risk patients. We conclude for the studied population, that an excellent correlation between thyroglobulin and scans was noted and that 6,5 ng/ml will be used as a cut-off point for the thyroglobulin determination. (authors). 40 refs., 5 tabs

  13. Differentiated thyroid cancer in patients with resistance to thyroid hormone syndrome. A novel case and a review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinagre, João; Borges, Fátima; Costa, António; Alvelos, Maria Inês; Mazeto, Glaúcia; Sobrinho-Simões, Manuel; Soares, Paula

    2014-01-01

    Resistance to thyroid hormone (RTH) represents a syndrome in which patients present elevated circulating thyroid hormones in the presence of non-suppressed TSH. We report a novel case where a patient with RTH presented a differentiated thyroid cancer. A19 year-old female had been referred due to thyroid disease that disclosed features characteristic of a RTH. During the follow up it was detected a follicular tumor that led to the recommendation for thyroid surgical ablation, where an incidental papillary thyroid microcarcinoma (mPTC) was found. The increase of thyroglobulin (TG) levels following thyroid removal referred the patient for radioiodine treatment. Post-treatment, it was detected jugular adenopathies and the patient was subjected to cervical lymph node drainage where metastases of the mPTC were found. RTH syndrome was confirmed by the detection of a THRB germline mutation. A BRAF mutation was also found in the mPTC but not detected in the follicular adenoma or normal adjacent tissue. The young age of the patient, the rarity of BRAF mutations in childhood and the high dissemination of the malignancy, lead us to the speculation that increased TSH stimulation in a RTH background and oncogenic activation of BRAF could have served as (co) drivers and might have triggered an advanced stage of the neoplastic disease. These findings together with a review of published cases add novel information to the management of RTH patients with differentiated thyroid cancer.

  14. The positive clinical therapeutically effects of Escin on advanced thyroid cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Jin-Yu; Zhang, Ming-Jun; Wang, Yuan-Yuan; Liu, Ye-Hai

    2017-05-01

    The incidences of thyroid cancer keep rising worldwide over the past few decades. Although most thyroid cancers are indolent and highly curable, the treatment for advanced thyroid cancer remains challengeable in clinical practice. We performed two separate cohorts to evaluate the safety and efficiency of Escin in patients with advanced thyroid cancer . In cohort 1, 120 patients were divided into four groups equally and were administrated with placebo or different dosages of Escin. The pharmacokinetics of Escin and the side effects were evaluated. In cohort 2, 120 patients were treated with Escin. Several biomarkers related to the progression of thyroid cancer were evaluated. Kaplan-Meier (KM) analyses were performed to evaluate progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS). The serum Escin concentrations were stable during the treatment. Escin (0.6 mg/kg/day for 9 days, intravenous injection) was tolerable for patients with thyroid cancer . Escin significantly reduced the serum levels of TSH, TgAb, Tg, and calcitonin and prolonged the PFS and OS for patients with advanced thyroid cancer. This study showed Escin is efficient and well tolerated in patients with advanced thyroid cancer. Future studies are needed to investigate the mechanism of Escin on thyroid cancer and the proper dosage of Escin clinically. © 2017 The Authors. Cancer Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. I-131 Dose Response for Incident Thyroid Cancers in Ukraine Related to the Chornobyl Accident

    OpenAIRE

    Brenner, Alina V.; Tronko, Mykola D.; Hatch, Maureen; Bogdanova, Tetyana I.; Oliynik, Valery A.; Lubin, Jay H.; Zablotska, Lydia B.; Tereschenko, Valery P.; McConnell, Robert J.; Zamotaeva, Galina A.; O?Kane, Patrick; Bouville, Andre C.; Chaykovskaya, Ludmila V.; Greenebaum, Ellen; Paster, Ihor P.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Current knowledge about Chornobyl-related thyroid cancer risks comes from ecological studies based on grouped doses, case?control studies, and studies of prevalent cancers. Objective: To address this limitation, we evaluated the dose?response relationship for incident thyroid cancers using measurement-based individual iodine-131 (I-131) thyroid dose estimates in a prospective analytic cohort study. Methods: The cohort consists of individuals < 18 years of age on 26 April 1986 who ...

  16. Radiotherapy in well-differentiated thyroid cancer: is it underutilized?

    Science.gov (United States)

    So, Kevin; Smith, Robin E; Davis, Sidney R

    2016-09-01

    The usual management of thyroid cancer is surgery and radioactive iodine. The role of external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) in well-differentiated thyroid carcinoma remains controversial. Indications for the use of EBRT, contained within both the American and British Thyroid Association published guidelines, include unresectable or non-iodine avid disease, extra-thyroidal extension or distant metastatic disease. A retrospective review of prospectively collected data from a single Australian institution was conducted, analysing patients referred and treated with EBRT for well-differentiated thyroid carcinoma between November 1992 and July 2013. Of 36 patients referred, 32 were treated with EBRT. Sixteen patients in total received locoregional treatment (six radical, 10 palliative), of whom 81% (13/16) had gross disease and 88% (14/16) had recurrent disease (eight with multiple recurrences). Additionally, 63% (10/16) had multiple surgical resections and 50% (8/16) had previously received multiple courses of radioactive iodine. Overall, 67% (4/6) of patients treated with radical intent had no locoregional recurrence or progression. Thirteen of the 16 patients who received locoregional EBRT remained asymptomatic from their locoregional disease at the time of last follow-up or death. The most commonly treated distant metastatic disease site was bone, with a total of 45 sites irradiated. Of these patients, 93% and 78% were symptom-free at two and four years, respectively. Our study suggests that in a select group of patients with well-differentiated thyroid carcinoma, EBRT treatment appears to provide durable tumour and symptom control. © 2015 Royal Australasian College of Surgeons.

  17. Quantitative radioiodine therapy in the treatment of differentiated thyroid cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxon, H R

    1999-12-01

    Radioiodine therapy is used in the treatment of patients with differentiated thyroid cancer both to ablate residual thyroid tissue after initial surgery and to treat residual, recurrent, or metastatic cancer. In most institutions, therapy remains based on empirically determined, fixed amounts of radioiodine that do not account for individual differences in the mass of tissue to be treated and in radioiodine kinetics. Over the last 25 years, we have developed and refined techniques based on pre-therapy, diagnostic quantitative radiation dosimetry and imaging with 131I that permit individualized treatment which balances the success of the treatment and the risk of serious acute adverse effects on the bone marrow and lungs. In this manuscript we discuss patient selection and preparation for radioiodine therapy and outline in detail methods for performing quantitative dosimetry studies. Guidelines for the application of these results to the treatment of individual patients are presented.

  18. Thyroid cancers after Chernobyl: importance of prophylaxis by KI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlumberger, M.

    1994-01-01

    Since 1990, more than 400 thyroid cancers have been observed in children in southern Belarus and northern Ukraine. Screening is of minor significance on account of the highly increased incidence of these cancers, their agressivity and frequent diagnosis at a metastatic stage. Several arguments speak for the responsibility of the Chernobyl accident: (1) importance of the initial contamination; (2) geographical distribution, the incidence being higher in the more severely contaminated areas; (3) time distribution, the incidence increasing steadily since 1990. Iodine 131 is very likely the agent responsible for this increase. These data underline the significance of KI prophylaxis of thyroid irradiation in case of nuclear power plant accident, especially for children on whom it is practically without any danger. (author). 23 refs., 1 tab

  19. Treatment Options by Stage (Thyroid Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of cancer. Tracheostomy : Surgery to create an opening ( stoma ) into the windpipe to help you breathe. The ... information on cancer prevention, detection, genetics, treatment, supportive care, and complementary and alternative medicine. Most summaries come ...

  20. Increased Global DNA Hypomethylation in Distant Metastatic and Dedifferentiated Thyroid Cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klein Hesselink, Esther N; Zafon, Carles; Villalmanzo, Núria; Iglesias, Carmela; van Hemel, Bettien M; Klein Hesselink, Mariëlle S; Montero-Conde, Cristina; Buj, Raquel; Mauricio, Dídac; Peinado, Miguel A; Puig-Domingo, Manel; Riesco-Eizaguirre, Garcilaso; Reverter, Jordi L; Robledo, Mercedes; Links, Thera P; Jordà, Mireia

    2018-01-01

    Context: Global DNA hypomethylation is a major event for the development and progression of cancer, although the significance in thyroid cancer remains unclear. Therefore, we aimed to investigate its role in thyroid cancer progression and its potential as a prognostic marker. Methods: Global

  1. Increased Global DNA Hypomethylation in Distant Metastatic and Dedifferentiated Thyroid Cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klein Hesselink, Esther N; Zafon, Carles; Villalmanzo, Núria; Iglesias, Carmela; van Hemel, Bettien M; Klein Hesselink, Mariëlle S; Montero-Conde, Cristina; Buj, Raquel; Mauricio, Dídac; Peinado, Miguel A; Puig-Domingo, Manel; Riesco-Eizaguirre, Garcilaso; Reverter, Jordi L; Robledo, Mercedes; Links, Thera P; Jordà, Mireia

    Context: Global DNA hypomethylation is a major event for the development and progression of cancer, although the significance in thyroid cancer remains unclear. Therefore, we aimed to investigate its role in thyroid cancer progression and its potential as a prognostic marker. Methods: Global

  2. Retrospective study of thyroid cancer treatment: aims and data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vosmikova, K.; Hermanska, J.; Jirsa, L.; Karny, M.; Samal, M.

    1998-01-01

    Although opinions preferring individual administration of activity in the treatment of thyroid cancer with 131 I predominate, sufficient quantitative arguments in favor of this approach are unavailable as yet. Therefore, a retrospective study involving statistical processing was proposed with the aim to evaluate the relations between available data of the patients and success of treatment. Ideally, recommendations regarding activity to be administered in dependence on the biophysical status of the patient should emerge from the study

  3. Radiation safety procedures in radioiodine therapy for thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajashekharrao, B.; Samuel, A.M.

    1999-01-01

    During any administration of radioactive materials, it is imperative to always be conversant with any forbidden radiation health safety practices. This need is amplified when dealing with therapeutic amount of radionuclides. Among all the procedures dealing with the use of radiopharmaceuticals, it is easiest to think of 131 I, since this is the most widely used unsealed source of a radiopharmaceutical for treatment of thyroid cancer and hyperthyroidism and carries with it most of the problems associated with therapy applications

  4. {sup 1}31{sup I} therapy of thyroid cancer patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reiners, C.; Farahati, J. [Wuerzburg Univ., Wuerzburg (Germany). Clinic of Nuclear Medicine

    1999-12-01

    Thyroid cancer is a rare malignancy with wide inter ethnic and geographic variations. In Germany thyroid carcinoma is the 13. most frequent malignancy (2.7 new cases yearly per 100,000 inhabitants). The overall temporal incidence is increasing slightly in recent years. The most common types of cancer are papillary (60-80%) and follicular cancers (10-20%). The relevant prognostic indicators are tumor stage and distant metastases. The mean survival rates in papillary thyroid cancer usually exceed 90%, whereas in follicular thyroid cancer they amount to approximately 80%. The standard treatment procedure in differentiated papillary and follicular thyroid cancer consists of total thyroidectomy followed by adjuvant ablative therapy with radioiodine. Only in papillary thyroid cancer stage pT{sub 1}N{sub 0}M{sub 0} lobectomy alone is considered to be appropriate. In patients with locally invasive differentiated thyroid cancers stage pT{sub 4} adjuvant percutaneous radiation therapy is a treatment option. Radioiodine therapy has to be performed under the stimulative influence of TSH. Usually TSH suppressive medication with Levothyroxine has to be withdrawn approximately 4 weeks prior to radioiodine therapy. In the future, exogenous stimulation by recombinant TSH may be used instead of thyroid hormone withdrawal. It has been proved by different studies that ablative radioiodine therapy reduces the frequency of recurrences and tumor spread in patients with thyroid cancer significantly. In patients with distant metastases, up to 50% of complete responses may be achieved with radioiodine treatment.

  5. Primary surgery for differentiated thyroid cancer in the new millennium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dralle, H; Machens, A

    2012-01-01

    Differentiated thyroid cancers (DTC) are malignancies of follicular cell derivation. Histopathologically and oncologically, DTC fall into two broad tumor categories: papillary (PTC) and follicular thyroid cancer (FTC). These major tumor categories, based on clinical manifestation and biological behavior, are further subdivided into low-risk [papillary microcarcinoma (mPTC); minimally invasive follicular cancer (MIFTC)] and high-risk DTC [PTC>1 cm or metastatic; MIFTC with histopathological angioinvasion; widely invasive FTC (WIFTC)]. Recently, a surgical approach has been adopted that differentiates between low-risk and high-risk DTC. The rationale behind this new concept is to better balance oncologic risk (high vs low) with the surgical morbidity attendant to the procedure (recurrent laryngeal nerve palsy and hypoparathyroidism). This surgical risk is larger with routine total thyroidectomy (TT) and central node dissection (CND) than with less than TT or TT without CND.Whereas TT with CND remains the treatment of choice for high-risk DTC with metastases, the extent of thyroid resection and lymph node dissection can be reduced in low-risk PTC and FTC without demonstrable loss of oncological benefit. In the new millennium, the surgical approach to DTC, especially low-risk PTC and FTC, has undergone considerable change, resulting in less extensive procedures. This risk-adapted strategy relies not only on the skillful histopathologic detection of multifocality in PTC and vascular invasion in MIFTC, but likewise necessitates diligent follow-up to spot and adequately treat local recurrences and distant metastases as they become clinically apparent.

  6. Targeted Therapy for Medullary Thyroid Cancer: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. R. Priya

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Medullary thyroid cancers (MTCs constitute between 2 and 5% of all thyroid cancers. The 10-year overall survival (OS rate of patients with localized disease is around 95% while that of patients with regional stage disease is about 75%. Only 20% of patients with distant metastases at diagnosis survive 10 years which is significantly lower than for differentiated thyroid cancers. Cases with regional metastases at presentation have high recurrence rates. Adjuvant external radiation confers local control but not improved OS. The management of residual, recurrent, or metastatic disease till a few years ago was re-surgery with local measures such as radiation. Chemotherapy was used with marginal benefit. The development of targeted therapy has brought in a major advantage in management of such patients. Two drugs—vandetanib and cabozantinib—have been approved for use in progressive or metastatic MTC. In addition, several drugs acting on other steps of the molecular pathway are being investigated with promising results. Targeted radionuclide therapy also provides an effective treatment option with good quality of life. This review covers the rationale of targeted therapy for MTC, present treatment options, drugs and methods under investigation, as well as an outline of the adverse effects and their management.

  7. Diagnostic Accuracy of Detecting Hashimoto's Thyroiditis in Thyroid Cancer Patients Who Underwent Thyroid Surgery: Comparison of Ultrasonography, Positron Emission Tomography/CT, Contrast Enhanced CT, and Anti-Thyroid Antibody

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Young Gyun; Lee, Tae Hyun; Park, Dong Hee; Nam, Sang Been [Dept. of Radiology, Korea Cancer Center Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-11-15

    To compare the diagnostic accuracy of ultrasonography (US), F18-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/CT (PET/CT), contrast enhanced CT (CECT), serum anti-thyroid antibody for detecting Hashimoto's thyroiditis in thyroid cancer patients who underwent neck surgery. A total of 150 patients with suspicious for thyroid cancer, who had previously undergone US guided needle aspiration of thyroid, were evaluated with the use of US, PET/CT, CECT and serum anti-thyroid antibody. The four studies were performed within two months before neck surgery. Hashimoto's thyroiditis was confirmed by histopathological results. The diagnostic accuracy of US, PET/CT, CECT and serum anti-thyroid antibody were calculated statistically. Hashimoto's thyroiditis was diagnosed in 51 out of the 150 patients, following neck surgery. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value and accuracy of US were 76.5%, 92.9%, 84.8%, 88.5%, and 87.3%, respectively. The corresponding values of PET/CT were 37.3%, 96.0%, 82.6%, 74.8%, and 76.0%, and CECT were 62.7%, 89.9%, 76.2%, 82.4%, and 80.7%, and serum anti-thyroid antibody level were 90.2%, 93.9%, 88.5%, 94.9%, and 92.7%, respectively. McNemar test revealed significant difference among PET/CT and others, but no significant differences among US, CECT and serum anti-thyroid antibody. Overall, serum anti-thyroid antibody showed most accurate diagnostic performance. In detecting Hashimoto's thyroiditis, serum anti-thyroid antibody showed higher diagnostic accuracy than others. US also showed relatively high diagnostic accuracy.

  8. Validity of thyroid cancer incidence data following the Chernobyl accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jargin, Sergei V

    2011-12-01

    The only clearly demonstrated cancer incidence increase that can be attributed to radiation from the Chernobyl accident is thyroid carcinoma in patients exposed during childhood or adolescence. Significant increases in thyroid disease were observed as soon as 4 y after the accident. The solid/follicular subtype of papillary carcinoma predominated in the early period after the accident. Morphological diagnosis of cancer in such cases, if no infiltrative growth is clearly visible, depends mainly on the nuclear criteria. Outdated equipment and insufficient quality of histological specimens impeded reliable evaluation of the nuclear criteria. Access to foreign professional literature has always been limited in the former Soviet Union. The great number of advanced tumors observed shortly after the accident can be explained by the screening effect (detection of previously neglected cancers) and by the fact that many patients were brought from non-contaminated areas and registered as Chernobyl victims. It is also worth noting that exaggeration of the Chernobyl cancer statistics facilitated the writing of dissertations, financing of research, and assistance from outside the former Soviet Union. "Chernobyl hysteria" impeded nuclear energy production in some countries, thus contributing to higher prices for fossil fuel. The concluding point is that since post-Chernobyl cancers tend on average to be in a later stage of tumor progression, some published data on molecular or immunohistochemical characteristics of Chernobyl-related cancers require reevaluation.

  9. Thyroid scintigraphy for the detection of radiation-induced thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puylaert, J.B.; Pauwels, E.K.; Goslings, B.M.; Van Daal, W.A.

    1985-01-01

    Thyroid scintigraphy with Tc-99m pertechnetate was performed in 249 patients who received radiation therapy for abnormalities in the head or neck in order to determine the role of this examination in the detection of abnormal nodules arising from cancer. These patients received a mean total dose of about 10.1 Gy. The mean follow-up period was 39 years. All patients underwent physical examination without prior knowledge of the scintigram. Scintigrams were evaluated without prior knowledge of the physical examination. In 158 cases, both the physical examination and scintigraphy were negative. In 64 cases, both examinations were positive. In ten patients, the physical examination was positive and scintigraphy was negative and vice versa in 17 patients. Of 249 patients, 28 ultimately underwent thyroid surgery; a total of four had carcinoma. A cost-benefit relationship as to routine scintigraphy as a screening procedure is presented. If patients are first screened by palpation, a number of abnormal nodules will be missed. In addition, a considerable number with positive palpation would probably undergo surgery unnecessarily. From a clinical and financial point of view, it is believed that scintigraphy is the examination of choice for screening for radiation-induced thyroid malignancies

  10. Coexistence of papillary thyroid cancer and Hashimoto thyroiditis in children: report of 3 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koibuchi, Harumi; Omoto, Kiyoka; Fukushima, Noriyoshi; Toyotsuji, Tomonori; Taniguchi, Nobuyuki; Kawano, Mikihiko

    2014-07-01

    This report documents 3 pediatric papillary thyroid carcinoma cases with associated Hashimoto thyroiditis. In all 3 cases, hypoechoic nodules accompanied by multiple echogenic spots were noted on sonography of the thyroid. Hashimoto thyroiditis was suspected on the basis of positive thyroid autoantibody test results and pathologic examinations of thyroidectomy specimens, which revealed chronic thyroiditis with lymphocytic infiltration as the background of papillary thyroid carcinoma development. The potential for papillary carcinoma development warrants close follow-up, and meticulous sonographic examinations must be performed in children with Hashimoto thyroiditis. © 2014 by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine.

  11. Thyroid Cancer in children and adolescents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vega, Ramon

    1999-01-01

    24 cases were revised, of patient with thyroid tumors in the period understood between 1983 and 1995. Of these tumors 14 were papillars, 3 medullar, 3 children with high levels of thyro calcitonine, 2 with follicular adenomas, a boy with hyperplasia and a doubtful cytology to the one who two years later it was made a total thyroidectomy. Most of the patients were bigger than the 10 years, globally there was not great difference in the distribution for sex, being lightly bigger the number of patient of feminine sex; in the medullar, the relationship was of 2:1 feminine: Masculine, similar to that reported in the literature. To the date, they are alive and without illness 12 patients; 3 evolve with lung metastasis, 2 (with lung metastasis) they abandoned the controls, 3 died with illness and 1 present metastasis and cardiac illness. Iodine 1 31 was used in eleven patients

  12. Risk Stratification in Differentiated Thyroid Cancer: An Ongoing Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omry-Orbach, Gal

    2016-01-28

    Thyroid cancer is an increasingly common malignancy, with a rapidly rising prevalence worldwide. The social and economic ramifications of the increase in thyroid cancer are multiple. Though mortality from thyroid cancer is low, and most patients will do well, the risk of recurrence is not insignificant, up to 30%. Therefore, it is important to accurately identify those patients who are more or less likely to be burdened by their disease over years and tailor their treatment plan accordingly. The goal of risk stratification is to do just that. The risk stratification process generally starts postoperatively with histopathologic staging, based on the AJCC/UICC staging system as well as others designed to predict mortality. These do not, however, accurately assess the risk of recurrence/persistence. Patients initially considered to be at high risk may ultimately do very well yet be burdened by frequent unnecessary monitoring. Conversely, patients initially thought to be low risk, may not respond to their initial treatment as expected and, if left unmonitored, may have higher morbidity. The concept of risk-adaptive management has been adopted, with an understanding that risk stratification for differentiated thyroid cancer is dynamic and ongoing. A multitude of variables not included in AJCC/UICC staging are used initially to classify patients as low, intermediate, or high risk for recurrence. Over the course of time, a response-to-therapy variable is incorporated, and patients essentially undergo continuous risk stratification. Additional tools such as biochemical markers, genetic mutations, and molecular markers have been added to this complex risk stratification process such that this is essentially a continuum of risk. In recent years, additional considerations have been discussed with a suggestion of pre-operative risk stratification based on certain clinical and/or biologic characteristics. With the increasing prevalence of thyroid cancer but stable mortality

  13. Real-world usage and clinical outcomes of alectinib among post-crizotinib progression anaplastic lymphoma kinase positive non-small-cell lung cancer patients in the USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DiBonaventura MD

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Marco D DiBonaventura,1 William Wong,2 Bijal Shah-Manek,3,4 Mathias Schulz2 1Ipsos Healthcare, Global Evidence, Value & Access, New York, NY, 2Genentech, US Medical Affairs, San Francisco, CA, 3Ipsos Healthcare, Global Evidence, Value & Access, San Francisco, CA, 4College of Pharmacy, Touro University California, CA, USA Background: Alectinib is an approved treatment for anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK-positive patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer. Despite positive supporting clinical data, there is a lack of real-world information on the usage and patient outcomes of those treated with alectinib post-crizotinib progression. Methods: Participating oncologists (N=95 in the USA were recruited from an online physician panel to participate in a retrospective patient chart review. Physicians randomly selected eligible patients (ie, patients who progressed on crizotinib as their first ALK inhibitor and were treated with alectinib as their second ALK inhibitor, collected demographics and clinical history from their medical charts, and entered the data into an online data collection form. Results: A total of N=207 patient charts were included (age: 60.1±10.4 years; 53.6% male. The patients in our sample were older (median age of 60 vs 53 years, were more likely to be current smokers (12% vs 1%, had better performance status (45% vs 33% had an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group [ECOG] of 0, and were less likely to have an adenocarcinoma histology (83% vs 96% relative to published clinical trials. The objective response rate was higher than in clinical trials (67.1% vs 51.3%, respectively as was the disease control rate (89.9% vs 78.8%, respectively, though it varied by race/ethnicity, ECOG, and prior treatment history. Discontinuation (0.0% and dose reductions (3.4% due to adverse events were uncommon in alectinib.Conclusion: Patients using alectinib post-crizotinib in clinical practice are older, more racially/ethnically and histologically

  14. Trends in thyroid cancer incidence and mortality in Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raposo, Luís; Morais, Samantha; Oliveira, Maria J; Marques, Ana P; José Bento, Maria; Lunet, Nuno

    2017-03-01

    The objective was to quantify thyroid cancer incidence and mortality trends in Portugal. The number of thyroid cancer cases and incidence rates were retrieved from the Regional Cancer Registries for the period 1989-2011. The number of deaths and mortality rates were obtained from the WHO cancer mortality database (1988-2003 and 2007-2012) and Statistics Portugal (2004-2006; 1988-2012 by region). Joinpoint regression of the standardized incidence and mortality rates was performed. A significant, rapid and continued increase in incidence was observed for both sexes in each of the Regional Cancer Registries, with annual per cent changes (APCs) ranging between 2 and 9. Incidence in Portuguese women is higher than estimates for the world and Europe. Mortality decreased for women (APC: -1.5), with the greatest decrease in the North, and increased marginally for men (APC: +0.2), with a greater increase in the South. The significant increases in incidence in Portugal are predominantly because of the increase in incidence among women from the North. These trends, combined with an overall low mortality and high 5-year relative survival, raise concerns on the extent to which overdiagnosis may be taking place. Further research is needed, quantifying the importance of the most likely determinants of these trends as well as the extent and potentially deleterious effects of overdiagnosis and overtreatment in the Portuguese setting.

  15. The relationship of thyroid cancer with radiation exposure from nuclear weapon testing in the Marshall Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Tatsuya; Schoemaker, Minouk J; Trott, Klaus R; Simon, Steven L; Fujimori, Keisei; Nakashima, Noriaki; Fukao, Akira; Saito, Hiroshi

    2003-03-01

    The US nuclear weapons testing program in the Pacific conducted between 1946 and 1958 resulted in radiation exposure in the Marshall Islands. The potentially widespread radiation exposure from radio-iodines of fallout has raised concerns about the risk of thyroid cancer in the Marshallese population. The most serious exposures and its health hazards resulted from the hydrogen-thermonuclear bomb test, the Castle BRAVO, on March 1, 1954. Between 1993 and 1997, we screened 3,709 Marshallese for thyroid disease who were born before the BRAVO test. It was 60% of the entire population at risk and who were still alive at the time of our examinations. We diagnosed 30 thyroid cancers and found 27 other study participants who had been operated for thyroid cancer before our screening in this group. Fifty-seven Marshallese born before 1954 (1.5%) had thyroid cancer or had been operated for thyroid cancer. Nearly all (92%) of these cancers were papillary carcinoma. We derived estimates of individual thyroid dose proxy from the BRAVO test in 1954 on the basis of published age-specific doses estimated on Utirik atoll and 137Cs deposition levels on the atolls where the participants came from. There was suggestive evidence that the prevalence of thyroid cancer increased with category of estimated dose to the thyroid.

  16. The relationship of thyroid cancer with radiation exposure from nuclear weapon testing in the Marshall Islands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Tatsuya; Fukao, Akira; Trott, K.R.; Simon, S.L.; Fujimori, Keisei; Nakashima, Noriaki; Saito, Hiroshi

    2003-01-01

    The US nuclear weapons testing program in the Pacific conducted between 1946 and 1958 resulted in radiation exposure in the Marshall Islands. The potentially widespread radiation exposure from radioiodines of fallout has raised concerns about the risk of thyroid cancer in the Marshallese population. The most serious exposures and its health hazards resulted from the hydrogen-thermonuclear bomb test, the Castle BRAVO, on March 1, 1954. Between 1993 and 1997, we screened 3,709 Marshallese for thyroid disease who were born before the BRAVO test. It was 60% of the entire population at risk and who were still alive at the time of our examinations. We diagnosed 30 thyroid cancers and found 27 other study participants who had been operated for thyroid cancer before our screening in this group. Fifty-seven Marshallese born before 1954 (1.5%) had thyroid cancer or had been operated for thyroid cancer. Nearly all (92%) of these cancers were papillary carcinoma. We derived estimates of individual thyroid dose proxy from the BRAVO test in 1954 on the basis of published age-specific doses estimated on Utirik atoll and 137 Cs deposition levels on the atolls where the participants came from. There was suggestive evidence that the prevalence of thyroid cancer increased with category of estimated dose to the thyroid. (author)

  17. Recombinant human TSH in radioiodine treatment of differentiated thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovatcheva, R. D.; Kirilov, G. G.; Lozanov, B. S.; Hadjieva, T.D.

    2004-01-01

    Recombinant human TSH (rhTSH) has been developed to facilitate the follow-up for persistent or recurrent differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC), avoiding the hypothyroid symptoms after the withdrawal of Levothyroxine (L-T 4 ) suppressive therapy. To analyse the effect of rhTSH in providing stimulation of radioiodine uptake (RAIU) for the ablation of thyroid remnant and/or malignant thyroid tissue in patients with metastatic DTC. Ten subjects (4 women, 6 men), mean age 53 years, with DTC (7 papillary, 2 follicular and 1 Huerthle-cell), requiring radioiodine therapy (RIT) were studied. Nine of them had a positive diagnostic whole body scan (dWBS) or CT for thyroid remnant, lymph nodes and/or distant metastases. One patient with an invasive tall cell PTC had an increased serum Tg and a negative dWBS. Serum TSH was measured before and two days after the rhTSH injection. Thyroglobulin measurements were performed before the rhTSH administration, 3 and 6 months after RIT. There were no serious side effects of the rhTSH application. Serum TSH after the rhTSH injection rose to 156.5 ± 60.9 mIU/L and induced RAIU in 8 out of 10 patients. Basal serum Tg was increased in 6 patients and decreased three months later in 2 of them. The post-therapy WBS (pthWBS) showed: 1) additional metastatic lesions in 3 patients with positive dWBS, 2) lung nodular metastases in 1 patient with negative dWBS, 3) similar image as the dWBS in 4 patients, 4) negative image in 1 patient with positive dWBS. RhTSH is a safe and promising method for the stimulation of RAIU in patients with thyroid remnant and/or persistent or recurrent DTC, avoiding L-T 4 withdrawal. (author)

  18. Classification of follicular cell-derived thyroid cancer by global RNA profiling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rossing, Maria

    2013-01-01

    The incidence of thyroid cancer is increasing worldwide and thyroid nodules are a frequent clinical finding. Diagnosing follicular cell-derived cancers is, however, challenging both histopathologically and especially cytopathologically. The advent of high-throughput molecular technologies has...... profiling of follicular cell-derived thyroid cancers....... classification will not only contribute to our biological insight but also improve clinical and pathological examinations, thus advancing thyroid tumour diagnosis and ultimately preventing superfluous surgery. This review evaluates the status of classification and biological insights gained from molecular...

  19. Age Disparities in Referrals to Specialist Surgical Care for Papillary Thyroid Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Machens, A.; Dralle, H.

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Aims Referrals to specialist surgical care for papillary thyroid cancer are significantly influenced by patient age and the presence of lymph node metastases. This study sought to clarify whether younger patients with papillary thyroid camncer are referred more often because of their more frequent and more numerous lymph node metastases or because of age alone. Methods Analysis of 832 consecutive patients with papillary thyroid cancer refer...

  20. Advanced Tracheal Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma with Thyroid Invasion Mimicking Thyroid Cancer Treated with Definitive Radiation: Case Report and Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sondos Al Khatib

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available A 54-year-old female patient, a breast cancer survivor and a case of unresectable adenoid cystic carcinoma of the trachea, with thyroid invasion, presented with suprasternal neck swelling mimicking thyroid primary. A literature search was undertaken to highlight this rare presentation. There have been few reports in the literature describing tracheal adenoid cystic carcinoma involving the thyroid.

  1. Lessons from Fukushima: Latest Findings of Thyroid Cancer After the Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant Accident

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Shinichi; Suzuki, Satoru; Shimura, Hiroki; Saenko, Vladimir

    2018-01-01

    The increase in risk for late-onset thyroid cancer due to radiation exposure is a potential health effect after a nuclear power plant accident mainly due to the release of radioiodine in fallout. The risk is particularly elevated in those exposed during infancy and adolescence. To estimate the possibility and extent of thyroid cancer occurrence after exposure, it is of utmost importance to collect and analyze epidemiological information providing the basis for evaluation of radiation risk, and to consider radiobiology and molecular genetics. In this regard, the dose–response of cancer risk, temporal changes in the rates of thyroid cancer, its histopathological types and subtypes, and frequency of underlying genetic abnormalities are important. At present, however, it is difficult or impossible to distinguish radiation-induced thyroid cancer from spontaneous/sporadic thyroid cancer because molecular radiation signatures, biomarkers of radiation exposure, or genetic factors specific to radiation-induced cancer have not yet been identified. The large-scale ultrasound screening in Fukushima Prefecture of Japan demonstrated a high detection rate of thyroid cancer in young individuals, revealing 116 and 71 cases in the first and second rounds, respectively, among the same cohort of approximately 300,000 subjects. These findings raised concerns among residents and the public that it might be due to putative exposure to radiation from the accident at Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant. This review summarizes evaluations by international organizations and reviews scientific publications by the authors and others on childhood thyroid cancer, especially those relevant to radiation, including basic studies on molecular mechanisms of thyroid carcinogenesis. Clinical details are also provided on surgical cases in Fukushima Prefecture, and the effect of thyroid ultrasound screening is discussed. Correct understanding of issues relating to radiation and the thyroid are

  2. Lessons from Fukushima: Latest Findings of Thyroid Cancer After the Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant Accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, Shunichi; Suzuki, Shinichi; Suzuki, Satoru; Shimura, Hiroki; Saenko, Vladimir

    2018-01-01

    The increase in risk for late-onset thyroid cancer due to radiation exposure is a potential health effect after a nuclear power plant accident mainly due to the release of radioiodine in fallout. The risk is particularly elevated in those exposed during infancy and adolescence. To estimate the possibility and extent of thyroid cancer occurrence after exposure, it is of utmost importance to collect and analyze epidemiological information providing the basis for evaluation of radiation risk, and to consider radiobiology and molecular genetics. In this regard, the dose-response of cancer risk, temporal changes in the rates of thyroid cancer, its histopathological types and subtypes, and frequency of underlying genetic abnormalities are important. At present, however, it is difficult or impossible to distinguish radiation-induced thyroid cancer from spontaneous/sporadic thyroid cancer because molecular radiation signatures, biomarkers of radiation exposure, or genetic factors specific to radiation-induced cancer have not yet been identified. The large-scale ultrasound screening in Fukushima Prefecture of Japan demonstrated a high detection rate of thyroid cancer in young individuals, revealing 116 and 71 cases in the first and second rounds, respectively, among the same cohort of approximately 300,000 subjects. These findings raised concerns among residents and the public that it might be due to putative exposure to radiation from the accident at Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant. This review summarizes evaluations by international organizations and reviews scientific publications by the authors and others on childhood thyroid cancer, especially those relevant to radiation, including basic studies on molecular mechanisms of thyroid carcinogenesis. Clinical details are also provided on surgical cases in Fukushima Prefecture, and the effect of thyroid ultrasound screening is discussed. Correct understanding of issues relating to radiation and the thyroid are

  3. Evolution of thyroid cancer occurrence in metropolitan France. Assessment over 25 years; evolution de l'incidence du cancer de la thyroide en France metropolitaine. Bilan sur 25 ans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogel, Agnes; Caserio-Schonemann, Celine; Cherie-Challine, Laurence; Rudant, Jeremie; Bloch, Juliette; Thuret, Anne [Unite cancer, Departement des maladies chroniques et traumatismes - DMCT, Institut de veille sanitaire - InVS (France); Colonna, Marc [Registre des cancers de l' Isere, Reseau francais des registres de cancer (Francim) (France); Uhry, Zoe; Kudjawu, Yao; Danzon, Arlette [Unite cancer, DMCT, InVS (France); Lacour, Brigitte [Registre national des tumeurs solides de l' enfant, Francim (France); Schvartz, Claire [Registre des cancers de la thyroide Marne-Ardennes, Francim (France); Pascal, Laurence; Lasalle, Jean-Luc [Cellule interregionale d' epidemiologie - Cire Sud (France); Borson-Chazot, Francoise; Sassolas, Genevieve; Hafdi-Nejjari, Zakia [Registre des cancers thyroidiens de la region Rhone-Alpes (France); Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Guenel, Pascal; Vathaire, Florent de; Guillas, Gwenaelle; Mesrine, Sylvie; Clavel-Chapelon, Francoise; Clero, Enora; Adjadj, Elisabeth; Bedouche, Lallia [Institut national de la sante et de la recherche medicale (Inserm) U1018 (France); Belot, Aurelien [Unite Cancer, DMCT, InVS (France); Hospices civils de Lyon - HCL (France); Fieffe, Sandrine; Dalac, Audrey; Goncalves, Katia; Kaplan, Martine; Pochart, Jean-Marie [Registre des cancers de la thyroide Marne-Ardennes, Francim, Centre de luttre contre le cancer de Reims (France); Desenclos, Jean-Claude [Direction scientifique, InVS (France)

    2011-04-15

    After a presentation of the epidemiological context of thyroid cancer in France, this report, based on cancer record data, analyzes the occurrence of thyroid cancers between 1982 and 2006. It discusses the contribution and limits of medical-administrative data for the epidemiological monitoring of thyroid cancer occurrence between 1997 and 2009. It proposes a descriptive analysis of thyroid cancers in two districts (Marne and Ardennes) between 1975 and 2008, and a descriptive analysis of thyroid cancer for children under 14 between 2000 and 2008. It proposes an estimation of thyroid cancer occurrence in Corsica between 1998 and 2006. It reports and discusses a pilot study performed in two regions (Ile de France and Nord Pas-de-Calais), based on a multi-source system of cancer monitoring (SMSC), and comments studies on risk factors for differentiated thyroid cancers in France

  4. SENTINEL LYMPH NODE CONCEPT IN DIFFERENTIATED THYROID CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markovic Ivan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC account up to 90% of all thyroid malignacies, and represents the most common malignant tumors of endocrine system. The incidence of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC, especially small tumors is rapidly increasing during past three decades. At the time of diagnosis, the incidence of lymph node metastases (LNM ranges from 80 to 90%. During the last 15 years, LNM were recognized as bad prognostic factor for both local-regional relapse (LRR and cancer specific survival. There is general agreement that neck dissections are indicated in cases of clinically apparent LNM. The subject of the current controversy is the surgical treatment of occult LNM that remain unrecognized on preoperative diagnosis (cN0. The extent of operations of the lymph nodes ranges from “wait and see” so-called “Western school” principle substantiated the role of applying ablative I131therapy and frequency peroperative complications (recurrent laryngeal nerve injury and hypoparathyroidism, especially for less experienced teams to mutual prophylactic dissection of the central and lateral compartments so-called “Japanese school” due to the limited use of radioactive iodine therapy and significantly lower operating morbidity if dissetion was done during primary operation. Despite high prevalence of occult LNM, existing controversies regarding diagnosis, longterm prognostic impact and extent of lymph node surgery, motivated some authors to apply consept of sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNb in DTC, taking into account excellent results of SLN concept in breast cancer and skin melanoma. This review presents the summarized results of relevant studies and three meta-analysis of accuracy and applicability of SLN concept in patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma.

  5. Sentinel lymph node concept in differentiated thyroid cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markovic Ivan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC account up to 90% of all thyroid malignacies, and represents the most common malignant tumors of endocrine system. The incidence of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC, especially small tumors is rapidly increasing during past three decades. At the time of diagnosis, the incidence of lymph node metastases (LNM ranges from 80 to 90%. During the last 15 years, LNM were recognized as bad prognostic factor for both local-regional relapse (LRR and cancer specific survival. There is general agreement that neck dissections are indicated in cases of clinically apparent LNM. The subject of the current controversy is the surgical treatment of occult LNM that remain unrecognized on preoperative diagnosis (cN0. The extent of operations of the lymph nodes ranges from 'wait and see' so-called 'Western school' principle substantiated the role of applying ablative I131 therapy and frequency peroperative complications (recurrent laryngeal nerve injury and hypoparathyroidism, especially for less experienced teams to mutual prophylactic dissection of the central and lateral compartments so-called 'Japanese school' due to the limited use of radioactive iodine therapy and significantly lower operating morbidity if dissetion was done during primary operation. Despite high prevalence of occult LNM, existing controversies regarding diagnosis, longterm prognostic impact and extent of lymph node surgery, motivated some authors to apply concept of sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNb in DTC, taking into account excellent results of SLN concept in breast cancer and skin melanoma. This review presents the summarized results of relevant studies and three meta-analysis of accuracy and applicability of SLN concept in patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma.

  6. A Comparison Study: The Risk Factors in the Lifestyles of Thyroid Cancer Patients and Healthy Adults of South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Yang Gyeong; Yu, Boas J; Choi, Eun-Hi

    In South Korea, there has been a rapid increase in thyroid cancer diagnoses, and the thyroid cancer incidence rate is the highest in the world. This study explored possible risk factors that may influence the development of thyroid cancer by comparing life habits of thyroid cancer patients and healthy adults. The aims of this study were to identify lifestyle and habit differences in thyroid cancer patients and healthy adults and to investigate risk factors that influence the development of thyroid cancer. The study was designed as a retrospective comparison survey study of thyroid cancer patient group and healthy adult group. One hundred two thyroid cancer patients in a university hospital and 115 healthy adults were recruited for this study. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, χ test/t test, and logistic regression with SPSS program. Previous smoking history, lower physical activity level, higher stress, and unhealthy eating habits (consumption of instant food products) were shown to be risk factors in the development of thyroid cancer. Based on the results of this study comparing thyroid cancer patients and healthy adults, it is recommended to encourage an increase in physical activity, minimize both direct and indirect exposure to smoking, develop healthy eating habits of consuming more vegetables, and effectively manage stress levels. Lifestyle preferences and habits may influence the development of thyroid cancer. It is imperative to identify and modify the risk factors in order to prevent thyroid cancer development.

  7. Radiation exposure and risk of pediatric thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyakawa, Megumi

    2012-01-01

    A large amount of radioactive substances were released in air following the Great East Japan Earthquake, tsunami and Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant Accident (Mar. 2011), of which subsequent medical and pediatric events are reported herein. Many residents who had lived close to the Plant had to dwell in the evacuation area. The risk of their pediatric thyroid cancer has become a subject of anxiety since the incidence of the cancer alone is known to have increased post Chernobyl nuclear accident. The cancer is quite rare in the pediatric field, the tissue type is mostly of differentiated papillocarcinoma, and the long prognosis is reportedly as good as that of the cancer not due to radiation exposure if surgically treated appropriately. After the Accident, Radiation Medical Science Center for Fukushima Health Management Survey was founded in Fukushima Medical University, where the whole lifetime health management of Fukushima prefectural residents is to be continued. Among them, the ultrasonic examination of the thyroid started in Oct. 2011 to 360 thousands children of the age 20 mm cyst or >5 mm solid node. It is important to carefully watch the health of children involving their mental side as they suffer from the experience of ''exposed'', rather than the actual physical effect. (T.T.)

  8. Investigation of excess thyroid cancer incidence in Los Alamos County

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Athas, W.F.

    1996-04-01

    Los Alamos County (LAC) is home to the Los Alamos National Laboratory, a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear research and design facility. In 1991, the DOE funded the New Mexico Department of Health to conduct a review of cancer incidence rates in LAC in response to citizen concerns over what was perceived as a large excess of brain tumors and a possible relationship to radiological contaminants from the Laboratory. The study found no unusual or alarming pattern in the incidence of brain cancer, however, a fourfold excess of thyroid cancer was observed during the late-1980`s. A rapid review of the medical records for cases diagnosed between 1986 and 1990 failed to demonstrate that the thyroid cancer excess had resulted from enhanced detection. Surveillance activities subsequently undertaken to monitor the trend revealed that the excess persisted into 1993. A feasibility assessment of further studies was made, and ultimately, an investigation was conducted to document the epidemiologic characteristics of the excess in detail and to explore possible causes through a case-series records review. Findings from the investigation are the subject of this report.

  9. Investigation of excess thyroid cancer incidence in Los Alamos County

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Athas, W.F.

    1996-04-01

    Los Alamos County (LAC) is home to the Los Alamos National Laboratory, a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear research and design facility. In 1991, the DOE funded the New Mexico Department of Health to conduct a review of cancer incidence rates in LAC in response to citizen concerns over what was perceived as a large excess of brain tumors and a possible relationship to radiological contaminants from the Laboratory. The study found no unusual or alarming pattern in the incidence of brain cancer, however, a fourfold excess of thyroid cancer was observed during the late-1980's. A rapid review of the medical records for cases diagnosed between 1986 and 1990 failed to demonstrate that the thyroid cancer excess had resulted from enhanced detection. Surveillance activities subsequently undertaken to monitor the trend revealed that the excess persisted into 1993. A feasibility assessment of further studies was made, and ultimately, an investigation was conducted to document the epidemiologic characteristics of the excess in detail and to explore possible causes through a case-series records review. Findings from the investigation are the subject of this report

  10. Selective use of sorafenib in the treatment of thyroid cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pitoia F

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Fabián Pitoia, Fernando Jerkovich Division of Endocrinology, Hospital de Clinicas – University of Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires, Argentina Abstract: Sorafenib is a multiple kinase inhibitor (MKI approved for the treatment of primary advanced renal cell carcinoma and advanced primary liver cancer. It was recently approved by several health agencies around the world as the first available MKI treatment for radioactive iodine-refractory advanced and progressive differentiated thyroid cancer. Sorafenib targets C-RAF, B-RAF, VEGF receptor-1, -2, -3, PDGF receptor-β, RET, c-kit, and Flt-3. As a multifunctional inhibitor, sorafenib has the potential of inhibiting tumor growth, progression, metastasis, and angiogenesis and downregulating mechanisms that protect tumors from apoptosis and has shown to increase the progression-free survival in several Phase II trials. This led to the Phase III trial (DECISION which showed that there was an improvement in progression-free survival of 5 months for patients on sorafenib when compared to those on placebo. Adverse events with this drug are common but usually manageable. The development of resistance after 1 or 2 years is almost a rule in most patients who showed partial response or stabilization of the disease while on sorafenib, which makes it necessary to think of a plan for subsequent therapies. These may include the use of another MKI, such as lenvatinib, the second approved MKI for advanced differentiated thyroid cancer, or include patients in clinical trials or the off-label use of other MKIs. Given sorafenib’s earlier approval, most centers now have access to its prescription. The goal of this review was to improve the care of these patients by describing key aspects that all prescribers will need to master in order to optimize outcomes. Keywords: multiple kinase inhibitor, differentiated thyroid cancer, progression-free survival, radioiodine

  11. Physical activity, diabetes, and risk of thyroid cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, Daniela; Behrens, Gundula; Jochem, Carmen; Keimling, Marlen; Leitzmann, Michael

    2013-12-01

    Thyroid cancer incidence has been increasing more rapidly over time than the occurrence of cancers of other sites, and interest in potential adverse relations of diabetes and lack of physical activity to thyroid cancer risk is accumulating. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of published epidemiologic studies on the relations of physical activity and diabetes to thyroid cancer according to the Meta-analysis of Observational Studies in Epidemiology guidelines. Published studies were identified through a search in MEDLINE and EMBASE. Random-effects models were used to summarize thyroid cancer risk estimates comparing high versus low levels of physical activity, and separately, comparing individuals with diabetes versus those without diabetes. Meta-regression analyses were performed to evaluate potential effect modification by study design and thyroid cancer risk factors. Information was extracted from seven studies of physical activity and thyroid cancer and from six studies of diabetes and thyroid cancer. The number of individuals from studies on physical activity was 939,305 (yielding 2,250 incident thyroid cancer cases) and from studies on diabetes it was 960,840 (yielding 1,230 cases). The summary relative risk (RR) estimate from cohort and case-control studies combined indicated no association between physical activity and thyroid cancer (summary RR 1.06, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 0.79-1.42). Subgroup-analyses revealed a significant positive association between physical activity and thyroid cancer in cohort studies (summary RR 1.28; 95 % CI 1.01-1.63), whereas the relation was suggestively inverse in case-control studies (summary RR 0.70; 95 % CI 0.48-1.03; p for heterogeneity = 0.005). Individuals with diabetes showed a borderline statistically significant increased risk of thyroid cancer compared with those without diabetes (summary RR 1.17; 95 % CI 0.99-1.39). The relations of physical activity and diabetes to thyroid cancer were not

  12. Adverse renal effects of anaplastic lymphoma kinase inhibitors and the response to alectinib of an ALK+ lung cancer patient with renal dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shimada M

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Midori Shimada,1,2 Minoru Fukuda,2,3 Masaaki Fukuda,2 Takeshi Kitazaki,2 Kohji Hashiguchi,2 Takaya Ikeda,1 Hiroyuki Yamaguchi,1 Katsumi Nakatomi,1 Kazuto Ashizawa,3 Hiroshi Mukae1 1Department of Respiratory Medicine, Unit of Translational Medicine, Nagasaki University Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, 2Department of Respiratory Medicine, Japanese Red Cross Nagasaki Genbaku Hospital, 3Clinical Oncology Center, Nagasaki University Hospital, Nagasaki, Japan Abstract: A 62-year-old female patient with renal dysfunction and pulmonary adenocarcinoma developed postoperative recurrence and received carboplatin/pemetrexed and maintenance pemetrexed. As an anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK gene translocation was identified, the therapy was changed to crizotinib. However, the patient’s blood creatinine level increased, and her physical status worsened. Alectinib also induced exacerbation of renal dysfunction but was controlled by dose reduction of 140 mg twice daily for 2 weeks treatment and 2 weeks break were repeated, and exhibited a partial response for 16 months. Here, we describe the case in which alectinib treatment had beneficial clinical effects on ALK-positive lung adenocarcinoma, which controlled the adverse renal effects by dose reduction and drug breaks. Keywords: lung cancer, ALK, renal dysfunction, alectinib

  13. CHIP promotes thyroid cancer proliferation via activation of the MAPK and AKT pathways

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Li [Department of Pharmacy, Urumchi General Hospital of Lanzhou Military Region, Urumchi, Xinjiang 830000 (China); Liu, Lianyong [Medical College of Soochow University, Suzhou, Jiangsu 215123 (China); Department of Endocrinology, Shanghai Punan Hospital, Shanghai 200125 (China); He, Xiaohua; Shen, Yunling; Liu, Xuerong; Wei, Jing; Yu, Fang [Department of Endocrinology, Urumchi General Hospital of Lanzhou Military Region, Urumchi, Xinjiang 830000 (China); Tian, Jianqing, E-mail: jianqing0991@163.com [Department of Endocrinology, Urumchi General Hospital of Lanzhou Military Region, Urumchi, Xinjiang 830000 (China)

    2016-08-26

    The carboxyl terminus of Hsp70-interacting protein (CHIP) is a U box-type ubiquitin ligase that plays crucial roles in various biological processes, including tumor progression. To date, the functional mechanism of CHIP in thyroid cancer remains unknown. Here, we obtained evidence of upregulation of CHIP in thyroid cancer tissues and cell lines. CHIP overexpression markedly enhanced thyroid cancer cell viability and colony formation in vitro and accelerated tumor growth in vivo. Conversely, CHIP knockdown impaired cell proliferation and tumor growth. Notably, CHIP promoted cell growth through activation of MAPK and AKT pathways, subsequently decreasing p27 and increasing cyclin D1 and p-FOXO3a expression. Our findings collectively indicate that CHIP functions as an oncogene in thyroid cancer, and is therefore a potential therapeutic target for this disease. - Highlights: • CHIP is significantly upregulated in thyroid cancer cells. • Overexpression of CHIP facilitates proliferation and tumorigenesis of thyroid cancer cells. • Silencing of CHIP inhibits the proliferation and tumorigenesis of thyroid cancer cells. • CHIP promotes thyroid cancer cell proliferation via activating the MAPK and AKT pathways.

  14. Radionuclide therapy for thyroid cancer with nervous system metastasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Sang-Moo

    2003-01-01

    Differentiated thyroid cancer is 85% of all thyroid cancer, and is known to have good prognosis with proper surgery and radioiodine therapy. But 4% of papillary carcinoma and 36% of follicular carcinoma present with distant metastasis. Even if the patient had distant metastasis, total thyroidectomy and radioiodine therapy show good response. Forty seven percent of bone metastases are found in the initial diagnosis, in which vertebral metastases is 29%, pelvic metastases 22%. The metastases to vertebrae often combine spinal cord compression, making it difficult to deliver enough radiation dose to the lesion with radioiodine or external beam irradiation. Brain metastases is found in less than 1% of thyroid cancer, and is also difficult to cure. In Korea Cancer Center Hospital, from 1997 to 2002, we analyzed 437 patients with thyroid cancer who were treated with radioiodine after total thyroidectomy. There were four patients with brain metastases, and 32 patients with vertebral metastases. In four patients with brain metastases, one patient, who also had bone metastases, received high dose radioiodine therapy after total thyroidectomy, and is alive for more than 15 months. Another patients received total thyroidectomy, radioiodine therapy and external irradiation therapy, and survived 22 months. Two patients refused further treatment and died in one month. I-131 uptake in the metastatic lesion in brain is reported to be 17%, and multimodality therapy with surgery, radioiodine therapy, external irradiation and chemotherapy may improve the prognosis. In 32 patients with vertebral metastases, 19 patients (59.4%) showed I-131 uptake after high dose radioiodine therapy, and 5 year survival rate was 65.8%. 13 patients without I-131 uptake after radioiodine therapy had 26.9% of 5 year survival rate. In 11 patients with spinal cord compression, 7 patients received high dose radioiodine therapy and external irradiation after total thyroidectomy and spinal surgery, and six

  15. Diffuse thyroid metastases and bilateral internal jugular vein tumor thrombus from renal cell cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jha, Priyanka; Shekhar, Mallika; Wan, Jennifer; Mari-Aparici, Carina

    2016-12-01

    Renal cell cancer rarely metastasizes to the thyroid gland, and it has been reported to present as a solitary mass. We present a case of diffuse thyroid cancer metastases from renal cell cancer. Bilateral internal jugular vein tumor thrombi were also present. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first description of diffuse thyroid metastases from renal cell cancer in the English literature. Renal cell cancer metastases should be considered in the differential of thyroid imaging abnormalities arising in the setting of known renal cell carcinoma, particularly late in the course of disease. This is frequently associated with internal jugular vein thrombi, which should be evaluated with an abnormal thyroid. Thyroglobulin levels are usually normal in such patients.

  16. Thyroid cancer in Denmark 1943-2008, before and after iodine supplementation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blomberg, M; Feldt-Rasmussen, U; Andersen, K K

    2012-01-01

    Thyroid cancer incidence has increased worldwide during the previous decades. In this nationwide study, we aimed to identify the overall incidence of thyroid cancer in Denmark during 66 years (1943-2008) and incidences of the four main histological types of thyroid cancer from 1978 to 2008. Data......-period-cohort models were fitted to describe trends in incidence. To quantify trends in incidence over time, log-linear Poisson models were used to estimate annual percentage change. From 1943 to 2008, 1,947 men (29%) and 4,682 women (71%) were diagnosed with thyroid cancer. The age-standardized incidence increased......, and it was particularly present during the last decades of the study period. It cannot be ruled out that iodine supplementation may play a role for the risk of thyroid cancer, but as the strongest increase in incidence began in the years before the implementation, it is likely that improvement in diagnostic modalities...

  17. Targeting thyroid cancer with acid-triggered release of doxorubicin from silicon dioxide nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li SJ

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Shijie Li,1 Daqi Zhang,1 Shihou Sheng,2 Hui Sun1 1Department of Thyroid Surgery, 2Department of Gastrointestinal Colorectal and Anal Surgery, China–Japan Union Hospital of Jilin University, Chang Chun, People’s Republic of China Abstract: Currently, therapy for thyroid cancer mainly involves surgery and radioiodine therapy. However, chemotherapy can be used in advanced and aggressive thyroid cancer that cannot be treated by other options. Nevertheless, a major obstacle to the successful treatment of thyroid cancer is the delivery of drugs to the thyroid gland. Here, we present an example of the construction of silicon dioxide nanoparticles with thyroid–stimulating-hormone receptor-targeting ligand that can specifically target the thyroid cancer. Doxorubicin nanoparticles can be triggered by acid to release the drug payload for cancer therapy. These nanoparticles shrink the tumor size in vivo with less toxic side effects. This research paves the way toward effective chemotherapy for thyroid cancer. Keywords: thyroid cancer, silicon dioxide nanoparticle, doxorubicin, acid-triggered release

  18. Thyroid, Renal, and Breast Carcinomas, Chondrosarcoma, Colon Adenomas, and Ganglioneuroma: A New Cancer Syndrome, FAP, or Just Coincidence

    OpenAIRE

    Ihab Shafek Atta; Fahd Nasser AlQahtani

    2016-01-01

    We are presenting a case associated with papillary thyroid carcinoma, renal cell carcinoma, invasive mammary carcinoma, chondrosarcoma, benign ganglioneuroma, and numerous colon adenomas. The patient had a family history of colon cancer, kidney and bladder cancers, lung cancer, thyroid cancer, leukemia, and throat and mouth cancers. She was diagnosed with colonic villous adenoma at the age of 41 followed by thyroid, renal, and breast cancers and chondrosarcoma at the ages of 48, 64, 71, and 7...

  19. Approach to the thyroid cancer patient with extracervical metastases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haugen, Bryan R; Kane, Madeleine A

    2010-03-01

    Patients with distant, or extracervical, metastases from differentiated thyroid cancer require multimodality diagnostic, therapeutic, and monitoring approaches. Whereas cure is the initial goal, especially in those with small, radioiodine-avid pulmonary metastases, improved survival and management of symptoms become the primary objective in many patients with persistent disease, especially those with bone metastases. Levothyroxine therapy with suppression of serum TSH is a primary therapy in all patients with advanced differentiated thyroid cancer, and this therapy has been shown to improve overall survival and slow disease progression. Radioiodine is also an important systemic therapy for those patients with radioiodine-avid disease who respond to this targeted therapy. In this review, we compare standard fixed-dose radioiodine therapy vs. the dosimetric approach. Directed therapy such as external beam radiotherapy, surgery, and embolization is generally considered for large or painful lesions. Careful collaborations with multiple specialties through tumor boards or other mechanisms help to optimize complex management decisions in these patients with advanced thyroid cancer. Multimodality monitoring focused on the organ of interest such as pulmonary [computed tomography (CT)], bone (magnetic resonance imaging, CT, bone scan), and brain (CT, magnetic resonance imaging) metastases as well as general metastatic surveillance (bone scan, (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography) aid decision making about careful monitoring vs. directed or systemic therapy. (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography imaging has an additional role in patient prognosis and guiding directed therapy for fluorodeoxyglucose-avid lesions. Patients with asymptomatic, stable, radioiodine-resistant metastases may be carefully monitored for disease progression. Patients with symptomatic disease should receive directed therapy with the goal of symptom relief. Patients with

  20. Comparing outcomes in poorly-differentiated versus anaplastic thyroid cancers treated with radiation: A surveillance, epidemiology, and end results analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shruthi Arora

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion: This is the first large population-based study evaluating PDTC and ATC outcomes in patients who received radiation treatment. Radioisotope use and timing of radiotherapy (postoperative vs. preoperative were associated with improved CSS in both histologies.

  1. Thyroid dysfunction and neoplasia in children receiving neck irradiation for cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fleming, I.D.; Black, T.L.; Thompson, E.I.; Pratt, C.; Rao, B.; Hustu, O.

    1985-01-01

    The reported relationship of radiation exposure and thyroid carcinoma stimulated this retrospective study of 298 patients treated at St. Jude Children's Hospital with radiation therapy to the neck for childhood cancer to identify patients who developed subsequent thyroid abnormalities. This series includes 153 patients with Hodgkin's disease, 95 with acute lymphocytic leukemia, 28 with lymphoepithelioma, and 22 with miscellaneous tumors. Inclusion in the study required 5 years of disease-free survival following therapy for their original tumor, which included thyroid irradiation. Follow-up has been 100%. Most patients also received chemotherapy. Seventeen patients were found to have decreased thyroid reserve with normal levels of free triiodothyroxine (T3) or free thyroxin, (T4) and an elevated level of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH). In nine patients hypothyroidism developed, with decreased T3 or T4 levels and an elevated level of TSH. One hyperthyroid patient was identified. Two patients had thyroiditis, and seven had thyroid neoplasms: (carcinoma in two, adenoma in two, colloid nodule in one, and undiagnosed nodules in two). This survey has demonstrated an increased incidence of thyroid dysfunction and thyroid neoplasia when compared to the general population. The importance of long-term follow-up for thyroid disease is emphasized in patients who have received thyroid irradiation. The possible role of subclinical hypothyroidism with TSH elevation coupled with radiation damage to the thyroid gland as a model for the development of neoplastic disease is discussed

  2. Thyroglobulin measurement using highly sensitive assays in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giovanella, Luca; Clark, Penelope M; Chiovato, Luca

    2014-01-01

    Differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) is the most common endocrine cancer and its incidence has increased in recent decades. Initial treatment usually consists of total thyroidectomy followed by ablation of thyroid remnants by iodine-131. As thyroid cells are assumed to be the only source...... at low concentrations now allows detection of very low Tg concentrations reflecting minimal amounts of thyroid tissue without the need for TSH stimulation. Use of these highly sensitive Tg assays has not yet been incorporated into clinical guidelines but they will, we believe, be used by physicians...

  3. Cell lines radiosensitization of thyroid cancer by histone deacetylase inhibitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perona, M; Dagrosa, M A; Rossich, L; Casal, M; Pisarev, M A; Thomasz, L; Juvenal G J

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Thyroid cancer is the most common endocrine neoplasia. Surgical resection and radioactive iodine is an effective treatment for well-differentiated tumors. Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDAC-I) are agents that cause hyperacetylation of histone proteins and as a consequence remodeling of chromatin structure. They can induce growth arrest, differentiation and apoptotic cell death in different tumor cells. The use of HDAC-I agents could be of utility to enhance the response to external radiation therapy of those thyroid cancers that are refractory to most conventional therapeutic treatments. Objective: To study the effect of HDAC-I as radiosensitizers for the treatment of thyroid cancer and their ability to induce differentiation of thyroid cancer cells. Materials and methods: The human thyroid follicular (WRO) and papillary (TPC-1) carcinoma cell lines were seeded and incubated with increasing doses (0, 0.3, 0.5, 1 and 1.5 mM) of the HDAC-I sodium butirate (NaB) and valproic acid (VA) to evaluate cell proliferation and iodide uptake. Cells were irradiated with a 60 Co γ-ray source (1 ± 5% Gy/min) and postirradiation survival was quantified with the colony formation assay. Survival fraction at 2 Gy (SF2) was calculated for each cell line. Cell cycle and cell death were evaluated at a dose of 3 Gy. Iodide uptake, PCR analysis and transient transfection studies were performed. Results: Cell proliferation was not significantly suppressed after 24 hours of incubation with both drugs at all assayed doses. Iodide uptake was not modified after incubation with HDAC-I of both cell lines. SF2 was reduced from 68 ± 1.6 % in the control WRO cells to 42 ± 3.8 % (P<0.001) in NaB-treated cells. In TPC-1 SF2 was reduced from 32 ± 1.1 % in the control cells to 24 ± 0.8 % (P<0.01). In VA-treated cells SF2 was reduced from 69 ± 0.02 % in control WRO cells to 56 ± 0.01 % (P<0.01) and from 31 ± 2 % in control TPC-1 cells to 11 ± 1 % (P<0.01). There was an arrest

  4. Follicular Thyroid Cancer Metastasis to the Urinary Bladder: Report of a Case and Review of the Literature

    OpenAIRE

    Grivas, N.; Housianitis, Z.; Doukas, M.; Stavropoulos, N. E.

    2012-01-01

    Thyroid cancer metastasis to the urinary bladder is a very rear condition. To the authors’ knowledge there have been only 2 cases reported in the literature. Herein a case is reported of a metastatic bladder tumor in a 73-year-old woman with history of thyroid and breast cancer. Gross hematuria was the initial symptom of her metastatic disease. Pathology of the resected mass revealed a follicular thyroid cancer metastasis. This case illustrates that follicular carcinoma of the thyroid may hav...

  5. Cell division cycle 45 promotes papillary thyroid cancer progression via regulating cell cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jing; Shi, Run; Zhao, Sha; Li, Xiaona; Lu, Shan; Bu, Hemei; Ma, Xianghua

    2017-05-01

    Cell division cycle 45 was reported to be overexpressed in some cancer-derived cell lines and was predicted to be a candidate oncogene in cervical cancer. However, the clinical and biological significance of cell division cycle 45 in papillary thyroid cancer has never been investigated. We determined the expression level and clinical significance of cell division cycle 45 using The Cancer Genome Atlas, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, and immunohistochemistry. A great upregulation of cell division cycle 45 was observed in papillary thyroid cancer tissues compared with adjacent normal tissues. Furthermore, overexpression of cell division cycle 45 positively correlates with more advanced clinical characteristics. Silence of cell division cycle 45 suppressed proliferation of papillary thyroid cancer cells via G1-phase arrest and inducing apoptosis. The oncogenic activity of cell division cycle 45 was also confirmed in vivo. In conclusion, cell division cycle 45 may serve as a novel biomarker and a potential therapeutic target for papillary thyroid cancer.

  6. New clinical, pathological and molecular prognostic models and calculators in patients with locally diagnosed anaplastic oligodendroglioma or oligoastrocytoma. A prognostic factor analysis of European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer Brain Tumour Group Study 26951.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorlia, Thierry; Delattre, Jean-Yves; Brandes, Alba A; Kros, Johan M; Taphoorn, Martin J B; Kouwenhoven, Mathilde C M; Bernsen, H J J A; Frénay, Marc; Tijssen, Cees C; Lacombe, Denis; van den Bent, Martin J

    2013-11-01

    The prognosis of patients with anaplastic oligodendrogliomas (AOD) and oligoastrocytomas (AOA) is variable. Biomarkers might be helpful to identify more homogeneous disease subtypes and improve therapeutic index. The aim of this study is to develop new clinical, pathological and molecular prognostic models for locally diagnosed anaplastic gliomas with oligodendroglial features (AOD or AOA). Data from 368 patients with AOD or AOA recruited in The European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) trial 26951 on adjuvant PCV (Procarbazine, CCNU, Vincristine) chemotherapy in anaplastic oligodendroglial tumours were used to develop multifactor models to predict progression free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS). Different models were compared by their percentage of explained variation (PEV). Prognostic calculators were derived from these new models. Treatment (for PFS only), younger age, confirmed absence of residual tumour on imaging, frontal location, good World Health Organisation (WHO) performance status, absence of endothelial abnormalities and/or necrosis, 1p/19q codeletion and Isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1) mutation were independent factors that predicted better PFS and OS. We identified important prognostic factors for AOD and AOA and showed that molecular markers added a major contribution to clinical and pathological factors in explaining PFS and OS. With a positive predictive value of 92% for PFS and 94% for OS, our models allow physicians to precisely identify high risk patients and aid in making therapeutic decisions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Thyroglossal duct cyst cancer most likely arises from a thyroid gland remnant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Esther D; Martini, Maurizio; Straccia, Patrizia; Cocomazzi, Alessandra; Pennacchia, Ilaria; Revelli, Luca; Rossi, Armando; Lombardi, Celestino Pio; Larocca, Luigi M; Fadda, Guido

    2014-07-01

    Thyroglossal duct cancer is a rare entity, occurring in 1.5 % of all thyroglossal duct cysts (TDC). A definitive consensus about its neoplastic origin has not been established as two contrasting theories exist, one proposing an origin in extra-thyroid remnants and the other a metastatic localization of a primary thyroid cancer. We compare morphological and molecular characteristics of both thyroglossal and thyroid carcinomas in a case series from our institute. We evaluated histology of 80 TDC. In 12 cases, prior cytological evaluation had been performed by liquid-based cytology (LBC). The BRAF gene was examined for mutations, and the histology of both thyroglossal duct and synchronous thyroid carcinoma was reevaluated. In 9 out of 80 (11 %) TDC cases, a papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) was diagnosed. In five out of nine (56 %) thyroglossal carcinomas, a synchronous thyroid cancer was diagnosed: 3 PTC and 2 follicular variant PTC (FVPC). In five thyroglossal carcinomas, mutated BRAF (V600E) was found, three in PTC and in thyroglossal as well as in the synchronous tumor in the thyroid. All the patients are in a disease-free status and still alive. Our results suggest that the majority of thyroglossal carcinomas most likely develop as a primary malignancy from a thyroid remnant. Neither the presence of V600E BRAF mutations nor that of a well-differentiated thyroid carcinoma changed the outcome or disease-free survival. We suggest that a diagnosis of thyroglossal carcinoma should be followed by a detailed evaluation of the thyroid gland. In the absence of clinical and radiological thyroid alterations, follow-up as for thyroid cancer is the correct management.

  8. Combined Cerenkov luminescence and nuclear imaging of radioiodine in the thyroid gland and thyroid cancer cells expressing sodium iodide symporter: initial feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Shin Young; Hwang, Mi-Hye; Kim, Jung Eun; Kang, Sungmin; Park, Jeong Chan; Yoo, Jeongsoo; Ha, Jeoung-Hee; Lee, Sang-Woo; Ahn, Byeong-Cheol; Lee, Jaetae

    2011-01-01

    Radioiodine (RI) such as (131)I or (124)I, can generate luminescent emission and be detected with an optical imaging (OI) device. To evaluate the possibility of a novel Cerenkov luminescence imaging (CLI) for application in thyroid research, we performed feasibility studies of CLI by RI in the thyroid gland and human anaplastic thyroid carcinoma cells expressing sodium iodide symporter gene (ARO-NIS). For in vitro study, FRTL-5 and ARO-NIS were incubated with RI, and the luminometric and CLI intensity was measured with luminometer and OI device. Luminescence intensity was compared with the radioactivity measured with γ-counter. In vivo CLI of the thyroid gland was performed in mice after intravenous injection of RI with and without thyroid blocking. Mice were implanted with ARO-NIS subcutaneously, and CLI was performed with injection of (124)I. Small animal PET or γ-camera imaging was also performed. CLI intensities of thyroid gland and ARO-NIS were quantified, and compared with the radioactivities measured from nuclear images (NI). Luminometric assay and OI confirmed RI uptake in the cells in a dose-dependent manner, and luminescence intensity was well correlated with radioactivity of the cells. CLI clearly demonstrated RI uptake in thyroid gland and xenografted ARO-NIS cells in mice, which was further confirmed by NI. A strong positive correlation was observed between CLI intensity and radioactivity assessed by NI. We successfully demonstrated dual molecular imaging of CLI and NI using RI both in vitro and in vivo. CLI can provide a new OI strategy in preclinical thyroid studies. ©The Japan Endocrine Society

  9. Small cell lung cancer with metastasis to the thyroid in a patient with toxic multinodular goiter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozgu, Eylem Sercan; Gen, Ramazan; Ilvan, Ahmet; Ozge, Cengiz; Polat, Ayşe; Vayisoglu, Yusuf

    2012-11-01

    Thyroid metastasis of lung cancer is rarely observed in clinical practice. The primary cancers which metastasize to the thyroid gland are mostly renal cell carcinoma, lung cancer, and breast cancer. Transient destructive thyrotoxicosis is caused by massive metastasis of extrathyroid tumors. We herein present a case report of a patient with small cell carcinoma of lung with metastasis to the thyroid and thyrotoxicosis due to toxic multinodular goiter. A 66-year-old man complained of swelling around the right side of the neck, dyspnea, progressive weight loss, and palpitation starting since 3 months before his admission. The patient was diagnosed with small cell carcinoma of lung with metastasis to the thyroid and thyrotoxicosis due to toxic multinodular goiter. The case report presented here illustrates the challenge of making a definitive and adequate diagnosis, particularly if the patient presents with 2 potential causes of thyrotoxicosis. Thyroid scintigraphy is an important tool for differential diagnosis of thyrotoxicosis.

  10. Incidence of thyroid cancer surrounding Three Mile Island nuclear facility: the 30-year follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Roger J; De Simone, Nicole F; Slotkin, Jaime F; Henson, Baker L

    2013-08-01

    Original data reported a potential increased incidence of thyroid cancer surrounding the Three Mile Island (TMI) nuclear facility. A causal link to the accident, however, was indeterminate. Our objective was to determine if data 30 years later will change original conclusions, explore thyroid cancer incidence rates near nuclear power plants, and better understand effects of chronic low level radiation. Retrospective cross-sectional study. Retrospective data for specific Pennsylvania counties were provided by the Pennsylvania Cancer Registry Dataset for thyroid cancer using the Epidemiological Query and Mapping System search engine. Our study examines thyroid cancer incidence from 1985 through 2009 analyzed by year, county, and age. Thirty years after the TMI accident, an increased incidence of thyroid cancer is seen in counties south of TMI and in high-risk age groups. The average incidence rates from 1990 through 2009 were greater than expected in York, Lancaster, Adams, and Chester Counties. Thyroid cancer incidence since the TMI accident was greater than expected in the counties analyzed when compared to local and national population growth. This supports a link to chronic low level radiation exposure and thyroid cancer development. Despite these findings, a direct correlation to the accident remains uncertain as incidence rates may coincide with other factors, and original data were limited. © 2013 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  11. A Prospective Study of Medical Diagnostic Radiography and Risk of Thyroid Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neta, Gila; Rajaraman, Preetha; Berrington de Gonzalez, Amy; Doody, Michele M.; Alexander, Bruce H.; Preston, Dale; Simon, Steven L.; Melo, Dunstana; Miller, Jeremy; Freedman, D. Michal; Linet, Martha S.; Sigurdson, Alice J.

    2013-01-01

    Although diagnostic x-ray procedures provide important medical benefits, cancer risks associated with their exposure are also possible, but not well characterized. The US Radiologic Technologists Study (1983–2006) is a nationwide, prospective cohort study with extensive questionnaire data on history of personal diagnostic imaging procedures collected prior to cancer diagnosis. We used Cox proportional hazard regressions to estimate thyroid cancer risks related to the number and type of selected procedures. We assessed potential modifying effects of age and calendar year of the first x-ray procedure in each category of procedures. Incident thyroid cancers (n = 251) were diagnosed among 75,494 technologists (1.3 million person-years; mean follow-up = 17 years). Overall, there was no clear evidence of thyroid cancer risk associated with diagnostic x-rays except for dental x-rays. We observed a 13% increase in thyroid cancer risk for every 10 reported dental radiographs (hazard ratio = 1.13, 95% confidence interval: 1.01, 1.26), which was driven by dental x-rays first received before 1970, but we found no evidence that the relationship between dental x-rays and thyroid cancer was associated with childhood or adolescent exposures as would have been anticipated. The lack of association of thyroid cancer with x-ray procedures that expose the thyroid to higher radiation doses than do dental x-rays underscores the need to conduct a detailed radiation exposure assessment to enable quantitative evaluation of risk. PMID:23529772

  12. Detecting thyroid cancer: utopia or reality? or Possibilities for thallium 201 in thyroid oncopathology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hermans, J.; Beauduin, M.; Gigot, J.F.; Schmitz, A.; Pluygers, E.

    1985-01-01

    201 Tl uptake by cold thyroid nodules, as evidenced by routine scintigraphy, was investigated in 119 patients. Results show strong correlation (89.5%) of existence of thyroid tumors (benign follicular adenoma and carcinoma) with 202 Tl uptake. (Auth.)

  13. Clinical usefulness of SPECT/CT in thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magboo, V.P.C.; Goco, G.F.L.

    2007-01-01

    Thyroid Cancer is the most common malignancy of the endocrine system with the well-differentiated tumors (papillary or follicular) being predominant. In the Philippines, it is the 7th leading cancer, three times more common in females than in males. Precise localization of the foci of I-131 uptake for the management of patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma is made difficult due to lack of anatomical landmarks in the whole body scan. Hybrid systems are opening up a new era in SPECT imaging. A tertiary hospital in the Philippines has recently acquired the country's first hybrid imaging device combining a dual-detector, variable angle gamma camera with a low dose X-ray tube attached to the same gantry. The objective of the study is to demonstrate the clinical usefulness of I-131 SPECT/CT fusion imaging in patients with well-differentiated thyroid carcinoma. The data from whole body I-131 planar images were first interpreted alone and then re-assessed with the addition of SPECT/CT co-registered images. A total number of 42 patients were studied. Pathologic sites in 26 out 42 (62 %) patients were identified in both planar and co-registered images. SPECT/CT also provided precise anatomical localization in 10 (24 %) patients not clearly evident in planar images alone. It also enabled exclusion of the disease sites of physiologic tracer deposition in 12 (26 %) patients found suspicious in planar studies alone. Introduction of SPECT/CT imaging altered the therapeutic option, particularly with the administered therapeutic dose of I- 131 in 7 (16 %) of patients. Based on our limited experience in this field we concluded that SPECT/CT allows more precise interpretation of I-131 whole body scan thereby improving diagnostic accuracy and guiding therapeutic options. (author)

  14. Prevention and treatment of emergencies in thyroid patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anatoliy Filippovich Romanchishen

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available AimTo evaluate the surgical treatment outcomes for patients with acute complications of thyroid disease (compression syndrome, early postoperative complications - like bilateral recurrent laryngeal nerve injure, bleeding (PB in thyroid bed and others performed in the single medical center.Material and methodsAnaplastic Thyroid Cancer (243 patients, multiglandular retrosternal goiter (25 cases, and purulent acute thyroiditis (9 observations made heavy compression of neck and mediastinal aerodigestive organs and were the reason for emergent thyroid surgery. Were estimated intraoperative recurrent nerve (RLN injures consequences and postoperative bleeding, made necessary for reoperations after 25663 thyroid surgeries during 36 years of the Center practice.ResultsSurgical intervention for Anaplastic Thyroid Cancer in all of patients has got palliative character only. Postop. lethality rate made 21,0% after emergency interventions, and 2,5% - after routine procedure. Combinations of it with radiochemotherapy has prolonged survival rate up to 13 month in 25% of cases.Follow up results of thyroid surgery in 23777 patients has found unexpected and relevant unilateral RLN injures in 251 (1.0% and bilateral – in 91 (0.38% cases. Recurrent laryngeal nerves and larynges reconstruction surgery allow us to decanulate more that 75% those patients.Postoperative bleeding (PB and thyroid bad hematomas were found in 138 больных (0.58% patients. The most often PB happened in initial and recurrent DTG (1.07%, 0.94%, TC (0.82% patients. In most (65.5% of cases PB began during the first 6 hours. In case of PB we parted wound edges anywhere, intubated repeatedly trachea, inspected wound; performed hemostasis and drained wound. Main sources of PB were inferior (40.38% or superior (17.30% thyroid artery. Source was not found in 13.35%. PB prevention included: careful hemostasis with control lavage of the wound; fascia covering of the thyroid bed and high

  15. Serum thyroglobulin in the management of patients with thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barsano, C.P.; Skosey, C.; DeGroot, L.J.; Refetoff, S.

    1982-01-01

    We have reviewed our experience with the management of patients with thyroid cancer to assess the potential benefits of employing the serum thyroglobulin assay in patient management programs and to determine the optimal conditions for this application. Serum thyroglobulin levels were found to be more reliable when obtained from hypothyroid patients. Levels of thyroglobulin greater than 10 ng/mL appeared to be abnormally elevated in both thyroidectomized patients prior to radioactive iodine therapy (group 1) and in thyroidectomized patients after radioactive iodine therapy (group 2). Elevated thyroglobulin levels were found to be useful indicators of the presence of metastatic disease, whereas normal thyroglobulin levels were reliable indicators of the absence of metastases. In group 1 patients, elevated thyroglobulin levels reliably predicted the presence of important total body scan uptake. In group 2 patients, normal thyroglobulin levels reliably predicted the absence of total body scan uptake. The serum thyroglobulin assay can substantially reduce the need for repetitive total body scanning in the follow-up of group 2 patients with thyroid cancer

  16. Effects of thyroid hormone withdrawal on natriuretic peptides during radioactive iodine therapy in female patients with differentiated thyroid cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanciu, Adina Elena; Hurduc, Anca Elena; Stanciu, Marcel Marian

    2016-12-01

    We aimed to investigate the effects of thyroid hormone withdrawal on N-terminal prohormone forms of atrial natriuretic peptide (NT-proANP) and brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) during radioiodine therapy in female patients with differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC). Serum concentrations of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), free triiodothyronine (FT3), NT-proANP and NT-proBNP were measured in 51 female patients with DTC (48.7 ± 4.2 years) at three time-points: day of radioiodine therapy (t1 - under acute hypothyroidism), 5 days after radioiodine (t2 - under acute hypothyroidism) and 3 months after radioiodine (t3 - under TSH suppression). Thirty healthy euthyroid women served as controls (42.8 ± 5.6 years). At t1/t2/t3, median NT-proANP was 5.2/1.7/487 pmol/L vs. 297.7 pmol/L in control group (p thyroid hormone effects than NT-proBNP. Thyroid hormone-dependent hemodynamic effects seem to be overlapped on the direct stimulatory effect of thyroid hormones on NT-proANP secretion by cardiac myocytes.

  17. Metastatic Renal Cell Cancer to Thyroid Diagnosed by Endoscopic Ultrasound Guided Fine Needle Aspiration Technique

    OpenAIRE

    Abdel-Aziz, Yousef; Hammad, Tariq; Nawras, Mohamad; Abdulwahid, Hayder; Nawras, Ali

    2017-01-01

    Medical literature about the role of endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) in identifying thyroid lesions is limited. We present a case of secondary thyroid cancer from renal cell carcinoma (RCC) metastasis, diagnosed by thyroid EUS-fine needle aspiration (FNA) approach that was done for staging of esophageal adenocarcinoma, in a patient with 11-year history of complete right nephrectomy for RCC. An 81-year-old female patient underwent EUS for the evaluation of a newly discovered distal esophageal canc...

  18. SPECTRUM OF THYROID CARCINOMAS IN COASTAL ANDHRA PRADESH: A RETROSPECTIVE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhuri Sepuri

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Thyroid carcinoma accounts for less than 1% of cancer cases. In the Indian subcontinent, thyroid carcinoma exhibits a varied disease profile and geographic differences in the pattern of cancer, the knowledge of which impacts a more favourable clinical outcome. The present study aims to profile Thyroid carcinoma in areas of age, gender, geographic domicile, morphology & clinical features and referral paradigm of cases in King George Hospital, Visakhapatnam, the tertiary referral hospital for coastal Andhra Pradesh. METHODS & MATERIALS The Retrospective Study 1988-2004 includes 188 patients who attended Department of Nuclear Medicine for pre & postoperative nuclear scan, thyroid carcinoma treatment protocol, whose clinical features, relevant laboratory data, histopathological reports & prognosis were analysed. RESULTS Papillary thyroid carcinoma was present in 79% and Follicular thyroid carcinoma in 19%, Anaplastic & Medullary Thyroid Carcinoma in 2% of cases (n=188, male to female ratio 1:0.62. Coastal city of Visakhapatnam recorded highest 59% of cases who were in their 3rd and 4th decades. West Godavari District had lowest at 5%. Clinical presentation of cases of Thyroid carcinoma as a Nodule (61% which was the most common form lead to maximum number of referrals (n=82 from the Department of Surgery, King George Hospital. CONCLUSION In coastal Andhra Pradesh, papillary thyroid carcinoma was the most dominant form. Women were more affected than men. Painless thyroid nodule was the most common clinical feature. Coastal city of Visakhapatnam recorded highest number of cases and maximum referrals were from Department of Surgery.

  19. Small-molecule MAPK inhibitors restore radioiodine incorporation in mouse thyroid cancers with conditional BRAF activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakravarty, Debyani; Santos, Elmer; Ryder, Mabel; Knauf, Jeffrey A.; Liao, Xiao-Hui; West, Brian L.; Bollag, Gideon; Kolesnick, Richard; Thin, Tin Htwe; Rosen, Neal; Zanzonico, Pat; Larson, Steven M.; Refetoff, Samuel; Ghossein, Ronald; Fagin, James A.

    2011-01-01

    Advanced human thyroid cancers, particularly those that are refractory to treatment with radioiodine (RAI), have a high prevalence of BRAF (v-raf murine sarcoma viral oncogene homolog B1) mutations. However, the degree to which these cancers are dependent on BRAF expression is still unclear. To address this question, we generated mice expressing one of the most commonly detected BRAF mutations in human papillary thyroid carcinomas (BRAFV600E) in thyroid follicular cells in a doxycycline-inducible (dox-inducible) manner. Upon dox induction of BRAFV600E, the mice developed highly penetrant and poorly differentiated thyroid tumors. Discontinuation of dox extinguished BRAFV600E expression and reestablished thyroid follicular architecture and normal thyroid histology. Switching on BRAFV600E rapidly induced hypothyroidism and virtually abolished thyroid-specific gene expression and RAI incorporation, all of which were restored to near basal levels upon discontinuation of dox. Treatment of mice with these cancers with small molecule inhibitors of either MEK or mutant BRAF reduced their proliferative index and partially restored thyroid-specific gene expression. Strikingly, treatment with the MAPK pathway inhibitors rendered the tumor cells susceptible to a therapeutic dose of RAI. Our data show that thyroid tumors carrying BRAFV600E mutations are exquisitely dependent on the oncoprotein for viability and that genetic or pharmacological inhibition of its expression or activity is associated with tumor regression and restoration of RAI uptake in vivo in mice. These findings have potentially significant clinical ramifications. PMID:22105174

  20. Fewer Cancer Reoperations for Medullary Thyroid Cancer After Initial Surgery According to ATA Guidelines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verbeek, Hans H. G.; Meijer, Johannes A. A.; Zandee, Wouter T.; Kramp, Kelvin H.; Sluiter, Willem; Smit, Johannes W.; Kievit, Job; Links, Thera P.; Plukker, John Th M.

    Surgery is still the only curative treatment for medullary thyroid cancer (MTC). We evaluated clinical outcome in patients with locoregional MTC with regard to adequacy of treatment following ATA guidelines and number of sessions to first intended curative surgery in different hospitals. We reviewed

  1. Ultrasound surveillance for radiation-induced thyroid carcinoma in adult survivors of childhood cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brignardello, Enrico; Felicetti, Francesco; Castiglione, Anna; Gallo, Marco; Maletta, Francesca; Isolato, Giuseppe; Biasin, Eleonora; Fagioli, Franca; Corrias, Andrea; Palestini, Nicola

    2016-03-01

    The optimal surveillance strategy to screen for thyroid carcinoma childhood cancer survivors (CCS) at increased risk is still debated. In our clinical practice, beside neck palpation we routinely perform thyroid ultrasound (US). Here we describe the results obtained using this approach. We considered all CCS referred to our long term clinic from November 2001 to September 2014. One hundred and ninety-seven patients who had received radiation therapy involving the thyroid gland underwent US surveillance. Thyroid US started 5 years after radiotherapy and repeated every 3 years, if negative. Among 197 CCS previously irradiated to the thyroid gland, 74 patients (37.5%) developed thyroid nodules, and fine-needle aspiration was performed in 35. In 11 patients the cytological examination was suspicious or diagnostic for malignancy (TIR 4/5), whereas a follicular lesion was diagnosed in nine. Patients with TIR 4/5 cytology were operated and in all cases thyroid cancer diagnosis was confirmed. The nine patients with TIR 3 cytology also underwent surgery and a carcinoma was diagnosed in three of them. Prevalence of thyroid cancer was 7.1%. Tumour size ranged between 4 and 25 mm, but six (43%) were classified T3 because of extra-thyroidal extension. Six patients had nodal metastases; in eight patients the tumour was multifocal. At the time of the study all patients are disease free, without evidence of surgery complications. Applying our US surveillance protocol, the prevalence of radiation-induced thyroid cancer is high. Histological features of the thyroid cancers diagnosed in our cohort suggest that most of them were clinically relevant tumours. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Inappropriate Suppression of Thyrotropin Concentrations in Young Patients with Thyroid Nodules Including Thyroid Cancer: The Fukushima Health Management Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Satoru; Nakamura, Izumi; Suzuki, Satoshi; Ohkouchi, Chiyo; Mizunuma, Hiroshi; Midorikawa, Sanae; Fukushima, Toshihiko; Ito, Yuko; Shimura, Hiroki; Ohira, Tetsuya; Matsuzuka, Takashi; Ohtsuru, Akira; Abe, Masafumi; Yamashita, Shunichi; Suzuki, Shinichi

    2016-05-01

    .583, respectively). TSH suppression can be present in response to illness, including thyroid nodules, in young subjects. Low TSH levels may be associated with the finding of papillary thyroid cancer as well as with thyroid nodules in children and adolescents.

  3. Risk Factors for Decreased Quality of Life in Thyroid Cancer Survivors: Initial Findings from the North American Thyroid Cancer Survivorship Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aschebrook-Kilfoy, Briseis; James, Benjamin; Nagar, Sapna; Kaplan, Sharone; Seng, Vanessa; Ahsan, Habibul; Angelos, Peter; Kaplan, Edwin L; Guerrero, Marlon A; Kuo, Jennifer H; Lee, James A; Mitmaker, Elliot J; Moalem, Jacob; Ruan, Daniel T; Shen, Wen T; Grogan, Raymon H

    2015-12-01

    The prevalence of thyroid cancer survivors is rising rapidly due to the combination of an increasing incidence, high survival rates, and a young age at diagnosis. The physical and psychosocial morbidity of thyroid cancer has not been adequately described, and this study therefore sought to improve the understanding of the impact of thyroid cancer on quality of life (QoL) by conducting a large-scale survivorship study. Thyroid cancer survivors were recruited from a multicenter collaborative network of clinics, national survivorship groups, and social media. Study participants completed a validated QoL assessment tool that measures four morbidity domains: physical, psychological, social, and spiritual effects. Data were also collected on participant demographics, medical comorbidities, tumor characteristics, and treatment modalities. A total of 1174 participants with thyroid cancer were recruited. Of these, 89.9% were female, with an average age of 48 years, and a mean time from diagnosis of five years. The mean overall QoL was 5.56/10, with 0 being the worst. Scores for each of the sub-domains were 5.83 for physical, 5.03 for psychological, 6.48 for social, and 5.16 for spiritual well-being. QoL scores begin to improve five years after diagnosis. Female sex, young age at diagnosis, and lower educational attainment were highly predictive of decreased QoL. Thyroid cancer diagnosis and treatment can result in a decreased QoL. The present findings indicate that better tools to measure and improve thyroid cancer survivor QoL are needed. The authors plan to follow-up on these findings in the near future, as enrollment and data collection are ongoing.

  4. Application of recombinant human thyrotropin and redifferentiation drugs in differentiated thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meng Zhaowei; Tan Jian

    2006-01-01

    In the management of differentiated thyroid cancer, radioiodine ( 131 I) ablation of thyroid remnants and 131 I treatment of metastatic lesions are very important. To prepare for ablation or treatment, optimal level of TSH has to be achieved. Recombinant human thyrotropin (rhTSH) has the same structure and biological activity as endogenous TSH. It can effectively elevate serum TSH level and it has little side effects. rhTSH can also avoid hypothyroid symptoms which are sometimes very serious if withdrawal of thyroid hormone therapy is carried out. However, in a number of cases, dedifferentiation is observed, giving rise to poor prognostic thyroid cancers that are refractory to conventional treatment. Several novel approaches for the treatment of dedifferentiated thyroid cancers have made great breakthroughs. For instance, isotretinoin redifferentiation therapy has entered Phase II clinical trials. (authors)

  5. Incidental detection of hyperfunctioning thyroid cancer metastases in patients presenting with thyrotoxicosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nishikant A Damle

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Thyrotoxicosis due to functioning metastases from thyroid cancer is rare. It also presents a therapeutic challenge, as both the metastatic cancer and thyrotoxicosis need to be treated. We present here two cases of thyrotoxicosis which on a routine 99m Tc-pertechnetate thyroid scan showed extrathyroidal foci of uptake. Two patients who initially presented with thyrotoxicosis underwent a routine thyroid scan. Abnormal uptake in the shoulder was incidentally noted, which prompted us to do a whole body pertechnetate scan in the same sitting, which revealed extensive hyperfunctioning metastases in the lungs and bones. We also discuss the ′Flip Flop′ phenomenon in thyroid cancer, which was seen in our case. This report emphasizes the importance of evaluating the abnormal foci of uptake seen on a routine thyroid scan.

  6. Preclinical Imaging for the Study of Mouse Models of Thyroid Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adelaide Greco

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Thyroid cancer, which represents the most common tumors among endocrine malignancies, comprises a wide range of neoplasms with different clinical aggressiveness. One of the most important challenges in research is to identify mouse models that most closely resemble human pathology; other goals include finding a way to detect markers of disease that common to humans and mice and to identify the most appropriate and least invasive therapeutic strategies for specific tumor types. Preclinical thyroid imaging includes a wide range of techniques that allow for morphological and functional characterization of thyroid disease as well as targeting and in most cases, this imaging allows quantitative analysis of the molecular pattern of the thyroid cancer. The aim of this review paper is to provide an overview of all of the imaging techniques used to date both for diagnosis and theranostic purposes in mouse models of thyroid cancer.

  7. Clinical guidelines for management of thyroid nodule and cancer during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galofré, Juan Carlos; Riesco-Eizaguirre, Garcilaso; Alvarez-Escolá, Cristina

    2014-03-01

    Special considerations are warranted in management of thyroid nodule and thyroid cancer during pregnancy. The diagnostic and therapeutic approach of thyroid nodules follows the standard practice in non-pregnant women. On the other hand, differentiated thyroid cancer management during pregnancy poses a number of challenges for the mother and fetus. The available data show that pregnancy is not a risk factor for thyroid cancer development or recurrence, although flare-ups cannot be completely ruled out in women with active disease. If surgery is needed, it should be performed during the second term or, preferably, after delivery. A majority of pregnant patients with low-risk disease only need adjustment in levothyroxine therapy. However, women with increased serum thyroglobulin levels before pregnancy or structural disease require regular thyroglobulin measurements and neck ultrasound throughout pregnancy. Pregnancy is an absolute contraindication for radioactive iodine administration. Copyright © 2013 SEEN. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  8. Implication from thyroid function decreasing during chemotherapy in breast cancer patients: chemosensitization role of triiodothyronine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jianbo; Jin, Liangbin; Ji, Guangyan; Xing, Lei; Xu, Chaobo; Xiong, Xiong; Li, Hongyuan; Wu, Kainan; Ren, Guosheng; Kong, Lingquan

    2013-07-06

    Thyroid hormones have been shown to regulate breast cancer cells growth, the absence or reduction of thyroid hormones in cells could provoke a proliferation arrest in G0-G1 or weak mitochondrial activity, which makes cells insensitive to therapies for cancers through transforming into low metabolism status. This biological phenomenon may help explain why treatment efficacy and prognosis vary among breast cancer patients having hypothyroid, hyperthyroid and normal function. Nevertheless, the abnormal thyroid function in breast cancer patients has been considered being mainly caused by thyroid diseases, few studied influence of chemotherapy on thyroid function and whether its alteration during chemotherapy can influence the respose to chemotherapy is still unclear. So, we aimed to find the alterations of thyroid function and non-thyroidal illness syndrome (NTIS) prevalence druing chemotherapy in breast cancer patients, and investigate the influence of thyroid hormones on chemotherapeutic efficacy. Thyroid hormones and NTIS prevalence at initial diagnosis and during chemotherapy were analyzed in 685 breast diseases patients (369 breast cancer, 316 breast benign lesions). The influence of thyroid hormones on chemotherapeutic efficacy was evaluated by chemosensitization test, to compare chemotherapeutic efficacy between breast cancer cells with chemotherapeutics plus triiodothyronine (T3) and chemotherapeutics only. In breast cancer, NTIS prevalence at the initial diagnosis was higher and increased during chemotherapy, but declined before the next chemotherapeutic course. Thyroid hormones decreased signigicantly during chemotherapy. T3 can enhance the chemosensitivity of MCF-7 to 5-Fu and taxol, with progression from G0-G1 phase to S phase. The similar chemosensitization role of T3 were found in MDA-MB-231. We compared chemotherapeutic efficacy among groups with different usage modes of T3, finding pretreatment with lower dose of T3, using higher dose of T3 together

  9. Living near nuclear power plants and thyroid cancer risk: A systematic review and meta-analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jae Young [Dept. of Preventive Medicine, Keimyung University College of Medicine, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Bang, Ye Jin; Ee, Won Jin [Dept. of Preventive Medicine, Korea University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-04-15

    There has been public concern regarding the safety of residing near nuclear power plants, and the extent of risk for thyroid cancer among adults living near nuclear power plants has not been fully explored. In the present study, a systematic review and meta-analysis of epidemiologic studies was conducted to investigate the association between living near nuclear power plants and the risk of thyroid cancer. Our study does not support an association between living near nuclear power plants and risk of thyroid cancer but does support a need for well designed future studies given the conflicting results from sensitivity analysis.

  10. Living near nuclear power plants and thyroid cancer risk: A systematic review and meta-analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jae Young; Bang, Ye Jin; Ee, Won Jin

    2016-01-01

    There has been public concern regarding the safety of residing near nuclear power plants, and the extent of risk for thyroid cancer among adults living near nuclear power plants has not been fully explored. In the present study, a systematic review and meta-analysis of epidemiologic studies was conducted to investigate the association between living near nuclear power plants and the risk of thyroid cancer. Our study does not support an association between living near nuclear power plants and risk of thyroid cancer but does support a need for well designed future studies given the conflicting results from sensitivity analysis.

  11. TGFβ induces epithelial-mesenchymal transition of thyroid cancer cells by both the BRAF/MEK/ERK and Src/FAK pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baquero, Pablo; Jiménez-Mora, Eva; Santos, Adrián; Lasa, Marina; Chiloeches, Antonio

    2016-11-01

    The epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a crucial process in tumour progression, by which epithelial cells acquire a mesenchymal phenotype, increasing its motility and the ability to invade distant sites. Here, we describe the molecular mechanisms by which V600E BRAF, TGFβ and the Src/FAK complex cooperatively regulate EMT induction and cell motility of anaplastic thyroid cancer cells. Analysis of EMT marker levels reveals a positive correlation between TGFβ and Snail expression, with a concomitant downregulation of E-cadherin, accompanied by an increase of cell migration and invasion. Furthermore, we show that V600E BRAF depletion by siRNA or inhibition of its activity by treatment with its inhibitor PLX4720 reverses the TGFβ-mediated effects on Snail, E-cadherin, migration and invasion. Moreover, V600E BRAF induces TGFβ secretion through a MEK/ERK-dependent mechanism. In addition, TGFβ activates the Src/FAK complex, which in turn regulates the expression of Snail and E-cadherin as well as cell migration. The inhibition of Src with the inhibitor SU6656 or abrogation of FAK expression with a specific siRNA reverses the TGFβ-induced effects. Interestingly, we demonstrate that activation of the Src/FAK complex by TGFβ is independent of V600E BRAF signalling, since inhibition of this oncogene does not affect its phosphorylation. Our data strongly suggest that TGFβ induces EMT and aggressiveness of thyroid cancer cells by parallel mechanisms involving both the V600E BRAF/MEK/ERK and Src/FAK pathways independently. Thus, we describe novel functions for Src/FAK in mediating the EMT program and aggressiveness regulated by TGFβ, establishing the inhibition of these proteins as a possible effective approach in preventing tumour progression of V600E BRAF-expressing thyroid tumours. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Plasma human leukocyte antigen-G (HLA-G) in patients with thyroid cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akın, Murat; Aral, Latife Arzu; Yavuz, Aydın; Karabacak, Harun; Dikmen, Kürşat; Bostancı, Hasan

    2017-08-23

    Background/aim: A number of tumor markers detected in the serum or pathological specimens using immunohistochemical methods are used for early detection of malignancies and postoperative follow-up. Human leukocyte antigen-G (HLA-G) is a nonclassic HLA class I molecule. Recent studies suggested a relationship between HLA-G positivity and the stage or the phenotype of the malignancy. In this study, the relationship between serum HLA-G positivity and thyroid cancer was investigated. Materials and methods: Fifty patients with thyroid cancer and 45 healthy volunteers were included in this study. Serum HLA-G levels were measured using ELISA. Results: HLA-G was positive in only 3 out of 50 patients with thyroid cancer (2 papillary, 1 follicular type). On the other hand, HLA-G was positive in 20 out of 45 healthy subjects (P HLA-G was independent of sex and age in the whole study population. No correlation was found between serum HLA-G value and thyroid hormone profile, neither in papillary thyroid cancer nor follicular thyroid cancer patients. Conclusion: In this study, serum HLA-G was significantly less common in patients with thyroid cancer than in healthy controls.

  13. Metastases of kidney cancer into the thyroid gland (сlinical observation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. Ognerubov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a literature review considering epidemiological aspects of secondary cancer of the thyroid gland. The authors’ clinical observation of renal cell carcinoma metastasis into the thyroid gland with tumor thrombus of the internal jugular vein is described. The authors emphasize the necessity of complex diagnostics and treatment of renal cell carcinoma.

  14. Irradiation doses on thyroid gland during the postoperative irradiation for breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Akın

    2014-01-01

    Conclusions: In majority of the node-positive breast cancer patients treated with 3D CRT, the thyroid gland was exposed to considerable doses. On the other hand, for 44% of the patients are at risk for developing thyroid function abnormalities which should be considered during the routine follow-up.

  15. Measurement of Thyroid Dose by TLD arising from Radiotherapy of Breast Cancer Patients from Supraclavicular Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farhood B.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Breast cancer is the most frequently diagnosed cancer and the leading global cause of cancer death among women worldwide. Radiotherapy plays a significant role in treatment of breast cancer and reduces locoregional recurrence and eventually improves survival. The treatment fields applied for breast cancer treatment include: tangential, axillary, supraclavicular and internal mammary fields. Objective: In the present study, due to the presence of sensitive organ such as thyroid inside the supraclavicular field, thyroid dose and its effective factors were investigated. Materials and Methods: Thyroid dose of 31 female patients of breast cancer with involved supraclavicular lymph nodes which had undergone radiotherapy were measured. For each patient, three TLD-100 chips were placed on their thyroid gland surface, and thyroid doses of patients were measured. The variables of the study include shield shape, the time of patient’s setup, the technologists’ experience and qualification. Finally, the results were analyzed by ANOVA test using SPSS 11.5 software. Results: The average age of the patients was 46±10 years. The average of thyroid dose of the patients was 140±45 mGy (ranged 288.2 and 80.8 in single fraction. There was a significant relationship between the thyroid dose and shield shape. There was also a significant relationship between the thyroid dose and the patient’s setup time. Conclusion: Beside organ at risk such as thyroid which is in the supraclavicular field, thyroid dose possibility should be reduced. For solving this problem, an appropriate shield shape, the appropriate time of the patient’s setup, etc. could be considered.

  16. Ultrasonographic prediction of highly aggressive telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) promoter-mutated papillary thyroid cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tae Hyuk; Ki, Chang-Seok; Hahn, Soo Yeon; Oh, Young Lyun; Jang, Hye Won; Kim, Sun Wook; Chung, Jae Hoon; Shin, Jung Hee

    2017-08-01

    Telomerase reverse transcriptase promoter mutations are found in highly aggressive thyroid malignancies. Our aim was to define the ultrasonographic features of telomerase reverse transcriptase promoter-mutated papillary thyroid cancer and to evaluate their predictive performances. Ultrasonographic findings were reviewed for 185 patients with surgically confirmed papillary thyroid cancer between 1994 and 2004. Genomic DNA to identify telomerase reverse transcriptase promoter mutations was extracted from archived surgical specimens. Logistic regression analysis was performed to compare clinical factors and ultrasonographic findings between telomerase reverse transcriptase promoter-mutated and wild-type papillary thyroid cancers. A telomerase reverse transcriptase promoter mutation was detected in 8.1% (15 of 185) of specimens from papillary thyroid cancer patients with a strong trend toward increasing age. Nonparallel orientation and microlobulated margin were independent ultrasonographic findings for predicting telomerase reverse transcriptase promoter-mutated papillary thyroid cancer in patients over 50 years (odds ratio 5.898, 95% confidence interval 1.092-31.851, P = 0.039 for orientation; odds ratio 5.813, 95% confidence interval 1.320-25.602, P = 0.020 for margin). Prevalence of telomerase reverse transcriptase promoter mutations increased to 50.0% in papillary thyroid cancer patients older than 50 years with both ultrasonographic findings and was 0% in patients without either finding. For identifying telomerase reverse transcriptase promoter-mutated papillary thyroid cancer, ultrasonographic had 64.3% sensitivity, 80.8% specificity, 50.0% positive predictive value and 88.4% negative predictive value. Telomerase reverse transcriptase promoter-mutated papillary thyroid cancer could be suggested by the ultrasonographic features of nonparallel orientation and microlobulated margin in patients older than 50 years. Prebiopsy recognition of this unique

  17. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... typically performed on people who have or had thyroid cancer. A physician may perform these imaging tests to: ... such as lumps (nodules) or inflammation determine whether thyroid cancer has spread beyond the thyroid gland evaluate changes ...

  18. Radioimmunoassay of CA 19-9 tumor marker in the diagnosis of thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markov, V.V.; Slavnov, V.N.; Komissarenko, I.V.; Kovpak, N.A.; Kovalenko, A.E.; Guda, B.B.

    1999-01-01

    Applicability of determining carbohydrate antigen CA 19-9 content in blood serum, tissue extracts, and thyroid tumor aspiration biopsy samples to the differential diagnosis of benign and malignant tumors of thyroid is studied. Radioimmunoassay was used for measurements. It is shown that determination of marker CA 19-9 in blood serum is not informationally capable for the differential diagnosis of thyroid tumors. Considerable increase in CA 19-9 concentration was found in tumor aspiration biopsy samples from patients with malignant tumors this fact can be used for preoperative diagnosis of thyroid cancer [ru

  19. Interaction of pathology and molecular characterization of thyroid cancers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, E.D.; Cherstvoy, E.; Egloff, B.; Hoefler, H.; Vecchio, G.; Bogdanova, T.; Bragarnik, M.; Tronko, N.D.

    1996-01-01

    This paper presents the results of joint studies of thyroid cancer in children under 15 years of age between departments in Cambridge, Brussels, Naples and Munich in the European Union, and departments in Minsk, Kiev and Obninsk in the newly independent states of Eastern Europe. The pathology of 264 cases of childhood thyroid cancer out of 430 that have occurred since 1990 in the 3 countries in which high levels of fallout from the Chernobyl accident occurred has been restudied by NIS and EU pathologists. The overall level of agreement reached was about 97%. The diagnosis was supported by immunocytochemistry and ISH for the differentiation markers, thyroglobulin and calcitonin, and the tumors were classified according to the WHO, with papillary carcinomas being further subclassified. 99% of the 134 Belarussian cases were papillary carcinomas, as were 94% of the 114 Ukrainian tumors. All 9 of the Russian cases available for study were papillary in type. 76 of 154 cases of childhood thyroid cancer reviewed over a 30 year period in England and Wales and were also studied, 68% of these were papillary carcinoma. Histological study showed that a subtype of papillary carcinoma, rarely found in adults, with a solid/follicular architecture occurred in children. It was found in 72% of the Belarussian papillary carcinomas, 76% of the Ukrainian cases, but only 40% of the England and Wales cases. Molecular biological studies showed that the proportion of cases of papillary carcinoma expressing the ret gene was not significantly different in the exposed and the unexposed tumors, studies of the type of translocation leading to ret gene expression are not yet conclusive. Ras gene mutations were found as expected in follicular carcinoma, but were absent from any papillary carcinoma, whether from exposed or unexposed cases. TSH receptor mutations, normally found in follicular tumors were not found in any papillary carcinomas, nor were any p53 mutations identified. All these results

  20. Thyroid cancer from occupational exposures to iodine-131

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shore, R.E.

    1983-01-01

    Studies of external irradiation, primarily of children, suggest that the thyroid gland is one of the most radiosensitive sites for carcinogenesis. However, it has generally been thought that 131 I confers much less risk (per rad) than external radiation because of its low dose-rate. A review of the epidemiologic literature indicates that age at irradiation is also an important variable in defining thyroid cancer risk, with a lesser risk at older ages. The available human studies are reasonably consistent in affirming that risks following 131 I are small. However, the data on 131 I exposure are too sparse, particularly for childhood exposure, to determine how much of the observed diminution in risk is due to older ages at exposure and how much is attributable to the characteristics of 131 I exposure per se, such as low dose-rate. Since most of the existing studies have inadequacies in design, dose levels, dosimetry or number of subjects, additional studies are needed before the risk assessment of 131 I at lower dose levels in adult workers can be regarded as definitive

  1. Nuclear Molecular and Theranostic Imaging for Differentiated Thyroid Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arif Sheikh

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Traditional nuclear medicine is rapidly being transformed by the evolving concepts in molecular imaging and theranostics. The utility of new approaches in differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC diagnostics and therapy has not been fully appreciated. The clinical information, relevant to disease management and patient care, obtained by scintigraphy is still being underestimated. There has been a trend towards moving away from the use of radioactive iodine (RAI imaging in the management of the disease. This paradigm shift is supported by the 2015 American Thyroid Association Guidelines (1. A more systematic and comprehensive understanding of disease pathophysiology and imaging methodologies is needed for optimal utilization of different imaging modalities in the management of DTC. There have been significant developments in radiotracer and imaging technology, clinically proven to contribute to the understanding of tumor biology and the clinical assessment of patients with DTC. The research and development in the field continues to evolve, with expected emergence of many novel diagnostic and therapeutic techniques. The role for nuclear imaging applications will continue to evolve and be reconfigured in the changing paradigm. This article aims to review the clinical uses and controversies surrounding the use of scintigraphy, and the information it can provide in assisting in the management and treatment of DTC.

  2. Incidence of thyroid cancer in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, 2000-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Fazal; Iqbal, Samra; Mehmood, Asif; Bazarbashi, Shouki; ElHassan, Tusneem; Chaudhri, Naeem

    2013-06-01

    Thyroid cancer is the second most common malignancy among females at King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Centre (KFSH&RC) and in Saudi Arabia, accounting for about 11% of all newly diagnosed female cancers in the country in 2008. Over the past several decades, an increasing incidence of thyroid cancer has been reported in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. There are no comprehensive clinical epidemiological data for the trends of thyroid cancer incidence compared to the global incidence. This report reviews the thyroid cancer incidence in KFSH&RC and compares that with Saudi Arabia, the Gulf region, North America and globally from 2000 to 2010. Retrospective review of patients with thyroid cancer was carried out from 2000 to 2010, using the hospital Tumor Registry program as per the American College of Surgeons standards. Trends and patterns of all well-known prognostic factors were sub-stratified by age, stage and grade. A total of 2292 patients with thyroid cancer were treated at KFSH&RC, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, from 2000 to 2010. Thyroid cancer constitutes about 9% of all malignancies and 12% of all female malignancies at KFSH&RC, which are significantly higher compared to the USA, where thyroid cancer represents only 2.9% of all malignancies and 4.6% of all female malignancies. Papillary adenocarcinoma was the most common histological subtype followed by papillary carcinoma, follicular variant. Median age at diagnosis was 40 for females and 44years for males. Overall Age-Standardized Incidence Rate (ASR) was 4.4/100,000 (6.8 for female and 2/100,000 for males) in the Kingdom in 2008. Median age at diagnosis was 38years and the highest incidence was in the 30-39year age group in KFSH&RC. About 48% of patients presented in the localized stage and 60% underwent combined modality treatment consisting of surgery, radiation and hormonal therapy. There was significantly increased incidence among females as compared to males. The age-adjusted thyroid cancer incidence

  3. Association of thyroid, breast and renal cell cancer: a population-based study of the prevalence of second malignancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Fossen, Victoria L; Wilhelm, Scott M; Eaton, Jennifer L; McHenry, Christopher R

    2013-04-01

    Analysis of the National Cancer Institute's Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results data has shown that the incidence of thyroid cancer is higher in patients with a preexisting malignancy and that the incidence of other malignancies is higher in patients with thyroid cancer. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of a second malignancy in patients treated for thyroid, breast or renal cell cancer and determine what associations, if any, exist between these cancers. This study utilized the novel data system, Explorys, as its population base. Patient cohorts were constructed using ICD-9 codes, and prevalence rates were obtained for each cancer. Rates of second malignancy were obtained and compared to the baseline prevalence for a particular malignancy. Female thyroid cancer patients had a 0.67- and twofold increase in prevalence of a subsequent breast and renal cell cancer. Female breast and renal cell cancer patients had a twofold and 1.5-fold increase in the prevalence of thyroid cancer, respectively. Male patients with thyroid cancer had a 29- and 4.5-fold increase in prevalence of subsequent breast and renal cell cancer. Male patients with breast and renal cell cancer had an increased prevalence of subsequent thyroid cancer, 19- and threefold, respectively. Our study demonstrated a bidirectional association between thyroid, breast and renal cancer in both male and female patients. This may have important implications for patient follow-up and screening after treatment of a primary cancer.

  4. Impact of chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis co-existing with differentiated thyroid cancer on the effectiveness of remnants ablation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boughattas, S.; Chatti, K.; Trimeche, M.; Mokni, M.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: Some stages of chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis (CLT) are functionally characterized by an organification defect with large intra thyroid inorganic iodide pool, which can be discharged during perchlorate test. Fluorescent scan study indicates that most patients with CLT have decreased stable iodine store in the thyroid gland. The aim of our study was to investigate the possible consequences of these organification abnormalities during remnants ablation in patients with coexisting differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) and chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis. We reviewed our series of patients of DTC being followed at the department of nuclear medicine of the university hospital Sahloul. Among the 350 patients with DTC, 30 (8.5%) had histologically proved chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis, with infiltration of the non-tumoral thyroid tissue. A second group of 60 patients (without evidence of lymphocytic infiltration) was selected randomly and used as control. The median of follow-up for these two groups was 4 years. All patients had undergone total thyroidectomy followed by scintigraphy 4-6 weeks later. In patients with thyroid remnants, standard ablative dose of 3.7 GBq of I-131 (100 mCi) was administrated with 6 months duration between all therapies, until the negativity of thyroid bed activity on follow up survey scan performed 48 to 72 hours after administering 2 to 3 mCi of I-131. Thyroglobulin (Tg) serum level was not considered as a criterion of ablation, because of the frequency of anti-thyroid antibodies in CLT. In the group with CLT, 3 patients had negative postoperative neck scintigraphy. Complete ablation was achieved with a single standard dose in 14, two standard doses in 5, and more than 200 mCi in two patients (300 in one and 400 in two). In five patients, ablation is not yet achieved. In the control group, ablation was obtained with 100 mCi in 43 patients, 200 mCi in 9, and 300 mCi in 3. In five patients ablation has not been achieved. Considering

  5. The role of podoplanin in the biology of differentiated thyroid cancers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Rudzińska

    Full Text Available Podoplanin (PDPN, a mucin-type transmembrane glycoprotein specific to the lymphatic system is expressed in a variety of human cancers, and is regarded as a factor promoting tumor progression. The purpose of this study was to elucidate the molecular role of PDPN in the biology of thyroid cancer cells. PDPN expression was evaluated in primary thyroid carcinomas and thyroid carcinoma cell lines by RT-qPCR, Western blotting, IF and IHC. To examine the role of podoplanin in determining a cell's malignant potential (cellular migration, invasion, proliferation, adhesion, motility, apoptosis, a thyroid cancer cell line with silenced PDPN expression was used. We observed that PDPN was solely expressed in the cancer cells of 40% of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC tissues. Moreover, PDPN mRNA and protein were highly expressed in PTC-derived TPC1 and BcPAP cell lines but were not detected in follicular thyroid cancer derived cell lines. PDPN knock-down significantly decreased cellular invasion, and modestly reduced cell migration, while proliferation and adhesion were not affected. Our results demonstrate that PDPN mediates the invasive properties of cells derived from papillary thyroid carcinomas, suggesting that podoplanin might promote PTC progression.

  6. Cost-effectiveness of ceritinib in patients previously treated with crizotinib in anaplastic lymphoma kinase positive (ALK+) non-small cell lung cancer in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurry, Manjusha; Zhou, Zheng-Yi; Zhang, Jie; Zhang, Chenxue; Fan, Liangyi; Rebeira, Mayvis; Xie, Jipan

    2016-10-01

    To assess the cost-effectiveness of ceritinib vs alternatives in patients who discontinue treatment with crizotinib in anaplastic lymphoma kinase-positive (ALK+) non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) from a Canadian public healthcare perspective. A partitioned survival model with three health states (stable, progressive, and death) was developed. Comparators were chosen based on reported utilization from a retrospective Canadian chart study; comparators were pemetrexed, best supportive care (BSC), and historical control (HC). HC comprised of all treatment alternatives reported. Progression-free survival and overall survival for ceritinib were estimated using data reported from single-arm clinical trials (ASCEND-1 [NCT01283516] and ASCEND-2 [NCT01685060]). Survival data for comparators were obtained from published clinical trials in a NSCLC population and from a Canadian retrospective chart study. Parametric models were used to extrapolate outcomes beyond the trial period. Drug acquisition, administration, resource use, and adverse event (AE) costs were obtained from databases. Utilities for health states and disutilities for AEs based on EQ-5D were derived from literature. Incremental costs per quality-adjusted life year (QALY) gained were estimated. Univariate and probabilistic sensitivity analyses were performed. Over 4 years, ceritinib was associated with 0.86 QALYs and total direct costs of $89,740 for the post-ALK population. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) was $149,117 comparing ceritinib vs BSC, $80,100 vs pemetrexed, and $104,436 vs HC. Additional scenarios included comparison to docetaxel with an ICER of $149,780 and using utility scores reported from PROFILE 1007, with a reported ICER ranging from $67,311 vs pemetrexed to $119,926 vs BSC. Due to limitations in clinical efficacy input, extensive sensitivity analyses were carried out whereby results remained consistent with the base-case findings. Based on the willingness-to-pay threshold for

  7. Thyroid Hormone Receptor Mutations in Cancer and Resistance to Thyroid Hormone: Perspective and Prognosis

    OpenAIRE

    Meghan D. Rosen; Martin L. Privalsky

    2011-01-01

    Thyroid hormone, operating through its receptors, plays crucial roles in the control of normal human physiology and development; deviations from the norm can give rise to disease. Clinical endocrinologists often must confront and correct the consequences of inappropriately high or low thyroid hormone synthesis. Although more rare, disruptions in thyroid hormone endocrinology due to aberrations in the receptor also have severe medical consequences. This review will focus on the afflictions tha...

  8. Alcohol Intake and Risk of Thyroid Cancer: A Meta-Analysis of Observational Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Seung-Hee; Myung, Seung-Kwon; Kim, Hyeon Suk

    2017-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess whether alcohol intake is associated with the risk of thyroid cancer by a meta-analysis of observational studies. We searched PubMed and EMBASE in June of 2015 to locate eligible studies. We included observational studies such as cross-sectional studies, case-control studies, and cohort studies reporting odd ratios (ORs) or relative risk (RRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). We included 33 observational studies with two cross-sectional studies, 20 case-controls studies, and 11 cohort studies, which involved a total of 7,725 thyroid cancer patients and 3,113,679 participants without thyroid cancer in the final analysis. In the fixed-effect model meta-analysis of all 33 studies, we found that alcohol intake was consistently associated with a decreased risk of thyroid cancer (OR or RR, 0.74; 95% CI, 0.67 to 0.83; I 2 =38.6%). In the subgroup meta-analysis by type of study, alcohol intake also decreased the risk of thyroid cancer in both case-control studies (OR, 0.77; 95% CI, 0.65 to 0.92; I 2 =29.5%; n=20) and cohort studies (RR, 0.70; 95% CI, 0.60 to 0.82; I 2 =0%; n=11). Moreover, subgroup meta-analyses by type of thyroid cancer, gender, amount of alcohol consumed, and methodological quality of study showed that alcohol intake was significantly associated with a decreased risk of thyroid cancer. The current meta-analysis of observational studies found that, unlike most of other types of cancer, alcohol intake decreased the risk of thyroid cancer.

  9. Guidelines for a national epidemiological surveillance system of thyroid cancer in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-10-01

    At the request of the French Department of Health, a multidisciplinary Thyroid Cancer Committee, coordinated by the French Public Health Agency analysed the observed increase of thyroid cancer incidence in France and outlined the limits of the present case registration system. This Committee set up guidelines to improve the national surveillance system of thyroid cancer. The Committee analysed 4 models for the incidence survey, 3 of which have been excluded: a poor cost-benefit ratio precludes the constitution of a national registry dedicated to thyroid cancer; however, the Committee has recommended this model that still exists for thyroid cancer of the youth(under 19 years old), a national system base exclusively on pathological data would only be relevant after significant improvement of data collection, obligatory of all cases of thyroid cancer is inappropriate considering the fit prognosis of this cancer. A two level system is proposed with continuous registration of incident caes through the National Hospital Discharge survey, specific focused analysis of clinical and pathological data in case of a cluster alert in any given area. Whatever the system, it seems necessary to in general: propose a unique health registration number per patient, improve access to medical data, organize a national standardised collection of pathological findings, follow up the diagnosis practices related to thyroid cancer that have an impact on incidence rates. In conclusion, a reliable incidence survey and a follow up of diagnostic practices and of risk factors may provide a relevant model of epidemiological survey of thyroid cancers in France but such a system requires a long lasting strategic and financial involvement. (author)

  10. Single photon emission computed tomography imaging for temporal dynamics of thyroidal and salivary radionuclide accumulation in 17-allyamino-17-demothoxygeldanamycin-treated thyroid cancer mouse model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yu-Yu; Brandt, Michael P; Shen, Daniel H; Kloos, Richard T; Zhang, Xiaoli; Jhiang, Sissy M

    2014-01-01

    Selective iodide uptake and prolonged iodine retention in the thyroid is the basis for targeted radioiodine therapy for thyroid cancer patients; however, salivary gland dysfunction is the most frequent nonthyroidal complications. In this study, we have used noninvasive single photon emission computed tomography functional imaging to quantify the temporal dynamics of thyroidal and salivary radioiodine accumulation in mice. At 60 min post radionuclide injection, radionuclide accumulation in the salivary gland was generally higher than that in thyroid due to much larger volume of the salivary gland. However, radionuclide accumulation per anatomic unit in the salivary gland was lower than that in thyroid and was comparable among mice of different age and gender. Differently, radionuclide accumulation per anatomic unit in thyroid varied greatly among mice. The extent of thyroidal radioiodine accumulation stimulated by a single dose of exogenous bovine TSH (bTSH) in triiodothyronine (T3)-supplemented mice was much less than that in mice received neither bTSH nor T3 (nontreated mice), suggesting that the duration of elevated serum TSH level is important to maximize thyroidal radioiodine accumulation. Furthermore, the extent and duration of radioiodine accumulation stimulated by bTSH was less in the thyroids of the thyroid-targeted RET/PTC1 (thyroglobulin (Tg)-PTC1) mice bearing thyroid tumors compared with the thyroids in wild-type (WT) mice. Finally, the effect of 17-allyamino-17-demothoxygeldanamycin on increasing thyroidal, but not salivary, radioiodine accumulation was validated in both WT mice and Tg-PTC1 preclinical thyroid cancer mouse model. PMID:20943721

  11. Robust Thyroid Gene Expression and Radioiodine Uptake Induced by Simultaneous Suppression of BRAF V600E and Histone Deacetylase in Thyroid Cancer Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Weiwei; Liu, Rengyun; Zhu, Guangwu; Wang, Hui

    2016-01-01

    Context: Use of BRAF V600E inhibitors to restore thyroid iodide-handling gene expression and radioactive iodine (RAI) avidity is an attractive therapeutic strategy for RAI-refractory thyroid cancer, but recent initial clinical responses were modest. Given histone deacetylation at the sodium/iodide symporter promoter by histone deacetylase (HDAC) as a mechanism, simultaneously targeting BRAF V600E and HDAC could be a more effective strategy. Objectives: The objective of the study was to test whether suppressing both BRAF V600E and HDAC could more effectively induce thyroid gene expression and RAI uptake in thyroid cancer cells. Research Design: We tested the BRAF V600E inhibitor PLX4032 (vemurafenib) and the HDAC inhibitor SAHA (vorinostat), two major anticancer drugs currently approved for clinical use, in inducing thyroid gene expression and RAI uptake in thyroid cancer cells. Results: PLX4032 alone induced a modest expression of thyroid genes and RAI uptake preferentially in thyroid cancer cells harboring BRAF V600E. SAHA showed an effect in a genetic-independent manner in all the cells. A robust synergistic effect on thyroid gene expression and RAI uptake was observed in BRAF V600E-positive thyroid cancer cells when the two inhibitors were simultaneously used. This was dramatically enhanced further by TSH; triple combination of PLX4032, SAHA, and TSH showed the most robust effect on thyroid gene expression and RAI uptake in cells harboring BRAF V600E. Abundant sodium/iodide symporter protein expression in thyroid cancer cells under these conditions was confirmed by immunofluorescent microscopy. Conclusions: Simultaneously suppressing BRAF V600E and HDAC, particularly when cotreated with TSH, induced a far more robust expression of thyroid genes and RAI uptake in thyroid cancer cells than suppressing BRAF V600E alone. Triple combination of PLX4032, SAHA, and TSH is a specific robust regimen to restore RAI avidity in RAI-refractory BRAF V600E-positive thyroid

  12. The advanced treatment of 131I in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer undergoing subtotal thyroidectomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Kaiming; Qing Chun; Wu Jian; Luo Weihua; Zhu Yunzhi; Shen Hong

    2009-01-01

    Thyroid cancer account approximately 1.3%-1.5% of cancers all over the body, the attack rate is raising up recently. Most operation is subtotal thyroidectomy at the first time, because thyroid cancer was regarded as thyroid nodule usually account 90.5%. Operation one more time with leftover cancer rate about 41.3%, and with lymphonodi cervicales deadexis about 72.8%. Most patient reluctancy operation again in view of complication with hypoparathyroidism and injure of recurrent nerve. The efficacy of radioiodine ablation can eliminate the minimum cancer which concealed in remained thyroid glandular tissue, and cut down the recurrence rate of thyroid cancer, and destroy metastasis, in favour of long-term follow-up. A great quantity of literature report about 60% with 1.11GBq 131 I and 90% with retreatment with 1.11 GBq 131 I in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer undergoing subtotal thyroidectomy, 131 I treatment can shorten length of stay, and decrease radiation effect, and cut down side effect and economy burden, as far as possible to achieve therapeutic efficacy. (authors)

  13. An update in international trends in incidence rates of thyroid cancer, 1973-2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Benjamin C; Mitchell, Janeil M; Jeon, Heedo D; Vasilottos, Nektarios; Grogan, Raymon H; Aschebrook-Kilfoy, Briseis

    2018-04-05

    Over the past several decades, there has been a reported increase in the incidence of thyroid cancer in many countries. We previously reported an increase in thyroid cancer incidence across continents between 1973 and 2002. Here, we provide an update on the international trends in thyroid cancer between 2003 and 2007. We examined thyroid cancer incidence data from the Cancer Incidence in Five Continents (CI5) database for the period between 1973 and 2007 from 24 populations in the Americas, Asia, Europe, Africa and Oceania, and report on the time trends as well as the distribution by histologic type and gender worldwide. The incidence of thyroid cancer increased during the period from 1998-2002 to 2003-2007 in the majority of populations examined, with the highest rates observed among women, most notably in Israel and the United States SEER registry, at over 14 per 100,000 people. This update suggests that incidence is rising in a similar fashion across all regions of the world. The histologic and gender distributions in the updated CI5 are consistent with the previous report. Our analysis of the published CI5 data illustrates that the incidence of thyroid cancer increased between 1998-2002 and 2003-2007 in most populations worldwide, and rising rates continue in all regions of the world.

  14. The Efficacy of Thyrotropin Suppression Therapy in Treatment of Differentiated Thyroid Cancer after Total Thyroidectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abo-Touk Niveen A.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this prospective study was to assess the effect of the TSH suppression on both disease-free and overall survivals in patients with nonmetastatic differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC after total thyroidectomy.

  15. Procalcitonin Levels Predict Clinical Course and Progression-Free Survival in Patients With Medullary Thyroid Cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Walter, Martin A.; Meier, Christian; Radimerski, Tanja; Iten, Fabienne; Kraenzlin, Marius; Mueller-Brand, Jan; de Groot, Jan Willem B.; Kema, Ido P.; Links, Thera P.; Mueller, Beat

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Procalcitonin has been well established as an important marker of sepsis and systemic infection. The authors evaluated the diagnostic and predictive value of calcitonin and its prohormone procalcitonin in medullary thyroid cancer. METHODS: The authors systematically explored the ability

  16. Risk of thyroid cancer after exposure to fertility drugs: results from a large Danish cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hannibal, C.G.; Jensen, A.; Sharif, H.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Findings from the few epidemiological studies that have investigated thyroid cancer risk after fertility drugs have been inconclusive. Using data from the largest cohort of infertile women to date, we examined the effects of fertility drugs on thyroid cancer risk. METHODS: A cohort...... of 54 362 women with infertility problems referred to Danish fertility clinics in the period 1963-1998 was established. A detailed data collection including information about type and amount of treatment was conducted. Using case-cohort techniques, we calculated rate ratios (RRs) of thyroid cancer...... associated with different fertility drugs after adjustment for age at first live birth. RESULTS: A total of 29 thyroid cancers were identified during follow-up through 2000. Use of clomiphene [RR = 2.28; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.08-4.82] or progesterone (RR = 10.14; 95% CI: 1.93-53.33) was associated...

  17. Is Primary Hyperparathyroidism a Risk Factor for Papillary Thyroid Cancer? An Exemplar Study and Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cinamon, Udi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT is associated with several cancer types, including papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC. Objective To explore further the relation between PHPT and PTC. Methods By considering patients with PHPT as extra-suspicious for PTC, we studied an exemplar group of patients with PHPT with a small (≤1 cm thyroid nodule, which was negative in preoperative cytologic examination. During parathyroidectomy, a frozen section biopsy of the thyroid nodule confirmed PTC, as did the final surgical specimen, revealing that the preoperative cytology was false-negative. Additionally, relevant reports retrieved from the English literature addressing thyroid cancer and hyperparathyroidism were reviewed and processed. Results Four patients with PHPT were studied. Three had a multifocal thyroid disease, and three had neck lymph node metastasis. Processing previous report data supported an association between PHPT and PTC. Although thyroid nodularity among patients with PHPT was similar to the general population, PTC incidence was higher. This was true also for patients with secondary hyperparathyroidism. Conclusions This study emphasized that PHPT should be considered as a noteworthy risk factor for PTC. Fine needle aspiration of a thyroid nodule is the most valuable diagnostic procedure for thyroid cancer. Yet, false-negative results were reported in up to 10% of cases, especially in small, subcentimeter nodules. In line with our data and the literature, patients with PHPT should have both a detailed ultrasound addressing the thyroid and cytology of any thyroid nodule, including small subcentimeter lesions. Moreover, surgical flexibility, allowing intraoperative thyroid nodule sampling, should be considered even for “innocent” nodules.

  18. Thyroid cancer following radiotherapy for Hodgkin's disease: a case report and review of the literature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moroff, S.V.; Fuks, J.Z.

    1986-01-01

    Improved survival resulting from advances in therapy in patients with Hodgkin's disease is associated with long-term morbidity, including the potential for the development of a second solid malignancy. We report a 44-year-old man with an unusually aggressive course of thyroid carcinoma 15 years after treatment for Hodgkin's disease. In a review of the English-language literature, we found 21 cases of thyroid cancer following radiotherapy for Hodgkin's disease, with latency periods ranging from 6 to 48 years. The development of secondary thyroid cancer after high-dose neck irradiation may be related to hypothyroidism, itself a complication of radiotherapy. Thyroid function should be measured at least once a year in all patients given neck irradiation, with initiation of thyroid hormone replacement if there is evidence of sustained hypothyroidism

  19. A study on the incidence of thyroid cancer in gender ultrasound

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwak, Eun Suk; Lim, Cheong Hwan [Dept. of Radiological Science, Hanseo University, Seosan (Korea, Republic of); Yang, Oh Nam [Dept. of Radiology, Mokpo Science University, Mokpo (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-06-15

    Thyroid nodules are an endocrine disease often found in clinical practice, and patients with thyroid nodules found by chance have rapidly increased alongside development of thyroid ultrasound techniques for health examination purposes. This study analyzes the subjects’ general characteristics, thyroid ultrasounds, and fine needle aspiration cytology in order to find out the relationship between male and female thyroid nodules and thyroid cancer frequency. An ultrasound examination of the thyroid was performed for 32,973 individuals who visited the K Hospital of Health Examination. Subjects have no history of thyroid disease and are 20 years old or over. Data of general characteristics, diabetes) was collected by a written survey completed by the subject, and the ultrasound of the thyroid (thyroid nodules existence, size, number) and FNAC was used to find out the malignancy rate. Frequency of patients with thyroid nodule was 4,611 (26.1%) in men and 5,341 (34.9%) in women between 32,973 individuals. Women’s prevalence rate is significantly higher than men, and the prevalence rate significantly increased with age in men and women (p<0.05). The prevalence of multiple nodules was significantly higher in women (43.5%) than in men (35.6%), and significantly increased with age in men and women (p<0.05). The fine needle aspiration cytology was performed in 692 (men 342, women 350) subjects who showed signs of malignancy through ultrasound. Prevalence of malignancy of the nodules was higher in men (33.3%) than in women (29.4%) although it is not statistically significant. It is known that thyroid nodule prevalence in women is much higher than in men. But this study shows the men’s prevalence rate was not too low compared with women, and the men showed a rather higher malignancy rate in nodules than women. It is considered that the role of thyroid ultrasound is both important in men and women.

  20. A study on the incidence of thyroid cancer in gender ultrasound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwak, Eun Suk; Lim, Cheong Hwan; Yang, Oh Nam

    2015-01-01

    Thyroid nodules are an endocrine disease often found in clinical practice, and patients with thyroid nodules found by chance have rapidly increased alongside development of thyroid ultrasound techniques for health examination purposes. This study analyzes the subjects’ general characteristics, thyroid ultrasounds, and fine needle aspiration cytology in order to find out the relationship between male and female thyroid nodules and thyroid cancer frequency. An ultrasound examination of the thyroid was performed for 32,973 individuals who visited the K Hospital of Health Examination. Subjects have no history of thyroid disease and are 20 years old or over. Data of general characteristics, diabetes) was collected by a written survey completed by the subject, and the ultrasound of the thyroid (thyroid nodules existence, size, number) and FNAC was used to find out the malignancy rate. Frequency of patients with thyroid nodule was 4,611 (26.1%) in men and 5,341 (34.9%) in women between 32,973 individuals. Women’s prevalence rate is significantly higher than men, and the prevalence rate significantly increased with age in men and women (p<0.05). The prevalence of multiple nodules was significantly higher in women (43.5%) than in men (35.6%), and significantly increased with age in men and women (p<0.05). The fine needle aspiration cytology was performed in 692 (men 342, women 350) subjects who showed signs of malignancy through ultrasound. Prevalence of malignancy of the nodules was higher in men (33.3%) than in women (29.4%) although it is not statistically significant. It is known that thyroid nodule prevalence in women is much higher than in men. But this study shows the men’s prevalence rate was not too low compared with women, and the men showed a rather higher malignancy rate in nodules than women. It is considered that the role of thyroid ultrasound is both important in men and women

  1. Medullary Thyroid Cancer: It is a pain in the neck?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlon A. Guerrero, Sheila Lindsay, Insoo Suh, Menno R. Vriens, Elham Khanafshar, Wen T. Shen, Jessica Gosnell, Electron Kebebew, Quan-Yang Duh, Orlo H. Clark

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Medullary thyroid cancer (MTC commonly presents with lymph node (LN metastases, and has a worse prognosis than papillary thyroid cancer (PTC. Tumor size and LN involvement have been shown to affect stage of disease; however, to our knowledge, ours is the first study that attempts to correlate anterior neck pain on presentation with the extent of disease.Methods: We performed a retrospective review of patients with MTC who underwent an operation from February 1998 through December 2008. We compared the symptom of anterior neck pain with the pathologic extent of disease. Our control group comprised patients who underwent an operation for PTC. Analysis was performed using the Fisher's exact test and the Mann-Whitney test.Results: Of the 109 patients with MTC, 50 (46% met our inclusion criteria. Of the 50 patients with MTC, 11 presented with neck pain, compared to 3 of the 50 patients with PTC (p = 0.041. Of those 11 patients, 9 (82% had LN involvement on final pathology, as compared with 14 (36% of the 39 without neck pain (p = 0.014. Of patients with neck pain, 18% were diagnosed at stage I to II and 82% at stage III to IV, compared to 64% at stage I to II and 36% at stage III to IV (p = 0.014.Conclusions: Our study demonstrates that more patients with MTC present with anterior neck pain than do patients with PTC and that patients with MTC and neck pain have an increased risk of LN metastases. The results of this study suggest that MTC patients, who present with concomitant neck pain, should undergo a total thyroidectomy, prophylactic bilateral central neck dissection, and ipsilateral lateral neck dissection.

  2. Medullary Thyroid Cancer: It is a pain in the neck?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrero, Marlon A; Lindsay, Sheila; Suh, Insoo; Vriens, Menno R; Khanafshar, Elham; Shen, Wen T; Gosnell, Jessica; Kebebew, Electron; Duh, Quan-Yang; Clark, Orlo H

    2011-04-08

    Medullary thyroid cancer (MTC) commonly presents with lymph node (LN) metastases, and has a worse prognosis than papillary thyroid cancer (PTC). Tumor size and LN involvement have been shown to affect stage of disease; however, to our knowledge, ours is the first study that attempts to correlate anterior neck pain on presentation with the extent of disease. We performed a retrospective review of patients with MTC who underwent an operation from February 1998 through December 2008. We compared the symptom of anterior neck pain with the pathologic extent of disease. Our control group comprised patients who underwent an operation for PTC. Analysis was performed using the Fisher's exact test and the Mann-Whitney test. Of the 109 patients with MTC, 50 (46%) met our inclusion criteria. Of the 50 patients with MTC, 11 presented with neck pain, compared to 3 of the 50 patients with PTC (p = 0.041). Of those 11 patients, 9 (82%) had LN involvement on final pathology, as compared with 14 (36%) of the 39 without neck pain (p = 0.014). Of patients with neck pain, 18% were diagnosed at stage I to II and 82% at stage III to IV, compared to 64% at stage I to II and 36% at stage III to IV (p = 0.014). Our study demonstrates that more patients with MTC present with anterior neck pain than do patients with PTC and that patients with MTC and neck pain have an increased risk of LN metastases. The results of this study suggest that MTC patients, who present with concomitant neck pain, should undergo a total thyroidectomy, prophylactic bilateral central neck dissection, and ipsilateral lateral neck dissection.

  3. Medullary Thyroid Cancer: It is a pain in the neck?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrero, Marlon A.; Lindsay, Sheila; Suh, Insoo; Vriens, Menno R.; Khanafshar, Elham; Shen, Wen T.; Gosnell, Jessica; Kebebew, Electron; Duh, Quan-Yang; Clark, Orlo H.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Medullary thyroid cancer (MTC) commonly presents with lymph node (LN) metastases, and has a worse prognosis than papillary thyroid cancer (PTC). Tumor size and LN involvement have been shown to affect stage of disease; however, to our knowledge, ours is the first study that attempts to correlate anterior neck pain on presentation with the extent of disease. Methods: We performed a retrospective review of patients with MTC who underwent an operation from February 1998 through December 2008. We compared the symptom of anterior neck pain with the pathologic extent of disease. Our control group comprised patients who underwent an operation for PTC. Analysis was performed using the Fisher's exact test and the Mann-Whitney test. Results: Of the 109 patients with MTC, 50 (46%) met our inclusion criteria. Of the 50 patients with MTC, 11 presented with neck pain, compared to 3 of the 50 patients with PTC (p = 0.041). Of those 11 patients, 9 (82%) had LN involvement on final pathology, as compared with 14 (36%) of the 39 without neck pain (p = 0.014). Of patients with neck pain, 18% were diagnosed at stage I to II and 82% at stage III to IV, compared to 64% at stage I to II and 36% at stage III to IV (p = 0.014). Conclusions: Our study demonstrates that more patients with MTC present with anterior neck pain than do patients with PTC and that patients with MTC and neck pain have an increased risk of LN metastases. The results of this study suggest that MTC patients, who present with concomitant neck pain, should undergo a total thyroidectomy, prophylactic bilateral central neck dissection, and ipsilateral lateral neck dissection. PMID:21509150

  4. Genetic Alterations in Differentiated Thyroid Cancer Patients with Acromegaly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydin, K; Aydin, C; Dagdelen, S; Tezel, G G; Erbas, T

    2016-03-01

    Acromegaly is associated with increased thyroid cancer risk. We aimed to analyze the frequency of point mutations of BRAF and RAS genes, and RET/PTC, PAX8/PPARγ gene rearrangements in patients with acromegaly having differentiated thyroid cancers (DTC) and their relation with clinical and histological features. 14 acromegalic patients (8 male, 6 female) with DTC were included. BRAF V600E and NRAS codon 61 point mutations, RET/PTC1, RET/PTC3, and PAX8/PPARγ gene rearrangements were analyzed in thyroidectomy specimens. We selected 14 non-acromegalic patients with DTC as a control group. 2 patients (14.3%) were detected to have positive BRAF V600E and 3 patients (21.4%) were detected to have NRAS codon 61 mutation. NRAS codon 61 was the most frequent genetic alteration. Patients with positive mutation had aggressive histologic features more frequently than patients without mutations. Comparison of the acromegalic and non-acromegalic patients with DTC revealed that BRAF V600E mutation was more frequent in non-acromegalic patients with DTC (14.2% vs. 64.3%, p=0.02). RET/PTC 1/ 3, PAX8/PPARγ gene rearrangements were not detected in any patient. None of the patients including the patients with positive point mutations had recurrence, and local and/or distant metastasis. NRAS codon 61 is the most frequent genetic alteration in this acromegaly series with DTC. Since acromegalic patients have lower prevalance of BRAF V600E mutation, BRAF V600E mutation may not be a causative factor in development of DTC in acromegaly. Despite the relation of BRAF V600E and NRAS codon 61 mutations with aggresive histopathologic features, their impact on tumor prognosis remains to be defined in acromegaly in further studies. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  5. Breast cancer metastasis to thyroid: a retrospective analysis.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    the prior diagnosis. Tissue processing and analysis: Smear slides, prepared from the thyroid gland aspirate, were subject to histological [hematoxylin and eosin ... condition diagnosis). Metastases elsewhere or recurrences the timeline. (breast recurrence in relation to thyroid metastasis diagnosis). US images of thyroid.

  6. BMI, diet and female reproductive factors as risks for thyroid cancer: a systematic review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily Peterson

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Thyroid cancer incidence rates have been increasing worldwide but the reason behind this is unclear. Both the increasing use of diagnostic technologies allowing the detection of thyroid cancer and a true increase in thyroid cancer incidence have been proposed. This review assesses the role of body mass index (BMI, diet, and reproductive factors on the thyroid cancer trend. METHODS: Epidemiologic studies of the selected risk factors up to June 2010 were reviewed and critically assessed. RESULTS: Among the thirty-seven studies reviewed and despite variation in the risk estimates, most papers supported a small but positive association for BMI (risk estimate range: 1.1-2.3 in males and 1.0-7.4 in females.. Among specific dietary components, there was no consistent association of thyroid cancer risk with iodine intake through fortification (risk estimate range: 0.49-1.6 or fish consumption (risk estimate range 0.6-2.2, nor with diets high in cruciferous vegetables (risk estimate range 0.6-1.9. A small number of studies showed a consistent protective effect of diets high in non-cruciferous vegetable (risk estimate range: 0.71-0.92. Among reproductive factors (pregnancy, parity, number of live births, use of prescription hormones, menstrual cycle regularity, and menopausal status, none were consistently associated with higher thyroid cancer risk. CONCLUSIONS: BMI had the strongest link to thyroid cancer risk among those examined. Detailed examinations of population-level risk factors can help identify and support prevention efforts to reduce the burden of thyroid cancer.

  7. Using Ion Torrent sequencing to study genetic mutation profiles of fatal thyroid cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jin-Ying; Cheng, Wern-Cherng; Chen, Kuen-Yuan; Lin, Chia-Chi; Chang, Ching-Chung; Kuo, Kuan-Ting; Chen, Pei-Lung

    2017-07-27

    Surgery followed by radioiodine is a mainstay of treatment for thyroid cancers of follicular origins. However, about 5% of the thyroid cancers are non-operable and/or radioiodine-refractory diseases, which are either locally advanced or metastatic and result in a survival of less than 5 years. How to treat this population of thyroid cancer patients becomes a critical issue requiring further understanding of the tumor's genetic information. We used formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded specimens of 22 fatal thyroid cancers and their corresponding non-tumor parts, if available, to yield genomic DNA, and applied the Ion Torrent™ Personal Genome Machine (IT-PGM) System (Life Technologies), a next generation sequencing technology, to interrogate 740 mutational hotspots in 46 oncogenes. We further validated the results by conventional direct sequencing. We confirmed 21 mutations of 11 oncogenes in the 22 fatal thyroid cancer samples. Among them, the MET p.N375S and MLH1 p.V384D mutations, each was detected in two cases, and has rarely been found to be involved in thyroid cancer pathogenesis before. We also identified homozygous PDGFRA p.V824V mutation in eight out of the 22 cases, while the non-tumor counterparts carried heterozygous PDGFRA p.V824V mutation. We noted that the Ion Torrent technique unfortunately showed high false positive rates for detecting EGFR mutations in thyroid cancers. The extensive genetic studies provide new insights to future targeted therapy in these patients. IT-PGM proved to be valuable for comprehensively searching genetic mutations in potentially fatal thyroid cancers. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. Amifostine does not protect thyroid cancer cells in DNA damaging in vitro models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Klubo-Gwiezdzinska

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Amifostine is a potent scavenger of reactive oxygen species that is used for the salivary gland protection during therapy with radioactive iodine for thyroid cancer. There are no data on the potential effect of amifostine on thyroid cancer cells. Methods: We investigated the effects of the active form of amifostine (WR-1065 on the response of thyroid cancer cells to treatment with DNA-damaging agents. WR-1065 was examined in human thyroid cancer cell lines (FTC133, TPC1, BCPAP and C643 and embryonic fibroblast cells NIH3T3. DNA damage was induced by exposure to H2O2 (0.1 mM, by treatment with the radiomimetic neocarzinostatin (NCS 250 ng/mL and by γ-radiation (6 Gy. DNA damage, cell viability and apoptosis were examined. Results: We demonstrated the selective action of WR-1065 (0.1 mM, which prevented oxidative stress–induced DNA damage in fibroblasts, but did not protect thyroid cancer cells from DNA damage and apoptosis documented by caspase-3 and PARP cleavage after exposure to H2O2, NCS and γ-radiation. Prolonged exposure to WR-1065 (0.1 mM for 24 h was toxic for thyroid cancer cells; this treatment decreased the number of viable cells by 8% in C643 cells, 47% in TPC cells, 92% in BCPAP cells and 82% in FTC 133 cells. The cytotoxic effects of WR-1065 were not associated with induction of apoptosis. Conclusions: Our data show that amifostine has no protective effect on thyroid cancer cells against DNA-damaging agents in vitro and suggest that amifostine will not attenuate the efficacy of radioiodine treatment in patients with thyroid cancer.

  9. Inhibition of BRD4 suppresses tumor growth and enhances iodine uptake in thyroid cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Xuemei [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430022, Hubei Province (China); Hubei Province Key Laboratory of Molecular Imaging, Wuhan 430022, Hubei Province (China); Department of Urology, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430022, Hubei Province (China); Wu, Xinchao [Department of Urology, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430022, Hubei Province (China); Zhang, Xiao; Hua, Wenjuan; Zhang, Yajing [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430022, Hubei Province (China); Hubei Province Key Laboratory of Molecular Imaging, Wuhan 430022, Hubei Province (China); Maimaiti, Yusufu [Department of Thyroid and Breast Surgery, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430022, Hubei Province (China); Gao, Zairong, E-mail: gaobonn@163.com [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430022, Hubei Province (China); Hubei Province Key Laboratory of Molecular Imaging, Wuhan 430022, Hubei Province (China); Zhang, Yongxue [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430022, Hubei Province (China); Hubei Province Key Laboratory of Molecular Imaging, Wuhan 430022, Hubei Province (China)

    2016-01-15

    Thyroid cancer is a common malignancy of the endocrine system. Although radioiodine {sup 131}I treatment on differentiated thyroid cancer is widely used, many patients still fail to benefit from {sup 131}I therapy. Therefore, exploration of novel targeted therapies to suppress tumor growth and improve radioiodine uptake remains necessary. Bromodomain-containing protein 4 (BRD4) is an important member of the bromodomain and extra terminal domain family that influences transcription of downstream genes by binding to acetylated histones. In the present study, we found that BRD4 was up-regulated in thyroid cancer tissues and cell lines. Inhibition of BRD4 in thyroid cancer cells by JQ1 resulted in cell cycle arrest at G0/G1 phase and enhanced {sup 131}I uptake in vitro and suppressed tumor growth in vivo. Moreover, JQ1 treatment suppressed C-MYC but enhanced NIS expression. We further demonstrated that BRD4 was enriched in the promoter region of C-MYC, which could be markedly blocked by JQ1 treatment. In conclusion, our findings revealed that the aberrant expression of BRD4 in thyroid cancer is possibly involved in tumor progression, and JQ1 is potentially an effective chemotherapeutic agent against human thyroid cancer. - Highlights: • BRD4 is upregulated in thyroid cancer tissues and cell lines. • Inhibition of BRD4 induced cell cycle arrest and enhanced radioiodine uptake in vitro and impaired tumor growth in vivo. • JQ1 suppressed the expression of C-MYC and promoted the expression of NIS and P21. • JQ1 attenuated the recruitment of BRD4 to MYC promoter in thyroid cancer.

  10. Recurrence factors and prevention of complications of pediatric differentiated thyroid cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changyuan Wang

    2017-01-01

    Conclusion: Pediatric differentiated thyroid cancer has a high metastatic rate to lymph nodes and distant organs, but the total prognosis is good. Application of total resection cannot necessarily reduce the relapse rate of pediatric differentiated thyroid cancer, but it may increase the postoperative hypocalcemia and hoarseness. The authors propose strictly adhering to various operation indicators, and carrying out various operations with a full understanding of the local lesion and lymph nodes in order to reduce relapse and postoperative complications.

  11. Irradiation and second cancers. The thyroid as a case in point; Seconds cancers apres irradiation. L'exemple des tumeurs de la thyroide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlumberger, M.; Cailleux, A.F.; Vathaire, F. de [Institut Gustave Roussy, 94 - Villejuif (France); Suarez, H.G. [Institut de Recherches Scientifiques sur le Cancer, 94 - Villejuif (France). Laboratoire de Genetique Moleculaire, UPR 42

    1999-03-01

    The thyroid gland is highly sensitive to radiation during childhood: the risk of thyroid tumours is increased for mean doses as low as 100 mGy and for higher doses, the risk increases linearly with the dose. Excess relative risk is important, being 7.7 for 1 Gy delivered to the thyroid gland during childhood. The risk of thyroid tumours is modified by several factors: a) age at exposure: in childhood, the risk decreases with increasing age at exposure and is not significant after 20 years; b) gender: females are two times more likely than males to develop thyroid tumours; c) genetic predisposition due to a defect in DNA repair mechanisms, and dietary and hormonal factors may modify the risk; d) the influence of fractionation and dose rate is not well established. Radioiodine 131 (1311) used for medical purposes has almost no tumorigenic effect on the adult thyroid gland. The consequences of the Chernobyl accident have clearly shown that the risk of thyroid cancer after exposure to 1311 in childhood is important, and that such exposure should be prevented by potassium iodine prophylaxis. RET/PTC rearrangements are found in 60-80 % of papillary carcinomas and in 45 % of adenomas occurring after radiation exposure. They are found in 5-15 % of papillary carcinoma and in no follicular adenomas that occurred in the absence of radiation exposure. (author)

  12. Mechanisms of therapeutic resistance in cancer (stem cells with emphasis on thyroid cancer cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabine eHombach-Klonisch

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Tissue invasion, metastasis and therapeutic resistance to anti-cancer treatments are common and main causes of death in cancer patients. Tumor cells mount complex and still poorly understood molecular defense mechanisms to counteract and evade oxygen deprivation, nutritional restrictions as well as radio- and chemotherapeutic treatment regimens aimed at destabilizing their genomes and important cellular processes. In thyroid cancer, as in other tumors, such defense strategies include the reactivation in cancer cells of early developmental programs normally active exclusively in stem cells, the stimulation of cancer stem-like cells resident within the tumor tissue and the recruitment of bone marrow-derived progenitors into the tumor (Thomas et al., 2008;Klonisch et al., 2009;Derwahl, 2011. Metastasis and therapeutic resistance in cancer (stem cells involves the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition- (EMT- mediated enhancement in cellular plasticity, which includes coordinated dynamic biochemical and nuclear changes (Ahmed et al., 2010. The purpose of the present review is to provide an overview of the role of DNA repair mechanisms contributing to therapeutic resistance in thyroid cancer and highlight the emerging roles of autophagy and damage associated molecular pattern (DAMP responses in EMT and chemoresistance in tumor cells. Finally, we use the stem cell factor and nucleoprotein High Mobility Group A2 (HMGA2 as an example to demonstrate how factors intended to protect stem cells are wielded by cancer (stem cells to gain increased transformative cell plasticity which enhances metastasis, therapeutic resistance and cell survival. Wherever possible, we have included information on these cellular processes and associated factors as they relate to thyroid cancer cells.

  13. Thyroid Metastasis of Gastric Cancer: A Rare Occasion With Poor Prognosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miura, Tomofumi; Nakamura, Junichiro; Kimura, Keita; Yamada, Satoshi; Miura, Tsutomu; Yanagi, Masahiko; Yamazaki, Hajime; Usuda, Hiroyuki; Emura, Iwao; Takahashi, Toru

    2010-10-01